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1

EEG Alpha Power and Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested whether alpha power in different sub-bands is selectively related to intelligence. For 74 Austrian subjects, the EEG was recorded during a resting session and 2 different intelligence tests were performed. Findings show a strong positive correlation between intelligence and alpha power. (SLD)

Doppelmayr, M.; Klimesch, W.; Stadler, W.; Pollhuber, D.; Heine, C.

2002-01-01

2

HTR3B is associated with alcoholism with antisocial behavior and alpha EEG power—an intermediate phenotype for alcoholism and co-morbid behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol use disorders (AUD) with co-morbid antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) have been associated with serotonin (5-HT) dysfunction. 5-HT3 receptors are potentiated by ethanol and appear to modulate reward. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may be useful in the treatment of early-onset alcoholics with co-morbid ASPD. Low-voltage alpha electroencephalogram (EEG) power, a highly heritable trait, has been associated with both AUD and ASPD.

Francesca Ducci; Mary-Anne Enoch; Qiaoping Yuan; Pei-Hong Shen; Kenneth V. White; Colin Hodgkinson; Bernard Albaugh; Matti Virkkunen; David Goldman

2009-01-01

3

EEG-correlated fMRI of human alpha activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroencephalography-correlated functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG\\/fMRI) can be used to identify blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes associated with both physiological and pathological EEG events. Here, we implemented continuous and simultaneous EEG\\/fMRI to identify BOLD signal changes related to spontaneous power fluctuations in the alpha rhythm (8–12 Hz), the dominant EEG pattern during relaxed wakefulness. Thirty-two channels of EEG were

H. Laufs; A. Kleinschmidt; A. Beyerle; E. Eger; A. Salek-Haddadi; C. Preibisch; K. Krakowa

2003-01-01

4

Simultaneous EEG and fMRI of the alpha rhythm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alpha rhythm in the EEG is 8-12 Hz activity present when a subject is awake with eyes closed. In this study, we used simultaneous EEG and fMRI to make maps of regions whose MRI signal changed reliably with modulation in posterior alpha activity. We scanned 11 subjects as they rested with eyes closed. We found that increased alpha power

Robin I. Goldman; John M. Stern; Jerome Engel Jr; Mark S. Cohen; Jr. J. Engel

2002-01-01

5

EEG alpha power and alpha power asymmetry in sleep and wakefulness  

E-print Network

--Madison, USA Abstract Asymmetry of waking electroencephalography ~EEG! alpha power in frontal regions has been and sleeping are considered. Descriptors: Electroencephalography, Alpha, Sleep, REM sleep, Human Individual

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

6

EEG alpha power and creative ideation.  

PubMed

Neuroscientific studies revealed first insights into neural mechanisms underlying creativity, but existing findings are highly variegated and often inconsistent. Despite the disappointing picture on the neuroscience of creativity drawn in recent reviews, there appears to be robust evidence that EEG alpha power is particularly sensitive to various creativity-related demands involved in creative ideation. Alpha power varies as a function of creativity-related task demands and the originality of ideas, is positively related to an individuals' creativity level, and has been observed to increase as a result of creativity interventions. Alpha increases during creative ideation could reflect more internally oriented attention that is characterized by the absence of external bottom-up stimulation and, thus, a form of top-down activity. Moreover, they could indicate the involvement of specific memory processes such as the efficient (re-)combination of unrelated semantic information. We conclude that increased alpha power during creative ideation is among the most consistent findings in neuroscientific research on creativity and discuss possible future directions to better understand the manifold brain mechanisms involved in creativity. PMID:23246442

Fink, Andreas; Benedek, Mathias

2014-07-01

7

Alpha 1 antitrypsin phenotypes and alcoholic pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altered frequencies of alpha 1 antitrypsin phenotypes have been reported in patients with chronic pancreatitis, suggesting a possible genetic basis for individual susceptibility to this disease. Alpha 1 antitrypsin phenotypes, with particular regard to alcoholic pancreatitis, were studied. Patients with alcoholic pancreatitis were compared with alcoholic control subjects with no history of pancreatic disease. Serum alpha 1 antitrypsin concentrations were

P S Haber; J S Wilson; B H McGarity; W Hall; M C Thomas; R C Pirola

1991-01-01

8

Relationship of genetically transmitted alpha EEG traits to anxiety disorders and alcoholism  

SciTech Connect

We tested the hypothesis that a heritable EEG trait, the low voltage alpha (LV), is associated with psychiatric disorders. Modest to moderate evidence for genetic linkage of both panic disorder and the low voltage alpha trait to the same region of chromosome 20q has recently been reported, raising the issue of whether there is a phenotypic correlation between these traits. A total of 124 subjects including 50 unrelated index subjects and 74 relatives were studied. Alpha EEG power was measured and EEG phenotypes were impressionistically classified. Subjects were psychiatrically interviewed using the SADS-L and blind-rated by RDC criteria. Alcoholics were four times more likely to be LV (including so-called borderline low voltage alpha) than were nonalcoholic, nonanxious subjects. Alcoholics with anxiety disorder are 10 times more likely to be LV. However, alcoholics without anxiety disorder were similar to nonalcoholics in alpha power. An anxiety disorder (panic disorder, phobia, or generalized anxiety) was found in 14/17 LV subjects as compared to 34/101 of the rest of the sample (P < 0.01). Support for these observations was found in the unrelated index subjects in whom no traits would be shared by familial clustering. Lower alpha power in anxiety disorders was not state-dependent, as indicated by the Spielberger Anxiety Scale. Familial covariance of alpha power was 0.25 (P < 0.01). These findings indicate there may be a shared factor underlying the transmissible low voltage alpha EEG variant and vulnerability to anxiety disorders with associated alcoholism. This factor is apparently not rare, because LV was found in approximately 10% of unrelated index subjects and 5% of subjects free of alcoholism and anxiety disorders. 43 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Enoch, M.A.; Rohrbaugh, W.; Harris, C.R. [Washington School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)] [and others

1995-10-09

9

Where the BOLD signal goes when alpha EEG leaves.  

PubMed

Previous studies using simultaneous EEG and fMRI recordings have yielded discrepant results regarding the topography of brain activity in relation to spontaneous power fluctuations in the alpha band of the EEG during eyes-closed rest. Here, we explore several possible explanations for this discrepancy by re-analyzing in detail our previously reported data. Using single subject analyses as a starting point, we found that alpha power decreases are associated with fMRI signal increases that mostly follow two distinct patterns: either 'visual' areas in the occipital lobe or 'attentional' areas in the frontal and parietal lobe. On examination of the EEG spectra corresponding to these two fMRI patterns, we found greater relative theta power in sessions yielding the 'visual' fMRI pattern during alpha desynchronization and greater relative beta power in sessions yielding the 'attentional' fMRI pattern. The few sessions that fell into neither pattern featured the overall lowest theta and highest beta power. We conclude that the pattern of brain activation observed during spontaneous power reduction in the alpha band depends on the general level of brain activity as indexed over a broader spectral range in the EEG. Finally, we relate these findings to the concepts of 'resting state' and 'default mode' and discuss how - as for sleep - EEG-based criteria might be used for staging brain activity during wakefulness. PMID:16537111

Laufs, H; Holt, John L; Elfont, Robert; Krams, Michael; Paul, Joseph S; Krakow, K; Kleinschmidt, A

2006-07-15

10

EEG alpha power and alpha power asymmetry in sleep and wakefulness.  

PubMed

Asymmetry of waking electroencephalography (EEG) alpha power in frontal regions has been correlated with waking emotional reactivity and the emotional content of dream reports. Little is known regarding alpha asymmetry during sleep. The present study was performed to compare alpha power and alpha power asymmetry in various brain regions across states of sleep and wakefulness. Waking and sleep EEG were recorded in a group of patients undergoing polysomnographic evaluation for possible sleep disorders. Alpha EEG asymmetry in frontal and temporal regions was significantly correlated in waking versus sleep, particularly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. These results suggest that patterns of frontal alpha asymmetry are stable across sleep and waking and may be related to emotional reactivity during dreaming. During sleep, alpha power was highest during slow-wave sleep and lowest during REM sleep. Implications of these data for understanding the functional significance of alpha power during waking and sleeping are considered. PMID:10432792

Benca, R M; Obermeyer, W H; Larson, C L; Yun, B; Dolski, I; Kleist, K D; Weber, S M; Davidson, R J

1999-07-01

11

EEG Alpha Rhythms and Susceptibility to Hypnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

DESPITE a rich literature of anecdotal and clinical material on the relationship of hypnosis to physiological functions, especially to events in the central nervous system, the research findings are highly equivocal. Most relevant studies have been concerned with shifts in brain wave patterns, as measured by the electroencephalogram (EEG). The studies have attempted to identify the underlying processes which accompany

Perry London; JOSEPH T. HART; MORRIS P. LEIBOVITZ

1968-01-01

12

Prestimulus EEG alpha activity reflects prestimulus top-down processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to test the hypothesis that prestimulus alpha activity reflects top-down inhibitory processing, EEG was recorded from 16 subjects performing a color and a shape discrimination task. Both tasks required the inhibition of the task-irrelevant feature. Longer reaction times and P3 latencies showed that the shape task was more difficult than the color task. We suppose that these different

Byoung-Kyong Min; Christoph S. Herrmann

2007-01-01

13

EEG alpha and theta oscillations reflect cognitive and memory performance: a review and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is presented that EEG oscillations in the alpha and theta band reflect cognitive and memory performance in particular. Good performance is related to two types of EEG phenomena (i) a tonic increase in alpha but a decrease in theta power, and (ii) a large phasic (event-related) decrease in alpha but increase in theta, depending on the type of memory

Wolfgang Klimesch

1999-01-01

14

EEG alpha synchronization is related to top-down processing in convergent and divergent thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchronization of EEG alpha activity has been referred to as being indicative of cortical idling, but according to more recent evidence it has also been associated with active internal processing and creative thinking. The main objective of this study was to investigate to what extent EEG alpha synchronization is related to internal processing demands and to specific cognitive process involved

Mathias Benedek; Sabine Bergner; Tanja Könen; Andreas Fink; Aljoscha C. Neubauer

2011-01-01

15

EEG Alpha Synchronization Is Related to Top-Down Processing in Convergent and Divergent Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Synchronization of EEG alpha activity has been referred to as being indicative of cortical idling, but according to more recent evidence it has also been associated with active internal processing and creative thinking. The main objective of this study was to investigate to what extent EEG alpha synchronization is related to internal processing…

Benedek, Mathias; Bergner, Sabine; Konen, Tanja; Fink, Andreas; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

2011-01-01

16

EEG alpha variants and alpha power in Hispanic American and white non-Hispanic American young adults with a family history of alcohol dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from several studies support associations among variants in electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha voltage, alcohol dependence, ethnic heritage, and a family history of alcohol dependence, although no studies have as yet been conducted in individuals of Hispanic ethnicity. Categorization of EEG, by using spectral analyses, into high-, medium-, and low-voltage alpha, as well as absolute EEG power in alpha and beta

Cindy L. Ehlers; Evelyn Phillips; Marc A. Schuckit

2004-01-01

17

[EEG alpha indices in dependence on the menstrual cycle phase and salivary progesterone].  

PubMed

The effects of the neurohumoral status on the EEG alpha - activity indices were studied in a within-subject design with 78 women aged 18-27 years during 1-2 menstrual cycle. Psychometric and EEG indices of alpha waves basal body temperature, saliva progesterone and cortisol level were monitored every 2-3 days. Menstrual and follicular recording sessions occurred before the ovulatory temperature rise, luteal recording session--after increasing progesterone level more than 20% respect to previous day and premenstrual sessions after decreasing progesterone level more that 20% respect to previous day. The design consisted of rest and task periods EEG, EMG and ECG recordings. Half the subjects began during their menstrual phase and half began during their luteal phase. All 5 phases were compared for differences between psychometric features EEG alpha activity, EMG and ECG baseline resting levels, as well as for reactivity to cognitive task. The results showed menstrual phase differences in all psychometric and alpha EEG indices. The cognitive fluency, alpha peak frequency, alpha band width, power in alpha-2 frequency range are maximal at luteal, alpha visual activation and reactivity to cognitive task performance--at follicular phase. The hypothesis that the EEG alpha activity depends on the hormonal status supported by the positive association salivary progesterone level with the alpha peak frequency, power in the alpha-2 band and negative--with the power of the alpha-1 band. According these results, we conclude that psycho-physiological recording sessions with women might be provided with a glance to phase of menstrual cycle. PMID:25272704

Bazanova, O M; Kondratenko, A V; Kuz'minova, O I; Muravleva, K B; Petrova, S E

2014-01-01

18

[Alpha band coherence analysis of EEG in healthy adult's and Alzheimer's type dementia patients].  

PubMed

We studied the occipital inter-hemispheric coherence (IHCoh) of EEG (electrodes O1-O2) for alpha band (alpha1 - 8,0 to 10,0 Hz and alpha2 - 10,1 to 12,5 Hz) in healthy adults and Alzheimer's type dementia (ATD) subjects, to observe if there is any significant difference between these two groups that could help in the early diagnosis of ATD. We found a decrease of occipital IHCoh in ATD group for both alpha sub-bands. We believe that Coh analysis of EEG is a powerful auxiliary method in ATD diagnosis. PMID:10849626

Anghinah, R; Kanda, P A; Jorge, M S; Lima, E E; Pascuzzi, L; Melo, A C

2000-06-01

19

EEG alpha measures predict therapeutic response to an SSRI antidepressant: Pre and post treatment findings  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence that individual differences among depressed patients on electrophysiologic (EEG), neuroimaging, and neurocognitive measures are predictive of therapeutic response to antidepressants. This study replicates prior findings of pretreatment differences between SSRI responders and nonresponders in EEG alpha power or asymmetry, and examines whether these differences normalize or are stable following treatment. Methods Resting EEG (eyes open and closed) was recorded from 28 electrodes (nose reference) in 18 depressed patients when off medication and at the end of 12 weeks of fluoxetine treatment. Clinical response was assessed by an independent rater using the Clinical Global Improvement scale. EEG data were also obtained for 18 healthy adults matched to patients in gender and age. Results Treatment responders had greater alpha power compared to nonresponders and healthy controls, with largest differences at occipital sites where alpha was largest. There were also differences in alpha asymmetry between responders and nonresponders at occipital sites. Responders showed greater alpha (less activity) over right than left hemisphere, whereas nonresponders tended to show the opposite asymmetry. Neither alpha power nor asymmetry changed following treatment and test-retest correlations were high, particularly for alpha power. Alpha power and asymmetry showed reasonable positive predictive value but less negative predictive value. Discussion The findings confirm reports of alpha differences between antidepressant responders and nonresponders, and raise hopes for developing EEG tests for selecting effective treatments for patients. The stability of alpha power and asymmetry differences between SSRI responders and nonresponders following treatment suggests that they represent state-independent characteristics. Clinical Trials Prozac treatment of major depression: discontinuation study; registration #NCT00447128; and Dichotic listening as a predictor of placebo and medication response in depression; registration #NCT00296725; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. PMID:18061147

Bruder, Gerard E.; Sedoruk, James P.; Stewart, Jonathan W.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Quitkin, Frederic M.; Tenke, Craig E.

2008-01-01

20

Synergetic fMRI-EEG Brain Mapping in Alpha-Rhythm Voluntary Control Mode.  

PubMed

For the first time in neurobiology-related issues, the synergistic spatial dynamics of EEG and fMRI (BOLD phenomenon) was studied during cognitive alpha biofeedback training in the operant conditioning mode (acoustic reinforcement of alpha-rhythm development and stability). Significant changes in alpha-rhythm intensity were found in T6 electrode area (Brodmann area 37). Brodmann areas related to solving alpha-training tasks and maximally involved in the formation of new neuronal network were middle and superior temporal gyri (areas 21, 22, and 37), fusiform gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus (areas 4, 6, and 46), anterior cingulate gyrus (areas 23 and 24), cuneus, and precuneus (area 7). Wide involvement of Brodmann areas is determined by psychological architecture of alpha-rhythm generating system control that includes complex cognitive activities: decision making, retrieval of long-term memory, evaluation of the reward and control efficiency during alpha-EEG biofeedback. PMID:25778652

Shtark, M B; Verevkin, E G; Kozlova, L I; Mazhirina, K G; Pokrovskii, M A; Petrovskii, E D; Savelov, A A; Starostin, A S; Yarosh, S V

2015-03-01

21

White matter architecture rather than cortical surface area correlates with the EEG alpha rhythm  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few studies on the neuroanatomical determinants of EEG spectral properties that would explain its substantial inter-individual variability in spite of decades of biophysical modeling that predicts this type of relationship. An exception is the negative relation between head size and the spectral position of the alpha peak (P?) reported in Nunez et al. (1978)—proposed as evidence of the

Pedro A. Valdés-Hernández; Alejandro Ojeda-González; Eduardo Martínez-Montes; Agustín Lage-Castellanos; Trinidad Virués-Alba; Lourdes Valdés-Urrutia; Pedro A. Valdes-Sosa

2010-01-01

22

Differences in EEG Alpha Activity between Gifted and Non-Identified Individuals: Insights into Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined differences in electroencephalography (EEG) alpha activity between gifted and nongifted Slovenian student-teachers (N=17 each). Gifted students showed greater left hemisphere activation than nongifted subjects in relaxed states, but lower activation during problem solving. The same pattern was observed in overall hemispheric…

Jausovec, Norbert

1997-01-01

23

[EEG alpha band coherence analysis in healthy adults: preliminary results].  

PubMed

We studied the occipital inter-hemispheric coherence of Electroencephalogram (electrodes O1-O2) for alpha band (alpha1--8.0 to 10.0 Hz and alpha2--10.1 to 12.5 Hz) in two groups of healthy individuals (young adults and subjects older than 50 years-old), to assess if there is significant difference between this two age groups. No significant difference in alpha band coherences was found between these two age groups. PMID:15830070

Anghinah, Renato; Caramelli, Paulo; Takahashi, Daniel Yassumasa; Nitrini, Ricardo; Sameshima, Koichi

2005-03-01

24

The time-course of EEG alpha power changes in creative ideation  

PubMed Central

Increases in EEG alpha power during creative ideation are among the most consistent findings in the neuroscientific study of creativity, but existing studies did not focus on time-related changes of EEG alpha activity patterns during the process of creative ideation so far. Since several cognitive processes are involved in the generation of creative ideas, different EEG correlates may result as a function of time. In this study we addressed this crucial point. Forty-five participants worked on the “Alternative Uses Task” while the EEG was recorded and changes in task-related power (relative to rest) in the upper-frequency band (10–12 Hz) for three isochronous time intervals of the idea generation period were determined. Alpha power changes during idea generation followed a characteristic time course: we found a general increase of alpha power at the beginning of idea generation that was followed by a decrease and finally by a re-increase of alpha prior to responding that was most pronounced at parietal and temporal sites of the right hemisphere. Additionally, the production of more original ideas was accompanied by increasing hemispheric asymmetry (more alpha in the right than left hemisphere) with increasing duration of the idea generation period. The observed time course of brain activity may reflect the progression of different but well-known stages in the idea generation process: that is the initial retrieval of common and old ideas followed by the actual generation of novel and more creative ideas by overcoming typical responses through processes of mental simulation and imagination. PMID:24860485

Schwab, Daniela; Benedek, Mathias; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M.; Fink, Andreas

2014-01-01

25

Spontaneous Slow Fluctuation of EEG Alpha Rhythm Reflects Activity in Deep-Brain Structures: A Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

The emergence of the occipital alpha rhythm on brain electroencephalogram (EEG) is associated with brain activity in the cerebral neocortex and deep brain structures. To further understand the mechanisms of alpha rhythm power fluctuation, we performed simultaneous EEGs and functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings in human subjects during a resting state and explored the dynamic relationship between alpha power fluctuation and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals of the brain. Based on the frequency characteristics of the alpha power time series (APTS) during 20-minute EEG recordings, we divided the APTS into two components: fast fluctuation (0.04–0.167 Hz) and slow fluctuation (0–0.04 Hz). Analysis of the correlation between the MRI signal and each component revealed that the slow fluctuation component of alpha power was positively correlated with BOLD signal changes in the brain stem and the medial part of the thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex, while the fast fluctuation component was correlated with the lateral part of the thalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex, but not the brain stem. In summary, these data suggest that different subcortical structures contribute to slow and fast modulations of alpha spectra on brain EEG. PMID:23824708

Omata, Kei; Hanakawa, Takashi; Morimoto, Masako; Honda, Manabu

2013-01-01

26

PRIORITY COMMUNICATIONS Thalamic Metabolic Rate Predicts EEG Alpha Power in  

E-print Network

to mental activity and has subse- quently been used as an indirect measure of brain activa- tion Subjects But Not in Depressed Patients Kristen A. Lindgren, Christine L. Larson, Stacey M. Schaefer the relation between thalamic metabolic activity and alpha power in depressed patients and healthy controls

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

27

Does alpha-1-antitrypsin P I null phenotype exist?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A second case of Pi null alpha-1-antitrypsin (AA) deficiency is described. In fact, the serum's subject contains 5 µg of AA per millilitre. With radiolabelled specific antibodies, it is possible to describe the Pi phenotype associated to this deficiency. The pattern which is obtained is like the ordinary Pi M, but 500 times lower than normal values. In contrast to

Jean-Pierre Martin; Richard Sesboue; Roland Charlionet; Claude Ropartz

1975-01-01

28

Dynamics of alpha control: Preparatory suppression of posterior alpha oscillations by frontal modulators revealed with combined EEG and event-related optical signal (EROS)  

PubMed Central

We investigated the dynamics of brain processes facilitating conscious experience of external stimuli. Previously we proposed that alpha (8-12 Hz) oscillations, which fluctuate with both sustained and directed attention, represent a pulsed inhibition of ongoing sensory brain activity. Here we tested the prediction that inhibitory alpha oscillations in visual cortex are modulated by top-down signals from frontoparietal attention networks. We measured modulations in phase-coherent alpha oscillations from superficial frontal, parietal, and occipital cortices using the event-related optical signal (EROS), a measure of neuronal activity affording high spatiotemporal resolution, along with concurrently-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG), while subjects performed a visual target-detection task. The pre-target alpha oscillations measured with EEG and EROS from posterior areas were larger for subsequently undetected targets, supporting alpha's inhibitory role. Using EROS, we localized brain correlates of these awareness-related alpha oscillations measured at the scalp to the cuneus and precuneus. Crucially, EROS alpha suppression correlated with posterior EEG alpha power across subjects. Sorting the EROS data based on EEG alpha power quartiles to investigate alpha modulators revealed that suppression of posterior alpha was preceded by increased activity in regions of the dorsal attention network, and decreased activity in regions of the cingulo-opercular network. Cross-correlations revealed the temporal dynamics of activity within these preparatory networks prior to posterior alpha modulation. The novel combination of EEG and EROS afforded localization of the sources and correlates of alpha oscillations and their temporal relationships, supporting our proposal that top-down control from attention networks modulates both posterior alpha and awareness of visual stimuli. PMID:24702458

Mathewson, Kyle E.; Beck, Diane M.; Ro, Tony; Maclin, Edward L.; Low, Kathy A.; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele

2015-01-01

29

Long-term stability in children's frontal EEG alpha asymmetry between 14-months and 83-months.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the test-retest stability of resting state alpha asymmetry in 18 children (9 male and 9 female) in a longitudinal design. Children's resting state brain activation asymmetries were assessed by means of EEG first after 14 months of age, and again a second time at 83 months of age, and frontal (AsymF), temporal (AsymT), and parietal (AsymP) alpha activation asymmetries were calculated. Analyses demonstrate positive relations between frontal asymmetry scores at 14 and 83 months of age. Temporal and parietal asymmetries did not show this stability over time. This finding provides further support for the use of frontal alpha asymmetry measures to investigate processes underlying emotion and motivation in childhood, and its stability over time. PMID:25625480

Müller, Barbara C N; Kühn-Popp, Nina; Meinhardt, Jörg; Sodian, Beate; Paulus, Markus

2015-04-01

30

Relation of EEG alpha background to cognitive fuction, brain atrophy, and cerebral metabolism in Down's syndrome. Age-specific changes  

SciTech Connect

We studied 19 young adults (19 to 37 years old) and 9 older patients (42 to 66 years old) with Down's syndrome (DS) and a control group of 13 healthy adults (22 to 38 years old) to investigate the relation of electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha background to cognitive function and cerebral metabolism. Four of the older patients with DS had a history of mental deterioration, disorientation, and memory loss and were demented. Patients and control subjects had EEGs, psychometric testing, quantitative computed tomography, and positron emission tomography with fludeoxyglucose F 18. A blinded reader classified the EEGs into two groups--those with normal alpha background or those with abnormal background. All the control subjects, the 13 young adult patients with DS, and the 5 older patients with DS had normal EEG backgrounds. In comparison with the age-matched patients with DS with normal alpha background, older patients with DS with decreased alpha background had dementia, fewer visuospatial skills, decreased attention span, larger third ventricles, and a global decrease in cerebral glucose utilization with parietal hypometabolism. In the young patients with DS, the EEG background did not correlate with psychometric or positron emission tomographic findings, but the third ventricles were significantly larger in those with abnormal EEG background. The young patients with DS, with or without normal EEG background, had positron emission tomographic findings similar to those of the control subjects. The mechanism underlying the abnormal EEG background may be the neuropathologic changes of Alzheimer's disease in older patients with DS and may be cerebral immaturity in younger patients with DS.

Devinsky, O.; Sato, S.; Conwit, R.A.; Schapiro, M.B. (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1990-01-01

31

Validation of a neurofeedback paradigm: manipulating frontal EEG alpha-activity and its impact on mood.  

PubMed

It is claimed that neurofeedback (NF) is an effective treatment for a variety of psychiatric disorders. NF, within an operant conditioning framework, helps individuals to regulate cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while receiving feedback from a visual or acoustic signal. For example, changing asymmetry between left and right frontal brain alpha activity by NF, is claimed to be an efficacious treatment for major depressive disorder. However, the specificity of this intervention in occasioning electrophysiological changes at target locations and target wave-frequencies, and its relation to changes in mood, has not been established. During a single session of NF, it was tested if the balance between left and right frontal alpha-activity could be changed, regardless of direction, in 40 healthy females. Furthermore, we investigated whether this intervention was electrophysiologically specific and if it was associated with changes in mood. Participants were able to decrease or increase frontal alpha-asymmetry during the intervention. However, no changes in mood were observed. Changes in EEG activity were specific in terms of location and wave-frequency. PMID:23773999

Peeters, Frenk; Ronner, Jacco; Bodar, Lonneke; van Os, Jim; Lousberg, Richel

2014-07-01

32

Creation and phenotypic analysis of alpha-lactalbumin-deficient mice.  

PubMed Central

alpha-Lactalbumin is an abundant milk-specific calcium metalloprotein which has an evolutionary relationship to lysozyme. It modifies the substrate specificity of a Golgi galactosyltransferase by forming the lactose synthetase binary complex. Lactose, together with other sugars and diffusible ions, is responsible for the osmotic pressure of milk. To assess the involvement of alpha-lactalbumin in lactogenesis, alpha-lactalbumin-deficient mice were created by disrupting the gene by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Homozygous mutant mice are viable and fertile but females cannot feed their offspring. They produce a highly viscous milk that pups appear to be unable to remove from the mammary gland. This milk is rich in fat and protein and is devoid of alpha-lactalbumin and lactose. The phenotype of heterozygous mice was found to be intermediate, with a 40% decrease in alpha-lactalbumin but only a 10-20% decrease in the lactose content of their milk compared with wild-type animals. These results emphasize the key function of alpha-lactalbumin in lactogenesis and open new opportunities to manipulate milk composition. Images PMID:8022817

Stinnakre, M G; Vilotte, J L; Soulier, S; Mercier, J C

1994-01-01

33

The contribution of different frequency bands of fMRI data to the correlation with EEG alpha rhythm.  

PubMed

Alpha rhythm is a prominent EEG rhythm observed during resting state and is thought to be related to multiple cognitive processes. Previous simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG)/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated that alpha rhythm is associated with blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals in several different functional networks. How these networks influence alpha rhythm respectively is unclear. The low-frequency oscillations (LFO) in spontaneous BOLD activity are thought to contribute to the local correlations in resting state. Recent studies suggested that either LFO or other components of fMRI can be further divided into sub-components on different frequency bands. We hypothesized that those BOLD sub-components characterized the contributions of different brain networks to alpha rhythm. To test this hypothesis, EEG and fMRI data were simultaneously recorded from 17 human subjects performing an eyes-close resting state experiment. EEG alpha rhythm was correlated with the filtered fMRI time courses at different frequency bands (0.01-0.08 Hz, 0.08-0.25 Hz, 0.01-0.027 Hz, 0.027-0.073 Hz, 0.073-0.198 Hz, and 0.198-0.25 Hz). The results demonstrated significant relations between alpha rhythm and the BOLD signals in the visual network and in the attention network at LFO band, especially at the very low frequency band (0.01-0.027 Hz). PMID:24275197

Zhan, Zhichao; Xu, Lele; Zuo, Tian; Xie, Dongliang; Zhang, Jiacai; Yao, Li; Wu, Xia

2014-01-16

34

ADHD Familial Loading and Abnormal EEG Alpha Asymmetry in Children with ADHD1  

PubMed Central

Objective Abnormal brain laterality (ABL) is indicated in ADHD. ADHD and brain laterality are heritable. Genetic factors contributing to lateralization of brain function may contribute to ADHD. If so, increased ADHD family loading should be associated with greater ABL. Previous studies have shown increased rightward alpha asymmetry in ADHD. We tested whether this was more pronounced in ADHD children with increased ADHD family loading. Methods We compared EEG alpha asymmetry at rest and during the Conner’s Continuous Performance Test (CPT) in ADHD children with and without ADHD affected parents, and replicated our findings in a second larger sample. The replication study additionally stratified the parent-affected sample by parental persistent versus non-persistent ADHD status, increased spatial resolution of EEG measures, and assessed low versus high alpha. Results Study-1: The parent-affected group showed increased rightward asymmetry across frontal and central regions and reduced rightward parietal asymmetry during an eyes closed (EC) condition, as well as increasing rightward parietal asymmetry with advancing age during the CPT. Study-2 replicated these findings and further delineated influences of low versus high alpha, recording site, and effects of parental persistent versus non-persistent ADHD status. Conclusion Increased ADHD familial loading was associated with increased rightward frontal asymmetry. In contrast, increased rightward parietal asymmetry was associated with reduced ADHD family loading. Frontal results are consistent with an ADHD endophenotype. Parietal results suggest an ADHD adaptive trait prevalent with less ADHD family loading. Age effects indicate a unique developmental course among ADHD children whose parents have non-persistent ADHD. PMID:20006344

Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Dang, Jeff; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; Loo, Sandra K.

2010-01-01

35

Topographic distribution of EEG alpha attractor correlation dimension values in wake and drowsy states in humans.  

PubMed

Organization of resting state cortical networks is of fundamental importance for the phenomenon of awareness, which is altered in the first part of hypnagogic period (Hori stages 1-4). Our aim was to investigate the change in brain topography pattern of EEG alpha attractor correlation dimension (CD) in the period of transition from Hori stage 1 to 4. EEG of ten healthy adult individuals was recorded in the wake and drowsy states, using a 14 channel average reference montage, from which 91 bipolar channels were derived and filtered in the wider alpha (6-14Hz) range. Sixty 1s long epochs of each state and individual were subjected to CD calculation according to the Grassberger-Procaccia method. For such a collection of signals, two embedding dimensions, d={5, 10}, and 22 time delays ?=2-23 samples were explored. Optimal values were d=10 and ?=18, where both saturation and second zero crossing of the autocorrelation function occurred. Bipolar channel CD underwent a significant decrease during the transition and showed a positive linear correlation with electrode distance, stronger in the wake individuals. Topographic distribution of bipolar channels with above median CD changed from longitudinal anterior-posterior pattern (awake) to a more diagonal pattern, with localization in posterior regions (drowsiness). Our data are in line with the literature reporting functional segregation of neuronal assemblies in anterior and posterior regions during this transition. Our results should contribute to understanding of complex reorganization of the cortical part of alpha generators during the wake/drowsy transition. PMID:25462218

Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Vuckovic, Aleksandra; Boji?, Tijana

2015-03-01

36

EFFECTS OF MORNING NUTRITION ON PHASIC MODULATION OF EEG ALPHA ACTIVITY DURING AN ATTENTIONAL TASK IN PREADOLESCENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Variations in EEG alpha activity have been related to specific aspects of information processing (e.g., attention, memory functions, performance) by examining stimulus-locked increases (event-related synchronization: ERS) and decreases in synchronization (ERD) relative to the immediately preceding p...

37

Effects of Physical Exercise on Individual Resting State EEG Alpha Peak Frequency  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that both acute and chronic physical exercises can induce positive effects on brain function and this is associated with improvements in cognitive performance. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise on cognitive processing are not well understood. This study examined the effects of an acute bout of physical exercise as well as four weeks of exercise training on the individual resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha peak frequency (iAPF), a neurophysiological marker of the individual's state of arousal and attention, in healthy young adults. The subjects completed a steady state exercise (SSE) protocol or an exhaustive exercise (EE) protocol, respectively, on two separate days. EEG activity was recorded for 2?min before exercise, immediately after exercise, and after 10?min of rest. All assessments were repeated following four weeks of exercise training to investigate whether an improvement in physical fitness modulates the resting state iAPF and/or the iAPF response to an acute bout of SSE and EE. The iAPF was significantly increased following EE (P = 0.012) but not following SSE. It is concluded that the iAPF is increased following intense exercise, indicating a higher level of arousal and preparedness for external input. PMID:25759762

Gutmann, Boris; Mierau, Andreas; Hülsdünker, Thorben; Przyklenk, Axel; Strüder, Heiko Klaus

2015-01-01

38

Childhood EEG frontal alpha power as a predictor of adolescent antisocial behavior: A twin heritability study.  

PubMed

High EEG frontal alpha power (FAP) is thought to represent a state of low arousal in the brain, which has been related in past research to antisocial behavior (ASB). We investigated a longitudinal sample of 900 twins in two assessments in late childhood and mid-adolescence to verify whether relationships exist between FAP and both aggressive and nonaggressive ASB. ASB was measured by the Child Behavioral Checklist, and FAP was calculated using connectivity analysis methods that used principal components analysis to derive power of the most dominant frontal activation. Significant positive predictive relationships emerged in males between childhood FAP and adolescent aggressive ASB using multilevel mixed modeling. No concurrent relationships were found. Using bivariate biometric twin modeling analysis, the relationship between childhood FAP and adolescent aggressive ASB in males was found to be entirely due to genetic factors, which were correlated r=0.22. PMID:25456277

Niv, Sharon; Ashrafulla, Syed; Tuvblad, Catherine; Joshi, Anand; Raine, Adrian; Leahy, Richard; Baker, Laura A

2015-02-01

39

Intra- and extracellular alpha 1-antitrypsin in liver disease with special reference to Pi phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the relation between intra- and extrahepatocellular alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT) concentrations in patients with various Pi phenotypes, a prospective series of needle liver biopsies was stained with both periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and a specific immunoperoxidase technique to demonstrate intracellular alpha 1-AT. Concomitant blood samples from all patients were analysed for alpha 1-AT. Pi phenotypes were determined

J Carlson; S Eriksson; I Hägerstrand

1981-01-01

40

Reactivity of hemodynamic responses and functional connectivity to different states of alpha synchrony: a concurrent EEG-fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Concurrent EEG-fMRI studies have provided increasing details of the dynamics of intrinsic brain activity during the resting state. Here, we investigate a prominent effect in EEG during relaxed resting, i.e. the increase of the alpha power when the eyes are closed compared to when the eyes are open. This phenomenon is related to changes in thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical synchronization. In order to investigate possible changes to EEG-fMRI coupling and fMRI functional connectivity during the two states we adopted a data-driven approach that fuses the multimodal data on the basis of parallel ICA decompositions of the fMRI data in the spatial domain and of the EEG data in the spectral domain. The power variation of a posterior alpha component was used as a reference function to deconvolve the hemodynamic responses from occipital, frontal, temporal, and subcortical fMRI components. Additionally, we computed the functional connectivity between these components. The results showed widespread alpha hemodynamic responses and high functional connectivity during eyes-closed (EC) rest, while eyes open (EO) resting abolished many of the hemodynamic responses and markedly decreased functional connectivity. These data suggest that generation of local hemodynamic responses is highly sensitive to state changes that do not involve changes of mental effort or awareness. They also indicate the localized power differences in posterior alpha between EO and EC in resting state data are accompanied by spatially widespread amplitude changes in hemodynamic responses and inter-regional functional connectivity, i.e. low frequency hemodynamic signals display an equivalent of alpha reactivity. PMID:20510374

Wu, Lei; Eichele, Tom; Calhoun, Vince D.

2011-01-01

41

Human Movement-Related Potentials vs Desynchronization of EEG Alpha Rhythm: A High-Resolution EEG Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Movement-related potentials (MRPs) and event-related desynchronization (ERD) of alpha rhythm were investigated with an advanced high-resolution electroencephalographic technology (128 channels, surface Laplacian estimate, realistic head modeling). The working hypothesis was that MRPs and alpha ERD reflect different aspects of sensorimotor cortical processes. Both MRPs and alpha ERD modeled the responses of primary sensorimotor (M1-S1), supplementary motor (SMA), and posterior parietal

Claudio Babiloni; Filippo Carducci; Febo Cincotti; Paolo M. Rossini; Christa Neuper; Gert Pfurtscheller; Fabio Babiloni

1999-01-01

42

Changes in EEG alpha frequency and evoked response latency during solitary confinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 wk. of solitary confinement of 20 18-45 yr. old prison inmates produced significant changes in their EEG frequency and visual evoked potentials (VEP) that parallel those reported in laboratory studies of sensory deprivation. EEG frequency declined in a nonlinear manner over the 7-day period. VEP latency, which decreased with continued solitary confinement, was shorter for these Ss than for

Paul Gendreau; N. L. Freedman; G. J. Wilde; G. D. Scott

1972-01-01

43

Effects of Drawing on Alpha Activity: A Quantitative EEG Study with Implications for Art Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little empirical evidence exists as to how materials used in art therapy affect the brain and its neurobiological functioning. This pre/post within-groups study utilized the quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) to measure residual effects in the brain after 20 minutes of drawing. EEG recordings were conducted before and after participants (N =…

Belkofer, Christopher M.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Konopka, Lukasz M.

2014-01-01

44

EEG upper/low alpha frequency power ratio relates to temporo-parietal brain atrophy and memory performances in mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Objective: Temporo-parietal cortex thinning is associated to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer disease (AD). The increase of EEG upper/low alpha power ratio has been associated with AD-converter MCI subjects. We investigated the association of alpha3/alpha2 ratio with patterns of cortical thickness in MCI. Materials and Methods: Seventy-four adult subjects with MCI underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, electroencephalogram (EEG) recording and high resolution 3D magnetic resonance imaging. Alpha3/alpha2 power ratio as well as cortical thickness was computed for each subject. Three MCI groups were detected according to increasing tertile values of upper/low alpha power ratio. Difference of cortical thickness among the groups was estimated. Pearson’s r was used to assess the topography of the correlation between cortical thinning and memory impairment. Results: High upper/low alpha power ratio group had total cortical gray matter volume reduction of 471 mm2 than low upper/low alpha power ratio group (p < 0.001). Upper/low alpha group showed a similar but less marked pattern (160 mm2) of cortical thinning when compared to middle upper/low alpha power ratio group (p < 0.001). Moreover, high upper/low alpha group had wider cortical thinning than other groups, mapped to the Supramarginal and Precuneus bilaterally. Finally, in high upper/low alpha group temporo-parietal cortical thickness was correlated to memory performance. No significant cortical thickness differences was found between middle and low alpha3/alpha2 power ratio groups. Conclusion: High EEG upper/low alpha power ratio was associated with temporo-parietal cortical thinning and memory impairment in MCI subjects. The combination of EEG upper/low alpha ratio and cortical thickness measure could be useful for identifying individuals at risk for progression to AD dementia and may be of value in clinical context. PMID:24187540

Moretti, Davide V.; Paternicň, Donata; Binetti, Giuliano; Zanetti, Orazio; Frisoni, Giovanni B.

2013-01-01

45

Effects of Instructions and Biofeedback on EEG-Alpha Production and the Effects of EEG-Alpha Biofeedback Training for Controlling Arousal in a Subsequent Stressful Situation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results indicate that the instructions (and related information concerning alpha) rather than the biofeedback are critical in alpha biofeedback training and that this training does not appear to have utility for controlling arousal under stress. (Author)

Holmes, David S.; And Others

1980-01-01

46

Test-retest reliability of frontal alpha electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) measures in adolescents: a pilot study.  

PubMed

A number of studies have shown that the pattern of resting frontal EEG alpha power and asymmetry and heart rate are predictive of individual differences in affective style in children and adults. Although test-retest reliability of frontal electrocortical and autonomic measures has been established in adult and child and some clinical populations, few studies have examined test-retest reliability of these measures in adolescents. Here, we conducted a pilot study to examine the test-retest reliability of frontal EEG alpha power and asymmetry and heart period and heart rate in 10 typically developing adolescent participants (M age = 15.9 years) over a 1 month period. We found acceptable test-retest reliability using Pearson and intra-class correlations in left and right mid-frontal alpha power and asymmetry and heart period and heart rate over 1 month. These results provide initial evidence for acceptable levels of test-retest reliability in central and peripheral psychophysiological measures in adolescents used to index affective style in children and adults. Future studies are needed with a larger sample to ensure the reliability of these results. PMID:24617292

Winegust, Adira K; Mathewson, Karen J; Schmidt, Louis A

2014-12-01

47

Co-inheritance of alpha- and beta-thalassaemia in mice ameliorates thalassaemic phenotype.  

PubMed

Beta-thalassaemia is an inherited disease caused by defective synthesis of the beta-globin chain of haemoglobin, leading to an imbalance in globin chains. Excess alpha-globin chains precipitate in erythroid progenitor cells resulting in cell death, ineffective erythropoiesis and severe anaemia. Decreased alpha-globin synthesis leads to milder symptoms, exemplified by individuals who co-inherit alpha-thalassaemia and beta-thalassaemia. In this study, we set out to investigate whether co-inheritance of alpha- and beta-thalassaemia in mice leads to reduced anaemia. Heterozygous murine beta-globin knockout (KO) mice (beta+/-) which display severe anaemia were mated with heterozygous alpha-globin KO mice (alpha++/--). The resulting progeny were genotyped and classed as wild-type WT (alpha++/++;beta+/+), heterozygous alpha-KO (alpha++/--;beta+/+), heterozygous beta-KO (alpha++/++;beta+/-) or double heterozygous (DH) alpha-KO/beta-KO (alpha++/--;beta+/-). Mice were bled and full blood examinations (FBE) performed. FBE results for heterozygous beta-KO mice (beta+/-) showed marked reductions in haemoglobin and haematocrit levels and significant increases in red cell distribution widths and reticulocyte counts compared to WT mice. In contrast, FBE results for DH alpha-KO/beta-KO mice showed near normal red blood cell indices. These results indicate that reduction of alpha-globin expression leads to correction of the globin chain imbalance in beta-thalassaemic mice and therefore an improved phenotype. The analysis of DH alpha-KO/beta-KO mice leads to the following conclusions: (1) co-inheritance of alpha- and beta-thalassaemia in mice improves the thalassaemic phenotype, identical to the situation in humans; (2) the heterozygous murine beta-globin KO mouse model is a suitable in vivo model to test for therapeutic knockdown of alpha-globin. PMID:17493845

Voon, Hsiao Phin Joanna; Wardan, Hady; Vadolas, Jim

2007-01-01

48

Human anterior and frontal midline theta and lower alpha reflect emotionally positive state and internalized attention: high-resolution EEG investigation of meditation  

Microsoft Academic Search

EEG spectral power and coherence estimates in the individually defined delta, theta, alpha-1, alpha-2, and alpha-3 bands were used to identify and characterize brain regions involved in meditative states, in which focused internalized attention gives rise to emotionally positive ‘blissful’ experience. Blissful state was accompanied by increased anterior frontal and midline theta synchronization as well as enhanced theta long-distant connectivity

L. I. Aftanas; S. A. Golocheikine

2001-01-01

49

An investigation of inner light during Zen meditation using alpha-suppressed EEG and VEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitivity to light is a common experience during prayer or Zen meditation, in both western and eastern cultures. Higher levels of happiness and lower health insurance costs are typical for those who experience inner light. In this report, the connection between the experience of inner light and Zen meditation is investigated by using EEG and flash visual evoked potential (F-VEP)

Kang-Ming Chang; Chuan-Yi Liu; Pei-Chen Lo

2005-01-01

50

Fabry disease: twenty novel alpha-galactosidase A mutations causing the classical phenotype.  

PubMed

Fabry disease, an X-linked inborn error of glycosphingolipid catabolism, results from the deficient activity of the lysosomal exoglycohydrolase, alpha-galactosidase A (EC 3.2.1.22; alpha-Gal A). The nature of the molecular lesions in the alpha-Gal A gene in 40 unrelated families with the classical phenotype (absent alpha-Gal A activity) was determined in order to provide precise heterozygote detection and prenatal diagnosis, and to explore possible genotype/phenotype correlations. Genomic DNA was isolated from unrelated affected males, and the entire alpha-Gal A coding region and flanking intronic sequences were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and automated sequencing. Twenty new mutations were identified: M51K, D92N, D136H, F169S, C172F, L191Q, S247P, Q250X, P259R, G261D, T282N, R301P, W349X, T410K, 124delAT, 842delTAA, 1033delTC, 82insG, 893insG, and 903insG. In the remaining 20 unrelated Fabry families, 17 previously reported mutations were detected. These studies further define the heterogeneity of mutations in the alpha-Gal A gene causing the classic Fabry disease phenotype, and permit precise heterozygote detection and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:11322659

Ashley, G A; Shabbeer, J; Yasuda, M; Eng, C M; Desnick, R J

2001-01-01

51

Phenotypic classification of male pseudohermaphroditism due to steroid 5{alpha}-reductase 2 deficiency  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in genital tissue is catalysed by the enzyme 5{alpha}-reductase 2, which is encoded by the SRD5A2 gene. The potent androgen DHT is required for full masculinization of the external genitalia. Mutations of the SRD5A2 gene inhibit enzyme activity, diminish DHT formation, and hence cause masculinization defects of varying degree. The classical syndrome, formerly described as pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias, is characterized by a predominantly female phenotype at birth and significant virilization without gynecomastia at puberty. We investigated nine patients with steroid 5{alpha}-reductase 2 deficiency (SRD). T/DHT-ratios were highly increased in the classical syndrome, but variable in the less severe affected patients. Mutations in the SRD5A2 gene had been characterized using PCR-SSCP analysis and direct DNA sequencing. A small deletion was encountered in two patients, while all other patients had single base mutations which result in amino acid substitutions. We conclude that phenotypes may vary widely in patients with SRD5A2 gene mutations spanning the whole range from completely female to normal male without distinctive clinical signs of the disease. Hence, steroid 5{alpha}-reductase deficiency should be considered not only in sex reversed patients with female or ambiguous phenotypes, but also in those with mild symptoms of undermasculinization as encountered in patients with hypospadias and/or micropenis. A classification based on the severity of the masculinization defect may be used for correlation of phenotypes with enzyme activities and genotypes, and for comparisons of phenotypes between different patients as the basis for clinical decisions to be made in patients with pseudohermaphroditism due to steroid 5{alpha}-reductase 2 deficiency. 22 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Sinnecker, G.H.G; Hiort, O.; Kruse, K.; Dibbelt, L. [Medical Univ. of Luebeck (Germany)] [and others] [Medical Univ. of Luebeck (Germany); and others

1996-05-03

52

EEG alpha rhythms and transient chromatic and achromatic pattern visual evoked potentials in children and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient chromatic pattern visual evoked potentials (VEPs) have been found to be less repeatable in morphology in children\\u000a than in adults at low to moderate chromatic contrasts. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether low repeatability\\u000a of VEP components can be associated with high alpha power, in a comparison of alpha activity in children and adults. Transient\\u000a chromatic

Mei Ying Boon; Kar Ying Chan; Jaclyn Chiang; Rebecca Milston; Catherine Suttle

2011-01-01

53

alpha 2-adrenergic antagonists suppress epileptiform EEG activity in a petit mal seizure model.  

PubMed

Experiments were performed to determine the effects of yohimbine, piperoxan, and mianserin on the flash-evoked afterdischarge (FEAD) in rat. All three drugs are alpha-adrenergic antagonists, which block the inhibition of norepinephrine-release mediated by presynaptic (alpha 2) receptors. It was predicted that these drugs would exert dose-dependent biphasic effects on FEAD: at low doses, which act presynaptically, the FEAD would be suppressed; while at higher doses, which also block postsynaptic (alpha 1) receptors, the FEAD would be disinhibited. The dose response curves for yohimbine and piperoxan were, in fact, biphasic with low doses decreasing the amount of FEAD, while higher doses returned the amount of FEAD to baseline. No biphasic effect was seen with mianserin. These observations are consistent with the fact that yohimbine and piperoxan are more potent antagonists at alpha 2- than at alpha 1-receptors, whereas the affinities of mianserin for the two receptor types is comparable. The results of these experiments support the hypothesis that norepinephrine modulates FEAD. PMID:6122152

King, G A; Burnham, W M

1982-01-18

54

HLA-A, B antigens and alpha 1-antitrypsin phenotypes in nodal generalised osteoarthritis and erosive osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

HLA-A, B and alpha 1-antitrypsin phenotypes were studied in 90 unrelated patients with established nodal generalised osteoarthritis (OA). Compared with standard reference populations, independently increased frequency of the HLA-A1B8 and MZ alpha 1-antitrypsin phenotypes were observed (27% v 11.5%, relative risk 2.79, and 12% v 3.6%, relative risk 3.73 respectively). These associations related to developed of nodal generalised OA rather

M Pattrick; A Manhire; A M Ward; M Doherty

1989-01-01

55

EEG spectral phenotypes: Heritability and association with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native Americans have some of the highest rates of marijuana and alcohol use and abuse, yet neurobiological measures associated with dependence on these substances in this population remain unknown. The present investigation evaluated the heritability of spectral characteristics of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and their correlation with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community. Participants (n=626) were evaluated for

Cindy L. Ehlers; Evelyn Phillips; Ian R. Gizer; David A. Gilder; Kirk C. Wilhelmsen

2010-01-01

56

Alpha 1 antitrypsin (PI) phenotypes in two rheumatic diseases: a reappraisal of the association of PI subtypes in rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

alpha 1 Antitrypsin phenotypes were determined by isoelectric focusing in 225 adult white patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 60 patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis (grade III and IV), 17 sibling pairs--HLA identical but discordant for rheumatoid arthritis, and 122 random patients with Sjögren's syndrome. No significant increase in non-M phenotypes was found in either of the groups of patients with

S S Papiha; B Pal; D Walker; P Mangion; M A Hossain

1989-01-01

57

Fabry disease: 45 novel mutations in the alpha-galactosidase A gene causing the classical phenotype.  

PubMed

The nature of the molecular lesions in the alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-Gal A) gene causing Fabry disease was determined in 50 unrelated families with the classic phenotype of this X-linked recessive lysosomal storage disease. Genomic DNA was isolated from affected males or obligate carrier females, and the entire alpha-Gal A coding region as well as the flanking and intronic sequences were analyzed by PCR amplification and automated sequencing. Forty-five new mutations were identified including 38 single base substitutions (32 missense and four nonsense) and nine gene rearrangements: MIR, M42T, G43D, G43V, H46Y, F50C, L68F, G132R, T141I, Y152X, K168R, G183S, V199M, P205R, Y207S, Q221X, C223R, C223Y, D234Y, G271C, A288P, P293A, R301G, I303N, I317T, E341D, P362L, R363C, R363H, G373D, I384N, T385P, Q396X, E398K, S401X, P409A, g7325insC, g7384del13, g8341delG, g8391del4/ins3, g10511delTAGT, g10704delACAG, g11019insG, g11021insG, and g11048delAGG. In the remaining five Fabry families, four previously reported mutations were detected (W81X, R112C, g11011delTC, and g11050delGAG) of which the R112C substitution was found in two families who were unrelated by haplotyping. These studies further define the heterogeneity of mutations in the alpha-Gal A gene causing the classical Fabry disease phenotype, and permit precise carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis in these families. PMID:12175777

Shabbeer, Junaid; Yasuda, Makiko; Luca, Edlira; Desnick, Robert J

2002-05-01

58

Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, SZ phenotype: a rare type of a rare disease. Case report.  

PubMed

Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is one of the genetic diseases with a clear impact on the structure and function of the lung, rarely diagnosed and treated. We present the case of a 51-year-old female patient, heavy smoker, known with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for 12 years, untreated, who was hospitalized for the first time in our clinic having symptoms of a severe COPD exacerbation. She has significant cardiac disease (rheumatic mitral disease, with previous episodes of pulmonary edema and cardiac arrest) and hepatitis B. The patient is hypoxic, with severe mixed ventilatory dysfunction. During the hospitalisation she received treatment of the exacerbation and after that she received recommendation of chronic inhaled bronchodilator and corticosteroid treatment. The test for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency has detected a plasma of 63 mg/dl, SZ phenotype. The patient returns for a second evaluation. Functional tests are significantly improved (despite inconsistent treatment) with the impressive improvement of FEV7 values and identification by plethysmography of a restrictive syndrome. Echocardiography identifies mitral valve changes likely rheumatic, severe pulmonary hypertension. Computer tomography was performed, highlighting discrete interstitial changes and denying the existence of emphysema. Marked increase in FEV1 values supported adding bronchial asthma to the list of diagnosis and recommendation to continue inhaled corticosteroid combination bronchodilator as treatment. The particularity of the case is the rare phenotype, association of asthma and COPD as the clinical manifestation and the presence of comorbidities, which complicates the diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:25665366

Nebunoiu, Ana-Maria; Deleanu, Oana Claudia; Rohan, Ileana; Mih?l?an, Florin; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna; Ulmeanu, Ruxandra

2014-01-01

59

Gastric Composite Tumor of Alpha Fetoprotein-Producing Carcinoma/Hepatoid Adenocarcinoma and Endocrine Carcinoma with Reference to Cellular Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Alpha-fetoprotein-producing carcinoma (AFPC)/hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC) and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) are uncommon in the stomach. Composite tumors consisting of these carcinomas and their histologic phenotypes are not well known. Between 2002 and 2007, to estimate the prevalence of composite tumors consisting of tubular adenocarcinoma, AFPC/HAC and NEC, we reviewed specimens obtained from 294 consecutive patients treated surgically for gastric cancer. We examined histological phenotype of tumors of AFPC or NEC containing the composite tumor by evaluating immunohistochemical expressions of MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, CDX2, and SOX2. Immunohistochemically, AFPC/HAC dominantly showed the intestinal or mixed phenotype, and NEC frequently showed the gastric phenotype. In the composite tumor, the tubular and hepatoid components showed the gastric phenotype, and the neuroendocrine component showed the mixed type. The unique composite tumor predominantly showed the gastric phenotype, and the hepatoid and neuroendocrine components were considered to be differentiated from the tubular component. PMID:22482081

Suzuki, Akira; Koide, Naohiko; Kitazawa, Masato; Mochizuka, Akiyoshi; Ota, Hiroyoshi; Miyagawa, Shinichi

2012-01-01

60

Relation of alpha-1-antitrypsin phenotype to the performance of pulmonary function tests and to the prevalence of respiratory illness in a working population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with severe alpha-1-antitrypsin (alpha1AT) deficiency (phenotype Pi ZZ) are abnormally liable to develop emphysema, but it is uncertain whether those with partial alpha1AT deficiency (phenotypes Pi MS and MZ) are similarly susceptible. This study was undertaken to determine the frequency of the various Pi phenotypes in a working population in Northern Ireland and to compare the performance of simple

R B Cole; N C Nevin; G Blundell; J D Merrett; J R McDonald; W P Johnston

1976-01-01

61

Squamous Carcinoma Cells Influence Monocyte Phenotype and Suppress Lipopolysaccharide-Induced TNF-alpha in Monocytes  

PubMed Central

Bacteria and chronic inflammation are present in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC), but their roles in the pathogenesis of HNSCC are unclear. Our studies described here revealed that human monocytes co-cultured short term with HNSCC cells were more likely to express CD16, and CD16+ small mononuclear cells were common in HNSCC specimens. In addition, we identified monocytes as the primary source of LPS-induced IL-6 and TNF-alpha in the monocyte-HNSCC co-cultures. Remarkably, relative to LPS-stimulated monocytes cultured alone, HNSCC cells profoundly suppressed LPS-induced TNF-alpha in monocytes, without compromising IL-6 production. High levels of cytoprotective factors like IL-6 and low levels of TNF-alpha are important for the tumor microenvironment that enables tumor cell survival, affects monocyte differentiation and may contribute to tumor colonization by bacteria. This study provides novel observations that HNSCC cells affect monocyte phenotype and function, which are relevant to the regulation of the HNSCC microenvironment. PMID:20084448

Lam-ubol, Aroonwan; Hopkin, Dustin; Letuchy, Elena M.; Kurago, Zoya B.

2010-01-01

62

HLA-A, B antigens and alpha 1-antitrypsin phenotypes in nodal generalised osteoarthritis and erosive osteoarthritis.  

PubMed Central

HLA-A, B and alpha 1-antitrypsin phenotypes were studied in 90 unrelated patients with established nodal generalised osteoarthritis (OA). Compared with standard reference populations, independently increased frequency of the HLA-A1B8 and MZ alpha 1-antitrypsin phenotypes were observed (27% v 11.5%, relative risk 2.79, and 12% v 3.6%, relative risk 3.73 respectively). These associations related to developed of nodal generalised OA rather than to severity as judged by the summated radiographic scores for hand OA. Ten patients had marked subchondral radiographic erosions and were further classified as erosive OA; these patients had an increased frequency of the MS alpha 1-antitrypsin phenotype (30% v 9%) and higher radiographic OA scores corrected for presence of erosions. This first report of two independent genetic markers in nodal generalised OA is of interest in relation to the increasingly recognised inflammatory component of the osteoarthritis process. PMID:2787142

Pattrick, M; Manhire, A; Ward, A M; Doherty, M

1989-01-01

63

“I am resting but rest less well with you.” The moderating effect of anxious attachment style on alpha power during EEG resting state in a social context  

PubMed Central

We took EEG recordings to measure task-free resting-state cortical brain activity in 35 participants under two conditions, alone (A) or together (T). We also investigated whether psychological attachment styles shape human cortical activity differently in these two settings. The results indicate that social context matters and that participants' cortical activity is moderated by the anxious, but not avoidant attachment style. We found enhanced alpha, beta and theta band activity in the T rather than the A resting-state condition, which was more pronounced in posterior brain regions. We further found a positive correlation between anxious attachment style and enhanced alpha power in the T vs. A condition over frontal and parietal scalp regions. There was no significant correlation between the absolute powers registered in the other two frequency bands and the participants' anxious attachment style. PMID:25071516

Verbeke, Willem J. M. I.; Pozharliev, Rumen; Van Strien, Jan W.; Belschak, Frank; Bagozzi, Richard P.

2014-01-01

64

"I am resting but rest less well with you." The moderating effect of anxious attachment style on alpha power during EEG resting state in a social context.  

PubMed

We took EEG recordings to measure task-free resting-state cortical brain activity in 35 participants under two conditions, alone (A) or together (T). We also investigated whether psychological attachment styles shape human cortical activity differently in these two settings. The results indicate that social context matters and that participants' cortical activity is moderated by the anxious, but not avoidant attachment style. We found enhanced alpha, beta and theta band activity in the T rather than the A resting-state condition, which was more pronounced in posterior brain regions. We further found a positive correlation between anxious attachment style and enhanced alpha power in the T vs. A condition over frontal and parietal scalp regions. There was no significant correlation between the absolute powers registered in the other two frequency bands and the participants' anxious attachment style. PMID:25071516

Verbeke, Willem J M I; Pozharliev, Rumen; Van Strien, Jan W; Belschak, Frank; Bagozzi, Richard P

2014-01-01

65

Mutation in collagen II alpha 1 isoforms delineates Stickler and Wagner syndrome phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Purpose Stickler syndrome is an arthro-ophthalmopathy with phenotypic overlap with Wagner syndrome. The common Stickler syndrome type I is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, with causal mutations in collagen type II alpha 1 (COL2A1). Wagner syndrome is associated with mutations in versican (VCAN), which encodes for a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. A three-generation Caucasian family variably diagnosed with either syndrome was screened for sequence variants in the COL2A1 and VCAN genes. Methods Genomic DNA samples derived from saliva were collected from all family members (six affected and four unaffected individuals). Complete sequencing of COL2A1 and VCAN was performed on two affected individuals. Direct sequencing of remaining family members was conducted if the discovered variants followed segregation. Results A base-pair substitution (c.258C>A) in exon 2 of COL2A1 cosegregated with familial disease status. This known mutation occurs in a highly conserved site that causes a premature stop codon (p.C86X). The mutation was not seen in 1,142 ethnically matched control DNA samples. Conclusions Premature stop codons in COL2A1 exon 2 lead to a Stickler syndrome type I ocular-only phenotype with few or no systemic manifestations. Mutation screening of COL2A1 exon 2 in families with autosomal dominant vitreoretinopathy is important for accurate clinical diagnosis. PMID:23592912

Tran-Viet, Khanh-Nhat; Soler, Vincent; Quiette, Valencia; Powell, Caldwell; Yanovitch, Tammy; Metlapally, Ravikanth; Luo, Xiaoyan; Katsanis, Nicholas; Nading, Erica

2013-01-01

66

Alpha-thalassemia mutations in adana province, southern Turkey: genotype-phenotype correlation.  

PubMed

To look over the distribution of the mutations in a large series from Adana province, Southern Turkey, and determine the genotype-phenotype correlation of the frequent mutations. Among the 2500 individuals with mild or moderate anemia, microcytosis, and normal iron levels that were referred to our Genetic Diagnosis Center, a population consisting of 539 individuals were included in the study and tested for alpha-thalassemia mutations by using reverse dot blot hybridization technique. Twelve different mutations were detected in 539 patients. Among the 12 different mutations found, the most frequent mutations were the -?(3.7) (63.3 %), --(MED) (11.7 %), --(20.5) (10.7 %), ?2(IVS1(-5nt)) (3.9 %), and ?2(polyA-2) (3.5 %). The most frequent genotypes were -?(3.7)/?? (35.8 %), -?(3.7)/-?(3.7)(18.9 %), -(20.5)/?? (11.5 %), and --(MED)/?? (10.4 %), respectively. There were statistically significant differences in hematological findings between -?(3.7)/-?(3.7) and --(MED)/??, even though both have two mutated genes in the genotype. Our results show that alpha-thalassemia mutations are highly heterogeneous as well as deletional and -?(3.7) single gene deletion is particularly prevalent at Adana province in agreement to other studies from Turkey. PMID:25825562

Bozdogan, Sevcan Tug; Yuregir, Ozge Ozalp; Buyukkurt, Nurhilal; Aslan, Huseyin; Ozdemir, Zeynep Canan; Gambin, Tomasz

2015-06-01

67

EEG NEUROFEEDBACK: A BRIEF OVERVIEW AND AN EXAMPLE OF PEAK ALPHA FREQUENCY TRAINING FOR COGNITIVE ENHANCEMENT IN THE ELDERLY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurofeedback (NF) is an electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback technique for training individuals to alter their brain activity via operant conditioning. Research has shown that NF helps reduce symptoms of several neurological and psychiatric disorders, with ongoing research currently investigating applications to other disorders and to the enhancement of non-disordered cognition. The present article briefly reviews the fundamen- tals and current status

Efthymios Angelakis; Stamatina Stathopoulou; Jennifer L. Frymiare; Deborah L. Green; Joel F. Lubar; John Kounios

2006-01-01

68

Alpha 1-antitrypsin phenotype: transient cathodal shift in serum of infant girl with urinary cytomegalovirus and fatty liver.  

PubMed

A 2-month-old white girl had severe liver disease (but without signs of hepatic necrosis, infection or cirrhosis), urinary cytomegalovirus, transient reduction of alpha 1-antitrypsin concentration and transient abnormal alpha 1-antitrypsin phenotype that were not present in her parents. Five serum specimens that were obtained during the 11/2 months of acute phase liver disease indicated, by polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing (PAG-IEF), acid starch gel and agarose electrophoresis as well as immunofixation, an unusual alpha 1-antitrypsin phenotype that we labeled delta (delta). It migrated adjacent to Z, i.e., cathodal of Z and Zpratt on PAG-IEF; anodal of Z but cathodal of X, S, Zpratt on starch gel. We labeled the girl's complete phenotype M delta. After clinical recovery, her phenotype was MM and identical to that of her parents. Hepatic electronmicroscopy of the acute phase specimen showed dilated bile canaliculi. We observed the following in hepatocytes: clusters of globular inclusions surrounded by myelin sheets that, to a lesser extent, also appeared in the liver of CMV-infected children with phenotype MM; dilated endoplasmic reticulum cisternae that contained floccular material; and marked steatosis. These changes were less severe in the convalescent liver specimen. PMID:6278390

Hug, G; Chuck, G; Bowles, B

1982-03-01

69

Ventral prefrontal cortex and serotonergic system activation during pedaling exercise induces negative mood improvement and increased alpha band in EEG  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates a possible involvement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and serotonergic (5-HT) system in psychiatric and electroencephalography (EEG) changes during and after pedaling exercise (PE). The subjects performed PE for 15min using a cycle ergometer. PE rate was kept at 60rpm, and the work load (93±5.4W) was decided for each subject before the experiment based on a Rating

Masaki Fumoto; Tsutomu Oshima; Kiyoshi Kamiya; Hiromi Kikuchi; Yoshinari Seki; Yasushi Nakatani; Xinjun Yu; Tamami Sekiyama; Ikuko Sato-Suzuki; Hideho Arita

2010-01-01

70

Splicing mutation in the ATR-X gene can lead to a dysmorphic mental retardation phenotype without {alpha}-thalassemia  

SciTech Connect

We have previously reported the isolation of a gene from Xq13 that codes for a putative regulator of transcription (XNP) and has now been shown to be the gene involved in the X-linked {alpha}-thalassemia with mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome. The widespread expression and numerous domains present in the putative protein suggest that this gene could be involved in other phenotypes. The predominant expression of the gene in the developing brain, as well as its association with neuron differentiation, indicates that mutations of this gene might result in a mental retardation (MR) phenotype. In this paper we present a family with a splice junction mutation in XNP that results in the skipping of an exon and in the introduction of a stop codon in the middle of the XNP-coding sequence. Only the abnormal transcript is expressed in two first cousins presenting the classic ATR-X phenotype (with {alpha}-thalassemia and HbH inclusions). In a distant cousin presenting a similar dysmorphic MR phenotype but not having thalassemia, {approximately}30% of the XNP transcripts are normal. These data demonstrate that the mode of action of the XNP gene product on globin expression is distinct from its mode of action in brain development and facial morphogenesis and suggest that other dysmorphic mental retardation phenotypes, such as Juberg-Marsidi or some sporadic cases of Coffin-Lowry, could be due to mutations in XNP. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Villard, L.; Lossi, A.M.; Fontes, M. [and others

1996-03-01

71

Prestimulus oscillations in the alpha band of the EEG are modulated by the difficulty of feature discrimination and predict activation of a sensory discrimination process.  

PubMed

Recent work has demonstrated that the occipital-temporal N1 component of the ERP is sensitive to the difficulty of visual discrimination, in a manner that cannot be explained by simple differences in low-level visual features, arousal, or time on task. These observations provide evidence that the occipital-temporal N1 component is modulated by the application of top-down control. However, the timing of this control process remains unclear. Previous work has demonstrated proactive, top-down modulation of cortical excitability for cued spatial attention or feature selection tasks. Here, the possibility that a similar top-down process facilitates performance of a difficult stimulus discrimination task is explored. Participants performed an oddball task at two levels of discrimination difficulty, with difficulty manipulated by modulating the similarity between target and nontarget stimuli. Discrimination processes and cortical excitability were assessed via the amplitude of the occipital-temporal N1 component and prestimulus alpha oscillation of the EEG, respectively. For correct discriminations, prestimulus alpha power was reduced, and the occipital-temporal N1 was enhanced in the hard relative to the easy condition. Furthermore, within the hard condition, prestimulus alpha power was reduced, and the occipital-temporal N1 was enhanced for correct relative to incorrect discriminations. The generation of ERPs contingent on relative prestimulus alpha power additionally suggests that diminished alpha power preceding stimulus onset is related to enhancement of the occipital-temporal N1. As in spatial attention, proactive control appears to enhance cortical excitability and facilitate discrimination performance in tasks requiring nonspatial, feature-based attention, even in the absence of competing stimulus features. PMID:24405187

Roberts, Daniel M; Fedota, John R; Buzzell, George A; Parasuraman, Raja; McDonald, Craig G

2014-08-01

72

EEG synchronization and migraine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate phase synchronization in EEG recordings from migraine patients. We use the analytic signal technique, based on the Hilbert transform, and find that migraine brains are characterized by enhanced alpha band phase synchronization in presence of visual stimuli. Our findings show that migraine patients have an overactive regulatory mechanism that renders them more sensitive to external stimuli.

Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Angelini, Leonardo; Pellicoro, Mario; Hu, Kun; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

2004-03-01

73

alpha 1-Antitrypsin-levels and phenotypes in Crohn's disease in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of 310 unrelated patients suffering from Crohn's disease has been screened for quantitative and electrophoretic variations of alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT). A comparison was made betweeen patients and healthy controls. The distribution of electrophoretic alpha 1AT variants in the patients showed no significant deviation from the controls. The alpha 1AT quantities are significantly higher in the Crohn's disease

E C Klasen; I Biemond; I T Weterman

1980-01-01

74

Transforming Growth Factor Alpha (TGF?) Transforms Astrocytes to a Growth Supportive Phenotype after Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Astrocytes are both detrimental and beneficial for repair and recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). These dynamic cells are primary contributors to the growth-inhibitory glial scar, yet they are also neuroprotective and can form growth-supportive bridges upon which axons traverse. We have shown that intrathecal administration of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF?) to the contused mouse spinal cord can enhance astrocyte infiltration and axonal growth within the injury site, but the mechanisms of these effects are not well understood. The present studies demonstrate that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is upregulated primarily by astrocytes and glial progenitors early after SCI. TGF? directly activates the EGFR on these cells in vitro, inducing their proliferation, migration, and transformation to a phenotype that supports robust neurite outgrowth. Overexpression of TGF? in vivo by intraparenchymal adeno-associated virus injection adjacent to the injury site enhances cell proliferation, alters astrocyte distribution and facilitates increased axonal penetration at the rostral lesion border. To determine if endogenous EGFR activation is required after injury, SCI was also performed on Velvet (C57BL/6J-EgfrVel/J) mice, a mutant strain with defective EGFR activity. The affected mice exhibited malformed glial borders, larger lesions, and impaired recovery of function, indicating that intrinsic EGFR activation is necessary for neuroprotection and normal glial scar formation after SCI. By further stimulating precursor proliferation and modifying glial activation to promote a growth permissive environment, controlled stimulation of EGFR at the lesion border may be considered in the context of future strategies to enhance endogenous cellular repair following injury. PMID:22016551

White, Robin E.; Rao, Meghan; Gensel, John C.; McTigue, Dana M.; Kaspar, Brian K.; Jakeman, Lyn B.

2011-01-01

75

EEG (Electroencephalograph)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of a set of materials about brain scanning technologies, this web page describes and illustrates what an EEG (electroencephalograph) is. It explains that although EEGs are not technically brain scans, they are included in the site as an example of an earlier, noninvasive technology that researchers still employ to gather brain data. EEGs record the brain's electrical activity. The text notes the kind of information that EEGs can and cannot provide to researchers and touches on its history. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

David Grubin Productions

2001-01-01

76

Interferon-alpha and interferon-gamma differentially affect pancreatic beta-cell phenotype and function.  

PubMed

To better clarify individual roles of interferon (IFN)-alpha and IFN-gamma in beta-cell pathology during the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus, we compared the effects of these cytokines on insulin production and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene expression in pancreatic beta-cell lines. IFN-gamma but not IFN-alpha decreased secreted and intracellular insulin concentrations in betaTC6-F7 and betaTC3 cells. Likewise, IFN-gamma but not IFN-alpha treatment of beta-cells upregulated mRNA expression of MHC class IA antigen-processing genes and surface expression of class IA molecules. Alternatively, class IA MHC expression was upregulated by IFN-gamma and IFN-alpha in the P388D1 macrophage cell line. The observation of constitutive Ifn-alpha6 mRNA expression by a differentiated beta-cell line substantiates previous indications that local expression of IFN-alpha in islets may trigger insulitis. Evidence that IFN-gamma, a product of infiltrating leukocytes, directly decreases beta-cell glucose sensitivity and increases MHC class IA cell surface expression supports the postulate that IFN-gamma magnifies the insulitic process. PMID:9688831

Baldeón, M E; Chun, T; Gaskins, H R

1998-07-01

77

Expression of transfected transforming growth factor alpha induces a motile fibroblast-like phenotype with extracellular matrix-degrading potential in a rat bladder carcinoma cell line.  

PubMed Central

Acquisition of cell motility is often correlated with the malignant progression of a transformed cell. To investigate some of the mechanisms involved in the development of a migratory state, we transfected the NBTII rat carcinoma cell line, which forms stationary epithelial clusters in culture, with the gene encoding human transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha). Expression of TGF alpha in NBTII cells resulted in cells of motile and vimentin-positive phenotype with internalized desmosomal components, analogous to the treatment of cells with exogenous TGF alpha. The clones expressed a 5.2-kb TGF alpha message and synthesized an 18-kDa form of TGF alpha. Supernatants of TGF alpha-producing clones induced the internalization of desmosomal components, the production of vimentin, and increased motility in untransfected epithelial NBTII cells, indicating that the factor produced by the clones was in a biologically active form. TGF alpha-producing clones secreted significant levels of a 95-kDa gelatinolytic metal-loproteinase, virtually absent in untransfected cell supernatants. In contrast, levels of inhibitors of metalloproteinases and of a plasminogen activator were similar in untransfected and TGF alpha-transfected NBTII cells. These results suggest that expression of TGF alpha in an epithelial tumor cell results in the development of a motile, fibroblast-like phenotype with matrix-degrading potential, which could result in a more aggressive tumor in vivo. Images PMID:2134746

Gavrilovi?, J; Moens, G; Thiery, J P; Jouanneau, J

1990-01-01

78

High prevalence of alpha 1 antitrypsin phenotypes in viral hepatitis B infected patients in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveHepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global public health problem. Approximately 2 billion people are infected worldwide and more than 350 million of these individuals are chronic carriers of HBV. Approximately 15–40% of infected patients will develop cirrhosis, liver failure, or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Alpha 1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is one of many factors that may be involved

Mohammad Hashemi; Seyed Moayed Alavian; Saeid Ghavami; Frederick J. de Serres; Masoud Salehi; Taher Doroudi; Amir Hossain Mahagheghi Fard; Hamid Mehrabifar; Behzad Milani; Seyed Javad Saeidi Shahri

2005-01-01

79

Intravenous administration of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor in patients of PiZ and PiM phenotype. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

Nine patients with moderate pulmonary emphysema, six of PiZ phenotype and three of PiM phenotype, have received a single intravenous infusion of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (human) (A1PI), in a dose of 60 mg/kg over a 30-minute period. They also received a tracer dose (300 microCi) of /sup 131/I-labeled A1PI. No active or passive immunization against hepatitis was given. No acute toxicity was observed. Compared with baseline data, significant elevations of serum A1PI (measured both antigenically and as anti-elastase activity) occurred, with a serum half-life approximating 110 hours. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, obtained 48 hours after infusion, reflected a significant increase in A1PI concentration versus baseline bronchoalveolar lavage fluid values. Serial gamma camera images of the lungs confirmed persistence of enhanced lung radioactivity for several days. Urinary desmosine excretion did not change following A1PI infusion. During the period of follow-up thus far, no patient has had chronic toxicity, results of liver function tests have been stable, and there has been no development of hepatitis B antigen or antibodies to hepatitis B surface or core antigens.

Moser, K.M.; Smith, R.M.; Spragg, R.G.; Tisi, G.M.

1988-06-24

80

A short-term treatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha enhances stem cell phenotype of human dental pulp cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction During normal pulp tissue healing, inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) or interleukins, act in the initial 48 hours (inflammatory phase) and play important roles not only as chemo-attractants of inflammatory cells and stem/progenitor cells but also in inducing a cascade of reactions toward tissue regeneration or reparative dentin formation or both. Previous reports have shown that inflammatory cytokines regulate the differentiation capacity of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells (DPCs), but none has interrogated the impact of these cytokines on the stem cell phenotype of stem/progenitor cells. This study investigated the effects of a short-term treatment with TNF-? on the stem cell phenotype and differentiation ability of human DPCs. Methods An in vivo mouse model of pulp exposure was performed for analysis of expression of the mesenchymal stem cell marker CD146 in DPCs during the initial stage of inflammatory response. For in vitro studies, human DPCs were isolated and incubated with TNF-? for 2 days and passaged to eliminate TNF-? completely. Analysis of stem cell phenotype was performed by quantification of cells positive for mesenchymal stem cell markers SSEA-4 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 4) and CD146 by flow cytometry as well as by quantitative analysis of telomerase activity and mRNA levels of OCT-4 and NANOG. Cell migration, colony-forming ability, and differentiation toward odontogenesis and adipogenesis were also investigated. Results The pulp exposure model revealed a strong staining for CD146 during the initial inflammatory response, at 2 days after pulp exposure. In vitro experiments demonstrated that a short-term (2-day) treatment of TNF-? increased by twofold the percentage of SSEA-4+ cells. Accordingly, STRO-1, CD146, and SSEA-4 protein levels as well as OCT-4 and NANOG mRNA levels were also significantly upregulated upon TNF-? treatment. A short-term TNF-? treatment also enhanced DPC function, including the ability to form cell colonies, to migrate, and to differentiate into odontogenic and adipogenic lineages. Conclusions A short-term treatment with TNF-? enhanced the stem cell phenotype, migration, and differentiation ability of DPCs. PMID:24580841

2014-01-01

81

Test-retest reliability of cognitive EEG  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVE: Task-related EEG is sensitive to changes in cognitive state produced by increased task difficulty and by transient impairment. If task-related EEG has high test-retest reliability, it could be used as part of a clinical test to assess changes in cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the EEG recorded during the performance of a working memory (WM) task and a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). METHODS: EEG was recorded while subjects rested quietly and while they performed the tasks. Within session (test-retest interval of approximately 1 h) and between session (test-retest interval of approximately 7 days) reliability was calculated for four EEG components: frontal midline theta at Fz, posterior theta at Pz, and slow and fast alpha at Pz. RESULTS: Task-related EEG was highly reliable within and between sessions (r0.9 for all components in WM task, and r0.8 for all components in the PVT). Resting EEG also showed high reliability, although the magnitude of the correlation was somewhat smaller than that of the task-related EEG (r0.7 for all 4 components). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that under appropriate conditions, task-related EEG has sufficient retest reliability for use in assessing clinical changes in cognitive status.

McEvoy, L. K.; Smith, M. E.; Gevins, A.

2000-01-01

82

HIF-1{alpha} Mediates Tumor Hypoxia to Confer a Perpetual Mesenchymal Phenotype for Malignant Progression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although tumor progression involves genetic and epigenetic alterations to normal cellular biology, the underlying mechanisms of these changes remain obscure. Numerous studies have shown that hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) is overexpressed in many human cancers and up-regulates a host of hypoxia-responsive genes for cancer growth and survival. We recently identified an alternative mechanism of HIF-1? function that induces genetic alterations by suppressing DNA repair. Here, we show that long-term hypoxia, which mimics the tumor microenvironment, drives a perpetual epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through up-regulation of the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein ZEB2, whereas short-term hypoxia induces a reversible EMT that requires the transcription factor Twist1. Moreover, we show that the perpetual EMT driven by chronic hypoxia depends on HIF-1? induction of genetic alterations rather than its canonical transcriptional activator function. These mesenchymal tumor cells not only acquire tumorigenicity but also display characteristics of advanced cancers, including necrosis, aggressive invasion, and metastasis. Hence, these results reveal a mechanism by which HIF-1? promotes a perpetual mesenchymal phenotype, thereby advancing tumor progression.

Young-Gun Yoo (University of Utah; Department of Neurosurgery REV)

2011-06-21

83

Metastatic cancer cells from c-erbB-2 negative primary breast cancer maintain the original c-erbB-2/HIF1alpha phenotype.  

PubMed

The expression of c-erbB-2 and HIF1alpha proteins is linked with an aggressive tumor phenotype and poor survival in breast cancer. In the present study we investigated whether this ominous effect is a result of c-erbB-2/HIF1alpha expressing clone appearance within the primary tumor, by examining the c-erbB-2/HIF1alpha expression status in the primary tumor, node metastasis and cancer cells invading into the lymphovascular spaces. The metastasizing cancer cell clones, whether migrating to the lymph nodes or entering into the systemic circulation maintained the original c-erbB-2/HIF1alphaphenotype of the primary tumor. Migrating c-erbB-2/HIF1alpha negative tumors do so through activation of alternative biologic pathways and not through positive clone appearance. These results strongly support the concept that targeted therapies against c-erbB-2 or against HIF1alpha can be guided with precision by the primary tumor c-erbB-2/HIF1alpha status without demanding the detection of the metastatic tumor phenotype. PMID:17224643

Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Koukourakis, Michael I; Simopoulos, Costantinos; Sivridis, Efthimios

2007-02-01

84

Overexpression of synphilin-1 promotes clearance of soluble and misfolded alpha-synuclein without restoring the motor phenotype in aged A30P transgenic mice.  

PubMed

Lewy bodies and neurites are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease. These structures are composed of fibrillized and ubiquitinated alpha-synuclein suggesting that impaired protein clearance is an important event in aggregate formation. The A30P mutation is known for its fast oligomerization, but slow fibrillization rate. Despite its toxicity to neurons, mechanisms involved in either clearance or conversion of A30P alpha-synuclein from its soluble state into insoluble fibrils and their effects in vivo are poorly understood. Synphilin-1 is present in Lewy bodies, interacting with alpha-synuclein in vivo and in vitro and promotes its sequestration into aggresomes, which are thought to act as cytoprotective agents facilitating protein degradation. We therefore crossed animals overexpressing A30P alpha-synuclein with synphilin-1 transgenic mice to analyze its impact on aggregation, protein clearance and phenotype progression. We observed that co-expression of synphilin-1 mildly delayed the motor phenotype caused by A30P alpha-synuclein. Additionally, the presence of N- and C-terminal truncated alpha-synuclein species and fibrils were strongly reduced in double-transgenic mice when compared with single-transgenic A30P mice. Insolubility of mutant A30P and formation of aggresomes was still detectable in aged double-transgenic mice, paralleled by an increase of ubiquitinated proteins and high autophagic activity. Hence, this study supports the notion that co-expression of synphilin-1 promotes formation of autophagic-susceptible aggresomes and consecutively the degradation of human A30P alpha-synuclein. Notably, although synphilin-1 overexpression significantly reduced formation of fibrils and astrogliosis in aged animals, a similar phenotype is present in single- and double-transgenic mice suggesting additional neurotoxic processes in disease progression. PMID:24064336

Casadei, Nicolas; Pöhler, Anne-Maria; Tomás-Zapico, Cristina; Torres-Peraza, Jesús; Schwedhelm, Ivo; Witz, Annemarie; Zamolo, Irina; De Heer, Raymond; Spruijt, Berry; Noldus, Lucas P J J; Klucken, Jochen; Lucas, José J; Kahle, Philipp J; Krüger, Rejko; Riess, Olaf; Nuber, Silke

2014-02-01

85

Preserved functional autonomic phenotype in adult mice overexpressing moderate levels of human alpha?synuclein in oligodendrocytes  

PubMed Central

Abstract Mice overexpressing human alpha?synuclein in oligodendrocytes (MBP1???syn) recapitulate some key functional and neuropathological features of multiple system atrophy (MSA). Whether or not these mice develop severe autonomic failure, which is a key feature of human MSA, remains unknown. We explored cardiovascular autonomic regulation using long?term blood pressure (BP) radiotelemetry and pharmacological testing. We instrumented 12 MBP1???syn mice and 11 wild?type mice aged 9 months for radiotelemetry. Animals were tested with atropine, metoprolol, clonidine, and trimethaphan at 9 and 12 months age. We applied spectral and cross?spectral analysis to assess heart rate (HR) and BP variability. At 9 months of age daytime BP (transgenic: 101 ± 2 vs. wild type: 99 ± 2 mmHg) and HR (497 ± 11 vs. 505 ± 16 beats/min) were similar. Circadian BP and HR rhythms were maintained. Nighttime BP (109 ± 2 vs. 108 ± 2 mmHg) and HR (575 ± 15 vs. 569 ± 14 beats/min), mean arterial BP responses to trimethaphan (?21 ± 8 vs. ?10 ± 5 mmHg, P = 0.240) and to clonidine (?8 ± 3 vs. ?5 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.314) were similar. HR responses to atropine (+159 ± 24 vs. +146 ± 22 beats/min), and to clonidine (?188 ± 21 vs. ?163 ± 33 beats/min) did not differ between strains. Baroreflex sensitivity (4 ± 1 vs. 4 ± 1 msec/mmHg) and HR variability (total power, 84 ± 17 vs. 65 ± 21 msec˛) were similar under resting conditions and during pharmacological testing. Repeated measurements at 12 months of age provided similar results. In mice, moderate overexpression of human alpha?synuclein in oligodendrocytes is not sufficient to induce overt autonomic failure. Additional mechanisms may be required to express the autonomic failure phenotype including higher levels of expression or more advanced age. PMID:25428949

Tank, Jens; da Costa?Goncalves, Andrey C.; Kamer, Ilona; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Ubhi, Kiren; Rockenstein, Edward; Diedrich, André; Masliah, Eliezer; Gross, Volkmar; Jordan, Jens

2014-01-01

86

Investigation of the modulation between EEG alpha waves and slow/fast delta waves in children in different depths of Desflurane anesthesia  

E-print Network

in different depths of Desflurane anesthesia Behnam Molaee-Ardekani1,2,3, , Mohammad-Bagher Shamsollahi3-band EEG activities in various depths of anesthesia (DOA). Methods: This modulation, which is a sort anesthesia. Two parameters are defined to quantify the modulation: strength of modulation (SOM) and phase

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

87

Defining the strain-dependent impact of the Staphylococcal accessory regulator (sarA) on the alpha-toxin phenotype of Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

We demonstrate that mutation of the staphylococcal accessory regulator (sarA) limits the accumulation of alpha-toxin and phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) in Staphylococcus aureus isolates of the USA300 clonal lineage. Degradation assays and experiments done with protease inhibitors suggested that this was due to the increased production of extracellular proteases rather than differences associated with the impact of sarA on transcription of the target gene (hla) or the accessory gene regulator (agr). This was confirmed by demonstrating that concomitant mutation of the gene encoding aureolysin (aur) reversed the alpha-toxin and PSM-deficient phenotypes of a USA300 sarA mutant. Mutation of sarA had little impact on the alpha-toxin or PSM phenotypes of the commonly studied strain Newman, which is known to have a mutation in saeS that results in constitutive activation of the saeRS regulatory system, and we also demonstrate that repair of this defect resulted in the increased production of extracellular proteases and reversed both the alpha-toxin and PSM-positive phenotypes of a Newman sarA mutant. PMID:21478342

Zielinska, Agnieszka K; Beenken, Karen E; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Mrak, Lara N; Griffin, Linda M; Luong, Thanh T; Lee, Chia Y; Otto, Michael; Shaw, Lindsey N; Smeltzer, Mark S

2011-06-01

88

Defining the Strain-Dependent Impact of the Staphylococcal Accessory Regulator (sarA) on the Alpha-Toxin Phenotype of Staphylococcus aureus ? †  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate that mutation of the staphylococcal accessory regulator (sarA) limits the accumulation of alpha-toxin and phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) in Staphylococcus aureus isolates of the USA300 clonal lineage. Degradation assays and experiments done with protease inhibitors suggested that this was due to the increased production of extracellular proteases rather than differences associated with the impact of sarA on transcription of the target gene (hla) or the accessory gene regulator (agr). This was confirmed by demonstrating that concomitant mutation of the gene encoding aureolysin (aur) reversed the alpha-toxin and PSM-deficient phenotypes of a USA300 sarA mutant. Mutation of sarA had little impact on the alpha-toxin or PSM phenotypes of the commonly studied strain Newman, which is known to have a mutation in saeS that results in constitutive activation of the saeRS regulatory system, and we also demonstrate that repair of this defect resulted in the increased production of extracellular proteases and reversed both the alpha-toxin and PSM-positive phenotypes of a Newman sarA mutant. PMID:21478342

Zielinska, Agnieszka K.; Beenken, Karen E.; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Mrak, Lara N.; Griffin, Linda M.; Luong, Thanh T.; Lee, Chia Y.; Otto, Michael; Shaw, Lindsey N.; Smeltzer, Mark S.

2011-01-01

89

EEG alterations during treatment with olanzapine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this naturalistic observational study was to investigate EEG alterations in patients under olanzapine treatment\\u000a with a special regard to olanzapine dose and plasma concentration. Twenty-two in-patients of a psychiatric university ward\\u000a with the monodiagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia (ICD-10: F20.0), who received a monotherapy of olanzapine were included in\\u000a this study. All patients had a normal alpha-EEG before

Detlef DegnerMichael; Michael A. Nitsche; Frank Bias; Eckart Rüther; Udo Reulbach

90

Electroencephalogram (EEG) (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Precautions Checkups: What to Expect EEG (Electroencephalogram) KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > EEG (Electroencephalogram) Print A ...

91

Fluctuations between sleep and wakefulness: wake-like features indicated by increased EEG alpha power during different sleep stages in nightmare disorder.  

PubMed

Although a growing body of research indicates that frequent nightmares are related to impaired sleep regulation, the pathophysiology of nightmare disorder is far from being fully understood. We examined the relative spectral power values for NREM and REM sleep separately in 19 individuals with nightmare disorder and 21 healthy controls, based on polysomnographic recordings of the second nights' laboratory sleep. Nightmare subjects compared to controls exhibited increased relative high alpha (10-14.5Hz) and fronto-central increases in high delta (3-4Hz) power during REM sleep, and a trend of increased fronto-central low alpha (7.75-9Hz) power in NREM sleep. These differences were independent of the confounding effects of waking emotional distress. High REM alpha and low NREM alpha powers were strongly related in nightmare but not in control subjects. The topographical distribution and spectral components of REM alpha activity suggest that nightmare disordered subjects are characterized by wake-like electroencephalographic features during REM sleep. PMID:23831546

Simor, Péter; Horváth, Klára; Ujma, Péter P; Gombos, Ferenc; Bódizs, Róbert

2013-12-01

92

EEG mapping in seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

Given that the nature of hemispheric dysfunction is different in heterogeneous disorders, in the present investigation EEG power mapping was applied to establish neurophysiological profiles that might potentially discriminate patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) among other affective disorders. The baseline resting EEG activity was recorded from 31 depressed SAD patients and 30 controls. Power in the delta, theta-1, theta-2, alpha, beta-1 and beta-2 frequency bands was extracted by Fourier transformation. Patients were found to have a lower delta (in central, parietal, occipital, temporal, posterior-temporal areas), theta-1 (in central and parietal), theta-2 (in anterior-frontal, parietal, occipital) and alpha activity (in anterior-frontal, midfrontal, central, parietal and occipital areas) than controls. SAD subjects showed, compared to controls, an asymmetrical distribution of delta, theta-1, theta-2 and alpha activity in parietal and temporal regions due to an increase of EEG power over the right electrode sites, and beta activity in the lateral frontal region due to an increase of beta power over the right electrode site. It is assumed that differential hemispheric contributions of EEG spectra may discriminate between the varieties of depression or different depressive states. PMID:12204318

Volf, Nina V; Passynkova, Natalia R

2002-10-01

93

EEG Correlates of Self-Referential Processing  

PubMed Central

Self-referential processing has been principally investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, understanding of the brain functioning is not possible without careful comparison of the evidence coming from different methodological domains. This paper aims to review electroencephalographic (EEG) studies of self-referential processing and to evaluate how they correspond, complement, or contradict the existing fMRI evidence. There are potentially two approaches to the study of EEG correlates of self-referential processing. Firstly, because simultaneous registration of EEG and fMRI has become possible, the degree of overlap between these two signals in brain regions related to self-referential processing could be determined. Second and more direct approach would be the study of EEG correlates of self-referential processing per se. In this review, I discuss studies, which employed both these approaches and show that in line with fMRI evidence, EEG correlates of self-referential processing are most frequently found in brain regions overlapping with the default network, particularly in the medial prefrontal cortex. In the time domain, the discrimination of self- and others-related information is mostly associated with the P300 ERP component, but sometimes is observed even earlier. In the frequency domain, different frequency oscillations have been shown to contribute to self-referential processing, with spontaneous self-referential mentation being mostly associated with the alpha frequency band. PMID:23761757

Knyazev, Gennady G.

2013-01-01

94

A better oscillation detection method robustly extracts EEG rhythms across brain state changes: the human alpha rhythm as a test case.  

PubMed

Oscillatory activity is a principal mode of operation in the brain. Despite an intense resurgence of interest in the mechanisms and functions of brain rhythms, methods for the detection and analysis of oscillatory activity in neurophysiological recordings are still highly variable across studies. We recently proposed a method for detecting oscillatory activity from time series data, which we call the BOSC (Better OSCillation detection) method. This method produces systematic, objective, and consistent results across frequencies, brain regions and tasks. It does so by modeling the functional form of the background spectrum by fitting the empirically observed spectrum at the recording site. This minimizes bias in oscillation detection across frequency, region and task. Here we show that the method is also robust to dramatic changes in state that are known to influence the shape of the power spectrum, namely, the presence versus absence of the alpha rhythm, and can be applied to independent components, which are thought to reflect underlying sources, in addition to individual raw signals. This suggests that the BOSC method is an effective tool for measuring changes in rhythmic activity in the more common research scenario wherein state is unknown. PMID:20807577

Whitten, Tara A; Hughes, Adam M; Dickson, Clayton T; Caplan, Jeremy B

2011-01-15

95

Motivational mechanisms (BAS) and prefrontal cortical activation contribute to recognition memory for emotional words. rTMS effect on performance and EEG (alpha band) measures.  

PubMed

The present research addressed the question of where memories for emotional words could be represented in the brain. A second main question was related to the effect of personality traits, in terms of the Behavior Activation System (BAS), in emotional word recognition. We tested the role of the left DLPFC (LDLPFC) by performing a memory task in which old (previously encoded targets) and new (previously not encoded distractors) positive or negative emotional words had to be recognized. High-BAS and low-BAS subjects were compared when a repetitive TMS (rTMS) was applied on the LDLPFC. We found significant differences between high-BAS vs. low-BAS subjects, with better performance for high-BAS in response to positive words. In parallel, an increased left cortical activity (alpha desynchronization) was observed for high-BAS in the case of positive words. Thus, we can conclude that the left approach-related hemisphere, underlying BAS, may support faster recognition of positive words. PMID:25190327

Balconi, Michela; Cobelli, Chiara

2014-10-01

96

Sleep EEG Fingerprints Reveal Accelerated Thalamocortical Oscillatory Dynamics in Williams Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sleep EEG alterations are emerging features of several developmental disabilities, but detailed quantitative EEG data on the sleep phenotype of patients with Williams syndrome (WS, 7q11.23 microdeletion) is still lacking. Based on laboratory (Study I) and home sleep records (Study II) here we report WS-related features of the patterns of…

Bodizs, Robert; Gombos, Ferenc; Kovacs, Ilona

2012-01-01

97

Response of Hepatitis C Virus to Long-Term Passage in the Presence of Alpha Interferon: Multiple Mutations and a Common Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Cell culture-produced hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been subjected to up to 100 serial passages in human hepatoma cells in the absence or presence of different doses of alpha interferon (IFN-?). Virus survival, genetic changes, fitness levels, and phenotypic traits have been examined. While high initial IFN-? doses (increasing from 1 to 4 IU/ml) did not allow HCV survival beyond passage 40, a gradual exposure (from 0.25 to 10 IU/ml) allowed the virus to survive for at least 100 passages. The virus passaged in the presence of IFN-? acquired IFN-? resistance as evidenced by enhanced progeny production and viral protein expression in an IFN-? environment. A partial IFN-? resistance was also noted in populations passaged in the absence of IFN-?. All lineages acquired adaptative mutations, and multiple, nonsynonymous mutations scattered throughout the genome were present in IFN-?-selected populations. Comparison of consensus sequences indicates a dominance of synonymous versus nonsynonymous substitutions. IFN-?-resistant populations displayed decreased sensitivity to a combination of IFN-? and ribavirin. A phenotypic trait common to all assayed viral populations is the ability to increase shutoff host cell protein synthesis, accentuated in infections with IFN-?-selected populations carried out in the presence of IFN-?. The trait was associated with enhanced phosphorylation of protein kinase R (PKR) and eIF2?, although other contributing factors are likely. The results suggest that multiple, independent mutational pathways can confer IFN-? resistance to HCV and might explain why no unified picture has been obtained regarding IFN-? resistance in vivo. PMID:23637397

Perales, Celia; Beach, Nathan M.; Gallego, Isabel; Soria, Maria Eugenia; Quer, Josep; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Rice, Charles

2013-01-01

98

Fabry disease: identification of 50 novel alpha-galactosidase A mutations causing the classic phenotype and three-dimensional structural analysis of 29 missense mutations.  

PubMed

Fabry disease, an X-linked recessive inborn error of glycosphingolipid catabolism, results from the deficient activity of the lysosomal exoglycohydrolase, alpha-galactosidase A (EC 3.2.1.22; alpha-Gal A). The molecular lesions in the alpha-Gal A gene causing the classic phenotype of Fabry disease in 66 unrelated families were determined. In 49 families, 50 new mutations were identified, including: 29 missense mutations (N34K, T41I, D93V, R112S, L166G, G171D, M187T, S201Y, S201F, D234E, W236R, D264Y, M267R, V269M, G271S, G271V, S276G, Q283P, A285P, A285D, M290I, P293T, Q312H, Q321R, G328V, E338K, A348P, E358A, Q386P); nine nonsense mutations (C56X, E79X, K127X, Y151X, Y173X, L177X, W262X, Q306X, E338X); five splicing defects (IVS4-1G>A, IVS5-2A>G, IVS5+3A>G, IVS5+4A>G, IVS6-1G>C); four small deletions (18delA, 457delGAC, 567delG, 1096delACCAT); one small insertion (996insC); one 3.1 kilobase Alu-Alu deletion (which included exon 2); and one complex mutation (K374R, 1124delGAG). In 18 families, 17 previously reported mutations were identified, with R112C occurring in two families. In two classically affected families, affected males were identified with two mutations: one with two novel mutations, D264Y and V269M and the other with one novel (Q312H) and one previously reported (A143T) mutation. Transient expression of the individual mutations revealed that D264Y and Q312H were localised in the endoplasmic reticulum and had no detectable or markedly reduced activity, whereas V269M and A143T were localised in lysosomes and had approximately 10 per cent and approximately 35 per cent of expressed wild-type activity, respectively. Structural analyses based on the enzyme's three-dimensional structure predicted the effect of the 29 novel missense mutations on the mutant glycoprotein's structure. Of note, three novel mutations (approximately 10 per cent) were predicted not to significantly alter the glycoprotein's structure; however, they were disease causing. These studies further define the molecular heterogeneity of the alpha-Gal A mutations in classical Fabry disease, permit precise heterozygote detection and prenatal diagnosis, and provide insights into the structural alterations of the mutant enzymes that cause the classic phenotype. PMID:16595074

Shabbeer, Junaid; Yasuda, Makiko; Benson, Stacy D; Desnick, Robert J

2006-03-01

99

Donepezil Impairs Memory in Healthy Older Subjects: Behavioural, EEG and Simultaneous EEG/fMRI Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Rising life expectancies coupled with an increasing awareness of age-related cognitive decline have led to the unwarranted use of psychopharmaceuticals, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), by significant numbers of healthy older individuals. This trend has developed despite very limited data regarding the effectiveness of such drugs on non-clinical groups and recent work indicates that AChEIs can have negative cognitive effects in healthy populations. For the first time, we use a combination of EEG and simultaneous EEG/fMRI to examine the effects of a commonly prescribed AChEI (donepezil) on cognition in healthy older participants. The short- and long-term impact of donepezil was assessed using two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. In both cases, we utilised cognitive (paired associates learning (CPAL)) and electrophysiological measures (resting EEG power) that have demonstrated high-sensitivity to age-related cognitive decline. Experiment 1 tested the effects of 5 mg/per day dosage on cognitive and EEG markers at 6-hour, 2-week and 4-week follow-ups. In experiment 2, the same markers were further scrutinised using simultaneous EEG/fMRI after a single 5 mg dose. Experiment 1 found significant negative effects of donepezil on CPAL and resting Alpha and Beta band power. Experiment 2 replicated these results and found additional drug-related increases in the Delta band. EEG/fMRI analyses revealed that these oscillatory differences were associated with activity differences in the left hippocampus (Delta), right frontal-parietal network (Alpha), and default-mode network (Beta). We demonstrate the utility of simple cognitive and EEG measures in evaluating drug responses after acute and chronic donepezil administration. The presentation of previously established markers of age-related cognitive decline indicates that AChEIs can impair cognitive function in healthy older individuals. To our knowledge this is the first study to identify the precise neuroanatomical origins of EEG drug markers using simultaneous EEG/fMRI. The results of this study may be useful for evaluating novel drugs for cognitive enhancement. PMID:21931653

Balsters, Joshua H.; O'Connell, Redmond G.; Martin, Mary P.; Galli, Alessandra; Cassidy, Sarah M.; Kilcullen, Sophia M.; Delmonte, Sonja; Brennan, Sabina; Meaney, Jim F.; Fagan, Andrew J.; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Upton, Neil; Lai, Robert; Laruelle, Marc; Lawlor, Brian; Robertson, Ian H.

2011-01-01

100

EEG-Based \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, EEG-based technology has become more popular in “serious” games designs and developments since new wireless headsets that meet consumer demand for wear ability, price, portability and ease-of-use are coming to the market. Originally, EEG-based technologies were used in neurofeedback games and brain-computer interfaces. Now, such technologies could be used in entertainment, e-learning and new medical applications. In this paper,

Qiang Wang; Olga Sourina; Minh Khoa Nguyen

2010-01-01

101

Does EEG montage influence Alzheimer's disease electroclinic diagnosis?  

PubMed

There is not a specific Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnostic test. AD diagnosis relies on clinical history, neuropsychological, and laboratory tests, neuroimaging and electroencephalography. Therefore, new approaches are necessary to enable earlier and more accurate diagnosis and to measure treatment results. Quantitative EEG (qEEG) can be used as a diagnostic tool in selected cases. The aim of this study was to answer if distinct electrode montages have different sensitivity when differentiating controls from AD patients. We analyzed EEG spectral peaks (delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands), and we compared references (Biauricular, Longitudinal bipolar, Crossed bipolar, Counterpart bipolar, and Cz reference). Support Vector Machines and Logistic Regression classifiers showed Counterpart bipolar montage as the most sensitive electrode combination. Our results suggest that Counterpart bipolar montage is the best choice to study EEG spectral peaks of controls versus AD. PMID:21629711

Trambaiolli, L R; Lorena, A C; Fraga, F J; Kanda, P A M K; Nitrini, R; Anghinah, R

2011-01-01

102

Does EEG Montage Influence Alzheimer's Disease Electroclinic Diagnosis?  

PubMed Central

There is not a specific Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnostic test. AD diagnosis relies on clinical history, neuropsychological, and laboratory tests, neuroimaging and electroencephalography. Therefore, new approaches are necessary to enable earlier and more accurate diagnosis and to measure treatment results. Quantitative EEG (qEEG) can be used as a diagnostic tool in selected cases. The aim of this study was to answer if distinct electrode montages have different sensitivity when differentiating controls from AD patients. We analyzed EEG spectral peaks (delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands), and we compared references (Biauricular, Longitudinal bipolar, Crossed bipolar, Counterpart bipolar, and Cz reference). Support Vector Machines and Logistic Regression classifiers showed Counterpart bipolar montage as the most sensitive electrode combination. Our results suggest that Counterpart bipolar montage is the best choice to study EEG spectral peaks of controls versus AD. PMID:21629711

Trambaiolli, L. R.; Lorena, A. C.; Fraga, F. J.; Kanda, P. A. M. K.; Nitrini, R.; Anghinah, R.

2011-01-01

103

Interindividual Differences in Alpha and Theta Power Reflect Memory Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested whether tonic EEG power is related to memory performance by analyzing ongoing EEG for 60 subjects in 5 experimental conditions. Subjects with good memory performance had significantly larger upper alpha power, but less theta and lower alpha power. Also discusses findings for subjects good at calculation. (SLD)

Klimesch, W.; Vogt, F.; Doppelmayr, M.

1999-01-01

104

EEG responses to tonic heat pain.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to characterize the EEG response pattern specific for tonic pain which is an experimental pain model resembling clinical pain more closely than phasic pain. Tonic experimental pain was produced by a series of heat pulses 1 degree C above pain threshold over 10 min. A series of heat pulses 0.3 degree C below pain threshold and a constant temperature of 37 degrees C served as non-painful heat control and as baseline condition, respectively. The level of attention was experimentally manipulated by instruction and by a distraction task. Twenty male, pain-free subjects had to rate the sensation intensity and sensation unpleasantness during thermal stimulation. Furthermore, a German version of the McGill Pain Questionnaire was to be filled out after tonic painful heat stimulation. The EEG was recorded via 10 leads according to 10/20 convention. Power density was calculated for the usual frequency bands. The ratings showed that tonic painful heat was experienced clearly distinct from tonic non-painful heat. An EEG response pattern emerged characterized by a rather generalized increased delta(2) activity, a left-biased fronto-temporally diminished theta activity, a fronto-temporal decrease in the alpha(1) activity and a left-sided temporal increase in the beta(1) activity. This observation agrees well with the findings of others. However, there was no evidence in our data that these EEG changes are specific to tonic heat pain as opposed to changes observed during tonic non-painful heat stimulation. Accordingly, the repeatedly reported EEG patterns are also likely to be produced by other forms of strong somatosensory stimuli and to be not specific for pain. PMID:16552561

Huber, M T; Bartling, J; Pachur, D; Woikowsky-Biedau, S v; Lautenbacher, S

2006-08-01

105

EEG manifestations of nondual experiences in meditators.  

PubMed

The holistic experiential benefits of meditation among a widely ranging population have been well established within the empirical literature. What remain less clear are the underlying mechanisms of the meditative process. A large impediment to this clarity is attributable to the lack of a unified and comprehensive taxonomy, as well as to the absence of clear differentiation within the literature between method of practice and resulting state. The present study discusses and then attempts to identify within our sample a theoretically universal culminating meditative state known as Nondual Awareness, which is differentiated from the method or practice state. Participants completed an in-lab meditation, during which neurological patterns were analyzed using electroencephalography (EEG). Analyses indicated significantly higher EEG power among slower wave frequencies (delta, theta, alpha) during the reported nondual events. These events appear neurologically distinct from meditation sessions as a whole, which interestingly demonstrated significant elevation within the gamma range. PMID:25460236

Berman, Amanda E; Stevens, Larry

2015-01-01

106

Invasive EEG explorations.  

PubMed

The Wada test was adapted from the procedure described by Wada in 1964. It still has a role in the prognostic evaluation of memory disorders after mesial temporal lobectomy. The test consists of injecting a short-acting anesthetic into one hemisphere, under continuous EEG monitoring and during carotid catheterization, to verify the function of contralateral structures. Intracranial EEG recordings deliver signals with few artifacts, and which are quite specific of the zone explored. Three types of electrodes are in common use: (a) foramen ovale (FO) electrodes: electrodes can be inserted directly, without any stereotactic procedure, to provide easy and comparative EEG recordings of the lower and middle portions of the temporal lobe close to the hippocampus. These allow validation of the temporal lobe origin of seizures using FO electrodes recording coupled with scalp EEG; (b): subdural strip or grip electrodes. This relatively aggressive technique carries infectious and hemorrhagic risks and does not allow the exploration of deep cortical structures. However, it permits precise functional cortical mapping via electrical stimulation because of dense and regular positioning of electrodes over the cortical convexity; (c) stereotactically implanted depth electrodes (stereo-electroencephalography [SEEG]). Electrodes are individually planned and inserted within the brain parenchyma through small burr holes. This technique is less aggressive than subdural grid exploration. However it offers relatively limited spatial sampling that may be less well adapted to precise functional evaluation. It allows recording from deep cortical structures and can be argued to be the gold standard of presurgical EEG exploration. PMID:25703438

Taussig, D; Montavont, A; Isnard, J

2015-03-01

107

Extremely high levels of estradiol and testosterone in a case of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Hormone and clinical similarities with the phenotype of the alpha estrogen receptor null mice.  

PubMed

A 19-year-old nulliparous hirsute woman was evaluated for the very high serum levels of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) measured in an outside laboratory. Menarche had occurred at 11 years and was followed by regular menses. We confirmed the high levels of T (9-16 ng/ml, nv 0.2-0.8) and E2 (>1,000 pg/ml, nv 30-120). LH and FSH were consistently high (73-118 mU/l and 18-29 mU/l, respectively; LH/FSH ratio=4.1-4.7) and responsive to iv GnRH (LH baseline=118 mU/I, 30 min=290; FSH baseline=25 mU/l, 30 min=46). The unstimulated values contrasted with those (LH=12, FSH=8 mU/I) measured in the outside laboratory, suggesting antigenically anomalous gonadotropins. 17-OH-progesterone was normal (0.5 ng/ml). After 1 mg dexamethasone, serum cortisol was normally suppressed (24-->0.4 microg/dl), T declined minimally (9-->8.6 ng/ml) and E2 remained high (>1,000 pg/ml). An exploratory laparotomy was performed, and two enlarged ovaries with multiple cysts as in a typical polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) were seen. Before the wedge resection of the ovaries, hormones were assayed in the ovary veins (right ovary: T=30 ng/ml, Pg=17 ng/ml, E2=>5,000 pg/ml; left: T=14 ng/ml, Pg=14 ng/ml, E2=>5,000 pg/ml). Histologically, the follicle cysts showed luteinization of the theca interna; there was no evidence for ovary tumor in either ovary. After 21 days of 35 microg ethynyl-E2+2 mg cyproterone acetate (CA), E2=3,000 pg/ml, T=1.4 ng/ml, LH=10.5 mU/l and FSH=4.1 mU/I. After three cycles of the said therapy (but with 50 mg CA in the first 10 days of each cycle), E2 was 1,600 pg/ml, T 1.7 ng/ml, LH 7.1 and FSH 4.6 mU/I. Based on similarities with the phenotype of the alpha estrogen receptor knockout female mice (alphaERKO), one possible explanation for the puzzling clinical and biochemical picture of our patient is resistance of (alphaER to estrogens. This is the first case of PCOS with extremely high E2 and T. Thus, the differential diagnosis of high levels of E2 +/- T should include PCOS. PMID:11005272

Bartolone, L; Smedile, G; Arcoraci, V; Trimarchi, F; Benvenga, S

2000-01-01

108

Long-term EEG in adults: Sleep-deprived EEG (SDE), ambulatory EEG (Amb-EEG) and long-term video-EEG recording (LTVER).  

PubMed

Long-term EEG in adults includes three modalities: sleep deprived-EEG lasting 1 to 3hours, 24hours ambulatory-EEG and continuous prolonged video-EEG lasting from several hours to several days. The main indications of long-term EEG are: syndromic classification of epilepsy; search for interictal discharges when epilepsy is suspected or for the purpose of therapeutic evaluation; positive diagnosis of paroxysmal clinical events; and pre-surgical evaluation of drug-resistant epilepsy. Sleep deprived-EEG and ambulatory-EEG are indicated to detect interictal discharges in order to validate a syndromic classification of epilepsy when standard EEG is negative. These exams can help in evaluating treatment efficacy, especially when clinical evaluation is difficult. Long-term video EEG is indicated for drug-resistant epilepsy, to analyze electro-clinical correlations in a pre-surgical evaluation context, and to refine a positive diagnosis when paroxysmal clinical events are frequent. PMID:25638591

Michel, V; Mazzola, L; Lemesle, M; Vercueil, L

2015-03-01

109

EEG spectral analysis on Muslim prayers.  

PubMed

This study investigated the proposition of relaxation offered by performing the Muslim prayers by measuring the alpha brain activity in the frontal (F3-F4), central (C3-C4), parietal (P3-P4), and occipital (O1-O2) electrode placements using the International 10-20 System. Nine Muslim subjects were asked to perform the four required cycles of movements of Dhuha prayer, and the EEG were subsequently recorded with open eyes under three conditions, namely, resting, performing four cycles of prayer while reciting the specific verses and supplications, and performing four cycles of acted salat condition (prayer movements without any recitations). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests revealed that there were no significant difference in the mean alpha relative power (RP(?)) between the alpha amplitude in the Dhuha prayer and the acted conditions in all eight electrode positions. However, the mean RP(?) showed higher alpha amplitude during the prostration position of the Dhuha prayer and acted condition at the parietal and occipital regions in comparison to the resting condition. Findings were similar to other studies documenting increased alpha amplitude in parietal and occipital regions during meditation and mental concentration. The incidence of increased alpha amplitude suggested parasympathetic activation, thus indicating a state of relaxation. Subsequent studies are needed to delineate the role of mental concentration, and eye focus, on alpha wave amplitude while performing worshipping acts. PMID:21965118

Doufesh, Hazem; Faisal, Tarig; Lim, Kheng-Seang; Ibrahim, Fatimah

2012-03-01

110

EEG activity during the performance of complex mental problems.  

PubMed

This study investigated differences in cognitive processes related to problem complexity. It was assumed that these differences would be reflected in respondents' EEG activity--spectral power and coherence. A second issue of the study was to compare differences between the lower (alpha(1) = 7.9-10.0 Hz), and upper alpha band (alpha(2) = 10.1-12.9 Hz). In the first experiment two well-defined problems with two levels of complexity were used. Only minor differences in EEG power and coherence measures related to problem complexity were observed. In the second experiment divergent production problems resembling tasks on creativity tests were compared with dialectic problems calling for creative solutions. Differences in EEG power measures were mainly related to the form of problem presentation (figural/verbal). In contrast, coherence was related to the level of creativity needed to solve a problem. Noticeable increased intra- and interhemispheric cooperation between mainly the far distant brain regions was observed in the EEG activity of respondents while solving the dialectic problems. These results are explained by the more intense involvement of the long cortico-cortical fiber system in creative thinking. Differences between the lower and upper alpha band were significant for the power and coherence measures. In Experiment 2, fewer differences were observed in power measures in the upper alpha band than in the lower alpha band. A reverse pattern was observed for the coherence measures. These results hint to a functional independence of the two alpha bands, however, they do not allow to draw firm conclusions about their functional meanings. The study showed that it is unlikely that individuals solve well- and ill-defined problems by employing similar cognitive strategies. PMID:10700625

Jausovec, N; Jausovec, K

2000-04-01

111

Flexible electroencephalogram (EEG) headband  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Headband incorporates sensors which are embedded in sponges and are exposed only on surface that touches skin. Electrode sponge system is continually fed electrolyte through forced feed vacuum system. Headband may be used for EEG testing in hospitals, clinical laboratories, rest homes, and law enforcement agencies.

Raggio, L. J.

1973-01-01

112

EEG data compression techniques.  

PubMed

In this paper, electroencephalograph (EEG) and Holter EEG data compression techniques which allow perfect reconstruction of the recorded waveform from the compressed one are presented and discussed. Data compression permits one to achieve significant reduction in the space required to store signals and in transmission time. The Huffman coding technique in conjunction with derivative computation reaches high compression ratios (on average 49% on Holter and 58% on EEG signals) with low computational complexity. By exploiting this result a simple and fast encoder/decoder scheme capable of real-time performance on a PC was implemented. This simple technique is compared with other predictive transformations, vector quantization, discrete cosine transform (DCT), and repetition count compression methods. Finally, it is shown that the adoption of a collapsed Huffman tree for the encoding/decoding operations allows one to choose the maximum codeword length without significantly affecting the compression ratio. Therefore, low cost commercial microcontrollers and storage devices can be effectively used to store long Holter EEG's in a compressed format. PMID:9214790

Antoniol, G; Tonella, P

1997-02-01

113

Neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric phenotypes associated with the mutation L238Q of the alpha-L-iduronidase gene in Hurler-Scheie syndrome  

PubMed Central

The lysosomal enzyme alpha-L-iduronidase hydrolyzes terminal iduronic acid from heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate, and is an essential step in GAG degradation. Mutations of its gene, IDUA, yield a spectrum of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type I clinical disorders. The IDUA mutation, c.712T>A (p.L238Q) was previously noted as a mild mutation. In a longitudinal study of MPS brain structure and function (Lysosomal Disease Network), we found this mutation in 6 of 14 Hurler-Scheie syndrome patients in the age range of 15 to 25 years. We hypothesized that L238Q, when paired with a nonsense mutation, is significantly more severe than other missense-nonsense combinations. Methods Of 6 patients with a L238Q mutation, the L238Q allele was paired with a nonsense mutation in 4 patients, paired with a deletion in 1, and with a splice site mutation in another. This group was compared to 6 Hurler-Scheie patients closely matched in age and mutation type. IQ, and other neuropsychological tests were administered as part of the protocol. Medical history was compiled into a Physical Symptom Score (PSS). Assessment of IQ, attention, memory, spatial ability, adaptive function and psychological status were measured. Results No group differences were found in mean age at evaluation (17.8 and 19.0 years), duration of ERT, or PSS. By history, all were reported to be average in IQ (4/6 with documentation) in early childhood. All (100%) of the L238Q group had a psychiatric history and sleep problems compared to none (0%) of the comparison group. Significant differences were found in depression and withdrawal on parent report measures. IQ was lower in the L238Q group (mean IQ 74) than the comparison group (mean IQ 95; p < 0.016). Attention, memory, and visual-spatial ability scores were also significantly lower. Three occurrences of shunted hydrocephalus, and 4 of cervical cord compression were found in the L238Q group; the comparison group had one occurrence of unshunted hydrocephalus and two of cord compression. Discussion The missense mutation L238Q, when paired with a nonsense mutation, is associated with significant, late-onset brain disease: psychiatric disorder, cognitive deficit, and general decline starting at a later age than in Hurler syndrome with a mutation-related rate of GAG accumulation and its pathologic sequelae. This particular genotype-phenotype may provide insight into the genesis of psychiatric illnesses more broadly. Consideration of methods for early, brain-targeted treatment in these patients might be considered. PMID:24368159

Ahmed, Alia; Whitley, Chester B.; Cooksley, Renee; Rudser, Kyle; Cagle, Stephanie; Ali, Nadia; Delaney, Kathleen; Yund, Brianna; Shapiro, Elsa

2014-01-01

114

EEG-fMRI Reciprocal Functional Neuroimaging  

PubMed Central

Objective Integration of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been pursued in an effort to achieve greater spatio-temporal resolution of imaging dynamic brain activity. We report a data-driven approach to image spatio-temporal features of neural oscillatory activity and event-related activity from continuously recorded EEG and fMRI signals. Methods This approach starts with using the independent component analysis (ICA) to decompose the spatio-temporal EEG data into a linear combination of scalp potential maps and time courses. The time course of each independent component (IC) is used to construct a regressor to fit the fMRI time series. The resultant fMRI map then feeds back as a spatial constraint to the estimation of the source distribution underlying the corresponding IC's scalp map. The estimated source distributions multiplied by the corresponding IC time courses are summed across all ICs, giving rise to the reconstructed spatio-temporal brain activity. Functional connectivity between cortical areas can be further revealed from the imaged source signals using phase synchrony measures. We tested the method using both simulated oscillatory activity and event-related neural activity at various cortical regions. We also used this method to study the alpha-band EEG modulations in an eyes-open-eyes-closed human experiment. Results In the simulation study, reliable reconstruction of the localization, time-frequency feature and cortical functional connection were achieved for the simulated oscillatory and event-related activities. In the experimental study, the alpha rhythmic modulation was localized mainly in the occipital visual area and the parieto-occipital sulcus. Within these regions, time-frequency analysis and phase-synchronization analysis indicated increased alpha power and alpha-band phase-synchronization in eyes closed condition versus eyes-open condition. Conclusion Our results suggest that the proposed approach is well suited to image continuously oscillatory activities and their functional connectivity. Significance Such ability promises to facilitate the investigation of the long-term neural behaviors and large-scale cortical interactions involved in spontaneous brain activity and cognitive tasks. PMID:20378397

Yang, Lin; Liu, Zhongming; He, Bin

2010-01-01

115

Phenotypic consequences of deletion of the {gamma}{sub 3}, {alpha}{sub 5}, or {beta}{sub 3} subunit of the type A {gamma}-aminobutyric acid receptor in mice  

SciTech Connect

Three genes (Gabrg3, Gabra5, and Gabrb3) encoding the {gamma}{sub 3}, {alpha}{sub 5}, and {beta}{sub 3} subunits of the type A {gamma}-aminobutyric acid receptor, respectively, are known to map near the pink-eyed dilution (p) locus in mouse chromosome 7. This region shares homology with a segment of human chromosome 15 that is implicated in Angelman syndrome, an inherited neurobehavioral disorder. By mapping Gabrg3-Gabra5-Gabrb3-telomere. Like Gabrb3, neither the Gabra5 nor Gabrg3 gene is functionally imprinted in adult mouse brain. Mice deleted for all three subunits die at birth with a cleft palate, although there are rare survivors ({approximately} 5%) that do not have a cleft palate but do exhibit a neurological abnormality characterized by tremor, jerky gait, and runtiness. The authors have previously suggested that deficiency of the {beta}{sub 3} subunit may be responsible for the clefting defect. Most notably, however, in this report they describe mice carrying two overlapping, complementing p deletions that fail to express the {gamma}{sub 3} transcript, as well as mice from another line that express neither the {gamma}{sub 3} nor {alpha}{sub 5} transcripts. Surprisingly, mice from both of these lines are phenotypically normal and do not exhibit any of the neurological symptoms characteristic of the rare survivors that are deleted for all three ({gamma}{sub 3}, {alpha}{sub 5}, and {beta}{sub 3}) subunits. These mice therefore provide a whole-organism type A {gamma}-aminobutyric-acid receptor background that is devoid of any receptor subtypes that normally contain the {gamma}{sub 3} and/or {alpha}{sub 5} subunits. The absence of an overt neurological phenotype in mice lacking the {gamma}{sub 3} and/or {alpha}{sub 5} subunits also suggests that mutations in these genes are unlikely to provide useful animal models for Angelman syndrome in humans.

Culia, C.T.; Stubbs, L.J.; Montgomery, C.S.; Russell, L.B.; Rinchik, E.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-03-29

116

Sferics provoke changes in EEG power.  

PubMed

The present study investigated electrocortical and psychological influences of Very Low Frequency (VLF) sferics. Eighty female subjects, who were divided into two groups participated in the study. After a 10-minute baseline period the experimental group (n=40) underwent a 10-minute exposure to a previously recorded 10 kHz-sferics impulse, which was presented with a pulse repetition frequency statistically varying between 1 and 3 Hz. After the sferics stimulation, an additional 20 minutes without treatment were recorded in order to examine possible prolonged sferics effects. The control group (n=40) received no treatment. As the physiological dependent measure, the background electroencephalogram (EEG) was registered throughout the course of the experiment. Absolute power values for different EEG frequency bands were determined by means of a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and compared between the two groups at four electrode sites (P3/P4; O1/O2). Also, the emotional and somatic state of the subjects and their ability consciously to perceive sferics were investigated. It could be shown that the two groups were characterized by different courses of EEG alpha and beta power. Whereas the sferics group displayed power increases in both frequency bands, which reached their maximum 20 minutes after the end of exposure, the control group showed a slight power reduction. Sferics had no effect on the subjective state and could not be perceived consciously. PMID:11328684

Schienle, A; Stark, R; Vaitl, D

2001-03-01

117

Photoparoxysmal EEG response and genetic dissection of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.  

PubMed

Heritable EEG traits are often associated with epilepsy, and photoparoxysmal EEG response (PPR) is the most notable example of this observation in JME. Such EEG traits may be a subclinical expression of the defective mechanism that leads to epilepsy. Therefore, these traits can be used to map epilepsy genes by dissecting the complex epilepsy phenotype in endophenotypic sections that on their own have a presumed monogenic cause. Two characteristics make PPR particularly interesting as a useful endophenotype for epilepsy gene mapping. First, it shows an increased comorbidity with some but not all forms of epilepsy. Second, its mode of inheritance is compatible with a monogenic cause, which promises relative straightforward gene identification through positional cloning. Here, we summarize the current state of affairs. PMID:23756485

Koeleman, Bobby P C; de Kovel, Carolien G F; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothée G A

2013-07-01

118

How to use: amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG).  

PubMed

Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) is a method for continuous monitoring of brain activity that is increasingly used in the neonatal intensive care unit. In its simplest form, aEEG is a processed single-channel electroencephalogram that is filtered and time-compressed. Current evidence demonstrates that aEEG is useful to monitor cerebral background activity, diagnose and treat seizures and predict neurodevelopmental outcomes for preterm and term infants. This review aims to explain the fundamentals behind aEEG and its clinical applications. PMID:25035312

Shah, Nidhi Agrawal; Wusthoff, Courtney Jane

2015-04-01

119

EEG analyses with SOBI.  

SciTech Connect

The motivating vision behind Sandia's MENTOR/PAL LDRD project has been that of systems which use real-time psychophysiological data to support and enhance human performance, both individually and of groups. Relevant and significant psychophysiological data being a necessary prerequisite to such systems, this LDRD has focused on identifying and refining such signals. The project has focused in particular on EEG (electroencephalogram) data as a promising candidate signal because it (potentially) provides a broad window on brain activity with relatively low cost and logistical constraints. We report here on two analyses performed on EEG data collected in this project using the SOBI (Second Order Blind Identification) algorithm to identify two independent sources of brain activity: one in the frontal lobe and one in the occipital. The first study looks at directional influences between the two components, while the second study looks at inferring gender based upon the frontal component.

Glickman, Matthew R.; Tang, Akaysha (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

2009-02-01

120

Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy)Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy) 1st ISBS Summer School1st ISBS Summer School  

E-print Network

Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy)Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy) 1st ISBS Summer School1st ISBS;Epilepsy · A group of CNS disorders · Associated with sudden transient seizure episodes - Abnormal motor, sensory, autonomic, and psychic activity · EEG usually normal · Different types of epilepsy - Secondary

Kalueff, Allan V.

121

Spectral EEG Features of a Short Psycho-physiological Relaxation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-lasting psycho-physiological relaxation was investigated through an analysis of its bipolar electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics. In 8 subjects, 6-channel EEG data of 3-minute duration were recorded during 88 relaxation sessions. Time course of spectral EEG features was examined. Alpha powers were decreasing during resting conditions of 3-minute sessions in lying position with eyes closed. This was followed by a decrease of total power in centro-parietal cortex regions and an increase of beta power in fronto-central areas. Represented by EEG coherences the interhemispheric communication between the parieto-occipital regions was enhanced within a frequency range of 2-10 Hz. In order to discern between higher and lower levels of relaxation distinguished according to self-rated satisfaction, EEG features were assessed and discriminating parameters were identified. Successful relaxation was determined mainly by the presence of decreased delta-1 power across the cortex. Potential applications for these findings include the clinical, pharmacological, and stress management fields.

Teplan, Michal; Krakovská, Anna; Špajdel, Marián

2014-08-01

122

Exon-intron structure of the human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}4 subunit (CHRNA4)  

SciTech Connect

The human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}4 subunit gene (CHRNA4) is located in the candidate region for three different phenotypes: benign familial neonatal convulsions, autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, and low-voltage EEG. Recently, a missense mutation in transmembrane domain 2 of CHRNA4 was found to be associated with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in one extended pedigree. We have determined the genomic organization of CHRNA4, which consists of six exons distributed over approximately 17 kb of genomic DNA. The nucleotide sequence obtained from the genomic regions adjacent to the exon boundaries enabled us to develop a set of primer pairs for PCR amplification of the complete coding region. The sequence analysis provides the basis for a comprehensive mutation screening of CHRNA4 in the above-mentioned phenotypes and possibly in other types of idopathic epilepsies. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Steinlein, O.; Weiland, S.; Stoodt, J.; Propping, P. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)] [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)

1996-03-01

123

EEG Studies with Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how electroencephalogram (EEG) data are collected and how brain function is measured. Discusses studies on the effects of music experiences with adult subjects and studies focusing on the effects of music training on EEG activity of children and adolescents. Considers the implications of the studies and the future directions of this…

Flohr, John W.; Miller, Daniel C.; deBeus, Roger

2000-01-01

124

Phenotypic knockout of the high-affinity human interleukin 2 receptor by intracellular single-chain antibodies against the alpha subunit of the receptor.  

PubMed Central

The experimental manipulation of peptide growth hormones and their cellular receptors is central to understanding the pathways governing cellular signaling and growth control. Previous work has shown that intracellular antibodies targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can be used to capture specific proteins as they enter the ER, preventing their transport to the cell surface. Here we have used this technology to inhibit the cell surface expression of the alpha subunit of the high-affinity interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R alpha). A single-chain variable-region fragment of the anti-Tac monoclonal antibody was constructed with a signal peptide and a C-terminal ER retention signal. Intracellular expression of the single-chain antibody was found to completely abrogate cell surface expression of IL-2R alpha in stimulated Jurkat T cells. IL-2R alpha was detectable within the Jurkat cells as an immature 40-kDa form that was sensitive to endoglycosidase H, consistent with its retention in a pre- or early Golgi compartment. A single-chain antibody lacking the ER retention signal was also able to inhibit cell surface expression of IL-2R alpha although the mechanism appeared to involve rapid degradation of the receptor chain within the ER. These intracellular antibodies will provide a valuable tool for examining the role of IL-2R alpha in T-cell activation, IL-2 signal transduction, and the deregulated growth of leukemic cells which overexpress IL-2R alpha. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:7724529

Richardson, J H; Sodroski, J G; Waldmann, T A; Marasco, W A

1995-01-01

125

[Quantitative and topographic EEG brain mapping: a study of normal adult population].  

PubMed

We studied the electric brain activity during wakefulness in 20 Brazilian people through digital EEG and spectral analysis in order to propose a standardization for Brazilian adult population. All this group is healthy with laboratory examinations and mini-mental state (scores higher than 27) evaluation normal. After Fourier fast transformation (FFT) calculation, we found a histogram display with monomodal distribution, with higher values in alpha band. Analyzing the average of these results, different standards from the analogical traditional EEG were found, as the distribution of alpha band and delta activity behavior. The beta 2 and beta 3 behavior showed a diffuse distribution, that is not the usual. By the other hand, other findings are congruent to the analogical EEG as the alpha posterior predominance and the bigger presence of theta activity at the central regions. PMID:9686121

Anghinah, R; Kanda, P A; Jorge, M S; Melo, A C

1998-03-01

126

Postictal generalized EEG suppression  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the consistency and facilitating cofactors of postictal generalized EEG suppression (PGES) of >20 seconds after convulsive seizures (CS), a suggested predictor of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy risk. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed video-EEG data of people with ?2 recorded CS. Presence and duration of PGES were assessed by 2 independent observers blinded to patient status. Intraindividual consistency of PGES >20 seconds was determined and correlations with clinical characteristics were analyzed after correction for individual effects and the varying number of seizures. Results: One hundred fifty-four seizures in 59 people were analyzed. PGES >20 seconds was found in 37 individuals (63%) and 57 (37%) of CS. The proportion of persons in whom PGES occurred consistently (presence or absence of PGES >20 seconds in all CS) was lower in those with more CS. PGES of >20 seconds was more frequent in seizures arising from sleep (odds ratio 3.29, 95% confidence interval 1.21–8.96) and when antiepileptic medication was tapered (odds ratio 4.80, 95% confidence interval 1.27–18.14). Conclusion: Apparent PGES consistency was less frequent in people with more CS recorded, suggesting that PGES is an inconsistent finding in any one individual. Thus, we believe that PGES >20 seconds is not a reliable predictor of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Sleep and antiepileptic drug reduction appear to facilitate the occurrence of PGES. PMID:23966251

Lamberts, Robert J.; Gaitatzis, Athanasios; Sander, Josemir W.; Elger, Christian E.

2013-01-01

127

Dry EEG Electrodes  

PubMed Central

Electroencephalography (EEG) emerged in the second decade of the 20th century as a technique for recording the neurophysiological response. Since then, there has been little variation in the physical principles that sustain the signal acquisition probes, otherwise called electrodes. Currently, new advances in technology have brought new unexpected fields of applications apart from the clinical, for which new aspects such as usability and gel-free operation are first order priorities. Thanks to new advances in materials and integrated electronic systems technologies, a new generation of dry electrodes has been developed to fulfill the need. In this manuscript, we review current approaches to develop dry EEG electrodes for clinical and other applications, including information about measurement methods and evaluation reports. We conclude that, although a broad and non-homogeneous diversity of approaches has been evaluated without a consensus in procedures and methodology, their performances are not far from those obtained with wet electrodes, which are considered the gold standard, thus enabling the former to be a useful tool in a variety of novel applications. PMID:25046013

Lopez-Gordo, M. A.; Sanchez-Morillo, D.; Valle, F. Pelayo

2014-01-01

128

21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. 882.1420 Section...Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification...electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to...

2014-04-01

129

21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. 882.1420 Section...Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification...electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to...

2013-04-01

130

21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. 882.1420 Section...Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification...electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to...

2011-04-01

131

21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. 882.1420 Section...Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification...electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to...

2012-04-01

132

Plasma levels of elastase-specific fibrinopeptides correlate with proteinase inhibitor phenotype. Evidence for increased elastase activity in subjects with homozygous and heterozygous deficiency of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor.  

PubMed Central

There is indirect evidence that unopposed human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is responsible for emphysema in patients with alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (Pi) deficiency. To directly explore this possibility, we developed an assay for fibrinopeptide A alpha 1-21 and its degradation products and used it to measure HNE activity in 128 subjects of known Pi phenotype. The mean elastase-specific fibrinopeptide (ESF) level in 49 deficient PiZ individuals is significantly higher than that in 56 PiMZ heterozygotes (4.5 and 1.5 nM, respectively; P less than 0.01), while the mean ESF value in heterozygotes is significantly elevated over that in 23 normal PiM subjects (1.5 and 0.6 nM, respectively; P less than 0.01), consistent with increased HNE activity in those deficient in the major regulator of the enzyme. These results are not due to differences in smoking history because after correction for pack-years of smoking, ESF values in PiZ subjects are fourfold higher than those in PiMZ individuals (P = 0.005), while the ESF levels in heterozygotes are threefold higher than those in PiM subjects (P = 0.02). In addition, this analysis suggests that cigarette smoking and alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor deficiency have additive effects on ESF levels thereby explaining why PiZ and some PiMZ individuals are at especially high risk for the development of lung disease if they smoke. Finally, the observation that ESF levels in nonsmoking PiZ subjects are inversely related to the percent of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1%) provides direct support for the concept that unregulated HNE activity causes alveolar septal destruction in patients with alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor deficiency. PMID:1541671

Weitz, J I; Silverman, E K; Thong, B; Campbell, E J

1992-01-01

133

Modulation of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on resting-state EEG power  

PubMed Central

The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism impacts cortical dopamine (DA) levels and may influence cortical electrical activity in the human brain. This study investigated whether COMT genotype influences resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) power in the frontal, parietal and midline regions in healthy volunteers. EEG recordings were conducted in the resting-state in 13 postmenopausal healthy woman carriers of the Val/Val genotype and 11 with the Met/Met genotype. The resting EEG spectral absolute power in the frontal (F3, F4, F7, F8, FC3 and FC4), parietal (CP3, CP4, P3 and P4) and midline (Fz, FCz, Cz, CPz, Pz and Oz) was analyzed during the eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. The frequency bands considered were the delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1 and beta2. EEG data of the Val/Val and Met/Met genotypes, brain regions and conditions were analyzed using a general linear model analysis. In the individuals with the Met/Met genotype, delta activity was increased in the eyes-closed condition, theta activity was increased in the eyes-closed and in the eyes-open conditions, and alpha1 band, alpha2 band and beta1band activity was increased in the eyes-closed condition. A significant interaction between COMT genotypes and spectral bands was observed. Met homozygote individuals exhibited more delta, theta and beta1 activity than individuals with the Val/Val genotype. No significant interaction between COMT genotypes and the resting-state EEG regional power and conditions were observed for the three brain regions studied. Our findings indicate that the COMT Val158Met polymorphism does not directly impact resting-state EEG regional power, but instead suggest that COMT genotype can modulate resting-state EEG spectral power in postmenopausal healthy women.

Solís-Ortiz, Silvia; Pérez-Luque, Elva; Gutiérrez-Muńoz, Mayra

2015-01-01

134

High-resolution EEG (HR-EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG).  

PubMed

High-resolution EEG (HR-EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) allow the recording of spontaneous or evoked electromagnetic brain activity with excellent temporal resolution. Data must be recorded with high temporal resolution (sampling rate) and high spatial resolution (number of channels). Data analyses are based on several steps with selection of electromagnetic signals, elaboration of a head model and use of algorithms in order to solve the inverse problem. Due to considerable technical advances in spatial resolution, these tools now represent real methods of ElectroMagnetic Source Imaging. HR-EEG and MEG constitute non-invasive and complementary examinations, characterized by distinct sensitivities according to the location and orientation of intracerebral generators. In the presurgical assessment of drug-resistant partial epilepsies, HR-EEG and MEG can characterize and localize interictal activities and thus the irritative zone. HR-EEG and MEG often yield significant additional data that are complementary to other presurgical investigations and particularly relevant in MRI-negative cases. Currently, the determination of the epileptogenic zone and functional brain mapping remain rather less well-validated indications. In France, in 2014, HR-EEG is now part of standard clinical investigation of epilepsy, while MEG remains a research technique. PMID:25648821

Gavaret, M; Maillard, L; Jung, J

2015-03-01

135

An EEG Finger-Print of fMRI deep regional activation.  

PubMed

This work introduces a general framework for producing an EEG Finger-Print (EFP) which can be used to predict specific brain activity as measured by fMRI at a given deep region. This new approach allows for improved EEG spatial resolution based on simultaneous fMRI activity measurements. Advanced signal processing and machine learning methods were applied on EEG data acquired simultaneously with fMRI during relaxation training guided by on-line continuous feedback on changing alpha/theta EEG measure. We focused on demonstrating improved EEG prediction of activation in sub-cortical regions such as the amygdala. Our analysis shows that a ridge regression model that is based on time/frequency representation of EEG data from a single electrode, can predict the amygdala related activity significantly better than a traditional theta/alpha activity sampled from the best electrode and about 1/3 of the times, significantly better than a linear combination of frequencies with a pre-defined delay. The far-reaching goal of our approach is to be able to reduce the need for fMRI scanning for probing specific sub-cortical regions such as the amygdala as the basis for brain-training procedures. On the other hand, activity in those regions can be characterized with higher temporal resolution than is obtained by fMRI alone thus revealing additional information about their processing mode. PMID:24246494

Meir-Hasson, Yehudit; Kinreich, Sivan; Podlipsky, Ilana; Hendler, Talma; Intrator, Nathan

2014-11-15

136

Envelope responses in single-trial EEG indicate attended speaker in a ‘cocktail party’  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Recent studies have shown that auditory cortex better encodes the envelope of attended speech than that of unattended speech during multi-speaker (‘cocktail party’) situations. We investigated whether these differences were sufficiently robust within single-trial electroencephalographic (EEG) data to accurately determine where subjects attended. Additionally, we compared this measure to other established EEG markers of attention. Approach. High-resolution EEG was recorded while subjects engaged in a two-speaker ‘cocktail party’ task. Cortical responses to speech envelopes were extracted by cross-correlating the envelopes with each EEG channel. We also measured steady-state responses (elicited via high-frequency amplitude modulation of the speech) and alpha-band power, both of which have been sensitive to attention in previous studies. Using linear classifiers, we then examined how well each of these features could be used to predict the subjects’ side of attention at various epoch lengths. Main results. We found that the attended speaker could be determined reliably from the envelope responses calculated from short periods of EEG, with accuracy improving as a function of sample length. Furthermore, envelope responses were far better indicators of attention than changes in either alpha power or steady-state responses. Significance. These results suggest that envelope-related signals recorded in EEG data can be used to form robust auditory BCI’s that do not require artificial manipulation (e.g., amplitude modulation) of stimuli to function.

Horton, Cort; Srinivasan, Ramesh; D'Zmura, Michael

2014-08-01

137

CNT/PDMS-based canal-typed ear electrodes for inconspicuous EEG recording  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Current electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring systems typically require cumbersome electrodes that must be pasted on a scalp, making a private recording of an EEG in a public place difficult. We have developed a small, user friendly, biocompatible electrode with a good appearance for inconspicuous EEG monitoring. Approach. We fabricated carbon nanotube polydimethylsiloxane (CNT/PDMS)-based canal-type ear electrodes (CEE) for EEG recording. These electrodes have an additional function, triggering sound stimulation like earphones and recording EEG simultaneously for auditory brain-computer interface (BCI). The electrode performance was evaluated by a standard EEG measurement paradigm, including the detection of alpha rhythms and measurements of N100 auditory evoked potential (AEP), steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) and auditory steady-state response (ASSR). Furthermore, the bio- and skin-compatibility of CNT/PDMS were tested. Main results. All feasibility studies were successfully recorded with the fabricated electrodes, and the biocompatibility of CNT/PDMS was also proved. Significance. These electrodes could be used to monitor EEG clinically, in ubiquitous health care and in brain-computer interfaces.

Lee, Joong Hoon; Lee, Seung Min; Byeon, Hang Jin; Hong, Joung Sook; Park, Kwang Suk; Lee, Sang-Hoon

2014-08-01

138

Influence of HLA-DR on the phenotype of CD4+ T lymphocytes specific for an epitope of the 16-kDa alpha-crystallin antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

T helper phenotype may be influenced by cytokine milieu, the differential expression of co-stimulatory molecules, antigen dose, and by differences in affinity at the TCR-peptide-MHC interface. We investigated the latter hypothesis by examining the response of six HLA-DR-restricted CD4+ T cell lines specific for the immunodominant and permissively recognized p91-110 epitope of the 16-kDa alpha-crystallin protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Each line was generated from a sensitized HLA-DR-heterozygous donor and all proliferated when peptide was presented by autologous irradiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, when HLA-DR-matched homozygous Epstein-Barr-virus-transformed B cell lines (L-BCL) were used as peptide-presenting cells there was heterogeneity in the response. The most pronounced proliferative response, and the highest IFN-gamma secretion and cytolytic activity was stimulated by L-BCL expressing molecules (DRB1*0101, *1501 and *0401) with high affinity (IC50 < 10 microM) for the 16p91-110 peptide. By comparison, IL-4 secretion or a lower proliferative response could occur when peptide was presented by alleles of high, or of intermediate (10 microM < IC50 < 100 microM), affinity. These data support the hypothesis that the host MHC can influence CD4+ phenotype and have implications for subunit vaccination against tuberculosis. PMID:10382737

Agrewala, J N; Wilkinson, R J

1999-06-01

139

Monitoring task loading with multivariate EEG measures during complex forms of human-computer interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were made while 16 participants performed versions of a personal-computer-based flight simulation task of low, moderate, or high difficulty. As task difficulty increased, frontal midline theta EEG activity increased and alpha band activity decreased. A participant-specific function that combined multiple EEG features to create a single load index was derived from a sample of each participant's data and then applied to new test data from that participant. Index values were computed for every 4 s of task data. Across participants, mean task load index values increased systematically with increasing task difficulty and differed significantly between the different task versions. Actual or potential applications of this research include the use of multivariate EEG-based methods to monitor task loading during naturalistic computer-based work.

Smith, M. E.; Gevins, A.; Brown, H.; Karnik, A.; Du, R.

2001-01-01

140

Influence of sinusoidally modulated visual stimuli at extremely low frequency range on the human EEG activity.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether sinusoidally modulated visual stimuli at extremely low frequencies (ELF) of 50, 16.66, 13, 10, 8.33 and 4Hz could influence the changes in EEG activity in 33 human subjects. An improved design of visual stimulator system has addressed an issue of electrical interference from electrical signals driven by LED arrays onto simultaneously recorded EEG. A comparison between 1 and 3-Way ANOVA was performed in order to evaluate whether visual stimuli at ELFs could influence the EEG in humans to compliment the currently active medical research in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and photic driving. The results revealed that under evaluation of 1 and 3-Way repeated-measures ANOVA tests, the Theta, Alpha2 and Gamma EEG bands exhibited a common significant difference between ELF visual stimuli. PMID:17945633

Cvetkovic, D; Simpson, D; Cosic, I

2006-01-01

141

Monitoring task loading with multivariate EEG measures during complex forms of human-computer interaction.  

PubMed

Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were made while 16 participants performed versions of a personal-computer-based flight simulation task of low, moderate, or high difficulty. As task difficulty increased, frontal midline theta EEG activity increased and alpha band activity decreased. A participant-specific function that combined multiple EEG features to create a single load index was derived from a sample of each participant's data and then applied to new test data from that participant. Index values were computed for every 4 s of task data. Across participants, mean task load index values increased systematically with increasing task difficulty and differed significantly between the different task versions. Actual or potential applications of this research include the use of multivariate EEG-based methods to monitor task loading during naturalistic computer-based work. PMID:11866193

Smith, M E; Gevins, A; Brown, H; Karnik, A; Du, R

2001-01-01

142

Alpha asymmetry in infants at risk for autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

An emerging focus of research on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) targets the identification of early-developing ASD endophenotypes using infant siblings of affected children. One potential neural endophenotype is resting frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha asymmetry, a metric of hemispheric organization. Here, we examined the development of frontal EEG alpha asymmetry in ASD high-risk and low-risk infant populations. Our findings demonstrate that low and high-risk infants show different patterns of alpha asymmetry at 6 months of age and opposite growth trajectories in asymmetry over the following 12 months. These results support the candidacy of alpha asymmetry as an early neural ASD endophenotype. PMID:23989937

Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Tierney, Adrienne L; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A

2015-02-01

143

A 6.4MB duplication of the alpha-synuclein locus causing fronto-temporal dementia and parkinsonism - phenotype-genotype correlations  

PubMed Central

Importance SNCA locus duplications are associated with variable clinical features and reduced penetrance but the reasons underlying this variability are unknown. Objective 1) To report a novel family carrying a heterozygous 6.4Mb duplication of the SNCA locus with an atypical clinical presentation strongly reminiscent of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and late-onset pallidopyramidal syndromes. 2) To study phenotype-genotype correlations in SNCA locus duplications. Design, Setting, Participants and Data sources We report the clinical and neuropathologic features of a family carrying a 6.4Mb duplication of the SNCA locus. To identify candidate disease modifiers, we undertake a genetic analysis in the family and conduct statistical analysis on previously published cases carrying SNCA locus duplication using regression modelling with robust standard errors to account for clustering at the family level. Main outcome measures To assess whether length of the SNCA locus duplication influences disease penetrance and severity, and whether extra-duplication factors have a disease-modifying role. Results We identified a large 6.4Mb duplication of the SNCA locus in this family. Neuropathological analysis showed extensive ?-synuclein pathology with minimal phospho-tau pathology. Genetic analysis showed an increased burden of PD-related risk factors and the disease-predisposing H1/H1 MAPT haplotype. Statistical analysis of previously published cases suggested that there is a trend towards increasing disease severity and disease penetrance with increasing duplication size. The corresponding odds ratios (95% CI) from the univariate analyses were 1.17 (0.81 to 1.68) and 1.34 (0.78 to 2.31) respectively. Gender was significantly associated with both disease risk and severity; males compared to females had increased disease risk and severity and the corresponding odds ratios (95% CI) from the univariate analyses were 8.36 (1.97 to 35.42) and 5.55 (1.39 to 22.22) respectively. Conclusions and relevance These findings further expand the phenotypic spectrum of SNCA locus duplications. Increased dosage of genes located within the duplicated region probably cannot increase disease risk and disease severity without the contribution of additional risk factors. Identification of disease modifiers accounting for the substantial phenotypic heterogeneity of patients with SNCA locus duplications could provide insight into molecular events involved in ?-synuclein aggregation. PMID:25003242

Kara, Eleanna; Kiely, Aoife P; Proukakis, Christos; Giffin, Nicola; Love, Seth; Hehir, Jason; Rantell, Khadija; Pandraud, Amelie; Hernandez, Dena G; Nacheva, Elizabeth; Pittman, Alan M; Nalls, Mike A; Singleton, Andrew B; Revesz, Tamas; Bhatia, Kailash P; Quinn, Niall; Hardy, John; Holton, Janice L; Houlden, Henry

2015-01-01

144

Autonomic and EEG Patterns during Eyes-Closed Rest and Transcendental Meditation (TM) Practice: The Basis for a Neural Model of TM Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this single-blind within-subject study, autonomic and EEG variables were compared during 10-min, order-balanced eyes-closed rest and Transcendental Meditation (TM) sessions. TM sessions were distinguished by (1) lower breath rates, (2) lower skin conductance levels, (3) higher respiratory sinus arrhythmia levels, and (4) higher alpha anterior–posterior and frontal EEG coherence. Alpha power was not significantly different between conditions. These results

Frederick Travis; R. Keith Wallace

1999-01-01

145

Levels of Alpha-Toxin Correlate with Distinct Phenotypic Response Profiles of Blood Mononuclear Cells and with agr Background of Community-Associated Staphylococcus aureus Isolates  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies of Staphylococcus aureus have shown a relation between certain clones and the presence of specific virulence genes, but how this translates into virulence-associated functional responses is not fully elucidated. Here we addressed this issue by analyses of community-acquired S. aureus strains characterized with respect to antibiotic resistance, ST types, agr types, and virulence gene profiles. Supernatants containing exotoxins were prepared from overnight bacterial cultures, and tested in proliferation assays using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The strains displayed stable phenotypic response profiles, defined by either a proliferative or cytotoxic response. Although, virtually all strains elicited superantigen-mediated proliferative responses, the strains with a cytotoxic profile induced proliferation only in cultures with the most diluted supernatants. This indicated that the superantigen-response was masked by a cytotoxic effect which was also confirmed by flow cytometry analysis. The cytotoxic supernatants contained significantly higher levels of ?-toxin than did the proliferative supernatants. Addition of ?-toxin to supernatants characterized as proliferative switched the response into cytotoxic profiles. In contrast, no effect of Panton Valentine Leukocidin, ?-toxin or phenol soluble modulin ?-3 was noted in the proliferative assay. Furthermore, a significant association between agr type and phenotypic profile was found, where agrII and agrIII strains had predominantly a proliferative profile whereas agrI and IV strains had a predominantly cytotoxic profile. The differential response profiles associated with specific S. aureus strains with varying toxin production could possibly have an impact on disease manifestations, and as such may reflect specific pathotypes. PMID:25166615

Mairpady Shambat, Srikanth; Haggar, Axana; Vandenesch, Francois; Lina, Gerard; van Wamel, Willem J. B.; Arakere, Gayathri; Svensson, Mattias; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

2014-01-01

146

The alpha-galactosidase A p.Arg118Cys variant does not cause a Fabry disease phenotype: Data from individual patients and family studies.  

PubMed

Lysosomal ?-galactosidase A (?-Gal) is the enzyme deficient in Fabry disease (FD), an X-linked glycosphingolipidosis caused by pathogenic mutations affecting the GLA gene. The early-onset, multi-systemic FD classical phenotype is associated with absent or severe enzyme deficiency, as measured by in vitro assays, but patients with higher levels of residual ?-Gal activity may have later-onset, more organ-restricted clinical presentations. A change in the codon 118 of the wild-type ?-Gal sequence, replacing basic arginine by a potentially sulfhydryl-binding cysteine residue - GLA p.(Arg118Cys) -, has been recurrently described in large FD screening studies of high-risk patients. Although the Cys118 allele is associated with high residual ?-Gal activity in vitro, it has been classified as a pathogenic mutation, mainly on the basis of theoretical arguments about the chemistry of the cysteine residue. However its pathogenicity has never been convincingly demonstrated by pathology criteria. We reviewed the clinical, biochemical and histopathology data obtained from 22 individuals of Portuguese and Spanish ancestry carrying the Cys118 allele, including 3 homozygous females. Cases were identified either on the differential diagnosis of possible FD manifestations and on case-finding studies (n=11; 4 males), or on unbiased cascade screening of probands' close relatives (n=11; 3 males). Overall, those data strongly suggest that the GLA p.(Arg118Cys) variant does not segregate with FD clinical phenotypes in a Mendelian fashion, but might be a modulator of the multifactorial risk of cerebrovascular disease. The Cys118 allelic frequency in healthy Portuguese adults (n=696) has been estimated as 0.001, therefore not qualifying for "rare" condition. PMID:25468652

Ferreira, Susana; Ortiz, Alberto; Germain, Dominique P; Viana-Baptista, Miguel; Caldeira-Gomes, António; Camprecios, Marta; Fenollar-Cortés, Maria; Gallegos-Villalobos, Ángel; Garcia, Diego; García-Robles, José Antonio; Egido, Jesús; Gutiérrez-Rivas, Eduardo; Herrero, José Antonio; Mas, Sebastián; Oancea, Raluca; Péres, Paloma; Salazar-Martín, Luis Manuel; Solera-Garcia, Jesús; Alves, Helena; Garman, Scott C; Oliveira, Joăo Paulo

2015-02-01

147

The adenosine-dependent angiogenic switch of macrophages to an M2-like phenotype is independent of Interleukin-4 receptor alpha (IL4R?) signaling  

PubMed Central

Murine macrophages are activated by interferon-? (IFN?) and/or TLR agonists such as bacterial endotoxin (LPS) to express an inflammatory (M1) phenotype characterized by expression of nitric oxide synthase-2 (iNOS) and inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-? and IL-12. In contrast, Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 activate macrophages by inducing expression of arginase-1 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in an IL-4 receptor-? (IL-4R?) dependent manner. Macrophages activated in this way are designated as “alternatively activated” (M2a) macrophages. We have shown previously that adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) agonists act synergistically with TLR2, 4, 7 and 9 agonists to switch macrophages into an “M2-like” phenotype that we have termed “M2d”. Adenosine signaling suppresses TLR-dependent expression of TNF-?, IL-12, IFN-? and several other inflammatory cytokines by macrophages, and induces expression of VEGF and IL-10. We show here using mice lacking a functional IL-4R? gene (IL-4R??/? mice) that this adenosine-mediated switch does not require IL-4R?-dependent signaling. M2d macrophages express high levels of VEGF, IL-10 and iNOS, low levels of TNF-? and IL-12, and mildly elevated levels of arginase-1. In contrast, M2d macrophages do not express Ym1, Fizz1 (RELM-?) or CD206 at levels greater than those induced by LPS, and dectin-1 expression is suppressed. Use of these markers in vivo to identify “M2” macrophages thus provides an incomplete picture of macrophage functional status and should be viewed with caution. PMID:23504259

Ferrante, Christopher James; Pinhal-Enfield, Grace; Elson, Genie; Cronstein, Bruce Neil; Hasko, Gyorgy; Outram, Shalini; Leibovich, Samuel Joseph

2013-01-01

148

Sparse EEG Imaging Soe Therese Hansen  

E-print Network

reconstruction and its potential use in EEG biofeedback. The novel technique is named the variational Garrote (VG brug i EEG biofeedback. Den nye teknik kaldes variational Garrote (VG) og blev foreslĂĄet af Kappen et

149

Effects of a Psychedelic, Tropical Tea, Ayahuasca, on the Electroencephalographic (EEG) Activity of the Human Brain During a Shamanistic Ritual  

Microsoft Academic Search

EEG data from 12 volunteers participating in a workshop in Brazil were recorded under field conditions before and after a shamanistic ritual in which the psychoactive tea, ayahuasca, was consumed. Following three doses of the tea, the subjects showed strong and statistically significant increases of both EEG alpha (8-13Hz) and theta (4-8Hz) mean amplitudes compared to baseline while beta (13-20Hz)

Jan M. Keppel Hesselink; M. da Silveira Barbosa

2001-01-01

150

Individual musical tempo preference correlates with EEG beta rhythm.  

PubMed

Every individual has a preferred musical tempo, which peaks slightly above 120 beats per minute and is subject to interindividual variation. The preferred tempo is believed to be associated with rhythmic body movements as well as motor cortex activity. However, a long-standing question is whether preferred tempo is determined biologically. To uncover the neural correlates of preferred tempo, we first determined an individual's preferred tempo using a multistep procedure. Subsequently, we correlated the preferred tempo with a general EEG timing parameter as well as perceptual and motor EEG correlates-namely, individual alpha frequency, auditory evoked gamma band response, and motor beta activity. Results showed a significant relation between preferred tempo and the frequency of motor beta activity. These findings suggest that individual tempo preferences result from neural activity in the motor cortex, explaining the interindividual variation. PMID:25353087

Bauer, Anna-Katharina R; Kreutz, Gunter; Herrmann, Christoph S

2015-04-01

151

Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks for modeling EEG topographic sequences.  

PubMed

In this work we present a methodology for modeling the trajectory of EEG topography over time, using Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs). Based on the microstate model we are using DBNs to model the evolution of the EEG topography. Analysis of the microstate model is being usually limited in the wide band signal or an isolated band. We are using Coupled Hidden Markov Models (CHMM) and a two level influence model in order to model the temporal evolution and the coupling of the topography states in three bands, delta, theta and alpha. We are applying this methodology for the classification of target and non-target single trial from a visual detection task. The results indicate that taking under consideration the interaction among the different bands improves the classification of single trials. PMID:25571097

Michalopoulos, Kostas; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

2014-08-01

152

Responses to tonic heat pain in the ongoing EEG under conditions of controlled attention.  

PubMed

To confirm the existence of an ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern that is truly suggestive of pain, tonic heat pain was induced by small heat pulses at 1 °C above the pain threshold and compared to slightly less intense tonic non-painful heat pulses at 1 °C below the pain threshold. Twenty healthy subjects rated the sensation intensity during thermal stimulation. Possible confounding effects of attention were thoroughly controlled for by testing in four conditions: (1) focus of attention directed ipsilateral or (2) contralateral to the side of the stimulation, (3) control without a side preference, and (4) no control of attention at all. EEG was recorded via eight leads according to the 10/20 convention. Absolute power was computed for the frequency bands delta (0.5-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-11 Hz), alpha2 (11-14 Hz), beta1 (14-25 Hz), and beta2 (25-35 Hz). Ratings were clearly distinct between the heat and pain conditions and suggestive for heat and pain sensations. Manipulation of attention proved to be successful by producing effects on the ratings and on the EEG activity (with lower ratings and lower EEG activity (theta, beta1, 2) over central areas for side-focused attention). During pain stimulation, lower central alpha1 and alpha2 activity and higher right-parietal and right-occipital delta power were observed compared to heat stimulation. This EEG pattern was not influenced by the manipulation of attention. Since the two types of stimuli (pain, heat) were subjectively felt differently although stimulation intensities were nearby, we conclude that this EEG pattern is clearly suggestive of pain. PMID:24320554

Giehl, Janet; Meyer-Brandis, Gesa; Kunz, Miriam; Lautenbacher, Stefan

2014-03-01

153

Application of Independent Component Analysis for the Data Mining of Simultaneous EEG-fMRI: Preliminary Experience on Sleep Onset  

PubMed Central

The simultaneous acquisition of electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional MRI (fMRI) signals is potentially advantageous because of the superior resolution that is achieved in both the temporal and spatial domains, respectively. However, ballistocardiographic artifacts along with the ocular artifacts are a major obstacle for the detection of the EEG signatures of interest. Since the sources corresponding to these artifacts are independent from those producing the EEG signatures, we applied the Infomax-based independent component analysis (ICA) technique to separate the EEG signatures from the artifacts. The isolated EEG signatures were further utilized to model the canonical hemodynamic response functions (HRFs). Subsequently, the brain areas from which these EEG signatures originated were identified as locales of activation patterns from the analysis of fMRI data. Upon the identification and subsequent evaluation of brain areas generating interictal epileptic discharge (IED) spikes from an epileptic subject, the presented method was successfully applied to detect the theta- and alpha-rhythms that are sleep onset related EEG signatures along with the subsequent neural circuitries from a sleep deprived volunteer. These results suggest that the ICA technique may be useful for the preprocessing of simultaneous EEG-fMRI acquisitions, especially when a reference paradigm is unavailable. PMID:19922343

Lee, Jong-Hwan; Oh, Sungsuk; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; Park, Hyunwook; Yoo, Seung-Schik

2010-01-01

154

Linear and Nonlinear Quantitative EEG Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented is a progressive investigation on the EEG of Han Chinese patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD).Thus, an investigative project on Q-EEG was performed on the ethnic Han Chinese patients with AD by the Neural Engineering Lab of Tianjin University. This project was intended to contribute to the knowledge of EEG changes specific to AD in comparison with that to normal

Baikun Wan; Dong Ming; Hongzhi Qi; Zhaojun Xue; Yong Yin; Zhongxing Zhou; Longlong Cheng

2008-01-01

155

Continuous Intraoperative EEG Monitoring during Carotid Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous intraoperative EEG monitoring and stump pressure measurements were studied during 85 carotid revascularizations performed in 40 symptomatic cerebrovascular patients and in 32 asymptomatic subjects with a cervical bruit. The decision to place a temporary shunt was made on the basis of intraoperative EEG abnormalities regardless of stump pressure values. 11 patients with contralateral carotid lesions showed marked EEG alterations,

G. Meneghetti; G. P. Deriu; A. Saia; D. Giaretta; E. Ballotta

1984-01-01

156

Lateralization of Auditory Language: An EEG Study of Bilingual Crow Indian Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was undertaken to learn whether involvement of the brain's right hemisphere in auditory language processing, a phenomenon found in a previous study of Crow-English bilinguals, was language-specific. Alpha blocking response as measured by electroencephalography (EEG) was used as an indicator of brain activity. It was predicted that (1)…

Vocate, Donna R.

157

State-specific asymmetries in EEG slow wave activity induced by local application of TNF?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep is posited to be a fundamental property of groups of highly interconnected neurons and regulated in part by activity-dependent sleep regulatory substances such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?). We show that the unilateral local application of TNF? onto the somatosensory cortex of rats induced state- and frequency-dependent EEG asymmetries. In contrast, the unilateral injection of a TNF? inhibitor,

Hitoshi Yoshida; Zoltan Peterfi; Fabio Garc??a-Garc??a; Robert Kirkpatrick; Tadanobu Yasuda; James M Krueger

2004-01-01

158

EEG signal analysis: a survey.  

PubMed

The EEG (Electroencephalogram) signal indicates the electrical activity of the brain. They are highly random in nature and may contain useful information about the brain state. However, it is very difficult to get useful information from these signals directly in the time domain just by observing them. They are basically non-linear and nonstationary in nature. Hence, important features can be extracted for the diagnosis of different diseases using advanced signal processing techniques. In this paper the effect of different events on the EEG signal, and different signal processing methods used to extract the hidden information from the signal are discussed in detail. Linear, Frequency domain, time - frequency and non-linear techniques like correlation dimension (CD), largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), Hurst exponent (H), different entropies, fractal dimension(FD), Higher Order Spectra (HOS), phase space plots and recurrence plots are discussed in detail using a typical normal EEG signal. PMID:20433058

Subha, D Puthankattil; Joseph, Paul K; Acharya U, Rajendra; Lim, Choo Min

2010-04-01

159

Continuous and routine EEG in intensive care  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of intensive care unit continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring on inpatient mortality, hospital charges, and length of stay. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a dataset representing 20% of inpatient discharges in nonfederal US hospitals. Adult discharge records reporting mechanical ventilation and EEG (routine EEG or cEEG) were included. cEEG was compared with routine EEG alone in association with the primary outcome of in-hospital mortality and secondary outcomes of total hospital charges and length of stay. Demographics, hospital characteristics, and medical comorbidity were used for multivariate adjustments of the primary and secondary outcomes. Results: A total of 40,945 patient discharges in the weighted sample met inclusion criteria, of which 5,949 had reported cEEG. Mechanically ventilated patients receiving cEEG were younger than routine EEG patients (56 vs 61 years; p < 0.001). There was no difference in the 2 groups in income or medical comorbidities. cEEG was significantly associated with lower in-hospital mortality in both univariate (odds ratio = 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.45–0.64; p < 0.001) and multivariate (odds ratio = 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.51–0.76; p < 0.001) analyses. There was no significant difference in costs or length of stay for patients who received cEEG relative to those receiving only routine EEG. Sensitivity analysis showed that adjusting for diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) for any neurologic diagnoses, DRGs for neurologic procedures, and specific DRGs for epilepsy/convulsions did not substantially alter the association of cEEG with reduced inpatient mortality. Conclusions: cEEG is favorably associated with inpatient survival in mechanically ventilated patients, without adding significant charges to the hospital stay. PMID:24186910

van der Goes, David N.; Nuwer, Marc R.; Nelson, Lonnie; Eccher, Matthew A.

2013-01-01

160

Abnormal functional connectivity in Alzheimer's disease: intrahemispheric EEG coherence during rest and photic stimulation.  

PubMed

Electroencephalography (EEG) coherence provides a measure of functional correlations between two EEG signals. The present study was conducted to examine intrahemispheric EEG coherence at rest and during photic stimulation (PS; 5, 10 and 15 Hz) in ten unmedicated patients with presenile dementia of the Alzheimer type (AD; mean age at onset 56 years). In the resting EEG, the AD patients had significantly lower coherence than gender- and age-matched control subjects in the alpha-1, alpha-2 and beta-1 frequency bands. The EEG analysis during PS also showed that the patients had significantly lower coherence in the frequency corresponding to PS at 10 and 15 Hz. In this study, the changes in coherence from the resting state to the stimulus condition (i.e. PS-related coherence reactivity) were examined. The patients were found to show significantly smaller coherence reactivity to PS at 5 and 15 Hz. These findings suggest that, in addition to the resting state, AD patients have an impairment of intrahemispheric functional connectivity during PS. They also suggest that AD shows a failure of PS-related functional reorganization. PMID:9810483

Wada, Y; Nanbu, Y; Kikuchi, M; Koshino, Y; Hashimoto, T; Yamaguchi, N

1998-01-01

161

The EEG as an index of neuromodulator balance in memory and mental illness  

PubMed Central

There is a strong correlation between signature EEG frequency patterns and the relative levels of distinct neuromodulators. These associations become particularly evident during the sleep-wake cycle. The monoamine-acetylcholine balance hypothesis is a theory of neurophysiological markers of the EEG and a detailed description of the findings that support this proposal are presented in this paper. According to this model alpha rhythm reflects the relative predominance of cholinergic muscarinic signals and delta rhythm that of monoaminergic receptor effects. Both high voltage synchronized rhythms are likely mediated by inhibitory G?i/o-mediated transduction of inhibitory interneurons. Cognitively, alpha and delta EEG measures are proposed to indicate automatic and flexible strategies, respectively. Sleep is associated with marked changes in relative neuromodulator levels corresponding to EEG markers of distinct stages. Sleep studies on memory consolidation present some of the strongest evidence yet for the respective roles of monoaminergic and cholinergic projections in declarative and non-declarative memory processes, a key theoretical premise for understanding the data. Affective dysregulation is reflected in altered EEG patterns during sleep. PMID:24782698

Vakalopoulos, Costa

2014-01-01

162

Low levels of sarin affect the EEG in marmoset monkeys: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this pilot study was to estimate the lowest observable adverse effect level (LOAEL) for the electroencephalogram (EEG) upon long-term, low-level exposure of vehicle-pretreated and pyridostigmine-pretreated marmoset monkeys to sarin vapour. This is the C.t value (t=5 h) of exposure at which the EEG becomes significantly different from that resulting from air exposure of the same animals. The LOAELs for effects on the EEG in vehicle- and pyridostigmine-pretreated marmosets appeared to be 0.2 and 0.1 mg min m(-3), respectively. Comparatively, the latter LOAEL values are at least an order of magnitude lower than the previously established LOAEL for miosis and only 2-5 times higher than the lowest observable effect level (LOEL) of bound sarin in blood. The second aim of the study was to analyse the EEG of the same marmosets again during a 5-h exposure to air 1 year after exposure to sarin vapour. All the marmosets still demonstrated significant (P <0.05) EEG differences. In most vehicle-pretreated marmosets the energy (microV2) per EEG band was higher than that observed 1 year earlier, which might indicate that neurons had become more sensitive to excitation. This phenomenon was less pronounced in pyridostigmine-pretreated animals. Visual examination of the EEG records revealed clear bursts of alpha frequencies (ca. 9 Hz), resembling sleep-spindles, that were present more frequently in both groups of exposed marmosets than in naive animals. These late changes in spindle oscillation might be the result of changes in the cholinergic system due to exposure to sarin vapour 1 year previously. In conclusion, EEG abnormalities persisting for more than 1 year may occur in humans during long-term (5 h) exposure to subclinical levels of sarin that are not detectable by the currently fielded alarm systems. PMID:15558834

van Helden, Herman P M; Vanwersch, Raymond A P; Kuijpers, Willem C; Trap, Henk C; Philippens, Ingrid H C; Benschop, Hendrik P

2004-01-01

163

Use of EEG to track visual attention in two dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates the use of EEG to track the spatial locus of covert, visual attention. Three experiments are described that were to detect the position of visual attention as it was deployed towards targets as they appeared. The first experiment uses flickering fields placed in the periphery of the visual field to induce SSVEPs, to be used to track the position of attention which varies horizontally between them. The flickers failed to produce significant SSVEP activity. However attention locus could still able to be tracked by endogenous lateralizations of 12Hz and 18Hz activity. A second experiment was then designed to track attention locus as it varied either horizontally or vertically using only endogenous EEG activity in the alpha (10Hz), low-beta (18Hz), high-beta (24Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands. Tracking proved successful in all but a small number of subjects. Horizontally varying attention was associated with lateralizations of the alpha band and low-beta band, while vertically varying attention was associated with varying alpha band and low-beta band activity in the occipito-parietal junction over the central sulcus. A third experiment was then performed to track attention locus as it varied in two dimensions. Using a combination of the features found to be informative in the second experiment, tracking proved successful in up to nine bins of two-dimensional visual space. Tracking in either the horizontal or vertical dimension was also successful when attention varied in two dimensions. The success of this method shows that EEG can be used to passively detect the spatial position of attention, at varying degrees of position, as a person attends to objects they see.

Coleman, Robert Alan

164

Detection of EEG-resting state independent networks by eLORETA-ICA method  

PubMed Central

Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that functional networks can be extracted even from resting state data, the so called “Resting State independent Networks” (RS-independent-Ns) by applying independent component analysis (ICA). However, compared to fMRI, electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) have much higher temporal resolution and provide a direct estimation of cortical activity. To date, MEG studies have applied ICA for separate frequency bands only, disregarding cross-frequency couplings. In this study, we aimed to detect EEG-RS-independent-Ns and their interactions in all frequency bands. We applied exact low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography-ICA (eLORETA-ICA) to resting-state EEG data in 80 healthy subjects using five frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma band) and found five RS-independent-Ns in alpha, beta and gamma frequency bands. Next, taking into account previous neuroimaging findings, five RS-independent-Ns were identified: (1) the visual network in alpha frequency band, (2) dual-process of visual perception network, characterized by a negative correlation between the right ventral visual pathway (VVP) in alpha and beta frequency bands and left posterior dorsal visual pathway (DVP) in alpha frequency band, (3) self-referential processing network, characterized by a negative correlation between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in beta frequency band and right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) in alpha frequency band, (4) dual-process of memory perception network, functionally related to a negative correlation between the left VVP and the precuneus in alpha frequency band; and (5) sensorimotor network in beta and gamma frequency bands. We selected eLORETA-ICA which has many advantages over the other network visualization methods and overall findings indicate that eLORETA-ICA with EEG data can identify five RS-independent-Ns in their intrinsic frequency bands, and correct correlations within RS-independent-Ns. PMID:25713521

Aoki, Yasunori; Ishii, Ryouhei; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D.; Canuet, Leonides; Ikeda, Shunichiro; Hata, Masahiro; Imajo, Kaoru; Matsuzaki, Haruyasu; Musha, Toshimitsu; Asada, Takashi; Iwase, Masao; Takeda, Masatoshi

2015-01-01

165

PyEEG: An Open Source Python Module for EEG/MEG Feature Extraction  

PubMed Central

Computer-aided diagnosis of neural diseases from EEG signals (or other physiological signals that can be treated as time series, e.g., MEG) is an emerging field that has gained much attention in past years. Extracting features is a key component in the analysis of EEG signals. In our previous works, we have implemented many EEG feature extraction functions in the Python programming language. As Python is gaining more ground in scientific computing, an open source Python module for extracting EEG features has the potential to save much time for computational neuroscientists. In this paper, we introduce PyEEG, an open source Python module for EEG feature extraction. PMID:21512582

Bao, Forrest Sheng; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Christina

2011-01-01

166

The effects of Dalmane /flurazepam hydrochloride/ on human EEG characteristics.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of the changes in the waking EEGs of six healthy male subjects who received 30 mg daily oral doses of flurazepam hydrochloride for two weeks. A placebo was then substituted for flurazepam for another two weeks. An increase in beta activity with a maximum in fronto-central leads was observed during the test period. A small increase in the mean wavelength of the alpha and theta activities in the central-occipital derivations was also apparent in the subjects during the period.

Frost, J. D., Jr.; Carrie, J. R. G.; Borda, R. P.; Kellaway, P.

1973-01-01

167

Effets des radiofréquences sur le systčme nerveux central chez l?homme : EEG, sommeil, cognition, vascularisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of clinical studies on radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF) were directed at mobile phone-related exposures, usually at the level of the head, at their effect on some physiological functions including sleep, brain electrical activity (EEG), cognitive processes, brain vascularisation, and more generally on the cardiovascular and endocrine systems. They were frequently carried out on healthy adults. Effects on the amplitude of EEG alpha waves, mainly during sleep, look reproducible. It would however be important to define more precisely whether and how the absence of electromagnetic disturbance between RF exposure and the recording systems is checked. No consensus arises about cognitive effects. Some effects on cerebral vascularisation need complementary work.

Ghosn, Rania; Villégier, Anne-Sophie; Selmaoui, Brahim; Thuróczy, Georges; de Sčze, René

2013-05-01

168

Effects of Manual Lymph Drainage of the Neck on EEG in Subjects with Psychological Stress  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The present study investigated the effect of manual lymph drainage (MLD) of the neck on electroencephalography (EEG) in subjects with psychological stress. [Methods] Twenty-six subjects were randomly allocated to receive one 15-min session of either MLD or resting on a bed (control). [Results] Analysis of EEG in the MLD group showed a significant increase in relaxation, manifested as an increase in average absolute and relative delta and alpha activity. [Conclusion] It is suggested that MLD provides acute neural effects that increase relaxation in subjects with psychological stress. PMID:24567691

Shim, Jung-Myo; Kim, Sung-Joong

2014-01-01

169

EEG-microstate dependent emergence of perceptual awareness  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether the differences in perceptual awareness for stimuli at the threshold of awareness can arise from different global brain states before stimulus onset indexed by the EEG microstate. We used a metacontrast backward masking paradigm in which subjects had to discriminate between two weak stimuli and obtained measures of accuracy and awareness while their EEG was recorded from 256 channels. Comparing targets that were correctly identified with and without awareness allowed us to contrast differences in awareness while keeping performance constant for identical physical stimuli. Two distinct pre-stimulus scalp potential fields (microstate maps) dissociated correct identification with and without awareness, and their estimated intracranial generators were stronger in primary visual cortex before correct identification without awareness. This difference in activity cannot be explained by differences in alpha power or phase which were less reliably linked with differential pre-stimulus activation of primary visual cortex. Our results shed a new light on the function of pre-stimulus activity in early visual cortex in visual awareness and emphasize the importance of trial-by-trials analysis of the spatial configuration of the scalp potential field identified with multichannel EEG. PMID:24860450

Britz, Juliane; Díaz Hernŕndez, Laura; Ro, Tony; Michel, Christoph M.

2014-01-01

170

Subtractive Fuzzy Classifier Based Driver Distraction Levels Classification Using EEG  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] In earlier studies of driver distraction, researchers classified distraction into two levels (not distracted, and distracted). This study classified four levels of distraction (neutral, low, medium, high). [Subjects and Methods] Fifty Asian subjects (n=50, 43 males, 7 females), age range 20–35 years, who were free from any disease, participated in this study. Wireless EEG signals were recorded by 14 electrodes during four types of distraction stimuli (Global Position Systems (GPS), music player, short message service (SMS), and mental tasks). We derived the amplitude spectrum of three different frequency bands, theta, alpha, and beta of EEG. Then, based on fusion of discrete wavelet packet transforms and fast fourier transform yield, we extracted two features (power spectral density, spectral centroid frequency) of different wavelets (db4, db8, sym8, and coif5). Mean ± SD was calculated and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. A fuzzy inference system classifier was applied to different wavelets using the two extracted features. [Results] The results indicate that the two features of sym8 posses highly significant discrimination across the four levels of distraction, and the best average accuracy achieved by the subtractive fuzzy classifier was 79.21% using the power spectral density feature extracted using the sym8 wavelet. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that EEG signals can be used to monitor distraction level intensity in order to alert drivers to high levels of distraction. PMID:24259914

Wali, Mousa Kadhim; Murugappan, Murugappan; Ahmad, Badlishah

2013-01-01

171

A high resolution EEG study of dynamic brain activity during video game play.  

PubMed

A high resolution EEG study was conducted on healthy human subjects during video game play. Throughout the game playing experiment short time segments of spontaneous activity were recorded. Spectral analysis was performed on these segments for the theta-wave (4-8 Hz) and alpha-wave (8-13 Hz) bands to investigate the modulatory effects of long-lasting game play and the dynamic changes of spectral contribution in range of alpha-and theta-wave. The present results revealed that a) the frontal midline theta-wave activity increased over time relative to the eye open resting condition and b) the parietal alpha-wave activity initially decreased relative to the resting condition, then followed by a slow increase. These experimental results indicate the high resolution EEG provides a useful quantitative analysis tool for studying dynamic brain activity. PMID:18002499

Sheikholeslami, C; Yuan, H; He, E J; Bai, X; Yang, L; He, B

2007-01-01

172

EEG and behavioral changes following neurofeedback treatment in learning disabled children.  

PubMed

Neurofeedback (NFB) is an operant conditioning procedure, by which the subject learns to control his/her EEG activity. On one hand, Learning Disabled (LD) children have higher values of theta EEG absolute and relative power than normal children, and on the other hand, it has been shown that minimum alpha absolute power is necessary for adequate performance. Ten LD children were selected with higher than normal ratios of theta to alpha absolute power (theta/alpha). The Test Of Variables of Attention (TOVA) was applied. Children were divided into two groups in order to maintain similar IQ values, TOVA values, socioeconomical status, and gender for each group. In the experimental group, NFB was applied in the region with highest ratio, triggering a sound each time the ratio fell below a threshold value. Noncontingent reinforcement was given to the other group. Twenty half-hour sessions were applied, at a rate of 2 per week. At the end of the 20 sessions, TOVA, WISC and EEG were obtained. There was significant improvement in WISC performance in the experimental group that was not observed in the control group. EEG absolute power decreased in delta, theta, alpha and beta bands in the experimental group. Control children only showed a decrease in relative power in the delta band. All changes observed in the experimental group and not observed in the control group indicate better cognitive performance and the presence of greater EEG maturation in the experimental group, which suggests that changes were due not only to development but also to NFB treatment. PMID:14521276

Fernández, T; Herrera, W; Harmony, T; Díaz-Comas, L; Santiago, E; Sánchez, L; Bosch, J; Fernández-Bouzas, A; Otero, G; Ricardo-Garcell, J; Barraza, C; Aubert, E; Galán, L; Valdés, R

2003-07-01

173

Spectra of scalp EEG and EMG 1 Freeman et al. MS 02-078 Spatial spectra of scalp EEG and EMG from awake humans  

E-print Network

Spectra of scalp EEG and EMG 1 Freeman et al. MS 02-078 Spatial spectra of scalp EEG and EMG from. Neurophysiol. 114 (6): 1055-5060, 2003 Running title: Spectra of scalp EEG and EMG Key words: EEG scalp, EMG scalp, Hilbert transform EEG/EMG, power spectral density EEG/EMG, spatial spectrum EEG/EMG

Freeman, Walter J.

174

21 CFR 882.1855 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) telemetry system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Electroencephalogram (EEG) telemetry system. 882.1855 Section... § 882.1855 Electroencephalogram (EEG) telemetry system. (a) Identification. An electroencephalogram (EEG) telemetry system consists of...

2010-04-01

175

21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. 882.1420... § 882.1420 Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification. An electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a...

2010-04-01

176

Automated Epilepsy Diagnosis Using Interictal Scalp EEG  

E-print Network

Approximately over 50 million people worldwide suffer from epilepsy. Traditional diagnosis of epilepsy relies on tedious visual screening by highly trained clinicians from lengthy EEG recording that contains the presence of seizure (ictal) activities. Nowadays, there are many automatic systems that can recognize seizure-related EEG signals to help the diagnosis. However, it is very costly and inconvenient to obtain long-term EEG data with seizure activities, especially in areas short of medical resources. We demonstrate in this paper that we can use the interictal scalp EEG data, which is much easier to collect than the ictal data, to automatically diagnose whether a person is epileptic. In our automated EEG recognition system, we extract three classes of features from the EEG data and build Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNNs) fed with these features. We optimize the feature extraction parameters and combine these PNNs through a voting mechanism. As a result, our system achieves an impressive 94.07% accuracy...

Bao, Forrest Sheng; Hu, Jing; Lie, Donald Y -C; Zhang, Yuanlin; Oommen, K J

2009-01-01

177

[Biologic artifacts in quantitative EEG].  

PubMed

We studied the influence of five biologic artifacts sources on quantitative EEG (blinking, forced eyes closure, forced jaw closure, tongue movements and pursuit eyes movements) through both visual and spectral analysis, with the purpose of verifying how do these artifacts can be seen in a cartographic way. We found that the spectrums potentials showed the same topographic display that was found through visual analysis. Visual analysis was superior than the quantitative evaluation to recognise the artifacts, as the former preserved the morphological display of the paroxysms. However it is important know how do the potentials are represented in quantitative maps, so that they can be identified as artifacts and not as pathologic EEG activity. PMID:16791367

Anghinah, Renato; Basile, Luis I; Schmidt, Magali T; Sameshima, Koichi; Gattaz, Wagner Farid

2006-06-01

178

Fundamentals of EEG Methodology in Concussion Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EEG in humans was first demonstrated by Hans Berger in the 1920s. His initial speculation that EEG could give us insight\\u000a into physiological and cognitive processes has been validated in a variety of situations ranging from sleep to wakefulness\\u000a as well as physiological concomitants of a variety of cognitive events. The current chapter will review basic EEG processes\\u000a and

William J. Ray; Semyon Slobounov

179

Mahalanobis distance-based classifiers are able to recognize EEG patterns by using few EEG electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the use of quadratic classifiers based on Mahalanobis distance to detect EEG patterns from a reduced set of recording electrodes. Such classifiers used the diagonal and full covariance matrix of EEG spectral features extracted from EEG data. Such data were recorded from a group of 8 healthy subjects with 4 electrodes, placed in C3, P3, C4, P4 position

Fabio Babiloni; Luigi Bianchi; Francesco Semeraro; J. del R Millan; J. Mourino; A. Cattini; S. Salinari; M. G. Marciani; F. Cincotti

2001-01-01

180

Full-band EEG (FbEEG): an emerging standard in electroencephalography  

Microsoft Academic Search

While enormous resources have been recently invested into the development of a variety of neuroimaging techniques, the bandwidth of the clinical EEG, originally set by trivial technical limitations, has remained practically unaltered for over 50 years. An increasing amount of evidence shows that salient EEG signals are observed beyond the bandwidth of the routine clinical EEG, which is typically around

Sampsa Vanhatalo; Juha Voipio; Kai Kaila

2005-01-01

181

Tele-transmission of EEG recordings.  

PubMed

EEG recordings can be sent for remote interpretation. This article aims to define the tele-EEG procedures and technical guidelines. Tele-EEG is a complete medical act that needs to be carried out with the same quality requirements as a local one in terms of indications, formulation of the medical request and medical interpretation. It adheres to the same quality requirements for its human resources and materials. It must be part of a medical organization (technical and medical network) and follow all rules and guidelines of good medical practices. The financial model of this organization must include costs related to performing the EEG recording, operating and maintenance of the tele-EEG network and medical fees of the physician interpreting the EEG recording. Implementing this organization must be detailed in a convention between all parties involved: physicians, management of the healthcare structure, and the company providing the tele-EEG service. This convention will set rules for network operation and finance, and also the continuous training of all staff members. The tele-EEG system must respect all rules for safety and confidentiality, and ensure the traceability and storing of all requests and reports. Under these conditions, tele-EEG can optimize the use of human resources and competencies in its zone of utilization and enhance the organization of care management. PMID:25703437

Lemesle, M; Kubis, N; Sauleau, P; N'Guyen The Tich, S; Touzery-de Villepin, A

2015-03-01

182

EEG Evolution in Sturge-Weber Syndrome  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The EEG in Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) was theorized over 50 years ago as changing over time from normality to focal asymmetry to lastly epileptiform. We sought to validate these findings in a larger cohort today. Children with confirmed SWS and routine EEG at our center were evaluated retrospectively. An EEG score (0–3) was created and linked to patient current age, overall neurologic function, and seizure frequency. Eighty-one EEGs from 44 patients with SWS (mean age 2.0 years (range: 0.2 – 37.9 years) were evaluated and assigned an EEG score. The mean age for patients with an EEG score of 0–1 (normal or focal slowing) was 3.2 years (SEM 0.6), whereas those with an EEG score of 2–3 (focal sharp waves or frequent spike-wave bursts) was 8.7 years (SEM 1.7) (p=0.006). There was no correlation between the EEG score and either the SWS overall neuroscore or seizure subscore (measuring frequency). The EEG in patients with SWS does appear to evolve over time, becoming more abnormal with more frequent epileptiform activity, as suspected in smaller studies decades ago. This progressive change, however, did not correlate with the child’s neurologic function or seizure frequency. PMID:24560844

Kossoff, Eric H.; Bachur, Cathy; Quain, Angela M.; Ewen, Joshua B.; Comi, Anne M.

2014-01-01

183

EEG evolution in Sturge-Weber syndrome.  

PubMed

The EEG in Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) was theorized over 50 years ago as changing over time from normality to focal asymmetry to lastly epileptiform. We sought to validate these findings in a larger cohort today. Children with confirmed SWS and routine EEG at our center were evaluated retrospectively. An EEG score (0-3) was created and linked to patient current age, overall neurologic function, and seizure frequency. Eighty-one EEGs from 44 patients with SWS (mean age 2.0 years (range: 0.2-37.9 years)) were evaluated and assigned an EEG score. The mean age for patients with an EEG score of 0-1 (normal or focal slowing) was 3.2 years (SEM 0.6), whereas those with an EEG score of 2-3 (focal sharp waves or frequent spike-wave bursts) was 8.7 years (SEM 1.7) (p=0.006). There was no correlation between the EEG score and either the SWS overall neuroscore or seizure subscore (measuring frequency). The EEG in patients with SWS does appear to evolve over time, becoming more abnormal with more frequent epileptiform activity, as suspected in smaller studies decades ago. This progressive change, however, did not correlate with the child's neurologic function or seizure frequency. PMID:24560844

Kossoff, Eric H; Bachur, Catherine D; Quain, Angela M; Ewen, Joshua B; Comi, Anne M

2014-05-01

184

Independent EEG sources are dipolar.  

PubMed

Independent component analysis (ICA) and blind source separation (BSS) methods are increasingly used to separate individual brain and non-brain source signals mixed by volume conduction in electroencephalographic (EEG) and other electrophysiological recordings. We compared results of decomposing thirteen 71-channel human scalp EEG datasets by 22 ICA and BSS algorithms, assessing the pairwise mutual information (PMI) in scalp channel pairs, the remaining PMI in component pairs, the overall mutual information reduction (MIR) effected by each decomposition, and decomposition 'dipolarity' defined as the number of component scalp maps matching the projection of a single equivalent dipole with less than a given residual variance. The least well-performing algorithm was principal component analysis (PCA); best performing were AMICA and other likelihood/mutual information based ICA methods. Though these and other commonly-used decomposition methods returned many similar components, across 18 ICA/BSS algorithms mean dipolarity varied linearly with both MIR and with PMI remaining between the resulting component time courses, a result compatible with an interpretation of many maximally independent EEG components as being volume-conducted projections of partially-synchronous local cortical field activity within single compact cortical domains. To encourage further method comparisons, the data and software used to prepare the results have been made available (http://sccn.ucsd.edu/wiki/BSSComparison). PMID:22355308

Delorme, Arnaud; Palmer, Jason; Onton, Julie; Oostenveld, Robert; Makeig, Scott

2012-01-01

185

From Oscillatory Transcranial Current Stimulation to Scalp EEG Changes: A Biophysical and Physiological Modeling Study  

PubMed Central

Both biophysical and neurophysiological aspects need to be considered to assess the impact of electric fields induced by transcranial current stimulation (tCS) on the cerebral cortex and the subsequent effects occurring on scalp EEG. The objective of this work was to elaborate a global model allowing for the simulation of scalp EEG signals under tCS. In our integrated modeling approach, realistic meshes of the head tissues and of the stimulation electrodes were first built to map the generated electric field distribution on the cortical surface. Secondly, source activities at various cortical macro-regions were generated by means of a computational model of neuronal populations. The model parameters were adjusted so that populations generated an oscillating activity around 10 Hz resembling typical EEG alpha activity. In order to account for tCS effects and following current biophysical models, the calculated component of the electric field normal to the cortex was used to locally influence the activity of neuronal populations. Lastly, EEG under both spontaneous and tACS-stimulated (transcranial sinunoidal tCS from 4 to 16 Hz) brain activity was simulated at the level of scalp electrodes by solving the forward problem in the aforementioned realistic head model. Under the 10 Hz-tACS condition, a significant increase in alpha power occurred in simulated scalp EEG signals as compared to the no-stimulation condition. This increase involved most channels bilaterally, was more pronounced on posterior electrodes and was only significant for tACS frequencies from 8 to 12 Hz. The immediate effects of tACS in the model agreed with the post-tACS results previously reported in real subjects. Moreover, additional information was also brought by the model at other electrode positions or stimulation frequency. This suggests that our modeling approach can be used to compare, interpret and predict changes occurring on EEG with respect to parameters used in specific stimulation configurations. PMID:23468970

Merlet, Isabelle; Birot, Gwénaël; Salvador, Ricardo; Molaee-Ardekani, Behnam; Mekonnen, Abeye; Soria-Frish, Aureli; Ruffini, Giulio; Miranda, Pedro C.; Wendling, Fabrice

2013-01-01

186

From oscillatory transcranial current stimulation to scalp EEG changes: a biophysical and physiological modeling study.  

PubMed

Both biophysical and neurophysiological aspects need to be considered to assess the impact of electric fields induced by transcranial current stimulation (tCS) on the cerebral cortex and the subsequent effects occurring on scalp EEG. The objective of this work was to elaborate a global model allowing for the simulation of scalp EEG signals under tCS. In our integrated modeling approach, realistic meshes of the head tissues and of the stimulation electrodes were first built to map the generated electric field distribution on the cortical surface. Secondly, source activities at various cortical macro-regions were generated by means of a computational model of neuronal populations. The model parameters were adjusted so that populations generated an oscillating activity around 10 Hz resembling typical EEG alpha activity. In order to account for tCS effects and following current biophysical models, the calculated component of the electric field normal to the cortex was used to locally influence the activity of neuronal populations. Lastly, EEG under both spontaneous and tACS-stimulated (transcranial sinunoidal tCS from 4 to 16 Hz) brain activity was simulated at the level of scalp electrodes by solving the forward problem in the aforementioned realistic head model. Under the 10 Hz-tACS condition, a significant increase in alpha power occurred in simulated scalp EEG signals as compared to the no-stimulation condition. This increase involved most channels bilaterally, was more pronounced on posterior electrodes and was only significant for tACS frequencies from 8 to 12 Hz. The immediate effects of tACS in the model agreed with the post-tACS results previously reported in real subjects. Moreover, additional information was also brought by the model at other electrode positions or stimulation frequency. This suggests that our modeling approach can be used to compare, interpret and predict changes occurring on EEG with respect to parameters used in specific stimulation configurations. PMID:23468970

Merlet, Isabelle; Birot, Gwénaël; Salvador, Ricardo; Molaee-Ardekani, Behnam; Mekonnen, Abeye; Soria-Frish, Aureli; Ruffini, Giulio; Miranda, Pedro C; Wendling, Fabrice

2013-01-01

187

Estimation of the propagation direction and spectral properties of the EEG signals registered during sevoflurane anaesthesia using Directed Transfer Function method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to estimate spectral properties and propagation of the EEG signals registered during sevoflurane anaesthesia between individual EEG recording channels. The intensities of activity flows were calculated for delta, theta, alpha and beta waves using the Directed Transfer Function integration procedure. It was found that delta waves played the dominant role in the EEG signal propagation during anesthesia and it was suggested that theta and alpha waves propagation could be related to the processes participating in the wakefulness control. Data obtained with DTF method were compared with data received from the analysis of cerebral blood flow with the use of PET in other laboratory. This study showed that analysis of the EEG signal propagation is useful for better understanding and thus safer induction of anaesthesia procedure.

Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Kaminski, Maciej; Marciniak, Radoslaw; Byrczek, Tomasz; Stasiowski, Michal; Jalowiecki, Przemyslaw; Sobieszek, Aleksander; Zmyslowski, Wojciech

2011-01-01

188

[The response of EEG activation in different neurohumoral conditions].  

PubMed

In order to examine under what neurohumoral condition response to the usual opening of the eyes is an incentive for the activation, electroencephalographic, electrocardiographic and electromyographic characteristics of the eyes open reaction in relation to the psychometric indicators of emotional stress and cognitive performance were recorded in 59 healthy women aged 18-27 every 2-3 days for 1-2 menstrual cycles, established in accordance with the morning levels of progesterone. For excluding NOVELTY factor influence one 29 women started monitoring at menstrual phase and other 30--at luteal phase of menstrual cycle. 30 women participated in a one-time monitoring, in which the relationship of these parameters with the current level of progesterone and cortisol in saliva was studied. Two factors ANOVA showed that the depth of the power suppression and the width of the individually determined low frequency alpha EEG range on follicular is more than on the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle of women and are influenced the NOVELTY. "Berger effect" indices of the upper alpha range are not changed depending on the neurohumoral status. Depth of the amplitude decrease and width of merely low-frequency alpha band could predict the activation in the eyes open response due to unidirectional changes and relationship to vegetative and hormonal characteristics of the activation. It was firstly established that eyes opening is an incentive factor to the activaition only when neurohumoral state corresponds to the follicular phase of the women mensrual cycle. This study reviles the dependence of the neuronal and vegetative activation mechanisms of the individual alpha frequency profile EEG and neurohumoral status. PMID:25707216

Bazanova, O M; Kuz'minova, O I; Nikolenko, E D; Petrova, S Iu

2014-01-01

189

EEG and ocular correlates of circadian melatonin phase and human performance decrements during sleep loss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of this study was to quantify the associations between slow eye movements (SEMs), eye blink rate, waking electroencephalogram (EEG) power density, neurobehavioral performance, and the circadian rhythm of plasma melatonin in a cohort of 10 healthy men during up to 32 h of sustained wakefulness. The time course of neurobehavioral performance was characterized by fairly stable levels throughout the first 16 h of wakefulness followed by deterioration during the phase of melatonin secretion. This deterioration was closely associated with an increase in SEMs. Frontal low-frequency EEG activity (1-7 Hz) exhibited a prominent increase with time awake and little circadian modulation. EEG alpha activity exhibited circadian modulation. The dynamics of SEMs and EEG activity were phase locked to changes in neurobehavioral performance and lagged the plasma melatonin rhythm. The data indicate that frontal areas of the brain are more susceptible to sleep loss than occipital areas. Frontal EEG activity and ocular parameters may be used to monitor and predict changes in neurobehavioral performance associated with sleep loss and circadian misalignment.

Cajochen, C.; Khalsa, S. B.; Wyatt, J. K.; Czeisler, C. A.; Dijk, D. J.

1999-01-01

190

Characterizing Alzheimer’s Disease Severity via Resting-Awake EEG Amplitude Modulation Analysis  

PubMed Central

Changes in electroencephalography (EEG) amplitude modulations have recently been linked with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Existing tools available to perform such analysis (e.g., detrended fluctuation analysis), however, provide limited gains in discriminability power over traditional spectral based EEG analysis. In this paper, we explore the use of an innovative EEG amplitude modulation analysis technique based on spectro-temporal signal processing. More specifically, full-band EEG signals are first decomposed into the five well-known frequency bands and the envelopes are then extracted via a Hilbert transform. Each of the five envelopes are further decomposed into four so-called modulation bands, which were chosen to coincide with the delta, theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Experiments on a resting-awake EEG dataset collected from 76 participants (27 healthy controls, 27 diagnosed with mild-AD, and 22 with moderate-AD) showed significant differences in amplitude modulations between the three groups. Most notably, i) delta modulation of the beta frequency band disappeared with an increase in disease severity (from mild to moderate AD), ii) delta modulation of the theta band appeared with an increase in severity, and iii) delta modulation of the beta frequency band showed to be a reliable discriminant feature between healthy controls and mild-AD patients. Taken together, it is hoped that the developed tool can be used to assist clinicians not only with early detection of Alzheimer’s disease, but also to monitor its progression. PMID:24015222

Fraga, Francisco J.; Falk, Tiago H.; Kanda, Paulo A. M.; Anghinah, Renato

2013-01-01

191

Characterizing Alzheimer's disease severity via resting-awake EEG amplitude modulation analysis.  

PubMed

Changes in electroencephalography (EEG) amplitude modulations have recently been linked with early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Existing tools available to perform such analysis (e.g., detrended fluctuation analysis), however, provide limited gains in discriminability power over traditional spectral based EEG analysis. In this paper, we explore the use of an innovative EEG amplitude modulation analysis technique based on spectro-temporal signal processing. More specifically, full-band EEG signals are first decomposed into the five well-known frequency bands and the envelopes are then extracted via a Hilbert transform. Each of the five envelopes are further decomposed into four so-called modulation bands, which were chosen to coincide with the delta, theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Experiments on a resting-awake EEG dataset collected from 76 participants (27 healthy controls, 27 diagnosed with mild-AD, and 22 with moderate-AD) showed significant differences in amplitude modulations between the three groups. Most notably, i) delta modulation of the beta frequency band disappeared with an increase in disease severity (from mild to moderate AD), ii) delta modulation of the theta band appeared with an increase in severity, and iii) delta modulation of the beta frequency band showed to be a reliable discriminant feature between healthy controls and mild-AD patients. Taken together, it is hoped that the developed tool can be used to assist clinicians not only with early detection of Alzheimer's disease, but also to monitor its progression. PMID:24015222

Fraga, Francisco J; Falk, Tiago H; Kanda, Paulo A M; Anghinah, Renato

2013-01-01

192

Atypical EEG Power Correlates With Indiscriminately Friendly Behavior in Internationally Adopted Children  

PubMed Central

While effects of institutional care on behavioral development have been studied extensively, effects on neural systems underlying these socioemotional and attention deficits are only beginning to be examined. The current study assessed electroencephalogram (EEG) power in 18-month-old internationally adopted, post-institutionalized children (n = 37) and comparison groups of non-adopted children (n = 47) and children internationally adopted from foster care (n = 39). For their age, post-institutionalized children had an atypical EEG power distribution, with relative power concentrated in lower frequency bands compared to non-adopted children. Both internationally adopted groups had lower absolute alpha power than non-adopted children. EEG power was not related to growth at adoption or to global cognitive ability. Atypical EEG power distribution at 18 months predicted indiscriminate friendliness and poorer inhibitory control at 36 months. Both post-institutionalized and foster care children were more likely than non-adopted children to exhibit indiscriminate friendliness. Results are consistent with a cortical hypoactivation model of the effects of early deprivation on neural development and provide initial evidence associating this atypical EEG pattern with indiscriminate friendliness. Outcomes observed in the foster care children raise questions about the specificity of institutional rearing as a risk factor and emphasize the need for broader consideration of the effects of early deprivation and disruptions in care. PMID:21171750

Tarullo, Amanda R.; Garvin, Melissa C.; Gunnar, Megan R.

2012-01-01

193

Quantitative EEG is an objective, sensitive, and reliable indicator of transient anesthetic effects during wada tests.  

PubMed

The intracarotid amobarbital or Wada procedure is a component of the presurgical evaluation for refractory epilepsy, during which monitoring the onset and offset of transient anesthetic effects is critical. In this study, the authors characterized changes of 8 quantitative measures during 26 Wada tests, which included alpha, beta, theta, and delta powers, alpha/delta power ratio, beta/delta power ratio, median amplitude-integrated EEG, and 90% spectral edge frequency (SEF90), and correlated them with contralateral hemiplegia. The authors found that on the side of injection, delta and theta powers, alpha/delta power ratio, beta/delta power ratio, and SEF90 peaked within 1 minute after injection of 70 to 150 mg amobarbital or 4 to 7 mg methohexital. When contralateral arm strength returned to 3/5, delta power and amplitude-integrated EEG decayed on average 24% and 19%, respectively, for amobarbital, similar to that of methohexital (27% and 18%). Because delta power resolution most closely mirrored that of the hemiplegia and amplitude-integrated EEG had the highest signal/noise ratio, these quantitative values appear to be the best measures for decay of anesthetic effects. Increase in alpha power persisted longest, and therefore may be the best measure of late residual anesthetic effects. PMID:25580802

Tu, Bin; Assassi, Nadege J; Bazil, Carl W; Hamberger, Marla J; Hirsch, Lawrence J

2015-04-01

194

Ultrafast EEG activities and their significance.  

PubMed

The true frequency range of the EEG is much broader than it has been assumed and taught for decades. The EEG apparatuses with inkwriting pens recording on paper are incapable of giving us trustworthy tracings beyond 80/sec. With the introduction of digital EEG machines, the exploration of the 60 to 1000 Hz range has already begun in the past few years (but, strangely enough, had been in use during the pioneer age when short photographic EEG recordings were made). The new wave of ultrafast recording began in the domain of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP). In the field of EEG (strictly speaking), research work started very recently. Ultrafast EEG activity promises new insights into the electrophysiological basis of epileptic phenomena. Activities from 150- to 500/sec have been noted in recent studies (including personal work). Faster frequencies (500-1000/sec) are likely to play a major role in the electrophysiology of neurocognition and motor initiation. Such EEG-based neurocognitive studies will provide us with in-real-time data and thus outperform PET scanning and functional MRI. Even ultrafast EEG activity has its limitation, which appears to lie around 1000/sec. Faster frequencies (1000-3000 Hz)--recorded mainly with cathode ray oscillography--are probably incompatible with the shortest duration of true field potentials and might be nothing but "neuronal chatter." PMID:16296442

Niedermeyer, E

2005-10-01

195

Development of Brainwave Balancing Index Using EEG  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, Wireless EEG equipment via Bluetooth technology named g-Mobilab was used to measure the brainwave signals in the right and left frontal area of the brain. The recorded EEG signals were channelled into an automatic artifact removal analysis whereby signals above values of 100 micro-volts were removed by means of a program using Matlab. Consequently, Power Spectral Density

Zunairah Hj. Murat; Mohd Nasir Taib; Sahrim Lias; Ros Shilawani S. Abdul Kadir; Norizam Sulaiman; Zodie Mohd Hanafiah

2011-01-01

196

Estimating Alertness from the EEG Power Spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tasks requiring sustained attention, human alertness varies on a minute time scale. This can have seriousconsequences in occupations ranging from air traffic control to monitoring of nuclear power plants. Changesin the electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectrum accompany these fluctuations in the level of alertness,as assessed by measuring simultaneous changes in EEG and performance on an auditory monitoring task. Bycombining power

Tzyy-ping Jung; Scott Makeig; Magnus Stensmo; Terrence J. Sejnowski

1997-01-01

197

A stretchable electrode array for non-invasive, skin-mounted measurement of electrocardiography (ECG), electromyography (EMG) and electroencephalography (EEG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a class of stretchable electrode array capable of intimate, conformal integration onto the curvilinear surfaces of skin on the human body. The designs employ conventional metallic conductors but in optimized mechanical layouts, on soft, thin elastomeric substrates. These devices exhibit an ability to record spontaneous EEG activity even without conductive electrolyte gels, with recorded alpha rhythm responses

Rui Ma; Dae-Hyeong Kim; Martin McCormick; Todd Coleman; John Rogers

2010-01-01

198

Neural Correlates of Action Observation and Execution in 14-Month-Old Infants: An Event-Related EEG Desynchronization Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is increasing interest in neurobiological methods for investigating the shared representation of action perception and production in early development. We explored the extent and regional specificity of EEG desynchronization in the infant alpha frequency range (6-9 Hz) during action observation and execution in 14-month-old infants.…

Marshall, Peter J.; Young, Thomas; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

2011-01-01

199

Differences in Cognitive Processes between Gifted, Intelligent, Creative, and Average Individuals While Solving Complex Problems: An EEG Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied differences in cognitive processes related to creativity and intelligence using EEG coherence and power measures in the lower and upper alpha bands. Results of 2 experiments involving 49 and 48 right-handed student teachers suggest that creativity and intelligence are different abilities that also differ in the neurological activity…

Jausovec, Norbert

2000-01-01

200

EEG entropy measures in anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Highlights: ? Twelve entropy indices were systematically compared in monitoring depth of anesthesia and detecting burst suppression.? Renyi permutation entropy performed best in tracking EEG changes associated with different anesthesia states.? Approximate Entropy and Sample Entropy performed best in detecting burst suppression. Objective: Entropy algorithms have been widely used in analyzing EEG signals during anesthesia. However, a systematic comparison of these entropy algorithms in assessing anesthesia drugs' effect is lacking. In this study, we compare the capability of 12 entropy indices for monitoring depth of anesthesia (DoA) and detecting the burst suppression pattern (BSP), in anesthesia induced by GABAergic agents. Methods: Twelve indices were investigated, namely Response Entropy (RE) and State entropy (SE), three wavelet entropy (WE) measures [Shannon WE (SWE), Tsallis WE (TWE), and Renyi WE (RWE)], Hilbert-Huang spectral entropy (HHSE), approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn), Fuzzy entropy, and three permutation entropy (PE) measures [Shannon PE (SPE), Tsallis PE (TPE) and Renyi PE (RPE)]. Two EEG data sets from sevoflurane-induced and isoflurane-induced anesthesia respectively were selected to assess the capability of each entropy index in DoA monitoring and BSP detection. To validate the effectiveness of these entropy algorithms, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling and prediction probability (Pk) analysis were applied. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) as a non-entropy measure was compared. Results: All the entropy and MDFA indices could track the changes in EEG pattern during different anesthesia states. Three PE measures outperformed the other entropy indices, with less baseline variability, higher coefficient of determination (R2) and prediction probability, and RPE performed best; ApEn and SampEn discriminated BSP best. Additionally, these entropy measures showed an advantage in computation efficiency compared with MDFA. Conclusion: Each entropy index has its advantages and disadvantages in estimating DoA. Overall, it is suggested that the RPE index was a superior measure. Investigating the advantages and disadvantages of these entropy indices could help improve current clinical indices for monitoring DoA. PMID:25741277

Liang, Zhenhu; Wang, Yinghua; Sun, Xue; Li, Duan; Voss, Logan J.; Sleigh, Jamie W.; Hagihira, Satoshi; Li, Xiaoli

2015-01-01

201

Event-related EEG time-frequency PCA and the orienting reflex to auditory stimuli.  

PubMed

We recently reported an auditory habituation series with counterbalanced indifferent and significant (counting) instructions. Time-frequency (t-f) analysis of electrooculogram-corrected EEG was used to explore event-related synchronization (ERS)/desynchronization (ERD) in four EEG bands using arbitrarily selected time epochs and traditional frequency ranges. ERS in delta, theta, and alpha, and subsequent ERD in theta, alpha, and beta, showed substantial decrement over trials, yet effects of stimulus significance (count vs. no-task) were minimal. Here, we used principal components analysis (PCA) of the t-f data to investigate the natural frequency and time combinations involved in such stimulus processing. We identified four ERS and four ERD t-f components: six showed decrement over trials, four showed count > no-task effects, and six showed Significance?×?Trial interactions. This increased sensitivity argues for the wider use of our data-driven t-f PCA approach. PMID:25353309

Barry, Robert J; De Blasio, Frances M; Bernat, Edward M; Steiner, Genevieve Z

2015-04-01

202

EEG findings in fetal alcohol syndrome and Down syndrome children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from previous studies evaluating the electroencephalograms (EEGs) of infants bom to alcoholic mothers suggest that the neonatal EEG may be a sensitive measure of prenatal ethanol exposure. Few studies, however, have examined EEG records of adolescent children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The present study investigated the resting EEG recordings of 18 matched triads of FAS, Down syndrome, and

W. M. Kaneko; E. L. Phillips; E. P. Riley; C. L. Ehlers

1996-01-01

203

[Voluntary alpha-power increasing training impact on the heart rate variability].  

PubMed

In order to study the effect of the alpha EEG power increasing training at heart rate variability (HRV) as the index of the autonomic regulation of cognitive functions there were follow tasks: (1) to figure out the impact of biofeedback in the voluntary increasing the power in the individual high-frequency alpha-band effect on heart rate variability and related characteristics of cognitive and emotional spheres, (2) to determine the nature of the relationship between alpha activity indices and heart rate variability, depending on the alpha-frequency EEG pattern at rest (3) to examine how the individual alpha frequency EEG pattern is reflected in changes HRV as a result of biofeedback training. Psychometric indicators of cognitive performance, the characteristics of the alpha-EEG activity and heart rate variability (HRV) as LF/HF and pNN50 were recorded in 27 healthy men aged 18-34 years, before, during, and after 10 sessions of training of voluntary increase in alpha power in the individual high-frequency alpha band with eyes closed. To determine the biofeedback effect on the alpha power increasing training, data subjects are compared in 2 groups: experimental (14) with the real and the control group (13 people)--with mock biofeedback. The follow up effect of trainings was studied through month over the 10 training sessions. Results showed that alpha biofeedback training enhanced the fluency and accuracy in cognitive performance, decreased anxiety and frontal EMG, increased resting frequency, width and power in individual upper alpha range only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock biofeedback increased resting alpha power only in participants with high baseline resting alpha frequency and did change neither cognitive performance, nor HRV indices. Biofeedback training eliminated the alpha power decrease in response to arithmetic task in both with high and low alpha frequency participants and this effect was followed up over the month. Mock biofeedback training has no such effect. The positive correlation between the alpha-peak frequency and pNN50 in patients with initially low, but negative--those with high baseline alpha frequency explains the multidirectional biofeedback effects on HRV in low and high alpha frequency subjects. The individual alpha-frequency EEG pattern determines the effectiveness of the alpha EEG biofeedback training in changing heart rate variability, which provides a basis for predicting the results and develop individual approaches to the biofeedback technology implementation that can be used in clinical practice for treatment and rehabilitation of psychosomatic syndromes and in educational training. PMID:23668077

Bazanova, O M; Balioz, N V; Muravleva, K B; Skoraia, M V

2013-01-01

204

EEG Spectral Features Discriminate between Alzheimer’s and Vascular Dementia  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) present with similar clinical symptoms of cognitive decline, but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms differ. To determine whether clinical electroencephalography (EEG) can provide information relevant to discriminate between these diagnoses, we used quantitative EEG analysis to compare the spectra between non-medicated patients with AD (n?=?77) and VaD (n?=?77) and healthy elderly normal controls (NC) (n?=?77). We use curve-fitting with a combination of a power loss and Gaussian function to model the averaged resting-state spectra of each EEG channel extracting six parameters. We assessed the performance of our model and tested the extracted parameters for group differentiation. We performed regression analysis in a multivariate analysis of covariance with group, age, gender, and number of epochs as predictors and further explored the topographical group differences with pair-wise contrasts. Significant topographical differences between the groups were found in several of the extracted features. Both AD and VaD groups showed increased delta power when compared to NC, whereas the AD patients showed a decrease in alpha power for occipital and temporal regions when compared with NC. The VaD patients had higher alpha power than NC and AD. The AD and VaD groups showed slowing of the alpha rhythm. Variability of the alpha frequency was wider for both AD and VaD groups. There was a general decrease in beta power for both AD and VaD. The proposed model is useful to parameterize spectra, which allowed extracting relevant clinical EEG key features that move toward simple and interpretable diagnostic criteria.

Neto, Emanuel; Allen, Elena A.; Aurlien, Harald; Nordby, Helge; Eichele, Tom

2015-01-01

205

ORIGINAL PAPER Sensitivity of EEG and MEG to the N1 and P2 Auditory Evoked  

E-print Network

of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) to these neural correlates of sensation. Simultaneous EEG in humans. For instance, in theory the combination of EEG (electroencephalography) and MEG

Roberts, Larry

206

Alzheimer's disease qEEG: spectral analysis versus coherence. Which is the best measurement?  

PubMed

There is evidence in electroencephalography that alpha, theta and delta band oscillations reflect cognitive and memory performances and that quantitative techniques can improve the electroencephalogram (EEG) sensitivity. This paper presents the results of comparative analysis of qEEG variables as reliable markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We compared the sensitivity and specificity between spectral analysis (spectA) and coherence (Coh) within the same group of AD patients. SpectA and Coh were calculated from EEGs of 40 patients with mild to moderate AD and 40 healthy elderly controls. The peak of spectA was smaller in the AD group than in controls. AD group showed predominance of slow spectA in theta and delta bands and a significant reduction of inter-hemispheric Coh for occipital alpha 2 and beta 1 and for frontal delta sub-band. ROC curve supported that alpha band spectA was more sensitive than coherence to differentiate controls from AD. PMID:22297870

Anghinah, Renato; Kanda, Paulo Afonso Medeiros; Lopes, Helder Frederico; Basile, Luis Fernando Hindi; Machado, Sérgio; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna; Sameshima, Koichi; Takahashi, Daniel Yasumasa; Pinto, Lécio Figueira; Caramelli, Paulo; Nitrini, Ricardo

2011-12-01

207

Resting EEG effects during exposure to a pulsed ELF magnetic field.  

PubMed

Continuing evidence suggests that extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MFs) can affect animal and human behavior. We have previously demonstrated that after a 15 min exposure to a pulsed ELF MF, with most power at frequencies between 0 and 500 Hz, human brain electrical activity is affected as measured by electroencephalography (EEG), specifically within the alpha frequency (8-13 Hz). Here, we report that a pulsed ELF MF affects the human EEG during the exposure period. Twenty subjects (10 males; 10 females) received both a magnetic field and a sham session of 15 min in a counterbalanced design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that alpha activity was significantly lower over the occipital electrodes (O1, Oz, O2) [F(1,16) = 5.376, P < .01, eta2 = 0.418] after the first 5 min of magnetic field exposure and was found to be related to the order of exposure (MF-sham vs. sham-MF). This decrease in alpha activity was no longer significant in the 1st min post-exposure, compared to sham (P > .05). This study is among the first to assess EEG frequency changes during a weak (+/-200 microTpk), pulsed ELF MF exposure. PMID:15887255

Cook, Charles M; Thomas, Alex W; Keenliside, Lynn; Prato, Frank S

2005-07-01

208

Circadian variation of EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep in humans: dissociation from body temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In humans, EEG power spectra in REM and NREM sleep, as well as characteristics of sleep spindles such as their duration, amplitude, frequency and incidence, vary with circadian phase. Recently it has been hypothesized that circadian variations in EEG spectra in humans are caused by variations in brain or body temperature and may not represent phenomena relevant to sleep regulatory processes. To test this directly, a further analysis of EEG power spectra - collected in a forced desynchrony protocol in which sleep episodes were scheduled to a 28-h period while the rhythms of body temperature and plasma melatonin were oscillating at their near 24-h period - was carried out. EEG power spectra were computed for NREM and REM sleep occurring between 90-120 and 270-300 degrees of the circadian melatonin rhythm, i.e. just after the clearance of melatonin from plasma in the 'morning' and just after the 'evening' increase in melatonin secretion. Average body temperatures during scheduled sleep at these two circadian phases were identical (36.72 degrees C). Despite identical body temperatures, the power spectra in NREM sleep were very different at these two circadian phases. EEG activity in the low frequency spindle range was significantly and markedly enhanced after the evening increase in plasma melatonin as compared to the morning phase. For REM sleep, significant differences in power spectra during these two circadian phases, in particular in the alpha range, were also observed. The results confirm that EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep vary with circadian phase, suggesting that the direct contribution of temperature to the circadian variation in EEG power spectra is absent or only minor, and are at variance with the hypothesis that circadian variations in EEG power spectra are caused by variations in temperature.

Dijk, D. J.

1999-01-01

209

Alpha Thalassemia  

MedlinePLUS

Alpha Thalassemia ? Physicians often mistake alpha thalassemia trait for iron deficiency anemia and incorrectly prescribe iron supplements that have no effect on the anemia. Normal alpha globin genes found on ...

210

Oscillatory EEG correlates of arithmetic strategies: a training study.  

PubMed

There has been a long tradition of research on mathematics education showing that children and adults use different strategies to solve arithmetic problems. Neurophysiological studies have recently begun to investigate the brain correlates of these strategies. The existing body of data, however, reflect static end points of the learning process and do not provide information on how brain activity changes in response to training or intervention. In this study, we explicitly address this issue by training participants in using fact retrieval strategies. We also investigate whether brain activity related to arithmetic fact learning is domain-specific or whether this generalizes to other learning materials, such as the solution of figural-spatial problems. Twenty adult students were trained on sets of two-digit multiplication problems and figural-spatial problems. After the training, they were presented with the trained and untrained problems while their brain activity was recorded by means of electroencephalography (EEG). In both problem types, the training resulted in accuracies over 90% and significant decreases in solution times. Analyses of the oscillatory EEG data also revealed training effects across both problem types. Specifically, we observed training-related activity increases in the theta band (3-6?Hz) and decreases in the lower alpha band (8-10?Hz), especially over parietooccipital and parietal brain regions. These results provide the first evidence that a short-term fact retrieval training results in significant changes in oscillatory EEG activity. These findings further corroborate the role of the theta band in the retrieval of semantic information from memory and suggest that theta activity is sensitive to fact retrieval not only in mental arithmetic but also in other domains. PMID:23162495

Grabner, Roland H; De Smedt, Bert

2012-01-01

211

The Sleep EEG as a Marker of Intellectual Ability in School Age Children  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the within-subject stability in the sleep EEG and the association between the sleep EEG and intellectual abilities in 9- to 12-year-old children. Design: Intellectual ability (WISC-IV, full scale, fluid, and verbal IQ, working memory, speed of processing) were examined and all-night polysomnography was performed (2 nights per subject). Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Fourteen healthy children (mean age 10.5 ± 1.0 years; 6 girls). Measurements and Results: Spectral analysis was performed on artifact-free NREM sleep epochs (C3/A2). To determine intra-individual stability and inter-individual variability of the sleep EEG, power spectra were used as feature vectors for the estimation of Euclidean distances, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for the 2 nights. Sleep spindle peaks were identified for each individual and individual sigma band power was determined. Trait-like aspects of the sleep EEG were observed for sleep stage variables and spectral power. Within-subject distances were smaller than between-subject distances and ICC values ranged from 0.72 to 0.96. Correlations between spectral power in individual frequency bins and intelligence scores revealed clusters of positive associations in the alpha, sigma, and beta range for full scale IQ, fluid IQ, and working memory. Similar to adults, sigma power correlated with full scale (r = 0.67) and fluid IQ (r = 0.65), but not with verbal IQ. Spindle peak frequency was negatively related to full scale IQ (r = ?0.56). Conclusions: The sleep EEG during childhood shows high within-subject stability and may be a marker for intellectual ability. Citation: Geiger A; Huber R; Kurth S; Ringli M; Jenni OG; Achermann P. The sleep EEG as a marker of intellectual ability in school age children. SLEEP 2011;34(2):181-189. PMID:21286251

Geiger, Anja; Huber, Reto; Kurth, Salomé; Ringli, Maya; Jenni, Oskar G.; Achermann, Peter

2011-01-01

212

Separation of circadian and wake duration-dependent modulation of EEG activation during wakefulness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The separate contribution of circadian rhythmicity and elapsed time awake on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during wakefulness was assessed. Seven men lived in an environmental scheduling facility for 4 weeks and completed fourteen 42.85-h 'days', each consisting of an extended (28.57-h) wake episode and a 14.28-h sleep opportunity. The circadian rhythm of plasma melatonin desynchronized from the 42.85-h day. This allowed quantification of the separate contribution of circadian phase and elapsed time awake to variation in EEG power spectra (1-32 Hz). EEG activity during standardized behavioral conditions was markedly affected by both circadian phase and elapsed time awake in an EEG frequency- and derivation-specific manner. The nadir of the circadian rhythm in alpha (8-12 Hz) activity in both fronto-central and occipito-parietal derivations occurred during the biological night, close to the crest of the melatonin rhythm. The nadir of the circadian rhythm of theta (4.5-8 Hz) and beta (20-32 Hz) activity in the fronto-central derivation was located close to the onset of melatonin secretion, i.e. during the wake maintenance zone. As time awake progressed, delta frequency (1-4.5 Hz) and beta (20-32 Hz) activity rose monotonically in frontal derivations. The interaction between the circadian and wake-dependent increase in frontal delta was such that the intrusion of delta was minimal when sustained wakefulness coincided with the biological day, but pronounced during the biological night. Our data imply that the circadian pacemaker facilitates frontal EEG activation during the wake maintenance zone, by generating an arousal signal that prevents the intrusion of low-frequency EEG components, the propensity for which increases progressively during wakefulness.

Cajochen, C.; Wyatt, J. K.; Czeisler, C. A.; Dijk, D. J.

2002-01-01

213

Optimal set of EEG features for emotional state classification and trajectory visualization in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

In addition to classic motor signs and symptoms, individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) are characterized by emotional deficits. Ongoing brain activity can be recorded by electroencephalograph (EEG) to discover the links between emotional states and brain activity. This study utilized machine-learning algorithms to categorize emotional states in PD patients compared with healthy controls (HC) using EEG. Twenty non-demented PD patients and 20 healthy age-, gender-, and education level-matched controls viewed happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust emotional stimuli while fourteen-channel EEG was being recorded. Multimodal stimulus (combination of audio and visual) was used to evoke the emotions. To classify the EEG-based emotional states and visualize the changes of emotional states over time, this paper compares four kinds of EEG features for emotional state classification and proposes an approach to track the trajectory of emotion changes with manifold learning. From the experimental results using our EEG data set, we found that (a) bispectrum feature is superior to other three kinds of features, namely power spectrum, wavelet packet and nonlinear dynamical analysis; (b) higher frequency bands (alpha, beta and gamma) play a more important role in emotion activities than lower frequency bands (delta and theta) in both groups and; (c) the trajectory of emotion changes can be visualized by reducing subject-independent features with manifold learning. This provides a promising way of implementing visualization of patient's emotional state in real time and leads to a practical system for noninvasive assessment of the emotional impairments associated with neurological disorders. PMID:25109433

Yuvaraj, R; Murugappan, M; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Omar, Mohd Iqbal; Mohamad, Khairiyah; Palaniappan, R

2014-12-01

214

Enabling computer decisions based on EEG input  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multilayer neural networks were successfully trained to classify segments of 12-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) data into one of five classes corresponding to five cognitive tasks performed by a subject. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to segregate obvious artifact EEG components from other sources, and a frequency-band representation was used to represent the sources computed by ICA. Examples of results include an 85% accuracy rate on differentiation between two tasks, using a segment of EEG only 0.05 s long and a 95% accuracy rate using a 0.5-s-long segment.

Culpepper, Benjamin J.; Keller, Robert M.

2003-01-01

215

Towards wireless emotional valence detection from EEG.  

PubMed

Intelligent affective computers can have many medical and non-medical applications. However today's affective computers are limited in scope by their transferability to other application environments or that they monitor only one aspect of physiological emotion expression. Here, the use of a wireless EEG system, which can be implemented in a body area network, is used to investigate the potential of monitoring emotional valence in EEG, for application in real-life situations. The results show 82% accuracy for automatic classification of positive, negative and neutral valence based on film clip viewing, using features containing information on both the frequency content of the EEG and how this changes over time. PMID:22254773

Brown, Lindsay; Grundlehner, Bernard; Penders, Julien

2011-01-01

216

Behavioural and EEG effects of chronic rapamycin treatment in a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex.  

PubMed

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a multisystem genetic disorder caused by mutation in either Tsc1 or Tsc2 genes that leads to the hyper activation of the mTOR pathway, a key signalling pathway for synaptic plasticity. TSC is characterized by benign tumors arising in different organs and severe neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as epilepsy, intellectual disability, autism, anxiety and depressive behaviour. Rapamycin is a potent inhibitor of mTOR and its efficacy in treating epilepsy and neurological symptoms remains elusive. In a mouse model in which Tsc1 has been deleted in embryonic telencephalic neural stem cells, we analyzed anxiety- and depression-like behaviour by elevated-plus maze (EPM), open-field test (OFT), forced-swim test (FST) and tail-suspension test (TST), after chronic administration of rapamycin. In addition, spectral analysis of background EEG was performed. Rapamycin-treated mutant mice displayed a reduction in anxiety- and depression-like phenotype, as shown by the EPM/OFT and FST, respectively. These results were inline with EEG power spectra outcomes. The same effects of rapamycin were observed in wild-type mice. Notably, in heterozygous animals we did not observe any EEG and/or behavioural variation after rapamycin treatment. Together these results suggest that both TSC1 deletion and chronic rapamycin treatment might have a role in modulating behaviour and brain activity, and point out to the potential usefulness of background EEG analysis in tracking brain dysfunction in parallel with behavioural testing. PMID:23159330

Cambiaghi, Marco; Cursi, Marco; Magri, Laura; Castoldi, Valerio; Comi, Giancarlo; Minicucci, Fabio; Galli, Rossella; Leocani, Letizia

2013-04-01

217

Automatic seizure detection: going from sEEG to iEEG.  

PubMed

Several different algorithms have been proposed for automatic detection of epileptic seizure based on both scalp and intracranial electroencephalography (sEEG and iEEG). Which modality that renders the best result is hard to assess though. From 16 patients with focal epilepsy, at least 24 hours of ictal and non-ictal iEEG were obtained. Characteristics of the seizures are represented by use of wavelet transformation (WT) features and classified by a support vector machine. When implementing a method used for sEEG on iEEG data, a great improvement in performance was obtained when the high frequency containing lower levels in the WT were included in the analysis. We were able to obtain a sensitivity of 96.4% and a false detection rate (FDR) of 0.20/h. In general, when implementing an automatic seizure detection algorithm made for sEEG on iEEG, great improvement can be obtained if a frequency band widening of the feature extraction is performed. This means that algorithms for sEEG should not be discarded for use on iEEG - they should be properly adjusted as exemplified in this paper. PMID:21095958

Henriksen, Jonas; Remvig, Line S; Madsen, Rasmus E; Conradsen, Isa; Kjaer, Troels W; Thomsen, Carsten E; Sorensen, Helge B D

2010-01-01

218

Improving N1 classification by grouping EEG trials with phases of pre-stimulus EEG oscillations.  

PubMed

A reactive brain-computer interface using electroencephalography (EEG) relies on the classification of evoked ERP responses. As the trial-to-trial variation is evitable in EEG signals, it is a challenge to capture the consistent classification features distribution. Clustering EEG trials with similar features and utilizing a specific classifier adjusted to each cluster can improve EEG classification. In this paper, instead of measuring the similarity of ERP features, the brain states during image stimuli presentation that evoked N1 responses were used to group EEG trials. The correlation between momentary phases of pre-stimulus EEG oscillations and N1 amplitudes was analyzed. The results demonstrated that the phases of time-frequency points about 5.3 Hz and 0.3 s before the stimulus onset have significant effect on the ERP classification accuracy. Our findings revealed that N1 components in ERP fluctuated with momentary phases of EEG. We also further studied the influence of pre-stimulus momentary phases on classification of N1 features. Results showed that linear classifiers demonstrated outstanding classification performance when training and testing trials have close momentary phases. Therefore, this gave us a new direction to improve EEG classification by grouping EEG trials with similar pre-stimulus phases and using each to train unit classifiers respectively. PMID:25852778

Han, Li; Liang, Zhang; Jiacai, Zhang; Changming, Wang; Li, Yao; Xia, Wu; Xiaojuan, Guo

2015-04-01

219

EEG  

MedlinePLUS

... list of your medicines with you. Avoid all food and drinks containing caffeine for 8 hours before ... electroencephalography and evoked potentials. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in ...

220

Recognition of Words from the EEG Laplacian  

E-print Network

Recent works on the relationship between the electro-encephalogram (EEG) data and psychological stimuli show that EEG recordings can be used to recognize an auditory stimulus presented to a subject. The recognition rate is, however, strongly affected by technical and physiological artifacts. In this work, subjects were presented seven auditory simuli in the form of English words (first, second, third, left, right, yes, and no), and the time-locked electric field was recorded with a 64 channel Neuroscan EEG system. We used the surface Laplacian operator to eliminate artifacts due to sources located at regions far from the electrode. Our intent with the Laplacian was to improve the recognition rates of auditory stimuli from the electric field. To compute the Laplacian, we used a spline interpolation from spherical harmonics. The EEG Laplacian of the electric field were average over trials for the same auditory stimulus, and with those averages we constructed prototypes and test samples. In addition to the Lapla...

de Barros, J Acacio; de Mendonça, J P R F; Suppes, P

2012-01-01

221

Compression of EEG multichannel signal using wavelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In here we present the application of Wavelet function to compress the electroencephalogram (EEG) into a multichannel system. The system consists of electronic components as bio-amplifies, analog filters, multi-channel ADC, microprocessor, PCMCIA memory, etc. The compressing algorithms for EEG signal were implemented using language C\\/C++. The coefficients of digital FIR filter into compression algorithm were chosen as the coefficients of

Volodymyr I. Ponomaryov; Leonardo Badillo; Cristina Juarez; J. Luis Sanchez; Luis Igartua; Juan C. Sanchez Garcia

2002-01-01

222

Using EEG to explore how rTMS produces its effects on behavior.  

PubMed

A commonly held view is that, when delivered during the performance of a task, repetitive TMS (rTMS) influences behavior by producing transient "virtual lesions" in targeted tissue. However, findings of rTMS-related improvements in performance are difficult to reconcile with this assumption. With regard to the mechanism whereby rTMS influences concurrent task performance, a combined rTMS/EEG study conducted in our lab has revealed a complex set of relations between rTMS, EEG activity, and behavioral performance, with the effects of rTMS on power in the alpha band and on alpha:gamma phase synchrony each predicting its effect on behavior. These findings suggest that rTMS influences performance by biasing endogenous task-related oscillatory dynamics, rather than creating a "virtual lesion". To further differentiate these two alternatives, in the present study we compared the effects of 10 Hz rTMS on neural activity with the results of an experiment in which rTMS was replaced with 10 Hz luminance flicker. We reasoned that 10 Hz flicker would produce widespread entrainment of neural activity to the flicker frequency, and comparison of these EEG results with those from the rTMS study would shed light on whether the latter also reflected entrainment to an exogenous stimulus. Results revealed pronounced evidence for "entrainment noise" produced by 10 Hz flicker-increased oscillatory power and inter-trial coherence (ITC) at the driving frequency, and increased alpha:gamma phase synchronization-that were nonetheless largely uncorrelated with behavior. This contrasts markedly with 10-Hz rTMS, for which the only evidence for stimulation-induced noise, elevated ITC at 30 Hz, differed qualitatively from the flicker results. Simultaneous recording of the EEG thus offers an important means of directly testing assumptions about how rTMS exerts its effects on behavior. PMID:19915972

Johnson, Jeffrey S; Hamidi, Massihullah; Postle, Bradley R

2010-01-01

223

Short-Term EEG Spectral Pattern as a Single Event in EEG Phenomenology  

PubMed Central

Spectral decomposition, to this day, still remains the main analytical paradigm for the analysis of EEG oscillations. However, conventional spectral analysis assesses the mean characteristics of the EEG power spectra averaged out over extended periods of time and/or broad frequency bands, thus resulting in a “static” picture which cannot reflect adequately the underlying neurodynamic. A relatively new promising area in the study of EEG is based on reducing the signal to elementary short-term spectra of various types in accordance with the number of types of EEG stationary segments instead of using averaged power spectrum for the whole EEG. It is suggested that the various perceptual and cognitive operations associated with a mental or behavioural condition constitute a single distinguishable neurophysiological state with a distinct and reliable spectral pattern. In this case, one type of short-term spectral pattern may be considered as a single event in EEG phenomenology. To support this assumption the following issues are considered in detail: (a) the relations between local EEG short-term spectral pattern of particular type and the actual state of the neurons in underlying network and a volume conduction; (b) relationship between morphology of EEG short-term spectral pattern and the state of the underlying neurodynamical system i.e. neuronal assembly; (c) relation of different spectral pattern components to a distinct physiological mechanism; (d) relation of different spectral pattern components to different functional significance; (e) developmental changes of spectral pattern components; (f) heredity of the variance in the individual spectral pattern and its components; (g) intra-individual stability of the sets of EEG short-term spectral patterns and their percent ratio; (h) discrete dynamics of EEG short-term spectral patterns. Functional relevance (consistency) of EEG short-term spectral patterns in accordance with the changes of brain functional state, cognitive task and with different neuropsychopathologies is demonstrated. PMID:21379390

Fingelkurts, Al. A; Fingelkurts, An. A

2010-01-01

224

Long-term development of intelligence (IQ) and EEG in 34 children with phenylketonuria treated early.  

PubMed

In 34 children with phenylketonuria (PKU) treated early the prognostic value of the age on institution of the diet (within the first 3 months of life) and of the quality of dietary treatment was determined in two different ways: 1) following intelligence closely (IQ) and (2) evaluating the EEG development up to their 12th (n = 34) and 15th (n = 18) years of life as appropriate. In general, IQ scores were found to be normal from the 4th-15th years of life. In our group of patients there was no effect on the IQ of the timing of diet onset. Children with "strict" dietary control showed a significantly higher IQ than those with "loose" control. One hundred and fifty-four EEGs (10/20 system, awake with eyes closed) were recorded at intervals of 2 years and conventionally evaluated. The development of alpha-activity was found to be normal. Beta-activity was enhanced. Abnormal EEG findings like general slowing and generalized paroxysmal activity (GPA) with or without spikes were more frequent in children with PKU than in controls, with the exception of focal abnormalities. EEG abnormalities increased with advancing age independently of IQ development and showed no relation to either the age at the onset nor the quality of dietary treatment. PMID:3396592

Pietz, J; Benninger, C; Schmidt, H; Scheffner, D; Bickel, H

1988-05-01

225

Relationship between speed and EEG activity during imagined and executed hand movements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between primary motor cortex and movement kinematics has been shown in nonhuman primate studies of hand reaching or drawing tasks. Studies have demonstrated that the neural activities accompanying or immediately preceding the movement encode the direction, speed and other information. Here we investigated the relationship between the kinematics of imagined and actual hand movement, i.e. the clenching speed, and the EEG activity in ten human subjects. Study participants were asked to perform and imagine clenching of the left hand and right hand at various speeds. The EEG activity in the alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (18-28 Hz) frequency bands were found to be linearly correlated with the speed of imagery clenching. Similar parametric modulation was also found during the execution of hand movements. A single equation relating the EEG activity to the speed and the hand (left versus right) was developed. This equation, which contained a linear independent combination of the two parameters, described the time-varying neural activity during the tasks. Based on the model, a regression approach was developed to decode the two parameters from the multiple-channel EEG signals. We demonstrated the continuous decoding of dynamic hand and speed information of the imagined clenching. In particular, the time-varying clenching speed was reconstructed in a bell-shaped profile. Our findings suggest an application to providing continuous and complex control of noninvasive brain-computer interface for movement-impaired paralytics.

Yuan, Han; Perdoni, Christopher; He, Bin

2010-04-01

226

Nonconvulsive status epilepticus and Creutzfeldt–Jakob-like EEG changes in a case of lithium toxicity  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a 63-year-old lady with bipolar affective disorder on lithium who was brought to our emergency center in a comatose state. Neurologically, the patient was comatose and had generalized hypotonia and hyporeflexia. Lithium toxicity was considered. Laboratory examinations revealed leukocytosis, normal blood sugar, blood level of lithium was 4.7 mEq/L and she had renal dysfunction. Cerebrospinal fluid examination and cranial computerized tomography were unremarkable. Blood lithium level was 4.7 mEq/L. Hemodialysis was initiated. However, in spite of dialysis and decreasing lithium levels, the patient remained unconscious. A possibility of nonconvulsive status epilepticus was considered; hence, EEG was advised. The EEG demonstrated bihemispheric slowing (4- to 5-Hz theta range) with bilateral periodic triphasic waves of 1- to 2-Hz frequency, similar to the EEG changes seen in Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. She was started on lorazepam. Her sensorium improved gradually, which correlated with the decline in blood lithium levels. A normal background alpha rhythm on EEG was ensured prior to discharge. At discharge, clinically, she had recovered completely, with no apparent neurological deficit or cognitive impairment. This case highlights the importance of therapeutic drug-level monitoring of lithium, especially where toxicity is suspected, and the important role electroencephalography plays in diagnosing NCSE and its management. PMID:25667908

Madhusudhan, B.K.

2014-01-01

227

EEG gamma coherence and other correlates of subjective reports during ayahuasca experiences.  

PubMed

The current study examined QEEG power and coherence of ayahuasca experiences with two experienced participants in a Brazilian jungle setting. An exploratory case series design was adopted for naturalistic field research. EEGs recorded during visual imagery was compared to eyes-closed baselines. The most important findings were increases in global EEG coherence in the 36-44 Hz and 50-64 Hz frequency bands for both subjects. Widely distributed cortical hyper-coherence seems reasonable given the intense synesthesia during ayahuasca experiences. Other findings include increased modal EEG alpha frequency and global power decreases across the cortex in most frequency bands, which concur with the EEG of psychedelics literature. Exploratory analysis revealed the usefulness of analyzing single Hz bins over the standard wide-band analysis. The discovery-oriented naturalistic approach developed for this study resulted in potentially important findings. We believe that finding increases in global gamma coherence during peak psychedelic experiences might contribute to the discussion of binding theory. Also, in light of recent research with gamma coherence during advanced meditative conditions, our findings might further the comparison of shamanic psychedelic practices with meditation. PMID:16149330

Stuckey, David E; Lawson, Robert; Luna, Luis Eduardo

2005-06-01

228

Alpha Asymmetry in Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An emerging focus of research on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) targets the identification of early-developing ASD endophenotypes using infant siblings of affected children. One potential neural endophenotype is resting frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha asymmetry, a metric of hemispheric organization. Here, we examined the development of…

Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Tierney, Adrienne L.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A.

2015-01-01

229

EEG spectral analysis of attention in ADHD: implications for neurofeedback training?  

PubMed Central

Objective: In children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), an increased theta/beta ratio in the resting EEG typically serves as a rationale to conduct theta/beta neurofeedback (NF) training. However, this finding is increasingly challenged. As NF may rather target an active than a passive state, we studied the EEG in a condition that requires attention. Methods: In children with ADHD of the DSM-IV combined type (ADHD-C; N = 15) and of the predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; N = 9) and in typically developing children (N = 19), EEG spectral analysis was conducted for segments during the attention network test (ANT) without processing of stimuli and overt behavior. Frontal (F3, Fz, F4), central (C3, Cz, C4) and parietal (P3, Pz, P4) electrodes were included in the statistical analysis. To investigate if EEG spectral parameters are related to performance measures, correlation coefficients were calculated. Results: Particularly in the ADHD-C group, higher theta and alpha activity was found with the most prominent effect in the upper-theta/lower-alpha (5.5–10.5 Hz) range. In the ADHD-I group, a significantly higher theta/beta ratio was observed at single electrodes (F3, Fz) and a tendency for a higher theta/beta ratio when considering all electrodes (large effect size). Higher 5.5–10.5 Hz activity was associated with higher reaction time variability with the effect most prominent in the ADHD-C group. A higher theta/beta ratio was associated with higher reaction times, particularly in the ADHD-I group. Conclusions: (1) In an attention demanding period, children with ADHD are characterized by an underactivated state in the EEG with subtype-specific differences. (2) The functional relevance of related EEG parameters is indicated by associations with performance (reaction time) measures. (3) Findings provide a rationale for applying NF protocols targeting theta (and alpha) activity and the theta/beta ratio in subgroups of children with ADHD. PMID:25191248

Heinrich, Hartmut; Busch, Katrin; Studer, Petra; Erbe, Karlheinz; Moll, Gunther H.; Kratz, Oliver

2014-01-01

230

EEG Biofeedback as a Treatment for Substance Use Disorders: Review, Rating of Efficacy, and Recommendations for Further Research  

PubMed Central

Electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback has been employed in substance use disorder (SUD) over the last three decades. The SUD is a complex series of disorders with frequent comorbidities and EEG abnormalities of several types. EEG biofeedback has been employed in conjunction with other therapies and may be useful in enhancing certain outcomes of therapy. Based on published clinical studies and employing efficacy criteria adapted by the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback and the International Society for Neurofeedback and Research, alpha theta training—either alone for alcoholism or in combination with beta training for stimulant and mixed substance abuse and combined with residential treatment programs, is probably efficacious. Considerations of further research design taking these factors into account are discussed and descriptions of contemporary research are given. PMID:18214670

Cannon, Rex L.; Trudeau, David L.

2008-01-01

231

Atypical alpha asymmetry in adults with ADHD*  

PubMed Central

Introduction A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8– 12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha asymmetry has been associated with ADHD-like traits such as reduced reward responsiveness, a lack of inhibition toward aversive experience, and increased approach behaviors, and previous work has indicated increased rightward alpha asymmetry in children with ADHD. The current study explores whether increased rightward alpha asymmetry is also evident in adults with ADHD. Method We assessed low (8– 10 Hz) and high (10– 12 Hz) alpha asymmetry in adults with ADHD (n = 29) versus controls (n = 62) during baseline and cognitive activation conditions for nine homologous electrode pairs along the anterior–posterior axis. Result Seven results emerged (p < .05) showing increased rightward alpha asymmetry in adults with ADHD. This occurred in three specific electrode pairs across two testing conditions, and five of six results occurred in the lower alpha band. Finally, post hoc analysis indicated that increased rightward alpha asymmetry was generally associated with greater numbers of ADHD symptoms—with a possible parietal association for inattentive and a fronto-temporal association for hyperactivity symptoms. Conclusions Increased rightward alpha asymmetry previously observed in children with ADHD appears to be a developmentally persistent feature of ADHD. PMID:19467358

Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

2009-01-01

232

Linkage mapping of beta 2 EEG waves via non-parametric regression.  

PubMed

Parametric linkage methods for analyzing quantitative trait loci are sensitive to violations in trait distributional assumptions. Non-parametric methods are relatively more robust. In this article, we modify the non-parametric regression procedure proposed by Ghosh and Majumder [2000: Am J Hum Genet 66:1046-1061] to map Beta 2 EEG waves using genome-wide data generated in the COGA project. Significant linkage findings are obtained on chromosomes 1, 4, 5, and 15 with findings at multiple regions on chromosomes 4 and 15. We analyze the data both with and without incorporating alcoholism as a covariate. We also test for epistatic interactions between regions of the genome exhibiting significant linkage with the EEG phenotypes and find evidence of epistatic interactions between a region each on chromosome 1 and chromosome 4 with one region on chromosome 15. While regressing out the effect of alcoholism does not affect the linkage findings, the epistatic interactions become statistically insignificant. PMID:12627469

Ghosh, Saurabh; Begleiter, Henri; Porjesz, Bernice; Chorlian, David B; Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana; Goate, Alison; Reich, Theodore

2003-04-01

233

Ordinal patterns in epileptic brains: Analysis of intracranial EEG and simultaneous EEG-fMRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epileptic seizures are associated with high behavioral stereotypy of the patients. In the EEG of epilepsy patients characteristic signal patterns can be found during and between seizures. Here we use ordinal patterns to analyze EEGs of epilepsy patients and quantify the degree of signal determinism. Besides relative signal redundancy and the fraction of forbidden patterns we introduce the fraction of under-represented patterns as a new measure. Using the logistic map, parameter scans are performed to explore the sensitivity of the measures to signal determinism. Thereafter, application is made to two types of EEGs recorded in two epilepsy patients. Intracranial EEG shows pronounced determinism peaks during seizures. Finally, we demonstrate that ordinal patterns may be useful for improving analysis of non-invasive simultaneous EEG-fMRI.

Rummel, C.; Abela, E.; Hauf, M.; Wiest, R.; Schindler, K.

2013-06-01

234

Impact of Dronabinol on Quantitative Electroencephalogram (qEEG) Measures of Sleep in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To determine the effects of dronabinol on quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) markers of the sleep process, including power distribution and ultradian cycling in 15 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: EEG (C4-A1) relative power (% total) in the delta, theta, alpha, and sigma bands was quantified by fast Fourier transformation (FFT) over 28-second intervals. An activation ratio (AR = [alpha + sigma] / [delta + theta]) also was computed for each interval. To assess ultradian rhythms, the best-fitting cosine wave was determined for AR and each frequency band in each polysomnogram (PSG). Results: Fifteen subjects were included in the analysis. Dronabinol was associated with significantly increased theta power (p = 0.002). During the first half of the night, dronabinol decreased sigma power (p = 0.03) and AR (p = 0.03), and increased theta power (p = 0.0006). At increasing dronabinol doses, ultradian rhythms accounted for a greater fraction of EEG power variance in the delta band (p = 0.04) and AR (p = 0.03). Females had higher amplitude ultradian rhythms than males (theta: p = 0.01; sigma: p = 0.01). Decreasing AHI was associated with increasing ultradian rhythm amplitudes (sigma: p < 0.001; AR: p = 0.02). At the end of treatment, lower relative power in the theta band (p = 0.02) and lower AHI (p = 0.05) correlated with a greater decrease in sleepiness from baseline. Conclusions: This exploratory study demonstrates that in individuals with OSA, dronabinol treatment may yield a shift in EEG power toward delta and theta frequencies and a strengthening of ultradian rhythms in the sleep EEG. Citation: Farabi SS; Prasad B; Quinn L; Carley DW. Impact of dronabinol on quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) measures of sleep in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(1):49-56. PMID:24426820

Farabi, Sarah S.; Prasad, Bharati; Quinn, Lauretta; Carley, David W.

2014-01-01

235

Topographic electroencephalographic study of cerebral infarction using computed mapping of the EEG.  

PubMed

Computed mapping of the electroencephalogram (CME) is a newly developed method using a microcomputer system that displays the scalp topograph as the square roots of the average power spectra over each EEG frequency band on a color television screen. This new device has been employed in an examination of functional lesions in 20 patients with aphasia due to cerebral infarction. The results were compared with those of computer tomography (CT) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies using intracarotid 133Xe. A high-voltage focus of slow components and an asymmetrical distribution of alpha activity were regarded as signs of functional lesions on CME. Twelve patients showed high-voltage foci and six showed asymmetrical alpha activity on CME, which correlated well with the lesions on CT and/or rCBF studies. Especially in patients with motor aphasia, CME demonstrated the abnormality in advance of the appearance of a low-density area on CT. Compared with conventional EEG interpretation, CME is very useful in topographic and objective diagnosis of functional lesions, although the source of the data is the same as for the conventional EEG. PMID:7061605

Nagata, K; Mizukami, M; Araki, G; Kawase, T; Hirano, M

1982-01-01

236

EEG activity during the verbal-cognitive stage of motor skill acquisition.  

PubMed

This study examined changes in EEG activity associated with motor performance during the verbal-cognitive stage of skill learning. Participants (n=14) were required to practice a sequential finger tapping task. EEG activity was recorded both before and after short-term practice, during finger tapping and during two control conditions. EEG power (Fz, Cz, Pz, T3, T4) and coherence (T3-Fz, T4-Fz, Fz-Cz, Fz-Pz) were computed for the theta (4-8 Hz), slow alpha (8-10 Hz), fast alpha (10-12 Hz), slow beta (12-20 Hz), and fast beta (20-28 Hz) bandwidths. Changes in motor performance were rapid during the very early stages of practice and then slowed in accord with the law of practice. These changes were accompanied by increases of theta power at Fz and beta coherence at T4-Fz, suggesting that progression through the verbal-cognitive stage of a sequential finger tapping task is accompanied by more narrowed attention and improved mapping between the stimuli and the finger movements. PMID:20117168

Zhu, F F; Maxwell, J P; Hu, Y; Zhang, Z G; Lam, W K; Poolton, J M; Masters, R S W

2010-05-01

237

Chronic activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha with fenofibrate prevents alterations in cardiac metabolic phenotype without changing the onset of decompensation in pacing-induced heart failure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Severe heart failure (HF) is characterized by profound alterations in cardiac metabolic phenotype, with down-regulation of the free fatty acid (FFA) oxidative pathway and marked increase in glucose oxidation. We tested whether fenofibrate, a pharmacological agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activat...

238

The AASM Recommended and Acceptable EEG Montages are Comparable for the Staging of Sleep and Scoring of EEG Arousals  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: To examine the measurement differences in sleep and EEG arousal statistics between the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recommended EEG montage (F4-M1, C4-M1, O2-M1) and acceptable EEG montage (Fz-Cz, C4-M1, Oz-Cz). Design: Prospective, blinded, randomized comparison. Setting: Australian clinical sleep laboratory in a tertiary hospital. Patients or Participants: 50 consecutive patients undertaking polysomnography (PSG) for the clinical suspicion of sleep disordered breathing. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Patient EEGs were recorded using both the AASM recommended and acceptable EEG montages during the PSG. Two scorers were used to examine the difference in PSG statistics using the two EEG montages. The scorers analyzed the 50 studies using the two EEG montages. Ten of the studies were scored twice for each montage by each scorer to calculate intra-scorer and inter-scorer agreement. No statistically significant differences were observed between the PSG statistics of the recommended and acceptable EEG montages. The recommended EEG montage had greater inter-scorer agreement but no difference in intra-scorer agreement. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the two EEG montages endorsed by the AASM Manual produce similar sleep and EEG arousal statistics. Citation: Duce B, Rego C, Milosavljevic J, Hukins C. The AASM recommended and acceptable EEG montages are comparable for the staging of sleep and scoring of EEG arousals. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):803-809. PMID:25024660

Duce, Brett; Rego, Conchita; Milosavljevic, Jasmina; Hukins, Craig

2014-01-01

239

Interindividual variability of skull conductivity: an EEG-MEG analysis.  

E-print Network

Abstract. Source localizations based on EEG and MEG show different accuracies. One of the major differences between EEG and MEG localization is that the former depends on electrical tissue conductivities. It is hypothesized that an incorrect assumption of the skull conductivity value is a major contributor to EEG inaccuracy. In a simulation study, it is shown that assuming single skull conductivity for a population of subjects that show a realistic inter-individual variability for this value EEG localization inaccuracy is mainly in the direction between source and skull. This is confirmed by a re-analysis of EEG-MEG data obtained from a group of epilepsy patients. In the direction parallel to the skull EEG and MEG accuracy are comparable. For source localization, the EEG can be as accurate as MEG can, if individual conductivity values are supplied. Keywords: EEG;modeling;dipole;skull;conductivity. 1.

240

Estimation of Eye Closure Degree Using EEG Sensors and Its Application in Driver Drowsiness Detection  

PubMed Central

Currently, driver drowsiness detectors using video based technology is being widely studied. Eyelid closure degree (ECD) is the main measure of the video-based methods, however, drawbacks such as brightness limitations and practical hurdles such as distraction of the drivers limits its success. This study presents a way to compute the ECD using EEG sensors instead of video-based methods. The premise is that the ECD exhibits a linear relationship with changes of the occipital EEG. A total of 30 subjects are included in this study: ten of them participated in a simple proof-of-concept experiment to verify the linear relationship between ECD and EEG, and then twenty participated in a monotonous highway driving experiment in a driving simulator environment to test the robustness of the linear relationship in real-life applications. Taking the video-based method as a reference, the Alpha power percentage from the O2 channel is found to be the best input feature for linear regression estimation of the ECD. The best overall squared correlation coefficient (SCC, denoted by r2) and mean squared error (MSE) validated by linear support vector regression model and leave one subject out method is r2 = 0.930 and MSE = 0.013. The proposed linear EEG-ECD model can achieve 87.5% and 70.0% accuracy for male and female subjects, respectively, for a driver drowsiness application, percentage eyelid closure over the pupil over time (PERCLOS). This new ECD estimation method not only addresses the video-based method drawbacks, but also makes ECD estimation more computationally efficient and easier to implement in EEG sensors in a real time way. PMID:25237899

Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

2014-01-01

241

Effect of immobilization on the EEG of the baboon. Comparison with telemetry results from unrestricted animals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The EEG of the baboon was studied under two very different sets of conditions: 37 were totally immobolized while 12 were studied in their free movements with 4 channel telemetry. For the immobilzed, 3 stages were described: (1) activation, record desynchronized; (2) rest with 13-15 cm/sec rhythm, like the human alpha rhythm stage but with eyes open or closed; (3)relaxation with a decrease in 13-15 rhythm and the appearance of 5-7 cm/sec theta waves, eyelids closed, animal apparently sleeping. For the free animals the rest stage appeared when the animal's attention was not directed anywhere and there was no relaxation stage. It is concluded that the EEG pattern of the immobilized animal that was described as the "relaxation" stage really represents a special functional state which one must distinguish clearly from the physiological stages of sleep.

Bert, J.; Collomb, H.

1980-01-01

242

Manual Lymph Drainage Attenuates Frontal EEG Asymmetry in Subjects with Psychological Stress: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the effect of manual lymph drainage (MLD) of the neck on frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry in subjects with psychological stress. [Subjects] Thirteen subjects with psychological stress participated in the study. [Methods] Subjects received MLD of the neck for 15?min. [Results] Analysis of the frontal asymmetry index showed that the energy shift in the alpha frequency band from the left hemisphere to the right hemisphere after MLD resulted in greater left-side activation (positive asymmetry values), which could be related to the positive emotional state observed particularly in the F7–F8 area. [Conclusion] These preliminary findings suggest that frontal EEG asymmetry was significantly attenuated after MLD. PMID:24764627

Shim, Jung-Myo; Kim, Sung-Joong

2014-01-01

243

Temporal dynamics of sensorimotor integration in speech perception and production: independent component analysis of EEG data  

PubMed Central

Activity in anterior sensorimotor regions is found in speech production and some perception tasks. Yet, how sensorimotor integration supports these functions is unclear due to a lack of data examining the timing of activity from these regions. Beta (~20 Hz) and alpha (~10 Hz) spectral power within the EEG ? rhythm are considered indices of motor and somatosensory activity, respectively. In the current study, perception conditions required discrimination (same/different) of syllables pairs (/ba/ and /da/) in quiet and noisy conditions. Production conditions required covert and overt syllable productions and overt word production. Independent component analysis was performed on EEG data obtained during these conditions to (1) identify clusters of ? components common to all conditions and (2) examine real-time event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP) within alpha and beta bands. 17 and 15 out of 20 participants produced left and right ?-components, respectively, localized to precentral gyri. Discrimination conditions were characterized by significant (pFDR < 0.05) early alpha event-related synchronization (ERS) prior to and during stimulus presentation and later alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD) following stimulus offset. Beta ERD began early and gained strength across time. Differences were found between quiet and noisy discrimination conditions. Both overt syllable and word productions yielded similar alpha/beta ERD that began prior to production and was strongest during muscle activity. Findings during covert production were weaker than during overt production. One explanation for these findings is that ?-beta ERD indexes early predictive coding (e.g., internal modeling) and/or overt and covert attentional/motor processes. ?-alpha ERS may index inhibitory input to the premotor cortex from sensory regions prior to and during discrimination, while ?-alpha ERD may index sensory feedback during speech rehearsal and production. PMID:25071633

Jenson, David; Bowers, Andrew L.; Harkrider, Ashley W.; Thornton, David; Cuellar, Megan; Saltuklaroglu, Tim

2014-01-01

244

Music therapy modulates fronto-temporal activity in rest-EEG in depressed clients.  

PubMed

Fronto-temporal areas process shared elements of speech and music. Improvisational psychodynamic music therapy (MT) utilizes verbal and musical reflection on emotions and images arising from clinical improvisation. Music listening is shifting frontal alpha asymmetries (FAA) in depression, and increases frontal midline theta (FMT). In a two-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 79 depressed clients (with comorbid anxiety), we compared standard care (SC) versus MT added to SC at intake and after 3 months. We found that MT significantly reduced depression and anxiety symptoms. The purpose of this study is to test whether or not MT has an impact on anterior fronto-temporal resting state alpha and theta oscillations. Correlations between anterior EEG, Montgomery-Ĺsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety Subscale (HADS-A), power spectral analysis (topography, means, asymmetry) and normative EEG database comparisons were explored. After 3 month of MT, lasting changes in resting EEG were observed, i.e., significant absolute power increases at left fronto-temporal alpha, but most distinct for theta (also at left fronto-central and right temporoparietal leads). MT differed to SC at F7-F8 (z scored FAA, p < .03) and T3-T4 (theta, p < .005) asymmetry scores, pointing towards decreased relative left-sided brain activity after MT; pre/post increased FMT and decreased HADS-A scores (r = .42, p < .05) indicate reduced anxiety after MT. Verbal reflection and improvising on emotions in MT may induce neural reorganization in fronto-temporal areas. Alpha and theta changes in fronto-temporal and temporoparietal areas indicate MT action and treatment effects on cortical activity in depression, suggesting an impact of MT on anxiety reduction. PMID:22983820

Fachner, Jörg; Gold, Christian; Erkkilä, Jaakko

2013-04-01

245

Resting EEG is affected by exposure to a pulsed ELF magnetic field.  

PubMed

An increasing number of reports have demonstrated a significant effect of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MFs) on aspects of animal and human behavior. Recent studies suggest that exposure to ELF MFs affects human brain electrical activity as measured by electroencephalography (EEG), specifically within the alpha frequency (8-13 Hz). Here we report that exposure to a pulsed ELF MF with most power at frequencies between 0 and 500 Hz, known to affect aspects of analgesia and standing balance, also affects the human EEG. Twenty subjects (10 males; 10 females) received both a magnetic field (MF) and a sham session in a counterbalanced design for 15 min. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that alpha activity was significantly higher over the occipital electrodes (O1, Oz, O2) [F(1,16) = 6.858; P =.019, eta2 = 0.30] and marginally higher over the parietal electrodes (P3, Pz, P4) [F(1,16) = 4.251; P =.056, eta2 = 0.21] post MF exposure. This enhancement of alpha activity was transient, as it marginally decreased over occipital [F(1,16) = 4.417; P =.052; eta2 = 0.216] and parietal electrodes [F(1,16) = 4.244; P =.056; eta2 = 0.21] approximately 7 min after MF exposure compared to the sham exposure. Significantly higher occipital alpha activity is consistent with other experiments examining EEG responses to ELF MFs and ELF modulated radiofrequency fields associated with mobile phones. Hence, we suggest that this result may be a nonspecific physiological response to the pulsed MFs. PMID:15042628

Cook, Charles M; Thomas, Alex W; Prato, Frank S

2004-04-01

246

[Gender differences in EEG coherence changes during figural creative thinking: the efficacy coupling].  

PubMed

The study was aimed to explore the features of interaction between cortical areas during figural creative task performance in high- and low-creative men and women. We divided the participants into two groups with high and low creativity by the median of originality score. EEG was recorded at rest and during task performance (Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking "Incomplete figures"). The EEG coherence was computed in six frequency bands from theta1 to beta2. We analyzed the total values of coherence for each of 16 sites, calculated separately for intrahemispheric and interhemispheric connections. In the theta2, alphal, and alpha2 bands, coherence values decreased in task performance as compared to baseline in subjects with lower originality scores, whereas in subjects with higher scores, they increased in the theta2 and alpha1 bands. The decrease in the alpha2 band in the higher-creativity group was significantly lower in comparison with the decrease in the lower-score group. In the alpha2 band, the interaction of gender, creativity, laterality, and electrode position factors was also found during analysis of task-induced coherence changes. Further examination of the interaction showed the similarity of EEG coherence patterns in men and women with opposite creative abilities and higher values of task-induced coherence changes in the anterior regions of the left hemisphere and posterior regions of the right hemisphere in high-creative in comparison with low-creative men. The findings are discussed in terms of different cognitive strategies used by men and women that may have the same results in creative problem solving. PMID:19795805

Vol'f, N V; Tarasova, I V; Razumnikova, O M

2009-01-01

247

Sleep EEG composition in the first three months of life in monozygotic and dizygotic twins.  

PubMed

We investigated genetic influence on sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) composition by a classical twin study of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins in the first 3 months of life. Polysomnographic (PSG) recordings were obtained in 10 MZ and 20 DZ twin pairs in the 37th, 46th, and 52nd week of postmenstrual age (PMA). The EEG power spectra were generated on the basis of fast Fourier transformation (FFT). Genetic influence on active sleep/rapid eye movement (AS/REM)] and quiet sleep/non rapid eye movement (QS/NREM) sleep composition was estimated by calculating within pair concordance and the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for delta (0.5-3.5 Hz), theta (4-7.5 Hz), alpha (8-11.5 Hz), sigma (12-14 Hz), and beta (14.5-20 Hz) at central derivation. MZ twins show higher ICCs than DZ twins for alpha, sigma, and beta spectral powers during QS/NREM sleep in the 37th, 46th, and 52nd week PMA. However, there was no significant difference (P > .05) between the 2 types of twins in absolute differences of EEG spectral power of the alpha, beta, and sigma frequency ranges in the 37th, 46th, and 52nd week PMA. The greatest mean absolute difference within MZ and DZ twin pairs and also between MZ and DZ twin groups was identified in the delta frequency range. Our findings gave an indication of genetic influence on alpha, sigma, and beta frequency ranges in the QS/NREM sleep stage. PMID:24323198

Vucinovic, Mirjana; Kardum, Goran; Bonkovic, Mirjana; Resic, Biserka; Ursic, Anita; Vukovics, Jonatan

2014-07-01

248

Shared genetic influences on ADHD symptoms and very low-frequency EEG activity: a twin study  

PubMed Central

Background ADHD is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex aetiology. The identification of candidate intermediate phenotypes that are both heritable and genetically linked to ADHD may facilitate the detection of susceptibility genes and elucidate aetiological pathways. Very low-frequency (VLF; <0.5Hz) electroencephalographic (EEG) activity represents a promising indicator of risk for ADHD, but it is currently unclear whether it is heritable or genetically linked to the disorder. Methods Direct-current (DC)-EEG was recorded during a cognitive activation condition in 30 monozygotic and dizygotic adolescent twin pairs concordant or discordant for high ADHD symptom scores, and 37 monozygotic and dizygotic matched-control twin pairs with low ADHD symptom scores. Structural equation modelling was used to quantify the genetic and environmental contributions to the phenotypic covariance between ADHD and VLF activity. Results ADHD was significantly associated with reduced VLF power during cognitive activation, which suggests reduced synchronisation of widespread neuronal activity. VLF power demonstrated modest heritability (0.31) and the genetic correlation (?0.80) indicated a substantial degree of overlap in genetic influences on ADHD and VLF activity. Conclusions Altered VLF activity is a potential candidate intermediate phenotype of ADHD, which warrants further investigation of underlying neurobiological and genetic mechanisms. PMID:22118296

Tye, Charlotte; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Greven, Corina U.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Gráinne

2013-01-01

249

Exploring miniaturized EEG electrodes for brain-computer interfaces. An EEG you do not see?  

PubMed

Electroencephalography (EEG) allows the study of the brain-behavior relationship in humans. Most of what we have learned with EEG was through observing the brain-behavior relationship under well-controlled laboratory conditions. However, by reducing "normal" behavior to a minimum the ecological validity of the results can be limited. Recent developments toward mobile EEG solutions allow to study the brain-behavior relationship outside the laboratory in more natural situations. Besides mobility and robustness with respect to motion, mobile EEG systems should also interfere as little as possible with the participant's behavior. For example, natural interaction with other people could be hindered when it is obvious that a participant wears an EEG cap. This study evaluates the signal quality obtained with an unobtrusive solution for EEG monitoring through the integration of miniaturized EEG ton-electrodes into both a discreet baseball cap and an individualized ear piece. We show that such mini electrodes located at scalp and ear locations can reliably record event related potentials in a P300 brain-computer-interface application. PMID:25847919

Bleichner, Martin G; Lundbeck, Micha; Selisky, Matthias; Minow, Falk; Jäger, Manuela; Emkes, Reiner; Debener, Stefan; De Vos, Maarten

2015-04-01

250

EEG synchrony analysis for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: A several synchrony measures and EEG data sets  

E-print Network

It has frequently been reported in the medical literature that the EEG of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients is less synchronous than in healthy subjects. In this paper, it is explored whether loss in EEG synchrony can be ...

Dauwels, Justin H. G.

251

Improving the Specificity of EEG for Diagnosing Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective. EEG has great potential as a cost-effective screening tool for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the specificity of EEG is not yet sufficient to be used in clinical practice. In an earlier study, we presented preliminary results suggesting improved specificity of EEG to early stages of Alzheimer's disease. The key to this improvement is a new method for extracting sparse oscillatory events from EEG signals in the time-frequency domain. Here we provide a more detailed analysis, demonstrating improved EEG specificity for clinical screening of MCI (mild cognitive impairment) patients. Methods. EEG data was recorded of MCI patients and age-matched control subjects, in rest condition with eyes closed. EEG frequency bands of interest were ? (3.5–7.5?Hz), ?1 (7.5–9.5?Hz), ?2 (9.5–12.5?Hz), and ? (12.5–25?Hz). The EEG signals were transformed in the time-frequency domain using complex Morlet wavelets; the resulting time-frequency maps are represented by sparse bump models. Results. Enhanced EEG power in the ? range is more easily detected through sparse bump modeling; this phenomenon explains the improved EEG specificity obtained in our previous studies. Conclusions. Sparse bump modeling yields informative features in EEG signal. These features increase the specificity of EEG for diagnosing AD. PMID:21660242

Vialatte, François-B.; Dauwels, Justin; Maurice, Monique; Musha, Toshimitsu; Cichocki, Andrzej

2011-01-01

252

Elec 331 -EKG, EEG & EMG Electro-Kardio-Gram  

E-print Network

Elec 331 - EKG, EEG & EMG 1 EKG · Electro-Kardio-Gram ­ Graphic record (gram) of electrical triangle RA LL LA RL C #12;Elec 331 - EKG, EEG & EMG 2 Lead = Projection of Cardiac Vector RA LL LA M r I IVF · Augmented Voltage at left Foot #12;Elec 331 - EKG, EEG & EMG 3 Wilson's Central Terminal CT RA LL LA VL VF

Pulfrey, David L.

253

Correlation dimensions of EEG changes during mental tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlinear analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals provides a means for studying the dynamical changes in cortical networks related to brain electrical activity. In this study, the correlation dimension (D2) and point correlation dimension (PD2) were used to investigate the quantitative complexity of EEG during cognitive processes. EEGs were recorded in 30 normal subjects under seven conditions: two resting states and

Hao Yang; Yonghong Wang; Chia-Jiu Wang; Heng-Ming Tai

2004-01-01

254

Inter-hemispheric EEG coherence analysis in Parkinson's disease: Assessing brain activity during emotion processing.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is not only characterized by its prominent motor symptoms but also associated with disturbances in cognitive and emotional functioning. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of emotion processing on inter-hemispheric electroencephalography (EEG) coherence in PD. Multimodal emotional stimuli (happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust) were presented to 20 PD patients and 30 age-, education level-, and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) while EEG was recorded. Inter-hemispheric coherence was computed from seven homologous EEG electrode pairs (AF3-AF4, F7-F8, F3-F4, FC5-FC6, T7-T8, P7-P8, and O1-O2) for delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. In addition, subjective ratings were obtained for a representative of emotional stimuli. Interhemispherically, PD patients showed significantly lower coherence in theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands than HC during emotion processing. No significant changes were found in the delta frequency band coherence. We also found that PD patients were more impaired in recognizing negative emotions (sadness, fear, anger, and disgust) than relatively positive emotions (happiness and surprise). Behaviorally, PD patients did not show impairment in emotion recognition as measured by subjective ratings. These findings suggest that PD patients may have an impairment of inter-hemispheric functional connectivity (i.e., a decline in cortical connectivity) during emotion processing. This study may increase the awareness of EEG emotional response studies in clinical practice to uncover potential neurophysiologic abnormalities. PMID:24894699

Yuvaraj, R; Murugappan, M; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Omar, Mohd Iqbal; Mohamad, Khairiyah; Palaniappan, R; Satiyan, M

2015-02-01

255

Proof of principle trials: EEG surrogate endpoints.  

PubMed

Pivotal studies in man require prolonged administration to demonstrate efficacy for most seizure types. Earlier evidence of human efficacy can be of value for decision making, and EEG surrogate endpoints can be of value in this respect. Studies of spontaneous EEG discharges under standard recording conditions can demonstrate meaningful acute EEG effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). These require a rapidly effective formulation of the product, preferably intravenous. The EEG recording conditions are standardised and the subject is required to perform a task to maintain a constant level of vigilance. The outcome measure of efficacy is spike count per minute or, if the discharges are more protracted (as generalised no spike and wave), the percentage of recording time occupied by discharges. Sub-acute experiments are conducted under less rigorously standardised conditions, but over longer periods, using ambulatory monitoring or telemetry to record the EEG. The photoparoxysmal responses (PPRs) of photosensitive subjects, evoked using a standardised stimulation protocol, are subject to less variability than spontaneous epileptiform activity. The PPR is elicited over a range of flash rates that can be used as a measure of sensitivity, and an effective treatment will reduce the range or abolish the PPR. Reduction in photosensitivity is demonstrable after a single dose of various AEDs, at clinically relevant plasma concentrations, even using drugs that are not generally effective for long-term treatment of photosensitive epilepsy. Evoked potential and nerve conduction studies and electronystagmography can be used to assess possible neurotoxicity, and quantitative EEG analysis can be employed to assess sedative effects. PMID:11461783

Binnie, C

2001-05-01

256

Diagnostic utility of quantitative EEG in un-medicated schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to evaluate the quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) characteristics of patients with un-medicated schizophrenia (SPR) and to investigate the diagnostic utility of QEEG in assessing such patients during resting conditions. The subjects included 90 patients with schizophrenia and 90 normal controls. Spectral analysis was performed on the absolute power of all of the electrodes across five frequency bands following artifact removal. We conducted a repeated-measures ANOVA to examine group differences within the five frequency bands across several brain regions and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses to examine the discrimination ability of each frequency band. Compared with controls, patients with schizophrenia showed increased delta and theta activity and decreased alpha 2 activity, particularly in the frontocentral area. There were no significant differences in the alpha 1 and beta activity. The ROC analysis performed on the delta frequency band generated the best result, with an overall classification accuracy of 62.2%. The results of this study confirmed the characteristics of the QEEG power in un-medicated schizophrenia patients compared with normal controls. These findings suggest that a resting EEG test can be a supportive tool for evaluating patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25595562

Kim, Jun Won; Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Min, Kyung Joon; Lee, Jaewon; Lee, Kounseok

2015-03-01

257

EEG data compression with source coding techniques.  

PubMed

A data compression algorithm for the EEG, derived from the adaptive pulse code modulation scheme, is described where the consecutively computed differences are coded by passing them through a quantizer possessing only a few levels; the range of these levels is adapted to local signal statistics. Three different versions of the algorithm with data reduction up to 75% are presented. The system was validated using several multichannel-routine EEG recordings with both visual evaluation and computation of signal-to-noise ratios. PMID:1795510

Hinrichs, H

1991-09-01

258

Fractal Dimension in Epileptic EEG Signal Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractal Analysis is the well developed theory in the data analysis of non-linear time series. Especially Fractal Dimension is a powerful mathematical tool for modeling many physical and biological time signals with high complexity and irregularity. Fractal dimension is a suitable tool for analyzing the nonlinear behaviour and state of the many chaotic systems. Particularly in analysis of chaotic time series such as electroencephalograms (EEG), this feature has been used to identify and distinguish specific states of physiological function.Epilepsy is the main fatal neurological disorder in our brain, which is analyzed by the biomedical signal called Electroencephalogram (EEG). The detection of Epileptic seizures in the EEG Signals is an important tool in the diagnosis of epilepsy. So we made an attempt to analyze the EEG in depth for knowing the mystery of human consciousness. EEG has more fluctuations recorded from the human brain due to the spontaneous electrical activity. Hence EEG Signals are represented as Fractal Time Series.The algorithms of fractal dimension methods have weak ability to the estimation of complexity in the irregular graphs. Divider method is widely used to obtain the fractal dimension of curves embedded into a 2-dimensional space. The major problem is choosing initial and final step length of dividers. We propose a new algorithm based on the size measure relationship (SMR) method, quantifying the dimensional behaviour of irregular rectifiable graphs with minimum time complexity. The evidence for the suitability (equality with the nature of dimension) of the algorithm is illustrated graphically.We would like to demonstrate the criterion for the selection of dividers (minimum and maximum value) in the calculation of fractal dimension of the irregular curves with minimum time complexity. For that we design a new method of computing fractal dimension (FD) of biomedical waveforms. Compared to Higuchi's algorithm, advantages of this method include greater speed and the criterion to choose the maximum and minimum values for time intervals. Comparisons with the other waveform fractal dimension algorithms are also demonstrated. In order to discriminate the Healthy and the Epileptic EEGs, an improved method of Multifractal Measure such as Generalized Fractal Dimensions (GFD) is also proposed. Finally we conclude that there are significant differences between the Healthy and Epileptic Signals in the designed method than the GFD through graphical and statistical tools. The improved multifractal measure is very efficient technique to analyze the EEG Signals and to compute the state of illness of the Epileptic patients.

Uthayakumar, R.

259

The processing and transmission of EEG data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interest in sleep research was stimulated by the discovery of a number of physiological changes that occur during sleep and by the observed effects of sleep on physical and mental performance and status. The use of the relatively new methods of EEG measurement, transmission, and automatic scoring makes sleep analysis and categorization feasible. Sleep research involving the use of the EEG as a fundamental input has the potential of answering many unanswered questions involving physical and mental behavior, drug effects, circadian rhythm, and anesthesia.

Schulze, A. E.

1974-01-01

260

Correlation between amygdala BOLD activity and frontal EEG asymmetry during real-time fMRI neurofeedback training in patients with depression  

E-print Network

Background: Real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) is a promising approach for studies and treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). EEG performed simultaneously with rtfMRI-nf procedure allows independent evaluation of rtfMRI-nf effects. Frontal EEG asymmetry in the alpha band is a widely used measure of emotion and motivation that shows profound changes in depression. However, it has never been related to simultaneously acquired fMRI data. Methods: We performed the first study combining rtfMRI-nf with simultaneous (passive) EEG recordings. MDD patients in the experimental group (n=13) learned to upregulate BOLD activity of the left amygdala using rtfMRI-nf during a positive emotion induction task. MDD patients in the control group (n=11) were provided with sham rtfMRI-nf. Correlations between frontal EEG asymmetry in the upper-alpha band and BOLD activity across the brain were examined. Results: Participants in the experimental group showed positive average changes in frontal EEG asymmetry during the ...

Zotev, Vadim; Misaki, Masaya; Phillips, Raquel; Young, Kymberly D; Feldner, Matthew T; Bodurka, Jerzy

2014-01-01

261

Use of electroencephalography (EEG) to assess CNS changes produced by pesticides with different modes of action: effects of permethrin, deltamethrin, fipronil, imidacloprid, carbaryl, and triadimefon.  

PubMed

The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an apical measure, capable of detecting changes in brain neuronal activity produced by internal or external stimuli. We assessed whether pesticides with different modes of action produced different changes in the EEG of adult male Long-Evans rats. The EEG was recorded using two montages (visual cortex referenced to the cerebellum and to the frontal cortex) in unrestrained rats at the time of peak behavioral effects. Pesticides included: permethrin and deltamethrin (Type I and Type II pyrethroids; 2 h), fipronil (single and repeated doses; phenylpyrazole; 6 h), imidacloprid (neonicotinoid; 2 h), carbaryl (carbamate; 0.5 h), and triadimefon (triazole; 1 h), using dosages that produced approximately an ED30 or an ED50-ED80 change in motor activity. Permethrin (43, 100 mg/kg) increased amplitudes or areas (delta, alpha, or gamma bands) in the EEG. Deltamethrin (2.5, 5.5 mg/kg) reduced the amplitudes or areas of the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands, but the changes were not dose-related. A single treatment with fipronil (25, 50 mg/kg, but not 5, 10 mg/kg) decreased gamma band area. Additional changes in the delta, theta, and gamma bands were observed when fipronil (5, 10 mg/kg) was administered for 14 days. Imidacloprid (50, 100 mg/kg) did not alter the EEG. Carbaryl (10, 50 mg/kg) decreased theta area, and decreased delta and increased beta frequency. Triadimefon (75, 150 mg/kg) produced minimal changes in the EEG. The results show that the EEG is affected differently by approximately equipotent doses of pesticides with different modes of action. PMID:25481984

Freeborn, Danielle L; McDaniel, Katherine L; Moser, Virginia C; Herr, David W

2015-01-15

262

A Physiology-Based Seizure Detection System for Multichannel EEG  

PubMed Central

Background Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals play a critical role in the diagnosis of epilepsy. Multichannel EEGs contain more information than do single-channel EEGs. Automatic detection algorithms for spikes or seizures have traditionally been implemented on single-channel EEG, and algorithms for multichannel EEG are unavailable. Methodology This study proposes a physiology-based detection system for epileptic seizures that uses multichannel EEG signals. The proposed technique was tested on two EEG data sets acquired from 18 patients. Both unipolar and bipolar EEG signals were analyzed. We employed sample entropy (SampEn), statistical values, and concepts used in clinical neurophysiology (e.g., phase reversals and potential fields of a bipolar EEG) to extract the features. We further tested the performance of a genetic algorithm cascaded with a support vector machine and post-classification spike matching. Principal Findings We obtained 86.69% spike detection and 99.77% seizure detection for Data Set I. The detection system was further validated using the model trained by Data Set I on Data Set II. The system again showed high performance, with 91.18% detection of spikes and 99.22% seizure detection. Conclusion We report a de novo EEG classification system for seizure and spike detection on multichannel EEG that includes physiology-based knowledge to enhance the performance of this type of system. PMID:23799053

Shen, Chia-Ping; Liu, Shih-Ting; Zhou, Wei-Zhi; Lin, Feng-Seng; Lam, Andy Yan-Yu; Sung, Hsiao-Ya; Chen, Wei; Lin, Jeng-Wei; Chiu, Ming-Jang; Pan, Ming-Kai; Kao, Jui-Hung; Wu, Jin-Ming; Lai, Feipei

2013-01-01

263

The Role of Epilepsy and Epileptiform EEGs in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown etiology characterized by social and communication deficits and the presence of restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. Higher rates of epilepsy have long been reported, but prevalence estimates vary from as little as 5% to as much as 46%. This variation is probably the result of sample characteristics that increase epilepsy risk such as sample ascertainment, lower IQ, the inclusion of patients with non-idiopathic autism, age, and gender. However, critical review of the literature reveals that the rate in idiopathic cases with normal IQ is still significantly above the population risk suggesting that autism itself is associated with an increased risk of epilepsy. Recently there has been interest in the occurrence of epileptiform electroencephalograms (EEGs) even in the absence of epilepsy. Rates as high as 60% have been reported and some investigators propose that these abnormalities may play a causal role in the autism phenotype. While this phenomenon is still not well understood and risk factors have yet to be determined, the treatment implications are increasingly important. We review the recent literature to elucidate possible risk factors for both epilepsy and epileptiform EEGs. We then review existing data and discuss controversies surrounding treatment of EEG abnormalities. PMID:19454962

Spence, Sarah J; Schneider, Mark T

2009-01-01

264

Functional coupling of sensorimotor and associative areas during a catching ball task: a qEEG coherence study  

PubMed Central

Background Catching an object is a complex movement that involves not only programming but also effective motor coordination. Such behavior is related to the activation and recruitment of cortical regions that participates in the sensorimotor integration process. This study aimed to elucidate the cortical mechanisms involved in anticipatory actions when performing a task of catching an object in free fall. Methods Quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) was recorded using a 20-channel EEG system in 20 healthy right-handed participants performed the catching ball task. We used the EEG coherence analysis to investigate subdivisions of alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (12-30 Hz) bands, which are related to cognitive processing and sensory-motor integration. Results Notwithstanding, we found the main effects for the factor block; for alpha-1, coherence decreased from the first to sixth block, and the opposite effect occurred for alpha-2 and beta-2, with coherence increasing along the blocks. Conclusion It was concluded that to perform successfully our task, which involved anticipatory processes (i.e. feedback mechanisms), subjects exhibited a great involvement of sensory-motor and associative areas, possibly due to organization of information to process visuospatial parameters and further catch the falling object. PMID:22364485

2012-01-01

265

Analysis of EEG activity in response to binaural beats with different frequencies.  

PubMed

When two coherent sounds with nearly similar frequencies are presented to each ear respectively with stereo headphones, the brain integrates the two signals and produces a sensation of a third sound called binaural beat (BB). Although earlier studies showed that BB could influence behavior and cognition, common agreement on the mechanism of BB has not been reached yet. In this work, we employed Relative Power (RP), Phase Locking Value (PLV) and Cross-Mutual Information (CMI) to track EEG changes during BB stimulations. EEG signals were acquired from 13 healthy subjects. Five-minute BBs with four different frequencies were tested: delta band (1 Hz), theta band (5 Hz), alpha band (10 Hz) and beta band (20 Hz). We observed RP increase in theta and alpha bands and decrease in beta band during delta and alpha BB stimulations. RP decreased in beta band during theta BB, while RP decreased in theta band during beta BB. However, no clear brainwave entrainment effect was identified. Connectivity changes were detected following the variation of RP during BB stimulations. Our observation supports the hypothesis that BBs could affect functional brain connectivity, suggesting that the mechanism of BB-brain interaction is worth further study. PMID:25448376

Gao, Xiang; Cao, Hongbao; Ming, Dong; Qi, Hongzhi; Wang, Xuemin; Wang, Xiaolu; Chen, Runge; Zhou, Peng

2014-12-01

266

Simultaneous EEG-fMRI brain signatures of auditory cue utilization  

PubMed Central

Optimal utilization of acoustic cues during auditory categorization is a vital skill, particularly when informative cues become occluded or degraded. Consequently, the acoustic environment requires flexible choosing and switching amongst available cues. The present study targets the brain functions underlying such changes in cue utilization. Participants performed a categorization task with immediate feedback on acoustic stimuli from two categories that varied in duration and spectral properties, while we simultaneously recorded Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) responses in fMRI and electroencephalograms (EEGs). In the first half of the experiment, categories could be best discriminated by spectral properties. Halfway through the experiment, spectral degradation rendered the stimulus duration the more informative cue. Behaviorally, degradation decreased the likelihood of utilizing spectral cues. Spectrally degrading the acoustic signal led to increased alpha power compared to nondegraded stimuli. The EEG-informed fMRI analyses revealed that alpha power correlated with BOLD changes in inferior parietal cortex and right posterior superior temporal gyrus (including planum temporale). In both areas, spectral degradation led to a weaker coupling of BOLD response to behavioral utilization of the spectral cue. These data provide converging evidence from behavioral modeling, electrophysiology, and hemodynamics that (a) increased alpha power mediates the inhibition of uninformative (here spectral) stimulus features, and that (b) the parietal attention network supports optimal cue utilization in auditory categorization. The results highlight the complex cortical processing of auditory categorization under realistic listening challenges. PMID:24926232

Scharinger, Mathias; Herrmann, Björn; Nierhaus, Till; Obleser, Jonas

2014-01-01

267

Zazen meditation and no-task resting EEG compared with LORETA intracortical source localization.  

PubMed

Meditation is a self-induced and willfully initiated practice that alters the state of consciousness. The meditation practice of Zazen, like many other meditation practices, aims at disregarding intrusive thoughts while controlling body posture. It is an open monitoring meditation characterized by detached moment-to-moment awareness and reduced conceptual thinking and self-reference. Which brain areas differ in electric activity during Zazen compared to task-free resting? Since scalp electroencephalography (EEG) waveforms are reference-dependent, conclusions about the localization of active brain areas are ambiguous. Computing intracerebral source models from the scalp EEG data solves this problem. In the present study, we applied source modeling using low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to 58-channel scalp EEG data recorded from 15 experienced Zen meditators during Zazen and no-task resting. Zazen compared to no-task resting showed increased alpha-1 and alpha-2 frequency activity in an exclusively right-lateralized cluster extending from prefrontal areas including the insula to parts of the somatosensory and motor cortices and temporal areas. Zazen also showed decreased alpha and beta-2 activity in the left angular gyrus and decreased beta-1 and beta-2 activity in a large bilateral posterior cluster comprising the visual cortex, the posterior cingulate cortex and the parietal cortex. The results include parts of the default mode network and suggest enhanced automatic memory and emotion processing, reduced conceptual thinking and self-reference on a less judgmental, i.e., more detached moment-to-moment basis during Zazen compared to no-task resting. PMID:25284209

Faber, Pascal L; Lehmann, Dietrich; Gianotti, Lorena R R; Milz, Patricia; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Held, Marlene; Kochi, Kieko

2015-02-01

268

Human EEG, behavioral stillness and biofeedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

This theoretical synthesis affirms that the normal human EEG is: (1) an indicator of movements of behavior; (2) an undifferentiated indicator of cortical work; but (3) not an indicator of mental processes. A majority of cortical work for an awake person is the mobilization and regulation of all the processes involved in the production, control and prediction of movements of

Thomas Mulholland

1995-01-01

269

Music Shifts Frontal EEG in Depressed Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen chronically depressed female adolescents listened to rock music for a 23-minute session. EEG was recorded and saliva samples were collected to determine the effects of the music on stress hormone cortisol levels. No differences were reported for mood state; however, cortisol levels decreased and relative right-frontal activation was…

Field, Tiffany; Martinez, Alex; Nawrocki, Thomas; Pickens, Jeffrey; Fox, Nathan A.; Schanberg, Saul

1998-01-01

270

Illumination influences working memory: an EEG study.  

PubMed

Illumination conditions appear to influence working efficacy in everyday life. In the present study, we obtained electroencephalogram (EEG) correlates of working-memory load, and investigated how these waveforms are modulated by illumination conditions. We hypothesized that illumination conditions may affect cognitive performance. We designed an EEG study to monitor and record participants' EEG during the Sternberg working memory task under four different illumination conditions. Illumination conditions were generated with a factorial design of two color-temperatures (3000 and 7100 K) by two illuminance levels (150 and 700 lx). During a working memory task, we observed that high illuminance led to significantly lower frontal EEG theta activity than did low illuminance. These differences persisted despite no significant difference in task performance between illumination conditions. We found that the latency of an early event-related potential component, such as N1, was significantly modulated by the illumination condition. The fact that the illumination condition affects brain activity but not behavioral performance suggests that the lighting conditions used in the present study did not influence the performance stage of behavioral processing. Nevertheless, our findings provide objective evidence that illumination conditions modulate brain activity. Further studies are necessary to refine the optimal lighting parameters for facilitating working memory. PMID:23694704

Park, Jin Young; Min, Byoung-Kyong; Jung, Young-Chul; Pak, Hyensou; Jeong, Yeon-Hong; Kim, Eosu

2013-09-01

271

Automated Sleep Quality Measurement using EEG Signal  

E-print Network

Automated Sleep Quality Measurement using EEG Signal -First Step Towards a Domain Specific Music suffer from sleep problems. Music therapy, as a non-medication approach to mitigating sleep problems, has according to their sleep quality. The proposed sys- tem requires multidisciplinary efforts including

Wang, Ye

272

Fractal dimension-based EEG biofeedback system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofeedback plays an increasingly important role in mainstream computer applications, including hands-free human-machine interaction. The most obvious use of this technology is to help disabled people interact with their environment. The main challenge in brain computer interfaces is to identify the particular EEG signal components that can be successfully used as control commands. In this study, we show that the

A. Bashashati; R. K. Ward; G. E. Birch; M. R. Hashemi; M. A. Khalilzadeh

2003-01-01

273

Psychometric and EEG changes after carotid endarterectomy.  

PubMed

The influence of carotid stenosis and its surgical treatment on brain function is still poorly defined. We therefore performed a study to assess psychometric and quantified EEG findings after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Sixty-nine non-demented patients (aged 72 ± 7 years) with severe carotid stenosis (? 70%) eligible for CEA were studied. Forty patients (group A) had unilateral stenosis, and 29 patients (group B) had bilateral stenosis. Before and 5 months after CEA all the patients were evaluated by the Trail Making Test A, the Symbol Digit Test, and spectral EEG analysis. At baseline, compared to group A, group B patients performed slowly the Trail Making Test A (Z: 1.45 ± 1.4 vs. 0.76 ± 1.3; p EEG did not differ significantly between patients of group A compared to group B. After CEA, psychometric tests improved (mean Z score from 0.73 ± 1.12 to 0.45 ± 1.15, p EEG mean dominant frequency improved only in group B patients and it was related to the improvement in psychometric tests (r = 0.43, p = 0.05). Low psychometric performance was detectable in about 1/ 3 of non-demented patients with severe carotid stenosis. CEA improved mental performance and, in patients with severe bilateral stenosis, accelerated the EEG frequency. PMID:25034456

Valenti, Pietro; Ortelli, Paola; Zanon, Antonio; Schiff, Sami; Montagnese, Sara; Avruscio, Giampietro; Del Piccolo, Franco; Mapelli, Daniela; Puato, Massimo; Rattazzi, Marcello; Amodio, Piero; Pauletto, Paolo

2015-02-01

274

Abnormal Parietal Brain Function in ADHD: Replication and Extension of Previous EEG Beta Asymmetry Findings  

PubMed Central

Background: Abundant work indicates ADHD abnormal posterior brain structure and function, including abnormal structural and functional asymmetries and reduced corpus callosum size. However, this literature has attracted considerably less research interest than fronto-striatal findings. Objective: To help address this imbalance, the current study replicates and extends our previous work showing abnormal parietal brain function in ADHD adults during the Conner’s Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Method: Our previous study found that ADHD adults had increased rightward EEG beta (16–21?Hz) asymmetry in inferior parietal brain regions during the CPT (p?=?0.00001), and that this metric exhibited a lack of normal correlation (i.e., observed in controls) with beta asymmetry at temporal–parietal regions. We re-tested these effects in a new ADHD sample and with both new and old samples combined. We additionally examined: (a) EEG asymmetry in multiple frequency bands, (b) unilateral effects for all asymmetry findings, and (c) the association between EEG asymmetry and a battery of cognitive tests. Results: We replicated our original findings by demonstrating abnormal rightward inferior parietal beta asymmetry in adults with ADHD during the CPT, and again this metric exhibited abnormal reduced correlation to temporal–parietal beta asymmetry. Novel analyses also demonstrated a broader pattern of rightward beta and theta asymmetry across inferior, superior, and temporal–parietal brain regions, and showed that rightward parietal asymmetry in ADHD was atypically associated with multiple cognitive tests. Conclusion: Abnormal increased rightward parietal EEG beta asymmetry is an important feature of ADHD. We speculate that this phenotype may occur with any form of impaired capacity for top-down task-directed control over sensory encoding functions, and that it may reflect associated increase of attentional shifting and compensatory sustained/selective attention. PMID:25104941

Hale, T. Sigi; Kane, Andrea M.; Tung, Kelly L.; Kaminsky, Olivia; McGough, James J.; Hanada, Grant; Loo, Sandra K.

2014-01-01

275

Correlated Components of Ongoing EEG Point to Emotionally Laden Attention – A Possible Marker of Engagement?  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging suggests that cortical hemodynamic responses coincide in different subjects experiencing a common naturalistic stimulus. Here we utilize neural responses in the electroencephalogram (EEG) evoked by multiple presentations of short film clips to index brain states marked by high levels of correlation within and across subjects. We formulate a novel signal decomposition method which extracts maximally correlated signal components from multiple EEG records. The resulting components capture correlations down to a one-second time resolution, thus revealing that peak correlations of neural activity across viewings can occur in remarkable correspondence with arousing moments of the film. Moreover, a significant reduction in neural correlation occurs upon a second viewing of the film or when the narrative is disrupted by presenting its scenes scrambled in time. We also probe oscillatory brain activity during periods of heightened correlation, and observe during such times a significant increase in the theta band for a frontal component and reductions in the alpha and beta frequency bands for parietal and occipital components. Low-resolution EEG tomography of these components suggests that the correlated neural activity is consistent with sources in the cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices. Put together, these results suggest that the observed synchrony reflects attention- and emotion-modulated cortical processing which may be decoded with high temporal resolution by extracting maximally correlated components of neural activity. PMID:22623915

Dmochowski, Jacek P.; Sajda, Paul; Dias, Joao; Parra, Lucas C.

2012-01-01

276

Association of autonomic nervous system and EEG scalp potential during playing 2D Grand Turismo 5.  

PubMed

Cerebral activation and autonomic nervous system have importance in studies such as mental stress. The aim of this study is to analyze variations in EEG scalp potential which may influence autonomic activation of heart while playing video games. Ten healthy participants were recruited in this study. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) signals were measured simultaneously during playing video game and rest conditions. Sympathetic and parasympathetic innervations of heart were evaluated from heart rate variability (HRV), derived from the ECG. Scalp potential was measured by the EEG. The results showed a significant upsurge in the value theta Fz/alpha Pz (p<0.001) while playing game. The results also showed tachycardia while playing video game as compared to rest condition (p<0.005). Normalized low frequency power and ratio of low frequency/high frequency power were significantly increased while playing video game and normalized high frequency power sank during video games. Results showed synchronized activity of cerebellum and sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of heart. PMID:23366661

Subhani, Ahmad Rauf; Likun, Xia; Saeed Malik, Aamir

2012-01-01

277

Soft, Comfortable Polymer Dry Electrodes for High Quality ECG and EEG Recording  

PubMed Central

Conventional gel electrodes are widely used for biopotential measurements, despite important drawbacks such as skin irritation, long set-up time and uncomfortable removal. Recently introduced dry electrodes with rigid metal pins overcome most of these problems; however, their rigidity causes discomfort and pain. This paper presents dry electrodes offering high user comfort, since they are fabricated from EPDM rubber containing various additives for optimum conductivity, flexibility and ease of fabrication. The electrode impedance is measured on phantoms and human skin. After optimization of the polymer composition, the skin-electrode impedance is only ?10 times larger than that of gel electrodes. Therefore, these electrodes are directly capable of recording strong biopotential signals such as ECG while for low-amplitude signals such as EEG, the electrodes need to be coupled with an active circuit. EEG recordings using active polymer electrodes connected to a clinical EEG system show very promising results: alpha waves can be clearly observed when subjects close their eyes, and correlation and coherence analyses reveal high similarity between dry and gel electrode signals. Moreover, all subjects reported that our polymer electrodes did not cause discomfort. Hence, the polymer-based dry electrodes are promising alternatives to either rigid dry electrodes or conventional gel electrodes. PMID:25513825

Chen, Yun-Hsuan; de Beeck, Maaike Op; Vanderheyden, Luc; Carrette, Evelien; Mihajlovi?, Vojkan; Vanstreels, Kris; Grundlehner, Bernard; Gadeyne, Stefanie; Boon, Paul; Van Hoof, Chris

2014-01-01

278

High dose CART peptide induces abnormal EEG activity and behavioral seizures.  

PubMed

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are neurotransmitters found throughout the nervous system and in the periphery. CART has an important role in the regulation of food intake, anxiety, endocrine function, and in mesolimbic-mediated reward and reinforcement. This short report casts light upon previous descriptions of presumed behavioral seizure and tremor activity following administration of CART into the central nervous system. By employing electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, we document the state of cerebrocortical activity. We find that intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of 5 microg of CART 55-102 readily produces an abnormal EEG characterized initially by high amplitude hypersynchronous alpha in the 8-10 Hz range during behavioral wakefulness as manifest in both cortical and hippocampal theta EEG channels. This reliably progressed in three of three animals tested to unequivocal epileptiform activity accompanied by tremors and assumption of a rigid, tonic body posture. The neural substrates underlying this finding are unclear. This novel description of the epileptogenic quality of CART should lend caution to interpretations of the behaviors attributed to CART in other experimental paradigms. PMID:18178249

Keating, Glenda L; Kuhar, Michael J; Rye, David B

2008-04-01

279

EEG spectro-temporal modulation energy: a new feature for automated diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

There is recent indication that Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be characterized by atypical modulation of electrophysiological brain activity caused by fibrillar amyloid deposition in specific regions of the brain, such as those related to cognition and memory. In this paper, we propose to objectively characterize EEG sub-band modulation in an attempt to develop an automated noninvasive AD diagnostics tool. First, multi-channel full-band EEG signals are decomposed into five well-known frequency sub-bands: delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma. The temporal amplitude envelope of each sub-band is then computed via a Hilbert transformation. The proposed 'spectro-temporal modulation energy' feature measures the rate with which each sub-band is modulated. Modulation energy features are computed for 19 referential EEG signals and seven bipolar signals. Salient features are then selected and used to train four different classifiers, namely, support vector machines, logistic regression, classification and regression trees, and neural networks. Experiments with a database of 34 participants, 22 of which have been clinically diagnosed with probable-AD, show a neural network classifier achieving over 91% accuracy, thus significantly outperforming a classifier trained with conventional spectral-based features. PMID:22255174

Trambaiolli, Lucas R; Falk, Tiago H; Fraga, Francisco J; Anghinah, Renato; Lorena, Ana C

2011-01-01

280

Development of a computerized EEG imaging system with a personal computer.  

PubMed

The authors developed a computerized electroencephalography imaging system with an IBM PC AT. The EEG signals amplified with a 16 channel EEG machine were digitized at 51.2 Hz (512 samples per epoch). The shifted DC potential and 60Hz artificats were removed by a high pass filter and 60Hz notch filter. A window function consisting of a 10% cosine taper was obtained by weighting the points at either end of the epoch by a cosine bell. A fast Fourier transform was applied to every epoch and the power spectrum estimates were computed in 0.39 Hz steps. The activity estimates for the delta, theta, alpha and beta bands were computed by summimg adjacent values. The outline of the top-down maps was formed from a series of sagittal cuts, then 32 electrodes were placed on the map. A file was created which contained a table of weighting parameters for calculating the interpolated values for every point within the outline. Each weight was in inverse linear proportion to the distance of the pixel to the nearest four electrodes. The map was finally generated with computation of the spectral EEG in each pixel according to the weighting parameter. The functioning of this system was tested with a functional generator and a human subject. PMID:2662633

Lee, S H; Ko, H W; Yoo, S K; Kim, W K; Lee, H S; Lee, H Y

1989-01-01

281

Topography of EEG complexity in human neonates: effect of the postmenstrual age and the sleep state.  

PubMed

The topography of the EEG of human neonates is studied in terms of its power spectral density and its estimated complexity as a function of both the postmenstrual age (PMA) and the sleep state. The monopolar EEGs of three groups of seven neonates (preterm, term and older term) were recorded during active (AS) and quiet sleep (QS) from electrodes Fp1, Fp2, T3, T4, C3, C4, O1 and O2. The existence of changes between groups and sleep states in the power of delta, theta, alpha and beta bands and in the dimensional complexity of these electrodes was tested. Additionally, the nonlinearity of the EEG in each electrode and situation was analyzed. The results of the spectral measures show an increment of the power in the low frequency bands from AS to QS and with the PMA, which can be mainly traced on central and temporal electrodes. This change is shown as well by the dimensional complexity, which also presents the greatest differences in the central derivations. Moreover, the signals show evidence of nonlinearity in almost all the groups and situations, although a dynamic change from nonlinear to linear character is apparent in the central electrodes with increased PMA. As a result, it is concluded that nonlinear analysis methods provide a clear portrait of the integrated brain activity that complements the information of spectral analysis in the characterization of the brain development and the sleep states in neonates. PMID:16278043

Pereda, Ernesto; de La Cruz, Dulce M A; Mańas, Soledad; Garrido, José M; López, Santiago; González, Julián J

2006-02-13

282

Screening EEG in Aircrew Selection: Clinical Aerospace Neurology Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As clinical aerospace neurologists we do not favor using screening EEG in pilot selection on unselected and otherwise asymptomatic individuals. The role of EEG in aviation screening should be as an adjunct to diagnosis, and the decision to disqualify a pilot should never be based solely on the EEG. Although a policy of using a screening EEG in an unselected population might detect an individual with a potentially increased relative risk, it would needlessly exclude many applicants who would probably never have a seizure. A diagnostic test performed on an asymptomatic individual without clinical indications, in a population with a low prevalence of disease (seizure) may be of limited or possibly detrimental value. We feel that rather than do EEGs on all candidates, a better approach would be to perform an EEG for a specific indication, such as family history of seizure, single convulsion (seizure) , history of unexplained loss of consciousness or head injury. Routine screening EEGs in unselected aviation applications are not done without clinical indication in the U.S. Air Force, Navy, or NASA. The USAF discontinued routine screening EEGs for selection in 1978, the U.S. Navy discontinued it in 1981 , and NASA discontinued it in 1995. EEG as an aeromedical screening tool in the US Navy dates back to 1939. The US Navy routinely used EEGs to screen all aeromedical personnel from 1961 to 1981. The incidence of epileptiform activity on EEG in asymptomatic flight candidates ranges from 0.11 to 2.5%. In 3 studies of asymptomatic flight candidates with epileptiform activity on EEG followed for 2 to 15 years, 1 of 31 (3.2%), 1 of 30 (3.3%), and 0 of 14 (0%) developed a seizure, for a cumulative risk of an individual with an epileptiform EEG developing a seizure of 2.67% (2 in 75). Of 28,658 student naval aviation personnel screened 31 had spikes and/or slow waves on EEG, and only 1 later developed a seizure. Of the 28,627 who had a normal EEG, 4 later developed seizures, or .0139% (4/28627). After review of the value of the EEG as a screening tool, the US Navy now uses EEG only for certain clinical indications (head injury, unexplained loss of consciousness, family history of epilepsy, and abnormal neurological exam). Currently the US Navy does not use EEG for screening for any flight applicant without a neurologic indication. In the US Navy, an electroencephalographic pattern is determined to be epileptiform by a neurologist.

Clark, Jonathan B.; Riley, Terrence

2001-01-01

283

Hot water epilepsy: Phenotype and single photon emission computed tomography observations  

PubMed Central

We studied the anatomical correlates of reflex hot water epilepsy (HWE) using multimodality investigations viz. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalography (EEG), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Five men (mean age: 27.0 ? 5.8 years) with HWE were subjected to MRI of brain, video-EEG studies, and SPECT scan. These were correlated with phenotypic presentations. Seizures could be precipitated in three patients with pouring of hot water over the head and semiology of seizures was suggestive of temporal lobe epilepsy. Ictal SPECT showed hyperperfusion in: left medial temporal — one, left lateral temporal — one, and right parietal — one. Interictal SPECT was normal in all five patients and did not help in localization. MRI and interictal EEG was normal in all the patients. The clinical and SPECT studies suggested temporal lobe as the seizure onset zone in some of the patients with HWE. PMID:25506178

Patel, Mehul; Satishchandra, Parthasarathy; Aravinda, Hanumanthapura; Bharath, Rose D.; Sinha, Sanjib

2014-01-01

284

Lasting modulation effects of rTMS on neural activity and connectivity as revealed by resting-state EEG.  

PubMed

The long-lasting neuromodulatory effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are of great interest for therapeutic applications in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, due to which functional connectivity among brain regions is profoundly disturbed. Classic TMS studies selectively alter neural activity in specific brain regions and observe neural activity changes on nonperturbed areas to infer underlying connectivity and its changes. Less has been indicated in direct measures of functional connectivity and/or neural network and on how connectivity/network alterations occur. Here, we developed a novel analysis framework to directly investigate both neural activity and connectivity changes induced by rTMS from resting-state EEG (rsEEG) acquired in a group of subjects with a chronic disorder of imbalance, known as the mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS). Resting-state activity in multiple functional brain areas was identified through a data-driven blind source separation analysis on rsEEG data, and the connectivity among them was characterized using a phase synchronization measure. Our study revealed that there were significant long-lasting changes in resting-state neural activity, in theta, low alpha, and high alpha bands and neural networks in theta, low alpha, high alpha and beta bands, over broad cortical areas 4 to 5 h after the last application of rTMS in a consecutive five-day protocol. Our results of rsEEG connectivity further indicated that the changes, mainly in the alpha band, over the parietal and occipital cortices from pre- to post-TMS sessions were significantly correlated, in both magnitude and direction, to symptom changes in this group of subjects with MdDS. This connectivity measure not only suggested that rTMS can generate positive treatment effects in MdDS patients, but also revealed new potential targets for future therapeutic trials to improve treatment effects. It is promising that the new connectivity measure from rsEEG can be used to understand the variability in treatment response to rTMS in brain disorders with impaired functional connectivity and, eventually, to determine individually tailored stimulation parameters and treatment procedures in rTMS. PMID:24686227

Ding, Lei; Shou, Guofa; Yuan, Han; Urbano, Diamond; Cha, Yoon-Hee

2014-07-01

285

Exercise and DHA Prevent the Negative Effects of Hypoxia on EEG and Nerve Conduction Velocity  

PubMed Central

Abstract Erken, Haydar Ali, Gülten Erken, Ridvan Çolak, Osman Genç. Exercise and DHA prevent the negative effects of hypoxia on EEG and nerve conduction velocity. High Alt Med Biol 14:360–366, 2013.—It is known that hypoxia has a negative effect on nervous system functions, but exercise and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) have positive effect. In this study, it was investigated whether exercise and/or DHA can prevent the effects of hypoxia on EEG and nerve conduction velocity (NCV). 35 adult Wistar albino male rats were divided into five groups (n=7): control (C), hypoxia (H), hypoxia and exercise (HE), hypoxia and DHA (HD), and hypoxia and exercise and DHA (HED) groups. During the 28-day hypoxia exposure, the HE and HED groups of rats were exercised (0% incline, 30?m/min speed, 20?min/day, 5 days a week). In addition, DHA (36?mg/kg/day) was given by oral gavage to rats in the HD and HED groups. While EEG records were taken before and after the experimental period, NCV records were taken after the experimental period from anesthetized rats. Data were analyzed by paired t-test, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey test. In this study, it was shown that exposure to hypoxia decreased theta activity and NCV, but exercise and DHA reduced the delta activity, while theta, alpha, beta activities, and NCV were increased. These results have shown that the effects of hypoxia exposure on EEG and NCV can be prevented by exercise and/or DHA. PMID:24377343

Erken, Gülten; Çolak, R?dvan; Genç, Osman

2013-01-01

286

Neuropolitics: EEG spectral maps related to a political vote based on the first impression of the candidate's face.  

PubMed

The aim of the present research is to investigate the EEG activity elicited by a fast observation of face of real politicians during a simulated political election. Politician's face are taken from real local election performed in Italy in the 2004 and 2008. We recorded the EEG activity of eight healthy subjects while they are asked to give a judgment on dominance, trustworthiness traits and a preference of vote on faces shown. Statistical differences of spectral EEG scalp activity have been mapped onto a realistic head model. For each experimental condition, we employed the t-test to compare the PSD values and adopted the False Discovery Rate correction for multiple comparisons. The scalp statistical maps revealed a desynchronization in the alpha band related to the politicians who lost the simulated elections and have been judged less trustworthy. Although these results might be congruent with the recent literature, the present is the first EEG study about and there is the need to extend the paradigm and the analysis on a larger number of subjects to validate these results. PMID:21095981

Vecchiato, G; Toppi, J; Cincotti, F; Astolfi, L; De Vico Fallani, F; Aloise, F; Mattia, D; Bocale, S; Vernucci, F; Babiloni, F

2010-01-01

287

QRS artifact elimination on full night sleep EEG.  

PubMed

Spectral analysis is now a standard procedure for analyzing the electroencephalograms (EEG) obtained by polysomnographic recordings. These numerical methods assume an artifact-free EEG since artifacts create spurious spectral components. Our aim was the development of a QRS artifact removal technique that might be applied to full night EEG with a minimal human intervention. This technique should handle one EEG channel, with or without use of one ECG channel. Variance minimization, independent component analysis (ICA), morphological filters (MF) have been implemented. Careful attention has been given to define the MF structuring element. The tests on artifact-simulated and real data were checked on the residual ECG spectral components present in the cleaned EEG. The best results are obtained by the MF when the structuring element is an artifact template defined either directly on the EEG or on the ICA ECG component. Further developments are required to identify and subtract the T-wave artifacts. PMID:15939658

Lanquart, J-P; Dumont, M; Linkowski, P

2006-03-01

288

Study on Bayes Discriminant Analysis of EEG Data  

PubMed Central

Objective: In this paper, we have done Bayes Discriminant analysis to EEG data of experiment objects which are recorded impersonally come up with a relatively accurate method used in feature extraction and classification decisions. Methods: In accordance with the strength of ? wave, the head electrodes are divided into four species. In use of part of 21 electrodes EEG data of 63 people, we have done Bayes Discriminant analysis to EEG data of six objects. Results In use of part of EEG data of 63 people, we have done Bayes Discriminant analysis, the electrode classification accuracy rates is 64.4%. Conclusions: Bayes Discriminant has higher prediction accuracy, EEG features (mainly ?wave) extract more accurate. Bayes Discriminant would be better applied to the feature extraction and classification decisions of EEG data.

Shi, Yuan; He, DanDan; Qin, Fang

2014-01-01

289

Stochastic coupled oscillator model of EEG for Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Coupled nonlinear oscillator models of EEG signals during resting eyes-closed and eyes-open conditions are presented based on Duffing-van der Pol oscillator dynamics. The frequency and information entropy contents of the output of the nonlinear model and the actual EEG signal is matched through an optimization algorithm. The framework is used to model and compare EEG signals recorded from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched healthy controls (CTL) subjects. The results show that 1) the generated model signal can capture the frequency and information entropy contents of the EEG signal with very similar power spectral distribution and non-periodic time history; 2) the EEG and the generated signal from the eyes-closed model are ? band dominant for CTL subjects and ? band dominant for AD patients; and 3) statistically distinct models represent the EEG signals from AD patients and CTL subject during resting eyes-closed condition. PMID:25570056

Ghorbanian, P; Ramakrishnan, S; Ashrafiuon, H

2014-08-01

290

Localised astroglial dysfunction disrupts high-frequency EEG rhythms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. We used cerebral cortex injections of fluorocitrate to determine if selective astrocytic disturbances affect the electroencephalogram (EEG). Rats were halothane-anaesthetized and 0.8?nmol of sodium fluorocitrate was injected into hindlimb (motor-sensory) cortex. Extra-dural EEG electrodes were implanted after which the anaesthesia was ceased. EEG was recorded at 1, 3, 5, 7, 24 and 48 hours. There was a broad-band reduction

J. O. Willoughby; L. Mackenzie; K. J. Pope; M. Broberg; M. Nilsson

2005-01-01

291

Exploring EEG signals in a Brain-Computer Interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article shows the basic methods of electroencephalography EEG signal exploration. It contains information about data acquisition and different methods in which brain-computer interfaces can be made. The main focus of the paper is to find a way to determine the best set of parameters to detect movement of a hand in EEG signal. In the introduction there is also short introduction to EEG as well as fundamentals of support vector machine.

Zubrycki, Pawe?; Mulawka, Jan

2014-11-01

292

Analysis of routine EEG usage in a general adult ICU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Non-convulsive seizures and status epilepticus are common in brain-injured patients in intensive care units. Continuous electroencephalography\\u000a (cEEG) monitoring is the most sensitive means of their detection. In centres where cEEG is unavailable, routine EEG is often\\u000a utilized for diagnosis although its sensitivity is lower.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims  To establish the rate of electrographic seizure detection in ICU using routine EEG.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We identified all

J. C. McHugh; T. Downey; R. P. Murphy; S. Connolly

2009-01-01

293

Long-term EEG in children.  

PubMed

Long-term video-EEG corresponds to a recording ranging from 1 to 24h or even longer. It is indicated in the following situations: diagnosis of epileptic syndromes or unclassified epilepsy, pre-surgical evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy, follow-up of epilepsy or in cases of paroxysmal symptoms whose etiology remains uncertain. There are some specificities related to paediatric care: a dedicated pediatric unit; continuous monitoring covering at least a full 24-hour period, especially in the context of pre-surgical evaluation; the requirement of presence by the parents, technician or nurse; and stronger attachment of electrodes (cup electrodes), the number of which is adapted to the age of the child. The chosen duration of the monitoring also depends on the frequency of seizures or paroxysmal events. The polygraphy must be adapted to the type and topography of movements. It is essential to have at least an electrocardiography (ECG) channel, respiratory sensor and electromyography (EMG) on both deltoids. There is no age limit for performing long-term video-EEG even in newborns and infants; nevertheless because of scalp fragility, strict surveillance of the baby's skin condition is required. In the specific context of pre-surgical evaluation, long-term video-EEG must record all types of seizures observed in the child. This monitoring is essential in order to develop hypotheses regarding the seizure onset zone, based on electroclinical correlations, which should be adapted to the child's age and the psychomotor development. PMID:25687590

Montavont, A; Kaminska, A; Soufflet, C; Taussig, D

2015-03-01

294

Preliteracy signatures of poor-reading abilities in resting-state EEG  

PubMed Central

The hereditary character of dyslexia suggests the presence of putative underlying neural anomalies already in preliterate age. Here, we investigated whether early neurophysiological correlates of future reading difficulties—a hallmark of dyslexia—could be identified in the resting-state EEG of preliterate children. The children in this study were recruited at birth and classified on the basis of parents' performance on reading tests to be at-risk of becoming poor readers (n = 48) or not (n = 14). Eyes-open rest EEG was measured at the age of 3 years, and the at-risk children were divided into fluent readers (n = 24) and non-fluent readers (n = 24) after reading assessment at their third grade of school. We found that fluent readers and non-fluent readers differed in normalized spectral amplitude. Non-fluent readers were characterized by lower amplitude in the delta-1 frequency band (0.5–2 Hz) and higher amplitude in the alpha-1 band (6–8 Hz) in multiple scalp regions compared to control and at-risk fluent readers. Interestingly, across groups these EEG biomarkers correlated with several behavioral test scores measured in the third grade. Specifically, the performance on reading fluency, phonological and orthographic tasks and rapid automatized naming task correlated positively with delta-1 and negatively with alpha-1. Together, our results suggest that combining family-risk status, neurophysiological testing and behavioral test scores in a longitudinal setting may help uncover physiological mechanisms implicated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as the predisposition to reading disabilities. PMID:25285075

Schiavone, Giuseppina; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus; Maurits, Natasha M.; Plakas, Anna; Maassen, Ben A. M.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; van der Leij, Aryan; van Zuijen, Titia L.

2014-01-01

295

Noisy Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Modulates the Amplitude of EEG Synchrony Patterns  

PubMed Central

Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation has been associated with numerous cognitive and behavioural effects, such as enhancement of visual memory in healthy individuals, improvement of visual deficits in stroke patients, as well as possibly improvement of motor function in Parkinson’s disease; yet, the mechanism of action is unclear. Since Parkinson’s and other neuropsychiatric diseases are characterized by maladaptive dynamics of brain rhythms, we investigated whether noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation was associated with measurable changes in EEG oscillatory rhythms within theta (4–7.5 Hz), low alpha (8–10 Hz), high alpha (10.5–12 Hz), beta (13–30 Hz) and gamma (31–50 Hz) bands. We recorded the EEG while simultaneously delivering noisy bilateral, bipolar stimulation at varying intensities of imperceptible currents – at 10, 26, 42, 58, 74 and 90% of sensory threshold – to ten neurologically healthy subjects. Using standard spectral analysis, we investigated the transient aftereffects of noisy stimulation on rhythms. Subsequently, using robust artifact rejection techniques and the Least Absolute Shrinkage Selection Operator regression and cross-validation, we assessed the combinations of channels and power spectral features within each EEG frequency band that were linearly related with stimulus intensity. We show that noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation predominantly leads to a mild suppression of gamma power in lateral regions immediately after stimulation, followed by delayed increase in beta and gamma power in frontal regions approximately 20–25 s after stimulation ceased. Ongoing changes in the power of each oscillatory band throughout frontal, central/parietal, occipital and bilateral electrodes predicted the intensity of galvanic vestibular stimulation in a stimulus-dependent manner, demonstrating linear effects of stimulation on brain rhythms. We propose that modulation of neural oscillations is a potential mechanism for the previously-described cognitive and motor effects of vestibular stimulation, and noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation may provide an additional non-invasive means for neuromodulation of functional brain networks. PMID:23874865

Kim, Diana J.; Yogendrakumar, Vignan; Chiang, Joyce; Ty, Edna; Wang, Z. Jane; McKeown, Martin J.

2013-01-01

296

Cross coherence independent component analysis in resting and action states EEG discrimination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cross Coherence time frequency transform and independent component analysis (ICA) method were used to analyse the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals in resting and action states during open and close eyes conditions. From the topographical scalp distributions of delta, theta, alpha, and beta power spectrum can clearly discriminate between the signal when the eyes were open or closed, but it was difficult to distinguish between resting and action states when the eyes were closed. In open eyes condition, the frontal area (Fp1, Fp2) was activated (higher power) in delta and theta bands whilst occipital (O1, O2) and partial (P3, P4, Pz) area of brain was activated alpha band in closed eyes condition. The cross coherence method of time frequency analysis is capable of discrimination between rest and action brain signals in closed eyes condition.

Almurshedi, A.; Ismail, A. K.

2014-11-01

297

EEG microstate sequences in healthy humans at rest reveal scale-free dynamics  

E-print Network

electroencephalography (EEG) microstates as the electrophysiological correlates of fMRI resting-state networks about their underlying temporal dynamics. Multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) is a key method

298

NUMERICAL MATHEMATICS OF THE SUBTRACTION METHOD FOR THE MODELING OF A CURRENT DIPOLE IN EEG SOURCE  

E-print Network

. GRASEDYCK2 AND W. HACKBUSCH2 Abstract. In electroencephalography (EEG) source analysis, a dipole is widely source reconstruction. Electroencephalography (EEG) based source reconstruction of cerebral activity (the

Utah, University of

299

Identification of spatial and temporal features of EEG Nisrine Jrad, Marco Congedo  

E-print Network

activities is a challenging task since Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings exhibit distinct understanding. Keywords: Brain computer interface (BCI), Electroencephalography (EEG), Global Field Power (GFP

Boyer, Edmond

300

Action observation and motor imagery in performance of complex movements: evidence from EEG and kinematics analysis.  

PubMed

Motor imagery (MI) and action observation (AO) are considered effective cognitive tools for motor learning, but little work directly compared their cortical activation correlate in relation with subsequent performance. We compared AO and MI in promoting early learning of a complex four-limb, hand-foot coordination task, using electroencephalographic (EEG) and kinematic analysis. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned into three groups to perform a training period in which AO watched a video of the task, MI had to imagine it, and Control (C) was involved in a distracting computation task. Subjects were then asked to actually perform the motor task with kinematic measurement of error time with respect to the correct motor performance. EEG was recorded during baseline, training and task execution, with task-related power (TRPow) calculation for sensorimotor (alpha and beta) rhythms reactive with respect to rest. During training, the AO group had a stronger alpha desynchronization than the MI and C over frontocentral and bilateral parietal areas. However, during task execution, AO group had greater beta synchronization over bilateral parietal regions than MI and C groups. This beta synchrony furthermore demonstrated the strongest association with kinematic errors, which was also significantly lower in AO than in MI. These data suggest that sensorimotor activation elicited by action observation enhanced motor learning according to motor performance, corresponding to a more efficient activation of cortical resources during task execution. Action observation may be more effective than motor imagery in promoting early learning of a new complex coordination task. PMID:25532912

Gonzalez-Rosa, Javier J; Natali, Fabrizio; Tettamanti, Andrea; Cursi, Marco; Velikova, Svetla; Comi, Giancarlo; Gatti, Roberto; Leocani, Letizia

2015-03-15

301

Using Single-trial EEG to Predict and Analyze Subsequent Memory  

PubMed Central

We show that it is possible to successfully predict subsequent memory performance based on single-trial EEG activity before and during item presentation in the study phase. Two-class classification was conducted to predict subsequently remembered vs. forgotten trials based on subjects’ responses in the recognition phase. The overall accuracy across 18 subjects was 59.6 % by combining pre- and during-stimulus information. The single-trial classification analysis provides a dimensionality reduction method to project the high-dimensional EEG data onto a discriminative space. These projections revealed novel findings in the pre- and during-stimulus period related to levels of encoding. It was observed that the pre-stimulus information (specifically oscillatory activity between 25–35Hz) ?300 to 0 ms before stimulus presentation and during-stimulus alpha (7–12 Hz) information between 1000–1400 ms after stimulus onset distinguished between recollection and familiarity while the during-stimulus alpha information and temporal information between 400–800 ms after stimulus onset mapped these two states to similar values. PMID:24064073

Noh, Eunho; Herzmann, Grit; Curran, Tim; de Sa, Virginia R.

2013-01-01

302

Interhemispheric EEG coherence is reduced in auditory cortical regions in schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations.  

PubMed

Central auditory processing has been reported to be impaired in schizophrenia patients who experience auditory hallucinations, and interhemispheric transfer in auditory circuits may be compromised. In this study, we used EEG spectral coherence to examine interhemispheric connectivity between cortical areas known to be important in the processing of auditory information. Coherence was compared across three subject groups: schizophrenia patients with a recent history of auditory hallucinations (AH), schizophrenia patients who did not experience auditory hallucinations (nonAH), and healthy controls (HC). Subjects listened to pure tone and word stimuli while EEG was recorded continuously. Upper alpha and upper beta band coherence was calculated from six pairs of electrodes located over homologous auditory areas in the left and right cerebral hemispheres. Significant between-group differences were found on four electrode pairs (C3-C4, C5-C6, Ft7-Ft8 and Cp5-Cp6) in the upper alpha band. Relative to both the HC and nonAH groups, coherence was lower in the AH patients, consistent with the hypothesis that interhemispheric connectivity is reduced in these patients. PMID:23707337

Henshall, Katherine R; Sergejew, Alex A; Rance, Gary; McKay, Colette M; Copolov, David L

2013-07-01

303

Neuronal Correlates of Maladaptive Coping: An EEG-Study in Tinnitus Patients  

PubMed Central

Here we aimed to investigate the neuronal correlates of different coping styles in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. Adaptive and maladaptive coping styles were determined in 85 tinnitus patients. Based on resting state EEG recordings, coping related differences in brain activity and connectivity were found. Maladaptive coping behavior was related to increases in subjective tinnitus loudness and distress, higher tinnitus severity and higher depression scores. EEG recordings demonstrated increased alpha activity over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) as well as increased connectivity in the default (i.e. resting state) network in tinnitus patients with a maladaptive coping style. Correlation analysis revealed that the changes in the DLPFC correlate primarily with maladaptive coping behavior, whereas the changes in the sgACC correlate with tinnitus severity and depression. Our findings are in line with previous research in the field of depression that during resting state a alpha band hyperconnectivity exists within the default network for patients who use a maladaptive coping style, with the sgACC as the dysfunctional node and that the strength of the connectivity is related to focusing on negative mood and catastrophizing about the consequences of tinnitus. PMID:24558383

Vanneste, Sven; Joos, Kathleen; Langguth, Berthold; To, Wing Ting; De Ridder, Dirk

2014-01-01

304

The Relation between Alpha Band Power, Heart Rate and Fmri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brain's resting state is studied with the analysis of co-registered fMRI\\/EEG\\/ECG. In particular, it was investigated whether spontaneous heart rate fluctuations are correlated to fMRI-signals. This might be the case because of a direct hemodynamic coupling, or due to an indirect coupling between heart rate and alpha band power, which are both hall marks of the resting state. It

Jan C. De Munck; Sonia I. Goncalves; Theo J. C. Faes; Petra J. W. Pouwels; Joost P. A. Kuijer; Rob M. Heethaar; Fernando Henrique Lopes Da Silva

2007-01-01

305

[Intragenic deletions of NRXN1: three new case reports and a review of the phenotype].  

PubMed

AIM. To offer data on the phenotype determined by microdeletions of alpha exons in the NRXN1 gene. CASE REPORTS. Three neuropaediatric cases of intragenic microdeletions of NRXN1 alpha are studied. The phenotype of these three cases is unspecific, with mild-moderate mental retardation, behavioural disorders and slight dysmorphic traits or malformations. CONCLUSIONS. The phenotype found in the microdeletions of alpha exons of the NRXN1 gene is clearly distinguishable from the one found in the microdeletions of beta exons, with macrocephaly, epilepsy and mental retardation. PMID:25710691

Galan-Sanchez, F; Esteban-Canto, V; Blaya-Fernandez, P; Jadraque-Rodriguez, R; Manchon-Trives, I; Alcaraz-Mas, L

2015-03-01

306

Event-related desynchronization (ERD) in the alpha frequency during development of implicit and explicit learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the role of the motor cortex in implicit and explicit learning, we studied alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD) while 13 right-handed individuals performed a variation of the serial reaction time task (SRTT). EEG signals were recorded simultaneously from 29 scalp locations and the ERD was computed. During data collection, all subjects developed implicit knowledge, demonstrated by shortening of the

P. Zhuang; C. Toro; J. Grafman; P. Manganotti; L. Leocani; M. Hallett

1997-01-01

307

White-matter lesions along the cholinergic tracts are related to cortical sources of EEG rhythms in amnesic mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Does impairment of cholinergic systems represent an important factor in the development of amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), as a preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD)? Here we tested the hypothesis that electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms, known to be modulated by the cholinergic system, may be particularly affected in aMCI patients with lesions along the cholinergic white-matter tracts. Eyes-closed resting EEG data were recorded in 28 healthy elderly (Nold) and 57 aMCI patients. Lesions along the cholinergic white-matter tracts were detected with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences on magnetic resonance imaging. The estimation of the cholinergic lesion was performed with a validated semi-automatic algorithm pipeline after registration to a stereotactic template, image integration with stereotactic masks of the cholinergic tracts, and normalization to intracranial volume. The aMCI patients were divided into two groups of high (MCI Ch+; N = 29; MMSE = 26.2) and low cholinergic damage (MCI Ch-; N = 28; MMSE = 26.6). EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta 1 (13-20 Hz), and beta 2 (20-30 Hz). Cortical EEG generators were estimated by LORETA software. As main results, (i) power of occipital, parietal, temporal, and limbic alpha 1 sources was maximum in Nold, intermediate in MCI Ch-, and low in MCI Ch+ patients; (ii) the same trend was true in theta sources. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that damage to the cholinergic system is associated with alterations of EEG sources in aMCI subjects. PMID:19097164

Babiloni, Claudio; Pievani, Michela; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Geroldi, Cristina; Eusebi, Fabrizio; Fracassi, Claudia; Fletcher, Evan; De Carli, Charles; Boccardi, Marina; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Frisoni, Giovanni B

2009-05-01

308

Resting state in Alzheimer's disease: a concurrent analysis of Flash-Visual Evoked Potentials and quantitative EEG  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate to what extent Alzheimer's Disease (AD) affects Resting State activity, the possible impairment of independent electrophysiological parameters was determined in Eye-open and Eye-closed Conditions. Specifically, Flash-Visual Evoked Potential (F-VEP) and quantitative EEG (q-EEG) were examined to establish whether abnormalities of the former were systematically associated with changes of the latter. Methods Concurrently recorded F-VEP and q-EEG were comparatively analysed under Eye-open and Eye-closed Conditions in 11 Controls and 19 AD patients presenting a normal Pattern-Visual Evoked Potential (P-VEP). Between Condition differences in latencies of P2 component were matched to variations in spectral components of q-EEG. Results P2 latency increased in 10 AD patients with Abnormal Latency (AD-AL) under Eye-closed Condition. In these patients reduction of alpha activity joined an increased delta power so that their spectral profile equated that recorded under Eye-open Condition. On the opposite, in Controls as well as in AD patients with Normal P2 Latency (AD-NL) spectral profiles recorded under Eye-open and Eye-closed Conditions significantly differed from each other. At the baseline, under Eye-open Condition, the spectra overlapped each other in the three Groups. Conclusion Under Eye-closed Condition AD patients may present a significant change in both F-VEP latency and EEG rhythm modulation. The presence of concurrent changes of independent parameters suggests that the neurodegenerative process can impair a control system active in Eye-closed Condition which the electrophysiological parameters depend upon. F-VEP can be viewed as a reliable marker of such impairment. PMID:23190493

2012-01-01

309

EEG, physiology, and task-related mood fail to resolve across 31 days of smoking abstinence: relations to depressive traits, nicotine exposure, and dependence.  

PubMed

Changes in task-related mood and physiology associated with 31 days of smoking abstinence were assessed in smokers, 34 of whom were randomly assigned to a quit group and 22 to a continuing-to-smoke control group. A large financial incentive for smoking abstinence resulted in very low participant attrition. Individuals were tested during prequit baselines and at 3, 10, 17, and 31 days of abstinence. Abstinence was associated with decreases in heart rate and serum cortisol, a slowing of electroencephalogram (EEG) activity, and task-dependent and trait-depression-dependent hemispheric EEG asymmetries. Differences between the quit group and the smoking group showed no tendency to resolve across the 31 days of abstinence. Trait depression and neuroticism correlated with increases in left-relative-to-right frontal EEG slow-wave (low alpha) activity at both 3 and 31 days of abstinence. In contrast, prequit nicotine intake and Fagerström Tolerance scores correlated with alpha asymmetry and with greater EEG slowing only at Day 3. Thus, the effects of smoking abstinence appear to last for at least several months. PMID:10609977

Gilbert, D G; McClernon, F J; Rabinovich, N E; Dibb, W D; Plath, L C; Hiyane, S; Jensen, R A; Meliska, C J; Estes, S L; Gehlbach, B A

1999-11-01

310

On the analysis of EEG power, frequency and asymmetry in Parkinson’s disease during emotion processing  

PubMed Central

Objective While Parkinson’s disease (PD) has traditionally been described as a movement disorder, there is growing evidence of disruption in emotion information processing associated with the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are specific electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics that discriminate PD patients and normal controls during emotion information processing. Method EEG recordings from 14 scalp sites were collected from 20 PD patients and 30 age-matched normal controls. Multimodal (audio-visual) stimuli were presented to evoke specific targeted emotional states such as happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise and disgust. Absolute and relative power, frequency and asymmetry measures derived from spectrally analyzed EEGs were subjected to repeated ANOVA measures for group comparisons as well as to discriminate function analysis to examine their utility as classification indices. In addition, subjective ratings were obtained for the used emotional stimuli. Results Behaviorally, PD patients showed no impairments in emotion recognition as measured by subjective ratings. Compared with normal controls, PD patients evidenced smaller overall relative delta, theta, alpha and beta power, and at bilateral anterior regions smaller absolute theta, alpha, and beta power and higher mean total spectrum frequency across different emotional states. Inter-hemispheric theta, alpha, and beta power asymmetry index differences were noted, with controls exhibiting greater right than left hemisphere activation. Whereas intra-hemispheric alpha power asymmetry reduction was exhibited in patients bilaterally at all regions. Discriminant analysis correctly classified 95.0% of the patients and controls during emotional stimuli. Conclusion These distributed spectral powers in different frequency bands might provide meaningful information about emotional processing in PD patients. PMID:24716619

2014-01-01

311

Emotion recognition from EEG using higher order crossings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based emotion recognition is a relatively new field in the affective computing area with challenging issues regarding the induction of the emotional states and the extraction of the features in order to achieve optimum classification performance. In this paper, a novel emotion evocation and EEG-based feature extraction technique is presented. In particular, the mirror neuron system concept was adapted

Panagiotis C. Petrantonakis; Leontios J. Hadjileontiadis

2010-01-01

312

Multivariate Temporal Dictionary Learning for EEG Q. Barthelemya,b  

E-print Network

Multivariate Temporal Dictionary Learning for EEG Q. Barth´elemya,b , C. Gouy-Paillera , Y. Isaaca. While classical ap- proaches use a fixed Gabor dictionary to analyze EEG signals, this article proposes a data-driven method to obtain an adapted dictionary. To reach an efficient dictionary learning

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

313

Intuitionistic fuzzy approach in enhancing image of flat EEG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image enhancement is a process to improve the quality of an image which mainly due to presence of noise. It is an initial step in medical imaging. Fuzzy approach has been used widely in the area of image processing. However, in this paper, image enhancement of Flat EEG (fEEG) during epileptic seizures using intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS) is presented and compared.

Zenian, Suzelawati; Ahmad, Tahir; Idris, Amidora

2014-07-01

314

Using EEG to Study Cognitive Development: Issues and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental research is enhanced by use of multiple methodologies for examining psychological processes. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an efficient and relatively inexpensive method for the study of developmental changes in brain-behavior relations. In this review, we highlight some of the challenges for using EEG in cognitive development…

Bell, Martha Ann; Cuevas, Kimberly

2012-01-01

315

Iterative Subspace Decomposition for Ocular Artifact Removal from EEG Recordings  

E-print Network

rates [11]. Ocular artifacts generally occur during blinking or saccades of the eye, and are featuredIterative Subspace Decomposition for Ocular Artifact Removal from EEG Recordings CĂ©dric Gouy. In this study, we present a method to remove ocular artifacts from electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings

Boyer, Edmond

316

EEG Markers for Attention Deficit Disorder: Pharmacological and Neurofeedback Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined contribution of EEG findings in the classification and treatment of attention deficit and related behavioral problems in children. Found that quantitative EEG methods disclosed patterns of abnormality in children with ADD, suggested improved guidelines for pharmacological treatment, and introduced neurofeedback, a behavioral treatment for…

Sterman, M. Barry

2000-01-01

317

Quantifying Mental Relaxation with EEG for use in Computer Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of implementing electroencephalographic (EEG) based measurement of mental relaxation as an interface for a simple computer game. In this game, a simulated ball is controlled to move left or right based on player's mental relaxation level. EEG data, blood pressure, heart rate and subjective perception of relaxation were recorded from

T. A. Lin; L. R. John

2006-01-01

318

Effects of Fipronil on the EEG of Long Evans Rats  

EPA Science Inventory

We have reported that the non-stimulus driven EEG is differentially altered by deltamethrin or permethrin (Lyke and Herr, Toxicologist, 114(S-1):265, 2010). In the current study, we examined the ability to detect changes in EEG activity produced by fipronil, a phenylpyrazole pest...

319

Classification of EEG abnormalities in partial epilepsy with simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings.  

PubMed

Scalp EEG recordings and the classification of interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) in patients with epilepsy provide valuable information about the epileptogenic network, particularly by defining the boundaries of the "irritative zone" (IZ), and hence are helpful during pre-surgical evaluation of patients with severe refractory epilepsies. The current detection and classification of epileptiform signals essentially rely on expert observers. This is a very time-consuming procedure, which also leads to inter-observer variability. Here, we propose a novel approach to automatically classify epileptic activity and show how this method provides critical and reliable information related to the IZ localization beyond the one provided by previous approaches. We applied Wave_clus, an automatic spike sorting algorithm, for the classification of IED visually identified from pre-surgical simultaneous Electroencephalogram-functional Magnetic Resonance Imagining (EEG-fMRI) recordings in 8 patients affected by refractory partial epilepsy candidate for surgery. For each patient, two fMRI analyses were performed: one based on the visual classification and one based on the algorithmic sorting. This novel approach successfully identified a total of 29 IED classes (compared to 26 for visual identification). The general concordance between methods was good, providing a full match of EEG patterns in 2 cases, additional EEG information in 2 other cases and, in general, covering EEG patterns of the same areas as expert classification in 7 of the 8 cases. Most notably, evaluation of the method with EEG-fMRI data analysis showed hemodynamic maps related to the majority of IED classes representing improved performance than the visual IED classification-based analysis (72% versus 50%). Furthermore, the IED-related BOLD changes revealed by using the algorithm were localized within the presumed IZ for a larger number of IED classes (9) in a greater number of patients than the expert classification (7 and 5, respectively). In contrast, in only one case presented the new algorithm resulted in fewer classes and activation areas. We propose that the use of automated spike sorting algorithms to classify IED provides an efficient tool for mapping IED-related fMRI changes and increases the EEG-fMRI clinical value for the pre-surgical assessment of patients with severe epilepsy. PMID:24830841

Pedreira, C; Vaudano, A E; Thornton, R C; Chaudhary, U J; Vulliemoz, S; Laufs, H; Rodionov, R; Carmichael, D W; Lhatoo, S D; Guye, M; Quian Quiroga, R; Lemieux, L

2014-10-01

320

Continuous EEG monitoring in a patient with massive carbamazepine overdose.  

PubMed

The authors report a woman who took a massive overdose (OD) of carbamazepine (CBZ). On admission she was unconscious with absent brainstem reflexes and multifocal stimulus-sensitive myoclonus. Continuous EEG recordings showed a burst-suppression pattern with bursts containing only generalized spikes accompanying myoclonic activity. Myoclonus and EEG bursts were both spontaneous and stimulus induced. With treatment, the serum CBZ concentration declined, and the EEG became more continuous and rhythmic without epileptiform discharges. Unfortunately, the patient died from adult respiratory distress syndrome. Autopsy revealed that cortical and subcortical structures were normal without neuronal necrosis or eosinophilia. Massive CBZ OD may produce a reversible encephalopathy that includes cortical hyperexcitability, a profound burst-suppression EEG pattern, and cranial nerve areflexia. Continuous EEG monitoring is helpful in managing seizures that occur as a complication of CBZ OD, after the course of recovery or worsening, and in providing assistance with prognosis. PMID:11435808

De Rubeis, D A; Young, G B

2001-03-01

321

Multimodal emotion recognition using EEG and eye tracking data.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new emotion recognition method which combines electroencephalograph (EEG) signals and pupillary response collected from eye tracker. We select 15 emotional film clips of 3 categories (positive, neutral and negative). The EEG signals and eye tracking data of five participants are recorded, simultaneously, while watching these videos. We extract emotion-relevant features from EEG signals and eye tracing data of 12 experiments and build a fusion model to improve the performance of emotion recognition. The best average accuracies based on EEG signals and eye tracking data are 71.77% and 58.90%, respectively. We also achieve average accuracies of 73.59% and 72.98% for feature level fusion strategy and decision level fusion strategy, respectively. These results show that both feature level fusion and decision level fusion combining EEG signals and eye tracking data can improve the performance of emotion recognition model. PMID:25571125

Wei-Long Zheng; Bo-Nan Dong; Bao-Liang Lu

2014-08-01

322

Wireless recording systems: from noninvasive EEG-NIRS to invasive EEG devices.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a wireless wearable electronic system dedicated to remote data recording for brain monitoring. The reported wireless recording system is used for a) simultaneous near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS) and scalp electro-encephalography (EEG) for noninvasive monitoring and b) intracerebral EEG (icEEG) for invasive monitoring. Bluetooth and dual radio links were introduced for these recordings. The Bluetooth-based device was embedded in a noninvasive multichannel EEG-NIRS system for easy portability and long-term monitoring. On the other hand, the 32-channel implantable recording device offers 24-bit resolution, tunable features, and a sampling frequency up to 2 kHz per channel. The analog front-end preamplifier presents low input-referred noise of 5 ? VRMS and a signal-to-noise ratio of 112 dB. The communication link is implemented using a dual-band radio frequency transceiver offering a half-duplex 800 kb/s data rate, 16.5 mW power consumption and less than 10(-10) post-correction Bit-Error Rate (BER). The designed system can be accessed and controlled by a computer with a user-friendly graphical interface. The proposed wireless implantable recording device was tested in vitro using real icEEG signals from two patients with refractory epilepsy. The wirelessly recorded signals were compared to the original signals recorded using wired-connection, and measured normalized root-mean square deviation was under 2%. PMID:23853301

Sawan, Mohamad; Salam, Muhammad T; Le Lan, Jérôme; Kassab, Amal; Gelinas, Sébastien; Vannasing, Phetsamone; Lesage, Frédéric; Lassonde, Maryse; Nguyen, Dang K

2013-04-01

323

Classification of spontaneous EEG signals in migraine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We set up a classification system able to detect patients affected by migraine without aura, through the analysis of their spontaneous EEG patterns. First, the signals are characterized by means of wavelet-based features, than a supervised neural network is used to classify the multichannel data. For the feature extraction, scale-dependent and scale-independent methods are considered with a variety of wavelet functions. Both the approaches provide very high and almost comparable classification performances. A complete separation of the two groups is obtained when the data are plotted in the plane spanned by two suitable neural outputs.

Bellotti, R.; De Carlo, F.; de Tommaso, M.; Lucente, M.

2007-08-01

324

Computer-aided diagnosis of alcoholism-related EEG signals.  

PubMed

Alcoholism is a severe disorder that affects the functionality of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and alters the behavior of the affected person. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can be used as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of subjects with alcoholism. The neurophysiological interpretation of EEG signals in persons with alcoholism (PWA) is based on observation and interpretation of the frequency and power in their EEGs compared to EEG signals from persons without alcoholism. This paper presents a review of the known features of EEGs obtained from PWA and proposes that the impact of alcoholism on the brain can be determined by computer-aided analysis of EEGs through extracting the minute variations in the EEG signals that can differentiate the EEGs of PWA from those of nonaffected persons. The authors advance the idea of automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of alcoholism by employing the EEG signals. This is achieved through judicious combination of signal processing techniques such as wavelet, nonlinear dynamics, and chaos theory and pattern recognition and classification techniques. A CAD system is cost-effective and efficient and can be used as a decision support system by physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of alcoholism especially those who do not specialize in alcoholism or neurophysiology. It can also be of great value to rehabilitation centers to assess PWA over time and to monitor the impact of treatment aimed at minimizing or reversing the effects of the disease on the brain. A CAD system can be used to determine the extent of alcoholism-related changes in EEG signals (low, medium, high) and the effectiveness of therapeutic plans. PMID:25461226

Acharya, U Rajendra; S, Vidya; Bhat, Shreya; Adeli, Hojjat; Adeli, Amir

2014-12-01

325

The influence of apolipoprotein E Epsilon4 polymorphism on qEEG profiles in healthy young females: a resting EEG study.  

PubMed

The epsilon4 allele of the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene has been linked to various neurological conditions and the aging process in the elderly. However, evidence has suggested that the influence of ApoE epsilon4 may commence in early life. This study examined the modulatory effects of ApoE epsilon4 on regional neural activity as well as inter-regional neural interactions in a young population aged 19-21. Blood samples and resting state eyes-closed EEG signals were collected from 265 healthy females, and stratified into two groups: epsilon4 carriers and non-carriers. The values of the log-transformed mean power of 18 electrodes and the mutual information of 20 channel pairs across delta, theta, alpha and beta frequencies were analyzed. Our connectivity analysis was based on information theory, which combined Morlet wavelet transform and mutual information calculation. Between-group statistics were performed by independent t-test. We notice a consistent trend across the brain, in which ApoE epsilon4 carriers possess lower regional power at the alpha band. The epsilon4 allele is also associated with lower regional power at the theta frequency in the left frontal and posterior brain regions. Functional connectivity analyses reveal a right-lateralized network that differentiates epsilon4 carriers and non-carriers, with lower connectivity strengths for the former. Our tonic EEG analyses complement those of previous reports in that the ApoE epsilon4 allele has a negative impact on regional neural synchronization and inter-regional neural interaction. PMID:22562716

Lee, Tien-Wen; Yu, Younger W-Y; Hong, Chen-Jee; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Wu, Hung-Chi; Chen, Tai-Jui

2012-10-01

326

Changes during pentetrazol induced epilepsy in rat recorded by simultaneous EEG\\/MRI at 7T  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneously acquired EEG and BOLD (Blood Oxygenation level dependent contrast) MRI allowed to study on line the neurophysiological changes in rat brain during epileptic seizures. MRI and EEG data were acquired with a specially designed high quality MR RF-antenna with incorporated non-invasive carbon EEG electrodes. The problem of severe pollution of the EEG data due to MR gradient switching during

Marleen Verhoye; Ive Michiels; Peter P. De Deyn; Annemie Van der Linden

2000-01-01

327

Evidence of a Faster Posterior Dominant EEG Rhythm in Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities have been associated with autism. In the course of clinical work, we have observed a posterior dominant EEG rhythm at higher frequency in children with autism. To test this observation, 56 EEG tracings of children with autism were compared to the EEGs of age-matched controls. Children with autism…

Gregory, Michael D.; Mandelbaum, David E.

2012-01-01

328

SYMMETRICAL EEG/FMRI FUSION WITH SPATIALLY ADAPTIVE PRIORS USING VARIATIONAL DISTRIBUTION APPROXIMATION  

E-print Network

SYMMETRICAL EEG/FMRI FUSION WITH SPATIALLY ADAPTIVE PRIORS USING VARIATIONAL DISTRIBUTION In this paper, we propose a symmetrical EEG/fMRI fusion algorithm which combines EEG and fMRI by means-- EEG, fMRI, total variation (TV), variational Bayesian methods. 1. INTRODUCTION Functional neuroimaging

Granada, Universidad de

329

Combined EEG/MEG Can Outperform Single Modality EEG or MEG Source Reconstruction in Presurgical Epilepsy Diagnosis.  

PubMed

We investigated two important means for improving source reconstruction in presurgical epilepsy diagnosis. The first investigation is about the optimal choice of the number of epileptic spikes in averaging to (1) sufficiently reduce the noise bias for an accurate determination of the center of gravity of the epileptic activity and (2) still get an estimation of the extent of the irritative zone. The second study focuses on the differences in single modality EEG (80-electrodes) or MEG (275-gradiometers) and especially on the benefits of combined EEG/MEG (EMEG) source analysis. Both investigations were validated with simultaneous stereo-EEG (sEEG) (167-contacts) and low-density EEG (ldEEG) (21-electrodes). To account for the different sensitivity profiles of EEG and MEG, we constructed a six-compartment finite element head model with anisotropic white matter conductivity, and calibrated the skull conductivity via somatosensory evoked responses. Our results show that, unlike single modality EEG or MEG, combined EMEG uses the complementary information of both modalities and thereby allows accurate source reconstructions also at early instants in time (epileptic spike onset), i.e., time points with low SNR, which are not yet subject to propagation and thus supposed to be closer to the origin of the epileptic activity. EMEG is furthermore able to reveal the propagation pathway at later time points in agreement with sEEG, while EEG or MEG alone reconstructed only parts of it. Subaveraging provides important and accurate information about both the center of gravity and the extent of the epileptogenic tissue that neither single nor grand-averaged spike localizations can supply. PMID:25761059

Aydin, Ümit; Vorwerk, Johannes; Dümpelmann, Matthias; Küpper, Philipp; Kugel, Harald; Heers, Marcel; Wellmer, Jörg; Kellinghaus, Christoph; Haueisen, Jens; Rampp, Stefan; Stefan, Hermann; Wolters, Carsten H

2015-01-01

330

Combined EEG/MEG Can Outperform Single Modality EEG or MEG Source Reconstruction in Presurgical Epilepsy Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

We investigated two important means for improving source reconstruction in presurgical epilepsy diagnosis. The first investigation is about the optimal choice of the number of epileptic spikes in averaging to (1) sufficiently reduce the noise bias for an accurate determination of the center of gravity of the epileptic activity and (2) still get an estimation of the extent of the irritative zone. The second study focuses on the differences in single modality EEG (80-electrodes) or MEG (275-gradiometers) and especially on the benefits of combined EEG/MEG (EMEG) source analysis. Both investigations were validated with simultaneous stereo-EEG (sEEG) (167-contacts) and low-density EEG (ldEEG) (21-electrodes). To account for the different sensitivity profiles of EEG and MEG, we constructed a six-compartment finite element head model with anisotropic white matter conductivity, and calibrated the skull conductivity via somatosensory evoked responses. Our results show that, unlike single modality EEG or MEG, combined EMEG uses the complementary information of both modalities and thereby allows accurate source reconstructions also at early instants in time (epileptic spike onset), i.e., time points with low SNR, which are not yet subject to propagation and thus supposed to be closer to the origin of the epileptic activity. EMEG is furthermore able to reveal the propagation pathway at later time points in agreement with sEEG, while EEG or MEG alone reconstructed only parts of it. Subaveraging provides important and accurate information about both the center of gravity and the extent of the epileptogenic tissue that neither single nor grand-averaged spike localizations can supply. PMID:25761059

Aydin, Ümit; Vorwerk, Johannes; Dümpelmann, Matthias; Küpper, Philipp; Kugel, Harald; Heers, Marcel; Wellmer, Jörg; Kellinghaus, Christoph; Haueisen, Jens; Rampp, Stefan; Stefan, Hermann; Wolters, Carsten H.

2015-01-01

331

EEG frequency dynamics during movements imagery.  

PubMed

The study is an attempt to reveal the EEG frequency dynamic changes over sites covering areas reflecting the cognitive processes during movement imagery. Subjects were instructed to imagine a self-paced movement after listening to randomized sentences differing in lack of object or instrument of action. EEG was recorded over frontal, sensorimotor and temporo-parietal areas in both hemispheres. Frequency dynamics was estimated using power spectra (PS), band-pass filtering and bispectra. Two types of frequency dynamics were established: (A) a linear one, up to 24 Hz, with most pronounced oscillations in 12-14 Hz and in 16-22 Hz, synchronized first in frontal and precentral areas; (B) a nonlinear one between 24 and 63 Hz, with fractal structure and self-similarity, characterized by fractal dimension of 1.7-1.9. The narrow band of 23-26 Hz in the boundary between linear and nonlinear regimes expressed obvious synchronization and time re-distribution of oscillations among sites and sentence-types. PMID:11693390

Popivanov, D; Likova, L; Sauleva, Z

2001-01-01

332

Estimating Single-Trial Responses in EEG  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate characterization of single-trial field potential responses is critical from a number of perspectives. For example, it allows differentiation of an evoked response from ongoing EEG. We previously developed the multiple component Event Related Potential (mcERP) algorithm to improve resolution of the single-trial evoked response. The mcERP model states that multiple components, each specified by a stereotypic waveform varying in latency and amplitude from trial to trial, comprise the evoked response. Application of the mcERP algorithm to simulated data with three independent, synthetic components has shown that the model is capable of separating these components and estimating their variability. Application of the model to single trial, visual evoked potentials recorded simultaneously from all V1 laminae in an awake, fixating macaque yielded local and far-field components. Certain local components estimated by the model were distributed in both granular and supragranular laminae. This suggests a linear coupling between the responses of thalamo-recipient neuronal ensembles and subsequent responses of supragranular neuronal ensembles, as predicted by the feedforward anatomy of V1. Our results indicate that the mcERP algorithm provides a valid estimation of single-trial responses. This will enable analyses that depend on trial-to-trial variations and those that require separation of the evoked response from background EEG rhythms

Shah, A. S.; Knuth, K. H.; Truccolo, W. A.; Mehta, A. D.; Fu, K. G.; Johnston, T. A.; Ding, M.; Bressler, S. L.; Schroeder, C. E.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

333

Spatiotemporal Analysis of Multichannel EEG: CARTOOL  

PubMed Central

This paper describes methods to analyze the brain's electric fields recorded with multichannel Electroencephalogram (EEG) and demonstrates their implementation in the software CARTOOL. It focuses on the analysis of the spatial properties of these fields and on quantitative assessment of changes of field topographies across time, experimental conditions, or populations. Topographic analyses are advantageous because they are reference independents and thus render statistically unambiguous results. Neurophysiologically, differences in topography directly indicate changes in the configuration of the active neuronal sources in the brain. We describe global measures of field strength and field similarities, temporal segmentation based on topographic variations, topographic analysis in the frequency domain, topographic statistical analysis, and source imaging based on distributed inverse solutions. All analysis methods are implemented in a freely available academic software package called CARTOOL. Besides providing these analysis tools, CARTOOL is particularly designed to visualize the data and the analysis results using 3-dimensional display routines that allow rapid manipulation and animation of 3D images. CARTOOL therefore is a helpful tool for researchers as well as for clinicians to interpret multichannel EEG and evoked potentials in a global, comprehensive, and unambiguous way. PMID:21253358

Brunet, Denis; Murray, Micah M.; Michel, Christoph M.

2011-01-01

334

Nonlinear analysis of EEG for epileptic seizures  

SciTech Connect

We apply chaotic time series analysis (CTSA) to human electroencephalogram (EEG) data. Three epoches were examined: epileptic seizure, non-seizure, and transition from non-seizure to seizure. The CTSA tools were applied to four forms of these data: raw EEG data (e-data), artifact data (f-data) via application of a quadratic zero-phase filter of the raw data, artifact-filtered data (g- data) and that was the residual after subtracting f-data from e-data, and a low-pass-filtered version (h-data) of g-data. Two different seizures were analyzed for the same patient. Several nonlinear measures uniquely indicate an epileptic seizure in both cases, including an abrupt decrease in the time per wave cycle in f-data, an abrupt increase in the Kolmogorov entropy and in the correlation dimension for e-h data, and an abrupt increase in the correlation dimension for e-h data. The transition from normal to seizure state also is characterized by distinctly different trends in the nonlinear measures for each seizure and may be potential seizure predictors for this patient. Surrogate analysis of e-data shows that statistically significant nonlinear structure is present during the non-seizure, transition , and seizure epoches.

Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Daw, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Eisenstadt, M.L. [Knoxville Neurology Clinic, St. Mary`s Medical Center, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-04-01

335

EEG microstates during resting represent personality differences.  

PubMed

We investigated the spontaneous brain electric activity of 13 skeptics and 16 believers in paranormal phenomena; they were university students assessed with a self-report scale about paranormal beliefs. 33-channel EEG recordings during no-task resting were processed as sequences of momentary potential distribution maps. Based on the maps at peak times of Global Field Power, the sequences were parsed into segments of quasi-stable potential distribution, the 'microstates'. The microstates were clustered into four classes of map topographies (A-D). Analysis of the microstate parameters time coverage, occurrence frequency and duration as well as the temporal sequence (syntax) of the microstate classes revealed significant differences: Believers had a higher coverage and occurrence of class B, tended to decreased coverage and occurrence of class C, and showed a predominant sequence of microstate concatenations from A to C to B to A that was reversed in skeptics (A to B to C to A). Microstates of different topographies, putative "atoms of thought", are hypothesized to represent different types of information processing.The study demonstrates that personality differences can be detected in resting EEG microstate parameters and microstate syntax. Microstate analysis yielded no conclusive evidence for the hypothesized relation between paranormal belief and schizophrenia. PMID:21644026

Schlegel, Felix; Lehmann, Dietrich; Faber, Pascal L; Milz, Patricia; Gianotti, Lorena R R

2012-01-01

336

Estimating human response to taste using EEG.  

PubMed

In order to implement affective computing, there have been several studies to elicit human emotion using audio and video stimuli or by recalling previous events. Taste-elicited emotion has also been investigated using food to induce different levels of pleasure. This is monitored using a range of methods, from questionnaire feedback to electrophysiological responses of autonomic nervous system (ANS) and central nervous system (CNS). In this work, we establish that emotions elicited by taste can be monitored using electroencephalogram (EEG), and, for rigour, compare the response to a taste stimulus against the response to the recall of the same taste. The character of emotions were assessed using a subjective measurement, the hedonic score, which describes the pleasant or unpleasant moods of subjects in response to each taste. The classification performance of EEG responses shows excellent separability between the different emotions induced by different tastes. In addition, it is shown that emotion elicited by taste recall is stronger than the stimulus-elicited emotion. PMID:22255786

Park, C; Looney, D; Mandic, D P

2011-01-01

337

A Method for Removing Imaging Artifact from Continuous EEG Recorded during Functional MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined EEG\\/fMRI recording has been used to localize the generators of EEG events and to identify subject state in cognitive studies and is of increasing interest. However, the large EEG artifacts induced during fMRI have precluded simultaneous EEG and fMRI recording, restricting study design. Removing this artifact is difficult, as it normally exceeds EEG significantly and contains components in the

Philip J. Allen; Oliver Josephs; Robert Turner

2000-01-01

338

Usability of four commercially-oriented EEG systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroencephalography (EEG) holds promise as a neuroimaging technology that can be used to understand how the human brain functions in real-world, operational settings while individuals move freely in perceptually-rich environments. In recent years, several EEG systems have been developed that aim to increase the usability of the neuroimaging technology in real-world settings. Here, the usability of three wireless EEG systems from different companies are compared to a conventional wired EEG system, BioSemi’s ActiveTwo, which serves as an established laboratory-grade ‘gold standard’ baseline. The wireless systems compared include Advanced Brain Monitoring’s B-Alert X10, Emotiv Systems’ EPOC and the 2009 version of QUASAR’s Dry Sensor Interface 10-20. The design of each wireless system is discussed in relation to its impact on the system’s usability as a potential real-world neuroimaging system. Evaluations are based on having participants complete a series of cognitive tasks while wearing each of the EEG acquisition systems. This report focuses on the system design, usability factors and participant comfort issues that arise during the experimental sessions. In particular, the EEG systems are assessed on five design elements: adaptability of the system for differing head sizes, subject comfort and preference, variance in scalp locations for the recording electrodes, stability of the electrical connection between the scalp and electrode, and timing integration between the EEG system, the stimulus presentation computer and other external events.

Hairston, W. David; Whitaker, Keith W.; Ries, Anthony J.; Vettel, Jean M.; Cortney Bradford, J.; Kerick, Scott E.; McDowell, Kaleb

2014-08-01

339

Mobile Collection and Automated Interpretation of EEG Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system that would comprise mobile and stationary electronic hardware and software subsystems has been proposed for collection and automated interpretation of electroencephalographic (EEG) data from subjects in everyday activities in a variety of environments. By enabling collection of EEG data from mobile subjects engaged in ordinary activities (in contradistinction to collection from immobilized subjects in clinical settings), the system would expand the range of options and capabilities for performing diagnoses. Each subject would be equipped with one of the mobile subsystems, which would include a helmet that would hold floating electrodes (see figure) in those positions on the patient s head that are required in classical EEG data-collection techniques. A bundle of wires would couple the EEG signals from the electrodes to a multi-channel transmitter also located in the helmet. Electronic circuitry in the helmet transmitter would digitize the EEG signals and transmit the resulting data via a multidirectional RF patch antenna to a remote location. At the remote location, the subject s EEG data would be processed and stored in a database that would be auto-administered by a newly designed relational database management system (RDBMS). In this RDBMS, in nearly real time, the newly stored data would be subjected to automated interpretation that would involve comparison with other EEG data and concomitant peer-reviewed diagnoses stored in international brain data bases administered by other similar RDBMSs.

Mintz, Frederick; Moynihan, Philip

2007-01-01

340

Wireless and wearable EEG system for evaluating driver vigilance.  

PubMed

Brain activity associated with attention sustained on the task of safe driving has received considerable attention recently in many neurophysiological studies. Those investigations have also accurately estimated shifts in drivers' levels of arousal, fatigue, and vigilance, as evidenced by variations in their task performance, by evaluating electroencephalographic (EEG) changes. However, monitoring the neurophysiological activities of automobile drivers poses a major measurement challenge when using a laboratory-oriented biosensor technology. This work presents a novel dry EEG sensor based mobile wireless EEG system (referred to herein as Mindo) to monitor in real time a driver's vigilance status in order to link the fluctuation of driving performance with changes in brain activities. The proposed Mindo system incorporates the use of a wireless and wearable EEG device to record EEG signals from hairy regions of the driver conveniently. Additionally, the proposed system can process EEG recordings and translate them into the vigilance level. The study compares the system performance between different regression models. Moreover, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for online analysis. A case study involving 15 study participants assigned a 90 min sustained-attention driving task in an immersive virtual driving environment demonstrates the reliability of the proposed system. Consistent with previous studies, power spectral analysis results confirm that the EEG activities correlate well with the variations in vigilance. Furthermore, the proposed system demonstrated the feasibility of predicting the driver's vigilance in real time. PMID:24860041

Lin, Chin-Teng; Chuang, Chun-Hsiang; Huang, Chih-Sheng; Tsai, Shu-Fang; Lu, Shao-Wei; Chen, Yen-Hsuan; Ko, Li-Wei

2014-04-01

341

Higher-Order Spectrum in Understanding Nonlinearity in EEG Rhythms  

PubMed Central

The fundamental nature of the brain's electrical activities recorded as electroencephalogram (EEG) remains unknown. Linear stochastic models and spectral estimates are the most common methods for the analysis of EEG because of their robustness, simplicity of interpretation, and apparent association with rhythmic behavioral patterns in nature. In this paper, we extend the use of higher-order spectrum in order to indicate the hidden characteristics of EEG signals that simply do not arise from random processes. The higher-order spectrum is an extension Fourier spectrum that uses higher moments for spectral estimates. This essentially nullifies all Gaussian random effects, therefore, can reveal non-Gaussian and nonlinear characteristics in the complex patterns of EEG time series. The paper demonstrates the distinguishing features of bispectral analysis for chaotic systems, filtered noises, and normal background EEG activity. The bispectrum analysis detects nonlinear interactions; however, it does not quantify the coupling strength. The squared bicoherence in the nonredundant region has been estimated to demonstrate nonlinear coupling. The bicoherence values are minimal for white Gaussian noises (WGNs) and filtered noises. Higher bicoherence values in chaotic time series and normal background EEG activities are indicative of nonlinear coupling in these systems. The paper shows utility of bispectral methods as an analytical tool in understanding neural process underlying human EEG patterns. PMID:22400046

Pradhan, Cauchy; Jena, Susant K.; Nadar, Sreenivasan R.; Pradhan, N.

2012-01-01

342

TMS-EEG: From basic research to clinical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with electroencephalography (EEG) is a powerful technique for non-invasively studying cortical excitability and connectivity. The combination of TMS and EEG has widely been used to perform basic research and recently has gained importance in different clinical applications. In this paper, we will describe the physical and biological principles of TMS-EEG and different applications in basic research and clinical applications. We will present methods based on independent component analysis (ICA) for studying the TMS-evoked EEG responses. These methods have the capability to remove and suppress large artifacts, making it feasible, for instance, to study language areas with TMS-EEG. We will discuss the different applications and limitations of TMS and TMS-EEG in clinical applications. Potential applications of TMS are presented, for instance in neurosurgical planning, depression and other neurological disorders. Advantages and disadvantages of TMS-EEG and its variants such as repetitive TMS (rTMS) are discussed in comparison to other brain stimulation and neuroimaging techniques. Finally, challenges that researchers face when using this technique will be summarized.

Hernandez-Pavon, Julio C.; Sarvas, Jukka; Ilmoniemi, Risto J.

2014-11-01

343

Central glucocorticoid receptor-mediated effects of the antidepressant, citalopram, in humans: a study using EEG and cognitive testing.  

PubMed

Our previous work in cellular and animal models has shown that antidepressants activate glucocorticoid receptor (GR) translocation, induce GR down-regulation, and decrease GR-mediated effects in the presence of GR agonists. However, whether these effects can be extrapolated to the human brain is still unclear. In this study, the effects of four days of treatment with the antidepressant, citalopram (20 mg/day), or placebo, were assessed in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Central GR-mediated effects were examined by the effects of a single dose of cortisol (30 mg, orally) on two measures known to be sensitive to glucocorticoid administration: EEG alpha power and working memory function. Twenty healthy male subjects aged between 18 and 33 years participated to the study. The results suggest that GR activation by antidepressants, and the subsequent decrease in GR-mediated effects in the presence of GR agonists, indeed occurs in the human brain. Specifically, pre-treatment with citalopram decreased the well-known ability of cortisol to increase EEG alpha power and to impair working memory: cortisol-induced increase in EEG alpha power was (anteriorly) +15 to +20% (p=0.01) after placebo and +5 to +8% (p>0.5) after citalopram; and cortisol-induced increase in working memory errors was (at level 12, on average) 2.50 vs. 4.55 (p<0.05) after placebo and 4.10 vs. 3.35 (p>0.05) after citalopram. No effects were detected on alerting. These results are consistent with the notion that citalopram treatment activates GR translocation and inhibits the functional consequences of the subsequent cortisol administration. Our study further emphasizes the importance of the GR as a target for antidepressant action in humans. PMID:21958534

Pariante, Carmine M; Alhaj, Hamid A; Arulnathan, Vijay Edmund; Gallagher, Peter; Hanson, Andy; Massey, E; McAllister-Williams, R Hamish

2012-05-01

344

Wireless brain-machine interface using EEG and EOG: brain wave classification and robot control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brain-machine interface (BMI) links a user's brain activity directly to an external device. It enables a person to control devices using only thought. Hence, it has gained significant interest in the design of assistive devices and systems for people with disabilities. In addition, BMI has also been proposed to replace humans with robots in the performance of dangerous tasks like explosives handling/diffusing, hazardous materials handling, fire fighting etc. There are mainly two types of BMI based on the measurement method of brain activity; invasive and non-invasive. Invasive BMI can provide pristine signals but it is expensive and surgery may lead to undesirable side effects. Recent advances in non-invasive BMI have opened the possibility of generating robust control signals from noisy brain activity signals like EEG and EOG. A practical implementation of a non-invasive BMI such as robot control requires: acquisition of brain signals with a robust wearable unit, noise filtering and signal processing, identification and extraction of relevant brain wave features and finally, an algorithm to determine control signals based on the wave features. In this work, we developed a wireless brain-machine interface with a small platform and established a BMI that can be used to control the movement of a robot by using the extracted features of the EEG and EOG signals. The system records and classifies EEG as alpha, beta, delta, and theta waves. The classified brain waves are then used to define the level of attention. The acceleration and deceleration or stopping of the robot is controlled based on the attention level of the wearer. In addition, the left and right movements of eye ball control the direction of the robot.

Oh, Sechang; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Varadan, Vijay K.

2012-04-01

345

The effect of linear mixing in the EEG on Hurst exponent estimation.  

PubMed

Although the long-range temporal correlation (LRTC) of the amplitude fluctuations of neuronal EEG/MEG oscillations is widely acknowledged, the majority of studies to date have been performed in sensor space, disregarding the mixing effects implied by volume conduction and confounding noise. While the effect of mixing on the evaluation of evoked responses and connectivity measures has been extensively studied, there are, to date, no studies reporting on the differences in the values of the estimated Hurst exponents when moving between sensor and source space representations of the multivariate data or on the effect of noise. Such differences, if not duly acknowledged, may lead to erroneous data interpretations. We show in simulations and in theory that measuring Hurst exponents in sensor space may lead to an incomplete picture of the LRTC properties of the underlying data and that noise may significantly bias the estimate of the Hurst exponent of the underlying signal. Moreover, these predictions are confirmed in real data, where we analyze the amplitude dynamics of neuronal oscillations in the resting state from EEG data. By moving either to an independent components representation or to a source representation which maximizes the signal to noise ratio in the alpha frequency range, we observe greater variance, skewness and kurtosis over measured Hurst exponents than in sensor space. We confirm the suitability of conventional source separation methodology by introducing a novel algorithm HeMax which obtains a source maximizing the Hurst exponent in the amplitude dynamics of narrow band oscillations. Our findings imply that the long-range correlative properties of the EEG should be studied in source space, in such a way that the SNR is maximized, or at least with spatial decomposition techniques approximating source activities, rather than in sensor space. PMID:24862080

Blythe, Duncan A J; Haufe, Stefan; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Nikulin, Vadim V

2014-10-01

346

Fractal Dimension of EEG Activity Senses Neuronal Impairment in Acute Stroke  

PubMed Central

The brain is a self-organizing system which displays self-similarities at different spatial and temporal scales. Thus, the complexity of its dynamics, associated to efficient processing and functional advantages, is expected to be captured by a measure of its scale-free (fractal) properties. Under the hypothesis that the fractal dimension (FD) of the electroencephalographic signal (EEG) is optimally sensitive to the neuronal dysfunction secondary to a brain lesion, we tested the FD’s ability in assessing two key processes in acute stroke: the clinical impairment and the recovery prognosis. Resting EEG was collected in 36 patients 4–10 days after a unilateral ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory and 19 healthy controls. National Health Institute Stroke Scale (NIHss) was collected at T0 and 6 months later. Highuchi FD, its inter-hemispheric asymmetry (FDasy) and spectral band powers were calculated for EEG signals. FD was smaller in patients than in controls (1.447±0.092 vs 1.525±0.105) and its reduction was paired to a worse acute clinical status. FD decrease was associated to alpha increase and beta decrease of oscillatory activity power. Larger FDasy in acute phase was paired to a worse clinical recovery at six months. FD in our patients captured the loss of complexity reflecting the global system dysfunction resulting from the structural damage. This decrease seems to reveal the intimate nature of structure-function unity, where the regional neural multi-scale self-similar activity is impaired by the anatomical lesion. This picture is coherent with neuronal activity complexity decrease paired to a reduced repertoire of functional abilities. FDasy result highlights the functional relevance of the balance between homologous brain structures’ activities in stroke recovery. PMID:24967904

Zappasodi, Filippo; Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Marzetti, Laura; Assenza, Giovanni; Pizzella, Vittorio; Tecchio, Franca

2014-01-01

347

Preferred EEG brain states at stimulus onset in a fixed interstimulus interval equiprobable auditory Go/NoGo task: a definitive study.  

PubMed

This study examined the occurrence of preferred EEG phase states at stimulus onset in an equiprobable auditory Go/NoGo task with a fixed interstimulus interval, and their effects on the resultant event-related potentials (ERPs). We used a sliding short-time FFT decomposition of the EEG at Cz for each trial to assess prestimulus EEG activity in the delta, theta, alpha and beta bands. We determined the phase of each 2 Hz narrow-band contributing to these four broad bands at 125 ms before each stimulus onset, and for the first time, avoided contamination from poststimulus EEG activity. This phase value was extrapolated 125 ms to obtain the phase at stimulus onset, combined into the broad-band phase, and used to sort trials into four phase groups for each of the four broad bands. For each band, ERPs were derived for each phase from the raw EEG activity at 19 sites. Data sets from each band were separately decomposed using temporal Principal Components Analyses with unrestricted VARIMAX rotation to extract N1-1, PN, P2, P3, SW and LP components. Each component was analysed as a function of EEG phase at stimulus onset in the context of a simple conceptualisation of orthogonal phase effects (cortical negativity vs. positivity, negative driving vs. positive driving, waxing vs. waning). The predicted non-random occurrence of phase-defined brain states was confirmed. The preferred states of negativity, negative driving, and waxing were each associated with more efficient stimulus processing, as reflected in amplitude differences of the components. The present results confirm the existence of preferred brain states and their impact on the efficiency of brain dynamics in perceptual and cognitive processing. PMID:25043955

Barry, Robert J; De Blasio, Frances M; De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Karamacoska, Diana

2014-10-01

348

Biomechanics Phenotypic plasticity in  

E-print Network

Biomechanics Phenotypic plasticity in juvenile jellyfish medusae facilitates effective animal and altered functionality. Previous studies have indicated that Scyphozoan jellyfish ontogeny accommo- dates; ontogeny; jellyfish 1. INTRODUCTION The swimming and feeding performance of marine ani- mals depends

Dabiri, John O.

349

Rational manipulation of digital EEG: pearls and pitfalls.  

PubMed

The advent of digital EEG has provided greater flexibility and more opportunities in data analysis to optimize the diagnostic yield. Changing the filter settings, sensitivity, montages, and time-base are possible rational manipulations to achieve this goal. The options to use polygraphy, video, and quantification are additional useful features. Aliasing and loss of data are potential pitfalls in the use of digital EEG. This review illustrates some common clinical scenarios where rational manipulations can enhance the diagnostic EEG yield and potential pitfalls in the process. PMID:25462135

Seneviratne, Udaya

2014-12-01

350

Atypical EEG pattern in children with absence seizures.  

PubMed

We studied four children with diagnosis of absence seizures (generalized primary epilepsy), and with a generalized delta activity on the EEG during clinical attacks provoked by hyperventilation. The lack of ictal generalized spike-and-wave discharges with a frequency of 3 Hz in our patients, makes this an atypical pattern. All children had complete control of their seizures and disappearance of the EEG changes with valproate. We concluded that generalized delta activity observed on EEG during the hyperventilation in children should not always be considered as a normal finding for age, since it could be an ictal event of an absence seizure. PMID:7487533

Silva, D F; Lima, M M; Anghinah, R; Zanoteli, E; Lima, J G

1995-06-01

351

Using EEG to Study Cognitive Development: Issues and Practices  

PubMed Central

Developmental research is enhanced by use of multiple methodologies for examining psychological processes. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an efficient and relatively inexpensive method for the study of developmental changes in brain-behavior relations. In this review, we highlight some of the challenges for using EEG in cognitive development research. We also list best practices for incorporating this methodology into the study of early cognitive processes. Consideration of these issues is critical for making an informed decision regarding implementation of EEG methodology. PMID:23144592

Bell, Martha Ann; Cuevas, Kimberly

2012-01-01

352

Generation and Reproductive Phenotypes of Mice Lacking Estrogen Receptor beta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogens influence the differentiation and maintenance of reproductive tissues and affect lipid metabolism and bone remodeling. Two estrogen receptors (ERs) have been identified to date, ERalpha and ERbeta . We previously generated and studied knockout mice lacking estrogen receptor alpha and reported severe reproductive and behavioral phenotypes including complete infertility of both male and female mice and absence of breast

John H. Krege; Jeffrey B. Hodgin; John F. Couse; Eva Enmark; Margaret Warner; Joel F. Mahler; Madhabananda Sar; Kenneth S. Korach; Jan-Ake Gustafsson; Oliver Smithies

1998-01-01

353

Phenotypic Variation in Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a detailed manual of protocols and instructional information for carrying out an undergraduate laboratory exercise in ecology and evolutionary biolog. Students examine the causes of phenotypic variation in Brassica rapa. This exercise provides an excellent example of potential factors associated with the causes of phenotypic variation for lower division undergraduates, but could also be expanded upon to allow unique scientific inquiry in labs for upper-division undergrads. It includes student outlines, instructor's notes, and suggested questions for laboratory reports.

Lawrence Blumer (Morehouse College; )

1997-01-01

354

Gelastic seizures: incidence, clinical and EEG features in adult patients undergoing video-EEG telemetry.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine clinical features of adult patients with gelastic seizures recorded on video -electroencephalography (EEG) over a 5-year period. We screened video-EEG telemetry reports for the occurrence of the term "gelastic" seizures, and assessed the semiology, EEG features, and duration of those seizures. Gelastic seizures were identified in 19 (0.8%) of 2,446 admissions. The presumed epileptogenic zone was in the hypothalamus in one third of the cases, temporal lobe epilepsy was diagnosed in another third, and the remainder of the cases presenting with gelastic seizures were classified as frontal, parietal lobe epilepsy or remained undetermined or were multifocal. Gelastic seizures were embedded in a semiology, with part of the seizure showing features of automotor seizures. A small proportion of patients underwent epilepsy surgery. Outcome of epilepsy surgery was related to the underlying pathology; two patients with hippocampal sclerosis had good outcomes following temporal lobe resection and one of four patients with hypothalamic hamartomas undergoing gamma knife surgery had a good outcome. PMID:25516460

Kovac, Stjepana; Diehl, Beate; Wehner, Tim; Fois, Chiara; Toms, Nathan; Walker, Matthew C; Duncan, John S

2015-01-01

355

EEG classification in a single-trial basis for vowel speech perception using multivariate empirical mode decomposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. The objective of this study is to find components that might be related to phoneme representation in the brain and to discriminate EEG responses for each speech sound on a trial basis. Approach. We used multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD) and common spatial pattern for feature extraction. We chose three vowel stimuli, /a/, /i/ and /u/, based on previous findings, such that the brain can detect change in formant frequency (F2) of vowels. EEG activity was recorded from seven native Korean speakers at Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology. We applied MEMD over EEG channels to extract speech-related brain signal sources, and looked for the intrinsic mode functions which were dominant in the alpha bands. After the MEMD procedure, we applied the common spatial pattern algorithm for enhancing the classification performance, and used linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a classifier. Main results. The brain responses to the three vowels could be classified as one of the learned phonemes on a single-trial basis with our approach. Significance. The results of our study show that brain responses to vowels can be classified for single trials using MEMD and LDA. This approach may not only become a useful tool for the brain-computer interface but it could also be used for discriminating the neural correlates of categorical speech perception.

Kim, Jongin; Lee, Suh-Kyung; Lee, Boreom

2014-06-01

356

Investigation of EEG changes during exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic field to conduct brain signals.  

PubMed

There are evidences that confirm the effect of magnetic fields (MFs) on brain signals and some psychological disorders such as headache, migraine and depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in EEG power spectrum due to localized exposure in different parts of the brain by extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) to extract some protocols for treatment of some psychological disorders. In addition, regular effects were investigated by increasing intensity of ELF-MF. Therefore, EEG relative power spectrum was evaluated at T4, T3, F3, F4, and Cz points, when all the points were exposed to MFs with 45, 17, 10, 5, and 3 Hz frequencies, separately. Intensity of MF was 0, 100, 240, or 360 ?T in four sessions. Significant changes were observed in different EEG bands caused by locally exposing to ELF-MF in different points of brain (P < 0.05). Some exposure to MFs decreased alpha band of frontal and central areas in closed-eyes state. Based on the findings in this study, some protocols can be designed using a combination of various MFs exposures to conduct the brain signals that is necessary to evaluate clinically. PMID:24864004

Shafiei, S A; Firoozabadi, S M; Tabatabaie, K Rasoulzadeh; Ghabaee, M

2014-11-01

357

Simple and difficult mathematics in children: a minimum spanning tree EEG network analysis.  

PubMed

Sensor-level network characteristics associated with arithmetic tasks varying in complexity were estimated using tools from modern network theory. EEG signals from children with math difficulties (MD) and typically achieving controls (NI) were analyzed using minimum spanning tree (MST) indices derived from Phase Lag Index values - a graph method that corrects for comparison bias. Results demonstrated progressive modulation of certain MST parameters with increased task difficulty. These findings were consistent with more distributed network activation in the theta band, and greater network integration (i.e., tighter communication between involved regions) in the alpha band as task demands increased. There was also evidence of stronger intraregional signal inter-dependencies in the higher frequency bands during the complex math task. Although these findings did not differ between groups, several MST parameters were positively correlated with individual performance on psychometric math tasks involving similar operations, especially in the NI group. The findings support the potential utility of MST analyses to evaluate function-related electrocortical reactivity over a wide range of EEG frequencies in children. PMID:24887585

Vourkas, Michael; Karakonstantaki, Eleni; Simos, Panagiotis G; Tsirka, Vasso; Antonakakis, Marios; Vamvoukas, Michael; Stam, Cornelis; Dimitriadis, Stavros; Micheloyannis, Sifis

2014-07-25

358

Functional roles of alpha-band phase synchronization in local and large-scale cortical networks.  

PubMed

Alpha-frequency band (8-14?Hz) oscillations are among the most salient phenomena in human electroencephalography (EEG) recordings and yet their functional roles have remained unclear. Much of research on alpha oscillations in human EEG has focused on peri-stimulus amplitude dynamics, which phenomenologically support an idea of alpha oscillations being negatively correlated with local cortical excitability and having a role in the suppression of task-irrelevant neuronal processing. This kind of an inhibitory role for alpha oscillations is also supported by several functional magnetic resonance imaging and trans-cranial magnetic stimulation studies. Nevertheless, investigations of local and inter-areal alpha phase dynamics suggest that the alpha-frequency band rhythmicity may play a role also in active task-relevant neuronal processing. These data imply that inter-areal alpha phase synchronization could support attentional, executive, and contextual functions. In this review, we outline evidence supporting different views on the roles of alpha oscillations in cortical networks and unresolved issues that should be addressed to resolve or reconcile these apparently contrasting hypotheses. PMID:21922012

Palva, Satu; Palva, J Matias

2011-01-01

359

Changes in EEG activity before and after exhaustive exercise in sedentary women in neutral and hot environments.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of hyperthermia on brain electrical activity measured with encephalography during prolonged exhaustive exercise in a group of sedentary women (VO(2)max = 35 +/- 4 mL kg min(-1)). Two strenuous cycling exercises were performed either in neutral (N-Ex) or in heat (H-Ex) conditions. Tympanic temperature (Tty), heart rate (HR), body mass loss (BML), plasma volume decrease, and brain electrical activity [EEG: alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta(13-30 Hz)-band and alpha/beta index of fatigue: the ratio between EEG activity in the alpha band and beta-band] were recorded throughout the cycling sessions. The Tty increase 1.0 degrees C in the N-Ex and 1.8 degrees C in H-Ex. HR increased in both sessions but with significantly higher values during the H-Ex session when compared with the N-Ex session (p < 0.001) (from 85 +/- 4 beats min(-1) to 164 +/- 6 beats min(-1) and from 83 +/- 6 beats min(-1) to 181 +/- 8 beats min(-1), respectively in N-Ex and in H-Ex). This was associated with a significantly higher BML (p < 0.05) and a higher plasma volume decrease in the H-Ex session (p < 0.01). The alpha/beta index increased significantly during both trials particularly during the H-Ex session (p < 0.05). This was associated with a significant decrease of time to exhaustion (-34%). We suggest that exhausting work in the heat induced a change in gross brain activity (alpha/beta ratio) compared to a longer, less thermally demanding exposure. Fatigue in the heat could be attributed to central factors as well as thermal, cardiac and hydro-electrolytic impairment. PMID:20206916

Ftaiti, Foued; Kacem, Asma; Jaidane, Nadia; Tabka, Zouhair; Dogui, Mohamed

2010-10-01

360

Epistasis of transcriptomes reveals synergism between transcriptional activators Hnf1alpha and Hnf4alpha.  

PubMed

The transcription of individual genes is determined by combinatorial interactions between DNA-binding transcription factors. The current challenge is to understand how such combinatorial interactions regulate broad genetic programs that underlie cellular functions and disease. The transcription factors Hnf1alpha and Hnf4alpha control pancreatic islet beta-cell function and growth, and mutations in their genes cause closely related forms of diabetes. We have now exploited genetic epistasis to examine how Hnf1alpha and Hnf4alpha functionally interact in pancreatic islets. Expression profiling in islets from either Hnf1a(+/-) or pancreas-specific Hnf4a mutant mice showed that the two transcription factors regulate a strikingly similar set of genes. We integrated expression and genomic binding studies and show that the shared transcriptional phenotype of these two mutant models is linked to common direct targets, rather than to known effects of Hnf1alpha on Hnf4a gene transcription. Epistasis analysis with transcriptomes of single- and double-mutant islets revealed that Hnf1alpha and Hnf4alpha regulate common targets synergistically. Hnf1alpha binding in Hnf4a-deficient islets was decreased in selected targets, but remained unaltered in others, thus suggesting that the mechanisms for synergistic regulation are gene-specific. These findings provide an in vivo strategy to study combinatorial gene regulation and reveal how Hnf1alpha and Hnf4alpha control a common islet-cell regulatory program that is defective in human monogenic diabetes. PMID:20523905

Boj, Sylvia F; Petrov, Dimitri; Ferrer, Jorge

2010-05-01

361

EEG (ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM) AS A CROSS SPECIES INDICATOR OF NEUROTOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The electroencephalogram (EEG) is a promising measure in the field of neurotoxicology. It can be well quantified by techniques which can be interpreted both physically and statistically. Such quantification schemes are briefly discussed in this paper. However, the quantification ...

362

EEG-based Drowsiness Detection using Support Vector Machine  

E-print Network

bands in their detection and feature selection algorithms. However, due to the inherently complex nature of EEG signals, particularly with regards to interpersonal differences such as age and health, these drowsiness detection methods for the most part...

Yu, Shaoda

2014-08-07

363

Portable cost-effective EEG data acquisition system.  

PubMed

Neuro-cognitive dysfunctions are common clinical abnormalities found in society. They require objective analysis by various instruments; an important technique involves monitoring electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. To date, EEG machines have been robust, costly and require patients to come to a hospital for test. Therefore, we have constructed a simple, cheap and portable EEG instrument for wider patient use. It consists of two active digital EEG probes with two channels each, making it a four-channel portable acquisition system. It is further connected through a two-wire serial bus to the acquisition unit, which comprises an analogue to digital converter (ADC) and an ARM board processor with 2 GB memory and USB interface. The whole system is placed in a small box making it highly portable for wider use in clinical settings. PMID:21406039

Agarwal, N; Nagananda, M S; Rahman, S M K; Sengupta, A; Santhosh, J; Anand, S

2011-01-01

364

Generalized periodic EEG activity in two cases of neurosyphilis.  

PubMed

Neurosyphilis is a recognized cause of epileptic seizures and cognitive impairment, but is not usually associated with the finding of generalized periodic activity in the EEG. We report two similar cases characterized by progressive cognitive impairment followed by partial complex seizures, in whom the EEG showed generalized periodic activity. Both cerebrospinal fluid and the response to penicillin therapy confirmed the diagnoses of neurosyphilis in the two cases. The finding of EEG generalized periodic activity in patients with cognitive or behavioral disorders is usually associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, although there are other conditions, some of them potentially reversible, which may also present this EEG abnormality. Neurosyphilis has tended not to be included among them, and our present findings support the importance of first ruling out neurosyphilis in those patients with cognitive or behavioral disorders associated with generalized periodic epileptiform discharges. PMID:16622567

Anghinah, Renato; Camargo, Erica C S; Braga, Nádia I; Waksman, Simone; Nitrini, Ricardo

2006-03-01

365

Electroencephalographic (EEG) control of three-dimensional movement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can use brain signals from the scalp (EEG), the cortical surface (ECoG), or within the cortex to restore movement control to people who are paralyzed. Like muscle-based skills, BCIs' use requires activity-dependent adaptations in the brain that maintain stable relationships between the person's intent and the signals that convey it. This study shows that humans can learn over a series of training sessions to use EEG for three-dimensional control. The responsible EEG features are focused topographically on the scalp and spectrally in specific frequency bands. People acquire simultaneous control of three independent signals (one for each dimension) and reach targets in a virtual three-dimensional space. Such BCI control in humans has not been reported previously. The results suggest that with further development noninvasive EEG-based BCIs might control the complex movements of robotic arms or neuroprostheses.

McFarland, Dennis J.; Sarnacki, William A.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

2010-06-01

366

DEPRESSED EXCITABILITY AND INTEGRATED EEGS FOLLOWING HIPPOCAMPAL AFTERDISCHARGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Rats with chronic hippocampal electrode implants had afterdischarges induced with electrical stimulus intensities of 115,200, and 800% of a previously determined threshold. Afterdischarge duration, postictal EEG depression duration, and the duration of postictal electrical hypoex...

367

EEG-BASED SPEECH RECOGNITION Impact of Temporal Effects  

E-print Network

: Electroencephalography; Speech Recognition; Unspoken Speech. Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the use INTRODUCTION 1.1 Motivation Electroencephalography (EEG) has proven to be use- ful for a multitude of new

Schultz, Tanja

368

Sparse dictionary methods for EEG signal classification in face perception  

E-print Network

This paper presents a systematic application of machine learning techniques for classifying high-density EEG signals elicited by face and non-face stimuli. The two stimuli used here are derived from the vase-faces illusion ...

Shariat, Shahriar

369

Detecting Epileptic Seizure from Scalp EEG Using Lyapunov Spectrum  

PubMed Central

One of the inherent weaknesses of the EEG signal processing is noises and artifacts. To overcome it, some methods for prediction of epilepsy recently reported in the literature are based on the evaluation of chaotic behavior of intracranial electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. These methods reduced noises, but they were hazardous to patients. In this study, we propose using Lyapunov spectrum to filter noise and detect epilepsy on scalp EEG signals only. We determined that the Lyapunov spectrum can be considered as the most expected method to evaluate chaotic behavior of scalp EEG recordings and to be robust within noises. Obtained results are compared to the independent component analysis (ICA) and largest Lyapunov exponent. The results of detecting epilepsy are compared to diagnosis from medical doctors in case of typical general epilepsy. PMID:22474541

Khoa, Truong Quang Dang; Thi Minh Huong, Nguyen; Toi, Vo Van

2012-01-01

370

Measurement and modification of the EEG and related behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrophysiological changes in the sensorimotor pathways were found to accompany the effect of rhythmic EEG patterns in the sensorimotor cortex. Additionally, several striking behavioral changes were seen, including in particular an enhancement of sleep and an elevation of seizure threshold to epileptogenic agents. This raised the possibility that human seizure disorders might be influenced therapeutically by similar training. Our objective in human EEG feedback training became not only the facilitation of normal rhythmic patterns, but also the suppression of abnormal activity, thus requiring complex contingencies directed to the normalization of the sensorimotor EEG. To achieve this, a multicomponent frequency analysis was developed to extract and separate normal and abnormal elements of the EEG signal. Each of these elements was transduced to a specific component of a visual display system, and these were combined through logic circuits to present the subject with a symbolic display. Variable criteria provided for the gradual shaping of EEG elements towards the desired normal pattern. Some 50-70% of patients with poorly controlled seizure disorders experienced therapeutic benefits from this approach in our laboratory, and subsequently in many others. A more recent application of this approach to the modification of human brain function in our lab has been directed to the dichotomous problems of task overload and underload in the contemporary aviation environment. At least 70% of all aviation accidents have been attributed to the impact of these kinds of problems on crew performance. The use of EEG in this context has required many technical innovations and the application of the latest advances in EEG signal analysis. Our first goal has been the identification of relevant EEG characteristics. Additionally, we have developed a portable recording and analysis system for application in this context. Findings from laboratory and in-flight studies suggest that we will be able to detect appropriate changes in brain function, and feed this information to on-board computers for modification of mission requirements and/or crew status.

Sterman, M. B.

1991-01-01

371

FASTER: Fully Automated Statistical Thresholding for EEG artifact Rejection.  

PubMed

Electroencephalogram (EEG) data are typically contaminated with artifacts (e.g., by eye movements). The effect of artifacts can be attenuated by deleting data with amplitudes over a certain value, for example. Independent component analysis (ICA) separates EEG data into neural activity and artifact; once identified, artifactual components can be deleted from the data. Often, artifact rejection algorithms require supervision (e.g., training using canonical artifacts). Many artifact rejection methods are time consuming when applied to high-density EEG data. We describe FASTER (Fully Automated Statistical Thresholding for EEG artifact Rejection). Parameters were estimated for various aspects of data (e.g., channel variance) in both the EEG time series and in the independent components of the EEG: outliers were detected and removed. FASTER was tested on both simulated EEG (n=47) and real EEG (n=47) data on 128-, 64-, and 32-scalp electrode arrays. FASTER was compared to supervised artifact detection by experts and to a variant of the Statistical Control for Dense Arrays of Sensors (SCADS) method. FASTER had >90% sensitivity and specificity for detection of contaminated channels, eye movement and EMG artifacts, linear trends and white noise. FASTER generally had >60% sensitivity and specificity for detection of contaminated epochs, vs. 0.15% for SCADS. FASTER also aggregates the ERP across subject datasets, and detects outlier datasets. The variance in the ERP baseline, a measure of noise, was significantly lower for FASTER than either the supervised or SCADS methods. ERP amplitude did not differ significantly between FASTER and the supervised approach. PMID:20654646

Nolan, H; Whelan, R; Reilly, R B

2010-09-30

372

Gender Differences in the EEG of Abstinent Cocaine Abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in the EEG were explored in cocaine-abusing individuals not seeking treatment. Twenty currently abstinent cocaine-abusing females aged 21–41 were studied. Their cocaine use history was matched to 20 currently abstinent cocaine-abusing males. Twelve female and 20 male non-drug-abusing individuals served as a control group. Resting eyes closed EEG was recorded from 8 leads. The males who used cocaine

Deborah E. King; Ronald I. Herning; David A. Gorelick; Jean L. Cadet

2000-01-01

373

Prevalence and etiology of false normal aEEG recordings in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) is a useful tool to determine the severity of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Our aim was to assess the prevalence and study the origin of false normal aEEG recordings based on 85 aEEG recordings registered before six hours of age. Methods Raw EEG recordings were reevaluated retrospectively with Fourier analysis to identify and describe the frequency patterns of the raw EEG signal, in cases with inconsistent aEEG recordings and clinical symptoms. Power spectral density curves, power (P) and median frequency (MF) were determined using the raw EEG. In 7 patients non-depolarizing muscle relaxant (NDMR) exposure was found. The EEG sections were analyzed and compared before and after NDMR administration. Results The reevaluation found that the aEEG was truly normal in 4 neonates. In 3 neonates, high voltage electrocardiographic (ECG) artifacts were found with flat trace on raw EEG. High frequency component (HFC) was found as a cause of normal appearing aEEG in 10 neonates. HFC disappeared while P and MF decreased significantly upon NDMR administration in each observed case. Conclusion Occurrence of false normal aEEG background pattern is relatively high in neonates with HIE and hypothermia. High frequency EEG artifacts suggestive of shivering were found to be the most common cause of false normal aEEG in hypothermic neonates while high voltage ECG artifacts are less common. PMID:24268061

2013-01-01

374

[The role of non-NMDA glutamate receptors in the EEG effects of chronic administration of noopept GVS-111 in awake rats].  

PubMed

Participation of the non-NMDA glutamate receptor subtype in the formation of the EEG frequency spectrum was studied in wakeful rats upon a long-term (10 x 0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) administration of the nootropic dipeptide GVS-111 (noopept or N-phenylacetyl-L-prolyglycine ethylate). The EEGs were measured with electrodes implanted into somatosensor cortex regions, hippocampus, and a cannula in the lateral ventricle. The acute reactions (characteristic of nootropes) in the alpha and beta ranges of EEG exhibited inversion after the 6th injection of noopept and almost completely vanished after the 9th injection. Preliminary introduction of the non-NMDA antagonist GDEE (glutamic acid diethyl ester) in a dose of 1 mumole into the lateral ventricle restored the EEG pattern observed upon the 6th dose of GVS-111. The role of glutamate receptors in the course of a prolonged administration of nootropes, as well as the possible mechanisms accounting for a difference in the action of GVS-111 and piracetam are discussed. PMID:12596524

Kovalev, G I; Vorob'ev, V V

2002-01-01

375

SlimQuick™ - associated hepatotoxicity in a woman with alpha-1 antitrypsin heterozygosity  

PubMed Central

Green tea (Camellia sinensis)-associated hepatotoxicity is reported. However, the presence of alpha-1 antitrypsin MZ phenotype as a predisposing factor to green tea-associated drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is unknown. A previously healthy woman with alpha-1 antitrypsin MZ phenotype who took SlimQuick™, an herbal supplement containing green tea extract, developed severe hepatotoxicity requiring corticosteroid treatment. Green tea-associated hepatotoxicity is reviewed and alpha-1 antitrypsin MZ phenotype as a predisposing factor to green tea-associated DILI is discussed. Liver biopsy demonstrated marked inflammation with necrosis suggestive of toxic injury with diffuse alpha-1 antitrypsin globule deposition on immunostaining. Corticosteroid therapy resulted in rapid clinical improvement. Alpha-1 antitrypsin MZ phenotype may increase vulnerability to herbal hepatotoxicity. PMID:22567188

Weinstein, Douglas H; Twaddell, William S; Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Philosophe, Benjamin; Mindikoglu, Ayse L

2012-01-01

376

Effects of Working Memory Load on Oscillatory Power in Human Intracranial EEG  

PubMed Central

Studies of working memory load effects on human EEG power have indicated divergent effects in different frequency bands. Although gamma power typically increases with load, the load dependency of the lower frequency theta and alpha bands is uncertain. We obtained intracranial electroencephalography measurements from 1453 electrode sites in 14 epilepsy patients performing a Sternberg task, in order to characterize the anatomical distribution of load-related changes across the frequency spectrum. Gamma power increases occurred throughout the brain, but were most common in the occipital lobe. In the theta and alpha bands, both increases and decreases were observed, but with different anatomical distributions. Increases in theta and alpha power were most prevalent in frontal midline cortex. Decreases were most commonly observed in occipital cortex, colocalized with increases in the gamma range, but were also detected in lateral frontal and parietal regions. Spatial overlap with group functional magnetic resonance imaging results was minimal except in the precentral gyrus. These findings suggest that power in any given frequency band is not a unitary phenomenon; rather, reactivity in the same frequency band varies in different brain regions, and may relate to the engagement or inhibition of a given area in a cognitive task. PMID:18056698

Zaveri, Hitten P.; Goncharova, Irina I.; Distasio, Marcello M.; Papademetris, Xenophon; Spencer, Susan S.; Spencer, Dennis D.; Constable, R. Todd

2008-01-01

377

Alterations in human EEG activity caused by extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields.  

PubMed

This study has investigated whether extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can alter human brain activity. Linearly polarised magnetic flux density of 20 muT (rms) was generated using a standard double Helmholtz coils and applied to the human head over a sequence of 1 minute stimulations followed by one minute without stimulation in the following order of frequencies 50, 16.66, 13, 10, 8.33 and 4 Hz. We collected recordings on 33 human volunteers under double-blind counter-balanced conditions. Each stimulation lasted for two minutes followed by one minute post-stimulation EEG recording. The same procedure was repeated for the EMF control sessions, where the order of control and exposure sessions was determined randomly according to the subject's ID number. The rest period between two conditions (exposure and control) was 30 minutes. The results indicate that there was a significant increase in Alpha1, Alpha2, and Beta1 at the frontal brain region, and a significant decrease in Alpha2 band in parietal and occipital region due to EMF exposure. PMID:17945759

Cvetkovic, D; Jovanov, E; Cosic, I

2006-01-01

378

Functional connectivity of frontal cortex in healthy and ADHD children reflected in EEG coherence.  

PubMed Central

Abnormal functional brain connectivity is a candidate factor in developmental brain disorders associated with cognitive dysfunction. We analyzed a substantial (ten minute per subject) record of dense array EEG with spectral power and coherence methods in ADHD (n = 42) and Control (n = 21) 10–13 year old children. We found topographically distinct narrow band coherence differences between subject groups: ADHD subjects showed elevated coherence in the lower alpha (8 Hz) band and reduced coherence in the upper alpha (10–11 Hz) band. The 8 Hz ADHD elevation, and a 2–6 Hz Control group coherence elevation, were independent of stimulus presentation. In response to visual stimulation, the ADHD group exhibited reduced evoked potential power and elevated frontal coherence. Only the upper alpha band control group coherence elevation discriminated according to ADHD group medication status. The findings suggest a static state of deficient connectivity in ADHD, and a stimulus induced state of over-connectivity within and between frontal hemispheres. PMID:17023555

Murias, Michael; Swanson, James M.; Srinivasan, Ramesh

2007-01-01

379

Rapidly Learned Identification of Epileptic Seizures from Sonified EEG  

PubMed Central

Sonification refers to a process by which data are converted into sound, providing an auditory alternative to visual display. Currently, the prevalent method for diagnosing seizures in epilepsy is by visually reading a patient’s electroencephalogram (EEG). However, sonification of the EEG data provides certain advantages due to the nature of human auditory perception. We hypothesized that human listeners will be able to identify seizures from EEGs using the auditory modality alone, and that accuracy of seizure identification will increase after a short training session. Here, we describe an algorithm that we have used to sonify EEGs of both seizure and non-seizure activity, followed by a training study in which subjects listened to short clips of sonified EEGs and determined whether each clip was of seizure or normal activity, both before and after a short training session. Results show that before training subjects performed at chance level in differentiating seizures from non-seizures, but there was a significant improvement of accuracy after the training session. After training, subjects successfully distinguished seizures from non-seizures using the auditory modality alone. Further analyses using signal detection theory demonstrated improvement in sensitivity and reduction in response bias as a result of training. This study demonstrates the potential of sonified EEGs to be used for the detection of seizures. Future studies will attempt to increase accuracy using novel training and sonification modifications, with the goals of managing, predicting, and ultimately controlling seizures using sonification as a possible biofeedback-based intervention for epilepsy. PMID:25352802

Loui, Psyche; Koplin-Green, Matan; Frick, Mark; Massone, Michael

2014-01-01

380

Methodological aspects of EEG and body dynamics measurements during motion.  

PubMed

EEG involves the recording, analysis, and interpretation of voltages recorded on the human scalp which originate from brain gray matter. EEG is one of the most popular methods of studying and understanding the processes that underlie behavior. This is so, because EEG is relatively cheap, easy to wear, light weight and has high temporal resolution. In terms of behavior, this encompasses actions, such as movements that are performed in response to the environment. However, there are methodological difficulties which can occur when recording EEG during movement such as movement artifacts. Thus, most studies about the human brain have examined activations during static conditions. This article attempts to compile and describe relevant methodological solutions that emerged in order to measure body and brain dynamics during motion. These descriptions cover suggestions on how to avoid and reduce motion artifacts, hardware, software and techniques for synchronously recording EEG, EMG, kinematics, kinetics, and eye movements during motion. Additionally, we present various recording systems, EEG electrodes, caps and methods for determinating real/custom electrode positions. In the end we will conclude that it is possible to record and analyze synchronized brain and body dynamics related to movement or exercise tasks. PMID:24715858

Reis, Pedro M R; Hebenstreit, Felix; Gabsteiger, Florian; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Lochmann, Matthias

2014-01-01

381

Methodological aspects of EEG and body dynamics measurements during motion  

PubMed Central

EEG involves the recording, analysis, and interpretation of voltages recorded on the human scalp which originate from brain gray matter. EEG is one of the most popular methods of studying and understanding the processes that underlie behavior. This is so, because EEG is relatively cheap, easy to wear, light weight and has high temporal resolution. In terms of behavior, this encompasses actions, such as movements that are performed in response to the environment. However, there are methodological difficulties which can occur when recording EEG during movement such as movement artifacts. Thus, most studies about the human brain have examined activations during static conditions. This article attempts to compile and describe relevant methodological solutions that emerged in order to measure body and brain dynamics during motion. These descriptions cover suggestions on how to avoid and reduce motion artifacts, hardware, software and techniques for synchronously recording EEG, EMG, kinematics, kinetics, and eye movements during motion. Additionally, we present various recording systems, EEG electrodes, caps and methods for determinating real/custom electrode positions. In the end we will conclude that it is possible to record and analyze synchronized brain and body dynamics related to movement or exercise tasks. PMID:24715858

Reis, Pedro M. R.; Hebenstreit, Felix; Gabsteiger, Florian; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Lochmann, Matthias

2014-01-01

382

Rapidly learned identification of epileptic seizures from sonified EEG.  

PubMed

Sonification refers to a process by which data are converted into sound, providing an auditory alternative to visual display. Currently, the prevalent method for diagnosing seizures in epilepsy is by visually reading a patient's electroencephalogram (EEG). However, sonification of the EEG data provides certain advantages due to the nature of human auditory perception. We hypothesized that human listeners will be able to identify seizures from EEGs using the auditory modality alone, and that accuracy of seizure identification will increase after a short training session. Here, we describe an algorithm that we have used to sonify EEGs of both seizure and non-seizure activity, followed by a training study in which subjects listened to short clips of sonified EEGs and determined whether each clip was of seizure or normal activity, both before and after a short training session. Results show that before training subjects performed at chance level in differentiating seizures from non-seizures, but there was a significant improvement of accuracy after the training session. After training, subjects successfully distinguished seizures from non-seizures using the auditory modality alone. Further analyses using signal detection theory demonstrated improvement in sensitivity and reduction in response bias as a result of training. This study demonstrates the potential of sonified EEGs to be used for the detection of seizures. Future studies will attempt to increase accuracy using novel training and sonification modifications, with the goals of managing, predicting, and ultimately controlling seizures using sonification as a possible biofeedback-based intervention for epilepsy. PMID:25352802

Loui, Psyche; Koplin-Green, Matan; Frick, Mark; Massone, Michael

2014-01-01

383

Autoregressive model in the Lp norm space for EEG analysis.  

PubMed

The autoregressive (AR) model is widely used in electroencephalogram (EEG) analyses such as waveform fitting, spectrum estimation, and system identification. In real applications, EEGs are inevitably contaminated with unexpected outlier artifacts, and this must be overcome. However, most of the current AR models are based on the L2 norm structure, which exaggerates the outlier effect due to the square property of the L2 norm. In this paper, a novel AR object function is constructed in the Lp (p?1) norm space with the aim to compress the outlier effects on EEG analysis, and a fast iteration procedure is developed to solve this new AR model. The quantitative evaluation using simulated EEGs with outliers proves that the proposed Lp (p?1) AR can estimate the AR parameters more robustly than the Yule-Walker, Burg and LS methods, under various simulated outlier conditions. The actual application to the resting EEG recording with ocular artifacts also demonstrates that Lp (p?1) AR can effectively address the outliers and recover a resting EEG power spectrum that is more consistent with its physiological basis. PMID:25448380

Li, Peiyang; Wang, Xurui; Li, Fali; Zhang, Rui; Ma, Teng; Peng, Yueheng; Lei, Xu; Tian, Yin; Guo, Daqing; Liu, Tiejun; Yao, Dezhong; Xu, Peng

2015-01-30

384

Artifact removal from EEG signals using adaptive filters in cascade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artifacts in EEG (electroencephalogram) records are caused by various factors, like line interference, EOG (electro-oculogram) and ECG (electrocardiogram). These noise sources increase the difficulty in analyzing the EEG and to obtaining clinical information. For this reason, it is necessary to design specific filters to decrease such artifacts in EEG records. In this paper, a cascade of three adaptive filters based on a least mean squares (LMS) algorithm is proposed. The first one eliminates line interference, the second adaptive filter removes the ECG artifacts and the last one cancels EOG spikes. Each stage uses a finite impulse response (FIR) filter, which adjusts its coefficients to produce an output similar to the artifacts present in the EEG. The proposed cascade adaptive filter was tested in five real EEG records acquired in polysomnographic studies. In all cases, line-frequency, ECG and EOG artifacts were attenuated. It is concluded that the proposed filter reduces the common artifacts present in EEG signals without removing significant information embedded in these records.

Garcés Correa, A.; Laciar, E.; Patińo, H. D.; Valentinuzzi, M. E.

2007-11-01

385

First seizure: EEG and neuroimaging following an epileptic seizure.  

PubMed

An early EEG (within 48 h) and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (hr_MRI) are the methods of choice for an accurate diagnosis after a first seizure presentation. Together with a careful history and examination, they will allow definition of the epilepsy syndrome in two-thirds of patients and help assess the individual risk for seizure recurrence, which is determined by the specific syndrome and is highest with focal epileptiform activity on EEG. Despite the heterogeneity of first seizure studies, EEG and etiology are consistently found to be the best predictors for seizure recurrence and prognosis. The additional yield of sleep-deprived EEG and sleep EEG is uncertain; yet MRI is essential for detecting brain tumors and other structural bases for new epilepsy. The rate occurrence of remote symptomatic seizures increases significantly with age and the most common etiology in the elderly with a first seizure is stroke; however, its exact relevance to epileptogenicity is yet to be defined. There is a striking lack of systematic studies using early EEG and hr_MRI in order to better characterize epileptogenic areas and elucidate the mechanisms of seizure provocation. PMID:18184150

Pohlmann-Eden, Bernd; Newton, Mark

2008-01-01

386

Early effect of NEURAPAS® balance on current source density (CSD) of human EEG  

PubMed Central

Psychiatric patients often suffer from stress, anxiety and depression. Various plant extracts are known to fight stress (valerian), anxiety (passion flower) or depression (St. John's wort). NEURAPAS® balance is a mixture of these three extracts and has been designed to cover this complex of psychiatric conditions. The study was initiated to quantitatively assess the effect of this combination on brain electric activity. Method Quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) current source density (CSD) recording from 16 healthy male and female human volunteers (average age 49 years) was used in a randomized, placebo-controlled cross over study. Recordings were performed 0. 5, 1. 5, 3 and 4 hours after administration of the preparations under the conditions of 6 min eyes open and 5 min d2 concentration test, mathematical calculation test and memory test, respectively. All variables (electric power within 6 frequency ranges at 17 electrode positions) were fed into a linear discriminant analysis (eyes open condition). In the presence of mental load these variables were used to construct brain maps of frequency changes. Results Under the condition of mental load, centro-parietal spectral power remained statistically significantly lower within alpha1, alpha2 and beta1 frequencies in the presence of verum in comparison to placebo. Discriminant analysis revealed a difference to placebo 3 and 4 hours after intake of 6 tablets of NEURAPAS® balance. Data location within the polydimensional space was projected into the area of the effects of sedative and anti-depressive reference drugs tested earlier under identical conditions. Results appeared closer to the effects of fluoxetine than to St. John's wort. Conclusions Analysis of the neurophysiological changes following the intake of NEURAPAS® balance revealed a similarity of frequency changes to those of calming and anti-depressive drugs on the EEG without impairment of cognition. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01047605 PMID:21810233

2011-01-01

387

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 55, NO. 3, MARCH 2008 1103 Array Response Kernels for EEG and MEG in  

E-print Network

for electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG), assuming that a multilayer el- lipsoidal geometry signal, electroencephalography (EEG), ellipsoidal head model, magnetoencephalography (MEG), N20 response related to the localization of brain activity sources using electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoen

Nehorai, Arye

388

Simultaneous recording of MEG, EEG and intracerebral EEG during visual stimulation: from feasibility to single-trial analysis.  

PubMed

Electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and intracerebral stereotaxic EEG (SEEG) are the three neurophysiological recording techniques, which are thought to capture the same type of brain activity. Still, the relationships between non-invasive (EEG, MEG) and invasive (SEEG) signals remain to be further investigated. In early attempts at comparing SEEG with either EEG or MEG, the recordings were performed separately for each modality. However such an approach presents substantial limitations in terms of signal analysis. The goal of this technical note is to investigate the feasibility of simultaneously recording these three signal modalities (EEG, MEG and SEEG), and to provide strategies for analyzing this new kind of data. Intracerebral electrodes were implanted in a patient with intractable epilepsy for presurgical evaluation purposes. This patient was presented with a visual stimulation paradigm while the three types of signals were simultaneously recorded. The analysis started with a characterization of the MEG artifact caused by the SEEG equipment. Next, the average evoked activities were computed at the sensor level, and cortical source activations were estimated for both the EEG and MEG recordings; these were shown to be compatible with the spatiotemporal dynamics of the SEEG signals. In the average time-frequency domain, concordant patterns between the MEG/EEG and SEEG recordings were found below the 40 Hz level. Finally, a fine-grained coupling between the amplitudes of the three recording modalities was detected in the time domain, at the level of single evoked responses. Importantly, these correlations have shown a high level of spatial and temporal specificity. These findings provide a case for the ability of trimodal recordings (EEG, MEG, and SEEG) to reach a greater level of specificity in the investigation of brain signals and functions. PMID:24862073

Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Badier, Jean-Michel; Trébuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnčs; Gavaret, Martine; Carron, Romain; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Régis, Jean; Chauvel, Patrick; Alario, F-Xavier; Bénar, Christian-G

2014-10-01

389

Object-based attentional selection modulates anticipatory alpha oscillations  

PubMed Central

Visual cortical alpha oscillations are involved in attentional gating of incoming visual information. It has been shown that spatial and feature-based attentional selection result in increased alpha oscillations over the cortical regions representing sensory input originating from the unattended visual field and task-irrelevant visual features, respectively. However, whether attentional gating in the case of object based selection is also associated with alpha oscillations has not been investigated before. Here we measured anticipatory electroencephalography (EEG) alpha oscillations while participants were cued to attend to foveal face or word stimuli, the processing of which is known to have right and left hemispheric lateralization, respectively. The results revealed that in the case of simultaneously displayed, overlapping face and word stimuli, attending to the words led to increased power of parieto-occipital alpha oscillations over the right hemisphere as compared to when faces were attended. This object category-specific modulation of the hemispheric lateralization of anticipatory alpha oscillations was maintained during sustained attentional selection of sequentially presented face and word stimuli. These results imply that in the case of object-based attentional selection—similarly to spatial and feature-based attention—gating of visual information processing might involve visual cortical alpha oscillations. PMID:25628554

Knakker, Balázs; Weiss, Béla; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

2015-01-01

390

EEG spectral power density profiles during NREM sleep for gaboxadol and zolpidem in patients with primary insomnia.  

PubMed

There is significant interest in the functional significance and the therapeutic value of slow-wave sleep (SWS)-enhancing drugs. A prerequisite for studies of the functional differences is characterization of the electroencephalography (EEG) spectra following treatment in relevant patients. We evaluate for the first time gaboxadol and zolpidem treatments in insomniac patients using power spectra analysis. We carried out two randomized, double-blind, crossover studies. Study 1, 38 patients received gaboxadol 10 mg and 20 mg and zolpidem 10 mg; study 2, 23 patients received gaboxadol 5 mg and 15 mg. Treatments were administered during two nights and compared with placebo. Gaboxadol 10, 15 and 20 mg enhanced slow-wave activity (SWA) and theta power. In 1 Hz bins gaboxadol 10 and 20 mg enhanced power up to 9 Hz. In study 2, 15 mg gaboxadol showed a similar effect pattern. Zolpidem suppressed theta and alpha power, and increased sigma power, with no effect on SWA. In the 1 Hz bins zolpidem suppressed power between 5-10 Hz. Gaboxadol dose-dependently increased SWA and theta power in insomniac patients. In contrast, zolpidem did not affect SWA, reduced theta and alpha activity and enhanced sigma power. EEG spectral power differences may be consequences of the different mechanisms of action for zolpidem and the SWS-enhancing agent, gaboxadol. PMID:22057018

Lundahl, Jonas; Deacon, Steve; Maurice, Damien; Staner, Luc

2012-08-01

391

Down Syndrome: Cognitive Phenotype  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Down syndrome is the most prevalent cause of intellectual impairment associated with a genetic anomaly, in this case, trisomy of chromosome 21. It affects both physical and cognitive development and produces a characteristic phenotype, although affected individuals vary considerably with respect to severity of specific impairments. Studies…

Silverman, Wayne

2007-01-01

392

Finding a Phenotype  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students can examine all manner of plant phenotypes during their investigation, from leaf size and shape to flower number and color to UV light sensitivity to "time to bolt," meaning the amount of time after planting until the plants develop stems or bolts.

Dr. Erin L Dolan (Virginia Tech Biochemistry)

2009-08-24

393

Analysis of generalized interictal discharges using quantitative EEG.  

PubMed

Experimental evidence from animal models of the absence seizures suggests a focal source for the initiation of generalized spike-and-wave (GSW) discharges. Furthermore, clinical studies indicate that patients diagnosed with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) exhibit focal electroencephalographic abnormalities, which involve the thalamo-cortical circuitry. This circuitry is a key network that has been implicated in the initiation of generalized discharges, and may contribute to the pathophysiology of GSW discharges. Quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) analysis may be able to detect abnormalities associated with the initiation of GSW discharges. The objective of this study was to determine whether interictal GSW discharges exhibit focal characteristics using qEEG analysis. In this study, 75 EEG recordings from 64 patients were analyzed. All EEG recordings analyzed contained at least one GSW discharge. EEG recordings were obtained by a 22-channel recorder with electrodes positioned according to the international 10-20 system of electrode placement. EEG activity was recorded for 20 min including photic stimulation and hyperventilation. The EEG recordings were visually inspected, and the first unequivocally confirmed generalized spike was marked for each discharge. Three methods of source imaging analysis were applied: dipole source imaging (DSI), classical LORETA analysis recursively applied (CLARA), and equivalent dipole of independent components with cluster analysis. A total of 753 GSW discharges were identified and spatiotemporally analyzed. Source evaluation analysis using all three techniques revealed that the frontal lobe was the principal source of GSW discharges (70%), followed by the parietal and occipital lobes (14%), and the basal ganglia (12%). The main anatomical sources of GSW discharges were the anterior cingulate cortex (36%) and the medial frontal gyrus (23%). Source analysis did not reveal a common focal source of GSW discharges. However, there was a predominance of GSW discharges originating from the cingulate gyrus and the frontal lobe. PMID:25277883

da Silva Braga, Aline Marques; Fujisao, Elaine Keiko; Betting, Luiz Eduardo

2014-12-01

394

Signal distortion from microelectrodes in clinical EEG acquisition systems  

PubMed Central

Many centers are now using high-density microelectrodes during traditional intracranial EEG (iEEG) both for research and clinical purposes. These microelectrodes are FDA-approved and integrate into clinical EEG acquisition systems. However, the electrical characteristics of these electrodes are poorly described and clinical systems were not designed to use them; thus it is possible that this shift into clinical practice could have unintended consequences. In this study, we characterized the impedance of over 100 commercial macro- and microelectrodes using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to determine how electrode properties could affect signal acquisition and interpretation. The EIS data were combined with the published specifications of several commercial EEG systems to design digital filters that mimic the behavior of the electrodes and amplifiers. These filters were used to analyze simulated brain signals that contain a mixture of characteristic features commonly observed in iEEG. Each output was then processed with several common quantitative EEG measurements. Our results show that traditional macroelectrodes had low impedances and produced negligible distortion of the original signal. Brain tissue and electrical wiring also had negligible filtering effects. However, microelectrode impedances were much higher and more variable than the macroelectrodes. When connected to clinical amplifiers, higher impedance electrodes produced considerable distortion of the signal at low frequencies (< 60 Hz), which caused significant changes in amplitude, phase, variance, and spectral band power. In contrast, there were only minimal changes to the signal content for frequencies above 100 Hz. In order to minimize distortion with microelectrodes, we determined that an acquisition system should have an input impedance of at least 1 G?, which is much higher than most clinical systems. These results show that it is critical to account for variations in impedance when analyzing EEG from different-sized electrodes. Data from microelectrodes may yield misleading results unless recorded with high-impedance amplifiers. PMID:22878608

Stacey, William C.; Kellis, Spencer; Patel, Paras R.; Greger, Bradley; Butson, Christopher R.

2012-01-01

395

Alpha College Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a follow-up report on Alpha, an experimental unit of the College of DuPage in Illinois. Traces the postgraduation activities of Alpha graduates and describes new Alpha programs and projects. (CAM)

Leppert, William A.

1979-01-01

396

Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (an-tee-TRIP-sin) deficiency, or AAT ... as it relates to lung disease. Overview Alpha-1 antitrypsin, also called AAT, is a protein made ...

397

A Framework for Content-based Retrieval of EEG with Applications to Neuroscience and Beyond.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a prototype framework for content-based EEG retrieval (CBER). Like content-based image retrieval, the proposed framework retrieves EEG segments similar to the query EEG segment in a large database. Such retrieval of EEG can be used to assist data mining of brain signals by allowing researchers to understand the association between brain patterns, responses, and the environment. Retrieval might also be used to enhance the accuracy of Brain Computer Interface (BCI) systems by providing related samples for training. We present key components of CBER and explain how to handle the distinctive characteristics of EEG. To demonstrate the feasibility of the framework, we implemented a simple EEG database of about 37,000 samples from more than 100 subjects. We ran two retrieval scenarios with a set of EEG features and evaluation metrics. The results of finding similar subjects clearly demonstrate the potential of CBER in many EEG applications. PMID:24770451

Su, Kyungmin; Robbins, Kay A

2013-01-01

398

A state space approach to multimodal integration of simultaneously recorded EEG and fMRI  

E-print Network

We develop a state space approach to multimodal integration of simultaneously recorded EEG and fMRI. The EEG is represented with a distributed current source model using realistic MRI-based forward models, whose temporal ...

Purdon, Patrick Lee

399

OPTIMAL SPATIAL FILTERING FOR AUDITORY STEADY-STATE RESPONSE DETECTION USING HIGH-DENSITY EEG  

E-print Network

steady-state responses (ASSRs) in the brain, which can be measured using electroencephalography (EEG adja- cent neurons in the brain and can be measured from the scalp using electroencephalography (EEG

400

Acquiring simultaneous EEG and functional MRIq Robin I. Goldmana,*, John M. Sternb  

E-print Network

Objective: Electroencephalography (EEG) is a challenge to record simultaneously with functional MRI (f rights reserved. Keywords: Electroencephalography; Functional MRI; Artifact; Brain mapping; Localization, Evoked response potential 1. Introduction Electroencephalography (EEG) has been a key tool in the study

Gabrieli, John

401

Ictal kissing with subdural EEG recording?  

PubMed Central

Purpose Ictal kissing has been described in the literature. Five cases were reported and associated with temporal lobe epilepsy lateralizing to the nondominant hemisphere. Methods A case of ictal kissing was identified. The aim was to demonstrate the clinical, clinical and electrophysiological features (as recorded by subdural electrodes). The surgical procedure, histopathology, and imaging data were reviewed and correlated with the literature. Results A 29-year-old right-handed female, who presented with ictal right hand left arm dystonic posturing, and lip smacking, was studied. The automatism was usually followed by prolonged emotional gestures and by hugging and kissing her relative and/or attendant nurse. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed right small cortical and subcortical lesions of the right inferior frontal lobe with gliosis but without mass effect and normal-sized hippocampi. The PET scan showed hypometabolism of the right temporal lobe. Neuropsychological evaluation showed deficit in her nonverbal memory. The subdural electrodes showed high amplitude spikes over right mesial temporal lobe strips. The offsite of the ictal discharges was usually at the right frontal strips. Right standard temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy and right inferior frontal lesionectomy were performed. The patient continued to be seizure-free for one year postoperatively. Conclusion Our case report supports with subdural EEG recording the findings of the few reported cases of ictal kissing behavior lateralized to the nondominant hemisphere. However, the affectionate kissing behavior was associated with spread of the epileptic discharges to the right frontal lobe. PMID:25667835

Alsemari, Abdulaziz; Alotaibi, Faisal; Baz, Salah

2013-01-01

402

Towards a unified understanding of event-related changes in the EEG: the firefly model of synchronization through cross-frequency phase modulation.  

PubMed

Although event-related potentials (ERPs) are widely used to study sensory, perceptual and cognitive processes, it remains unknown whether they are phase-locked signals superimposed upon the ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) or result from phase-alignment of the EEG. Previous attempts to discriminate between these hypotheses have been unsuccessful but here a new test is presented based on the prediction that ERPs generated by phase-alignment will be associated with event-related changes in frequency whereas evoked-ERPs will not. Using empirical mode decomposition (EMD), which allows measurement of narrow-band changes in the EEG without predefining frequency bands, evidence was found for transient frequency slowing in recognition memory ERPs but not in simulated data derived from the evoked model. Furthermore, the timing of phase-alignment was frequency dependent with the earliest alignment occurring at high frequencies. Based on these findings, the Firefly model was developed, which proposes that both evoked and induced power changes derive from frequency-dependent phase-alignment of the ongoing EEG. Simulated data derived from the Firefly model provided a close match with empirical data and the model was able to account for i) the shape and timing of ERPs at different scalp sites, ii) the event-related desynchronization in alpha and synchronization in theta, and iii) changes in the power density spectrum from the pre-stimulus baseline to the post-stimulus period. The Firefly Model, therefore, provides not only a unifying account of event-related changes in the EEG but also a possible mechanism for cross-frequency information processing. PMID:23049827

Burgess, Adrian P

2012-01-01

403

Frontal EEG asymmetry moderates the effects of stressful life events on internalizing symptoms in children at familial-risk for depression  

PubMed Central

This study examined whether frontal alpha electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry moderates the association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms in children at familial-risk for depression. Participants included 135 children ages 6 to 13, whose mothers had either a history of depression or no history of major psychiatric conditions. Frontal EEG was recorded while participants watched emotion-eliciting films. Symptoms and stressful life events were obtained via the Child Behavior Check List and a clinical interview, respectively. High-risk children displayed greater relative right lateral frontal activation (F7/F8) than their low-risk peers during the films. For high-risk children, greater relative left lateral frontal activation moderated the association between stressful life events and internalizing symptoms. Specifically, greater relative left lateral frontal activation mitigated the effects of stress in at-risk children. PMID:22220930

Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Nusslock, Robin; George, Charles; Kovacs, Maria

2011-01-01

404

Acute effects of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) on EEG oscillations: alone and in combination with ethanol or THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol)  

PubMed Central

Rationale Typical users of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “ecstasy”) are polydrug users, combining MDMA with alcohol or cannabis [most active compound: delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)]. Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate whether co-administration of alcohol or THC with MDMA differentially affects ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillations compared to the administration of each drug alone. Methods In two separate experiments, 16 volunteers received four different drug conditions: (1) MDMA (100 mg); (2) alcohol clamp (blood alcohol concentration?=?0.6‰) or THC (inhalation of 4, 6 and 6 mg, interval of 1.5 h); (3) MDMA in combination with alcohol or THC; and (4) placebo. Before and after drug administration, electroencephalography was recorded during an eyes closed resting state. Results Theta and alpha power increased after alcohol intake compared to placebo and reduced after MDMA intake. No interaction between alcohol and MDMA was found. Significant MDMA × THC effects for theta and lower-1-alpha power indicated that the power attenuation after the combined intake of MDMA and THC was less than the sum of each drug alone. For the lower-2-alpha band, the intake of MDMA or THC alone did not significantly affect power, but the intake of combined MDMA and THC significantly decreased lower-2-alpha power. Conclusions The present findings indicate that the combined intake of MDMA and THC, but not of MDMA and alcohol, affects ongoing EEG oscillations differently than the sum of either one drug alone. Changes in ongoing EEG oscillations may be related to the impaired task performance that has often been reported after drug intake. PMID:20924751

Dumont, Glenn J. H.; van Gerven, Joop M. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Verkes, Robbert-Jan

2010-01-01

405

Automated diagnosis of normal and alcoholic EEG signals.  

PubMed

Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, which record the electrical activity in the brain, are useful for assessing the mental state of a person. Since these signals are nonlinear and non-stationary in nature, it is very difficult to decipher the useful information from them using conventional statistical and frequency domain methods. Hence, the application of nonlinear time series analysis to EEG signals could be useful to study the dynamical nature and variability of the brain signals. In this paper, we propose a Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) technique for the automated identification of normal and alcoholic EEG signals using nonlinear features. We first extract nonlinear features such as Approximate Entropy (ApEn), Largest Lyapunov Exponent (LLE), Sample Entropy (SampEn), and four other Higher Order Spectra (HOS) features, and then use them to train Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier of varying kernel functions: 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order polynomials and a Radial basis function (RBF) kernel. Our results indicate that these nonlinear measures are good discriminators of normal and alcoholic EEG signals. The SVM classifier with a polynomial kernel of order 1 could distinguish the two classes with an accuracy of 91.7%, sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 93.3%. As a pre-analysis step, the EEG signals were tested for nonlinearity using surrogate data analysis and we found that there was a significant difference in the LLE measure of the actual data and the surrogate data. PMID:23627627

Acharya, U Rajendra; Sree, S Vinitha; Chattopadhyay, Subhagata; Suri, Jasjit S

2012-06-01

406

EEG guidelines in the diagnosis of brain death.  

PubMed

In France, for the determination and diagnostic validation of brain death the law requires either two EEG recordings separated by a 4-hour observation period, both showing electrocerebral inactivity; or cerebral angiography examination. Since EEG is available in most hospitals and clinics, it is often used in this indication, at the patient's bedside, especially in the context of organ donation. However, very precise methodology must be followed. The last French guidelines date back to 1989, before the development of digital EEG recording. We present the new guidelines from the Société de Neurophysiologie Clinique de Langue Française. Electrocerebral inactivity may be confirmed when a 30-minute good quality EEG recording shows complete electrocerebral silence, defined as no cerebral activity greater than 2uV, having first ruled out the possible influence of sedative drugs, metabolic disorders or hypothermia. In the presence of sedative drugs, CT brain angiography will be the gold standard test for this diagnosis. In the newborn, the utmost caution is indicated since electrocerebral inactivity can be observed in the absence of cerebral death. In the infant, the criterion for the observation period to be respected between both EEG recordings needs to be more clearly refined. PMID:25687591

Szurhaj, W; Lamblin, M-D; Kaminska, A; Sediri, H

2015-03-01

407

Quantitative EEG patterns of differential in-flight workload  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four test pilots were instrumented for in-flight EEG recordings using a custom portable recording system. Each flew six, two minute tracking tasks in the Calspan NT-33 experimental trainer at Edwards AFB. With the canopy blacked out, pilots used a HUD display to chase a simulated aircraft through a random flight course. Three configurations of flight controls altered the flight characteristics to achieve low, moderate, and high workload, as determined by normative Cooper-Harper ratings. The test protocol was administered by a command pilot in the back seat. Corresponding EEG and tracking data were compared off-line. Tracking performance was measured as deviation from the target aircraft and combined with control difficulty to achieve an estimate of 'cognitive workload'. Trended patterns of parietal EEG activity at 8-12 Hz were sorted according to this classification. In all cases, high workload produced a significantly greater suppression of 8-12 Hz activity than low workload. Further, a clear differentiation of EEG trend patterns was obtained in 80 percent of the cases. High workload produced a sustained suppression of 8-12 Hz activity, while moderate workload resulted in an initial suppression followed by a gradual increment. Low workload was associated with a modulated pattern lacking any periods of marked or sustained suppression. These findings suggest that quantitative analysis of appropriate EEG measures may provide an objective and reliable in-flight index of cognitive effort that could facilitate workload assessment.

Sterman, M. B.; Mann, C. A.; Kaiser, D. A.

1993-01-01

408

Mutual information measures applied to EEG signals for sleepiness characterization.  

PubMed

Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is one of the main symptoms of several sleep related disorders with a great impact on the patient lives. While many studies have been carried out in order to assess daytime sleepiness, the automatic EDS detection still remains an open problem. In this work, a novel approach to this issue based on non-linear dynamical analysis of EEG signal was proposed. Multichannel EEG signals were recorded during five maintenance of wakefulness (MWT) and multiple sleep latency (MSLT) tests alternated throughout the day from patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing. A group of 20 patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) was compared with a group of 20 patients without daytime sleepiness (WDS), by analyzing 60-s EEG windows in waking state. Measures obtained from cross-mutual information function (CMIF) and auto-mutual-information function (AMIF) were calculated in the EEG. These functions permitted a quantification of the complexity properties of the EEG signal and the non-linear couplings between different zones of the scalp. Statistical differences between EDS and WDS groups were found in ? band during MSLT events (p-value < 0.0001). WDS group presented more complexity than EDS in the occipital zone, while a stronger nonlinear coupling between occipital and frontal zones was detected in EDS patients than in WDS. The AMIF and CMIF measures yielded sensitivity and specificity above 80% and AUC of ROC above 0.85 in classifying EDS and WDS patients. PMID:25638417

Melia, Umberto; Guaita, Marc; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Embid, Cristina; Vilaseca, Isabel; Salamero, Manel; Santamaria, Joan

2015-03-01

409

Intracranial EEG power and metabolism in human epilepsy  

PubMed Central

EEG power and high frequency activity in the seizure onset zone has been increasingly considered for its relationship with seizures in animal and human studies of epilepsy. We examine the relationship between quantitative EEG measures and metabolic imaging in epilepsy patients undergoing intracranial EEG (icEEG) analysis for seizure localization. Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and neocortical epilepsy (NE) were studied. Metabolic imaging was performed with MR spectroscopic imaging using N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and creatine (Cr). All data were acquired from the mesial temporal lobe such that a direct comparison of the same anatomical regions between the two groups could be performed. While no difference was seen in the total power recorded from the mesial temporal lobe, the MTLE group had significantly greater power in the high frequency bands. There was a significant positive exponential relationship between total icEEG power with NAA/Cr in MTLE, R= +0.84 p<0.001, which was not seen in NE. There was also a significant negative relationship between fractional gamma power with NAA/Cr in MTLE R= ?0.66 p<0.02, also not seen in NE. These data argue that within the seizure onset zone, the tight correlation between total power and NAA/Cr suggests that total electrical output is powered by available mitochondrial function. These data are also consistent with the hypothesis that high frequency activity is an abnormal manifestation of tissue injury. PMID:19699059

Pan, JW; Zaveri, HP; Spencer, DD; Hetherington, HP; Spencer, SS

2009-01-01

410

Simultaneous EEG Monitoring During Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique that delivers weak electric currents through the scalp. This constant electric current induces shifts in neuronal membrane excitability, resulting in secondary changes in cortical activity. Although tDCS has most of its neuromodulatory effects on the underlying cortex, tDCS effects can also be observed in distant neural networks. Therefore, concomitant EEG monitoring of the effects of tDCS can provide valuable information on the mechanisms of tDCS. In addition, EEG findings can be an important surrogate marker for the effects of tDCS and thus can be used to optimize its parameters. This combined EEG-tDCS system can also be used for preventive treatment of neurological conditions characterized by abnormal peaks of cortical excitability, such as seizures. Such a system would be the basis of a non-invasive closed-loop device. In this article, we present a novel device that is capable of utilizing tDCS and EEG simultaneously. For that, we describe in a step-by-step fashion the main procedures of the application of this device using schematic figures, tables and video demonstrations. Additionally, we provide a literature review on clinical uses of tDCS and its cortical effects measured by EEG techniques. PMID:23851401

Schestatsky, Pedro; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Fregni, Felipe

2013-01-01