Science.gov

Sample records for eeg alpha phenotypes

  1. Low voltage alpha EEG phenotype is associated with reduced amplitudes of alpha event-related oscillations, increased cortical phase synchrony, and a low level of response to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Wills, Derek N; Phillips, Evelyn; Havstad, James

    2015-10-01

    Low voltage EEG (LVEEG) is a heritable phenotype that differs depending on ancestral heritage, yet its impact on brain networks and cognition remain relatively unexplored. In this study we assessed energy and task related phase locking of event-related oscillation (EROs), behavioral responses, measures of IQ and personality, and expected responses to alcohol in a large sample of individuals with LVEEG compared to those with higher voltage variants. Participants (n=762) were recruited from a Native American community and completed a diagnostic interview, the Quick Test, the Subjective High Assessment Scale Expectation Version (SHAS-E) and the Maudsley Personality Inventory. Clinical and spectral analyzed EEGs were collected for determination of the presence of a LVEEG variant. EROs were generated using a facial expression recognition task. Participants with LVEEG (n=451) were significantly more likely to be older, married and have higher degrees of Native American heritage but did not differ in gender, income or education. Individuals with LVEEG were also found to have decreased energy in their alpha EROs, increased phase locking between stimulus trials, and increased phase-locking between cortical brain areas. No significant differences in the cognitive tests, personality variables or alcohol dependence or anxiety diagnoses were found, however, individuals with LVEEG did report a larger number of drinks ever consumed in a 24-h period and a less intense expected response to alcohol. These data suggest that alpha power in the resting EEG is highly associated with energy and cortical connectivity measures generated by event-related stimuli, as well as potentially increased risk for alcohol use. PMID:26151497

  2. HTR3B is associated with alcoholism with antisocial behavior and alpha EEG power--an intermediate phenotype for alcoholism and co-morbid behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ducci, Francesca; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Yuan, Qiaoping; Shen, Pei-Hong; White, Kenneth V; Hodgkinson, Colin; Albaugh, Bernard; Virkkunen, Matti; Goldman, David

    2009-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) with co-morbid antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) have been associated with serotonin (5-HT) dysfunction. 5-HT3 receptors are potentiated by ethanol and appear to modulate reward. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may be useful in the treatment of early-onset alcoholics with co-morbid ASPD. Low-voltage alpha electroencephalogram (EEG) power, a highly heritable trait, has been associated with both AUD and ASPD. A recent whole genome linkage scan in one of our samples, Plains American Indians (PI), has shown a suggestive linkage peak for alpha power at the 5-HT3R locus. We tested whether genetic variation within the HTR3A and HTR3B genes influences vulnerability to AUD with comorbid ASPD (AUD+ASPD) and moderates alpha power. Our study included three samples: 284 criminal alcoholic Finnish Caucasians and 234 controls; two independent community-ascertained samples with resting EEG recordings: a predominantly Caucasian sample of 191 individuals (Bethesda) and 306 PI. In the Finns, an intronic HTR3B SNP rs3782025 was associated with AUD+ASPD (P=.004). In the Bethesda sample, the same allele predicted lower alpha power (P=7.37e(-5)). Associations between alpha power and two other HTR3B SNPs were also observed among PI (P=.03). One haplotype in the haplotype block at the 3' region of the gene that included rs3782025 was associated with AUD+ASPD in the Finns (P=.02) and with reduced alpha power in the Bethesda population (P=.00009). Another haplotype in this block was associated with alpha power among PI (P=.03). No associations were found for HTR3A. Genetic variation within HTR3B may influence vulnerability to develop AUD with comorbid ASPD. 5-HT3R might contribute to the imbalance between excitation and inhibition that characterize the brain of alcoholics. PMID:19185213

  3. EEG alpha power and creative ideation?

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Andreas; Benedek, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscientific studies revealed first insights into neural mechanisms underlying creativity, but existing findings are highly variegated and often inconsistent. Despite the disappointing picture on the neuroscience of creativity drawn in recent reviews, there appears to be robust evidence that EEG alpha power is particularly sensitive to various creativity-related demands involved in creative ideation. Alpha power varies as a function of creativity-related task demands and the originality of ideas, is positively related to an individuals’ creativity level, and has been observed to increase as a result of creativity interventions. Alpha increases during creative ideation could reflect more internally oriented attention that is characterized by the absence of external bottom-up stimulation and, thus, a form of top-down activity. Moreover, they could indicate the involvement of specific memory processes such as the efficient (re-)combination of unrelated semantic information. We conclude that increased alpha power during creative ideation is among the most consistent findings in neuroscientific research on creativity and discuss possible future directions to better understand the manifold brain mechanisms involved in creativity. PMID:23246442

  4. Relationship of genetically transmitted alpha EEG traits to anxiety disorders and alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Enoch, M.A.; Rohrbaugh, W.; Harris, C.R.

    1995-10-09

    We tested the hypothesis that a heritable EEG trait, the low voltage alpha (LV), is associated with psychiatric disorders. Modest to moderate evidence for genetic linkage of both panic disorder and the low voltage alpha trait to the same region of chromosome 20q has recently been reported, raising the issue of whether there is a phenotypic correlation between these traits. A total of 124 subjects including 50 unrelated index subjects and 74 relatives were studied. Alpha EEG power was measured and EEG phenotypes were impressionistically classified. Subjects were psychiatrically interviewed using the SADS-L and blind-rated by RDC criteria. Alcoholics were four times more likely to be LV (including so-called borderline low voltage alpha) than were nonalcoholic, nonanxious subjects. Alcoholics with anxiety disorder are 10 times more likely to be LV. However, alcoholics without anxiety disorder were similar to nonalcoholics in alpha power. An anxiety disorder (panic disorder, phobia, or generalized anxiety) was found in 14/17 LV subjects as compared to 34/101 of the rest of the sample (P < 0.01). Support for these observations was found in the unrelated index subjects in whom no traits would be shared by familial clustering. Lower alpha power in anxiety disorders was not state-dependent, as indicated by the Spielberger Anxiety Scale. Familial covariance of alpha power was 0.25 (P < 0.01). These findings indicate there may be a shared factor underlying the transmissible low voltage alpha EEG variant and vulnerability to anxiety disorders with associated alcoholism. This factor is apparently not rare, because LV was found in approximately 10% of unrelated index subjects and 5% of subjects free of alcoholism and anxiety disorders. 43 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Where the BOLD signal goes when alpha EEG leaves.

    PubMed

    Laufs, H; Holt, John L; Elfont, Robert; Krams, Michael; Paul, Joseph S; Krakow, K; Kleinschmidt, A

    2006-07-15

    Previous studies using simultaneous EEG and fMRI recordings have yielded discrepant results regarding the topography of brain activity in relation to spontaneous power fluctuations in the alpha band of the EEG during eyes-closed rest. Here, we explore several possible explanations for this discrepancy by re-analyzing in detail our previously reported data. Using single subject analyses as a starting point, we found that alpha power decreases are associated with fMRI signal increases that mostly follow two distinct patterns: either 'visual' areas in the occipital lobe or 'attentional' areas in the frontal and parietal lobe. On examination of the EEG spectra corresponding to these two fMRI patterns, we found greater relative theta power in sessions yielding the 'visual' fMRI pattern during alpha desynchronization and greater relative beta power in sessions yielding the 'attentional' fMRI pattern. The few sessions that fell into neither pattern featured the overall lowest theta and highest beta power. We conclude that the pattern of brain activation observed during spontaneous power reduction in the alpha band depends on the general level of brain activity as indexed over a broader spectral range in the EEG. Finally, we relate these findings to the concepts of 'resting state' and 'default mode' and discuss how - as for sleep - EEG-based criteria might be used for staging brain activity during wakefulness. PMID:16537111

  6. EEG alpha power and alpha power asymmetry in sleep and wakefulness

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    during dreaming. During sleep, alpha power was highest during slow-wave sleep and lowest during REM sleepEEG alpha power and alpha power asymmetry in sleep and wakefulness RUTH M. BENCA,a,b WILLIAM H correlated with waking emotional reactivity and the emotional content of dream reports. Little is known

  7. Frontal Alpha EEG Asymmetry Before and After Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Gollan, Jackie K.; Hoxha, Denada; Chihade, Dietta; Pflieger, Mark E.; Rosebrock, Laina; Cacioppo, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Mid-frontal and mid-lateral (F3/F4 and F7/F8) EEG asymmetry has been associated with motivation and affect. We examined alpha EEG asymmetry in depressed and healthy participants before and after Behavioral Activation treatment for depression; examined the association between alpha EEG asymmetry and motivational systems and affect; and evaluated the utility of alpha EEG asymmetry in predicting remission. Methods Depressed (n = 37) and healthy participants (n = 35) were assessed before and after treatment using a clinical interview, a task to measure baseline EEG, and questionnaires of behavioral activation and inhibition, avoidance, and affect. Results Alpha EEG asymmetry was significantly higher in depressed than healthy participants at pre-treatment, positively correlated with negative affect and behavioral inhibition, and inversely correlated with lower behavioral activation sensitivity. Conclusions Heightened alpha EEG asymmetry in depressed participants was significantly associated with increased behavioral inhibition and negative emotion and was independent of clinical remission. PMID:24674708

  8. Changes in EEG alpha power during simulated driving: a demonstration.

    PubMed

    Schier, M A

    2000-08-01

    The aim was to assess the suitability of EEG-based techniques to recording activity during a driving simulation task. To achieve this, an inexpensive driving simulator (comprising a steering wheel, pedals and gear shift) were made to function with a personal computer running 'Need for Speed' simulation software. Simulators of this type are both inexpensive and relatively realistic. The EEG was recorded from four sites on the scalp (P3, P4, F3, F4) for two laps during the driving task, and during a replay task. The driving task involved participants driving a vehicle on a simulated undulating, sealed surface circuit, without any other vehicles present. Two men were participants in this experiment. Power spectra were computed and integrated to produce values of relative alpha activity for each channel and recording epoch, a time-series of alpha activity during each recorded segment. Overall values for alpha activity indicated an increase for replay compared to driving, and also driving on lap 5 compared to driving on lap 2. The EEG changes are consistent with the notion of overall reduction of attention during the later laps and the replay task and indicate the potential of such measures for complex motor behaviour. PMID:10832002

  9. Theta and alpha EEG frequency interplay in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: evidence from EEG, MRI, and SPECT brain modifications

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Davide V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Temporo-parietal and medial temporal cortex atrophy are associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer disease (AD) as well as the reduction of regional cerebral blood perfusion in hippocampus. Moreover, the increase of EEG alpha3/alpha2 power ratio has been associated with MCI due to AD and with an increase in theta frequency power in a group of subjects with impaired cerebral perfusion in hippocampus. Methods: Seventy four adult subjects with MCI underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, electroencephalogram (EEG) recording and high resolution 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Among the patients, a subset of 27 subjects underwent also perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography and hippocampal atrophy evaluation. Alpha3/alpha2 power ratio as well as cortical thickness was computed for each subject. Three MCI groups were detected according to increasing tertile values of alpha3/alpha2 power ratio and difference of cortical thickness among the groups estimated. Results: Higher alpha3/alpha2 power ratio group had wider cortical thinning than other groups, mapped to the Supramarginal and Precuneus bilaterally. Subjects with higher alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio showed a constant trend to a lower perfusion than lower alpha3/alpha2 group. Moreover, this group correlates with both a bigger hippocampal atrophy and an increase of theta frequency power. Conclusion: Higher EEG alpha3/alpha2 power ratio was associated with temporo-parietal cortical thinning, hippocampal atrophy and reduction of regional cerebral perfusion in medial temporal cortex. In this group an increase of theta frequency power was detected inMCI subjects. The combination of higher EEG alpha3/alpha2 power ratio, cortical thickness measure and regional cerebral perfusion reveals a complex interplay between EEG cerebral rhythms, structural and functional brain modifications. PMID:25926789

  10. EEG Alpha Synchronization Is Related to Top-Down Processing in Convergent and Divergent Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedek, Mathias; Bergner, Sabine; Konen, Tanja; Fink, Andreas; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

    2011-01-01

    Synchronization of EEG alpha activity has been referred to as being indicative of cortical idling, but according to more recent evidence it has also been associated with active internal processing and creative thinking. The main objective of this study was to investigate to what extent EEG alpha synchronization is related to internal processing…

  11. EEG spectral phenotypes: heritability and association with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community study.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Phillips, Evelyn; Gizer, Ian R; Gilder, David A; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C

    2010-01-15

    Native Americans have some of the highest rates of marijuana and alcohol use and abuse, yet neurobiological measures associated with dependence on these substances in this population remain unknown. The present investigation evaluated the heritability of spectral characteristics of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and their correlation with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community. Participants (n=626) were evaluated for marijuana (MJ) and alcohol (ALC) dependence, as well as other psychiatric disorders. EEGs were collected from six cortical sites and spectral power determined in five frequency bands (delta 1.0-4.0 Hz, theta 4.0-7.5 Hz, alpha 7.5-12.0 Hz, low beta 12.0-20.0 Hz and high beta/gamma 20-50 Hz). The estimated heritability (h(2)) of the EEG phenotypes was calculated using SOLAR, and ranged from 0.16 to 0.67. Stepwise linear regression was used to detect correlations between MJ and ALC dependence and the spectral characteristics of the EEG using a model that took into account: age, gender, Native American Heritage (NAH) and a lifetime diagnosis of antisocial personality and/or conduct disorder (ASPD/CD). Increases in spectral power in the delta frequency range, were significantly correlated with gender (p<0.001) and marijuana dependence (p<0.003). Gender, age, NAH and ASPD/CD were all significantly (p<0.001) correlated with theta, alpha and beta band power, whereas alcohol dependence (p<0.01), gender (p<0.001), and ASPD/CD (p<0.001) were all correlated with high beta/gamma band power. These data suggest that the traits of EEG delta and high beta/gamma activity are correlated with MJ dependence and alcohol dependence, respectively, in this community sample of Native Americans. PMID:19748744

  12. EEG spectral phenotypes: heritability and association with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community study

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Phillips, Evelyn; Gizer, Ian R.; Gilder, David A.; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.

    2009-01-01

    Native Americans have some of the highest rates of marijuana and alcohol use and abuse, yet neurobiological measures associated with dependence on these substances in this population remain unknown. The present investigation evaluated the heritability of spectral characteristics of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and their correlation with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community. Participants (n=626) were evaluated for marijuana (MJ) and alcohol (ALC) dependence, as well as other psychiatric disorders. EEGs were collected from six cortical sites and spectral power determined in five frequency bands (delta 1.0–4.0 Hz, theta 4.0–7.5 Hz, alpha 7.5–12.0 Hz, low beta 12.0–20.0 Hz and high beta/gamma 20–50 Hz). The estimated heritability (h2) of the EEG phenotypes was calculated using SOLAR, and ranged from 0.16 to 0.67. Stepwise linear regression was used to detect correlations between MJ and ALC dependence and the spectral characteristics of the EEG using a model that took into account: age, gender, Native American Heritage (NAH) and a lifetime diagnosis of antisocial personality and/or conduct disorder (ASPD/CD). Increases in spectral power in the delta frequency range, were significantly correlated with gender (p<0.001) and marijuana dependence (p<0.003). Gender, age, NAH and ASPD/CD were all significantly (p<0.001) correlated with theta, alpha and beta band power, whereas alcohol dependence (p<0.01), gender (p<0.001), and ASPD/CD (p<0.001) were all correlated with high beta/gamma band power. These data suggest that the traits of EEG delta and high beta /gamma activity are correlated with MJ dependence and alcohol dependence, respectively, in this community sample of Native Americans. PMID:19748744

  13. Alpha-band EEG activity in perceptual learning

    PubMed Central

    Bays, Brett C.; Visscher, Kristina M.; Le Dantec, Christophe C.; Seitz, Aaron R.

    2015-01-01

    In studies of perceptual learning (PL), subjects are typically highly trained across many sessions to achieve perceptual benefits on the stimuli in those tasks. There is currently significant debate regarding what sources of brain plasticity underlie these PL-based learning improvements. Here we investigate the hypothesis that PL, among other mechanisms, leads to task automaticity, especially in the presence of the trained stimuli. To investigate this hypothesis, we trained participants for eight sessions to find an oriented target in a field of near-oriented distractors and examined alpha-band activity, which modulates with attention to visual stimuli, as a possible measure of automaticity. Alpha-band activity was acquired via electroencephalogram (EEG), before and after training, as participants performed the task with trained and untrained stimuli. Results show that participants underwent significant learning in this task (as assessed by threshold, accuracy, and reaction time improvements) and that alpha power increased during the pre-stimulus period and then underwent greater desynchronization at the time of stimulus presentation following training. However, these changes in alpha-band activity were not specific to the trained stimuli, with similar patterns of posttraining alpha power for trained and untrained stimuli. These data are consistent with the view that participants were more efficient at focusing resources at the time of stimulus presentation and are consistent with a greater automaticity of task performance. These findings have implications for PL, as transfer effects from trained to untrained stimuli may partially depend on differential effort of the individual at the time of stimulus processing. PMID:26370167

  14. Reduced alpha and exaggerated theta power during the resting-state EEG in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Van der Molen, Melle J W; Van der Molen, Maurits W

    2013-02-01

    This study characterizes the resting-state EEG in males with fragile X syndrome to reveal abnormalities in oscillatory brain dynamics. Analyses of the eyes-closed EEG epochs showed that the resting-state EEG in FXS can be characterized by elevated relative theta power (4-8 Hz) and reduced relative upper-alpha power (10-12 Hz). Although preliminary, these findings suggest that the well-documented imbalance in excitatory/inhibitory cortical circuit activity in FXS can be revealed the level of oscillatory behavior at the scalp. A next step for future studies is linking the EEG resting-state indices to cognitive and behavioral measures. PMID:23182872

  15. Detecting alpha spindle events in EEG time series using adaptive autoregressive models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rhythmic oscillatory activity is widely observed during a variety of subject behaviors and is believed to play a central role in information processing and control. A classic example of rhythmic activity is alpha spindles, which consist of short (0.5-2 s) bursts of high frequency alpha activity. Recent research has shown that alpha spindles in the parietal/occipital area are statistically related to fatigue and drowsiness. These spindles constitute sharp changes in the underlying statistical properties of the signal. Our hypothesis is that change point detection models can be used to identify the onset and duration of spindles in EEG. In this work we develop an algorithm that accurately identifies sudden bursts of narrowband oscillatory activity in EEG using techniques derived from change point analysis. Our motivating example is detection of alpha spindles in the parietal/occipital areas of the brain. Our goal is to develop an algorithm that can be applied to any type of rhythmic oscillatory activity of interest for accurate online detection. Methods In this work we propose modeling the alpha band EEG time series using discounted autoregressive (DAR) modeling. The DAR model uses a discounting rate to weigh points measured further in the past less heavily than points more recently observed. This model is used together with predictive loss scoring to identify periods of EEG data that are statistically significant. Results Our algorithm accurately captures changes in the statistical properties of the alpha frequency band. These statistical changes are highly correlated with alpha spindle occurrences and form a reliable measure for detecting alpha spindles in EEG. We achieve approximately 95% accuracy in detecting alpha spindles, with timing precision to within approximately 150?ms, for two datasets from an experiment of prolonged simulated driving, as well as in simulated EEG. Sensitivity and specificity values are above 0.9, and in many cases are above 0.95, for our analysis. Conclusion Modeling the alpha band EEG using discounted AR models provides an efficient method for detecting oscillatory alpha activity in EEG. The method is based on statistical principles and can generally be applied to detect rhythmic activity in any frequency band or brain region. PMID:24047117

  16. The time-course of EEG alpha power changes in creative ideation.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Daniela; Benedek, Mathias; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Fink, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Increases in EEG alpha power during creative ideation are among the most consistent findings in the neuroscientific study of creativity, but existing studies did not focus on time-related changes of EEG alpha activity patterns during the process of creative ideation so far. Since several cognitive processes are involved in the generation of creative ideas, different EEG correlates may result as a function of time. In this study we addressed this crucial point. Forty-five participants worked on the "Alternative Uses Task" while the EEG was recorded and changes in task-related power (relative to rest) in the upper-frequency band (10-12 Hz) for three isochronous time intervals of the idea generation period were determined. Alpha power changes during idea generation followed a characteristic time course: we found a general increase of alpha power at the beginning of idea generation that was followed by a decrease and finally by a re-increase of alpha prior to responding that was most pronounced at parietal and temporal sites of the right hemisphere. Additionally, the production of more original ideas was accompanied by increasing hemispheric asymmetry (more alpha in the right than left hemisphere) with increasing duration of the idea generation period. The observed time course of brain activity may reflect the progression of different but well-known stages in the idea generation process: that is the initial retrieval of common and old ideas followed by the actual generation of novel and more creative ideas by overcoming typical responses through processes of mental simulation and imagination. PMID:24860485

  17. The time-course of EEG alpha power changes in creative ideation

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Daniela; Benedek, Mathias; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M.; Fink, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Increases in EEG alpha power during creative ideation are among the most consistent findings in the neuroscientific study of creativity, but existing studies did not focus on time-related changes of EEG alpha activity patterns during the process of creative ideation so far. Since several cognitive processes are involved in the generation of creative ideas, different EEG correlates may result as a function of time. In this study we addressed this crucial point. Forty-five participants worked on the “Alternative Uses Task” while the EEG was recorded and changes in task-related power (relative to rest) in the upper-frequency band (10–12 Hz) for three isochronous time intervals of the idea generation period were determined. Alpha power changes during idea generation followed a characteristic time course: we found a general increase of alpha power at the beginning of idea generation that was followed by a decrease and finally by a re-increase of alpha prior to responding that was most pronounced at parietal and temporal sites of the right hemisphere. Additionally, the production of more original ideas was accompanied by increasing hemispheric asymmetry (more alpha in the right than left hemisphere) with increasing duration of the idea generation period. The observed time course of brain activity may reflect the progression of different but well-known stages in the idea generation process: that is the initial retrieval of common and old ideas followed by the actual generation of novel and more creative ideas by overcoming typical responses through processes of mental simulation and imagination. PMID:24860485

  18. Spontaneous Slow Fluctuation of EEG Alpha Rhythm Reflects Activity in Deep-Brain Structures: A Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Omata, Kei; Hanakawa, Takashi; Morimoto, Masako; Honda, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of the occipital alpha rhythm on brain electroencephalogram (EEG) is associated with brain activity in the cerebral neocortex and deep brain structures. To further understand the mechanisms of alpha rhythm power fluctuation, we performed simultaneous EEGs and functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings in human subjects during a resting state and explored the dynamic relationship between alpha power fluctuation and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals of the brain. Based on the frequency characteristics of the alpha power time series (APTS) during 20-minute EEG recordings, we divided the APTS into two components: fast fluctuation (0.04–0.167 Hz) and slow fluctuation (0–0.04 Hz). Analysis of the correlation between the MRI signal and each component revealed that the slow fluctuation component of alpha power was positively correlated with BOLD signal changes in the brain stem and the medial part of the thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex, while the fast fluctuation component was correlated with the lateral part of the thalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex, but not the brain stem. In summary, these data suggest that different subcortical structures contribute to slow and fast modulations of alpha spectra on brain EEG. PMID:23824708

  19. Interval analysis of interictal EEG: pathology of the alpha rhythm in focal epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Pyrzowski, Jan; Siemi?ski, Mariusz; Sarnowska, Anna; Jedrzejczak, Joanna; Nyka, Walenty M.

    2015-01-01

    The contemporary use of interictal scalp electroencephalography (EEG) in the context of focal epilepsy workup relies on the visual identification of interictal epileptiform discharges. The high-specificity performance of this marker comes, however, at a cost of only moderate sensitivity. Zero-crossing interval analysis is an alternative to Fourier analysis for the assessment of the rhythmic component of EEG signals. We applied this method to standard EEG recordings of 78 patients divided into 4 subgroups: temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and nonepileptic patients with headache. Interval-analysis based markers were capable of effectively discriminating patients with epilepsy from those in control subgroups (AUC~0.8) with diagnostic sensitivity potentially exceeding that of visual analysis. The identified putative epilepsy-specific markers were sensitive to the properties of the alpha rhythm and displayed weak or non-significant dependences on the number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) taken by the patients. Significant AED-related effects were concentrated in the theta interval range and an associated marker allowed for identification of patients on AED polytherapy (AUC~0.9). Interval analysis may thus, in perspective, increase the diagnostic yield of interictal scalp EEG. Our findings point to the possible existence of alpha rhythm abnormalities in patients with epilepsy. PMID:26553287

  20. Interval analysis of interictal EEG: pathology of the alpha rhythm in focal epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyrzowski, Jan; Siemi?ski, Mariusz; Sarnowska, Anna; Jedrzejczak, Joanna; Nyka, Walenty M.

    2015-11-01

    The contemporary use of interictal scalp electroencephalography (EEG) in the context of focal epilepsy workup relies on the visual identification of interictal epileptiform discharges. The high-specificity performance of this marker comes, however, at a cost of only moderate sensitivity. Zero-crossing interval analysis is an alternative to Fourier analysis for the assessment of the rhythmic component of EEG signals. We applied this method to standard EEG recordings of 78 patients divided into 4 subgroups: temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and nonepileptic patients with headache. Interval-analysis based markers were capable of effectively discriminating patients with epilepsy from those in control subgroups (AUC~0.8) with diagnostic sensitivity potentially exceeding that of visual analysis. The identified putative epilepsy-specific markers were sensitive to the properties of the alpha rhythm and displayed weak or non-significant dependences on the number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) taken by the patients. Significant AED-related effects were concentrated in the theta interval range and an associated marker allowed for identification of patients on AED polytherapy (AUC~0.9). Interval analysis may thus, in perspective, increase the diagnostic yield of interictal scalp EEG. Our findings point to the possible existence of alpha rhythm abnormalities in patients with epilepsy.

  1. A novel EEG for alpha brain state training, neurobiofeedback and behavior change.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Bruce; Arthur, David

    2013-08-01

    Mindfulness meditation, with the resulting alpha brain state, is gaining a strong following as an adjunct to health, so too is applying self-affirmation to stimulate behavior change through subconscious re-programming. Until recently the EEG technology needed to demonstrate this has been cumbersome and required specialist training. This paper reports a pilot study using a remote EEG headband, which through a sophisticated algorithm, provides a real-time EEG readout unencumbered by conventional artifacts. In a convenience sample of 13, the difference in brain waves was examined while the subjects were occupied in an 'attention' and an 'alpha mind state' exercise. There was a significant difference in the mean scores for theta, delta, beta and gamma brain waves. Alpha brain waves remained static suggesting an ability of the headset to discriminate a mindful state and to provide real-time, easy to interpret feedback for the facilitator and subject. The findings provide encouragement for research applications in health care activities providing neurobiofeedback to subjects involved in mindfulness behavior change activities. PMID:23890456

  2. Tracking EEG changes in response to alpha and beta binaural beats.

    PubMed

    Vernon, D; Peryer, G; Louch, J; Shaw, M

    2014-07-01

    A binaural beat can be produced by presenting two tones of a differing frequency, one to each ear. Such auditory stimulation has been suggested to influence behaviour and cognition via the process of cortical entrainment. However, research so far has only shown the frequency following responses in the traditional EEG frequency ranges of delta, theta and gamma. Hence a primary aim of this research was to ascertain whether it would be possible to produce clear changes in the EEG in either the alpha or beta frequency ranges. Such changes, if possible, would have a number of important implications as well as potential applications. A secondary goal was to track any observable changes in the EEG throughout the entrainment epoch to gain some insight into the nature of the entrainment effects on any changes in an effort to identify more effective entrainment regimes. Twenty two healthy participants were recruited and randomly allocated to one of two groups, each of which was exposed to a distinct binaural beat frequency for ten 1-minute epochs. The first group listened to an alpha binaural beat of 10 Hz and the second to a beta binaural beat of 20 Hz. EEG was recorded from the left and right temporal regions during pre-exposure baselines, stimulus exposure epochs and post-exposure baselines. Analysis of changes in broad-band and narrow-band amplitudes, and frequency showed no effect of binaural beat frequency eliciting a frequency following effect in the EEG. Possible mediating factors are discussed and a number of recommendations are made regarding future studies, exploring entrainment effects from a binaural beat presentation. PMID:23085086

  3. Dynamics of alpha control: Preparatory suppression of posterior alpha oscillations by frontal modulators revealed with combined EEG and event-related optical signal (EROS)

    PubMed Central

    Mathewson, Kyle E.; Beck, Diane M.; Ro, Tony; Maclin, Edward L.; Low, Kathy A.; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the dynamics of brain processes facilitating conscious experience of external stimuli. Previously we proposed that alpha (8-12 Hz) oscillations, which fluctuate with both sustained and directed attention, represent a pulsed inhibition of ongoing sensory brain activity. Here we tested the prediction that inhibitory alpha oscillations in visual cortex are modulated by top-down signals from frontoparietal attention networks. We measured modulations in phase-coherent alpha oscillations from superficial frontal, parietal, and occipital cortices using the event-related optical signal (EROS), a measure of neuronal activity affording high spatiotemporal resolution, along with concurrently-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG), while subjects performed a visual target-detection task. The pre-target alpha oscillations measured with EEG and EROS from posterior areas were larger for subsequently undetected targets, supporting alpha's inhibitory role. Using EROS, we localized brain correlates of these awareness-related alpha oscillations measured at the scalp to the cuneus and precuneus. Crucially, EROS alpha suppression correlated with posterior EEG alpha power across subjects. Sorting the EROS data based on EEG alpha power quartiles to investigate alpha modulators revealed that suppression of posterior alpha was preceded by increased activity in regions of the dorsal attention network, and decreased activity in regions of the cingulo-opercular network. Cross-correlations revealed the temporal dynamics of activity within these preparatory networks prior to posterior alpha modulation. The novel combination of EEG and EROS afforded localization of the sources and correlates of alpha oscillations and their temporal relationships, supporting our proposal that top-down control from attention networks modulates both posterior alpha and awareness of visual stimuli. PMID:24702458

  4. The validity of individual frontal alpha asymmetry EEG neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Quaedflieg, C W E M; Smulders, F T Y; Meyer, T; Peeters, F; Merckelbach, H; Smeets, T

    2016-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry in alpha oscillations is assumed to be associated with psychopathology and individual differences in emotional responding. Brain-activity-based feedback is a promising tool for the modulation of cortical activity. Here, we validated a neurofeedback protocol designed to change relative frontal asymmetry based on individual alpha peak frequencies, including real-time average referencing and eye-correction. Participants (N?=?60) were randomly assigned to a right, left or placebo neurofeedback group. Results show a difference in trainability between groups, with a linear change in frontal alpha asymmetry over time for the right neurofeedback group during rest. Moreover, the asymmetry changes in the right group were frequency and location specific, even though trainability did not persist at 1 week and 1 month follow-ups. On the behavioral level, subjective stress on the second test day was reduced in the left and placebo neurofeedback groups, but not in the right neurofeedback group. We found individual differences in trainability that were dependent on training group, with participants in the right neurofeedback group being more likely to change their frontal asymmetry in the desired direction. Individual differences in trainability were also reflected in the ability to change frontal asymmetry during the feedback. PMID:26163671

  5. EEG-based Upper-Alpha Neurofeedback for Cognitive Enhancement in Major Depressive Disorder: A preliminary, uncontrolled study

    E-print Network

    Minguez, Javier

    uncontrolled study to assess the effects of an upper-alpha NF intervention on patients with major depressiveEEG-based Upper-Alpha Neurofeedback for Cognitive Enhancement in Major Depressive Disorder of neurofeedback (NF) has been evaluated by several studies, however its effectiveness in people with severe

  6. Relation of EEG alpha background to cognitive fuction, brain atrophy, and cerebral metabolism in Down's syndrome. Age-specific changes

    SciTech Connect

    Devinsky, O.; Sato, S.; Conwit, R.A.; Schapiro, M.B. )

    1990-01-01

    We studied 19 young adults (19 to 37 years old) and 9 older patients (42 to 66 years old) with Down's syndrome (DS) and a control group of 13 healthy adults (22 to 38 years old) to investigate the relation of electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha background to cognitive function and cerebral metabolism. Four of the older patients with DS had a history of mental deterioration, disorientation, and memory loss and were demented. Patients and control subjects had EEGs, psychometric testing, quantitative computed tomography, and positron emission tomography with fludeoxyglucose F 18. A blinded reader classified the EEGs into two groups--those with normal alpha background or those with abnormal background. All the control subjects, the 13 young adult patients with DS, and the 5 older patients with DS had normal EEG backgrounds. In comparison with the age-matched patients with DS with normal alpha background, older patients with DS with decreased alpha background had dementia, fewer visuospatial skills, decreased attention span, larger third ventricles, and a global decrease in cerebral glucose utilization with parietal hypometabolism. In the young patients with DS, the EEG background did not correlate with psychometric or positron emission tomographic findings, but the third ventricles were significantly larger in those with abnormal EEG background. The young patients with DS, with or without normal EEG background, had positron emission tomographic findings similar to those of the control subjects. The mechanism underlying the abnormal EEG background may be the neuropathologic changes of Alzheimer's disease in older patients with DS and may be cerebral immaturity in younger patients with DS.

  7. Individual differences in EEG theta and alpha dynamics during working memory correlate with fMRI responses across subjects

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Jed A.; Negishi, Michiro; Mayes, Linda C.; Constable, R. Todd

    2007-01-01

    Objective Theta and alpha range EEG oscillations are commonly induced in cognitive tasks, but their possible relationship to the BOLD signal of fMRI is not well understood, and individual variability is high. We explored individual differences in EEG reactivity to determine whether it is positively or negatively correlated with BOLD across subjects. Methods A Sternberg working memory task with 2, 4, or 6 digits was administered to 18 subjects in separate fMRI and EEG sessions. Memory load dependent theta and alpha reactivity was quantified and used as a regressor to reveal brain areas exhibiting EEG-fMRI correlation across subjects. Results Theta increases localized to medial prefrontal cortex, and correlated negatively with BOLD in that region and in other “default mode” areas. Alpha modulation localized to parietal-occipital midline cortex and also correlated negatively with BOLD. Conclusions Individual tendencies to exhibit memory-load dependent oscillations are associated with negative BOLD responses certain brain regions. Significance Positive BOLD responses and increased EEG oscillations do not necessarily arise in the same regions. Negative BOLD responses may also relate to cognitive activity, as traditionally indexed by increased EEG power in the theta band. PMID:17900976

  8. Frontal EEG alpha activity and obsessive-compulsive behaviors in non-clinical young adults: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Michael; Woody, Erik Z.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Ameringen, Michael Van; Soreni, Noam; Szechtman, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the resting electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha patterns of non-clinical participants who score high on measures of negative affect, such as depression and shyness, are different from those who score low. However, we know relatively little about patterns of resting EEG alpha patterns in a non-clinical sample of individuals with high levels of obsessive-compulsive behaviors indicative of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we measured resting EEG alpha activity in frontal and parietal regions of non-clinical participants who scored high and low on the Padua-R, a measure of the severity of OCD-related behaviors. We found that participants who scored high on the Padua-R exhibited decreased overall activity in frontal regions relative to individuals who scored low on the measure. We speculate that frontal hypoactivity may be a possible marker and/or index of risk for OCD. PMID:26483733

  9. Intranasal oxytocin modulates EEG mu/alpha and beta rhythms during perception of biological motion.

    PubMed

    Perry, Anat; Bentin, Shlomo; Shalev, Idan; Israel, Salomon; Uzefovsky, Florina; Bar-On, Dori; Ebstein, Richard P

    2010-11-01

    Oxytocin (OT) plays a determining role in social and pair bonding in many vertebrates and increasing evidence suggests it is a social hormone also in humans. Indeed, intranasal administration of OT modulates several social cognitive processes in humans. Electrophysiological studies in humans associated the suppression of EEG in the mu/alpha and beta bands with perception of biological motion and social stimuli. It has been suggested that mu and beta suppression over sensory-motor regions reflects a resonance system in the human brain analogous to mirror neurons in the monkey. We therefore hypothesized that OT, a social hormone, would enhance this suppression, hence, for the first time, link the action of this neuropeptide with a human correlate of mirror neuron activity. Twenty-four students were administered 24 IU of OT or placebo intranasally in a robust, double-blind within-subject design. 45 min later participants were shown a point-light display of continuous biological motion of a human figure's walk. In the 8-10 Hz (low alpha/mu band) and in the 15-25 Hz beta band, a significant main effect of treatment showed that suppression was significantly enhanced in the OT versus the placebo conditions and that this suppression was widespread across the scalp. These results are a first step linking OT to the modulation of EEG rhythms in humans, suggesting that OT may have a role in allocating cortical resources to social tasks partly mediated by mirror neuron activity. PMID:20493637

  10. State-modulation of cortico-cortical connections underlying normal EEG alpha variants.

    PubMed

    Cantero, J L; Atienza, M; Salas, R M

    Normal electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha variants appear during relaxed wakefulness with closed eyes, drowsiness period at sleep onset, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in bursts without arousal signals. Previous results revealed that fronto-occipital and fronto-frontal alpha coherences became weaker from wakefulness to drowsiness, and finally to REM sleep. The present work was aimed at determining whether a generalized or a unidirectional deactivation of the long fronto-occipital fasciculi, previously proposed to be involved in the alpha rhythm generation, could explain the above-mentioned results. Polynomial regression analyses, applied to the change of alpha coherence with distance along the antero-posterior axis, suggested that the anterior and posterior local circuits show a similar level of activation in all brain states. Bivariate partial correlation analyses between local alpha coherences revealed that such local circuits maintain a reciprocal dependency during wakefulness, but unidirectional during drowsiness (anterior-to-posterior, A-P) and REM sleep (posterior-to-anterior, P-A). From these findings, both anterior and posterior cortical structures are suggested as being involved in the generation of the three alpha variants. If the implication of a double cortical generation source (anterior and posterior) of alpha variants is assumed, these two generators seem to maintain a mutual inter-dependency during wakefulness, whereas during the transition to human sleep, the anterior areas work quite independently of the posterior regions. Finally, the occipital structures may be the driving force for the REM-alpha bursts generation, since involvement of frontal regions demonstrated a high dependence on the posterior neural circuits in the genesis of this sleep event. PMID:11134692

  11. ADHD Familial Loading and Abnormal EEG Alpha Asymmetry in Children with ADHD1

    PubMed Central

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Dang, Jeff; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; Loo, Sandra K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Abnormal brain laterality (ABL) is indicated in ADHD. ADHD and brain laterality are heritable. Genetic factors contributing to lateralization of brain function may contribute to ADHD. If so, increased ADHD family loading should be associated with greater ABL. Previous studies have shown increased rightward alpha asymmetry in ADHD. We tested whether this was more pronounced in ADHD children with increased ADHD family loading. Methods We compared EEG alpha asymmetry at rest and during the Conner’s Continuous Performance Test (CPT) in ADHD children with and without ADHD affected parents, and replicated our findings in a second larger sample. The replication study additionally stratified the parent-affected sample by parental persistent versus non-persistent ADHD status, increased spatial resolution of EEG measures, and assessed low versus high alpha. Results Study-1: The parent-affected group showed increased rightward asymmetry across frontal and central regions and reduced rightward parietal asymmetry during an eyes closed (EC) condition, as well as increasing rightward parietal asymmetry with advancing age during the CPT. Study-2 replicated these findings and further delineated influences of low versus high alpha, recording site, and effects of parental persistent versus non-persistent ADHD status. Conclusion Increased ADHD familial loading was associated with increased rightward frontal asymmetry. In contrast, increased rightward parietal asymmetry was associated with reduced ADHD family loading. Frontal results are consistent with an ADHD endophenotype. Parietal results suggest an ADHD adaptive trait prevalent with less ADHD family loading. Age effects indicate a unique developmental course among ADHD children whose parents have non-persistent ADHD. PMID:20006344

  12. Topographic distribution of EEG alpha attractor correlation dimension values in wake and drowsy states in humans.

    PubMed

    Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Vuckovic, Aleksandra; Boji?, Tijana

    2015-03-01

    Organization of resting state cortical networks is of fundamental importance for the phenomenon of awareness, which is altered in the first part of hypnagogic period (Hori stages 1-4). Our aim was to investigate the change in brain topography pattern of EEG alpha attractor correlation dimension (CD) in the period of transition from Hori stage 1 to 4. EEG of ten healthy adult individuals was recorded in the wake and drowsy states, using a 14 channel average reference montage, from which 91 bipolar channels were derived and filtered in the wider alpha (6-14 Hz) range. Sixty 1s long epochs of each state and individual were subjected to CD calculation according to the Grassberger-Procaccia method. For such a collection of signals, two embedding dimensions, d={5, 10}, and 22 time delays ?=2-23 samples were explored. Optimal values were d=10 and ?=18, where both saturation and second zero crossing of the autocorrelation function occurred. Bipolar channel CD underwent a significant decrease during the transition and showed a positive linear correlation with electrode distance, stronger in the wake individuals. Topographic distribution of bipolar channels with above median CD changed from longitudinal anterior-posterior pattern (awake) to a more diagonal pattern, with localization in posterior regions (drowsiness). Our data are in line with the literature reporting functional segregation of neuronal assemblies in anterior and posterior regions during this transition. Our results should contribute to understanding of complex reorganization of the cortical part of alpha generators during the wake/drowsy transition. PMID:25462218

  13. The effects of alpha (10-Hz) and beta (22-Hz) "entrainment" stimulation on the alpha and beta EEG bands: individual differences are critical to prediction of effects.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, J P; Reinhart, A M; Srivastava, S

    1997-03-01

    Two different groups of normal college students were formed: One (the alpha group) received 10-Hz audiovisual (AV) stimulation for 8 minutes, and the other (beta) group received 22-Hz AV stimulation for 8 minutes. EEG power in the alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz) bands was FFT-extracted before, during, and for 24 minutes after stimulation. It was found that baseline (prestimulation) alpha and beta power predict the effects of stimulation, leading to individual differences in responsivity. High-baseline alpha participants showed either no entrainment or relatively prolonged entrainment with alpha stimulation. Low-baseline participants showed transient entrainment. Baseline alpha also predicted the direction of change in alpha with beta stimulation. Baseline beta and alpha predicted beta band response to beta stimulation, which was transient enhancement in some participants, inhibition in others. Some participants showed relatively prolonged beta enhancement with beta stimulation. PMID:9287252

  14. Childhood EEG frontal alpha power as a predictor of adolescent antisocial behavior: A twin heritability study

    PubMed Central

    Niv, Sharon; Ashrafulla, Syed; Tuvblad, Catherine; Joshi, Anand; Raine, Adrian; Leahy, Richard; Baker, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    High EEG frontal alpha power (FAP) is thought to represent a state of low arousal in the brain, which has been related in past research to antisocial behavior (ASB). We investigated a longitudinal sample of 900 twins in two assessments in late childhood and mid-adolescence to verify whether relationships exist between FAP and both aggressive and nonaggressive ASB. ASB was measured by the Child Behavioral Checklist, and FAP was calculated using connectivity analysis methods that used principal components analysis to derive power of the most dominant frontal activation. Significant positive predictive relationships emerged in males between childhood FAP and adolescent aggressive ASB using multilevel mixed modeling. No concurrent relationships were found. Using bivariate biometric twin modeling analysis, the relationship between childhood FAP and adolescent aggressive ASB in males was found to be entirely due to genetic factors, which were correlated r = 0.22. PMID:25456277

  15. Modulation of Alpha Oscillations in the Human EEG with Facial Preference

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Yang Seok; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2015-01-01

    Facial preference that results from the processing of facial information plays an important role in social interactions as well as the selection of a mate, friend, candidate, or favorite actor. However, it still remains elusive which brain regions are implicated in the neural mechanisms underlying facial preference, and how neural activities in these regions are modulated during the formation of facial preference. In the present study, we investigated the modulation of electroencephalography (EEG) oscillatory power with facial preference. For the reliable assessments of facial preference, we designed a series of passive viewing and active choice tasks. In the former task, twenty-four face stimuli were passively viewed by participants for multiple times in random order. In the latter task, the same stimuli were then evaluated by participants for their facial preference judgments. In both tasks, significant differences between the preferred and non-preferred faces groups were found in alpha band power (8–13 Hz) but not in other frequency bands. The preferred faces generated more decreases in alpha power. During the passive viewing task, significant differences in alpha power between the preferred and non-preferred face groups were observed at the left frontal regions in the early (0.15–0.4 s) period during the 1-s presentation. By contrast, during the active choice task when participants consecutively watched the first and second face for 1 s and then selected the preferred one, an alpha power difference was found for the late (0.65–0.8 s) period over the whole brain during the first face presentation and over the posterior regions during the second face presentation. These results demonstrate that the modulation of alpha activity by facial preference is a top-down process, which requires additional cognitive resources to facilitate information processing of the preferred faces that capture more visual attention than the non-preferred faces. PMID:26394328

  16. The effect of GSM-like ELF radiation on the alpha band of the human resting EEG.

    PubMed

    Perentos, Nicholas; Croft, Rodney J; McKenzie, Raymond J; Cvetkovic, Dean; Cosic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    Mobile phone handsets such as those operating in the GSM network emit extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields ranging from DC to at least 40 kHz. As a subpart of an extended protocol, the influence of these fields on the human resting EEG has been investigated in a fully counter balanced, double blind, cross-over design study that recruited 72 healthy volunteers. A decrease in the alpha frequency band was observed during the 20 minutes of ELF exposure in the exposed hemisphere only. This result suggests that ELF fields as emitted from GSM handsets during the DTX mode may have an effect on the resting alpha band of the human EEG. PMID:19164006

  17. EEG upper/low alpha frequency power ratio relates to temporo-parietal brain atrophy and memory performances in mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Davide V.; Paternicò, Donata; Binetti, Giuliano; Zanetti, Orazio; Frisoni, Giovanni B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Temporo-parietal cortex thinning is associated to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer disease (AD). The increase of EEG upper/low alpha power ratio has been associated with AD-converter MCI subjects. We investigated the association of alpha3/alpha2 ratio with patterns of cortical thickness in MCI. Materials and Methods: Seventy-four adult subjects with MCI underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, electroencephalogram (EEG) recording and high resolution 3D magnetic resonance imaging. Alpha3/alpha2 power ratio as well as cortical thickness was computed for each subject. Three MCI groups were detected according to increasing tertile values of upper/low alpha power ratio. Difference of cortical thickness among the groups was estimated. Pearson’s r was used to assess the topography of the correlation between cortical thinning and memory impairment. Results: High upper/low alpha power ratio group had total cortical gray matter volume reduction of 471 mm2 than low upper/low alpha power ratio group (p < 0.001). Upper/low alpha group showed a similar but less marked pattern (160 mm2) of cortical thinning when compared to middle upper/low alpha power ratio group (p < 0.001). Moreover, high upper/low alpha group had wider cortical thinning than other groups, mapped to the Supramarginal and Precuneus bilaterally. Finally, in high upper/low alpha group temporo-parietal cortical thickness was correlated to memory performance. No significant cortical thickness differences was found between middle and low alpha3/alpha2 power ratio groups. Conclusion: High EEG upper/low alpha power ratio was associated with temporo-parietal cortical thinning and memory impairment in MCI subjects. The combination of EEG upper/low alpha ratio and cortical thickness measure could be useful for identifying individuals at risk for progression to AD dementia and may be of value in clinical context. PMID:24187540

  18. Effects of Drawing on Alpha Activity: A Quantitative EEG Study with Implications for Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belkofer, Christopher M.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Konopka, Lukasz M.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence exists as to how materials used in art therapy affect the brain and its neurobiological functioning. This pre/post within-groups study utilized the quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) to measure residual effects in the brain after 20 minutes of drawing. EEG recordings were conducted before and after participants (N =…

  19. Audio-Visual and Autogenic Relaxation Alter Amplitude of Alpha EEG Band, Causing Improvements in Mental Work Performance in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Mikicin, Miros?aw; Kowalczyk, Marek

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of regular audio-visual relaxation combined with Schultz's autogenic training on: (1) the results of behavioral tests that evaluate work performance during burdensome cognitive tasks (Kraepelin test), (2) changes in classical EEG alpha frequency band, neocortex (frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal), hemisphere (left, right) versus condition (only relaxation 7-12 Hz). Both experimental (EG) and age-and skill-matched control group (CG) consisted of eighteen athletes (ten males and eight females). After 7-month training EG demonstrated changes in the amplitude of mean electrical activity of the EEG alpha bend at rest and an improvement was significantly changing and an improvement in almost all components of Kraepelin test. The same examined variables in CG were unchanged following the period without the intervention. Summing up, combining audio-visual relaxation with autogenic training significantly improves athlete's ability to perform a prolonged mental effort. These changes are accompanied by greater amplitude of waves in alpha band in the state of relax. The results suggest usefulness of relaxation techniques during performance of mentally difficult sports tasks (sports based on speed and stamina, sports games, combat sports) and during relax of athletes. PMID:26016588

  20. Phenotypic classification of male pseudohermaphroditism due to steroid 5{alpha}-reductase 2 deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Sinnecker, G.H.G; Hiort, O.; Kruse, K.; Dibbelt, L.

    1996-05-03

    Conversion of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in genital tissue is catalysed by the enzyme 5{alpha}-reductase 2, which is encoded by the SRD5A2 gene. The potent androgen DHT is required for full masculinization of the external genitalia. Mutations of the SRD5A2 gene inhibit enzyme activity, diminish DHT formation, and hence cause masculinization defects of varying degree. The classical syndrome, formerly described as pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias, is characterized by a predominantly female phenotype at birth and significant virilization without gynecomastia at puberty. We investigated nine patients with steroid 5{alpha}-reductase 2 deficiency (SRD). T/DHT-ratios were highly increased in the classical syndrome, but variable in the less severe affected patients. Mutations in the SRD5A2 gene had been characterized using PCR-SSCP analysis and direct DNA sequencing. A small deletion was encountered in two patients, while all other patients had single base mutations which result in amino acid substitutions. We conclude that phenotypes may vary widely in patients with SRD5A2 gene mutations spanning the whole range from completely female to normal male without distinctive clinical signs of the disease. Hence, steroid 5{alpha}-reductase deficiency should be considered not only in sex reversed patients with female or ambiguous phenotypes, but also in those with mild symptoms of undermasculinization as encountered in patients with hypospadias and/or micropenis. A classification based on the severity of the masculinization defect may be used for correlation of phenotypes with enzyme activities and genotypes, and for comparisons of phenotypes between different patients as the basis for clinical decisions to be made in patients with pseudohermaphroditism due to steroid 5{alpha}-reductase 2 deficiency. 22 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Phenotypic spectrum of alpha-synuclein mutations: New insights from patients and cellular models.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Simona; Ginevrino, Monia; Valente, Enza Maria

    2016-01-01

    The identification of the p.A53T mutation in the SNCA gene encoding alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn), as causative of autosomal dominant Parkinson disease (PD) represented a fundamental milestone, which paved the way to the extremely prolific field of PD genetics. Despite being the oldest player in this field and only a rare cause of inherited PD, research on alpha-syn has remained incredibly active over nearly twenty decades, leading to identify alpha-syn aggregation as a key mechanism in PD pathogenesis. The past two years have witnessed new exciting findings, with the discovery of at least three novel pathogenic mutations (p.H50Q, p.G51D and p.A53E) causative of complex parkinsonian phenotypes, and the identification of additional patients carrying "old" SNCA mutations (p.A53T, p.A30P, p.E46K and whole gene multiplications), which has allowed to further expand their phenotypic spectrum. This review aims at providing a clinical and functional update on the most recent findings in alpha-syn genetics, at the same time discussing novel avenues of SNCA research such as those on somatic mutations and epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:26341711

  2. Human anterior and frontal midline theta and lower alpha reflect emotionally positive state and internalized attention: high-resolution EEG investigation of meditation.

    PubMed

    Aftanas, L I; Golocheikine, S A

    2001-09-01

    EEG spectral power and coherence estimates in the individually defined delta, theta, alpha-1, alpha-2, and alpha-3 bands were used to identify and characterize brain regions involved in meditative states, in which focused internalized attention gives rise to emotionally positive "blissful" experience. Blissful state was accompanied by increased anterior frontal and midline theta synchronization as well as enhanced theta long-distant connectivity between prefrontal and posterior association cortex with distinct "center of gravity" in the left prefrontal region (AF3 site). Subjective scores of emotional experience significantly correlated with theta, whereas scores of internalized attention with both theta and alpha lower synchronization. Our results propose selective associations of theta and alpha oscillating networks activity with states of internalized attention and positive emotional experience. PMID:11524157

  3. Pulsed out of awareness: EEG alpha oscillations represent a pulsed-inhibition of ongoing cortical processing.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Kyle E; Lleras, Alejandro; Beck, Diane M; Fabiani, Monica; Ro, Tony; Gratton, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Alpha oscillations are ubiquitous in the brain, but their role in cortical processing remains a matter of debate. Recently, evidence has begun to accumulate in support of a role for alpha oscillations in attention selection and control. Here we first review evidence that 8-12 Hz oscillations in the brain have a general inhibitory role in cognitive processing, with an emphasis on their role in visual processing. Then, we summarize the evidence in support of our recent proposal that alpha represents a pulsed-inhibition of ongoing neural activity. The phase of the ongoing electroencephalography can influence evoked activity and subsequent processing, and we propose that alpha exerts its inhibitory role through alternating microstates of inhibition and excitation. Finally, we discuss evidence that this pulsed-inhibition can be entrained to rhythmic stimuli in the environment, such that preferential processing occurs for stimuli at predictable moments. The entrainment of preferential phase may provide a mechanism for temporal attention in the brain. This pulsed inhibitory account of alpha has important implications for many common cognitive phenomena, such as the attentional blink, and seems to indicate that our visual experience may at least some times be coming through in waves. PMID:21779257

  4. Pupil Dilation and EEG Alpha Frequency Band Power Reveal Load on Executive Functions for Link-Selection Processes during Text Reading

    PubMed Central

    Scharinger, Christian; Kammerer, Yvonne; Gerjets, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Executive working memory functions play a central role in reading comprehension. In the present research we were interested in additional load imposed on executive functions by link-selection processes during computer-based reading. For obtaining process measures, we used a methodology of concurrent electroencephalographic (EEG) and eye-tracking data recording that allowed us to compare epochs of pure text reading with epochs of hyperlink-like selection processes in an online reading situation. Furthermore, this methodology allowed us to directly compare the two physiological load-measures EEG alpha frequency band power and pupil dilation. We observed increased load on executive functions during hyperlink-like selection processes on both measures in terms of decreased alpha frequency band power and increased pupil dilation. Surprisingly however, the two measures did not correlate. Two additional experiments were conducted that excluded potential perceptual, motor, or structural confounds. In sum, EEG alpha frequency band power and pupil dilation both turned out to be sensitive measures for increased load during hyperlink-like selection processes in online text reading. PMID:26076026

  5. Atrophy and lower regional perfusion of temporo-parietal brain areas are correlated with impairment in memory performances and increase of EEG upper alpha power in prodromal Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Vito Davide

    2015-01-01

    Background: Temporo-parietal cortex thinning is associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The increase of the EEG upper/low alpha power ratio has been associated with MCI due to AD subjects and to the atrophy of temporo-parietal brain areas. Moreover, subjects with a higher alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio showed lower brain perfusion than in the low alpha3/alpha2 group. The two groups have significantly different hippocampal volumes and correlation with the theta frequency activity. Methods: 74 adult subjects with MCI underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, electroencephalogram (EEG) recording, and high resolution 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). 27 of them underwent EEG recording and perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) evaluation. The alpha3/alpha2 power ratio as well as cortical thickness was computed for each subject. The difference in cortical thickness between the groups was estimated. Pearson’s r was used to assess the correlation topography between cortical thinning as well as between brain perfusion and memory impairment. Results: In the higher upper/low alpha group, memory impairment was more pronounced both in the MRI group and the SPECT MCI group. Moreover, it was correlated with greater cortical atrophy and lower perfusional rate in temporo-parietal cortex. Conclusion: High EEG upper/low alpha power ratio was associated with cortical thinning lower perfusion in temporo-parietal. Moreover, atrophy and lower perfusional rate were both significantly correlated with memory impairment in MCI subjects. The increase of EEG upper/low alpha frequency power ratio could be useful for identifying individuals at risk for progression to AD dementia and may be of value in the clinical context. PMID:26389016

  6. The Dynamics of EEG Entropy

    E-print Network

    Ignaccolo, M; Jernajczyk, W; Grigolini, P; West, B J

    2009-01-01

    EEG time series are analyzed using the diffusion entropy method. The resulting EEG entropy manifests short-time scaling, asymptotic saturation and an attenuated alpha-rhythm modulation. These properties are faithfully modeled by a phenomenological Langevin equation interpreted within a neural network context.

  7. Splicing mutation in the ATR-X gene can lead to a dysmorphic mental retardation phenotype without {alpha}-thalassemia

    SciTech Connect

    Villard, L.; Lossi, A.M.; Fontes, M.

    1996-03-01

    We have previously reported the isolation of a gene from Xq13 that codes for a putative regulator of transcription (XNP) and has now been shown to be the gene involved in the X-linked {alpha}-thalassemia with mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome. The widespread expression and numerous domains present in the putative protein suggest that this gene could be involved in other phenotypes. The predominant expression of the gene in the developing brain, as well as its association with neuron differentiation, indicates that mutations of this gene might result in a mental retardation (MR) phenotype. In this paper we present a family with a splice junction mutation in XNP that results in the skipping of an exon and in the introduction of a stop codon in the middle of the XNP-coding sequence. Only the abnormal transcript is expressed in two first cousins presenting the classic ATR-X phenotype (with {alpha}-thalassemia and HbH inclusions). In a distant cousin presenting a similar dysmorphic MR phenotype but not having thalassemia, {approximately}30% of the XNP transcripts are normal. These data demonstrate that the mode of action of the XNP gene product on globin expression is distinct from its mode of action in brain development and facial morphogenesis and suggest that other dysmorphic mental retardation phenotypes, such as Juberg-Marsidi or some sporadic cases of Coffin-Lowry, could be due to mutations in XNP. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. A lag in intracellular degradation of mutant alpha 1-antitrypsin correlates with the liver disease phenotype in homozygous PiZZ alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y; Whitman, I; Molmenti, E; Moore, K; Hippenmeyer, P; Perlmutter, D H

    1994-01-01

    Liver injury in PiZZ alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT) deficiency probably results from toxic effects of the abnormal alpha 1-AT molecule accumulating within the ER of liver cells. However, only 12-15% of individuals with this same genotype develops liver disease. Therefore, we predicted that other genetic traits that determine the net intracellular accumulation of the mutant alpha 1-AT molecule would also determine susceptibility to liver disease. To address this prediction, we transduced skin fibroblasts from PiZZ individuals with liver disease or without liver disease with amphotropic recombinant retroviral particles designed for constitutive expression of the mutant alpha 1-AT Z gene. Human skin fibroblasts do not express the endogenous alpha 1-AT gene but presumably express other genes involved in postsynthetic processing of secretory proteins. The results show that expression of human alpha 1-AT gene was conferred on each fibroblast cell line. Compared to the same cell line transduced with the wild-type alpha 1-AT M gene, there was selective intracellular accumulation of the mutant alpha 1-AT Z protein in each case. However, there was a marked delay in degradation of the mutant alpha 1-AT Z protein after it accumulated in the fibroblasts from ZZ individuals with liver disease ("susceptible hosts") as compared to those without liver disease ("protected hosts"). Appropriate disease controls showed that the lag in degradation in susceptible hosts is specific for the combination of PiZZ phenotype and liver disease. Biochemical characteristics of alpha 1-AT Z degradation in the protected hosts were found to be similar to those of a common ER degradation pathway previously described in model experimental cell systems for T-cell receptor alpha subunits and asialoglycoprotein receptor subunits, therefore, raising the possibility that the lag in degradation in the susceptible host is a defect in this common ER degradation pathway. Thus, these data provide evidence that other genetic traits that affect the fate of the abnormal alpha 1-AT Z molecule, at least in part, determine susceptibility to liver disease. These data also validate a system for elucidating the biochemical/genetic characteristics of these traits and for examining the relevance to human disease of pathways for protein degradation in the ER. Images PMID:8090762

  9. Regional electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha power and asymmetry in older adults: a study of short-term test–retest reliability

    PubMed Central

    Mathewson, Karen J.; Hashemi, Ali; Sheng, Bruce; Sekuler, Allison B.; Bennett, Patrick J.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2015-01-01

    Although regional alpha power and asymmetry measures have been widely used as indices of individual differences in emotional processing and affective style in younger populations, there have been relatively few studies that have examined these measures in older adults. Here, we examined the short-term test–retest reliability of resting regional alpha power (7.5–12.5 Hz) and asymmetry in a sample of 38 active, community-dwelling older adults (M age = 71.2, SD = 6.5 years). Resting electroencephalogram recordings were made before and after a perceptual computer task. Pearson and intra-class correlations indicated acceptable test–retest reliability for alpha power and asymmetry measures in all regions. Interestingly, alpha asymmetry appeared to be less affected by the task than was alpha power. Findings suggest that alpha asymmetry may reflect more enduring, “trait-like” characteristics, while alpha power may reflect more “state-like” processes in older adults. PMID:26441639

  10. EEG synchronization and migraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Angelini, Leonardo; Pellicoro, Mario; Hu, Kun; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2004-03-01

    We investigate phase synchronization in EEG recordings from migraine patients. We use the analytic signal technique, based on the Hilbert transform, and find that migraine brains are characterized by enhanced alpha band phase synchronization in presence of visual stimuli. Our findings show that migraine patients have an overactive regulatory mechanism that renders them more sensitive to external stimuli.

  11. Transforming Growth Factor Alpha (TGF?) Transforms Astrocytes to a Growth Supportive Phenotype after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    White, Robin E.; Rao, Meghan; Gensel, John C.; McTigue, Dana M.; Kaspar, Brian K.; Jakeman, Lyn B.

    2011-01-01

    Astrocytes are both detrimental and beneficial for repair and recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). These dynamic cells are primary contributors to the growth-inhibitory glial scar, yet they are also neuroprotective and can form growth-supportive bridges upon which axons traverse. We have shown that intrathecal administration of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF?) to the contused mouse spinal cord can enhance astrocyte infiltration and axonal growth within the injury site, but the mechanisms of these effects are not well understood. The present studies demonstrate that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is upregulated primarily by astrocytes and glial progenitors early after SCI. TGF? directly activates the EGFR on these cells in vitro, inducing their proliferation, migration, and transformation to a phenotype that supports robust neurite outgrowth. Overexpression of TGF? in vivo by intraparenchymal adeno-associated virus injection adjacent to the injury site enhances cell proliferation, alters astrocyte distribution and facilitates increased axonal penetration at the rostral lesion border. To determine if endogenous EGFR activation is required after injury, SCI was also performed on Velvet (C57BL/6J-EgfrVel/J) mice, a mutant strain with defective EGFR activity. The affected mice exhibited malformed glial borders, larger lesions, and impaired recovery of function, indicating that intrinsic EGFR activation is necessary for neuroprotection and normal glial scar formation after SCI. By further stimulating precursor proliferation and modifying glial activation to promote a growth permissive environment, controlled stimulation of EGFR at the lesion border may be considered in the context of future strategies to enhance endogenous cellular repair following injury. PMID:22016551

  12. Auditory cortical deactivation during speech production and following speech perception: an EEG investigation of the temporal dynamics of the auditory alpha rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Jenson, David; Harkrider, Ashley W.; Thornton, David; Bowers, Andrew L.; Saltuklaroglu, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor integration (SMI) across the dorsal stream enables online monitoring of speech. Jenson et al. (2014) used independent component analysis (ICA) and event related spectral perturbation (ERSP) analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) data to describe anterior sensorimotor (e.g., premotor cortex, PMC) activity during speech perception and production. The purpose of the current study was to identify and temporally map neural activity from posterior (i.e., auditory) regions of the dorsal stream in the same tasks. Perception tasks required “active” discrimination of syllable pairs (/ba/ and /da/) in quiet and noisy conditions. Production conditions required overt production of syllable pairs and nouns. ICA performed on concatenated raw 68 channel EEG data from all tasks identified bilateral “auditory” alpha (?) components in 15 of 29 participants localized to pSTG (left) and pMTG (right). ERSP analyses were performed to reveal fluctuations in the spectral power of the ? rhythm clusters across time. Production conditions were characterized by significant ? event related synchronization (ERS; pFDR < 0.05) concurrent with EMG activity from speech production, consistent with speech-induced auditory inhibition. Discrimination conditions were also characterized by ? ERS following stimulus offset. Auditory ? ERS in all conditions temporally aligned with PMC activity reported in Jenson et al. (2014). These findings are indicative of speech-induced suppression of auditory regions, possibly via efference copy. The presence of the same pattern following stimulus offset in discrimination conditions suggests that sensorimotor contributions following speech perception reflect covert replay, and that covert replay provides one source of the motor activity previously observed in some speech perception tasks. To our knowledge, this is the first time that inhibition of auditory regions by speech has been observed in real-time with the ICA/ERSP technique. PMID:26500519

  13. The increase in theta/beta ratio on resting-state EEG in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is mediated by slow alpha peak frequency.

    PubMed

    Lansbergen, Marieke M; Arns, Martijn; van Dongen-Boomsma, Martine; Spronk, Desirée; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2011-01-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was found to be characterized by a deviant pattern of electrocortical activity during resting state, particularly increased theta and decreased beta activity. The first objective of the present study is to confirm whether individuals with slow alpha peak frequency contribute to the finding of increased theta activity in ADHD. The second objective is to explore the relation between resting-state brain oscillations and specific cognitive functions. From 49 boys with ADHD and 49 healthy control boys, resting-state EEG during eyes open and eyes closed was recorded, and a variety of cognitive tasks were administered. Theta and beta power and theta/beta ratio were calculated using both fixed frequency bands and individualized frequency bands. As expected, theta/beta ratio, calculated using fixed frequency bands, was significantly higher in ADHD children than control children. However, this group effect was not significant when theta/beta ratio was assessed using individualized frequency bands. No consistent relation was found between resting-state brain oscillations and cognition. The present results suggest that previous findings of increased theta/beta ratio in ADHD may reflect individuals with slow alpha peak frequencies in addition to individuals with true increased theta activity. Therefore, the often reported theta/beta ratio in ADHD can be considered a non-specific measure combining several distinct neurophysiological subgroups such as frontal theta and slowed alpha peak frequencies. Future research should elucidate the functional role of resting-state brain oscillations by investigating neurophysiological subgroups, which may have a clearer relation to cognitive functions than single frequency bands. PMID:20713113

  14. Adenovirus-mediated hepatocyte nuclear factor-4{alpha} overexpression maintains liver phenotype in cultured rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Naiki, Takafumi; Nagaki, Masahito . E-mail: mnagaki@cc.gifu-u.ac.jp; Asano, Takahiko; Kimata, Takayuki; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2005-09-23

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha} (HNF-4{alpha}) is a transcription factor that controls embryonal liver development and that maintains and regulates gene expression in adult liver cells. We have previously demonstrated that transient overexpression of HNF-4{alpha} up-regulates a number of liver-specific genes in hepatoma cell lines. In this study, we extend these studies by assessing the functional role of HNF-4{alpha} in regulating cellular viability and liver-specific functions of primary rat hepatocytes. In cells transfected with an adenovirus vector carrying rat HNF-4{alpha} cDNA, induction and maintenance of liver-specific genes and functions were observed over a long-term culture, which might be associated with the prevention of a rapid loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, we demonstrated that transthyretin mRNA was up-regulated by HNF-4{alpha} in primary hepatocytes, but not in hepatoma cells. These results indicate that HNF-4{alpha} plays a role in the maintenance of morphologically and biochemically functional hepatocytes and that the difference in expression of liver-specific genes induced by HNF-4{alpha} may depend on a differentiation state of cells.

  15. Fabry disease: thirty-five mutations in the alpha-galactosidase A gene in patients with classic and variant phenotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Eng, C. M.; Ashley, G. A.; Burgert, T. S.; Enriquez, A. L.; D'Souza, M.; Desnick, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fabry disease, an X-linked inborn error of glycosphingolipid catabolism, results from mutations in the alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-Gal A) gene located at Xq22.1. To determine the nature and frequency of the molecular lesions causing the classical and milder variant Fabry phenotypes and for precise carrier detection, the alpha-Gal A lesions in 42 unrelated Fabry hemizygotes were determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genomic DNA was isolated from affected probands and their family members. The seven alpha-galactosidase A exons and flanking intronic sequences were PCR amplified and the nucleotide sequence was determined by solid-phase direct sequencing. RESULTS: Two patients with the mild cardiac phenotype had missense mutations, I9IT and F113L, respectively. In 38 classically affected patients, 33 new mutations were identified including 20 missense (MIT, A31V, H46R, Y86C, L89P, D92Y, C94Y, A97V, R100T, Y134S, G138R, A143T, S148R, G163V, D170V, C202Y, Y216D, N263S, W287C, and N298S), two nonsense (Q386X, W399X), one splice site mutation (IVS4 + 2T-->C), and eight small exonic insertions or deletions (304del1, 613del9, 777del1, 1057del2, 1074del2, 1077del1, 1212del3, and 1094ins1), which identified exon 7 as a region prone to gene rearrangements. In addition, two unique complex rearrangements consisting of contiguous small insertions and deletions were found in exons 1 and 2 causing L45R/H46S and L120X, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These studies further define the heterogeneity of mutations causing Fabry disease, permit precise carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis in these families, and facilitate the identification of candidates for enzyme replacement therapy. Images FIG. 2 PMID:9100224

  16. Frontoparietal EEG alpha-phase synchrony reflects differential attentional demands during word recall and oculomotor dual-tasks.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Gusang; Kim, Min-Young; Lim, Sanghyun; Kwon, Hyukchan; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Eun-Ju; Suh, Minah

    2015-12-16

    To study the relationship between the varying degrees of cognitive load and long-range synchronization among neural networks, we utilized a dual-task paradigm combining concurrent word recall working memory tasks and oculomotor tasks that differentially activate the common frontoparietal (FP) network. We hypothesized that each dual-task combination would generate differential neuronal activation patterns among long-range connection during word retention period. Given that the FP alpha-phase synchronization is involved in attentional top-down processes, one would expect that the long-range synchronization pattern is affected by the degrees of dual-task demand. We measured a single-trial phase locking value in the alpha frequency (8-12?Hz) with electroencephalography in healthy participants. Single-trial phase locking value characterized the synchronization between two brain signals. Our results revealed that different amounts of FP alpha-phase synchronization were produced by different dual-task combinations, particularly during the early phase of the word retention period. These differences were dependent on the individual's working memory capacity and memory load. Our study shows that during dual-task, each oculomotor task, which is subserved by distinct neural network, generates different modulation patterns on long-range neuronal activation and FP alpha-phase synchronization seems to reflect these differential cognitive loads. PMID:26559729

  17. COMT polymorphism modulates the resting-state EEG alpha oscillatory response to acute nicotine in male non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, H.; Smith, D.; de la Salle, S.; Choueiry, J.; Impey, D.; Philippe, T.; Dort, H.; Millar, A.; Daigle, M.; Albert, P. R.; Beaudoin, A.; Knott, V.

    2015-01-01

    Performance improvements in cognitive tasks requiring executive functions are evident with nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, and activation of the underlying neural circuitry supporting these cognitive effects is thought to involve dopamine neurotransmission. As individual difference in response to nicotine may be related to a functional polymorphism in the gene encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme that strongly influences cortical dopamine metabolism, this study examined the modulatory effects of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on the neural response to acute nicotine as measured with resting-state electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations. In a sample of 62 healthy non-smoking adult males, a single dose (6 mg) of nicotine gum administered in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design was shown to affect ? oscillatory activity, increasing power of upper ? oscillations in frontocentral regions of Met/Met homozygotes and in parietal/occipital regions of Val/Met heterozygotes. Peak ? frequency was also found to be faster with nicotine (vs. placebo) treatment in Val/Met heterozygotes, who exhibited a slower ? frequency compared to Val/Val homozygotes. The data tentatively suggest that interindividual differences in brain ? oscillations and their response to nicotinic agonist treatment are influenced by genetic mechanisms involving COMT. PMID:26096691

  18. Red blood cell phenotypes in the alpha + thalassaemias from early childhood to maturity.

    PubMed

    Williams, T N; Maitland, K; Ganczakowski, M; Peto, T E; Clegg, J B; Weatherall, D J; Bowden, D K

    1996-11-01

    The alpha+ thalassaemias are the most common single gene disorders of humans, yet little is known about their haematological characteristics in childhood. Blood samples have been collected randomly from more than 2000 individuals in village communities in Vanuatu in the South West Pacific and analysed for alpha thalassaemia and associated haematological changes. Here we describe the haematological effects of the alpha+ thalassaemias from early childhood through to maturity in this population. Mean cell volume (MCV) and mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) levels in individuals of normal, heterozygous and homozygous genotype differed significantly from one another throughout the entire age range (2P < 0.05). In contrast, haemoglobin levels in heterozygous and homozygous individuals were well maintained throughout development. Adults of normal genotype attain Hb levels which are indistinguishable from Caucasian reference values, a finding made all the more remarkable given the high frequency of clinical malaria in this population. It is clear from these findings that haematological data are valuable in screening for carriers of alpha+ thalassaemia in this population. MCH is clearly the most sensitive discriminator. None of the homozygous adults tested had an MCH of > 27 pg, whereas < 10% of normals had a value of < 27 pg. These data provide reference values for areas in which the alpha+ thalassaemias are common and often confused with iron-deficiency anaemia. PMID:8904880

  19. Intravenous administration of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor in patients of PiZ and PiM phenotype. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, K.M.; Smith, R.M.; Spragg, R.G.; Tisi, G.M.

    1988-06-24

    Nine patients with moderate pulmonary emphysema, six of PiZ phenotype and three of PiM phenotype, have received a single intravenous infusion of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (human) (A1PI), in a dose of 60 mg/kg over a 30-minute period. They also received a tracer dose (300 microCi) of /sup 131/I-labeled A1PI. No active or passive immunization against hepatitis was given. No acute toxicity was observed. Compared with baseline data, significant elevations of serum A1PI (measured both antigenically and as anti-elastase activity) occurred, with a serum half-life approximating 110 hours. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, obtained 48 hours after infusion, reflected a significant increase in A1PI concentration versus baseline bronchoalveolar lavage fluid values. Serial gamma camera images of the lungs confirmed persistence of enhanced lung radioactivity for several days. Urinary desmosine excretion did not change following A1PI infusion. During the period of follow-up thus far, no patient has had chronic toxicity, results of liver function tests have been stable, and there has been no development of hepatitis B antigen or antibodies to hepatitis B surface or core antigens.

  20. Hypoxia-inducible factor 3-alpha expression is associated with the stable chondrocyte phenotype.

    PubMed

    Markway, Brandon D; Cho, Holly; Zilberman-Rudenko, Jevgenia; Holden, Paul; McAlinden, Audrey; Johnstone, Brian

    2015-11-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1? and HIF-2? are important regulators of the chondrocyte phenotype but little is known about HIF-3? in cartilage. The objective of this study was to characterize HIF-3? (HIF3A) expression during chondrocyte differentiation in vitro and in native cartilage tissues. HIF3A, COL10A1, and MMP13 were quantified in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and articular chondrocytes from healthy and osteoarthritic (OA) tissue in three-dimensional cultures and in human embryonic epiphyses and adult articular cartilage. HIF3A was found to have an inverse association with hypertrophic markers COL10A1 and MMP13 in chondrogenic cells and tissues. In healthy chondrocytes, HIF3A was induced by dexamethasone and increased during redifferentiation. By comparison, HIF3A expression was extremely low in chondrogenically differentiated MSCs expressing high levels of COL10A1 and MMP13. HIF3A was also lower in redifferentiated OA chondrocytes than in healthy chondrocytes. In human embryonic epiphyseal tissue, HIF3A expression was lowest in the hypertrophic zone. Distinct splice patterns were also found in embryonic cartilage when compared with adult articular cartilage and redifferentiated chondrocytes. These in vitro and in vivo findings suggest that HIF3A levels are indicative of the hypertrophic state of chondrogenic cells and one or more splice variants may be important regulators of the chondrocyte phenotype. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1561-1570, 2015. PMID:26174816

  1. EEG Recorded from the Ear: Characterizing the Ear-EEG Method

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Kaare B.; Kappel, Simon L.; Mandic, Danilo P.; Kidmose, Preben

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Auditory middle and late latency responses can be recorded reliably from ear-EEG.For sources close to the ear, ear-EEG has the same signal-to-noise-ratio as scalp.Ear-EEG is an excellent match for power spectrum-based analysis. A method for measuring electroencephalograms (EEG) from the outer ear, so-called ear-EEG, has recently been proposed. The method could potentially enable robust recording of EEG in natural environments. The objective of this study was to substantiate the ear-EEG method by using a larger population of subjects and several paradigms. For rigor, we considered simultaneous scalp and ear-EEG recordings with common reference. More precisely, 32 conventional scalp electrodes and 12 ear electrodes allowed a thorough comparison between conventional and ear electrodes, testing several different placements of references. The paradigms probed auditory onset response, mismatch negativity, auditory steady-state response and alpha power attenuation. By comparing event related potential (ERP) waveforms from the mismatch response paradigm, the signal measured from the ear electrodes was found to reflect the same cortical activity as that from nearby scalp electrodes. It was also found that referencing the ear-EEG electrodes to another within-ear electrode affects the time-domain recorded waveform (relative to scalp recordings), but not the timing of individual components. It was furthermore found that auditory steady-state responses and alpha-band modulation were measured reliably with the ear-EEG modality. Finally, our findings showed that the auditory mismatch response was difficult to monitor with the ear-EEG. We conclude that ear-EEG yields similar performance as conventional EEG for spectrogram-based analysis, similar timing of ERP components, and equal signal strength for sources close to the ear. Ear-EEG can reliably measure activity from regions of the cortex which are located close to the ears, especially in paradigms employing frequency-domain analyses. PMID:26635514

  2. A short-term treatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha enhances stem cell phenotype of human dental pulp cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction During normal pulp tissue healing, inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) or interleukins, act in the initial 48 hours (inflammatory phase) and play important roles not only as chemo-attractants of inflammatory cells and stem/progenitor cells but also in inducing a cascade of reactions toward tissue regeneration or reparative dentin formation or both. Previous reports have shown that inflammatory cytokines regulate the differentiation capacity of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells (DPCs), but none has interrogated the impact of these cytokines on the stem cell phenotype of stem/progenitor cells. This study investigated the effects of a short-term treatment with TNF-? on the stem cell phenotype and differentiation ability of human DPCs. Methods An in vivo mouse model of pulp exposure was performed for analysis of expression of the mesenchymal stem cell marker CD146 in DPCs during the initial stage of inflammatory response. For in vitro studies, human DPCs were isolated and incubated with TNF-? for 2 days and passaged to eliminate TNF-? completely. Analysis of stem cell phenotype was performed by quantification of cells positive for mesenchymal stem cell markers SSEA-4 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 4) and CD146 by flow cytometry as well as by quantitative analysis of telomerase activity and mRNA levels of OCT-4 and NANOG. Cell migration, colony-forming ability, and differentiation toward odontogenesis and adipogenesis were also investigated. Results The pulp exposure model revealed a strong staining for CD146 during the initial inflammatory response, at 2 days after pulp exposure. In vitro experiments demonstrated that a short-term (2-day) treatment of TNF-? increased by twofold the percentage of SSEA-4+ cells. Accordingly, STRO-1, CD146, and SSEA-4 protein levels as well as OCT-4 and NANOG mRNA levels were also significantly upregulated upon TNF-? treatment. A short-term TNF-? treatment also enhanced DPC function, including the ability to form cell colonies, to migrate, and to differentiate into odontogenic and adipogenic lineages. Conclusions A short-term treatment with TNF-? enhanced the stem cell phenotype, migration, and differentiation ability of DPCs. PMID:24580841

  3. Preserved functional autonomic phenotype in adult mice overexpressing moderate levels of human alpha?synuclein in oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tank, Jens; da Costa?Goncalves, Andrey C.; Kamer, Ilona; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Ubhi, Kiren; Rockenstein, Edward; Diedrich, André; Masliah, Eliezer; Gross, Volkmar; Jordan, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Mice overexpressing human alpha?synuclein in oligodendrocytes (MBP1???syn) recapitulate some key functional and neuropathological features of multiple system atrophy (MSA). Whether or not these mice develop severe autonomic failure, which is a key feature of human MSA, remains unknown. We explored cardiovascular autonomic regulation using long?term blood pressure (BP) radiotelemetry and pharmacological testing. We instrumented 12 MBP1???syn mice and 11 wild?type mice aged 9 months for radiotelemetry. Animals were tested with atropine, metoprolol, clonidine, and trimethaphan at 9 and 12 months age. We applied spectral and cross?spectral analysis to assess heart rate (HR) and BP variability. At 9 months of age daytime BP (transgenic: 101 ± 2 vs. wild type: 99 ± 2 mmHg) and HR (497 ± 11 vs. 505 ± 16 beats/min) were similar. Circadian BP and HR rhythms were maintained. Nighttime BP (109 ± 2 vs. 108 ± 2 mmHg) and HR (575 ± 15 vs. 569 ± 14 beats/min), mean arterial BP responses to trimethaphan (?21 ± 8 vs. ?10 ± 5 mmHg, P = 0.240) and to clonidine (?8 ± 3 vs. ?5 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.314) were similar. HR responses to atropine (+159 ± 24 vs. +146 ± 22 beats/min), and to clonidine (?188 ± 21 vs. ?163 ± 33 beats/min) did not differ between strains. Baroreflex sensitivity (4 ± 1 vs. 4 ± 1 msec/mmHg) and HR variability (total power, 84 ± 17 vs. 65 ± 21 msec²) were similar under resting conditions and during pharmacological testing. Repeated measurements at 12 months of age provided similar results. In mice, moderate overexpression of human alpha?synuclein in oligodendrocytes is not sufficient to induce overt autonomic failure. Additional mechanisms may be required to express the autonomic failure phenotype including higher levels of expression or more advanced age. PMID:25428949

  4. Genetic Analysis of the Pathogenic Molecular Sub-phenotype Interferon Alpha Identifies Multiple Novel Loci Involved in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Kariuki, Silvia N.; Ghodke-Puranik, Yogita; Dorschner, Jessica M.; Chrabot, Beverly S.; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Tsao, Betty P.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Jacob, Chaim O.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Sivils, Kathy L.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Harley, John B.; Skol, Andrew D.; Niewold, Timothy B.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation of multiple organ systems and dysregulated interferon responses. SLE is both genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous, greatly reducing the power of case-control studies in SLE. Elevated circulating interferon alpha (IFN-?) is a stable, heritable trait in SLE, which has been implicated in primary disease pathogenesis. 40–50% of patients have high IFN-?, and high levels correspond with clinical differences. To study genetic heterogeneity in SLE, we performed a case-case study comparing patients with high vs. low IFN-? in over 1550 SLE cases, including GWAS and replication cohorts. In meta-analysis, the top associations in European ancestry were PRKG1 rs7897633 (PMeta=2.75 × 10?8) and PNP rs1049564 (PMeta=1.24 × 10?7). We also found evidence for cross-ancestral background associations with the ANKRD44 and PLEKHF2 loci. These loci have not been previously identified in case-control SLE genetic studies. Bioinformatic analyses implicated these loci functionally in dendritic cells and natural killer cells, both of which are involved in IFN-? production in SLE. As case-control studies of heterogeneous diseases reach a limit of feasibility with respect to subject number and detectable effect size, the study of informative pathogenic subphenotypes becomes an attractive strategy for genetic discovery in complex disease. PMID:25338677

  5. Test-retest reliability of cognitive EEG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEvoy, L. K.; Smith, M. E.; Gevins, A.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Task-related EEG is sensitive to changes in cognitive state produced by increased task difficulty and by transient impairment. If task-related EEG has high test-retest reliability, it could be used as part of a clinical test to assess changes in cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the EEG recorded during the performance of a working memory (WM) task and a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). METHODS: EEG was recorded while subjects rested quietly and while they performed the tasks. Within session (test-retest interval of approximately 1 h) and between session (test-retest interval of approximately 7 days) reliability was calculated for four EEG components: frontal midline theta at Fz, posterior theta at Pz, and slow and fast alpha at Pz. RESULTS: Task-related EEG was highly reliable within and between sessions (r0.9 for all components in WM task, and r0.8 for all components in the PVT). Resting EEG also showed high reliability, although the magnitude of the correlation was somewhat smaller than that of the task-related EEG (r0.7 for all 4 components). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that under appropriate conditions, task-related EEG has sufficient retest reliability for use in assessing clinical changes in cognitive status.

  6. Differential regulation of T helper phenotype development by interleukins 4 and 10 in an alpha beta T-cell-receptor transgenic system.

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, C S; Heimberger, A B; Gold, J S; O'Garra, A; Murphy, K M

    1992-01-01

    To address the mechanisms controlling T helper (Th) phenotype development, we used DO10, a transgenic mouse line that expresses the alpha beta T-cell receptor from an ovalbumin-reactive T hybridoma, as a source of naive T cells that can be stimulated in vitro with ovalbumin peptide presented by defined antigen-presenting cells (APCs). We have examined the role of cytokines and APCs in the regulation of Th phenotype development. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) directs development toward the Th2 phenotype, stimulating IL-4 and silencing IL-2 and interferon gamma production in developing T cells. Splenic APCs direct development toward the Th1 phenotype when endogenous IL-10 is neutralized with anti-IL-10 antibody. The splenic APCs mediating these effects are probably macrophages or dendritic cells and not B cells, since IL-10 is incapable of affecting Th phenotype development when the B-cell hybridoma TA3 is used as the APC. These results suggest that early regulation of IL-4 and IL-10 in a developing immune response and the identity of the initiating APCs are critical in determining the Th phenotype of the developing T cells. PMID:1385868

  7. Metabolic disposition of imipramine in oriental subjects: relation to metoprolol alpha-hydroxylation and S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Koyama, E; Sohn, D R; Shin, S G; Chiba, K; Shin, J G; Kim, Y H; Echizen, H; Ishizaki, T

    1994-11-01

    We studied the metabolic disposition of imipramine by measuring imipramine and its metabolites in plasma and urine simultaneously after a single oral dose of 25 mg of imipramine hydrochloride administered to 16 healthy (three Japanese and 13 Korean) volunteers. Four of the subjects were poor metabolizers (PMs) of metoprolol but extensive metabolizers (EMs) of S-mephenytoin (PMML/EMMP), five subjects were EMs of metoprolol but PMs of S-mephenytoin (EMML/PMMP) and seven subjects were EMs of both metoprolol and S-mephenytoin (EMML/EMMP). The mean (+/- S.D.) oral clearances of imipramine were smaller in the PMML/EMMP group and the EMML/PMMP group than in the EMML/EMMP group, although a statistical difference (P < .05) was found only in the EMML/PMMP vs. the EMML/EMMP group. The mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of desipramine was 9 times greater (P < .01) in PMML/EMMP group, whereas the mean value was 0.6 times smaller (P < .05) in the EMML/PMMP group than in the EMML/EMMP group. The log10 metoprolol/alpha-hydroxymetoprolol ratio correlated positively with the AUC of desipramine (P < .01) and with the AUC ratio of desipramine/imipramine (P < .05) but negatively with the AUC ratio of 2-hydroxyimipramine/imipramine (P < .05). Log10 percent 4'-hydroxymephenytoin excreted in 8-hr urine correlated positively with the AUC of desipramine (P < .01) and with the AUC ratio of desipramine/imipramine (P < .01). The urinary excretions of imipramine and its metabolites also reflected the data derived from plasma samples in the three different phenotype-paired panels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7965806

  8. [Effects of noise and music on EEG power spectrum].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Q; Liu, X H; Li, D C; Wang, H L; Liu, Y S

    2000-12-01

    Objective. To observe the effect of noise and music on EEG power spectrum. Method. 12 healthy male pilots aged 30 +/- 0.58 years served as the subjects. Dynamic EEG from 16 regions was recorded during quiet, under noise or when listening to music using Oxford MR95 Holter recorder. Changes of EEG power spectrum of delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1 and beta2, frequency components in 16 regions were analyzed. Result. The total alpha1 power was significantly decreased, while the total theta power was significantly increased when listening to music; It implies that the interhemispheric transmission of information in the frontotemporal areas might be involved. Conclusion. The changes of the EEG power spectrum were closely related to man's emotions; relaxation was associated with music; Individual difference exists in the influence of sound on EEG. PMID:11767781

  9. [EEG correlates of social creativity].

    PubMed

    Razumnikova, O M; Finikov, S B

    2010-01-01

    EEG correlates of social creativity defined as ability to originally and flexibly interpret social significant situations were studied. It was found that the alpha2 and gamma2 rhythms are specific bands which make it possible to tell the difference between social creativity and control task. Solving socially significant problems in experimental conditions is accompanied by an increase in the power of the delta and gamma2 bands and desynchronization in the alpha2 band less pronounced in divergent tasks than during the interpretation of convergent visual stimuli. PMID:21434404

  10. The Mozart Effect: A quantitative EEG study.

    PubMed

    Verrusio, Walter; Ettorre, Evaristo; Vicenzini, Edoardo; Vanacore, Nicola; Cacciafesta, Mauro; Mecarelli, Oriano

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of Mozart's music on brain activity through spectral analysis of the EEG in young healthy adults (Adults), in healthy elderly (Elderly) and in elderly with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). EEG recording was performed at basal rest conditions and after listening to Mozart's K448 or "Fur Elise" Beethoven's sonatas. After listening to Mozart, an increase of alpha band and median frequency index of background alpha rhythm activity (a pattern of brain wave activity linked to memory, cognition and open mind to problem solving) was observed both in Adults and in Elderly. No changes were observed in MCI. After listening to Beethoven, no changes in EEG activity were detected. This results may be representative of the fact that said Mozart's music is able to "activate" neuronal cortical circuits related to attentive and cognitive functions. PMID:26036835

  11. [Qualitative and quantitative EEG-findings in schizophrenia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-03-01

    The results of the qualitative but particularly the quantitative EEG-studies indicate that 1. The EEG of adult schizophrenics is characterized by an appearance of excessive fast activity along with some slow waves and the lack of alpha-activity. 2. Excessive fast activity and lack of alpha-waves have also been found in the EEGs of psychotic children and most interestingly in children whose parents (particularly the mother) are schizophrenic (high risk children). 3. Based on the studies during sleep and investigations with neuroleptics, it was established that the origin of the excess fast activity in schizophrenia cannot be the muscle potential. Particularly the excess fast activity in high risk children for schizophrenia goes against the muscle potential hypothesis. 4. The quantitative EEG changes seen in schizophrenia show similarity to those seen after hallucinogenic compounds particularly after anticholinergic hallucinogenics. 5. All neuroleptics (major tranquilizers) produce quantitative EEG alterations which are almost diametrically opposite to those seen in schizoprenia. PMID:416942

  12. Effects of 2G and 3G mobile phones on human alpha rhythms: Resting EEG in adolescents, young adults, and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Croft, R J; Leung, S; McKenzie, R J; Loughran, S P; Iskra, S; Hamblin, D L; Cooper, N R

    2010-09-01

    The present study was conducted to determine whether adolescents and/or the elderly are more sensitive to mobile phone (MP)-related bioeffects than young adults, and to determine this for both 2nd generation (2G) GSM, and 3rd generation (3G) W-CDMA exposures. To test this, resting alpha activity (8-12 Hz band of the electroencephalogram) was assessed because numerous studies have now reported it to be enhanced by MP exposure. Forty-one 13-15 year olds, forty-two 19-40 year olds, and twenty 55-70 year olds were tested using a double-blind crossover design, where each participant received Sham, 2G and 3G exposures, separated by at least 4 days. Alpha activity, during exposure relative to baseline, was recorded and compared between conditions. Consistent with previous research, the young adults' alpha was greater in the 2G compared to Sham condition, however, no effect was seen in the adolescent or the elderly groups, and no effect of 3G exposures was found in any group. The results provide further support for an effect of 2G exposures on resting alpha activity in young adults, but fail to support a similar enhancement in adolescents or the elderly, or in any age group as a function of 3G exposure. PMID:20564174

  13. Making waves in the stream of consciousness: entraining oscillations in EEG alpha and fluctuations in visual awareness with rhythmic visual stimulation.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Kyle E; Prudhomme, Christopher; Fabiani, Monica; Beck, Diane M; Lleras, Alejandro; Gratton, Gabriele

    2012-12-01

    Rhythmic events are common in our sensory world. Temporal regularities could be used to predict the timing of upcoming events, thus facilitating their processing. Indeed, cognitive theories have long posited the existence of internal oscillators whose timing can be entrained to ongoing periodic stimuli in the environment as a mechanism of temporal attention. Recently, recordings from primate brains have shown electrophysiological evidence for these hypothesized internal oscillations. We hypothesized that rhythmic visual stimuli can entrain ongoing neural oscillations in humans, locking the timing of the excitability cycles they represent and thus enhancing processing of subsequently predictable stimuli. Here we report evidence for entrainment of neural oscillations by predictable periodic stimuli in the alpha frequency band and show for the first time that the phase of existing brain oscillations cannot only be modified in response to rhythmic visual stimulation but that the resulting phase-locked fluctuations in excitability lead to concomitant fluctuations in visual awareness in humans. This entrainment effect was dependent on both the amount of spontaneous alpha power before the experiment and the level of 12-Hz oscillation before each trial and could not be explained by evoked activity. Rhythmic fluctuations in awareness elicited by entrainment of ongoing neural excitability cycles support a proposed role for alpha oscillations as a pulsed inhibition of cortical activity. Furthermore, these data provide evidence for the quantized nature of our conscious experience and reveal a powerful mechanism by which temporal attention as well as perceptual snapshots can be manipulated and controlled. PMID:22905825

  14. Brain and human pain: topographic EEG amplitude and coherence mapping.

    PubMed

    Chen, A C; Rappelsberger, P

    1994-01-01

    Nineteen young healthy volunteers (8 males and 11 females) participated in an experimental ice-cube cold pressor test to study topographic changes of EEG parameters in response to painful stimulation. EEG was recorded with 19 electrodes and quantified by amplitude and coherence analyses. Mean amplitudes and values for local (between adjacent electrodes) and interhemispheric (between electrodes on homologous sites of both hemispheres) coherences were computed for six frequency bands. For the evaluation of changes between EEG at rest (baseline) and EEG during painful stimulation (right or left hand), non-parametric paired Wilcoxon tests were performed. The obtained descriptive error probabilities were presented in probability maps. In the behavioural pain tolerance and subjective pain ratings, no difference in gender or stimulation condition was observed. Under painful stimulation the results showed: (A) most pronounced decrease of Alpha amplitude in the central areas and some increase of high Beta amplitude; (B) increase of local coherence for Alpha and Beta 2 mainly in central regions and centro-frontal leads; and (C) increase of interhemispheric coherence for Alpha and Beta 2 in the central areas. The results of this study indicate clearly that peripheral painful stimulation is reflected by EEG changes. Decrease of EEG amplitude and simultaneous increase of EEG coherence in the central regions can be cortical correlates of human pain. PMID:7696090

  15. Expression of the phenotypic abnormality of platelet-type von Willebrand disease in a recombinant glycoprotein Ib alpha fragment.

    PubMed Central

    Murata, M; Russell, S R; Ruggeri, Z M; Ware, J

    1993-01-01

    The platelet GP Ib-IX receptor supports platelet adhesion and activation by binding to vWf in the exposed subendothelial matrix. An abnormal GP Ib-IX complex exists in platelet-type or pseudo-von Willebrand disease and has a characteristic increased affinity for soluble vWf resulting in impaired hemostatic function due to the removal of larger vWf multimers from the circulation. Genetic studies within an afflicted family have demonstrated that the disease is linked to a Gly233-->Val amino acid substitution within the alpha-subunit of the oligomeric GP Ib-IX complex (Miller, J.L., D. Cunningham, V.A. Lyle, and C. L. Finch. 1991. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 88:4761-4765). To evaluate the functional consequences of this mutation, we constructed a recombinant analogue of the alpha-subunit of GP Ib containing Val233. Experiments comparing molecules with either Gly233 or Val233 revealed that the Val substitution generates a molecule with increased affinity for vWf. The recombinant fragment reproduces the functional abnormality of the GP Ib-IX complex in platelet-type von Willebrand disease, thus establishing the molecular basis of the bleeding disorder within this family. Moreover, it becomes apparent that structural elements responsible for the regulation of hemostasis through modulation of vWf affinity for platelets reside within the alpha-subunit of the GP Ib-IX complex. Images PMID:8486780

  16. Simultaneous EEG and EMG biofeedback for peak performance in musicians.

    PubMed

    Markovska-Simoska, Silvana; Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Georgiev, Dejan

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of alpha neurofeedback and EMG biofeedback protocols for improvement of musical performance in violinists. The sample consisted of 12 music students (10 violinists and 2 viola players) from the Faculty of Music, Skopje (3 males, mean age of 20 +/- 0 and 9 females, mean age = 20.89 +/- 2.98). Six of them had a low alpha peak frequency (APF) (< 10 Hz), and six a high APF (> 10 Hz). The sample was randomized in two groups. The students from the experimental group participated in 20 sessions of biofeedback (alpha/EMG), combined with music practice, while the students from the control group did only music practice. Average absolute power, interhemispheric coherence in the alpha band, alpha peak frequency (APF), individual alpha band width (IABW), amount of alpha suppression (AAS) and surface forehead integrated EMG power (IEMG), as well as a score on musical performance and inventories measuring anxiety, were assessed. Alpha-EEG/EMG-biofeedback was associated with a significant increase in average alpha power, APF and IABW in all the participants and with decreases in IEMG only in high-APF musicians. The biofeedback training success was positively correlated with the alpha power, IcoH, APF, IABW and baseline level of APF and IABW. Alpha-EEG/EMG biofeedback is capable of increasing voluntary self-regulation and the quality of musical performance. The efficiency of biofeedback training depends on the baseline EEG alpha activity status, in particular the APF. PMID:18709013

  17. The Utility of EEG Band Power Analysis in the Study of Infancy and Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Saby, Joni N.; Marshall, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Research employing electroencephalographic (EEG) techniques with infants and young children has flourished in recent years due to increased interest in understanding the neural processes involved in early social and cognitive development. This review focuses on the functional characteristics of the alpha, theta, and gamma frequency bands in the developing EEG. Examples of how analyses of EEG band power have been applied to specific lines of developmental research are also discussed. These examples include recent work on the infant mu rhythm and action processing, frontal alpha asymmetry and approach-withdrawal tendencies, and EEG power measures in the study of early psychosocial adversity. PMID:22545661

  18. Seizures and EEG features in 74 patients with genetic-dysmorphic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Alfei, Enrico; Raviglione, Federico; Franceschetti, Silvana; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Milani, Donatella; Selicorni, Angelo; Riva, Daria; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Pantaleoni, Chiara; Binelli, Simona

    2014-12-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common findings in chromosome aberrations. Types of seizures and severity may significantly vary both between different conditions and within the same aberration. Hitherto specific seizures and EEG patterns are identified for only few syndromes. We studied 74 patients with defined genetic-dysmorphic syndromes with and without epilepsy in order to assess clinical and electroencephalographic features, to compare our observation with already described electro-clinical phenotypes, and to identify putative electroencephalographic and/or seizure characteristics useful to address the diagnosis. In our population, 10 patients had chromosomal disorders, 19 microdeletion or microduplication syndromes, and 32 monogenic syndromes. In the remaining 13, syndrome diagnosis was assessed on clinical grounds. Our study confirmed the high incidence of epilepsy in genetic-dysmorphic syndromes. Moreover, febrile seizures and neonatal seizures had a higher incidence compared to general population. In addition, more than one third of epileptic patients had drug-resistant epilepsy. EEG study revealed poor background organization in 42 patients, an excess of diffuse rhythmic activities in beta, alpha or theta frequency bands in 34, and epileptiform patterns in 36. EEG was completely normal only in 20 patients. No specific electro-clinical pattern was identified, except for inv-dup15, Angelman, and Rett syndromes. Nevertheless some specific conditions are described in detail, because of notable differences from what previously reported. Regarding the diagnostic role of EEG, we found that--even without any epileptiform pattern--the generation of excessive rhythmic activities in different frequency bandwidths might support the diagnosis of a genetic syndrome. PMID:25257908

  19. EEG Correlates of Self-Referential Processing

    PubMed Central

    Knyazev, Gennady G.

    2013-01-01

    Self-referential processing has been principally investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, understanding of the brain functioning is not possible without careful comparison of the evidence coming from different methodological domains. This paper aims to review electroencephalographic (EEG) studies of self-referential processing and to evaluate how they correspond, complement, or contradict the existing fMRI evidence. There are potentially two approaches to the study of EEG correlates of self-referential processing. Firstly, because simultaneous registration of EEG and fMRI has become possible, the degree of overlap between these two signals in brain regions related to self-referential processing could be determined. Second and more direct approach would be the study of EEG correlates of self-referential processing per se. In this review, I discuss studies, which employed both these approaches and show that in line with fMRI evidence, EEG correlates of self-referential processing are most frequently found in brain regions overlapping with the default network, particularly in the medial prefrontal cortex. In the time domain, the discrimination of self- and others-related information is mostly associated with the P300 ERP component, but sometimes is observed even earlier. In the frequency domain, different frequency oscillations have been shown to contribute to self-referential processing, with spontaneous self-referential mentation being mostly associated with the alpha frequency band. PMID:23761757

  20. Sleep EEG Fingerprints Reveal Accelerated Thalamocortical Oscillatory Dynamics in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodizs, Robert; Gombos, Ferenc; Kovacs, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    Sleep EEG alterations are emerging features of several developmental disabilities, but detailed quantitative EEG data on the sleep phenotype of patients with Williams syndrome (WS, 7q11.23 microdeletion) is still lacking. Based on laboratory (Study I) and home sleep records (Study II) here we report WS-related features of the patterns of…

  1. Pharmaco-EEG profiles of antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Saletu, B.; Grünberger, J.; Rajna, P.

    1983-01-01

    1 Antidepressant drugs produce significant changes in human brain function as reflected in the quantitatively analysed EEG. Two main types of pharmaco-EEG profiles may be differentiated: a thymeretic (desipramine-like) profile characterised mainly by an alpha increase suggesting activating properties and a thymoleptic (imipramine- or amitriptyline-like) profile showing a concomitant increase of slow and fast activities and a decrease in alpha activity indicating also sedative qualities. A small number of compounds exhibit still different profiles. 2 Aside from determining the type of EEG changes, the pharmaco-EEG method seems to be of value in determining time and dose efficacy relations at the target organ, the human brain. Moreover, the relationships between pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics may be determined. 3 Fluvoxamine, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) re-uptake inhibitor from the new class of 2-aminoethyloximethers of aralkylketones, produced a typical thymoleptic pharmaco-EEG profile after oral doses of 75 mg in a double-blind placebo-controlled study involving 10 healthy volunteers. Fluvoxamine (75 mg) induced less augmentation of slow activity than 75 mg imipramine, indicating less sedative properties of fluvoxamine than imipramine. 4 After 75 mg fluvoxamine psychometric tests demonstrated a tendency towards an improvement in attention, concentration, psychomotor activity, after-effect and mood and a significant increase in critical flicker fusion frequency as compared with placebo. Comparison with the reference drug, 75 mg imipramine, revealed a significant superiority of fluvoxamine regarding concentration, psychomotor activity, tapping, reaction time, mood and affectivity. 5 Side-effects (mostly tiredness) were seen in five out of 10 subjects after 75 mg fluvoxamine and in eight out of 10 subjects after 75 mg imipramine. There were no clinically relevant changes in pulse, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. PMID:6407499

  2. Donepezil impairs memory in healthy older subjects: behavioural, EEG and simultaneous EEG/fMRI biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Balsters, Joshua H; O'Connell, Redmond G; Martin, Mary P; Galli, Alessandra; Cassidy, Sarah M; Kilcullen, Sophia M; Delmonte, Sonja; Brennan, Sabina; Meaney, Jim F; Fagan, Andrew J; Bokde, Arun L W; Upton, Neil; Lai, Robert; Laruelle, Marc; Lawlor, Brian; Robertson, Ian H

    2011-01-01

    Rising life expectancies coupled with an increasing awareness of age-related cognitive decline have led to the unwarranted use of psychopharmaceuticals, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), by significant numbers of healthy older individuals. This trend has developed despite very limited data regarding the effectiveness of such drugs on non-clinical groups and recent work indicates that AChEIs can have negative cognitive effects in healthy populations. For the first time, we use a combination of EEG and simultaneous EEG/fMRI to examine the effects of a commonly prescribed AChEI (donepezil) on cognition in healthy older participants. The short- and long-term impact of donepezil was assessed using two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. In both cases, we utilised cognitive (paired associates learning (CPAL)) and electrophysiological measures (resting EEG power) that have demonstrated high-sensitivity to age-related cognitive decline. Experiment 1 tested the effects of 5 mg/per day dosage on cognitive and EEG markers at 6-hour, 2-week and 4-week follow-ups. In experiment 2, the same markers were further scrutinised using simultaneous EEG/fMRI after a single 5 mg dose. Experiment 1 found significant negative effects of donepezil on CPAL and resting Alpha and Beta band power. Experiment 2 replicated these results and found additional drug-related increases in the Delta band. EEG/fMRI analyses revealed that these oscillatory differences were associated with activity differences in the left hippocampus (Delta), right frontal-parietal network (Alpha), and default-mode network (Beta). We demonstrate the utility of simple cognitive and EEG measures in evaluating drug responses after acute and chronic donepezil administration. The presentation of previously established markers of age-related cognitive decline indicates that AChEIs can impair cognitive function in healthy older individuals. To our knowledge this is the first study to identify the precise neuroanatomical origins of EEG drug markers using simultaneous EEG/fMRI. The results of this study may be useful for evaluating novel drugs for cognitive enhancement. PMID:21931653

  3. Donepezil Impairs Memory in Healthy Older Subjects: Behavioural, EEG and Simultaneous EEG/fMRI Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Balsters, Joshua H.; O'Connell, Redmond G.; Martin, Mary P.; Galli, Alessandra; Cassidy, Sarah M.; Kilcullen, Sophia M.; Delmonte, Sonja; Brennan, Sabina; Meaney, Jim F.; Fagan, Andrew J.; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Upton, Neil; Lai, Robert; Laruelle, Marc; Lawlor, Brian; Robertson, Ian H.

    2011-01-01

    Rising life expectancies coupled with an increasing awareness of age-related cognitive decline have led to the unwarranted use of psychopharmaceuticals, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), by significant numbers of healthy older individuals. This trend has developed despite very limited data regarding the effectiveness of such drugs on non-clinical groups and recent work indicates that AChEIs can have negative cognitive effects in healthy populations. For the first time, we use a combination of EEG and simultaneous EEG/fMRI to examine the effects of a commonly prescribed AChEI (donepezil) on cognition in healthy older participants. The short- and long-term impact of donepezil was assessed using two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. In both cases, we utilised cognitive (paired associates learning (CPAL)) and electrophysiological measures (resting EEG power) that have demonstrated high-sensitivity to age-related cognitive decline. Experiment 1 tested the effects of 5 mg/per day dosage on cognitive and EEG markers at 6-hour, 2-week and 4-week follow-ups. In experiment 2, the same markers were further scrutinised using simultaneous EEG/fMRI after a single 5 mg dose. Experiment 1 found significant negative effects of donepezil on CPAL and resting Alpha and Beta band power. Experiment 2 replicated these results and found additional drug-related increases in the Delta band. EEG/fMRI analyses revealed that these oscillatory differences were associated with activity differences in the left hippocampus (Delta), right frontal-parietal network (Alpha), and default-mode network (Beta). We demonstrate the utility of simple cognitive and EEG measures in evaluating drug responses after acute and chronic donepezil administration. The presentation of previously established markers of age-related cognitive decline indicates that AChEIs can impair cognitive function in healthy older individuals. To our knowledge this is the first study to identify the precise neuroanatomical origins of EEG drug markers using simultaneous EEG/fMRI. The results of this study may be useful for evaluating novel drugs for cognitive enhancement. PMID:21931653

  4. EEG in the neonatal unit.

    PubMed

    Lamblin, M D; de Villepin-Touzery, A

    2015-03-01

    The execution and interpretation of neonatal EEG adheres to strict and specific criteria related to this very early age. In preterm newborns, the dedicated healthcare staff needs to respect EEG indications and chronology of EEG recordings in order to diagnose and manage various pathologies, and use EEG in addition to cerebral imaging. EEG analysis focuses on a global vision of the recording according to the neonate's state of alertness and various age-related patterns. Monitoring of continuous conventional EEG and simplified EEG signal processing can help screen for seizures and monitor the effect of antiepileptic treatment, as well as appreciating changes in EEG background activity, for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. EEG reports should be highly explanatory to meet the expectations of the physician's clinical request. PMID:25678127

  5. Physiologic and prognostic significance of "alpha coma".

    PubMed Central

    Iragui, V J; McCutchen, C B

    1983-01-01

    A patient with posthypoxic "alpha coma" is described whose EEGs were recorded before coma, within two hours following the onset of coma and after recovery. The differences observed between the alpha activity during coma and that seen before and after suggest that the alpha activity during coma and the physiologic alpha rhythm are different phenomena. This case, as well as others reported, also suggests that "alpha coma" resolving in the first 24 hours following hypoxia may have a better prognosis than "alpha coma" detected after the first day, and stresses the need for EEG monitoring begun in the immediate period following hypoxia in order to assess accurately the prognostic significance of this EEG pattern in the early stages of postanoxic encephalopathy. The aetiology of "alpha coma" also affects outcome. The survival rate appears higher in patients with respiratory arrest than in those with combined cardiopulmonary arrest. PMID:6886700

  6. Atypical Alpha Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha

  7. Nonlinear dynamics of the EEG separated by independent component analysis after sound and light stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seung-Hyun; Jeong, Jaeseung; Jeong, Dong-Gyu; Kim, Dai-Jin; Kim, Soo Yong

    2002-05-01

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) is a multiscaled signal consisting of several time-series components each with different dominant frequency ranges and different origins. Nonlinear measures of the EEG reflect the complexity of the overall EEG, but not of each component in it. The aim of this study is to examine effect of the sound and light (SL) stimulation on the complexity of each component of the EEG. We used independent component analysis to obtain independent components of the EEG. The first positive Lyapunov exponent (L1) was estimated as a nonlinear measure of complexity. Twelve subjects were administered photic and auditory stimuli with a frequency of 10 Hz, which corresponded to the alpha frequency of the EEG, by a sound and light entrainment device. We compared the L1 values of the EEGs and their independent components between baseline and after the SL stimulation. We detected that the L1 values of the EEG decreased after the SL stimulation in all channels except C3 and F4, indicating that the complexity of the EEG decreased. We showed that alpha components increased in proportion but decreased in complexity after the SL stimulation. The beta independent components were found to decrease in proportion and complexity. These results suggest that decreased complexity of the EEG after the SL stimulation may be principally caused by decreased complexity and increased proportion of the alpha independent components. We showed also that theta components increased in complexity after the SL stimulation. We propose that nonlinear dynamical analysis combined with independent component analysis may be helpful in understanding the temporal characteristics of the EEG, which cannot be detected by conventional linear or nonlinear methods. PMID:11984653

  8. Signal Quality Assessment Model for Wearable EEG Sensor on Prediction of Mental Stress.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Peng, Hong; Zhao, Qinglin; Hu, Bo; Majoe, Dennis; Zheng, Fang; Moore, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) plays an important role in E-healthcare systems, especially in the mental healthcare area, where constant and unobtrusive monitoring is desirable. In the context of OPTIMI project, a novel, low cost, and light weight wearable EEG sensor has been designed and produced. In order to improve the performance and reliability of EEG sensors in real-life settings, we propose a method to evaluate the quality of EEG signals, based on which users can easily adjust the connection between electrodes and their skin. Our method helps to filter invalid EEG data from personal trials in both domestic and office settings. We then apply an algorithm based on Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT) and Adaptive Noise Cancellation (ANC) which has been designed to remove ocular artifacts (OA) from the EEG signal. DWT is applied to obtain a reconstructed OA signal as a reference while ANC, based on recursive least squares, is used to remove the OA from the original EEG data. The newly produced sensors were tested and deployed within the OPTIMI framework for chronic stress detection. EEG nonlinear dynamics features and frontal asymmetry of theta, alpha, and beta bands have been selected as biological indicators for chronic stress, showing relative greater right anterior EEG data activity in stressful individuals. Evaluation results demonstrate that our EEG sensor and data processing algorithms have successfully addressed the requirements and challenges of a portable system for patient monitoring, as envisioned by the EU OPTIMI project. PMID:25935041

  9. Flexible electroencephalogram (EEG) headband

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raggio, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Headband incorporates sensors which are embedded in sponges and are exposed only on surface that touches skin. Electrode sponge system is continually fed electrolyte through forced feed vacuum system. Headband may be used for EEG testing in hospitals, clinical laboratories, rest homes, and law enforcement agencies.

  10. Association of EEG, MRI, and regional blood flow biomarkers is predictive of prodromal Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Davide Vito

    2015-01-01

    Background Thinning in the temporoparietal cortex, hippocampal atrophy, and a lower regional blood perfusion is connected with prodromal stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Of note, an increase of electroencephalography (EEG) upper/low alpha frequency power ratio has also been associated with these major landmarks of prodromal AD. Methods Clinical and neuropsychological assessment, EEG recording, and high-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging were done in 74 grown up subjects with mild cognitive impairment. This information was gathered and has been assessed 3 years postliminary. EEG recording and perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography assessment was done in 27 subjects. Alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio, including cortical thickness, was figured for every subject. Contrasts in cortical thickness among the groups were assessed. Pearson’s r relationship coefficient was utilized to evaluate the quality of the relationship between cortical thinning, brain perfusion, and EEG markers. Results The higher alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio group corresponded with more prominent cortical decay and a lower perfusional rate in the temporoparietal cortex. In a subsequent meetup after 3 years, these patients had AD. Conclusion High EEG upper/low alpha power ratio was connected with cortical diminishing and lower perfusion in the temporoparietal brain area. The increase in EEG upper/low alpha frequency power ratio could be helpful in recognizing people in danger of conversion to AD dementia and this may be quality information in connection with clinical assessment. PMID:26604762

  11. Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy)Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy) 1st ISBS Summer School1st ISBS Summer School

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy)Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy) 1st ISBS Summer School1st ISBS;Epilepsy · A group of CNS disorders · Associated with sudden transient seizure episodes - Abnormal motor, sensory, autonomic, and psychic activity · EEG usually normal · Different types of epilepsy - Secondary

  12. Exon-intron structure of the human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}4 subunit (CHRNA4)

    SciTech Connect

    Steinlein, O.; Weiland, S.; Stoodt, J.; Propping, P.

    1996-03-01

    The human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}4 subunit gene (CHRNA4) is located in the candidate region for three different phenotypes: benign familial neonatal convulsions, autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, and low-voltage EEG. Recently, a missense mutation in transmembrane domain 2 of CHRNA4 was found to be associated with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in one extended pedigree. We have determined the genomic organization of CHRNA4, which consists of six exons distributed over approximately 17 kb of genomic DNA. The nucleotide sequence obtained from the genomic regions adjacent to the exon boundaries enabled us to develop a set of primer pairs for PCR amplification of the complete coding region. The sequence analysis provides the basis for a comprehensive mutation screening of CHRNA4 in the above-mentioned phenotypes and possibly in other types of idopathic epilepsies. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. [Objective EEG correlates of deprivation in hypnosis-modulated catalepsy].

    PubMed

    Sakellion, D N; Sultankhodzhaeva, N D; Mukhamedzhanov, N Z; Karimberdiev, D R; Kadirov, B R

    2006-01-01

    EEG was registered in healthy volunteers before and after their entry into modeling (hypnotic) catalepsy. The brain activity recorded under standard electrode placement (the 10-20 international classification) was processed using a special computer program. The data obtained were digitally represented as sets of standard parameters of EEG patterns in 0,5-32 Hz diapason (alpha-, beta1-, beta2,-, theta-, delta-rythms). These parameters were compared under different functional tests particularly connected with the control of sensomotor brain activity. Calculated coefficients of interhemisphere asymmetry allow one to evaluate dynamics of neuropsychological processes of deprivating adaptation related to low-frequency bands. EEG-parameters precisely evaluating the level of hypnotic catalepsy have been established. PMID:16608110

  14. EEG analyses with SOBI.

    SciTech Connect

    Glickman, Matthew R.; Tang, Akaysha

    2009-02-01

    The motivating vision behind Sandia's MENTOR/PAL LDRD project has been that of systems which use real-time psychophysiological data to support and enhance human performance, both individually and of groups. Relevant and significant psychophysiological data being a necessary prerequisite to such systems, this LDRD has focused on identifying and refining such signals. The project has focused in particular on EEG (electroencephalogram) data as a promising candidate signal because it (potentially) provides a broad window on brain activity with relatively low cost and logistical constraints. We report here on two analyses performed on EEG data collected in this project using the SOBI (Second Order Blind Identification) algorithm to identify two independent sources of brain activity: one in the frontal lobe and one in the occipital. The first study looks at directional influences between the two components, while the second study looks at inferring gender based upon the frontal component.

  15. Electroencephalograph (EEG) study of brain bistable illusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qinglei; Hong, Elliot; Choa, Fow-Sen

    2015-05-01

    Bistable illusion reflects two different kinds of interpretations for a single image, which is currently known as a competition between two groups of antagonism of neurons. Recent research indicates that these two groups of antagonism of neurons express different comprehension, while one group is emitting a pulse, the other group will be restrained. On the other hand, when this inhibition mechanism becomes weaker, the other antagonism neurons group will take over the interpretation. Since attention plays key roles controlling cognition, is highly interesting to find the location and frequency band used by brain (with either top-down or bottom-up control) to reach deterministic visual perceptions. In our study, we used a 16-channel EEG system to record brain signals from subjects while conducting bistable illusion testing. An extra channel of the EEG system was used for temporal marking. The moment when subjects reach a perception switch, they click the channel and mark the time. The recorded data were presented in form of brain electrical activity map (BEAM) with different frequency bands for analysis. It was found that the visual cortex in the on the right side between parietal and occipital areas was controlling the switching of perception. In the periods with stable perception, we can constantly observe all the delta, theta, alpha and beta waves. While the period perception is switching, almost all theta, alpha, and beta waves were suppressed by delta waves. This result suggests that delta wave may control the processing of perception switching.

  16. Microwave radiation has modulation frequency dependent stimulating effect on human EEG rhythms.

    PubMed

    Lass, J; Hinrikus, H; Bachmann, M; Tuulik, V

    2004-01-01

    This study is focused on low-level modulated microwave field effects on human EEG theta, alpha and beta rhythms at different modulation frequencies. During the experiment 13 healthy volunteers were exposed to a microwave (450 MHz) with 7 Hz, 14 Hz and 21 Hz frequency on-off modulation. The field power density at the scalp was 0.16 mW/cm(2). The experimental protocol consisted of five cycles of the repetitive microwave stimulation at fixed modulation frequencies. Changes in the EEG rhythms energy became evident in the case of modulation frequencies higher than the EEG rhythms frequencies. The changes varied strongly from subject to subject. Microwave exposure caused statistically significant changes in the EEG theta rhythm energy and for occipital channels in the alpha rhythm energy. PMID:17271236

  17. Spectral EEG Features of a Short Psycho-physiological Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplan, Michal; Krakovská, Anna; Špajdel, Marián

    2014-08-01

    Short-lasting psycho-physiological relaxation was investigated through an analysis of its bipolar electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics. In 8 subjects, 6-channel EEG data of 3-minute duration were recorded during 88 relaxation sessions. Time course of spectral EEG features was examined. Alpha powers were decreasing during resting conditions of 3-minute sessions in lying position with eyes closed. This was followed by a decrease of total power in centro-parietal cortex regions and an increase of beta power in fronto-central areas. Represented by EEG coherences the interhemispheric communication between the parieto-occipital regions was enhanced within a frequency range of 2-10 Hz. In order to discern between higher and lower levels of relaxation distinguished according to self-rated satisfaction, EEG features were assessed and discriminating parameters were identified. Successful relaxation was determined mainly by the presence of decreased delta-1 power across the cortex. Potential applications for these findings include the clinical, pharmacological, and stress management fields.

  18. The spatiospectral characterization of brain networks: fusing concurrent EEG spectra and fMRI maps.

    PubMed

    Bridwell, David A; Wu, Lei; Eichele, Tom; Calhoun, Vince D

    2013-04-01

    Different imaging modalities capture different aspects of brain activity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) reveals intrinsic networks whose BOLD signals have periods from 100 s (0.01 Hz) to about 10s (0.1 Hz). Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, in contrast, commonly reflect cortical electrical fluctuations with periods up to 20 ms (50 Hz) or above. We examined the correspondence between intrinsic fMRI and EEG network activity at rest in order to characterize brain networks both spatially (with fMRI) and spectrally (with EEG). Brain networks were separately identified within the concurrently recorded fMRI and EEG at the aggregate group level with group independent component analysis and the association between spatial fMRI and frequency by spatial EEG sources was examined by deconvolving their component time courses. The two modalities are considered linked if the estimated impulse response function (IRF) is significantly non-zero at biologically plausible delays. We found that negative associations were primarily present within two of five alpha components, which highlights the importance of considering multiple alpha sources in EEG-fMRI. Positive associations were primarily present within the lower (e.g. delta and theta) and higher (e.g. upper beta and lower gamma) spectral regions, sometimes within the same fMRI components. Collectively, the results demonstrate a promising approach to characterize brain networks spatially and spectrally, and reveal that positive and negative associations appear within partially distinct regions of the EEG spectrum. PMID:23266744

  19. The spatiospectral characterization of brain networks: fusing concurrent EEG spectra and fMRI maps

    PubMed Central

    Bridwell, David A.; Wu, Lei; Eichele, Tom; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2013-01-01

    Different imaging modalities capture different aspects of brain activity. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) reveals intrinsic networks whose BOLD signals have periods from 100s (0.01 Hz) to about 10s (0.1 Hz). Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, in contrast, commonly reflect cortical electrical fluctuations with periods up to 20 ms (50 Hz) or above. We examined the correspondence between intrinsic fMRI and EEG network activity at rest in order to characterize brain networks both spatially (with fMRI) and spectrally (with EEG). Brain networks were separately identified within the concurrently recorded fMRI and EEG at the aggregate group level with group independent component analysis and the association between spatial fMRI and frequency by spatial EEG sources was examined by deconvolving their component time courses. The two modalities are considered linked if the estimated impulse response function (IRF) is significantly non-zero at biologically plausible delays. We found that negative associations were primarily present within two of five alpha components, which highlights the importance of considering multiple alpha sources in EEG-fMRI. Positive associations were primarily present within the lower (e.g. delta and theta) and higher (e.g. upper beta and lower gamma) spectral regions, sometimes within the same fMRI components. Collectively, the results demonstrate a promising approach to characterize brain networks spatially and spectrally, and reveal that positive and negative associations appear within partially distinct regions of the EEG spectrum. PMID:23266744

  20. Studying the default mode and its mindfulness-induced changes using EEG functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Glicksohn, Joseph; Goldstein, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been largely studied by imaging, but not yet by neurodynamics, using electroencephalography (EEG) functional connectivity (FC). mindfulness meditation (MM), a receptive, non-elaborative training is theorized to lower DMN activity. We explored: (i) the usefulness of EEG-FC for investigating the DMN and (ii) the MM-induced EEG-FC effects. To this end, three MM groups were compared with controls, employing EEG-FC (–MPC, mean phase coherence). Our results show that: (i) DMN activity was identified as reduced overall inter-hemispheric gamma MPC during the transition from resting state to a time production task and (ii) MM-induced a state increase in alpha MPC as well as a trait decrease in EEG-FC. The MM-induced EEG-FC decrease was irrespective of expertise or band. Specifically, there was a relative reduction in right theta MPC, and left alpha and gamma MPC. The left gamma MPC was negatively correlated with MM expertise, possibly related to lower internal verbalization. The trait lower gamma MPC supports the notion of MM-induced reduction in DMN activity, related with self-reference and mind-wandering. This report emphasizes the possibility of studying the DMN using EEG-FC as well as the importance of studying meditation in relation to it. PMID:24194576

  1. Altered resting-state EEG source functional connectivity in schizophrenia: the effect of illness duration.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Daverio, Andrea; Ferrentino, Fabiola; Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Ciabattini, Fabio; Monaco, Leonardo; Lisi, Giulia; Barone, Ylenia; Di Lorenzo, Cherubino; Niolu, Cinzia; Seri, Stefano; Siracusano, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing body of evidence supporting the hypothesis of schizophrenia as a disconnection syndrome, studies of resting-state EEG Source Functional Connectivity (EEG-SFC) in people affected by schizophrenia are sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate resting-state EEG-SFC in 77 stable, medicated patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) compared to 78 healthy volunteers (HV). In order to study the effect of illness duration, SCZ were divided in those with a short duration of disease (SDD; n = 25) and those with a long duration of disease (LDD; n = 52). Resting-state EEG recordings in eyes closed condition were analyzed and lagged phase synchronization (LPS) indices were calculated for each ROI pair in the source-space EEG data. In delta and theta bands, SCZ had greater EEG-SFC than HV; a higher theta band connectivity in frontal regions was observed in LDD compared with SDD. In the alpha band, SCZ showed lower frontal EEG-SFC compared with HV whereas no differences were found between LDD and SDD. In the beta1 band, SCZ had greater EEG-SFC compared with HVs and in the beta2 band, LDD presented lower frontal and parieto-temporal EEG-SFC compared with HV. In the gamma band, SDD had greater connectivity values compared with LDD and HV. This study suggests that resting state brain network connectivity is abnormally organized in schizophrenia, with different patterns for the different EEG frequency components and that EEG can be a powerful tool to further elucidate the complexity of such disordered connectivity. PMID:25999835

  2. Altered resting-state EEG source functional connectivity in schizophrenia: the effect of illness duration

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Daverio, Andrea; Ferrentino, Fabiola; Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Ciabattini, Fabio; Monaco, Leonardo; Lisi, Giulia; Barone, Ylenia; Di Lorenzo, Cherubino; Niolu, Cinzia; Seri, Stefano; Siracusano, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing body of evidence supporting the hypothesis of schizophrenia as a disconnection syndrome, studies of resting-state EEG Source Functional Connectivity (EEG-SFC) in people affected by schizophrenia are sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate resting-state EEG-SFC in 77 stable, medicated patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) compared to 78 healthy volunteers (HV). In order to study the effect of illness duration, SCZ were divided in those with a short duration of disease (SDD; n = 25) and those with a long duration of disease (LDD; n = 52). Resting-state EEG recordings in eyes closed condition were analyzed and lagged phase synchronization (LPS) indices were calculated for each ROI pair in the source-space EEG data. In delta and theta bands, SCZ had greater EEG-SFC than HV; a higher theta band connectivity in frontal regions was observed in LDD compared with SDD. In the alpha band, SCZ showed lower frontal EEG-SFC compared with HV whereas no differences were found between LDD and SDD. In the beta1 band, SCZ had greater EEG-SFC compared with HVs and in the beta2 band, LDD presented lower frontal and parieto-temporal EEG-SFC compared with HV. In the gamma band, SDD had greater connectivity values compared with LDD and HV. This study suggests that resting state brain network connectivity is abnormally organized in schizophrenia, with different patterns for the different EEG frequency components and that EEG can be a powerful tool to further elucidate the complexity of such disordered connectivity. PMID:25999835

  3. Cross-correlation of EEG frequency bands and heart rate variability for sleep apnoea classification.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Haslaile; Maddage, Namunu C; Cosic, Irena; Cvetkovic, Dean

    2010-12-01

    Sleep apnoea is a sleep breathing disorder which causes changes in cardiac and neuronal activity and discontinuities in sleep pattern when observed via electrocardiogram (ECG) and electroencephalogram (EEG). Using both statistical analysis and Gaussian discriminative modelling approaches, this paper presents a pilot study of assessing the cross-correlation between EEG frequency bands and heart rate variability (HRV) in normal and sleep apnoea clinical patients. For the study we used EEG (delta, theta, alpha, sigma and beta) and HRV (LF(nu), HF(nu) and LF/HF) features from the spectral analysis. The statistical analysis in different sleep stages highlighted that in sleep apnoea patients, the EEG delta, sigma and beta bands exhibited a strong correlation with HRV features. Then the correlation between EEG frequency bands and HRV features were examined for sleep apnoea classification using univariate and multivariate Gaussian models (UGs and MGs). The MG outperformed the UG in the classification. When EEG and HRV features were combined and modelled with MG, we achieved 64% correct classification accuracy, which is 2 or 8% improvement with respect to using only EEG or ECG features. When delta and acceleration coefficients of the EEG features were incorporated, then the overall accuracy improved to 71%. PMID:21046273

  4. Dry EEG Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Gordo, M. A.; Sanchez-Morillo, D.; Valle, F. Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) emerged in the second decade of the 20th century as a technique for recording the neurophysiological response. Since then, there has been little variation in the physical principles that sustain the signal acquisition probes, otherwise called electrodes. Currently, new advances in technology have brought new unexpected fields of applications apart from the clinical, for which new aspects such as usability and gel-free operation are first order priorities. Thanks to new advances in materials and integrated electronic systems technologies, a new generation of dry electrodes has been developed to fulfill the need. In this manuscript, we review current approaches to develop dry EEG electrodes for clinical and other applications, including information about measurement methods and evaluation reports. We conclude that, although a broad and non-homogeneous diversity of approaches has been evaluated without a consensus in procedures and methodology, their performances are not far from those obtained with wet electrodes, which are considered the gold standard, thus enabling the former to be a useful tool in a variety of novel applications. PMID:25046013

  5. 21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. 882.1420 Section...Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification...electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to...

  6. 21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. 882.1420 Section...Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification...electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to...

  7. 21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. 882.1420 Section...Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification...electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to...

  8. 21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. 882.1420 Section...Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification...electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to...

  9. 21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. 882.1420 Section...Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification...electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to...

  10. Individual upper alpha neurofeedback in ADHD 1 The Effects of Individual Upper Alpha Neurofeedback in

    E-print Network

    Minguez, Javier

    Individual upper alpha neurofeedback in ADHD 1 The Effects of Individual Upper Alpha Neurofeedback in ADHD: An Open-Label Pilot Study C. Escolano · M. Navarro-Gil · J. Garcia-Campayo · M. Congedo · J extensively evaluated in ADHD. However, such protocols do not account for the large EEG het- erogeneity

  11. Ballistocardiogram Artifact Removal with a Reference Layer and Standard EEG Cap

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qingfei; Huang, Xiaoshan; Glover, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    Background In simultaneous EEG-fMRI, the EEG recordings are severely contaminated by ballistocardiogram (BCG) artifacts, which are caused by cardiac pulsations. To reconstruct and remove the BCG artifacts, one promising method is to measure the artifacts in the absence of EEG signal by placing a group of electrodes (BCG electrodes) on a conductive layer (reference layer) insulated from the scalp. However, current BCG reference layer (BRL) methods either use a customized EEG cap composed of electrode pairs, or need to construct the custom reference layer through additional model-building experiments for each EEG-fMRI experiment. These requirements have limited the versatility and efficiency of BRL. The aim of this study is to propose a more practical and efficient BRL method and compare its performance with the most popular BCG removal method, the optimal basis sets (OBS) algorithm. New Method By designing the reference layer as a permanent and reusable cap, the new BRL method is able to be used with a standard EEG cap, and no extra experiments and preparations are needed to use the BRL in an EEG-fMRI experiment. Results The BRL method effectively removed the BCG artifacts from both oscillatory and evoked potential scalp recordings and recovered the EEG signal. Comparison with Existing Method Compared to the OBS, this new BRL method improved the contrast-to-noise ratios of the alpha-wave, visual, and auditory evoked potential signals by 101%, 76%, and 75% respectively, employing 160 BCG electrodes. Using only 20 BCG electrodes, the BRL improved the EEG signal by 74%/26%/41% respectively. Conclusion The proposed method can substantially improve the EEG signal quality compared with traditional methods. PMID:24960423

  12. Modulation of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on resting-state EEG power

    PubMed Central

    Solís-Ortiz, Silvia; Pérez-Luque, Elva; Gutiérrez-Muñoz, Mayra

    2015-01-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism impacts cortical dopamine (DA) levels and may influence cortical electrical activity in the human brain. This study investigated whether COMT genotype influences resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) power in the frontal, parietal and midline regions in healthy volunteers. EEG recordings were conducted in the resting-state in 13 postmenopausal healthy woman carriers of the Val/Val genotype and 11 with the Met/Met genotype. The resting EEG spectral absolute power in the frontal (F3, F4, F7, F8, FC3 and FC4), parietal (CP3, CP4, P3 and P4) and midline (Fz, FCz, Cz, CPz, Pz and Oz) was analyzed during the eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. The frequency bands considered were the delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1 and beta2. EEG data of the Val/Val and Met/Met genotypes, brain regions and conditions were analyzed using a general linear model analysis. In the individuals with the Met/Met genotype, delta activity was increased in the eyes-closed condition, theta activity was increased in the eyes-closed and in the eyes-open conditions, and alpha1 band, alpha2 band and beta1band activity was increased in the eyes-closed condition. A significant interaction between COMT genotypes and spectral bands was observed. Met homozygote individuals exhibited more delta, theta and beta1 activity than individuals with the Val/Val genotype. No significant interaction between COMT genotypes and the resting-state EEG regional power and conditions were observed for the three brain regions studied. Our findings indicate that the COMT Val158Met polymorphism does not directly impact resting-state EEG regional power, but instead suggest that COMT genotype can modulate resting-state EEG spectral power in postmenopausal healthy women. PMID:25883560

  13. A 6.4MB duplication of the alpha-synuclein locus causing fronto-temporal dementia and parkinsonism - phenotype-genotype correlations

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Eleanna; Kiely, Aoife P; Proukakis, Christos; Giffin, Nicola; Love, Seth; Hehir, Jason; Rantell, Khadija; Pandraud, Amelie; Hernandez, Dena G; Nacheva, Elizabeth; Pittman, Alan M; Nalls, Mike A; Singleton, Andrew B; Revesz, Tamas; Bhatia, Kailash P; Quinn, Niall; Hardy, John; Holton, Janice L; Houlden, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Importance SNCA locus duplications are associated with variable clinical features and reduced penetrance but the reasons underlying this variability are unknown. Objective 1) To report a novel family carrying a heterozygous 6.4Mb duplication of the SNCA locus with an atypical clinical presentation strongly reminiscent of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and late-onset pallidopyramidal syndromes. 2) To study phenotype-genotype correlations in SNCA locus duplications. Design, Setting, Participants and Data sources We report the clinical and neuropathologic features of a family carrying a 6.4Mb duplication of the SNCA locus. To identify candidate disease modifiers, we undertake a genetic analysis in the family and conduct statistical analysis on previously published cases carrying SNCA locus duplication using regression modelling with robust standard errors to account for clustering at the family level. Main outcome measures To assess whether length of the SNCA locus duplication influences disease penetrance and severity, and whether extra-duplication factors have a disease-modifying role. Results We identified a large 6.4Mb duplication of the SNCA locus in this family. Neuropathological analysis showed extensive ?-synuclein pathology with minimal phospho-tau pathology. Genetic analysis showed an increased burden of PD-related risk factors and the disease-predisposing H1/H1 MAPT haplotype. Statistical analysis of previously published cases suggested that there is a trend towards increasing disease severity and disease penetrance with increasing duplication size. The corresponding odds ratios (95% CI) from the univariate analyses were 1.17 (0.81 to 1.68) and 1.34 (0.78 to 2.31) respectively. Gender was significantly associated with both disease risk and severity; males compared to females had increased disease risk and severity and the corresponding odds ratios (95% CI) from the univariate analyses were 8.36 (1.97 to 35.42) and 5.55 (1.39 to 22.22) respectively. Conclusions and relevance These findings further expand the phenotypic spectrum of SNCA locus duplications. Increased dosage of genes located within the duplicated region probably cannot increase disease risk and disease severity without the contribution of additional risk factors. Identification of disease modifiers accounting for the substantial phenotypic heterogeneity of patients with SNCA locus duplications could provide insight into molecular events involved in ?-synuclein aggregation. PMID:25003242

  14. Envelope responses in single-trial EEG indicate attended speaker in a ‘cocktail party’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Cort; Srinivasan, Ramesh; D'Zmura, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Recent studies have shown that auditory cortex better encodes the envelope of attended speech than that of unattended speech during multi-speaker (‘cocktail party’) situations. We investigated whether these differences were sufficiently robust within single-trial electroencephalographic (EEG) data to accurately determine where subjects attended. Additionally, we compared this measure to other established EEG markers of attention. Approach. High-resolution EEG was recorded while subjects engaged in a two-speaker ‘cocktail party’ task. Cortical responses to speech envelopes were extracted by cross-correlating the envelopes with each EEG channel. We also measured steady-state responses (elicited via high-frequency amplitude modulation of the speech) and alpha-band power, both of which have been sensitive to attention in previous studies. Using linear classifiers, we then examined how well each of these features could be used to predict the subjects’ side of attention at various epoch lengths. Main results. We found that the attended speaker could be determined reliably from the envelope responses calculated from short periods of EEG, with accuracy improving as a function of sample length. Furthermore, envelope responses were far better indicators of attention than changes in either alpha power or steady-state responses. Significance. These results suggest that envelope-related signals recorded in EEG data can be used to form robust auditory BCI’s that do not require artificial manipulation (e.g., amplitude modulation) of stimuli to function.

  15. CNT/PDMS-based canal-typed ear electrodes for inconspicuous EEG recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joong Hoon; Lee, Seung Min; Byeon, Hang Jin; Hong, Joung Sook; Park, Kwang Suk; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Current electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring systems typically require cumbersome electrodes that must be pasted on a scalp, making a private recording of an EEG in a public place difficult. We have developed a small, user friendly, biocompatible electrode with a good appearance for inconspicuous EEG monitoring. Approach. We fabricated carbon nanotube polydimethylsiloxane (CNT/PDMS)-based canal-type ear electrodes (CEE) for EEG recording. These electrodes have an additional function, triggering sound stimulation like earphones and recording EEG simultaneously for auditory brain-computer interface (BCI). The electrode performance was evaluated by a standard EEG measurement paradigm, including the detection of alpha rhythms and measurements of N100 auditory evoked potential (AEP), steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) and auditory steady-state response (ASSR). Furthermore, the bio- and skin-compatibility of CNT/PDMS were tested. Main results. All feasibility studies were successfully recorded with the fabricated electrodes, and the biocompatibility of CNT/PDMS was also proved. Significance. These electrodes could be used to monitor EEG clinically, in ubiquitous health care and in brain-computer interfaces.

  16. Multimodal imaging: an evaluation of univariate and multivariate methods for simultaneous EEG/fMRI.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Federico; Valente, Giancarlo; de Borst, Aline W; Esposito, Fabrizio; Roebroeck, Alard; Goebel, Rainer; Formisano, Elia

    2010-10-01

    The combination of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been proposed as a tool to study brain dynamics with both high temporal and high spatial resolution. Multimodal imaging techniques rely on the assumption of a common neuronal source for the different recorded signals. In order to maximally exploit the combination of these techniques, one needs to understand the coupling (i.e., the relation) between electroencephalographic (EEG) and fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals. Recently, simultaneous EEG-fMRI measurements have been used to investigate the relation between the two signals. Previous attempts at the analysis of simultaneous EEG-fMRI data reported significant correlations between regional BOLD activations and modulation of both event-related potential (ERP) and oscillatory EEG power, mostly in the alpha but also in other frequency bands. Beyond the correlation of the two measured brain signals, the relevant issue we address here is the ability of predicting the signal in one modality using information from the other modality. Using multivariate machine learning-based regression, we show how it is possible to predict EEG power oscillations from simultaneously acquired fMRI data during an eyes-open/eyes-closed task using either the original channels or the underlying cortically distributed sources as the relevant EEG signal for the analysis of multimodal data. PMID:20097029

  17. Relative power and coherence of EEG series are related to amnestic mild cognitive impairment in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Zhijie; Li, Qiuli; Wang, Lei; Lu, Chengbiao; Yin, Shimin; Li, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes is a risk factor for dementia and mild cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate whether some features of resting-state EEG (rsEEG) could be applied as a biomarker to distinguish the subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) from normal cognitive function in type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this study, 28 patients with type 2 diabetes (16 aMCI patients and 12 controls) were investigated. Recording of the rsEEG series and neuropsychological assessments were performed. The rsEEG signal was first decomposed into delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma frequency bands. The relative power of each given band/sum of power and the coherence of waves from different brain areas were calculated. The extracted features from rsEEG and neuropsychological assessments were analyzed as well. Results: The main findings of this study were that: (1) compared with the control group, the ratios of power in theta band [P(theta)] vs. power in alpha band [P(alpha)] [P(theta)/P(alpha)] in the frontal region and left temporal region were significantly higher for aMCI, and (2) for aMCI, the alpha coherences in posterior, fronto-right temporal, fronto-posterior, right temporo-posterior were decreased; the theta coherences in left central-right central (LC-RC) and left posterior-right posterior (LP-RP) regions were also decreased; but the delta coherences in left temporal-right temporal (LT-RT) region were increased. Conclusion: The proposed indexes from rsEEG recordings could be employed to track cognitive function of diabetic patients and also to help in the diagnosis of those who develop aMCI. PMID:24550827

  18. Monitoring task loading with multivariate EEG measures during complex forms of human-computer interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. E.; Gevins, A.; Brown, H.; Karnik, A.; Du, R.

    2001-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were made while 16 participants performed versions of a personal-computer-based flight simulation task of low, moderate, or high difficulty. As task difficulty increased, frontal midline theta EEG activity increased and alpha band activity decreased. A participant-specific function that combined multiple EEG features to create a single load index was derived from a sample of each participant's data and then applied to new test data from that participant. Index values were computed for every 4 s of task data. Across participants, mean task load index values increased systematically with increasing task difficulty and differed significantly between the different task versions. Actual or potential applications of this research include the use of multivariate EEG-based methods to monitor task loading during naturalistic computer-based work.

  19. Effect of microwave radiation on human EEG at two different levels of exposure.

    PubMed

    Suhhova, Anna; Bachmann, Maie; Karai, Deniss; Lass, Jaanus; Hinrikus, Hiie

    2013-05-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the effect of microwave radiation on human brain bioelectric activity at different levels of exposure. For this purpose, 450?MHz microwave exposure modulated at 40?Hz frequency was applied to a group of 15 healthy volunteers at two different specific absorption rate (SAR) levels: a higher level of 0.303?W/kg (field strength 24.5?V/m) and a lower level of 0.003?W/kg (field strength 2.45?V/m). Ten exposure cycles (1?min off and 1?min on) at fixed SAR values were applied. A resting eyes-closed electroencephalogram (EEG) was continuously recorded. Results showed a statistically significant increase in the EEG power in the EEG beta2 (157%), beta1 (61%) and alpha (68%) frequency bands at the higher SAR level, and in the beta2 (39%) frequency band at the lower SAR level. Statistically significant changes were detected for six individual subjects in the EEG alpha band and four subjects in the beta1 and beta2 bands at the higher SAR level; three subjects were affected in the alpha, beta1 and beta2 bands at the lower SAR level. The study showed that decreasing the SAR 100 times reduced the related changes in the EEG three to six times and the number of affected subjects, but did not exclude the effect. PMID:23280729

  20. Optimizing microsurgical skills with EEG neurofeedback

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Tomas; Moseley, Merrick J; Bloom, Philip A; Benjamin, Larry; Parkinson, Lesley A; Gruzelier, John H

    2009-01-01

    Background By enabling individuals to self-regulate their brainwave activity in the field of optimal performance in healthy individuals, neurofeedback has been found to improve cognitive and artistic performance. Here we assessed whether two distinct EEG neurofeedback protocols could develop surgical skill, given the important role this skill plays in medicine. Results National Health Service trainee ophthalmic microsurgeons (N = 20) were randomly assigned to either Sensory Motor Rhythm-Theta (SMR) or Alpha-Theta (AT) groups, a randomized subset of which were also part of a wait-list 'no-treatment' control group (N = 8). Neurofeedback groups received eight 30-minute sessions of EEG training. Pre-post assessment included a skills lab surgical procedure with timed measures and expert ratings from video-recordings by consultant surgeons, together with state/trait anxiety self-reports. SMR training demonstrated advantages absent in the control group, with improvements in surgical skill according to 1) the expert ratings: overall technique (d = 0.6, p < 0.03) and suture task (d = 0.9, p < 0.02) (judges' intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.85); and 2) with overall time on task (d = 0.5, p = 0.02), while everyday anxiety (trait) decreased (d = 0.5, p < 0.02). Importantly the decrease in surgical task time was strongly associated with SMR EEG training changes (p < 0.01), especially with continued reduction of theta (4–7 Hz) power. AT training produced marginal improvements in technique and overall performance time, which were accompanied by a standard error indicative of large individual differences. Notwithstanding, successful within session elevation of the theta-alpha ratio correlated positively with improvements in overall technique (r = 0.64, p = 0.047). Conclusion SMR-Theta neurofeedback training provided significant improvement in surgical technique whilst considerably reducing time on task by 26%. There was also evidence that AT training marginally reduced total surgery time, despite suboptimal training efficacies. Overall, the data set provides encouraging evidence of optimised learning of a complex medical specialty via neurofeedback training. PMID:19630948

  1. [Age-Related Features of EEG Coherence in Children and Adolescents Living in the European North of Russia].

    PubMed

    Soroko, S I; Nagornova, Zh V; Rozhkov, V P; Shemyakina, N V

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents data on the formation of spatial synchronization of brain potentials in 91 children aged 7-18 years living in European North of Russia. We estimated coherence values for 19 derivations (pair 171) in five EEG frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha-1, alpha-2 and beta). We described age-related changes, gender differences and topical specific features of the formation of coherence in the left and right hemispheres, and in inter- and intrahemispheric synchronization. We carried out computer assessment of the differences in EEG coherence between three age groups of children in order to determine criteria for identification of children with retarded formation of spatial organization of local EEG processes. Age-related changes in the structure of EEG patterns observed in the study reflect the processes of morphofunctional brain development in children and adolescents at different stages of postnatal ontogenesis under severe conditions of northern climate. PMID:26601411

  2. EEG correlates of time-varying BOLD functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Catie; Liu, Zhongming; Chen, Michael C.; Liu, Xiao; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent resting-state fMRI studies have shown that the apparent functional connectivity (FC) between brain regions may undergo changes on time-scales of seconds to minutes, the basis and importance of which are largely unknown. Here, we examine the electrophysiological correlates of within-scan FC variations during a condition of eyes-closed rest. A sliding window analysis of simultaneous EEG-fMRI data was performed to examine whether temporal variations in coupling between three major networks (default mode; DMN, dorsal attention; DAN, and salience network; SN) are associated with temporal variations in mental state, as assessed from the amplitude of alpha and theta oscillations in the EEG. In our dataset, alpha power showed a significant inverse relationship with the strength of connectivity between DMN and DAN. In addition, alpha power covaried with the spatial extent of anticorrelation between DMN and DAN, with higher alpha power associated with larger anticorrelation extent. Results suggest an electrical signature of the time-varying FC between the DAN and DMN, potentially reflecting neural and state-dependent variations. PMID:23376790

  3. Motion-related artefacts in EEG predict neuronally plausible patterns of activation in fMRI data

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Marije; White, Thomas P.; Mullinger, Karen J.; Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Gowland, Penny A.; Francis, Susan T.; Bowtell, Richard; Liddle, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    The simultaneous acquisition and subsequent analysis of EEG and fMRI data is challenging owing to increased noise levels in the EEG data. A common method to integrate data from these two modalities is to use aspects of the EEG data, such as the amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERP) or oscillatory EEG activity, to predict fluctuations in the fMRI data. However, this relies on the acquisition of high quality datasets to ensure that only the correlates of neuronal activity are being studied. In this study, we investigate the effects of head-motion-related artefacts in the EEG signal on the predicted T2*-weighted signal variation. We apply our analyses to two independent datasets: 1) four participants were asked to move their feet in the scanner to generate small head movements, and 2) four participants performed an episodic memory task. We created T2*-weighted signal predictors from indicators of abrupt head motion using derivatives of the realignment parameters, from visually detected artefacts in the EEG as well as from three EEG frequency bands (theta, alpha and beta). In both datasets, we found little correlation between the T2*-weighted signal and EEG predictors that were not convolved with the canonical haemodynamic response function (cHRF). However, all convolved EEG predictors strongly correlated with the T2*-weighted signal variation in various regions including the bilateral superior temporal cortex, supplementary motor area, medial parietal cortex and cerebellum. The finding that movement onset spikes in the EEG predict T2*-weighted signal intensity only when the time course of movements is convolved with the cHRF, suggests that the correlated signal might reflect a BOLD response to neural activity associated with head movement. Furthermore, the observation that broad-spectral EEG spikes tend to occur at the same time as abrupt head movements, together with the finding that abrupt movements and EEG spikes show similar correlations with the T2*-weighted signal, indicates that the EEG spikes are produced by abrupt movement and that continuous regressors of EEG oscillations contain motion-related noise even after stringent correction of the EEG data. If not properly removed, these artefacts complicate the use of EEG data as a predictor of T2*-weighted signal variation. PMID:21763774

  4. [General Features of the Formation of EEG Wave Structure in Children and Adolescents Living in Northern European Russia].

    PubMed

    Soroko, S I; Bekshaev, S S; Rozhkov, V P; Nagornova, Zh V; Shemyakina, N V

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of the analysis of EEG wave structure formation in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years living under severe conditions of the North. The approaches developed in discrete mathematics (the graph theory, the theory of network flows) were used to assess the time-frequency transformations of EEG patterns. We evaluated conditional probabilities of reciprocal transitions between the components of six frequency bands of E EG (delta, theta, alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1, beta-2). We described age- and sex-related features as well as regional specificities of the EEG wave structure. We defined the age periods of reorganization of diffuse EEG activities into the main EEG rhythms; the role of distinct rhythms in the maintenance of the EEG wave structure and its dynamic rearrangements was also discussed. The age-related changes of the structure of EEG patterns form some general picture of the morphofunctional development of brain in children and adolescents at different stages of postnatal ontogenesis under severe climate and socio-economic conditions of the North. PMID:26485790

  5. Rhythmic activity in EEG and sleep in rats with absence epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sitnikova, Evgenia; Hramov, Alexander E; Grubov, Vadim; Koronovsky, Alexey A

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the hypothesis that absence epilepsy is accompanied by disturbances of rhythmic activity in EEG during sleep. Sleep-wake architecture and time-frequency parameters of EEG were analyzed during drowsiness and sleep in WAG/Rij rats with genetic predisposition to absence epilepsy. The incidence of seizures varied in a group of 10 rats, in which 5 individuals did not develop epileptic discharges in their EEG (asymptomatic rats). In contrast to asymptomatic, symptomatic subjects (1) displayed less percentage of wakefulness EEG pattern and more non-REM sleep, (2) showed higher beta and less delta EEG power in frontal cortex during non-REM sleep. Mid-frequency oscillations, such as sleep spindles and 5-9Hz oscillations, were detected in EEG automatically and underwent time-frequency analysis by means of skeletons of wavelet surfaces. Some mid-frequency oscillations showed "complex" frequency structure, consisting of the dominant and subdominant components. "Complex" sleep spindles more frequently appeared in asymptomatic rats than in symptomatic, whereas the dominant frequency of these spindles in symptomatic rats was higher than in asymptomatic (12.7 vs 11.9Hz). In general, low-frequency components were readily integrated in sleep spindles in asymptomatic WAG/Rij rats, and decrease in number of "complex" sleep spindles may be associated with epileptic phenotype. PMID:26608255

  6. Discrete Scale Invariance of Human Large EEG Voltage Deflections is More Prominent in Waking than Sleep Stage 2.

    PubMed

    Zorick, Todd; Mandelkern, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is typically viewed through the lens of spectral analysis. Recently, multiple lines of evidence have demonstrated that the underlying neuronal dynamics are characterized by scale-free avalanches. These results suggest that techniques from statistical physics may be used to analyze EEG signals. We utilized a publicly available database of fourteen subjects with waking and sleep stage 2 EEG tracings per subject, and observe that power-law dynamics of critical-state neuronal avalanches are not sufficient to fully describe essential features of EEG signals. We hypothesized that this could reflect the phenomenon of discrete scale invariance (DSI) in EEG large voltage deflections (LVDs) as being more prominent in waking consciousness. We isolated LVDs, and analyzed logarithmically transformed LVD size probability density functions (PDF) to assess for DSI. We find evidence of increased DSI in waking, as opposed to sleep stage 2 consciousness. We also show that the signatures of DSI are specific for EEG LVDs, and not a general feature of fractal simulations with similar statistical properties to EEG. Removing only LVDs from waking EEG produces a reduction in power in the alpha and beta frequency bands. These findings may represent a new insight into the understanding of the cortical dynamics underlying consciousness. PMID:26696860

  7. Discrete Scale Invariance of Human Large EEG Voltage Deflections is More Prominent in Waking than Sleep Stage 2

    PubMed Central

    Zorick, Todd; Mandelkern, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is typically viewed through the lens of spectral analysis. Recently, multiple lines of evidence have demonstrated that the underlying neuronal dynamics are characterized by scale-free avalanches. These results suggest that techniques from statistical physics may be used to analyze EEG signals. We utilized a publicly available database of fourteen subjects with waking and sleep stage 2 EEG tracings per subject, and observe that power-law dynamics of critical-state neuronal avalanches are not sufficient to fully describe essential features of EEG signals. We hypothesized that this could reflect the phenomenon of discrete scale invariance (DSI) in EEG large voltage deflections (LVDs) as being more prominent in waking consciousness. We isolated LVDs, and analyzed logarithmically transformed LVD size probability density functions (PDF) to assess for DSI. We find evidence of increased DSI in waking, as opposed to sleep stage 2 consciousness. We also show that the signatures of DSI are specific for EEG LVDs, and not a general feature of fractal simulations with similar statistical properties to EEG. Removing only LVDs from waking EEG produces a reduction in power in the alpha and beta frequency bands. These findings may represent a new insight into the understanding of the cortical dynamics underlying consciousness. PMID:26696860

  8. Plastic modulation of PTSD resting-state networks by EEG neurofeedback

    PubMed Central

    Kluetsch, Rosemarie C.; Ros, Tomas; Théberge, Jean; Frewen, Paul A.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Schmahl, Christian; Jetly, Rakesh; Lanius, Ruth A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback training has been shown to produce plastic modulations in salience network and default mode network functional connectivity in healthy individuals. In this study, we investigated whether a single session of neurofeedback training aimed at the voluntary reduction of alpha rhythm (8–12 Hz) amplitude would be related to differences in EEG network oscillations, functional MRI (fMRI) connectivity, and subjective measures of state anxiety and arousal in a group of individuals with PTSD. Method 21 individuals with PTSD related to childhood abuse underwent 30 minutes of EEG neurofeedback training preceded and followed by a resting-state fMRI scan. Results Alpha desynchronizing neurofeedback was associated with decreased alpha amplitude during training, followed by a significant increase (‘rebound’) in resting-state alpha synchronization. This rebound was linked to increased calmness, greater salience network connectivity with the right insula, and enhanced default mode network connectivity with bilateral posterior cingulate, right middle frontal gyrus, and left medial prefrontal cortex. Conclusion Our study represents a first step in elucidating the potential neurobehavioral mechanisms mediating the effects of neurofeedback treatment on regulatory systems in PTSD. Moreover, it documents for the first time a spontaneous EEG ‘rebound’ after neurofeedback, pointing to homeostatic/compensatory mechanisms operating in the brain. PMID:24266644

  9. Neural Activations during Visual Sequence Learning Leave a Trace in Post-Training Spontaneous EEG

    PubMed Central

    Moisello, Clara; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Kelly, Simon; Perfetti, Bernardo; Kvint, Svetlana; Voutsinas, Nicholas; Blanco, Daniella; Quartarone, Angelo; Tononi, Giulio; Ghilardi, Maria Felice

    2013-01-01

    Recent EEG studies have shown that implicit learning involving specific cortical circuits results in an enduring local trace manifested as local changes in spectral power. Here we used a well characterized visual sequence learning task and high density-(hd-)EEG recording to determine whether also declarative learning leaves a post-task, local change in the resting state oscillatory activity in the areas involved in the learning process. Thus, we recorded hd-EEG in normal subjects before, during and after the acquisition of the order of a fixed spatial target sequence (VSEQ) and during the presentation of targets in random order (VRAN). We first determined the temporal evolution of spectral changes during VSEQ and compared it to VRAN. We found significant differences in the alpha and theta bands in three main scalp regions, a right occipito-parietal (ROP), an anterior-frontal (AFr), and a right frontal (RFr) area. The changes in frontal theta power during VSEQ were positively correlated with the learning rate. Further, post-learning EEG recordings during resting state revealed a significant increase in alpha power in ROP relative to a pre-learning baseline. We conclude that declarative learning is associated with alpha and theta changes in frontal and posterior regions that occur during the task, and with an increase of alpha power in the occipito-parietal region after the task. These post-task changes may represent a trace of learning and a hallmark of use-dependent plasticity. PMID:23799058

  10. Discovering frequency sensitive thalamic nuclei from EEG microstate informed resting state fMRI.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Simon; Koenig, Thomas; Morishima, Yosuke; Dierks, Thomas; Federspiel, Andrea; Jann, Kay

    2015-09-01

    Microstates (MS), the fingerprints of the momentarily and time-varying states of the brain derived from electroencephalography (EEG), are associated with the resting state networks (RSNs). However, using MS fluctuations along different EEG frequency bands to model the functional MRI (fMRI) signal has not been investigated so far, or elucidated the role of the thalamus as a fundamental gateway and a putative key structure in cortical functional networks. Therefore, in the current study, we used MS predictors in standard frequency bands to predict blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations. We discovered that multivariate modeling of BOLD-fMRI using six EEG-MS classes in eight frequency bands strongly correlated with thalamic areas and large-scale cortical networks. Thalamic nuclei exhibited distinct patterns of correlations for individual MS that were associated with specific EEG frequency bands. Anterior and ventral thalamic nuclei were sensitive to the beta frequency band, medial nuclei were sensitive to both alpha and beta frequency bands, and posterior nuclei such as the pulvinar were sensitive to delta and theta frequency bands. These results demonstrate that EEG-MS informed fMRI can elucidate thalamic activity not directly observable by EEG, which may be highly relevant to understand the rapid formation of thalamocortical networks. PMID:26052082

  11. The EEG as an index of neuromodulator balance in memory and mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Vakalopoulos, Costa

    2014-01-01

    There is a strong correlation between signature EEG frequency patterns and the relative levels of distinct neuromodulators. These associations become particularly evident during the sleep-wake cycle. The monoamine-acetylcholine balance hypothesis is a theory of neurophysiological markers of the EEG and a detailed description of the findings that support this proposal are presented in this paper. According to this model alpha rhythm reflects the relative predominance of cholinergic muscarinic signals and delta rhythm that of monoaminergic receptor effects. Both high voltage synchronized rhythms are likely mediated by inhibitory G?i/o-mediated transduction of inhibitory interneurons. Cognitively, alpha and delta EEG measures are proposed to indicate automatic and flexible strategies, respectively. Sleep is associated with marked changes in relative neuromodulator levels corresponding to EEG markers of distinct stages. Sleep studies on memory consolidation present some of the strongest evidence yet for the respective roles of monoaminergic and cholinergic projections in declarative and non-declarative memory processes, a key theoretical premise for understanding the data. Affective dysregulation is reflected in altered EEG patterns during sleep. PMID:24782698

  12. Detection of EEG-resting state independent networks by eLORETA-ICA method

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Yasunori; Ishii, Ryouhei; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D.; Canuet, Leonides; Ikeda, Shunichiro; Hata, Masahiro; Imajo, Kaoru; Matsuzaki, Haruyasu; Musha, Toshimitsu; Asada, Takashi; Iwase, Masao; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that functional networks can be extracted even from resting state data, the so called “Resting State independent Networks” (RS-independent-Ns) by applying independent component analysis (ICA). However, compared to fMRI, electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) have much higher temporal resolution and provide a direct estimation of cortical activity. To date, MEG studies have applied ICA for separate frequency bands only, disregarding cross-frequency couplings. In this study, we aimed to detect EEG-RS-independent-Ns and their interactions in all frequency bands. We applied exact low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography-ICA (eLORETA-ICA) to resting-state EEG data in 80 healthy subjects using five frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma band) and found five RS-independent-Ns in alpha, beta and gamma frequency bands. Next, taking into account previous neuroimaging findings, five RS-independent-Ns were identified: (1) the visual network in alpha frequency band, (2) dual-process of visual perception network, characterized by a negative correlation between the right ventral visual pathway (VVP) in alpha and beta frequency bands and left posterior dorsal visual pathway (DVP) in alpha frequency band, (3) self-referential processing network, characterized by a negative correlation between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in beta frequency band and right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) in alpha frequency band, (4) dual-process of memory perception network, functionally related to a negative correlation between the left VVP and the precuneus in alpha frequency band; and (5) sensorimotor network in beta and gamma frequency bands. We selected eLORETA-ICA which has many advantages over the other network visualization methods and overall findings indicate that eLORETA-ICA with EEG data can identify five RS-independent-Ns in their intrinsic frequency bands, and correct correlations within RS-independent-Ns. PMID:25713521

  13. Use of EEG to track visual attention in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Robert Alan

    This thesis investigates the use of EEG to track the spatial locus of covert, visual attention. Three experiments are described that were to detect the position of visual attention as it was deployed towards targets as they appeared. The first experiment uses flickering fields placed in the periphery of the visual field to induce SSVEPs, to be used to track the position of attention which varies horizontally between them. The flickers failed to produce significant SSVEP activity. However attention locus could still able to be tracked by endogenous lateralizations of 12Hz and 18Hz activity. A second experiment was then designed to track attention locus as it varied either horizontally or vertically using only endogenous EEG activity in the alpha (10Hz), low-beta (18Hz), high-beta (24Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands. Tracking proved successful in all but a small number of subjects. Horizontally varying attention was associated with lateralizations of the alpha band and low-beta band, while vertically varying attention was associated with varying alpha band and low-beta band activity in the occipito-parietal junction over the central sulcus. A third experiment was then performed to track attention locus as it varied in two dimensions. Using a combination of the features found to be informative in the second experiment, tracking proved successful in up to nine bins of two-dimensional visual space. Tracking in either the horizontal or vertical dimension was also successful when attention varied in two dimensions. The success of this method shows that EEG can be used to passively detect the spatial position of attention, at varying degrees of position, as a person attends to objects they see.

  14. The effects of Dalmane /flurazepam hydrochloride/ on human EEG characteristics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Carrie, J. R. G.; Borda, R. P.; Kellaway, P.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of the changes in the waking EEGs of six healthy male subjects who received 30 mg daily oral doses of flurazepam hydrochloride for two weeks. A placebo was then substituted for flurazepam for another two weeks. An increase in beta activity with a maximum in fronto-central leads was observed during the test period. A small increase in the mean wavelength of the alpha and theta activities in the central-occipital derivations was also apparent in the subjects during the period.

  15. EEG-MEG Integration Enhances the Characterization of Functional and Effective Connectivity in the Resting State Network.

    PubMed

    Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Moliadze, Vera; Mideksa, Kidist Gebremariam; Anwar, Abdul Rauf; Stephani, Ulrich; Deuschl, Günther; Freitag, Christine M; Siniatchkin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    At the sensor level many aspects, such as spectral power, functional and effective connectivity as well as relative-power-ratio ratio (RPR) and spatial resolution have been comprehensively investigated through both electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Despite this, differences between both modalities have not yet been systematically studied by direct comparison. It remains an open question as to whether the integration of EEG and MEG data would improve the information obtained from the above mentioned parameters. Here, EEG (64-channel system) and MEG (275 sensor system) were recorded simultaneously in conditions with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) in 29 healthy adults. Spectral power, functional and effective connectivity, RPR, and spatial resolution were analyzed at five different frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma). Networks of functional and effective connectivity were described using a spatial filter approach called the dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS) followed by the renormalized partial directed coherence (RPDC). Absolute mean power at the sensor level was significantly higher in EEG than in MEG data in both EO and EC conditions. At the source level, there was a trend towards a better performance of the combined EEG+MEG analysis compared with separate EEG or MEG analyses for the source mean power, functional correlation, effective connectivity for both EO and EC. The network of coherent sources and the spatial resolution were similar for both the EEG and MEG data if they were analyzed separately. Results indicate that the combined approach has several advantages over the separate analyses of both EEG and MEG. Moreover, by a direct comparison of EEG and MEG, EEG was characterized by significantly higher values in all measured parameters in both sensor and source level. All the above conclusions are specific to the resting state task and the specific analysis used in this study to have general conclusion multi-center studies would be helpful. PMID:26509448

  16. EEG-MEG Integration Enhances the Characterization of Functional and Effective Connectivity in the Resting State Network

    PubMed Central

    Mideksa, Kidist Gebremariam; Anwar, Abdul Rauf; Stephani, Ulrich; Deuschl, Günther; Freitag, Christine M.; Siniatchkin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    At the sensor level many aspects, such as spectral power, functional and effective connectivity as well as relative-power-ratio ratio (RPR) and spatial resolution have been comprehensively investigated through both electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Despite this, differences between both modalities have not yet been systematically studied by direct comparison. It remains an open question as to whether the integration of EEG and MEG data would improve the information obtained from the above mentioned parameters. Here, EEG (64-channel system) and MEG (275 sensor system) were recorded simultaneously in conditions with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) in 29 healthy adults. Spectral power, functional and effective connectivity, RPR, and spatial resolution were analyzed at five different frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma). Networks of functional and effective connectivity were described using a spatial filter approach called the dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS) followed by the renormalized partial directed coherence (RPDC). Absolute mean power at the sensor level was significantly higher in EEG than in MEG data in both EO and EC conditions. At the source level, there was a trend towards a better performance of the combined EEG+MEG analysis compared with separate EEG or MEG analyses for the source mean power, functional correlation, effective connectivity for both EO and EC. The network of coherent sources and the spatial resolution were similar for both the EEG and MEG data if they were analyzed separately. Results indicate that the combined approach has several advantages over the separate analyses of both EEG and MEG. Moreover, by a direct comparison of EEG and MEG, EEG was characterized by significantly higher values in all measured parameters in both sensor and source level. All the above conclusions are specific to the resting state task and the specific analysis used in this study to have general conclusion multi-center studies would be helpful. PMID:26509448

  17. The EEG as a monitor of midazolam amnesia: changes in power and topography as a function of amnesic state.

    PubMed

    Veselis, R A; Reinsel, R; Alagesan, R; Heino, R; Bedford, R F

    1991-05-01

    In order to identify EEG parameters that might be specific for identifying amnesia during midazolam infusion, we examined changes in the EEG power spectrum associated with a period of amnesia, determined by inability to recall a sequence of numbers and objects presented verbally, after intravenous midazolam 0.07 mg/kg in ten normal volunteers. Measurements were taken at baseline, during infusion immediately before and after the onset of amnesia, immediately at end of infusion, and 0.5 and 1.5 h after infusion. All subjects had onset of amnesia during infusion, were completely amnesic by the end of infusion, partially amnesic 0.5 h after infusion, and had complete recall by 1.5 h after infusion. The EEG beta power increased and alpha power decreased during amnesic periods. The beta 1/alpha power ratio was the parameter most specific for amnesia. From a baseline value of 0.20 +/- 0.05 (standard error of the mean [SEM]), it increased to 0.96 +/- 0.26 at the end of infusion and decreased to 0.61 +/- 0.15 0.5 h after infusion. By 1.5 h after infusion, all EEG parameters had returned to baseline values. Beta power changes associated with midazolam amnesia were most pronounced in the Fz and Cz lead positions, and alpha power changes were most pronounced in the Oz position. We conclude that 1) EEG power values, particularly the beta 1/alpha ratio, can identify periods of amnesia after midazolam infusion; 2) specific EEG changes and the presence of amnesia vary with the probable serum concentration of midazolam; and 3) the characteristic EEG pattern during partial or complete amnesia varies as one moves across the cerebral cortex. PMID:2021203

  18. Effets des radiofréquences sur le système nerveux central chez l?homme : EEG, sommeil, cognition, vascularisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosn, Rania; Villégier, Anne-Sophie; Selmaoui, Brahim; Thuróczy, Georges; de Sèze, René

    2013-05-01

    Most of clinical studies on radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF) were directed at mobile phone-related exposures, usually at the level of the head, at their effect on some physiological functions including sleep, brain electrical activity (EEG), cognitive processes, brain vascularisation, and more generally on the cardiovascular and endocrine systems. They were frequently carried out on healthy adults. Effects on the amplitude of EEG alpha waves, mainly during sleep, look reproducible. It would however be important to define more precisely whether and how the absence of electromagnetic disturbance between RF exposure and the recording systems is checked. No consensus arises about cognitive effects. Some effects on cerebral vascularisation need complementary work.

  19. Effects of nootropics on the EEG in conscious rats and their modification by glutamatergic inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vorobyov, Vasily; Kaptsov, Vladimir; Kovalev, Georgy; Sengpiel, Frank

    2011-05-30

    To study the effects of acute and repeated injections of nootropics and to learn how glutamate receptors might be involved in their mediation, the frequency spectra of cortical and hippocampal electroencephalogram (EEG) were analyzed in non-narcotized rats subcutaneously injected repeatedly with Piracetam (400mg/kg) or its analogue, Noopept (0.2mg/kg), after intracerebroventricular infusions of saline (5 ?l) or the antagonists of NMDA and quisqualate/AMPA receptors: CPP (0.1 nmol) and GDEE (1 ?mol), respectively. Piracetam increased alpha/beta1 EEG activity in the left frontal cortex, and alpha activity in both the right cortex and hippocampus, with a 10-min latency and 40-min duration. Noopept increased alpha/beta1 activity, with 30-min latency and 40-min duration in all brain areas. CPP pretreatment eliminated Piracetam EEG effects; reduced Noopept effects in the cortex and completely suppressed them in the hippocampus. After four injections of Piracetam, EEG effects were very small in the cortex, and completely lacking in the hippocampus, while GDEE pretreatment partially recovered them. The effect of Noopept in the alpha/beta1 ranges was replaced by increased beta2 activity after the eighth injection, while no effects were observed after the ninth one. GDEE pretreatment restored the effect of Noopept in the beta2 frequency range. These results demonstrate similarities in EEG effects and their mediatory mechanisms for Piracetam and its much more effective analogue, Noopept. Activation of NMDA receptors is involved in the effects of a single injection of the nootropics, whereas activation of quisqualate/AMPA receptors is associated with the decrease in their efficacy after repeated use. PMID:21414388

  20. Use of EEG to Diagnose ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Lenartowicz, Agatha; Loo, Sandra K.

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) has, historically, played a focal role in the assessment of neural function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We review here the most recent developments in the utility of EEG in the diagnosis of ADHD, with emphasis on the most commonly used and emerging EEG metrics and their reliability in diagnostic classification. Considering the clinical heterogeneity of ADHD and the complexity of information available from the EEG signals, we suggest that considerable benefits are to be gained from multivariate analyses and a focus towards understanding of the neural generators of EEG. We conclude that while EEG cannot currently be used as a diagnostic tool, vast developments in analytical and technological tools in its domain anticipate future progress in its utility in the clinical setting. PMID:25234074

  1. Automated Epilepsy Diagnosis Using Interictal Scalp EEG

    E-print Network

    Bao, Forrest Sheng; Hu, Jing; Lie, Donald Y -C; Zhang, Yuanlin; Oommen, K J

    2009-01-01

    Approximately over 50 million people worldwide suffer from epilepsy. Traditional diagnosis of epilepsy relies on tedious visual screening by highly trained clinicians from lengthy EEG recording that contains the presence of seizure (ictal) activities. Nowadays, there are many automatic systems that can recognize seizure-related EEG signals to help the diagnosis. However, it is very costly and inconvenient to obtain long-term EEG data with seizure activities, especially in areas short of medical resources. We demonstrate in this paper that we can use the interictal scalp EEG data, which is much easier to collect than the ictal data, to automatically diagnose whether a person is epileptic. In our automated EEG recognition system, we extract three classes of features from the EEG data and build Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNNs) fed with these features. We optimize the feature extraction parameters and combine these PNNs through a voting mechanism. As a result, our system achieves an impressive 94.07% accuracy...

  2. EEG dynamics in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jaeseung

    2004-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive and intellectual deficits and behavior disturbance. The electroencephalogram (EEG) has been used as a tool for diagnosing AD for several decades. The hallmark of EEG abnormalities in AD patients is a shift of the power spectrum to lower frequencies and a decrease in coherence of fast rhythms. These abnormalities are thought to be associated with functional disconnections among cortical areas resulting from death of cortical neurons, axonal pathology, cholinergic deficits, etc. This article reviews main findings of EEG abnormalities in AD patients obtained from conventional spectral analysis and nonlinear dynamical methods. In particular, nonlinear alterations in the EEG of AD patients, i.e. a decreased complexity of EEG patterns and reduced information transmission among cortical areas, and their clinical implications are discussed. For future studies, improvement of the accuracy of differential diagnosis and early detection of AD based on multimodal approaches, longitudinal studies on nonlinear dynamics of the EEG, drug effects on the EEG dynamics, and linear and nonlinear functional connectivity among cortical regions in AD are proposed to be investigated. EEG abnormalities of AD patients are characterized by slowed mean frequency, less complex activity, and reduced coherences among cortical regions. These abnormalities suggest that the EEG has utility as a valuable tool for differential and early diagnosis of AD. PMID:15203050

  3. Resting State EEG in Children With Learning Disabilities: An Independent Component Analysis Approach.

    PubMed

    Jäncke, Lutz; Alahmadi, Nsreen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the neurophysiological underpinnings of learning disabilities (LD) in children are examined using resting state EEG. We were particularly interested in the neurophysiological differences between children with learning disabilities not otherwise specified (LD-NOS), learning disabilities with verbal disabilities (LD-Verbal), and healthy control (HC) children. We applied 2 different approaches to examine the differences between the different groups. First, we calculated theta/beta and theta/alpha ratios in order to quantify the relationship between slow and fast EEG oscillations. Second, we used a recently developed method for analyzing spectral EEG, namely the group independent component analysis (gICA) model. Using these measures, we identified substantial differences between LD and HC children and between LD-NOS and LD-Verbal children in terms of their spectral EEG profiles. We obtained the following findings: (a) theta/beta and theta/alpha ratios were substantially larger in LD than in HC children, with no difference between LD-NOS and LD-Verbal children; (b) there was substantial slowing of EEG oscillations, especially for gICs located in frontal scalp positions, with LD-NOS children demonstrating the strongest slowing; (c) the estimated intracortical sources of these gICs were mostly located in brain areas involved in the control of executive functions, attention, planning, and language; and (d) the LD-Verbal children demonstrated substantial differences in EEG oscillations compared with LD-NOS children, and these differences were localized in language-related brain areas. The general pattern of atypical neurophysiological activation found in LD children suggests that they suffer from neurophysiological dysfunction in brain areas involved with the control of attention, executive functions, planning, and language functions. LD-Verbal children also demonstrate atypical activation, especially in language-related brain areas. These atypical neurophysiological activation patterns might provide a helpful guide for rehabilitation strategies to treat the deficiencies in these children with LD. PMID:26545819

  4. Estimation of the propagation direction and spectral properties of the EEG signals registered during sevoflurane anaesthesia using Directed Transfer Function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Kaminski, Maciej; Marciniak, Radoslaw; Byrczek, Tomasz; Stasiowski, Michal; Jalowiecki, Przemyslaw; Sobieszek, Aleksander; Zmyslowski, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate spectral properties and propagation of the EEG signals registered during sevoflurane anaesthesia between individual EEG recording channels. The intensities of activity flows were calculated for delta, theta, alpha and beta waves using the Directed Transfer Function integration procedure. It was found that delta waves played the dominant role in the EEG signal propagation during anesthesia and it was suggested that theta and alpha waves propagation could be related to the processes participating in the wakefulness control. Data obtained with DTF method were compared with data received from the analysis of cerebral blood flow with the use of PET in other laboratory. This study showed that analysis of the EEG signal propagation is useful for better understanding and thus safer induction of anaesthesia procedure.

  5. New Approaches for the Adaptive Segmentation of Neonatal EEG Signals

    E-print Network

    , offering new advantages for the segmentation of neonatal EEG. Keywords Adaptive segmentation, segmentation between bursts and suppressions - and slow wave sleep patterns. The resulting EEG signal is highly

  6. Age effects on EEG correlates of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Nuno S; Ferreira, Daniela; Reis, Joana; Jacinto, Luís R; Fernandes, Luís; Pinho, Francisco; Festa, Joana; Pereira, Mariana; Afonso, Nuno; Santos, Nadine C; Cerqueira, João J; Sousa, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Body and brain undergo several changes with aging. One of the domains in which these changes are more remarkable relates with cognitive performance. In the present work, electroencephalogram (EEG) markers (power spectral density and spectral coherence) of age-related cognitive decline were sought whilst the subjects performed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Considering the expected age-related cognitive deficits, WCST was applied to young, mid-age and elderly participants, and the theta and alpha frequency bands were analyzed. From the results herein presented, higher theta and alpha power were found to be associated with a good performance in the WCST of younger subjects. Additionally, higher theta and alpha coherence were also associated with good performance and were shown to decline with age and a decrease in alpha peak frequency seems to be associated with aging. Additionally, inter-hemispheric long-range coherences and parietal theta power were identified as age-independent EEG correlates of cognitive performance. In summary, these data reveals age-dependent as well as age-independent EEG correlates of cognitive performance that contribute to the understanding of brain aging and related cognitive deficits. PMID:26216431

  7. EEG and ocular correlates of circadian melatonin phase and human performance decrements during sleep loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cajochen, C.; Khalsa, S. B.; Wyatt, J. K.; Czeisler, C. A.; Dijk, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the associations between slow eye movements (SEMs), eye blink rate, waking electroencephalogram (EEG) power density, neurobehavioral performance, and the circadian rhythm of plasma melatonin in a cohort of 10 healthy men during up to 32 h of sustained wakefulness. The time course of neurobehavioral performance was characterized by fairly stable levels throughout the first 16 h of wakefulness followed by deterioration during the phase of melatonin secretion. This deterioration was closely associated with an increase in SEMs. Frontal low-frequency EEG activity (1-7 Hz) exhibited a prominent increase with time awake and little circadian modulation. EEG alpha activity exhibited circadian modulation. The dynamics of SEMs and EEG activity were phase locked to changes in neurobehavioral performance and lagged the plasma melatonin rhythm. The data indicate that frontal areas of the brain are more susceptible to sleep loss than occipital areas. Frontal EEG activity and ocular parameters may be used to monitor and predict changes in neurobehavioral performance associated with sleep loss and circadian misalignment.

  8. EEG sensitization during chemical exposure in women with and without chemical sensitivity of unknown etiology.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M; Bell, I R; Schwartz, G E

    1999-01-01

    This study tested the sensitization model proposed by Bell et al. [Bell I.R., Miller C.S. and Schwartz G.E. An olfactory-limbic model of multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome: possible relationship to kindling and affective spectrum disorders. Biol. Psychiatry 1992: 32: 218-242] to study chemical sensitivity. The sensitization model indicates that a pharmacological stimulus or a traumatic event which elicits a strong response can sensitize limbic and/or mesolimbic pathways; and subsequent less intense trauma or stimuli, in the same or different modality, can elicit an amplified response. Three groups of subjects were tested: (1) women who reported chemical sensitivity and no sexual abuse (chemically sensitive, CS); (2) sexually abused (SA) women without chemical sensitivity; and (3) healthy women without chemical sensitivity or sexual abuse history (normal, N). All subjects were exposed to odorant and nonodorous control stimuli once a week for 3 weeks. Electroencephalographic activity was recorded while subjects sniffed the odorant and control stimuli. Results of the study revealed that both the CS and the SA group showed electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha sensitization across experimental sessions, while the N group showed little change over time. Additionally, EEG findings revealed that the CS group generated significantly greater alpha activity than the other two groups. Finally, while the groups were different on measures of psychological distress, these differences did not diminish the EEG findings. In summary, these findings suggest that intermittent exposure to chemicals elicits sensitization in CS and SA women without chemical sensitivity, supporting our expectations that chemical sensitivity is, in part, a manifestation of time-dependent sensitization (TDS). Additionally, these EEG findings indicate that CS women are unlike SA and healthy women in the amount of EEG alpha activity they generate. Finally, these findings indicate that psychological factors as assessed in this study do not explain electrophysiological differences between chemically and non-chemically-sensitive women. PMID:10416282

  9. EEG Changes Due to Experimentally Induced 3G Mobile Phone Radiation.

    PubMed

    Roggeveen, Suzanne; van Os, Jim; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Lousberg, Richel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a 15-minute placement of a 3G dialing mobile phone causes direct changes in EEG activity compared to the placement of a sham phone. Furthermore, it was investigated whether placement of the mobile phone on the ear or the heart would result in different outcomes. Thirty-one healthy females participated. All subjects were measured twice: on one of the two days the mobile phone was attached to the ear, the other day to the chest. In this single-blind, cross-over design, assessments in the sham phone condition were conducted directly preceding and following the mobile phone exposure. During each assessment, EEG activity and radiofrequency radiation were recorded jointly. Delta, theta, alpha, slowbeta, fastbeta, and gamma activity was computed. The association between radiation exposure and the EEG was tested using multilevel random regression analyses with radiation as predictor of main interest. Significant radiation effects were found for the alpha, slowbeta, fastbeta, and gamma bands. When analyzed separately, ear location of the phone was associated with significant results, while chest placement was not. The results support the notion that EEG alterations are associated with mobile phone usage and that the effect is dependent on site of placement. Further studies are required to demonstrate the physiological relevance of these findings. PMID:26053854

  10. Changes in human EEG caused by low level modulated microwave stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hinrikus, Hiie; Parts, Maie; Lass, Jaanus; Tuulik, Viiu

    2004-09-01

    This study focuses on the effect of low level microwave radiation on human EEG alpha and theta rhythms. During the experiment, 20 healthy volunteers were exposed to a 450 MHz microwaves with 7 Hz on-off modulation. The field power density at the scalp was 0.16 mW/cm2. Signals from the following EEG channels were used: FP1, FP2, P3, P4, T3, T4, O1, and O2. The experimental protocol consisted of one cycle of short term photic and ten cycles of the repetitive microwave stimulation. The changes caused by photic as well as microwave stimulation were more regular on the alpha rhythm. In the majority of cases, photic stimulation caused changes in the EEG energy level in the occipital and microwave stimulation in the frontal region. Our experimental results demonstrated that microwave stimulation effects became apparent, starting from the third stimulation cycle. Changes varied strongly from subject to subject. Therefore, photic and microwave exposure did not cause statistically significant changes in the EEG activity level for the whole group. For some subjects, clear tendencies of changes in microwave on-off cycles were noticeable. PMID:15300729

  11. The effects of external picoTesla range magnetic fields on the EEG in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R; Derpapas, K

    1993-05-01

    We report a 68 year old man with a 7 year history of Parkinson's disease (PD) who obtained little benefit from treatment by dopaminergic and anticholinergic agents. During the six months prior to presentation, he experienced more rapid deterioration in symptoms including memory functions, increasing depression, and dystonia of the foot. External application of picoTesla range magnetic fields (MF) resulted in rapid attenuation of tremor and foot dystonia with improvements in gait, postural reflexes, mood, anxiety, cognitive, and autonomic functions. Plasma prolactin and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels rose three days after initiation of treatment. In addition, distinct electroencephalographic (EEG) changes were recorded nine days after two treatments with MF and included enhancement of alpha and beta activities as well as resolution of the theta activity. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, objective EEG changes in response to picoTesla range MF in PD. Since the pineal gland is a magnetosensor and as some of the clinical effects produced by MF such as relaxation, sleepiness, mood elevation, increased dreaming, and enhancement of alpha and beta activities in the EEG have also been noted in healthy subjects administered melatonin, we propose that the clinical effects as well as the EEG changes noted after treatment with MF were mediated by the pineal gland which previously has been implicated in the pathophysiology of PD. PMID:8083028

  12. Convergence of EEG and fMRI measures of reward anticipation.

    PubMed

    Gorka, Stephanie M; Phan, K Luan; Shankman, Stewart A

    2015-12-01

    Deficits in reward anticipation are putative mechanisms for multiple psychopathologies. Research indicates that these deficits are characterized by reduced left (relative to right) frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal abnormalities in mesolimbic and prefrontal neural regions during reward anticipation. Although it is often assumed that these two measures capture similar mechanisms, no study to our knowledge has directly examined the convergence between frontal EEG alpha asymmetry and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during reward anticipation in the same sample. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate if and where in the brain frontal EEG alpha asymmetry and fMRI measures were correlated in a sample of 40 adults. All participants completed two analogous reward anticipation tasks-once during EEG data collection and the other during fMRI data collection. Results indicated that the two measures do converge and that during reward anticipation, increased relative left frontal activity is associated with increased left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)/medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activation. This suggests that the two measures may similarly capture PFC functioning, which is noteworthy given the role of these regions in reward processing and the pathophysiology of disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. PMID:26394333

  13. EEG Changes Due to Experimentally Induced 3G Mobile Phone Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Roggeveen, Suzanne; van Os, Jim; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Lousberg, Richel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a 15-minute placement of a 3G dialing mobile phone causes direct changes in EEG activity compared to the placement of a sham phone. Furthermore, it was investigated whether placement of the mobile phone on the ear or the heart would result in different outcomes. Thirty-one healthy females participated. All subjects were measured twice: on one of the two days the mobile phone was attached to the ear, the other day to the chest. In this single-blind, cross-over design, assessments in the sham phone condition were conducted directly preceding and following the mobile phone exposure. During each assessment, EEG activity and radiofrequency radiation were recorded jointly. Delta, theta, alpha, slowbeta, fastbeta, and gamma activity was computed. The association between radiation exposure and the EEG was tested using multilevel random regression analyses with radiation as predictor of main interest. Significant radiation effects were found for the alpha, slowbeta, fastbeta, and gamma bands. When analyzed separately, ear location of the phone was associated with significant results, while chest placement was not. The results support the notion that EEG alterations are associated with mobile phone usage and that the effect is dependent on site of placement. Further studies are required to demonstrate the physiological relevance of these findings. PMID:26053854

  14. Neural Correlates of Action Observation and Execution in 14-Month-Old Infants: An Event-Related EEG Desynchronization Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Peter J.; Young, Thomas; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing interest in neurobiological methods for investigating the shared representation of action perception and production in early development. We explored the extent and regional specificity of EEG desynchronization in the infant alpha frequency range (6-9 Hz) during action observation and execution in 14-month-old infants.…

  15. Spectral features of EEG in depression.

    PubMed

    Hinrikus, Hiie; Suhhova, Anna; Bachmann, Maie; Aadamsoo, Kaire; Võhma, Ulle; Pehlak, Hannes; Lass, Jaanus

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to find distinctions of the EEG signal in female depression. Experiments were carried out on two groups of 18 female volunteers each: a group of patients with depressive disorder who were not on medication and a group of control subjects. Patients who had Hamilton depression rating scores higher than 14 were selected. Resting EEG was recorded for the duration of 30 min. Spectral asymmetry (SA) of the EEG spectrum was estimated as relative difference in the selected higher and lower EEG frequency band power. Calculated SA values were positive for depressive and negative for healthy subjects (except for 2-3 subjects). The values behaved similarly in all EEG channels and brain hemispheres. Differences in SA between depressive and control groups were significant in all EEG channels. Dependence of SA on EGG signal length appeared not to be identical for depressive and healthy subjects. Our results suggest that SA based on balance between the powers of the higher and the lower EEG frequency bands seems to enable characterization of the EEG in depression. PMID:20415629

  16. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI at ultra-high field: artifact prevention and safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Jorge, João; Grouiller, Frédéric; Ipek, Özlem; Stoermer, Robert; Michel, Christoph M; Figueiredo, Patrícia; van der Zwaag, Wietske; Gruetter, Rolf

    2015-01-15

    The simultaneous recording of scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can provide unique insights into the dynamics of human brain function, and the increased functional sensitivity offered by ultra-high field fMRI opens exciting perspectives for the future of this multimodal approach. However, simultaneous recordings are susceptible to various types of artifacts, many of which scale with magnetic field strength and can seriously compromise both EEG and fMRI data quality in recordings above 3T. The aim of the present study was to implement and characterize an optimized setup for simultaneous EEG-fMRI in humans at 7 T. The effects of EEG cable length and geometry for signal transmission between the cap and amplifiers were assessed in a phantom model, with specific attention to noise contributions from the MR scanner coldheads. Cable shortening (down to 12 cm from cap to amplifiers) and bundling effectively reduced environment noise by up to 84% in average power and 91% in inter-channel power variability. Subject safety was assessed and confirmed via numerical simulations of RF power distribution and temperature measurements on a phantom model, building on the limited existing literature at ultra-high field. MRI data degradation effects due to the EEG system were characterized via B0 and B1(+) field mapping on a human volunteer, demonstrating important, although not prohibitive, B1 disruption effects. With the optimized setup, simultaneous EEG-fMRI acquisitions were performed on 5 healthy volunteers undergoing two visual paradigms: an eyes-open/eyes-closed task, and a visual evoked potential (VEP) paradigm using reversing-checkerboard stimulation. EEG data exhibited clear occipital alpha modulation and average VEPs, respectively, with concomitant BOLD signal changes. On a single-trial level, alpha power variations could be observed with relative confidence on all trials; VEP detection was more limited, although statistically significant responses could be detected in more than 50% of trials for every subject. Overall, we conclude that the proposed setup is well suited for simultaneous EEG-fMRI at 7 T. PMID:25449743

  17. EEG entropy measures in anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhenhu; Wang, Yinghua; Sun, Xue; Li, Duan; Voss, Logan J.; Sleigh, Jamie W.; Hagihira, Satoshi; Li, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: ? Twelve entropy indices were systematically compared in monitoring depth of anesthesia and detecting burst suppression.? Renyi permutation entropy performed best in tracking EEG changes associated with different anesthesia states.? Approximate Entropy and Sample Entropy performed best in detecting burst suppression. Objective: Entropy algorithms have been widely used in analyzing EEG signals during anesthesia. However, a systematic comparison of these entropy algorithms in assessing anesthesia drugs' effect is lacking. In this study, we compare the capability of 12 entropy indices for monitoring depth of anesthesia (DoA) and detecting the burst suppression pattern (BSP), in anesthesia induced by GABAergic agents. Methods: Twelve indices were investigated, namely Response Entropy (RE) and State entropy (SE), three wavelet entropy (WE) measures [Shannon WE (SWE), Tsallis WE (TWE), and Renyi WE (RWE)], Hilbert-Huang spectral entropy (HHSE), approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn), Fuzzy entropy, and three permutation entropy (PE) measures [Shannon PE (SPE), Tsallis PE (TPE) and Renyi PE (RPE)]. Two EEG data sets from sevoflurane-induced and isoflurane-induced anesthesia respectively were selected to assess the capability of each entropy index in DoA monitoring and BSP detection. To validate the effectiveness of these entropy algorithms, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling and prediction probability (Pk) analysis were applied. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) as a non-entropy measure was compared. Results: All the entropy and MDFA indices could track the changes in EEG pattern during different anesthesia states. Three PE measures outperformed the other entropy indices, with less baseline variability, higher coefficient of determination (R2) and prediction probability, and RPE performed best; ApEn and SampEn discriminated BSP best. Additionally, these entropy measures showed an advantage in computation efficiency compared with MDFA. Conclusion: Each entropy index has its advantages and disadvantages in estimating DoA. Overall, it is suggested that the RPE index was a superior measure. Investigating the advantages and disadvantages of these entropy indices could help improve current clinical indices for monitoring DoA. PMID:25741277

  18. Relation between resting EEG to cognitive performance and clinical symptoms in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    van Dongen-Boomsma, Martine; Lansbergen, Marieke M; Bekker, Evelijne M; Kooij, J J Sandra; van der Molen, Maurits; Kenemans, J Leon; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2010-01-18

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children is characterized by elevated levels of slow wave activity and reduced fast wave activity in resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG). In adults with ADHD, resting-state EEG findings are scarce and inconsistent. The present study examined whether the disparate findings are due EEG recording conditions (i.e., eyes-open vs. eyes-closed). A second goal of the current study was to assess relations between EEG spectral indices to performance measures obtained using a stop-signal task, and to behavioral ADHD symptoms. The present study included 24 adults with ADHD and 24 control adults. The EEG results showed a greater reduction in alpha power from eyes-closed to eyes-open (i.e., alpha attenuation) in ADHD compared to controls. In addition, theta/beta ratio was negatively correlated to the speed of responding to choice stimuli. These findings were interpreted vis-à-vis a biophysical model assuming that the hypo-arousal in ADHD is due to an overdrive of the nucleus coeruleus resulting in inhibitory activity of the thalamic reticular nucleus. PMID:19945506

  19. Carbon-wire loop based artifact correction outperforms post-processing EEG/fMRI corrections-A validation of a real-time simultaneous EEG/fMRI correction method.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Johan N; Pampel, André; Van Someren, Eus J W; Ramautar, Jennifer R; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; Gomez-Herrero, German; Lepsien, Jöran; Hellrung, Lydia; Hinrichs, Hermann; Möller, Harald E; Walter, Martin

    2016-01-15

    Simultaneous EEG-fMRI combines two powerful neuroimaging techniques, but the EEG signal suffers from severe artifacts in the MRI environment that are difficult to remove. These are the MR scanning artifact and the blood-pulsation artifact - strategies to remove them are a topic of ongoing research. Additionally large, unsystematic artifacts are produced across the full frequency spectrum by the magnet's helium pump (and ventilator) systems which are notoriously hard to remove. As a consequence, experimenters routinely deactivate the helium pump during simultaneous EEG-fMRI acquisitions which potentially risks damaging the MRI system and necessitates more frequent and expensive helium refills. We present a novel correction method addressing both helium pump and ballisto-cardiac (BCG) artifacts, consisting of carbon-wire loops (CWL) as additional sensors to accurately track unpredictable artifacts related to subtle movements in the scanner, and an EEGLAB plugin to perform artifact correction. We compare signal-to-noise metrics of EEG data, corrected with CWL and three conventional correction methods, for helium pump off and on measurements. Because the CWL setup records signals in real-time, it fits requirements of applications where immediate correction is necessary, such as neuro-feedback applications or stimulation time-locked to specific sleep oscillations. The comparison metrics in this paper relate to: (1) the EEG signal itself, (2) the "eyes open vs. eyes closed" effect, and (3) an assessment of how the artifact corrections impacts the ability to perform meaningful correlations between EEG alpha power and the BOLD signal. Results show that the CWL correction corrects for He pump artifact and also produces EEG data more comparable to EEG obtained outside the magnet than conventional post-processing methods. PMID:26505301

  20. Circadian variation of EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep in humans: dissociation from body temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dijk, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    In humans, EEG power spectra in REM and NREM sleep, as well as characteristics of sleep spindles such as their duration, amplitude, frequency and incidence, vary with circadian phase. Recently it has been hypothesized that circadian variations in EEG spectra in humans are caused by variations in brain or body temperature and may not represent phenomena relevant to sleep regulatory processes. To test this directly, a further analysis of EEG power spectra - collected in a forced desynchrony protocol in which sleep episodes were scheduled to a 28-h period while the rhythms of body temperature and plasma melatonin were oscillating at their near 24-h period - was carried out. EEG power spectra were computed for NREM and REM sleep occurring between 90-120 and 270-300 degrees of the circadian melatonin rhythm, i.e. just after the clearance of melatonin from plasma in the 'morning' and just after the 'evening' increase in melatonin secretion. Average body temperatures during scheduled sleep at these two circadian phases were identical (36.72 degrees C). Despite identical body temperatures, the power spectra in NREM sleep were very different at these two circadian phases. EEG activity in the low frequency spindle range was significantly and markedly enhanced after the evening increase in plasma melatonin as compared to the morning phase. For REM sleep, significant differences in power spectra during these two circadian phases, in particular in the alpha range, were also observed. The results confirm that EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep vary with circadian phase, suggesting that the direct contribution of temperature to the circadian variation in EEG power spectra is absent or only minor, and are at variance with the hypothesis that circadian variations in EEG power spectra are caused by variations in temperature.

  1. Neural network model of cortical EEG response to olfactory stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, George L.; Van Toller, Steve

    1995-04-01

    We describe three experiments attempting to model differences in cortical EEG following stimulation with different odors. The data used in these experiments was obtained in previous studies, described briefly here. Subjects sit in an environmentally stabilized low odor cubicle. Twenty-eight electrodes are placed on the scalp and connect the subject to a neurosciences brain imager, which digitizes cortical EEG response. In a given trial, a specific odor is introduced, and the response recorded. In the first experiment, alpha wave data from a subset of ten electrodes and a single subject was used. In the original experiment, the subject was presented with a number of odors and the resulting brain electrical activity was resolved into 16 time slices (5 preceding presentation, 4 during presentation and 7 following presentation). Only data from frames 6, 7 and 8 (during presentation) was used here. A model was constructed to discriminate morning from afternoon responses. The network used measurements from 10 electrodes as input, and backpropagation was used for training. During training, the network was presented with responses to just one odor. Generalization was demonstrated for five other odors. The weights in the network have been analyzed and indicate a role for a specific group of electrode sites in this discrimination. The second experiment involved constructing a network to discriminate cortical EEG responses to two odors. In the original experiment from which we drew our data, fourteen subjects were presented with each odor once. Data from only the frame at first presentation of the odor were used here. Data from three subjects (chosen pseudo-randomly) was selected for use in the generalization phase and dropped from the training set. Output targets were constructed that took account of subjective ratings of `pleasantness.' A feed-forward network with twenty-eight input units was trained using data from the eleven remaining subjects, using conjugate gradient descent.

  2. EEG correlates of spatial orientation in the human retrosplenial complex.

    PubMed

    Lin, C-T; Chiu, T-C; Gramann, K

    2015-10-15

    Studies on spatial navigation reliably demonstrate that the retrosplenial complex (RSC) plays a pivotal role for allocentric spatial information processing by transforming egocentric and allocentric spatial information into the respective other spatial reference frame (SRF). While more and more imaging studies investigate the role of the RSC in spatial tasks, high temporal resolution measures such as electroencephalography (EEG) are missing. To investigate the function of the RSC in spatial navigation with high temporal resolution we used EEG to analyze spectral perturbations during navigation based on allocentric and egocentric SRF. Participants performed a path integration task in a clearly structured virtual environment providing allothetic information. Continuous EEG recordings were decomposed by independent component analysis (ICA) with subsequent source reconstruction of independent time source series using equivalent dipole modeling. Time-frequency transformation was used to investigate reference frame-specific orientation processes during navigation as compared to a control condition with identical visual input but no orientation task. Our results demonstrate that navigation based on an egocentric reference frame recruited a network including the parietal, motor, and occipital cortices with dominant perturbations in the alpha band and theta modulation in frontal cortex. Allocentric navigation was accompanied by performance-related desynchronization of the 8-13Hz frequency band and synchronization in the 12-14Hz band in the RSC. The results support the claim that the retrosplenial complex is central to translating egocentric spatial information into allocentric reference frames. Modulations in different frequencies with different time courses in the RSC further provide first evidence of two distinct neural processes reflecting translation of spatial information based on distinct reference frames and the computation of heading changes. PMID:26163801

  3. Optimal set of EEG features for emotional state classification and trajectory visualization in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Yuvaraj, R; Murugappan, M; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Omar, Mohd Iqbal; Mohamad, Khairiyah; Palaniappan, R

    2014-12-01

    In addition to classic motor signs and symptoms, individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) are characterized by emotional deficits. Ongoing brain activity can be recorded by electroencephalograph (EEG) to discover the links between emotional states and brain activity. This study utilized machine-learning algorithms to categorize emotional states in PD patients compared with healthy controls (HC) using EEG. Twenty non-demented PD patients and 20 healthy age-, gender-, and education level-matched controls viewed happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust emotional stimuli while fourteen-channel EEG was being recorded. Multimodal stimulus (combination of audio and visual) was used to evoke the emotions. To classify the EEG-based emotional states and visualize the changes of emotional states over time, this paper compares four kinds of EEG features for emotional state classification and proposes an approach to track the trajectory of emotion changes with manifold learning. From the experimental results using our EEG data set, we found that (a) bispectrum feature is superior to other three kinds of features, namely power spectrum, wavelet packet and nonlinear dynamical analysis; (b) higher frequency bands (alpha, beta and gamma) play a more important role in emotion activities than lower frequency bands (delta and theta) in both groups and; (c) the trajectory of emotion changes can be visualized by reducing subject-independent features with manifold learning. This provides a promising way of implementing visualization of patient's emotional state in real time and leads to a practical system for noninvasive assessment of the emotional impairments associated with neurological disorders. PMID:25109433

  4. The Sleep EEG as a Marker of Intellectual Ability in School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Anja; Huber, Reto; Kurth, Salomé; Ringli, Maya; Jenni, Oskar G.; Achermann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the within-subject stability in the sleep EEG and the association between the sleep EEG and intellectual abilities in 9- to 12-year-old children. Design: Intellectual ability (WISC-IV, full scale, fluid, and verbal IQ, working memory, speed of processing) were examined and all-night polysomnography was performed (2 nights per subject). Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Fourteen healthy children (mean age 10.5 ± 1.0 years; 6 girls). Measurements and Results: Spectral analysis was performed on artifact-free NREM sleep epochs (C3/A2). To determine intra-individual stability and inter-individual variability of the sleep EEG, power spectra were used as feature vectors for the estimation of Euclidean distances, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for the 2 nights. Sleep spindle peaks were identified for each individual and individual sigma band power was determined. Trait-like aspects of the sleep EEG were observed for sleep stage variables and spectral power. Within-subject distances were smaller than between-subject distances and ICC values ranged from 0.72 to 0.96. Correlations between spectral power in individual frequency bins and intelligence scores revealed clusters of positive associations in the alpha, sigma, and beta range for full scale IQ, fluid IQ, and working memory. Similar to adults, sigma power correlated with full scale (r = 0.67) and fluid IQ (r = 0.65), but not with verbal IQ. Spindle peak frequency was negatively related to full scale IQ (r = ?0.56). Conclusions: The sleep EEG during childhood shows high within-subject stability and may be a marker for intellectual ability. Citation: Geiger A; Huber R; Kurth S; Ringli M; Jenni OG; Achermann P. The sleep EEG as a marker of intellectual ability in school age children. SLEEP 2011;34(2):181-189. PMID:21286251

  5. Separation of circadian and wake duration-dependent modulation of EEG activation during wakefulness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cajochen, C.; Wyatt, J. K.; Czeisler, C. A.; Dijk, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    The separate contribution of circadian rhythmicity and elapsed time awake on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during wakefulness was assessed. Seven men lived in an environmental scheduling facility for 4 weeks and completed fourteen 42.85-h 'days', each consisting of an extended (28.57-h) wake episode and a 14.28-h sleep opportunity. The circadian rhythm of plasma melatonin desynchronized from the 42.85-h day. This allowed quantification of the separate contribution of circadian phase and elapsed time awake to variation in EEG power spectra (1-32 Hz). EEG activity during standardized behavioral conditions was markedly affected by both circadian phase and elapsed time awake in an EEG frequency- and derivation-specific manner. The nadir of the circadian rhythm in alpha (8-12 Hz) activity in both fronto-central and occipito-parietal derivations occurred during the biological night, close to the crest of the melatonin rhythm. The nadir of the circadian rhythm of theta (4.5-8 Hz) and beta (20-32 Hz) activity in the fronto-central derivation was located close to the onset of melatonin secretion, i.e. during the wake maintenance zone. As time awake progressed, delta frequency (1-4.5 Hz) and beta (20-32 Hz) activity rose monotonically in frontal derivations. The interaction between the circadian and wake-dependent increase in frontal delta was such that the intrusion of delta was minimal when sustained wakefulness coincided with the biological day, but pronounced during the biological night. Our data imply that the circadian pacemaker facilitates frontal EEG activation during the wake maintenance zone, by generating an arousal signal that prevents the intrusion of low-frequency EEG components, the propensity for which increases progressively during wakefulness.

  6. Enabling computer decisions based on EEG input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culpepper, Benjamin J.; Keller, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    Multilayer neural networks were successfully trained to classify segments of 12-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) data into one of five classes corresponding to five cognitive tasks performed by a subject. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to segregate obvious artifact EEG components from other sources, and a frequency-band representation was used to represent the sources computed by ICA. Examples of results include an 85% accuracy rate on differentiation between two tasks, using a segment of EEG only 0.05 s long and a 95% accuracy rate using a 0.5-s-long segment.

  7. Serum alpha 1 antitrypsin and pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Shahid, A; Siddiqui, A A; Aziz, S; Ansari, M; Zuberi, S J; Waqar, M A

    1996-05-01

    Using isoelectric focusing (IEF) and radial immunodiffusion (RID) techniques, serum samples from 100 normal healthy adults and 21 patients with pulmonary emphysema were analysed to identify various alpha 1 antitrypsin phenotypes and the serum concentrations. Ten percent of the patients had low serum values. The normal or most common genetic form, MM, is the predominant phenotype in both controls and patients. PMID:8961698

  8. EEG

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in a reclining chair. Flat metal disks called electrodes are placed all over your scalp. The disks ... held in place with a sticky paste. The electrodes are connected by wires to a recording machine. ...

  9. Atypical alpha asymmetry in adults with ADHD*

    PubMed Central

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8– 12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha asymmetry has been associated with ADHD-like traits such as reduced reward responsiveness, a lack of inhibition toward aversive experience, and increased approach behaviors, and previous work has indicated increased rightward alpha asymmetry in children with ADHD. The current study explores whether increased rightward alpha asymmetry is also evident in adults with ADHD. Method We assessed low (8– 10 Hz) and high (10– 12 Hz) alpha asymmetry in adults with ADHD (n = 29) versus controls (n = 62) during baseline and cognitive activation conditions for nine homologous electrode pairs along the anterior–posterior axis. Result Seven results emerged (p < .05) showing increased rightward alpha asymmetry in adults with ADHD. This occurred in three specific electrode pairs across two testing conditions, and five of six results occurred in the lower alpha band. Finally, post hoc analysis indicated that increased rightward alpha asymmetry was generally associated with greater numbers of ADHD symptoms—with a possible parietal association for inattentive and a fronto-temporal association for hyperactivity symptoms. Conclusions Increased rightward alpha asymmetry previously observed in children with ADHD appears to be a developmentally persistent feature of ADHD. PMID:19467358

  10. Radiofrequency signal affects alpha band in resting electroencephalogram.

    PubMed

    Ghosn, Rania; Yahia-Cherif, Lydia; Hugueville, Laurent; Ducorps, Antoine; Lemaréchal, Jean-Didier; Thuróczy, György; de Seze, René; Selmaoui, Brahim

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of the radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human resting EEG with a control of some parameters that are known to affect alpha band, such as electrode impedance, salivary cortisol, and caffeine. Eyes-open and eyes-closed resting EEG data were recorded in 26 healthy young subjects under two conditions: sham exposure and real exposure in double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover design. Spectral power of EEG rhythms was calculated for the alpha band (8-12 Hz). Saliva samples were collected before and after the study. Salivary cortisol and caffeine were assessed by ELISA and HPLC, respectively. The electrode impedance was recorded at the beginning of each run. Compared with the sham session, the exposure session showed a statistically significant (P < 0.0001) decrease of the alpha band spectral power during closed-eyes condition. This effect persisted in the postexposure session (P < 0.0001). No significant changes were detected in electrode impedance, salivary cortisol, and caffeine in the sham session compared with the exposure one. These results suggest that GSM-EMFs of a mobile phone affect the alpha band within spectral power of resting human EEG. PMID:25695646

  11. Alpha Asymmetry in Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Tierney, Adrienne L.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    An emerging focus of research on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) targets the identification of early-developing ASD endophenotypes using infant siblings of affected children. One potential neural endophenotype is resting frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha asymmetry, a metric of hemispheric organization. Here, we examined the development of…

  12. Recognition of Words from the EEG Laplacian

    E-print Network

    de Barros, J Acacio; de Mendonça, J P R F; Suppes, P

    2012-01-01

    Recent works on the relationship between the electro-encephalogram (EEG) data and psychological stimuli show that EEG recordings can be used to recognize an auditory stimulus presented to a subject. The recognition rate is, however, strongly affected by technical and physiological artifacts. In this work, subjects were presented seven auditory simuli in the form of English words (first, second, third, left, right, yes, and no), and the time-locked electric field was recorded with a 64 channel Neuroscan EEG system. We used the surface Laplacian operator to eliminate artifacts due to sources located at regions far from the electrode. Our intent with the Laplacian was to improve the recognition rates of auditory stimuli from the electric field. To compute the Laplacian, we used a spline interpolation from spherical harmonics. The EEG Laplacian of the electric field were average over trials for the same auditory stimulus, and with those averages we constructed prototypes and test samples. In addition to the Lapla...

  13. Using EEG to explore how rTMS produces its effects on behavior.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey S; Hamidi, Massihullah; Postle, Bradley R

    2010-01-01

    A commonly held view is that, when delivered during the performance of a task, repetitive TMS (rTMS) influences behavior by producing transient "virtual lesions" in targeted tissue. However, findings of rTMS-related improvements in performance are difficult to reconcile with this assumption. With regard to the mechanism whereby rTMS influences concurrent task performance, a combined rTMS/EEG study conducted in our lab has revealed a complex set of relations between rTMS, EEG activity, and behavioral performance, with the effects of rTMS on power in the alpha band and on alpha:gamma phase synchrony each predicting its effect on behavior. These findings suggest that rTMS influences performance by biasing endogenous task-related oscillatory dynamics, rather than creating a "virtual lesion". To further differentiate these two alternatives, in the present study we compared the effects of 10 Hz rTMS on neural activity with the results of an experiment in which rTMS was replaced with 10 Hz luminance flicker. We reasoned that 10 Hz flicker would produce widespread entrainment of neural activity to the flicker frequency, and comparison of these EEG results with those from the rTMS study would shed light on whether the latter also reflected entrainment to an exogenous stimulus. Results revealed pronounced evidence for "entrainment noise" produced by 10 Hz flicker-increased oscillatory power and inter-trial coherence (ITC) at the driving frequency, and increased alpha:gamma phase synchronization-that were nonetheless largely uncorrelated with behavior. This contrasts markedly with 10-Hz rTMS, for which the only evidence for stimulation-induced noise, elevated ITC at 30 Hz, differed qualitatively from the flicker results. Simultaneous recording of the EEG thus offers an important means of directly testing assumptions about how rTMS exerts its effects on behavior. PMID:19915972

  14. [Effect of swinging on EEG of rats of juvenile age in the wakefulness state].

    PubMed

    Lychakov, D V; Aristakesian, E A; Oganesian, G A

    2007-01-01

    Simultaneous recording of the EEG activity of superficial cortical and deep (caudate nucleus, dorsal hippocampus, anterior hypothalamus) brain parts has been performed for the first time after a 2-h swinging of frequency of 0.2 Hz in Wistar rats of juvenile age. Swinging was produced on a 4-bar parallel swing. Using a Neuron-Spectr electroencephalograph and a Diana program, normalized power spectra of wave EEG components, synchronization coefficients, and coefficients of cross-correlation between bioelectrical potentials of various brain structures were determined. After a 2-h swinging, the mean value of normalized power of slow waves of delta-diapason in hypothalamus and hippocampus was found to increase statistically significantly, while normalized power of fast waves of alpha- and beta1-diapasons in hippocampus decreased (p < 0.05). A statistically significant increase of synchronization coefficient was observed in hypothalamus and hippocampus. Changes of coefficients of cross-correlation between hypothalamus and hippocampus and other brain strictures were of the oppositely directed, individual character. In the parietal occipital brain cortex and in caudate nucleus, the changes of the EEG spectral composition also were of individual character. The obtained results on the whole correspond to data about an enhancement of the EEG low-frequency rhythms at swinging and agree with the resonance hypothesis of motion sickness. PMID:18038641

  15. Short-Term EEG Spectral Pattern as a Single Event in EEG Phenomenology

    PubMed Central

    Fingelkurts, Al. A; Fingelkurts, An. A

    2010-01-01

    Spectral decomposition, to this day, still remains the main analytical paradigm for the analysis of EEG oscillations. However, conventional spectral analysis assesses the mean characteristics of the EEG power spectra averaged out over extended periods of time and/or broad frequency bands, thus resulting in a “static” picture which cannot reflect adequately the underlying neurodynamic. A relatively new promising area in the study of EEG is based on reducing the signal to elementary short-term spectra of various types in accordance with the number of types of EEG stationary segments instead of using averaged power spectrum for the whole EEG. It is suggested that the various perceptual and cognitive operations associated with a mental or behavioural condition constitute a single distinguishable neurophysiological state with a distinct and reliable spectral pattern. In this case, one type of short-term spectral pattern may be considered as a single event in EEG phenomenology. To support this assumption the following issues are considered in detail: (a) the relations between local EEG short-term spectral pattern of particular type and the actual state of the neurons in underlying network and a volume conduction; (b) relationship between morphology of EEG short-term spectral pattern and the state of the underlying neurodynamical system i.e. neuronal assembly; (c) relation of different spectral pattern components to a distinct physiological mechanism; (d) relation of different spectral pattern components to different functional significance; (e) developmental changes of spectral pattern components; (f) heredity of the variance in the individual spectral pattern and its components; (g) intra-individual stability of the sets of EEG short-term spectral patterns and their percent ratio; (h) discrete dynamics of EEG short-term spectral patterns. Functional relevance (consistency) of EEG short-term spectral patterns in accordance with the changes of brain functional state, cognitive task and with different neuropsychopathologies is demonstrated. PMID:21379390

  16. Brain Networks Responsible for Sense of Agency: An EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Miseon; Nahab, Fatta B.; Park, Jihye; Kim, Do-Won; Kakareka, John; Miletta, Nathanial; Hallett, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-agency (SA) is a person’s feeling that his action was generated by himself. The neural substrates of SA have been investigated in many neuroimaging studies, but the functional connectivity of identified regions has rarely been investigated. The goal of this study is to investigate the neural network related to SA. Methods SA of hand movements was modulated with virtual reality. We examined the cortical network relating to SA modulation with electroencephalography (EEG) power spectrum and phase coherence of alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands in 16 right-handed, healthy volunteers. Results In the alpha band, significant relative power changes and phase coherence of alpha band were associated with SA modulation. The relative power decrease over the central, bilateral parietal, and right temporal regions (C4, Pz, P3, P4, T6) became larger as participants more effectively controlled the virtual hand movements. The phase coherence of the alpha band within frontal areas (F7-FP2, F7-Fz) was directly related to changes in SA. The functional connectivity was lower as the participants felt that they could control their virtual hand. In the other frequency bands, significant phase coherences were observed in the frontal (or central) to parietal, temporal, and occipital regions during SA modulation (Fz-O1, F3-O1, Cz-O1, C3-T4L in beta band; FP1-T6, FP1-O2, F7-T4L, F8-Cz in gamma band). Conclusions Our study suggests that alpha band activity may be the main neural oscillation of SA, which suggests that the neural network within the anterior frontal area may be important in the generation of SA. PMID:26270552

  17. Chronic activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha with fenofibrate prevents alterations in cardiac metabolic phenotype without changing the onset of decompensation in pacing-induced heart failure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Severe heart failure (HF) is characterized by profound alterations in cardiac metabolic phenotype, with down-regulation of the free fatty acid (FFA) oxidative pathway and marked increase in glucose oxidation. We tested whether fenofibrate, a pharmacological agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activat...

  18. Alpha Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Term that is sometimes used to describe a helium nucleus, a positively charged particle that consists of two protons and two neutrons, bound together. Alpha particles, which were discovered by Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) in 1898, are emitted by atomic nuclei that are undergoing alpha radioactivity. During this process, an unstable heavy nucleus spontaneously emits an alpha particle and transmut...

  19. Integration of differences in EEG analysis reveals changes in human EEG caused by microwave.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Maie; Lass, Jaanus; Kalda, Jaan; Säkki, Maksim; Tomson, Ruth; Tuulik, Viiu; Hinrikus, Hiie

    2006-01-01

    Three different methods in combination with integration of differences in signals were applied for EEG analysis to distinguish changes in EEG caused by microwave: S-parameter, power spectral density and length distribution of low variability periods. The experiments on the effect of modulated low-level microwaves on human EEG were carried out on four different groups of healthy volunteers exposed to 450 MHz microwave radiation modulated with 7 Hz, 14 Hz, 21 Hz, 40 Hz, 70 Hz, 217 or 1000 Hz frequencies. The field power density at the scalp was 0.16 mW/cm2. The EEG analysis performed for individuals with three different methods showed that statistically significant changes occur in the EEG rhythms energy and dynamics between 12% and 30% of subjects. PMID:17946053

  20. Ordinal patterns in epileptic brains: Analysis of intracranial EEG and simultaneous EEG-fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, C.; Abela, E.; Hauf, M.; Wiest, R.; Schindler, K.

    2013-06-01

    Epileptic seizures are associated with high behavioral stereotypy of the patients. In the EEG of epilepsy patients characteristic signal patterns can be found during and between seizures. Here we use ordinal patterns to analyze EEGs of epilepsy patients and quantify the degree of signal determinism. Besides relative signal redundancy and the fraction of forbidden patterns we introduce the fraction of under-represented patterns as a new measure. Using the logistic map, parameter scans are performed to explore the sensitivity of the measures to signal determinism. Thereafter, application is made to two types of EEGs recorded in two epilepsy patients. Intracranial EEG shows pronounced determinism peaks during seizures. Finally, we demonstrate that ordinal patterns may be useful for improving analysis of non-invasive simultaneous EEG-fMRI.

  1. Time course of EEG oscillations during repeated listening of a well-known aria.

    PubMed

    Jäncke, Lutz; Kühnis, Jürg; Rogenmoser, Lars; Elmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    While previous studies have analyzed mean neurophysiological responses to musical stimuli, the current study aimed to identify specific time courses of electroencephalography (EEG) oscillations, which are associated with dynamic changes in the acoustic features of the musical stimulus. In addition, we were interested in whether these time courses change during a repeated presentation of the same musical piece. A total of 16 subjects repeatedly listened to the well-known aria "Nessun dorma," sung by Paul Potts, while continuous 128-channel EEG and heart rate, as well as electrodermal responses, were recorded. The time courses for the EEG oscillations were calculated using a time resolution of 1 second for several frequency bands, on the basis of individual alpha-peak frequencies (theta, low alpha-1, low alpha-2, upper alpha, and beta). For all frequency bands, we identified a more or less continuous increase in power relative to a baseline period, indicating strong event-related synchronization (ERS) during music listening. The ERS time courses, however, did not correlate strongly with the time courses of the acoustic features of the aria. In addition, we did not observe changes in EEG oscillations after repeated presentation of the same musical piece. Aside from this distinctive feature, we identified a remarkable variability in EEG oscillations, both within and between the repeated presentations of the aria. We interpret the continuous increase in ERS observed in all frequency bands during music listening as an indicator of a particular neurophysiological and psychological state evoked by music listening. We suggest that this state is characterized by increased internal attention (accompanied by reduced external attention), increased inhibition of brain networks not involved in the generation of this internal state, the maintenance of a particular level of general alertness, and a type of brain state that can be described as "mind wandering." The overall state can be categorized as a psychological process that may be seen as a "drawing in" to the musical piece. However, this state is not stable and varies considerably throughout the music listening session and across subjects. Most important, however, is the finding that the neurophysiological activations occurring during music listening are dynamic and not stationary. PMID:26257624

  2. Time course of EEG oscillations during repeated listening of a well-known aria

    PubMed Central

    Jäncke, Lutz; Kühnis, Jürg; Rogenmoser, Lars; Elmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    While previous studies have analyzed mean neurophysiological responses to musical stimuli, the current study aimed to identify specific time courses of electroencephalography (EEG) oscillations, which are associated with dynamic changes in the acoustic features of the musical stimulus. In addition, we were interested in whether these time courses change during a repeated presentation of the same musical piece. A total of 16 subjects repeatedly listened to the well-known aria “Nessun dorma,” sung by Paul Potts, while continuous 128-channel EEG and heart rate, as well as electrodermal responses, were recorded. The time courses for the EEG oscillations were calculated using a time resolution of 1 second for several frequency bands, on the basis of individual alpha-peak frequencies (theta, low alpha-1, low alpha-2, upper alpha, and beta). For all frequency bands, we identified a more or less continuous increase in power relative to a baseline period, indicating strong event-related synchronization (ERS) during music listening. The ERS time courses, however, did not correlate strongly with the time courses of the acoustic features of the aria. In addition, we did not observe changes in EEG oscillations after repeated presentation of the same musical piece. Aside from this distinctive feature, we identified a remarkable variability in EEG oscillations, both within and between the repeated presentations of the aria. We interpret the continuous increase in ERS observed in all frequency bands during music listening as an indicator of a particular neurophysiological and psychological state evoked by music listening. We suggest that this state is characterized by increased internal attention (accompanied by reduced external attention), increased inhibition of brain networks not involved in the generation of this internal state, the maintenance of a particular level of general alertness, and a type of brain state that can be described as “mind wandering.” The overall state can be categorized as a psychological process that may be seen as a “drawing in” to the musical piece. However, this state is not stable and varies considerably throughout the music listening session and across subjects. Most important, however, is the finding that the neurophysiological activations occurring during music listening are dynamic and not stationary. PMID:26257624

  3. Instantaneous frequency based newborn EEG seizure characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesbah, Mostefa; O'Toole, John M.; Colditz, Paul B.; Boashash, Boualem

    2012-12-01

    The electroencephalogram (EEG), used to noninvasively monitor brain activity, remains the most reliable tool in the diagnosis of neonatal seizures. Due to their nonstationary and multi-component nature, newborn EEG seizures are better represented in the joint time-frequency domain than in either the time domain or the frequency domain. Characterising newborn EEG seizure nonstationarities helps to better understand their time-varying nature and, therefore, allow developing efficient signal processing methods for both modelling and seizure detection and classification. In this article, we used the instantaneous frequency (IF) extracted from a time-frequency distribution to characterise newborn EEG seizures. We fitted four frequency modulated (FM) models to the extracted IFs, namely a linear FM, a piecewise-linear FM, a sinusoidal FM, and a hyperbolic FM. Using a database of 30-s EEG seizure epochs acquired from 35 newborns, we were able to show that, depending on EEG channel, the sinusoidal and piecewise-linear FM models best fitted 80-98% of seizure epochs. To further characterise the EEG seizures, we calculated the mean frequency and frequency span of the extracted IFs. We showed that in the majority of the cases (>95%), the mean frequency resides in the 0.6-3 Hz band with a frequency span of 0.2-1 Hz. In terms of the frequency of occurrence of the four seizure models, the statistical analysis showed that there is no significant difference( p = 0.332) between the two hemispheres. The results also indicate that there is no significant differences between the two hemispheres in terms of the mean frequency ( p = 0.186) and the frequency span ( p = 0.302).

  4. The dark side of the alpha rhythm: fMRI evidence for induced alpha modulation during complete darkness.

    PubMed

    Ben-Simon, Eti; Podlipsky, Ilana; Okon-Singer, Hadas; Gruberger, Michal; Cvetkovic, Dean; Intrator, Nathan; Hendler, Talma

    2013-03-01

    The unique role of the EEG alpha rhythm in different states of cortical activity is still debated. The main theories regarding alpha function posit either sensory processing or attention allocation as the main processes governing its modulation. Closing and opening eyes, a well-known manipulation of the alpha rhythm, could be regarded as attention allocation from inward to outward focus though during light is also accompanied by visual change. To disentangle the effects of attention allocation and sensory visual input on alpha modulation, 14 healthy subjects were asked to open and close their eyes during conditions of light and of complete darkness while simultaneous recordings of EEG and fMRI were acquired. Thus, during complete darkness the eyes-open condition is not related to visual input but only to attention allocation, allowing direct examination of its role in alpha modulation. A data-driven ridge regression classifier was applied to the EEG data in order to ascertain the contribution of the alpha rhythm to eyes-open/eyes-closed inference in both lighting conditions. Classifier results revealed significant alpha contribution during both light and dark conditions, suggesting that alpha rhythm modulation is closely linked to the change in the direction of attention regardless of the presence of visual sensory input. Furthermore, fMRI activation maps derived from an alpha modulation time-course during the complete darkness condition exhibited a right frontal cortical network associated with attention allocation. These findings support the importance of top-down processes such as attention allocation to alpha rhythm modulation, possibly as a prerequisite to its known bottom-up processing of sensory input. PMID:23216771

  5. Sex differences between the combined and inattentive types of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an EEG perspective.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Franca E; Barry, Robert J; Clarke, Adam R; McCarthy, Rory; Selikowitz, Mark

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated sex differences between the EEGs of Combined and Inattentive types of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) within boys and girls aged 8-12 years. Subject groups included 80 AD/HD Combined type (40 boys and 40 girls), 80 AD/HD Inattentive type (40 boys and 40 girls) and 80 controls (40 boys and 40 girls). An eyes-closed resting EEG was recorded and Fourier transformed to provide estimates for absolute and relative power in the delta, theta, alpha and beta frequency bands, as well as total power and the theta/beta ratio. The boy AD/HD groups, compared with boy controls, had greater absolute and relative theta, greater theta/beta ratio, reduced absolute and relative alpha, and reduced absolute and relative beta. The girl AD/HD groups, compared with girl controls, had greater absolute delta, greater absolute and relative theta, greater theta/beta ratio, greater total power, and reduced relative delta and relative beta. Between AD/HD types, Combined type boys had globally greater absolute and relative theta, greater theta/beta ratio, and less relative alpha than Inattentive type boys. While topographical differences emerged, there were no significant global differences between AD/HD types in girls. That is, EEG differences between AD/HD types are dissimilar in boys and girls. Different EEG maturational patterns between boys and girls also obscure AD/HD-related EEG abnormalities. These results have important implications for our understanding of AD/HD in girls. Ignoring such sex differences may have compromised the value of previous AD/HD investigations, and these sex differences should be recognised in future research. PMID:23603052

  6. Real-time EEG feedback during simultaneous EEG-fMRI identifies the cortical signature of motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Zich, Catharina; Debener, Stefan; Kranczioch, Cornelia; Bleichner, Martin G; Gutberlet, Ingmar; De Vos, Maarten

    2015-07-01

    Motor imagery (MI) combined with real-time electroencephalogram (EEG) feedback is a popular approach for steering brain-computer interfaces (BCI). MI BCI has been considered promising as add-on therapy to support motor recovery after stroke. Yet whether EEG neurofeedback indeed targets specific sensorimotor activation patterns cannot be unambiguously inferred from EEG alone. We combined MI EEG neurofeedback with concurrent and continuous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to characterize the relationship between MI EEG neurofeedback and activation in cortical sensorimotor areas. EEG signals were corrected online from interfering MRI gradient and ballistocardiogram artifacts, enabling the delivery of real-time EEG feedback. Significantly enhanced task-specific brain activity during feedback compared to no feedback blocks was present in EEG and fMRI. Moreover, the contralateral MI related decrease in EEG sensorimotor rhythm amplitude correlated inversely with fMRI activation in the contralateral sensorimotor areas, whereas a lateralized fMRI pattern did not necessarily go along with a lateralized EEG pattern. Together, the findings indicate a complex relationship between MI EEG signals and sensorimotor cortical activity, whereby both are similarly modulated by EEG neurofeedback. This finding supports the potential of MI EEG neurofeedback for motor rehabilitation and helps to better understand individual differences in MI BCI performance. PMID:25887263

  7. Music therapy modulates fronto-temporal activity in rest-EEG in depressed clients.

    PubMed

    Fachner, Jörg; Gold, Christian; Erkkilä, Jaakko

    2013-04-01

    Fronto-temporal areas process shared elements of speech and music. Improvisational psychodynamic music therapy (MT) utilizes verbal and musical reflection on emotions and images arising from clinical improvisation. Music listening is shifting frontal alpha asymmetries (FAA) in depression, and increases frontal midline theta (FMT). In a two-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 79 depressed clients (with comorbid anxiety), we compared standard care (SC) versus MT added to SC at intake and after 3 months. We found that MT significantly reduced depression and anxiety symptoms. The purpose of this study is to test whether or not MT has an impact on anterior fronto-temporal resting state alpha and theta oscillations. Correlations between anterior EEG, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety Subscale (HADS-A), power spectral analysis (topography, means, asymmetry) and normative EEG database comparisons were explored. After 3 month of MT, lasting changes in resting EEG were observed, i.e., significant absolute power increases at left fronto-temporal alpha, but most distinct for theta (also at left fronto-central and right temporoparietal leads). MT differed to SC at F7-F8 (z scored FAA, p < .03) and T3-T4 (theta, p < .005) asymmetry scores, pointing towards decreased relative left-sided brain activity after MT; pre/post increased FMT and decreased HADS-A scores (r = .42, p < .05) indicate reduced anxiety after MT. Verbal reflection and improvising on emotions in MT may induce neural reorganization in fronto-temporal areas. Alpha and theta changes in fronto-temporal and temporoparietal areas indicate MT action and treatment effects on cortical activity in depression, suggesting an impact of MT on anxiety reduction. PMID:22983820

  8. Effect of immobilization on the EEG of the baboon. Comparison with telemetry results from unrestricted animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bert, J.; Collomb, H.

    1980-01-01

    The EEG of the baboon was studied under two very different sets of conditions: 37 were totally immobolized while 12 were studied in their free movements with 4 channel telemetry. For the immobilzed, 3 stages were described: (1) activation, record desynchronized; (2) rest with 13-15 cm/sec rhythm, like the human alpha rhythm stage but with eyes open or closed; (3)relaxation with a decrease in 13-15 rhythm and the appearance of 5-7 cm/sec theta waves, eyelids closed, animal apparently sleeping. For the free animals the rest stage appeared when the animal's attention was not directed anywhere and there was no relaxation stage. It is concluded that the EEG pattern of the immobilized animal that was described as the "relaxation" stage really represents a special functional state which one must distinguish clearly from the physiological stages of sleep.

  9. Spatio-temporal EEG power spectral patterns during a short daytime nap.

    PubMed

    Luo, Z; Honda, K; Inoué, S

    2001-06-01

    This is an approach to investigate topographic changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) spectral power during pre- and post-nap wakefulness as well as stages 1 (S1) and 2 (S2) NREM sleep in 12 subjects. Delta- and theta-band power significantly increased in the frontal and central regions during S1 and S2 with an increase in inter- and intra-hemispheric correlations. Beta-band power significantly increased in the frontal, central and parietal regions during S2 with an increase in interhemispheric correlation. In contrast, alpha-band power significantly decreased in the parietal-occipital regions during S1 and S2 with a decrease in interhemispheric correlation. Thus, daytime nap modulated spatio-temporal patterns of EEG power spectral patterns in wide scalp regions. PMID:11422838

  10. Estimation of eye closure degree using EEG sensors and its application in driver drowsiness detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    Currently, driver drowsiness detectors using video based technology is being widely studied. Eyelid closure degree (ECD) is the main measure of the video-based methods, however, drawbacks such as brightness limitations and practical hurdles such as distraction of the drivers limits its success. This study presents a way to compute the ECD using EEG sensors instead of video-based methods. The premise is that the ECD exhibits a linear relationship with changes of the occipital EEG. A total of 30 subjects are included in this study: ten of them participated in a simple proof-of-concept experiment to verify the linear relationship between ECD and EEG, and then twenty participated in a monotonous highway driving experiment in a driving simulator environment to test the robustness of the linear relationship in real-life applications. Taking the video-based method as a reference, the Alpha power percentage from the O2 channel is found to be the best input feature for linear regression estimation of the ECD. The best overall squared correlation coefficient (SCC, denoted by r2) and mean squared error (MSE) validated by linear support vector regression model and leave one subject out method is r2 = 0.930 and MSE = 0.013. The proposed linear EEG-ECD model can achieve 87.5% and 70.0% accuracy for male and female subjects, respectively, for a driver drowsiness application, percentage eyelid closure over the pupil over time (PERCLOS). This new ECD estimation method not only addresses the video-based method drawbacks, but also makes ECD estimation more computationally efficient and easier to implement in EEG sensors in a real time way. PMID:25237899

  11. EEG profile of litoxetine after single and repeated administration in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Patat, A; Trocherie, S; Thébault, J J; Rosenzweig, P; Dubruc, C; Bianchetti, G; Morselli, P L; Court, L A

    1994-01-01

    1. Litoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with antidepressant activity in animal models and in depressed patients. 2. This double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study was carried out in 12 healthy young male volunteers. The aim was to assess the EEG profile of litoxetine in parallel with its pharmacokinetics after a single dose or multiple administrations for 4 days (6 doses) of two dosages (10 mg and 25 mg). Spectral analysis of four EEG leads (F4-T4, F3-T3, T4-02 and T3-01) was done up to 12 h post-dose. 3. In single or multiple doses, litoxetine induced EEG changes characterised by a dose-related increase in fast beta energies, mainly beta 2, without any changes in slow waves (delta and theta). A slight reduction in alpha activity occurred only after repeated doses. 4. EEG changes occurred after a single oral administration and lasted at least 12 h with litoxetine blood concentrations ranging from 4 to 10 ng ml-1. With repeated administrations, the pharmacodynamic steady-state was achieved as the increase in beta 2 energies was the same before and 12 h post-dose. These effects occurred with litoxetine blood concentrations ranging from 3 to 7 ng ml-1 with the 10 mg dosage and from 8 to 18 ng ml-1 with the 25 mg dosage. The EEG profile did not change after 4 days of repeated administration, indicating that tolerance did not develop. 5. Cmax and AUC showed proportionality between the administered dosages of 10 and 25 mg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8186061

  12. Odds Ratio Product of Sleep EEG as a Continuous Measure of Sleep State

    PubMed Central

    Younes, Magdy; Ostrowski, Michele; Soiferman, Marc; Younes, Henry; Younes, Mark; Raneri, Jill; Hanly, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To develop and validate an algorithm that provides a continuous estimate of sleep depth from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Design: Retrospective analysis of polysomnograms. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: 114 patients who underwent clinical polysomnography in sleep centers at the University of Manitoba (n = 58) and the University of Calgary (n = 56). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Power spectrum of EEG was determined in 3-second epochs and divided into delta, theta, alpha-sigma, and beta frequency bands. The range of powers in each band was divided into 10 aliquots. EEG patterns were assigned a 4-digit number that reflects the relative power in the 4 frequency ranges (10,000 possible patterns). Probability of each pattern occurring in 30-s epochs staged awake was determined, resulting in a continuous probability value from 0% to 100%. This was divided by 40 (% of epochs staged awake) producing the odds ratio product (ORP), with a range of 0–2.5. In validation testing, average ORP decreased progressively as EEG progressed from wakefulness (2.19 ± 0.29) to stage N3 (0.13 ± 0.05). ORP < 1.0 predicted sleep and ORP > 2.0 predicted wakefulness in > 95% of 30-s epochs. Epochs with intermediate ORP occurred in unstable sleep with a high arousal index (> 70/h) and were subject to much interrater scoring variability. There was an excellent correlation (r2 = 0.98) between ORP in current 30-s epochs and the likelihood of arousal or awakening occurring in the next 30-s epoch. Conclusions: Our results support the use of the odds ratio product (ORP) as a continuous measure of sleep depth. Citation: Younes M, Ostrowski M, Soiferman M, Younes H, Younes M, Raneri J, Hanly P. Odds ratio product of sleep EEG as a continuous measure of sleep state. SLEEP 2015;38(4):641–654. PMID:25348125

  13. Estimation of Eye Closure Degree Using EEG Sensors and Its Application in Driver Drowsiness Detection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    Currently, driver drowsiness detectors using video based technology is being widely studied. Eyelid closure degree (ECD) is the main measure of the video-based methods, however, drawbacks such as brightness limitations and practical hurdles such as distraction of the drivers limits its success. This study presents a way to compute the ECD using EEG sensors instead of video-based methods. The premise is that the ECD exhibits a linear relationship with changes of the occipital EEG. A total of 30 subjects are included in this study: ten of them participated in a simple proof-of-concept experiment to verify the linear relationship between ECD and EEG, and then twenty participated in a monotonous highway driving experiment in a driving simulator environment to test the robustness of the linear relationship in real-life applications. Taking the video-based method as a reference, the Alpha power percentage from the O2 channel is found to be the best input feature for linear regression estimation of the ECD. The best overall squared correlation coefficient (SCC, denoted by r2) and mean squared error (MSE) validated by linear support vector regression model and leave one subject out method is r2 = 0.930 and MSE = 0.013. The proposed linear EEG-ECD model can achieve 87.5% and 70.0% accuracy for male and female subjects, respectively, for a driver drowsiness application, percentage eyelid closure over the pupil over time (PERCLOS). This new ECD estimation method not only addresses the video-based method drawbacks, but also makes ECD estimation more computationally efficient and easier to implement in EEG sensors in a real time way. PMID:25237899

  14. Attention and Working Memory-Related EEG Markers of Subtle Cognitive Deterioration in Healthy Elderly Individuals.

    PubMed

    Deiber, Marie-Pierre; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Hasler, Roland; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Toma, Simona; Ackermann, Marine; Herrmann, François; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2015-07-24

    Future treatments of Alzheimer's disease need the identification of cases at high risk at the preclinical stage of the disease before the development of irreversible structural damage. We investigated here whether subtle cognitive deterioration in a population of healthy elderly individuals could be predicted by EEG signals at baseline under cognitive activation. Continuous EEG was recorded in 97 elderly control subjects and 45 age-matched mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cases during a simple attentional and a 2-back working memory task. Upon 18-month neuropsychological follow-up, the final sample included 55 stable (sCON) and 42 deteriorated (dCON) controls. We examined the P1, N1, P3, and PNwm event-related components as well as the oscillatory activities in the theta (4-7?Hz), alpha (8-13?Hz), and beta (14-25?Hz) frequency ranges (ERD/ERS: event-related desynchronization/synchronization, and ITC: inter-trial coherence). Behavioral performance, P1, and N1 components were comparable in all groups. The P3, PNwm, and all oscillatory activity indices were altered in MCI cases compared to controls. Only three EEG indices distinguished the two control groups: alpha and beta ERD (dCON?> ?sCON) and beta ITC (dCON?< ?sCON). These findings show that subtle cognitive deterioration has no impact on EEG indices associated with perception, discrimination, and working memory processes but mostly affects attention, resulting in an enhanced recruitment of attentional resources. In addition, cognitive decline alters neural firing synchronization at high frequencies (14-25?Hz) at early stages, and possibly affects lower frequencies (4-13?Hz) only at more severe stages. PMID:26401557

  15. Inter-hemispheric EEG coherence analysis in Parkinson's disease: assessing brain activity during emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Yuvaraj, R; Murugappan, M; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Omar, Mohd Iqbal; Mohamad, Khairiyah; Palaniappan, R; Satiyan, M

    2015-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is not only characterized by its prominent motor symptoms but also associated with disturbances in cognitive and emotional functioning. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of emotion processing on inter-hemispheric electroencephalography (EEG) coherence in PD. Multimodal emotional stimuli (happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust) were presented to 20 PD patients and 30 age-, education level-, and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) while EEG was recorded. Inter-hemispheric coherence was computed from seven homologous EEG electrode pairs (AF3-AF4, F7-F8, F3-F4, FC5-FC6, T7-T8, P7-P8, and O1-O2) for delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. In addition, subjective ratings were obtained for a representative of emotional stimuli. Interhemispherically, PD patients showed significantly lower coherence in theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands than HC during emotion processing. No significant changes were found in the delta frequency band coherence. We also found that PD patients were more impaired in recognizing negative emotions (sadness, fear, anger, and disgust) than relatively positive emotions (happiness and surprise). Behaviorally, PD patients did not show impairment in emotion recognition as measured by subjective ratings. These findings suggest that PD patients may have an impairment of inter-hemispheric functional connectivity (i.e., a decline in cortical connectivity) during emotion processing. This study may increase the awareness of EEG emotional response studies in clinical practice to uncover potential neurophysiologic abnormalities. PMID:24894699

  16. Exploring miniaturized EEG electrodes for brain-computer interfaces. An EEG you do not see?

    PubMed Central

    Bleichner, Martin G; Lundbeck, Micha; Selisky, Matthias; Minow, Falk; Jäger, Manuela; Emkes, Reiner; Debener, Stefan; De Vos, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) allows the study of the brain–behavior relationship in humans. Most of what we have learned with EEG was through observing the brain–behavior relationship under well-controlled laboratory conditions. However, by reducing “normal” behavior to a minimum the ecological validity of the results can be limited. Recent developments toward mobile EEG solutions allow to study the brain–behavior relationship outside the laboratory in more natural situations. Besides mobility and robustness with respect to motion, mobile EEG systems should also interfere as little as possible with the participant's behavior. For example, natural interaction with other people could be hindered when it is obvious that a participant wears an EEG cap. This study evaluates the signal quality obtained with an unobtrusive solution for EEG monitoring through the integration of miniaturized EEG ton-electrodes into both a discreet baseball cap and an individualized ear piece. We show that such mini electrodes located at scalp and ear locations can reliably record event related potentials in a P300 brain–computer–interface application. PMID:25847919

  17. EEG Asymmetry at 10 Months of Age: Are Temperament Trait

    E-print Network

    EEG Asymmetry at 10 Months of Age: Are Temperament Trait Predictors Different for Boys and Girls was examined as a potential moderator of links between infant temperament at 5 months, and frontal EEG: temperament; infancy; EEG asymmetry; gender differences; moderator effects INTRODUCTION According to the Fox

  18. Developmental Quantitative EEG Differences during Psychomotor Response to Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flohr, John W.; Miller, Daniel C.

    This study examined the electrophysiological differences between baseline EEG frequencies and EEG frequencies obtained during a psychomotor response to musical stimuli. Subjects were 9 children, with mean age of 5.2 years old. Electrophysiological differences between two different musical conditions were also compared. EEG was recorded during 3…

  19. 21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum....1420 Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification. An electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to display the frequency content or power...

  20. 21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum....1420 Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification. An electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to display the frequency content or power...

  1. 21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum....1420 Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification. An electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to display the frequency content or power...

  2. 21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum....1420 Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification. An electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to display the frequency content or power...

  3. 21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum....1420 Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification. An electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to display the frequency content or power...

  4. Building mouse phenotype ontologies.

    PubMed

    Gkoutos, G V; Green, E C J; Mallon, A M; Hancock, J M; Davidson, D

    2004-01-01

    The structured description of mutant phenotypes presents a major conceptual and practical problem. A general model for generating mouse phenotype ontologies that involves combing a variety of different ontologies to better link and describe phenotypes is presented. This model is based on the Phenotype and Trait Ontology schema proposal and incorporates practical limitations and designing solutions in an attempt to model a testbed for the first phenotype ontology constructed in this manner, namely the mouse behavior phenotype ontology. We propose the application of such a model could provide curators with a powerful mechanism of annotation, mining and knowledge representation as well as achieving some level of free text disassociation. PMID:14992502

  5. Alpha Rhythms in Audition: Cognitive and Clinical Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, Nathan; Hartmann, Thomas; Müller, Nadia; Lorenz, Isabel; Obleser, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Like the visual and the sensorimotor systems, the auditory system exhibits pronounced alpha-like resting oscillatory activity. Due to the relatively small spatial extent of auditory cortical areas, this rhythmic activity is less obvious and frequently masked by non-auditory alpha-generators when recording non-invasively using magnetoencephalography (MEG) or electroencephalography (EEG). Following stimulation with sounds, marked desynchronizations can be observed between 6 and 12?Hz, which can be localized to the auditory cortex. However knowledge about the functional relevance of the auditory alpha rhythm has remained scarce so far. Results from the visual and sensorimotor system have fuelled the hypothesis of alpha activity reflecting a state of functional inhibition. The current article pursues several intentions: (1) Firstly we review and present own evidence (MEG, EEG, sEEG) for the existence of an auditory alpha-like rhythm independent of visual or motor generators, something that is occasionally met with skepticism. (2) In a second part we will discuss tinnitus and how this audiological symptom may relate to reduced background alpha. The clinical part will give an introduction into a method which aims to modulate neurophysiological activity hypothesized to underlie this distressing disorder. Using neurofeedback, one is able to directly target relevant oscillatory activity. Preliminary data point to a high potential of this approach for treating tinnitus. (3) Finally, in a cognitive neuroscientific part we will show that auditory alpha is modulated by anticipation/expectations with and without auditory stimulation. We will also introduce ideas and initial evidence that alpha oscillations are involved in the most complex capability of the auditory system, namely speech perception. The evidence presented in this article corroborates findings from other modalities, indicating that alpha-like activity functionally has an universal inhibitory role across sensory modalities. PMID:21687444

  6. Modification of EEG functional connectivity and EEG power spectra in overweight and obese patients with food addiction: An eLORETA study.

    PubMed

    Imperatori, Claudio; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta; Innamorati, Marco; Farina, Benedetto; Quintiliani, Maria Isabella; Lamis, Dorian A; Mazzucchi, Edoardo; Contardi, Anna; Vollono, Catello; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the modifications of electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectra and EEG connectivity in overweight and obese patients with elevated food addiction (FA) symptoms. Fourteen overweight and obese patients (3 men and 11 women) with three or more FA symptoms and fourteen overweight and obese patients (3 men and 11 women) with two or less FA symptoms were included in the study. EEG was recorded during three different conditions: 1) five minutes resting state (RS), 2) five minutes resting state after a single taste of a chocolate milkshake (ML-RS), and 3) five minutes resting state after a single taste of control neutral solution (N-RS). EEG analyses were conducted by means of the exact Low Resolution Electric Tomography software (eLORETA). Significant modification was observed only in the ML-RS condition. Compared to controls, patients with three or more FA symptoms showed an increase of delta power in the right middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann Area [BA] 8) and in the right precentral gyrus (BA 9), and theta power in the right insula (BA 13) and in the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47). Furthermore, compared to controls, patients with three or more FA symptoms showed an increase of functional connectivity in fronto-parietal areas in both the theta and alpha band. The increase of functional connectivity was also positively associated with the number of FA symptoms. Taken together, our results show that FA has similar neurophysiological correlates of other forms of substance-related and addictive disorders suggesting similar psychopathological mechanisms. PMID:25332109

  7. The processing and transmission of EEG data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, A. E.

    1974-01-01

    Interest in sleep research was stimulated by the discovery of a number of physiological changes that occur during sleep and by the observed effects of sleep on physical and mental performance and status. The use of the relatively new methods of EEG measurement, transmission, and automatic scoring makes sleep analysis and categorization feasible. Sleep research involving the use of the EEG as a fundamental input has the potential of answering many unanswered questions involving physical and mental behavior, drug effects, circadian rhythm, and anesthesia.

  8. Automated analysis of EEG: opportunities and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nicholas R; Doolittle, Luke M

    2010-12-01

    Automated analysis is the transformation and representation of raw EEG data in an alternate form to allow clinicians to better or more quickly understand and interpret the data for diagnostic purposes. For the purposes of development, automated analysis encompasses everything from simple transforms such as the Fast Fourier Transform for isolating spectral components of EEG to full binary detectors. These analyses can help clinicians detect and diagnose clinical conditions such as seizures, traumatic brain injuries, and many other types of disease. In this article, opportunities and hazards will be examined as seen from the prospective of the automated analysis developer. PMID:21076328

  9. Fractal Dimension in Epileptic EEG Signal Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthayakumar, R.

    Fractal Analysis is the well developed theory in the data analysis of non-linear time series. Especially Fractal Dimension is a powerful mathematical tool for modeling many physical and biological time signals with high complexity and irregularity. Fractal dimension is a suitable tool for analyzing the nonlinear behaviour and state of the many chaotic systems. Particularly in analysis of chaotic time series such as electroencephalograms (EEG), this feature has been used to identify and distinguish specific states of physiological function.Epilepsy is the main fatal neurological disorder in our brain, which is analyzed by the biomedical signal called Electroencephalogram (EEG). The detection of Epileptic seizures in the EEG Signals is an important tool in the diagnosis of epilepsy. So we made an attempt to analyze the EEG in depth for knowing the mystery of human consciousness. EEG has more fluctuations recorded from the human brain due to the spontaneous electrical activity. Hence EEG Signals are represented as Fractal Time Series.The algorithms of fractal dimension methods have weak ability to the estimation of complexity in the irregular graphs. Divider method is widely used to obtain the fractal dimension of curves embedded into a 2-dimensional space. The major problem is choosing initial and final step length of dividers. We propose a new algorithm based on the size measure relationship (SMR) method, quantifying the dimensional behaviour of irregular rectifiable graphs with minimum time complexity. The evidence for the suitability (equality with the nature of dimension) of the algorithm is illustrated graphically.We would like to demonstrate the criterion for the selection of dividers (minimum and maximum value) in the calculation of fractal dimension of the irregular curves with minimum time complexity. For that we design a new method of computing fractal dimension (FD) of biomedical waveforms. Compared to Higuchi's algorithm, advantages of this method include greater speed and the criterion to choose the maximum and minimum values for time intervals. Comparisons with the other waveform fractal dimension algorithms are also demonstrated. In order to discriminate the Healthy and the Epileptic EEGs, an improved method of Multifractal Measure such as Generalized Fractal Dimensions (GFD) is also proposed. Finally we conclude that there are significant differences between the Healthy and Epileptic Signals in the designed method than the GFD through graphical and statistical tools. The improved multifractal measure is very efficient technique to analyze the EEG Signals and to compute the state of illness of the Epileptic patients.

  10. Complexity of cardiac signals for predicting changes in alpha-waves after stress in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hung-Chih; Lin, Yen-Hung; Lo, Men-Tzung; Tang, Sung-Chun; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Lu, Hung-Chun; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Ma, Hsi-Pin; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchical interaction between electrical signals of the brain and heart is not fully understood. We hypothesized that the complexity of cardiac electrical activity can be used to predict changes in encephalic electricity after stress. Most methods for analyzing the interaction between the heart rate variability (HRV) and electroencephalography (EEG) require a computation-intensive mathematical model. To overcome these limitations and increase the predictive accuracy of human relaxing states, we developed a method to test our hypothesis. In addition to routine linear analysis, multiscale entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis of the HRV were used to quantify nonstationary and nonlinear dynamic changes in the heart rate time series. Short-time Fourier transform was applied to quantify the power of EEG. The clinical, HRV, and EEG parameters of postcatheterization EEG alpha waves were analyzed using change-score analysis and generalized additive models. In conclusion, the complexity of cardiac electrical signals can be used to predict EEG changes after stress. PMID:26286628

  11. Complexity of cardiac signals for predicting changes in alpha-waves after stress in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Hung-Chih; Lin, Yen-Hung; Lo, Men-Tzung; Tang, Sung-Chun; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Lu, Hung-Chun; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Ma, Hsi-Pin; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchical interaction between electrical signals of the brain and heart is not fully understood. We hypothesized that the complexity of cardiac electrical activity can be used to predict changes in encephalic electricity after stress. Most methods for analyzing the interaction between the heart rate variability (HRV) and electroencephalography (EEG) require a computation-intensive mathematical model. To overcome these limitations and increase the predictive accuracy of human relaxing states, we developed a method to test our hypothesis. In addition to routine linear analysis, multiscale entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis of the HRV were used to quantify nonstationary and nonlinear dynamic changes in the heart rate time series. Short-time Fourier transform was applied to quantify the power of EEG. The clinical, HRV, and EEG parameters of postcatheterization EEG alpha waves were analyzed using change-score analysis and generalized additive models. In conclusion, the complexity of cardiac electrical signals can be used to predict EEG changes after stress. PMID:26286628

  12. Complexity of cardiac signals for predicting changes in alpha-waves after stress in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Hung-Chih; Lin, Yen-Hung; Lo, Men-Tzung; Tang, Sung-Chun; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Lu, Hung-Chun; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Ma, Hsi-Pin; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2015-08-01

    The hierarchical interaction between electrical signals of the brain and heart is not fully understood. We hypothesized that the complexity of cardiac electrical activity can be used to predict changes in encephalic electricity after stress. Most methods for analyzing the interaction between the heart rate variability (HRV) and electroencephalography (EEG) require a computation-intensive mathematical model. To overcome these limitations and increase the predictive accuracy of human relaxing states, we developed a method to test our hypothesis. In addition to routine linear analysis, multiscale entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis of the HRV were used to quantify nonstationary and nonlinear dynamic changes in the heart rate time series. Short-time Fourier transform was applied to quantify the power of EEG. The clinical, HRV, and EEG parameters of postcatheterization EEG alpha waves were analyzed using change-score analysis and generalized additive models. In conclusion, the complexity of cardiac electrical signals can be used to predict EEG changes after stress.

  13. Memory load effect in auditory-verbal short-term memory task: EEG fractal and spectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Stoki?, Miodrag; Milovanovi?, Dragan; Ljubisavljevi?, Miloš R; Nenadovi?, Vanja; ?uki?, Milena

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to quantify changes in complexity of EEG using fractal dimension (FD) alongside linear methods of spectral power, event-related spectral perturbations, coherence, and source localization of EEG generators for theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and beta (13-23 Hz) frequency bands due to a memory load effect in an auditory-verbal short-term memory (AVSTM) task for words. We examined 20 healthy individuals using the Sternberg's paradigm with increasing memory load (three, five, and seven words). The stimuli were four-letter words. Artifact-free 5-s EEG segments during retention period were analyzed. The most significant finding was the increase in FD with the increase in memory load in temporal regions T3 and T4, and in parietal region Pz, while decrease in FD with increase in memory load was registered in frontal midline region Fz. Results point to increase in frontal midline (Fz) theta spectral power, decrease in alpha spectral power in parietal region-Pz, and increase in beta spectral power in T3 and T4 region with increase in memory load. Decrease in theta coherence within right hemisphere due to memory load was obtained. Alpha coherence increased in posterior regions with anterior decrease. Beta coherence increased in fronto-temporal regions. Source localization delineated theta activity increase in frontal midline region, alpha decrease in superior parietal region, and beta increase in superior temporal gyrus with increase in memory load. In conclusion, FD as a nonlinear measure may serve as a sensitive index for quantifying dynamical changes in EEG signals during AVSTM tasks. PMID:26169106

  14. Correlation between amygdala BOLD activity and frontal EEG asymmetry during real-time fMRI neurofeedback training in patients with depression

    E-print Network

    Zotev, Vadim; Misaki, Masaya; Phillips, Raquel; Young, Kymberly D; Feldner, Matthew T; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) is a promising approach for studies and treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). EEG performed simultaneously with rtfMRI-nf procedure allows independent evaluation of rtfMRI-nf effects. Frontal EEG asymmetry in the alpha band is a widely used measure of emotion and motivation that shows profound changes in depression. However, it has never been related to simultaneously acquired fMRI data. Methods: We performed the first study combining rtfMRI-nf with simultaneous (passive) EEG recordings. MDD patients in the experimental group (n=13) learned to upregulate BOLD activity of the left amygdala using rtfMRI-nf during a positive emotion induction task. MDD patients in the control group (n=11) were provided with sham rtfMRI-nf. Correlations between frontal EEG asymmetry in the upper-alpha band and BOLD activity across the brain were examined. Results: Participants in the experimental group showed positive average changes in frontal EEG asymmetry during the ...

  15. Which EEG patterns in coma are nonconvulsive status epilepticus?

    PubMed

    Trinka, Eugen; Leitinger, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is common in patients with coma with a prevalence between 5% and 48%. Patients in deep coma may exhibit epileptiform EEG patterns, such as generalized periodic spikes, and there is an ongoing debate about the relationship of these patterns and NCSE. The purposes of this review are (i) to discuss the various EEG patterns found in coma, its fluctuations, and transitions and (ii) to propose modified criteria for NCSE in coma. Classical coma patterns such as diffuse polymorphic delta activity, spindle coma, alpha/theta coma, low output voltage, or burst suppression do not reflect NCSE. Any ictal patterns with a typical spatiotemporal evolution or epileptiform discharges faster than 2.5 Hz in a comatose patient reflect nonconvulsive seizures or NCSE and should be treated. Generalized periodic diacharges or lateralized periodic discharges (GPDs/LPDs) with a frequency of less than 2.5 Hz or rhythmic discharges (RDs) faster than 0.5 Hz are the borderland of NCSE in coma. In these cases, at least one of the additional criteria is needed to diagnose NCSE (a) subtle clinical ictal phenomena, (b) typical spatiotemporal evolution, or (c) response to antiepileptic drug treatment. There is currently no consensus about how long these patterns must be present to qualify for NCSE, and the distinction from nonconvulsive seizures in patients with critical illness or in comatose patients seems arbitrary. The Salzburg Consensus Criteria for NCSE [1] have been modified according to the Standardized Terminology of the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society [2] and validated in three different cohorts, with a sensitivity of 97.2%, a specificity of 95.9%, and a diagnostic accuracy of 96.3% in patients with clinical signs of NCSE. Their diagnostic utility in different cohorts with patients in deep coma has to be studied in the future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". PMID:26148985

  16. Roles of Adrenergic ?1 and Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptors in the Mediation of the Desynchronization Effects of Modafinil in a Mouse EEG Synchronization Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Rui; Yang, Su-Rong; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Qu, Wei-Min; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2013-01-01

    Background Synchronized electroencephalogram (EEG) activity is observed in pathological stages of cognitive impairment and epilepsy. Modafinil, known to increase the release of catecholamines, is a potent wake-promoting agent, and has shown some abilities to desynchronize EEG,but its receptor mechanisms by which modafinil induces desynchoronization remain to be elucidated. Here we used a pharmacological EEG synchronization model to investigate the involvement of adrenergic ?1 receptors (R, ?1R) and dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptors (D1Rs and D2Rs) on modafinil-induced desynchronization in mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice were treated with cholinergic receptor antagonist scopolamine and monoamine depletor reserpine to produce experimental EEG synchronization characterized by continuous large-amplitude synchronized activity, with prominent increased delta and decreased theta, alpha, and beta power density. The results showed that modafinil produced an EEG desynchronization in the model. This was characterized by a general decrease in amplitude of all the frequency bands between 0 and 20 Hz, a prominent reduction in delta power density, and an increase in theta power density. Adrenergic ?1R antagonist terazosin (1 mg/kg, i.p.) completely antagonized the EEG desynchronization effects of modafinil at 90 mg/kg. However, DA D1R and D2R blockers partially attenuated the effects of modafinil. The modafinil-induced decrease in the amplitudes of the delta, theta, alpha, and beta waves and in delta power density were completely abolished by pretreatment with a combination of the D1R antagonist SCH 23390 (30 µg/kg) and the D2R antagonist raclopride (2 mg/kg, i.p.). Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that modafinil-mediated desynchronization may be attributed to the activation of adrenergic ?1R, and dopaminergic D1R and D2R in a model of EEG synchronization. PMID:24116090

  17. A Physiology-Based Seizure Detection System for Multichannel EEG

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chia-Ping; Liu, Shih-Ting; Zhou, Wei-Zhi; Lin, Feng-Seng; Lam, Andy Yan-Yu; Sung, Hsiao-Ya; Chen, Wei; Lin, Jeng-Wei; Chiu, Ming-Jang; Pan, Ming-Kai; Kao, Jui-Hung; Wu, Jin-Ming; Lai, Feipei

    2013-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals play a critical role in the diagnosis of epilepsy. Multichannel EEGs contain more information than do single-channel EEGs. Automatic detection algorithms for spikes or seizures have traditionally been implemented on single-channel EEG, and algorithms for multichannel EEG are unavailable. Methodology This study proposes a physiology-based detection system for epileptic seizures that uses multichannel EEG signals. The proposed technique was tested on two EEG data sets acquired from 18 patients. Both unipolar and bipolar EEG signals were analyzed. We employed sample entropy (SampEn), statistical values, and concepts used in clinical neurophysiology (e.g., phase reversals and potential fields of a bipolar EEG) to extract the features. We further tested the performance of a genetic algorithm cascaded with a support vector machine and post-classification spike matching. Principal Findings We obtained 86.69% spike detection and 99.77% seizure detection for Data Set I. The detection system was further validated using the model trained by Data Set I on Data Set II. The system again showed high performance, with 91.18% detection of spikes and 99.22% seizure detection. Conclusion We report a de novo EEG classification system for seizure and spike detection on multichannel EEG that includes physiology-based knowledge to enhance the performance of this type of system. PMID:23799053

  18. Analysis of EEG activity in response to binaural beats with different frequencies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Cao, Hongbao; Ming, Dong; Qi, Hongzhi; Wang, Xuemin; Wang, Xiaolu; Chen, Runge; Zhou, Peng

    2014-12-01

    When two coherent sounds with nearly similar frequencies are presented to each ear respectively with stereo headphones, the brain integrates the two signals and produces a sensation of a third sound called binaural beat (BB). Although earlier studies showed that BB could influence behavior and cognition, common agreement on the mechanism of BB has not been reached yet. In this work, we employed Relative Power (RP), Phase Locking Value (PLV) and Cross-Mutual Information (CMI) to track EEG changes during BB stimulations. EEG signals were acquired from 13 healthy subjects. Five-minute BBs with four different frequencies were tested: delta band (1 Hz), theta band (5 Hz), alpha band (10 Hz) and beta band (20 Hz). We observed RP increase in theta and alpha bands and decrease in beta band during delta and alpha BB stimulations. RP decreased in beta band during theta BB, while RP decreased in theta band during beta BB. However, no clear brainwave entrainment effect was identified. Connectivity changes were detected following the variation of RP during BB stimulations. Our observation supports the hypothesis that BBs could affect functional brain connectivity, suggesting that the mechanism of BB-brain interaction is worth further study. PMID:25448376

  19. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI brain signatures of auditory cue utilization

    PubMed Central

    Scharinger, Mathias; Herrmann, Björn; Nierhaus, Till; Obleser, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Optimal utilization of acoustic cues during auditory categorization is a vital skill, particularly when informative cues become occluded or degraded. Consequently, the acoustic environment requires flexible choosing and switching amongst available cues. The present study targets the brain functions underlying such changes in cue utilization. Participants performed a categorization task with immediate feedback on acoustic stimuli from two categories that varied in duration and spectral properties, while we simultaneously recorded Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) responses in fMRI and electroencephalograms (EEGs). In the first half of the experiment, categories could be best discriminated by spectral properties. Halfway through the experiment, spectral degradation rendered the stimulus duration the more informative cue. Behaviorally, degradation decreased the likelihood of utilizing spectral cues. Spectrally degrading the acoustic signal led to increased alpha power compared to nondegraded stimuli. The EEG-informed fMRI analyses revealed that alpha power correlated with BOLD changes in inferior parietal cortex and right posterior superior temporal gyrus (including planum temporale). In both areas, spectral degradation led to a weaker coupling of BOLD response to behavioral utilization of the spectral cue. These data provide converging evidence from behavioral modeling, electrophysiology, and hemodynamics that (a) increased alpha power mediates the inhibition of uninformative (here spectral) stimulus features, and that (b) the parietal attention network supports optimal cue utilization in auditory categorization. The results highlight the complex cortical processing of auditory categorization under realistic listening challenges. PMID:24926232

  20. Complex network analysis of resting state EEG in amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ke; Wang, Yinghua; Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Bian, Zhijie; Wang, Lei; Li, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Diabetes is a great risk factor for dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study investigates whether complex network-derived features in resting state EEG (rsEEG) could be applied as a biomarker to distinguish amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) from normal cognitive function in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Method: In this study, EEG was recorded in 28 patients with T2D (16 aMCI patients and 12 controls) during a no-task eyes-closed resting state. Pair-wise synchronization of rsEEG signals were assessed in six frequency bands (delta, theta, lower alpha, upper alpha, beta, and gamma) using phase lag index (PLI) and grouped into long distance (intra- and inter-hemispheric) and short distance interactions. PLI-weighted connectivity networks were also constructed, and characterized by mean clustering coefficient and path length. The correlation of these features and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores was assessed. Results: Main findings of this study were as follows: (1) In comparison with controls, patients with aMCI had a significant decrease of global mean PLI in lower alpha, upper alpha, and beta bands. Lower functional connection at short and long intra-hemispheric distance mainly appeared on the left hemisphere. (2) In the lower alpha band, clustering coefficient was significantly lower in aMCI group, and the path length significantly increased. (3) Cognitive status measured by MoCA had a significant positive correlation with cluster coefficient and negative correlation with path length in lower alpha band. Conclusions: The brain network of aMCI patients displayed a disconnection syndrome and a loss of small-world architecture. The correlation between cognitive states and network characteristics suggested that the more in deterioration of the diabetes patients' cognitive state, the less optimal the network organization become. Hence, the complex network-derived biomarkers based on EEG could be employed to track cognitive function of diabetic patients and provide a new diagnosis tool for aMCI. PMID:26578946

  1. Outpatient ambulatory EEG as an option for epilepsy surgery evaluation instead of inpatient EEG telemetry.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Syed A; Téllez Zenteno, José F; Crawford, Sara L; Wu, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Outpatient ambulatory EEG is more cost-effective than inpatient EEG telemetry and may provide adequate seizure localization in a presurgical evaluation. A 51-year-old right-handed male had been unable to work or drive since the age of 35 due to intractable partial onset epilepsy. A 72-hour outpatient ambulatory EEG recorded 18 seizures from the right temporal region. No epileptiform activity was seen in the left hemisphere. Magnetic resonance imaging showed right mesial temporal sclerosis as well as an area of encephalomalacia at the medial inferior right temporal lobe. Neuropsychological assessment found that the patient was a good neurosurgery candidate. At this point, the patient was considered to be a candidate for a right temporal lobectomy. A standard right temporal lobectomy was performed. The patient has been seizure-free for 10 months after the surgery. Follow-up EEGs show no epileptiform activity. The patient is preparing to go back to work, and his driver's license was reinstated 9 months postsurgery. Neuropsychological reassessment is pending, but no apparent change in cognition has been noticed by the patient or his family. Cases with a high congruence between diagnostic imaging and the EEG abnormalities identified in the portable EEG may provide enough information regarding seizure frequency and localization to eliminate the need for inpatient EEG telemetry in the evaluation of patients for epilepsy surgery. We believe that the use of aEEG in preoperative planning should be restricted to cases of TLE and to patients with a high frequency of seizures. PMID:25667823

  2. Zazen meditation and no-task resting EEG compared with LORETA intracortical source localization.

    PubMed

    Faber, Pascal L; Lehmann, Dietrich; Gianotti, Lorena R R; Milz, Patricia; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Held, Marlene; Kochi, Kieko

    2015-02-01

    Meditation is a self-induced and willfully initiated practice that alters the state of consciousness. The meditation practice of Zazen, like many other meditation practices, aims at disregarding intrusive thoughts while controlling body posture. It is an open monitoring meditation characterized by detached moment-to-moment awareness and reduced conceptual thinking and self-reference. Which brain areas differ in electric activity during Zazen compared to task-free resting? Since scalp electroencephalography (EEG) waveforms are reference-dependent, conclusions about the localization of active brain areas are ambiguous. Computing intracerebral source models from the scalp EEG data solves this problem. In the present study, we applied source modeling using low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to 58-channel scalp EEG data recorded from 15 experienced Zen meditators during Zazen and no-task resting. Zazen compared to no-task resting showed increased alpha-1 and alpha-2 frequency activity in an exclusively right-lateralized cluster extending from prefrontal areas including the insula to parts of the somatosensory and motor cortices and temporal areas. Zazen also showed decreased alpha and beta-2 activity in the left angular gyrus and decreased beta-1 and beta-2 activity in a large bilateral posterior cluster comprising the visual cortex, the posterior cingulate cortex and the parietal cortex. The results include parts of the default mode network and suggest enhanced automatic memory and emotion processing, reduced conceptual thinking and self-reference on a less judgmental, i.e., more detached moment-to-moment basis during Zazen compared to no-task resting. PMID:25284209

  3. A systematic review of the neurophysiology of mindfulness on EEG oscillations.

    PubMed

    Lomas, Tim; Ivtzan, Itai; Fu, Cynthia H Y

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness meditation has been purported to be a beneficial practice for wellbeing. It would therefore be expected that the neurophysiology of mindfulness would reflect this impact on wellbeing. However, investigations of the effects of mindfulness have generated mixed reports of increases, decreases, as well as no differences in EEG oscillations in comparison with a resting state and a variety of tasks. We have performed a systematic review of EEG studies of mindfulness meditation in order to determine any common effects and to identify factors which may impact on the effects. Databases were reviewed from 1966 to August 2015. Eligibility criteria included empirical quantitative analyses of mindfulness meditation practice and EEG measurements acquired in relation to practice. A total of 56 papers met the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review, consisting of a total 1715 subjects: 1358 healthy individuals and 357 individuals with psychiatric diagnoses. Studies were principally examined for power outcomes in each bandwidth, in particular the power differentials between mindfulness and a control state, as well as outcomes relating to hemispheric asymmetry and event-related potentials. The systematic review revealed that mindfulness was most commonly associated with enhanced alpha and theta power as compared to an eyes closed resting state, although such outcomes were not uniformly reported. No consistent patterns were observed with respect to beta, delta and gamma bandwidths. In summary, mindfulness is associated with increased alpha and theta power in both healthy individuals and in patient groups. This co-presence of elevated alpha and theta may signify a state of relaxed alertness which is conducive to mental health. PMID:26441373

  4. Separation and reconstruction of BCG and EEG signals during continuous EEG and fMRI recordings.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hongjing; Ruan, Dan; Cohen, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    Despite considerable effort to remove it, the ballistocardiogram (BCG) remains a major artifact in electroencephalographic data (EEG) acquired inside magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, particularly in continuous (as opposed to event-related) recordings. In this study, we have developed a new Direct Recording Prior Encoding (DRPE) method to extract and separate the BCG and EEG components from contaminated signals, and have demonstrated its performance by comparing it quantitatively to the popular Optimal Basis Set (OBS) method. Our modified recording configuration allows us to obtain representative bases of the BCG- and EEG-only signals. Further, we have developed an optimization-based reconstruction approach to maximally incorporate prior knowledge of the BCG/EEG subspaces, and of the signal characteristics within them. Both OBS and DRPE methods were tested with experimental data, and compared quantitatively using cross-validation. In the challenging continuous EEG studies, DRPE outperforms the OBS method by nearly sevenfold in separating the continuous BCG and EEG signals. PMID:25002836

  5. Internal ventilation system of MR scanners induces specific EEG artifact during simultaneous EEG-fMRI.

    PubMed

    Nierhaus, Till; Gundlach, Christopher; Goltz, Dominique; Thiel, Sabrina D; Pleger, Burkhard; Villringer, Arno

    2013-07-01

    During simultaneous EEG-fMRI acquisition, the EEG signal suffers from tremendous artifacts caused by the scanner "environment". Particularly, gradient artifacts and the ballistocardiogram have been well characterized, along with methods to eliminate them. Here, we describe another systematic artifact in the EEG signal, which is induced by the internal ventilation system of Siemens TRIO and VERIO MR scanners. A ventilation-level dependent vibration induces specific peaks in the frequency spectrum of the EEG. These frequency peaks are in the range of physiologically relevant brain rhythms (gamma frequency range), and thus interfere with their reliable acquisition. This ventilation dependent artifact was most prominent on the electrodes placed directly on the subject's head, so it is not sufficient to simply place the EEG's amplifier outside the scanner tube. Instead, the ventilator must be switched off to fully eliminate the ventilator's artificial manipulation of EEG recordings. Without the internal ventilator system being on, the temperature within the scanner tube may rise, thus requiring shorter scanning sessions or an additional external ventilation system. PMID:23435207

  6. Separation and reconstruction of BCG and EEG signals during continuous EEG and fMRI recordings

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hongjing; Ruan, Dan; Cohen, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite considerable effort to remove it, the ballistocardiogram (BCG) remains a major artifact in electroencephalographic data (EEG) acquired inside magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, particularly in continuous (as opposed to event-related) recordings. In this study, we have developed a new Direct Recording Prior Encoding (DRPE) method to extract and separate the BCG and EEG components from contaminated signals, and have demonstrated its performance by comparing it quantitatively to the popular Optimal Basis Set (OBS) method. Our modified recording configuration allows us to obtain representative bases of the BCG- and EEG-only signals. Further, we have developed an optimization-based reconstruction approach to maximally incorporate prior knowledge of the BCG/EEG subspaces, and of the signal characteristics within them. Both OBS and DRPE methods were tested with experimental data, and compared quantitatively using cross-validation. In the challenging continuous EEG studies, DRPE outperforms the OBS method by nearly sevenfold in separating the continuous BCG and EEG signals. PMID:25002836

  7. Music Shifts Frontal EEG in Depressed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Martinez, Alex; Nawrocki, Thomas; Pickens, Jeffrey; Fox, Nathan A.; Schanberg, Saul

    1998-01-01

    Fourteen chronically depressed female adolescents listened to rock music for a 23-minute session. EEG was recorded and saliva samples were collected to determine the effects of the music on stress hormone cortisol levels. No differences were reported for mood state; however, cortisol levels decreased and relative right-frontal activation was…

  8. Automated Sleep Quality Measurement using EEG Signal

    E-print Network

    Wang, Ye

    suffer from sleep problems. Music therapy, as a non-medication approach to mitigating sleep problems, has Factors Keywords Music Recommendation, Music Therapy, Sleep Disorder, Sleep Quality Analysis 1-1-60558-933-6/10/10 ...$10.00. Figure 1: EEG-based music rating in the proposed recommendation system sic therapy offers

  9. 'Time-scribe': a universal time writer for any EEG/polygraph chart recorder.

    PubMed

    Ives, J

    1984-04-01

    An ubiquitous digital clock 'time-scribe' with a unique pen-galvanometer writer section has been described which should greatly improve the correlation of a long term EEG with any other time related event or medium. The output of the clock generates on any pen-galvanometer based chart recorder numerical and some alpha characters which are easily and immediately readable. Because of its convenience, simplicity and basic practical application it should also stimulate discussion for the unification of time write-out standards and methods. PMID:6200303

  10. Phenotypic plasticity in nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Viney, Mark; Diaz, Anaid

    2012-01-01

    Model systems, including C. elegans, have been successfully studied to understand the genetic control of development. A genotype’s phenotype determines its evolutionary fitness in natural environments, which are typically harsh, heterogeneous and dynamic. Phenotypic plasticity, the process by which one genome can produce different phenotypes in response to the environment, allows genotypes to better match their phenotype to their environment. Phenotypic plasticity is rife among nematodes, seen both as differences among life-cycles stages, perhaps best exemplified by parasitic nematodes, as well as developmental choices, such as shown by the C. elegans dauer/non-dauer developmental choice. Understanding the genetic basis of phenotypically plastic traits will probably explain the function of many genes whose function still remains unclear. Understanding the adaptive benefits of phenotypically plastic traits requires that we understand how plasticity differs among genotypes, and the effects of this in diverse, different environments. PMID:24058831

  11. Stress assessment based on EEG univariate features and functional connectivity measures.

    PubMed

    Alonso, J F; Romero, S; Ballester, M R; Antonijoan, R M; Mañanas, M A

    2015-07-01

    The biological response to stress originates in the brain but involves different biochemical and physiological effects. Many common clinical methods to assess stress are based on the presence of specific hormones and on features extracted from different signals, including electrocardiogram, blood pressure, skin temperature, or galvanic skin response. The aim of this paper was to assess stress using EEG-based variables obtained from univariate analysis and functional connectivity evaluation. Two different stressors, the Stroop test and sleep deprivation, were applied to 30 volunteers to find common EEG patterns related to stress effects. Results showed a decrease of the high alpha power (11 to 12?Hz), an increase in the high beta band (23 to 36?Hz, considered a busy brain indicator), and a decrease in the approximate entropy. Moreover, connectivity showed that the high beta coherence and the interhemispheric nonlinear couplings, measured by the cross mutual information function, increased significantly for both stressors, suggesting that useful stress indexes may be obtained from EEG-based features. PMID:26015439

  12. Soft, Comfortable Polymer Dry Electrodes for High Quality ECG and EEG Recording

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun-Hsuan; de Beeck, Maaike Op; Vanderheyden, Luc; Carrette, Evelien; Mihajlovi?, Vojkan; Vanstreels, Kris; Grundlehner, Bernard; Gadeyne, Stefanie; Boon, Paul; Van Hoof, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Conventional gel electrodes are widely used for biopotential measurements, despite important drawbacks such as skin irritation, long set-up time and uncomfortable removal. Recently introduced dry electrodes with rigid metal pins overcome most of these problems; however, their rigidity causes discomfort and pain. This paper presents dry electrodes offering high user comfort, since they are fabricated from EPDM rubber containing various additives for optimum conductivity, flexibility and ease of fabrication. The electrode impedance is measured on phantoms and human skin. After optimization of the polymer composition, the skin-electrode impedance is only ?10 times larger than that of gel electrodes. Therefore, these electrodes are directly capable of recording strong biopotential signals such as ECG while for low-amplitude signals such as EEG, the electrodes need to be coupled with an active circuit. EEG recordings using active polymer electrodes connected to a clinical EEG system show very promising results: alpha waves can be clearly observed when subjects close their eyes, and correlation and coherence analyses reveal high similarity between dry and gel electrode signals. Moreover, all subjects reported that our polymer electrodes did not cause discomfort. Hence, the polymer-based dry electrodes are promising alternatives to either rigid dry electrodes or conventional gel electrodes. PMID:25513825

  13. Correlated Components of Ongoing EEG Point to Emotionally Laden Attention – A Possible Marker of Engagement?

    PubMed Central

    Dmochowski, Jacek P.; Sajda, Paul; Dias, Joao; Parra, Lucas C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging suggests that cortical hemodynamic responses coincide in different subjects experiencing a common naturalistic stimulus. Here we utilize neural responses in the electroencephalogram (EEG) evoked by multiple presentations of short film clips to index brain states marked by high levels of correlation within and across subjects. We formulate a novel signal decomposition method which extracts maximally correlated signal components from multiple EEG records. The resulting components capture correlations down to a one-second time resolution, thus revealing that peak correlations of neural activity across viewings can occur in remarkable correspondence with arousing moments of the film. Moreover, a significant reduction in neural correlation occurs upon a second viewing of the film or when the narrative is disrupted by presenting its scenes scrambled in time. We also probe oscillatory brain activity during periods of heightened correlation, and observe during such times a significant increase in the theta band for a frontal component and reductions in the alpha and beta frequency bands for parietal and occipital components. Low-resolution EEG tomography of these components suggests that the correlated neural activity is consistent with sources in the cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices. Put together, these results suggest that the observed synchrony reflects attention- and emotion-modulated cortical processing which may be decoded with high temporal resolution by extracting maximally correlated components of neural activity. PMID:22623915

  14. Disturbed resting state EEG synchronization in bipolar disorder: A graph-theoretic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Jin; Bolbecker, Amanda R; Howell, Josselyn; Rass, Olga; Sporns, Olaf; Hetrick, William P; Breier, Alan; O'Donnell, Brian F

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of functional connectivity may be a key feature of bipolar disorder (BD) which reflects disturbances of synchronization and oscillations within brain networks. We investigated whether the resting electroencephalogram (EEG) in patients with BD showed altered synchronization or network properties. Resting-state EEG was recorded in 57 BD type-I patients and 87 healthy control subjects. Functional connectivity between pairs of EEG channels was measured using synchronization likelihood (SL) for 5 frequency bands (?, ?, ?, ?, and ?). Graph-theoretic analysis was applied to SL over the electrode array to assess network properties. BD patients showed a decrease of mean synchronization in the alpha band, and the decreases were greatest in fronto-central and centro-parietal connections. In addition, the clustering coefficient and global efficiency were decreased in BD patients, whereas the characteristic path length increased. We also found that the normalized characteristic path length and small-worldness were significantly correlated with depression scores in BD patients. These results suggest that BD patients show impaired neural synchronization at rest and a disruption of resting-state functional connectivity. PMID:24179795

  15. Association of autonomic nervous system and EEG scalp potential during playing 2D Grand Turismo 5.

    PubMed

    Subhani, Ahmad Rauf; Likun, Xia; Saeed Malik, Aamir

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral activation and autonomic nervous system have importance in studies such as mental stress. The aim of this study is to analyze variations in EEG scalp potential which may influence autonomic activation of heart while playing video games. Ten healthy participants were recruited in this study. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) signals were measured simultaneously during playing video game and rest conditions. Sympathetic and parasympathetic innervations of heart were evaluated from heart rate variability (HRV), derived from the ECG. Scalp potential was measured by the EEG. The results showed a significant upsurge in the value theta Fz/alpha Pz (p<0.001) while playing game. The results also showed tachycardia while playing video game as compared to rest condition (p<0.005). Normalized low frequency power and ratio of low frequency/high frequency power were significantly increased while playing video game and normalized high frequency power sank during video games. Results showed synchronized activity of cerebellum and sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of heart. PMID:23366661

  16. The EEG correlates of the TMS-induced EMG silent period in humans.

    PubMed

    Farzan, Faranak; Barr, Mera S; Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Chen, Robert; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2013-12-01

    Application of magnetic or electrical stimulation to the motor cortex can result in a period of electromyography (EMG) silence in a tonically active peripheral muscle. This period of EMG silence is referred to as the silent period (SP). The duration of SP shows intersubject variability and reflects the integrity of cortical and corticospinal pathways. A non-invasive technique for assessing the duration of SP is the combination of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) with EMG. Utilizing TMS-EMG, several studies have reported on the shortening or lengthening of SP in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and stroke. However, cortical, corticospinal and peripheral components are difficult to disentangle from EMG alone. Here, we use the multimodal neuroimaging technique of TMS-EMG combined with concurrent electroencephalography (EEG) recording to further examine the cortical origin of SP and the cortical oscillatory activity that underlies SP genesis. We demonstrate that the duration of SP is related to the temporal characteristics of the cortical reactivity and the power of delta to alpha oscillations in both local and remote areas ipsilateral and contralateral to the stimulation site, and beta oscillations locally. We illustrate that, compared to EMG, the EEG indices of the SP provide additional information about the brain dynamics and propose that the EEG measures of SP may be used in future clinical and research investigations to more precisely delineate the mechanisms underlying inhibitory impairments. PMID:23800790

  17. miR-1236 down-regulates alpha-fetoprotein, thus causing PTEN accumulation, which inhibits the PI3K/Akt pathway and malignant phenotype in hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xi; Shuang, Zeyu; Liu, Min; Li, Shengping; Tang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a clinical biomarker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we found that miR-1236 is down-regulated, whereas AFP is highly expressed in HCC tissues and cells. We demonstrated that miR-1236 directly targets the 3?UTR of AFP and down-regulates its expression. Also, miR-1236 inhibited and AFP stimulated proliferation, migration, invasion and vasculogenic mimicry (VM) of HCC. In agreement, AFP over-expression counteracted the inhibitory effect of miR-1236. We demonstrated that AFP promoted the ubiquitination of PTEN, thus decreasing PTEN levels, while miR-1236 inhibited the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:25714026

  18. Screening EEG in Aircrew Selection: Clinical Aerospace Neurology Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Jonathan B.; Riley, Terrence

    2001-01-01

    As clinical aerospace neurologists we do not favor using screening EEG in pilot selection on unselected and otherwise asymptomatic individuals. The role of EEG in aviation screening should be as an adjunct to diagnosis, and the decision to disqualify a pilot should never be based solely on the EEG. Although a policy of using a screening EEG in an unselected population might detect an individual with a potentially increased relative risk, it would needlessly exclude many applicants who would probably never have a seizure. A diagnostic test performed on an asymptomatic individual without clinical indications, in a population with a low prevalence of disease (seizure) may be of limited or possibly detrimental value. We feel that rather than do EEGs on all candidates, a better approach would be to perform an EEG for a specific indication, such as family history of seizure, single convulsion (seizure) , history of unexplained loss of consciousness or head injury. Routine screening EEGs in unselected aviation applications are not done without clinical indication in the U.S. Air Force, Navy, or NASA. The USAF discontinued routine screening EEGs for selection in 1978, the U.S. Navy discontinued it in 1981 , and NASA discontinued it in 1995. EEG as an aeromedical screening tool in the US Navy dates back to 1939. The US Navy routinely used EEGs to screen all aeromedical personnel from 1961 to 1981. The incidence of epileptiform activity on EEG in asymptomatic flight candidates ranges from 0.11 to 2.5%. In 3 studies of asymptomatic flight candidates with epileptiform activity on EEG followed for 2 to 15 years, 1 of 31 (3.2%), 1 of 30 (3.3%), and 0 of 14 (0%) developed a seizure, for a cumulative risk of an individual with an epileptiform EEG developing a seizure of 2.67% (2 in 75). Of 28,658 student naval aviation personnel screened 31 had spikes and/or slow waves on EEG, and only 1 later developed a seizure. Of the 28,627 who had a normal EEG, 4 later developed seizures, or .0139% (4/28627). After review of the value of the EEG as a screening tool, the US Navy now uses EEG only for certain clinical indications (head injury, unexplained loss of consciousness, family history of epilepsy, and abnormal neurological exam). Currently the US Navy does not use EEG for screening for any flight applicant without a neurologic indication. In the US Navy, an electroencephalographic pattern is determined to be epileptiform by a neurologist.

  19. Cortical EEG changes during the self-administration of phencyclinoids.

    PubMed

    Marquis, K L; Gussio, R; Webb, M G; Moreton, J E

    1989-11-01

    Female rats, implanted with cerebrocortical EEG recording electrodes, were trained to self-administer cocaine and then ketamine under a fixed ratio 10 schedule of reinforcement, during limited access sessions. Periodically, a single unit dose of either phencyclidine (0.5 mg/kg), ketamine (4 mg/kg) or 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)morpholine (PCM 4 mg/kg) was substituted for ketamine, while the cortical EEG was recorded. Spectrum quantities of samples of EEG, taken immediately before and after each injection, were subjected to a discriminant analysis. For each drug, the preinjection state of the EEG could be classified separately from the postinjection state, using specific EEG spectrum quantities from the global frequency range (0.1-20 Hz). Furthermore, the relevant EEG parameters, which described the change from pre- to postinjection states, were unique for each drug (phencyclidine: total power and complexity; ketamine: peak frequency, relative power and mobility; PCM: all parameters except peak frequency), indicating potential differences in the EEG, occurring with a level of intake of drug which was controlled by the subject. Overall, these data serve to model the changes in the EEG that occur during the self-administration of three phencyclinoids. Furthermore, the combination of EEG spectrum analysis with discriminant analysis is useful in detecting subtle differences in the effects of these three drugs on the EEG. PMID:2594165

  20. Alpha Thalassemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an apparently normal individual has a child with hemoglobin H disease or alpha thalassemia minor. It can ... gene on one chromosome 25% 25% 25% 25% hemoglobin H disease there is a 25% chance with ...

  1. Exercise and DHA Prevent the Negative Effects of Hypoxia on EEG and Nerve Conduction Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Erken, Gülten; Çolak, R?dvan; Genç, Osman

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Erken, Haydar Ali, Gülten Erken, Ridvan Çolak, Osman Genç. Exercise and DHA prevent the negative effects of hypoxia on EEG and nerve conduction velocity. High Alt Med Biol 14:360–366, 2013.—It is known that hypoxia has a negative effect on nervous system functions, but exercise and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) have positive effect. In this study, it was investigated whether exercise and/or DHA can prevent the effects of hypoxia on EEG and nerve conduction velocity (NCV). 35 adult Wistar albino male rats were divided into five groups (n=7): control (C), hypoxia (H), hypoxia and exercise (HE), hypoxia and DHA (HD), and hypoxia and exercise and DHA (HED) groups. During the 28-day hypoxia exposure, the HE and HED groups of rats were exercised (0% incline, 30?m/min speed, 20?min/day, 5 days a week). In addition, DHA (36?mg/kg/day) was given by oral gavage to rats in the HD and HED groups. While EEG records were taken before and after the experimental period, NCV records were taken after the experimental period from anesthetized rats. Data were analyzed by paired t-test, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey test. In this study, it was shown that exposure to hypoxia decreased theta activity and NCV, but exercise and DHA reduced the delta activity, while theta, alpha, beta activities, and NCV were increased. These results have shown that the effects of hypoxia exposure on EEG and NCV can be prevented by exercise and/or DHA. PMID:24377343

  2. Heartbeat-related EEG amplitude and phase modulations from wakefulness to deep sleep: Interactions with sleep spindles and slow oscillations.

    PubMed

    Lechinger, Julia; Heib, Dominik Philip Johannes; Gruber, Walter; Schabus, Manuel; Klimesch, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Based on physiological models of neurovisceral integration, different studies have shown how cognitive processes modulate heart rate and how the heartbeat, on the other hand, modulates brain activity. We tried to further determine interactions between cardiac and electrical brain activity by means of EEG. We investigated how the heartbeat modulates EEG in 23 healthy controls from wakefulness to deep sleep and showed that frontocentral heartbeat evoked EEG amplitude and phase locking (as measured by intertrial phase locking), at about 300-400 ms after the R peak, decreased with increasing sleep depth with a renewed increase during REM sleep, which underpins the assumption that the heartbeat evoked positivity constitutes an active frontocortical response to the heartbeat. Additionally, we found that individual heart rate was correlated with the frequency of the EEG's spectral peak (i.e., alpha peak frequency during wakefulness). This correlation was strongest during wakefulness and declined linearly with increasing sleep depth. Furthermore, we show that the QRS complex modulates spindle phase possibly related to the correspondence between the frequency of the QRS complex and the spindle frequency of about 12-15 Hz. Finally, during deep sleep stages, a loose temporal coupling between heartbeats and slow oscillation (0.8 Hz) could be observed. These findings indicate that cardiac activity such as heart rate or individual heartbeats can modulate or be modulated by ongoing oscillatory brain activity. PMID:26268858

  3. Entrainment of Human Alpha Oscillations Selectively Enhances Visual Conjunction Search

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Notger G.; Vellage, Anne-Katrin; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Zaehle, Tino

    2015-01-01

    The functional role of the alpha-rhythm which dominates the human electroencephalogram (EEG) is unclear. It has been related to visual processing, attentional selection and object coherence, respectively. Here we tested the interaction of alpha oscillations of the human brain with visual search tasks that differed in their attentional demands (pre-attentive vs. attentive) and also in the necessity to establish object coherence (conjunction vs. single feature). Between pre- and post-assessment elderly subjects received 20 min/d of repetitive transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) over the occipital cortex adjusted to their individual alpha frequency over five consecutive days. Compared to sham the entrained alpha oscillations led to a selective, set size independent improvement in the conjunction search task performance but not in the easy or in the hard feature search task. These findings suggest that cortical alpha oscillations play a specific role in establishing object coherence through suppression of distracting objects. PMID:26606255

  4. Alpha oscillatory correlates of motor inhibition in the aged brain

    PubMed Central

    Bönstrup, Marlene; Hagemann, Julian; Gerloff, Christian; Sauseng, Paul; Hummel, Friedhelm C.

    2015-01-01

    Exerting inhibitory control is a cognitive ability mediated by functions known to decline with age. The goal of this study is to add to the mechanistic understanding of cortical inhibition during motor control in aged brains. Based on behavioral findings of impaired inhibitory control with age we hypothesized that elderly will show a reduced or a lack of EEG alpha-power increase during tasks that require motor inhibition. Since inhibitory control over movements has been shown to rely on prior motor memory formation, we investigated cortical inhibitory processes at two points in time—early after learning and after an overnight consolidation phase and hypothesized an overnight increase of inhibitory capacities. Young and elderly participants acquired a complex finger movement sequence and in each experimental session brain activity during execution and inhibition of the sequence was recorded with multi-channel EEG. We assessed cortical processes of sustained inhibition by means of task-induced changes of alpha oscillatory power. During inhibition of the learned movement, young participants showed a significant alpha power increase at the sensorimotor cortices whereas elderly did not. Interestingly, for both groups, the overnight consolidation phase improved up-regulation of alpha power during sustained inhibition. This points to deficits in the generation and enhancement of local inhibitory mechanisms at the sensorimotor cortices in aged brains. However, the alpha power increase in both groups implies neuroplastic changes that strengthen the network of alpha power generation over time in young as well as elderly brains. PMID:26528179

  5. Experimental Placebo Analgesia Changes Resting-State Alpha Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Huneke, Nathan T. M.; Brown, Christopher A.; Burford, Edward; Watson, Alison; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J.; El-Deredy, Wael; Jones, Anthony K. P.

    2013-01-01

    The lack of clear understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic pain could explain why we currently have only a few effective treatments. Understanding how pain relief is realised during placebo analgesia could help develop improved treatments for chronic pain. Here, we tested whether experimental placebo analgesia was associated with altered resting-state cortical activity in the alpha frequency band of the electroencephalogram (EEG). Alpha oscillations have been shown to be influenced by top-down processes, which are thought to underpin the placebo response. Seventy-three healthy volunteers, split into placebo or control groups, took part in a well-established experimental placebo procedure involving treatment with a sham analgesic cream. We recorded ongoing (resting) EEG activity before, during, and after the sham treatment. We show that resting alpha activity is modified by placebo analgesia. Post-treatment, alpha activity increased significantly in the placebo group only (p < 0.001). Source analysis suggested that this alpha activity might have been generated in medial components of the pain network, including dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and left insula. These changes are consistent with a cognitive state of pain expectancy, a key driver of the placebo analgesic response. The manipulation of alpha activity may therefore present an exciting avenue for the development of treatments that directly alter endogenous processes to better control pain. PMID:24147129

  6. Stochastic coupled oscillator model of EEG for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ghorbanian, P; Ramakrishnan, S; Ashrafiuon, H

    2014-08-01

    Coupled nonlinear oscillator models of EEG signals during resting eyes-closed and eyes-open conditions are presented based on Duffing-van der Pol oscillator dynamics. The frequency and information entropy contents of the output of the nonlinear model and the actual EEG signal is matched through an optimization algorithm. The framework is used to model and compare EEG signals recorded from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched healthy controls (CTL) subjects. The results show that 1) the generated model signal can capture the frequency and information entropy contents of the EEG signal with very similar power spectral distribution and non-periodic time history; 2) the EEG and the generated signal from the eyes-closed model are ? band dominant for CTL subjects and ? band dominant for AD patients; and 3) statistically distinct models represent the EEG signals from AD patients and CTL subject during resting eyes-closed condition. PMID:25570056

  7. A mutation in the pro alpha 2(I) gene (COL1A2) for type I procollagen in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VII: evidence suggesting that skipping of exon 6 in RNA splicing may be a common cause of the phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Vasan, N S; Kuivaniemi, H; Vogel, B E; Minor, R R; Wootton, J A; Tromp, G; Weksberg, R; Prockop, D J

    1991-01-01

    Fibroblasts from a proband with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VII synthesized approximately equal amounts of normal and shortened pro alpha 2(I) chains of type I procollagen. Nuclease S1 probe protection experiments with mRNA demonstrated that the pro alpha 2(I) chains were shortened because of a deletion of most or all of the 54 nucleotides in exon 6, the exon that contains codons for the cleavage site for procollagen N-proteinase. Sequencing of genomic clones revealed a single-base mutation that converted the first nucleotide of intron 6 from G to A. Therefore, the mutation was a change, in the -GT-consensus splice site, that produced efficient exon skipping. Allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridizations demonstrated that the proband's mother, father, and brother did not have the mutation. Therefore, the mutation was a sporadic one. Analysis of potential 5' splice sites in the 5' end of intron 6 indicated that none had favorable values by the two commonly employed techniques for evaluating such sites. The proband is the fourth reported proband with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome VII with a single-base mutation that causes skipping of exon 6 in the splicing of RNA from either the COL1A1 gene or COL1A2 gene. No other mutations in the two type I procollagen genes have been found in the syndrome. Therefore, such mutations may be a common cause of the phenotype. The primers developed should be useful in screening for the same or similar mutations causing the disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1990839

  8. Scale-invariance of human EEG signals in sleep

    E-print Network

    Cai, S M; Wang, B H; Yang, H J; Zhou, P L; Zhou, T; Cai, Shi-Min; Jiang, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Bing-Hong; Yang, Hui-Jie; Zhou, Pei-Ling; Zhou, Tao

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical properties of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals of human in sleep. By using a modified random walk method, We demonstrate that the scale-invariance is embedded in EEG signals after a detrending procedure. Further more, we study the dynamical evolution of probability density function (PDF) of the detrended EEG signals by nonextensive statistical modeling. It displays scale-independent property, which is markedly different from the turbulent-like scale-dependent PDF evolution.

  9. Exploring EEG signals in a Brain-Computer Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrycki, Pawe?; Mulawka, Jan

    2014-11-01

    This article shows the basic methods of electroencephalography EEG signal exploration. It contains information about data acquisition and different methods in which brain-computer interfaces can be made. The main focus of the paper is to find a way to determine the best set of parameters to detect movement of a hand in EEG signal. In the introduction there is also short introduction to EEG as well as fundamentals of support vector machine.

  10. Oscillatory EEG correlates of arithmetic strategy use in addition and subtraction.

    PubMed

    De Smedt, Bert; Grabner, Roland H; Studer, Bettina

    2009-06-01

    Adults use different strategies in mental arithmetic. For example, they directly retrieve the answer from memory or calculate by means of procedural strategies. Despite growing insight into the hemodynamic and electrophysiological correlates of these strategies, the functional changes in the oscillatory brain dynamics during the use of these strategies remain unknown. In the present high-resolution electroencephalography (EEG) study, we analysed event-related synchronisation (ERS) and desynchronisation (ERD) in the theta and alpha bands while participants solved addition and subtraction problems, which displayed a high probability of retrieval or procedural strategy use. Findings revealed that arithmetic fact retrieval is reflected in left-hemispheric ERS in the theta band, whereas the application of procedural strategies is accompanied by bilateral parietooccipital ERD in the alpha band. The topographical and frequency specificity of the strategy effects provides a start for the development of electrophysiological indices of strategy use in arithmetic. PMID:19452143

  11. Noisy Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Modulates the Amplitude of EEG Synchrony Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Diana J.; Yogendrakumar, Vignan; Chiang, Joyce; Ty, Edna; Wang, Z. Jane; McKeown, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation has been associated with numerous cognitive and behavioural effects, such as enhancement of visual memory in healthy individuals, improvement of visual deficits in stroke patients, as well as possibly improvement of motor function in Parkinson’s disease; yet, the mechanism of action is unclear. Since Parkinson’s and other neuropsychiatric diseases are characterized by maladaptive dynamics of brain rhythms, we investigated whether noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation was associated with measurable changes in EEG oscillatory rhythms within theta (4–7.5 Hz), low alpha (8–10 Hz), high alpha (10.5–12 Hz), beta (13–30 Hz) and gamma (31–50 Hz) bands. We recorded the EEG while simultaneously delivering noisy bilateral, bipolar stimulation at varying intensities of imperceptible currents – at 10, 26, 42, 58, 74 and 90% of sensory threshold – to ten neurologically healthy subjects. Using standard spectral analysis, we investigated the transient aftereffects of noisy stimulation on rhythms. Subsequently, using robust artifact rejection techniques and the Least Absolute Shrinkage Selection Operator regression and cross-validation, we assessed the combinations of channels and power spectral features within each EEG frequency band that were linearly related with stimulus intensity. We show that noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation predominantly leads to a mild suppression of gamma power in lateral regions immediately after stimulation, followed by delayed increase in beta and gamma power in frontal regions approximately 20–25 s after stimulation ceased. Ongoing changes in the power of each oscillatory band throughout frontal, central/parietal, occipital and bilateral electrodes predicted the intensity of galvanic vestibular stimulation in a stimulus-dependent manner, demonstrating linear effects of stimulation on brain rhythms. We propose that modulation of neural oscillations is a potential mechanism for the previously-described cognitive and motor effects of vestibular stimulation, and noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation may provide an additional non-invasive means for neuromodulation of functional brain networks. PMID:23874865

  12. A Discriminative Approach to EEG Seizure Detection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ashley N.; Sow, Daby; Biem, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Seizures are abnormal sudden discharges in the brain with signatures represented in electroencephalograms (EEG). The efficacy of the application of speech processing techniques to discriminate between seizure and non-seizure states in EEGs is reported. The approach accounts for the challenges of unbalanced datasets (seizure and non-seizure), while also showing a system capable of real-time seizure detection. The Minimum Classification Error (MCE) algorithm, which is a discriminative learning algorithm with wide-use in speech processing, is applied and compared with conventional classification techniques that have already been applied to the discrimination between seizure and non-seizure states in the literature. The system is evaluated on 22 pediatric patients multi-channel EEG recordings. Experimental results show that the application of speech processing techniques and MCE compare favorably with conventional classification techniques in terms of classification performance, while requiring less computational overhead. The results strongly suggests the possibility of deploying the designed system at the bedside. PMID:22195192

  13. Long-term EEG in children.

    PubMed

    Montavont, A; Kaminska, A; Soufflet, C; Taussig, D

    2015-03-01

    Long-term video-EEG corresponds to a recording ranging from 1 to 24 h or even longer. It is indicated in the following situations: diagnosis of epileptic syndromes or unclassified epilepsy, pre-surgical evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy, follow-up of epilepsy or in cases of paroxysmal symptoms whose etiology remains uncertain. There are some specificities related to paediatric care: a dedicated pediatric unit; continuous monitoring covering at least a full 24-hour period, especially in the context of pre-surgical evaluation; the requirement of presence by the parents, technician or nurse; and stronger attachment of electrodes (cup electrodes), the number of which is adapted to the age of the child. The chosen duration of the monitoring also depends on the frequency of seizures or paroxysmal events. The polygraphy must be adapted to the type and topography of movements. It is essential to have at least an electrocardiography (ECG) channel, respiratory sensor and electromyography (EMG) on both deltoids. There is no age limit for performing long-term video-EEG even in newborns and infants; nevertheless because of scalp fragility, strict surveillance of the baby's skin condition is required. In the specific context of pre-surgical evaluation, long-term video-EEG must record all types of seizures observed in the child. This monitoring is essential in order to develop hypotheses regarding the seizure onset zone, based on electroclinical correlations, which should be adapted to the child's age and the psychomotor development. PMID:25687590

  14. Using Single-trial EEG to Predict and Analyze Subsequent Memory

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Eunho; Herzmann, Grit; Curran, Tim; de Sa, Virginia R.

    2013-01-01

    We show that it is possible to successfully predict subsequent memory performance based on single-trial EEG activity before and during item presentation in the study phase. Two-class classification was conducted to predict subsequently remembered vs. forgotten trials based on subjects’ responses in the recognition phase. The overall accuracy across 18 subjects was 59.6 % by combining pre- and during-stimulus information. The single-trial classification analysis provides a dimensionality reduction method to project the high-dimensional EEG data onto a discriminative space. These projections revealed novel findings in the pre- and during-stimulus period related to levels of encoding. It was observed that the pre-stimulus information (specifically oscillatory activity between 25–35Hz) ?300 to 0 ms before stimulus presentation and during-stimulus alpha (7–12 Hz) information between 1000–1400 ms after stimulus onset distinguished between recollection and familiarity while the during-stimulus alpha information and temporal information between 400–800 ms after stimulus onset mapped these two states to similar values. PMID:24064073

  15. Neuronal correlates of maladaptive coping: an EEG-study in tinnitus patients.

    PubMed

    Vanneste, Sven; Joos, Kathleen; Langguth, Berthold; To, Wing Ting; De Ridder, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Here we aimed to investigate the neuronal correlates of different coping styles in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. Adaptive and maladaptive coping styles were determined in 85 tinnitus patients. Based on resting state EEG recordings, coping related differences in brain activity and connectivity were found. Maladaptive coping behavior was related to increases in subjective tinnitus loudness and distress, higher tinnitus severity and higher depression scores. EEG recordings demonstrated increased alpha activity over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) as well as increased connectivity in the default (i.e. resting state) network in tinnitus patients with a maladaptive coping style. Correlation analysis revealed that the changes in the DLPFC correlate primarily with maladaptive coping behavior, whereas the changes in the sgACC correlate with tinnitus severity and depression. Our findings are in line with previous research in the field of depression that during resting state a alpha band hyperconnectivity exists within the default network for patients who use a maladaptive coping style, with the sgACC as the dysfunctional node and that the strength of the connectivity is related to focusing on negative mood and catastrophizing about the consequences of tinnitus. PMID:24558383

  16. Amplitude-Integrated EEG and Range-EEG Modulation Associated with Pneumatic Orocutaneous Stimulation in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Steven M; Jegatheesan, Priya; Weiss, Sunshine; Govindaswami, Balaji; Wang, Jingyan; Lee, Jaehoon; Oder, Austin; Song, Dongli

    2013-01-01

    Background Controlled somatosensory stimulation strategies have demonstrated merit in developing oral feeding skills in premature infants who lack a functional suck, however, the effects of orosensory entrainment stimulation on electrocortical dynamics is unknown. Objective To determine the effects of servo-controlled pneumatic orocutaneous stimulation presented during gavage feedings on the modulation of aEEG and rEEG activity. Methods Two-channel EEG recordings were collected during 180 sessions that included orocutaneous stimulation and non-stimulation epochs among 22 preterm infants (mean gestational age = 28.56 weeks) who were randomized to treatment and control ‘sham’ conditions. The study was initiated at around 32 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA). The raw EEG was transformed into amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) margins, and range-EEG (rEEG) amplitude bands measured at 1-minute intervals and subjected to a mixed models statistical analysis. Results Multiple significant effects were observed in the processed EEG during and immediately following 3-minute periods of orocutaneous stimulation, including modulation of the upper and lower margins of the aEEG, and a reorganization of rEEG with an apparent shift from amplitude bands D and E to band C throughout the 23-minute recording period that followed the first stimulus block when compared to the sham condition. Cortical asymmetry also was apparent in both EEG measures. Conclusions Orocutaneous stimulation represents a salient trigeminal input which has both short- and long-term effects in modulating electrocortical activity, and thus, is hypothesized to represent a form of neural adaptation or plasticity that may benefit the preterm infant during this critical period of brain maturation. PMID:24310443

  17. Phenotypic switching in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrin, Jack

    Living matter is a non-equilibrium system in which many components work in parallel to perpetuate themselves through a fluctuating environment. Physiological states or functionalities revealed by a particular environment are called phenotypes. Transitions between phenotypes may occur either spontaneously or via interaction with the environment. Even in the same environment, genetically identical bacteria can exhibit different phenotypes of a continuous or discrete nature. In this thesis, we pursued three lines of investigation into discrete phenotypic heterogeneity in bacterial populations: the quantitative characterization of the so-called bacterial persistence, a theoretical model of phenotypic switching based on those measurements, and the design of artificial genetic networks which implement this model. Persistence is the phenotype of a subpopulation of bacteria with a reduced sensitivity to antibiotics. We developed a microfluidic apparatus, which allowed us to monitor the growth rates of individual cells while applying repeated cycles of antibiotic treatments. We were able to identify distinct phenotypes (normal and persistent) and characterize the stochastic transitions between them. We also found that phenotypic heterogeneity was present prior to any environmental cue such as antibiotic exposure. Motivated by the experiments with persisters, we formulated a theoretical model describing the dynamic behavior of several discrete phenotypes in a periodically varying environment. This theoretical framework allowed us to quantitatively predict the fitness of dynamic populations and to compare survival strategies according to environmental time-symmetries. These calculations suggested that persistence is a strategy used by bacterial populations to adapt to fluctuating environments. Knowledge of the phenotypic transition rates for persistence may provide statistical information about the typical environments of bacteria. We also describe a design of artificial genetic networks that would implement a more general theoretical model of phenotypic switching. We will use a new cloning strategy in order to systematically assemble a large number of genetic features, such as site-specific recombination components from the R64 plasmid, which invert several coexisting DNA segments. The inversion of these segments would lead to discrete phenotypic transitions inside a living cell. These artificial phenotypic switches can be controlled precisely in experiments and may serve as a benchmark for their natural counterparts.

  18. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Explore this section to learn more about alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, including a description of the ...

  19. The EEG and fMRI signatures of neural integration: An investigation of meaningful gestures and corresponding speech.

    PubMed

    He, Yifei; Gebhardt, Helge; Steines, Miriam; Sammer, Gebhard; Kircher, Tilo; Nagels, Arne; Straube, Benjamin

    2015-06-01

    One of the key features of human interpersonal communication is our ability to integrate information communicated by speech and accompanying gestures. However, it is still not fully understood how this essential combinatory process is represented in the human brain. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have unanimously attested the relevance of activation in the posterior superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus (pSTS/MTG), while electroencephalography (EEG) studies have shown oscillatory activity in specific frequency bands to be associated with multisensory integration. In the current study, we used fMRI and EEG to separately investigate the anatomical and oscillatory neural signature of integrating intrinsically meaningful gestures (IMG; e.g. "Thumbs-up gesture") and corresponding speech (e.g., "The actor did a good job"). In both the fMRI (n =2 0) and EEG (n = 20) study, participants were presented with videos of an actor either: performing IMG in the context of a German sentence (GG), IMG in the context of a Russian (as a foreign language) sentence (GR), or speaking an isolated German sentence without gesture (SG). The results of the fMRI experiment confirmed that gesture-speech processing of IMG activates the posterior MTG (GG>GR?GG>SG). In the EEG experiment we found that the identical integration process (GG>GR?GG>SG) is related to a centrally-distributed alpha (7-13 Hz) power decrease within 700-1400 ms post-onset of the critical word. These new findings suggest that BOLD response increase in the pMTG and alpha power decrease represent the neural correlates of integrating intrinsically meaningful gestures with their corresponding speech. PMID:25900470

  20. Event-related EEG oscillations to semantically unrelated words in normal and learning disabled children.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Thalía; Harmony, Thalía; Mendoza, Omar; López-Alanís, Paula; Marroquín, José Luis; Otero, Gloria; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2012-10-01

    Learning disabilities (LD) are one of the most frequent problems for elementary school-aged children. In this paper, event-related EEG oscillations to semantically related and unrelated pairs of words were studied in a group of 18 children with LD not otherwise specified (LD-NOS) and in 16 children with normal academic achievement. We propose that EEG oscillations may be different in LD NOS children versus normal control children that may explain some of the deficits observed in the LD-NOS group. The EEGs were recorded using the 10/20 system. EEG segments were edited by visual inspection 1000ms before and after the stimulus, and only correct responses were considered in the analysis. Time-frequency (1-50Hz) topographic maps were obtained for the increases and decreases of power after the event with respect to the pre-stimulus average values. Significant differences between groups were observed in the behavioral responses. LD-NOS children show less number of correct responses and more omissions and false alarms than the control group. The event-induced EEG responses showed significant differences between groups. The control group showed greater power increases in the frequencies 1-6Hz than the LD-NOS group from 300 to 700ms. These differences were mainly observed in frontal regions, both to related and non-related words. This was interpreted as a deficit in attention, both to internal and external events, deficits in activation of working memory and deficits in encoding and memory retrieval in the LD-NOS children. Differences between groups were also observed in the suppression of alpha and beta rhythms in the occipital regions to related words in frequencies between 8 and 17Hz from 450 to 750ms. LD-NOS children showed shorter durations of the decreases in power than the control group. These results suggest also deficits in attention and memory retrieval. It may be concluded that LD-NOS children showed physiological differences from normal children that may explain their cognitive deficiencies. PMID:22634034

  1. Research report EEG evidence for mirror neuron dysfunction in autism

    E-print Network

    Ramachandran, Vilayanur S.

    of the nervous system Topic: Developmental disorders Keywords: Mirror neurons; Autism spectrum disorders; EEG; MuResearch report EEG evidence for mirror neuron dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders Lindsay M Abstract Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are largely characterized by deficits in imitation, pragmatic

  2. Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction of Electroencephalogram (EEG) for Brain Computer Interfaces

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Charles W.

    . One of the well known non-linear methods for dimensionality reduction is a bottleneck NN [4Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction of Electroencephalogram (EEG) for Brain Computer Interfaces on transformations of high dimensional EEG data to low dimensional spaces in which we can classify the data according

  3. Using EEG to Study Cognitive Development: Issues and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Martha Ann; Cuevas, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Developmental research is enhanced by use of multiple methodologies for examining psychological processes. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an efficient and relatively inexpensive method for the study of developmental changes in brain-behavior relations. In this review, we highlight some of the challenges for using EEG in cognitive development…

  4. Effects of Fipronil on the EEG of Long Evans Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have reported that the non-stimulus driven EEG is differentially altered by deltamethrin or permethrin (Lyke and Herr, Toxicologist, 114(S-1):265, 2010). In the current study, we examined the ability to detect changes in EEG activity produced by fipronil, a phenylpyrazole pest...

  5. EEG Markers for Attention Deficit Disorder: Pharmacological and Neurofeedback Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterman, M. Barry

    2000-01-01

    Examined contribution of EEG findings in the classification and treatment of attention deficit and related behavioral problems in children. Found that quantitative EEG methods disclosed patterns of abnormality in children with ADD, suggested improved guidelines for pharmacological treatment, and introduced neurofeedback, a behavioral treatment for…

  6. Recognition of Epileptic EEG Using Probabilistic Neural Network

    E-print Network

    Bao, Forrest Sheng; Lie, Donald Yu-Chun

    2008-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders that greatly impair patients' daily lives. A classifier for automated epileptic EEG detection and patient monitoring can be very important for epilepsy diagnosis and patients' quality of life, especially for rural areas and developing countries where medical resources are limited. This paper describes our development of an accurate and fast EEG classifier that can differentiate the EEG data of healthy people from that of epileptic patients, and also detect patients' status (i.e., interictal vs. ictal). We deployed Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) and fed it with 38 features extracted from the EEG data. The resulting PNN EEG classifier achieves an impressive accuracy greater than 96 as indicated by cross-validation. This prototype classifier is therefore suitable for automated epilepsy detection/diagnosis and seizure monitoring. It may even facilitate seizure prediction.

  7. Analysis of epileptic EEG signals in children by symbolic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Paternoster, Luca; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Melia, Umberto; Clariá, Francisco; Voss, Andreas; Caminal, Pere

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent neurological disorders among children. The study of surface EEG signals in patients with epilepsy by techniques based on symbolic dynamics can provide new insights into the epileptogenic process and may have considerable utility in the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy. The goal of this work was to find patterns from a methodology based on symbolic dynamics to characterize seizures on surface EEG in pediatric patients with intractable epilepsy. A total of 76 seizures were analyzed by their pre-ictal, ictal and post-ictal phases. An analytic signal envelope algorithm was applied to each EEG segment and its performance was evaluated. Several variables were defined from the distribution of words constructed on the EEG transformed into symbols. The results showed strong evidences of detectable non-linear changes in the EEG dynamics from pre-ictal to ictal phase and from ictal to post-ictal phase, with an accuracy higher than 70%. PMID:24110699

  8. Using Bayesian Model Selection to Characterize Neonatal Eeg Recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Timothy J.

    2009-12-01

    The brains of premature infants must undergo significant maturation outside of the womb and are thus particularly susceptible to injury. Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings are an important diagnostic tool in determining if a newborn's brain is functioning normally or if injury has occurred. However, interpreting the recordings is difficult and requires the skills of a trained electroencephelographer. Because these EEG specialists are rare, an automated interpretation of newborn EEG recordings would increase access to an important diagnostic tool for physicians. To automate this procedure, we employ Bayesian probability theory to compute the posterior probability for the EEG features of interest and use the results in a program designed to mimic EEG specialists. Specifically, we will be identifying waveforms of varying frequency and amplitude, as well as periods of flat recordings where brain activity is minimal.

  9. ACNS Critical Care EEG Terminology: Value, Limitations, and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gaspard, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    The interpretation of the EEG in the critically ill remains a clinical challenge. Because continuous EEG monitoring plays an increasing role in patients' care, it is important that research efforts investigate the clinical significance of periodic and rhythmic discharges and of background abnormalities. The 2012 American Clinical Neurophysiology Society critical care EEG terminology was designed to provide a comprehensive and objective vocabulary for that purpose. The interrater reliability of most of the proposed terms has been established, confirming that they represent a solid basis for research. Studies using the terminology have already started to define the clinical and prognostic values of several known or newly described EEG patterns. Yet, as the field of critical care EEG evolves, improvements will be required to further enhance the clarity of the terminology and incorporate new findings from ongoing research. PMID:26629754

  10. Tracking variations in the alpha activity in an electroencephalogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhu, K. S.

    1971-01-01

    The problem of tracking Alpha voltage variations in an electroencephalogram is discussed. This problem is important in encephalographic studies of sleep and effects of different stimuli on the brain. Very often the Alpha voltage is tracked by passing the EEG signal through a bandpass filter centered at the Alpha frequency, which hopefully will filter out unwanted noise from the Alpha activity. Some alternative digital techniques are suggested and their performance is compared with the standard technique. These digital techniques can be used in an environment where an electroencephalograph is interfaced with a small digital computer via an A/D convertor. They have the advantage that statistical statements about their variability can sometimes be made so that the effect sought can be assessed correctly in the presence of random fluctuations.

  11. Multi-channel EEG signal feature extraction and pattern recognition on horizontal mental imagination task of 1-D cursor movement for brain computer interface.

    PubMed

    Serdar Bascil, M; Tesneli, Ahmet Y; Temurtas, Feyzullah

    2015-06-01

    Brain computer interfaces (BCIs), based on multi-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) signal processing convert brain signal activities to machine control commands. It provides new communication way with a computer by extracting electroencephalographic activity. This paper, deals with feature extraction and classification of horizontal mental task pattern on 1-D cursor movement from EEG signals. The hemispherical power changes are computed and compared on alpha & beta frequencies and horizontal cursor control extracted with only mental imagination of cursor movements. In the first stage, features are extracted with the well-known average signal power or power difference (alpha and beta) method. Principal component analysis is used for reducing feature dimensions. All features are classified and the mental task patterns are recognized by three neural network classifiers which learning vector quantization, multilayer neural network and probabilistic neural network due to obtaining acceptable good results and using successfully in pattern recognition via k-fold cross validation technique. PMID:25982878

  12. Classification of spontaneous EEG signals in migraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellotti, R.; De Carlo, F.; de Tommaso, M.; Lucente, M.

    2007-08-01

    We set up a classification system able to detect patients affected by migraine without aura, through the analysis of their spontaneous EEG patterns. First, the signals are characterized by means of wavelet-based features, than a supervised neural network is used to classify the multichannel data. For the feature extraction, scale-dependent and scale-independent methods are considered with a variety of wavelet functions. Both the approaches provide very high and almost comparable classification performances. A complete separation of the two groups is obtained when the data are plotted in the plane spanned by two suitable neural outputs.

  13. Multivariate genetic determinants of EEG oscillations in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder from the BSNIP study

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, B; Soh, P; Calhoun, V D; Ruaño, G; Kocherla, M; Windemuth, A; Clementz, B A; Tamminga, C A; Sweeney, J A; Keshavan, M S; Pearlson, G D

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBP) are disabling psychiatric illnesses with complex and unclear etiologies. Electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillatory abnormalities in SZ and PBP probands are heritable and expressed in their relatives, but the neurobiology and genetic factors mediating these abnormalities in the psychosis dimension of either disorder are less explored. We examined the polygenic architecture of eyes-open resting state EEG frequency activity (intrinsic frequency) from 64 channels in 105 SZ, 145 PBP probands and 56 healthy controls (HCs) from the multisite BSNIP (Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes) study. One million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were derived from DNA. We assessed eight data-driven EEG frequency activity derived from group-independent component analysis (ICA) in conjunction with a reduced subset of 10?422 SNPs through novel multivariate association using parallel ICA (para-ICA). Genes contributing to the association were examined collectively using pathway analysis tools. Para-ICA extracted five frequency and nine SNP components, of which theta and delta activities were significantly correlated with two different gene components, comprising genes participating extensively in brain development, neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. Delta and theta abnormality was present in both SZ and PBP, while theta differed between the two disorders. Theta abnormalities were also mediated by gene clusters involved in glutamic acid pathways, cadherin and synaptic contact-based cell adhesion processes. Our data suggest plausible multifactorial genetic networks, including novel and several previously identified (DISC1) candidate risk genes, mediating low frequency delta and theta abnormalities in psychoses. The gene clusters were enriched for biological properties affecting neural circuitry and involved in brain function and/or development. PMID:26101851

  14. Multivariate genetic determinants of EEG oscillations in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder from the BSNIP study.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, B; Soh, P; Calhoun, V D; Ruaño, G; Kocherla, M; Windemuth, A; Clementz, B A; Tamminga, C A; Sweeney, J A; Keshavan, M S; Pearlson, G D

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBP) are disabling psychiatric illnesses with complex and unclear etiologies. Electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillatory abnormalities in SZ and PBP probands are heritable and expressed in their relatives, but the neurobiology and genetic factors mediating these abnormalities in the psychosis dimension of either disorder are less explored. We examined the polygenic architecture of eyes-open resting state EEG frequency activity (intrinsic frequency) from 64 channels in 105 SZ, 145 PBP probands and 56 healthy controls (HCs) from the multisite BSNIP (Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes) study. One million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were derived from DNA. We assessed eight data-driven EEG frequency activity derived from group-independent component analysis (ICA) in conjunction with a reduced subset of 10,422 SNPs through novel multivariate association using parallel ICA (para-ICA). Genes contributing to the association were examined collectively using pathway analysis tools. Para-ICA extracted five frequency and nine SNP components, of which theta and delta activities were significantly correlated with two different gene components, comprising genes participating extensively in brain development, neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. Delta and theta abnormality was present in both SZ and PBP, while theta differed between the two disorders. Theta abnormalities were also mediated by gene clusters involved in glutamic acid pathways, cadherin and synaptic contact-based cell adhesion processes. Our data suggest plausible multifactorial genetic networks, including novel and several previously identified (DISC1) candidate risk genes, mediating low frequency delta and theta abnormalities in psychoses. The gene clusters were enriched for biological properties affecting neural circuitry and involved in brain function and/or development. PMID:26101851

  15. Dynamic causal modelling of EEG and fMRI to characterize network architectures in a simple motor task.

    PubMed

    Bönstrup, Marlene; Schulz, Robert; Feldheim, Jan; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Gerloff, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic causal modelling (DCM) has extended the understanding of brain network dynamics in a variety of functional systems. In the motor system, DCM studies based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or on magneto-/electroencephalography (M/EEG) have demonstrated movement-related causal information flow from secondary to primary motor areas and have provided evidence for nonlinear cross-frequency interactions among motor areas. The present study sought to investigate to what extent fMRI- and EEG-based DCM might provide complementary and synergistic insights into neuronal network dynamics. Both modalities share principal similarities in the formulation of the DCM. Thus, we hypothesized that DCM based on induced EEG responses (DCM-IR) and on fMRI would reveal congruent task-dependent network dynamics. Brain electrical (63-channel surface EEG) and Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signals were recorded in separate sessions from 14 healthy participants performing simple isometric right and left hand grips. DCM-IR and DCM-fMRI were used to estimate coupling parameters modulated by right and left hand grips within a core motor network of six regions comprising bilateral primary motor cortex (M1), ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and supplementary motor area (SMA). We found that DCM-fMRI and DCM-IR similarly revealed significant grip-related increases in facilitatory coupling between SMA and M1 contralateral to the active hand. A grip-dependent interhemispheric reciprocal inhibition between M1 bilaterally was only revealed by DCM-fMRI but not by DCM-IR. Frequency-resolved coupling analysis showed that the information flow from contralateral SMA to M1 was predominantly a linear alpha-to-alpha (9-13Hz) interaction. We also detected some cross-frequency coupling from SMA to contralateral M1, i.e., between lower beta (14-21Hz) at the SMA and higher beta (22-30Hz) at M1 during right hand grip and between alpha (9-13Hz) at SMA and lower beta (14-21Hz) at M1 during left hand grip. In conclusion, the strategy of informing EEG source-space configurations with fMRI-derived coordinates, cross-validating basic connectivity maps and analysing frequency coding allows for deeper insight into the motor network architecture of the human brain. The present results provide evidence for the robustness of non-invasively measured causal information flow from secondary motor areas such as SMA towards M1 and further contribute to the validation of the methodological approach of multimodal DCM to explore human network dynamics. PMID:26334836

  16. Influence of coherence between multiple cortical columns on alpha rhythm: a computational modeling study.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Yasushi; Matani, Ayumu; Miyawaki, Yoichi; Okada, Masato

    2010-05-01

    In electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals, stimulus-induced amplitude increase and decrease in the alpha rhythm, known as event-related synchronization and desynchronization (ERS/ERD), emerge after a task onset. ERS/ERD is assumed to reflect neural processes relevant to cognitive tasks. Previous studies suggest that several sources of alpha rhythm, each of which can serve as an alpha rhythm generator, exist in the cortex. Since EEG/MEG signals represent spatially summed neural activities, ERS/ERD of the alpha rhythm may reflect the consequence of the interactions between multiple alpha rhythm generators. Two candidates modulate the magnitude of ERS/ERD: (1) coherence between the activities of the alpha rhythm generators and (2) mean amplitude of the activities of the alpha rhythm generators. In this study, we use a computational model of multiple alpha rhythm generators to determine the factor that dominantly causes ERS/ERD. Each alpha rhythm generator is modeled based on local column circuits in the primary visual cortex and made to interact with the neighboring generators through excitatory connections. We observe that the model consistently reproduces spontaneous alpha rhythms, event-related potentials, phase-locked alpha rhythms, and ERS/ERD in a specific range of connectivity coefficients. Independent analyses of the coherence and amplitude of multiple alpha rhythm generators reveal that the ERS/ERD in the simulated data is dominantly caused by stimulus-induced changes in the coherence between multiple alpha rhythm generators. Nonlinear phenomena such as phase-resetting and entrainment of the alpha rhythm are related to the neural mechanism underlying ERS/ERD. PMID:19890847

  17. Real-Time Estimation and 3D Visualization of Source Dynamics and Connectivity Using Wearable EEG

    E-print Network

    Makeig, Scott

    Real-Time Estimation and 3D Visualization of Source Dynamics and Connectivity Using Wearable EEG T of such a pipeline to EEG data obtained from wearable high-density (32-64 channel) dry EEG systems. Keywords: Wearable EEG, Dry Sensors, Connectivity, Source Localization, Artifact Rejection, Visualization 1

  18. Combined EEG/MEG Can Outperform Single Modality EEG or MEG Source Reconstruction in Presurgical Epilepsy Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Ümit; Vorwerk, Johannes; Dümpelmann, Matthias; Küpper, Philipp; Kugel, Harald; Heers, Marcel; Wellmer, Jörg; Kellinghaus, Christoph; Haueisen, Jens; Rampp, Stefan; Stefan, Hermann; Wolters, Carsten H.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated two important means for improving source reconstruction in presurgical epilepsy diagnosis. The first investigation is about the optimal choice of the number of epileptic spikes in averaging to (1) sufficiently reduce the noise bias for an accurate determination of the center of gravity of the epileptic activity and (2) still get an estimation of the extent of the irritative zone. The second study focuses on the differences in single modality EEG (80-electrodes) or MEG (275-gradiometers) and especially on the benefits of combined EEG/MEG (EMEG) source analysis. Both investigations were validated with simultaneous stereo-EEG (sEEG) (167-contacts) and low-density EEG (ldEEG) (21-electrodes). To account for the different sensitivity profiles of EEG and MEG, we constructed a six-compartment finite element head model with anisotropic white matter conductivity, and calibrated the skull conductivity via somatosensory evoked responses. Our results show that, unlike single modality EEG or MEG, combined EMEG uses the complementary information of both modalities and thereby allows accurate source reconstructions also at early instants in time (epileptic spike onset), i.e., time points with low SNR, which are not yet subject to propagation and thus supposed to be closer to the origin of the epileptic activity. EMEG is furthermore able to reveal the propagation pathway at later time points in agreement with sEEG, while EEG or MEG alone reconstructed only parts of it. Subaveraging provides important and accurate information about both the center of gravity and the extent of the epileptogenic tissue that neither single nor grand-averaged spike localizations can supply. PMID:25761059

  19. Combined EEG/MEG can outperform single modality EEG or MEG source reconstruction in presurgical epilepsy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ümit; Vorwerk, Johannes; Dümpelmann, Matthias; Küpper, Philipp; Kugel, Harald; Heers, Marcel; Wellmer, Jörg; Kellinghaus, Christoph; Haueisen, Jens; Rampp, Stefan; Stefan, Hermann; Wolters, Carsten H

    2015-01-01

    We investigated two important means for improving source reconstruction in presurgical epilepsy diagnosis. The first investigation is about the optimal choice of the number of epileptic spikes in averaging to (1) sufficiently reduce the noise bias for an accurate determination of the center of gravity of the epileptic activity and (2) still get an estimation of the extent of the irritative zone. The second study focuses on the differences in single modality EEG (80-electrodes) or MEG (275-gradiometers) and especially on the benefits of combined EEG/MEG (EMEG) source analysis. Both investigations were validated with simultaneous stereo-EEG (sEEG) (167-contacts) and low-density EEG (ldEEG) (21-electrodes). To account for the different sensitivity profiles of EEG and MEG, we constructed a six-compartment finite element head model with anisotropic white matter conductivity, and calibrated the skull conductivity via somatosensory evoked responses. Our results show that, unlike single modality EEG or MEG, combined EMEG uses the complementary information of both modalities and thereby allows accurate source reconstructions also at early instants in time (epileptic spike onset), i.e., time points with low SNR, which are not yet subject to propagation and thus supposed to be closer to the origin of the epileptic activity. EMEG is furthermore able to reveal the propagation pathway at later time points in agreement with sEEG, while EEG or MEG alone reconstructed only parts of it. Subaveraging provides important and accurate information about both the center of gravity and the extent of the epileptogenic tissue that neither single nor grand-averaged spike localizations can supply. PMID:25761059

  20. Estimating Single-Trial Responses in EEG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, A. S.; Knuth, K. H.; Truccolo, W. A.; Mehta, A. D.; Fu, K. G.; Johnston, T. A.; Ding, M.; Bressler, S. L.; Schroeder, C. E.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Accurate characterization of single-trial field potential responses is critical from a number of perspectives. For example, it allows differentiation of an evoked response from ongoing EEG. We previously developed the multiple component Event Related Potential (mcERP) algorithm to improve resolution of the single-trial evoked response. The mcERP model states that multiple components, each specified by a stereotypic waveform varying in latency and amplitude from trial to trial, comprise the evoked response. Application of the mcERP algorithm to simulated data with three independent, synthetic components has shown that the model is capable of separating these components and estimating their variability. Application of the model to single trial, visual evoked potentials recorded simultaneously from all V1 laminae in an awake, fixating macaque yielded local and far-field components. Certain local components estimated by the model were distributed in both granular and supragranular laminae. This suggests a linear coupling between the responses of thalamo-recipient neuronal ensembles and subsequent responses of supragranular neuronal ensembles, as predicted by the feedforward anatomy of V1. Our results indicate that the mcERP algorithm provides a valid estimation of single-trial responses. This will enable analyses that depend on trial-to-trial variations and those that require separation of the evoked response from background EEG rhythms

  1. Estimating human response to taste using EEG.

    PubMed

    Park, C; Looney, D; Mandic, D P

    2011-01-01

    In order to implement affective computing, there have been several studies to elicit human emotion using audio and video stimuli or by recalling previous events. Taste-elicited emotion has also been investigated using food to induce different levels of pleasure. This is monitored using a range of methods, from questionnaire feedback to electrophysiological responses of autonomic nervous system (ANS) and central nervous system (CNS). In this work, we establish that emotions elicited by taste can be monitored using electroencephalogram (EEG), and, for rigour, compare the response to a taste stimulus against the response to the recall of the same taste. The character of emotions were assessed using a subjective measurement, the hedonic score, which describes the pleasant or unpleasant moods of subjects in response to each taste. The classification performance of EEG responses shows excellent separability between the different emotions induced by different tastes. In addition, it is shown that emotion elicited by taste recall is stronger than the stimulus-elicited emotion. PMID:22255786

  2. Nonlinear analysis of EEG for epileptic seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Daw, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F.; Eisenstadt, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    We apply chaotic time series analysis (CTSA) to human electroencephalogram (EEG) data. Three epoches were examined: epileptic seizure, non-seizure, and transition from non-seizure to seizure. The CTSA tools were applied to four forms of these data: raw EEG data (e-data), artifact data (f-data) via application of a quadratic zero-phase filter of the raw data, artifact-filtered data (g- data) and that was the residual after subtracting f-data from e-data, and a low-pass-filtered version (h-data) of g-data. Two different seizures were analyzed for the same patient. Several nonlinear measures uniquely indicate an epileptic seizure in both cases, including an abrupt decrease in the time per wave cycle in f-data, an abrupt increase in the Kolmogorov entropy and in the correlation dimension for e-h data, and an abrupt increase in the correlation dimension for e-h data. The transition from normal to seizure state also is characterized by distinctly different trends in the nonlinear measures for each seizure and may be potential seizure predictors for this patient. Surrogate analysis of e-data shows that statistically significant nonlinear structure is present during the non-seizure, transition , and seizure epoches.

  3. Normative Amplitude Integrated EEG (aEEG) Measures in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Vesoulis, Zachary A.; Paul, Rachel A.; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Wong, Connie; Inder, Terrie E.; Mathur, Amit M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Assessing qualitative patterns of amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG) maturation of preterm infants requires personnel with training in interpretation and an investment of time. Quantitative algorithms provide a method for rapidly and reproducibly assessing an aEEG recording independent of provider skill level. Although there are several qualitative and quantitative normative datasets in the literature, this study provides the broadest array of quantitative aEEG measures in a carefully selected and followed cohort of preterm infants with mild or no visible injury on term equivalent MRI and subsequently normal neurodevelopment at 2 and 7 years of age. Study Design A two-channel aEEG recording was obtained on days 4,7,14, and 28 of life for infants born ?30 weeks EGA. Measures of amplitude and continuity, spectral edge frequency, percentage of trace in interburst interval, interburst interval length, and frequency counts of smooth delta waves, delta brushes and theta bursts were obtained. MRI was obtained at term-equivalent age (TEA) and neurodevelopmental testing was conducted at 2 and 7 years of corrected age. Result Correlations were found between increasing post-menstrual age (PMA) and decreasing maximum amplitude (R=?0.23, p=0.05), increasing minimum amplitude (R=0.46, p=0.002), and increasing spectral edge frequency (R=0.78, p=4.17x10?14). Negative correlations were noted between increasing PMA and counts of smooth delta waves (R=?0.39, p=0.001), delta brushes (R=?0.37, p=0.003), and theta bursts (R=?0.61, p=5.66x10?8). Increasing PMA was also associated with a decreased amount of time spent in the interburst interval (R=?0.38, p=0.001) and a shorter length of the maximum IBI (R=?0.27, p=0.03). Conclusion This analysis supports a strong correlation between quantitatively determined aEEG measures and PMA, in a cohort of preterm infants with normal TEA neuroimaging and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 7 years of age, which is both predictable and reproducible. These “normative” quantitative values support the pattern of maturation previously identified by qualitative analysis. PMID:25521561

  4. EEG resolutions in detecting and decoding finger movements from spectral analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ran; Ding, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Mu/beta rhythms are well-studied brain activities that originate from sensorimotor cortices. These rhythms reveal spectral changes in alpha and beta bands induced by movements of different body parts, e.g., hands and limbs, in electroencephalography (EEG) signals. However, less can be revealed in them about movements of different fine body parts that activate adjacent brain regions, such as individual fingers from one hand. Several studies have reported spatial and temporal couplings of rhythmic activities at different frequency bands, suggesting the existence of well-defined spectral structures across multiple frequency bands. In the present study, spectral principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on EEG data, obtained from a finger movement task, to identify cross-frequency spectral structures. Features from identified spectral structures were examined in their spatial patterns, cross-condition pattern changes, detection capability of finger movements from resting, and decoding performance of individual finger movements in comparison to classic mu/beta rhythms. These new features reveal some similar, but more different spatial and spectral patterns as compared with classic mu/beta rhythms. Decoding results further indicate that these new features (91%) can detect finger movements much better than classic mu/beta rhythms (75.6%). More importantly, these new features reveal discriminative information about movements of different fingers (fine body-part movements), which is not available in classic mu/beta rhythms. The capability in decoding fingers (and hand gestures in the future) from EEG will contribute significantly to the development of non-invasive BCI and neuroprosthesis with intuitive and flexible controls. PMID:26388720

  5. Mean-field thalamocortical modeling of longitudinal EEG acquired during intensive meditation training.

    PubMed

    Saggar, Manish; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Bridwell, David A; MacLean, Katherine A; Aichele, Stephen R; Jacobs, Tonya L; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2015-07-01

    Meditation training has been shown to enhance attention and improve emotion regulation. However, the brain processes associated with such training are poorly understood and a computational modeling framework is lacking. Modeling approaches that can realistically simulate neurophysiological data while conforming to basic anatomical and physiological constraints can provide a unique opportunity to generate concrete and testable hypotheses about the mechanisms supporting complex cognitive tasks such as meditation. Here we applied the mean-field computational modeling approach using the scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) collected at three assessment points from meditating participants during two separate 3-month-long shamatha meditation retreats. We modeled cortical, corticothalamic, and intrathalamic interactions to generate a simulation of EEG signals recorded across the scalp. We also present two novel extensions to the mean-field approach that allow for: (a) non-parametric analysis of changes in model parameter values across all channels and assessments; and (b) examination of variation in modeled thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) connectivity over the retreat period. After successfully fitting whole-brain EEG data across three assessment points within each retreat, two model parameters were found to replicably change across both meditation retreats. First, after training, we observed an increased temporal delay between modeled cortical and thalamic cells. This increase provides a putative neural mechanism for a previously observed reduction in individual alpha frequency in these same participants. Second, we found decreased inhibitory connection strength between the TRN and secondary relay nuclei (SRN) of the modeled thalamus after training. This reduction in inhibitory strength was found to be associated with increased dynamical stability of the model. Altogether, this paper presents the first computational approach, taking core aspects of physiology and anatomy into account, to formally model brain processes associated with intensive meditation training. The observed changes in model parameters inform theoretical accounts of attention training through meditation, and may motivate future study on the use of meditation in a variety of clinical populations. PMID:25862265

  6. Fractal Dimension of EEG Activity Senses Neuronal Impairment in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zappasodi, Filippo; Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Marzetti, Laura; Assenza, Giovanni; Pizzella, Vittorio; Tecchio, Franca

    2014-01-01

    The brain is a self-organizing system which displays self-similarities at different spatial and temporal scales. Thus, the complexity of its dynamics, associated to efficient processing and functional advantages, is expected to be captured by a measure of its scale-free (fractal) properties. Under the hypothesis that the fractal dimension (FD) of the electroencephalographic signal (EEG) is optimally sensitive to the neuronal dysfunction secondary to a brain lesion, we tested the FD’s ability in assessing two key processes in acute stroke: the clinical impairment and the recovery prognosis. Resting EEG was collected in 36 patients 4–10 days after a unilateral ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory and 19 healthy controls. National Health Institute Stroke Scale (NIHss) was collected at T0 and 6 months later. Highuchi FD, its inter-hemispheric asymmetry (FDasy) and spectral band powers were calculated for EEG signals. FD was smaller in patients than in controls (1.447±0.092 vs 1.525±0.105) and its reduction was paired to a worse acute clinical status. FD decrease was associated to alpha increase and beta decrease of oscillatory activity power. Larger FDasy in acute phase was paired to a worse clinical recovery at six months. FD in our patients captured the loss of complexity reflecting the global system dysfunction resulting from the structural damage. This decrease seems to reveal the intimate nature of structure-function unity, where the regional neural multi-scale self-similar activity is impaired by the anatomical lesion. This picture is coherent with neuronal activity complexity decrease paired to a reduced repertoire of functional abilities. FDasy result highlights the functional relevance of the balance between homologous brain structures’ activities in stroke recovery. PMID:24967904

  7. Fractal dimension of EEG activity senses neuronal impairment in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Zappasodi, Filippo; Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Marzetti, Laura; Assenza, Giovanni; Pizzella, Vittorio; Tecchio, Franca

    2014-01-01

    The brain is a self-organizing system which displays self-similarities at different spatial and temporal scales. Thus, the complexity of its dynamics, associated to efficient processing and functional advantages, is expected to be captured by a measure of its scale-free (fractal) properties. Under the hypothesis that the fractal dimension (FD) of the electroencephalographic signal (EEG) is optimally sensitive to the neuronal dysfunction secondary to a brain lesion, we tested the FD's ability in assessing two key processes in acute stroke: the clinical impairment and the recovery prognosis. Resting EEG was collected in 36 patients 4-10 days after a unilateral ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory and 19 healthy controls. National Health Institute Stroke Scale (NIHss) was collected at T0 and 6 months later. Highuchi FD, its inter-hemispheric asymmetry (FDasy) and spectral band powers were calculated for EEG signals. FD was smaller in patients than in controls (1.447±0.092 vs 1.525±0.105) and its reduction was paired to a worse acute clinical status. FD decrease was associated to alpha increase and beta decrease of oscillatory activity power. Larger FDasy in acute phase was paired to a worse clinical recovery at six months. FD in our patients captured the loss of complexity reflecting the global system dysfunction resulting from the structural damage. This decrease seems to reveal the intimate nature of structure-function unity, where the regional neural multi-scale self-similar activity is impaired by the anatomical lesion. This picture is coherent with neuronal activity complexity decrease paired to a reduced repertoire of functional abilities. FDasy result highlights the functional relevance of the balance between homologous brain structures' activities in stroke recovery. PMID:24967904

  8. Wireless brain-machine interface using EEG and EOG: brain wave classification and robot control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sechang; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-04-01

    A brain-machine interface (BMI) links a user's brain activity directly to an external device. It enables a person to control devices using only thought. Hence, it has gained significant interest in the design of assistive devices and systems for people with disabilities. In addition, BMI has also been proposed to replace humans with robots in the performance of dangerous tasks like explosives handling/diffusing, hazardous materials handling, fire fighting etc. There are mainly two types of BMI based on the measurement method of brain activity; invasive and non-invasive. Invasive BMI can provide pristine signals but it is expensive and surgery may lead to undesirable side effects. Recent advances in non-invasive BMI have opened the possibility of generating robust control signals from noisy brain activity signals like EEG and EOG. A practical implementation of a non-invasive BMI such as robot control requires: acquisition of brain signals with a robust wearable unit, noise filtering and signal processing, identification and extraction of relevant brain wave features and finally, an algorithm to determine control signals based on the wave features. In this work, we developed a wireless brain-machine interface with a small platform and established a BMI that can be used to control the movement of a robot by using the extracted features of the EEG and EOG signals. The system records and classifies EEG as alpha, beta, delta, and theta waves. The classified brain waves are then used to define the level of attention. The acceleration and deceleration or stopping of the robot is controlled based on the attention level of the wearer. In addition, the left and right movements of eye ball control the direction of the robot.

  9. Wireless and wearable EEG system for evaluating driver vigilance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Chuang, Chun-Hsiang; Huang, Chih-Sheng; Tsai, Shu-Fang; Lu, Shao-Wei; Chen, Yen-Hsuan; Ko, Li-Wei

    2014-04-01

    Brain activity associated with attention sustained on the task of safe driving has received considerable attention recently in many neurophysiological studies. Those investigations have also accurately estimated shifts in drivers' levels of arousal, fatigue, and vigilance, as evidenced by variations in their task performance, by evaluating electroencephalographic (EEG) changes. However, monitoring the neurophysiological activities of automobile drivers poses a major measurement challenge when using a laboratory-oriented biosensor technology. This work presents a novel dry EEG sensor based mobile wireless EEG system (referred to herein as Mindo) to monitor in real time a driver's vigilance status in order to link the fluctuation of driving performance with changes in brain activities. The proposed Mindo system incorporates the use of a wireless and wearable EEG device to record EEG signals from hairy regions of the driver conveniently. Additionally, the proposed system can process EEG recordings and translate them into the vigilance level. The study compares the system performance between different regression models. Moreover, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for online analysis. A case study involving 15 study participants assigned a 90 min sustained-attention driving task in an immersive virtual driving environment demonstrates the reliability of the proposed system. Consistent with previous studies, power spectral analysis results confirm that the EEG activities correlate well with the variations in vigilance. Furthermore, the proposed system demonstrated the feasibility of predicting the driver's vigilance in real time. PMID:24860041

  10. Usability of four commercially-oriented EEG systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hairston, W. David; Whitaker, Keith W.; Ries, Anthony J.; Vettel, Jean M.; Cortney Bradford, J.; Kerick, Scott E.; McDowell, Kaleb

    2014-08-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) holds promise as a neuroimaging technology that can be used to understand how the human brain functions in real-world, operational settings while individuals move freely in perceptually-rich environments. In recent years, several EEG systems have been developed that aim to increase the usability of the neuroimaging technology in real-world settings. Here, the usability of three wireless EEG systems from different companies are compared to a conventional wired EEG system, BioSemi’s ActiveTwo, which serves as an established laboratory-grade ‘gold standard’ baseline. The wireless systems compared include Advanced Brain Monitoring’s B-Alert X10, Emotiv Systems’ EPOC and the 2009 version of QUASAR’s Dry Sensor Interface 10-20. The design of each wireless system is discussed in relation to its impact on the system’s usability as a potential real-world neuroimaging system. Evaluations are based on having participants complete a series of cognitive tasks while wearing each of the EEG acquisition systems. This report focuses on the system design, usability factors and participant comfort issues that arise during the experimental sessions. In particular, the EEG systems are assessed on five design elements: adaptability of the system for differing head sizes, subject comfort and preference, variance in scalp locations for the recording electrodes, stability of the electrical connection between the scalp and electrode, and timing integration between the EEG system, the stimulus presentation computer and other external events.

  11. Mobile Collection and Automated Interpretation of EEG Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Frederick; Moynihan, Philip

    2007-01-01

    A system that would comprise mobile and stationary electronic hardware and software subsystems has been proposed for collection and automated interpretation of electroencephalographic (EEG) data from subjects in everyday activities in a variety of environments. By enabling collection of EEG data from mobile subjects engaged in ordinary activities (in contradistinction to collection from immobilized subjects in clinical settings), the system would expand the range of options and capabilities for performing diagnoses. Each subject would be equipped with one of the mobile subsystems, which would include a helmet that would hold floating electrodes (see figure) in those positions on the patient s head that are required in classical EEG data-collection techniques. A bundle of wires would couple the EEG signals from the electrodes to a multi-channel transmitter also located in the helmet. Electronic circuitry in the helmet transmitter would digitize the EEG signals and transmit the resulting data via a multidirectional RF patch antenna to a remote location. At the remote location, the subject s EEG data would be processed and stored in a database that would be auto-administered by a newly designed relational database management system (RDBMS). In this RDBMS, in nearly real time, the newly stored data would be subjected to automated interpretation that would involve comparison with other EEG data and concomitant peer-reviewed diagnoses stored in international brain data bases administered by other similar RDBMSs.

  12. TMS-EEG: From basic research to clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Pavon, Julio C.; Sarvas, Jukka; Ilmoniemi, Risto J.

    2014-11-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with electroencephalography (EEG) is a powerful technique for non-invasively studying cortical excitability and connectivity. The combination of TMS and EEG has widely been used to perform basic research and recently has gained importance in different clinical applications. In this paper, we will describe the physical and biological principles of TMS-EEG and different applications in basic research and clinical applications. We will present methods based on independent component analysis (ICA) for studying the TMS-evoked EEG responses. These methods have the capability to remove and suppress large artifacts, making it feasible, for instance, to study language areas with TMS-EEG. We will discuss the different applications and limitations of TMS and TMS-EEG in clinical applications. Potential applications of TMS are presented, for instance in neurosurgical planning, depression and other neurological disorders. Advantages and disadvantages of TMS-EEG and its variants such as repetitive TMS (rTMS) are discussed in comparison to other brain stimulation and neuroimaging techniques. Finally, challenges that researchers face when using this technique will be summarized.

  13. A novel self-guided approach to alpha activity training.

    PubMed

    van Boxtel, Geert J M; Denissen, Ad J M; Jäger, Mark; Vernon, David; Dekker, Marian K J; Mihajlovi?, Vojkan; Sitskoorn, Margriet M

    2012-03-01

    Fifty healthy participants took part in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in which they were either given auditory alpha activity (8-12Hz) training (N=18), random beta training (N=12), or no training at all (N=20). A novel wireless electrode system was used for training without instructions, involving water-based electrodes mounted in an audio headset. Training was applied approximately at central electrodes. Post-training measurement using a conventional full-cap EEG system revealed a 10% increase in alpha activity at posterior sites compared to pre-training levels, when using the conventional index of alpha activity and a non-linear regression fit intended to model individual alpha frequency. This statistically significant increase was present only in the group that received the alpha training, and remained evident at a 3 month follow-up session, especially under eyes open conditions where an additional 10% increase was found. In an exit interview, approximately twice as many participants in the alpha training group (53%) mentioned that the training was relaxing, compared to those in either the beta (20%) or no training (21%) control groups. Behavioural measures of stress and relaxation were indicative of effects of alpha activity training but failed to reach statistical significance. These results are discussed in terms of a lack of statistical power. Overall, results suggest that self-guided alpha activity training using this novel system is feasible and represents a step forward in the ease of instrumental conditioning of brain rhythms. PMID:22119661

  14. Utility of Independent Component Analysis for Interpretation of Intracranial EEG

    PubMed Central

    Whitmer, Diane; Worrell, Gregory; Stead, Matt; Lee, Il Keun; Makeig, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Electrode arrays are sometimes implanted in the brains of patients with intractable epilepsy to better localize seizure foci before epilepsy surgery. Analysis of intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings is typically performed in the electrode channel domain without explicit separation of the sources that generate the signals. However, intracranial EEG signals, like scalp EEG signals, could be linear mixtures of local activity and volume-conducted activity arising in multiple source areas. Independent component analysis (ICA) has recently been applied to scalp EEG data, and shown to separate the signal mixtures into independently generated brain and non-brain source signals. Here, we applied ICA to unmix source signals from intracranial EEG recordings from four epilepsy patients during a visually cued finger movement task in the presence of background pathological brain activity. This ICA decomposition demonstrated that the iEEG recordings were not maximally independent, but rather are linear mixtures of activity from multiple sources. Many of the independent component (IC) projections to the iEEG recording grid were consistent with sources from single brain regions, including components exhibiting classic movement-related dynamics. Notably, the largest IC projection to each channel accounted for no more than 20–80% of the channel signal variance, implying that in general intracranial recordings cannot be accurately interpreted as recordings of independent brain sources. These results suggest that ICA can be used to identify and monitor major field sources of local and distributed functional networks generating iEEG data. ICA decomposition methods are useful for improving the fidelity of source signals of interest, likely including distinguishing the sources of pathological brain activity. PMID:21152349

  15. Early EEG contributes to multimodal outcome prediction of postanoxic coma

    PubMed Central

    Beernink, Tim M.J.; Bosch, Frank H.; Beishuizen, Albertus; Tjepkema-Cloostermans, Marleen C.; van Putten, Michel J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Early identification of potential recovery of postanoxic coma is a major challenge. We studied the additional predictive value of EEG. Methods: Two hundred seventy-seven consecutive comatose patients after cardiac arrest were included in a prospective cohort study on 2 intensive care units. Continuous EEG was measured during the first 3 days. EEGs were classified as unfavorable (isoelectric, low-voltage, burst-suppression with identical bursts), intermediate, or favorable (continuous patterns), at 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Outcome was dichotomized as good or poor. Resuscitation, demographic, clinical, somatosensory evoked potential, and EEG measures were related to outcome at 6 months using logistic regression analysis. Analyses of diagnostic accuracy included receiver operating characteristics and calculation of predictive values. Results: Poor outcome occurred in 149 patients (54%). Single measures unequivocally predicting poor outcome were an unfavorable EEG pattern at 24 hours, absent pupillary light responses at 48 hours, and absent somatosensory evoked potentials at 72 hours. Together, these had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 50%. For the remaining 203 patients, who were still in the “gray zone” at 72 hours, a predictive model including unfavorable EEG patterns at 12 hours, absent or extensor motor response to pain at 72 hours, and higher age had an area under the curve of 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.84–0.96). Favorable EEG patterns at 12 hours were strongly associated with good outcome. EEG beyond 24 hours had no additional predictive value. Conclusions: EEG within 24 hours is a robust contributor to prediction of poor or good outcome of comatose patients after cardiac arrest. PMID:26070341

  16. A coarse-grained analysis of the functional brain connectivity from EEG recordings of a visuo-perceptual discrimination task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopapa, Foteini; Mylonas, Dimitris; Smyrnis, Nikolaos; Siettos, Constantinos

    2013-10-01

    We report the emergent functional connectivity of cortical areas during a visuo-perceptual discrimination task with or without the retention in memory of the location of visual targets using EEG. The networks were computed using multivariate Granger causality on groups of electrodes reflecting coarse-grained brain areas. The analysis showed that at alpha band (8-12Hz) there are no significant differences. In contrast, in beta and gamma band, we identified a top-down information flow pattern which was evident for the task that required the activation of the working memory mechanism.

  17. EEG Abnormalities in Children with Speech and Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, V. K.; Parakh, Manish; Parakh, Poonam; Bhandari, Bharti; Gurjar, Anoop Singh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Epilepsy, a chronic condition of recurrent seizures, affects language, but the extent and nature of the language disturbance varies widely according to the type, severity, and cause of the epilepsy. There is paucity of literature on the electroencephalographic abnormalities in children with speech and language impairment. The present study was therefore planned to find the association of epileptiform EEG abnormalities in children with speech and language impairment and if present, their localization and lateralization to the language areas of the brain that are present predominantly in the left hemisphere. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on Paediatric patients having speech and language impairment (n=94, age-2 to 8 years) selected on the basis of detailed history and neurologic examination. Video Electroencephalography (EEG) was performed as per American Clinical Neurophysiology Society guidelines using 16 channel RMS computerized EEG machine for a minimum of 40 minutes to capture both wakefulness and sleep along with activation procedures like hyperventilation (if feasible) and photic stimulation. EEG was reviewed for any abnormal EEG background, benign variants, interictal epileptiform discharges and ictal discharges. Results In our cohort, 19.7% boys and 22.2% girls presented with seizures in their infancy and this gender difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). EEG was abnormal in 47.9% children (45 out of 94) with no significant gender difference. Epileptiform EEG was seen in 73.6% of children with history of seizures and 41.3% of children without history of seizures (p<0.05). The EEG abnormities included: abnormal background (64.5%), presence of generalized interictal epileptiform discharges (57.8%), focal epileptiform discharges (20%) exclusively from left hemisphere and multifocal interictal epileptiform discharges (33.3%), each occurring in isolation or associated with other abnormities. Conclusion In the current study, it is definite that presence of generalized abnormalities in EEG are seen in higher frequency and focal interictal epileptiform discharges are solely seen in left hemisphere in children with speech and language impairment. Although, there is no distinct pattern of EEG abnormalities in such patients, we recommend a routine EEG in them and also brain imaging to complement the EEG findings. PMID:26417549

  18. Lateralized modulation of posterior alpha oscillations in children.

    PubMed

    Vollebregt, Madelon A; Zumer, Johanna M; Ter Huurne, Niels; Castricum, Jesminne; Buitelaar, Jan K; Jensen, Ole

    2015-12-01

    The evidence for a functionally inhibitory role of alpha oscillations is growing stronger, mostly derived from studies in healthy adults investigating spatial attention. It remains unexplored if the modulation of alpha band oscillations plays a similar functional role in typically developing children. The aim of this study was to characterize alpha modulations in children in relation to attentional performance. To this end, the posterior alpha activity (8-12Hz) in children between 7 and 10years old was measured using EEG while they performed a visuospatial covert attention task. We found that the alpha activity decreased in the hemisphere contralateral to the attended hemifield, whereas it relatively increased in the other hemisphere. In addition, we found that the degree of lateralized alpha modulation predicted performance on the attention task by negatively predicting the response time on invalid trials. Of note, children who were behaviorally less influenced by spatial cueing also were children with a clear lateralized alpha modulation pattern, with a significantly stronger alpha lateralization in the left hemisphere than children who were influenced more by spatial cueing. In addition, a bias to the right visual field such as that commonly observed in children, was significantly smaller or absent in the children influenced least by spatial cueing. Among all children, the magnitude of this visual field bias was positively related to the ability to modulate alpha activity. In conclusion, we have shown that the pattern of alpha oscillations modulated by attention is already present in 7-10year old typically developing children. Although a similar pattern is observed in adults, the consequences for behavior are different. The fact that alpha modulation is already present at this age opens up the possibility of using hemispheric alpha lateralization as a tool to study the physiological basis of attention deficits in clinical disorders such as ADHD. PMID:26119021

  19. Towards out-of-the-lab EEG in uncontrolled environments: Feasibility study of dry EEG recordings during exercise bike riding.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Siddharth; Casson, Alexander J

    2015-08-01

    Conventional EEG (electroencephalography) has relied on wet electrodes which require conductive gel to help the electrodes make contact with the scalp. In recent years many dry electrode EEG systems have become available that do not require this gel. As a result they are quicker and easier to set up, with the potential to record the the EEG in situations and environments where it has not previously been possible. This paper investigates the practicality of using dry EEG in new non-conventional recording situations. In particular it uses a dry EEG recording system to monitor the EEG while a subject is riding an exercise bike. The results show that good-quality EEG, free from high-amplitude motion artefacts, can be collected in this challenging motion rich environment. In the frequency domain a peak of activity is seen over the motor cortex (C4) at 23 Hz starting five minutes after the start of the exercise task, giving initial insights into the on-going operation of the brain during exercise. PMID:26736439

  20. [The usefulness of an alternative EEG scoring system in obstructive sleep apnea].

    PubMed

    Verbraecken, J; De Backer, W; De Cock, W; Wittesaele, W; Van de Heyning, P

    1994-01-01

    Careful analysis of the EEG in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients according to the Rechtschaffen and Kales (R & K) criteria indicates that obstructive apneas (OA) are more frequently observed during stage 1 and 2 sleep than during slow wave sleep. However it is also obvious that OA can be recognised during R & K wakefulness stage (St W). The purpose of the present study was to see whether further partition of R & K St W could define a wakefulness stage during which no apneas occur. Ten patients with predominantly OSA were studied (OA-Index 20 +/- 5). Patients EEG were scored according to classic R & K and to modified criteria which further divided R & K St W. Three additional stages were defined (STW-a, STW-b, STW-c). The partitioning of STW of R & K allowed us to define a W-stage (STW-a) during which no apneas occur, and to identify alpha (STW-b) and drowsiness (STW-c) during which OA occur frequently. PMID:8171998

  1. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Qinglin; Van Gaal, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue, we extracted oscillatory power dynamics from electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded while human participants performed a modified version of the Stroop task. Crucially, in this task conflict awareness was manipulated by masking a conflict-inducing color word preceding a color patch target. We isolated semantic from response conflict by introducing four color words/patches, of which two were matched to the same response. We observed that both semantic as well as response conflict were associated with mid-frontal theta-band and parietal alpha-band power modulations, irrespective of the level of conflict awareness (high vs. low), although awareness of conflict increased these conflict-related power dynamics. These results show that both semantic and response conflict can be processed in the human brain and suggest that the neural oscillatory mechanisms in EEG reflect mainly “domain general” conflict processing mechanisms, instead of conflict source specific effects. PMID:26169473

  2. Simple and difficult mathematics in children: a minimum spanning tree EEG network analysis.

    PubMed

    Vourkas, Michael; Karakonstantaki, Eleni; Simos, Panagiotis G; Tsirka, Vasso; Antonakakis, Marios; Vamvoukas, Michael; Stam, Cornelis; Dimitriadis, Stavros; Micheloyannis, Sifis

    2014-07-25

    Sensor-level network characteristics associated with arithmetic tasks varying in complexity were estimated using tools from modern network theory. EEG signals from children with math difficulties (MD) and typically achieving controls (NI) were analyzed using minimum spanning tree (MST) indices derived from Phase Lag Index values - a graph method that corrects for comparison bias. Results demonstrated progressive modulation of certain MST parameters with increased task difficulty. These findings were consistent with more distributed network activation in the theta band, and greater network integration (i.e., tighter communication between involved regions) in the alpha band as task demands increased. There was also evidence of stronger intraregional signal inter-dependencies in the higher frequency bands during the complex math task. Although these findings did not differ between groups, several MST parameters were positively correlated with individual performance on psychometric math tasks involving similar operations, especially in the NI group. The findings support the potential utility of MST analyses to evaluate function-related electrocortical reactivity over a wide range of EEG frequencies in children. PMID:24887585

  3. Behavioral and EEG changes in male 5xFAD mice.

    PubMed

    Schneider, F; Baldauf, K; Wetzel, W; Reymann, K G

    2014-08-01

    Transgenic animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are widely used to investigate mechanisms of pathophysiology and cognitive dysfunctions. A model with a very early development of parenchymal plaque load at the age of 2months is the 5xFAD mouse (Tg6799, Oakley et al. 2006). These 5xFAD mice over-express both human amyloid precursor protein (APP) and human presenilin 1 (PS1). Mice from this line have a high APP expression correlating with a high burden and an accelerated accumulation of the 42 amino acid species of amyloid-? (A?). The aim of this study was the behavioral and functional investigations of 5xFAD males because in most studies females of this strain were characterized. In comparison to literature of transgenic 5xFAD females, transgenic 5xFAD males showed decreased anxiety in the elevated plus maze, reduced locomotion and exploration in the open field and disturbances in learning performance in the Morris water maze starting at 9months of age. Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings on 6month old transgenic mice revealed a decrease of delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma frequency bands whereas the subdelta frequency was increased. EEG recordings during sleep showed a reduction of rapid eye movement sleep in relation to the amount of total sleep. Thus, 5xFAD males develop early functional disturbances and subsequently behavioral deficits and therefore they are a good mouse model for studying Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24907698

  4. EEG Dynamics Reflect the Distinct Cognitive Process of Optic Problem Solving

    PubMed Central

    She, Hsiao-Ching; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Chou, Wen-Chi; Huang, Li-Yu; Wang, Chia-Yu; Lin, Guan-Yu

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) activity associated with the performance of solving an optics maze problem. College students (N?=?37) were instructed to construct three solutions to the optical maze in a Web-based learning environment, which required some knowledge of physics. The subjects put forth their best effort to minimize the number of convexes and mirrors needed to guide the image of an object from the entrance to the exit of the maze. This study examines EEG changes in different frequency bands accompanying varying demands on the cognitive process of providing solutions. Results showed that the mean power of ?, ?1, ?2, and ?1 significantly increased as the number of convexes and mirrors used by the students decreased from solution 1 to 3. Moreover, the mean power of ? and ?1 significantly increased when the participants constructed their personal optimal solution (the least total number of mirrors and lens used by students) compared to their non-personal optimal solution. In conclusion, the spectral power of frontal, frontal midline and posterior theta, posterior alpha, and temporal beta increased predominantly as the task demands and task performance increased. PMID:22815800

  5. TNF? siRNA Reduces Brain TNF and EEG Delta Wave Activity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Taishi, Ping; Churchill, Lynn; Wang, Mingxiang; Kay, Daniel; Davis, Christopher J.; Guan, Xin; De, Alok; Yasuda, Tadanobu; Liao, Fan; Krueger, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) is a pleiotropic cytokine with several CNS physiological and pathophysiological actions including sleep, memory, thermal and appetite regulation. Short interfering RNAs (siRNA) targeting TNF? were incubated with cortical cell cultures and microinjected into the primary somatosensory cortex (SSctx) of rats. The TNF? siRNA treatment specifically reduced TNF? mRNA by 45% in vitro without affecting interleukin-6 or gluR1-4 mRNA levels. In vivo the TNF? siRNA? reduced TNF? mRNA, interleukin-6 mRNA and gluR1 mRNA levels compared to treatment with a scrambled control siRNA. After in vivo microinjection, the density of TNF?-immunoreactive cells in layer V of the SSctx was also reduced. Electroencephalogram (EEG) delta wave power was decreased on days 2 and 3 on the side of the brain that received the TNF? siRNA microinjection relative to the side receiving the control siRNA. These findings support the hypothesis that TNF? siRNA attenuates TNF? mRNA and TNF? protein in the rat cortex and that those reductions reduce cortical EEG delta power. Results also are consistent with the notion that TNF? is involved in CNS physiology including sleep regulation. PMID:17531209

  6. Effects of Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation on Visual Memory Recall and EEG

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong-Woo; Lee, Gi-Eun; An, Ji-Hyang; Yoon, Se-Won; Heo, Myoung; Kim, Hwang-Yong

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on visual memory recall and EEG. [Subjects and Methods] In the present study, 42 adults were selected and divided equally into two groups of 21 adults, the GVS group and the Sham group. The error rate was calculated as a percentage based on the total number of errors in the answers to 24 questions after stimulation, while the reaction time was measured in intervals between the time the questions were asked and the time it took the subjects to answer the questions. EEG data were obtained by attaching electrodes to the Fz, Cz, and Pz points during the question and answer phase. [Results] The error rate showed statistically significant differences in the interaction involving the time of response and group. The reaction time showed no statistically significant differences in the interaction involving the time of response and group. When relative band power parameters were analyzed, alpha waves showed no statistically significant differences in the interaction involving the time of response and group, but only the Fz area of beta waves showed statistically significant differences in the interaction involving the time of response and group. [Conclusion] GVS may improve visual memory recall in relation to a flower, a person, an animal, or a building. PMID:25276011

  7. EEG classification in a single-trial basis for vowel speech perception using multivariate empirical mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongin; Lee, Suh-Kyung; Lee, Boreom

    2014-06-01

    Objective. The objective of this study is to find components that might be related to phoneme representation in the brain and to discriminate EEG responses for each speech sound on a trial basis. Approach. We used multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD) and common spatial pattern for feature extraction. We chose three vowel stimuli, /a/, /i/ and /u/, based on previous findings, such that the brain can detect change in formant frequency (F2) of vowels. EEG activity was recorded from seven native Korean speakers at Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology. We applied MEMD over EEG channels to extract speech-related brain signal sources, and looked for the intrinsic mode functions which were dominant in the alpha bands. After the MEMD procedure, we applied the common spatial pattern algorithm for enhancing the classification performance, and used linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a classifier. Main results. The brain responses to the three vowels could be classified as one of the learned phonemes on a single-trial basis with our approach. Significance. The results of our study show that brain responses to vowels can be classified for single trials using MEMD and LDA. This approach may not only become a useful tool for the brain-computer interface but it could also be used for discriminating the neural correlates of categorical speech perception.

  8. Knowing when not to swing: EEG evidence that enhanced perception-action coupling underlies baseball batter expertise.

    PubMed

    Muraskin, Jordan; Sherwin, Jason; Sajda, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Given a decision that requires less than half a second for evaluating the characteristics of the incoming pitch and generating a motor response, hitting a baseball potentially requires unique perception-action coupling to achieve high performance. We designed a rapid perceptual decision-making experiment modeled as a Go/No-Go task yet tailored to reflect a real scenario confronted by a baseball hitter. For groups of experts (Division I baseball players) and novices (non-players), we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while they performed the task. We analyzed evoked EEG single-trial variability, contingent negative variation (CNV), and pre-stimulus alpha power with respect to the expert vs. novice groups. We found strong evidence for differences in inhibitory processes between the two groups, specifically differential activity in supplementary motor areas (SMA), indicative of enhanced inhibitory control in the expert (baseball player) group. We also found selective activity in the fusiform gyrus (FG) and orbital gyrus in the expert group, suggesting an enhanced perception-action coupling in baseball players that differentiates them from matched controls. In sum, our results show that EEG correlates of decision formation can be used to identify neural markers of high-performance athletes. PMID:26299795

  9. Hippocampal glycogen metabolism, EEG, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Uecker, A; Barnes, C A; McNaughton, B L; Reiman, E M

    1997-04-01

    Glycogen phosphorylase a (GPa) is correlated with metabolic activation, suggesting its potential use as a marker for neuronal activity. In dentate gyrus, GPa patches are induced by glutamate infusion. Hippocampal electroencephalogram (EEG) and neuronal firing rates are modulated by behavioral state, and cell discharge is suppressed by restraint. In rats, under conditions of free exploration, passive movement under loose or secure restraint, quiet wakefulness, and anesthesia, GPa activity and 6-10-Hz theta power were inversely related: The more active the animal, the stronger the theta rhythm and the lower the GPa activity. Thus, GPa was least under conditions in which the hippocampus processes external information, and at intermediate levels during restraint, when neuronal firing is lowest. This dissociation raises doubts about the use of metabolic activity as an indicator of changes in neuronal activity or of information processing per se. PMID:9106669

  10. Generalized dimension of the intersection between EEGs.

    PubMed

    Meng, X; Xu, J; Gu, F

    2001-10-01

    The generalized dimension defined by [Mandelbrot (1995) J Fourier Anal Appl special J.P. Kahane issue: 409-432] was applied to studying the interrelationship between various parts of human cerebral cortex in different functional conditions. Taking EEG signals from different brain areas as different sets, the generalized dimensions of their intersections were calculated to describe the interrelationship between them. The results showed that the generalized dimensions of intersections in different brain states decreased according to the following order: rest with eyes open, closed, light sleep, and deep sleep. The generalized dimensions of intersections related to the left or right temporal lobe were higher than the others when the subjects was doing mental arithmetic, and there was a decrease when the subjects listened to soft classical music. In addition, it was found that there was a noticeable difference in singular spectra between epileptic patients and normal subjects, irrespective of whether the epileptic patient was experiencing a seizure or not. PMID:11592628

  11. On-Going Frontal Alpha Rhythms Are Dominant in Passive State and Desynchronize in Active State in Adult Gray Mouse Lemurs

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Anisur; Lamberty, Yves; Bordet, Regis; Richardson, Jill C.; Forloni, Gianluigi; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus; Lopez, Susanna; Aujard, Fabienne; Babiloni, Claudio; Pifferi, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    The gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) is considered a useful primate model for translational research. In the framework of IMI PharmaCog project (Grant Agreement n°115009, www.pharmacog.org), we tested the hypothesis that spectral electroencephalographic (EEG) markers of motor and locomotor activity in gray mouse lemurs reflect typical movement-related desynchronization of alpha rhythms (about 8–12 Hz) in humans. To this aim, EEG (bipolar electrodes in frontal cortex) and electromyographic (EMG; bipolar electrodes sutured in neck muscles) data were recorded in 13 male adult (about 3 years) lemurs. Artifact-free EEG segments during active state (gross movements, exploratory movements or locomotor activity) and awake passive state (no sleep) were selected on the basis of instrumental measures of animal behavior, and were used as an input for EEG power density analysis. Results showed a clear peak of EEG power density at alpha range (7–9 Hz) during passive state. During active state, there was a reduction in alpha power density (8–12 Hz) and an increase of power density at slow frequencies (1–4 Hz). Relative EMG activity was related to EEG power density at 2–4 Hz (positive correlation) and at 8–12 Hz (negative correlation). These results suggest for the first time that the primate gray mouse lemurs and humans may share basic neurophysiologic mechanisms of synchronization of frontal alpha rhythms in awake passive state and their desynchronization during motor and locomotor activity. These EEG markers may be an ideal experimental model for translational basic (motor science) and applied (pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions) research in Neurophysiology. PMID:26618512

  12. Contribute 22 Classification of EEG recordings in au-

    E-print Network

    Gannaz, Irène - Pôle de Mathématiques, Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon

    whether the different signals contain information on the sound heard by the patient and if we are able recordings 22.2 Problem formulation EEG signals measure the human perception of bilabial plosives, here /b

  13. DEPRESSED EXCITABILITY AND INTEGRATED EEGS FOLLOWING HIPPOCAMPAL AFTERDISCHARGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rats with chronic hippocampal electrode implants had afterdischarges induced with electrical stimulus intensities of 115,200, and 800% of a previously determined threshold. Afterdischarge duration, postictal EEG depression duration, and the duration of postictal electrical hypoex...

  14. ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC (EEG) CONTROL OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL MOVEMENT

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Dennis J.; Sarnacki, William A.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can use brain signals from the scalp (EEG), the cortical surface (ECoG), or within the cortex to restore movement control to people who are paralyzed. Like muscle-based skills, BCI use requires activity-dependent adaptations in the brain that maintain stable relationships between the person’s intent and the signals that convey it. This study shows that humans can learn over a series of training sessions to use EEG for three-dimensional control. The responsible EEG features are focused topographically on the scalp and spectrally in specific frequency bands. People acquire simultaneous control of three independent signals (one for each dimension) and reach targets in a virtual three-dimensional space. Such BCI control in humans has not been reported previously. The results suggest that with further development noninvasive EEG-based BCIs might control the complex movements of robotic arms or neuroprostheses. PMID:20460690

  15. Genetic resources for phenotyping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotyping of structured populations, along with molecular genotyping, will be essential for marker development in peanut. This research is essential for making the peanut genome sequence and genomic tools useful to breeders because it makes the connection between genes, gene markers, genetic maps...

  16. Down Syndrome: Cognitive Phenotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most prevalent cause of intellectual impairment associated with a genetic anomaly, in this case, trisomy of chromosome 21. It affects both physical and cognitive development and produces a characteristic phenotype, although affected individuals vary considerably with respect to severity of specific impairments. Studies…

  17. EEG Spectral Changes in Treatment Naïve Active Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Fein, G.; Allen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Background The present study examines the EEG spectra of actively drinking treatment naïve alcoholics (TxNA). Methods EEGs were gathered on 51 TxNA’s and age and sex-matched controls during eyes-closed conditions. Participants were excluded for lifetime diagnoses of psychiatric or substance abuse disorders. Power for the theta to high beta bands was examined across midline electrodes. Results The TxNA sample exhibited a nexus of disinhibited traits associated with the vulnerability to alcoholism, and had developed alcohol dependence, but no other diagnosable psychiatric or substance abuse disorders. The TxNA subjects evidenced higher power for all EEG bands compared to controls. The magnitude and anterior-posterior extent of the group differences varied across bands. Within the TxNA group, EEG power was negatively correlated with average and peak alcohol drinking duration and average and peak alcohol dose. Conclusions Increased EEG power across the theta to high beta bands distinguishes TxNAs without comorbid diagnoses from controls. These effects varied across bands in their magnitude and spatial extent, suggesting that there are different effects for the different EEG spectral generators. We hypothesize the increased power in these individuals is a trait difference associated with the inherited nexus of disinhibited traits and its manifestation in alcoholism. Based on the strong negative correlations with alcohol use variables, we speculate that decreases in EEG power are a morbid effect of long-term alcohol abuse. We acknowledge that this hypothesized effect of alcohol abuse on EEG power is opposite to the increased EEG power we hypothesize is associated with alcoholism and its inherited nexus of disinhibited traits. An implication of this model is that with continuing alcohol abuse, the increased EEG power in TxNAs will eventually be overpowered by the effects of long-term severe alcohol abuse. This model predicts that in very long-term alcoholics EEG power would be equal to or lower than that of age and sex comparable controls. PMID:15834218

  18. The influence of caffeine on human EEG under resting conditions and during mental loads.

    PubMed

    Dimpfel, W; Schober, F; Spüler, M

    1993-03-01

    The effect of caffeine (single oral doses of 200 mg and 400 mg) on the CNS was tested under resting conditions and while performing a concentration performance test in a placebo-controlled pilot study on ten healthy males. The EEG was evaluated quantitatively by spectral analysis with a Computer Aided Topographical ElectroEncephaloMetry system. Comparison of the averaged frequency content revealed a clear difference between the change in the functional state of the brain due to the mental arithmetics, on the one hand, and the caffeine effect, on the other. Both states of altered brain activity were reflected in a particular topographical distribution of the frequency change with respect to a frontal-occipital accentuation. Comparison of the two periods of mental arithmetics in the absence or presence of caffeine showed a tendency to concentration-dependent differences from each other. Administration of 200 mg and 400 mg caffeine in the relaxed state effected the decrease in spectral power in the theta and alpha ranges. The concentration performance test without caffeine effected decreases in power in the alpha range in frontal to parietal cortex and enhanced theta power in frontal and occipital regions and the alpha power in occipital cortex. The caffeine-dependent decrease in theta power and the decrease in delta power seen under relaxation conditions after 400 mg are not observed during the concentration performance test in the presence of caffeine. PMID:8481621

  19. Event-related EEG desynchronization and synchronization during an auditory memory task.

    PubMed

    Krause, C M; Lang, A H; Laine, M; Kuusisto, M; Pörn, B

    1996-04-01

    Event-related desynchronization (ERD) and synchronization (ERS) of the lower (8-10 Hz) and upper (10-12 Hz) alpha bands of background EEG were studied in 10 subjects during an auditory memory scanning paradigm. Each experimental trial started with the presentation of a visual warning signal, after which an auditory 4-vowel memory set was presented for memorization. Thereafter the probe, a fifth vowel, was presented and identified by the subject as belonging or not belonging to the memorized set. In 50% of the cases, the probe was among the previously presented memory set. The presentation of the memory set elicited a significant ERS in the both alpha frequency bands. In contrast, the presentation of the probe elicited a significant bilateral ERD in both alpha frequency bands studied. The results suggest that the ERD phenomenon is closely associated with higher cortical processes such as memory functions rather than with auditory stimulus processing per se. Event-related desynchronization provides a potentially valuable tool for studying cortical activity during cognitive processing in the auditory stimulus modality. PMID:8641153

  20. The separate and combined effects of monoamine oxidase A inhibition and nicotine on resting state EEG.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dylan M; Fisher, Derek; Blier, Pierre; Ilivitsky, Vadim; Knott, Verner

    2016-01-01

    While nicotine is often associated with the neuropsychological effects of tobacco smoke, the robust monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition observed in chronic smokers is also likely to play a role. Electroencephalographically-indexed alterations in baseline neural oscillations by nicotine have previously been reported in both smokers and non-smokers, however, little is known about the effects of MAO inhibition in combination with nicotine on resting state EEG. In a sample of 24 healthy non-smoking males, the effects of 6 mg nicotine gum, as well as MAO-A inhibition via 75 mg moclobemide, were investigated in separate and combined conditions over four separate test sessions. Drug effects were observed in the alpha2, beta2, and theta band frequencies. Nicotine increased alpha2 power, and moclobemide decreased beta2 power. Theta power was decreased most robustly by the combination of both drugs. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the nicotinic and MAO inhibiting properties of tobacco may differentially influence fast-wave oscillations (alpha2 and beta2), while acting in synergy to influence theta oscillations. PMID:26537155

  1. Measurement and modification of the EEG and related behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterman, M. B.

    1991-01-01

    Electrophysiological changes in the sensorimotor pathways were found to accompany the effect of rhythmic EEG patterns in the sensorimotor cortex. Additionally, several striking behavioral changes were seen, including in particular an enhancement of sleep and an elevation of seizure threshold to epileptogenic agents. This raised the possibility that human seizure disorders might be influenced therapeutically by similar training. Our objective in human EEG feedback training became not only the facilitation of normal rhythmic patterns, but also the suppression of abnormal activity, thus requiring complex contingencies directed to the normalization of the sensorimotor EEG. To achieve this, a multicomponent frequency analysis was developed to extract and separate normal and abnormal elements of the EEG signal. Each of these elements was transduced to a specific component of a visual display system, and these were combined through logic circuits to present the subject with a symbolic display. Variable criteria provided for the gradual shaping of EEG elements towards the desired normal pattern. Some 50-70% of patients with poorly controlled seizure disorders experienced therapeutic benefits from this approach in our laboratory, and subsequently in many others. A more recent application of this approach to the modification of human brain function in our lab has been directed to the dichotomous problems of task overload and underload in the contemporary aviation environment. At least 70% of all aviation accidents have been attributed to the impact of these kinds of problems on crew performance. The use of EEG in this context has required many technical innovations and the application of the latest advances in EEG signal analysis. Our first goal has been the identification of relevant EEG characteristics. Additionally, we have developed a portable recording and analysis system for application in this context. Findings from laboratory and in-flight studies suggest that we will be able to detect appropriate changes in brain function, and feed this information to on-board computers for modification of mission requirements and/or crew status.

  2. [The role of non-NMDA glutamate receptors in the EEG effects of chronic administration of noopept GVS-111 in awake rats].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, G I; Vorob'ev, V V

    2002-01-01

    Participation of the non-NMDA glutamate receptor subtype in the formation of the EEG frequency spectrum was studied in wakeful rats upon a long-term (10 x 0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) administration of the nootropic dipeptide GVS-111 (noopept or N-phenylacetyl-L-prolyglycine ethylate). The EEGs were measured with electrodes implanted into somatosensor cortex regions, hippocampus, and a cannula in the lateral ventricle. The acute reactions (characteristic of nootropes) in the alpha and beta ranges of EEG exhibited inversion after the 6th injection of noopept and almost completely vanished after the 9th injection. Preliminary introduction of the non-NMDA antagonist GDEE (glutamic acid diethyl ester) in a dose of 1 mumole into the lateral ventricle restored the EEG pattern observed upon the 6th dose of GVS-111. The role of glutamate receptors in the course of a prolonged administration of nootropes, as well as the possible mechanisms accounting for a difference in the action of GVS-111 and piracetam are discussed. PMID:12596524

  3. The Dynamics of Sensorimotor Cortical Oscillations during the Observation of Hand Movements: An EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Avanzini, Pietro; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Dalla Volta, Riccardo; Daprati, Elena; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Cantalupo, Gaetano

    2012-01-01

    Background The observation of action done by others determines a desynchronization of the rhythms recorded from cortical central regions. Here, we examined whether the observation of different types of hand movements (target directed, non-target directed, cyclic and non-cyclic) elicits different EEG cortical temporal patterns. Methodology Video-clips of four types of hand movements were shown to right-handed healthy participants. Two were target directed (grasping and pointing) motor acts; two were non-target directed (supinating and clenching) movements. Grasping and supinating were performed once, while pointing and clenching twice (cyclic movements). High-density EEG was recorded and analyzed by means of wavelet transform, subdividing the time course in time bins of 200 ms. The observation of all presented movements produced a desynchronization of alpha and beta rhythms in central and parietal regions. The rhythms desynchronized as soon as the hand movement started, the nadir being reached around 700 ms after movement onset. At the end of the movement, a large power rebound occurred for all bands. Target and non-target directed movements produced an alpha band desynchronization in the central electrodes at the same time, but with a stronger desynchronization and a prolonged rebound for target directed motor acts. Most interestingly, there was a clear correlation between the velocity profile of the observed movements and beta band modulation. Significance Our data show that the observation of motor acts determines a modulation of cortical rhythm analogous to that occurring during motor act execution. In particular, the cortical motor system closely follows the velocity of the observed movements. This finding provides strong evidence for the presence in humans of a mechanism (mirror mechanism) mapping action observation on action execution motor programs. PMID:22624046

  4. Methodological aspects of EEG and body dynamics measurements during motion.

    PubMed

    Reis, Pedro M R; Hebenstreit, Felix; Gabsteiger, Florian; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Lochmann, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    EEG involves the recording, analysis, and interpretation of voltages recorded on the human scalp which originate from brain gray matter. EEG is one of the most popular methods of studying and understanding the processes that underlie behavior. This is so, because EEG is relatively cheap, easy to wear, light weight and has high temporal resolution. In terms of behavior, this encompasses actions, such as movements that are performed in response to the environment. However, there are methodological difficulties which can occur when recording EEG during movement such as movement artifacts. Thus, most studies about the human brain have examined activations during static conditions. This article attempts to compile and describe relevant methodological solutions that emerged in order to measure body and brain dynamics during motion. These descriptions cover suggestions on how to avoid and reduce motion artifacts, hardware, software and techniques for synchronously recording EEG, EMG, kinematics, kinetics, and eye movements during motion. Additionally, we present various recording systems, EEG electrodes, caps and methods for determinating real/custom electrode positions. In the end we will conclude that it is possible to record and analyze synchronized brain and body dynamics related to movement or exercise tasks. PMID:24715858

  5. Risk factors for EEG seizures in neonates treated with hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Wusthoff, Courtney J.; Shellhaas, Renée A.; Tsuchida, Tammy N.; Bonifacio, Sonia Lomeli; Cordeiro, Malaika; Sullivan, Joseph; Abend, Nicholas S.; Chang, Taeun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the risk factors for electrographic seizures among neonates treated with therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Methods: Three-center observational cohort study of 90 term neonates treated with hypothermia, monitored with continuous video-EEG (cEEG) within the first day of life (median age at onset of recording 9.5 hours, interquartile range 6.3–14.5), and continued for >24 hours (total recording 93.3 hours, interquartile range 80.1–112.8 among survivors). A pediatric electroencephalographer at each site reviewed cEEGs for electrographic seizures and initial EEG background category. Results: A total of 43 (48%) had electrographic seizures, including 9 (10%) with electrographic status epilepticus. Abnormal initial EEG background classification (excessively discontinuous, depressed and undifferentiated, burst suppression, or extremely low voltage), but not clinical variables (including pH <6.8, base excess ??20, or 10-minute Apgar ?3), was strongly associated with seizures. Conclusions: Electrographic seizures are common among neonates with HIE undergoing hypothermia and are difficult to predict based on clinical features. These results justify the recommendation for cEEG monitoring in neonates treated with hypothermia. PMID:24610326

  6. First seizure: EEG and neuroimaging following an epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Pohlmann-Eden, Bernd; Newton, Mark

    2008-01-01

    An early EEG (within 48 h) and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (hr_MRI) are the methods of choice for an accurate diagnosis after a first seizure presentation. Together with a careful history and examination, they will allow definition of the epilepsy syndrome in two-thirds of patients and help assess the individual risk for seizure recurrence, which is determined by the specific syndrome and is highest with focal epileptiform activity on EEG. Despite the heterogeneity of first seizure studies, EEG and etiology are consistently found to be the best predictors for seizure recurrence and prognosis. The additional yield of sleep-deprived EEG and sleep EEG is uncertain; yet MRI is essential for detecting brain tumors and other structural bases for new epilepsy. The rate occurrence of remote symptomatic seizures increases significantly with age and the most common etiology in the elderly with a first seizure is stroke; however, its exact relevance to epileptogenicity is yet to be defined. There is a striking lack of systematic studies using early EEG and hr_MRI in order to better characterize epileptogenic areas and elucidate the mechanisms of seizure provocation. PMID:18184150

  7. Methodological aspects of EEG and body dynamics measurements during motion

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Pedro M. R.; Hebenstreit, Felix; Gabsteiger, Florian; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Lochmann, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    EEG involves the recording, analysis, and interpretation of voltages recorded on the human scalp which originate from brain gray matter. EEG is one of the most popular methods of studying and understanding the processes that underlie behavior. This is so, because EEG is relatively cheap, easy to wear, light weight and has high temporal resolution. In terms of behavior, this encompasses actions, such as movements that are performed in response to the environment. However, there are methodological difficulties which can occur when recording EEG during movement such as movement artifacts. Thus, most studies about the human brain have examined activations during static conditions. This article attempts to compile and describe relevant methodological solutions that emerged in order to measure body and brain dynamics during motion. These descriptions cover suggestions on how to avoid and reduce motion artifacts, hardware, software and techniques for synchronously recording EEG, EMG, kinematics, kinetics, and eye movements during motion. Additionally, we present various recording systems, EEG electrodes, caps and methods for determinating real/custom electrode positions. In the end we will conclude that it is possible to record and analyze synchronized brain and body dynamics related to movement or exercise tasks. PMID:24715858

  8. Rapidly Learned Identification of Epileptic Seizures from Sonified EEG

    PubMed Central

    Loui, Psyche; Koplin-Green, Matan; Frick, Mark; Massone, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Sonification refers to a process by which data are converted into sound, providing an auditory alternative to visual display. Currently, the prevalent method for diagnosing seizures in epilepsy is by visually reading a patient’s electroencephalogram (EEG). However, sonification of the EEG data provides certain advantages due to the nature of human auditory perception. We hypothesized that human listeners will be able to identify seizures from EEGs using the auditory modality alone, and that accuracy of seizure identification will increase after a short training session. Here, we describe an algorithm that we have used to sonify EEGs of both seizure and non-seizure activity, followed by a training study in which subjects listened to short clips of sonified EEGs and determined whether each clip was of seizure or normal activity, both before and after a short training session. Results show that before training subjects performed at chance level in differentiating seizures from non-seizures, but there was a significant improvement of accuracy after the training session. After training, subjects successfully distinguished seizures from non-seizures using the auditory modality alone. Further analyses using signal detection theory demonstrated improvement in sensitivity and reduction in response bias as a result of training. This study demonstrates the potential of sonified EEGs to be used for the detection of seizures. Future studies will attempt to increase accuracy using novel training and sonification modifications, with the goals of managing, predicting, and ultimately controlling seizures using sonification as a possible biofeedback-based intervention for epilepsy. PMID:25352802

  9. A three domain covariance framework for EEG/MEG data.

    PubMed

    Ro?, Beata P; Bijma, Fetsje; de Gunst, Mathisca C M; de Munck, Jan C

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we introduce a covariance framework for the analysis of single subject EEG and MEG data that takes into account observed temporal stationarity on small time scales and trial-to-trial variations. We formulate a model for the covariance matrix, which is a Kronecker product of three components that correspond to space, time and epochs/trials, and consider maximum likelihood estimation of the unknown parameter values. An iterative algorithm that finds approximations of the maximum likelihood estimates is proposed. Our covariance model is applicable in a variety of cases where spontaneous EEG or MEG acts as source of noise and realistic noise covariance estimates are needed, such as in evoked activity studies, or where the properties of spontaneous EEG or MEG are themselves the topic of interest, like in combined EEG-fMRI experiments in which the correlation between EEG and fMRI signals is investigated. We use a simulation study to assess the performance of the estimator and investigate the influence of different assumptions about the covariance factors on the estimated covariance matrix and on its components. We apply our method to real EEG and MEG data sets. PMID:26072253

  10. Tensor decomposition of EEG signals: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Cong, Fengyu; Lin, Qiu-Hua; Kuang, Li-Dan; Gong, Xiao-Feng; Astikainen, Piia; Ristaniemi, Tapani

    2015-06-15

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is one fundamental tool for functional brain imaging. EEG signals tend to be represented by a vector or a matrix to facilitate data processing and analysis with generally understood methodologies like time-series analysis, spectral analysis and matrix decomposition. Indeed, EEG signals are often naturally born with more than two modes of time and space, and they can be denoted by a multi-way array called as tensor. This review summarizes the current progress of tensor decomposition of EEG signals with three aspects. The first is about the existing modes and tensors of EEG signals. Second, two fundamental tensor decomposition models, canonical polyadic decomposition (CPD, it is also called parallel factor analysis-PARAFAC) and Tucker decomposition, are introduced and compared. Moreover, the applications of the two models for EEG signals are addressed. Particularly, the determination of the number of components for each mode is discussed. Finally, the N-way partial least square and higher-order partial least square are described for a potential trend to process and analyze brain signals of two modalities simultaneously. PMID:25840362

  11. Object-based attentional selection modulates anticipatory alpha oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Knakker, Balázs; Weiss, Béla; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Visual cortical alpha oscillations are involved in attentional gating of incoming visual information. It has been shown that spatial and feature-based attentional selection result in increased alpha oscillations over the cortical regions representing sensory input originating from the unattended visual field and task-irrelevant visual features, respectively. However, whether attentional gating in the case of object based selection is also associated with alpha oscillations has not been investigated before. Here we measured anticipatory electroencephalography (EEG) alpha oscillations while participants were cued to attend to foveal face or word stimuli, the processing of which is known to have right and left hemispheric lateralization, respectively. The results revealed that in the case of simultaneously displayed, overlapping face and word stimuli, attending to the words led to increased power of parieto-occipital alpha oscillations over the right hemisphere as compared to when faces were attended. This object category-specific modulation of the hemispheric lateralization of anticipatory alpha oscillations was maintained during sustained attentional selection of sequentially presented face and word stimuli. These results imply that in the case of object-based attentional selection—similarly to spatial and feature-based attention—gating of visual information processing might involve visual cortical alpha oscillations. PMID:25628554

  12. Alpha College Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, William A.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a follow-up report on Alpha, an experimental unit of the College of DuPage in Illinois. Traces the postgraduation activities of Alpha graduates and describes new Alpha programs and projects. (CAM)

  13. [Phenotype specific therapy of COPD].

    PubMed

    Rothe, Thomas

    2014-12-10

    COPD is not a homogenous disease but consists of at least four different phenotypes: Emphysema, COPD with chronic bronchitis, asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS), and COPD with recurrent exacerbations. With differentiation, treatment can be designed phenotype-specific. Some modern drugs are not indicated in all phenotypes. PMID:25491053

  14. EEG artifact removal—state-of-the-art and guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urigüen, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Zapirain, Begoña

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an extensive review on the artifact removal algorithms used to remove the main sources of interference encountered in the electroencephalogram (EEG), specifically ocular, muscular and cardiac artifacts. We first introduce background knowledge on the characteristics of EEG activity, of the artifacts and of the EEG measurement model. Then, we present algorithms commonly employed in the literature and describe their key features. Lastly, principally on the basis of the results provided by various researchers, but also supported by our own experience, we compare the state-of-the-art methods in terms of reported performance, and provide guidelines on how to choose a suitable artifact removal algorithm for a given scenario. With this review we have concluded that, without prior knowledge of the recorded EEG signal or the contaminants, the safest approach is to correct the measured EEG using independent component analysis—to be precise, an algorithm based on second-order statistics such as second-order blind identification (SOBI). Other effective alternatives include extended information maximization (InfoMax) and an adaptive mixture of independent component analyzers (AMICA), based on higher order statistics. All of these algorithms have proved particularly effective with simulations and, more importantly, with data collected in controlled recording conditions. Moreover, whenever prior knowledge is available, then a constrained form of the chosen method should be used in order to incorporate such additional information. Finally, since which algorithm is the best performing is highly dependent on the type of the EEG signal, the artifacts and the signal to contaminant ratio, we believe that the optimal method for removing artifacts from the EEG consists in combining more than one algorithm to correct the signal using multiple processing stages, even though this is an option largely unexplored by researchers in the area.

  15. Abnormal Cognition, Sleep, EEG and Brain Metabolism in a Novel Knock-In Alzheimer Mouse, PLB1

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Bettina; Drever, Benjamin; Koss, David; Stoppelkamp, Sandra; Jyoti, Amar; Plano, Andrea; Utan, Aneli; Merrick, Georgina; Ryan, Duncan; Melis, Valeria; Wan, Hong; Mingarelli, Marco; Porcu, Emanuele; Scrocchi, Louise; Welch, Andy; Riedel, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Late-stage neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are ?-amyloid (?A) and hyperphosphorylated tau peptides, aggregated into plaques and tangles, respectively. Corresponding phenotypes have been mimicked in existing transgenic mice, however, the translational value of aggressive over-expression has recently been questioned. As controlled gene expression may offer animal models with better predictive validity, we set out to design a transgenic mouse model that circumvents complications arising from pronuclear injection and massive over-expression, by targeted insertion of human mutated amyloid and tau transgenes, under the forebrain- and neurone-specific CaMKII? promoter, termed PLB1Double. Crossing with an existing presenilin 1 line resulted in PLB1Triple mice. PLB1Triple mice presented with stable gene expression and age-related pathology of intra-neuronal amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau in hippocampus and cortex from 6 months onwards. At this early stage, pre-clinical 18FDG PET/CT imaging revealed cortical hypometabolism with increased metabolic activity in basal forebrain and ventral midbrain. Quantitative EEG analyses yielded heightened delta power during wakefulness and REM sleep, and time in wakefulness was already reliably enhanced at 6 months of age. These anomalies were paralleled by impairments in long-term and short-term hippocampal plasticity and preceded cognitive deficits in recognition memory, spatial learning, and sleep fragmentation all emerging at ?12 months. These data suggest that prodromal AD phenotypes can be successfully modelled in transgenic mice devoid of fibrillary plaque or tangle development. PLB1Triple mice progress from a mild (MCI-like) state to a more comprehensive AD-relevant phenotype, which are accessible using translational tools such as wireless EEG and microPET/CT. PMID:22096518

  16. Special Space Curves Characterized by det({\\alpha}^{(3)}, {\\alpha}^{(4)},{\\alpha}^{(5)})=0

    E-print Network

    Yayali, Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    In this study, by using the facts that det({\\alpha}^{(1)}, {\\alpha}^{(2)}, {\\alpha}^{(3)}) = 0 characterizes plane curve, and det({\\alpha}^{(2)}, {\\alpha}^{(3)}, {\\alpha}^{(4)}) = 0 does a curve of constant slope, we give the special space curves that are characterized by det({\\alpha}^{(3)}, {\\alpha}^{(4)}, {\\alpha}^{(5)}) = 0, in different approaches. We find that the space curve is Salkowski if and only if det({\\alpha}^{(3)}, {\\alpha}^{(4)}, {\\alpha}^{(5)}) = 0. The approach we used in this paper is useful in understanding the role of the curves that are characterized by det({\\alpha}^{(3)}, {\\alpha}^{(4)}, {\\alpha}^{(5)})=0 in differential geometry.

  17. Alpha Suppression Following Performance Errors is Correlated With Depression, Affect, and Coping Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Compton, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that enhanced neural arousal in response to performance errors would predict poor affect and coping behaviors in everyday life. Participants were preselected as either low-depressed (LD) or high-depressed (HD) based on a screening questionnaire, and they then completed a laboratory Stroop task while EEG was recorded, followed by a 2-week period of daily reports of affect and coping behaviors. The EEG measure of arousal response to errors was the degree of error-related alpha suppression (ERAS) in the intertrial interval, that is the reduction in alpha power following errors compared with correct responses. ERAS was relatively heightened at frontal sites for the HD versus the LD group, and frontal ERAS predicted lower positive affect, higher negative affect, and less adaptive coping behaviors in the daily reports. Together, the results imply that heightened arousal following mistakes is associated with suboptimal emotion and coping with stressors. PMID:23731439

  18. Continuous Video Electroencephalographic (EEG) Monitoring for Electrographic Seizure Diagnosis in Neonates: A Single-Center Study.

    E-print Network

    Wietstock, SO; Bonifacio, SL; Sullivan, JE; Nash, KB; Glass, HC

    2015-01-01

    of Child Neurology examine the yield of continuous video EEGvideo EEG affected clinical management in more than half of monitored children.Video Electroencephalographic (EEG) Monitoring for Electrographic Seizure Diagnosis in Neonates: A Single-Center Study Journal of Child

  19. Age-dependent electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns during sevoflurane general anesthesia in infants

    E-print Network

    Cornelissen, Laura

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) approaches may provide important information about developmental changes in brain-state dynamics during general anesthesia. We used multi-electrode EEG, analyzed with multitaper spectral methods ...

  20. Using EEG in Knowledge Tracing Yanbo Xu Kai-min Chang Yueran Yuan Jack Mostow

    E-print Network

    Mostow, Jack

    by incorporating input from inexpensive EEG devices. EEG sensors record brainwaves, which result from coordinated neural activity. Patterns in these recorded brainwaves have been shown to correlate with a number

  1. Towards a Unified Understanding of Event-Related Changes in the EEG: The Firefly Model of Synchronization through Cross-Frequency Phase Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Adrian P.

    2012-01-01

    Although event-related potentials (ERPs) are widely used to study sensory, perceptual and cognitive processes, it remains unknown whether they are phase-locked signals superimposed upon the ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) or result from phase-alignment of the EEG. Previous attempts to discriminate between these hypotheses have been unsuccessful but here a new test is presented based on the prediction that ERPs generated by phase-alignment will be associated with event-related changes in frequency whereas evoked-ERPs will not. Using empirical mode decomposition (EMD), which allows measurement of narrow-band changes in the EEG without predefining frequency bands, evidence was found for transient frequency slowing in recognition memory ERPs but not in simulated data derived from the evoked model. Furthermore, the timing of phase-alignment was frequency dependent with the earliest alignment occurring at high frequencies. Based on these findings, the Firefly model was developed, which proposes that both evoked and induced power changes derive from frequency-dependent phase-alignment of the ongoing EEG. Simulated data derived from the Firefly model provided a close match with empirical data and the model was able to account for i) the shape and timing of ERPs at different scalp sites, ii) the event-related desynchronization in alpha and synchronization in theta, and iii) changes in the power density spectrum from the pre-stimulus baseline to the post-stimulus period. The Firefly Model, therefore, provides not only a unifying account of event-related changes in the EEG but also a possible mechanism for cross-frequency information processing. PMID:23049827

  2. System Level spatial-frequency EEG changes coincident with a 90-day cognitive-behavioral therapy program for couples in relationship distress.

    PubMed

    DuRousseau, Donald R; Beeton, Theresa A

    2015-09-01

    Evaluating relationship intervention programs traditionally involves the use of self-report surveys or observational studies to assess changes in behavior. Instead, to investigate intervention-related changes in behavior, our study evaluates spatial-frequency electroencephalography (EEG) patterns from the brains of couples participating in an Imago Relationship workshop and 12 weeks of group counseling sessions lasting approximately 90 days. This explorative study recorded 32-channel EEGs from nine committed distressed couples prior to, during and immediately following the Imago Relationship Therapy program. A repeated measures t-Test approach was applied to investigate if significant group level brain pattern changes could be identified in key resting state networks in the brains of the participants that could be correlated with changes in relationship outcome. The study results show that significant reductions in EEG power in the alpha2, beta3 and gamma bands were evident in the averaged brain activity in the pre-frontal, frontal and temporal-parietal cortices that are anatomically associated with the frontal executive, default mode and salience networks of the human brain. Our current understanding of system level neural connectivity and network dynamics strongly indicates that each of these systems is integrally required in learning and implementing a complex communication process taught in the Imago intervention. Thus, a high degree of hemispheric lateralization is consistent with our understanding of language function and mood regulation in the brain and is consistent with recent research into the use of resting frontal EEG asymmetry as an indicator of behavioral changes in distressed couples undergoing a program for relationship improvement. Although preliminary, these results further indicate that the EEG is an inexpensive and easily quantifiable measure, and possibly predictor, of behavioral changes in response to a cognitive behavioral intervention. PMID:25274224

  3. The effect of mobile phone electromagnetic fields on the alpha rhythm of human electroencephalogram.

    PubMed

    Croft, R J; Hamblin, D L; Spong, J; Wood, A W; McKenzie, R J; Stough, C

    2008-01-01

    Mobile phones (MP) emit low-level electromagnetic fields that have been reported to affect neural function in humans; however, demonstrations of such effects have not been conclusive. The purpose of the present study was to test one of the strongest findings in the literature; that of increased "alpha" power in response to MP-type radiation. Healthy participants (N = 120) were tested using a double-blind counterbalanced crossover design, with each receiving a 30-min Active and a 30-min Sham Exposure 1 week apart, while electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded. Resting alpha power (8-12 Hz) was then derived as a function of time, for periods both during and following exposure. Non-parametric analyses were employed as data could not be normalized. Previous reports of an overall alpha power enhancement during the MP exposure were confirmed (relative to Sham), with this effect larger at ipsilateral than contralateral sites over posterior regions. No overall change to alpha power was observed following exposure cessation; however, there was less alpha power contralateral to the exposure source during this period (relative to ipsilateral). Employing a strong methodology, the current findings support previous research that has reported an effect of MP exposure on EEG alpha power. PMID:17786925

  4. Quantitative EEG patterns of differential in-flight workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterman, M. B.; Mann, C. A.; Kaiser, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    Four test pilots were instrumented for in-flight EEG recordings using a custom portable recording system. Each flew six, two minute tracking tasks in the Calspan NT-33 experimental trainer at Edwards AFB. With the canopy blacked out, pilots used a HUD display to chase a simulated aircraft through a random flight course. Three configurations of flight controls altered the flight characteristics to achieve low, moderate, and high workload, as determined by normative Cooper-Harper ratings. The test protocol was administered by a command pilot in the back seat. Corresponding EEG and tracking data were compared off-line. Tracking performance was measured as deviation from the target aircraft and combined with control difficulty to achieve an estimate of 'cognitive workload'. Trended patterns of parietal EEG activity at 8-12 Hz were sorted according to this classification. In all cases, high workload produced a significantly greater suppression of 8-12 Hz activity than low workload. Further, a clear differentiation of EEG trend patterns was obtained in 80 percent of the cases. High workload produced a sustained suppression of 8-12 Hz activity, while moderate workload resulted in an initial suppression followed by a gradual increment. Low workload was associated with a modulated pattern lacking any periods of marked or sustained suppression. These findings suggest that quantitative analysis of appropriate EEG measures may provide an objective and reliable in-flight index of cognitive effort that could facilitate workload assessment.

  5. Exploring Sampling in the Detection of Multicategory EEG Signals

    PubMed Central

    Siuly, Siuly; Kabir, Enamul; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Yanchun

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a structure based on samplings and machine leaning techniques for the detection of multicategory EEG signals where random sampling (RS) and optimal allocation sampling (OS) are explored. In the proposed framework, before using the RS and OS scheme, the entire EEG signals of each class are partitioned into several groups based on a particular time period. The RS and OS schemes are used in order to have representative observations from each group of each category of EEG data. Then all of the selected samples by the RS from the groups of each category are combined in a one set named RS set. In the similar way, for the OS scheme, an OS set is obtained. Then eleven statistical features are extracted from the RS and OS set, separately. Finally this study employs three well-known classifiers: k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), multinomial logistic regression with a ridge estimator (MLR), and support vector machine (SVM) to evaluate the performance for the RS and OS feature set. The experimental outcomes demonstrate that the RS scheme well represents the EEG signals and the k-NN with the RS is the optimum choice for detection of multicategory EEG signals. PMID:25977705

  6. Intracranial EEG power and metabolism in human epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Pan, JW; Zaveri, HP; Spencer, DD; Hetherington, HP; Spencer, SS

    2009-01-01

    EEG power and high frequency activity in the seizure onset zone has been increasingly considered for its relationship with seizures in animal and human studies of epilepsy. We examine the relationship between quantitative EEG measures and metabolic imaging in epilepsy patients undergoing intracranial EEG (icEEG) analysis for seizure localization. Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and neocortical epilepsy (NE) were studied. Metabolic imaging was performed with MR spectroscopic imaging using N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and creatine (Cr). All data were acquired from the mesial temporal lobe such that a direct comparison of the same anatomical regions between the two groups could be performed. While no difference was seen in the total power recorded from the mesial temporal lobe, the MTLE group had significantly greater power in the high frequency bands. There was a significant positive exponential relationship between total icEEG power with NAA/Cr in MTLE, R= +0.84 p<0.001, which was not seen in NE. There was also a significant negative relationship between fractional gamma power with NAA/Cr in MTLE R= ?0.66 p<0.02, also not seen in NE. These data argue that within the seizure onset zone, the tight correlation between total power and NAA/Cr suggests that total electrical output is powered by available mitochondrial function. These data are also consistent with the hypothesis that high frequency activity is an abnormal manifestation of tissue injury. PMID:19699059

  7. Nonlinear EEG decoding based on a particle filter model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinhua; Wei, Jiongjian; Wang, Baozeng; Hong, Jun; Wang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    While the world is stepping into the aging society, rehabilitation robots play a more and more important role in terms of both rehabilitation treatment and nursing of the patients with neurological diseases. Benefiting from the abundant contents of movement information, electroencephalography (EEG) has become a promising information source for rehabilitation robots control. Although the multiple linear regression model was used as the decoding model of EEG signals in some researches, it has been considered that it cannot reflect the nonlinear components of EEG signals. In order to overcome this shortcoming, we propose a nonlinear decoding model, the particle filter model. Two- and three-dimensional decoding experiments were performed to test the validity of this model. In decoding accuracy, the results are comparable to those of the multiple linear regression model and previous EEG studies. In addition, the particle filter model uses less training data and more frequency information than the multiple linear regression model, which shows the potential of nonlinear decoding models. Overall, the findings hold promise for the furtherance of EEG-based rehabilitation robots. PMID:24949420

  8. Nonlinear EEG Decoding Based on a Particle Filter Model

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jun

    2014-01-01

    While the world is stepping into the aging society, rehabilitation robots play a more and more important role in terms of both rehabilitation treatment and nursing of the patients with neurological diseases. Benefiting from the abundant contents of movement information, electroencephalography (EEG) has become a promising information source for rehabilitation robots control. Although the multiple linear regression model was used as the decoding model of EEG signals in some researches, it has been considered that it cannot reflect the nonlinear components of EEG signals. In order to overcome this shortcoming, we propose a nonlinear decoding model, the particle filter model. Two- and three-dimensional decoding experiments were performed to test the validity of this model. In decoding accuracy, the results are comparable to those of the multiple linear regression model and previous EEG studies. In addition, the particle filter model uses less training data and more frequency information than the multiple linear regression model, which shows the potential of nonlinear decoding models. Overall, the findings hold promise for the furtherance of EEG-based rehabilitation robots. PMID:24949420

  9. Nonlinear analysis of EEG signals at different mental states

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Kannathal; Acharya U, Rajendra; Alias, Fadhilah; Tiboleng, Thelma; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan K

    2004-01-01

    Background The EEG (Electroencephalogram) is a representative signal containing information about the condition of the brain. The shape of the wave may contain useful information about the state of the brain. However, the human observer can not directly monitor these subtle details. Besides, since bio-signals are highly subjective, the symptoms may appear at random in the time scale. Therefore, the EEG signal parameters, extracted and analyzed using computers, are highly useful in diagnostics. This work discusses the effect on the EEG signal due to music and reflexological stimulation. Methods In this work, nonlinear parameters like Correlation Dimension (CD), Largest Lyapunov Exponent (LLE), Hurst Exponent (H) and Approximate Entropy (ApEn) are evaluated from the EEG signals under different mental states. Results The results obtained show that EEG to become less complex relative to the normal state with a confidence level of more than 85% due to stimulation. Conclusions It is found that the measures are significantly lower when the subjects are under sound or reflexologic stimulation as compared to the normal state. The dimension increases with the degree of the cognitive activity. This suggests that when the subjects are under sound or reflexologic stimuli, the number of parallel functional processes active in the brain is less and the brain goes to a more relaxed state PMID:15023233

  10. Exploring sampling in the detection of multicategory EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Siuly, Siuly; Kabir, Enamul; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Yanchun

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a structure based on samplings and machine leaning techniques for the detection of multicategory EEG signals where random sampling (RS) and optimal allocation sampling (OS) are explored. In the proposed framework, before using the RS and OS scheme, the entire EEG signals of each class are partitioned into several groups based on a particular time period. The RS and OS schemes are used in order to have representative observations from each group of each category of EEG data. Then all of the selected samples by the RS from the groups of each category are combined in a one set named RS set. In the similar way, for the OS scheme, an OS set is obtained. Then eleven statistical features are extracted from the RS and OS set, separately. Finally this study employs three well-known classifiers: k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), multinomial logistic regression with a ridge estimator (MLR), and support vector machine (SVM) to evaluate the performance for the RS and OS feature set. The experimental outcomes demonstrate that the RS scheme well represents the EEG signals and the k-NN with the RS is the optimum choice for detection of multicategory EEG signals. PMID:25977705

  11. Cognitive decline unlike normal aging is associated with alterations of EEG temporo-spatial characteristics.

    PubMed

    Stevens, A; Kircher, T

    1998-01-01

    The diagnosis of beginning dementia is based mainly on neuropsychological testing. Several measures of EEG spectral composition, coherence and complexity (correlation dimension) have been shown to correspond to cognitive function. Only a few studies have evaluated EEG changes in normal aging, and no quantitative study has addressed changes in EEG during cognitive tasks in demented elderly. In this study the quantitative descriptors of EEGs from 31 demented or cognitively impaired elderly persons, 30 healthy elderly (mean age 69 years) and 35 young controls (mean age 31 years) were compared. The EEGs were recorded during two resting conditions (eyes closed and eyes opened) and two tasks (mental arithmetics and a lexical decision). The goal of the study was to evaluate which temporal and spatial EEG descriptors change with cognitive decline and with normal aging, respectively. Cognitive categories (unimpaired, impaired, demented) were based on Structured Interview for the Diagnosis of Dementia of Alzheimer Type (SIDAM) scores. The EEGs were analysed using adaptive segmentation of continuous EEG, which quantifies the succession of distinct stable topographic voltage patterns (EEG microstates). The main findings were a significant increase in the number of ultra-short EEG microstates and, independently, a reduction in the average duration of EEG microstates in the cognitively impaired and demented patients. In addition, cognitive impairment was associated with a reduction or loss of EEG reactivity normally observed when the resting states with closed and with opened eyes are compared. No alterations in temporal or spatial EEG descriptors were found in normal aging. Cognitive tasks did not add to information already obtained during the resting states. The reduction in EEG microstate duration correlated with loss of cognitive function. Temporo-spatial analysis of EEG therefore is a useful indicator of cortical dysfunction in dementia, correlating with the degree of cognitive impairment. Normal aging seems not to be accompanied by changes in temporo-spatial EEG patterns. The data suggest that fragmentation of the electrophysiological processes underlies cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:9840373

  12. EEG Estimates of Cognitive Workload and Engagement Predict Math Problem Solving Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Carole R.; Galan, Federico Cirett

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors focused on the use of electroencephalography (EEG) data about cognitive workload and sustained attention to predict math problem solving outcomes. EEG data were recorded as students solved a series of easy and difficult math problems. Sequences of attention and cognitive workload estimates derived from the EEG

  13. Expression of alpha-synuclein, a presynaptic protein implicated in Parkinson's disease, in erythropoietic lineage.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Masaaki; Fujita, Masayo; Waragai, Masaaki; Sugama, Shuei; Wei, Jianshe; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Ohtaka-Maruyama, Chiaki; Okado, Haruo; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2007-06-22

    The present study investigated expression of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn), a presynaptic protein involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, in erythroid cells. Using various immunological procedures, immunoreactivity of alpha-syn was unambiguously demonstrated in erythroid lineage in murine bone marrows and peripheral erythrocytes. Expression of alpha-syn mRNA was also confirmed by in situ hybridization. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis revealed that approximately 80% of erythroid cells in murine bone marrows expressed alpha-syn, while more than 90% of peripheral erythrocytes expressed alpha-syn. Nonetheless, alpha-syn null mice exhibited apparently no phenotypic changes in erythroid cells as was the case in their brains, suggesting that there might be underlying some redundant mechanisms. Together with previous reports showing the expression of alpha-syn in lymphocytes and platelets, the present finding supports a contention that alpha-syn might play some important functions in hematopoietic system. PMID:17475220

  14. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering

    E-print Network

    Serdar Elhatisari; Dean Lee; Gautam Rupak; Evgeny Epelbaum; Hermann Krebs; Timo A. Lähde; Thomas Luu; Ulf-G. Meißner

    2015-06-11

    Processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei comprise a major part of stellar nucleosynthesis and hypothesized mechanisms for thermonuclear supernovae. In an effort towards understanding alpha processes from first principles, we describe in this letter the first ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of nucleons and apply a technique called the adiabatic projection method to reduce the eight-body system to an effective two-cluster system. We find good agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for S-wave and D-wave scattering. The computational scaling with particle number suggests that alpha processes involving heavier nuclei are also within reach in the near future.

  15. Implications of electrolyte dispersion for high resolution EEG methods.

    PubMed

    Pellouchoud, E; Leong, H; Gevins, A

    1997-03-01

    The effective recording area of an EEG electrode is its electrical contact area with the scalp. With techniques that employ wet electrolyte, this area is primarily determined by the extent of electrolyte dispersion rather than by the size of the electrode. The effective recording areas of 10 widely distributed EEG electrodes embedded in an elasticized stretch hat were measured on 7 subjects using a digital multimeter. On average, conventionally prepared electrodes were associated with an electrolyte (standard gel) spread of approximately 1 cm in each of four directions (above, below, right and left of the electrode's center). This implies that EEG electrodes prepared with wet electrolyte should not be spaced less than 2 cm apart unless special precautions are taken to prevent the spread of electrolyte, and that in most circumstances there is little advantage to methods for designating the 3-D coordinates of an electrode that have a measurement error of less than 1 cm. PMID:9129582

  16. HZI systems for EEG parametrization and classification of psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Shapiro, D M; Herrmann, W M; Schulz, W; Morgan, V

    1979-01-01

    The EEG effects of twenty, clinically most frequently used psychotropic drugs and five placebos were studied in 75 male volunteers in five simultaneously designed basic studies. In each of the five studies single oral dosages of five drugs (well known representatives of neuroleptics, antidepressants, anxiolytics and psychostimulants, as well as placebos) were investigated in 15 subjects in a double-blind latin-square research design using the methods of the Quantitative Pharmaco-EEG. The results demonstrated that the therapeutically equivalent effective compounds also have similar effects on human EEG. With a classification rule, based on discriminant function 20, and with a classification rule, based on correlation statistics 19 of 25 compounds could be reclassified into correct clinical-therapeutic psychotropic drug groups. It is suggested that CEEG is an important tool in predicting and describing psychotropic properties of compounds, and should routinely be used in psychotropic drug development. PMID:419164

  17. [SPECT, MRI and EEG in infants with lissencephaly].

    PubMed

    Tagawa, T; Imai, K; Otani, K; Itagaki, Y; Tanabe, Y; Fujii, F; Futagi, Y; Sumi, K

    1996-09-01

    Single photon emission tomography (SPECT), MRI and EEG were studied in two infants with lissencephaly. One infant had generalized tonic convulsions at 7 month of age and continuous high voltage fast activities on EEG. The other infant developed infantile spasms at the age of 2.5 months, and showed low voltage disorganized background with pseudorhythmic high voltage sharp waves on EEG. Cranial CT and MRI in both infants revealed abnormally thick cortex, dilatation of the lateral ventricles, and smooth or relatively smooth cerebral surface. In SPECT studies, a diffuse increase of tracer uptake was shown at the cerebral cortex compared with the basal ganglia or cerebellum in both infants. The SPECT finding might reflect the abnormal cortical architectures in this cerebral malformation. PMID:8831243

  18. Quantative EEG during baseline and various cognitive tasks in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Bakhtadze, S; Janelidze, M

    2010-09-01

    It is known that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a widely spread condition in school aged childhood population. Making of precise diagnosis is a serious problem of modern pediatric neurology. In spite of large amount of guidelines and questionnaires the unified consensus of diagnosis is still absent. Thus it is important to search additional diagnostic criteria which can help physicians to confirm ADHD. For this purposes we have used quantative EEG (QEEG) parameters. There are numerous papers regarding QEEG changes of ADHD children during baseline (resting with closed eyes, resting with opened eyes, photic stimulation, hyperventilation).But information concerning QEEG evidences during cognitive tasks is insufficient. For this purposes we have used QEEG during Raven test, reading and calculation in children with ADHD and control group. QEEG was carried out according to standard 10-20 electrode placement rule from the following derivations: F3, F4, C3, C4, P3, P4, O1, O2. We have observed that in controls fulfilling of Raven test is more difficult than reading. Thus they are eulectic but in ADHD children reading is more difficult than Raven test. Thus they are dyslexic. By means of alpha and delta bands analysis it became apparent that alpha band is inversely proportional to mental effort and delta band is directly proportional to mental activity. PMID:20972277

  19. Color combinations of visual display terminal (VDT) icon on user preferences and EEG response.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ya-Hsien; Shen, I-Hsuan; Lee, Der-Song

    2010-04-01

    This study explored the effects of color combinations and polarity on user preferences and EEG responses using an icon design for a visual display terminal. 72 college students (M=24.5 yr., SD=2.3 yr.) were tested. The seven color combinations of top 16% with rating scores (5-point scale) over 3.60 almost always included black or white as a target or background, including white-on-black, red-on-black, yellow-on-black, blue-on-white, and black-on-white; the other two preferred color combinations were yellow-on-blue and blue-on-yellow. The eight color combinations of the bottom 16% with rating scores under 2.38 almost always included green, turquoise, or purple as a target or background. Negative image polarity (higher luminance color image shown on a lower luminance color background) was preferred over positive image polarity (lower luminance color image shown on a higher luminance color background) by the subjects. The theta and alpha band power in the right hemisphere were greater than those in the left hemisphere during the experiment. There seemed to be no linear correlation between the rating scores of subjective preferences and brain wave power of theta and alpha bands, so the possibility of using brain wave power to measure subjective preference is questionable. PMID:20499552

  20. The Transliminal Brain at Rest: Baseline EEG, Unusual Experiences, and Access to Unconscious Mental Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fleck, Jessica I.; Green, Deborah L.; Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Payne, Lisa; Bowden, Edward M.; Jung-Beeman, Mark; Kounios, John

    2008-01-01

    Transliminality reflects individual differences in the threshold at which unconscious processes or external stimuli enter into consciousness. Individuals high in transliminality possess characteristics such as magical ideation, belief in the paranormal, and creative personality traits, and also report the occurrence of manic/mystic experiences. The goal of the present research was to determine if resting brain activity differs for individuals high versus low in transliminality. We compared baseline EEG recordings (eyes-closed) between individuals high versus low in transliminality, assessed using The Revised Transliminality Scale of Lange et al. (2000). Identifying reliable differences at rest between high- and low-transliminality individuals would support a predisposition for transliminality-related traits. Individuals high in transliminality exhibited lower alpha, beta, and gamma power than individuals low in transliminality over left posterior association cortex and lower high alpha, low beta, and gamma power over the right superior temporal region. In contrast, when compared to individuals low in transliminality, individuals high in transliminality exhibited greater gamma power over the frontal-midline region. These results are consistent with prior research reporting reductions in left temporal/parietal activity, as well as the desynchronization of right temporal activity in schizotypy and related schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Further, differences between high- and low-transliminality groups extend existing theories linking altered hemispheric asymmetries in brain activity to a predisposition toward schizophrenia, paranormal beliefs, and unusual experiences. PMID:18814870

  1. Tau Decays and $\\alpha_s$

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Zhiqing

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the determination of the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_s$ from the leptonic branching ratios, the lifetime, and the invariant mass distributions of the hadronic final state of the $\\tau$ lepton over the last two decades is briefly reviewed. The improvements in the latest ALEPH update are described in some detail. Currently this is one of the most precise $\\alpha_s$ determinations. Together with the other determination at the $Z$ boson mass pole, they constitutes the most accurate test of the asymptotic freedom in QCD.

  2. EEG predictors of covert vigilant attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Adrien; Dähne, Sven; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Objective. The present study addressed the question whether neurophysiological signals exhibit characteristic modulations preceding a miss in a covert vigilant attention task which mimics a natural environment in which critical stimuli may appear in the periphery of the visual field. Approach. Subjective, behavioural and encephalographic (EEG) data of 12 participants performing a modified Mackworth Clock task were obtained and analysed offline. The stimulus consisted of a pointer performing regular ticks in a clockwise sequence across 42 dots arranged in a circle. Participants were requested to covertly attend to the pointer and press a response button as quickly as possible in the event of a jump, a rare and random event. Main results. Significant increases in response latencies and decreases in the detection rates were found as a function of time-on-task, a characteristic effect of sustained attention tasks known as the vigilance decrement. Subjective sleepiness showed a significant increase over the duration of the experiment. Increased activity in the ?-frequency range (8-14 Hz) was observed emerging and gradually accumulating 10 s before a missed target. Additionally, a significant gradual attenuation of the P3 event-related component was found to antecede misses by 5 s. Significance. The results corroborate recent findings that behavioural errors are presaged by specific neurophysiological activity and demonstrate that lapses of attention can be predicted in a covert setting up to 10 s in advance reinforcing the prospective use of brain-computer interface (BCI) technology for the detection of waning vigilance in real-world scenarios. Combining these findings with real-time single-trial analysis from BCI may pave the way for cognitive states monitoring systems able to determine the current, and predict the near-future development of the brain's attentional processes.

  3. Diurnal variation in the quantitative EEG in healthy adult volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, L; Dane, A; Rhodes, J; Lynch, P; Hughes, A M

    2000-01-01

    Aims To define the change in power in standard waveband frequencies of quantitative cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) data over a 24 h period, in a drug free representative healthy volunteer population. Methods This was an open, non randomised study in which 18 volunteers (9 male and 9 female) were studied on 1 study day, over a 24 h period. Volunteers had a cortical EEG recording taken at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 and 24 h. Each recording lasted for 6 min (3 min eyes open, 3 min eyes closed). All EEG recordings were taken in a quietened ward environment with the curtains drawn round the bed and the volunteer supine. During the 3 min eyes open, volunteers were asked to look at a red circle on a screen at the foot of the bed, and refrain from talking. Results Plots produced of geometric mean power by time of the standard wave band frequencies gave some indication of a circadian rhythm over the 24 h period for ? (4.75–6.75 Hz), ?1 (7.0–9.5 Hz) and ?1 (12.75–18.50 Hz) wavebands. Mixed models were fitted to both the eyes open and eyes closed data which confirmed a change in mean waveband power with time with statistical significance at the conventional 5% level (P < 0.05). Conclusions These data indicate the presence of a diurnal variation in the cortical quantitative EEG. They support the use of a placebo control group when designing clinical trials which utilize quantitative EEG to screen for central nervous system (CNS) activity of pharmaceutical agents, to control for the confounding variable of time of day at which the EEG recordings were made. PMID:10886113

  4. Understanding gradient artefacts in simultaneous EEG/fMRI.

    PubMed

    Yan, Winston X; Mullinger, Karen J; Brookes, Matt J; Bowtell, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Implementation of concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) recording results in the generation of large artefacts that can compromise the quality of EEG data. While much effort has been devoted towards studying the temporal variation of the artefact waveforms produced by time-varying magnetic field gradients, the spatial variation of the artefact voltage across EEG leads has not previously been investigated in any depth. The aim of this work is to develop an improved understanding of the spatial characteristics of the gradient artefacts and the mechanism which underlies their generation. This paper therefore presents physical models of the artefacts produced by the temporally-varying magnetic field gradients required for MRI. Novel analytic expressions for the artefact voltage that account for realistic shifts and rotations of the human head were calculated from electromagnetic theory, assuming a spherical, homogeneous head and longitudinal wirepaths for the EEG cap. These were then corroborated by comparison with numerical simulations using actual EEG wirepaths and with experimental measurements on an agar phantom and human head. The numerical simulations produced accurate reproductions of experimentally measured spatial patterns for both the spherical phantom and human head in a variety of orientations and gradient fields; correlation coefficients were as high as 0.98 for the phantom and 0.95 for the human head. Furthermore, it was determined that artefact voltages for both longitudinal and transverse gradients could be decreased by adjusting the subject's axial position with respect to the gradient coils. The accuracy of the modelled spatial maps along with the ability to model gradient artefacts for any given head orientation are a step towards developing improved artefact correction algorithms that incorporate motion tracking of the subject and selective filtering based on calculated spatial artefact templates, leading to greater fidelity in simultaneous EEG/fMRI data. PMID:19385014

  5. Neural decoding of expressive human movement from scalp electroencephalography (EEG)

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Garza, Jesus G.; Hernandez, Zachery R.; Nepaul, Sargoon; Bradley, Karen K.; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.

    2014-01-01

    Although efforts to characterize human movement through electroencephalography (EEG) have revealed neural activities unique to limb control that can be used to infer movement kinematics, it is still unknown the extent to which EEG can be used to discern the expressive qualities that influence such movements. In this study we used EEG and inertial sensors to record brain activity and movement of five skilled and certified Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) dancers. Each dancer performed whole body movements of three Action types: movements devoid of expressive qualities (“Neutral”), non-expressive movements while thinking about specific expressive qualities (“Think”), and enacted expressive movements (“Do”). The expressive movement qualities that were used in the “Think” and “Do” actions consisted of a sequence of eight Laban Effort qualities as defined by LMA—a notation system and language for describing, visualizing, interpreting and documenting all varieties of human movement. We used delta band (0.2–4 Hz) EEG as input to a machine learning algorithm that computed locality-preserving Fisher's discriminant analysis (LFDA) for dimensionality reduction followed by Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) to decode the type of Action. We also trained our LFDA-GMM models to classify all the possible combinations of Action Type and Laban Effort quality (giving a total of 17 classes). Classification accuracy rates were 59.4 ± 0.6% for Action Type and 88.2 ± 0.7% for Laban Effort quality Type. Ancillary analyses of the potential relations between the EEG and movement kinematics of the dancer's body, indicated that motion-related artifacts did not significantly influence our classification results. In summary, this research demonstrates that EEG has valuable information about the expressive qualities of movement. These results may have applications for advancing the understanding of the neural basis of expressive movements and for the development of neuroprosthetics to restore movements. PMID:24782734

  6. Simultaneous head tissue conductivity and EEG source location estimation.

    PubMed

    Akalin Acar, Zeynep; Acar, Can E; Makeig, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Accurate electroencephalographic (EEG) source localization requires an electrical head model incorporating accurate geometries and conductivity values for the major head tissues. While consistent conductivity values have been reported for scalp, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid, measured brain-to-skull conductivity ratio (BSCR) estimates have varied between 8 and 80, likely reflecting both inter-subject and measurement method differences. In simulations, mis-estimation of skull conductivity can produce source localization errors as large as 3cm. Here, we describe an iterative gradient-based approach to Simultaneous tissue Conductivity And source Location Estimation (SCALE). The scalp projection maps used by SCALE are obtained from near-dipolar effective EEG sources found by adequate independent component analysis (ICA) decomposition of sufficient high-density EEG data. We applied SCALE to simulated scalp projections of 15cm(2)-scale cortical patch sources in an MR image-based electrical head model with simulated BSCR of 30. Initialized either with a BSCR of 80 or 20, SCALE estimated BSCR as 32.6. In Adaptive Mixture ICA (AMICA) decompositions of (45-min, 128-channel) EEG data from two young adults we identified sets of 13 independent components having near-dipolar scalp maps compatible with a single cortical source patch. Again initialized with either BSCR 80 or 25, SCALE gave BSCR estimates of 34 and 54 for the two subjects respectively. The ability to accurately estimate skull conductivity non-invasively from any well-recorded EEG data in combination with a stable and non-invasively acquired MR imaging-derived electrical head model could remove a critical barrier to using EEG as a sub-cm(2)-scale accurate 3-D functional cortical imaging modality. PMID:26302675

  7. Influences of skull segmentation inaccuracies on EEG source analysis.

    PubMed

    Lanfer, B; Scherg, M; Dannhauer, M; Knösche, T R; Burger, M; Wolters, C H

    2012-08-01

    The low-conducting human skull is known to have an especially large influence on electroencephalography (EEG) source analysis. Because of difficulties segmenting the complex skull geometry out of magnetic resonance images, volume conductor models for EEG source analysis might contain inaccuracies and simplifications regarding the geometry of the skull. The computer simulation study presented here investigated the influences of a variety of skull geometry deficiencies on EEG forward simulations and source reconstruction from EEG data. Reference EEG data was simulated in a detailed and anatomically plausible reference model. Test models were derived from the reference model representing a variety of skull geometry inaccuracies and simplifications. These included erroneous skull holes, local errors in skull thickness, modeling cavities as bone, downward extension of the model and simplifying the inferior skull or the inferior skull and scalp as layers of constant thickness. The reference EEG data was compared to forward simulations in the test models, and source reconstruction in the test models was performed on the simulated reference data. The finite element method with high-resolution meshes was employed for all forward simulations. It was found that large skull geometry inaccuracies close to the source space, for example, when cutting the model directly below the skull, led to errors of 20mm and more for extended source space regions. Local defects, for example, erroneous skull holes, caused non-negligible errors only in the vicinity of the defect. The study design allowed a comparison of influence size, and guidelines for modeling the skull geometry were concluded. PMID:22584227

  8. EEG analysis using wavelet-based information tools.

    PubMed

    Rosso, O A; Martin, M T; Figliola, A; Keller, K; Plastino, A

    2006-06-15

    Wavelet-based informational tools for quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) record analysis are reviewed. Relative wavelet energies, wavelet entropies and wavelet statistical complexities are used in the characterization of scalp EEG records corresponding to secondary generalized tonic-clonic epileptic seizures. In particular, we show that the epileptic recruitment rhythm observed during seizure development is well described in terms of the relative wavelet energies. In addition, during the concomitant time-period the entropy diminishes while complexity grows. This is construed as evidence supporting the conjecture that an epileptic focus, for this kind of seizures, triggers a self-organized brain state characterized by both order and maximal complexity. PMID:16675027

  9. Nonlinear aspects of the EEG during sleep in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, Matthew J.; Coussens, Scott W.; Pamula, Yvonne; Kennedy, Declan; Lushington, Kurt; Shalizi, Cosma; Allison, Andrew; Martin, A. James; Saint, David; Abbott, Derek

    2005-05-01

    Electroencephalograph (EEG) analysis enables the dynamic behavior of the brain to be examined. If the behavior is nonlinear then nonlinear tools can be used to glean information on brain behavior, and aid in the diagnosis of sleep abnormalities such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). In this paper the sleep EEGs of a set of normal children and children with mild OSAS are evaluated for nonlinear brain behaviour. We found that there were differences in the nonlinearity of the brain behaviour between different sleep stages, and between the two groups of children.

  10. Clinical Use of EEG in the ICU: Technical Setting.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Vincent; Rossetti, Andrea O

    2015-12-01

    Neurophysiology is an essential tool for clinicians dealing with patients in the intensive care unit. Because of consciousness disorders, clinical examination is frequently limited. In this setting, neurophysiological examination provides valuable information about seizure detection, treatment guidance, and neurological outcome. However, to acquire reliable signals, some technical precautions need to be known. EEG is prone to artifacts, and the intensive care unit environment is rich in artifact sources (electrical devices including mechanical ventilation, dialysis, and sedative medications, and frequent noise, etc.). This review will discuss and summarize the current technical guidelines for EEG acquisition and also some practical pitfalls specific for the intensive care unit. PMID:26629758

  11. EHR Big Data Deep Phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Lenert, L.; Lopez-Campos, G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives Given the quickening speed of discovery of variant disease drivers from combined patient genotype and phenotype data, the objective is to provide methodology using big data technology to support the definition of deep phenotypes in medical records. Methods As the vast stores of genomic information increase with next generation sequencing, the importance of deep phenotyping increases. The growth of genomic data and adoption of Electronic Health Records (EHR) in medicine provides a unique opportunity to integrate phenotype and genotype data into medical records. The method by which collections of clinical findings and other health related data are leveraged to form meaningful phenotypes is an active area of research. Longitudinal data stored in EHRs provide a wealth of information that can be used to construct phenotypes of patients. We focus on a practical problem around data integration for deep phenotype identification within EHR data. The use of big data approaches are described that enable scalable markup of EHR events that can be used for semantic and temporal similarity analysis to support the identification of phenotype and genotype relationships. Conclusions Stead and colleagues’ 2005 concept of using light standards to increase the productivity of software systems by riding on the wave of hardware/processing power is described as a harbinger for designing future healthcare systems. The big data solution, using flexible markup, provides a route to improved utilization of processing power for organizing patient records in genotype and phenotype research. PMID:25123744

  12. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.

    PubMed

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of quarks and gluons. PMID:26632590

  13. Daytime sleepiness during Ramadan intermittent fasting: polysomnographic and quantitative waking EEG study.

    PubMed

    Roky, Rachida; Chapotot, Florian; Benchekroun, Majda Taoudi; Benaji, Brahim; Hakkou, Farid; Elkhalifi, Hassan; Buguet, Alain

    2003-06-01

    During the lunar month of Ramadan, Muslims abstain from eating, drinking and smoking from sunrise to sunset. We reported previously that Ramadan provokes a shortening in nocturnal total sleep time by 40 min, an increase in sleep latency, and a decrease in slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep duration during Ramadan. During the same study, the effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on daytime sleepiness were also investigated in eight healthy young male subjects using a quantitative waking electroencephalograph (EEG) analysis following the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) procedure. This procedure was combined with subjective alertness and mood ratings and was conducted during four successive experimental sessions: (1) baseline (BL) 15 days before Ramadan, (2) beginning of Ramadan (R11) on the 11th day of Ramadan, (3) end of Ramadan (R25) on the 25th day of Ramadan, (4) recovery 2 weeks after Ramadan (AR). During each session, four 20-min nap opportunities (MSLTs) were given at 10:00, 12:00, 14:00 and 16:00 h and were preceded by rectal temperature readings. Nocturnal sleep was recorded before each daytime session. Subjective daytime alertness did not change in R25 but decreased in R11 at 12:00 h, and subjective mood decreased at 16:00 h, both in R11 and R25. During the MSLT, mean sleep latency decreased by an average of 2 min in R11 (especially at 10:00 and 16:00 h) and 6 min in R25 (especially at 10:00 and 12:00 h) compared with BL. There was an increase in the daily mean of waking EEG absolute power in the theta (5.5-8.5 Hz) frequency band. Significant correlations were found between sleep latency during the MSLT and the waking EEG absolute power of the fast alpha (10.5-12.5 Hz), sigma (11.5-15.5 Hz) and beta (12.5-30 Hz) frequency bands. Sleep latency was also related to rectal temperature. In conclusion, Ramadan diurnal fasting induced an increase in subjective and objective daytime sleepiness associated with changes in diurnal rectal temperature. PMID:12753346

  14. alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    alpha - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( alpha - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 84 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Ass

  15. Ballistocardiogram artifact removal from EEG signals using adaptive filtering of EOG signals.

    PubMed

    In, Myung H; Lee, Soo Y; Park, Tae S; Kim, Tae-S; Cho, Min H; Ahn, Young B

    2006-11-01

    We estimated ballistocardiogram (BCG) components in EEG signals recorded inside an MRI magnet using the electro-oculogram (EOG) signals recorded simultaneously with the EEG signals. Since the EOG signals are measured near the EEG measuring points, it is thought that the BCG components in the EOG signals resemble the BCG components in the EEG signals. To estimate the BCG components in the EEG signals, we applied the Kalman filter to the EOG and EEG signals recorded inside a 3.0 T MRI magnet. After removing the estimated BCG components from the EEG signals, we extracted the visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) from the BCG-removed EEG signals. To validate the efficacy of Kalman filtering in the BCG artifact removal, we have compared three types of VEPs of eight healthy subjects: one extracted from the raw EEG signals measured outside the magnet and the others extracted from the BCG-removed EEG signals measured inside the magnet. The BCG artifacts have been removed with Kalman filtering as well as with the conventional BCG template subtraction method for the sake of comparison. No significant difference in waveforms, latencies and amplitudes has been found between the two types of VEPs extracted from the two kinds of BCG-removed EEG signals. PMID:17028414

  16. Automatic detection of epileptic seizures in long-term EEG records.

    PubMed

    Garcés Correa, Agustina; Orosco, Lorena; Diez, Pablo; Laciar, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which affects nearly 1.5% of the world?s total population. Trained physicians and neurologists visually scan the long-term electroencephalographic (EEG) records to identify epileptic seizures. It generally requires many hours to interpret the data. Therefore, tools for quick detection of seizures in long-term EEG records are very useful. This study proposes an algorithm to help detect seizures in long-term iEEG based on low computational costs methods using Spectral Power and Wavelet analysis. The detector was tested on 21 invasive intracranial EEG (iEEG) records. A sensitivity of 85.39% was achieved. The results indicate that the proposed method detects epileptic seizures in long-term iEEG records successfully. Moreover, the algorithm does not require long processing time due to its simplicity. This feature will allow significant time reduction of the visual inspection of iEEG records performed by the specialists. PMID:25531725

  17. Alpha One Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... distance of more than 17 miles in his Virtual Walk. Read More Alpha completes 17-mile Virtual Walk More than 240 CSL Behring employees in Illinois participated in the Virtual Walk for Alpha-1. Read More More than ...

  18. Dynamic Ly alpha jets

    E-print Network

    J. Koza; R. J. Rutten; A. Vourlidas

    2009-03-24

    The solar chromosphere and transition region are highly structured and complex regimes. A recent breakthrough has been the identification of dynamic fibrils observed in H alpha as caused by field-aligned magnetoacoustic shocks. We seek to find whether such dynamic fibrils are also observed in Ly alpha. We used a brief sequence of four high-resolution Ly alpha images of the solar limb taken by the Very high Angular resolution ULtraviolet Telescope (VAULT), which displays many extending and retracting Ly alpha jets. We measured their top trajectories and fitted parabolas to the 30 best-defined ones. Most jet tops move supersonically. Half of them decelerate, sometimes superballistically, the others accelerate. This bifurcation may arise from incomplete sampling of recurrent jets. The similarities between dynamic Ly alpha jets and H alpha fibrils suggest that the magnetoacoustic shocks causing dynamic H alpha fibrils also affect dynamic Ly alpha jets.

  19. EEG Theta and Alpha Responses Reveal Qualitative Differences in Processing Taxonomic versus Thematic Semantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Mandy J.; Brier, Matthew R.; Ferree, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the importance of semantic relationships to our understanding of semantic knowledge, the nature of the neural processes underlying these abilities are not well understood. In order to investigate these processes, 20 healthy adults listened to thematically related (e.g., leash-dog), taxonomically related (e.g., horse-dog), or unrelated…

  20. Resting EEG in Alpha and Beta Bands Predicts Individual Differences in Attentional Blink Magnitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Mary H.; Arnell, Karen M.; Cote, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Accuracy for a second target (T2) is reduced when it is presented within 500 ms of a first target (T1) in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP)--an attentional blink (AB). There are reliable individual differences in the magnitude of the AB. Recent evidence has shown that the attentional approach that an individual typically adopts during a…

  1. EEG-based Upper Alpha Neurofeedback Training Improves Working Memory Performance

    E-print Network

    Minguez, Javier

    a variety of neurological and psychological disorders such as epilepsy [1], attention deficit hyperactivity effects to treat a variety of neurological and psychological disorders, and has demonstrated its disorder (ADHD) [2], and addictive disorders [3], among others. Furthermore, this training applied

  2. Index of Alpha/Theta Ratio of the Electroencephalogram: A New Marker for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Magali T.; Kanda, Paulo A. M.; Basile, Luis F. H.; da Silva Lopes, Helder Frederico; Baratho, Regina; Demario, Jose L. C.; Jorge, Mario S.; Nardi, Antonio E.; Machado, Sergio; Ianof, Jéssica N.; Nitrini, Ricardo; Anghinah, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated quantitative EEG measures to determine a screening index to discriminate Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients from normal individuals. Methods: Two groups of individuals older than 50?years, comprising a control group of 57 normal volunteers and a study group of 50 patients with probable AD, were compared. EEG recordings were obtained from subjects in a wake state with eyes closed at rest for 30?min. Logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: Spectral potentials of the alpha and theta bands were computed for all electrodes and the alpha/theta ratio calculated. Logistic regression of alpha/theta of the mean potential of the C3 and O1 electrodes was carried out. A formula was calculated to aid the diagnosis of AD yielding 76.4% sensitivity and 84.6% specificity for AD with an area under the ROC curve of 0.92. Conclusion: Logistic regression of alpha/theta of the spectrum of the mean potential of EEG represents a good marker discriminating AD patients from normal controls. PMID:24130529

  3. Longitudinal study of perception of structured optic flow and random visual motion in infants using high-density EEG.

    PubMed

    Agyei, Seth B; Holth, Magnus; van der Weel, F R Ruud; van der Meer, Audrey L H

    2015-05-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) was used in infants at 3-4 months and 11-12 months to longitudinally study brain electrical activity as the infants were exposed to structured forwards and reversed optic flow, and non-structured random visual motion. Analyses of visual evoked potential (VEP) and temporal spectral evolution (TSE, time-dependent amplitude changes) were performed on EEG data recorded with a 128-channel sensor array. VEP results showed infants to significantly differentiate between the radial motion conditions, but only at 11-12 months where they showed shortest latency for forwards optic flow and longest latency for random visual motion. When the TSE results of the motion conditions were compared with those of a static non-flow dot pattern, infants at 3-4 and 11-12 months both showed significant differences in induced activity. A decrease in amplitudes at 5-7 Hz was observed as desynchronized theta-band activity at both 3-4 and 11-12 months, while an increase in amplitudes at 9-13 Hz was observed as synchronized alpha-band activity only at 11-12 months. It was concluded that brain electrical activities related to visual motion perception change during the first year of life, and these changes can be observed both in the VEP and induced activities of EEG. With adequate neurobiological development and locomotor experience infants around 1 year of age rely, more so than when they were younger, on structured optic flow and show a more adult-like specialization for motion where faster oscillating cell assemblies have fewer but more specialized neurons, resulting in improved visual motion perception. PMID:25145649

  4. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency in emphysema.

    PubMed

    Khan, H; Salman, K A; Ahmed, S

    2002-04-01

    Human plasma contains a number of proteinase inhibitors which together form 10% of the total plasma proteins. Serine proteases are a group of closely related proteolytic enzymes, with serine in their active site. These play a key role in coagulation, fibrinolysin, kinin and complement activation. Serine protease inhibitors or "serpins" are specific inhibitors which control the activities of these enzymes. Among the serine protease inhibitors. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (alpha1 ATD) is found in highest concentration in plasma. It is the major physiologic inhibitor for neutrophil elastase. It has control over the elastase mediated degradation of elastic tissue in the lung. Alpha1ATD deficiency is a common genetic disorder and potentially lethal disease predominantly found in North European population--where the incidence is one in 2500; worldwide figures suggest that one in 6000 people have classic alpha1ATD. In cases of deficiency, antielastase activity is reduced in the lungs which results in increased elastin breakdown and development of emphysema. Cigarette smoking contributes to destructive changes in emphysema by suppressing the proteinase inhibitory activity of human serum and by inducing certain bronchoalveolar changes. Prevalence and severity of asthma increases in persons with abnormal alpha1ATD phenotype. PMID:12164415

  5. Recording conventional and amplitude-integrated EEG in neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, D; Osredkar, D; Paro-Panjan, D; Skofljanec, A; Derganc, M

    2011-09-01

    Neonatal electroencephalography (EEG) presents a challenge due to its difficult interpretation that differs significantly from interpretation in older children and adolescents. Also, from the technological point of view, it is more difficult to perform and is not a standard procedure in all neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). During recent years, long-term cerebral function monitoring by the means of amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) has become popular in NICUs because it is easy to apply, allows real-time interpretation by the neonatologist treating the newborn, and has predictive value for outcome. On the other side, to record conventional EEG (cEEG), which is still considered the gold standard of neonatal EEG, the EEG technician should not only be well trained in performing neonatal EEG but also has to adapt to suboptimal working conditions. These issues need to be understood when approaching the neonatal cEEG in NICU and the main structure of the article is dedicated to this technique. The authors discuss the benefits of the digitalization and its positive effects on the improvement of NICU recording. The technical aspects as well as the standards for cEEG recording are described, and a section is dedicated to possible artifacts. Thereafter, alternative and concomitant use of aEEG and its benefits are briefly discussed. At the end there is a section that presents a review of our own cEEG and aEEG recordings that were chosen as the most frequently encountered patterns according to Consensus statement on the use of EEG in the intensive care unit. PMID:21802965

  6. Preoperational radiation surveillance of the WIPP project by EEG during 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, J.W.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of the EEG preoperational monitoring program is to document the existing concentrations of selected radionuclides in various environmental media collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site to provide a basis of comparison of any effects of future WT-PP operations. The basic methodology for conducting environmental surveillance both on-site and off-site was outlined by Spiegler (1984). This report represents a continuation of the EEG baseline data beginning in 1985, previously reported in EEG-43, EEG-47, EEG-49 and EEG-51. Such radionuclide baseline data are important in order to determine whether future WIPP operations with radioactive waste have affected concentrations of these radionuclides in the environment. EEG data are consistent with similar environmental measurements obtained by DOE beginning in 1985. Since late 1985, the EEG has collected or received as split samples 2 443 air filters with particulates, 202 water samples, 16 biota samples and 13 soil/sediment samples. A total of 5,946 specific radionuclide analyses have been performed on these samples. As reported previously by EEG (EEG-43, EEG-47, EEG-49 and EEG-51), observed concentrations of U-238 daughter radionuclides were not in equilibrium with the parent radionuclide in water samples. This observation is consistent with different radionuclide mobility in the environment. In a notice of proposed rule making for 40 CFR 141 (US EPA 1991), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations reflect this in the calculated activity-to-mass ratio of 1.3 pCi/{mu}g of uranium using a geometric mean of the U-234:U-238 ratio in water supplies of 2.7. Ra-226 and Ra- 228 were reported in a number of water samples in concentrations similar to those previously published by EEG and DOE.

  7. Malignant histiocytosis. A phenotypic and genotypic investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Cattoretti, G.; Villa, A.; Vezzoni, P.; Giardini, R.; Lombardi, L.; Rilke, F.

    1990-01-01

    Ten cases of malignant histiocytosis (MH) were evaluated for clinical and histopathologic features, phenotype, and rearrangement of T cell receptor (TCR) beta, gamma, and alpha and immunoglobulin (Ig) genes (7/10). All cases were HLA-DR+ and CD30-positive. Four cases had molecular evidence of T cell lineage such as TCR beta, gamma, and alpha rearrangements, and one additional case synthesized the cytoplasmic TCR beta chain. The remaining five cases did not show unequivocal T, B, natural killer (NK) cell, or macrophagic origin, and three of them had germline TCR and Ig genes. Ultrastructural analysis was not helpful for the definition of the cell lineage. Most myelomonocytic markers (MAC387, CD13, CD14, CD64, CD68) were either negative on the MH cells or were expressed on cells with rearranged TCR gene. Precursor (CD34, CD7) and NK (CD16, CD56, and CD57) cell markers were not found. The lineage of a number of cases of MH remains unresolved. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:2349962

  8. Conducting Art Therapy Research Using Quantitative EEG Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belkofer, Christopher M.; Konopka, Lukasz M.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a modified, single subject design that measured the patterns of electrical activity of a participant's brain following an hour spent painting and drawing. Paired t tests were used to compare pre and post art-making electroencephalograph (EEG) data. The results indicated that neurobiological activity after drawing and painting…

  9. A Wearable UHF RFID-Based EEG System Artem Dementyev

    E-print Network

    Hochberg, Michael

    A Wearable UHF RFID-Based EEG System Artem Dementyev Department of Electrical Engineering monitoring system that is battery-free; is powered by a standard UHF RFID reader; and uses backscatter communications consume most of this energy, suggesting that it that it is not possible to make a small system

  10. Hemimegalencephaly: Clinical, EEG, neuroimaging, and IMP-SPECT correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Konkol, R.J.; Maister, B.H.; Wells, R.G.; Sty, J.R. )

    1990-11-01

    Iofetamine-single photon emission computed tomography (IMP-SPECT) was performed on 2 girls (5 1/2 and 6 years of age) with histories of intractable seizures, developmental delay, and unilateral hemiparesis secondary to hemimegalencephaly. Electroencephalography (EEG) revealed frequent focal discharges in 1 patient, while a nearly continuous burst suppression pattern over the malformed hemisphere was recorded in the other. IMP-SPECT demonstrated a good correlation with neuroimaging studies. In spite of the different EEG patterns, which had been proposed to predict contrasting clinical outcomes, both IMP-SPECT scans disclosed a similar decrease in tracer uptake in the malformed hemisphere. These results are consistent with the pattern of decreased tracer uptake found in other interictal studies of focal seizures without cerebral malformations. In view of recent recommendations for hemispherectomy in these patients, we suggest that the IMP-SPECT scan be used to compliment EEG as a method to define the extent of abnormality which may be more relevant to long-term prognosis than EEG alone.

  11. Technical Note Hemodynamic correlates of EEG: A heuristic

    E-print Network

    Henson, Rik

    Technical Note Hemodynamic correlates of EEG: A heuristic J.M. Kilner,* J. Mattout, R. Henson Available online 14 July 2005 In this note we describe a heuristic, starting with a dimensional analysis that activations reflect the rate of energy dissipation (per second). In this heuristic, activation causes

  12. Automatic and Direct Identification of Blink Components from Scalp EEG

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wanzeng; Zhou, Zhanpeng; Hu, Sanqing; Zhang, Jianhai; Babiloni, Fabio; Dai, Guojun

    2013-01-01

    Eye blink is an important and inevitable artifact during scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) recording. The main problem in EEG signal processing is how to identify eye blink components automatically with independent component analysis (ICA). Taking into account the fact that the eye blink as an external source has a higher sum of correlation with frontal EEG channels than all other sources due to both its location and significant amplitude, in this paper, we proposed a method based on correlation index and the feature of power distribution to automatically detect eye blink components. Furthermore, we prove mathematically that the correlation between independent components and scalp EEG channels can be translating directly from the mixing matrix of ICA. This helps to simplify calculations and understand the implications of the correlation. The proposed method doesn't need to select a template or thresholds in advance, and it works without simultaneously recording an electrooculography (EOG) reference. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can automatically recognize eye blink components with a high accuracy on entire datasets from 15 subjects. PMID:23959240

  13. Probabilistic Common Spatial Patterns for Multichannel EEG Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe; Gao, Xiaorong; Li, Yuanqing; Brown, Emery N.; Gao, Shangkai

    2015-01-01

    Common spatial patterns (CSP) is a well-known spatial filtering algorithm for multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. In this paper, we cast the CSP algorithm in a probabilistic modeling setting. Specifically, probabilistic CSP (P-CSP) is proposed as a generic EEG spatio-temporal modeling framework that subsumes the CSP and regularized CSP algorithms. The proposed framework enables us to resolve the overfitting issue of CSP in a principled manner. We derive statistical inference algorithms that can alleviate the issue of local optima. In particular, an efficient algorithm based on eigendecomposition is developed for maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation in the case of isotropic noise. For more general cases, a variational algorithm is developed for group-wise sparse Bayesian learning for the P-CSP model and for automatically determining the model size. The two proposed algorithms are validated on a simulated data set. Their practical efficacy is also demonstrated by successful applications to single-trial classifications of three motor imagery EEG data sets and by the spatio-temporal pattern analysis of one EEG data set recorded in a Stroop color naming task. PMID:26005228

  14. Affective State Recognition from EEG with Deep Belief Networks

    E-print Network

    Buffalo, State University of New York

    music which enables retrieving music according to users' affective states. In the current studies the neurons of the brain during various affective states. The simultaneously sampled features fromAffective State Recognition from EEG with Deep Belief Networks Kang Li, Xiaoyi Li, Yuan Zhang

  15. The EEG and Incidence of Epilepsy in Down's Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangye, Sheila R.

    1979-01-01

    It was found, among other things, that neither the presence of congenital heart disease, nor diabetes, nor intercurrent illness appeared to have any effect on the development of seizures. The age groups with the lowest proportion of EEG abnormalities were 25-34 years (48.7 percent abnormal) and 35-44 years (54.1 percent abnormal). (Author/DLS)

  16. Resiliency of EEG-Based Brain Functional Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Applying tools available in network science and graph theory to study brain networks has opened a new era in understanding brain mechanisms. Brain functional networks extracted from EEG time series have been frequently studied in health and diseases. In this manuscript, we studied failure resiliency of EEG-based brain functional networks. The network structures were extracted by analysing EEG time series obtained from 30 healthy subjects in resting state eyes-closed conditions. As the network structure was extracted, we measured a number of metrics related to their resiliency. In general, the brain networks showed worse resilient behaviour as compared to corresponding random networks with the same degree sequences. Brain networks had higher vulnerability than the random ones (P < 0.05), indicating that their global efficiency (i.e., communicability between the regions) is more affected by removing the important nodes. Furthermore, the breakdown happened as a result of cascaded failures in brain networks was severer (i.e., less nodes survived) as compared to randomized versions (P < 0.05). These results suggest that real EEG-based networks have not been evolved to possess optimal resiliency against failures. PMID:26295341

  17. Epileptic networks studied with EEG-fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Gotman, Jean

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY It is not easy to determine the location of the cerebral generators and the other brain regions that may be involved at the time of an epileptic spike seen in the scalp EEG. The possibility to combine EEG recording with functional MRI scanning (fMRI) opens the opportunity to uncover the regions of the brain showing changes in metabolism and blood flow in response to epileptic spikes seen in the EEG. These regions are presumably involved in the abnormal neuronal activity at the origin of epileptic discharges. This paper reviews the methodology involved in performing such studies, including the special techniques required for recording the EEG inside the scanner and the statistical issues in analyzing the fMRI signal. We then discuss the results obtained in patients with different types of focal epileptic disorders and in patients with primary generalized epilepsy. The results in general indicate that interictal epileptic discharges may affect brain areas well beyond the presumed region in which they are generated. The noninvasive nature of this method opens new horizons in the investigation of brain regions involved and affected by epileptic discharges. PMID:18304255

  18. A review of channel selection algorithms for EEG signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alotaiby, Turky; El-Samie, Fathi E. Abd; Alshebeili, Saleh A.; Ahmad, Ishtiaq

    2015-12-01

    Digital processing of electroencephalography (EEG) signals has now been popularly used in a wide variety of applications such as seizure detection/prediction, motor imagery classification, mental task classification, emotion classification, sleep state classification, and drug effects diagnosis. With the large number of EEG channels acquired, it has become apparent that efficient channel selection algorithms are needed with varying importance from one application to another. The main purpose of the channel selection process is threefold: (i) to reduce the computational complexity of any processing task performed on EEG signals by selecting the relevant channels and hence extracting the features of major importance, (ii) to reduce the amount of overfitting that may arise due to the utilization of unnecessary channels, for the purpose of improving the performance, and (iii) to reduce the setup time in some applications. Signal processing tools such as time-domain analysis, power spectral estimation, and wavelet transform have been used for feature extraction and hence for channel selection in most of channel selection algorithms. In addition, different evaluation approaches such as filtering, wrapper, embedded, hybrid, and human-based techniques have been widely used for the evaluation of the selected subset of channels. In this paper, we survey the recent developments in the field of EEG channel selection methods along with their applications and classify these methods according to the evaluation approach.

  19. EEG seizure detection and prediction algorithms: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alotaiby, Turkey N.; Alshebeili, Saleh A.; Alshawi, Tariq; Ahmad, Ishtiaq; Abd El-Samie, Fathi E.

    2014-12-01

    Epilepsy patients experience challenges in daily life due to precautions they have to take in order to cope with this condition. When a seizure occurs, it might cause injuries or endanger the life of the patients or others, especially when they are using heavy machinery, e.g., deriving cars. Studies of epilepsy often rely on electroencephalogram (EEG) signals in order to analyze the behavior of the brain during seizures. Locating the seizure period in EEG recordings manually is difficult and time consuming; one often needs to skim through tens or even hundreds of hours of EEG recordings. Therefore, automatic detection of such an activity is of great importance. Another potential usage of EEG signal analysis is in the prediction of epileptic activities before they occur, as this will enable the patients (and caregivers) to take appropriate precautions. In this paper, we first present an overview of seizure detection and prediction problem and provide insights on the challenges in this area. Second, we cover some of the state-of-the-art seizure detection and prediction algorithms and provide comparison between these algorithms. Finally, we conclude with future research directions and open problems in this topic.

  20. Hemodynamic and EEG Time-Courses During Unilateral Hand Movement in Patients with Cortical Myoclonus. An EEG-fMRI and EEG-TD-fNIRS Study.

    PubMed

    Visani, E; Canafoglia, L; Gilioli, I; Sebastiano, D Rossi; Contarino, V E; Duran, D; Panzica, F; Cubeddu, R; Contini, D; Zucchelli, L; Spinelli, L; Caffini, M; Molteni, E; Bianchi, A M; Cerutti, S; Franceschetti, S; Torricelli, A

    2015-11-01

    Multimodal human brain mapping has been proposed as an integrated approach capable of improving the recognition of the cortical correlates of specific neurological functions. We used simultaneous EEG-fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) and EEG-TD-fNIRS (time domain functional near-infrared spectroscopy) recordings to compare different hemodynamic methods with changes in EEG in ten patients with progressive myoclonic epilepsy and 12 healthy controls. We evaluated O2Hb, HHb and Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) changes and event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) in the ? and ? bands of all of the subjects while they performed a simple motor task. The general linear model was used to obtain comparable fMRI and TD-fNIRS activation maps. We also analyzed cortical thickness in order to evaluate any structural changes. In the patients, the TD-NIRS and fMRI data significantly correlated and showed a significant lessening of the increase in O2Hb and the decrease in BOLD. The post-movement ? rebound was minimal or absent in patients. Cortical thickness was moderately reduced in the motor area of the patients and correlated with the reduction in the hemodynamic signals. The fMRI and TD-NIRS results were consistent, significantly correlated and showed smaller hemodynamic changes in the patients. This finding may be partially attributable to mild cortical thickening. However, cortical hyperexcitability, which is known to generate myoclonic jerks and probably accounts for the lack of EEG ?-ERS, did not reflect any increased energy requirement. We hypothesize that this is due to a loss of inhibitory neuronal components that typically fire at high frequencies. PMID:25253050

  1. A stable pattern of EEG spectral coherence distinguishes children with autism from neuro-typical controls - a large case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The autism rate has recently increased to 1 in 100 children. Genetic studies demonstrate poorly understood complexity. Environmental factors apparently also play a role. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies demonstrate increased brain sizes and altered connectivity. Electroencephalogram (EEG) coherence studies confirm connectivity changes. However, genetic-, MRI- and/or EEG-based diagnostic tests are not yet available. The varied study results likely reflect methodological and population differences, small samples and, for EEG, lack of attention to group-specific artifact. Methods Of the 1,304 subjects who participated in this study, with ages ranging from 1 to 18 years old and assessed with comparable EEG studies, 463 children were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); 571 children were neuro-typical controls (C). After artifact management, principal components analysis (PCA) identified EEG spectral coherence factors with corresponding loading patterns. The 2- to 12-year-old subsample consisted of 430 ASD- and 554 C-group subjects (n = 984). Discriminant function analysis (DFA) determined the spectral coherence factors' discrimination success for the two groups. Loading patterns on the DFA-selected coherence factors described ASD-specific coherence differences when compared to controls. Results Total sample PCA of coherence data identified 40 factors which explained 50.8% of the total population variance. For the 2- to 12-year-olds, the 40 factors showed highly significant group differences (P < 0.0001). Ten randomly generated split half replications demonstrated high-average classification success (C, 88.5%; ASD, 86.0%). Still higher success was obtained in the more restricted age sub-samples using the jackknifing technique: 2- to 4-year-olds (C, 90.6%; ASD, 98.1%); 4- to 6-year-olds (C, 90.9%; ASD 99.1%); and 6- to 12-year-olds (C, 98.7%; ASD, 93.9%). Coherence loadings demonstrated reduced short-distance and reduced, as well as increased, long-distance coherences for the ASD-groups, when compared to the controls. Average spectral loading per factor was wide (10.1 Hz). Conclusions Classification success suggests a stable coherence loading pattern that differentiates ASD- from C-group subjects. This might constitute an EEG coherence-based phenotype of childhood autism. The predominantly reduced short-distance coherences may indicate poor local network function. The increased long-distance coherences may represent compensatory processes or reduced neural pruning. The wide average spectral range of factor loadings may suggest over-damped neural networks. PMID:22730909

  2. The Alpha Centauri System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderblom, David R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Alpha Centauri star system, which is the closest star system to the sun. Discusses the difficulties associated with measurements involving Alpha Centauri, along with some of the recent advances in stellar seismology. Raises questions about the possibilities of planets around Alpha Centauri. (TW)

  3. EEG operational radiation surveillance of the WIPP Project during 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Donald H.; Ballard, Sally C.; Channell, James K.

    2002-12-31

    The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has measured the levels of 241Am, 238Pu, 239/240Pu, 137Cs, and 90Sr in samples of air and water collected at and in the vicinity of the U. S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 2001. The WIPP received the first shipment of waste in March 1999 and became operational at that time. The EEG has compared these levels to those measured in the preoperational phase, prior to receipt of waste, as well as to the results of other monitoring organizations and to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) dose standards established for the WIPP at 40 CFR 191, Subpart A, and, by an agreement between the DOE and the EPA, at 40 CFR 61, Subpart H. Based on these analyses and applying a t test for significant differences for normally-distributed data (Taylor 1987), or analysis of variance (ANOVA) for non-normal data, the EEG concludes that: 1. Three measurements of radionuclides in the environment around WIPP during 2001 were different from the preoperational baseline levels. Only two of these – 241Am in both the Loving and WIPP3 low volume air sampler (LVAS) samples, first quarter and second quarter, respectively – exceeded the minimum detectable activity (MDA). These measurements were carefully investigated, but no clearly assignable cause was discovered. No measurements of 241Am in effluent air from the WIPP underground exceeded the action level, and converting the highest LVAS measured concentration to radiation dose yielded a committed dose of much less than 1% of the limit allowable under the EPA standard. 2. Comparison of the EEG’s 2001 results with those of other monitoring organizations revealed two sets of measurements which did not agree. One set – 241Am in surface water – was found to be in agreement with the corresponding EEG baseline. The other – 90Sr in groundwater – was probably a result of 226EEG 2001 analysis. Methodologies are being reviewed to address this problem.

  4. Multiscale permutation entropy analysis of EEG recordings during sevoflurane anesthesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Duan; Li, Xiaoli; Liang, Zhenhu; Voss, Logan J.; Sleigh, Jamie W.

    2010-08-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring of the effect of anesthetic drugs on the central nervous system has long been used in anesthesia research. Several methods based on nonlinear dynamics, such as permutation entropy (PE), have been proposed to analyze EEG series during anesthesia. However, these measures are still single-scale based and may not completely describe the dynamical characteristics of complex EEG series. In this paper, a novel measure combining multiscale PE information, called CMSPE (composite multi-scale permutation entropy), was proposed for quantifying the anesthetic drug effect on EEG recordings during sevoflurane anesthesia. Three sets of simulated EEG series during awake, light and deep anesthesia were used to select the parameters for the multiscale PE analysis: embedding dimension m, lag ? and scales to be integrated into the CMSPE index. Then, the CMSPE index and raw single-scale PE index were applied to EEG recordings from 18 patients who received sevoflurane anesthesia. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) modeling was used to relate the measured EEG indices and the anesthetic drug concentration. Prediction probability (Pk) statistics and correlation analysis with the response entropy (RE) index, derived from the spectral entropy (M-entropy module; GE Healthcare, Helsinki, Finland), were investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of the new proposed measure. It was found that raw single-scale PE was blind to subtle transitions between light and deep anesthesia, while the CMSPE index tracked these changes accurately. Around the time of loss of consciousness, CMSPE responded significantly more rapidly than the raw PE, with the absolute slopes of linearly fitted response versus time plots of 0.12 (0.09-0.15) and 0.10 (0.06-0.13), respectively. The prediction probability Pk of 0.86 (0.85-0.88) and 0.85 (0.80-0.86) for CMSPE and raw PE indicated that the CMSPE index correlated well with the underlying anesthetic effect. The correlation coefficient for the comparison between the CMSPE index and RE index of 0.84 (0.80-0.88) was significantly higher than the raw PE index of 0.75 (0.66-0.84). The results show that the CMSPE outperforms the raw single-scale PE in reflecting the sevoflurane drug effect on the central nervous system.

  5. Reversing pathologically increased EEG power by acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation

    PubMed Central

    Adamchic, Ilya; Toth, Timea; Hauptmann, Christian; Tass, Peter Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic Coordinated Reset (CR) neuromodulation is a patterned stimulation with tones adjusted to the patient's dominant tinnitus frequency, which aims at desynchronizing pathological neuronal synchronization. In a recent proof-of-concept study, CR therapy, delivered 4–6 h/day more than 12 weeks, induced a significant clinical improvement along with a significant long-lasting decrease of pathological oscillatory power in the low frequency as well as ? band and an increase of the ? power in a network of tinnitus-related brain areas. As yet, it remains unclear whether CR shifts the brain activity toward physiological levels or whether it induces clinically beneficial, but nonetheless abnormal electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns, for example excessively decreased ? and/or ?. Here, we compared the patients' spontaneous EEG data at baseline as well as after 12 weeks of CR therapy with the spontaneous EEG of healthy controls by means of Brain Electrical Source Analysis source montage and standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography techniques. The relationship between changes in EEG power and clinical scores was investigated using a partial least squares approach. In this way, we show that acoustic CR neuromodulation leads to a normalization of the oscillatory power in the tinnitus-related network of brain areas, most prominently in temporal regions. A positive association was found between the changes in tinnitus severity and the normalization of ? and ? power in the temporal, parietal, and cingulate cortical regions. Our findings demonstrate a widespread CR-induced normalization of EEG power, significantly associated with a reduction of tinnitus severity. PMID:23907785

  6. Methods and utility of EEG-fMRI in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Louis; Chaudhary, Umair Javaid

    2015-01-01

    Brain activity data in general and more specifically in epilepsy can be represented as a matrix that includes measures of electrophysiology, anatomy and behaviour. Each of these sub-matrices has a complex interaction depending upon the brain state i.e., rest, cognition, seizures and interictal periods. This interaction presents significant challenges for interpretation but also potential for developing further insights into individual event types. Successful treatments in epilepsy hinge on unravelling these complexities, and also on the sensitivity and specificity of methods that characterize the nature and localization of underlying physiological and pathological networks. Limitations of pharmacological and surgical treatments call for refinement and elaboration of methods to improve our capability to localise the generators of seizure activity and our understanding of the neurobiology of epilepsy. Simultaneous electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI), by potentially circumventing some of the limitations of EEG in terms of sensitivity, can allow the mapping of haemodynamic networks over the entire brain related to specific spontaneous and triggered epileptic events in humans, and thereby provide new localising information. In this work we review the published literature, and discuss the methods and utility of EEG-fMRI in localising the generators of epileptic activity. We draw on our experience and that of other groups, to summarise the spectrum of information provided by an increasing number of EEG-fMRI case-series, case studies and group studies in patients with epilepsy, for its potential role to elucidate epileptic generators and networks. We conclude that EEG-fMRI provides a multidimensional view that contributes valuable clinical information to localize the epileptic focus with potential important implications for the surgical treatment of some patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, and insights into the resting state and cognitive network dynamics. PMID:25853087

  7. Reversing pathologically increased EEG power by acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Adamchic, Ilya; Toth, Timea; Hauptmann, Christian; Tass, Peter Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Acoustic Coordinated Reset (CR) neuromodulation is a patterned stimulation with tones adjusted to the patient's dominant tinnitus frequency, which aims at desynchronizing pathological neuronal synchronization. In a recent proof-of-concept study, CR therapy, delivered 4-6 h/day more than 12 weeks, induced a significant clinical improvement along with a significant long-lasting decrease of pathological oscillatory power in the low frequency as well as ? band and an increase of the ? power in a network of tinnitus-related brain areas. As yet, it remains unclear whether CR shifts the brain activity toward physiological levels or whether it induces clinically beneficial, but nonetheless abnormal electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns, for example excessively decreased ? and/or ?. Here, we compared the patients' spontaneous EEG data at baseline as well as after 12 weeks of CR therapy with the spontaneous EEG of healthy controls by means of Brain Electrical Source Analysis source montage and standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography techniques. The relationship between changes in EEG power and clinical scores was investigated using a partial least squares approach. In this way, we show that acoustic CR neuromodulation leads to a normalization of the oscillatory power in the tinnitus-related network of brain areas, most prominently in temporal regions. A positive association was found between the changes in tinnitus severity and the normalization of ? and ? power in the temporal, parietal, and cingulate cortical regions. Our findings demonstrate a widespread CR-induced normalization of EEG power, significantly associated with a reduction of tinnitus severity. PMID:23907785

  8. Emotion recognition from EEG using higher order crossings.

    PubMed

    Petrantonakis, Panagiotis C; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2010-03-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based emotion recognition is a relatively new field in the affective computing area with challenging issues regarding the induction of the emotional states and the extraction of the features in order to achieve optimum classification performance. In this paper, a novel emotion evocation and EEG-based feature extraction technique is presented. In particular, the mirror neuron system concept was adapted to efficiently foster emotion induction by the process of imitation. In addition, higher order crossings (HOC) analysis was employed for the feature extraction scheme and a robust classification method, namely HOC-emotion classifier (HOC-EC), was implemented testing four different classifiers [quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), k-nearest neighbor, Mahalanobis distance, and support vector machines (SVMs)], in order to accomplish efficient emotion recognition. Through a series of facial expression image projection, EEG data have been collected by 16 healthy subjects using only 3 EEG channels, namely Fp1, Fp2, and a bipolar channel of F3 and F4 positions according to 10-20 system. Two scenarios were examined using EEG data from a single-channel and from combined-channels, respectively. Compared with other feature extraction methods, HOC-EC appears to outperform them, achieving a 62.3% (using QDA) and 83.33% (using SVM) classification accuracy for the single-channel and combined-channel cases, respectively, differentiating among the six basic emotions, i.e., happiness, surprise, anger, fear, disgust, and sadness. As the emotion class-set reduces its dimension, the HOC-EC converges toward maximum classification rate (100% for five or less emotions), justifying the efficiency of the proposed approach. This could facilitate the integration of HOC-EC in human machine interfaces, such as pervasive healthcare systems, enhancing their affective character and providing information about the user's emotional status (e.g., identifying user's emotion experiences, recurring affective states, time-dependent emotional trends). PMID:19858033

  9. Comparative Analysis of Temporal Dynamics of EEG and Phase Synchronization of EEG to Localize Epileptic Sites from High Density

    E-print Network

    Freeman, Walter J.

    . The SI between a pair of channel was inferred from a statistical tendency to maintain a nearly constant long-term temporal correlations in intracranial EEGs taken during interictal sleep and the locations during sleep was selected and imported into MATLAB for further analysis. The selected data sets were

  10. G-autonomy of EEG recordings of psychotic patients undergoing the primitive expression form of dance therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventouras, E.-C.; Lardi, I.; Dimitriou, S.; Margariti, A.; Chondraki, P.; Kalatzis, I.; Economou, N.-T.; Tsekou, H.; Paparrigopoulos, T.; Ktonas, P. Y.

    2015-09-01

    Primitive expression (PE) is a form of dance therapy (DT) that involves an interaction of ethologically and socially based forms which are supplied for re-enactment. Brain connectivity has been measured in electroencephalographic (EEG) data of patients with schizophrenia undergoing PE DT, using the correlation coefficient and mutual information. These parameters do not measure the existence or absence of directionality in the connectivity. The present study investigates the use of the G-autonomy measure of EEG electrode voltages of the same group of schizophrenic patients. G-autonomy is a measure of the “autonomy” of a system. It indicates the degree by which prediction of the system's future evolution is enhanced by taking into account its own past states, in comparison to predictions based on past states of a set of external variables. In the present research, “own” past states refer to voltage values in the time series recorded at a specific electrode and “external” variables refer to the voltage values recorded at other electrodes. Indication is provided for an acute effect of early-stage PE DT expressed by the augmentation of G-autonomy in the delta rhythm and an acute effect of late- stage PE DT expressed by the reduction of G-autonomy in the theta and alpha rhythms.

  11. Effects of cable car ascent to 2700 meters on mean EEG frequency and event-related desynchronization (ERD).

    PubMed

    Guger, Christoph; Domej, Wolfgang; Lindner, Gerhard; Edlinger, Günter

    2005-04-01

    In the Eastern Alps, the Dachstein massif with a height of almost 3000 m is an ideal location for investigating the effects of changes in altitude on the human body. A cable car allows an ascent within a few minutes to 2700 m, where the partial pressure of oxygen is about 550 mm of mercury compared to 760 mm at sea level. Ten healthy subjects performed a reaction time task at an altitude of 990 m and 2700 m. The subjects were instructed to perform a right hand index finger movement as fast as possible after a green light had flashed. The green light flashed 50 times. Simultaneously to the task, the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. The event-related desynchronization (ERD) analysis of the EEG data showed that changes in alpha ERD values are not significant, but event-related synchronization (ERS) values in the beta band decrease significantly from around 50 % to 10 %. Furthermore, the mean frequency of the beta band increased from 16.68 Hz to 16.81 Hz (p = 0.0019) with the ascent. The suppressed post-movement beta ERS at an altitude of 2700 m may therefore be interpreted as a result of an increased cortical excitability level when compared with the reference altitude of 990 m above sea level. PMID:15966259

  12. Altered characteristic of brain networks in mild cognitive impairment during a selective attention task: An EEG study.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ling; Li, Yingjie; Yang, Xiaoli; Xue, Qing; Wang, Yuping

    2015-10-01

    The present study evaluated the topological properties of whole brain networks using graph theoretical concepts and investigated the time-evolution characteristic of brain network in mild cognitive impairment patients during a selective attention task. Electroencephalography (EEG) activities were recorded in 10 MCI patients and 17 healthy subjects when they performed a color match task. We calculated the phase synchrony index between each possible pairs of EEG channels in alpha and beta frequency bands and analyzed the local interconnectedness, overall connectedness and small-world characteristic of brain network in different degree for two groups. Relative to healthy normal controls, the properties of cortical networks in MCI patients tend to be a shift of randomization. Lower ? of MCI had suggested that patients had a further loss of small-world attribute both during active and resting states. Our results provide evidence for the functional disconnection of brain regions in MCI. Furthermore, we found the properties of cortical networks could reflect the processing of conflict information in the selective attention task. The human brain tends to be a more regular and efficient neural architecture in the late stage of information processing. In addition, the processing of conflict information needs stronger information integration and transfer between cortical areas. PMID:26048737

  13. Variations in EEG coherence as an index of the affective content of dreams from REM sleep: relationships with face imagery.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T A; Chénier, V

    1999-11-01

    EEG coherence was examined in relation to four measures of socioemotional dream content, including a new measure--the proportional representation of a character's face. Twenty-four healthy subjects, recorded for sleep stages and EEG activity, were awakened from REM sleep to report dream mentation and to rate it on these variables. Coherence scores were calculated for homologous interhemispheric electrode pairs (Fp1-Fp2, F3-F4, F7-F8, C3-C4, P3-P4, O1-O2, T3-T4, T5-T6) and for left and right intrahemispheric pairs for delta, theta, alpha, beta1, and beta2 frequencies. These were correlated with the mentation measures. Positive correlations were found between average interhemispheric coherence in most bands and the character face measure. A breakdown by gender revealed that this relationship was most evident for women, whereas for men positive correlations were observed between coherence and negative self-feeling. That similar relationships also obtained for both left and right intrahemispheric coherence is consistent with the hypothesis that dreamed socioemotional interactions reflect the integrative functioning of many brain regions in both hemispheres. PMID:10590819

  14. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  15. Regional differences in cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) slow wave activity and interhemispheric EEG asymmetry in the fur seal.

    PubMed

    Lyamin, Oleg I; Pavlova, Ivetta F; Kosenko, Peter O; Mukhametov, Lev M; Siegel, Jerome M

    2012-12-01

    Slow wave sleep (SWS) in the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) is characterized by a highly expressed interhemispheric electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry, called 'unihemispheric' or 'asymmetrical' SWS. The aim of this study was to examine the regional differences in slow wave activity (SWA; power in the range of 1.2-4.0 Hz) within one hemisphere and differences in the degree of interhemispheric EEG asymmetry within this species. Three seals were implanted with 10 EEG electrodes, positioned bilaterally (five in each hemisphere) over the frontal, occipital and parietal cortex. The expression of interhemispheric SWA asymmetry between symmetrical monopolar recordings was estimated based on the asymmetry index [AI = (L-R)/(L+R), where L and R are the power in the left and right hemispheres, respectively]. Our findings indicate an anterior-posterior gradient in SWA during asymmetrical SWS in fur seals, which is opposite to that described for other mammals, including humans, with a larger SWA recorded in the parietal and occipital cortex. Interhemispheric EEG asymmetry in fur seals was recorded across the entire dorsal cerebral cortex, including sensory (visual and somatosensory), motor and associative (parietal or suprasylvian) cortical areas. The expression of asymmetry was greatest in occipital-lateral and parietal derivations and smallest in frontal-medial derivations. Regardless of regional differences in SWA, the majority (90%) of SWS episodes with interhemispheric EEG asymmetry meet the criteria for 'unihemispheric SWS' (one hemisphere is asleep while the other is awake). The remaining episodes can be described as episodes of bilateral SWS with a local activation in one cerebral hemisphere. PMID:22676149

  16. Automated EEG signal analysis for identification of epilepsy seizures and brain tumour.

    PubMed

    Sharanreddy, M; Kulkarni, P K

    2013-11-01

    Abstract Electroencephalography (EEG) is a clinical test which records neuro-electrical activities generated by brain structures. EEG test results used to monitor brain diseases such as epilepsy seizure, brain tumours, toxic encephalopathies infections and cerebrovascular disorders. Due to the extreme variation in the EEG morphologies, manual analysis of the EEG signal is laborious, time consuming and requires skilled interpreters, who by the nature of the task are prone to subjective judegment and error. Further, manual analysis of the EEG results often fails to detect and uncover subtle features. This paper proposes an automated EEG analysis method by combining digital signal processing and neural network techniques, which will remove error and subjectivity associated with manual analysis and identifies the existence of epilepsy seizure and brain tumour diseases. The system uses multi-wavelet transform for feature extraction in which an input EEG signal is decomposed in a sub-signal. Irregularities and unpredictable fluctuations present in the decomposed signal are measured using approximate entropy. A feed-forward neural network is used to classify the EEG signal as a normal, epilepsy or brain tumour signal. The proposed technique is implemented and tested on data of 500 EEG signals for each disease. Results are promising, with classification accuracy of 98% for normal, 93% for epilepsy and 87% for brain tumour. Along with classification, the paper also highlights the EEG abnormalities associated with brain tumour and epilepsy seizure. PMID:24116656

  17. Electrophysiological correlates of the BOLD signal for EEG-informed fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Murta, Teresa; Leite, Marco; Carmichael, David W; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Lemieux, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are important tools in cognitive and clinical neuroscience. Combined EEG–fMRI has been shown to help to characterise brain networks involved in epileptic activity, as well as in different sensory, motor and cognitive functions. A good understanding of the electrophysiological correlates of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal is necessary to interpret fMRI maps, particularly when obtained in combination with EEG. We review the current understanding of electrophysiological–haemodynamic correlates, during different types of brain activity. We start by describing the basic mechanisms underlying EEG and BOLD signals and proceed by reviewing EEG-informed fMRI studies using fMRI to map specific EEG phenomena over the entire brain (EEG–fMRI mapping), or exploring a range of EEG-derived quantities to determine which best explain colocalised BOLD fluctuations (local EEG–fMRI coupling). While reviewing studies of different forms of brain activity (epileptic and nonepileptic spontaneous activity; cognitive, sensory and motor functions), a significant attention is given to epilepsy because the investigation of its haemodynamic correlates is the most common application of EEG-informed fMRI. Our review is focused on EEG-informed fMRI, an asymmetric approach of data integration. We give special attention to the invasiveness of electrophysiological measurements and the simultaneity of multimodal acquisitions because these methodological aspects determine the nature of the conclusions that can be drawn from EEG-informed fMRI studies. We emphasise the advantages of, and need for, simultaneous intracranial EEG–fMRI studies in humans, which recently became available and hold great potential to improve our understanding of the electrophysiological correlates of BOLD fluctuations. PMID:25277370

  18. Phenotypic mapping and clinical ideology

    SciTech Connect

    Lurie, I.W.; Opitz, J.M.

    1995-07-17

    Scientists have been trying to determine whether the main clinical findings in the 4p deletion syndrome are due to a deletion of one small critical segment, or whether deletions of some particular segments of 4p are responsible for different phenotypic manifestations. This is the basic issue for the whole group of autosomal deletion syndromes, as well as for our understanding of mechanisms of the origin of the abnormal phenotype. All circumstances need to be taken into consideration when trying to apply molecular methods for the mapping of phenotypic findings in the 4p deletion or in any other autosomal deletion syndrome. 8 refs.

  19. EEG-informed fMRI analysis during a hand grip task: estimating the relationship between EEG rhythms and the BOLD signal

    PubMed Central

    Sclocco, Roberta; Tana, Maria G.; Visani, Elisa; Gilioli, Isabella; Panzica, Ferruccio; Franceschetti, Silvana; Cerutti, Sergio; Bianchi, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, an increasing interest has arisen in investigating the relationship between the electrophysiological and hemodynamic measurements of brain activity, such as EEG and (BOLD) fMRI. In particular, changes in BOLD have been shown to be associated with changes in the spectral profile of neural activity, rather than with absolute power. Concurrently, recent findings showed that different EEG rhythms are independently related to changes in the BOLD signal: therefore, it would be also important to distinguish between the contributions of the different EEG rhythms to BOLD fluctuations when modeling the relationship between the two signals. Here we propose a method to perform EEG-informed fMRI analysis where the changes in the spectral profile are modeled, and, at the same time, the distinction between rhythms is preserved. We compared our model with two other frequency-dependent regressors modeling using simultaneous EEG-fMRI data from healthy subjects performing a motor task. Our results showed that the proposed method better captures the correlations between BOLD signal and EEG rhythms modulations, identifying task-related, well localized activated volumes. Furthermore, we showed that including among the regressors also EEG rhythms not primarily involved in the task enhances the performance of the analysis, even when only correlations with BOLD signal and specific EEG rhythms are explored. PMID:24744720

  20. EEG Power Asymmetry and Functional Connectivity as a Marker of Treatment Effectiveness in DBS Surgery for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Quraan, Maher A; Protzner, Andrea B; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Giacobbe, Peter; Tang, Chris W; Kennedy, Sidney H; Lozano, Andres M; McAndrews, Mary P

    2014-01-01

    Recently, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been evaluated as an experimental therapy for treatment-resistant depression. Although there have been encouraging results in open-label trials, about half of the patients fail to achieve meaningful benefit. Although progress has been made in understanding the neurobiology of MDD, the ability to characterize differences in brain dynamics between those who do and do not benefit from DBS is lacking. In this study, we investigated EEG resting-state data recorded from 12 patients that have undergone DBS surgery. Of those, six patients were classified as responders to DBS, defined as an improvement of 50% or more on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17). We compared hemispheric frontal theta and parietal alpha power asymmetry and synchronization asymmetry between responders and non-responders. Hemispheric power asymmetry showed statistically significant differences between responders and non-responders with healthy controls showing an asymmetry similar to responders but opposite to non-responders. This asymmetry was characterized by an increase in frontal theta in the right hemisphere relative to the left combined with an increase in parietal alpha in the left hemisphere relative to the right in non-responders compared with responders. Hemispheric mean synchronization asymmetry showed a statistically significant difference between responders and non-responders in the theta band, with healthy controls showing an asymmetry similar to responders but opposite to non-responders. This asymmetry resulted from an increase in frontal synchronization in the right hemisphere relative to the left combined with an increase in parietal synchronization in the left hemisphere relative to the right in non-responders compared with responders. Connectivity diagrams revealed long-range differences in frontal/central-parietal connectivity between the two groups in the theta band. This pattern was observed irrespective of whether EEG data were collected with active DBS or with the DBS stimulation turned off, suggesting stable functional and possibly structural modifications that may be attributed to plasticity. PMID:24285211

  1. Finding Our Way through Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Deans, Andrew R.; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Huala, Eva; Anzaldo, Salvatore S.; Ashburner, Michael; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Blake, Judith A.; Burleigh, J. Gordon; Chanet, Bruno; Cooper, Laurel D.; Courtot, Mélanie; Csösz, Sándor; Cui, Hong; Dahdul, Wasila; Das, Sandip; Dececchi, T. Alexander; Dettai, Agnes; Diogo, Rui; Druzinsky, Robert E.; Dumontier, Michel; Franz, Nico M.; Friedrich, Frank; Gkoutos, George V.; Haendel, Melissa; Harmon, Luke J.; Hayamizu, Terry F.; He, Yongqun; Hines, Heather M.; Ibrahim, Nizar; Jackson, Laura M.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; James-Zorn, Christina; Köhler, Sebastian; Lecointre, Guillaume; Lapp, Hilmar; Lawrence, Carolyn J.; Le Novère, Nicolas; Lundberg, John G.; Macklin, James; Mast, Austin R.; Midford, Peter E.; Mikó, István; Mungall, Christopher J.; Oellrich, Anika; Osumi-Sutherland, David; Parkinson, Helen; Ramírez, Martín J.; Richter, Stefan; Robinson, Peter N.; Ruttenberg, Alan; Schulz, Katja S.; Segerdell, Erik; Seltmann, Katja C.; Sharkey, Michael J.; Smith, Aaron D.; Smith, Barry; Specht, Chelsea D.; Squires, R. Burke; Thacker, Robert W.; Thessen, Anne; Fernandez-Triana, Jose; Vihinen, Mauno; Vize, Peter D.; Vogt, Lars; Wall, Christine E.; Walls, Ramona L.; Westerfeld, Monte; Wharton, Robert A.; Wirkner, Christian S.; Woolley, James B.; Yoder, Matthew J.; Zorn, Aaron M.; Mabee, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Despite a large and multifaceted effort to understand the vast landscape of phenotypic data, their current form inhibits productive data analysis. The lack of a community-wide, consensus-based, human- and machine-interpretable language for describing phenotypes and their genomic and environmental contexts is perhaps the most pressing scientific bottleneck to integration across many key fields in biology, including genomics, systems biology, development, medicine, evolution, ecology, and systematics. Here we survey the current phenomics landscape, including data resources and handling, and the progress that has been made to accurately capture relevant data descriptions for phenotypes. We present an example of the kind of integration across domains that computable phenotypes would enable, and we call upon the broader biology community, publishers, and relevant funding agencies to support efforts to surmount today's data barriers and facilitate analytical reproducibility. PMID:25562316

  2. Finding our way through phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Deans, Andrew R; Lewis, Suzanna E; Huala, Eva; Anzaldo, Salvatore S; Ashburner, Michael; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Blake, Judith A; Burleigh, J Gordon; Chanet, Bruno; Cooper, Laurel D; Courtot, Mélanie; Csösz, Sándor; Cui, Hong; Dahdul, Wasila; Das, Sandip; Dececchi, T Alexander; Dettai, Agnes; Diogo, Rui; Druzinsky, Robert E; Dumontier, Michel; Franz, Nico M; Friedrich, Frank; Gkoutos, George V; Haendel, Melissa; Harmon, Luke J; Hayamizu, Terry F; He, Yongqun; Hines, Heather M; Ibrahim, Nizar; Jackson, Laura M; Jaiswal, Pankaj; James-Zorn, Christina; Köhler, Sebastian; Lecointre, Guillaume; Lapp, Hilmar; Lawrence, Carolyn J; Le Novère, Nicolas; Lundberg, John G; Macklin, James; Mast, Austin R; Midford, Peter E; Mikó, István; Mungall, Christopher J; Oellrich, Anika; Osumi-Sutherland, David; Parkinson, Helen; Ramírez, Martín J; Richter, Stefan; Robinson, Peter N; Ruttenberg, Alan; Schulz, Katja S; Segerdell, Erik; Seltmann, Katja C; Sharkey, Michael J; Smith, Aaron D; Smith, Barry; Specht, Chelsea D; Squires, R Burke; Thacker, Robert W; Thessen, Anne; Fernandez-Triana, Jose; Vihinen, Mauno; Vize, Peter D; Vogt, Lars; Wall, Christine E; Walls, Ramona L; Westerfeld, Monte; Wharton, Robert A; Wirkner, Christian S; Woolley, James B; Yoder, Matthew J; Zorn, Aaron M; Mabee, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Despite a large and multifaceted effort to understand the vast landscape of phenotypic data, their current form inhibits productive data analysis. The lack of a community-wide, consensus-based, human- and machine-interpretable language for describing phenotypes and their genomic and environmental contexts is perhaps the most pressing scientific bottleneck to integration across many key fields in biology, including genomics, systems biology, development, medicine, evolution, ecology, and systematics. Here we survey the current phenomics landscape, including data resources and handling, and the progress that has been made to accurately capture relevant data descriptions for phenotypes. We present an example of the kind of integration across domains that computable phenotypes would enable, and we call upon the broader biology community, publishers, and relevant funding agencies to support efforts to surmount today's data barriers and facilitate analytical reproducibility. PMID:25562316

  3. Dynamic peripheral visual performance relates to alpha activity in soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Wenya; Migotina, Daria; Wan, Feng; Lou, Chin Ian; Rodrigues, João; Semedo, João; Vai, Mang I; Pereira, Jose Gomes; Melicio, Fernando; Da Rosa, Agostinho C.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the relationship between the alpha activity and the central visual ability, in which the visual ability is usually assessed through static stimuli. Besides static circumstance, however in the real environment there are often dynamic changes and the peripheral visual ability in a dynamic environment (i.e., dynamic peripheral visual ability) is important for all people. So far, no work has reported whether there is a relationship between the dynamic peripheral visual ability and the alpha activity. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate their relationship. Sixty-two soccer players performed a newly designed peripheral vision task in which the visual stimuli were dynamic, while their EEG signals were recorded from Cz, O1, and O2 locations. The relationship between the dynamic peripheral visual performance and the alpha activity was examined by the percentage-bend correlation test. The results indicated no significant correlation between the dynamic peripheral visual performance and the alpha amplitudes in the eyes-open and eyes-closed resting condition. However, it was not the case for the alpha activity during the peripheral vision task: the dynamic peripheral visual performance showed significant positive inter-individual correlations with the amplitudes in the alpha band (8–12 Hz) and the individual alpha band (IAB) during the peripheral vision task. A potential application of this finding is to improve the dynamic peripheral visual performance by up-regulating alpha activity using neuromodulation techniques. PMID:25426058

  4. Alpha spindles as neurophysiological correlates indicating attentional shift in a simulated driving task.

    PubMed

    Sonnleitner, Andreas; Simon, Michael; Kincses, Wilhelm E; Buchner, Axel; Schrauf, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to describe neurophysiological correlates of driver distraction with highly robust parameters in the EEG (i.e. alpha spindles). In a simulated driving task with two different secondary tasks (i.e. visuomotor, auditory), N=28 participants had to perform full stop brakes reacting to appearing stop signs and red traffic lights. Alpha spindle rate was significantly higher during an auditory secondary task and significantly lower during a visuomotor secondary task as compared to driving only. Alpha spindle duration was significantly shortened during a visuomotor secondary task. The results are consistent with the assumption that alpha spindles indicate active inhibition of visual information processing. Effects on the alpha spindles while performing secondary tasks on top of the driving task indicate attentional shift according to the task modality. As compared to alpha band power, both the measures of alpha spindle rate and alpha spindle duration were less vulnerable to artifacts and the effect sizes were larger, allowing for a more accurate description of the current driver state. PMID:22094045

  5. Development of grouped icEEG for the study of cognitive processing

    PubMed Central

    Kadipasaoglu, Cihan M.; Forseth, Kiefer; Whaley, Meagan; Conner, Christopher R.; Rollo, Matthew J.; Baboyan, Vatche G.; Tandon, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Invasive intracranial EEG (icEEG) offers a unique opportunity to study human cognitive networks at an unmatched spatiotemporal resolution. To date, the contributions of icEEG have been limited to the individual-level analyses or cohorts whose data are not integrated in any way. Here we discuss how grouped approaches to icEEG overcome challenges related to sparse-sampling, correct for individual variations in response and provide statistically valid models of brain activity in a population. By the generation of whole-brain activity maps, grouped icEEG enables the study of intra and interregional dynamics between distributed cortical substrates exhibiting task-dependent activity. In this fashion, grouped icEEG analyses can provide significant advances in understanding the mechanisms by which cortical networks give rise to cognitive functions. PMID:26257673

  6. The use of single-electrode wireless EEG in biobehavioral investigations.

    PubMed

    Poltavski, Dmitri V

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to introduce novice and intermediate EEG researchers to a convenient and user-friendly EEG system from NeuroSky, Inc. In our recent study we were interested in changes in the frontal cortical EEG activity of healthy adults as a function of accommodative stress during performance of a sustained attention task. We used a commercially available low-cost wireless EEG device from NeuroSky (MindSet), which has a single active Fp1 dry electrode capable of recording research-grade EEG coupled with powerful noise-filtering and data software support. The convenience and ease-of-use of MindSet is further enhanced with validated eSense meters of Attention and Meditation. In this chapter we also provide additional data analytic support for EEG power spectrum using SPSS syntax commonly used in many biobehavioral sciences. PMID:25626552

  7. EEG sLORETA functional imaging during hypnotic arm levitation and voluntary arm lifting.

    PubMed

    Cardeña, Etzel; Lehmann, Dietrich; Faber, Pascal L; Jönsson, Peter; Milz, Patricia; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Kochi, Kieko

    2012-01-01

    This study (N = 37 with high, medium, and low hypnotizables) evaluated depth reports and EEG activity during both voluntary and hypnotically induced left-arm lifting with sLORETA functional neuroimaging. The hypnotic condition was associated with higher activity in fast EEG frequencies in anterior regions and slow EEG frequencies in central-parietal regions, all left-sided. The voluntary condition was associated with fast frequency activity in right-hemisphere central-parietal regions and slow frequency activity in left anterior regions. Hypnotizability did not have a significant effect on EEG activity, but hypnotic depth correlated with left hemisphere increased anterior slow EEG and decreased central fast EEG activity. Hypnosis had a minimal effect on depth reports among lows, a moderate one among mediums, and a large one among highs. Because only left-arm data were available, the full role of the hemispheres remains to be clarified. PMID:22098568

  8. Functional Cortical Network in Alpha Band Correlates with Social Bargaining

    PubMed Central

    Billeke, Pablo; Zamorano, Francisco; Chavez, Mario; Cosmelli, Diego; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Solving demanding tasks requires fast and flexible coordination among different brain areas. Everyday examples of this are the social dilemmas in which goals tend to clash, requiring one to weigh alternative courses of action in limited time. In spite of this fact, there are few studies that directly address the dynamics of flexible brain network integration during social interaction. To study the preceding, we carried out EEG recordings while subjects played a repeated version of the Ultimatum Game in both human (social) and computer (non-social) conditions. We found phase synchrony (inter-site-phase-clustering) modulation in alpha band that was specific to the human condition and independent of power modulation. The strength and patterns of the inter-site-phase-clustering of the cortical networks were also modulated, and these modulations were mainly in frontal and parietal regions. Moreover, changes in the individuals’ alpha network structure correlated with the risk of the offers made only in social conditions. This correlation was independent of changes in power and inter-site-phase-clustering strength. Our results indicate that, when subjects believe they are participating in a social interaction, a specific modulation of functional cortical networks in alpha band takes place, suggesting that phase synchrony of alpha oscillations could serve as a mechanism by which different brain areas flexibly interact in order to adapt ongoing behavior in socially demanding contexts. PMID:25286240

  9. Normal aging selectively diminishes alpha lateralization in visual spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiangfei; Sun, Junfeng; Bengson, Jesse J; Mangun, George R; Tong, Shanbao

    2015-02-01

    EEG studies of cue-induced visual alpha power (8-13 Hz) lateralization have been conducted on young adults without examining differences that may develop as a consequence of normal aging. Here, we examined age-related differences in spatial attention by comparing healthy older and younger adults. Our key finding is that cue-induced alpha power lateralization was observed in younger, but not older adults, even though both groups exhibited classic event-related potential signatures of spatial orienting. Specifically, both younger and older adults showed significant early directing-attention negativity (EDAN), anterior directing-attention negativity (ADAN), late directing-attention positivity (LDAP) and contingent negative variation (CNV). Furthermore, target-evoked sensory components were enhanced for attended relative to unattended targets in both younger and older groups. This pattern of results suggests that although older adults can successfully allocate spatial attention, they do so without the lateralization of alpha power that is commonly observed in younger adults. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that younger and older adults might engage different neural mechanisms for attentional orienting, and that alpha power lateralization during visual spatial attention is a phenomenon that diminishes during normal aging. PMID:25463457

  10. EEG and eye-tracking based measures for enhanced training.

    PubMed

    Soussou, Walid; Rooksby, Michael; Forty, Charles; Weatherhead, James; Marshall, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a project whose goal was to establish the feasibility of using unobtrusive cognitive assessment methodologies in order to optimize efficiency and expediency of training. QUASAR, EyeTracking, Inc. (ETI), and Safe Passage International (SPI), teamed to demonstrate correlation between EEG and eye-tracking based cognitive workload, performance assessment and subject expertise on X-Ray screening tasks. Results indicate significant correlation between cognitive workload metrics based on EEG and eye-tracking measurements recorded during a simulated baggage screening task and subject expertise and error rates in that same task. These results suggest that cognitive monitoring could be useful in improving training efficiency by enabling training paradigms that adapts to increasing expertise. PMID:23366217

  11. Real-Time EEG-Based Happiness Detection System

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We propose to use real-time EEG signal to classify happy and unhappy emotions elicited by pictures and classical music. We use PSD as a feature and SVM as a classifier. The average accuracies of subject-dependent model and subject-independent model are approximately 75.62% and 65.12%, respectively. Considering each pair of channels, temporal pair of channels (T7 and T8) gives a better result than the other area. Considering different frequency bands, high-frequency bands (Beta and Gamma) give a better result than low-frequency bands. Considering different time durations for emotion elicitation, that result from 30 seconds does not have significant difference compared with the result from 60 seconds. From all of these results, we implement real-time EEG-based happiness detection system using only one pair of channels. Furthermore, we develop games based on the happiness detection system to help user recognize and control the happiness. PMID:24023532

  12. Classification of EEG for Affect Recognition: An Adaptive Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzoubi, Omar; Calvo, Rafael A.; Stevens, Ronald H.

    Research on affective computing is growing rapidly and new applications are being developed more frequently. They use information about the affective/mental states of users to adapt their interfaces or add new functionalities. Face activity, voice, text physiology and other information about the user are used as input to affect recognition modules, which are built as classification algorithms. Brain EEG signals have rarely been used to build such classifiers due to the lack of a clear theoretical framework. We present here an evaluation of three different classification techniques and their adaptive variations of a 10-class emotion recognition experiment. Our results show that affect recognition from EEG signals might be possible and an adaptive algorithm improves the performance of the classification task.

  13. MNE software for processing MEG and EEG data

    PubMed Central

    Gramfort, A.; Luessi, M.; Larson, E.; Engemann, D.; Strohmeier, D.; Brodbeck, C.; Parkkonen, L.; Hämäläinen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography (M/EEG) measure the weak electromagnetic signals originating from neural currents in the brain. Using these signals to characterize and locate brain activity is a challenging task, as evidenced by several decades of methodological contributions. MNE, whose name stems from its capability to compute cortically-constrained minimum-norm current estimates from M/EEG data, is a software package that provides comprehensive analysis tools and workflows including preprocessing, source estimation, time–frequency analysis, statistical analysis, and several methods to estimate functional connectivity between distributed brain regions. The present paper gives detailed information about the MNE package and describes typical use cases while also warning about potential caveats in analysis. The MNE package is a collaborative effort of multiple institutes striving to implement and share best methods and to facilitate distribution of analysis pipelines to advance reproducibility of research. Full documentation is available at http://martinos.org/mne. PMID:24161808

  14. Developmental Profiles of Infant EEG: Overlap with Transient Cortical Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M.M.; Grieve, P.G.; Izraelit, A.; Fifer, W.P.; Isler, J.R.; Darnall, R.A.; Stark, R.I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To quantify spectral power in frequency specific bands and commonly observed types of bursting activities in the EEG during early human development. Methods An extensive archive of EEG data from human infants from 35 to 52 weeks postmenstrual age obtained in a prior multi-center study was analyzed using power spectrum analyses and a high frequency burst detection algorithm. Results Low frequency power increased with age; however, high frequency power decreased from 35 to 45 weeks. This unexpected decrease was largely attributable to a rapid decline in the number of high frequency bursts. Conclusions The decline in high frequency bursting activity overlaps with a developmental shift in GABA's actions on neurons from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing and the dissolution of the gap junction circuitry of the cortical subplate. PMID:22341979

  15. Cytokine therapeutics: lessons from interferon alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Gutterman, J U

    1994-01-01

    Cytokines are soluble proteins that allow for communication between cells and the external environment. Interferon (IFN) alpha, the first cytokine to be produced by recombinant DNA technology, has emerged as an important regulator of growth and differentiation, affecting cellular communication and signal transduction pathways as well as immunological control. This review focuses on the biological and clinical activities of the cytokine. Originally discovered as an antiviral substance, the efficacy of IFN-alpha in malignant, viral, immunological, angiogenic, inflammatory, and fibrotic diseases suggests a spectrum of interrelated pathophysiologies. The principles learned from in vivo studies will be discussed, particularly hairy cell leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, certain angiogenic diseases, and hepatitis. After the surprising discovery of activity in a rare B-cell neoplasm, IFN-alpha emerged as a prototypic tumor suppressor protein that represses the clinical tumorigenic phenotype in some malignancies capable of differentiation. Regulatory agencies throughout the world have approved IFN-alpha for treatment of 13 malignant and viral disorders. The principles established with this cytokine serve as a paradigm for future development of natural proteins for human disease. PMID:8108387

  16. Non-epileptic clinical diagnoses in children referred for an outpatient EEG using video monitoring.

    PubMed

    Apakama, Okwuchi; Appleton, Richard

    2006-06-01

    Simultaneous video (closed circuit television [CCTV]) and EEG recordings are important in the differentiation of epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysmal episodes and in the classification of epilepsy syndromes. An additional benefit from the observation of the child on CCTV is the possible identification of specific clinical, including genetic, conditions. This three-year prospective study of 2780 consecutive children undergoing routine EEG investigations identified 17 conditions that had not previously been diagnosed by the clinicians who had requested the EEG. PMID:16793578

  17. [Emergency indications of EEG in the situation of a head injury in children and adults].

    PubMed

    Farnarier, G

    1998-05-01

    After initial loss of consciousness following brain injury, background EEG may show slowing and posterior slow waves are observed, consistent with the existence of commotio cerebri, particularly in children. However, discrepancies between cerebral electrogenesis and the clinical condition may also persist for several weeks. As EEG is correlated with the stage of posttraumatic coma, its reactivity to stimuli is of value. While important EEG impairment with paroxysmal abnormalities is frequent in children, the patients' outcome is poorly correlated with initial EEG record. In intensive care units, the use of continuous digitized EEG techniques has opened new avenues. Though in case of mild risks, EEG and clinical follow-up may be sufficient after brain injury, EEG recording is recommended when computerized tomography (CT-scan) is normal in case of severe risks. When consciousness impairment is unexplained by the importance of the brain injury, emergency CT-scan is recommended, searching for intracranial hematoma. If CT-scan proves to be normal EEG should then be recorded, searching for local injury. EEG may uncover non-convulsive status epilepticus, mainly in elderly patients. In case of early seizures, EEG recording should be done within the first 24 hours following brain injury. In the post-ictal period, EEG should be recorded in emergency in case of confusional state lasting more than 30 minutes, as potential non-convulsive status epilepticus should not be underestimated. EEG is not of good predictive value for posttraumatic epilepsy; however, the existence of paroxysmal, local abnormalities is a risk factor. Recording of abnormalities may be useful for the medico-legal expert. PMID:9622805

  18. Contribution of EEG/fMRI to the definition of the epileptic focus

    PubMed Central

    Pittau, Francesca; Dubeau, François

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the clinical relevance of EEG/fMRI in patients with focal epilepsy, by assessing the information it adds to the scalp EEG in the definition of the epileptic focus. Methods: Forty-three patients with focal epilepsy were studied with EEG/fMRI using a 3-T scanner. Blood oxygen level?dependent (BOLD) signal changes related to interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) were classified as concordant or not concordant with the scalp EEG spike field and as contributory if the BOLD signal provided additional information to the scalp EEG about the epileptic focus or not contributory if it did not. We considered patients having intracerebral EEG or a focal lesion on MRI as having independent validation. Results: Thirty-three patients had at least 3 IEDs during the EEG/fMRI acquisition (active EEG), and all had a BOLD response. In 29 of 33 (88%) patients, the BOLD response was concordant, and in 21 of 33 (64%) patients, the BOLD response was contributory. Fourteen patients had an independent validation: in 12 of these 14, the BOLD responses were validated and in 2 they were invalidated. Conclusions: A BOLD response was present in all patients with active EEG, and more specific localization of the epileptic focus was gained from EEG/fMRI in half of the patients who were scanned, when compared with scalp EEG alone. This study demonstrates that EEG/fMRI, in the context of a clinical practice, may contribute to the localization of the interictal epileptic generator in patients with focal epilepsy. PMID:22539574

  19. [Developmental dysphasia and epileptiform EEG activity in children.

    PubMed

    Zavadenko, N N; Kozlova, E V; Shchederkina, I O; Trepilets, V M; Trepilets, S V; Kholin, A A

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To study the electrical activity of the brain in children with developmental dysphasia (alalia). Material and methods. We analyzed the EEGs of 65 children with developmental dysphasia, including 48 boys and 17 girls, aged from 3 to 4 years 11 months. General speech underdevelopment (GSU) of the 1st level (with active vocabulary less than 15-20 words) was found in 31 children and GSU of the 2nd level (with active vocabulary of 20-50 words) - in 34 children. To specify the changes in the brain electrical activity, we conducted video-EEG-monitoring during sleep and waking states in 27 patients. Results. Focal epileptiform EEG changes with no concomitant paroxysmal symptoms were recorded in 12,3% of children with dysphasia. The epileptiform activity was more frequent in GSU of the 1st level (5 (16.1%) patients) than in GSU of the 2nd level (3 (8.8%) patients). Benign epileptiform discharges of childhood with low index were identified in 2 (6,5%) children with GSU of the 1st level and in1 (2,9%) child with GSU of the 2nd level; low index spike-waves were recorded in 3 (9,7%) children with GSU of the 1st level and in 2 (5,9%) with GSU of the 2nd level. Conclusion. The data allow to clarify the frequency of epileptiform EEG activity in those children with developmental dysphasia, who do not have autism or history of seizures. The differential diagnosis with rare epileptic encephalopathies is needed, such as epilepsy with electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep (ESES) and Landau-Kleffner syndrome. PMID:24874331

  20. Toward a direct measure of video quality perception using EEG.

    PubMed

    Scholler, Simon; Bosse, Sebastian; Treder, Matthias Sebastian; Blankertz, Benjamin; Curio, Gabriel; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Wiegand, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    An approach to the direct measurement of perception of video quality change using electroencephalography (EEG) is presented. Subjects viewed 8-s video clips while their brain activity was registered using EEG. The video signal was either uncompressed at full length or changed from uncompressed to a lower quality level at a random time point. The distortions were introduced by a hybrid video codec. Subjects had to indicate whether they had perceived a quality change. In response to a quality change, a positive voltage change in EEG (the so-called P3 component) was observed at latency of about 400-600 ms for all subjects. The voltage change positively correlated with the magnitude of the video quality change, substantiating the P3 component as a graded neural index of the perception of video quality change within the presented paradigm. By applying machine learning techniques, we could classify on a single-trial basis whether a subject perceived a quality change. Interestingly, some video clips wherein changes were missed (i.e., not reported) by the subject were classified as quality changes, suggesting that the brain detected a change, although the subject did not press a button. In conclusion, abrupt changes of video quality give rise to specific components in the EEG that can be detected on a single-trial basis. Potentially, a neurotechnological approach to video assessment could lead to a more objective quantification of quality change detection, overcoming the limitations of subjective approaches (such as subjective bias and the requirement of an overt response). Furthermore, it allows for real-time applications wherein the brain response to a video clip is monitored while it is being viewed. PMID:22345537

  1. Anatomically Accurate Infant Head Models for EEG Source Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jasmine; Turovets, Sergei; Govyadinov, Pavel; Mattson, Chelsea; Luu, Phan; Smith, Kirk; Prior, Fred; Larson-Prior, Linda; Tucker, Don M.

    2013-04-01

    Children differ from adults in head size, skull morphology, and tissue conductivity. We conducted a simulation to examine the error of source localization when a rescaled adult head model and different skull conductivities are used for EEG source localization in children. We have proven by simulation that source localization accuracy is the best with an infant specific head model including the age specific skull structure and conductivity.

  2. EEG and functional ultrasound imaging in mobile rats.

    PubMed

    Sieu, Lim-Anna; Bergel, Antoine; Tiran, Elodie; Deffieux, Thomas; Pernot, Mathieu; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickaël; Cohen, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    We developed an integrated experimental framework that extends the brain exploration capabilities of functional ultrasound imaging to awake and mobile rats. In addition to acquiring hemodynamic data, this method further allows parallel access to electroencephalography (EEG) recordings of neuronal activity. We illustrate this approach with two proofs of concept: a behavioral study on theta rhythm activation in a maze running task and a disease-related study on spontaneous epileptic seizures. PMID:26237228

  3. Contrasting losses and gains increases the predictability of behavior by frontal EEG asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Telpaz, Ariel; Yechiam, Eldad

    2014-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry measured at rest using EEG is considered a stable marker of approach-avoidance behaviors and risk taking. We examined whether without salient cues of attention in the form of losses, predictability is reduced. Fifty-seven participants performed an experiential decision task in a gain-only, loss-only, and mixed (gains and losses) condition. Increased risk taking on the part of individuals with relatively high left frontal activation, as denoted by the Alpha band, was only observed in the task involving both gains and losses. Event-related potential analysis sheds light on the processes leading to this pattern. Left-frontal dominant individuals had increased fronto-central P300 activation following risky compared to safe outcomes, while right-frontal dominant individuals did not show a P300 difference following safe and risky outcomes. This interaction also only emerged when losses were contrasted with gains. The findings highlight the sensitivity of behavioral predictability to cues of valence. PMID:24817845

  4. Contrasting losses and gains increases the predictability of behavior by frontal EEG asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Telpaz, Ariel; Yechiam, Eldad

    2014-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry measured at rest using EEG is considered a stable marker of approach-avoidance behaviors and risk taking. We examined whether without salient cues of attention in the form of losses, predictability is reduced. Fifty-seven participants performed an experiential decision task in a gain-only, loss-only, and mixed (gains and losses) condition. Increased risk taking on the part of individuals with relatively high left frontal activation, as denoted by the Alpha band, was only observed in the task involving both gains and losses. Event-related potential analysis sheds light on the processes leading to this pattern. Left-frontal dominant individuals had increased fronto-central P300 activation following risky compared to safe outcomes, while right-frontal dominant individuals did not show a P300 difference following safe and risky outcomes. This interaction also only emerged when losses were contrasted with gains. The findings highlight the sensitivity of behavioral predictability to cues of valence. PMID:24817845

  5. Estimating workload using EEG spectral power and ERPs in the n-back task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; van Erp, Jan B. F.; Heffelaar, Tobias; Zimmerman, Patrick H.; Oostenveld, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies indicate that both electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power (in particular the alpha and theta band) and event-related potentials (ERPs) (in particular the P300) can be used as a measure of mental work or memory load. We compare their ability to estimate workload level in a well-controlled task. In addition, we combine both types of measures in a single classification model to examine whether this results in higher classification accuracy than either one alone. Participants watched a sequence of visually presented letters and indicated whether or not the current letter was the same as the one (n instances) before. Workload was varied by varying n. We developed different classification models using ERP features, frequency power features or a combination (fusion). Training and testing of the models simulated an online workload estimation situation. All our ERP, power and fusion models provide classification accuracies between 80% and 90% when distinguishing between the highest and the lowest workload condition after 2 min. For 32 out of 35 participants, classification was significantly higher than chance level after 2.5 s (or one letter) as estimated by the fusion model. Differences between the models are rather small, though the fusion model performs better than the other models when only short data segments are available for estimating workload.

  6. Aging and sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects: An EEG study in arithmetic problem solving.

    PubMed

    Hinault, Thomas; Lemaire, Patrick; Phillips, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated age-related differences in electrophysiological signatures of sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects. Sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects refer to decreased poorer strategy effects (i.e., poorer performance when the cued strategy is not the best) on current problem following poorer strategy problems compared to after better strategy problems. Analyses on electrophysiological (EEG) data revealed important age-related changes in time, frequency, and coherence of brain activities underlying sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects. More specifically, sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects were associated with earlier and later time windows (i.e., between 200- and 550ms and between 850- and 1250ms). Event-related potentials (ERPs) also revealed an earlier onset in older adults, together with more anterior and less lateralized activations. Furthermore, sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects were associated with theta and alpha frequencies in young adults while these modulations were found in delta frequency and theta inter-hemispheric coherence in older adults, consistent with qualitatively distinct patterns of brain activity. These findings have important implications to further our understanding of age-related differences and similarities in sequential modulations of cognitive control processes during arithmetic strategy execution. PMID:26592776

  7. Brain activity and medical diagnosis: an EEG study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite new brain imaging techniques that have improved the study of the underlying processes of human decision-making, to the best of our knowledge, there have been very few studies that have attempted to investigate brain activity during medical diagnostic processing. We investigated brain electroencephalography (EEG) activity associated with diagnostic decision-making in the realm of veterinary medicine using X-rays as a fundamental auxiliary test. EEG signals were analysed using Principal Components (PCA) and Logistic Regression Analysis Results The principal component analysis revealed three patterns that accounted for 85% of the total variance in the EEG activity recorded while veterinary doctors read a clinical history, examined an X-ray image pertinent to a medical case, and selected among alternative diagnostic hypotheses. Two of these patterns are proposed to be associated with visual processing and the executive control of the task. The other two patterns are proposed to be related to the reasoning process that occurs during diagnostic decision-making. Conclusions PCA analysis was successful in disclosing the different patterns of brain activity associated with hypothesis triggering and handling (pattern P1); identification uncertainty and prevalence assessment (pattern P3), and hypothesis plausibility calculation (pattern P2); Logistic regression analysis was successful in disclosing the brain activity associated with clinical reasoning success, and together with regression analysis showed that clinical practice reorganizes the neural circuits supporting clinical reasoning. PMID:24083668

  8. The surface Laplacian technique in EEG: Theory and methods.

    PubMed

    Carvalhaes, Claudio; de Barros, J Acacio

    2015-09-01

    This paper reviews the method of surface Laplacian differentiation to study EEG. We focus on topics that are helpful for a clear understanding of the underlying concepts and its efficient implementation, which is especially important for EEG researchers unfamiliar with the technique. The popular methods of finite difference and splines are reviewed in detail. The former has the advantage of simplicity and low computational cost, but its estimates are prone to a variety of errors due to discretization. The latter eliminates all issues related to discretization and incorporates a regularization mechanism to reduce spatial noise, but at the cost of increasing mathematical and computational complexity. These and several other issues deserving further development are highlighted, some of which we address to the extent possible. Here we develop a set of discrete approximations for Laplacian estimates at peripheral electrodes. We also provide the mathematical details of finite difference approximations that are missing in the literature, and discuss the problem of computational performance, which is particularly important in the context of EEG splines where data sets can be very large. Along this line, the matrix representation of the surface Laplacian operator is carefully discussed and some figures are given illustrating the advantages of this approach. In the final remarks, we briefly sketch a possible way to incorporate finite-size electrodes into Laplacian estimates that could guide further developments. PMID:25962714

  9. EEG and MEG Data Analysis in SPM8

    PubMed Central

    Litvak, Vladimir; Mattout, Jérémie; Kiebel, Stefan; Phillips, Christophe; Henson, Richard; Kilner, James; Barnes, Gareth; Oostenveld, Robert; Daunizeau, Jean; Flandin, Guillaume; Penny, Will; Friston, Karl

    2011-01-01

    SPM is a free and open source software written in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.). In addition to standard M/EEG preprocessing, we presently offer three main analysis tools: (i) statistical analysis of scalp-maps, time-frequency images, and volumetric 3D source reconstruction images based on the general linear model, with correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory; (ii) Bayesian M/EEG source reconstruction, including support for group studies, simultaneous EEG and MEG, and fMRI priors; (iii) dynamic causal modelling (DCM), an approach combining neural modelling with data analysis for which there are several variants dealing with evoked responses, steady state responses (power spectra and cross-spectra), induced responses, and phase coupling. SPM8 is integrated with the FieldTrip toolbox , making it possible for users to combine a variety of standard analysis methods with new schemes implemented in SPM and build custom analysis tools using powerful graphical user interface (GUI) and batching tools. PMID:21437221

  10. Brain connectivity at different time-scales measured with EEG

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, T; Studer, D; Hubl, D; Melie, L; Strik, W.K

    2005-01-01

    We present an overview of different methods for decomposing a multichannel spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) into sets of temporal patterns and topographic distributions. All of the methods presented here consider the scalp electric field as the basic analysis entity in space. In time, the resolution of the methods is between milliseconds (time-domain analysis), subseconds (time- and frequency-domain analysis) and seconds (frequency-domain analysis). For any of these methods, we show that large parts of the data can be explained by a small number of topographic distributions. Physically, this implies that the brain regions that generated one of those topographies must have been active with a common phase. If several brain regions are producing EEG signals at the same time and frequency, they have a strong tendency to do this in a synchronized mode. This view is illustrated by several examples (including combined EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)) and a selective review of the literature. The findings are discussed in terms of short-lasting binding between different brain regions through synchronized oscillations, which could constitute a mechanism to form transient, functional neurocognitive networks. PMID:16087445

  11. Functional Connectivity of EEG Signals Under Laser Stimulation in Migraine

    PubMed Central

    de Tommaso, Marina; Trotta, Gabriele; Vecchio, Eleonora; Ricci, Katia; Van de Steen, Frederik; Montemurno, Anna; Lorenzo, Marta; Marinazzo, Daniele; Bellotti, Roberto; Stramaglia, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, migraine patients showed abnormalities in pain-related evoked responses, as reduced habituation to repetitive stimulation. In this study, we aimed to apply a novel analysis of EEG bands synchronization and directed dynamical influences under painful stimuli in migraine patients compared to non-migraine healthy volunteers. Thirty-one migraine without aura outpatients (MIGR) were evaluated and compared to 19 controls (CONT). The right hand was stimulated by means of 30 consecutive CO2 laser stimuli. EEG signal was examined by means of Morlet wavelet, synchronization entropy (SE), and Granger causality (GC), and the statistically validated results were mapped on the corresponding scalp locations. The vertex complex of averaged laser-evoked responses (LEPs) showed reduced habituation compared to CONT. In the prestimulus phase, enhanced SE in the 0, 5–30?Hz range was present in MIGR and CONT between the bilateral temporal–parietal and the frontal regions around the midline. Migraine patients showed an anticipation of EEG changes preceding the painful stimulation compared to CONT. In the poststimulus phase, the same cortical areas were more connected in MIGR vs CONT. In both groups of patients and CONT, the habituation index was negatively correlated with the GC scores. A different pattern of cortical activation after painful stimulation was present in migraine. The increase in cortical connections during repetitive painful stimulation may subtend the phenomenon of LEPs reduced habituation. Brain network analysis may give an aid in understanding subtle changes of pain processing under laser stimuli in migraine patients. PMID:26635589

  12. Efficient resting-state EEG network facilitates motor imagery performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Yao, Dezhong; Valdés-Sosa, Pedro A.; Li, Fali; Li, Peiyang; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Teng; Li, Yongjie; Xu, Peng

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Motor imagery-based brain–computer interface (MI-BCI) systems hold promise in motor function rehabilitation and assistance for motor function impaired people. But the ability to operate an MI-BCI varies across subjects, which becomes a substantial problem for practical BCI applications beyond the laboratory. Approach. Several previous studies have demonstrated that individual MI-BCI performance is related to the resting state of brain. In this study, we further investigate offline MI-BCI performance variations through the perspective of resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) network. Main results. Spatial topologies and statistical measures of the network have close relationships with MI classification accuracy. Specifically, mean functional connectivity, node degrees, edge strengths, clustering coefficient, local efficiency and global efficiency are positively correlated with MI classification accuracy, whereas the characteristic path length is negatively correlated with MI classification accuracy. The above results indicate that an efficient background EEG network may facilitate MI-BCI performance. Finally, a multiple linear regression model was adopted to predict subjects’ MI classification accuracy based on the efficiency measures of the resting-state EEG network, resulting in a reliable prediction. Significance. This study reveals the network mechanisms of the MI-BCI and may help to find new strategies for improving MI-BCI performance.

  13. Sleep and EEG features in genetic models of Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Colas, Damien; Valletta, Janice S.; Takimoto-Kimura, Ryoko; Nishino, Seiji; Fujiki, Nobuhiro; Mobley, William C.; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is characterized by a host of behavioral abnormalities including sleep disturbances. Sleep and EEG was studied at the age of 3 months in two mouse models of the condition, Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje, carrying one extra copy of partially overlapping segments of the mmu chromosome 16 (equivalent to the human chromosome 21). We found that the Ts65Dn mice showed increased waking amounts at the expense of non-REM sleep, increased theta power during sleep and a delayed sleep rebound after sleep deprivation. In contrast, Ts1Cje had limited sleep and EEG abnormalities, showing only a delayed sleep rebound after sleep deprivation and no difference in theta power. We previously found that mice over-expressing the human APPwt transgene, a gene triplicated in Ts65Dn but not Ts1Cje, also show increased wake and theta power during sleep. These results demonstrate abnormalities in sleep and EEG in Ts65Dn mice and underscore a possible correlation between App overexpression and hippocampal theta oscillations. PMID:18282758

  14. Study of EEG during Sternberg Tasks with Different Direction of Arrangement for Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamihoriuchi, Kenji; Nuruki, Atsuo; Matae, Tadashi; Kurono, Asutsugu; Yunokuchi, Kazutomo

    In previous study, we recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) of patients with dementia and healthy subjects during Sternberg task. But, only one presentation method of Sternberg task was considered in previous study. Therefore, we examined whether the EEG was different in two different presentation methods wrote letters horizontally and wrote letters vertically in this study. We recorded EEG of six healthy subjects during Sternberg task using two different presentation methods. The result was not different in EEG topography of all subjects. In all subjects, correct rate increased in case of vertically arranged letters.

  15. Brainstorm: A User-Friendly Application for MEG/EEG Analysis

    E-print Network

    Tadel, Francois

    Brainstorm is a collaborative open-source application dedicated to magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) data visualization and processing, with an emphasis on cortical source estimation techniques ...

  16. Constructing Carbon Fiber Motion-Detection Loops for Simultaneous EEG–fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, David F.; Masterton, Richard A. J.; Archer, John S.; Fleming, Steven W.; Warren, Aaron E. L.; Jackson, Graeme D.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most significant impediments to high-quality EEG recorded in an MRI scanner is subject motion. Availability of motion artifact sensors can substantially improve the quality of the recorded EEG. In the study of epilepsy, it can also dramatically increase the confidence that one has in discriminating true epileptiform activity from artifact. This is due both to the reduction in artifact and the ability to visually inspect the motion sensor signals when reading the EEG, revealing whether or not head motion is present. We have previously described the use of carbon fiber loops for detecting and correcting artifact in EEG acquired simultaneously with MRI. The loops, attached to the subject’s head, are electrically insulated from the scalp. They provide a simple and direct measure of specific artifact that is contaminating the EEG, including both subject motion and residual artifact arising from magnetic field gradients applied during MRI. Our previous implementation was used together with a custom-built EEG–fMRI system that differs substantially from current commercially available EEG–fMRI systems. The present technical note extends this work, describing in more detail how to construct the carbon fiber motion-detection loops, and how to interface them with a commercially available simultaneous EEG–fMRI system. We hope that the information provided may help those wishing to utilize a motion-detection/correction solution to improve the quality of EEG recorded within an MRI scanner. PMID:25601852

  17. Moving GLM ballistocardiogram artifact reduction for EEG acquired simultaneously with fMRI

    E-print Network

    Larson-Prior, Linda

    Moving GLM ballistocardiogram artifact reduction for EEG acquired simultaneously with fMRI Justin L by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Ballistocardiogram; Electrocardiogram; Simultaneous

  18. A Handy EEG Electrode Set for patients suffering from altered mental state.

    PubMed

    Lepola, Pasi; Myllymaa, Sami; Töyräs, Juha; Hukkanen, Taina; Mervaala, Esa; Määttä, Sara; Lappalainen, Reijo; Myllymaa, Katja

    2015-12-01

    Although electroencephalography (EEG) is an important diagnostic tool for investigating patients with unexplained altered mental state (AMS), recording of emergency EEG is not a clinical routine. This is mainly due to the cumbersome electrode solutions. A Handy EEG Electrode Set consists of ten EEG, two EOG, two ground and two commutative reference hydrogel-coated silver wire electrodes attached to a thin polyester carrier film. The clinical usefulness of the Handy EEG Electrode Set was tested in 13 patients (five females, eight males) with AMS. EEG recordings were conducted at the same time with a standard 10-20 electrode set. The registration in the first patient case without the behind-ear electrodes (T9 and T10), indicated that these electrodes are very crucial to provide clinically relevant information from posterior regions of brain. In following 12 cases, the sensitivity and specificity for detecting EEG abnormality based on the Handy EEG Electrode Set recordings were 83 and 100 %, respectively. The Handy EEG Electrode Set proved to be easy to use and to provide valuable information for the neurophysiological evaluation of a patient suffering from AMS. However, further studies with larger number of patients are warranted to clarify the true diagnostic accuracy and applicability of this approach. PMID:25575984

  19. Infantile spasms syndrome, West syndrome and related phenotypes: what we know in 2013.

    PubMed

    Pavone, Piero; Striano, Pasquale; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Pavone, Lorenzo; Ruggieri, Martino

    2014-10-01

    The current spectrum of disorders associated to clinical spasms with onset in infancy is wider than previously thought; accordingly, its terminology has changed. Nowadays, the term Infantile spasms syndrome (ISs) defines an epileptic syndrome occurring in children younger than 1 year (rarely older than 2 years), with clinical (epileptic: i.e., associated to an epileptiform EEG) spasms usually occurring in clusters whose most characteristic EEG finding is hypsarrhythmia [the spasms are often associated with developmental arrest or regression]. The term West syndrome (WS) refers to a form (a subset) of ISs, characterised by the combination of clustered spasms and hypsarrhythmia on an EEG and delayed brain development or regression [currently, it is no longer required that delayed development occur before the onset of spasms]. Less usually, spasms may occur singly rather than in clusters [infantile spasms single-spasm variant (ISSV)], hypsarrhythmia can be (incidentally) recorded without any evidence of clinical spasms [hypsarrhythmia without infantile spasms (HWIS)] or typical clinical spasms may manifest in absence of hypsarrhythmia [infantile spasms without hypsarrhythmia (ISW)]. There is a growing evidence that ISs and related phenotypes may result, besides from acquired events, from disturbances in key genetic pathways of brain development: specifically, in the gene regulatory network of GABAergic forebrain dorsal-ventral development, and abnormalities in molecules expressed at the synapse. Children with these genetic associations also have phenotypes beyond epilepsy, including dysmorphic features, autism, movement disorders and systemic malformations. The prognosis depends on: (a) the cause, which gives origin to the attacks (the complex malformation forms being more severe); (b) the EEG pattern(s); (c) the appearance of seizures prior to the spasms; and (d) the rapid response to treatment. Currently, the first-line treatment includes the adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH and vigabatrin. In the near future the gold standard could be the development of new therapies that target specific pathways of pathogenesis. In this article we review the past and growing number of clinical, genetic, molecular and therapeutic discoveries on this expanding topic. PMID:24268986

  20. Dexmedetomidine-Induced Sedation Does Not Mimic the Neurobehavioral Phenotypes of Sleep in Sprague Dawley Rat

    PubMed Central

    Garrity, Abigail G.; Botta, Simhadri; Lazar, Stephanie B.; Swor, Erin; Vanini, Giancarlo; Baghdoyan, Helen A.; Lydic, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Dexmedetomidine is used clinically to induce states of sedation that have been described as homologous to nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. A better understanding of the similarities and differences between NREM sleep and dexmedetomidine-induced sedation is essential for efforts to clarify the relationship between these two states. This study tested the hypothesis that dexmedetomidine-induced sedation is homologous to sleep. Design: This study used between-groups and within-groups designs. Setting: University of Michigan. Participants: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 40). Interventions: Independent variables were administration of dexmedetomidine and saline or Ringer's solution (control). Dependent variables included time spent in states of wakefulness, sleep, and sedation, electroencephalographic (EEG) power, adenosine levels in the substantia innominata (SI), and activation of pCREB and c-Fos in sleep related forebrain regions. Measurements and Results: Dexmedetomidine significantly decreased time spent in wakefulness (-49%), increased duration of sedation (1995%), increased EEG delta power (546%), and eliminated the rapid eye movement (REM) phase of sleep for 16 h. Sedation was followed by a rebound increase in NREM and REM sleep. Systemically administered dexmedetomidine significantly decreased (-39%) SI adenosine levels. Dialysis delivery of dexmedetomidine into SI did not decrease adenosine levels. Systemic delivery of dexmedetomidine did not alter c-Fos or pCREB expression in the horizontal diagonal band, or ventrolateral, median, and medial preoptic areas of the hypothalamus. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine significantly altered normal sleep phenotypes, and the dexmedetomidine-induced state did not compensate for sleep need. Thus, in the Sprague Dawley rat, dexmedetomidine-induced sedation is characterized by behavioral, electrographic, and immunohistochemical phenotypes that are distinctly different from similar measures obtained during sleep. Citation: Garrity AG, Botta S, Lazar SB, Swor E, Vanini G, Baghdoyan HA, Lydic R. Dexmedetomidine-induced sedation does not mimic the neurobehavioral phenotypes of sleep in sprague dawley rat. SLEEP 2015;38(1):73–84. PMID:25325438

  1. Sleep influences the intracerebral EEG pattern of focal cortical dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Menezes Cordeiro, Inês; von Ellenrieder, Nicolas; Zazubovits, Natalja; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean; Frauscher, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is able to generate an intrinsic pathological EEG activity characterized by a continuous or near-continuous spiking. Different patterns of discharge were described. We examined quantitatively the distribution of the intracerebral FCD patterns in relation to sleep in order to investigate whether this activity is independent of thalamocortical influences. Methods We analyzed the first sleep cycle of 5 patients with a diagnosis of FCD type II who underwent combined scalp-intracranial electroencephalography (EEG), and showed an intracranial EEG pattern typical for FCD. Three patterns of FCD intracranial EEG activity were identified in all 5 patients, and visually marked for a maximum of 30 min of each stage (wake, N1, N2, N3, REM): spike or polyspike exceeding 2 Hz (pattern 1), spike or polyspike interrupted by flat periods below 2 Hz (pattern 2) and discharges of >15 Hz low-voltage rhythmic activity with regular morphology (pattern 3). After marking, the percentages of the three patterns across the different stages were calculated. Results The three patterns of FCD were present between 45% and 97% of the total time analyzed. Pattern 1 was the predominant pattern in wakefulness (73–100%), N1 (76–97%) and N2 (58–88.5%) in all patients, and in REM in 4 of 5 patients (91–100%). During N2 and N3, there was an increase in pattern 2 in all patients, becoming the predominant pattern in 3 of the 5 patients during N3 (63–89%). Pattern 3 was rare and only sporadically observed during N2 and N3. Wakefulness and REM sleep showed a similar pattern (pattern 1) with a slight amplitude reduction in REM sleep. Significance Despite the presence of an almost continuous discharge, sleep is an important modulator of the pathological EEG patterns found in FCD type II. This might suggest that dysplastic tissue is influenced by the thalamo-cortical control mechanisms involved in the generation of sleep. PMID:25986200

  2. Alpha-particle diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will focus on the state of development of diagnostics which are expected to provide the information needed for {alpha}- physics studies in the future. Conventional measurement of detailed temporal and spatial profiles of background plasma properties in DT will be essential for such aspects as determining heating effectiveness, shaping of the plasma profiles and effects of MHD, but will not be addressed here. This paper will address (1) the measurement of the neutron source, and hence {alpha}-particle birth profile, (2) measurement of the escaping {alpha}-particles and (3) measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles over their full energy range. There will also be a brief discussion of (4) the concerns about instabilities being generated by {alpha}-particles and the methods necessary for measuring these effects. 51 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1980-10-29

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  4. Event counting alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM); MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    An electrostatic detector for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure.

  5. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  6. Event counting alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, R.D.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-08-27

    An electrostatic detector is disclosed for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure. 6 figs.

  7. Correlated variations in EEG pattern and visual responsiveness of cat lateral geniculate relay cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Funke, Klaus; Wörgötter, Florentin; Eysel, Ulf T

    1999-01-01

    Simultaneous recordings of the EEG and the visual activity of cat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) relay cells were analysed for covariance. Sliding time-window analyses were performed in parallel for the EEG power spectrum and single unit visual activity. The EEG power ratio (EEG-PR) of low (1-8 Hz) to high (20-40 Hz) frequencies was chosen to achieve a quantitative measure of the EEG which could be compared with the spike rate of a dLGN unit at any time. A high EEG-PR value indicates a synchronized EEG dominated by low frequencies (? waves and sleep spindles), a low value indicates a less synchronized EEG. In the anaesthetized animal, two different underlying patterns of activity in the EEG-PR were found: slow gradual changes (slow gradations) and oscillatory changes. In many cases both were accompanied by correlated variations in dLGN spike rate, either for overall activity or for burst firing. The slow gradations appear for long time periods of up to 200 s and, in most cases (76·3%), show a negative correlation between EEG-PR and overall spike rate, but predominantly a positive correlation for burst firing (85·1%). The oscillatory changes, which have not previously been reported, appear as temporally well-coupled variations in EEG-PR and spike rate with a stable cycle length within the range 4-10 s. In about 77% of correlated changes the temporal delay between the change in EEG-PR and that of the spike rate was less than ± 1·0 s. During simultaneous recordings from two dLGN cells the variations in spike rate tend to show the same sign of correlation with respect to the EEG pattern. This relationship is more pronounced with the slow gradations than with the oscillatory changes. Slow gradations in the spectral composition of the EEG may indicate global transitions between different stages within the sleep-wake cycle, reflecting the well-known influences of the brainstem arousal system. The oscillations in the spectral composition of the EEG are accompanied by gradual variations in thalamic transmission mode and are more likely to be due to involvement of a local feedback system via the thalamo-cortico-thalamic loop. The difference between the effects on overall and burst firing activity supports the notion that phasic (burst firing) and tonic visual responses may play distinctive roles in information processing, which are functionally related to the animal's behavioural state. PMID:9882756

  8. Prestimulus amplitudes modulate P1 latencies and evoked traveling alpha waves

    PubMed Central

    Himmelstoss, Nicole A.; Brötzner, Christina P.; Zauner, Andrea; Kerschbaum, Hubert H.; Gruber, Walter; Lechinger, Julia; Klimesch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Traveling waves have been well documented in the ongoing, and more recently also in the evoked EEG. In the present study we investigate what kind of physiological process might be responsible for inducing an evoked traveling wave. We used a semantic judgment task which already proved useful to study evoked traveling alpha waves that coincide with the appearance of the P1 component. We found that the P1 latency of the leading electrode is significantly correlated with prestimulus amplitude size and that this event is associated with a transient change in alpha frequency. We assume that cortical background excitability, as reflected by an increase in prestimulus amplitude, is responsible for the observed change in alpha frequency and the initiation of an evoked traveling trajectory. PMID:26074804

  9. On the feasibility of concurrent human TMS-EEG-fMRI measurements

    PubMed Central

    Reithler, Joel; Schuhmann, Teresa; de Graaf, Tom; Uluda?, Kâmil; Goebel, Rainer; Sack, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneously combining the complementary assets of EEG, functional MRI (fMRI), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) within one experimental session provides synergetic results, offering insights into brain function that go beyond the scope of each method when used in isolation. The steady increase of concurrent EEG-fMRI, TMS-EEG, and TMS-fMRI studies further underlines the added value of such multimodal imaging approaches. Whereas concurrent EEG-fMRI enables monitoring of brain-wide network dynamics with high temporal and spatial resolution, the combination with TMS provides insights in causal interactions within these networks. Thus the simultaneous use of all three methods would allow studying fast, spatially accurate, and distributed causal interactions in the perturbed system and its functional relevance for intact behavior. Concurrent EEG-fMRI, TMS-EEG, and TMS-fMRI experiments are already technically challenging, and the three-way combination of TMS-EEG-fMRI might yield additional difficulties in terms of hardware strain or signal quality. The present study explored the feasibility of concurrent TMS-EEG-fMRI studies by performing safety and quality assurance tests based on phantom and human data combining existing commercially available hardware. Results revealed that combined TMS-EEG-fMRI measurements were technically feasible, safe in terms of induced temperature changes, allowed functional MRI acquisition with comparable image quality as during concurrent EEG-fMRI or TMS-fMRI, and provided artifact-free EEG before and from 300 ms after TMS pulse application. Based on these empirical findings, we discuss the conceptual benefits of this novel complementary approach to investigate the working human brain and list a number of precautions and caveats to be heeded when setting up such multimodal imaging facilities with current hardware. PMID:23221407

  10. Optofluidic Detection for Cellular Phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Yi-Chung; Huang, Nien-Tsu; Oh, Bo-Ram; Patra, Bishnubrata; Pan, Chi-Chun; Qiu, Teng; Paul, K. Chu; Zhang, Wenjun; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the output of processes and molecular interactions within a single cell is highly critical to the advancement of accurate disease screening and personalized medicine. Optical detection is one of the most broadly adapted measurement methods in biological and clinical assays and serves cellular phenotyping. Recently, microfluidics has obtained increasing attention due to several advantages, such as small sample and reagent volumes, very high throughput, and accurate flow control in the spatial and temporal domains. Optofluidics, which is the attempt to integrate optics with microfluidic, shows great promise to enable on-chip phenotypic measurements with high precision, sensitivity, specificity, and simplicity. This paper reviews the most recent developments of optofluidic technologies for cellular phenotyping optical detection. PMID:22854915

  11. Studying the cortical response to binocular disparity using EEG temporal frequency tagging.

    PubMed

    Derzsi, Zoltán; Tarawneh, Ghaith; Alter, Kai

    2015-09-01

    Frequency tagging exploits the high temporal resolution of electroencephalography (EEG) to identify cortical mechanisms responding to a given stimulus, usually varying in luminance. Here, following pioneering work by Norcia & Tyler (1984) and others, we experiment with frequency tagging using binocular disparity. Each trial was a dynamic random-dot stereogram lasting 4s. For 1s, the dots had zero disparity, i.e. in the screen plane. For 3s, disparity was +/-0.065°. On "frequency-tagged" trials, the dots formed a horizontal disparity square-wave grating of spatial frequency 0.25 cycles/deg. The disparities were inverted with a temporal frequency of either F=5Hz or F=8Hz. On "control" trials during this 3s, two transparent planes were formed, one behind the other. We obtained data from 12 subjects, with an average of 68 good trials per condition, and EEG traces were band-pass filtered from 1 to 30 Hz before averaging. We see clear Event Related Potentials (ERPs) shortly after both the onset of the dot pattern (t=0s) and the onset of the disparity change (t=1s). Both ERPs show a N100-P200 complex, here a small negative peak at around 75ms followed by a larger positive peak at around 150ms. In the frequency domain, Fourier power is proportional to 1/sqrt(frequency) between 1 and 30Hz. The frequency-tagged conditions both show additional peaks at F and 2F, the first and second harmonics of the disparity modulation frequency, relative to the control condition. This confirms that a frequency-tagged signal can be observed in the disparity domain. However, the signal's strength was much weaker than in previous studies, perhaps because we used a disparity grating rather than a plane. Surprisingly, we also found strong power in the alpha-band in all disparity conditions compared to the zero-disparity baseline. References Norcia AM, Tyler CW. 1984. Temporal frequency limits for stereoscopic apparent motion processes. Vision Res 24:395-401. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26327077

  12. Phenotypic heterogeneity influences the behavior of rat aortic smooth muscle cells in collagen lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Orlandi, Augusto . E-mail: orlandi@uniroma2.it; Ferlosio, Amedeo; Gabbiani, Giulio; Spagnoli, Luigi Giusto; Ehrlich, Paul H.

    2005-12-10

    Phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in atherosclerosis and restenosis involves responses to the surrounding microenvironment. SMCs obtained by enzymatic digestion from tunica media of newborn, young adult (YA) and old rats and from the thickened intima (TI) and underlying media of young adult rat aortas 15 days after ballooning were entrapped in floating populated collagen lattice (PCL). TI-SMCs elongated but were poor at PCL contraction and remodeling and expressed less {alpha}2 integrin compared to other SMCs that appeared more dendritic. During early phases of PCL contraction, SMCs showed a marked decrease in the expression of {alpha}-smooth muscle actin and myosin. SMCs other than TI-SMCs required 7 days to re-express {alpha}-smooth muscle actin and myosin. Only TI-SMCs in PCL were able to divide in 48 h, with a greater proportion in S and G2-M cell cycle phases compared to other SMCs. Anti-{alpha}2 integrin antibody markedly inhibited contraction but not proliferation in YA-SMC-PLCs; anti-{alpha}1 and anti-{alpha}2 integrin antibodies induced a similar slight inhibition in TI-SMC-PCLs. Finally, TI-SMCs rapidly migrated from PCL on plastic reacquiring their epithelioid phenotype. Heterogeneity in proliferation and cytoskeleton as well the capacity to remodel the extracellular matrix are maintained, when SMCs are suspended in PCLs.

  13. Correlation analysis on alpha attenuation and nasal skin temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Akio; Tacano, Munecazu

    2009-01-01

    Some serious accidents caused by declines in arousal level, such as traffic accidents and mechanical control mistakes, have become issues of social concern. The physiological index obtained by human body measurement is expected to offer a leading tool for evaluating arousal level as an objective indicator. In this study, declines in temporal arousal levels were evaluated by nasal skin temperature. As arousal level declines, sympathetic nervous activity is decreased and blood flow in peripheral vessels is increased. Since peripheral vessels exist just under the skin on the fingers and nose, the psychophysiological state can be judged from the displacement of skin temperature caused by changing blood flow volume. Declining arousal level is expected to be observable as a temperature rise in peripheral parts of the body. The objective of this experiment was to obtain assessment criteria for judging declines in arousal level by nasal skin temperature using the alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC) of electroencephalography (EEG) as a reference benchmark. Furthermore, a psychophysical index of sleepiness was also measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Correlations between nasal skin temperature index and EEG index were analyzed. AAC and maximum displacement of nasal skin temperature displayed a clear negative correlation, with a correlation coefficient of -0.55.

  14. Trafficking of. cap alpha. -L-fucosidase in lymphoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    DiCioccio, R.A.; Brown, K.S.

    1987-05-01

    The quantity of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in human serum is determined by heredity. The mechanism controlling levels of the enzyme in serum is unknown. To investigate this, lymphoid cell lines derived from individuals with either low, intermediate or high ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in serum were established. Steady state levels of extracellular ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase protein and activity overlapped among the cell lines. Thus, in vivo serum phenotypes of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase are not adequately expressed in this system. ..cap alpha..-L-Fucosidase was also metabolically labelled with /sup 35/S-methionine, immunoprecipitated, and examined by SDS-PAGE. Cells pulse-labelled from 0.25-2 h had a major intracellular form of enzyme (Mr = 58,000). Cells pulsed for 1.5 h and chased for 21 h with unlabeled methionine had an intracellular form of Mr = 60,000 and an extracellular form of Mr = 62,000. Cells treated with chloroquine had only the 58,000-form both intra- and extra-cellularly. Moreover, chloroquine did not effect the quantitative distribution of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase between cells and medium. In fibroblasts, chloroquine enhanced the secretion of newly made lysosomal enzymes and blocked the processing of intercellular enzyme forms from a higher to a lower molecular mass. Thus, there are trafficking differences between ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in lymphoid cells and lysosomal enzymes in fibroblasts. This suggests that alternative targeting mechanisms for lysosomal enzymes exist in these cells.

  15. Double gene deletion reveals the lack of cooperation between PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta} in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Bedu, E.; Desplanches, D.; Pequignot, J.; Bordier, B.; Desvergne, B. . E-mail: beatrice.desvergne@unil.ch

    2007-06-15

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are involved in the regulation of most of the pathways linked to lipid metabolism. PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta} isotypes are known to regulate muscle fatty acid oxidation and a reciprocal compensation of their function has been proposed. Herein, we investigated muscle contractile and metabolic phenotypes in PPAR{alpha}-/-, PPAR{beta}-/-, and double PPAR{alpha}-/- {beta}-/- mice. Heart and soleus muscle analyses show that the deletion of PPAR{alpha} induces a decrease of the HAD activity ({beta}-oxidation) while soleus contractile phenotype remains unchanged. A PPAR{beta} deletion alone has no effect. However, these mild phenotypes are not due to a reciprocal compensation of PPAR{beta} and PPAR{alpha} functions since double gene deletion PPAR{alpha}-PPAR{beta} mostly reproduces the null PPAR{alpha}-mediated reduced {beta}-oxidation, in addition to a shift from fast to slow fibers. In conclusion, PPAR{beta} is not required for maintaining skeletal muscle metabolic activity and does not compensate the lack of PPAR{alpha} in PPAR{alpha} null mice.

  16. Slice Oriented Tensor Decomposition of EEG Data for Feature Extraction in Space, Frequency

    E-print Network

    Cichocki, Andrzej

    noise data plays an im- portant role in machine learning and pattern recognition. In the real world, was applied for analyzing the multifactor structure image ensembles, EEG signals [7] and etc. These methods, we developed a feature extraction framework for single-trial EEG classification. This paper

  17. Children's Depressive Symptoms in Relation to EEG Frontal Asymmetry and Maternal Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Xin; Forbes, Erika E.; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Fox, Nathan A.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations of school-age children's depressive symptoms, frontal EEG asymmetry, and maternal history of childhood-onset depression (COD). Participants were 73 children, 43 of whom had mothers with COD. Children's EEG was recorded at baseline and while watching happy and sad film clips. Depressive symptoms were measured using…

  18. Evaluation of EEG localization methods using realistic simulations of interictal spikes

    E-print Network

    Daunizeau, Jean

    Evaluation of EEG localization methods using realistic simulations of interictal spikes C. Grova of a gold standard to evaluate source localization methods, our evaluation was performed in a controlled environment using realistic simulations of EEG interictal spikes, involving several anatomical locations

  19. A Robust Principal Component Analysis Algorithm for EEG-Based Vigilance Estimation

    E-print Network

    Lu, Bao-Liang

    -Nan Duan and Bao-Liang Lu Senior Member, IEEE Abstract-- Feature dimensionality reduction methods with robustness have a great significance for making better use of EEG data, since EEG features are usually high-dimensional of twenty-three subjects. To evaluate the performance of these algorithms, smoothed differential entropy

  20. Maturation of EEG Power Spectra in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragg, Lucy; Kovacevic, Natasa; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Poulsen, Catherine; Martinu, Kristina; Leonard, Gabriel; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the fine-grained development of the EEG power spectra in early adolescence, and the extent to which it is reflected in changes in peak frequency. It also sought to determine whether sex differences in the EEG power spectra reflect differential patterns of maturation. A group of 56 adolescents were tested at age 10 years and…

  1. Prospective Cohort Study Evaluating the Prognostic Value of Simple EEG Parameters in Postanoxic Coma.

    PubMed

    Azabou, Eric; Fischer, Catherine; Mauguiere, François; Vaugier, Isabelle; Annane, Djillali; Sharshar, Tarek; Lofaso, Fréderic

    2016-01-01

    We prospectively studied early bedside standard EEG characteristics in 61 acute postanoxic coma patients. Five simple EEG features, namely, isoelectric, discontinuous, nonreactive to intense auditory and nociceptive stimuli, dominant delta frequency, and occurrence of paroxysms were classified yes or no. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of each of these variables for predicting an unfavorable outcome, defined as death, persistent vegetative state, minimally conscious state, or severe neurological disability, as assessed 1 year after coma onset were computed as well as Synek's score. The outcome was unfavorable in 56 (91.8%) patients. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and AUC of nonreactive EEG for predicting an unfavorable outcome were 84%, 80%, 98%, 31%, and 0.82, respectively; and were all very close to the ones of Synek score >3, which were 82%, 80%, 98%, 29%, and 0.81, respectively. Specificities for predicting an unfavorable outcome were 100% for isoelectric, discontinuous, or dominant delta activity EEG. These 3 last features were constantly associated to unfavorable outcome. Absent EEG reactivity strongly predicted an unfavorable outcome in postanoxic coma, and performed as accurate as a Synek score >3. Analyzing characteristics of some simple EEG features may easily help nonneurophysiologist physicians to investigate prognostic issue of postanoxic coma patient. In this study (a) discontinuous, isoelectric, or delta-dominant EEG were constantly associated with unfavorable outcome and (b) nonreactive EEG performed prognostic as accurate as a Synek score >3. PMID:26545818

  2. NeuroPhone: Brain-Mobile Phone Interface using a Wireless EEG Headset

    E-print Network

    NeuroPhone: Brain-Mobile Phone Interface using a Wireless EEG Headset Matthew K. Mukerjee Dartmouth are transmitted wirelessly to an iPhone, which natively runs a lightweight classifier to dis- criminate P300 interface based on the wireless Emotiv EPOC EEG headset [3] and the iPhone. We demonstrate a mind

  3. NeuroPhone: Brain-Mobile Phone Interface using a Wireless EEG Headset

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Andrew T.

    NeuroPhone: Brain-Mobile Phone Interface using a Wireless EEG Headset Andrew T. Campbell, Tanzeem signals to drive mobile phone applications on the iPhone using cheap off-the-shelf wireless the person whom the user wishes to dial. EEG signals from the headset are transmitted wirelessly to an iPhone

  4. Independent Component Analysis as a Preprocessing Step for Data Compression of Neonatal EEG

    E-print Network

    /002 (OPTEC), IDO 05/010 EEG-fMRI, IDO 08/013 Autism, IOF-KP06/11 FunCopt; Flemish Government: FWO: PhD/postdoc grants, projects: FWO G.0302.07 (SVM), G.0341.07 (Data fusion), G.0427.10N (Integrated EEG- f

  5. Phase synchrony and coherence analyses of EEG as tools to discriminate between children with and

    E-print Network

    Beex, A. A. "Louis"

    for their usefulness in the discrimination between non-ADHD and ADHD children. We observed that phase synchrony is higher ­ on average ­ for non-ADHD participants than for the ADHD group. Based on the relatively small electrode pairs, EEG rhythm, and task ­ discriminate between the EEG of non-ADHD and ADHD children

  6. Abstract--Eye blinking artifacts present serious problems for electroencephalographic (EEG) interpretation and analysis. In

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    Abstract--Eye blinking artifacts present serious problems for electroencephalographic (EEG) interpretation and analysis. In this study, we apply independent component analysis (ICA) to eye blinking artifact removal from cognitive EEG recordings. Due to the specific design of the experiment, the eye

  7. CHANGES IN THE RAT EEG SPECTRA AND CORE TEMPERATURE AFTER EXPOSURE TO DIFFERENT DOSES OF CHLORPYRIFOS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our previous study showed that single exposure to 25 mg/kg (p.o.) of organophsphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CHP) led to significant alterations in all EEG frequency bands within 0.1-50 Hz range, reduction in core temperature (Tc) and motor activity (MA). The alterations in EEG pe...