Science.gov

Sample records for effective charges application

  1. Effective Topological Charge Cancelation Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesarec, Luka; Góźdź, Wojciech; Iglič, Aleš; Kralj, Samo

    2016-06-01

    Topological defects (TDs) appear almost unavoidably in continuous symmetry breaking phase transitions. The topological origin makes their key features independent of systems’ microscopic details; therefore TDs display many universalities. Because of their strong impact on numerous material properties and their significant role in several technological applications it is of strong interest to find simple and robust mechanisms controlling the positioning and local number of TDs. We present a numerical study of TDs within effectively two dimensional closed soft films exhibiting in-plane orientational ordering. Popular examples of such class of systems are liquid crystalline shells and various biological membranes. We introduce the Effective Topological Charge Cancellation mechanism controlling localised positional assembling tendency of TDs and the formation of pairs {defect, antidefect} on curved surfaces and/or presence of relevant “impurities” (e.g. nanoparticles). For this purpose, we define an effective topological charge Δmeff consisting of real, virtual and smeared curvature topological charges within a surface patch Δς identified by the typical spatially averaged local Gaussian curvature K. We demonstrate a strong tendency enforcing Δmeff → 0 on surfaces composed of Δς exhibiting significantly different values of spatially averaged K. For Δmeff ≠ 0 we estimate a critical depinning threshold to form pairs {defect, antidefect} using the electrostatic analogy.

  2. Effective Topological Charge Cancelation Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Mesarec, Luka; Góźdź, Wojciech; Iglič, Aleš; Kralj, Samo

    2016-01-01

    Topological defects (TDs) appear almost unavoidably in continuous symmetry breaking phase transitions. The topological origin makes their key features independent of systems’ microscopic details; therefore TDs display many universalities. Because of their strong impact on numerous material properties and their significant role in several technological applications it is of strong interest to find simple and robust mechanisms controlling the positioning and local number of TDs. We present a numerical study of TDs within effectively two dimensional closed soft films exhibiting in-plane orientational ordering. Popular examples of such class of systems are liquid crystalline shells and various biological membranes. We introduce the Effective Topological Charge Cancellation mechanism controlling localised positional assembling tendency of TDs and the formation of pairs {defect, antidefect} on curved surfaces and/or presence of relevant “impurities” (e.g. nanoparticles). For this purpose, we define an effective topological charge Δmeff consisting of real, virtual and smeared curvature topological charges within a surface patch Δς identified by the typical spatially averaged local Gaussian curvature K. We demonstrate a strong tendency enforcing Δmeff → 0 on surfaces composed of Δς exhibiting significantly different values of spatially averaged K. For Δmeff ≠ 0 we estimate a critical depinning threshold to form pairs {defect, antidefect} using the electrostatic analogy. PMID:27250777

  3. Effective Topological Charge Cancelation Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mesarec, Luka; Góźdź, Wojciech; Iglič, Aleš; Kralj, Samo

    2016-01-01

    Topological defects (TDs) appear almost unavoidably in continuous symmetry breaking phase transitions. The topological origin makes their key features independent of systems' microscopic details; therefore TDs display many universalities. Because of their strong impact on numerous material properties and their significant role in several technological applications it is of strong interest to find simple and robust mechanisms controlling the positioning and local number of TDs. We present a numerical study of TDs within effectively two dimensional closed soft films exhibiting in-plane orientational ordering. Popular examples of such class of systems are liquid crystalline shells and various biological membranes. We introduce the Effective Topological Charge Cancellation mechanism controlling localised positional assembling tendency of TDs and the formation of pairs {defect, antidefect} on curved surfaces and/or presence of relevant "impurities" (e.g. nanoparticles). For this purpose, we define an effective topological charge Δmeff consisting of real, virtual and smeared curvature topological charges within a surface patch Δς identified by the typical spatially averaged local Gaussian curvature K. We demonstrate a strong tendency enforcing Δmeff → 0 on surfaces composed of Δς exhibiting significantly different values of spatially averaged K. For Δmeff ≠ 0 we estimate a critical depinning threshold to form pairs {defect, antidefect} using the electrostatic analogy. PMID:27250777

  4. A multi-agent quantum Monte Carlo model for charge transport: Application to organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Thilo; Jäger, Christof M.; Jordan, Meredith J. T.; Clark, Timothy

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a multi-agent quantum Monte Carlo model to describe the spatial dynamics of multiple majority charge carriers during conduction of electric current in the channel of organic field-effect transistors. The charge carriers are treated by a neglect of diatomic differential overlap Hamiltonian using a lattice of hydrogen-like basis functions. The local ionization energy and local electron affinity defined previously map the bulk structure of the transistor channel to external potentials for the simulations of electron- and hole-conduction, respectively. The model is designed without a specific charge-transport mechanism like hopping- or band-transport in mind and does not arbitrarily localize charge. An electrode model allows dynamic injection and depletion of charge carriers according to source-drain voltage. The field-effect is modeled by using the source-gate voltage in a Metropolis-like acceptance criterion. Although the current cannot be calculated because the simulations have no time axis, using the number of Monte Carlo moves as pseudo-time gives results that resemble experimental I/V curves.

  5. A multi-agent quantum Monte Carlo model for charge transport: Application to organic field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Thilo; Jäger, Christof M.; Jordan, Meredith J. T.; Clark, Timothy

    2015-07-28

    We have developed a multi-agent quantum Monte Carlo model to describe the spatial dynamics of multiple majority charge carriers during conduction of electric current in the channel of organic field-effect transistors. The charge carriers are treated by a neglect of diatomic differential overlap Hamiltonian using a lattice of hydrogen-like basis functions. The local ionization energy and local electron affinity defined previously map the bulk structure of the transistor channel to external potentials for the simulations of electron- and hole-conduction, respectively. The model is designed without a specific charge-transport mechanism like hopping- or band-transport in mind and does not arbitrarily localize charge. An electrode model allows dynamic injection and depletion of charge carriers according to source-drain voltage. The field-effect is modeled by using the source-gate voltage in a Metropolis-like acceptance criterion. Although the current cannot be calculated because the simulations have no time axis, using the number of Monte Carlo moves as pseudo-time gives results that resemble experimental I/V curves.

  6. A multi-agent quantum Monte Carlo model for charge transport: Application to organic field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Thilo; Jäger, Christof M; Jordan, Meredith J T; Clark, Timothy

    2015-07-28

    We have developed a multi-agent quantum Monte Carlo model to describe the spatial dynamics of multiple majority charge carriers during conduction of electric current in the channel of organic field-effect transistors. The charge carriers are treated by a neglect of diatomic differential overlap Hamiltonian using a lattice of hydrogen-like basis functions. The local ionization energy and local electron affinity defined previously map the bulk structure of the transistor channel to external potentials for the simulations of electron- and hole-conduction, respectively. The model is designed without a specific charge-transport mechanism like hopping- or band-transport in mind and does not arbitrarily localize charge. An electrode model allows dynamic injection and depletion of charge carriers according to source-drain voltage. The field-effect is modeled by using the source-gate voltage in a Metropolis-like acceptance criterion. Although the current cannot be calculated because the simulations have no time axis, using the number of Monte Carlo moves as pseudo-time gives results that resemble experimental I/V curves. PMID:26233114

  7. Modeling charge transport in C{sub 60}-based self-assembled monolayers for applications in field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Leitherer, S. E-mail: Michael.Thoss@physik.uni-erlangen.de; Thoss, M. E-mail: Michael.Thoss@physik.uni-erlangen.de; Halik, M.

    2014-05-28

    We have investigated the conductance properties of C{sub 60}-containing self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), which are used in organic field-effect transistors, employing a combination of molecular-dynamics simulations, semiempirical electronic structure calculations, and Landauer transport theory. The results reveal the close relation between the transport characteristics and the structural and electronic properties of the SAM. Furthermore, both local pathways of charge transport in the SAMs and the influence of structural fluctuations are analyzed.

  8. Sound propagation in narrow tubes including effects of viscothermal and turbulent damping with application to charge air coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutsson, Magnus; Åbom, Mats

    2009-02-01

    Charge air coolers (CACs) are used on turbocharged internal combustion engines to enhance the overall gas-exchange performance. The cooling of the charged air results in higher density and thus volumetric efficiency. It is also important for petrol engines that the knock margin increases with reduced charge air temperature. A property that is still not very well investigated is the sound transmission through a CAC. The losses, due to viscous and thermal boundary layers as well as turbulence, in the narrow cooling tubes result in frequency dependent attenuation of the transmitted sound that is significant and dependent on the flow conditions. Normally, the cross-sections of the cooling tubes are neither circular nor rectangular, which is why no analytical solution accounting for a superimposed mean flow exists. The cross-dimensions of the connecting tanks, located on each side of the cooling tubes, are large compared to the diameters of the inlet and outlet ducts. Three-dimensional effects will therefore be important at frequencies significantly lower than the cut-on frequencies of the inlet/outlet ducts. In this study the two-dimensional finite element solution scheme for sound propagation in narrow tubes, including the effect of viscous and thermal boundary layers, originally derived by Astley and Cummings [Wave propagation in catalytic converters: Formulation of the problem and finite element scheme, Journal of Sound and Vibration 188 (5) (1995) 635-657] is used to extract two-ports to represent the cooling tubes. The approximate solutions for sound propagation, accounting for viscothermal and turbulent boundary layers derived by Dokumaci [Sound transmission in narrow pipes with superimposed uniform mean flow and acoustic modelling of automobile catalytic converters, Journal of Sound and Vibration 182 (5) (1995) 799-808] and Howe [The damping of sound by wall turbulent shear layers, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 98 (3) (1995) 1723-1730], are

  9. Configuration effects on satellite charging response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.

    1980-01-01

    The response of various spacecraft configurations to a charging environment in sunlight was studied using the NASA Charging Analyzer Program code. The configuration features geometry, type of stabilization, and overall size. Results indicate that sunlight charging response is dominated by differential charging effects. Shaded insulation charges negatively result in the formation of potential barriers which suppress photoelectron emission from sunlit surfaces. Sunlight charging occurs relatively slowly: with 30 minutes of charging simulations, in none of the configurations modeled did the most negative surface cell reach half its equilibrium potential in eclipse.

  10. Effects Of Environmental Electrical Charges On Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Paul A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Handbook presents information on three kinds of disruptive effects of environmental electrical charges upon operations of electronic circuits and other sensitive equipment in spacecraft. Addresses surface and internal charging and discharging, single-event upsets, and related design issues.

  11. Effects of induced charge in the kinestatic charge detector.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, D J; Terwilliger, R A

    1995-05-01

    The principle of the kinestatic charge detector (KCD) for digital radiography depends on the synchronization of the scan velocity of a parallel plate drift chamber with the cation drift velocity. Compared with line-beam scanners, this motion-compensated imaging technique makes better use of the x-ray tube output. A Frisch grid traditionally has been used within the KCD to minimize unwanted signal contributions from both cations and negative charge carriers during irradiation. In this work the charge induction process in a parallel plate geometry was investigated for the special case of the KCD. In the limit of infinite plates, the cathode charge density due to both cations and negative charge carriers increases quadratically in time for a kinestatically scanned narrow slit. In the KCD the cathode is segmented into an array of narrow electrodes, each aligned with the incident x-ray beam. Our conformal mapping computation determined that the shape of the induced charge signal depends critically on delta x/w, the ratio of electrode width to drift gap. Our conclusion introduces the possibility of eliminating the Frisch grid from the KCD design because the value of delta x/w required for transverse sampling in the KCD is sufficiently low as to allow "self-gridding" to take effect. PMID:7643803

  12. Effects of granular charge on flow and mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbrot, T.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2008-12-01

    Sandstorms in the desert have long been reported to produce sparks and other electrical disturbances - indeed as long ago as 1850, Faraday commented on the peculiarities of granular charging during desert sandstorms. Similarly, lightning strikes within volcanic dust plumes have been repeatedly reported for over half a century, but remain unexplained. The problem of granular charging has applied, as well as natural, implications, for charged particle clouds frequently generate spectacularly devastating dust explosions in granular processing plants, and sand becomes strongly electrified by helicopters traveling in desert environments. The issue even has implications for missions to the Moon and to Mars, where charged dust degrades solar cells viability and clings to spacesuits, limiting the lifetime of their joints. Despite the wide-ranging importance of granular charging, even the simplest aspects of its causes remain elusive. To take one example, sand grains in the desert manage to charge one another despite having only similar materials to rub against over expanses of many miles - thus existing theories of charging due to material differences fail entirely to account for the observed charging of desert sands. In this talk, we describe recent progress made in identifying underlying causes of granular charging, both in desert-like environments and in industrial applications, and we examine effects of granular charging on flow, mixing and separation of common granular materials. We find that charging of identical grains can occur under simple laboratory conditions, and we make new predictions for the effects of this charging on granular behaviours.

  13. Quark mass effect on axial charge dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Er-dong; Lin, Shu

    2016-05-01

    We studied the effect of finite quark mass on the dynamics of the axial charge using the D3/D7 model in holography. The mass term in the axial anomaly equation affects both the fluctuation (generation) and dissipation of the axial charge. We studied the dependence of the effect on quark mass and an external magnetic field. For axial charge generation, we calculated the mass diffusion rate, which characterizes the helicity flipping rate. The rate is a nonmonotonous function of mass and can be significantly enhanced by the magnetic field. The diffusive behavior is also related to a divergent susceptibility of the axial charge. For axial charge dissipation, we found that in the long time limit, the mass term dissipates all the charge effectively generated by parallel electric and magnetic fields. The result is consistent with a relaxation time approximation. The rate of dissipation through mass term is a monotonous increasing function of both quark mass and a magnetic field.

  14. Negative electrospray ionization on porous supporting tips for mass spectrometric analysis: electrostatic charging effect on detection sensitivity and its application to explosive detection.

    PubMed

    Wong, Melody Yee-Man; Man, Sin-Heng; Che, Chi-Ming; Lau, Kai-Chung; Ng, Kwan-Ming

    2014-03-21

    The simplicity and easy manipulation of a porous substrate-based ESI-MS technique have been widely applied to the direct analysis of different types of samples in positive ion mode. However, the study and application of this technique in negative ion mode are sparse. A key challenge could be due to the ease of electrical discharge on supporting tips upon the application of negative voltage. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of supporting materials, including polyester, polyethylene and wood, on the detection sensitivity of a porous substrate-based negative ESI-MS technique. By using nitrobenzene derivatives and nitrophenol derivatives as the target analytes, it was found that the hydrophobic materials (i.e., polyethylene and polyester) with a higher tendency to accumulate negative charge could enhance the detection sensitivity towards nitrobenzene derivatives via electron-capture ionization; whereas, compounds with electron affinities lower than the cut-off value (1.13 eV) were not detected. Nitrophenol derivatives with pKa smaller than 9.0 could be detected in the form of deprotonated ions; whereas polar materials (i.e., wood), which might undergo competitive deprotonation with the analytes, could suppress the detection sensitivity. With the investigation of the material effects on the detection sensitivity, the porous substrate-based negative ESI-MS method was developed and applied to the direct detection of two commonly encountered explosives in complex samples. PMID:24492411

  15. Applications of electrostatic capacitance and charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandu, Titus; Boldeiu, George; Moagar-Poladian, Victor

    2013-12-01

    The capacitance of an arbitrarily shaped object is calculated with the same second-kind integral equation method used for computing static and dynamic polarizabilities. The capacitance is simply the dielectric permittivity multiplied by the area of the object and divided by the squared norm of the Neumann-Poincaré operator eigenfunction corresponding to the largest eigenvalue. The norm of this eigenfunction varies slowly with shape thus enabling the definition of two scale-invariant shape factors and perturbative calculations of capacitance. The result is extended to a special class of capacitors in which the electrodes are the equipotential surfaces generated by the equilibrium charge on the object. This extension allows analytical expressions of capacitance for confocal spheroidal capacitors and finite cylinders. Moreover, a second order formula for thin constant-thickness capacitors is given with direct applications for capacitance of membranes in living cells and of supercapacitors. For axisymmetric geometries, a fast and accurate numerical method is provided.

  16. Charge multiplication effect in thin diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skukan, N.; Grilj, V.; Sudić, I.; Pomorski, M.; Kada, W.; Makino, T.; Kambayashi, Y.; Andoh, Y.; Onoda, S.; Sato, S.; Ohshima, T.; Kamiya, T.; Jakšić, M.

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we report on the enhanced sensitivity for the detection of charged particles in single crystal chemical vapour deposition (scCVD) diamond radiation detectors. The experimental results demonstrate charge multiplication in thin planar diamond membrane detectors, upon impact of 18 MeV O ions, under high electric field conditions. Avalanche multiplication is widely exploited in devices such as avalanche photo diodes, but has never before been reproducibly observed in intrinsic CVD diamond. Because enhanced sensitivity for charged particle detection is obtained for short charge drift lengths without dark counts, this effect could be further exploited in the development of sensors based on avalanche multiplication and radiation detectors with extreme radiation hardness.

  17. Droplet Charging Effects in the Space Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Thomas B.; Ketsdever, Andrew D.

    2011-05-20

    Several applications exist for transiting liquid droplets through the near-Earth space environment. Numerical results are presented for the charging of liquid droplets of trimethyl pentaphenyl siloxane (DC705) in three different plasma environments: ionosphere, auroral, and geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Nominal and high geomagnetic activity cases are investigated. In general, high levels of droplet charging (>100 V) exist only in GEO during periods of high geomagnetic or solar activity. An experiment was conducted to assess the charging of silicon-oil droplets due to photoemission. The photoemission yield in the 120-200 nm wavelength range was found to be approximately 0.06.

  18. Effects of Turbulent Magnetic Fields on the Transport and Acceleration of Energetic Charged Particles: Numerical Simulations with Application to Heliospheric Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fan

    2012-11-01

    (kinetic ions and fluid electrons) to investigate the acceleration of low-energy particles (often termed as "injection problem") at parallel shocks. We find that the accelerated particles always gain the first amount of energy by reflection and acceleration at the shock layer. The protons can move off their original field lines in the 3-D electric and magnetic fields. The results are consistent with the acceleration mechanism found in previous 1-D and 2-D simulations. In the second part of Chapter 3, we use a stochastic integration method to study diffusive shock acceleration in the existence of large-scale magnetic variations. We show that the 1-D steady state solution of diffusive shock acceleration can be significantly modified in this situation. The results suggest that the observations of anomalous cosmic rays by Voyager spacecraft can be explained by a 2-D shock that includes the large-scale magnetic field variations. In Chapter 4 we study electron acceleration at a shock passing into a turbulent magnetic field by using a combination of hybrid simulations and test-particle electron simulations. We find that the acceleration of electrons is greatly enhanced by including the effect of large-scale magnetic turbulence. Since the electrons mainly follow along the magnetic lines of force, the large-scale braiding of field lines in space allows the fast-moving electrons interacting with the shock front multiple times. Ripples in the shock front occurring at various scales also contribute to the acceleration by mirroring the electrons. Our calculation shows that this process favors electron acceleration at perpendicular shocks. We discuss the application of this process in interplanetary shocks and flare termination shocks. We also discuss the implication of this study to solar energetic particles (SEPs) by comparing the acceleration of electrons with that of protons. The intensity correlation of electrons and ions in SEP events indicates that perpendicular or quasi

  19. Space charge effect in isochronous rings

    SciTech Connect

    Pozdeyev,E.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Marti, F.; York, R.

    2008-08-25

    Cyclotrons, rings for precise nuclear mass spectrometry, and some light sources with extremely short bunches are operated or planned to be operated in the isochronous or almost isochronous regime. Also, many hadron synchrotrons run in the isochronous regime for a short period of time during transition crossing. The longitudinal motion is frozen in the isochronous regime that leads to accumulation of the integral of the longitudinal space charge force. In low-gamma hadron machines, this can cause a fast growth of the beam energy spread even at modest beam intensities. Additionally, the transverse component of the space charge effectively modifies the dispersion function and the slip factor shifting the isochronous (transition) point. In this paper, we discuss space charge effects in the isochronous regime and present experimental results obtained in the Small Isochronous Ring, developed at Michigan State University specifically for studies of space charge in the isochronous regime.

  20. High temperature charge amplifier for geothermal applications

    DOEpatents

    Lindblom, Scott C.; Maldonado, Frank J.; Henfling, Joseph A.

    2015-12-08

    An amplifier circuit in a multi-chip module includes a charge to voltage converter circuit, a voltage amplifier a low pass filter and a voltage to current converter. The charge to voltage converter receives a signal representing an electrical charge and generates a voltage signal proportional to the input signal. The voltage amplifier receives the voltage signal from the charge to voltage converter, then amplifies the voltage signal by the gain factor to output an amplified voltage signal. The lowpass filter passes low frequency components of the amplified voltage signal and attenuates frequency components greater than a cutoff frequency. The voltage to current converter receives the output signal of the lowpass filter and converts the output signal to a current output signal; wherein an amplifier circuit output is selectable between the output signal of the lowpass filter and the current output signal.

  1. 42 CFR 447.53 - Applicability; specification; multiple charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.53 Applicability... the 60-day period following termination of pregnancy ends. States may further exclude from...

  2. 42 CFR 447.53 - Applicability; specification; multiple charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Provisions Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.53 Applicability... the 60-day period following termination of pregnancy ends. States may further exclude from...

  3. 42 CFR 447.53 - Applicability; specification; multiple charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Provisions Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.53 Applicability... the 60-day period following termination of pregnancy ends. States may further exclude from...

  4. Resist charging effect correction function qualification for photomasks production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorkin, Vadim; Finken, Michael; Wandel, Timo; Nakayamada, Noriaki; Cantrell, G. R.

    2014-10-01

    We quantitatively evaluate Nuflare's latest resist charging effect correction (CEC) model for advanced photomask production using e-beam lithography. Functionality of this CEC model includes the simulation of static and timedependent charging effects together with an improved calibration method. CEC model calibration is performed by polynomial fitting of image placement distortions induced by various beam scattering effects on a special test design with writing density variations. CEC model parameters can be fine tuned for different photomask blank materials facilitating resist charging compensation maps for different product layers. Application of this CEC model into production yields a significant reduction in photomask image placement (IP), as well as improving photomask overlay between critical neighbouring layers. The correlations between IP improvement facilitated by this CEC model and single mask parameters are presented and discussed. The layer design specifics, resist and blank materials, coupled with their required exposure parameters are observed to be the major influences on CEC model performance.

  5. Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-05-17

    Continuous efforts have been devoted to searching for sustainable energy resources to alleviate the upcoming energy crises. Among various types of new energy resources, solar energy has been considered as one of the most promising choices, since it is clean, sustainable, and safe. Moreover, solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy, with a total power of 173 000 terawatts striking Earth continuously. Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, which could potentially provide continuous and flexible energy supplies, has been investigated extensively. However, the conversion efficiency is still relatively low since complicated physical, electrical, and chemical processes are involved. Therefore, carefully designed photocatalysts with a wide absorption range of solar illumination, a high conductivity for charge carriers, a small number of recombination centers, and fast surface reaction kinetics are required to achieve a high activity. This Account describes our recent efforts to enhance the utilization of charge carriers for semiconductor photocatalysts toward efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During photocatalytic reactions, photogenerated electrons and holes are involved in complex processes to convert solar energy into chemical energy. The initial step is the generation of charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts, which could be enhanced by extending the light absorption range. Integration of plasmonic materials and introduction of self-dopants have been proved to be effective methods to improve the light absorption ability of photocatalysts to produce larger amounts of photogenerated charge carriers. Subsequently, the photogenerated electrons and holes migrate to the surface. Therefore, acceleration of the transport process can result in enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency. Different strategies such as morphology control and conductivity improvement have been demonstrated to achieve this goal. Fine-tuning of the

  6. A threshold effect for spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    The borderline case between no charging and large (kV) negative potentials for eclipse charging events on geosynchronous satellites is investigated, and the dependence of this transition on a threshold energy in the ambient plasma is examined. Data from the Applied Technology Satellite 6 and P78-2 (SCATHA) show that plasma sheet fluxes must extend above 10 keV for these satellites to charge in eclipse. The threshold effect is a result of the shape of the normal secondary yield curve, in particular the high energy crossover, where the secondary yield drops below 1. It is found that a large portion of the ambient electron flux must exceed this energy for a negative current to exist.

  7. Studies of the pulse charge of lead-acid batteries for PV applications. Part III. Electrolyte concentration effects on the electrochemical performance of the positive plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, A.; Delaille, A.; Karoui, F.; Perrin, M.; Lemaire, E.; Mattera, F.

    2008-05-01

    In the third part of this work the effects of the sulphuric acid concentration on the positive plate discharge capacity, impedance and oxygen overvoltage are discussed. It has been found that the full discharge capacity of the positive plate is available down to electrolyte concentrations of 3 mol l-1 (s.g. 1.18 g ml-1). At further acid dilution, capacity of the positive plate declines, keeping the utilization of the sulphuric acid about 50%. Decreasing the acid concentration, the oxygen overvoltage decreases with a factor of 12-18 mV M-1, excluding the effect of the equilibrium potential of the oxygen electrode as a function of pH. The capacitance of the electrical double layer decrease linearly with the dilution of the sulphuric acid suggesting strong adsorption effects. This suggestion has been confirmed from the measurements of potential of the zero charge of the positive plate, which increases from 1.11 to 1.34 V vs. Ag/Ag2SO4 in the region 1.11-4.60 M H2SO4. From the measurement of the time constant of the electronic transfer through the gel part of the lead dioxide (Tgel) as a function of the acid concentration and the applied potential, a change in the mechanism of the lead dioxide hydration has been estimated-below 1 M H2SO4Tgel increases sharply, showing sharp increases of the extent of the hydration. The dilution of the electrolyte increases substantially the value of average double layer current in the beginning of the charge. During the pulse overcharge at the employed frequency of 1 Hz, the average double layer current is equal to the pulse amplitude, suggesting that the maximal efficiency of the pulse charge is reached.

  8. Effective dynamics of a classical point charge

    SciTech Connect

    Polonyi, Janos

    2014-03-15

    The effective Lagrangian of a point charge is derived by eliminating the electromagnetic field within the framework of the classical closed time path formalism. The short distance singularity of the electromagnetic field is regulated by an UV cutoff. The Abraham–Lorentz force is recovered and its similarity to quantum anomalies is underlined. The full cutoff-dependent linearized equation of motion is obtained, no runaway trajectories are found but the effective dynamics shows acausality if the cutoff is beyond the classical charge radius. The strength of the radiation reaction force displays a pole in its cutoff-dependence in a manner reminiscent of the Landau-pole of perturbative QED. Similarity between the dynamical breakdown of the time reversal invariance and dynamical symmetry breaking is pointed out. -- Highlights: •Extension of the classical action principle for dissipative systems. •New derivation of the Abraham–Lorentz force for a point charge. •Absence of a runaway solution of the Abraham–Lorentz force. •Acausality in classical electrodynamics. •Renormalization of classical electrodynamics of point charges.

  9. Charged Polymer Membranes for Environmental/Energy Applications.

    PubMed

    Kamcev, Jovan; Freeman, Benny D

    2016-06-01

    Ion exchange membranes are used in various membrane-based processes (e.g., electrodialysis, fuel cells). Charged solute transport is largely governed by the charged groups on the polymer backbone. In this review, fundamental relationships describing salt permeability and ionic conductivity, as well as water permeability, in charged polymers are developed within the framework of the Nernst-Planck and solution-diffusion models. The influence of fixed charge groups and polymer structure on water sorption and diffusion is discussed. Current understanding of ion partitioning in charged polymers, focusing on the use of thermodynamic models (i.e., Donnan theory) to describe such phenomena, is summarized. Ion diffusivity data from the literature are interpreted using a model developed by Mackie and Meares to assess relative and absolute effects of the polymer and fixed charge groups on ion diffusivity. Furthermore, membrane requirements for several important technologies are listed. Knowledge gaps and opportunities for fundamental research are also discussed. PMID:26979410

  10. Charge exchange reactions and applications to astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Ha, Eunja; Kajino, T.

    2012-11-01

    Neutrino-induced reactions have been known to play important roles as the neutrino process on the nucleosynthesis in core collapsing supernovae (SNe) explosions because expected neutrino flux and energy are sufficiently high enough to excite many relevant nuclei in spite of small cross sections of the weak interaction. However, we do not have enough data for the neutrino reaction to be exploited in the network calculation. Only a sparse data in the relevant energy range is known, in specific, for 12C. Therefore we have to rely on theoretical estimation of the reaction, which has two different modes, charge current (CC) and neutral current (NC). In particular, CC reactions are closely related to charge exchange reactions (CEXRs) which are feasible in the experiment, such as, (p,n) or (n,p) reactions. These CEXRs are usually dominated by the Gamow-Teller (GT) transition in the lower energy region. In this respect, any theoretical approaches for the neutrino reaction should be investigated for the CEXR because we have and expect more useful experimental data. After confirming our models to the GT strength deduced from the CEXR, we calculated neutrino-induced reactions in the energy range below the quasielastic region for nuclei of astrophysical importance. Our calculations are carried out with the Quasi-particle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA), which successfully described the nuclear beta decays of relevant nuclei. To describe neutrino-nucleus reactions, general multipole transitions by the weak interaction are considered for CC and NC reactions. Both reactions are described in a theoretical framework. Our results are shown to well reproduce the data from CEXRs and the sparse experimental data related to the neutrino-induced reaction, and further extended for neutrino reactions on various nuclear targets. Parts of the results are reported in this talk.

  11. Conference on Charge-Coupled Device Technology and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Papers were presented from the conference on charge coupled device technology and applications. The following topics were investigated: data processing; infrared; devices and testing; electron-in, x-ray, radiation; and applications. The emphasis was on the advances of mutual relevance and potential significance both to industry and NASA's current and future requirements in all fields of imaging, signal processing and memory.

  12. Magnetic field effect on charged Brownian swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, M.; Velasco, R. M.; Jiménez-Aquino, J. I.

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the effective diffusion of a spherical self-propelled charged particle swimming at low Reynolds number, and subject to a time-dependent magnetic field and thermal agitation. We find that the presence of an external magnetic field may reduce or enhance (depending on the type of swimming and magnetic field applied) the swimmer's effective diffusion, hence we get another possible strategy to control its displacement. For swimmers performing reciprocal motion, and under an oscillating time-dependent magnetic field, mechanical resonance appears when the swimmer and magnetic frequencies coincide, thus enhancing the particle's effective diffusion. Our analytical results are compared with Brownian Dynamics simulations and we obtain excellent agreement.

  13. Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes: Effect of charge distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Mingtian; Li, Baohui E-mail: baohui@nankai.edu.cn; Zhou, Jihan; Su, Cuicui; Niu, Lin; Liang, Dehai E-mail: baohui@nankai.edu.cn

    2015-05-28

    Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in a solution is investigated using a combination of computer simulations and experiments, focusing on the influence of polyelectrolyte charge distributions along the chains on the structure of the polyelectrolyte complexes. The simulations are performed using Monte Carlo with the replica-exchange algorithm for three model systems where each system is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged model polyelectrolyte chains (EGEG){sub 5}/(KGKG){sub 5}, (EEGG){sub 5}/(KKGG){sub 5}, and (EEGG){sub 5}/(KGKG){sub 5}, in a solution including explicit solvent molecules. Among the three model systems, only the charge distributions along the chains are not identical. Thermodynamic quantities are calculated as a function of temperature (or ionic strength), and the microscopic structures of complexes are examined. It is found that the three systems have different transition temperatures, and form complexes with different sizes, structures, and densities at a given temperature. Complex microscopic structures with an alternating arrangement of one monolayer of E/K monomers and one monolayer of G monomers, with one bilayer of E and K monomers and one bilayer of G monomers, and with a mixture of monolayer and bilayer of E/K monomers in a box shape and a trilayer of G monomers inside the box are obtained for the three mixture systems, respectively. The experiments are carried out for three systems where each is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged peptide chains. Each peptide chain is composed of Lysine (K) and glycine (G) or glutamate (E) and G, in solution, and the chain length and amino acid sequences, and hence the charge distribution, are precisely controlled, and all of them are identical with those for the corresponding model chain. The complexation behavior and complex structures are characterized through laser light scattering and atomic force microscopy measurements. The order

  14. Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes: Effect of charge distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Mingtian; Zhou, Jihan; Su, Cuicui; Niu, Lin; Liang, Dehai; Li, Baohui

    2015-05-01

    Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in a solution is investigated using a combination of computer simulations and experiments, focusing on the influence of polyelectrolyte charge distributions along the chains on the structure of the polyelectrolyte complexes. The simulations are performed using Monte Carlo with the replica-exchange algorithm for three model systems where each system is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged model polyelectrolyte chains (EGEG)5/(KGKG)5, (EEGG)5/(KKGG)5, and (EEGG)5/(KGKG)5, in a solution including explicit solvent molecules. Among the three model systems, only the charge distributions along the chains are not identical. Thermodynamic quantities are calculated as a function of temperature (or ionic strength), and the microscopic structures of complexes are examined. It is found that the three systems have different transition temperatures, and form complexes with different sizes, structures, and densities at a given temperature. Complex microscopic structures with an alternating arrangement of one monolayer of E/K monomers and one monolayer of G monomers, with one bilayer of E and K monomers and one bilayer of G monomers, and with a mixture of monolayer and bilayer of E/K monomers in a box shape and a trilayer of G monomers inside the box are obtained for the three mixture systems, respectively. The experiments are carried out for three systems where each is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged peptide chains. Each peptide chain is composed of Lysine (K) and glycine (G) or glutamate (E) and G, in solution, and the chain length and amino acid sequences, and hence the charge distribution, are precisely controlled, and all of them are identical with those for the corresponding model chain. The complexation behavior and complex structures are characterized through laser light scattering and atomic force microscopy measurements. The order of the apparent weight-averaged molar

  15. Idea to application: you are in charge.

    PubMed

    Wells, N; Hurley, A C

    1999-01-01

    The grant writing process can be daunting to a novice investigator. This article focuses on three inter-related activities that lead to a completed grant application. The first activity involves developing the research team. Selection of colleagues who will strengthen and support the research ideas is an early first step to developing a competitive grant application. It is important to communicate clearly the roles and responsibilities of each team member. The second activity is development of the scientific plan-the research proposal-from specific aims to plans for data analysis. Strategies used to review the literature, synthesize existing knowledge, develop the argument for the research proposal, and select the most appropriate method are discussed. The third activity involves developing a business plan-the budget-that demonstrates clearly the investigator's ability to complete the proposed research. These three activities are set within a timeline to guide investigators in successful completion of a grant application. PMID:10369530

  16. Piezolectric Charging for Smart Fabric Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackworth, Ross; Moriera, Julie; Kotha, Ramakrishna; Maxwell, Robert; Ayon, Arturo

    2010-10-01

    We report on the feasibility of employing flexible poly(vinylidene fluoride), or pvdf, piezoelectric membranes to be used to generate an electrical charge for powering portable electronics. By converting a person's naturally expended mechanical energy into useful electrical energy, the batteries currently in use in portable electronic devices may be minimized, as well as made efficiently green. Our current research includes an innovative design and fabrication method that integrates a flexible piezoelectric onto clothing similar to previous works, our approach is to build the devices directly onto the fabric allowing for low temperature processes (less than 200 C). The device will consist of a bottom electrode/wearable fabric, a piezoelectric layer and a top electrode to complete the power generating smart fabric. A membrane 6 μm thick of PVDF is combined with 100 nm sputtered gold electrodes on the outer surfaces to allow for electrode contacts. The contacts are connected to a data collection device, a rechargeable battery, or a capacitor as required for energy storage and evaluation. The electrodes are connected to a DAC system to determine the voltage output. The membrane generates a voltage of approximately 200 mV, with a background noise level of 40 mV.

  17. Effect of charge memory in organic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belogorokhov, I. A.; Kotova, M. S.; Donskov, A. A.; Dronov, M. A.; Belogorokhova, L. I.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of charge memory in composites based on polymer molecules has been investigated. Resistive switchings in sandwich samples prepared by lamination from commercially available polymers (polystyrene and poly(2,3-dihydrothieno-1,4-dioxine)-poly(styrene sulphonate) are analyzed. It is shown that the characteristic switching times in the composite samples reach several nanoseconds and the number of switchings exceeds 106. Switchings are observed in electric fields much below the breakdown threshold, which indicates the absence of destructive processes in the polymer.

  18. 42 CFR 447.53 - Applicability; specification; multiple charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability; specification; multiple charges. 447.53 Section 447.53 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payments: General Provisions Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment...

  19. The effect of space charges on conduction current in polymer by modified PEA method

    SciTech Connect

    Hwangbo, S.; Yun, D.H.; Yi, D.Y.; Han, M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Direct measurement of space charge and conduction current was carried out on low-density polyethylene degraded by ultra-violet using a pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) method. Dominant hetero-charges were formed near both electrodes by high voltage application and was found to be deeply trapped. In this paper, the effect of temperature and electric field reversal on the detrapping and trapping of space charges was investigated and the role of space charge in electrical conduction was discussed quantitatively. The main mechanism for detrapping and trapping of space charges was Poole-Frenkel model.

  20. A charge-balanced pulse generator for nerve stimulation applications.

    PubMed

    Gwilliam, James Christian; Horch, Kenneth

    2008-02-15

    Nerve stimulation typically employs charge-balanced current injection with a delay between the cathodal and anodal phases. Typically these waveforms are produced using a microprocessor. However, once appropriate stimulus parameters are chosen, they tend to remain fixed within an application, making computational power unnecessary. In such cases, it would be advantageous to replace the microprocessor with integrated circuitry and hardware controls for maintaining fixed pulse parameters. We describe here an architecture that generates controllable charge-balanced pulses but requires no computer processing components. The circuitry has been engineered such that minimum size and power consumption can be achieved when fabricated into an IC chip, making it ideal for many long term, portable nerve stimulation devices and applications. PMID:17950907

  1. Charge detection mass spectrometry: Instrumentation & applications to viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, Elizabeth E.

    For over three decades, electrospray ionization (ESI) has been used to ionize non-covalent complexes and subsequently transfer the intact ion into the gas phase for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. ESI generates a distribution of multiple charged ions, resulting in an m/z spectrum comprised of a series of peaks, known as a charge state envelope. To obtain mass information, the number of charges for each peak must be deduced. For smaller biological analytes like peptides, the charge states are sufficiently resolved and this process is straightforward. For macromolecular complexes exceeding ~100 kDa, this process is complicated by the broadening and shifting of charge states due to incomplete desolvation, salt adduction, and inherent mass heterogeneity. As the analyte mass approaches the MDa regime, the m/z spectrum is often comprised of a broad distribution of unresolved charge states. In such cases, mass determination is precluded. Charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS) is an emerging MS technique for determining the masses of heterogeneous, macromolecular complexes. In CDMS, the m/z and z of single ions are measured concurrently so that mass is easily calculated. With this approach, deconvolution of an m/z spectrum is unnecessary. This measurement is carried out by passing macroions through a conductive cylinder. The induced image charge on the cylindrical detector provides information about m/z and z: the m/z is related to its time-of-flight through the detector, and the z is related to the intensity of the image charge. We have applied CDMS to study the self-assembly of virus capsids. Late-stage intermediates in the assembly of hepatitis B virus, a devastating human pathogen, have been identified. This is the first time that such intermediates have been detected and represent a significant advancement towards understanding virus capsid assembly. CDMS has also been used to identify oversized, non-icosahedral polymorphs in the assembly of woodchuck hepatitis

  2. Design guidelines for assessing and controlling spacecraft charging effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.; Garrett, H. B.; Whittlesey, A. C.; Stevens, N. J.

    1984-01-01

    The need for uniform criteria, or guidelines, to be used in all phases of spacecraft design is discussed. Guidelines were developed for the control of absolute and differential charging of spacecraft surfaces by the lower energy space charged particle environment. Interior charging due to higher energy particles is not considered. A guide to good design practices for assessing and controlling charging effects is presented. Uniform design practices for all space vehicles are outlined.

  3. Charge Transport in Hybrid Halide Perovskite Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurchescu, Oana

    Hybrid organic-inorganic trihalide perovskite (HTP) materials exhibit a strong optical absorption, tunable band gap, long carrier lifetimes and fast charge carrier transport. These remarkable properties, coupled with their reduced complexity processing, make the HTPs promising contenders for large scale, low-cost thin film optoelectronic applications. But in spite of the remarkable demonstrations of high performance solar cells, light-emitting diodes and field-effect transistor devices, all of which took place in a very short time period, numerous questions related to the nature and dynamics of the charge carriers and their relation to device performance, stability and reliability still remain. This presentation describes the electrical properties of HTPs evaluated from field-effect transistor measurements. The electrostatic gating of provides an unique platform for the study of intrinsic charge transport in these materials, and, at the same time, expand the use of HTPs towards switching electronic devices, which have not been explored previously. We fabricated FETs on SiO2 and polymer dielectrics from spin coating, thermal evaporation and spray deposition and compare their properties. CH3NH3PbI3-xClx can reach balanced electron and hole mobilities of 10 cm2/Vs upon tuning the thin-film microstructure, injection and the defect density at the semiconductor/dielectric interface. The work was performed in collaboration with Yaochuan Mei (Wake Forest University), Chuang Zhang, and Z. Valy Vardeny (University of Utah). The work is supported by ONR Grant N00014-15-1-2943.

  4. Boundary effects of electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations on charged particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiang, J.-T.; Wu, T.-H.; Leet, D.-S.

    2008-10-10

    The nature of electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations in the presence of the boundary is investigated from their effects on the dynamics of charged particles. These effects may be observable via the velocity fluctuations of the charge particles near the conducting plate, where the effects of vacuum fluctuations are found to be anisotrpoic. The corresponding stochastic equation of motion for the charged particle is also derived under the semiclassical approximation.

  5. Morphology Effects on Space Charge Characteristics of Low Density Polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou; Yuanxiang; Wang; Yunshan; Zahn, Markus; Wang; Ninghua; Sun; Qinghua; Liang; Xidong; Guan; Zhichen

    2011-01-01

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) film samples with different morphology were prepared by three kinds of annealing methods which were different in cooling rates in this study. A pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) space charge measurement system was improved to solve the surface discharge problems for small samples applied with a high voltage. Negative direct current (DC) fields from 50 to above 220 kV/mm were applied to the samples. The influences of morphologies on space charge and space charge packet characteristics were measured by the improved high voltage withstand (HVW) PEA system. Mobility and trap depth of released charges were calculated by space charge decay. It was found that there is a different probability of space charge packet initiation under applied field from -60 to -100 kV/mm. Average velocity and mobility of the space charge packets were calculated by space charge packet dynamics. It was found that the lower cooling rate samples have higher crystallinity, more homo-charge accumulation, lower mobility and deeper trap depth. The mechanism of morphological effects on space charge phenomena have been presumed to give a plausible explanation for their inherent relationships. The morphology in the metal-dielectric interface and in the bulk is convincingly suggested to be responsible for the injection and propagation processes of space charge. A model of positive space charge initiation in LDPE samples was also suggested and analyzed. The mechanism of morphological effects and the charge injection model are well fit with the injection and propagation processes of space charge. The different effects of morphology in the metal-dielectric interface and in the bulk of polymers are stressed.

  6. Optimizing small wind turbine performance in battery charging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouilhet, Stephen; Muljadi, Eduard; Holz, Richard; Gevorgian, Vahan

    1995-05-01

    Many small wind turbine generators (10 kW or less) consist of a variable speed rotor driving a permanent magnet synchronous generator (alternator). One application of such wind turbines is battery charging, in which the generator is connected through a rectifier to a battery bank. The wind turbine electrical interface is essentially the same whether the turbine is part of a remote power supply for telecommunications, a standalone residential power system, or a hybrid village power system, in short, any system in which the wind generator output is rectified and fed into a DC bus. Field experience with such applications has shown that both the peak power output and the total energy capture of the wind turbine often fall short of expectations based on rotor size and generator rating. In this paper, the authors present a simple analytical model of the typical wind generator battery charging system that allows one to calculate actual power curves if the generator and rotor properties are known. The model clearly illustrates how the load characteristics affect the generator output. In the second part of this paper, the authors present four approaches to maximizing energy capture from wind turbines in battery charging applications. The first of these is to determine the optimal battery bank voltage for a given WTG. The second consists of adding capacitors in series with the generator. The third approach is to place an optimizing DC/DC voltage converter between the rectifier and the battery bank. The fourth is a combination of the series capacitors and the optimizing voltage controller. They also discuss both the limitations and the potential performance gain associated with each of the four configurations.

  7. Effect of electrical charges and fields on injury and viability of airborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mainelis, Gediminas; Górny, Rafał L; Reponen, Tiina; Trunov, Mikhaylo; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Baron, Paul; Yadav, Jagjit; Willeke, Klaus

    2002-07-20

    In this study, the effects of the electric charges and fields on the viability of airborne microorganisms were investigated. The electric charges of different magnitude and polarity were imparted on airborne microbial cells by a means of induction charging. The airborne microorganisms carrying different electric charge levels were then extracted by an electric mobility analyzer and collected using a microbial sampler. It was found that the viability of Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria, used as a model for sensitive bacteria, carrying a net charge from 4100 negative to 30 positive elementary charges ranged between 40% and 60%; the viability of the cells carrying >2700 positive charges was below 1.5%. In contrast, the viability of the stress-resistant spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (used as simulant of anthrax-causing Bacillus anthracis spores when testing bioaerosol sensors in various studies), was not affected by the amount of electric charges on the spores. Because bacterial cells depend on their membrane potential for basic metabolic activities, drastic changes occurring in the membrane potential during aerosolization and the local electric fields induced by the imposed charges appeared to affect the sensitive cells' viability. These findings facilitate applications of electric charging for environmental control purposes involving sterilization of bacterial cells by imposing high electric charges on them. The findings from this study can also be used in the development of new bioaerosol sampling methods based on electrostatic principles. PMID:12115440

  8. Understanding the effect of space charge on instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Chao, A.; Chin, Y. H.

    2015-05-03

    The combined effect of space charge and wall impedance on transverse instabilities is an important consideration in the design and operation of high intensity hadron machines as well as an intrinsic academic interest. This study explores the combined effects of space charge and wall impedance using various simplified models in an attempt to produce a better understanding of their interplay.

  9. Space charge and quantum effects on electron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Kevin L.; Lebowitz, Joel; Lau, Y. Y.; Luginsland, John

    2012-03-01

    Space charge effects reduce electron emission by altering the surface barrier via two effects: increasing the barrier height (Schottky factor) and width to electron emission by lowering the surface field and changing the magnitude of the dipole associated with electron density variation. A one-dimensional emission model using a transit time argument to account for charge in the anode-cathode (AK) gap and an analytical model of the dipole is used to approximate the effects of each factor on the current density. The transit time model is compared to the experimental data of Longo [J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6966 (2003)] for thermal emission. Changes in the dipole contribution are primarily associated with tunneling and therefore field emission. The transit time plus dipole modification is compared to the experimental data of Barbour et al. [Phys. Rev. 92, 45 (1953)] for field emission. The model's application to thermal-field, and photoemission in general is discussed, with the former corresponding to continuous current limit and the latter to a pulsed current limit of the model.

  10. Studies of space-charge effects in ultrashort electron bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Fubiani, Gwenael; Leemans, Wim; Esarey, Eric

    2000-06-01

    Laser-driven plasma-based accelerators are capable of producing ultrashort electron bunches in which the longitudinal size is much smaller than the transverse size. We present theoretical studies of the transport of such electron bunches in vacuum. Space charge forces acting on the bunch are calculated using an ellipsoidal bunch shape model. The effects of space charge forces and energy spread on longitudinal and transverse bunch properties are evaluated for various bunch lengths energies and amount of charge.

  11. Effects of Charged Particles on Human Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Held, Kathryn D.; Kawamura, Hidemasa; Kaminuma, Takuya; Paz, Athena Evalour S.; Yoshida, Yukari; Liu, Qi; Willers, Henning; Takahashi, Akihisa

    2016-01-01

    The use of charged particle therapy in cancer treatment is growing rapidly, in large part because the exquisite dose localization of charged particles allows for higher radiation doses to be given to tumor tissue while normal tissues are exposed to lower doses and decreased volumes of normal tissues are irradiated. In addition, charged particles heavier than protons have substantial potential clinical advantages because of their additional biological effects, including greater cell killing effectiveness, decreased radiation resistance of hypoxic cells in tumors, and reduced cell cycle dependence of radiation response. These biological advantages depend on many factors, such as endpoint, cell or tissue type, dose, dose rate or fractionation, charged particle type and energy, and oxygen concentration. This review summarizes the unique biological advantages of charged particle therapy and highlights recent research and areas of particular research needs, such as quantification of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for various tumor types and radiation qualities, role of genetic background of tumor cells in determining response to charged particles, sensitivity of cancer stem-like cells to charged particles, role of charged particles in tumors with hypoxic fractions, and importance of fractionation, including use of hypofractionation, with charged particles. PMID:26904502

  12. Effects of polarization-charge shielding in microwave heating

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M. S.; Lin, S. M.; Chiang, W. Y.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R.

    2015-08-15

    Heating of dielectric objects by radio frequency (RF) and microwaves has long been a method widely employed in scientific research and industrial applications. However, RF and microwave heating are often susceptible to an excessive temperature spread due to uneven energy deposition. The current study elucidates an important physical reason for this difficulty and proposes an effective remedy. Non-spherical samples are placed in an anechoic chamber, where it is irradiated by a traveling microwave wave with 99% intensity uniformity. Polarization charges induced on the samples tend to partially cancel the incident electric field and hence reduce the heating rate. The polarization-charge shielded heating rate is shown to be highly dependent on the sample's shape and its orientation relative to the wave electric field. For samples with a relatively high permittivity, the resultant uneven heating can become a major cause for the excessive temperature spread. It is also demonstrated that a circularly polarized wave, with its rapidly rotating electric field, can effectively even out the heating rate and hence the temperature spread.

  13. The Effect of Charge Reactive Metal Cases on Air Blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Wilson, William H.

    2009-12-01

    Experiments were conducted in a 23 m3 closed chamber using a charge encased in a cylindrical reactive metal case to study the effect on air blast from the case fragments. Parameters varied included case/charge mass ratio, charge diameter and charge type (i.e., detonation energy and pressure). The pressure histories measured on the chamber wall showed a double-shock front structure with an accelerating precursor shock followed by the primary shock, suggesting the early-time reaction of small case fragments. During the early reflections on the chamber wall, significant pressure rises versus the steel-cased and bare charges indicated combustion of a large amount of small case particles generated by secondary fragmentation. The analysis of explosion pressures and recovered fragments and solid products gave an expression for burnt casing mass as a function of Gurney velocity and charge diameter. The equivalent bare charge mass that yields the same explosion pressure as the cased charge increased with case/charge mass ratio and reached 2.5 times charge mass at the ratio of 1.75.

  14. Effects of surface charge on the anomalous light extinction from metallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sijercic, Edin; Leung, P. T.

    2016-07-01

    The effects of extraneous surface charges on the anomalous extinction from metallic nanoparticles are studied via an application of the extended Mie theory by Bohren and Hunt. Due to the sensitivity of the higher multipolar resonance on the surface charges, it is found that quenching of the anomalous resonance can be observed with presence of only a modest amount of charges on these particles. The observed effects thus provide a rather sensitive mechanism for the monitoring of the neutrality of these nanoparticles using far field scattering approaches.

  15. Longitudinal space charge effects near transition

    SciTech Connect

    Pozdeyev,E.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Marti, F.; York, R.C.

    2009-05-04

    Experimental and numerical studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics in the Small Isochronous Ring (SIR) at Michigan State University revealed a fast, space-charge driven instability that did not fit the model of the negative mass instability. This paper proposes a simple analytical model explaining these results. Also, the paper compares the model to result s of experimental and numerical studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics in SIR.

  16. Physical interactions of charged particles for radiotherapy and space applications.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Cary

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the basic physics by which energetic charged particles deposit energy in matter is reviewed. Energetic charged particles are used for radiotherapy and are encountered in spaceflight, where they pose a health risk to astronauts. They interact with matter through nuclear and electromagnetic forces. Deposition of energy occurs mostly along the trajectory of the incoming particle, but depending on the type of incident particle and its energy, there is some nonzero probability for energy deposition relatively far from the nominal trajectory, either due to long-ranged knock-on electrons (sometimes called delta rays) or from the products of nuclear fragmentation, including neutrons. In the therapy setting, dose localization is of paramount importance, and the deposition of energy outside nominal treatment volumes complicates planning and increases the risk of secondary cancers as well as noncancer effects in normal tissue. Statistical effects are also important and will be discussed. In contrast to radiation therapy patients, astronauts in space receive comparatively small whole-body radiation doses from energetic charged particles and associated secondary radiation. A unique aspect of space radiation exposures is the high-energy heavy-ion component of the dose. This is not present in terrestrial exposures except in carbon-ion radiotherapy. Designers of space missions must limit exposures to keep risk within acceptable limits. These limits are, at present, defined for low-Earth orbit, but not for deep-space missions outside the geomagnetosphere. Most of the uncertainty in risk assessment for such missions comes from the lack of understanding of the biological effectiveness of the heavy-ion component, with a smaller component due to uncertainties in transport physics and dosimetry. These same uncertainties are also critical in the therapy setting. PMID:23032883

  17. Anisotropic charge Kondo effect in a triple quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Gwangsu; Park, Jinhong; Lee, S-S B; Sim, H-S

    2014-12-01

    We predict that an anisotropic charge Kondo effect appears in a triple quantum dot, when the system has twofold degenerate ground states of (1,1,0) and (0,0,1) charge configurations. Using bosonization and refermionization methods, we find that at low temperature the system has the two different phases of massive charge fluctuations between the two charge configurations and vanishing fluctuations, which are equivalent with the Kondo-screened and ferromagnetic phases of the anisotropic Kondo model, respectively. The phase transition is identifiable by electron conductance measurement, offering the possibility of experimentally exploring the anisotropic Kondo model. Our charge Kondo effect has a similar origin to that in a negative-U Anderson impurity. PMID:25526143

  18. Anisotropic Charge Kondo Effect in a Triple Quantum Dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Gwangsu; Park, Jinhong; Lee, S.-S. B.; Sim, H.-S.

    2014-12-01

    We predict that an anisotropic charge Kondo effect appears in a triple quantum dot, when the system has twofold degenerate ground states of (1,1,0) and (0,0,1) charge configurations. Using bosonization and refermionization methods, we find that at low temperature the system has the two different phases of massive charge fluctuations between the two charge configurations and vanishing fluctuations, which are equivalent with the Kondo-screened and ferromagnetic phases of the anisotropic Kondo model, respectively. The phase transition is identifiable by electron conductance measurement, offering the possibility of experimentally exploring the anisotropic Kondo model. Our charge Kondo effect has a similar origin to that in a negative-U Anderson impurity.

  19. Synchrotron radiation applications of charge coupled device detectors (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, R. ); Lowe, W.P.; MacHarrie, R.A. ); Brizard, C.; Rodricks, B.G. )

    1992-01-01

    Scientific charge coupled devices (CCDs) offer many opportunities for high brightness synchrotron radiation applications where good spatial resolution and fast data acquisition are important. We describe the use of virtual-phase CCD pixel arrays as two-dimensional area detectors illustrating the techniques with results from recent x-ray scattering, imaging, and absorption spectroscopy studies at NSLS, CHESS, SRC, and LURE DCI. The virtual phase architecture allows direct frontside illumination of the CCD detector chips giving advantages in the speed and sensitivity of the detector. Combining developments in x-ray optics (dispersive geometry), position sensitive area detectors (CCDs), and fast data acquisition, we have been able to perform time-resolved measurements at the microsecond level. Current developments include faster data transfer rates so that the single bunch timing structure of third generation synchrotron sources can be exploited.

  20. Effect of thermal fluctuations on a charged dilatonic black Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourhassan, Behnam; Faizal, Mir

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we will analyze the effect of thermal fluctuations on the thermodynamics of a charged dilatonic black Saturn. These thermal fluctuations will correct the thermodynamics of the charged dilatonic black Saturn. We will analyze the corrections to the thermodynamics of this system by first relating the fluctuations in the entropy to the fluctuations in the energy. Then, we will use the relation between entropy and a conformal field theory to analyze the fluctuations in the entropy. We will demonstrate that similar physical results are obtained from both these approaches. We will also study the effect of thermal fluctuations on the phase transition in this charged dilatonic black Saturn.

  1. Space-Charge Effects in a Gas Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D.D.

    2010-12-03

    Discussion of space-charge effects in a photoluminescence cell that will be used as a nondisruptive total energy monitor at the LCLS facility is presented. Regimes where primary photoelectrons will be confined within the X-ray beam aperture are identified. Effects of the space-charge on the further evolution of the electron and ion populations are discussed. Parameters of the afterglow plasma are evaluated. Conditions under which the detector output will be proportional to the pulse energy are defined.

  2. High-Resolution Field Effect Sensing of Ferroelectric Charges

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Hyoungsoo; Ryu, Kyunghee; Park, Hongsik; Park, Chulmin; Jeon, Daeyoung; Kim, Yong Kwan; Jung, Juhwan; Min, Dong-Ki; Kim, Yunseok; Lee, Ho Nyung; Park, Yoondong; Shin, Hyunjung; Hong, Seungbum

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale manipulation of surface charges and their imaging are essential for understanding local electronic behaviors of polar materials and advanced electronic devices. Electrostatic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy have been extensively used to probe and image local surface charges responsible for electrodynamics and transport phenomena. However, they rely on the weak electric force modulation of cantilever that limits both spatial and temporal resolutions. Here we present a field effect transistor embedded probe that can directly image surface charges on a length scale of 25 nm and a time scale of less than 125 {micro}s. On the basis of the calculation of net surface charges in a 25 nm diameter ferroelectric domain, we could estimate the charge density resolution to be as low as 0.08 {micro}C/cm{sup 2}, which is equivalent to 1/20 electron per nanometer square at room temperature.

  3. High resolution field effect sensing of ferroelectric charges.

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, H.; Ryu, K.; Park, H.; Park, C.; Jeon, D.; Kim, Y. K.; Jung, J.; Min, D.-K.; Kim, Y.; Lee, H. N.; Park, Y.; Shin, H.; Hong, S.

    2011-03-04

    Nanoscale manipulation of surface charges and their imaging are essential for understanding local electronic behaviors of polar materials and advanced electronic devices. Electrostatic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy have been extensively used to probe and image local surface charges responsible for electrodynamics and transport phenomena. However, they rely on the weak electric force modulation of cantilever that limits both spatial and temporal resolutions. Here we present a field effect transistor embedded probe that can directly image surface charges on a length scale of 25 nm and a time scale of less than 125 {micro}s. On the basis of the calculation of net surface charges in a 25 nm diameter ferroelectric domain, we could estimate the charge density resolution to be as low as 0.08 {micro}C/cm{sup 2}, which is equivalent to 1/20 electron per nanometer square at room temperature.

  4. High-resolution field effect sensing of ferroelectric charges.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hyoungsoo; Ryu, Kyunghee; Park, Hongsik; Park, Chulmin; Jeon, Daeyoung; Kim, Yong Kwan; Jung, Juhwan; Min, Dong-Ki; Kim, Yunseok; Lee, Ho Nyung; Park, Yoondong; Shin, Hyunjung; Hong, Seungbum

    2011-04-13

    Nanoscale manipulation of surface charges and their imaging are essential for understanding local electronic behaviors of polar materials and advanced electronic devices. Electrostatic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy have been extensively used to probe and image local surface charges responsible for electrodynamics and transport phenomena. However, they rely on the weak electric force modulation of cantilever that limits both spatial and temporal resolutions. Here we present a field effect transistor embedded probe that can directly image surface charges on a length scale of 25 nm and a time scale of less than 125 μs. On the basis of the calculation of net surface charges in a 25 nm diameter ferroelectric domain, we could estimate the charge density resolution to be as low as 0.08 μC/cm(2), which is equivalent to 1/20 electron per nanometer square at room temperature. PMID:21375284

  5. Transverse space charge effect calculation in the Synergia accelerator modeling toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Okonechnikov, Konstantin; Amundson, James; Macridin, Alexandru; /Fermilab

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes a transverse space charge effect calculation algorithm, developed in the context of accelerator modeling toolkit Synergia. The introduction to the space charge problem and the Synergia modeling toolkit short description are given. The developed algorithm is explained and the implementation is described in detail. As a result of this work a new space charge solver was developed and integrated into the Synergia toolkit. The solver showed correct results in comparison to existing Synergia solvers and delivered better performance in the regime where it is applicable.

  6. Quantum gravity effects on charged microblack holes thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasvandi, Niloofar; Soleimani, M. J.; Radiman, Shahidan; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.

    2016-08-01

    The charged black hole thermodynamics is corrected in terms of the quantum gravity effects. Most of the quantum gravity theories support the idea that near the Planck scale, the standard Heisenberg uncertainty principle should be reformulated by the so-called Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) which provides a perturbation framework to perform required modifications of the black hole quantities. In this paper, we consider the effects of the minimal length and maximal momentum as GUP type I and the minimal length, minimal momentum and maximal momentum as GUP type II on thermo dynamics of the charged TeV-scale black holes. We also generalized our study to the universe with the extra dimensions based on the ADD model. In this framework, the effect of the electrical charge on thermodynamics of the black hole and existence of the charged black hole remnants as a potential candidate for the dark matter particles are discussed.

  7. Differential algebraic methods for space charge modeling and applications to the University of Maryland Electron Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, Edward W.

    2011-12-01

    The future of particle accelerators is moving towards the intensity frontier; the need to place more particles into a smaller space is a common requirement of nearly all applications of particle accelerators. Putting large numbers of particles in a small space means that the mutual repulsion of these charged particles becomes a significant factor, this effect is called space charge. In this work we develop a series of differential algebra based methods to simulate the effects of space charge in particle accelerators. These methods were used to model the University of Maryland Electron Ring, a small 3.8 meter diameter 10 KeV electron storage ring designed to observe the effects of space charge in a safe, cost effective manner. The methods developed here are designed to not only simulate the effects of space charge on the motions of the test particles in the system but to add their effects to the transfer map of the system. Once they have been added useful information about the beam, such as tune shifts and chromaticities, can be extracted directly from the map. In order to make the simulation self consistent, the statistical moments of the distribution are used to create a self consistent Taylor series representing the distribution function, which is combined with pre-stored integrals solved using a Duffy transformation to find the potential. This method can not only find the map of the system, but also advance the particles under most conditions. For conditions where it cannot be used to accurately advance the particles a differential algebra based fast multipole method is implemented. By using differential algebras to create local expansions, noticeable time savings are found.

  8. Charge Breeding Application of EBIS/T Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kester, Oliver

    2009-03-10

    The demand of highly charged ions of isotopes from all mass regions of the nuclear chart for low energy experiment or for the post acceleration has driven the development of different charge breeding methods. Charge state breeder employ high charge state ion sources like the Electron Beam Ion Source/Trap (EBIS/T) and the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS). Existing radioactive beam facilities like REX-ISOLDE or ISAC (TRIUMF) are already using charge state boosters for the post acceleration of radioactive ions. Upcoming facilities like the MSU re-accelerator project, SPIRAL II, SPES, EURISOL and MATS within FAIR have identified the need of a breeding system, because of the demand for highly charged ions at low energies and due to the available budget. Charge state breeding with EBIS/T devices requires several steps, which need to be optimized. A beam of singly charged ions must be prepared prior to injection into an EBIS/T in order to match the acceptance of the electron beam. An efficient injection and short breeding times are required as well as a high abundance in one specific charge state, which can be manipulated in EBIS/T devices. Further issues of charge breeder development are extraction and purification of the wanted highly charged ion species. The present paper will review the efforts of the EBIS/T community and will give an overview of the planned and running facilities.

  9. Photoinduced charge-transfer materials for nonlinear optical applications

    DOEpatents

    McBranch, Duncan W.

    2006-10-24

    A method using polyelectrolyte self-assembly for preparing multi-layered organic molecular materials having individual layers which exhibit ultrafast electron and/or energy transfer in a controlled direction occurring over the entire structure. Using a high molecular weight, water-soluble, anionic form of poly-phenylene vinylene, self-assembled films can be formed which show high photoluminescence quantum efficiency (QE). The highest emission QE is achieved using poly(propylene-imine) (PPI) dendrimers as cationic binders. Self-quenching of the luminescence is observed as the solid polymer film thickness is increased and can be reversed by inserting additional spacer layers of transparent polyelectrolytes between each active conjugated layer, such that the QE grows with thickness. A red shift of the luminescence is also observed as additional PPV layers are added. This effect persists as self-quenching is eliminated. Charge transfer superlattices can be formed by additionally incorporating C.sub.60 acceptor layers.

  10. Design of low energy bunch compressors with space charge effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, A.; Willeke, F.; Yu, L. H.; Yang, L.; Shaftan, T.; Wang, G.; Li, Y.; Hidaka, Y.; Qiang, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore a method to manipulate low energy electron bunches in a space charge dominated regime, and we use this method to design low energy linac bunch compressors to compress electron bunches in a space charge dominated regime. In the method, we use the space charge effects instead of avoiding them; i.e., we use the space charge forces to generate the required energy chirp instead of the ordinary method which uses the rf accelerating system to generate the chirp. We redefine the concepts of the dispersion function and beta functions in a space charge dominated regime to guide the optimization. Using this method, we study the low energy (5-22 MeV) linac bunch compressor design to produce short (˜150 fs ) and small size (˜30 μ m ) bunches for the electron beam slicing project. The low energy linac bunch compressors work in a space charge dominated regime, and the bunches at the downstream of the gun have a negative energy chirp due to the space charge effects. To provide compression for the negative energy chirped bunch, we design a positive R56 dispersive section using a four-dipole chicane with several quadrupole magnets. We have designed low energy linac bunch compressors with different photocathode rf guns. For example, one linac bunch compressor with the BNL photocathode electron rf gun has achieved a low energy bunch with the 166 fs rms bunch length, 28 and 31 μ m rms beam size in the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively, at 5 MeV with 50 pC charge. Another example with LBNL's very-high frequency gun has achieved a low energy bunch with the 128 fs rms bunch length, 42 and 25 μ m rms beam size in the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively, at 22 MeV with 200 pC charge.

  11. Impact of charging efficiency variations on the effectiveness of variable-rate-based charging strategies for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Francesco A.; Cappuccino, Gregorio

    The huge energy demand coming from the increasing diffusion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) poses a significant challenge to electricity utilities and vehicle manufacturers in developing smart charging systems interacting in real time with distribution grids. These systems will have to implement smart charging strategies for PEV batteries on the basis of negotiation phases between the user and the electric utility regarding information about battery chemistries, tariffs, required energy and time available for completing the charging. Strategies which adapt the charging current to grid load conditions are very attractive. Indeed, they allow full exploitation of the grid capacity, with a consequent greater final state of charge and higher utility financial profits with respect to approaches based on a fixed charging rate. The paper demonstrates that the charging current should be chosen also taking into account the effect that different charging rates may have on the charging efficiency. To this aim, the performances of two smart variable-rate-based charging strategies, taken as examples, are compared by considering possible realistic relationships between the charging efficiency and the charging rate. The analysis gives useful guidelines for the development of smart charging strategies for PEVs as well as for next-generation battery charging and smart grid management systems.

  12. Polarization charge: Theory and applications to aqueous interfaces.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bobo; Agnihotri, Mithila V; Chen, Si-Han; Black, Richie; Singer, Sherwin J

    2016-04-28

    When an electric field is applied across an interface, a dielectric will acquire a polarization charge layer, assumed infinitely thin in the theory of macroscopic dielectrics and also in most treatments of electrokinetic phenomena in nanoscale structures. In this work we explore the polarization charge layer in molecular detail. Various formal relations and a linear response theory for the polarization charge are presented. Properties of the polarization charge layer are studied for three aqueous interfaces: air-water, a crystalline silica surface with water, and an amorphous silica surface with water. The polarization charge is calculated from equilibrium simulations via linear response theory and from non-equilibrium simulations, and the results are within statistical error. The polarization charge is found to be distributed within a region whose width is on the order of a nanometer. PMID:27131558

  13. Polarization charge: Theory and applications to aqueous interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Bobo; Agnihotri, Mithila V.; Chen, Si-Han; Black, Richie; Singer, Sherwin J.

    2016-04-01

    When an electric field is applied across an interface, a dielectric will acquire a polarization charge layer, assumed infinitely thin in the theory of macroscopic dielectrics and also in most treatments of electrokinetic phenomena in nanoscale structures. In this work we explore the polarization charge layer in molecular detail. Various formal relations and a linear response theory for the polarization charge are presented. Properties of the polarization charge layer are studied for three aqueous interfaces: air-water, a crystalline silica surface with water, and an amorphous silica surface with water. The polarization charge is calculated from equilibrium simulations via linear response theory and from non-equilibrium simulations, and the results are within statistical error. The polarization charge is found to be distributed within a region whose width is on the order of a nanometer.

  14. Charged-particle mutagenesis II. Mutagenic effects of high energy charged particles in normal human fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D. J.; Tsuboi, K.; Nguyen, T.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-10-01

    The biological effects of high LET charged particles are a subject of great concern with regard to the prediction of radiation risk in space. In this report, mutagenic effects of high LET charged particles are quantitatively measured using primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts, and the spectrum of induced mutations are analyzed. The LET of the charged particles ranged from 25 KeV/μm to 975 KeV/gmm with particle energy (on the cells) between 94 - 603 MeV/u. The X-chromosome linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus was used as the target gene. Exposure to these high LET charged particles resulted in exponential survival curves; whereas, mutation induction was fitted by a linear model. The Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for cell-killing ranged from 3.73 to 1.25, while that for mutant induction ranged from 5.74 to 0.48. Maximum RBE values were obtained at the LET of 150 keV/μm. The inactivation cross-section (αi) and the action-section for mutant induction (αm) ranged from 2.2 to 92.0 μm2 and 0.09 to 5.56 × 10-3 μm2, respectively. The maximum values were obtained by 56Fe with an LET of 200 keV/μm. The mutagenicity (αm/αi) ranged from 2.05 to 7.99 × 10-5 with the maximum value at 150 keV/μm. Furthermore, molecular analysis of mutants induced by charged particles indicates that higher LET beams are more likely to cause larger deletions in the hprt locus.

  15. Charged-particle mutagenesis II. Mutagenic effects of high energy charged particles in normal human fibroblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, D. J.; Tsuboi, K.; Nguyen, T.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The biological effects of high LET charged particles are a subject of great concern with regard to the prediction of radiation risk in space. In this report, mutagenic effects of high LET charged particles are quantitatively measured using primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts, and the spectrum of induced mutations are analyzed. The LET of the charged particles ranged from 25 KeV/micrometer to 975 KeV/micrometer with particle energy (on the cells) between 94-603 MeV/u. The X-chromosome linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus was used as the target gene. Exposure to these high LET charged particles resulted in exponential survival curves; whereas, mutation induction was fitted by a linear model. The Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for cell-killing ranged from 3.73 to 1.25, while that for mutant induction ranged from 5.74 to 0.48. Maximum RBE values were obtained at the LET of 150 keV/micrometer. The inactivation cross-section (alpha i) and the action cross-section for mutant induction (alpha m) ranged from 2.2 to 92.0 micrometer2 and 0.09 to 5.56 x 10(-3) micrometer2, respectively. The maximum values were obtained by 56Fe with an LET of 200 keV/micrometer. The mutagenicity (alpha m/alpha i) ranged from 2.05 to 7.99 x 10(-5) with the maximum value at 150 keV/micrometer. Furthermore, molecular analysis of mutants induced by charged particles indicates that higher LET beams are more likely to cause larger deletions in the hprt locus.

  16. Charged-particle mutagenesis 2. Mutagenic effects of high energy charged particles in normal human fibroblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, D. J.; Tsuboi, K.; Nguyen, T.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The biological effects of high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles are a subject of great concern with regard to the prediction of radiation risk in space. In this report, mutagenic effects of high LET charged particles are quantitatively measured using primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts, and the spectrum of induced mutations are analyzed. The LET of the charged particles ranged from 25 KeV/micrometer to 975 KeV/micrometer with particle energy (on the cells) between 94-603 MeV/u. The X-chromosome linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus was used as the target gene. Exposure to these high LET charged particles resulted in exponential survival curves; whereas, mutation induction was fitted by a linear model. The Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for cell-killing ranged from 3.73 to 1.25, while that for mutant induction ranged from 5.74 to 0.48. Maximum RBE values were obtained at the LET of 150 keV/micrometer. The inactivation cross-section (alpha i) and the action cross-section for mutant induction (alpha m) ranged from 2.2 to 92.0 sq micrometer and 0.09 to 5.56 x 10(exp -3) sq micrometer respectively. The maximum values were obtained by Fe-56 with an LET of 200 keV/micrometer. The mutagenicity (alpha m/alpha i) ranged from 2.05 to 7.99 x 10(exp -5) with the maximum value at 150 keV/micrometer. Furthermore, molecular analysis of mutants induced by charged particles indicates that higher LET beams are more likely to cause larger deletions in the hprt locus.

  17. Effect of random charge fluctuation on strongly coupled dusty Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Issaad, M.; Rouiguia, L.; Djebli, M.

    2008-09-07

    Modeling the interaction between particles is an open issue in dusty plasma. We dealt with strongly coupled dust particles in two dimensional confined system. For small number of clusters, we investigate the effect of random charge fluctuation on background configuration. The study is conducted for a short rang as well as a long rang potential interaction. Numerical simulation is performed using Monte-Carlo simulation in the presence of parabolic confinement and at low temperature. We have studied the background configurations for a dust particles with constant charge and in the presence of random charge fluctuation due to the discrete nature of charge carriers. The latter is studied for a positively charged dust when the dominant charging process is due to photo-emission from the dust surface. It is found, for small classical cluster consisting of small number of particles, short rang potential gives the same result as long rang one. It is also found that the random charge fluctuation affect the background configurations.

  18. Effect of the surface charge on ion transport through nanoslits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoch, Reto B.; van Lintel, Harald; Renaud, Philippe

    2005-10-01

    A description of ion transport through geometrically defined nanoslits is presented. It is characterized by the effective surface charge density and was obtained by impedance spectroscopy measurements of electrolytes with different physicochemical properties. The fluid channels were fabricated in a Pyrex-Pyrex field assisted bonding process with an intermediate layer of amorphous silicon. The height of the nanoslits was defined by the 50nm thickness of the amorphous silicon layer. Two microfluidic channels, containing electrodes for the characterization of the nanoslits, maintained fresh liquid on both sides of the nanoapertures. By changing the KCl concentration of the electrolyte, a conductance plateau (in log-log scale) was observed due to the dominance of the effective surface charge density, resulting in an excess of mobile counterions in the nanoslits at low salt concentrations. The effective surface charge density of the Pyrex nanoslits could be modified by changing the pH of the solution. It was verified that at higher pH values the nanoslit conductance increased. Field-effect experiments allowed changing the effective surface charge density as well. The polarity of the external voltage could be chosen such that the effective surface charge density was increased or decreased, resulting in a higher or lower nanoslit conductance. This regulation of ionic flow can be exploited for the fabrication of nanofluidic devices.

  19. Charging effects in passivated silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, D. S.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Morley, K. B.; Renshaw Foxford, E.; Komisarcik, K.; Rader, A. J.; Viola, V. E.

    1995-02-01

    Ion-implanted passivated silicon detectors undergo a gradual, then rapid increase in leakage current when exposed to ionizing radiation in the presence of gas between 5-200 Torr. Conditions for generating this effect are discussed and a mechanism is proposed to explain this behavior. Methods for preventing this effect and for recovering detectors damaged in this way are presented.

  20. The effect of induced charges on low-energy particle trajectories near conducting and semiconducting plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Moore, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the induced charge was found on particles less than 1 eV as they passed through simulated parallel, grounded channels that are comparable in dimension to those that are presently in space plasma instruments which measure the flux of low-energy ions. Applications were made to both conducting and semiconducting channels that ranged in length from 0.1 to 50 mm and in aspect ratio from 1 to 100. The effect of the induced charge on particle trajectories from simple straight lines. Several configurations of channel aspect ratio and detector locations are considered. The effect is important only at very low energies with small dimensions.

  1. Study of the effect of the space charge using SYNCH

    SciTech Connect

    Haffmans, A.F.; Maletic, D.; Ruggiero, A.G.

    1994-04-25

    The interparticle repulsion, or space charge, limits the density of charged-particle beams that can be obtained in storage rings. In this report the authors study the effect of increasing the space charge, with an exact computation of the lattice parameters using SYNCH. Systematically increasing the ion density by decreasing the emittance with cooling techniques lowers the betatron tune, until the lower half-integral stopband resonance -- also induced by the beam -- is reached. In the simple model described in the report, the amount of ``cooling`` is limited by the encountered stopband of the lattice. Therefore, machines with a higher tune and larger periodicity are better suited to store beams with high space charge.

  2. 46 CFR 502.271 - Special docket application for permission to refund or waive freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special docket application for permission to refund or waive freight charges. 502.271 Section 502.271 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges § 502.271 Special docket application for permission to...

  3. 12 CFR 226.5a - Credit and charge card applications and solicitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... period varies, the card issuer may disclose the range of days, the minimum number of days, or the average... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit and charge card applications and... required under this section on or with a solicitation or an application to open a credit or charge...

  4. 47 CFR 51.515 - Application of access charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... not assess such charges; or (3) With respect to a Bell operating company only, the date on which that.... The end date for Bell operating companies that are authorized to offer interLATA service shall apply only to the recovery of access charges in those states in which the Bell operating company...

  5. An acoustic charge transport imager for high definition television applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, William D.; Brennan, Kevin F.; Summers, Chris J.

    1992-01-01

    In this report we present the progress during the second six month period of the project. This includes both experimental and theoretical work on the acoustic charge transport (ACT) portion of the chip, the theoretical program modelling of both the avalanche photodiode (APD) and the charge transfer and overflow transistor and the materials growth and fabrication part of the program.

  6. Effects of kinematic cuts on net electric charge fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsch, Frithjof; Morita, Kenji; Redlich, Krzysztof

    2016-03-01

    The effects of kinematic cuts on electric charge fluctuations in a gas of charged particles are discussed. We consider a very transparent example of an ideal pion gas with quantum statistics, which can be viewed as a multicomponent gas of Boltzmann particles with different charges, masses, and degeneracies. Cumulants of net electric charge fluctuations χnQ are calculated in a static and expanding medium with flow parameters adjusted to the experimental data. We show that the transverse momentum cut, ptmin≤pt≤ptmax , weakens the effects of Bose statistics, i.e., contributions of effectively multicharged states to higher order moments. Consequently, cuts in pt modify the experimentally measured cumulants and their ratios. We discuss the influence of kinematic cuts on the ratio of mean and variance of electric charge fluctuations in a hadron resonance gas, in the light of recent data from the STAR and PHENIX Collaborations. We find that the different momentum cuts of ptmin=0.2GeV (STAR) and pt min=0.3 GeV (PHENIX) are responsible for more than 30% of the difference between these two data sets. We argue that the pt cuts imposed on charged particles will influence the normalized kurtosis κQσQ2=χ4Q/χ2Q of the electric charge fluctuations. In particular, the reduction of κQσQ2 with increasing pt min will lead to differences between PHENIX and STAR data of O (6 %) , which currently are buried under large statistical and systematic errors. We furthermore introduce the relation between momentum cutoff and finite volume effects, which is of relevance for the comparison between experimental data and lattice QCD calculations.

  7. Modeling the surface charge evolution of spherical nanoparticles by considering dielectric discontinuity effects at the solid/electrolyte solution interface.

    PubMed

    Seijo, Marianne; Ulrich, Serge; Filella, Montserrat; Buffle, Jacques; Stoll, Serge

    2008-06-15

    It is well known that the electrostatic repulsions between charges on neighboring sites decrease the effective charge at the surface of a charged nanoparticle (NP). However, the situation is more complex close to a dielectric discontinuity, since charged sites are interacting not only with their neighbors but also with their own image charges and the image charges of all neighbors. Titrating site positions, solution ionic concentration, dielectric discontinuity effects, and surface charge variations with pH are investigated here using a grand canonical Monte Carlo method. A Tanford and Kirkwood approach is used to calculate the interaction potentials between the discrete charged sites. Homogeneous, heterogeneous, and patch site distributions are considered to reproduce the various titrating site distributions at the solid/solution interface of spherical NPs. By considering Coulomb, salt, and image charges effects, results show that for different ionic concentrations, modifications of the dielectric constant of NPs having homogeneous and heterogeneous site distributions have little effect on their charging process. Thus, the reaction field, due to the presence of image charges, fully counterbalances the Coulomb interactions. This is not the case for patch distributions, where Coulomb interactions are not completely counterbalanced by the reaction field. Application of the present model to pyrogenic silica is also performed and comparison is made with published experimental data of titration curves at various ionic concentrations. PMID:18387618

  8. Large Seebeck effect by charge-mobility engineering

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peijie; Wei, Beipei; Zhang, Jiahao; Tomczak, Jan M.; Strydom, A.M.; Søndergaard, M.; Iversen, Bo B.; Steglich, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The Seebeck effect describes the generation of an electric potential in a conducting solid exposed to a temperature gradient. In most cases, it is dominated by an energy-dependent electronic density of states at the Fermi level, in line with the prevalent efforts towards superior thermoelectrics through the engineering of electronic structure. Here we demonstrate an alternative source for the Seebeck effect based on charge-carrier relaxation: a charge mobility that changes rapidly with temperature can result in a sizeable addition to the Seebeck coefficient. This new Seebeck source is demonstrated explicitly for Ni-doped CoSb3, where a marked mobility change occurs due to the crossover between two different charge-relaxation regimes. Our findings unveil the origin of pronounced features in the Seebeck coefficient of many other elusive materials characterized by a significant mobility mismatch. When utilized appropriately, this effect can also provide a novel route to the design of improved thermoelectric materials. PMID:26108283

  9. Charge-displacement analysis via natural orbitals for chemical valence: Charge transfer effects in coordination chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistoni, Giovanni; Rampino, Sergio; Tarantelli, Francesco; Belpassi, Leonardo

    2015-02-01

    We recently devised a simple scheme for analyzing on quantitative grounds the Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson donation and back-donation in symmetric coordination complexes. Our approach is based on a symmetry decomposition of the so called Charge-Displacement (CD) function quantifying the charge flow, upon formation of a metal (M)-substrate (S) bond, along the M-S interaction axis and provides clear-cut measures of donation and back-donation charges in correlation with experimental observables [G. Bistoni et al., Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 52, 11599 (2013)]. The symmetry constraints exclude of course from the analysis most systems of interest in coordination chemistry. In this paper, we show how to entirely overcome this limitation by taking advantage of the properties of the natural orbitals for chemical valence [M. Mitoraj and A. Michalak, J. Mol. Model. 13, 347 (2007)]. A general scheme for disentangling donation and back-donation in the CD function of both symmetric and non-symmetric systems is presented and illustrated through applications to M-ethyne (M = Au, Ni and W) coordination bonds, including an explicative study on substrate activation in a model reaction mechanism.

  10. Effect of water on the space charge formation in XLPE

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Ayako; Takahashi, Tohru; Yamamaoto, Syuji

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, the authors describe the effect of water on the space charge in crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE). In order to study the effects of water and by-products of crosslinking, they prepared two types of samples. The water in the first one (Type A) is controlled by immersing in water after removing the by-products, and the water in the other type (Type B) of samples is controlled by the water from the decomposition of cumyl-alcohol by heating. The authors measured the space charge formation by pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) method. A large difference was observed between Type A and Type B. In Type A samples (containing only water) the space charge distribution changes from homogeneous to heterogeneous as the water content increases, whereas in Type B (containing water and by-product) all samples exhibit heterogeneous space charge distribution. However, merely the effect of water for both types was almost the same, including peculiar space charge behavior near the water solubility limit.

  11. Space-Charge Effects in the Gas Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D; Hau-Riege, S; Bionta, R

    2007-09-24

    Discussion of space-charge effects in a photoluminescence cell that will be used as a non-disruptive total energy monitor at the LCLS facility is presented. Regimes where primary photoelectrons will be confined within the X-ray beam aperture are identified. Effects of the space-charge on the further evolution of the electron and ion populations are discussed. Parameters of the afterglow plasma are evaluated. Conditions under which the detector output will be proportional to the pulse energy are defined.

  12. Phonon Effects on Spin-Charge Separation in One Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Wen-Qiang; Zhao, Hui; Wu, Chang-Qin; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2006-04-01

    Phonon effects on spin-charge separation in one dimension are investigated through the calculation of one-electron spectral functions in terms of the recently developed cluster perturbation theory together with an optimized phonon approach. It is found that the retardation effect due to the finiteness of phonon frequency suppresses the spin-charge separation and eventually makes it invisible in the spectral function. By comparing our results with experimental data of TTF-TCNQ, it is observed that the electron-phonon interaction must be taken into account when interpreting the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data.

  13. Phonon effects on spin-charge separation in one dimension.

    PubMed

    Ning, Wen-Qiang; Zhao, Hui; Wu, Chang-Qin; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2006-04-21

    Phonon effects on spin-charge separation in one dimension are investigated through the calculation of one-electron spectral functions in terms of the recently developed cluster perturbation theory together with an optimized phonon approach. It is found that the retardation effect due to the finiteness of phonon frequency suppresses the spin-charge separation and eventually makes it invisible in the spectral function. By comparing our results with experimental data of TTF-TCNQ, it is observed that the electron-phonon interaction must be taken into account when interpreting the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data. PMID:16712177

  14. Compressibility effects in shaped charge jet penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugstad, B. S.

    1981-03-01

    Among other hypotheses, the classical theory of high-speed penetration assumes the incompressibility of both the projectile and target. Employing a simple Murnaghan equation of state, we show here that direct compressibility effects (pv-work) on penetration depth are at most on the order of 10-15% for projectile speeds as high as 104 ms-1. Our results agree closely with similar results by Coombs (private communication, Royal Air Force Research Establishment, 1978), who used a more complex five-parameter equation of state. This indicates that rather simple equations of state may adequately represent essential thermodynamic features of high-speed penetration phenomena. The equation of state employed here furthermore allows approximate analytical results to be derived for both small and large projectile velocities.

  15. Space charge effects in ultrafast electron diffraction and imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Zhensheng; Zhang He; Duxbury, P. M.; Berz, Martin; Ruan, Chong-Yu

    2012-02-15

    Understanding space charge effects is central for the development of high-brightness ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy techniques for imaging material transformation with atomic scale detail at the fs to ps timescales. We present methods and results for direct ultrafast photoelectron beam characterization employing a shadow projection imaging technique to investigate the generation of ultrafast, non-uniform, intense photoelectron pulses in a dc photo-gun geometry. Combined with N-particle simulations and an analytical Gaussian model, we elucidate three essential space-charge-led features: the pulse lengthening following a power-law scaling, the broadening of the initial energy distribution, and the virtual cathode threshold. The impacts of these space charge effects on the performance of the next generation high-brightness ultrafast electron diffraction and imaging systems are evaluated.

  16. Dynamic salt effect on intramolecular charge-transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Jianjun; Ma Rong; Lu Yan; Stell, George

    2005-12-08

    The dynamic salt effect in charge-transfer reactions is investigated theoretically in this paper. Free-energy surfaces are derived based on a nonequilibrium free-energy functional. Reaction coordinates are clearly defined. The solution of the reaction-diffusion equation leads to a rate constant depending on the time correlation function of the reaction coordinates. The time correlation function of the ion-atmosphere coordinate is derived from the solution of the Debye-Falkenhagen equation. It is shown that the dynamic salt effect plays an important role in controlling the rate of charge-transfer reactions in the narrow-window limit but is balanced by the energetics and the dynamics of the polar-solvent coordinate. The simplest version of the theory is compared with an experiment, and the agreement is fairly good. The theory can also be extended to charge-transfer in the class of electrolytes that has come to be called 'ionic fluids'.

  17. Signal processing applications of massively parallel charge domain computing devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Barhen, Jacob (Inventor); Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is embodied in a charge coupled device (CCD)/charge injection device (CID) architecture capable of performing a Fourier transform by simultaneous matrix vector multiplication (MVM) operations in respective plural CCD/CID arrays in parallel in O(1) steps. For example, in one embodiment, a first CCD/CID array stores charge packets representing a first matrix operator based upon permutations of a Hartley transform and computes the Fourier transform of an incoming vector. A second CCD/CID array stores charge packets representing a second matrix operator based upon different permutations of a Hartley transform and computes the Fourier transform of an incoming vector. The incoming vector is applied to the inputs of the two CCD/CID arrays simultaneously, and the real and imaginary parts of the Fourier transform are produced simultaneously in the time required to perform a single MVM operation in a CCD/CID array.

  18. Measurement techniques and applications of charge transfer to aerospace research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A.

    1978-01-01

    A technique of developing high-velocity low-intensity neutral gas beams for use in aerospace research problems is described. This technique involves ionization of gaseous species with a mass spectrometer and focusing the resulting primary ion beam into a collision chamber containing a static gas at a known pressure and temperature. Equations are given to show how charge-transfer cross sections are obtained from a total-current measurement technique. Important parameters are defined for the charge-transfer process.

  19. Effective charges and virial pressure of concentrated macroion solutions

    PubMed Central

    Boon, Niels; Guerrero-García, Guillermo Ivan; van Roij, René; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The stability of colloidal suspensions is crucial in a wide variety of processes, including the fabrication of photonic materials and scaffolds for biological assemblies. The ionic strength of the electrolyte that suspends charged colloids is widely used to control the physical properties of colloidal suspensions. The extensively used two-body Derjaguin−Landau−Verwey−Overbeek (DLVO) approach allows for a quantitative analysis of the effective electrostatic forces between colloidal particles. DLVO relates the ionic double layers, which enclose the particles, to their effective electrostatic repulsion. Nevertheless, the double layer is distorted at high macroion volume fractions. Therefore, DLVO cannot describe the many-body effects that arise in concentrated suspensions. We show that this problem can be largely resolved by identifying effective point charges for the macroions using cell theory. This extrapolated point charge (EPC) method assigns effective point charges in a consistent way, taking into account the excluded volume of highly charged macroions at any concentration, and thereby naturally accounting for high volume fractions in both salt-free and added-salt conditions. We provide an analytical expression for the effective pair potential and validate the EPC method by comparing molecular dynamics simulations of macroions and monovalent microions that interact via Coulombic potentials to simulations of macroions interacting via the derived EPC effective potential. The simulations reproduce the macroion−macroion spatial correlation and the virial pressure obtained with the EPC model. Our findings provide a route to relate the physical properties such as pressure in systems of screened Coulomb particles to experimental measurements. PMID:26170315

  20. Effects of ionizing radiation on charge-coupled imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killiany, J. M.; Baker, W. D.; Saks, N. S.; Barbe, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on three different charge coupled imagers have been investigated. Device performance was evaluated as a function of total gamma ray dose. The principal failure mechanisms have been identified for each particular device structure. The clock and bias voltages required for high total dose operation of the devices are presented.

  1. Electron cloud and space charge effects in the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The stable region of the Fermilab Booster beam in the complex coherent-tune-shift plane appears to have been shifted far away from the origin by its intense space charge making Landau damping appear impossible. Simulations reveal a substantial buildup of electron cloud in the whole Booster ramping cycle, both inside the unshielded combined-function magnets and the beam pipes joining the magnets, whenever the secondary-emission yield (SEY) is larger than {approx}1.6. The implication of the electron-cloud effects on the space charge and collective instabilities of the beam is investigated.

  2. Space-charge effects in Penning ion traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porobić, T.; Beck, M.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Couratin, C.; Finlay, P.; Knecht, A.; Fabian, X.; Friedag, P.; Fléchard, X.; Liénard, E.; Ban, G.; Zákoucký, D.; Soti, G.; Van Gorp, S.; Weinheimer, Ch.; Wursten, E.; Severijns, N.

    2015-06-01

    The influence of space-charge on ion cyclotron resonances and magnetron eigenfrequency in a gas-filled Penning ion trap has been investigated. Off-line measurements with K39+ using the cooling trap of the WITCH retardation spectrometer-based setup at ISOLDE/CERN were performed. Experimental ion cyclotron resonances were compared with ab initio Coulomb simulations and found to be in agreement. As an important systematic effect of the WITCH experiment, the magnetron eigenfrequency of the ion cloud was studied under increasing space-charge conditions. Finally, the helium buffer gas pressure in the Penning trap was determined by comparing experimental cooling rates with simulations.

  3. Secondary Electron Emission from Dust and Its Effect on Charging

    SciTech Connect

    Saikia, B. K.; Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2011-11-29

    Hydrogen plasma is produced in a plasma chamber by striking discharge between incandescent tungsten filaments and the permanent magnetic cage [1], which is grounded. The magnetic cage has a full line cusped magnetic field geometry used to confine the plasma elements. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to study the plasma parameters in various discharge conditions. The charge accumulated on the dust particles is calculated using the capacitance model and the dust current is measured by the combination of a Faraday cup and an electrometer at different discharge conditions. It is found Secondary electron emission from dust having low emission yield effects the charging of dust particles in presence of high energetic electrons.

  4. Longitudinal emittance growth due to nonlinear space charge effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Y. Y.; Yu, Simon S.; Barnard, John J.; Seidl, Peter A.

    2012-03-01

    Emittance posts limits on the key requirements of final pulse length and spot size on target in heavy ion fusion drivers. In this paper, we show studies on the effect of nonlinear space charge on longitudinal emittance growth in the drift compression section. We perform simulations, using the 3D PIC code WARP, for a high current beam under conditions of bends and longitudinal compression. The linear growth rate for longitudinal emittance turns out to depend only on the peak line charge density, and is independent of pulse length, velocity tilt, and/or the pipe and beam size. This surprisingly simple result is confirmed by simulations and analytic calculations.

  5. Charge Kondo effect in a triple quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Gwangsu; Park, Jinhong; Lee, S. S.-B.; Sim, H.-S.

    2014-03-01

    We predict that the charge Kondo effect appears in a triangular triple quantum dot. The system has two-fold degenerate ground-state charge configurations, interdot Coulomb interactions, lead-dot electron tunnelings, but no interdot electron tunneling. We show, using bosonization and refermionization, that the system is described by the anisotropic Kondo model. The anisotropy can be tuned by changing lead-dot electron tunneling strength, which allows one to experimentally explore the transition between the ferromagnetic non-Fermi liquid and antiferromagnetic Kondo phases in the Kondo phase diagram. Using numerical renormalization group method, we demonstrate that the transition is manifested in electron conductances through the dot.

  6. Space charge effects on the current-voltage characteristics of gated field emitter arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, K. L.; Kodis, M. A.; Murphy, R. A.; Zaidman, E. G.

    1997-07-01

    Microfabricated field emitter arrays (FEAs) can provide the very high electron current densities required for rf amplifier applications, typically on the order of 100 A/cm2. Determining the dependence of emission current on gate voltage is important for the prediction of emitter performance for device applications. Field emitters use high applied fields to extract current, and therefore, unlike thermionic emitters, the current densities can exceed 103A/cm2 when averaged over an array. At such high current densities, space charge effects (i.e., the influence of charge between cathode and collector on emission) affect the emission process or initiate conditions which can lead to failure mechanisms for field emitters. A simple model of a field emitter will be used to calculate the one-dimensional space charge effects on the emission characteristics by examining two components: charge between the gate and anode, which leads to Child's law, and charge within the FEA unit cell, which gives rise to a field suppression effect which can exist for a single field emitter. The predictions of the analytical model are compared with recent experimental measurements designed to assess space charge effects and predict the onset of gate current. It is shown that negative convexity on a Fowler-Nordheim plot of Ianode(Vgate) data can be explained in terms of field depression at the emitter tip in addition to reflection of electrons by a virtual cathode created when the anode field is insufficient to extract all of the current; in particular, the effects present within the unit cell constitute a newly described effect.

  7. Charge effect in point projection images of carbon fibres

    PubMed

    Prigent; Morin

    2000-09-01

    Nanometre-sized carbon fibres across holes have been observed in a lensless point projection field-emission microscope operating between 100 and 300 eV. At sufficiently high magnification fringe patterns appear; with the help of simulations we show that they are strongly dependent on the charge density of the fibres. These patterns are characterized by an odd number of fringes with a central fringe that becomes very bright as the charge increases. Average diameter and linear charge density have been obtained with remarkable precision from analysis of fringes. Charge distribution from the middle to the edge of fibres has been investigated as well as narrowings at localized places on the fringe pattern. From these two examples, the limits of the models used for the simulations and those of the data acquisition system are discussed. Finally, this work emphasizes the fact that the fringe pattern masks the actual form of the fibre and that it is necessary to take account of the charge effect to interpret this diffraction pattern. PMID:10971800

  8. Interstellar Dust Charging in Dense Molecular Clouds: Cosmic Ray Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivlev, A. V.; Padovani, M.; Galli, D.; Caselli, P.

    2015-10-01

    The local cosmic-ray (CR) spectra are calculated for typical characteristic regions of a cold, dense molecular cloud to investigate two mechanisms of dust charging that have, thus far, been neglected: the collection of suprathermal CR electrons and protons by grains and photoelectric emission from grains due to the UV radiation generated by CRs. These two mechanisms add to the conventional charging by ambient plasma, produced in the cloud by CRs. We show that the CR-induced photoemission can dramatically modify the charge distribution function for submicron grains. We demonstrate the importance of the obtained results for dust coagulation: while the charging by ambient plasma alone leads to a strong Coulomb repulsion between grains and inhibits their further coagulation, the combination with the photoemission provides optimum conditions for the growth of large dust aggregates in a certain region of the cloud, corresponding to the densities n({{{H}}}2) between ˜104 and ˜106 cm-3. The charging effect of CRs is of a generic nature, and is therefore expected to operate not only in dense molecular clouds but also in the upper layers and the outer parts of protoplanetary disks.

  9. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Balram, Ajit C; Wurstbauer, U; Wójs, A; Pinczuk, A; Jain, J K

    2015-01-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeeman energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region. PMID:26608906

  10. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Balram, Ajit C.; Wurstbauer, U.; Wójs, A.; Pinczuk, A.; Jain, J. K.

    2015-11-26

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeeman energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region.

  11. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect

    PubMed Central

    Balram, Ajit C.; Wurstbauer, U.; Wójs, A.; Pinczuk, A.; Jain, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeeman energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region. PMID:26608906

  12. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balram, Ajit C.; Wurstbauer, U.; Wójs, A.; Pinczuk, A.; Jain, J. K.

    2015-11-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeeman energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region.

  13. An acoustic charge transport imager for high definition television applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, W. D.; Brennan, K. F.; Summers, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    The primary goal of this research is to develop a solid-state television (HDTV) imager chip operating at a frame rate of about 170 frames/sec at 2 Megapixels/frame. This imager will offer an order of magnitude improvements in speed over CCD designs and will allow for monolithic imagers operating from the IR to UV. The technical approach of the project focuses on the development of the three basic components of the imager and their subsequent integration. The camera chip can be divided into three distinct functions: (1) image capture via an array of avalanche photodiodes (APD's); (2) charge collection, storage, and overflow control via a charge transfer transistor device (CTD); and (3) charge readout via an array of acoustic charge transport (ACT) channels. The use of APD's allows for front end gain at low noise and low operating voltages while the ACT readout enables concomitant high speed and high charge transfer efficiency. Currently work is progressing towards the optimization of each of these component devices. In addition to the development of each of the three distinct components, work towards their integration and manufacturability is also progressing. The component designs are considered not only to meet individual specifications but to provide overall system level performance suitable for HDTV operation upon integration. The ultimate manufacturability and reliability of the chip constrains the design as well. The progress made during this period is described in detail.

  14. An acoustic charge transport imager for high definition television applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, W. D.; Brennan, Kevin F.

    1994-01-01

    The primary goal of this research is to develop a solid-state high definition television (HDTV) imager chip operating at a frame rate of about 170 frames/sec at 2 Megapixels per frame. This imager offers an order of magnitude improvement in speed over CCD designs and will allow for monolithic imagers operating from the IR to the UV. The technical approach of the project focuses on the development of the three basic components of the imager and their integration. The imager chip can be divided into three distinct components: (1) image capture via an array of avalanche photodiodes (APD's), (2) charge collection, storage and overflow control via a charge transfer transistor device (CTD), and (3) charge readout via an array of acoustic charge transport (ACT) channels. The use of APD's allows for front end gain at low noise and low operating voltages while the ACT readout enables concomitant high speed and high charge transfer efficiency. Currently work is progressing towards the development of manufacturable designs for each of these component devices. In addition to the development of each of the three distinct components, work towards their integration is also progressing. The component designs are considered not only to meet individual specifications but to provide overall system level performance suitable for HDTV operation upon integration. The ultimate manufacturability and reliability of the chip constrains the design as well. The progress made during this period is described in detail in Sections 2-4.

  15. Charged Particle Effects on Solar Sails - An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Minow, Joseph I.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Program is currently sponsoring a comprehensive look at the effects of the charged particle environment on the first generation of Solar Sail propulsion systems. As part of this, a joint NASA MSFC/JPL team is investigating the effects of spacecraft charging on the preliminary ISP Solar Sail mission designs. This paper will begin by reviewing the plasma environments being proposed for such missions-these range from the ambient solar wind at approximately 1 AU in the ecliptic plane, approximately 0.5 AU solar-polar orbit, and geosynchronous orbit. Following a discussion of the critical design issues associated with Solar Sails from a charging standpoint, a simple Sail configuration for modeling purposes will be presented. Results for the various environments will be illustrated in terms of the estimated surface potentials for the Solar Sail using the NASCAP-2K charging analysis program. Based on these potentials, representative plasma flow fields and potential contours surrounding the Solar Sail will then be presented. The implications of these results--the surface potentials and plasma flow--will be discussed in the context of their effects on Solar Sail operations and structural configurations.

  16. Krypton charge exchange cross sections for Hall effect thruster models

    SciTech Connect

    Hause, Michael L.; Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J.

    2013-04-28

    Following discharge from a Hall effect thruster, charge exchange occurs between ions and un-ionized propellant atoms. The low-energy cations produced can disturb operation of onboard instrumentation or the thruster itself. Charge-exchange cross sections for both singly and doubly charged propellant atoms are required to model these interactions. While xenon is the most common propellant currently used in Hall effect thrusters, other propellants are being considered, in particular, krypton. We present here guided-ion beam measurements and comparisons to semiclassical calculations for Kr{sup +} + Kr and Kr{sup 2+} + Kr cross sections. The measurements of symmetric Kr{sup +} + Kr charge exchange are in good agreement with both the calculations including spin-orbit effects and previous measurements. For the symmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr reaction, we present cross section measurements for center-of-mass energies between 1 eV and 300 eV, which spans energies not previously examined experimentally. These cross section measurements compare well with a simple one-electron transfer model. Finally, cross sections for the asymmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr {yields} Kr{sup +} + Kr{sup +} reaction show an onset near 12 eV, reaching cross sections near constant value of 1.6 A{sup 2} with an exception near 70-80 eV.

  17. Effective dynamics of an electrically charged string with a current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazinski, P. O.

    2005-08-01

    Equations of motion for an electrically charged string with a current in an external electromagnetic field with regard to the first correction due to the self-action are derived. It is shown that the reparametrization invariance of the free action of the string imposes constraints on the possible form of the current. The effective equations of motion are obtained for an absolutely elastic charged string in the form of a ring (circle). Equations for the external electromagnetic fields that admit stationary states of such a ring are revealed. Solutions to the effective equations of motion of an absolutely elastic charged ring in the absence of external fields as well as in an external uniform magnetic field are obtained. In the latter case, the frequency at which one can observe radiation emitted by the ring is evaluated. A model of an absolutely nonstretchable charged string with a current is proposed. The effective equations of motion are derived within this model, and a class of solutions to these equations is found.

  18. Effects of constant-current/constant-voltage charge parameters on lead-acid traction cell performance

    SciTech Connect

    Deluca, W.H.; Biwer, R.L.; Yao, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    A factor described for the application of battery systems for electric vehicle propulsion is the methodology of charging. It was quantitatively determined that both the total charge cycle time and the maximum charging rate (constant-current level) are limited by battery charge acceptance. The test system and procedures are outlined, acquired battery parameter data presented, and conclusions discussed.

  19. Materials Characterization at Utah State University: Facilities and Knowledge-base of Electronic Properties of Materials Applicable to Spacecraft Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, J. R.; Thomson, C. D.; Kite, J.; Zavyalov, V.; Corbridge, Jodie

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to improve the reliability and versatility of spacecraft charging models designed to assist spacecraft designers in accommodating and mitigating the harmful effects of charging on spacecraft, the NASA Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program has funded development of facilities at Utah State University for the measurement of the electronic properties of both conducting and insulating spacecraft materials. We present here an overview of our instrumentation and capabilities, which are particularly well suited to study electron emission as related to spacecraft charging. These measurements include electron-induced secondary and backscattered yields, spectra, and angular resolved measurements as a function of incident energy, species and angle, plus investigations of ion-induced electron yields, photoelectron yields, sample charging and dielectric breakdown. Extensive surface science characterization capabilities are also available to fully characterize the samples in situ. Our measurements for a wide array of conducting and insulating spacecraft materials have been incorporated into the SEE Charge Collector Knowledge-base as a Database of Electronic Properties of Materials Applicable to Spacecraft Charging. This Database provides an extensive compilation of electronic properties, together with parameterization of these properties in a format that can be easily used with existing spacecraft charging engineering tools and with next generation plasma, charging, and radiation models. Tabulated properties in the Database include: electron-induced secondary electron yield, backscattered yield and emitted electron spectra; He, Ar and Xe ion-induced electron yields and emitted electron spectra; photoyield and solar emittance spectra; and materials characterization including reflectivity, dielectric constant, resistivity, arcing, optical microscopy images, scanning electron micrographs, scanning tunneling microscopy images, and Auger electron spectra. Further

  20. Space-charge Effect on Electroresistance in Metal-Ferroelectric-Metal capacitors.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bo Bo; Liu, Yang; Chen, Liu Fang; Wang, Jian Lu; Sun, Shuo; Shen, Hong; Sun, Jing Lan; Yuan, Guo Liang; Fusil, Stéphane; Garcia, Vincent; Dkhil, Brahim; Meng, Xiang Jian; Chu, Jun Hao

    2015-01-01

    Resistive switching through electroresistance (ER) effect in metal-ferroelectric-metal (MFM) capacitors has attracted increasing interest due to its potential applications as memories and logic devices. However, the detailed electronic mechanisms resulting in large ER when polarisation switching occurs in the ferroelectric barrier are still not well understood. Here, ER effect up to 1000% at room temperature is demonstrated in C-MOS compatible MFM nanocapacitors with a 8.8 nm-thick poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) homopolymer ferroelectric, which is very promising for silicon industry integration. Most remarkably, using theory developed for metal-semiconductor rectifying contacts, we derive an analytical expression for the variation of interfacial barrier heights due to space-charge effect that can interpret the observed ER response. We extend this space-charge model, related to the release of trapped charges by defects, to MFM structures made of ferroelectric oxides. This space-charge model provides a simple and straightforward tool to understand recent unusual reports. Finally, this work suggests that defect-engineering could be an original and efficient route for tuning the space-charge effect and thus the ER performances in future electronic devices. PMID:26670138

  1. Space-charge Effect on Electroresistance in Metal-Ferroelectric-Metal capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Bo Bo; Liu, Yang; Chen, Liu Fang; Wang, Jian Lu; Sun, Shuo; Shen, Hong; Sun, Jing Lan; Yuan, Guo Liang; Fusil, Stéphane; Garcia, Vincent; Dkhil, Brahim; Meng, Xiang Jian; Chu, Jun Hao

    2015-12-01

    Resistive switching through electroresistance (ER) effect in metal-ferroelectric-metal (MFM) capacitors has attracted increasing interest due to its potential applications as memories and logic devices. However, the detailed electronic mechanisms resulting in large ER when polarisation switching occurs in the ferroelectric barrier are still not well understood. Here, ER effect up to 1000% at room temperature is demonstrated in C-MOS compatible MFM nanocapacitors with a 8.8 nm-thick poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) homopolymer ferroelectric, which is very promising for silicon industry integration. Most remarkably, using theory developed for metal-semiconductor rectifying contacts, we derive an analytical expression for the variation of interfacial barrier heights due to space-charge effect that can interpret the observed ER response. We extend this space-charge model, related to the release of trapped charges by defects, to MFM structures made of ferroelectric oxides. This space-charge model provides a simple and straightforward tool to understand recent unusual reports. Finally, this work suggests that defect-engineering could be an original and efficient route for tuning the space-charge effect and thus the ER performances in future electronic devices.

  2. Space-charge Effect on Electroresistance in Metal-Ferroelectric-Metal capacitors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bo Bo; Liu, Yang; Chen, Liu Fang; Wang, Jian Lu; Sun, Shuo; Shen, Hong; Sun, Jing Lan; Yuan, Guo Liang; Fusil, Stéphane; Garcia, Vincent; Dkhil, Brahim; Meng, Xiang Jian; Chu, Jun Hao

    2015-01-01

    Resistive switching through electroresistance (ER) effect in metal-ferroelectric-metal (MFM) capacitors has attracted increasing interest due to its potential applications as memories and logic devices. However, the detailed electronic mechanisms resulting in large ER when polarisation switching occurs in the ferroelectric barrier are still not well understood. Here, ER effect up to 1000% at room temperature is demonstrated in C-MOS compatible MFM nanocapacitors with a 8.8 nm-thick poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) homopolymer ferroelectric, which is very promising for silicon industry integration. Most remarkably, using theory developed for metal-semiconductor rectifying contacts, we derive an analytical expression for the variation of interfacial barrier heights due to space-charge effect that can interpret the observed ER response. We extend this space-charge model, related to the release of trapped charges by defects, to MFM structures made of ferroelectric oxides. This space-charge model provides a simple and straightforward tool to understand recent unusual reports. Finally, this work suggests that defect-engineering could be an original and efficient route for tuning the space-charge effect and thus the ER performances in future electronic devices. PMID:26670138

  3. 12 CFR 226.5a - Credit and charge card applications and solicitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... period varies, the card issuer may disclose the range of days, the minimum number of days, or the average... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit and charge card applications and... an offer by the card issuer to open a credit or charge card account that does not require...

  4. Effect of charge imbalance parameter on LEKW in ion-implanted quantum semiconductor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhary, Sandhya; Yadav, Nishchhal; Ghosh, S.

    2015-07-31

    In this study we present an analytical investigation on the propagation characteristics of electro-kinetic wave modified through quantum correction term and charge imbalance parameter using quantum hydrodynamic model for an ion-implanted semiconductor plasma. The dispersion relation has been analyzed in two distinct velocity regimes. We found that as the number of negative charges resides on the colloids increases, their role become increasing effective. The present investigation is important for understanding of wave and instability phenomena and can be put to various interesting applications.

  5. Room-temperature single charge sensitivity in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, H. B.; Hughes, M. E.; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    Electrical current fluctuation studies are reported for coaxial p-type and n-type single-wall carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (FETs). Abrupt discrete switching of the source-drain current is observed at room temperature. The authors attribute these random telegraph signals to charge fluctuating electron traps near the FET conduction channels. Evolution of the current-switching behavior associated with the occupancy of individual electron traps is demonstrated and analyzed statistically. The result strongly indicates room temperature single charge sensitivity in carbon nanotube FETs, which may offer potential applications for single molecule sensors based on suitably prepared FET devices.

  6. Amplified effect of surface charge on cell adhesion by nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li-Ping; Meng, Jingxin; Zhang, Shuaitao; Ma, Xinlei; Wang, Shutao

    2016-06-01

    Nano-biointerfaces with varied surface charge can be readily fabricated by integrating a template-based process with maleimide-thiol coupling chemistry. Significantly, nanostructures are employed for amplifying the effect of surface charge on cell adhesion, as revealed by the cell-adhesion performance, cell morphology and corresponding cytoskeletal organization. This study may provide a promising strategy for developing new biomedical materials with tailored cell adhesion for tissue implantation and regeneration.Nano-biointerfaces with varied surface charge can be readily fabricated by integrating a template-based process with maleimide-thiol coupling chemistry. Significantly, nanostructures are employed for amplifying the effect of surface charge on cell adhesion, as revealed by the cell-adhesion performance, cell morphology and corresponding cytoskeletal organization. This study may provide a promising strategy for developing new biomedical materials with tailored cell adhesion for tissue implantation and regeneration. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, SEM, KFM AFM, chemical modification and characterization. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00649c

  7. The role of acid-base effects on particle charging in apolar media.

    PubMed

    Gacek, Matthew Michael; Berg, John C

    2015-06-01

    charging in the context of the many other factors that are important to the phenomenon, including the presence of water, of other components (e.g., synergists and contaminants), and of electric field effects. The goal is the construction of a road map describing the anticipated particle charging behavior in a wide variety of systems, assisting in the choice or development of materials for specific applications. PMID:25891860

  8. 12 CFR 226.5a - Credit and charge card applications and solicitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit and charge card applications and solicitations. 226.5a Section 226.5a Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 226.5a Credit and charge card applications and solicitations....

  9. Dynamic Charge Carrier Trapping in Quantum Dot Field Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingjie; Chen, Qian; Alivisatos, A Paul; Salmeron, Miquel

    2015-07-01

    Noncrystalline semiconductor materials often exhibit hysteresis in charge transport measurements whose mechanism is largely unknown. Here we study the dynamics of charge injection and transport in PbS quantum dot (QD) monolayers in a field effect transistor (FET). Using Kelvin probe force microscopy, we measured the temporal response of the QDs as the channel material in a FET following step function changes of gate bias. The measurements reveal an exponential decay of mobile carrier density with time constants of 3-5 s for holes and ∼10 s for electrons. An Ohmic behavior, with uniform carrier density, was observed along the channel during the injection and transport processes. These slow, uniform carrier trapping processes are reversible, with time constants that depend critically on the gas environment. We propose that the underlying mechanism is some reversible electrochemical process involving dissociation and diffusion of water and/or oxygen related species. These trapping processes are dynamically activated by the injected charges, in contrast with static electronic traps whose presence is independent of the charge state. Understanding and controlling these processes is important for improving the performance of electronic, optoelectronic, and memory devices based on disordered semiconductors. PMID:26099508

  10. Charge Effects on Mechanical Properties of Elastomeric Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappiyoor, Ravi; Balasubramanian, Ganesh; Dudek, Daniel; Puri, Ishwar

    2012-02-01

    Several biological molecules of nanoscale dimensions, such as elastin and resilin, are capable of performing diverse tasks with minimal energy loss. These molecules are efficient in that the ratio of energy output to energy consumed is very close to unity. This is in stark contrast to some of the best synthetic materials that have been created. For example, it is known that resilin found in dragonflies has a hysteresis loss of only 0.8% of the energy input while the best synthetic rubber made to date, polybutadiene, has a loss of roughly 20%.We simulate tensile tests of naturally occurring motifs found in resilin (a highly hydrophilic protein), as well as similar simulations found in reduced-polarity counterparts (i.e. the same motif with the charge on each individual atom set to half the natural value, the same motif with the charge on each individual atom set to zero, and a motif in which all the polar amino acids have been replaced with nonpolar amino acids). The results show a strong correlation between charge and extensibility. In order to further understand the effect of properties such as charge on the system, we will run simulations of elastomeric proteins such as resilin in different solvents.

  11. Membrane Permeabilization Induced by Sphingosine: Effect of Negatively Charged Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Rojo, Noemi; Sot, Jesús; Viguera, Ana R.; Collado, M. Isabel; Torrecillas, Alejandro; Gómez-Fernández, J.C.; Goñi, Félix M.; Alonso, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine [(2S, 3R, 4E)-2-amino-4-octadecen-1, 3-diol] is the most common sphingoid long chain base in sphingolipids. It is the precursor of important cell signaling molecules, such as ceramides. In the last decade it has been shown to act itself as a potent metabolic signaling molecule, by activating a number of protein kinases. Moreover, sphingosine has been found to permeabilize phospholipid bilayers, giving rise to vesicle leakage. The present contribution intends to analyze the mechanism by which this bioactive lipid induces vesicle contents release, and the effect of negatively charged bilayers in the release process. Fluorescence lifetime measurements and confocal fluorescence microscopy have been applied to observe the mechanism of sphingosine efflux from large and giant unilamellar vesicles; a graded-release efflux has been detected. Additionally, stopped-flow measurements have shown that the rate of vesicle permeabilization increases with sphingosine concentration. Because at the physiological pH sphingosine has a net positive charge, its interaction with negatively charged phospholipids (e.g., bilayers containing phosphatidic acid together with sphingomyelins, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cholesterol) gives rise to a release of vesicular contents, faster than with electrically neutral bilayers. Furthermore, phosphorous 31-NMR and x-ray data show the capacity of sphingosine to facilitate the formation of nonbilayer (cubic phase) intermediates in negatively charged membranes. The data might explain the pathogenesis of Niemann-Pick type C1 disease. PMID:24940775

  12. Phonon Effects on Spin-Charge Separation in One Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chang-Qin; Ning, Wen-Qiang; Zhao, Hui; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2006-03-01

    Phonon effects on spin-charge separation in one dimension are investigated through the calculation of one-electron spectral functions in terms of the recently developed cluster perturbation theory together with an optimized phonon approach. It is found that the retardation effect due to the finiteness of phonon frequency suppresses the spin-charge separation and eventually makes it invisible in the spectral function. A signature of electrons pairing in weak interaction regimes was found to be consistent with the existence of a metallic phase proposed recently by Clay and Hardikar [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 096401 (2005)]. By a comparison between our result and the experimental data of TTF-TCNQ, it is observed that electron-phonon interaction must be taken into account even in the strongly correlated system.

  13. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-01-01

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor. PMID:27025354

  14. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-03-01

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.

  15. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Yi, H T; Gartstein, Y N; Podzorov, V

    2016-01-01

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor. PMID:27025354

  16. Effective Reduction of Coulomb Repulsion in Charged Granular Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffler, T.; Werth, J.; Wolf, D. E.

    2000-04-01

    This paper is an extension to a previous article by Scheffler and Wolfs.6 We study the rate of energy dissipation due to inelastic collisions in a charged granular gas. One observes that the electrostatic repulsion of two particles is effectively reduced by nearest neighbor interactions in a dense granular gas. We study the radial distribution function for dense systems, which leads to a better expression for the reduced energy barrier.

  17. Effect of surface charge of immortalized mouse cerebral endothelial cell monolayer on transport of charged solutes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei; Li, Guanglei; Gil, Eun Seok; Lowe, Tao Lu; Fu, Bingmei M

    2010-04-01

    Charge carried by the surface glycocalyx layer (SGL) of the cerebral endothelium has been shown to significantly modulate the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to charged solutes in vivo. The cultured monolayer of bEnd3, an immortalized mouse cerebral endothelial cell line, is becoming a popular in vitro BBB model due to its easy growth and maintenance of many BBB characteristics over repeated passages. To test whether the SGL of bEnd3 monolayer carries similar charge as that in the intact BBB and quantify this charge, which can be characterized by the SGL thickness (L(f)) and charge density (C(mf)), we measured the solute permeability of bEnd3 monolayer to neutral solutes and to solutes with similar size but opposite charges: negatively charged alpha-lactalbumin (-11) and positively charged ribonuclease (+3). Combining the measured permeability data with a transport model across the cell monolayer, we predicted the L(f) and the C(mf) of bEnd3 monolayer, which is approximately 160 nm and approximately 25 mEq/L, respectively. We also investigated whether orosomucoid, a plasma glycoprotein modulating the charge of the intact BBB, alters the charge of bEnd3 monolayer. We found that 1 mg/mL orosomucoid would increase SGL charge density of bEnd3 monolayer to approximately 2-fold of its control value. PMID:20087768

  18. Effect of Ionic Strength and Surface Charge on Convective Deposition.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Kedar; Muangnapoh, Tanyakorn; Stever, Michael D; Gilchrist, James F

    2015-11-17

    Particle-particle and particle-substrate interactions play a crucial role in capillary driven convective self-assembly for continuous deposition of particles. This systematic study demonstrates the nontrivial effects of varying surface charge and ionic strength of monosized silica microspheres in water on the quality of the deposited monolayer. Increase in particle surface charge results a broader range of parameters that result in monolayer deposition which can be explained considering the particle-substrate electrostatic repulsion in solution. Resulting changes in the coating morphology and microstructure at different solution conditions were observed using confocal microscopy enabling correlation of order to disorder transitions with relative particle stability. These results, in part, may explain similar results seen by Muangnapoh et al., 2013 in vibration-assisted convective deposition. PMID:26501996

  19. Molecular dynamics investigation of the ionic liquid/enzyme interface: application to engineering enzyme surface charge.

    PubMed

    Burney, Patrick R; Nordwald, Erik M; Hickman, Katie; Kaar, Joel L; Pfaendtner, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Molecular simulations of the enzymes Candida rugosa lipase and Bos taurus α-chymotrypsin in aqueous ionic liquids 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate were used to study the change in enzyme-solvent interactions induced by modification of the enzyme surface charge. The enzymes were altered by randomly mutating lysine surface residues to glutamate, effectively decreasing the net surface charge by two for each mutation. These mutations resemble succinylation of the enzyme by chemical modification, which has been shown to enhance the stability of both enzymes in ILs. After establishing that the enzymes were stable on the simulated time scales, we focused the analysis on the organization of the ionic liquid substituents about the enzyme surface. Calculated solvent charge densities show that for both enzymes and in both solvents that changing positively charged residues to negative charge does indeed increase the charge density of the solvent near the enzyme surface. The radial distribution of IL constituents with respect to the enzyme reveals decreased interactions with the anion are prevalent in the modified systems when compared to the wild type, which is largely accompanied by an increase in cation contact. Additionally, the radial dependence of the charge density and ion distribution indicates that the effect of altering enzyme charge is confined to short range (≤1 nm) ordering of the IL. Ultimately, these results, which are consistent with that from prior experiments, provide molecular insight into the effect of enzyme surface charge on enzyme stability in ILs. PMID:25641162

  20. Cost-effective electric vehicle charging infrastructure siting for Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Gopal, Anand R.; Harris, Andrew; Jacobson, Arne

    2016-06-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) represent a substantial opportunity for governments to reduce emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The Government of India has set a goal of deploying 6–7 million hybrid and PEVs on Indian roads by the year 2020. The uptake of PEVs will depend on, among other factors like high cost, how effectively range anxiety is mitigated through the deployment of adequate electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS) throughout a region. The Indian Government therefore views EVCS deployment as a central part of their electric mobility mission. The plug-in electric vehicle infrastructure (PEVI) model—an agent-based simulation modeling platform—was used to explore the cost-effective siting of EVCS throughout the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, India. At 1% penetration in the passenger car fleet, or ∼10 000 battery electric vehicles (BEVs), charging services can be provided to drivers for an investment of 4.4 M (or 440/BEV) by siting 2764 chargers throughout the NCT of Delhi with an emphasis on the more densely populated and frequented regions of the city. The majority of chargers sited by this analysis were low power, Level 1 chargers, which have the added benefit of being simpler to deploy than higher power alternatives. The amount of public infrastructure needed depends on the access that drivers have to EVCS at home, with 83% more charging capacity required to provide the same level of service to a population of drivers without home chargers compared to a scenario with home chargers. Results also depend on the battery capacity of the BEVs adopted, with approximately 60% more charging capacity needed to achieve the same level of service when vehicles are assumed to have 57 km versus 96 km of range.

  1. Substituent effects on charge transport in films of Au nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Gemma L; Thomas, P John

    2012-07-25

    Charge transport (CT) in films of arylthiol-capped Au nanocrystals (NCs) exhibits strong substituent effects, with electron-donating substituents markedly decreasing conductivity. Films suited for measurements were obtained by ligand-exchange reactions on AuNCs grown at the water/toluene interface. Detailed analysis suggests the NCs interact with the ligands by resonance rather than inductive effects. The films were characterized by TEM, SEM, XPS, UV/vis, and AFM. CT characteristics were studied between 15 and 300 K. PMID:22746531

  2. Charged-particle cross section data for fusion plasma applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Cross-section data for fusion plasma calculations are reviewed for three categories: fusion reactions, nuclear elastic and inelastic scattering. While the data base for the basic D-T fuel cycle seems adequate for present purposes, continued refinement appears warranted. Further, increasing emphasis on advanced-fuel fusion introduces requirements for new reaction rate and charged-particle scattering data over a wider range of reacting species (light elements through /sup 11/B) and over a larger energy range (to several MeV). These new needs are discussed along with suggestions for increased emphasis on providing the user with more convenient compilations. In particular, the extension of reactivities (< sigma V) to non-Maxwellian distributions, scattering matrix data, and development of computer based files are noted.

  3. An acoustic charge transport imager for high definition television applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, William D.; Brennan, Kevin F.; Summers, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    This report covers: (1) invention of a new, ultra-low noise, low operating voltage APD which is expected to offer far better performance than the existing volume doped APD device; (2) performance of a comprehensive series of experiments on the acoustic and piezoelectric properties of ZnO films sputtered on GaAs which can possibly lead to a decrease in the required rf drive power for ACT devices by 15dB; (3) development of an advanced, hydrodynamic, macroscopic simulator used for evaluating the performance of ACT and CTD devices and aiding in the development of the next generation of devices; (4) experimental development of CTD devices which utilize a p-doped top barrier demonstrating charge storage capacity and low leakage currents; (5) refinements in materials growth techniques and in situ controls to lower surface defect densities to record levels as well as increase material uniformity and quality.

  4. Detergent solubilization of phospholipid vesicle. Effect of electric charge.

    PubMed Central

    Urbaneja, M A; Alonso, A; Gonzalez-Mañas, J M; Goñi, F M; Partearroyo, M A; Tribout, M; Paredes, S

    1990-01-01

    In order to explore the effect of electric charge on detergent solubilization of phospholipid bilayers, the interaction of nine electrically charged surfactants with neutral or electrically charged liposomes has been examined. The detergents belonged to the alkyl pyridinium, alkyl trimethylammonium or alkyl sulphate families. Large unilamellar liposomes formed by egg phosphatidylcholine plus or minus stearylamine or dicetyl phosphate were used. Solubilization was assessed as a decrease in light-scattering of the liposome suspensions. The results suggest that electrostatic forces do not play a significant role in the formation of mixed micelles and that hydrophobic interactions are by far the main forces involved in solubilization. In addition, from the study of thirty different liposome-surfactant systems, we have derived a series of empirical rules that may be useful in predicting the behaviour of untested surfactants: (i) the detergent concentration producing the onset of solubilization (Don) decreases as the alkyl chain length increases; the decrease follows a semi-logarithmic pattern in the case of alkyl pyridinium compounds; (ii) for surfactants with critical micellar concentrations (cmc) less than 6 x 10(-3) M, Don. is independent of the nature of the detergent and the bilayer composition; for detergents having cmc greater than 6 x 10(-3) M, Don. increases linearly with the cmc; and (iii) Don. varies linearly with the surfactant concentration that produces maximum solubilization. PMID:2400390

  5. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Balram, Ajit C.; Wurstbauer, U.; Wójs, A.; Pinczuk, A.; Jain, J. K.

    2015-11-26

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeemanmore » energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region.« less

  6. Evidence for a discrete charge effect within lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C C; Bruner, L J

    1978-01-01

    A high amplitude voltage step technique has been used to meausre the surface density of dipicrylamine anions adsorbed at the surfaces of lipid bilayer membranes. Accompanying low amplitude measurements have determined the relaxation time for transient current flow across the membranes, a parameter governed by the height of the central energy barrier which dipicrylamine anions must cross in moving from one membrane surface to the other. Measured relaxation times and surface charge densities have been related by a quasi-continuum model of the discrete charge effect, which predicts that the membrane central barrier height will increase with increasing density of adsorbed surface charge. The experimentally determined relationship is in satisfactory agreement with the predictions of the model. The model does not provide a complete description of the membrane/solution interface, however, because it cannot be applied to the description of previously measured isotherms for the adsorption of dipicrylamine anions onto bilayer membranes surfaces. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. PMID:737286

  7. 12 CFR 1026.60 - Credit and charge card applications and solicitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... period varies, the card issuer may disclose the range of days, the minimum number of days, or the average... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit and charge card applications and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) Special Rules Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered...

  8. 12 CFR 1026.60 - Credit and charge card applications and solicitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... period varies, the card issuer may disclose the range of days, the minimum number of days, or the average... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit and charge card applications and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) Special Rules Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered...

  9. The effect of the electrical double layer on the membrane charging process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Lin, Hao

    2010-11-01

    The electrical charging process of a lipid membrane immersed in electrolytic solutions is of significance to a variety of applications including electroporation and electrodeformation. In these phenomena, the build-up of a potential difference across the membrane (the so-called transmembrane potential, or TMP) induces pore formation and membrane permeabilization (in electroporation) or deformation (in electrodeformation). The classical model treats the membrane as an equivalent capacitor-resistor system which is valid in the zero-thickness electrical double layer (EDL) limit. In this work, the effects of a finite EDL on the charging dynamics are investigated. Starting from the Nernst-Planck equations governing ionic transport, the membrane charging problem is solved in both planar and spherical geometries, and using both analytical and numerical methods. The results demonstrate that the effects of the EDL become more significant as the electrical conductivity of the electrolytic solution decreases, which is a natural consequence of an increased Debye length. The steric effect, which often arises in the limit of large zeta-potentials, is shown to be insignificant for physiological applications. The effective circuit equivalence of the EDL is calculated and validated. The results are discussed in comparison with experimental data on electroporation from the literature.

  10. Space Charge Effects in a Gas Filled Penning Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, D.; Ames, F.; Beck, M.; Bollen, G.; Delauré, B.; Schuurmans, P.; Schwarz, S.; Schmidt, P.; Severijns, N.; Forstner, O.

    2001-01-01

    Mass selective buffer gas cooling is a technique used for ions that are stored in a Penning trap. The technique can be applied to all elements and the mass resolving power achieved has proven to be sufficient to resolve isobars. When not only a few but 106 and more ions are stored at the same time, space charge starts to play a dominant role for the spatial distribution. In addition, the observed cyclotron frequency is shifted. This work investigates these effects by numerical calculations.

  11. Space charge effects for multipactor in coaxial lines

    SciTech Connect

    Sorolla, E.

    2015-03-15

    Multipactor is a hazardous vacuum discharge produced by secondary electron emission within microwave devices of particle accelerators and telecommunication satellites. This work analyzes the dynamics of the multipactor discharge within a coaxial line for the mono-energetic electron emission model taking into account the space charge effects. The steady-state is predicted by the proposed model and an analytical expression for the maximum number of electrons released by the discharge presented. This could help to link simulations to experiments and define a multipactor onset criterion.

  12. Universal Charge Diffusion and the Butterfly Effect in Holographic Theories.

    PubMed

    Blake, Mike

    2016-08-26

    We study charge diffusion in holographic scaling theories with a particle-hole symmetry. We show that these theories have a universal regime in which the diffusion constant is given by D_{c}=Cv_{B}^{2}/(2πT), where v_{B} is the velocity of the butterfly effect. The constant of proportionality C depends only on the scaling exponents of the infrared theory. Our results suggest an unexpected connection between transport at strong coupling and quantum chaos. PMID:27610842

  13. Analysis of Longitudinal Space Charge Effects With Radial Dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Juhao; Huang, Z.; Emma, P.; /SLAC

    2005-09-30

    Longitudinal space charge (LSC) force can be a main effect driving the microbunching instability in the linac for an x-ray free-electron laser (FEL). In this paper, the LSC-induced beam modulation is studied using an integral equation approach that takes into account the transverse (radial) variation of LSC field for both the coasting beam limit and bunched beam. Changes of beam energy and the transverse beam size can be also incorporated. We discuss the validity of this approach and compare it with other analyses as well as numerical simulations.

  14. Isotope mass and charge effects in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Pusztai, I.; Candy, J.; Gohil, P.

    2011-12-15

    The effect of primary ion species of differing charge and mass - specifically, deuterium, hydrogen, and helium - on instabilities and transport is studied in DIII-D plasmas through gyrokinetic simulations with gyro [J. Candy and E. Belli, General Atomics Technical Report No. GA-A26818, 2010]. In linear simulations under imposed similarity of the profiles, there is an isomorphism between the linear growth rates of hydrogen isotopes, but the growth rates are higher for Z > 1 main ions due to the appearance of the charge in the Poisson equation. On ion scales the most significant effect of the different electron-to-ion mass ratio appears through collisions stabilizing trapped electron modes. In nonlinear simulations, significant favorable deviations from pure gyro-Bohm scaling are found due to electron-to-ion mass ratio effects and collisions. The presence of any non-trace impurity species cannot be neglected in a comprehensive simulation of the transport; including carbon impurity in the simulations caused a dramatic reduction of energy fluxes. The transport in the analyzed deuterium and helium discharges could be well reproduced in gyrokinetic and gyrofluid simulations while the significant hydrogen discrepancy is the subject of ongoing investigation.

  15. Isotope mass and charge effects in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusztai, I.; Candy, J.; Gohil, P.

    2011-12-01

    The effect of primary ion species of differing charge and mass—specifically, deuterium, hydrogen, and helium—on instabilities and transport is studied in DIII-D plasmas through gyrokinetic simulations with gyro [J. Candy and E. Belli, General Atomics Technical Report No. GA-A26818, 2010]. In linear simulations under imposed similarity of the profiles, there is an isomorphism between the linear growth rates of hydrogen isotopes, but the growth rates are higher for Z > 1 main ions due to the appearance of the charge in the Poisson equation. On ion scales the most significant effect of the different electron-to-ion mass ratio appears through collisions stabilizing trapped electron modes. In nonlinear simulations, significant favorable deviations from pure gyro-Bohm scaling are found due to electron-to-ion mass ratio effects and collisions. The presence of any non-trace impurity species cannot be neglected in a comprehensive simulation of the transport; including carbon impurity in the simulations caused a dramatic reduction of energy fluxes. The transport in the analyzed deuterium and helium discharges could be well reproduced in gyrokinetic and gyrofluid simulations while the significant hydrogen discrepancy is the subject of ongoing investigation.

  16. Effect of pulsed current charging on the performance of nickel-cadium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedrossian, A. A.; Cheh, H. Y.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of pulsed current charging on the charge acceptance of NiCd cells in terms of mass transfer, kinetic, and structural considerations was investigated. A systemic investigation on the performance of Ni-Cd cells by pulsed current charging was conducted under a variety of well-defined charge-discharge conditions. Experiments were carried out with half cells and film electrodes. The system behavior was studied by charge acceptance, mechanistic, and structural measurements.

  17. Applicability of micro-channel plate followed by phosphor screen to charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himura, H.; Nakata, S.; Sanpei, A.

    2016-06-01

    This paper experimentally investigates the applicability of a micro-channel plate (MCP) followed by a phosphor screen to charged particles along with a calibration method for estimating the acceptable limit of input particle flux and appropriate operation parameters of a particular MCP. For the first time, plasmas consisting of only lithium ions are injected into the MCP. Despite large ion numbers (Ni) on the order of ≃107, no deterioration in the effective gain (αG) of the MCP owing to an excess amount of the extracted charge occurs in a certain range of the amplifier voltage (ΔUM) applied to the MCP. The measured αG nearly agrees with the expected value. However, once ΔUM exceeds a limit value, αG eventually begins to saturate. This is also verified in experiments using pure electron plasmas. An appropriate range of ΔUM is presented to avoid saturation and, finally, derive Ni directly from the secondary electron current outputted from the MCP only after the indispensable calibration.

  18. Absence of the Electric Aharonov-Bohm Effect due to Induced Charges

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui-Feng

    2015-01-01

    This paper states that the induced charge should not be neglected in the electric Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) effect. If the induced charge is taken into account, the interference pattern of the moving charge will not change with the potential difference between the two metal tubes. It means that the scalar potential itself can not affect the phase of the moving charge, and the true factor affecting the phase of the moving charge is the energy of the system including the moving charge and the induced charge. PMID:26392302

  19. Absence of the Electric Aharonov-Bohm Effect due to Induced Charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui-Feng

    2015-09-01

    This paper states that the induced charge should not be neglected in the electric Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) effect. If the induced charge is taken into account, the interference pattern of the moving charge will not change with the potential difference between the two metal tubes. It means that the scalar potential itself can not affect the phase of the moving charge, and the true factor affecting the phase of the moving charge is the energy of the system including the moving charge and the induced charge.

  20. Absence of the Electric Aharonov-Bohm Effect due to Induced Charges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Feng

    2015-01-01

    This paper states that the induced charge should not be neglected in the electric Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) effect. If the induced charge is taken into account, the interference pattern of the moving charge will not change with the potential difference between the two metal tubes. It means that the scalar potential itself can not affect the phase of the moving charge, and the true factor affecting the phase of the moving charge is the energy of the system including the moving charge and the induced charge. PMID:26392302

  1. Single Electron Charging and Quantum Effects in Semiconductor Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foxman, Ethan Bradley

    1993-01-01

    We present an experimental study of a small region (~0.3 times 0.3 mum^2) of two-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs/rm Al_{x}Ga_{1-x}As heterostructure. The small electron gas is coupled to electrical leads through tunnel barriers formed by negatively biased Schottky gates on the surface of the heterostructure. Electron transport is studied as a function of gate voltage, magnetic field, temperature, bias voltage and tunneling barrier height. We observe a rich interplay between single electron charging and quantum effects. The conductance of such systems was known to consist of a series of nearly periodic conductance peaks.^{1,2} We further investigate this behavior and show that our observations are consistent with a model that synthesizes classical single electron charging and a discrete tunneling density of states.^{3,4}. We investigate the nature and origin of this tunneling density of states. The spectrum of states is determined through current-voltage measurements and low-bias conductance measurements. The tunneling density of states is mapped as a function of gate voltage and magnetic field. In the latter case, we show that our observations can be understood through a self-consistent model of single electron charging in the quantum Hall regime.^5. Lastly, we report conductance measurements in the regime where the conductance across the tunnel barriers separating the small electron gas from its leads becomes of order e^2/h. We observe that in this regime single electron charging effects are quenched. This effect is shown to arise from an increased capacitance across one of the barriers and from the increased lifetime broadening of states in the small electron gas. ^6 (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617 -253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.) ftn^1J. H. F. Scott -Thomas, S. B. Field, M. A. Kastner, H. I. Smith, and D. A. Antoniadis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 583 (1989). ^2U. Meirav, M. A. Kastner, and S. J. Wind

  2. Free charge localization and effective dielectric permittivity in oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maglione, Mario

    2016-06-01

    This review will deal with several types of free charge localization in oxides and their consequences on the effective dielectric spectra of such materials. The first one is the polaronic localization at the unit cell scale on residual impurities in ferroelectric networks. The second one is the collective localization of free charge at macroscopic interfaces like surfaces, electrodes and grain boundaries in ceramics. Polarons have been observed in many oxide perovskites mostly when cations having several stable electronic configurations are present. In manganites, the density of such polarons is so high as to drive a net lattice of interacting polarons. On the other hand, in ferroelectric materials like BaTiO3 and LiNbO3, the density of polarons is usually very small but they can influence strongly the macroscopic conductivity. The contribution of such polarons to the dielectric spectra of ferroelectric materials is described. Even residual impurities as for example Iron can induce well-defined anomalies at very low temperatures. This is mostly resulting from the interaction between localized polarons and the highly polarizable ferroelectric network in which they are embedded. The case of such residual polarons in SrTiO3 will be described in more detail, emphasizing the quantum polaron state at liquid helium temperatures. Recently, several nonferroelectric oxides have been shown to display giant effective dielectric permittivity. It is first shown that the frequency/temperature behavior of such parameters is very similar in very different compounds (donor-doped BaTiO3, CaCu3Ti4O12, LuFe2O4, Li-doped NiO, etc.). This similarity calls for a common origin of the giant dielectric permittivity in these compounds. A space charge localization at macroscopic interfaces can be the key for such extremely high dielectric permittivity.

  3. Exceptionally Long-Lived Charge Separated State in Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework: Implication for Photocatalytic Applications.

    PubMed

    Pattengale, Brian; Yang, Sizhuo; Ludwig, John; Huang, Zhuangqun; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Huang, Jier

    2016-07-01

    Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) have emerged as a novel class of porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for catalysis application because of their exceptional thermal and chemical stability. Inspired by the broad absorption of ZIF-67 in UV-vis-near IR region, we explored its excited state and charge separation dynamics, properties essential for photocatalytic applications, using optical (OTA) and X-ray transient absorption (XTA) spectroscopy. OTA results show that an exceptionally long-lived excited state is formed after photoexcitation. This long-lived excited state was confirmed to be the charge-separated (CS) state with ligand-to-metal charge-transfer character using XTA. The surprisingly long-lived CS state, together with its intrinsic hybrid nature, all point to its potential application in heterogeneous photocatalysis and energy conversion. PMID:27322216

  4. [Galactic heavy charged particles damaging effect on biological structures].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, A I; Krasavin, E A; Ostrovskiĭ, M A

    2013-03-01

    A concept of the radiation risk of the manned interplanetary flights is proposed and substantiated. Heavy charged particles that are a component of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) have a high damaging effect on the biological structures as great amount of energy is deposited in heavy particle tracks. The high biological effectiveness of heavy ions is observed in their action on cell genetic structures and the whole organism, including the brain structures. The hippocampus is the part of the central nervous system that is the most sensitive to radiation--first of all, to heavy charged particles. Irradiation of animals with accelerated iron ions at doses corresponding to the real fluxes of GCR heavy nuclei, to which Mars mission crews can be exposed, leads to marked behavioral function disorders in the post-irradiation period. To evaluate the radiation risk for the interplanetary flight crews, the concept of successful mission accomplishment is introduced. In these conditions, the central nervous system structures can be the critical target of GCR heavy nuclei. Their damage can modify the higher integrative functions of the brain and cause disorders in the crew members' operator performances. PMID:23789432

  5. Effects of reliability screens of MOS charge trapping

    SciTech Connect

    Shanneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Schwank, J.R.; Reber, R.A. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    The effects of pre-irradiation elevated-temperature bias stresses on the radiation hardness of field-oxide transistors have been investigated as a function of stress temperature, time, and bias. Both the stress temperature and time are found to have a significant impact on radiation-induced charge buildup in these transistors. Specifically, an increase in either the stress temperature or time causes a much larger negative shift (towards depletion) in the I-V characteristics of the n-channel field-oxide transistors. This increased shift in the transistor I-V characteristics with stress temperature and time suggests that the mechanisms responsible for the stress effects are thermally activated. An activation energy of {approximately}0.38 eV was measured. The stress bias was found to have no impact on radiation-induced charge buildup in these transistors. The observed stress temperature, time, and bias dependencies appears to be consistent with the diffusion of molecular hydrogen during a given stress period. These results have important implications for the development of hardness assurance test methods.

  6. Simulation of ELBE SRF gun II for high-bunch-charge applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, P.; Arnold, A.; Teichert, J.; Vennekate, H.; Xiang, R.

    2016-09-01

    The SRF gun at ELBE will benefit most of the local user beamlines for future high-bunch-charge operations. Parallel to its development, simulation-based investigations have been performed to improve the beam quality for THz experiments and Compton backscattering experiments. These two applications have the most challenging requirements: THz experiments benefit significantly from short bunch lengths at the sub-ps level, while Compton backscattering experiments demand small transverse beam sizes of about 30 μm. The beam dynamics of the SRF gun are simulated with ASTRA and the beam transport is optimized using Elegant. Important physical effects included in simulations are introduced first, where the interesting phenomenon of "slice mismatch" is generally quantified and numerically studied. Afterwards, beam transport strategies and optimization methods are proposed which are based on the specific settings of ELBE but also applicable to similar accelerator setups. Finally, optimizations of the SRF gun and the beam transport in ELBE are presented. Results show that the SRF gun is capable of providing 500 pC bunches for both applications with better beam qualities than the currently 100 pC bunches supplied by the existing thermionic DC source.

  7. Effective charge and effective radius of water droplet in dropwise cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Shavlov, A. V.; Romanyuk, S. N.; Dzhumandzhi, V. A.

    2013-02-15

    A particle with large electric charge Z (Z Much-Greater-Than 1) and radius R{sub 0} inserted into plasma is surrounded by a plasma shell, which is stable to weak and short-term external exposures. As a result, during experiments the particle can reveal an effective charge Z* lower than the true one (Z*{<=} Z), and an effective radius R* larger than the true one (R*{>=} R{sub 0}). The effective electric charge and the effective radius of a water droplet in a dropwise cluster have been calculated using the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. It has been recognized that these parameters are not the function of a droplet's true charge, but are the function of a droplet's true size and the Debye's radius of the plasma. Experimental data on the droplet properties in a dropwise cluster have been explained.

  8. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-03-30

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force actingmore » on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Lastly, our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.« less

  9. Charge Transport in Field-Effect Transistors based on Layered Materials and their Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Jatinder

    In the quest for energy efficiency and device miniaturization, the research in using atomically thin materials for device applications is gaining momentum. The electronic network in layered materials is different from 3D counterparts. It is due to the interlayer couplings and density of states because of their 2D nature. Therefore, understanding the charge transport in layered materials is fundamental to explore the vast opportunities these ultra-thin materials offer. Hence, the challenges targeted in the thesis are: (1) understanding the charge transport in layered materials based on electronic network of quantum and oxide capacitances, (2) studying thickness dependence, ranging from monolayer to bulk, of full range-characteristics of field-effect transistor (FET) based on layered materials, (3) investigating the total interface trap charges to achieve the ultimate subthreshold slope (SS) theoretically possible in FETs, (4) understanding the effect of the channel length on the performance of layered materials, (5) understanding the effect of substrate on performance of the TMDC FETs and studying if the interface of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs)/hexagonalboron nitride (h-BN) can have less enough trap charges to observe ambipolar behavior, (6) Exploring optoelectronic properties in 2D heterostructures that includes understanding graphene/WS2 heterostructure and its optoelectronic applications by creating a p-n junction at the interface. The quality of materials and the interface are the issues for observing and extracting clean physics out of these layered materials and heterostructures. In this dissertation, we realized the use of quantum capacitance in layered materials, substrate effects and carrier transport in heterostructure.

  10. Anomalous Shrinking-Swelling of Nanoconfined End-Charged Polyelectrolyte Brushes: Interplay of Confinement and Electrostatic Effects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang; Das, Siddhartha

    2016-07-14

    In this article, we model the structure and configuration of the end-charged polyelectrolyte (PE) brushes grafted on the inner walls of a nanochannel. When the confinement effect is weak, that is, d0 < h/2 (d0 is the PE brush height without electrostatic effects and h is the nanochannel half-height), d < d0 (d is the brush height with the electrostatic effects), that is, the brushes shrink due to the electrostatic effects. Furthermore, for this case, an increase in salt concentration increases d. On the contrary, for the case in which the confinement effect is strong (i.e., d0 > h/2), d > d0 (i.e., the electrostatic effects swell the brushes), and an increase in salt concentration decreases the brush height. These findings reveal that the behavior of the end-charged brushes shows three unique differences when compared to that of the standard PE brushes with charges along their entire backbone. These differences are (a) the presence of a distinct role of the confinement in dictating how the electrostatic effects mediated by the electric double layer govern the height of end-charged brushes, (b) electrostatic-effect-driven shrinking of end-charged brushes for d0 < h/2 (for backbone-charged brushes, the electrostatic effects always swell the brushes), and (c) swelling of end-charged brushes with an increase in salt concentration for d0 < h/2 (backbone-charged brushes always shrink with an increase in salt concentration). Such unique effects of confinement and electrostatics on PE brushes have not been reported previously, and we anticipate that these findings will shed new light on the structure and properties of PE-brush-functionalized nanochannels with implications in applications such as fabrication of functionalized-nanochannel-based nanofluidic diodes, valves, biosensors, current rectifiers, and so forth. PMID:27322913

  11. Ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy of solutions: space-charge effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Obaidi, R.; Wilke, M.; Borgwardt, M.; Metje, J.; Moguilevski, A.; Engel, N.; Tolksdorf, D.; Raheem, A.; Kampen, T.; Mähl, S.; Kiyan, I. Yu; Aziz, E. F.

    2015-09-01

    The method of time-resolved XUV photoelectron spectroscopy is applied in a pump-probe experiment on a liquid micro-jet. We investigate how the XUV energy spectra of photoelectrons are influenced by the space charge created due to ionization of the liquid medium by the pump laser pulse. XUV light from high-order harmonic generation is used to probe the electron population of the valence shell of iron hexacyanide in water. By exposing the sample to a short UV pump pulse of 266 nm wavelength and ˜55 fs duration, we observe an energy shift of the spectral component associated with XUV ionization from the Fe 3d(t2g) orbital as well as a shift of the water spectrum. Depending on the sequence of the pump and probe pulses, the arising energy shift of photoelectrons acquires a positive or negative value. It exhibits a sharp positive peak at small time delays, which facilitates to determine the temporal overlap between pump and probe pulses. The negative spectral shift is due to positive charge accumulated in the liquid medium during ionization. Its dissipation is found to occur on a (sub)nanosecond time scale and has a biexponential character. A simple mean-field model is provided to interpret the observations. A comparison between the intensity dependencies of the spectral shift and the UV ionization yield shows that the space-charge effect can be significantly reduced when the pump intensity is attenuated below the saturation level of water ionization. For the given experimental conditions, the saturation intensity lies at 6× {10}10 W cm-2.

  12. Charge/mass dynamic structure factors of water and applications to dielectric friction and electroacoustic conversion.

    PubMed

    Sedlmeier, Felix; Shadkhoo, Shahriar; Bruinsma, Robijn; Netz, Roland R

    2014-02-01

    We determine time correlation functions and dynamic structure factors of the number and charge density of liquid water from molecular dynamics simulations. Using these correlation functions we consider dielectric friction and electro-acoustic coupling effects via linear response theory. From charge-charge correlations, the drag force on a moving point charge is derived and found to be maximal at a velocity of around 300 m/s. Strong deviations in the resulting friction coefficients from approximate theory employing a single Debye relaxation mode are found that are due to non-Debye-like resonances at high frequencies. From charge-mass cross-correlations the ultrasonic vibration potential is derived, which characterizes the conversion of acoustic waves into electric time-varying potentials. Along the dispersion relation for normal sound waves in water, the ultrasonic vibration potential is shown to strongly vary and to increase for larger wavelengths. PMID:24511957

  13. Three dimensional simulations of space charge dominated heavy ion beams with applications to inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, D.P.

    1994-11-01

    Heavy ion fusion requires injection, transport and acceleration of high current beams. Detailed simulation of such beams requires fully self-consistent space charge fields and three dimensions. WARP3D, developed for this purpose, is a particle-in-cell plasma simulation code optimized to work within the framework of an accelerator`s lattice of accelerating, focusing, and bending elements. The code has been used to study several test problems and for simulations and design of experiments. Two applications are drift compression experiments on the MBE-4 facility at LBL and design of the electrostatic quadrupole injector for the proposed ILSE facility. With aggressive drift compression on MBE-4, anomalous emittance growth was observed. Simulations carried out to examine possible causes showed that essentially all the emittance growth is result of external forces on the beam and not of internal beam space-charge fields. Dominant external forces are the dodecapole component of focusing fields, the image forces on the surrounding pipe and conductors, and the octopole fields that result from the structure of the quadrupole focusing elements. Goal of the design of the electrostatic quadrupole injector is to produce a beam of as low emittance as possible. The simulations show that the dominant effects that increase the emittance are the nonlinear octopole fields and the energy effect (fields in the axial direction that are off-axis). Injectors were designed that minimized the beam envelope in order to reduce the effect of the nonlinear fields. Alterations to the quadrupole structure that reduce the nonlinear fields further were examined. Comparisons were done with a scaled experiment resulted in very good agreement.

  14. Hall effect in quantum critical charge-cluster glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jie; Bollinger, Anthony T.; Sun, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Upon doping, cuprates undergo a quantum phase transition from an insulator to a d-wave superconductor. The nature of this transition and of the insulating state is vividly debated. Here, we study the Hall effect in La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO) samples doped near the quantum critical point at x ˜ 0.06. Dramatic fluctuations in the Hall resistance appear below TCG ˜ 1.5 K and increase as the sample is cooled down further, signaling quantum critical behavior. We explore the doping dependence of this effect in detail, by studying a combinatorial LSCO library in which the Sr content is varied in extremely fine steps, Δx ˜ 0.00008. We observe that quantum charge fluctuations wash out when superconductivity emerges but can be restored when the latter is suppressed by applying a magnetic field, showing that the two instabilities compete for the ground state.

  15. Hall effect in quantum critical charge-cluster glass.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Bollinger, Anthony T; Sun, Yujie; Božović, Ivan

    2016-04-19

    Upon doping, cuprates undergo a quantum phase transition from an insulator to a d-wave superconductor. The nature of this transition and of the insulating state is vividly debated. Here, we study the Hall effect in La2-xSrxCuO4(LSCO) samples doped near the quantum critical point atx∼ 0.06. Dramatic fluctuations in the Hall resistance appear belowTCG∼ 1.5 K and increase as the sample is cooled down further, signaling quantum critical behavior. We explore the doping dependence of this effect in detail, by studying a combinatorial LSCO library in which the Sr content is varied in extremely fine steps,Δx∼ 0.00008. We observe that quantum charge fluctuations wash out when superconductivity emerges but can be restored when the latter is suppressed by applying a magnetic field, showing that the two instabilities compete for the ground state. PMID:27044081

  16. Double Photoionization of Beryllium atoms using Effective Charge approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Haripada

    2016-05-01

    We plan to report the results of our investigation on double photoionization K-shell electrons from Beryllium atoms. We will present the results of triple differential cross sections at excess energy of 20 eV using our recently extended MCHF method. We will use multiconfiguration Hartree Fock method to calculate the wave functions for the initial state. The final state wave functions will be obtained in the angle depended Effective Charge approximation which accounts for electron correlation between the two final state continuum electrons. We will discuss the effect of core correlation and the valence shell electrons in the triple differential cross section. The results will be compared with the available accurate theoretical calculations and experimental findings.

  17. Charge inversion in DNA-amphiphile complexes: Possible application to gene therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Paulo S.; Levin, Yan; Barbosa, Marcia C.

    1999-12-01

    We study complex formation between the DNA and cationic amphiphilic molecules. As the amphiphile is added to the solution containing DNA, a cooperative binding of surfactants to the DNA molecules is found. This binding transition occurs at a specific density of amphiphile, which is strongly dependent on the concentration of the salt and on the hydrophobicity of the surfactant molecules. We find that for amphiphiles which are sufficiently hydrophobic, a charge neutralization, or even charge inversion of the complex is possible. This is of particular importance in applications to gene therapy, for which the functional delivery of specific base sequence into living cells remains an outstanding problem. The charge inversion could, in principle, allow the DNA-surfactant complexes to approach the negatively charged cell membranes permitting the transfection to take place.

  18. Charge inversion in DNA--amphiphile complexes: Applications for gene therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Marcia C.; Kuhn, Paulo; Levin, Yan

    2000-03-01

    We study a complex formation between the DNA and cationic amphiphilic molecules. As the amphiphile is added to the solution containing DNA, a cooperative binding of surfactants to the DNA molecules is found. This binding transition occurs at specific density of amphiphile, which is strongly dependent on the concentration of the salt and on the hydrophobicity of the surfactant molecules. We find that for amphiphiles which are sufficiently hydrophobic, a charge neutralization, or even charge inversion of the complex is possible. This is of particular importance in applications to gene therapy, for which the functional delivery of specific base sequence into living cells remains an outstanding problem. The charge inversion could, in principle, allow the DNA-surfactant complexes to approach negatively charged cell membranes permitting the transfection to take place.

  19. Maximum Power Point tracking charge controllers for telecom applications -- Analysis and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, R.H.

    1997-12-31

    Simple charge controllers connect photovoltaic modules directly to the battery bank resulting in a significant power loss if the battery bank voltage differs greatly from the PV Maximum Power Point (MPP) voltage. Recent modeling work at AES has shown that dc-dc converter type MPP tracking charge controllers can deliver more than 30% more energy from PV modules to the battery when the PV modules are cool and the battery state of charge is low--this is typically both the worst case condition (i.e., winter) and also the design condition that determines the PV array size. Economic modeling, based on typical telecom system installed costs shows benefits of more than $3/Wp for MPPT over conventional charge controllers in this application--a value that greatly exceeds the additional cost of the dc-dc converter.

  20. The effects of charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) on galaxy shape measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, Jason; Leauthaud, Alexie; Stoughton, Chris; Massey, Richard; Dawson, Kyle; Kolbe, William; Roe, Natalie; /LBL, Berkeley

    2010-02-01

    We examine the effects of charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) during CCD readout on the demanding galaxy shape measurements required by studies of weak gravitational lensing. We simulate a CCD readout with CTI such as that caused by charged particle radiation damage in space-based detectors. We verify our simulations on real data from fully depleted p-channel CCDs that have been deliberately irradiated in a laboratory. We show that only charge traps with time constants of the same order as the time between row transfers during readout affect galaxy shape measurements. We simulate deep astronomical images and the process of CCD readout, characterizing the effects of CTI on various galaxy populations. Our code and methods are general and can be applied to any CCDs, once the density and characteristic release times of their charge trap species are known. We baseline our study around p-channel CCDs that have been shown to have charge transfer efficiency up to an order of magnitude better than several models of n-channel CCDs designed for space applications. We predict that for galaxies furthest from the readout registers, bias in the measurement of galaxy shapes, {Delta}e, will increase at a rate of (2.65 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup -4} yr{sup -1} at L2 for accumulated radiation exposure averaged over the solar cycle. If uncorrected, this will consume the entire shape measurement error budget of a dark energy mission surveying the entire extragalactic sky within about 4 yr of accumulated radiation damage. However, software mitigation techniques demonstrated elsewhere can reduce this by a factor of {approx}10, bringing the effect well below mission requirements. This conclusion is valid only for the p-channel CCDs we have modeled; CCDs with higher CTI will fare worse and may not meet the requirements of future dark energy missions. We also discuss additional ways in which hardware could be designed to further minimize the impact of CTI.

  1. Charged particle tracking at Titan, and further applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebesi, Zsofia; Erdos, Geza; Szego, Karoly

    2016-04-01

    We use the CAPS ion data of Cassini to investigate the dynamics and origin of Titan's atmospheric ions. We developed a 4th order Runge-Kutta method to calculate particle trajectories in a time reversed scenario. The test particle magnetic field environment imitates the curved magnetic environment in the vicinity of Titan. The minimum variance directions along the S/C trajectory have been calculated for all available Titan flybys, and we assumed a homogeneous field that is perpendicular to the minimum variance direction. Using this method the magnetic field lines have been calculated along the flyby orbits so we could select those observational intervals when Cassini and the upper atmosphere of Titan were magnetically connected. We have also taken the Kronian magnetodisc into consideration, and used different upstream magnetic field approximations depending on whether Titan was located inside of the magnetodisc current sheet, or in the lobe regions. We also discuss the code's applicability to comets.

  2. Effects of cytosine methylation on DNA charge transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hihath, Joshua; Guo, Shaoyin; Zhang, Peiming; Tao, Nongjian

    2012-04-01

    The methylation of cytosine bases in DNA commonly takes place in the human genome and its abnormality can be used as a biomarker in the diagnosis of genetic diseases. In this paper we explore the effects of cytosine methylation on the conductance of DNA. Although the methyl group is a small chemical modification, and has a van der Waals radius of only 2 Å, its presence significantly changes the duplex stability, and as such may also affect the conductance properties of DNA. To determine if charge transport through the DNA stack is sensitive to this important biological modification we perform multiple conductance measurements on a methylated DNA molecule with an alternating G:C sequence and its non-methylated counterpart. From these studies we find a measurable difference in the conductance between the two types of molecules, and demonstrate that this difference is statistically significant. The conductance values of these molecules are also compared with a similar sequence that has been previously studied to help elucidate the charge transport mechanisms involved in direct DNA conductance measurements.

  3. Proximity effects in cold gases of multiply charged atoms (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikina, I.; Shikin, V.

    2016-07-01

    Possible proximity effects in gases of cold, multiply charged atoms are discussed. Here we deal with rarefied gases with densities nd of multiply charged (Z ≫ 1) atoms at low temperatures in the well-known Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation, which can be used to evaluate the statistical properties of single atoms. In order to retain the advantages of the TF formalism, which is successful for symmetric problems, the external boundary conditions accounting for the finiteness of the density of atoms (donors), nd ≠ 0, are also symmetrized (using a spherical Wigner-Seitz cell) and formulated in a standard way that conserves the total charge within the cell. The model shows that at zero temperature in a rarefied gas of multiply charged atoms there is an effective long-range interaction Eproxi(nd), the sign of which depends on the properties of the outer shells of individual atoms. The long-range character of the interaction Eproxi is evaluated by comparing it with the properties of the well-known London dispersive attraction ELond(nd) < 0, which is regarded as a long-range interaction in gases. For the noble gases argon, krypton, and xenon Eproxi>0 and for the alkali and alkaline-earth elements Eproxi < 0. At finite temperatures, TF statistics manifests a new, anomalously large proximity effect, which reflects the tendency of electrons localized at Coulomb centers to escape into the continuum spectrum. The properties of thermal decay are interesting in themselves as they determine the important phenomenon of dissociation of neutral complexes into charged fragments. This phenomenon appears consistently in the TF theory through the temperature dependence of the different versions of Eproxi. The anomaly in the thermal proximity effect shows up in the following way: for T ≠ 0 there is no equilibrium solution of TS statistics for single multiply charged atoms in a vacuum when the effect is present. Instability is suppressed in a Wigner-Seitz model under the assumption that

  4. The effect of additives on charge decay in electron-beam charged polypropylene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillenbrand, J; Motz, T; Sessler, G M; Zhang, X; Behrendt, N; von Salis-Soglio, C; Erhard, D P; Altstädt, V; Schmidt, H-W

    2009-03-01

    The charge decay in isotactic polypropylene (i-PP) films of 50 µm thickness, containing three kinds of additives, namely a trisamide, a bisamide and a fluorinated compound, with concentrations in the range 0.004-1 wt% was studied. Compression molding was used to produce the films. The samples were either surface-charged by a corona method or volume-charged by mono-energetic electron beams of different energies, having penetration depths up to 6 µm. In all cases, surface potentials of about 200 V were chosen. After charging the films, the decay of the surface potential was studied either by an isothermal discharge method at 90 °C or by thermally stimulated discharge measurements. The results show a dependence of the decay rate on the kind of additive used, on additive concentration and on the energy of the injected charges. In particular, for samples with fluorinated additives, the stability of the surface potential decreases markedly with increasing electron energy, while such a dependence is very weak for samples containing the bisamide additive and does not exist at all for samples with the trisamide additive. These observations are tentatively explained by the radiation-induced generation of relatively mobile negative ions originating from the bisamide and fluorinated additives.

  5. Charge Transfer and Support Effects in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hervier, Antoine

    2011-12-21

    the band bending at the interface, gives rise to a steady-state flow of hot holes to the surface. This leads to a decrease in turnover on the surface, an effect which is enhanced when a reverse bias is applied to the diode. Similar experiments were carried out for CO oxidation. On Pt/Si diodes, the reaction rate was found to increase when a forward bias was applied. When the diode was exposed to visible light and a reverse bias was applied, the rate was instead decreased. This implies that a flow of negative charges to the surface increases turnover, while positive charges decrease it. Charge flow in an oxide supported metal catalyst can be modified even without designing the catalyst as a solid state electronic device. This was done by doping stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric TiO2 films with F, and using the resulting oxides as supports for Pt films. In the case of stoichiometric TiO2, F was found to act as an n-type dopant, creating a population of filled electronic states just below the conduction band, and dramatically increasing the conductivity of the oxide film. The electrons in those states can transfer to surface O, activating it for reaction with CO, and leading to increased turnover for CO oxidation. This reinforces the hypothesis that CO oxidation is activated by a flow of negative charges to the surface. The same set of catalysts was used for methanol oxidation. The electronic properties of the TiO2 films again correlated with the turnover rates, but also with selectivity. With stoichiometric TiO2 as the support, F-doping caused an increase in selectivity toward the formation of partial oxidation products, formaldehyde and methyl formate, versus the total oxidation product, CO2. With non-stoichiometric TiO2, F-doping had the reverse effect. Ambient Pressure X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy was used to investigate this F-doping effect in reaction conditions. In O2 alone, and in

  6. Effects of surface charges of gold nanoclusters on long-term in vivo biodistribution, toxicity, and cancer radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Ying; Chen, Jie; Yang, Jiang; Wang, Hao; Shen, Xiu; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Guo, Meili; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) have exhibited great advantages in medical diagnostics and therapies due to their efficient renal clearance and high tumor uptake. The in vivo effects of the surface chemistry of Au NCs are important for the development of both nanobiological interfaces and potential clinical contrast reagents, but these properties are yet to be fully investigated. In this study, we prepared glutathione-protected Au NCs of a similar hydrodynamic size but with three different surface charges: positive, negative, and neutral. Their in vivo biodistribution, excretion, and toxicity were investigated over a 90-day period, and tumor uptake and potential application to radiation therapy were also evaluated. The results showed that the surface charge greatly influenced pharmacokinetics, particularly renal excretion and accumulation in kidney, liver, spleen, and testis. Negatively charged Au NCs displayed lower excretion and increased tumor uptake, indicating a potential for NC-based therapeutics, whereas positively charged clusters caused transient side effects on the peripheral blood system. PMID:27555769

  7. Effects of surface charges of gold nanoclusters on long-term in vivo biodistribution, toxicity, and cancer radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-Ying; Chen, Jie; Yang, Jiang; Wang, Hao; Shen, Xiu; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Guo, Meili; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) have exhibited great advantages in medical diagnostics and therapies due to their efficient renal clearance and high tumor uptake. The in vivo effects of the surface chemistry of Au NCs are important for the development of both nanobiological interfaces and potential clinical contrast reagents, but these properties are yet to be fully investigated. In this study, we prepared glutathione-protected Au NCs of a similar hydrodynamic size but with three different surface charges: positive, negative, and neutral. Their in vivo biodistribution, excretion, and toxicity were investigated over a 90-day period, and tumor uptake and potential application to radiation therapy were also evaluated. The results showed that the surface charge greatly influenced pharmacokinetics, particularly renal excretion and accumulation in kidney, liver, spleen, and testis. Negatively charged Au NCs displayed lower excretion and increased tumor uptake, indicating a potential for NC-based therapeutics, whereas positively charged clusters caused transient side effects on the peripheral blood system. PMID:27555769

  8. Partial Dissolution of Charge Order Phase Observed in β-(BEDT-TTF)2PF6 Single Crystal Field Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masatoshi; Moritoshi, Norifumi; Kuniyoshi, Shigekazu; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kudo, Kazuhiro; Masu, Hyuma

    2016-04-01

    The effect of an applied gate electric field on the charge-order phase in β-(BEDT-TTF)2PF6 single-crystal field-effect transistor structure was observed at around room temperature by technical improvement with respect to sample preparation and electrical measurements. A relatively slight but systematic increase of the electrical conductance induced by the applied gate electric field and its temperature dependence was observed at around the metal-insulator transition temperature (TMI). The temperature dependence of the modulated electrical conductance demonstrated that TMI was shifted toward the lower side by application of a gate electric field, which corresponds to partial dissolution of the charge-order phase. The thickness of the partially dissolved charge order region was estimated to be several score times larger than the charge accumulation region. PMID:27451615

  9. Development of a web application for estimate the total charge in an electric discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera-Rivera, F. H.; Dugar-Zhabon, V. D.; Dulce-Moreno, H. J.; V-Niño, E. D.

    2016-02-01

    This research seeks to implement a web application to estimate the total charge in an electric discharge from the experimental parameters established in reactors such as the JUPITER-MOSMET [1-5], used to perform surface modifications of metallic and nonmetallic species in solids substrates by hybrid discharges pulsed of high voltage and electric arc at low pressures [6-13]. Estimate the total charge generated in an electric discharge will allow to know the approximate value of the dose of ions implanted in the material surface [14-15], which are of great importance in each one of the experiments performed in the plasma laboratory of the Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS), where the reactor is installed. Currently there are no applications developed to ease the process optimization and estimate the total charge generated in a pulsed electric discharge.

  10. Effects of space charge in beams for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W.M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.

    1995-09-01

    A new analytic model is presented that accurately estimates the radially averaged axial component of the space-charge field of an axisymmetric heavy-ion beam in a cylindrical beam pipe. The model recovers details of the field near the beam ends that are overlooked by simpler models, and the results compare well to exact solutions of Poisson`s equation. Field values are shown for several simple beam profiles and are compared with values obtained from simpler models. The model has been implemented in the fluid/envelope code CIRCE and used to study longitudinal confinement in beams with a variety of axial profiles. The effects of errors in the longitudinal-control fields are presented.

  11. Optimizing space-charge limits of electron emission into plasmas with application to in-space electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, David Peter

    The topic of this thesis is the improvement of space-charge limits for electron emission into a plasma, primarily as applied to in-space electric propulsion applications. The space-charge limit is the point at which the electrostatic forces in a beam of emitted charged particles becomes sufficient to slow down and reflect new particles as they are emitted. Any emitter operating above this limit will suffer severe efficiency losses, as an average of 50% or more of the beam is reflected back to the emitter. This limit is especially salient to small spacecraft electric propulsion and other applications where power spent on electron emission is at a premium, such that it is not acceptable to improve the space-charge limit by simply adding energy to the emitted beam. The primary motivation of this work is field effect electron emitters because they are capable of high-current, low-power emission, but the results are applicable to thermionic and other types of emitters as well. Several techniques were studied including variation of emitter size and spacing, the addition of defocus rings, and time and spatial modulation of the emitted beam. Separating large emitters into multiple small emitters provided the greatest improvement, and trade studies are given showing the balance between integration cost and emission power. Defocus rings were found to be capable of improving emission from small emitters by 40% even in their most simple form of a grounded ring. Modulation of the beam was less effective at improving the space-charge limit, with a modulated beam having at best the same time-average space-charge limit as an un-modulated beam. It was discovered, however, that beam modulation significantly increases the efficiency of emission when the emitter must operate at current levels higher than the space-charge limit. Finally, it was confirmed that these results are consistent both for emission across a vacuum gap to a conducting anode, and across a plasma sheath into a

  12. Charge collection imaging of a monolithic DeltaE-E telescope for radiation protection applications.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, I; Rosenfeld, A; Reinhard, M; Fazzi, A; Prokopovich, D; Wroe, A; Siegele, R; Pola, A; Agosteo, S

    2006-01-01

    The development of microdosimeters and particle telescopes is important for risk assessment in space and aviation applications. The charge collection properties of a monolithic particle telescope, suitable for both microdosimetry and fluence based approaches, were studied using an ion microprobe. PMID:17251252

  13. Application of the precipitation-charge neutralization model of coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Dentel, S.K.

    1988-07-01

    A quantitative model is considered that develops predictions of suspension stability on the basis of electrokinetic characteristics of colloid material prior to and following coagulation. The model is applied in this paper to coagulation with aluminum sulfate and other aluminum salts. The effect of increasing particle surface area on coagulation is first modeled for a system containing particulate silica, but of varying size and concentration. Experimental results show a correlation of turbidity removal to attainment of near neutral zeta potential in zone 2 coagulation, and the calibrated model successfully predicts this zone. The model is then used to describe the coagulation of waters containing humic substances by considering them as small colloids with a substantial contribution to surface area in the system. Finally, it is shown that the model can be employed to describe the performance of polyaluminum coagulants as well.

  14. The effect of surface charge on the boundary slip of various oleophilic/phobic surfaces immersed in liquids.

    PubMed

    Li, Yifan; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-10-14

    The reduction of fluid drag is an important issue in many fluid flow applications at the micro/nanoscale. Boundary slip is believed to affect fluid drag. Slip length has been measured on various surfaces with different degrees of hydrophobicity and oleophobicity immersed in various liquids of scientific interest. Surface charge has been found to affect slip length in water and electrolytes. However, there are no studies on the effect of surface charge on slip at solid-oil interfaces. This study focuses on the effect of surface charge on the boundary slip of superoleophilic, oleophilic, oleophobic, and superoleophobic surfaces immersed in deionized (DI) water and hexadecane and ethylene glycol, based on atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface charge was changed by applying a positive electric field to the solid-liquid interface, and by using liquids with different pH values. The results show that slip length increases with an increase in applied positive electric field voltage. Slip length also increases with a decrease in the pH of the solutions. The change in slip length is dependent on the absolute value of the surface charge, and a larger surface charge density results in a smaller slip length. In addition, the surface charge density at different solid-liquid interfaces is related to the dielectric properties of the surface. The underlying mechanisms are analyzed. PMID:26303742

  15. Effective atomic number, energy loss and radiation damage studies in some materials commonly used in nuclear applications for heavy charged particles such as H, C, Mg, Fe, Te, Pb and U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurudirek, Murat

    2016-05-01

    Commonly used nuclear physics materials such as water, concrete, Pb-glass, paraffin, freon and P 10 gases, some alloys such as brass, bronze, stainless-steel and some scintillators such as anthracene, stilbene and toluene have been investigated with respect to the heavy charged particle interaction as means of projected range and effective atomic number (Zeff) in the energy region 10 keV to 10 MeV. Calculations were performed for heavy ions such as H, C, Mg, Fe, Te, Pb and U. Also, the energy loss and radiation damage were studied using SRIM Monte Carlo code for anthracene for different heavy ions of 100 keV kinetic energy. It has been observed that the variation in Zeff becomes less when the atomic number of the ions increase. Glass-Pb, bronze, brass, stainless-steel and Freon gas were found to vary less than 10% in the energy region 10 keV to 10 MeV. For total proton interaction, discrepancies up to 10% and 18% between two databases namely PSTAR and SRIM were noted in mass stopping power and Zeff of water, respectively. The range calculations resulted with a conclusion that the metal alloys and glass-Pb have lowest values of ranges confirming best shielding against energetic heavy ions whereas freon and P 10 gases have the highest values of ranges in the entire energy region. The simulation results showed that the energy loss (%) to target electrons decreases as the Z of the incident ion increases. Also, it was observed that the radiation damage first increases with Z of the ion and then keeps almost constant for ions with Z≥52.

  16. Piezotronic Effect: An Emerging Mechanism for Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Kory; Nguyen, Vu; Zhu, Ren; Yang, Rusen

    2015-01-01

    Strain-induced polarization charges in a piezoelectric semiconductor effectively modulate the band structure near the interface and charge carrier transport. Fundamental investigation of the piezotronic effect has attracted broad interest, and various sensing applications have been demonstrated. This brief review discusses the fundamentals of the piezotronic effect, followed by a review highlighting important applications for strain sensors, pressure sensors, chemical sensors, photodetectors, humidity sensors and temperature sensors. Finally, the review offers some perspectives and outlook for this new field of multi-functional sensing enabled by the piezotronic effect. PMID:26378536

  17. Effects of trace water on charging of silica particles dispersed in a nonpolar medium.

    PubMed

    Gacek, Matthew; Bergsman, David; Michor, Edward; Berg, John C

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the effects of trace water on the charging of silica (SiO(2)) particles dispersed in a nonpolar medium. There are a growing number of applications that seek to use electrostatic effects in apolar media to control particle movement and aggregation stability in such systems. One factor that is often overlooked in the preparation of nonpolar colloidal dispersions is the amount of water that is introduced to the system by hygroscopic particles and surfactants. The amount and location of this water can have significant effects on the electrical properties of these systems. For nonpolar surfactant solutions it has been shown that water can affect the conductivity, and it has been speculated that this is due to swelling of the polar cores of inverse micelles, increasing the fraction of them that are charged. Some studies have suggested that particle surface charging may also be sensitive to water content, but a clear mechanism for the process has not been fully developed. The situation with particles is further complicated by the fact that it is often unclear whether the water resides on the particle surfaces or in the polar cores of inverse micelles. The current work explores not only the effect of water content on reverse micelle and particle charging but seeks to differentiate between water bound to the particles and water located in the micelles. This is accomplished by measuring the solution conductivity and the electrophoretic mobility of silicon dioxide particles dispersed in solutions of Isopar-L and OLOA 11000. The water content is determined for both the dispersion and the supernatant after centrifuging the particles out. It is found that at equilibrium the majority of the water in the system adsorbs to the surface of the hygroscopic silica particles. In addition, the effect of water on particle electrophoretic mobility is found to be dependent on surfactant concentration. At small OLOA concentrations, additional water

  18. Effective ionic charge polarization using typical supporting electrolyte and charge injection phenomena in molecularly doped polymer light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Eiji; Yamashita, Takanori; Miyairi, Keiichi

    2002-11-01

    An effective method of enhancing charge injection and electroluminescence efficiency of polymer-based light-emitting diodes is introduced. Spin-coated films of poly (N-vinylcarbazole) blended with electron-transport material (Bu-PBD), laser dye (Coumarin6), and the typical supporting electrolyte [tetraethylammonium perchlorate (TEAP)] were examined and it was found that the injection current and luminance of the light emitting diodes doped with TEAP were enhanced dramatically after heat treatment at 80 degC and appropriate biasing in an external electric field of 1.5 x108 V/m at this temperature. A charge injection model based on Fowler-Nordheim tunneling is proposed, taking into account electric field distortion due to the accumulation of ionic space charges at the electrode/film interface. The relaxation time of ionic polarization is found to be related to the cation size of the electrolyte.

  19. EFFECTS OF CHARGED PARTICLES ON CASCADE IMPACTOR CALIBRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a determination of collection characteristics for charged and uncharged particles in cascade impactors. Impaction collection efficiency was shown to be as much as 20 percent greater for charged particles than for uncharged particles with certain substr...

  20. Solar Cycle Effects on Geosynchronous Satellite Surface Charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habash Krause, L.; Chun, F. K.; Cooke, D. L.; Putz, V. B.; Ray, K. P.

    2005-05-01

    Spacecraft in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) frequently undergo surface charging following injection of energetic (E ~ 10 keV) electrons into the environment, especially within the post-midnight sector. Charging data from the GEO spacecraft Defense Satellite Communication System (DSCS-III) B-7 have been recorded over one half solar cycle. The Charge Control Experiment (CCE) aboard DSCS-III B-7 recorded incident fluxes of energetic electrons, ion spectra for determining frame-to-plasma potentials, and dielectric surface-to-frame (differential) charging levels; additionally, it incorporated a Xe plasma contactor for neutralization of charged components. Previous studies have shown 1) a general correlation between geomagnetic activity indices and the severity of frame charging, and 2) a general correlation between the intensity of energetic electron fluxes and differential charging severity. However, it was also shown that the event-specific correlations contain enough variance to cast doubt on the utility of these correlations for a predictive system. With this study, we present both a principle components analysis and a multiple linear regression of the data which incorporate a combination of factors leading to both frame and differential charging, including the geomagnetic activity indices and intensities of the energetic electron fluxes.

  1. Parton Charge Symmetry Violation: Electromagnetic Effects and W Production Asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Londergan; D.P. Murdock; A.W. Thomas

    2006-04-14

    Recent phenomenological work has examined two different ways of including charge symmetry violation in parton distribution functions. First, a global phenomenological fit to high energy data has included charge symmetry breaking terms, leading to limits on the magnitude of parton charge symmetry breaking. In a second approach, two groups have included the coupling of partons to photons in the QCD evolution equations. One possible experiment that could search for isospin violation in parton distributions is a measurement of the asymmetry in W production at a collider. In this work we include both of the postulated sources of parton charge symmetry violation. We show that, given charge symmetry violation of a magnitude consistent with existing high energy data, the expected W production asymmetries would be quite small, generally less than one percent.

  2. Hall effect in quantum critical charge-cluster glass

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bozovic, Ivan; Wu, Jie; Bollinger, Anthony T.; Sun, Yujie

    2016-04-04

    Upon doping, cuprates undergo a quantum phase transition from an insulator to a d-wave superconductor. The nature of this transition and of the insulating state is vividly debated. Here, we study the Hall effect in La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO) samples doped near the quantum critical point at x ≈ 0.06. Dramatic fluctuations in the Hall resistance appear below TCG ≈ 1.5 K and increase as the sample is cooled down further, signaling quantum critical behavior. We explore the doping dependence of this effect in detail, by studying a combinatorial LSCO library in which the Sr content is varied in extremely fine steps,more » Δx ≈ 0.00008. Furthermore, we observe that quantum charge fluctuations wash out when superconductivity emerges but can be restored when the latter is suppressed by applying a magnetic field, showing that the two instabilities compete for the ground state.« less

  3. Implementation of a protein reduced point charge model toward molecular dynamics applications.

    PubMed

    Leherte, Laurence; Vercauteren, Daniel P

    2011-11-17

    A reduced point charge model was developed in a previous work from the study of extrema in smoothed charge density distribution functions generated from the Amber99 molecular electrostatic potential. In the present work, such a point charge distribution is coupled with the Amber99 force field and implemented in the program TINKER to allow molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of proteins. First applications to two polypeptides that involve α-helix and β-sheet motifs are analyzed and compared to all-atom MD simulations. Two types of coarse-grained (CG)-based trajectories are generated using, on one hand, harmonic bond stretching terms and, on the other hand, distance restraints. Results show that the use of the unrestrained CG conditions are sufficient to preserve most of the secondary structure characteristics but restraints lead to a better agreement between CG and all-atom simulation results such as rmsd, dipole moment, and time-dependent mean square deviation functions. PMID:21800922

  4. Electrodeposited reduced-graphene oxide/cobalt oxide electrodes for charge storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gómez, A.; Eugénio, S.; Duarte, R. G.; Silva, T. M.; Carmezim, M. J.; Montemor, M. F.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, electrochemically reduced-graphene oxide/cobalt oxide composites for charge storage electrodes were prepared by a one-step pulsed electrodeposition route on stainless steel current collectors and after that submitted to a thermal treatment at 200 °C. A detailed physico-chemical characterization was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical response of the composite electrodes was studied by cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge curves and related to the morphological and phase composition changes induced by the thermal treatment. The results revealed that the composites were promising materials for charge storage electrodes for application in redox supercapacitors, attaining specific capacitances around 430 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and presenting long-term cycling stability.

  5. Modification of reduced-charge montmorillonites by a series of Gemini surfactants: Characterization and application in methyl orange removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhongxin; Gao, Manglai; Ye, Yage; Yang, Senfeng

    2015-01-01

    The influences that the spacer chain length of Gemini surfactants and clay layer charge have on the structures and sorption characteristics of organoclays have been investigated. Organoclays were obtained by modifying a series of reduced charge montmorillonites (RCMs) using three Gemini surfactants with different spacer length. And their structures and sorption characteristics for methyl orange (MO) were examined. It was suggested that the amount, spacer length of Gemini surfactant and clay layer charge had significant effects on the microstructure of the organoclays. The adsorption experiments results claimed that the uptake of MO onto organoclays was in the order: 16-4-16-Mt > 16-8-16-Mt > 16-6-16-Mt, while it increased with increasing clay layer charge. The adsorption isotherms of MO onto the organoclays could be best described by Langmuir equation, and the adsorption kinetic was in good agreement with the pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic parameters demonstrated that the sorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. This work will provide a deep insight into the interaction of Gemini-modified clays and MO, which pave the way for their practical applications in anionic dye adsorption.

  6. Study the Effects of Charged Particle Radiation on Gravitational Sensors in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipa, John A.

    1999-01-01

    Space-flight charging of free floating masses poses an unusual problem-- how can one control charge on the object without exerting a significant force on it? One approach is to make contact to the object with a fine wire. However, for many precision applications no physical contact is permissible, so charge must be conveyed in, a more sophisticated manner. One method has already been developed: Gravitational Probe B (GP-B) uses an ultraviolet photo-emission system described in ref 1. This system meets the experiment requirements, yet poses a number of constraints, including high power dissipation (approximately 10 W peak, approximately 1 W average), low current output (approximately 10(exp -13) A), and potential reliability problems associated with fiber optics system and the UV source. The aim of the current research is to improve this situation and, if possible, develop a more rugged and lower power alternative, usable in a wide range of situations. An potential alternative to the UV electron source is a Spindt-type field emission cathode. These consist of an array of extremely sharp silicon tips mounted in a standard IC package with provision for biasing them relative to the case potential. They are attractive as electron sources for space applications due to their low power consumption (10(exp -5) W), high current levels (10(exp -9) to 10(exp -5) A), and the absence of mechanical switching. Unfortunately, existing cathodes require special handling to avoid contamination and gas absorption. These contaminants can cause severe current fluctuations and eventual destruction of the cathode tips. Another potential drawback is the absence of any data indicating the possibility of bipolar current flow. This capability is needed because of the large uncertainties in the net charge transfer from cosmic rays to a free floating mass in space. More recent devices reduce the current fluctuations and destructive arcing by mounting the tips on a resistive substrate rather than

  7. Polyelectrolyte assisted charge titration spectrometry: Applications to latex and oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mousseau, F; Vitorazi, L; Herrmann, L; Mornet, S; Berret, J-F

    2016-08-01

    The electrostatic charge density of particles is of paramount importance for the control of the dispersion stability. Conventional methods use potentiometric, conductometric or turbidity titration but require large amount of samples. Here we report a simple and cost-effective method called polyelectrolyte assisted charge titration spectrometry or PACTS. The technique takes advantage of the propensity of oppositely charged polymers and particles to assemble upon mixing, leading to aggregation or phase separation. The mixed dispersions exhibit a maximum in light scattering as a function of the volumetric ratio X, and the peak position XMax is linked to the particle charge density according to σ∼D0XMax where D0 is the particle diameter. The PACTS is successfully applied to organic latex, aluminum and silicon oxide particles of positive or negative charge using poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate). The protocol is also optimized with respect to important parameters such as pH and concentration, and to the polyelectrolyte molecular weight. The advantages of the PACTS technique are that it requires minute amounts of sample and that it is suitable to a broad variety of charged nano-objects. PMID:27153216

  8. Positively charged and bipolar layered poly(ether imide) nanofiltration membranes for water softening applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassara, S.; Abdelkafi, A.; Quémener, D.; Amar, R. Ben; Deratani, A.

    2015-07-01

    Poly(ether imide) (PEI) ultrafiltration membranes were chemically modified with branched poly(ethyleneimine) to obtain nanofiltration (NF) membrane Cat PEI with a positive charge in the pH range below 9. An oppositely charged polyelectrolyte layer was deposited on the resulting membrane surface by using sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSSNa) and sodium polyvinyl sulfonate (PVSNa) to prepare a bipolar layered membrane NF Cat PEI_PSS and Cat PEI_PVS having a negatively charged surface and positively charged pores. Cat PEI exhibited good performance to remove multivalent cations (more than 90% of Ca2+) from single salt solutions except in presence of sulfate ions. Adding an anionic polyelectrolyte layer onto the positively charged surface resulted in a significant enhancement of rejection performance even in presence of sulfate anions. Application of the prepared membranes in water softening of natural complex mixtures was successful for the different studied membranes and a large decrease of hardness was obtained. Moreover, Cat PEI_PSS showed a good selectivity for nitrate removal. Fouling experiments were carried out with bovine serum albumin, as model protein foulant. Cat PEI_PSS showed much better fouling resistance than Cat PEI with a quantitative flux recovery ratio.

  9. Charging of small grains in a space plasma: Application to Jovian stream particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhanoev, A. R.; Schmidt, J.; Liu, X.; Spahn, F.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Most theoretical investigations of dust charging processes in space have treated the current balance condition as independent of grain size. However, for small grains, since they are often observed in space environments, a dependence on grain size is expected owing to secondary electron emission (SEE). Here, by the term "small" we mean a particle size comparable to the typical penetration depth for given primary electron energy. The results are relevant for the dynamics of small, charged dust particles emitted by the volcanic moon Io, which forms the Jovian dust streams. Aims: We revise the theory of charging of small (submicron sized) micrometeoroids to take into account a high production of secondary electrons for small grains immersed in an isotropic flux of electrons. We apply our model to obtain an improved estimate for the charge of the dust streams leaving the Jovian system, detected by several spacecraft. Methods: We apply a continuum model to describe the penetration of primary electrons in a grain and the emission of secondary electrons along the path. Averaging over an isotropic flux of primaries, we derive a new expression for the secondary electron yield, which can be used to express the secondary electron current on a grain. Results: For the Jupiter plasma environment we derive the surface potential of grains composed of NaCl (believed to be the major constituent of Jovian dust stream particles) or silicates. For small particles, the potential depends on grain size and the secondary electron current induces a sensitivity to material properties. As a result of the small particle effect, the estimates for the charging times and for the fractional charge fluctuations of NaCl grains obtained using our general approach to SEE give results qualitatively different from the analogous estimates derived from the traditional approach to SEE. We find that for the charging environment considered in this paper field emission does not limit the charging of

  10. Transparent and Flexible Self-Charging Power Film and Its Application in a Sliding Unlock System in Touchpad Technology.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jianjun; Tang, Wei; Fan, Feng Ru; Liu, Chaofeng; Pang, Yaokun; Cao, Guozhong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-08-23

    Portable and wearable personal electronics and smart security systems are accelerating the development of transparent, flexible, and thin-film electronic devices. Here, we report a transparent and flexible self-charging power film (SCPF) that functions either as a power generator integrated with an energy storage unit or as a self-powered information input matrix. The SCPF possesses the capability of harvesting mechanical energy from finger motions, based on the coupling between the contact electrification and electrostatic induction effects, and meanwhile storing the generated energy. Under the fast finger sliding, the film can be charged from 0 to 2.5 V within 2094 s and discharge at 1 μA for approximately 1630 s. Furthermore, the film is able to identify personal characteristics during a sliding motion by recording the electric signals related to the person's individual bioelectricity, applied pressing force, sliding speed, and so on, which shows its potential applications in security systems in touchpad technology. PMID:27501289

  11. Preliminary test results of electrical charged particle generator for application to fog dispersal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.

    1982-01-01

    A charged particle generator for use in fog dispersal applications was built and preliminary tests were carried out. The parameter used as a measure of performance was the current measured with a needle probe positioned in the charged jet connected to ground through an ammeter. The needle was movable and allowed the current profile throughout the jet to be determined. The measured current is referred to as the current output. The major independent parameters were liquid water injection rate, plenum pressure, and corona voltage. Optimum current output was achieved at the approximate pressure of 30 psig, corona voltage of 5600 volts, and liquid water injection rate of 6 cc/min. The results of the test with the prototype charged particle generator clearly demonstrate that a current on the order of 20 microamperes can be routinely achieved with the system. This measurement of current does not necessarily represent the total issuing from the nozzle current which is expected to be larger. From these results, confidence was established that a charged particle generator which will operate continuously and consistently can be designed, constructed, and operated. Further work is required, however, to better understand the physical mechanisms involved and to optimize the system for fog dispersal application.

  12. Quantum Hall Effect near the charge neutrality point in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Jorge; Gusev, Guennadii; Plentz, Flavio

    2013-03-01

    The Quantum Hall effect (QHE) of a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas in a strong magnetic field is one of the most fascinating quantum phenomena discovered in condensed matter physics. In this work we propose to study the transport properties of the single layer and bilayer of graphene at the charge neutrality point (CNP) and compare it with random magnetic model developed in theoretical papers in which we argue that at CNP graphene layer is still inhomogeneous, very likely due to random potential of impurities. The random potential fluctuations induce smooth fluctuations in the local filling factor around ν = 0. In this case the transport is determined by special class of trajectories, ``the snake states'', propagating along contour ν = 0. The situation is very similar to the transport of a two-dimensional particles moving in a spatially modulated random magnetic field with zero mean value. We especially emphasize that our results may be equally relevant to the composite fermions description of the half-filled Landau level. The authors thank to CNPq and FAPESP for financial support for this work.

  13. Kinetic Spraying Deposition of Reactive-Enhanced Al-Ni Composite for Shaped Charge Liner Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Gyeongjun; Kim, Jaeick; Lee, Changhee; Kim, See Jo; Lee, Seong

    2016-02-01

    Liners used in shaped charges (SC) must possess good penetration ability and explosive power. Producing the reactive layer (i.e., the Al-Ni composite) on a well-penetrating liner (i.e., Cu) via spray coating is a novel method; the exothermic reaction of this reactive layer can be enhanced by controlling the structure of the feedstock material. However, preceding studies have been unable to completely succeed in achieving this goal. There is still an opportunity to improve the performance of reactive layers in SC liner applications. In order to address this problem, a reactive Al-Ni composite powder was produced via arrested reactive milling (ARM) and deposited by a kinetic spray process. Afterward, the deposition state and self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction behavior of the ARMed Al-Ni deposit were investigated. The deposition state was degraded by the ARM process due to the remaining solid lubricant and the strain-hardening effect, but the practically estimated bond strength was not poor (~40 MPa). No SHS reactions were induced by the ARM and kinetic spray process, which resulted in the quantitative maximization of the exothermic reaction. It is noteworthy that the initiation temperature of the SHS reaction was highly advanced (~300 °C) relative to preceding studies (~500 °C); this change is due to the additional mechanical activation initiated by the kinetic spray deposition.

  14. Effect of charge fluctuation on two dimensional dust clusters in elliptical confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Rouaiguia, L.; Djebli, M.; Drir, M.

    2009-03-15

    The structural and melting properties of two dimensional clusters consisting of finite positively charged dust particles are studied. The particles interact through a screened Coulomb potential in an elliptical confinement where Monte Carlo numerical simulation is performed for two different situations. The first one is dealing with constant dust charge and the second one with the charge fluctuation. It is showed that a ground state configuration and a transition from zigzag configuration to linear chain depend on the anisotropic parameter and the number of particles. The effect of charge fluctuation is found to be significant for lower positively charged dust particles. A comparison is made with numerical and experimental results.

  15. Regulating charge injection in ambipolar organic field-effect transistors by mixed self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Park, Won-Tae; Cho, Ara; Choi, Eun-Young; Noh, Yong-Young

    2014-08-27

    We report on a technique using mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to finely regulate ambipolar charge injection in polymer organic field-effect transistors. Differing from the other works that employ single SAM specifically for efficient charge injection in p-type and n-type transistors, we blend two different SAMs of alkyl- and perfluoroalkyl thiols at different ratios and apply them to ambipolar OFETs and inverter. Thanks to the utilization of ambipolar semiconductor and one SAM mixture, the device and circuit fabrications are facile with only one step for semiconductor deposition and another for SAM treatment. This is much simpler with respect to the conventional scheme for the unipolar-device-based complementary circuitry that demands separate deposition and processing for individual p-channel and n-channel transistors. Our results show that the mixed-SAM treatments not only improve ambipolar charge injection manifesting as higher hole- and electron-mobility and smaller threshold voltage but also gradually tune the device characteristics to reach a desired condition for circuit application. Therefore, this simple but useful approach is promising for ambipolar electronics. PMID:25093699

  16. Effect of electric charging on the velocity of water flow in CNT.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Hossein Reza; Karimian, S M Hossein

    2016-09-01

    The role of electrical charge in controlling the velocity of water molecules in a finite single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) was studied in detail using molecular dynamics simulation. Different test cases were examined to determine the parameters affecting the control of water-flow velocity in CNT upon electrically charging the surface of a CNT. The results showed that charge magnitude and volume, as well as the charging scenario, are the parameters having greatest effect. The implementation of electric charge on the surface of a CNT was demonstrated to decrease the resistance of CNT to incoming water flow at the entrance, but to increase friction-type resistance to flow along the CNT. Therefore, through controlling the magnitude of electric charge, water flow through the CNT may be accelerated, or decelerated. The results show that the velocity of molecular flow in the CNT increases to a maximum value, and then decreases with electric charge regardless of its sign. In the case studied here, this maximum velocity occurs at electric charging of ±0.25e/atom. It was also shown that, to reach similar flow velocities in a CNT, it is not sufficient to merely implement equal volumes of electric charge, where the volume of electric charging is defined as charge magnitude × charging time. In fact , both magnitude of charging and volume of electric charging must be equal to each other. These findings, together with options to implement scenarios with alternative charging, provide the means to effectively adjust desired velocities in a CNT. PMID:27488104

  17. Characterization of charge motion in Poly(3-alkylthiophene) field effect transistors with Scanning Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscatello, Jason P.; Patterson, Morgen; Davis, Andrew R.; Carter, Kenneth R.; Aidala, Katherine E.

    2014-03-01

    Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is a promising conductive organic polymer for applications such as organic FETs and photovoltaics. Key to proper utilization of P3HT is the understanding of how charges move and are trapped in the polymer, which directly affects the mobility of the charges as well as device efficiency. Scanning probe techniques, such as Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy, offer the advantage of being able to observe charges and local potentials down to the nano-scale. We present our work using scanning probe techniques to study charge injection and flow through P3HT FETs.

  18. Voltage-Dependent Charge Storage in Cladded Zn0.56Cd0.44Se Quantum Dot MOS Capacitors for Multibit Memory Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, J.; Lingalugari, M.; Al-Amoody, F.; Jain, F.

    2013-11-01

    As conventional memories approach scaling limitations, new storage methods must be utilized to increase Si yield and produce higher on-chip memory density. Use of II-VI Zn0.56Cd0.44Se quantum dots (QDs) is compatible with epitaxial gate insulators such as ZnS-ZnMgS. Voltage-dependent charging effects in cladded Zn0.56Cd0.44Se QDs are presented in a conventional metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor structure. Charge storage capabilities in Si and ZnMgS QDs have been reported by various researchers; this work is focused on II-VI material Zn0.56Cd0.44Se QDs nucleated using photoassisted microwave plasma metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Using capacitance-voltage hysteresis characterization, the multistep charging and discharging capabilities of the QDs at room temperature are presented. Three charging states are presented within a 10 V charging voltage range. These characteristics exemplify discrete charge states in the QD layer, perfect for multibit, QD-functionalized high-density memory applications. Multiple charge states with low operating voltage provide device characteristics that can be used for multibit storage by allowing varying charges to be stored in a QD layer based on the applied "write" voltage.

  19. Effect of positive pulse charge waveforms on the energy efficiency of lead-acid traction cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of four different charge methods on the energy conversion efficiency of 300 ampere hour lead acid traction cells were investigated. Three of the methods were positive pulse charge waveforms; the fourth, a constant current method, was used as a baseline of comparison. The positive pulse charge waveforms were: 120 Hz full wave rectified sinusoidal; 120 Hz silicon controlled rectified; and 1 kHz square wave. The constant current charger was set at the time average pulse current of each pulse waveform, which was 150 amps. The energy efficiency does not include charger losses. The lead acid traction cells were charged to 70 percent of rated ampere hour capacity in each case. The results of charging the cells using the three different pulse charge waveforms indicate there was no significant difference in energy conversion efficiency when compared to constant current charging at the time average pulse current value.

  20. Quantification of surface charge density and its effect on boundary slip.

    PubMed

    Jing, Dalei; Bhushan, Bharat

    2013-06-11

    Reduction of fluid drag is important in the micro-/nanofluidic systems. Surface charge and boundary slip can affect the fluid drag, and surface charge is also believed to affect boundary slip. The quantification of surface charge and boundary slip at a solid-liquid interface has been widely studied, but there is a lack of understanding of the effect of surface charge on boundary slip. In this paper, the surface charge density of borosilicate glass and octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) surfaces immersed in saline solutions with two ionic concentrations and deionized (DI) water with different pH values and electric field values is quantified by fitting experimental atomic force microscopy (AFM) electrostatic force data using a theoretical model relating the surface charge density and electrostatic force. Results show that pH and electric field can affect the surface charge density of glass and OTS surfaces immersed in saline solutions and DI water. The mechanisms of the effect of pH and electric field on the surface charge density are discussed. The slip length of the OTS surface immersed in saline solutions with two ionic concentrations and DI water with different pH values and electric field values is measured, and their effects on the slip length are analyzed from the point of surface charge. Results show that a larger absolute value of surface charge density leads to a smaller slip length for the OTS surface. PMID:23683055

  1. Understanding charge transport in organometal halide field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senanayak, Satyaprasad P.; Yang, Bingyan; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard, Prof. _., Sir; Sirrnighaus, Henning, , Prof.

    Organometal halide based perovskite are emerging materials for wide range of electronic applications. A range of optoelectronic applications like high efficiency solar cells, color pure LEDs and optical pumped lasers have been demonstrated. Here, we report the demonstration of a high performance field effect transistor fabricated from iodide perovskite material at room temperature. The devices exhibit clean saturation behavior with electron μFET >3 cm2V-1s-1 and current modulation in the range of 106 - 107 which are till date the best performance achieved with these class of materials. This high performance is attributed to a combination of novel film fabrication technique and device engineering strategies. Detailed understanding of the observed band-like transport phenomenon is developed by tuning the different sources of dynamic and static disorder prevalent in the system. These finding are expected to pave way for developing next generation electronic application from perovskite materials. Authors acknowledge EPSRC for funding and SPS acknowledges Royal Society Newton Fellowship.

  2. Isotope effect in charge transport of LuB12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluchanko, N. E.; Azarevich, A. N.; Bogach, A. V.; Glushkov, V. V.; Demishev, S. V.; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Lyubshov, K. S.; Filippov, V. B.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.

    2010-08-01

    The galvanomagnetic properties of single-crystal samples with various isotopic boron compositions have been investigated for the first time for the normal state of superconductor LuB12 ( T c ≈ 0.44 K). Precision measurements of the resistivity, Hall coefficient, and magnetic susceptibility have been performed over a wide temperature range of 2-300 K in magnetic fields up to 80 kOe. A change of the charge transport regime in this nonmagnetic compound with metallic conduction is shown to occur near T* ≈ 50-70 K. As a result, a sharp peak with significantly different amplitudes for Lu10B12 and Lu11B12 is recorded in the temperature dependences of the Hall coefficient R H( T) near T*. A significant (about 10%) difference (in absolute value) of the Hall coefficients R H for the Lu10B12 and Lu11B12 compounds at helium and intermediate temperatures has been found and the patterns of behavior of the dependence R H( H) for T < T* in an external magnetic field H ≤ 80 kOe for Lu10B12 and Lu11B12 are shown to differ significantly. Analysis of the Curie-Weiss contribution to the magnetic susceptibility χ( T) leads to the conclusion about the formation of magnetic moments μeff ≈ (0.13-0.19)μB in each unit cell of the fcc structure of LuB12 compounds with various isotopic compositions. The possibility of the realization of an electronic topological 2.5-order transition near T* and the influence of correlation effects in the 5 d-band on the formation of a spin polarization near the rare-earth ions in LuB12 is discussed.

  3. ISS Charging Hazards and Low Earth Orbit Space Weather Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph; Parker, L.; Coffey, V.; Wright K.; Koontz, S.; Edwards, D.

    2008-01-01

    Current collection by high voltage solar arrays on the International Space Station (ISS) drives the vehicle to negative floating potentials in the low Earth orbit daytime plasma environment. Pre-flight predictions of ISS floating potentials Phi greater than |-100 V| suggested a risk for degradation of dielectric thermal control coatings on surfaces in the U.S. sector due to arcing and an electrical shock hazard to astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA). However, hazard studies conducted by the ISS program have demonstrated that the thermal control material degradation risk is effectively mitigated during the lifetime of the ISS vehicle by a sufficiently large ion collection area present on the vehicle to balance current collection by the solar arrays. To date, crew risk during EVA has been mitigated by operating one of two plasma contactors during EVA to control the vehicle potential within Phi less than or equal to |-40 V| with a backup process requiring reorientation of the solar arrays into a configuration which places the current collection surfaces into wake. This operation minimizes current collection by the solar arrays should the plasma contactors fail. This paper presents an analysis of F-region electron density and temperature variations at low and midlatitudes generated by space weather events to determine what range of conditions represent charging threats to ISS. We first use historical ionospheric plasma measurements from spacecraft operating at altitudes relevant to the 51.6 degree inclination ISS orbit to provide an extensive database of F-region plasma conditions over a variety of solar cycle conditions. Then, the statistical results from the historical data are compared to more recent in-situ measurements from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) operating on ISS in a campaign mode since its installation in August, 2006.

  4. Effect of charges on the interaction of water with hematite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negreiros Ribeiro, Fabio; Pedroza, Luana; Dalpian, Gustavo

    Hematite is one of the many types of iron oxide that is easily found in nature. It is most commonly used in catalysis and it is rarely present in its pristine form. The influence of charged defects in its properties is very important for the correct geometrical/electronic characterization in more realistic operative conditions, but very few studies focus explicitly on these defects in this system. In this work we perform first principles DFT+U calculations to determine the properties of a hematite slab when both dopant and electrons/holes are added. We focus on the differences between the geometrical/electronic properties between the neutral/charged surfaces and also study their interaction with water (molecule and liquid) by performing molecular dynamics simulations at room temperature. Our results indicate that electric charges strongly influence the properties of these surfaces, changing the binding energies and the molecular arrangement of the water molecules adsorbed on hematite. Negative charges induce a larger binding and favor the partial water dissociation, whereas positive charges weaken the binding energy. We will provide comparative results for different configurations of this system. FAPESP.

  5. Effect of dust charging and trapped electrons on nonlinear solitary structures in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Ravinder; Malik, Hitendra K.; Singh, Khushvant

    2012-01-15

    Main concerns of the present article are to investigate the effects of dust charging and trapped electrons on the solitary structures evolved in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. Such a plasma is found to support two types of waves, namely, fast wave and slow wave. Slow wave propagates in the plasma only when the wave propagation angle {theta} satisfies the condition {theta}{>=}tan{sup -1}{l_brace}({radical}((1+2{sigma})-[(n{sub dlh}({gamma}{sub 1}-1))/(1+n{sub dlh}{gamma}{sub 1})])-v{sub 0}/u{sub 0}){r_brace}, where v{sub 0}(u{sub 0}) is the z- (x-) component of ion drift velocity, {sigma} = T{sub i}/T{sub eff}, n{sub dlh} = n{sub d0}/(n{sub el0} + n{sub eh0}), and {gamma}{sub 1}=-(1/{Phi}{sub i0})[(1-{Phi}{sub i0}/1+{sigma}(1-{Phi}{sub i0}))] together with T{sub i} as ion temperature, n{sub el0}(n{sub eh0}) as the density of trapped (isothermal) electrons, {Phi}{sub i0} as the dust grain (density n{sub d0}) surface potential relative to zero plasma potential, and T{sub eff}=(n{sub elo}+n{sub eho})T{sub el}T{sub eh}/(n{sub elo}T{sub eh}+n{sub eho}T{sub el}), where T{sub el}(T{sub eh}) is the temperature of trapped (isothermal) electrons. Both the waves evolve in the form of density hill type structures in the plasma, confirming that these solitary structures are compressive in nature. These structures are found to attain higher amplitude when the charge on the dust grains is fluctuated (in comparison with the case of fixed charge) and also when the dust grains and trapped electrons are more in number; the same is the case with higher temperature of ions and electrons. Slow solitary structures show weak dependence on the dust concentration. Both types of structures are found to become narrower under the application of stronger magnetic field. With regard to the charging of dust grains, it is observed that the charge gets reduced for the higher trapped electron density and temperature of ions and electrons, and dust charging shows weak dependence on the ion

  6. Colloidal Brazil-nut effect in sediments of binary charged suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esztermann, A.; Löwen, H.

    2004-10-01

    Equilibrium sedimentation density profiles of charged binary colloidal suspensions are calculated by computer simulations and density-functional theory. For deionized samples, we predict a colloidal "Brazil nut" effect: heavy colloidal particles sediment on top of the lighter ones provided that their mass per charge is smaller than that of the lighter ones. This effect is verifiable in settling experiments.

  7. User charges in health care: Evidence of effect on service utilization & equity from north India

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Aggarwal, Arun Kumar; Kumar, Rajesh; Kanavos, Panos

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: User charges have been advocated on efficiency grounds despite the widespread criticism about their adverse effect on equity. We assessed the effect of user charges on inpatient hospitalizations rate and equity in Haryana State. Methods: The inpatient department (IPD) statistics of the public sector facilities in Yamuna Nagar district where user charges had been introduced were analysed and compared with Rohtak district which did not have user charge between 2000 and 2006. National Sample Survey data of Haryana for the 2004-2005 period were analyzed to compare utilization of public sector facilities for hospitalization, cost of hospitalization, and prevalence of catastrophic out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure by income quintiles in three districts which had user charges and 17 districts of Haryana which did not levy user charges. Results: During 2000 and 2006, hospital admissions declined by 23.8 per cent in Yamuna Nagar district where user charges had been introduced compared to an almost static hospitalization rate in Rohtak district which did not have user charges (P<0.01). Public sector hospital utilization for inpatient services had a pro-rich (concentration index 0.144) distribution in the three districts with user charges and pro-poor (concentration index -0.047) in the 17 districts without user charges. Significantly higher prevalence of catastrophic health expenditure was observed in public sector institutions with user charges (48%) compared to those without user charges (35.4%) (P<0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of our study showed that user charges had a negative influence on hospitalizations in Haryana especially among the poor. Public policies for revenue generation should avoid user charges. PMID:23287137

  8. Charge Control Investigation of Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otzinger, B.; Somoano, R.

    1984-01-01

    An ambient temperature rechargeable Li-TiS2 cell was cycled under conditions which simulate aerospace applications. A novel charge/discharge state-of-charge control scheme was used, together with tapered current charging, to overcome deleterious effects associated with end-of-charge and end-of-discharge voltages. The study indicates that Li-TiS2 cells hold promise for eventual synchronous satellite-type applications. Problem areas associated with performance degradation and reconditioning effects are identified.

  9. Transport, charge exchange and loss of energetic heavy ions in the earth's radiation belts - Applicability and limitations of theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.

    1981-11-01

    Computer simulations of processes which control the relative abundances of ions in the trapping regions of geospace are compared with observations from discriminating ion detectors. Energy losses due to Coulomb collisions between ions and exospheric neutrals are considered, along with charge exchange losses and internal charge exchanges. The time evolution of energetic ion fluxes of equatorially mirroring ions under radial diffusion is modelled to include geomagnetic and geoelectric fluctutations. Limits to the validity of diffusion transport theory are discussed, and the simulation is noted to contain provisions for six ionic charge states and the source effect on the radiation belt oxygen ion distributions. Comparisons are made with ion flux data gathered on Explorer 45 and ISEE-1 spacecraft and results indicate that internal charge exchanges cause the radiation belt ion charge state to be independent of source charge rate characteristics, and relative charge state distribution is independent of the radially diffusive transport rate below the charge state redistribution zone.

  10. Modeling, Simulation and Data Fitting of the Charge Injected Diodes (CID) for SLHC Tracking Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.; Eremin, V.; Harkonen, J.; Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E.; Tuovinen, E.; Verbitskaya, E.

    2009-10-27

    Modeling and simulations have been performed for the charge injected diodes (CID) for the application in SLHC. MIP-induced current and charges have been calculated for segmented detectors with various radiation fluences, up to the highest SLHC fluence of 1 x 10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. Although the main advantage of CID detectors is their virtual full depletion at any radiation fluence at a modest bias voltage (<600 V), the simulation of CID and fitting to the existing data have shown that the CID operation mode also reduces the free carrier trapping, resulting in a much higher charge collection at the SLHC fluence than that in a standard Si detector. The reduction in free carrier trapping by almost one order of magnitude is due to the fact that the CID mode also pre-fills the traps, making them neutral and not active in trapping. It has been found that, electron traps can be pre-filled by injection of electrons from the n{sup +} contact, and hole traps can be pre-filled by injection of holes from the p{sup +} contact. The CID mode of detector operation can be achieved by a modestly low temperature of around -40 C, achievable by the proposed CO{sub 2} cooling for detector upgrades in SLHC. High charge collection comparable to the 3D electrode Si detectors makes the CID Si detector a valuable alternative for SLHC detectors for its much easier fabrication process.

  11. Effects of mixed discrete surface charges on the electrical double layer.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ángeles, Felipe

    2012-08-01

    Adsorption of surface coions and charge reversal are induced at the electrical double layer of a wall charged with positive and negative surface sites next to an electrolyte solution. While for the considered surface charge density these effects are found over a wide range of conditions, they are not observed for the typically employed surface models in equivalent conditions. Important consequences in electrophoresis experiments for different colloids with equal effective surface charge density are foreseen. This study is carried out by means of molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:23005771

  12. Effect of surfactant hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) value on mineral oxide charging in apolar media.

    PubMed

    Gacek, Matthew Michael; Berg, John C

    2015-07-01

    The current work examines the role of surfactant hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) on the ability for surfactant reverse micelles to impart charge to particles dispersed in an apolar medium, a study motivated by a number of applications that seek to maximize particle charge in such systems. Previous investigations have shown that relative acid-base properties of the particles and surfactants, as well as surfactant concentration and trace water content, all play a major role in the particle charge obtained. However, the ability of a surfactant to stabilize charge in reverse micelles is also an important aspect of creating charge on a particle surface. It has been previously shown that surfactant HLB value is an important parameter in assessing the size of the polar core of the reverse micelles, thereby impacting the total charge that is generated in the bulk solution as determined by conductivity. In the current study, this theory is extended to investigate the impact on particle charging. To accomplish this, the electrophoretic mobility is determined for a series of mineral oxides dispersed in Isopar-L with either Span 20, Span 80, or Span 85. These three surfactants all have the same head group chemistry, but their HLB value ranges from 1.8 to 8.6. It is found that the maximum observed particle electrophoretic mobility does scale directly with the HLB of the accompanying surfactant. This indicates that there is a direct correlation between a surfactant's ability to stabilize charge and its ability to impart charge to a particle. However, the largest HLB surfactant, Span 20, also exhibited a large amount of charge screening or neutralization at larger surfactant concentrations. This highlights the competition between particle charging and micelle-micelle charging that remains one of the largest obstacles to maximizing particle charge in apolar systems. PMID:25528174

  13. The Effect of Variable End of Charge Battery Management on Small-Cell Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Simmons, Nick; Bennetti, Andrea; Pearson, Chris; Reid, Concha

    2007-01-01

    ABSL Space Products is the world leading supplier of Lithium-ion batteries for space applications and has pioneered the use of small capacity COTS cells within large arrays. This small-cell approach has provided many benefits to space application designers through increased flexibility and reliability over more traditional battery designs. The ABSL 18650HC cell has been used in most ABSL space battery applications to date and has a recommended End Of Charge Voltage (EOCV) of 4.2V per cell. For all space applications using the ABSL 18650HC so far, this EOCV has been used at all stages of battery life from ground checkout to in orbit operations. ABSL and NASA have identified that, by using a lower EOCV for the same equivalent Depth Of Discharge (DOD), battery capacity fade could be reduced. The intention of this paper is to compare battery performance for systems with fixed and variable EOCV. In particular, the effect of employing the blanket value of 4.2V per cell versus utilizing a lower EOCV at Beginning Of Life (BOL) before gradually increasing it (as the effects of capacity fade drive the End Of Discharge Voltage closer to the acceptable system level minimum) is analyzed. Data is compared from ABSL in-house and NASA GRC tests that have been run under fixed and variable EOCV conditions. Differences in capacity fade are discussed and projections are made as to potential life extension capability by utilizing a variable EOCV strategy.

  14. Solvation Effects on Structure and Charge Distribution in Anionic Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, J. Mathias

    2015-03-01

    The interaction of ions with solvent molecules modifies the properties of both solvent and solute. Solvation generally stabilizes compact charge distributions compared to more diffuse ones. In the most extreme cases, solvation will alter the very composition of the ion itself. We use infrared photodissociation spectroscopy of mass-selected ions to probe how solvation affects the structures and charge distributions of metal-CO2 cluster anions. We gratefully acknowledge the National Science Foundation for funding through Grant CHE-0845618 (for graduate student support) and for instrumentation funding through Grant PHY-1125844.

  15. Effects of arcing due to spacecraft charging on spacecraft survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, A.; Sanders, N. L.; Ellen, J. M., Jr.; Inouye, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of the hazard associated with spacecraft charging and arcing on spacecraft systems is presented. A literature survey on arc discharge thresholds and characteristics was done and gaps in the data and requirements for additional experiments were identified. Calculations of coupling of arc discharges into typical spacecraft systems were made and the susceptibility of typical spacecraft to disruption by arc discharges was investigated. Design guidelines and recommended practices to reduce or eliminate the threat of malfunction and failures due to spacecraft charging/arcing were summarized.

  16. Study on temperature distribution effect on internal charging by computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zhong

    2016-07-01

    Internal charging (or deep dielectric charging) is a great threaten to spacecraft. Dielectric conductivity is an important parameter for internal charging and it is sensitive to temperature. Considering the exposed dielectric outside a spacecraft may experience a relatively large temperature range, temperature effect can't be ignored in internal charging assessment. We can see some reporters on techniques of computer simulation of internal charging, but the temperature effect has not been taken into accounts. In this paper, we realize the internal charging simulation with consideration of temperature distribution inside the dielectric. Geant4 is used for charge transportation, and a numerical method is proposed for solving the current reservation equation. The conductivity dependences on temperature, radiation dose rate and intense electric field are considered. Compared to the case of uniform temperature, the internal charging with temperature distribution is more complicated. Results show that temperature distribution can cause electric field distortion within the dielectric. This distortion refers to locally considerable enlargement of electric field. It usually corresponds to the peak electric field which is critical for dielectric breakdown judgment. The peak electric field can emerge inside the dielectric, or appear on the boundary. This improvement of internal charging simulation is beneficial for the assessment of internal charging under multiple factors.

  17. Effects of charging and electric field on graphene functionalized with titanium.

    PubMed

    Gürel, H Hakan; Ciraci, S

    2013-07-10

    Titanium atoms are adsorbed to graphene with a significant binding energy and render diverse functionalities to it. Carrying out first-principles calculations, we investigated the effects of charging and static electric field on the physical and chemical properties of graphene covered by Ti adatoms. When uniformly Ti covered graphene is charged positively, its antiferromagnetic ground state changes to ferromagnetic metal and attains a permanent magnetic moment. Static electric field applied perpendicularly causes charge transfer between Ti and graphene, and can induce metal-insulator transition. While each Ti adatom adsorbed to graphene atom can hold four hydrogen molecules with a weak binding, these molecules can be released by charging or applying electric field perpendicularly. Hence, it is demonstrated that charging and applied static electric field induce quasi-continuous and side specific modifications in the charge distribution and potential energy of adatoms absorbed to single-layer nanostructures, resulting in fundamentally crucial effects on their physical and chemical properties. PMID:23774307

  18. The effect of phenylglyoxal on contraction and intramembrane charge movement in frog skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Etter, E F

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of the arginine-specific protein-modifying reagent, phenylglyoxal, on contraction and intramembrane charge movement were studied in cut single fibres from frog skeletal muscle, using the double-Vaseline-gap voltage clamp technique. 2. The strength-duration curve for pulses which produced microscopically just-detectable contractions was shifted to more positive potentials and longer durations following treatment of fibres with phenylglyoxal. Caffeine-induced contractures were not blocked. 3. The amount of charge moved by large depolarizing pulses from -100 mV holding potential (charge 1) declined during the phenylglyoxal treatment with a single-exponential time course (tau = 7 min). Linear capacitance did not change significantly over the entire experiment. Inhibition of charge movement was predominantly irreversible. 4. Slow bumps (Q gamma) observed in charge movement current transients recorded before phenylglyoxal treatment, using either large test pulses or small steps superimposed on test pulses, were absent from currents recorded after treatment. The current removed by phenylglyoxal contained the bump (Q gamma) and a small fast transient (Q beta). 5. The amount of charge moved by large depolarizing pulses from -100 mV was reduced 20-50% following phenylglyoxal treatment. Charge moved by pulses to potentials more negative than -40 mV was relatively unaffected. The magnitude and voltage range of this inhibitory effect were the same whether the reagent was applied at -100 mV or at 0 mV holding potential. 6. A phenylglyoxal-sensitive component of charge was isolated which had a much steeper voltage dependence than the total charge movement or the charge remaining after treatment. 7. Charge recorded during hyperpolarizing pulses from 0 mV holding potential (charge 2) was reduced very little (less than 5%) at any potential by phenylglyoxal treatments at either 0 or -100 mV. 8. The phenylglyoxal reaction with charge 2 was kinetically different from the

  19. Directly resolving particles in an electric field: local charge, force, torque, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qianlong

    2011-11-01

    Prosperetti's seminal Physalis method for fluid flows with suspended particles is extended to electric fields to directly resolve finite-sized particles and to investigate accurately the mutual fluid-particle, particle-particle, and particle-boundary interactions. The method can be used for uncharged/charged dielectrics, uncharged/charged conductors, conductors with specified voltage, and general weak and strong discontinuous interface conditions. These interface conditions can be in terms of field variable, its gradients, and surface integration which has not been addesed by other numerical methods. In addition, for the first time, we rigorously derive the force and torque on the finite-sized particles resulting from the interactions between harmonics. The method, for the first time, directly resolves the particles with accurate local charge distribution, force, and torque on the particles, making many applications in engineering, mechanics, physics, chemistry, and biology possible, such as heterogeneous materials, microfluidics, electrophotography, electric double layer capacitors, and microstructures of nanodispersions. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated with up to one hundred thousand 3D particles, which suggests that the method can be used for many important engineering applications of broad interest. This research is supported by the Department of Energy under funding for an EFRC (the HeteroFoaM Center), grant no. DE-SC0001061.

  20. Emittance growth in heavy ion rings due to effects of space charge and dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J.J., LLNL

    1998-06-03

    We review the derivation of moment equations which include the effects of space charge and dispersion in bends first presented in ref [1]. These equations generalize the familiar envelope equations to include the dispersive effects of bends. We review the application of these equations to the calculation of the change in emittance resulting from a sharp transition from a straight section to a bend section, using an energy conservation constraint. Comparisons of detailed 2D and 3D simulations of intense beams in rings using the WARP code (refs [2,3]) are made with results obtained from the moment equations. We also compare the analysis carried out in ref [1], to more recent analyses, refs [4,5]. We further examine self-consistent distributions of beams in bends and discuss the relevance of these distributions to the moment equation formulation.

  1. Complex coacervation of hyaluronic acid and chitosan: effects of pH, ionic strength, charge density, chain length and the charge ratio.

    PubMed

    Kayitmazer, A B; Koksal, A F; Kilic Iyilik, E

    2015-11-28

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) and chitosan (CH) can form nanoparticles, hydrogels, microspheres, sponges, and films, all with a wide range of biomedical applications. This variety of phases reflects the multiple pathways available to HA/CH complexes. Here, we use turbidimetry, dynamic light scattering, light microscopy and zeta potential measurements to show that the state of the dense phase depends on the molar ratio of HA carboxyl to CH amines, and is strongly dependent on their respective degrees of ionization, α and β. Due to the strong charge complementarity between HA and CH, electrostatic self-assembly takes place at very acidic pH, but is almost unobservable at ionic strength (I) ≥ 1.5 M NaCl. All systems display discontinuity in the I-dependence of the turbidity, corresponding to a transition from coacervates to flocculates. An increase in either polymer chain length or charge density enhances phase separation. Remarkably, non-stoichiometric coacervate suspensions form at zeta potentials far away from zero. This result is attributed to the entropic effects of chain semi-flexibility as well as to the charge mismatch between the two biopolymers. PMID:26406548

  2. Lattice summations for spread out particles: applications to neutral and charged systems.

    PubMed

    Heyes, D M; Brańka, A C

    2013-01-21

    This work is concerned with the lattice energy of periodic assemblies of mass and charge distributions of the form, exp (-αp(2)), where α is an adjustable positive variable and p(̱) is the vector from the lattice site or average position. The energy of interaction between two distributions is the density-weighted integral of the interactions between the volume elements of each distribution. Reciprocal space lattice summation formulas derived for particles represented by gaussian smeared-out density distributions are applied to the gaussian potential and a bounded version of the soft-sphere potential for a range of exponents. Two types of spatial broadening are considered, continuous or physical broadening (PB) and broadening resulting from the time average of point particle positions, so-called "time" broadening (TB). For neutral mass distributions a reciprocal space lattice summation formula is derived which is applied to the bounded soft-sphere potential. For the charged systems, the methodology described in Heyes [J. Chem. Phys. 74, 1924 (1981)] is used, which for the PB case gives the Ewald-like formulas derived by Gingrich and Wilson [Chem. Phys. Lett. 500, 178 (2010)] using a different method. Another expression for the lattice energy of the spread out charge distributions is derived which is cast entirely in terms of a summation over the reciprocal lattice vectors, without the arbitrary charge spreading function used in the Ewald method. The effects of charge spreading on a generalized definition of the Madelung constant (M) for a selection of crystal lattices are shown to be insignificant for route mean square displacements up to values typical of melting of an ionic crystal. When the length scale of the charge distribution becomes comparable to or greater than the mean inter particle spacing, however, the effects of charge broadening on the lattice energy are shown to be significant. In the PB case, M → 0 for the uniform charge density or α → 0

  3. A temperature dependent study on charge dynamics in organic molecular device: Effect of shallow traps on space charge limited behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, A. K.; Kavala, A. K.

    2014-04-01

    Shallow traps play a significant role in influencing charge dynamics through organic molecular thin films, such as pentacene. Sandwich cells of pentacene capped by gold electrodes are an excellent specimen to study the nature of underlying charge dynamics. In this paper, self-consistent numerical simulation of I-V characteristics is performed at various temperatures. The results have revealed negative value of Poole Frenkel coefficient. The location of trap energy level is found to be located at 0.24 eV above the highest occupied molecular orbit (HOMO) level of pentacene. Other physical parameters related to trap levels, such as density of states due to traps and effective carrier density due to traps, have also been estimated in this study.

  4. 47 CFR 1.1102 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings in the wireless telecommunications services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Schedule of charges for applications and other filings in the wireless telecommunications services. 1.1102 Section 1.1102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment §...

  5. 47 CFR 1.1109 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the Homeland services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the Homeland services. 1.1109 Section 1.1109 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment §...

  6. 47 CFR 1.1108 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the international telecommunication...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the international telecommunication services. 1.1108 Section 1.1108 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1108 Schedule of...

  7. Charging process of polyurethane based composites under electronic irradiation: Effects of cellulose fiber content

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjadj, Aomar; Jbara, Omar; Tara, Ahmed; Gilliot, Mickael; Dellis, Jean-Luc

    2013-09-23

    The study deals with the charging effect of polyurethanes-based composites reinforced with cellulose fibers, under electronic beam irradiation in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that the leakage current and the trapped charge as well as the kinetics of charging process significantly change beyond a critical concentration of 10% cellulose fibers. These features are correlated with the cellulose concentration-dependence of the electrical properties, specifically resistivity and capacitance, of the composite.

  8. HIGH CHARGE EFFECTS IN SILICON DRIFT DETECTORS WITH LATERAL CONFINEMENT OF ELECTRONS.

    SciTech Connect

    CASTOLDI,A.; REHAK,P.

    1995-10-21

    A new drift detector prototype which provides suppression of the lateral diffusion of electrons has been tested as a function of the signal charge up to high charge levels, when electrostatic repulsion is not negligible. The lateral diffusion of the electron cloud has been measured for injected charges up to 2 {center_dot} 10{sup 5} electrons. The maximum number of electrons for which the suppression of the lateral spread is effective is obtained.

  9. Optimization of thermoelectric performance in semiconducting polymers for understanding charge transport and flexible thermoelectric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaudell, Anne; Chabinyc, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Organic electronic materials have been widely considered for a variety of energy conversion applications, from photovoltaics to LEDs. Only very recently have organic materials been considered for thermoelectric applications - converting between temperature gradients and electrical potential. The intrinsic disorder in semiconducting polymers leads to an inherently low thermal conductivity, a key parameter in thermoelectric performance. The ability to solution deposit on flexible substrates opens up niche applications including personal cooling and conformal devices. Here work is presented on the electrical conductivity and thermopower of thin film semiconducting polymers, including P3HT and PBTTT-C14. Thermoelectric properties are explored over a wide range of conductivities, from nearly insulating to beyond 100 S/cm, enabled by employing different doping mechanisms, including molecular charge-transfer doping with F4TCNQ and vapor doping with a fluoroalkyl trichlorosilane (FTS). Temperature-dependent measurements suggest competing charge transport mechanisms, likely due to the mixed ordered/disordered character of these polymers. These results show promise for organic materials for thermoelectric applications, and recent results on thin film devices will also be presented.

  10. The development and applications of charge-coupled devices for space astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, R. E.

    The developments in charge-coupled device technology over the past decade are reviewed, with emphasis on the relevance of these developments to astronomical applications. The characteristics and limitations of current commercial devices are described, and the future requirements on CCDs for space astronomy are summarized for the X-ray and near UV, optical, and infrared wavelength ranges. Emphasis is placed on the commonality of technological development which is called for, including the issues of quantum detection efficiency (photon entrance and depletion depth), charge transfer efficiency, modulation transfer function, output noise level, and array size. The system requirements on focal plane instrumentation for space astronomy are summarized, and shown to have much in common for the different wavelength bands. These requirements are discussed in terms of CCD mosaicing, cryogenic cooling, and electronics. The overlap in CCD developments in the defense, astronomical and commercial arenas is summarized.

  11. The development and applications of charge-coupled devices for space astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffiths, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The developments in charge-coupled device technology over the past decade are reviewed, with emphasis on the relevance of these developments to astronomical applications. The characteristics and limitations of current commercial devices are described, and the future requirements on CCDs for space astronomy are summarized for the X-ray and near UV, optical, and infrared wavelength ranges. Emphasis is placed on the commonality of technological development which is called for, including the issues of quantum detection efficiency (photon entrance and depletion depth), charge transfer efficiency, modulation transfer function, output noise level, and array size. The system requirements on focal plane instrumentation for space astronomy are summarized, and shown to have much in common for the different wavelength bands. These requirements are discussed in terms of CCD mosaicing, cryogenic cooling, and electronics. The overlap in CCD developments in the defense, astronomical and commercial arenas is summarized.

  12. Design and application of carbon nanomaterials for photoactive and charge transport layers in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sunghwan; Jun, Gwang Hoon; Jeon, Seokwoo; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2016-04-01

    Commercialization of organic solar cell (OSC) has faltered due to their low power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to inorganic solar cell. Low electrical conductivity, low charge mobility, and short-range light absorption of most organic materials limit the PCE of OSCs. Carbon nanomaterials, especially carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphenes, are of great interest for use in OSC applications due to their high electrical conductivity, mobility, and unique optical properties for enhancing the performance of OSCs. In this review, recent progress toward the integration of carbon nanomaterials into OSCs is described. The role of carbon nanomaterials and strategies for their integration into various layers of OSCs, including the photoactive layer and charge transport layer, are discussed. Based on these, we also discuss the prospects of carbon nanomaterials for specific OSC layers to maximize the PCE.

  13. Mass spectrometer with electron source for reducing space charge effects in sample beam

    DOEpatents

    Houk, Robert S.; Praphairaksit, Narong

    2003-10-14

    A mass spectrometer includes an ion source which generates a beam including positive ions, a sampling interface which extracts a portion of the beam from the ion source to form a sample beam that travels along a path and has an excess of positive ions over at least part of the path, thereby causing space charge effects to occur in the sample beam due to the excess of positive ions in the sample beam, an electron source which adds electrons to the sample beam to reduce space charge repulsion between the positive ions in the sample beam, thereby reducing the space charge effects in the sample beam and producing a sample beam having reduced space charge effects, and a mass analyzer which analyzes the sample beam having reduced space charge effects.

  14. Modeling of the cranking and charging processes of conventional valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries in micro-hybrid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Jun; Lee, Anson; Pyko, Jan

    2014-10-01

    The cranking and charging processes of a VRLA battery during stop-start cycling in micro-hybrid applications were simulated by one dimensional mathematical modeling, to study the formation and distribution of lead sulfate across the cell and analyze the resulting effect on battery aging. The battery focused on in this study represents a conventional VRLA battery without any carbon additives in the electrodes or carbon-based electrodes. The modeling results were validated against experimental data and used to analyze the "sulfation" of negative electrodes - the common failure mode of lead acid batteries under high-rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling. The analyses were based on two aging mechanisms proposed in previous studies and the predictions showed consistency with the previous teardown observations that the sulfate formed at the negative interface is more difficult to be converted back than anywhere else in the electrodes. The impact of cranking pulses during stop-start cycling on current density and the corresponding sulfate layer production was estimated. The effects of some critical design parameters on sulfate formation, distribution and aging over cycling were investigated, which provided guidelines for developing models and designing of VRLA batteries in micro-hybrid applications.

  15. Kinetics of re-equilibrium of oppositely charged hydrogel-surfactant system and its application in controlled release.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Sande, Sv Arne

    2013-06-01

    We report a study of re-equilibrium kinetics of an oppositely charged hydrogel-surfactant system (cationically modified hydroxyethyl cellulose (cat-HEC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) and an application of the formulation for delivery of a water-insoluble molecule. Hydrogels have been applied for long-term delivery of water-soluble drugs due to their controlled-release property. However, the release mechanism of drugs solubilized by surfactants has not been clear. In the present study, SDS was used to solubilize a hydrophobic model drug, and thereafter, by electrostatic interaction between cat-HEC and SDS, the solubilized model drug was loaded into two types of cat-HEC hydrogels with different charge density. We found that the charge density of the polymers had a crucial effect on the loading capacity, without affecting the re-equilibrium kinetics. By an elaborate design of the experiments, the release profiles were fitted with one-dimensional Fickian law where we found the diffusivity of the drug to be constant and comparable to free micelles over a wide region of surfactant concentrations. The observed long-term controlled diffusion is discussed from a thermodynamic point of view. PMID:23679106

  16. Effect of charge on the ferroelectric field effect in strongly correlated oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuegang; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Zhang, Le; Zhao, Weiwei; Xu, Xiaoshan; Hong, Xia

    We present a systematic study of the effect of charge on the ferroelectric field effect modulation of various strongly correlated oxide materials. We have fabricated high quality epitaxial heterostructures composed of a ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) gate and a correlated oxide channel, including Sm0.5Nd0.5NiO3 (SNNO), La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO), SNNO/LSMO bilayers, and NiCo2O4 (NCO). The Hall effect measurements reveal a carrier density of ~4 holes/u.c. (0.4 cm2V-1s-1) for SNNO to ~2 holes/u.c. (27 cm2V-1s-1) for NCO. We find the magnitude of the field effect is closely related to both the intrinsic carrier density and carrier mobility of the channel material. For devices employing the SNNO/LSMO bilayer channel, we believe the charge transfer between the two correlated oxides play an important role in the observed resistance modulation. The screening capacitor of the channel materials and the interfacial defect states also have significant impact on the retention characteristics of the field effect. Our study reveals the critical role of charge in determining the interfacial coupling between ferroelectric and magnetic oxides, and has important implications in developing ferroelectric-controlled Mott memory devices.

  17. Spin-charge order and excitonic effects in sawtooth-like graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sha; Lu, Wengang; Qi, Jingshan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we systematically study electronic structures and excitonic effects in one type of the sawtooth-like graphene nanoribbons. A main feature is that the local magnetism is developed for the certain width and changes with the increase of width. A variety of magnetic orders root in the competition of the short range interaction between the same spin-electrons and long range exchange interaction between opposite spin-electrons. For excitonic effects, the binding energy of degenerate spin-triplets T1 and T-1 is higher than that of T0 for all studied nanoribbons and is size dependent. We reveal the underlying physical mechanism from the charge distributions of excitons and its correlation with the spin-resolved charge density distributions in the ground state. We find that the electrons and holes in degenerate spin-triplets T1 and T-1 are closer together and thus the interaction between them is more strong, while the distribution of electrons and holes is relatively more disperse for T0, indicating the weaker interaction. We hope that these interesting results are able to be detected in the experiment and these multi-performance samples are better utilized in future device applications.

  18. Nonlinear Delta-f Particle Simulations of Collective Effects in High Intensity Charged Particle Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.; Startsev, Edward A.

    2004-11-01

    A wide range of collective effects in high intensity charged particle beams have been numerically studied using the nonlinear delta-f particle simulation method implemented in the Beam Equilibrium Stability and Transport (BEST) code. For the electron-ion two-stream instability in high intensity accelerators and storage rings, the secondary electron yield effects are self-consistently studied by coupling the secondary electron yield library CMEE with the instability simulations. Progress has also been made in applying the delta-f particle simulation method to bunched beams, and a three-dimensional equilibrium solver has been implemented. With the help of recently developed parallel diagnostic techniques, we are able to characterize the chaotic particle dynamics under the influences of collective instabilities as well as three-dimensional equilibrium fields. To further extend the application areas of the delta-f particle simulation method, 2D domain decomposition is being developed using the Message Passing Interface, and three-dimensional equilibria with anisotropic temperature in the transverse and longitudinal directions are being investigated. References: [1] R. C. Davidson and H. Qin, An Introduction to the Physics of Intense Charged Particle Beams in High Energy Accelerators, World Scientific (2001). [2] H. Qin, Physics of Plasmas 10, 2078 (2003). [3] H. Qin, E. A. Startsev, and R. C. Davidson, Physical Review Special Topics on Accelerators and Beams 6, 014401 (2003).

  19. Polyvinylidene fluoride/nickel composite materials for charge storing, electromagnetic interference absorption, and shielding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargama, H.; Thakur, A. K.; Chaturvedi, S. K.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the composites of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/nickel (Ni) prepared through simple blending and hot-molding process have been investigated for dielectric, electromagnetic shielding, and radar absorbing properties. In order to study complex permittivity of the composites in 40 Hz-20 MHz frequency range, impedance spectroscopy (IS) technique is used. Besides, the complex permittivity and permeability in addition to shielding effectiveness (SE), reflection coefficient (backed by air), and loss factor are calculated using scattering parameters measured in X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz) by waveguide method. Further, in X-band, a theoretical analysis of single layer absorbing structure backed by perfect electrical conductor is then performed. A flanged coaxial holder has also been designed, fabricated, calibrated, and tested for electromagnetic interference SE measurement in the broad frequency range (50 MHz-18 GHz). The IS results indicate large enhancement in dielectric constant as a function of Ni loading in the polymer-metal composite (PMC) phase. This result has been explained using interfacial polarization and percolation theory. The frequency dependent response of ac conductivity has been analyzed by fitting the experimental data to the "Johnscher's universal dielectric response law" model. The results obtained for SE (in X-band over broad frequency range) and reflection coefficient indicate that PVDF/Ni composites give better electromagnetic interference shielding and radar absorption properties at filler concentration (fcon) ≥ fc in the PMC, whereas at fc < fcon, the charge storage mechanism dominates in the insulator regime of the composite phase. Therefore, the range of PMC compositions below and above percolation threshold has been observed to have different variety of applications.

  20. Electrostatic Charge Effects on Pharmaceutical Aerosol Deposition in Human Nasal–Laryngeal Airways

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua; Longest, Worth

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic charging occurs in most aerosol generation processes and can significantly influence subsequent particle deposition rates and patterns in the respiratory tract through the image and space forces. The behavior of inhaled aerosols with charge is expected to be most affected in the upper airways, where particles come in close proximity to the narrow turbinate surface, and before charge dissipation occurs as a result of high humidity. The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the deposition of charged aerosols in an MRI-based nasal–laryngeal airway model. Particle sizes of 5 nm–30 µm and charge levels ranging from neutralized to ten times the saturation limit were considered. A well-validated low Reynolds number (LRN) k–ω turbulence model and a discrete Lagrangian tracking approach that accounted for electrostatic image force were employed to simulate the nasal airflow and aerosol dynamics. For ultrafine aerosols, electrostatic charge was observed to exert a discernible but insignificant effect. In contrast, remarkably enhanced depositions were observed for micrometer particles with charge, which could be one order of magnitude larger than no-charge depositions. The deposition hot spots shifted towards the anterior part of the upper airway as the charge level increased. Results of this study have important implications for evaluating nasal drug delivery devices and for assessing doses received from pollutants, which often carry a certain level of electric charges. PMID:24481172

  1. Role of surface charge in determining the biological effects of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiangqiang; Li, Hongxia; Xia, Qiyue; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The growing potential of quantum dots (QDs) in biomedical applications has provoked the urgent need to thoroughly address their interaction with biological systems. However, only limited studies have been performed to explore the effects of surface charge on the biological behaviors of QDs. In the present study, three commercially available QDs with different surface coatings were used to systematically evaluate the effects of surface charge on the cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and in vivo biodistribution of QDs. Our results demonstrated that charged QDs entered both cancer cells and macrophages more efficiently than neutral ones, while negative QDs internalized mostly. Upon entry into cells, QDs were localized in different subcellular compartments (eg, cytoplasm and lysosomes) depending on the surface charge. Interestingly, inconsistent with the result of internalization, positive QDs but not negative QDs exhibited severe cytotoxicity, which was likely due to their disruption of cell membrane integrity, and production of reactive oxygen species. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that negative and neutral QDs preferentially distributed in the liver and the spleen, whereas positive QDs mainly deposited in the kidney with obvious uptake in the brain. In general, surface charge plays crucial roles in determining the biological interactions of QDs. PMID:26604757

  2. Molecular dynamics study of charged dendrimers in salt-free solution: Effect of counterions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurtovenko, Andrey A.; Lyulin, Sergey V.; Karttunen, Mikko; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2006-03-01

    Polyamidoamine dendrimers, being protonated under physiological conditions, represent a promising class of nonviral, nanosized vectors for drug and gene delivery. We performed extensive molecular dynamics simulations of a generic model dendrimer in a salt-free solution with dendrimer's terminal beads positively charged. Solvent molecules as well as counterions were explicitly included as interacting beads. We find that the size of the charged dendrimer depends nonmonotonically on the strength of electrostatic interactions demonstrating a maximum when the Bjerrum length equals the diameter of a bead. Many other structural and dynamic characteristics of charged dendrimers are also found to follow this pattern. We address such a behavior to the interplay between repulsive interactions of the charged terminal beads and their attractive interactions with oppositely charged counterions. The former favors swelling at small Bjerrum lengths and the latter promotes counterion condensation. Thus, counterions can have a dramatic effect on the structure and dynamics of charged dendrimers and, under certain conditions, cannot be treated implicitly.

  3. The effects of charge transfer on the properties of liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Alexis J.; Rick, Steven W.

    2011-05-14

    A method for treating charge transfer interactions in classical potential models is developed and applied to water. In this method, a discrete amount of charge is transferred for each hydrogen bond formed. It is designed to be simple to implement, to be applicable to a variety of potential models, and to satisfy various physical requirements. The method does not transfer charge at large intramolecular distances, it does not result in a conductive liquid, and it can be easily parameterized to give the correct amount of charge transfer. Two charge transfer models are developed for a polarizable and a non-polarizable potential. The models reproduce many of the properties of liquid water, including the structure, the diffusion constant, and thermodynamic properties over a range of temperatures.

  4. Effects of Transverse Physics on Nonlinear Evolution of Longitudinal Space-Charge Waves in Beams

    SciTech Connect

    K. Tian, I. Haber, R.A. Kishek, P.G. O'Shea, M. Reiser, D. Stratakis

    2009-05-01

    Longitudinal space-charge waves can introduce energy perturbations into charge particle beams and degrade the beam quality, which is critical to many modern applications of particle accelerators. Although many longitudinal phenomena arising from small perturbations can be explained by a one-dimensional cold fluid theory, nonlinear behavior of space-charge waves observed in experiments has not been well understood. In this paper, we summarize our recent investigation by means of more detailed measurements and self-consistent simulations. Combining the numerical capability of a PIC code, WARP, with the detailed initial conditions measured by our newly developed time resolved 6-D phase space mapping technique, we are able to construct a self consistent model for studying the complex physics of longitudinal dynamics of space-charge dominated beams. Results from simulation studies suggest that the unexplained nonlinear behavior of space-charge waves may be due to transverse mismatch or misalignment of beams.

  5. Nonuniform charging effects on ion drag force in drifting dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Dong-Man; Chang, Won-Seok; Jung, Young-Dae

    2006-03-01

    The nonuniform polarization charging effects on the ion drag force are investigated in drifting dusty plasmas. The ion drag force due to the ion-dust grain interaction is obtained as a function of the dust charge, ion charge, plasma temperature, Mach number, Debye length, and collision energy. The result shows that the nonuniform charging effects enhance the momentum transfer cross section as well as the ion drag force. It is found that the momentum transfer cross section and the ion drag force including nonuniform polarization charging effects increase with increasing the Mach number and also the ion drag force increases with increasing the temperature. In addition, it is found that the ion drag force is slightly decreasing with an increase of the Debye length.

  6. Charging system using solar panels and a highly resonant wireless power transfer model for small UAS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Sydney N.; Huck, Robert C.; Sluss, James J.

    2016-05-01

    The use of a wireless charging system for small, unmanned aircraft system applications is useful for both military and commercial consumers. An efficient way to keep the aircraft's batteries charged without interrupting flight would be highly marketable. While the general concepts behind highly resonant wireless power transfer are discussed in a few publications, the details behind the system designs are not available even in academic journals, especially in relation to avionics. Combining a highly resonant charging system with a solar panel charging system can produce enough power to extend the flight time of a small, unmanned aircraft system without interruption. This paper provides an overview of a few of the wireless-charging technologies currently available and outlines a preliminary design for an aircraft-mounted battery charging system.

  7. Effect of volume and surface charges on discharge structure of glow dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Shao-Wei; He, Feng; Wang, Yu; Li, Lulu; Ouyang, Ji-Ting

    2013-08-15

    The effect of volume and surface charges on the structure of glow dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been investigated numerically by using two-dimensional (2D) fluid modeling. The local increase of volume or surface charges induces a kind of activation-inhibition effect, which enhances the local volume discharge and inhibits the discharge in neighborhoods, resulting in non-uniform discharge. The activation-inhibition effect due to the non-uniform volume and/or surface charges depends on the non-uniformity itself and the applied voltage. The activation-inhibition of non-uniform charges has different effects on the volume charges and the accumulated surface charges. The distribution of remaining free charges (seed electrons) in volume at the beginning of voltage pulse plays a key role for the glow DBD structure, resulting in a patterned DBD, when the seed electrons are non-uniform at higher frequency and moderate voltage or uniform DBD, when the seed electrons are uniform at lower frequency or high voltage. The distribution of surface charges is not the determining factor but a result of the formed DBD structure.

  8. EFFECT OF LOADING DUST TYPE ON THE FILTRATION EFFICIENCY OF ELECTROSTATICALLY CHARGED FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of the effect of loading dust type on the filtration efficiency of electrostatically charged filters. Three types of filters were evaluated: a rigid-cell filter charged using an electrodynamic spinning process, a pleated-panel filter cha...

  9. Effect of dynamically charged helium on tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Nowicki, L.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the effect of displacement damage and dynamically charged helium on tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy irradiated to 18-31 dpa at 425-600{degree}C in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE).

  10. Lattices with minimal space charge effects for crystalline beams

    SciTech Connect

    Channell, P.J.; Neri, F.R.

    1995-12-31

    There are numerous techniques for cooling beams of charged particles including stochastic cooling, electron beam cooling, ionization (foil) cooling (for lepton beams only), and laser cooling which works only with ions with some electrons still attached. The successful implementation of laser cooling at Aarhus, has led to interest in crystalline beams, and it certainly seems that crystallization of small numbers of stored particles should be possible. There are limits, however, that may restrict the total number of charged particles stored; these include the limit on the space-charge tune shift, {vert_bar}{triangle}{nu}{vert_bar} < 0.25 (though the precise number is subject to debate) and intrabeam scattering. In this paper we will be concerned with the possibility of intense crystalline beams; for simplicity we treat only the nonrelativistic case, though the relativistic case is a simple extension of this work. In the next section we review the limits on the number of particles stored and observe that the beam size scaling with beam temperature is the important dependence that determines the limits on the stored current as a function of beam temperature. In section 3 we use a general formalism to determine the beam size scaling and apply it to various kinds of focusing lattices and determine the relevant limits. In section 4 we use simulations that include lattice elements, a cooling model, and an N-body space-charge model to confirm the predictions of section 3 and to explore the details of various schemes. In the final section we summarize and discuss our results.

  11. Effects of Image Charges on the Scavenging of Aerosol Particles by Cloud Droplets and on Droplet Charging and Possible Ice Nucleation Processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinsley, B. A.; Rohrbaugh, R. P.; Hei, M.; Beard, K. V.

    2000-07-01

    Previous calculations of the rate at which falling droplets in clouds collide with aerosols have led to the conclusion that except in thunderclouds any electrical charges on the aerosols or droplets have little effect on the collision rate. However, it had been assumed that the aerosols would have only a few elementary charges on them, whereas it is now known that at the tops of nonthunderstorm clouds the evaporating droplets may have several hundred elementary charges on them and that much of this charge remains on the residual aerosol for 5 min or so after the evaporation. Also, most previous calculations neglected image charge forces that provide strong attraction at close range even when droplet and aerosol have charges of the same sign and of comparable magnitude.The authors present numerical calculations showing that electrical effects dominate collision rates for charged evaporation aerosols. The calculations are for the size range of 0.1- to 1.0-m radius with the collision efficiency compared to that for phoretic and Brownian effects being greater by up to a factor of 30 greater for droplets from 18.6- to 106-m radius with relative humidity in the range 95%-100% and only 50 elementary charges on the aerosol. The results imply that electrical effects can be important for the scavenging of evaporation aerosol particles in the size range of the Greenfield gap.The authors call this process `electroscavenging.' Electroscavenging of charged particles, when the particles are mostly of the same sign, is a previously unrecognized droplet charging process. Electroscavenging also provides a pathway for contact ice nucleation when charged aerosol particles from evaporated charged droplets collide with supercooled droplets. Ice nucleation can occur because aerosol particles from the evaporation of cloud droplets have been found to be more effective as ice forming nuclei than other aerosol particles that have not been processed through droplets.

  12. EDITORIAL: The effects of spin-orbit interaction on charge transport The effects of spin-orbit interaction on charge transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molenkamp, Laurens; Nitta, Junsaku

    2009-05-01

    As the information and communications technology industries continue to demand smaller and more powerful electronic devices, it is becoming clear that the technologies which we currently rely upon to store, process and encode data are no longer sufficient. Over the past two decades, the field of spintronics has emerged as a promising source of the new technologies that will help to meet these needs. Following the discovery of giant magnetoresistance in the late 1980s research originally focused on achieving larger and larger magnetoresistance effects in metal-based systems. The resulting devices have already found widespread applications (as read heads in hard drives, for example) and more recent developments (spin torque, domain wall effects) demonstrate a similarly large potential. The development of semiconductor spintronic devices, which promise an even more enhanced functionality, has proved a tougher challenge to researchers. While the physics of spin injection in semiconductors is well understood by now, we presently still do not have a reliable and robust means for spin detection. Moreover, while ferromagnetic semiconductors have shown a wealth of novel device physics, the applicability of these concepts is limited because the community still has not found a material that demonstrates robust ferromagnetism at and above room temperature. Because of this, a growing number of researchers has turned to the utilization of spin--orbit interaction as a tool to manipulate spin behaviour within semiconductors. This cluster of articles reflects this trend in spintronics research and the blend of reviews and novel research provides a good overview of the current status of investigation into spin--orbit interaction and its effect on charge transport. The collection includes review papers on the theory of the impact of spin-orbit effects on weak localization in semiconductor heterostructures (Glazov and Golub) and of shot noise in 2DEG devices (Nikolic and Dragomirova

  13. Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications: electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. Final Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lonergan, Mark

    2015-05-29

    Final technical report for Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications, electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. The central goal of the work we completed was been to understand the photochemical and photovoltaic properties of ionically functionalized conjugated polymers (conjugated ionomers or polyelectrolytes) and energy conversion systems based on them. We primarily studied two classes of conjugated polymer interfaces that we developed based either upon undoped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in ionic composition (the ionic junction) or doped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in doping type (the p-n junction). The materials used for these studies have primarily been the polyacetylene ionomers. We completed a detailed study of p-n junctions with systematically varying dopant density, photochemical creation of doped junctions, and experimental and theoretical work on charge transport and injection in polyacetylene ionomers. We have also completed related work on the use of conjugated ionomers as interlayers that improve the efficiency or organic photovoltaic systems and studied several important aspects of the chemistry of ionically functionalized semiconductors, including mechanisms of so-called "anion-doping", the formation of charge transfer complexes with oxygen, and the synthesis of new polyfluorene polyelectrolytes. We also worked worked with the Haley group at the University of Oregon on new indenofluorene-based organic acceptors.

  14. Schwinger effect in (A)dS and charged black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Pyo

    In an Anti-de Sitter space and a charged black hole the Schwinger effect is either enhanced by the Hawking radiation or suppressed by the negative curvature. We use the contour integral method to calculate the production of charged pairs in the global (A)dS space. The charge emission from near-extremal black hole is found from the AdS geometry near the horizon and interpreted as the Schwinger effect in a Rindler space with the surface gravity for the acceleration as well as the Schwinger effect in AdS space.

  15. High temperature thermocline TES - effect of system pre-charging on thermal stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavattoni, Simone A.; Barbato, Maurizio C.; Zanganeh, Giw; Pedretti, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate, by means of a computational fluid dynamics approach, the effect of performing an initial charging, or pre-charging, on thermal stratification of an industrial-scale thermocline TES unit, based on a packed bed of river pebbles. The 1 GWhth TES unit under investigation is exploited to fulfill the energy requirement of a reference 80 MWe concentrating solar power plant which uses air as heat transfer fluid. Three different scenarios, characterized by 4 h, 6 h and 8 h of pre-charging, were compared with the reference case of TES system operating without pre-charging. For each of these four scenarios, a total of 30 consecutive charge/discharge cycles, of 12 h each, were simulated and the effect of TES pre-charging on thermal stratification was qualitatively evaluated, by means of a stratification efficiency, based on the second-law of thermodynamics. On the basis of the simulations results obtained, the effect of pre-charging, more pronounced during the first cycles, is not only relevant in reducing the time required by the TES to achieve a stable thermal stratification into the packed bed but also to improve the performance at startup when the system is charged for the first time.

  16. Test results of modified electrical charged particle generator for application to fog dispersal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.; Huang, K. H.

    1983-01-01

    Modifications to a charged particle generator for use in fog dispersal applications were made and additional testing carried out. The modified nozzle, however, did not work as planned, and reported results are the unmodified nozzle. The addition of a positive displacement pump to supply the liquid water was highly successful. Measurements of the generator output current were made with a cylindrical collector system as well as with the needle probe used in previous studies. Measurements with the cylindrical collector and the needle probe showed identical agreement within the variability of the experiment. A high-voltage prove was purchased, and measurements of the corona voltage as well as the voltage variation in the charged particle jet were made. Electric fields in the vertical direction on the order of 1,000,000 v/m were measured. The voltage distribution along the centerline of the jet was compared with the numerical solutions of the Poisson equation and showed very good agreement. Velocity measurements using a pitot tube were made. The resulting measurements were compared with theoretical and other reported experimental results. The measured data showed the appropriate trends and agreed well with reported results. Based on the measured current-to-mass ratio from the charged particle generator, a calculation of the average droplet size was made. Droplet sizes were estimated to range between 0.8 and 0.4 microns. Using measured data, an analysis of the height to which the droplet can be dispersed by the charged particle generator was made. Although the mathematical model is highly simplified, the results indicated that particles would achieve heights on the order of 80 m.

  17. A Cost-Effective Electric Vehicle Charging Method Designed For Residential Homes with Renewable Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lie, T. T.; Liang, Xiuli; Haque, M. H.

    2015-03-01

    Most of the electrical infrastructure in use around the world today is decades old, and may be illsuited to widespread proliferation of personal Electric Vehicles (EVs) whose charging requirements will place increasing strain on grid demand. In order to reduce the pressure on the grid and taking benefits of off peak charging, this paper presents a smart and cost effective EV charging methodology for residential homes equipped with renewable energy resources such as Photovoltaic (PV) panels and battery. The proposed method ensures slower battery degradation and prevents overcharging. The performance of the proposed algorithm is verified by conducting simulation studies utilizing running data of Nissan Altra. From the simulation study results, the algorithm is shown to be effective and feasible which minimizes not only the charging cost but also can shift the charging time from peak value to off-peak time.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of a charge-biased CMOS-MEMS resonant gate field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, C. H.; Li, C. S.; Li, M. H.; Wang, Y. L.; Li, S. S.

    2014-09-01

    A high-frequency charge-biased CMOS-MEMS resonant gate field effect transistor (RGFET) composed of a metal-oxide composite resonant-gate structure and an FET transducer has been demonstrated utilizing the TSMC 0.35 μm CMOS technology with Q > 1700 and a signal-to-feedthrough ratio greater than 35 dB under a direct two-port measurement configuration. As compared to the conventional capacitive-type MEMS resonators, the proposed CMOS-MEMS RGFET features an inherent transconductance gain (gm) offered by the FET transduction capable of enhancing the motional signal of the resonator and relaxing the impedance mismatch issue to its succeeding electronics or 50 Ω-based test facilities. In this work, we design a clamped-clamped beam resonant-gate structure right above a floating gate FET transducer as a high-Q building block through a maskless post-CMOS process to combine merits from the large capacitive transduction areas of the large-width beam resonator and the high gain of the underneath FET. An analytical model is also provided to simulate the behavior of the charge-biased RGFET; the theoretical prediction is in good agreement with the experimental results. Thanks to the deep-submicrometer gap spacing enabled by the post-CMOS polysilicon release process, the proposed resonator under a purely capacitive transduction already attains motional impedance less than 10 kΩ, a record-low value among CMOS-MEMS capacitive resonators. To go one step further, the motional signal of the proposed RGFET is greatly enhanced through the FET transduction. Such a strong transmission and a sharp phase transition across 0° pave a way for future RGFET-type oscillators in RF and sensor applications. A time-elapsed characterization of the charge leakage rate for the floating gate is also carried out.

  19. Calibration function for the Orbitrap FTMS accounting for the space charge effect.

    PubMed

    Gorshkov, Mikhail V; Good, David M; Lyutvinskiy, Yaroslav; Yang, Hongqian; Zubarev, Roman A

    2010-11-01

    Ion storage in an electrostatic trap has been implemented with the introduction of the Orbitrap Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS), which demonstrates performance similar to high-field ion cyclotron resonance MS. High mass spectral characteristics resulted in rapid acceptance of the Orbitrap FTMS for Life Sciences applications. The basics of Orbitrap operation are well documented; however, like in any ion trap MS technology, its performance is limited by interactions between the ion clouds. These interactions result in ion cloud couplings, systematic errors in measured masses, interference between ion clouds of different size yet with close m/z ratios, etc. In this work, we have characterized the space-charge effect on the measured frequency for the Orbitrap FTMS, looking for the possibility to achieve sub-ppm levels of mass measurement accuracy (MMA) for peptides in a wide range of total ion population. As a result of this characterization, we proposed an m/z calibration law for the Orbitrap FTMS that accounts for the total ion population present in the trap during a data acquisition event. Using this law, we were able to achieve a zero-space charge MMA limit of 80 ppb for the commercial Orbitrap FTMS system and sub-ppm level of MMA over a wide range of total ion populations with the automatic gain control values varying from 10 to 10(7). PMID:20696596

  20. Listeria monocytogenes cell wall constituents exert a charge effect on electroporation threshold

    PubMed Central

    Golberg, Alex; Rae, Chris S.; Rubinsky, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Genetically engineered cells with mutations of relevance to electroporation, cell membrane permeabilization by electric pulses, can become a promising new tool for fundamental research on this important biotechnology. Listeria monocytogenes mutants lacking DltA or MprF and assayed for sensitivity to the cathelicidin like anti-microbial cationic peptide (mCRAMP), were developed to study the effect of cell wall charge on electroporation. Working in the irreversible electroporation regime (IRE), we found that application of a sequence of 50 pulses, each 50 μs duration, 12.5 kV/cm field, delivered at 2 Hz led to 2.67±0.29 log reduction in wild-type L. monocytogenes, log 2.60±0.19 in the MprF-minus mutant, and log 1.33±0.13 in the DltA-minus mutant. The experimental observation that the DltA-minus mutant was highly susceptible to cationic mCRAMP and resistant to IRE suggests that the charge on the bacterial cell wall affects electroporation and shows that this approach may be promising for fundamental studies on electroporation. PMID:22100748

  1. Sintering behaviour of feldspar and influence of electric charge effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallala, W.; Gaied, M. E.

    2011-04-01

    The characterization of feldspar for electric porcelain and the behaviour of these materials after heating at 1230°C were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were used to identify the present phases and the densification level. Feldspar sand was treated by flotation. The floated feldspar is constituted by microcline, quartz, and minor amounts of albite. The microstructure of sintered feldspar at 1230°C is essentially vitreous with open microporosities. The dielectrical properties of composites were characterized by using the induced courant method (ICM), which indicates that the charge trapping capacity depends on the mineralogical and chemical composition of feldspar.

  2. Dynamics of noisy quantum systems in the Heisenberg picture: Application to the stability of fractional charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Armin

    2015-10-01

    Based on the Heisenberg-picture analog of the master equation, we develop a method for computing the exact time dependence of noise-averaged observables for general noninteracting fermionic systems with noisy fluctuations. Upon noise averaging, these fluctuations generate effective interactions, limiting analytical approaches. While the short-time dynamics can be studied with Langevin-type numerical simulations, the long-time limit is not amenable to such simulations. Our results provide access to this long-time limit. As a simple example, we examine the fate of the fractional charge in cold-atom emulations of polyacetylene after stochastic driving. We find that in a quantum quench to a fluctuating hopping Hamiltonian, the fractional charge remains robust for hopping between different sublattices, while it becomes unstable in the presence of noisy hopping on the same sublattice.

  3. Nano ellipsoids at the fluid-fluid interface: effect of surface charge on adsorption, buckling and emulsification.

    PubMed

    Dugyala, Venkateshwar Rao; Anjali, Thiriveni G; Upendar, Siliveru; Mani, Ethayaraja; Basavaraj, Madivala G

    2016-04-12

    In this contribution, we discuss the role of surface charge on the adsorption of shape anisotropic particles to fluid-fluid interfaces in the context of their application in particle-stabilized emulsions. Starting with a pendent aqueous drop containing nano-ellipsoids of known surface charge density suspended in an oil medium, we study the kinetics of adsorption of the ellipsoids to the water-decane interface using pendant drop tensiometry. The interfacial tension of the drop is recorded as a function of time by analyzing the shape of the drop. We show that the particles that are weakly charged readily adsorb to the water-decane interface and the adsorption behavior is influenced by the particle surface charge density. Furthermore, as the area available for the particles deposited at the interface is reduced, the interface populated with self-assembled ellipsoids shows wrinkles indicating buckling of the particle-laden interface under compression. However, the buckling is not observed if nano-ellipsoids are highly charged confirming that the particles do not adsorb to the interface when they are highly charged. This suggests that in several examples where the particles at interfaces concept is exploited, the repulsive energy barrier due to the particle surface charge plays a key role in the adsorption of particles to the interfaces. However, once the particles are adsorbed, the interfacial properties of the monolayer depend on the particle-particle interactions. Thus a combination of these interactions determines the concentration of particles at the interface, their microstructure and interfacial properties. The effect of these interactions on the quantity and size of the emulsion drops stabilized by ellipsoidal particles is also explored. PMID:26780963

  4. Effects of undercharge and internal loss on the rate dependence of battery charge storage efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Elena M.; Arnold, Craig B.

    2012-07-01

    Battery charge efficiency across a range of input powers is an important performance parameter in variable charging systems. Here we use equivalent circuit theory to model the inherent trade-off between battery charging power and energy stored and compare our model to the existing Ragone model for discharge power and energy. An additional parameter is included to account for undercharge and underdischarge of the battery due to premature arrival at the battery's voltage limits. At a given power, energy efficiency is predicted to be higher for charging than discharging when only accounting for energy dissipated by internal resistance. We experimentally determine charge and discharge energy-power curves for lithium-ion batteries and find they exhibit a reduction in energy stored or withdrawn as power increases. We isolate the effects of undercharge and underdischarge from energy lost to internal resistance, and find the former outweighs the latter effect. Furthermore, the shallow shape of the voltage curve near the charge voltage cutoff results in a more limited range of charging powers than discharging powers. The model is expected to help inform operational parameters for battery charging for variable power sources.

  5. The effects of charge transfer on the aqueous solvation of ions

    SciTech Connect

    Soniat, Marielle; Rick, Steven W.

    2012-07-28

    Ab initio-based charge partitioning of ionic systems results in ions with non-integer charges. This charge-transfer (CT) effect alters both short- and long-range interactions. Until recently, the effects of CT have been mostly neglected in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The method presented in this paper for including charge transfer between ions and water is consistent with ab initio charge partitioning and does not add significant time to the simulation. The ions of sodium, potassium, and chloride are parameterized to reproduce dimer properties and aqueous structures. The average charges of the ions from MD simulations (0.900, 0.919, and -0.775 for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Cl{sup -}, respectively) are consistent with quantum calculations. The hydration free energies calculated for these ions are in agreement with experimental estimates, which shows that the interactions are described accurately. The ions also have diffusion constants in good agreement with experiment. Inclusion of CT results in interesting properties for the waters in the first solvation shell of the ions. For all ions studied, the first shell waters acquire a partial negative charge, due to the difference between water-water and water-ion charge-transfer amounts. CT also reduces asymmetry in the solvation shell of the chloride anion, which could have important consequences for the behavior of chloride near the air-water interface.

  6. Evaluating land application effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkis, K. )

    1987-01-01

    The Philadelphia, PA Water Department embarked on a land application program of its treated wastewater sludge in 1977. Initially, liquid sludge averaging from 1-5% solids was applied to approximately 400 acres of corn, soybeans, and sod at rates sufficient to supply crop nitrogen needs. During the 1978 through 1984 growing seasons, crops and soils were monitored for heavy metals (bioavailability of cadmium, copper, nickel, chromium, lead and zinc) and in 1984 for PCB accumulation. This report summarizes results of the monitoring program until 1984.

  7. Effect of Conformation in Charge Transport for Semiflexible Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega, Rodrigo; Salleo, Alberto; Spakowitz, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Current models for the electronic properties of semiconducting conjugated polymers do not include the hierarchical connectivity between charge transport units that results from the physical makeup of the materials. Concepts like on-chain vs. interchain mobility anisotropy have been known for a long time, yet they must be artificially incorporated into simulations. Models that achieve remarkable predictive power but provide limited physical insight when applied to this new class of materials are of limited use for the rational design of new conjugated polymers. Here we present a new model in which the morphology of individual polymer chains is determined by well-known statistical models and the electronic coupling between units is described using Marcus theory. Combining knowledge from polymer physics and semiconducting materials into an analytical and computational model that realistically incorporates the structural and electronic properties of conjugated polymers, it is possible to explain observations that previously relied on phenomenological models. The multi-scale behavior of charges in these materials (high mobility at short scales, low mobility at long scales) can be naturally described with our framework.

  8. Properties and effects on stellar burning of fractionally charged nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, R.N.; Turner, R.E.; Rybarcyk, L.; Joseph, C.

    1985-02-01

    The consequences of unconfined quarks which may have been left over from the big bang, especially as to how they might participate in nucleosynthesis, are examined. Possible properties of the fractionally charged nuclei (Q-nuclei) thus produced, including ..beta..-decay half-lives, binding energies, energy level densities, and thermonnuclear reaction rates, are studied. Stellar burning cycles are suggested by these considerations in which the Q-nuclei could contribute significantly to stellar nucleosynthesis, even at an extremely low abundance level, provided that they satisfy some constraints. A model is suggested which accommodates all the constraints thus imposed. Possible implications of the existence of Q-nuclei for stellar evolution are considered, adn the results of a calculation are presented which confirm that no obvious conflicts with the known parameters of the Sun are encountered. The significance of the possible existence of Q-nuclei for future searches for free fractionally charged entities is discussed. Finally, it is noted that any particle which, when added to a nucleus, increases the nucleon binding energy somewhat could perform stellar burning cycles similar to those described in this paper. Subject headings: elementary particles-neutrinos-nuclear reactions:nucleosynthesis-stars: interiors

  9. Field effect of screened charges: electrical detection of peptides and proteins by a thin-film resistor.

    PubMed

    Lud, Simon Q; Nikolaides, Michael G; Haase, Ilka; Fischer, Markus; Bausch, Andreas R

    2006-02-13

    For many biotechnological applications the label-free detection of biomolecular interactions is becoming of outstanding importance. In this Article we report the direct electrical detection of small peptides and proteins by their intrinsic charges using a biofunctionalized thin-film resistor. The label-free selective and quantitative detection of small peptides and proteins is achieved using hydrophobized silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates functionalized with lipid membranes that incorporate metal-chelating lipids. The response of the nanometer-thin conducting silicon film to electrolyte screening effects is taken into account to determine quantitatively the charges of peptides. It is even possible to detect peptides with a single charge and to distinguish single charge variations of the analytes even in physiological electrolyte solutions. As the device is based on standard semiconductor technologies, parallelization and miniaturization of the SOI-based biosensor is achievable by standard CMOS technologies and thus a promising basis for high-throughput screening or biotechnological applications. PMID:16404758

  10. Effects of Emotionally Charged Auditory Stimulation on Gait Performance in the Elderly: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, John-Ross; Raghavan, Preeti; McCrery, J.R.; Oh-Park, Mooyeon; Verghese, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of a novel divided attention task—walking under auditory constraints—on gait performance in older adults and to determine whether this effect was moderated by cognitive status. Design Validation cohort. Setting General community. Participants Ambulatory older adults without dementia (N=104). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures In this pilot study, we evaluated walking under auditory constraints in 104 older adults who completed 3 pairs of walking trials on a gait mat under 1 of 3 randomly assigned conditions: 1 pair without auditory stimulation and 2 pairs with emotionally charged auditory stimulation with happy or sad sounds. Results The mean age of subjects was 80.6±4.9 years, and 63% (n=66) were women. The mean velocity during normal walking was 97.9±20.6cm/s, and the mean cadence was 105.1±9.9 steps/min. The effect of walking under auditory constraints on gait characteristics was analyzed using a 2-factorial analysis of variance with a 1-between factor (cognitively intact and minimal cognitive impairment groups) and a 1-within factor (type of auditory stimuli). In both happy and sad auditory stimulation trials, cognitively intact older adults (n=96) showed an average increase of 2.68cm/s in gait velocity (F1.86,191.71=3.99; P=.02) and an average increase of 2.41 steps/min in cadence (F1.75,180.42=10.12; P<.001) as compared with trials without auditory stimulation. In contrast, older adults with minimal cognitive impairment (Blessed test score, 5–10; n=8) showed an average reduction of 5.45cm/s in gait velocity (F1.87,190.83=5.62; P=.005) and an average reduction of 3.88 steps/min in cadence (F1.79,183.10=8.21; P=.001) under both auditory stimulation conditions. Neither baseline fall history nor performance of activities of daily living accounted for these differences. Conclusions Our results provide preliminary evidence of the differentiating effect of emotionally charged auditory stimuli on gait

  11. ACTIVE CATHODES FOR SUPER-HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS THROUGH SPACE CHARGE EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Anil V. Virkar

    2004-05-17

    This report summarizes the work done during the sixth quarter of the project. Effort was directed in three areas: (1) Further development of the model on the role of connectivity on ionic conductivity of porous bodies, including the role of grain boundaries and space charge region. (2) Calculation of the effect of space charge and morphology of porous bodies on the effective charge transfer resistance of porous composite cathodes. (3) The investigation of the three electrode system for the measurement of cathodic polarization using amperometric sensors.

  12. Point Mutations Effects on Charge Transport Properties of the Tumor-Suppressor Gene p53

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roemer, Rudolf A.; Shih, Chi-Tin; Roche, Stephan

    2008-03-01

    We report on a theoretical study of point mutations effects on charge transfer properties in the DNA sequence of the tumor-suppressor p53 gene. On the basis of effective tight-binding models which simulate hole propagation along the DNA, a statistical analysis of mutation-induced charge transfer modifications is performed. In contrast to non-cancerous mutations, mutation hotspots tend to result in significantly weaker changes of transmission properties. This suggests that charge transport could play a significant role for DNA-repairing deficiency yielding carcinogenesis.

  13. Mixing and space-charge effects in free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, E.; Endler, A.; Rizzato, F. B.; Serbeto, A.

    2013-12-15

    The present work revisits the subjects of mixing, saturation, and space-charge effects in free-electron lasers. Use is made of the compressibility factor, which proves to be a helpful tool in the related systems of charged beams confined by static magnetic fields. The compressibility allows to perform analytical estimates of the elapsed time until the onset of mixing, which in turn allows to estimate the saturated amplitude of the radiation field. In addition, the compressibility helps to pinpoint space-charge effects and the corresponding transition from Compton to Raman regimes.

  14. Heavy ion charge-state distribution effects on energy loss in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.

    2013-10-01

    According to dielectric formalism, the energy loss of the heavy ion depends on its velocity and its charge density. Also, it depends on the target through its dielectric function; here the random phase approximation is used because it correctly describes fully ionized plasmas at any degeneracy. On the other hand, the Brandt-Kitagawa (BK) model is employed to depict the projectile charge space distribution, and the stripping criterion of Kreussler is used to determine its mean charge state . This latter criterion implies that the mean charge state depends on the electron density and temperature of the plasma. Also, the initial charge state of the heavy ion is crucial for calculating inside the plasma. Comparing our models and estimations with experimental data, a very good agreement is found. It is noticed that the energy loss in plasmas is higher than that in the same cold gas cases, confirming the well-known enhanced plasma stopping (EPS). In this case, EPS is only due to the increase in projectile effective charge Qeff, which is obtained as the ratio between the energy loss of each heavy ion and that of the proton in the same plasma conditions. The ratio between the effective charges in plasmas and in cold gases is higher than 1, but it is not as high as thought in the past. Finally, another significant issue is that the calculated effective charge in plasmas Qeff is greater than the mean charge state , which is due to the incorporation of the BK charge distribution. When estimations are performed without this distribution, they do not fit well with experimental data.

  15. Event-driven charge-coupled device design and applications therefor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, John P. (Inventor); Ricker, Jr., George R. (Inventor); Burke, Barry E. (Inventor); Prigozhin, Gregory Y. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An event-driven X-ray CCD imager device uses a floating-gate amplifier or other non-destructive readout device to non-destructively sense a charge level in a charge packet associated with a pixel. The output of the floating-gate amplifier is used to identify each pixel that has a charge level above a predetermined threshold. If the charge level is above a predetermined threshold the charge in the triggering charge packet and in the charge packets from neighboring pixels need to be measured accurately. A charge delay register is included in the event-driven X-ray CCD imager device to enable recovery of the charge packets from neighboring pixels for accurate measurement. When a charge packet reaches the end of the charge delay register, control logic either dumps the charge packet, or steers the charge packet to a charge FIFO to preserve it if the charge packet is determined to be a packet that needs accurate measurement. A floating-diffusion amplifier or other low-noise output stage device, which converts charge level to a voltage level with high precision, provides final measurement of the charge packets. The voltage level is eventually digitized by a high linearity ADC.

  16. Compensation of the detector capacitance presented to charge-sensitive preamplifiers using the Miller effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Inyong; Kang, Taehoon; Wells, Byron T.; D'Aries, Lawrence J.; Hammig, Mark D.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes an integrated circuit design for a modified charge-sensitive amplifier (CSA) that compensates for the effect of capacitance presented by nuclear radiation detectors and other sensors. For applications that require large area semiconductor detectors or for those semiconductor sensors derived from high permittivity materials such as PbSe, the detector capacitance can degrade the system gain and bandwidth of a front-end preamplifier, resulting in extended rise times and attenuated output voltage signals during pulse formation. In order to suppress the effect of sensor capacitance, we applied a bootstrap technique into a traditional CSA. The technique exploits the Miller effect by reducing the effective voltage difference between the two sides of a radiation detector which minimizes the capacitance presented to the differential common-source amplifier. This new configuration is successfully designed to produce effective gain even at high detector capacitance. The entire circuit, including a core CSA with feedback components and a bootstrap amplifier, are implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process with a 3.3 V supply voltage.

  17. Modulated charge patterns and noise effect in a twisted DNA model with solvent interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabi, C. B.; Dang Koko, A.; Oumarou Doko, R.; Ekobena Fouda, H. P.; Kofané, T. C.

    2016-01-01

    We modify the Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein model and bring out the influence of the torsion and solvent interactions on charge transport in DNA. Through the linear stability analysis, we detect regions of instability and we compare the results with those of the standard Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein model. There are two regimes where modulated charge patterns can occur: the undertwisted and the overtwisted conformations. Numerical simulations are used to confirm our analytical predictions. Charge patterns are obtained and propagate more easily in an overwinded helix than in an underwinded one. The effects of dissipation and thermal fluctuations are also studied, which confirm the robustness of the obtained modulated patterns. On the one hand, we argue that in the absence of twisting, temperature can lead to the breaking of the hydrogen bonds between bases and prevent charges from propagating. On the other hand, when the molecule is overtwisted, the solvent and the temperature will rather enhance charge spreading patterns with random features.

  18. Memory and nonlinear transport effects in charging-discharging of a supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchaikin, V. V.; Ambrozevich, A. S.; Sibatov, R. T.; Ambrozevich, S. A.; Morozova, E. V.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the results of analysis of the kinetics of charge-discharge current of Panasonic supercapacitors in a wide range of time from 10-1 to 104 s. The non-Debye behavior of relaxation observed earlier by us and other authors is confirmed experimentally, and the influence of the supercapacitor charging regime on this process for various previous histories (values of applied voltage, charging time, and load resistance) is analyzed. The results are compared with available experimental data for paper-oil and electrolytic capacitors and with the results of calculations in the linear response model. It is found that in contrast to conventional capacitors, the response of the supercapacitor under investigation to variations of the charging regime does not match the linear response model. The relation of this nonlinearity to processes in the double electric layer, the morphology of the porous electrode, and the effect of charge reversal in pores is considered.

  19. Topological Effects of Charge Transfer in Telomere G-Quadruplex Mechanism on Telomerase Activation and Inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Liang, Shi-Dong

    2013-02-01

    We explore the charge transfer in the telomere G-Quadruplex (TG4) DNA theoretically by the nonequilibrium Green's function method, and reveal the topological effect of the charge transport in TG4 DNA. The consecutive TG4 (CTG4) is semiconducting with 0.2 0.3 eV energy gap. Charges transfer favorably in the CTG4, but are trapped in the nonconsecutive TG4 (NCTG4). The global conductance is inversely proportional to the local conductance for NCTG4. The topological structure transition from NCTG4 to CTG4 induces abruptly 3nA charge current, which provide a microscopic clue to understand the telomerase activated or inhibited by TG4. Our findings reveal the fundamental property of charge transfer in TG4 and its relationship with the topological structure of TG4.

  20. Effect of argon addition on plasma parameters and dust charging in hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kakati, B. Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2014-10-28

    Experimental results on effect of adding argon gas to hydrogen plasma in a multi-cusp dusty plasma device are reported. Addition of argon modifies plasma density, electron temperature, degree of hydrogen dissociation, dust current as well as dust charge. From the dust charging profile, it is observed that the dust current and dust charge decrease significantly up to 40% addition of argon flow rate in hydrogen plasma. But beyond 40% of argon flow rate, the changes in dust current and dust charge are insignificant. Results show that the addition of argon to hydrogen plasma in a dusty plasma device can be used as a tool to control the dust charging in a low pressure dusty plasma.

  1. Spacecraft power system architecture to mitigate spacecraft charging effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manner, David B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A power system architecture for a spacecraft and a method of a power supply for a spacecraft are presented which take advantage of the reduced plasma interaction associated with positive ground high voltage photovoltaic arrays and provide a negative ground power supply for electrical loads of the spacecraft. They efficiently convert and regulate power to the load bus and reduce power system mass and complexity. The system and method ground the positive terminal of the solar arrays to the spacecraft hull, and using a power converter to invert the electric sign, permit a negative ground for the electrical distribution bus and electrical components. A number of variations including a load management system and a battery management system having charging and recharging devices are presented.

  2. New Density Estimation Methods for Charged Particle Beams With Applications to Microbunching Instability

    SciTech Connect

    Balsa Terzic, Gabriele Bassi

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we discuss representations of charge particle densities in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, analyze the sources and profiles of the intrinsic numerical noise, and present efficient methods for their removal. We devise two alternative estimation methods for charged particle distribution which represent significant improvement over the Monte Carlo cosine expansion used in the 2d code of Bassi, designed to simulate coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in charged particle beams. The improvement is achieved by employing an alternative beam density estimation to the Monte Carlo cosine expansion. The representation is first binned onto a finite grid, after which two grid-based methods are employed to approximate particle distributions: (i) truncated fast cosine transform (TFCT); and (ii) thresholded wavelet transform (TWT). We demonstrate that these alternative methods represent a staggering upgrade over the original Monte Carlo cosine expansion in terms of efficiency, while the TWT approximation also provides an appreciable improvement in accuracy. The improvement in accuracy comes from a judicious removal of the numerical noise enabled by the wavelet formulation. The TWT method is then integrated into Bassi's CSR code, and benchmarked against the original version. We show that the new density estimation method provides a superior performance in terms of efficiency and spatial resolution, thus enabling high-fidelity simulations of CSR effects, including microbunching instability.

  3. 42 CFR 405.507 - Illustrations of the application of the criteria for determining reasonable charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to $100 in a certain locality. Doctor A's bill is for $75 although he customarily charges $80 for the procedure. Doctor B's bill is his customary charge of $85 Doctor C's bill is his customary charge of $125 Doctor D's bill is for $100, although he customarily charges $80, and there are no special...

  4. 42 CFR 405.507 - Illustrations of the application of the criteria for determining reasonable charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to $100 in a certain locality. Doctor A's bill is for $75 although he customarily charges $80 for the procedure. Doctor B's bill is his customary charge of $85 Doctor C's bill is his customary charge of $125 Doctor D's bill is for $100, although he customarily charges $80, and there are no special...

  5. 42 CFR 405.507 - Illustrations of the application of the criteria for determining reasonable charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to $100 in a certain locality. Doctor A's bill is for $75 although he customarily charges $80 for the procedure. Doctor B's bill is his customary charge of $85 Doctor C's bill is his customary charge of $125 Doctor D's bill is for $100, although he customarily charges $80, and there are no special...

  6. 42 CFR 405.507 - Illustrations of the application of the criteria for determining reasonable charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to $100 in a certain locality. Doctor A's bill is for $75 although he customarily charges $80 for the procedure. Doctor B's bill is his customary charge of $85 Doctor C's bill is his customary charge of $125 Doctor D's bill is for $100, although he customarily charges $80, and there are no special...

  7. 42 CFR 405.507 - Illustrations of the application of the criteria for determining reasonable charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to $100 in a certain locality. Doctor A's bill is for $75 although he customarily charges $80 for the procedure. Doctor B's bill is his customary charge of $85 Doctor C's bill is his customary charge of $125 Doctor D's bill is for $100, although he customarily charges $80, and there are no special...

  8. The secondary electron emission yield of muscovite mica: Charging kinetics and current density effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaise, G.; Pesty, F.; Garoche, P.

    2009-02-01

    Using a dedicated scanning electron microscope, operating in the spot mode, the charging properties of muscovite mica have been studied in the energy range of 100-8000 eV. The intrinsic yield curve σ0(E), representing the variation of the yield of the uncharged material with the energy E, has been established: the maximum value of the yield is 3.92 at E =300 eV and the two crossovers corresponding to σ0(E)=1 are, respectively, at energies EI<100 eV and EII=4850 eV. At a given energy and under a low current density J ≤100 nA/cm2, the yield varies with the electron fluence from its intrinsic value σ0 up to the value corresponding to the self-regulated regime for which σ =1. This variation is independent of J. The fluence dependence of the yield σ(D ) is due to the internal field produced by the accumulation of charges that blocks the emission when the charging is positive and enhances it when it is negative. At room temperature, the relaxation time of stored charges is estimated to be of the order of 250 s for holes and 150 s for electrons. Three current density effects have been observed when J ≥400 nA/cm2. (i) The variation of σ(D ) with the fluence D depends on J. (ii) Negative charging is obtained at high current density in the energy range (EI, EII) where the material is normally positively charged at low current density. (iii) Electron exoemission (bursts of electrons) is produced at low energy when the net stored charge is positive. The interpretation of the current density effect on σ(D ) is based on the high rate of charging, the effect relative to negative charging is due to the expansion of the electron distribution, while the exoemission effect is due to the collective relaxation process of electrons.

  9. 46 CFR 251.31 - Charges for processing applications for authorization to transfer ownership of ships built with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Charges for processing applications for authorization to transfer ownership of ships built with construction-differential subsidy. 251.31 Section 251.31 Shipping... applications for authorization to transfer ownership of ships built with construction-differential subsidy....

  10. 47 CFR 1.1102 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings in the wireless telecommunications services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... filings in the wireless telecommunications services. 1.1102 Section 1.1102 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 1.1102 Schedule of charges for applications and other filings in the wireless telecommunications... for these services to the: Federal Communications Commission, Wireless Bureau Applications, P.O....

  11. Stochastic charging of dust grains in planetary rings: Diffusion rates and their effects on Lorentz resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, L.; Burns, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Dust grains in planetary rings acquire stochastically fluctuating electric charges as they orbit through any corotating magnetospheric plasma. Here we investigate the nature of this stochastic charging and calculate its effect on the Lorentz resonance (LR). First we model grain charging as a Markov process, where the transition probabilities are identified as the ensemble-averaged charging fluxes due to plasma pickup and photoemission. We determine the distribution function P(t;N), giving the probability that a grain has N excess charges at time t. The autocorrelation function tau(sub q) for the strochastic charge process can be approximated by a Fokker-Planck treatment of the evolution equations for P(t; N). We calculate the mean square response to the stochastic fluctuations in the Lorentz force. We find that transport in phase space is very small compared to the resonant increase in amplitudes due to the mean charge, over the timescale that the oscillator is resonantly pumped up. Therefore the stochastic charge variations cannot break the resonant interaction; locally, the Lorentz resonance is a robust mechanism for the shaping of etheral dust ring systems. Slightly stronger bounds on plasma parameters are required when we consider the longer transit times between Lorentz resonances.

  12. The Effect of Membrane Charge on Gold Nanoparticle Synthesis via Surfactant Membranes.

    PubMed

    Markowitz; Dunn; Chow; Zhang

    1999-02-01

    The effect of vesicle membrane structure and charge on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles was investigated. The vesicle membranes were comprised of either negatively charged soy lipids or mixtures of charge neutral and negatively charged soy lipids. Palladium ions bound to the membranes served as the catalyst for metal particle synthesis using an electroless metallization procedure. The size range of particles synthesized using membranes comprised of only negatively charged lipids (5-15 nm) was significantly smaller than those synthesized using mixtures of negatively charged and charge-neutral lipids (2-180 nm). X-ray diffraction revealed that the average crystallite size decreased with increasing palladium ion content of the membranes. It also showed that the average crystallite size was smaller for particles synthesized using vesicles comprised of only soy phoshohydroxyethanol lipids than for particles synthesized using vesicles comprised of only soy phosphatidic acid lipids. Particles synthesized with membranes comprised of only negatively charged lipids were encapsulated within the resulting lipid membrane matrix. FT-IR of the lipid matrix indicated that the matrix was formed as the result of ionic bridging of the lipid phosphate headgroups with gold ions. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:9924109

  13. Effect of synergists on organic pigment particle charging in apolar media.

    PubMed

    Gacek, Matthew M; Berg, John C

    2014-07-01

    The current work investigates the apolar charging behavior of organic pigment particles and the role that synergists play in regard to particle charging. Organic pigments are often used in apolar paints, inks, and most recently electrostatic lithography. For electrolithography to work, the particles must be both stable and possess the correct polarity and magnitude of charge. It is therefore important to better understand the charging behavior and potential charging mechanisms of these particles that have received little or no attention in the literature. Unfortunately, these already complex systems are further complicated by the fact that the stability of organic pigments is often improved through the use of synergists. Synergists are designed to enhance the adsorption of steric stabilizers to the particles. However, their effect on particle charging has not been previously published. In this study, the particle zeta potential is determined for apolar dispersions of magenta and cyan particles in heptane (with and without synergist present). The particles are dispersed with three different surfactants commonly used in apolar charging studies: Span 80, Aerosol-OT, and OLOA 11000. Acid-base interactions appear to play an important role, particularly for cyan. However, due to the complexity of these systems, any general rule must be applied with caution as the particle, surfactant, and synergist chemistry all determine the nature of the particle charge. PMID:24488726

  14. The non-equilibrium charge screening effects in diffusion-driven systems with pattern formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzovkov, V. N.; Kotomin, E. A.; de la Cruz, M. Olvera

    2011-07-01

    The effects of non-equilibrium charge screening in mixtures of oppositely charged interacting molecules on surfaces are analyzed in a closed system. The dynamics of charge screening and the strong deviation from the standard Debye-Hückel theory are demonstrated via a new formalism based on computing radial distribution functions suited for analyzing both short-range and long-range spacial ordering effects. At long distances the inhomogeneous molecular distribution is limited by diffusion, whereas at short distances (of the order of several coordination spheres) by a balance of short-range (Lennard-Jones) and long-range (Coulomb) interactions. The non-equilibrium charge screening effects in transient pattern formation are further quantified. It is demonstrated that the use of screened potentials, in the spirit of the Debye-Hückel theory, leads to qualitatively incorrect results.

  15. Multi-frequency inversion-charge pumping for charge separation and mobility analysis in high-k/InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Djara, V.; Cherkaoui, K.; Negara, M. A.; Hurley, P. K.

    2015-11-28

    An alternative multi-frequency inversion-charge pumping (MFICP) technique was developed to directly separate the inversion charge density (N{sub inv}) from the trapped charge density in high-k/InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). This approach relies on the fitting of the frequency response of border traps, obtained from inversion-charge pumping measurements performed over a wide range of frequencies at room temperature on a single MOSFET, using a modified charge trapping model. The obtained model yielded the capture time constant and density of border traps located at energy levels aligned with the InGaAs conduction band. Moreover, the combination of MFICP and pulsed I{sub d}-V{sub g} measurements enabled an accurate effective mobility vs N{sub inv} extraction and analysis. The data obtained using the MFICP approach are consistent with the most recent reports on high-k/InGaAs.

  16. Effect of charge trapping on effective carrier lifetime in compound semiconductors: High resistivity CdZnTe

    SciTech Connect

    Kamieniecki, Emil

    2014-11-21

    The dominant problem limiting the energy resolution of compound semiconductor based radiation detectors is the trapping of charge carriers. The charge trapping affects energy resolution through the carrier lifetime more than through the mobility. Conventionally, the effective carrier lifetime is determined using a 2-step process based on measurement of the mobility-lifetime product (μτ) and determining drift mobility using time-of-flight measurements. This approach requires fabrication of contacts on the sample. A new RF-based pulse rise-time method, which replaces this 2-step process with a single non-contact direct measurement, is discussed. The application of the RF method is illustrated with high-resistivity detector-grade CdZnTe crystals. The carrier lifetime in the measured CdZnTe, depending on the quality of the crystals, was between about 5 μs and 8 μs. These values are in good agreement with the results obtained using conventional 2-step approach. While the effective carrier lifetime determined from the initial portion of the photoresponse transient combines both recombination and trapping in a manner similar to the conventional 2-step approach, both the conventional and the non-contact RF methods offer only indirect evaluation of the effect of charge trapping in the semiconductors used in radiation detectors. Since degradation of detector resolution is associated not with trapping but essentially with detrapping of carriers, and, in particular, detrapping of holes in n-type semiconductors, it is concluded that evaluation of recombination and detrapping during photoresponse decay is better suited for evaluation of compound semiconductors used in radiation detectors. Furthermore, based on previously reported data, it is concluded that photoresponse decay in high resistivity CdZnTe at room temperature is dominated by detrapping of carriers from the states associated with one type of point defect and by recombination of carriers at one type of

  17. Effects of variability and rate on battery charge storage and lifespan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Elena Marie

    The growing prevalence of hybrid and electric vehicles, intermittent renewable energy sources, and other complex power systems has triggered a rapid increase in demand for energy storage. Unlike portable electronic devices, whose batteries can be recharged according to a pre-determined protocol simply by plugging them into the wall, many of these applications are characterized by highly variable charge and demand profiles. The central objective of this work is to assess the impact of power distribution and frequency on battery behavior in order to improve overall system efficiency and lifespan in these variable power applications. We first develop and experimentally verify a model to describe the trade-off between battery charging power and energy stored to assess how varying power input affects battery efficiency. This relationship is influenced both by efficiency losses at high powers and by premature voltage cutoffs, which contribute to incomplete battery charging and discharging. We experimentally study the impact of variable power on battery aging in lead-acid, nickel metal hydride, lithium-ion and lithium iron phosphate batteries. As a case study we focus on off-grid wind systems, and analyze the impact of both power distribution and frequency on charge acceptance and degradation in each of these chemistries. We suggest that lithium iron phosphate batteries may be more suitable for off-grid electrification projects than standard lead-acid batteries. We experimentally assess the impact of additional variable charging parameters on battery performance, including the interplay between efficiency, frequency of power oscillations, state-of-charge, incomplete charging and path dependence. We develop a frequency-domain model for hybrid energy storage systems that couples non-stationary frequency analysis of variable power signals to a frequency-based metric for energy storage device performance. The experimental and modeling work developed herein can be utilized to

  18. The effect of charge separation on the phase behavior of dipolar colloidal rods.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, David M; Velev, Orlin D; Klapp, Sabine H L; Hall, Carol K

    2016-06-14

    Colloids with anisotropic shape and charge distribution can assemble into a variety of structures that could find use as novel materials for optical, photonic, electronic and structural applications. Because experimental characterization of the many possible types of multi-shape and multipolar colloidal particles that could form useful structures is difficult, the search for novel colloidal materials can be enhanced by simulations of colloidal particle assembly. We have simulated a system of dipolar colloidal rods at fixed aspect ratio using discontinuous molecular dynamics (DMD) to investigate how the charge separation of an embedded dipole affects the types of assemblies that occur. Each dipolar rod is modeled as several overlapping spheres fixed in an elongated shape to represent excluded volume and two smaller, embedded spheres to represent the charges that make up the extended dipole. Large charge separations predominately form structures where the rods link head-to-tail while small charge separations predominately form structures where the rods stack side-by-side. Rods with small charge separations tend to form dense aggregates while rods with large charge separations tend to form coarse gel-like structures. Structural phase boundaries between fluid, string-fluid, and "gel" (networked) phases are mapped out and characterized as to whether they have global head-to-tail or global side-by-side order. A structural coarsening transition is observed for particles with large charge separations in which the head-tail networks thicken as temperature is lowered due to an increased tendency to form side-by-side structures. Triangularly connected networks form at small charge separations; these may be useful for encapsulating smaller particles. PMID:27151445

  19. A microscopic approach based on particle-vibration coupling: application to charge-exchange transitions and multiplets in odd nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colò, Gianluca; Niu, Yifei; Vigezzi, Enrico; Bortignon, Pier Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, we shall describe a formalism that goes beyond the simple time-dependent mean field and is based on particle-vibration coupling (PVC). Such a formalism has been developed with the idea of being self-consistent. It makes use of Skyrme effective forces, and has been used for several applications. We will focus on charge-exchange transitions, namely we will show that our model describes well both the Gamow-Teller giant resonance width, and the low-lying transitions associated with β-decay. In this latter case, including PVC produces a significant improvement of the half-lives obtained at mean-field level, and leads to a good agreement with experimental data. We will end by discussing particle-phonon multiplets in odd nuclei.

  20. Effect of gaseous void on bipolar charge transport in layered polymer film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lean, Meng H.; Chu, Wei-Ping L.

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a hybrid algorithm to study the effect of a gaseous void on bipolar charge transport in layered polymer film. This hybrid algorithm uses a source distribution technique based on an axisymmetric boundary integral equation method to solve the Poisson equation and a fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK4) method with an upwind scheme for time integration. Iterative stability is assured by satisfying the Courant-Friedrichs-Levy stability criterion. Dynamic charge mapping is achieved by allowing conducting and insulating boundaries and material interfaces to be represented by equivalent free and bound charge distributions that collectively satisfy all local and far-field conditions. This hybrid technique caters to bipolar charge injection, field-dependent mobility transport, recombination, and trapping/de-trapping in the bulk and at material and physical interfaces. The resulting charge map is the taxonomy of the different charge types and their abundance, and presents a dynamic view of the temporal and spatial distributions. The paper is motivated by images of breakdown experiments that point to the role of gaseous void in delamination growth. For the test configuration, the high field at the edge of the gaseous void act as a sink first for positive and then negative charge. The net effect is to increase delamination stress at the edge leading to further growth of the defect and increasing the potential for partial discharge within the void.

  1. Multi-dimensional modeling of the application of catalytic combustion to homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Wen; Xie, Maozhao

    2006-12-01

    The detailed surface reaction mechanism of methane on rhodium catalyst was analyzed. Comparisons between numerical simulation and experiments showed a basic agreement. The combustion process of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine whose piston surface has been coated with catalyst (rhodium and platinum) was numerically investigated. A multi-dimensional model with detailed chemical kinetics was built. The effects of catalytic combustion on the ignition timing, the temperature and CO concentration fields, and HC, CO and NOx emissions of the HCCI engine were discussed. The results showed the ignition timing of the HCCI engine was advanced and the emissions of HC and CO were decreased by the catalysis.

  2. The application of thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers to charged particle and x-ray detection

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Cho, G.; Fujieda, I.; Kaplan, S.N.; Qureshi, S.; Street, R.A.

    1989-04-01

    We outline the characteristics of thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers which are optimized for the detection of charged particles, x-rays and ..gamma..-rays. Signal amplitude as a function of the linear energy transfer of various particles are given. Noise sources generated by the detector material and by the thin film electronics - a-Si:H or polysilicon proposed for pixel position sensitive detectors readout are described, and their relative amplitudes are calculated. Temperature and neutron radiation effects on leakage currents and the corresponding noise changes are presented. 17 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Photovoltaic battery & charge controller market & applications survey. An evaluation of the photovoltaic system market for 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, R.L.; Turpin, J.F.; Corey, G.P.

    1996-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Battery Analysis and Evaluation Department and the Photovoltaic System Assistance Center of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated a U.S. industry-wide PV Energy Storage System Survey. Arizona State University (ASU) was contracted by SNL in June 1995 to conduct the survey. The survey included three separate segments tailored to: (a) PV system integrators, (b) battery manufacturers, and (c) PV charge controller manufacturers. The overall purpose of the survey was to: (a) quantify the market for batteries shipped with (or for) PV systems in 1995, (b) quantify the PV market segments by battery type and application for PV batteries, (c) characterize and quantify the charge controllers used in PV systems, (d) characterize the operating environment for energy storage components in PV systems, and (e) estimate the PV battery market for the year 2000. All three segments of the survey were mailed in January 1996. This report discusses the purpose, methodology, results, and conclusions of the survey.

  4. Microwave synthesis of noncentrosymmetric BaTiO3 truncated nanocubes for charge storage applications.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, V; Pramana, Stevin S; White, T J; Chen, L; Chukka, Rami; Ramanujan, R V

    2010-11-01

    Truncated nanocubes of barium titanate (BT) were synthesized using a rapid, facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal route. Stoichiometric composition of pellets of nanocube BT powders was prepared by two-stage microwave process. Characterization by powder XRD, Rietveld refinement, SEM, TEM, and dielectric and polarization measurements was performed. X-ray diffraction revealed a polymorphic transformation from cubic Pm3̅m to tetragonal P4mm after 15 min of microwave irradiation, arising from titanium displacement along the c-axis. Secondary electron images were examined for nanocube BT synthesis and annealed at different timings. Transmission electron microscopy showed a narrow particle size distribution with an average size of 70 ± 9 nm. The remanence and saturation polarization were 15.5 ± 1.6 and 19.3 ± 1.2 μC/cm(2), respectively. A charge storage density of 925 ± 47 nF/cm(2) was obtained; Pt/BT/Pt multilayer ceramic capacitor stack had an average leakage current density of 5.78 ± 0.46 × 10(-8) A/cm(2) at ±2 V. The significance of this study shows an inexpensive and facile processing platform for synthesis of high-k dielectric for charge storage applications. PMID:20945870

  5. Utilizing Metal to Ligand Charge Transfer States of MM Quadruply Bonded Complexes for Photovoltaic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Sharlene A.; Brown-Xu, Samantha E.; Chisholm, Malcolm H.; Epstein, Arthur J.

    2013-06-01

    In this contribution, we report two examples of our efforts to develop MM quadruply bonded complexes for photovoltaic applications. In the first example, evidence, based on femtosecond transient absorption and time resolved infrared spectroscopy, is presented for photoinduced charge transfer from the Mo_{2}δ orbital of the quadruply bonded molecule trans-Mo_{2}(TiPB)_{2}BTh)_{2}, where TiPB = 2,4,6-triisopropyl benzoate and BTh = 2,2'-bithienylcarboxylate, to di-n-octyl perylene diimide and di-n-hexylheptyl perylene diimide in thin films and solutions of the mixtures. In the second example, the structural and photophysical properties of the new compounds trans-M_{2}(TiPB)_{2}(L)_{2} and trans-M_{2}(TiPB)_{2}(L')_{2}, where M=Mo or W and L and L' are triphenylamine-cyanoacrylate ligands are presented. These ligands promote intense metal to ligand charge transfer transitions that span the range 550 to 1100 nm. The excited states have been studied by transient absorption and time resolved infrared spectroscopy

  6. Effect of Amount of Fluid Charge in Thermal Performance of Loop Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onogawa, Ei; Nagano, Housei; Fukuyoshi, Fuyuko; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Hiroki

    Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) are two-phase thermal control system, which works only by heat from its cooling target. In order to utilize the LHPs in various fields, it is requested to be smaller, more reliable, and higher performance. In the present study, a miniature LHP has been fabricated, and the effect of amount of working fluid charged on thermal performance of the LHPs has been investigated. Tests were conducted including start-up, power step up, as function of amount of working fluid. The test results showed that under-charging of working fluid caused start-up failure, while over-charging of working fluid made the LHP less stable.

  7. Adsorption and stabilizing effects of highly-charged latex nanoparticles in dispersions of weakly-charged silica colloids.

    PubMed

    Herman, David; Walz, John Y

    2015-07-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of using highly-charged nanoparticles as stabilizers for colloidal dispersions. The specific systems used here involved cationic (amidine) and anionic (sulfate) polystyrene latex nanoparticles with an approximate diameter of 20 nm and silica microparticles of diameter 1.0 μm, and experiments were conducted at the isoelectric point of the silica. It was found that while both types of nanoparticles adsorbed to the silica microparticles and increased the zeta potential to values where stability was expected, long term stability was not achieved, even at bulk nanoparticle concentrations as high as 0.5 vol.%. It is theorized that the incomplete coverage of the microparticles by the nanoparticles (i.e., surface coverage never exceeded 50%) allowed either direct contact between bare patches of the underlying microparticles or, alternatively, for nanoparticles adsorbed on one microparticle to bridge to bare spots on a neighboring microparticle. PMID:25498877

  8. Effect of solvent on the charging mechanisms of poly(ethylene glycol) in droplets.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Sepideh; Oh, Myong In; Consta, Styliani

    2015-03-21

    We examine the effect of solvent on the charging mechanisms of a macromolecule in a droplet by using molecular dynamics simulations. The droplet contains excess charge that is carried by sodium ions. To investigate the principles of the charging mechanisms of a macromolecule in a droplet, we simulate aqueous and methanol droplets that contain a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecule. We find that the solvent plays a critical role in the charging mechanism and in the manner that the sodiated PEG emerges from a droplet. In the aqueous droplets, the sodiated PEG is released from the droplet while it is being charged at a droplet charge state below the Rayleigh limit. The charging of PEG occurs on the surface of the droplet. In contrast to the aqueous droplets, in the methanol droplet, the sodiated PEG resides in the interior of the droplet and it may become charged at any location in the droplet, interior or surface. The sodiated PEG emerges from the droplet by drying-out of the solvent. Even though these two mechanisms appear to be phenomenologically similar to the widely accepted ion-evaporation and charge-residue mechanisms, they have fundamental differences from those. An integral part of the mechanism that the macromolecular ions emerge from droplets is the droplet morphology. Droplet morphologies give rise to different solvation interactions between the solvent and the macromolecule. In the water-sodiated PEG system, we find the extrusion of the PEG morphology, while in methanol-sodiated droplet, we find the "pearl-on-the-necklace" morphology and the extrusion of the sodiated PEG in the last stage of the desolvation process. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms that macromolecules acquire their charge in droplets produced in electrospray ionization experiments. PMID:25796249

  9. Effects of nanoparticle charging on streamer development in transformer oil-based nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J. George; Zahn, Markus; O'Sullivan, Francis M.; Pettersson, Leif A. A.; Hjortstam, Olof; Liu, Rongsheng

    2010-01-01

    Transformer oil-based nanofluids with conductive nanoparticle suspensions defy conventional wisdom as past experimental work showed that such nanofluids have substantially higher positive voltage breakdown levels with slower positive streamer velocities than that of pure transformer oil. This paradoxical superior electrical breakdown performance compared to that of pure oil is due to the electron charging of the nanoparticles to convert fast electrons from field ionization to slow negatively charged nanoparticle charge carriers with effective mobility reduction by a factor of about 1×105. The charging dynamics of a nanoparticle in transformer oil with both infinite and finite conductivities shows that this electron trapping is the cause of the decrease in positive streamer velocity, resulting in higher electrical breakdown strength. Analysis derives the electric field in the vicinity of the nanoparticles, electron trajectories on electric field lines that charge nanoparticles, and expressions for the charging characteristics of the nanoparticles as a function of time and dielectric permittivity and conductivity of nanoparticles and the surrounding transformer oil. This charged nanoparticle model is used with a comprehensive electrodynamic analysis for the charge generation, recombination, and transport of positive and negative ions, electrons, and charged nanoparticles between a positive high voltage sharp needle electrode and a large spherical ground electrode. Case studies show that transformer oil molecular ionization without nanoparticles cause an electric field and space charge wave to propagate between electrodes, generating heat that can cause transformer oil to vaporize, creating the positive streamer. With nanoparticles as electron scavengers, the speed of the streamer is reduced, offering improved high voltage equipment performance and reliability.

  10. Effect of solvent on the charging mechanisms of poly(ethylene glycol) in droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Sepideh; Oh, Myong In; Consta, Styliani

    2015-03-01

    We examine the effect of solvent on the charging mechanisms of a macromolecule in a droplet by using molecular dynamics simulations. The droplet contains excess charge that is carried by sodium ions. To investigate the principles of the charging mechanisms of a macromolecule in a droplet, we simulate aqueous and methanol droplets that contain a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecule. We find that the solvent plays a critical role in the charging mechanism and in the manner that the sodiated PEG emerges from a droplet. In the aqueous droplets, the sodiated PEG is released from the droplet while it is being charged at a droplet charge state below the Rayleigh limit. The charging of PEG occurs on the surface of the droplet. In contrast to the aqueous droplets, in the methanol droplet, the sodiated PEG resides in the interior of the droplet and it may become charged at any location in the droplet, interior or surface. The sodiated PEG emerges from the droplet by drying-out of the solvent. Even though these two mechanisms appear to be phenomenologically similar to the widely accepted ion-evaporation and charge-residue mechanisms, they have fundamental differences from those. An integral part of the mechanism that the macromolecular ions emerge from droplets is the droplet morphology. Droplet morphologies give rise to different solvation interactions between the solvent and the macromolecule. In the water-sodiated PEG system, we find the extrusion of the PEG morphology, while in methanol-sodiated droplet, we find the "pearl-on-the-necklace" morphology and the extrusion of the sodiated PEG in the last stage of the desolvation process. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms that macromolecules acquire their charge in droplets produced in electrospray ionization experiments.

  11. ACTIVE CATHODES FOR SUPER-HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS THROUGH SPACE CHARGE EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Anil V. Virkar

    2003-12-12

    This report summarizes the work done during the fourth quarter of the project. Effort was directed in two areas, namely, continued further development of the model on the role of connectivity on ionic conductivity of porous bodies, including the role of grain boundaries and space charge, and its relationship to cathode polarization; and fabrication of samaria-doped ceria porous (SDC). The work on the model development involves calculation of the effect of space charge on transport through porous bodies. Three specific cases have been examined: (1) Space charge resistivity greater than the grain resistivity, (2) Space charge resistivity equal to the grain resistivity, and (3) Space charge resistivity lower than the grain resistivity. The model accounts for transport through three regions: the bulk of the grain, the space charge region, and the structural part of the grain boundary. The effect of neck size has been explicitly incorporated. In future work, the effective resistivity will be incorporated into the effective cathode polarization resistance. The results will then be compared with experiments.

  12. Effect of thermodiffusion on pH-regulated surface charge properties of nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Das, Pradipta Kr

    2016-01-01

    Surface properties of nanoparticle are of high importance in the field of biotechnology, drug delivery and micro/nanofabrication. In this article, we developed a comprehensive theoretical model and subsequently solved that numerically to study the effect of thermodiffusion of ions on surface charge properties of nanoparticle. The theoretical study has been done considering silica nanoparticle for two aqueous solutions NaCl and KCl. The effect of solution pH in conjunction with nanoparticle temperature on surface charge density has been obtained for different salt concentrations (1, 10 and 100 mM) and nanoparticle size (diameter of 2 and 100 nm). It is observed from the results that with increasing temperature of the nanoparticle, the negative surface charge density gets higher due to increasing thermodiffusion effect. It is also found out that the magnitude of surface charge density is higher for KCl solution than NaCl solution under same condition which is attributed mostly due to less thermodiffusion of counterions for KCl than NaCl. Present study also shows that magnitude of surface charge density decreases with increasing nanoparticle size until it reaches a limiting value (called critical size) above which the effect of nanoparticle size on surface charge density is insignificant. PMID:26530465

  13. Gating capacitive field-effect sensors by the charge of nanoparticle/molecule hybrids.

    PubMed

    Poghossian, Arshak; Bäcker, Matthias; Mayer, Dirk; Schöning, Michael J

    2015-01-21

    The semiconductor field-effect platform is a powerful tool for chemical and biological sensing with direct electrical readout. In this work, the field-effect capacitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structure - the simplest field-effect (bio-)chemical sensor - modified with citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been applied for a label-free electrostatic detection of charged molecules by their intrinsic molecular charge. The EIS sensor detects the charge changes in AuNP/molecule inorganic/organic hybrids induced by the molecular adsorption or binding events. The feasibility of the proposed detection scheme has been exemplarily demonstrated by realizing capacitive EIS sensors consisting of an Al-p-Si-SiO2-silane-AuNP structure for the label-free detection of positively charged cytochrome c and poly-d-lysine molecules as well as for monitoring the layer-by-layer formation of polyelectrolyte multilayers of poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate), representing typical model examples of detecting small proteins and macromolecules and the consecutive adsorption of positively/negatively charged polyelectrolytes, respectively. For comparison, EIS sensors without AuNPs have been investigated, too. The adsorption of molecules on the surface of AuNPs has been verified via the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method. In addition, a theoretical model of the functioning of the capacitive field-effect EIS sensor functionalized with AuNP/charged-molecule hybrids has been discussed. PMID:25470772

  14. Characterisation and application of a novel positively charged nanofiltration membrane for the treatment of textile industry wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shuying; Oatley, Darren L; Williams, Paul M; Wright, Chris J

    2012-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the high potential for the application of a novel self assembled positively charged nanofiltration membrane, PA6DT-C, in processes such as the recovery of valuable cationic macromolecules in the bioprocess and pharmaceutical industries or removal of multi-valent cations such as dyes and heavy metals in the paper and pulp, textiles, nuclear, and automotive industries. The nanofiltration membrane, prepared in this laboratory, is further characterised and then tested for the removal and recovery of Methylene Blue from a synthetic dye house wastewater. The characterisation process involved the construction of a rejection profile for NaCl over a wide range of pH and concentration, which illustrates that the optimal process conditions for the removal of small cations using this membrane is in the region pH <8.0 and concentration less than 15 mol m(-3). The salt rejection data was used to calculate the magnitude of the effective membrane charge density and this was found to be significantly higher for the PA6DT-C membrane than two commercially available membranes (Desal-DK and Nanomax-50). The membrane flux for this new membrane is also superior to the commercial membranes with an approximate increase of 3-4 fold. The PA6DT-C membrane was successful in removal of Methylene Blue dye from synthetic dye house wastewaters achieving 98% rejection and a membrane flux of ≈ 17 LMH bar(-1). Thus, this new membrane both adds to and complements the existing short supply of positively charged NF membranes. PMID:22078250

  15. Charged Kaon Mass Measurement using the Cherenkov Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, N.; Lebedev, A.; Abrams, R.J.; Akgun, U.; Aydin, G.; Baker, W.; Barnes, P.D., Jr.; Bergfeld, T.; Beverly, L.; Bujak, A.; Carey, D.; /Fermilab /Virginia U. /Iowa U.

    2009-09-01

    The two most recent and precise measurements of the charged kaon mass use X-rays from kaonic atoms and report uncertainties of 14 ppm and 22 ppm yet differ from each other by 122 ppm. We describe the possibility of an independent mass measurement using the measurement of Cherenkov light from a narrow-band beam of kaons, pions, and protons. This technique was demonstrated using data taken opportunistically by the Main Injector Particle Production experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory which recorded beams of protons, kaons, and pions ranging in momentum from +37 GeV/c to +63 GeV/c. The measured value is 491.3 {+-} 1.7 MeV/c{sup 2}, which is within 1.4{sigma} of the world average. An improvement of two orders of magnitude in precision would make this technique useful for resolving the ambiguity in the X-ray data and may be achievable in a dedicated experiment.

  16. Effective electrostatic interactions among charged thermo-responsive microgels immersed in a simple electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Mozuelos, P.

    2016-02-01

    This work explores the nature and thermodynamic behavior of the effective electrostatic interactions among charged microgels immersed in a simple electrolyte, taking special interest in the effects due to the thermally induced variation of the microgel size while the remaining parameters (microgel charge and concentration, plus the amount of added salt) are kept constant. To this end, the rigorous approach obtained from applying the precise methodology of the dressed ion theory to the proper definition of the effective direct correlation functions, which emerge from tracing-out the degrees of freedom of the microscopic ions, is employed to provide an exact description of the parameters characterizing such interactions: screening length, effective permittivity, and renormalized charges. A model solution with three components is assumed: large permeable anionic spheres for the microgels, plus small charged hard spheres of equal size for the monovalent cations and anions. The two-body correlations among the components of this model suspension, used as the input for the determination of the effective interaction parameters, are here calculated by using the hyper-netted chain approximation. It is then found that at finite microgel concentrations the values of these parameters change as the microgel size increases, even though the ionic strength of the supporting electrolyte and the bare charge of the microgels remain fixed during this process. The variation of the screening length, as well as that of the effective permittivity, is rather small, but still interesting in view of the fact that the corresponding Debye length stays constant. The renormalized charges, in contrast, increase markedly as the microgels swell. The ratio of the renormalized charge to the corresponding analytic result obtained in the context of an extended linear response theory allows us to introduce an effective charge that accounts for the non-linear effects induced by the short

  17. Effective electrostatic interactions among charged thermo-responsive microgels immersed in a simple electrolyte.

    PubMed

    González-Mozuelos, P

    2016-02-01

    This work explores the nature and thermodynamic behavior of the effective electrostatic interactions among charged microgels immersed in a simple electrolyte, taking special interest in the effects due to the thermally induced variation of the microgel size while the remaining parameters (microgel charge and concentration, plus the amount of added salt) are kept constant. To this end, the rigorous approach obtained from applying the precise methodology of the dressed ion theory to the proper definition of the effective direct correlation functions, which emerge from tracing-out the degrees of freedom of the microscopic ions, is employed to provide an exact description of the parameters characterizing such interactions: screening length, effective permittivity, and renormalized charges. A model solution with three components is assumed: large permeable anionic spheres for the microgels, plus small charged hard spheres of equal size for the monovalent cations and anions. The two-body correlations among the components of this model suspension, used as the input for the determination of the effective interaction parameters, are here calculated by using the hyper-netted chain approximation. It is then found that at finite microgel concentrations the values of these parameters change as the microgel size increases, even though the ionic strength of the supporting electrolyte and the bare charge of the microgels remain fixed during this process. The variation of the screening length, as well as that of the effective permittivity, is rather small, but still interesting in view of the fact that the corresponding Debye length stays constant. The renormalized charges, in contrast, increase markedly as the microgels swell. The ratio of the renormalized charge to the corresponding analytic result obtained in the context of an extended linear response theory allows us to introduce an effective charge that accounts for the non-linear effects induced by the short

  18. Charge Separation and Recombination at Polymer-Fullerene Heterojunctions: Delocalization and Hybridization Effects.

    PubMed

    D'Avino, Gabriele; Muccioli, Luca; Olivier, Yoann; Beljonne, David

    2016-02-01

    We address charge separation and recombination in polymer/fullerene solar cells with a multiscale modeling built from accurate atomistic inputs and accounting for disorder, interface electrostatics and genuine quantum effects on equal footings. Our results show that bound localized charge transfer states at the interface coexist with a large majority of thermally accessible delocalized space-separated states that can be also reached by direct photoexcitation, thanks to their strong hybridization with singlet polymer excitons. These findings reconcile the recent experimental reports of ultrafast exciton separation ("hot" process) with the evidence that high quantum yields do not require excess electronic or vibrational energy ("cold" process), and show that delocalization, by shifting the density of charge transfer states toward larger effective electron-hole radii, may reduce energy losses through charge recombination. PMID:26785294

  19. Kinetic theory for charge-exchange spectroscopy: Effects of magnetic and electric fields on the distribution function after charge-exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Burrell, K. H.; Munoz Burgos, J. M.

    2012-07-15

    In plasmas equipped with neutral beam injection, excitation of atomic spectral lines via charge-exchange with neutral atoms is the basis of one of the standard plasma diagnostic techniques for ion density, temperature, and velocity. In order to properly interpret the spectroscopic results, one must consider the effects of the energy dependence of the charge-exchange cross-section as well as the motion of the ion after charge-exchange during the period when it is still in the excited state. This motion is affected by the electric and magnetic fields in the plasma. The present paper gives results for the velocity distribution function of the excited state ions and considers in detail the cross-section and ion motion effects on the post charge-exchange velocity. The expression for this velocity in terms of the charge-exchange cross-section and the pre charge-exchange velocity allows that latter velocity to be determined. The present paper is the first to consider the effect of the electric as well as the magnetic field and demonstrates that electric field and diamagnetic terms appear in the expression for the inferred velocity. The present formulation also leads to a novel technique for assessing the effect of the energy dependence of the charge-exchange cross-section on the inferred ion temperature.

  20. Ultra-low noise charge sensitive preamplifier for scintillation detection with avalanche photodiodes in PET applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, D.; Lecomte, R.; Lapointe, M.; Martel, G.; Carrier, C.; Karuta, B.; Duval, F.

    1987-02-01

    The need for compact, fast, low-noise front-end electronics in high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) has prompted this effort to design a preamplifier suitable for avalanche photodiode-based scintillation detectors. Due to the small signals from the detectors (< .03 rhoC/meV), a preamplifier with ultra-low noise performance in the 5 to 20 MHz range is essential to achieve the timing resolution required by the PET application. Out of many available technologies, a new third generation MOSFET was selected and implemented as input transistor in an original charge sensitive (CSP) design. Performance among the best reported to date are obtained. The new design was implemented as a dual-channel preamplifier in high density hybrid (thick film) technology.

  1. Lead-acid batteries for partial-state-of-charge applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariprakash, B.; Gaffoor, S. A.; Shukla, A. K.

    2 V/40 Ah valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) cells have been constructed with negative plates employing carbon black as well as an admixture of carbon black + fumed silica as additives in negative active material for partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) applications. Electrical performance of such cells is compared with conventional 2 V/40 Ah VRLA cells for PSoC operation. Active material utilization has been found to be higher for carbon-black + fumed-silica mixed negative plates while formation is faster for cells with carbon-black mixed negative plates. Both faradaic efficiency and percentage capacity delivered have been found to be higher for cells with carbon-black + fumed-silica mixed negative plates. However, a high self-discharge rate is observed for cells with carbon-black + fumed-silica mixed negative plates.

  2. Effect of dielectric interface on charge aggregation in the voltage-gated K+ ion channel

    PubMed Central

    Adhya, Lipika; Mapder, Tarunendu; Adhya, Samit

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is experimental evidence of many cases of stable macromolecular conformations with charged amino-acids facing lipid, an arrangement thought to be energetically unfavourable. Methods and Objectives: Employing classical electrostatics, we show that, this is not necessarily the case and studied the physical basis of the specific role of proximity of charges to the dielectric interface between two different environments. We illustrate how self and induced energies due to the dielectric medium polarization, on either side of the interface, contribute differentially to the stability of a pair of charges and hence the mutual conformation of the S3b-S4 α-helix pair of the voltage-gated K+ channel. Results and Conclusion: We show that (1) a pair of opposite charges on either side of lipid-protein interface confers significant stability; (2) hydrophobic media has an important role in holding together two similar repelling charges; (3) dielectric interface has stabilizing effect on a pair of charges, when an ion is closer to its interface than its neighboring charge; (4) in spite of the presence of dielectric interface, there is a nonexistence of any dielectric effect, when an ion is equidistant from its image and neighboring charge. We also demonstrate that, variation in dielectric media of the surrounding environment confers new mutual conformations to S3b-S4 α-helices of voltage sensor domain at zero potential, especially lipid environment on the helix side, which improved stability to the configuration by lowering the potential energy. Our results provide an answer to the long standing question of why charges face hydrophobic lipid membranes in the stable conformation of a protein. PMID:25810659

  3. Charge carrier transport in polycrystalline organic thin film based field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Varsha; Sharma, Akanksha; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2016-05-01

    The charge carrier transport mechanism in polycrystalline thin film based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) has been explained using two competing models, multiple trapping and releases (MTR) model and percolation model. It has been shown that MTR model is most suitable for explaining charge carrier transport in grainy polycrystalline organic thin films. The energetic distribution of traps determined independently using Mayer-Neldel rule (MNR) is in excellent agreement with the values obtained by MTR model for copper phthalocyanine and pentacene based OFETs.

  4. Effect of positron space charge on operation of an antihydrogen trap.

    PubMed

    Ordonez, C A

    2007-07-01

    Experimental conditions have recently been reported [G. Andresen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 023402 (2007)] that are relevant to the prospect of trapping antihydrogen atoms. An analysis of the experimental conditions indicates that positron space charge can have an important effect. The fraction of antiprotons that have an energy suitable for antihydrogen trapping can be reduced by drifts caused by the presence of positron space charge. PMID:17677605

  5. Evaluating Born and Local Effective Charges in Nanoscale MnO

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Qi; Xu, Xiaoshan; Baker, Sheila N; Christianson, Andrew D; Musfeldt, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Phonons are exquisitely sensitive to finite-length scale effects in complex materials because they are intimately connected to charge, polarizability, and structure, and a quantitative analysis of their behavior can reveal microscopic aspects of chemical bonding. To investigate these effects in a model correlated oxide, we measured the infrared vibrational properties of 8-nm particles of MnO, compared the results with the analogous bulk material, and quantified the phonon confinement with a calculation of the Born effective charge. Our analysis reveals that the Born effective charge decreases by {approx}20%, compared to the bulk material. Moreover, this change impacts both ionicity and polarizability. Specifically, we find that MnO nanoparticles are {approx}12% less ionic than the corresponding bulk. This discovery is important for understanding finite-length scale effects in this simple binary oxide and the more complicated functional oxides that emanate from this parent compound.

  6. Dust Effects on Surface Charging in Plasmas: Laboratory and Numerical Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, K.; Wang, J.; Yu, W.; Han, D.

    2014-12-01

    There are many situations that a spacecraft surface would be covered by a layer of dusts, such as that around a comet and and on the surfaces of the Moon and asteroids. Previous studies of surface charging in plasmas have mostly considered a "clean" conducting or dielectric surface. On the other hand, studies of dust charging in plasmas have mostly considered that of single, isolated dust grains (the "dust-in-plasma" condition), where a dust grain is electrically isolated from its neighboring dusts. This paper considers the charging of a surface covered by a layer of dust grains (the "dusty-surface" condition), where the inter-dust distance is almost zero but the dust grains do not form a solid surface. Under such a condition, the sheath of each individual dust particles overlap to form one single sheath and the charging of individual dust grains is strongly affected by that of the neighboring dust grains and the surface. Experiments and numerical simulations are carried out to understand the charging of both conducting and dielectric dusty surfaces. Surface charging measurements will be presented for different dust layer thickness, dust grain size, dust density, and different ambient plasma conditions. The effect of the existence of a dusty layer on surface potential as well as the difference between charging of a single dust-in-plasma and that of a dust grain as part of a dusty surface will also be discussed.

  7. Nanocrystal-mediated charge screening effects in nanowire field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, C. J.; Yeom, D. H.; Jeong, D. Y.; Lee, M. G.; Moon, B. M.; Kim, S. S.; Choi, C. Y.; Koo, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors having an omega-shaped floating gate (OSFG) have been successfully fabricated by directly coating CdTe nanocrystals (˜6±2.5 nm) at room temperature, and compared to simultaneously prepared control devices without nanocrystals. Herein, we demonstrate that channel punchthrough may occur when the depletion from the OSFG takes place due to the trapped charges in the nanocrystals. Electrical measurements on the OSFG nanowire devices showed static-induction transistorlike behavior in the drain output IDS-VDS characteristics and a hysteresis window as large as ˜3.1 V in the gate transfer IDS-VGS characteristics. This behavior is ascribed to the presence of the CdTe nanocrystals, and is indicative of the trapping and emission of electrons in the nanocrystals. The numerical simulations clearly show qualitatively the same characteristics as the experimental data and confirm the effect, showing that the change in the potential distribution across the channel, induced by both the wrapping-around gate and the drain, affects the transport characteristics of the device. The cross-sectional energy band and potential profile of the OSFG channel corresponding to the "programed (noncharged)" and "erased (charged)" operations for the device are also discussed on the basis of the numerical capacitance-voltage simulations.

  8. The effect of dust charge fluctuations in the near-Enceladus plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroshenko, Victoria; Luehr, Hermann

    The geologically active moon Enceladus feeds the most extended, Saturns’ E ring by dust particles and creates a specific multispecies plasma environment -the Enceladus plasma torus. The key process of dust-plasma interactions is dust charging. The grain electrostatic potential in space is usually calculated from the so called orbit-motion limited (OML) model [1]. It is valid for a single particle immersed into collisionless plasmas with Maxwellian electron and ion distributions. Such a parameter regime cannot be directly applied to the conditions relevant for the Enceladus plasma environment and especially, for the dense plume region, where the dust density is high, sometimes even exceeding the plasma number density. Generalizing the OML formalism, we examine several new factors that can significantly affect the equilibrium grain charging: (a) multispecies composition of the core plasma, including hot electrons and newborn cold ions; (b) effect of high dust number density (c) the role of dust size distributions. We also focus on such a specific peculiarity of dust charging as charge fluctuations. Since the grain charges are not fixed and can fluctuate, this introduces the crucial difference between ordinary plasma species (electrons and ions) and charged dust particles. There are two reasons for such fluctuations. The charging of the grains depends on the local plasma characteristics, and thus some temporal or spatial variations in the plasma parameters ultimately modify numbers of charges acquired by a grain. Some of these effects related to the near-Enceladus plasma environment have recently been discussed [2]. A second reason for charge fluctuations is the discrete nature of the charge carriers. Electrons and ions are absorbed or emitted by the grain surface randomly thus leading to stochastic fluctuations of the dust net charge. These fluctuations exist always even in a steady-state uniform plasma, and we discuss the statistical characteristics of random dust

  9. Charge integration successive approximation analog-to-digital converter for focal plane applications using a single amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Zhimin (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An analog-to-digital converter for on-chip focal-plane image sensor applications. The analog-to-digital converter utilizes a single charge integrating amplifier in a charge balancing architecture to implement successive approximation analog-to-digital conversion. This design requires minimal chip area and has high speed and low power dissipation for operation in the 2-10 bit range. The invention is particularly well suited to CMOS on-chip applications requiring many analog-to-digital converters, such as column-parallel focal-plane architectures.

  10. New density estimation methods for charged particle beams with applications to microbunching instability

    SciTech Connect

    Terzic, B.; Bassi, G.

    2011-07-08

    In this paper we discuss representations of charge particle densities in particle-in-cell simulations, analyze the sources and profiles of the intrinsic numerical noise, and present efficient methods for their removal. We devise two alternative estimation methods for charged particle distribution which represent significant improvement over the Monte Carlo cosine expansion used in the 2D code of Bassi et al. [G. Bassi, J.A. Ellison, K. Heinemann and R. Warnock Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12 080704 (2009)G. Bassi and B. Terzic, in Proceedings of the 23rd Particle Accelerator Conference, Vancouver, Canada, 2009 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2009), TH5PFP043], designed to simulate coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in charged particle beams. The improvement is achieved by employing an alternative beam density estimation to the Monte Carlo cosine expansion. The representation is first binned onto a finite grid, after which two grid-based methods are employed to approximate particle distributions: (i) truncated fast cosine transform; and (ii) thresholded wavelet transform (TWT). We demonstrate that these alternative methods represent a staggering upgrade over the original Monte Carlo cosine expansion in terms of efficiency, while the TWT approximation also provides an appreciable improvement in accuracy. The improvement in accuracy comes from a judicious removal of the numerical noise enabled by the wavelet formulation. The TWT method is then integrated into the CSR code [G. Bassi, J.A. Ellison, K. Heinemann and R. Warnock Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12 080704 (2009)], and benchmarked against the original version. We show that the new density estimation method provides a superior performance in terms of efficiency and spatial resolution, thus enabling high-fidelity simulations of CSR effects, including microbunching instability.

  11. New density estimation methods for charged particle beams with applications to microbunching instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzić, Balša; Bassi, Gabriele

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we discuss representations of charge particle densities in particle-in-cell simulations, analyze the sources and profiles of the intrinsic numerical noise, and present efficient methods for their removal. We devise two alternative estimation methods for charged particle distribution which represent significant improvement over the Monte Carlo cosine expansion used in the 2D code of Bassi et al. [G. Bassi, J. A. Ellison, K. Heinemann, and R. Warnock, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 080704 (2009); PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.080704G. Bassi and B. Terzić, in Proceedings of the 23rd Particle Accelerator Conference, Vancouver, Canada, 2009 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2009), TH5PFP043], designed to simulate coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in charged particle beams. The improvement is achieved by employing an alternative beam density estimation to the Monte Carlo cosine expansion. The representation is first binned onto a finite grid, after which two grid-based methods are employed to approximate particle distributions: (i) truncated fast cosine transform; and (ii) thresholded wavelet transform (TWT). We demonstrate that these alternative methods represent a staggering upgrade over the original Monte Carlo cosine expansion in terms of efficiency, while the TWT approximation also provides an appreciable improvement in accuracy. The improvement in accuracy comes from a judicious removal of the numerical noise enabled by the wavelet formulation. The TWT method is then integrated into the CSR code [G. Bassi, J. A. Ellison, K. Heinemann, and R. Warnock, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 080704 (2009)PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.080704], and benchmarked against the original version. We show that the new density estimation method provides a superior performance in terms of efficiency and spatial resolution, thus enabling high-fidelity simulations of CSR effects, including microbunching instability.

  12. Removal of charged micropollutants from water by ion-exchange polymers -- effects of competing electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Bäuerlein, Patrick S; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Hofman-Caris, Roberta C H M; de Voogt, Pim; Droge, Steven T J

    2012-10-15

    A wide variety of environmental compounds of concern, e.g. pharmaceuticals or illicit drugs, are acids or bases that may predominantly be present as charged species in drinking water sources. These charged micropollutants may prove difficult to remove by currently used water treatment steps (e.g. UV/H(2)O(2), activated carbon (AC) or membranes). We studied the sorption affinity of some ionic organic compounds to both AC and different charged polymeric materials. Ion-exchange polymers may be effective as additional extraction phases in water treatment, because sorption of all charged compounds to oppositely charged polymers was stronger than to AC, especially for the double-charged cation metformin. Tested below 1% of the polymer ion-exchange capacity, the sorption affinity of charged micropollutants is nonlinear and depends on the composition of the aqueous medium. Whereas oppositely charged electrolytes do not impact sorption of organic ions, equally charged electrolytes do influence sorption indicating ion-exchange (IE) to be the main sorption mechanism. For the tested polymers, a tenfold increased salt concentration lowered the IE-sorption affinity by a factor two. Different electrolytes affect IE with organic ions in a similar way as inorganic ions on IE-resins, and no clear differences in this trend were observed between the sulphonated and the carboxylated cation-exchanger. Sorption of organic cations is five fold less in Ca(2+) solutions compared to similar concentrations of Na(+), while that of anionic compounds is three fold weaker in SO(4)(2-) solutions compared to equal concentrations of Cl(-). PMID:22818952

  13. Electrical charging effects on the sliding friction of a model nano-confined ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Capozza, R.; Vanossi, A.; Benassi, A.; Tosatti, E.

    2015-10-14

    Recent measurements suggest the possibility to exploit ionic liquids (ILs) as smart lubricants for nano-contacts, tuning their tribological and rheological properties by charging the sliding interfaces. Following our earlier theoretical study of charging effects on nanoscale confinement and squeezout of a model IL, we present here molecular dynamics simulations of the frictional and lubrication properties of that model under charging conditions. First, we describe the case when two equally charged plates slide while being held together to a confinement distance of a few molecular layers. The shear sliding stress is found to rise strongly and discontinuously as the number of IL layers decreases stepwise. However, the shear stress shows, within each given number of layers, only a weak dependence upon the precise value of the normal load, a result in agreement with data extracted from recent experiments. We subsequently describe the case of opposite charging of the sliding plates and follow the shear stress when the charging is slowly and adiabatically reversed in the course of time, under fixed load. Despite the fixed load, the number and structure of the confined IL layers change with changing charge, and that in turn drives strong friction variations. The latter involves first of all charging-induced freezing of the IL film, followed by a discharging-induced melting, both made possible by the nanoscale confinement. Another mechanism for charging-induced frictional changes is a shift of the plane of maximum shear from mid-film to the plate-film interface, and vice versa. While these occurrences and results invariably depend upon the parameters of the model IL and upon its specific interaction with the plates, the present study helps identifying a variety of possible behavior, obtained under very simple assumptions, while connecting it to an underlying equilibrium thermodynamics picture.

  14. Nonlinear delta(f) Simulations of Collective Effects in Intense Charged Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Qin

    2003-01-21

    A nonlinear delta(f) particle simulation method based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equations has been recently developed to study collective processes in high-intensity beams, where space-charge and magnetic self-field effects play a critical role in determining the nonlinear beam dynamics. Implemented in the Beam Equilibrium, Stability and Transport (BEST) code [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson, and W.W. Lee, Physical Review -- Special Topics on Accelerator and Beams 3 (2000) 084401; 3 (2000) 109901.], the nonlinear delta(f) method provides a low-noise and self-consistent tool for simulating collective interactions and nonlinear dynamics of high-intensity beams in modern and next-generation accelerators and storage rings, such as the Spallation Neutron Source and heavy ion fusion drivers. A wide range of linear eigenmodes of high-intensity charged-particle beams can be systematically studied using the BEST code. Simulation results for the electron-proton two-stream instability in the Proton Storage Ring experiment [R. Macek, et al., in Proc. of the Particle Accelerator Conference, Chicago, 2001 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2001), Vol. 1, p. 688.] at the Los Alamos National Laboratory agree well with experimental observations. Large-scale parallel simulations have also been carried out for the ion-electron two-stream instability in the very-high-intensity heavy ion beams envisioned for heavy ion fusion applications. In both cases, the simulation results indicate that the dominant two-stream instability has a dipole-mode (hose-like) structure and can be stabilized by a modest axial momentum spread of the beam particles.

  15. Charge transfer in graphene oxide-dye system for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongu, Sudhakara Reddy; Bisht, Prem B.; Thu, Tran V.; Sandhu, Adarsh

    2014-02-01

    The fluorescence of a standard dye Rhodamine 6G (R6G) in solution decreases on addition of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The absorption spectra and lifetime measurements confirm that no excited-state but a ground-state complex formation is responsible for this effect. For silver decorated rGO (Ag-rGO), the quenching efficiency and ground state complex formation process is small. Z-scan measurements have been done to study the optical nonlinearity at 532 nm under ps time scale. Remarkable reduction in the saturable absorption (SA) effect of R6G indicates no nonlinear contribution from the ground state complex. The results have been explained with varying charge transfer rates and non-fluorescence nature of the complex.

  16. Charge transfer in graphene oxide-dye system for photonic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bongu, Sudhakara Reddy Bisht, Prem B.; Thu, Tran V.; Sandhu, Adarsh

    2014-02-20

    The fluorescence of a standard dye Rhodamine 6G (R6G) in solution decreases on addition of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The absorption spectra and lifetime measurements confirm that no excited-state but a ground-state complex formation is responsible for this effect. For silver decorated rGO (Ag-rGO), the quenching efficiency and ground state complex formation process is small. Z-scan measurements have been done to study the optical nonlinearity at 532 nm under ps time scale. Remarkable reduction in the saturable absorption (SA) effect of R6G indicates no nonlinear contribution from the ground state complex. The results have been explained with varying charge transfer rates and non-fluorescence nature of the complex.

  17. Scan direction induced charging dynamics and the application for detection of gate to S/D shorts in logic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ming; Tian, Qing; Wu, Kevin; Zhao, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Gate to source/drain (S/D) short is the most common and detrimental failure mechanism for advanced process technology development in Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Field-Effect-Transistor (MOSFET) device manufacturing. Especially for sub-1Xnm nodes, MOSFET device is more vulnerable to gate-S/D shorts due to the aggressive scaling. The detection of this kind of electrical short defect is always challenging for in-line electron beam inspection (EBI), especially new shorting mechanisms on atomic scale due to new material/process flow implementation. The second challenge comes from the characterization of the shorts including identification of the exact shorting location. In this paper, we demonstrate unique scan direction induced charging dynamics (SDCD) phenomenon which stems from the transistor level response from EBI scan at post metal contact chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) layers. We found that SDCD effect is exceptionally useful for gate-S/D short induced voltage contrast (VC) defect detection, especially for identification of shorting locations. The unique SDCD effect signatures of gate-S/D shorts can be used as fingerprint for ground true shorting defect detection. Correlation with other characterization methods on the same defective location from EBI scan shows consistent results from various shorting mechanism. A practical work flow to implement the application of SDCD effect for in-line EBI monitor of critical gate-S/D short defects is also proposed, together with examples of successful application use cases which mostly focus on static random-access memory (SRAM) array regions. Although the capability of gate-S/D short detection as well as expected device response is limited to passing transistors and pull-down transistors due to the design restriction from standard 6-cell SRAM structure, SDCD effect is proven to be very effective for gate-S/D short induced VC defect detection as well as yield learning for advanced technology development.

  18. Infrared light irradiation diminishes effective charge transfer in slow sodium channel gating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plakhova, Vera B.; Bagraev, Nikolai T.; Klyachkin, Leonid E.; Malyarenko, Anna M.; Romanov, Vladimir V.; Krylov, Boris V.

    2001-02-01

    Effects of infrared light irradiation (IR) on cultured dorsal root ganglia cells were studied by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The IR field is demonstrated to diminish the effective charge transfer in the activation system from 6.2 +-0.6 to 4.5 +-0.4 in units of electron charge per e-fold change in membrane potential. The effects was blocked with ouabain. Our data is the first indication that sodium pump might be the molecular sensor of infrared irradiation in animal kingdom.

  19. Infrared light irradiation diminishes effective charge transfer in slow sodium channel gating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plakhova, Vera B.; Bagraev, Nikolai T.; Klyachkin, Leonid E.; Malyarenko, Anna M.; Romanov, Vladimir V.; Krylov, Boris V.

    2000-02-01

    Effects of infrared light irradiation (IR) on cultured dorsal root ganglia cells were studied by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The IR field is demonstrated to diminish the effective charge transfer in the activation system from 6.2 +-0.6 to 4.5 +-0.4 in units of electron charge per e-fold change in membrane potential. The effects was blocked with ouabain. Our data is the first indication that sodium pump might be the molecular sensor of infrared irradiation in animal kingdom.

  20. Electrostatic Simulation of Charge Trapping in Carbon Nanotube Vertical Organic Field Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Jennifer; Rinzler, Andrew; Hershfield, Selman

    The carbon nanotube vertical organic field effect transistor is a vertical sequence consisting of a gate electrode, gate dielectric, thin nanotube network source electrode, organic semiconducting channel and finally the drain electrode. The drain current is modulated by the gate voltage which varies a Schottky barrier between source and channel layers. Hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristic has been observed when a electret charge trapping layer is placed between the nanotube source and the gate dielectric. We provide a model for charge injection into a trapping layer placed in contact with the carbon nanotube film and solve self-consistently for the electrostatics and the occupancy of the traps. For a range of applied gate voltages the simulations demonstrate hysteresis of the carbon nanotubes' charge as a result of the electric field produced by the trapped charge. This affects the current by modulating the Schottky barrier. This work was supported by the NSF Grant DMR-1461019.

  1. Effects of Surface Charges on Dental Implants: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Cecilia Yan; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka; Tang, Alexander Tin Hong

    2012-01-01

    Osseointegration is a major factor influencing the success of dental implantation. To achieve rapid and strong, durable osseointegration, biomaterial researchers have investigated various surface treatment methods for dental subgingival titanium (Ti) implants. This paper focuses on surface-charge modification on the surface of titanium dental implants, which is a relatively new and very promising methodology for improving the implants' osseointegration properties. We give an overview on both theoretical explanations on how surface-charge affects the implants' osseointegration, as well as a potential surface charge modification method using sandblasting. Additionally, we discuss insights on the important factors affecting effectiveness of surface-charge modification methods and point out several interesting directions for future investigations on this topic. PMID:23093962

  2. Pairing of Fermions with Unequal Effective Charges in an Artificial Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, Nur; Oktel, M. O.

    2016-05-01

    Artificial magnetic fields (AMFs) created for ultracold systems depend sensitively on the internal structure of the atoms. In a mixture, each component couples to the AMF with a different charge. This enables the study of Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer pairing of fermions with unequal effective charges. We investigate the superconducting (SC) transition of a system formed by such pairs as a function of the field strength. We consider a homogeneous two-component Fermi gas of unequal charges but equal densities with attractive interactions. We find that the phase diagram is altered drastically compared to the usual equal charge case. First, for some AMFs there is no SC transition and isolated SC phases are formed, reflecting the discrete Landau level (LL) structure. SC phases become reentrant both in AMF and temperature. For extremely high fields where both components are confined to their lowest LLs, the effect of the charge imbalance is suppressed. Charge asymmetry reduces the critical temperature even in the low-field semiclassical regime. We discuss a pair breaking mechanism due to the unequal Lorentz forces acting on the components of the Cooper pairs to identify the underlying physics.

  3. Charge-correlation effects in calculations of atomic short-range order in metallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinski, F. J.; Staunton, J. B.; Johnson, D. D.

    1998-06-01

    The ``local'' chemical environment that surrounds an atom directly influences its electronic charge density. These atomic charge correlations play an important role in describing the Coulomb and total energies for random substitutional alloys. Although the electronic structure may be well represented by a single-site theory, such as the coherent potential approximation, the electrostatic energy is not as well represented when these charge correlations are ignored. For metals, including the average effect from the charge correlation coming from only the nearest-neighbor shell has been shown to be sufficient to determine accurately the energy of formation. In this paper, we incorporate such charge correlations into the concentration-wave approach for calculating the atomic short-range order in random (substitutional) alloys. We present changes within the formalism, and apply the resulting equations to equiatomic nickel platinum. By including these effects, we obtain significantly better agreement with experimental data. In fact, particular to NiPt, a consequence of the charge correlation is a screening which cancels much of the electrostatic contribution to the energy and thus to the atomic short-range order, resulting in agreement with a picture originally outlined using only ``band-energy'' contributions.

  4. Charging effect simulation model used in simulations of plasma etching of silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Ishchuk, Valentyn; Volland, Burkhard E.; Hauguth, Maik; Rangelow, Ivo W.; Cooke, Mike

    2012-10-15

    Understanding the consequences of local surface charging on the evolving etching profile is a critical challenge in high density plasma etching. Deflection of the positively charged ions in locally varying electric fields can cause profile defects such as notching, bowing, and microtrenching. We have developed a numerical simulation model capturing the influence of the charging effect over the entire course of the etching process. The model is fully integrated into ViPER (Virtual Plasma Etch Reactor)-a full featured plasma processing simulation software developed at Ilmenau University of Technology. As a consequence, we show that local surface charge concurrently evolves with the feature profile to affect the final shape of the etched feature. Using gas chopping (sometimes called time-multiplexed) etch process for experimental validation of the simulation, we show that the model provides excellent fits to the experimental data and both, bowing and notching effects are captured-as long as the evolving profile and surface charge are simultaneously simulated. In addition, this new model explains that surface scallops, characteristic of gas chopping technique, are eroded and often absent in the final feature profile due to surface charging. The model is general and can be applied across many etching chemistries.

  5. Investigation of charge transport and electromagnetic effects in advanced microelectronics and optoelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, T.; Booth, T.; Gray, M.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The next generation of electronic microchips will utilize components with sub-micron feature size and optoelectronic devices with picosecond response time. Fundamental understanding of the device performance can only be obtained through first principles physics modeling of charge transport and electromagnetic effects in realistic geometries with material interfaces and dispersive properties. We have developed a general model incorporating important physics such as charge transport processes in materials with multilevel band structures and electromagnetic effects to simulate device characteristics. Accurate treatment of material interfaces and boundaries is included. The Monte Carlo charge transport is coupled self-consistently to Maxwell`s equations to accurately model scattering processes in the presence of an externally biased potential. This detailed multidimensional simulation capability is compared with and verified by experimental data, and could become an industrial standard for benchmarking and improving the {open_quotes}reduced model{close_quotes} codes used for semiconductor design. Specific tasks are the extension of existing capabilities in particle-in-cell plasma simulation technique and Monte Carlo charge transport to study the physics of charged particle dynamics in realistic microelectronic devices, such as bipolar semiconductors, heterojunction transistors, and optoelectronic switches. Our approach has been based on the coupled particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo technique, which can simultaneously treat both electromagnetic wave propagation and charged-particle transport.

  6. Effects of charging and doping on orbital hybridizations and distributions in TiO2 clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong Min; Wu, Miao Miao; Wang, Qian; Jena, Puru

    2011-11-01

    Charging and doping are two important strategies used in TiO2 quantum dots for photocatalysis and photovoltaics. Using small clusters as the prototypes for quantum dots, we have carried out density functional calculations to study the size-specific effects of charging and doping on geometry, electronic structure, frontier orbital distribution, and orbital hybridization. We find that in neutral (TiO2)n clusters the charge transfer from Ti to O is almost size independent, while for the anionic (TiO2)n clusters the corresponding charge transfer is reduced but it increases with size. When one O atom is substituted with N, the charge transfer is also reduced due to the smaller electron affinity of N. As the cluster size increases, the populations of 3d and 4s orbitals of Ti decrease with size, while the populations of the 4p orbital increase, suggesting size dependence of spd hybridizations. The present study clearly shows that charging and doping are effective ways for tailoring the energy gap, orbital distributions, and hybridizations.

  7. Charging effect simulation model used in simulations of plasma etching of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishchuk, Valentyn; Volland, Burkhard E.; Hauguth, Maik; Cooke, Mike; Rangelow, Ivo W.

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the consequences of local surface charging on the evolving etching profile is a critical challenge in high density plasma etching. Deflection of the positively charged ions in locally varying electric fields can cause profile defects such as notching, bowing, and microtrenching. We have developed a numerical simulation model capturing the influence of the charging effect over the entire course of the etching process. The model is fully integrated into ViPER (Virtual Plasma Etch Reactor)—a full featured plasma processing simulation software developed at Ilmenau University of Technology. As a consequence, we show that local surface charge concurrently evolves with the feature profile to affect the final shape of the etched feature. Using gas chopping (sometimes called time-multiplexed) etch process for experimental validation of the simulation, we show that the model provides excellent fits to the experimental data and both, bowing and notching effects are captured—as long as the evolving profile and surface charge are simultaneously simulated. In addition, this new model explains that surface scallops, characteristic of gas chopping technique, are eroded and often absent in the final feature profile due to surface charging. The model is general and can be applied across many etching chemistries.

  8. Influence of surface charge on the transport characteristics of nanowire-field effect transistors in liquid environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nozaki, Daijiro E-mail: research@nano.tu-dresden.de; Kunstmann, Jens; Zörgiebel, Felix; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2015-05-18

    One dimensional nanowire field effect transistors (NW-FETs) are a promising platform for sensor applications. The transport characteristics of NW-FETs are strongly modified in liquid environment due to the charging of surface functional groups accompanied with protonation or deprotonation. In order to investigate the influence of surface charges and ionic concentrations on the transport characteristics of Schottky-barrier NW-FETs, we have combined the modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory with the Landauer-Büttiker transport formalism. For a typical device, the model is able to capture the reduction of the sensitivity of NW-FETs in ionic solutions due to the screening from counter ions as well as a local gating from surface functional groups. Our approach allows to model, to investigate, and to optimize realistic Schottky-barrier NW-FET devices in liquid environment.

  9. Role of charge in destabilizing AlH4 and BH4 complex anions for hydrogen storage applications: Ab initio density functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, A. J.; Smith, Sean C.; Lu, G. Q.

    2006-11-01

    NaAlH4 and LiBH4 are potential candidate materials for mobile hydrogen storage applications, yet they have the drawback of being highly stable and desorbing hydrogen only at elevated temperatures. In this letter, ab initio density functional theory calculations reveal how the stabilities of the AlH4 and BH4 complex anions will be affected by reducing net anionic charge. Tetrahedral AlH4 and BH4 complexes are found to be distorted with the decrease of negative charge. One H-H distance becomes smaller and the charge density will overlap between them at a small anion charge. The activation energies to release of H2 from AlH4 and BH4 complexes are thus greatly decreased. We demonstrate that point defects such as neutral Na vacancies or substitution of a Na atom with Ti on the NaAlH4(001) surface can potentially cause strong distortion of neighboring AlH4 complexes and even induce spontaneous dehydrogenation. Our results help to rationalize the conjecture that the suppression of charge transfer to AlH4 and BH4 anion as a consequence of surface defects should be very effective for improving the recycling performance of H2 in NaAlH4 and LiBH4 . The understanding gained here will aid in the rational design and development of hydrogen storage materials based on these two systems.

  10. Investigation of Laser Peening Effects on Hydrogen Charged Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleski, Tania M.

    2008-10-30

    Hydrogen-rich environments such as fuel cell reactors can exhibit damage caused by hydrogen permeation in the form of corrosion cracking by lowering tensile strength and decreasing material ductility. Coatings and liners have been investigated, but there were few shot-peening or laser peening studies referenced in the literature with respect to preventing hydrogen embrittlement. The surface compressive residual stress induced by laser peening had shown success in preventing stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for stainless steels in power plants. The question arose if the residual stresses induced by laser peening could delay the effects of hydrogen in a material. This study investigated the effect of laser peening on hydrogen penetration into metal alloys. Three areas were studied: laser peening, hydrogenation, and hydrogen detection. This study demonstrated that laser peening does not reduce the hydrogen permeation into a stainless steel surface nor does it prevent hydrogen embrittlement. The effect of laser peening to reduce hydrogen-assisted fatigue was unclear.

  11. Strong coupling electrostatics for randomly charged surfaces: antifragility and effective interactions.

    PubMed

    Ghodrat, Malihe; Naji, Ali; Komaie-Moghaddam, Haniyeh; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2015-05-01

    We study the effective interaction mediated by strongly coupled Coulomb fluids between dielectric surfaces carrying quenched, random monopolar charges with equal mean and variance, both when the Coulomb fluid consists only of mobile multivalent counterions and when it consists of an asymmetric ionic mixture containing multivalent and monovalent (salt) ions in equilibrium with an aqueous bulk reservoir. We analyze the consequences that follow from the interplay between surface charge disorder, dielectric and salt image effects, and the strong electrostatic coupling that results from multivalent counterions on the distribution of these ions and the effective interaction pressure they mediate between the surfaces. In a dielectrically homogeneous system, we show that the multivalent counterions are attracted towards the surfaces with a singular, disorder-induced potential that diverges logarithmically on approach to the surfaces, creating a singular but integrable counterion density profile that exhibits an algebraic divergence at the surfaces with an exponent that depends on the surface charge (disorder) variance. This effect drives the system towards a state of lower thermal 'disorder', one that can be described by a renormalized temperature, exhibiting thus a remarkable antifragility. In the presence of an interfacial dielectric discontinuity, the singular behavior of counterion density at the surfaces is removed but multivalent counterions are still accumulated much more strongly close to randomly charged surfaces as compared with uniformly charged ones. The interaction pressure acting on the surfaces displays in general a highly non-monotonic behavior as a function of the inter-surface separation with a prominent regime of attraction at small to intermediate separations. This attraction is caused directly by the combined effects from charge disorder and strong coupling electrostatics of multivalent counterions, which dominate the surface-surface repulsion due to

  12. Thickness-dependent charge transport in few-layer MoS2 field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ming-Wei; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Fowlkes, Jason; Li, Xufan; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Geohegan, David B.; Xiao, Kai

    2016-04-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is currently under intensive study because of its exceptional optical and electrical properties in few-layer form. However, how charge transport mechanisms vary with the number of layers in MoS2 flakes remains unclear. Here, exfoliated flakes of MoS2 with various thicknesses were successfully fabricated into field-effect transistors (FETs) to measure the thickness and temperature dependences of electrical mobility. For these MoS2 FETs, measurements at both 295 K and 77 K revealed the maximum mobility for layer thicknesses between 5 layers (˜3.6 nm) and 10 layers (˜7 nm), with ˜70 cm2 V-1 s-1 measured for 5 layer devices at 295 K. Temperature-dependent mobility measurements revealed that the mobility rises with increasing temperature to a maximum. This maximum occurs at increasing temperature with increasing layer thickness, possibly due to strong Coulomb scattering from charge impurities or weakened electron-phonon interactions for thicker devices. Temperature-dependent conductivity measurements for different gate voltages revealed a metal-to-insulator transition for devices thinner than 10 layers, which may enable new memory and switching applications. This study advances the understanding of fundamental charge transport mechanisms in few-layer MoS2, and indicates the promise of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides as candidates for potential optoelectronic applications.

  13. Thickness-dependent charge transport in few-layer MoS2 field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Wei; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Fowlkes, Jason; Li, Xufan; Puretzky, Alexander A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2016-04-22

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is currently under intensive study because of its exceptional optical and electrical properties in few-layer form. However, how charge transport mechanisms vary with the number of layers in MoS2 flakes remains unclear. Here, exfoliated flakes of MoS2 with various thicknesses were successfully fabricated into field-effect transistors (FETs) to measure the thickness and temperature dependences of electrical mobility. For these MoS2 FETs, measurements at both 295 K and 77 K revealed the maximum mobility for layer thicknesses between 5 layers (∼3.6 nm) and 10 layers (∼7 nm), with ∼70 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) measured for 5 layer devices at 295 K. Temperature-dependent mobility measurements revealed that the mobility rises with increasing temperature to a maximum. This maximum occurs at increasing temperature with increasing layer thickness, possibly due to strong Coulomb scattering from charge impurities or weakened electron-phonon interactions for thicker devices. Temperature-dependent conductivity measurements for different gate voltages revealed a metal-to-insulator transition for devices thinner than 10 layers, which may enable new memory and switching applications. This study advances the understanding of fundamental charge transport mechanisms in few-layer MoS2, and indicates the promise of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides as candidates for potential optoelectronic applications. PMID:26963583

  14. Space-charge perturbation effects in photonic tubes under high irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kalibjian, R.; Peterson, G.G.

    1982-06-01

    Potential perturbation effects at the cathode region of a photonic tube can occur at high intensity due to space-charge. Using appropriate photoelectron energy distribution functions, the electric field at the cathode is calculated and its effect upon the spatial/temporal resolution is examined.

  15. EFFECTIVE ACIDITY CONSTANT BEHAVIOR NEAR ZERO CHARGE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface site (>SOH group) acidity reactions require expressions of the form: Ka = [>SOHn-1(z-1)]aH+EXP(-DG/RT)/[>SOHnz] (where all variables have their usual meaning). One can rearrange this expression to generate an effective acidity constant historically defined as: Qa = Ka...

  16. Review of operating principle and applications of the charged aerosol detector.

    PubMed

    Vehovec, Tanja; Obreza, Ales

    2010-03-01

    Recently a new detection method, based upon aerosol charging (the charged aerosol detector (CAD)) has been introduced as an alternative to evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD), chemiluminescent nitrogen detector and refractive index detector for detection of non-ultraviolet and weakly ultraviolet active compounds and for UV-absorbing compounds in the absence of standards. The content of this review article includes description of operation principle, advantages and disadvantages of CAD system, and short reports of selected applications of this detector. The main advantages of CAD detector are unique performance characteristics: better sensitivity than ELSD system, a dynamic range of up to 4 orders of magnitude, ease of use and constancy of response factors. Both detectors are mass dependent and the response generated does not depend on the spectral or physicochemical properties of the analyte. This attractive feature of a detection technique generating universal response factors is the potential use of a single, universal standard for calibration against which all other compounds or impurities can be qualified. CAD also has the same limitation as ELSD, namely, the response is affected by mobile-phase composition. This problem has been resolved by using inverse gradient compensation as is done for high pressure liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography. CAD has been applied for the analysis of structurally diverse compounds used in the pharmaceutical, chemical, food, and consumer products industries and in life science research. They include nonvolatile and semivolatile neutral, acidic, basic, and zwitterionic compounds, both polar and nonpolar (e.g. lipids, proteins, steroids, polymers, carbohydrates, peptides). PMID:20083252

  17. Unusual dimensionality effects and surface charge density in 2D Mg(OH)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suslu, Aslihan; Wu, Kedi; Sahin, Hasan; Chen, Bin; Yang, Sijie; Cai, Hui; Aoki, Toshihiro; Horzum, Seyda; Kang, Jun; Peeters, Francois M.; Tongay, Sefaattin

    2016-02-01

    We present two-dimensional Mg(OH)2 sheets and their vertical heterojunctions with CVD-MoS2 for the first time as flexible 2D insulators with anomalous lattice vibration and chemical and physical properties. New hydrothermal crystal growth technique enabled isolation of environmentally stable monolayer Mg(OH)2 sheets. Raman spectroscopy and vibrational calculations reveal that the lattice vibrations of Mg(OH)2 have fundamentally different signature peaks and dimensionality effects compared to other 2D material systems known to date. Sub-wavelength electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurements and theoretical calculations show that Mg(OH)2 is a 6 eV direct-gap insulator in 2D, and its optical band gap displays strong band renormalization effects from monolayer to bulk, marking the first experimental confirmation of confinement effects in 2D insulators. Interestingly, 2D-Mg(OH)2 sheets possess rather strong surface polarization (charge) effects which is in contrast to electrically neutral h-BN materials. Using 2D-Mg(OH)2 sheets together with CVD-MoS2 in the vertical stacking shows that a strong change transfer occurs from n-doped CVD-MoS2 sheets to Mg(OH)2, naturally depleting the semiconductor, pushing towards intrinsic doping limit and enhancing overall optical performance of 2D semiconductors. Results not only establish unusual confinement effects in 2D-Mg(OH)2, but also offer novel 2D-insulating material with unique physical, vibrational, and chemical properties for potential applications in flexible optoelectronics.

  18. Unusual dimensionality effects and surface charge density in 2D Mg(OH)2

    PubMed Central

    Suslu, Aslihan; Wu, Kedi; Sahin, Hasan; Chen, Bin; Yang, Sijie; Cai, Hui; Aoki, Toshihiro; Horzum, Seyda; Kang, Jun; Peeters, Francois M.; Tongay, Sefaattin

    2016-01-01

    We present two-dimensional Mg(OH)2 sheets and their vertical heterojunctions with CVD-MoS2 for the first time as flexible 2D insulators with anomalous lattice vibration and chemical and physical properties. New hydrothermal crystal growth technique enabled isolation of environmentally stable monolayer Mg(OH)2 sheets. Raman spectroscopy and vibrational calculations reveal that the lattice vibrations of Mg(OH)2 have fundamentally different signature peaks and dimensionality effects compared to other 2D material systems known to date. Sub-wavelength electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurements and theoretical calculations show that Mg(OH)2 is a 6 eV direct-gap insulator in 2D, and its optical band gap displays strong band renormalization effects from monolayer to bulk, marking the first experimental confirmation of confinement effects in 2D insulators. Interestingly, 2D-Mg(OH)2 sheets possess rather strong surface polarization (charge) effects which is in contrast to electrically neutral h-BN materials. Using 2D-Mg(OH)2 sheets together with CVD-MoS2 in the vertical stacking shows that a strong change transfer occurs from n-doped CVD-MoS2 sheets to Mg(OH)2, naturally depleting the semiconductor, pushing towards intrinsic doping limit and enhancing overall optical performance of 2D semiconductors. Results not only establish unusual confinement effects in 2D-Mg(OH)2, but also offer novel 2D-insulating material with unique physical, vibrational, and chemical properties for potential applications in flexible optoelectronics. PMID:26846617

  19. Unusual dimensionality effects and surface charge density in 2D Mg(OH)2.

    PubMed

    Suslu, Aslihan; Wu, Kedi; Sahin, Hasan; Chen, Bin; Yang, Sijie; Cai, Hui; Aoki, Toshihiro; Horzum, Seyda; Kang, Jun; Peeters, Francois M; Tongay, Sefaattin

    2016-01-01

    We present two-dimensional Mg(OH)2 sheets and their vertical heterojunctions with CVD-MoS2 for the first time as flexible 2D insulators with anomalous lattice vibration and chemical and physical properties. New hydrothermal crystal growth technique enabled isolation of environmentally stable monolayer Mg(OH)2 sheets. Raman spectroscopy and vibrational calculations reveal that the lattice vibrations of Mg(OH)2 have fundamentally different signature peaks and dimensionality effects compared to other 2D material systems known to date. Sub-wavelength electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurements and theoretical calculations show that Mg(OH)2 is a 6 eV direct-gap insulator in 2D, and its optical band gap displays strong band renormalization effects from monolayer to bulk, marking the first experimental confirmation of confinement effects in 2D insulators. Interestingly, 2D-Mg(OH)2 sheets possess rather strong surface polarization (charge) effects which is in contrast to electrically neutral h-BN materials. Using 2D-Mg(OH)2 sheets together with CVD-MoS2 in the vertical stacking shows that a strong change transfer occurs from n-doped CVD-MoS2 sheets to Mg(OH)2, naturally depleting the semiconductor, pushing towards intrinsic doping limit and enhancing overall optical performance of 2D semiconductors. Results not only establish unusual confinement effects in 2D-Mg(OH)2, but also offer novel 2D-insulating material with unique physical, vibrational, and chemical properties for potential applications in flexible optoelectronics. PMID:26846617

  20. Studies of Space Charge Effects in the Proposed CERN PS2

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Ryne, Robert; De Maria, Riccardo; Macridin, Alexandru; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Wienands, Ulrich; /SLAC

    2012-06-22

    A new proton synchrotron, the PS2, is under design study to replace the current proton synchrotron at CERN for the LHC upgrade. Nonlinear space charge effects could cause significant beam emittance growth and particle losses and limit the performance of the PS2. In this paper, we report on studies of the potential space-charge effects at the PS2 using three-dimensional self-consistent macroparticle tracking codes, IMPACT, MaryLie/IMPACT, and Synergia. We will present initial benchmark results among these codes. Effects of space-charge on the emittance growth, especially due to synchrotron coupling, aperture sizes, initial painted distribution, and RF ramping scheme will also be discussed.

  1. Mitigation of charged impurity effects in graphene field-effect transistors with polar organic molecules (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Barrett C.; Kim, Seohee; Akinwande, Deji; Rossky, Peter J.; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2015-09-01

    Recent developments in monolayer graphene production allow its use as the active layer in field-effect transistor technology. Favorable electrical characteristics of monolayer graphene include high mobility, operating frequency, and good stability. These characteristics are governed by such key transport physical phenomena as electron-hole transport symmetry, Dirac point voltage, and charged impurity effects. Doping of graphene occurs during device fabrication, and is largely due to charged impurities located at or near the graphene/substrate interface. These impurities cause scattering of charge carriers, which lowers mobility. Such scattering is detrimental to graphene transistor performance, but our group has shown that coating with fluoropolymer thin films or exposure to polar organic vapors can restore favorable electrical characteristics to monolayer graphene. By partially neutralizing charged impurities and defects, we can improve the mobility by approximately a factor of 2, change the Dirac voltage by fairly large amounts, and reduce the residual carrier density significantly. We hypothesize that this phenomena results from screening of charged impurities by the polar molecules. To better understand such screening interactions, we performed computational chemistry experiments to observe interactions between polar organic molecules and monolayer graphene. The molecules interacted more strongly with defective graphene than with pristine graphene, and the electronic environment of graphene was altered. These computational observations correlate well with our experimental results to support our hypothesis that polar molecules can act to screen charged impurities on or near monolayer graphene. Such screening favorably mitigates charge scattering, improving graphene transistor performance.

  2. SU-E-I-99: Estimation of Effective Charge Distribution by Dual-Energy CT Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Sakata, D; Kida, S; Nakano, M; Masutani, Y; Nakagawa, K; Haga, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Computed Tomography (CT) is a method to produce slice image of specific volume from the scanned x-ray projection images. The contrast of CT image is correlated with the attenuation coefficients of the x-ray in the object. The attenuation coefficient is strongly dependent on the x-ray energy and the effective charge of the material. The purpose of this presentation is to show the effective charge distribution predicted by CT images reconstructed with kilovoltage(kV) and megavoltage(MV) x-ray energy. Methods: The attenuation coefficients of x-ray can be characterized by cross section of photoionization and Compton scattering for the specific xray energy. In particular, the photoionization cross section is strongly correlated with the effective charge of the object. Hence we can calculate effective charge by solving the coupled equation between the attenuation coefficient and the theoretical cross section. For this study, we use the megavoltage (MV) and kilovoltage (kV) x-rays of Elekta Synergy as the dual source x-ray, and CT image of the Phantom Laboratory CatPhan is reconstructed by the filtered back projection (FBP) and iterative algorithm for cone-beam CT (CBCT). Results: We report attenuation coefficients of each component of the CatPhan specified by each x-ray source. Also the effective charge distribution is evaluated by the MV and kV dual x-ray sources. The predicted effective charges are comparable with the nominal ones. Conclusion: We developed the MV and kV dual-source CBCT reconstruction to yield the effective charge distribution. For more accuracy, it is critical to remove an effect of the scattering photon in the CBCT reconstruction algorithm. The finding will be fine reference of the effective charge of tissue and lead to the more realistic absorbed-dose calculation. This work was partly supported by the JSPS Core-to-Core Program(No. 23003), and this work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI 24234567.

  3. Dielectric Interface Effects on Surface Charge Accumulation and Collection towards High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Yu-Che; Zang, Huidong; Ivanov, Ilia; Xu, Tao; Lu, Luyao; Yu, Luping; Hu, Bin

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports the experimental studies on the effects of dielectric thin-film on surface-charge accumulation and collection by using capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements under photoexcitation. The dielectric thin-films with different surface polarizations are used with inverted device architecture based on the common photovoltaic PTB7:PC71BM film. In the C-V measurements, the peak-voltage shift with light intensity, namely, Vpeak shift, is particularly used to determine the surface-charge accumulation. We find that the Vpeak shows a smaller shift with light intensity when a higher surface polarization of dielectric thin-film is used. This means that a higher surface polarization of dielectric thin-film can decrease the surface-charge accumulation at electrode interface. However, a lower surface polarization of dielectric thin-film leads to a larger shift with light intensity. This implies that a lower surface polarization of dielectric thin-film corresponds to a larger surface-charge accumulation. This experimental finding indicates that dielectric thin-film plays an important role in the surface-charge accumulation and collection in the generation of photocurrent in organic solar cells. We demonstrate that the device performance can reach the power conversion efficiency of 8.7% when a higher dielectric PFN is used to enhance the surface-charge collection based on the inverted design of ITO/PFN/PTB7:PC71BM/MoO3/Ag.

  4. Surface charge effects on the 2D conformation of supercoiled DNA.

    PubMed

    Schmatko, Tatiana; Muller, Pierre; Maaloum, Mounir

    2014-04-21

    We have adsorbed plasmid pUc19 DNA on a supported bilayer. By varying the fraction of cationic lipids in the membrane, we have tuned the surface charge. Plasmid conformations were imaged by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). We performed two sets of experiments: deposition from salt free solution on charged bilayers and deposition from salty solutions on neutral bilayers. Both sets show similar trends: at low surface charge density or low bulk salt concentration, the internal electrostatic repulsion forces plasmids to adopt completely opened structures, while at high surface charge density or higher bulk salt concentration, usual supercoiled plectonemes are observed. We experimentally demonstrate the equivalence of surface screening by mobile interfacial charges and bulk screening from salt ions. At low to medium screening, the electrostatic repulsion at plasmid crossings is predominant, leading to a number of crossovers decreasing linearly with the characteristic screening length. We compare our data with an analytical 2D-equilibrated model developed recently for the system and extract the DNA effective charge density when strands are adsorbed at the surface. PMID:24647451

  5. Effect of blood storage on erythrocyte/wall interactions: implications for surface charge and rigidity.

    PubMed

    Godin, C; Caprani, A

    1997-01-01

    In this report, we study, under flow conditions, the interactions of stored erythrocytes with an artificial surface: a microelectrode whose charge density ranges from -15 to +27 microC/cm2. Interactions consist of red cells slowly circulating on the microelectrode and exerting a real contact with the electrode. Interaction is detected and measured by transient fluctuations of the electrolyte resistance obtained by impedance measurement of the microelectrode. Effects of aging induced by storage of whole blood at 4 degrees C show that the surface charge of erythrocytes rapidly decreases when blood is stored for more than 6 days under our experimental conditions. In comparison with trypsin-treated erythrocytes, an eight day storage induces a 60% decrease in the surface charge of red cells. After two weeks of storage, red cells are no longer negatively charged, presumably because of removal of sialic acid. Cells rigidity is significant after 6 days of storage and influences the electrical contact. Membrane rigidity increase could arise from the surface charge decrease. Finally the surface charge decrease could be importance in the use of stored blood. PMID:9232845

  6. Tribological Properties of Nanodiamonds in Aqueous Suspensions: Effect of the Surface Charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krim, J.; Liu, Zijian; Leininger, D. A.; Kooviland, A.; Smirnov, A. I.; Shendarova, O.; Brenner, D. W.

    The presence of granular nanoparticulates, be they wear particles created naturally by frictional rubbing at a geological fault line or products introduced as lubricant additives, can dramatically alter friction at solid-liquid interfaces. Given the complexity of such systems, understanding system properties at a fundamental level is particularly challenging. The Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) is an ideal tool for studies of material-liquid-nanoparticulate interfaces. We have employed it here to study the uptake and nanotribological properties of positively and negatively charged 5-15 nm diameter nanodiamonds dispersed in water[1] in the both the presence and absence of a macroscopic contact with the QCM electrode. The nanodiamonds were found to impact tribological performance at both nanometer and macroscopic scales. The tribological effects were highly sensitive to the sign of the charge: negatively (positively) charged particles were more weakly (strongly) bound and reduced (increased) frictional drag at the solid-liquid interface. For the macroscopic contacts, negatively charged nanodiamonds appeared to be displaced from the contact, while the positively charged ones were not. Overall, the negatively charged nanodiamonds were more stable in an aqueous dispersion for extended time periods. Work supported by NSF and DOE.

  7. Effect of ion suprathermality on arbitrary amplitude dust acoustic waves in a charge varying dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Mayout, Saliha; Amour, Rabia

    2009-04-15

    Arbitrary amplitude dust acoustic waves in a high energy-tail ion distribution are investigated. The effects of charge variation and ion suprathermality on the large amplitude dust acoustic (DA) soliton are then considered. The correct suprathermal ion charging current is rederived based on the orbit motion limited approach. In the adiabatic case, the variable dust charge is expressed in terms of the Lambert function and we take advantage of this transcendental function to show the existence of rarefactive variable charge DA solitons involving cusped density humps. The dust charge variation leads to an additional enlargement of the DA soliton, which is less pronounced as the ions evolve far away from Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. In the nonadiabatic case, the dust charge fluctuation may provide an alternate physical mechanism causing anomalous dissipation the strength of which becomes important and may prevail over that of dispersion as the ion spectral index {kappa} increases. Our results may provide an explanation for the strong spiky waveforms observed in auroral electric field measurements by Ergun et al.[Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2025 (1998)].

  8. Effect of alkyl functionalization on charging of colloidal silica in apolar media.

    PubMed

    Poovarodom, Saran; Poovarodom, Sathin; Berg, John C

    2010-11-15

    The present work examines the effect of alkyl-silane treatment on the charging of colloids in apolar solvent using two otherwise identical 250 nm diameter, spherical silica particles, one with untreated surface and the other treated with hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (C16), dispersed in an apolar isoparaffin solvent (Isopar-L) containing one of three oil-soluble surfactants: Aerosol-OT, OLOA 11,000, and zirconyl 2-ethyl hexanoate. The electrophoretic mobility of each dispersion was determined using phase angle light scattering (PALS). It was found that at sufficiently high surfactant concentration, i.e., where micelles begin to form in the bulk, the particle surfaces could be electrically charged. All three surfactants studied imparted a negative surface charge to the untreated silica particles. In all cases, the C16-treated particles were also found to be negatively charged but had a much higher magnitude of mobility than the untreated silica. Although the increase in magnitude of mobility as a result of the alkyl functionalization was surprising, it could be attributed to the increase in the number of surface hydroxyl groups arising from the hydrolysis of unbound methoxy groups of the silane molecules. The added hydroxyl groups provided additional potential acid-base interaction sites, resulting in higher particle mobility. It was also found that further increases in surfactant concentration lowered the particle mobility, attributed to the increasing concentration of electrically charged micelles, which may partially neutralize the surface charge or compress the electrical double layer. PMID:20728088

  9. Tunneling current noise in the fractional quantum Hall effect: When the effective charge is not what it appears to be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snizhko, Kyrylo

    2016-01-01

    Fractional quantum Hall quasiparticles are famous for having fractional electric charge. Recent experiments report that the quasiparticle's effective electric charge determined through tunneling current noise measurements can depend on the system parameters such as temperature or bias voltage. Several works proposed to understand this as a signature for edge theory properties changing with energy scale. I consider two of such experiments and show that in one of them the apparent dependence of the electric charge on a system parameter is likely to be an artefact of experimental data analysis. Conversely, in the second experiment the dependence cannot be explained in such a way.

  10. Pairing of Fermions with Unequal Effective Charges in an Artificial Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünal, F. Nur; Oktel, M. Ö.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial magnetic fields (AMFs) created for ultracold systems depend sensitively on the internal structure of the atoms. In a mixture, each component experiences a different AMF depending on its internal state. This enables the study of Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer pairing of fermions with unequal effective charges. In this Letter, we investigate the superconducting (SC) transition of a system formed by such pairs as a function of field strength. We consider a homogeneous two-component Fermi gas of unequal effective charges but equal densities with attractive interactions. We find that the phase diagram is altered drastically compared to the usual balanced charge case. First, for some AMFs there is no SC transition and isolated SC phases are formed, reflecting the discrete Landau level (LL) structure. SC phases become reentrant both in AMF and temperature. For extremely high fields where both components are confined to their lowest LLs, the effect of the charge imbalance is suppressed. Charge asymmetry reduces the critical temperature even in the low-field semiclassical regime. We discuss a pair breaking mechanism due to the unequal Lorentz forces acting on the components of the Cooper pairs to identify the underlying physics.

  11. Effect of mobile ions on the electric field needed to orient charged diblock copolymer thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghan, Ashkan; Shi, An-Chang; Schick, M.

    2015-10-07

    We examine the behavior of lamellar phases of charged/neutral diblock copolymer thin films containing mobile ions in the presence of an external electric field. We employ self-consistent field theory and focus on the aligning effect of the electric field on the lamellae. Of particular interest are the effects of the mobile ions on the critical field, the value required to reorient the lamellae from the parallel configuration favored by the surface interaction to the perpendicular orientation favored by the field. We find that the critical field depends strongly on whether the neutral or charged species is favored by the substrates. In the case in which the neutral species is favored, the addition of charges decreases the critical electric field significantly. The effect is greater when the mobile ions are confined to the charged lamellae. In contrast, when the charged species is favored by the substrate, the addition of mobile ions stabilizes the parallel configuration and thus results in an increase in the critical electric field. The presence of ions in the system introduces a new mixed phase in addition to those reported previously.

  12. Pairing of Fermions with Unequal Effective Charges in an Artificial Magnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Ünal, F Nur; Oktel, M Ö

    2016-01-29

    Artificial magnetic fields (AMFs) created for ultracold systems depend sensitively on the internal structure of the atoms. In a mixture, each component experiences a different AMF depending on its internal state. This enables the study of Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer pairing of fermions with unequal effective charges. In this Letter, we investigate the superconducting (SC) transition of a system formed by such pairs as a function of field strength. We consider a homogeneous two-component Fermi gas of unequal effective charges but equal densities with attractive interactions. We find that the phase diagram is altered drastically compared to the usual balanced charge case. First, for some AMFs there is no SC transition and isolated SC phases are formed, reflecting the discrete Landau level (LL) structure. SC phases become reentrant both in AMF and temperature. For extremely high fields where both components are confined to their lowest LLs, the effect of the charge imbalance is suppressed. Charge asymmetry reduces the critical temperature even in the low-field semiclassical regime. We discuss a pair breaking mechanism due to the unequal Lorentz forces acting on the components of the Cooper pairs to identify the underlying physics. PMID:26871343

  13. Negative space charge effects in photon-enhanced thermionic emission solar converters

    SciTech Connect

    Segev, G.; Weisman, D.; Rosenwaks, Y.; Kribus, A.

    2015-07-06

    In thermionic energy converters, electrons in the gap between electrodes form a negative space charge and inhibit the emission of additional electrons, causing a significant reduction in conversion efficiency. However, in Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) solar energy converters, electrons that are reflected by the electric field in the gap return to the cathode with energy above the conduction band minimum. These electrons first occupy the conduction band from which they can be reemitted. This form of electron recycling makes PETE converters less susceptible to negative space charge loss. While the negative space charge effect was studied extensively in thermionic converters, modeling its effect in PETE converters does not account for important issues such as this form of electron recycling, nor the cathode thermal energy balance. Here, we investigate the space charge effect in PETE solar converters accounting for electron recycling, with full coupling of the cathode and gap models, and addressing conservation of both electric and thermal energy. The analysis shows that the negative space charge loss is lower than previously reported, allowing somewhat larger gaps compared to previous predictions. For a converter with a specific gap, there is an optimal solar flux concentration. The optimal solar flux concentration, the cathode temperature, and the efficiency all increase with smaller gaps. For example, for a gap of 3 μm the maximum efficiency is 38% and the optimal flux concentration is 628, while for a gap of 5 μm the maximum efficiency is 31% and optimal flux concentration is 163.

  14. Gate-Sensing Coherent Charge Oscillations in a Silicon Field-Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Zalba, M Fernando; Shevchenko, Sergey N; Barraud, Sylvain; Johansson, J Robert; Ferguson, Andrew J; Nori, Franco; Betz, Andreas C

    2016-03-01

    Quantum mechanical effects induced by the miniaturization of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology hamper the performance and scalability prospects of field-effect transistors. However, those quantum effects, such as tunneling and coherence, can be harnessed to use existing CMOS technology for quantum information processing. Here, we report the observation of coherent charge oscillations in a double quantum dot formed in a silicon nanowire transistor detected via its dispersive interaction with a radio frequency resonant circuit coupled via the gate. Differential capacitance changes at the interdot charge transitions allow us to monitor the state of the system in the strong-driving regime where we observe the emergence of Landau-Zener-Stückelberg-Majorana interference on the phase response of the resonator. A theoretical analysis of the dispersive signal demonstrates that quantum and tunneling capacitance changes must be included to describe the qubit-resonator interaction. Furthermore, a Fourier analysis of the interference pattern reveals a charge coherence time, T2 ≈ 100 ps. Our results demonstrate charge coherent control and readout in a simple silicon transistor and open up the possibility to implement charge and spin qubits in existing CMOS technology. PMID:26866446

  15. Manipulation of charge transfer and transport in plasmonic-ferroelectric hybrids for photoelectrochemical applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhijie; Cao, Dawei; Wen, Liaoyong; Xu, Rui; Obergfell, Manuel; Mi, Yan; Zhan, Zhibing; Nasori, Nasori; Demsar, Jure; Lei, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing plasmonic nanostructures for efficient and flexible conversion of solar energy into electricity or fuel presents a new paradigm in photovoltaics and photoelectrochemistry research. In a conventional photoelectrochemical cell, consisting of a plasmonic structure in contact with a semiconductor, the type of photoelectrochemical reaction is determined by the band bending at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. The nature of the reaction is thus hard to tune. Here instead of using a semiconductor, we employed a ferroelectric material, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT). By depositing gold nanoparticle arrays and PZT films on ITO substrates, and studying the photocurrent as well as the femtosecond transient absorbance in different configurations, we demonstrate an effective charge transfer between the nanoparticle array and PZT. Most importantly, we show that the photocurrent can be tuned by nearly an order of magnitude when changing the ferroelectric polarization in PZT, demonstrating a versatile and tunable system for energy harvesting. PMID:26753764

  16. Manipulation of charge transfer and transport in plasmonic-ferroelectric hybrids for photoelectrochemical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhijie; Cao, Dawei; Wen, Liaoyong; Xu, Rui; Obergfell, Manuel; Mi, Yan; Zhan, Zhibing; Nasori, Nasori; Demsar, Jure; Lei, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing plasmonic nanostructures for efficient and flexible conversion of solar energy into electricity or fuel presents a new paradigm in photovoltaics and photoelectrochemistry research. In a conventional photoelectrochemical cell, consisting of a plasmonic structure in contact with a semiconductor, the type of photoelectrochemical reaction is determined by the band bending at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. The nature of the reaction is thus hard to tune. Here instead of using a semiconductor, we employed a ferroelectric material, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT). By depositing gold nanoparticle arrays and PZT films on ITO substrates, and studying the photocurrent as well as the femtosecond transient absorbance in different configurations, we demonstrate an effective charge transfer between the nanoparticle array and PZT. Most importantly, we show that the photocurrent can be tuned by nearly an order of magnitude when changing the ferroelectric polarization in PZT, demonstrating a versatile and tunable system for energy harvesting.

  17. Manipulation of charge transfer and transport in plasmonic-ferroelectric hybrids for photoelectrochemical applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhijie; Cao, Dawei; Wen, Liaoyong; Xu, Rui; Obergfell, Manuel; Mi, Yan; Zhan, Zhibing; Nasori, Nasori; Demsar, Jure; Lei, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing plasmonic nanostructures for efficient and flexible conversion of solar energy into electricity or fuel presents a new paradigm in photovoltaics and photoelectrochemistry research. In a conventional photoelectrochemical cell, consisting of a plasmonic structure in contact with a semiconductor, the type of photoelectrochemical reaction is determined by the band bending at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. The nature of the reaction is thus hard to tune. Here instead of using a semiconductor, we employed a ferroelectric material, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT). By depositing gold nanoparticle arrays and PZT films on ITO substrates, and studying the photocurrent as well as the femtosecond transient absorbance in different configurations, we demonstrate an effective charge transfer between the nanoparticle array and PZT. Most importantly, we show that the photocurrent can be tuned by nearly an order of magnitude when changing the ferroelectric polarization in PZT, demonstrating a versatile and tunable system for energy harvesting. PMID:26753764

  18. An Investigation of CCD Charge Transfer and Detector Anomalies for a Low Light Level Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Samantha; Aldering, Greg Scott; Domagalski, Rachel; Boone, Kyle; Fagrelius, Parker; Hayden, Brian; Perlmutter, Saul; Saunders, Clare; Sofiatti, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The SuperNova Integral Field Spectrograph (SNIFS) is used to obtain spectra of nearby Type Ia supernovae as part of the Nearby Supernova Factory. Charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) in the CCD detectors used on SNIFS has the potential to cause distortions to spectra and increase noise. We present a study of the CTI in the SNIFS CCDs using trails from cosmic rays in dark frames. This study shows that the effect of CTI on supernova spectra is minimal, and additionally reveals a detector anomaly, a 1 e- undershoot, that is correlated with lower temperatures of the SDSU ARC electronics. We will also present plans for the characterization of new, lower noise, faster readout CCDs from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as part of an upgrade of SNIFS.

  19. Visible charge-coupled device (CCD) focal plane design considerations for multispectral applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowski, H.

    1982-01-01

    The typical Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) Instrument mission would be to gather high-resolution, radiometrically accurate earth resources data in several spectral bands over a prolonged period of time. These bands would include the visible (VIS), near infrared (NIR) and short wavelength infrared. Silicon charge-coupled imaging devices (CCDs) can be assembled into contiguous pixel focal planes which will cover the VIS/NIR region and operate reliably for several years in a space environment. A typical MLA focal plane would have approximately 12,000 pixels, with a pixel-to-pixel registration requirement on the order of + or - 0.1 pixel. The technology to assemble such focal planes has been developed and is described. The problem of polarization sensitivity associated with certain types of focal plane assemblies is addressed. Radiation effects on CCDs are also discussed, and a practical solution to the problem through the use of shielding is described.

  20. Resistive Micromegas for sampling calorimetry, a study of charge-up effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chefdeville, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Geralis, T.; Titov, M.

    2016-07-01

    Micromegas, as a proportional and compact gaseous detector, is well suited for sampling calorimetry. The limitation of occasional sparking has now been lifted by means of resistive electrodes but at the cost of current-dependent charge-up effects. These effects are studied in this contribution, with an emphasis on gain variations during operation at high particle rate and under heavy ionisation. Results are reproduced by a simple model of charging-up which will be used for detector design optimisation in the future.

  1. Effects of space charge on the acceptance of brightness measuring devices

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G.J.

    1985-08-14

    Attempts to measure high electron beam brightness at low values of beam energy are plagued by the effects of space charge forces. These forces can substantially lower the phase space acceptance of various brightness measuring devices. This report considers several models for the effects of space charge upon the acceptance of both the field free, double aperture system and the magnetic ''emittance selector'' and compares them for some recent experiments on ATA and the High Brightness Test Stand. Reasonably conservative correction factors for the acceptances of these devices are derived.

  2. Photovoltaic effect and charge storage in single ZnO nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Zhimin; Xu Jun; Zhang Jingmin; Yu Dapeng

    2008-07-14

    Asymmetric Schottky barriers between ZnO nanowire and metal electrode have been fabricated at the two ends of the nanowire. An obvious photocurrent generated from the device at zero voltage bias can be switched on/off with quick response by controlling the light irradiation. Moreover, the device can still afford a current at zero bias after switching off light illumination, which is ascribed to the charge storage effect in single ZnO nanowires. The underlying mechanisms related to the photovoltaic effect and charge storage were discussed.

  3. Effect of charged particle multiplicity fluctuations on flow harmonics in event-by-event hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, A. K.

    2013-03-01

    In nucleon-nucleon collisions, a charged particle's multiplicity fluctuates. We have studied the effect of multiplicity fluctuation on flow harmonics in nucleus-nucleus collisions in event-by-event hydrodynamics. Assuming that the charged particle's multiplicity fluctuations are governed by the negative binomial distribution, the Monte Carlo Glauber model of initial condition is generalized to include the fluctuations. Explicit simulations with the generalized Monte Carlo Glauber model initial conditions indicate that the multiplicity fluctuations do not have a large effect on the flow harmonics.

  4. 45 CFR 95.641 - Applicability of rules for charging equipment in Subpart G of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of rules for charging equipment in Subpart G of this part. 95.641 Section 95.641 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT PROGRAMS (PUBLIC ASSISTANCE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE...

  5. 47 CFR 1.1102 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings in the wireless telecommunications services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Schedule of charges for applications and other filings in the wireless telecommunications services. 1.1102 Section 1.1102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory...

  6. 47 CFR 1.1108 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the international telecommunication...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the international telecommunication services. 1.1108 Section 1.1108 Telecommunication FEDERAL... international telecommunication services. Remit payment (along with a copy of invoice) for these services to...

  7. 47 CFR 1.1108 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the international telecommunication...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the international telecommunication services. 1.1108 Section 1.1108 Telecommunication FEDERAL... international telecommunication services. Payment can be made electronically using the Commission's...

  8. 47 CFR 1.1108 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the international telecommunication...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the international telecommunication services. 1.1108 Section 1.1108 Telecommunication FEDERAL... international telecommunication services. Remit payment (along with a copy of invoice) for these services to...

  9. 47 CFR 1.1102 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings in the wireless telecommunications services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Schedule of charges for applications and other filings in the wireless telecommunications services. 1.1102 Section 1.1102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory...

  10. 47 CFR 1.1108 - Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the international telecommunication...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Schedule of charges for applications and other filings for the international telecommunication services. 1.1108 Section 1.1108 Telecommunication FEDERAL... telecommunication services. Remit payment (along with a copy of invoice) for these services to the:...

  11. Gold plasmonic effects on charge transport through single molecule junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, Olgun; Venkataraman, Latha

    2014-03-01

    We study the impact of surface plasmon polaritons, the coupling of electromagnetic waves to collective electron oscillations on metal surfaces, on the conductance of single-molecule junctions. We use a scanning-tunneling microscope based break junction setup that is built into an optical microscope to form molecular junctions. Coherent 685nm light is used to illuminate the molecular junctions formed with 4,4'-bipyridine with diffraction limited focusing performance. We employ a lock-in type technique to measure currents induced by light. Furthermore, the thermal expansion due to laser heating is mimicked by mechanically modulating inter-electrode separation. For each junction studied, we measure current, and use AC techniques to determine molecular junction resonance levels and coupling strengths. We use a cross correlations analysis technique to analyze and compare the effect of light to that of the mechanical modulation. Our results show that junction transmission characteristics are not altered under illumination, within the resolution of our instrument. We argue that photo-currents measured with lock-in techniques in these kinds of structures are due to thermal effects. This work was funded by the Center for Re-Defining Photovoltaic Efficiency through Molecule Scale Control, an EFRC funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DESC0001085.

  12. Non-targeted effects induced by high LET charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei, Tom K.; Chai, Yunfei; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Uchihori, Yukio

    Radiation-induced non-targeted response represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of the radiobiological effects of ionizing radiation in that extranuclear and extracellular effects may also contribute to the final biological consequences of exposure to low doses of radiation. Using the gpt delta transgenic mouse model, there is evidence that irradiation of a small area (1 cm by 1 cm) of the lower abdominal area of animals with a 5 Gy dose of X-rays induced cyclooxygenase-2 as well as deletion mutations in the out-of-field lung tissues of the animals. The mutation correlated with an increase in prostaglandin levels in the bystander lung tissues and with an increase in the level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an oxidative DNA damage marker. An increase in COX-2 level was also detected in the out-of-field lung tissues of animals similarly exposed to high LET argon and carbon ions accelerated at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan. These results provide the first evidence that the COX-2 -related pathway, which is essential in mediating cellular inflammatory response, is the critical signaling link for the non-targeted, bystander phenomenon. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the non-targeted, out of field phenomenon together with evidence of their occurrence in vivo will allow us to formulate a more accurate assessment of radiation risk.

  13. Kerr electro-optic field mapping study of the effect of charge injection on the impulse breakdown strength of transformer oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zahn, M.

    2013-10-01

    The smart use of charge injection to improve breakdown strength in transformer oil is demonstrated in this paper. Hypothetically, bipolar homo-charge injection with reduced electric field at both electrodes may allow higher voltage operation without insulation failure, since electrical breakdown usually initiates at the electrode-dielectric interfaces. To find experimental evidence, the applicability and limitation of the hypothesis is first analyzed. Impulse breakdown tests and Kerr electro-optic field mapping measurements are then conducted with different combinations of parallel-plate aluminum and brass electrodes stressed by millisecond duration impulse. It is found that the breakdown voltage of brass anode and aluminum cathode is ˜50% higher than that of aluminum anode and brass cathode. This can be explained by charge injection patterns from Kerr measurements under a lower voltage, where aluminum and brass electrodes inject negative and positive charges, respectively. This work provides a feasible approach to investigating the effect of electrode material on breakdown strength.

  14. Method for decomposing observed line shapes resulting from multiple causes - Application to plasma charge-exchange-neutral spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patch, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    A method is given for decomposing the widths of observed spectral lines resulting from unresolved line splitting, additive kinetic processes of different types, instrumental broadening (slit function), Doppler broadening, etc. all superimposed. The second moments are used as measures of the various widths involved. The method is not applicable if dispersion type (Lorentz) broadening occurs. Application is made to plasma charge-exchange-neutral spectra of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium.

  15. Probing inhibitory effects of nanocrystalline cellulose: inhibition versus surface charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Male, Keith B.; Leung, Alfred C. W.; Montes, Johnny; Kamen, Amine; Luong, John H. T.

    2012-02-01

    NCC derived from different biomass sources was probed for its plausible cytotoxicity by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). Two different cell lines, Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast V79, were exposed to NCC and their spreading and viability were monitored and quantified by ECIS. Based on the 50%-inhibition concentration (ECIS50), none of the NCC produced was judged to have any significant cytotoxicity on these two cell lines. However, NCC derived from flax exhibited the most pronounced inhibition on Sf9 compared to hemp and cellulose powder. NCCs from flax and hemp pre-treated with pectate lyase were also less inhibitory than NCCs prepared from untreated flax and hemp. Results also suggested a correlation between the inhibitory effect and the carboxylic acid contents on the NCC.

  16. Effective Control of the Charge and Magnetic States of Transition-Metal Atoms on Single-Layer Boron Nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, B.; Xiang, H. J.; Yu, J. J.; Wei, S. H.

    2012-05-18

    Developing approaches to effectively control the charge and magnetic states is critical to the use of magnetic nanostructures in quantum information devices but is still challenging. Here we suggest that the magnetic and charge states of transition-metal (TM) doped single-layer boron-nitride (SLBN) systems can be easily controlled by the (internal) defect engineering and (external) electric fields (E{sub ext}). The relative positions and symmetries of the in-gap levels induced by defect engineering and the TM d-orbital energy levels effectively determine the charge states and magnetic properties of the TM/SLBN system. Remarkably, the application of an E{sub ext} can easily control the size of the crystal field splitting of the TM d orbitals and thus, leading to the spin crossover in TM/SLBN, which could be used as E{sub ext}-driven nonvolatile memory devices. Our conclusion obtained from TM/SLBN is valid generally in other TM adsorbed layered semiconductors.

  17. Space-charge effects in ultra-high current electron bunches generated by laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Grinner, F. J.; Schroeder, C. B.; Maier, A. R.; Becker, S.; Mikhailova, J. M.

    2009-02-11

    Recent advances in laser-plasma accelerators, including the generation of GeV-scale electron bunches, enable applications such as driving a compact free-electron-laser (FEL). Significant reduction in size of the FEL is facilitated by the expected ultra-high peak beam currents (10-100 kA) generated in laser-plasma accelerators. At low electron energies such peak currents are expected to cause space-charge effects such as bunch expansion and induced energy variations along the bunch, potentially hindering the FEL process. In this paper we discuss a self-consistent approach to modeling space-charge effects for the regime of laser-plasma-accelerated ultra-compact electron bunches at low or moderate energies. Analytical treatments are considered as well as point-to-point particle simulations, including the beam transport from the laser-plasma accelerator through focusing devices and the undulator. In contradiction to non-self-consistent analyses (i.e., neglecting bunch evolution), which predict a linearly growing energy chirp, we have found the energy chirp reaches a maximum and decreases thereafter. The impact of the space-charge induced chirp on FEL performance is discussed and possible solutions are presented.

  18. Effects of different blasting materials on charge generation and decay on titanium surface after sandblasting.

    PubMed

    Guo, Cecilia Yan; Hong Tang, Alexander Tin; Hon Tsoi, James Kit; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka

    2014-04-01

    It has been reported that sandblasting titanium with alumina (Al2O3) powder could generate a negative electric charge on titanium surface. This has been proven to promote osteoblast activities and possibly osseointegration. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of different blasting materials, in terms of the grit sizes and electro-negativity, on the generation of a negative charge on the titanium surface. The aim was also to make use of these results to deduct the underlying mechanism of charge generation by sandblasting. Together 60 c.p. 2 titanium plates were machine-cut and polished for sandblasting, and divided into 6 groups with 10 plates in each. Every plate in the study groups was sandblasted with one of the following 6 powder materials: 110µm Al2O3 grits, 50µm Al2O3 grits, 150-300µm glass beads, 45-75µm glass beads, 250µm Al powder and 44µm Al powder. The static voltage on the surface of every titanium plate was measured immediately after sandblasting. The static voltages of the titanium plates were recorded and processed using statistical analysis. The results suggested that only sandblasting with 45-75µm glass beads generated a positive charge on titanium, while using all other blasting materials lead to a negative charge. Furthermore, blasting grits of the same powder material but of different sizes might lead to different amount and polarity of the charges. This triboelectric effect is likely to be the main mechanism for charge generation through sandblasting. PMID:24463476

  19. Effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on the stability of dispersions of weakly charged colloids.

    PubMed

    Herman, David; Walz, John Y

    2015-05-01

    The stability behavior of dispersions of weakly charged silica colloids was studied in the presence of highly charged metal oxide nanoparticles. Experiments were performed using 5 nm zirconia as well as 10 nm alumina nanoparticles (both positively charged), which were added to 0.1 vol % suspensions of 1.0 μm silica microparticles at the silica IEP. Both types of nanoparticles provided effective stabilization of the silica; i.e., the silica suspensions were stabilized for longer than the observation period (greater than 12 h). Stability was observed at zirconia concentrations as low as 10(-4) vol % and at an alumina concentration of 10(-2) vol %. The nanoparticles adsorbed onto the microparticle surfaces (confirmed via SEM imaging), which increased the zeta-potential of the silica. Force profile measurements performed with colloidal probe atomic force microscopy showed that the adsorption was effectively irreversible. PMID:25860256

  20. Interplay of space-charge and beam-beam effects in a collider

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A.V.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.

    2010-09-27

    Operation of a collider at low energy or use of cooling techniques to increase beam density may result in luminosity limitation due to the space-charge effects. Understanding of such limitation became important for Low-Energy RHIC physics program with heavy ions at the center of mass energies of 5-20 GeV/nucleon. For a collider, we are interested in a long beam lifetime, which limits the allowable space-charge tune shift. An additional complication comes from the fact that ion beams are colliding, which requires careful consideration of the interplay of direct space-charge and beam-beam effects. This paper summarizes the initial observations during experimental studies in RHIC at low energies.

  1. Spin-orbit coupling and electronic charge effects in Mott insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Shan; Li, You -Quan; Batista, Cristian D.

    2014-11-04

    We derive the effective charge- and current-density operators for the strong-coupling limit of a single-band Mott insulator in the presence of spin-orbit coupling and show that the spin-orbit contribution to the effective charge density leads to novel mechanisms for multiferroic behavior. In some sense, these mechanisms are the electronic counterpart of the ionic-based mechanisms, which have been proposed for explaining the electric polarization induced by spiral spin orderings. In addition, the new electronic mechanisms are illustrated by considering cycloidal and proper-screw magnetic orderings on sawtooth and kagome lattices. As for the isotropic case, geometric frustration is crucial for achieving this purely electronic coupling between spin and charge degrees of freedom.

  2. Spin-orbit coupling and electronic charge effects in Mott insulators

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhu, Shan; Li, You -Quan; Batista, Cristian D.

    2014-11-04

    We derive the effective charge- and current-density operators for the strong-coupling limit of a single-band Mott insulator in the presence of spin-orbit coupling and show that the spin-orbit contribution to the effective charge density leads to novel mechanisms for multiferroic behavior. In some sense, these mechanisms are the electronic counterpart of the ionic-based mechanisms, which have been proposed for explaining the electric polarization induced by spiral spin orderings. In addition, the new electronic mechanisms are illustrated by considering cycloidal and proper-screw magnetic orderings on sawtooth and kagome lattices. As for the isotropic case, geometric frustration is crucial for achieving thismore » purely electronic coupling between spin and charge degrees of freedom.« less

  3. Lorentz Force Effects on the Orbit of a Charged Artificial Satellite: A New Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aziz, Yehia A.

    2007-02-01

    A charged artificial satellite moving relative to a magnetic field accelerates in a direction perpendicular to its velocity and the magnetic field due to the Lorentz force. The geomagnetic field is considered as a multipole potential field and the satellite electrical charged is supposed to be constant. The study is provided to compute Lorentz force acceleration of a charged satellite in Earth's magnetic field as a function of orbital elements of the satellite. Periodic perturbations in the orbital elements of the satellite are derived using Lagrange planetary equations. Numerical results for a chosen satellites orbit shows the most effects of Lorentz force are in semi major axis, eccentricity, and the longitude of the satellite, but there aren't any effects of the force on the inclination and the argument of the perigee of the satellite elements.

  4. Gating capacitive field-effect sensors by the charge of nanoparticle/molecule hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghossian, Arshak; Bäcker, Matthias; Mayer, Dirk; Schöning, Michael J.

    2014-12-01

    The semiconductor field-effect platform is a powerful tool for chemical and biological sensing with direct electrical readout. In this work, the field-effect capacitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structure - the simplest field-effect (bio-)chemical sensor - modified with citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been applied for a label-free electrostatic detection of charged molecules by their intrinsic molecular charge. The EIS sensor detects the charge changes in AuNP/molecule inorganic/organic hybrids induced by the molecular adsorption or binding events. The feasibility of the proposed detection scheme has been exemplarily demonstrated by realizing capacitive EIS sensors consisting of an Al-p-Si-SiO2-silane-AuNP structure for the label-free detection of positively charged cytochrome c and poly-d-lysine molecules as well as for monitoring the layer-by-layer formation of polyelectrolyte multilayers of poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate), representing typical model examples of detecting small proteins and macromolecules and the consecutive adsorption of positively/negatively charged polyelectrolytes, respectively. For comparison, EIS sensors without AuNPs have been investigated, too. The adsorption of molecules on the surface of AuNPs has been verified via the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method. In addition, a theoretical model of the functioning of the capacitive field-effect EIS sensor functionalized with AuNP/charged-molecule hybrids has been discussed.The semiconductor field-effect platform is a powerful tool for chemical and biological sensing with direct electrical readout. In this work, the field-effect capacitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structure - the simplest field-effect (bio-)chemical sensor - modified with citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been applied for a label-free electrostatic detection of charged molecules by their intrinsic molecular charge. The EIS sensor

  5. The Effects of Stoichiometry on the Optical Properties of PTZ-TCNQ Charge Transfer Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Iris; Joshi, Jaydeep; Smith, Robert; Melis, Scott; van Keuren, Edward; Vora, Patrick

    Charge transfer (CT) crystals are two-component organic materials formed by stacked pairs of donor and acceptor molecules. Depending on the choice of donor and acceptor molecules it is possible to achieve semiconducting, insulating, or metallic characteristics, making the CT crystal platform potentially transformative for applications in low-cost flexible electronics. The use of phenothiazine (PTZ) donors and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) acceptors is predicted to result in a semiconducting state with high electron and hole mobilities, properties that are ideal for ambipolar transistors. Here, we seek to understand the effect of stoichiometry on the optical and electronic properties of PTZ:TCNQ CT crystals by comparing nanowires with 1:1 stoichiometry to a novel 3:1 stoichiometry using temperature-dependent optical spectroscopy. Ensemble photoluminescence and absorption measurements indicate that a CT state forms in the 1:1 sample, whereas the 3:1 sample exhibits weaker coupling between TCNQ and PTZ. These results support a strong correlation between stoichiometry and optical properties. Our observations give important insight into how the intermolecular coupling varies with stoichiometry and are crucial to future efforts to realize an organic ambipolar transistor.

  6. A one-wire battery monitoring system with applications to on-board charging for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Dieter

    1990-10-01

    A on-board charge system which utilizes a one-wire system for voltage monitoring is discussed and test results obtained using the system are presented. The system consists of the following: (1) a 20 kHz high frequency charger; (2) a charge algorithm for lead-acid batteries with gelled electrolyte, such that gassing is avoided; (3) the control system to implement this charge algorithm; and (4) a one-wire battery monitoring system to provide cell/module voltage information to the battery charge controller. Prototype elements of the system have been tested and the system was installed into an EVA Pacer electric vehicle. Charge tests are performed and data taken with the system installed. All elements of the system functioned properly under user conditions. In particular, the charger demonstrated good efficiency, near unity power factor and full programmability. The charge controller functioned reliably and without flaw. The one-wire monitoring system which permits monitoring of cell/module voltages in a battery pack without an extensive conventional wire harness has proven effective and voltage measurements were taken fast enough for control of charging. It was found that for the purpose of voltage monitoring under driving conditions, the system in its present form is too slow.

  7. A one-wire'' battery monitoring system with applications to on-board charging for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, D. . Kenneth E. Johnson Research Center)

    1990-10-08

    A novel on-board charge system which utilizes a One-Wire'' system for voltage monitoring is discussed and test results obtained using the system are presented. The system consists of a 20 kHz high frequency charger, an algorithm for charging lead-acid batteries with gelled electrolyte, such that gassing is avoided, the control system to implement this charge algorithm and a one-wire battery monitoring system to provide cell/module voltage information to the battery charge controller. Prototype elements of the system have been tested and the system was installed into an EVA Pacer electric vehicle. Charge tests are performed and data taken with the system installed. All elements of the system functioned properly under user conditions. In particular, the charger demonstrated good efficiency, near unity power factor and full programmability. The charge controller functioned reliably and without flaw. The one-wire monitoring system which permits monitoring of cell/module voltages in a battery pack without an extensive conventional wire harness has proven effective and voltage measurements have taken fast enough for control of charging. It was found that for the purpose of voltage monitoring under driving conditions, the system in its present form is too slow.

  8. Ultrashort pulsed laser tools for testing of semiconductor elements hardness to single event effects, caused by cosmic heavy charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordienko, Alexandra V.; Mavritskii, Oleg B.; Egorov, Andrey N.; Pechenkin, Alexander A.; Savchenkov, Dmitriy V.

    2015-03-01

    The installations for laser testing of microelectronic elements (first of all - integrated circuits) of devices for space applications for hardness to local radiation effects from heavy charged particles are presented. The possibility of a focused pulsed laser radiation application to the study of local radiation effects, caused by single heavy charged particles, is explained. The fundamentals of an approach to the construction of test sets, based on the picosecond and femtosecond lasers and systems for focusing their radiation, are considered. The main technical requirements for the basic modules of sets for laser testing (laser wavelength and pulse duration and repetition rate, spatial beam parameters and minimal spot size, speed of object movement and so on) are substantiated. All worked out sets have a full-featured software for the operational management of all modules of the laser test facility, including the positioning of the object, to provide feedback from the measurement results of the reaction of the object on the laser excitation. The parameters of developed laser hardware and software systems and their foreign counterparts are compared. Further improvement directions for laser testing tools are briefly outlined. The discussion is also presented of described hardware technical and operational characteristics, allowing to use it for a variety of scientific research studies, requiring selective (with submicron spatial resolution) object excitation by ultrashort laser pulses and recording responses to this effect with the exact timing of the moment of excitation, as well as to perform a variety of high precision technological operations.

  9. Effect of Surface Charge on Laser-induced Neutral Atom Desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Kenneth M.; Joly, Alan G.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2010-10-01

    When an ionic metal oxide crystal is cleaved, inhomogeneous electrical charging of the surface can be a result. Such an effect has been well-documented in magnesium oxide (100). For example, recent rigorous AFM studies indicate that nanoscale charged clusters of MgO are created during cleavage, with high concentrations often located at terrace step edges.[1] In addition, ablation processes of freshly cleaved magnesium oxide crystals may be effected by remnant surface charging and microstructures.[2] We report here that such surface charging strongly impacts even neutral atom desorption, even under conditions of extremely mild excitation of surface terrace features. In our experiments, single crystal MgO (100) is cleaved in air and placed in an ultra-high vacuum chamber (UHV). We irradiate the crystal at 6.4 eV, photon energy resonant with five-coordinated (5-C) terrace sites and probe desorbing neutral oxygen atoms. It is found that a significant fraction of desorbed neutral oxygen atoms from the charged surface possess kinetic energies in excess of 0.7 eV. This is in contrast to uncharged samples (discharged in vacuo over 24 hours) that display a near-thermal oxygen atom distribution.

  10. Isotope effect in charge-transfer collisions of H with He{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Loreau, J.; Dalgarno, A.; Ryabchenko, S.

    2011-11-15

    We present a theoretical study of the isotope effect arising from the replacement of H by T in the charge-transfer collision H(n=2) + He{sup +}(1s) at low energy. Using a quasimolecular approach and a time-dependent wave-packet method, we compute the cross sections for the reaction including the effects of the nonadiabatic radial and rotational couplings. For H(2s) + He{sup +}(1s) collisions, we find a strong isotope effect at energies below 1 eV/amu for both singlet and triplet states. We find a much smaller isotopic dependence of the cross section for H(2p) + He{sup +}(1s) collisions in triplet states, and no isotope effect in singlet states. We explain the isotope effect on the basis of the potential energy curves and the nonadiabatic couplings, and we evaluate the importance of the isotope effect on the charge-transfer rate coefficients.

  11. Pulsed acceleration charge detection mass spectrometry: application to weighing electrosprayed droplets.

    PubMed

    Mabbett, Sarah R; Zilch, Lloyd W; Maze, Joshua T; Smith, John W; Jarrold, Martin F

    2007-11-15

    We describe a new approach to measuring the masses of individual macroions. The method employs a pulsed acceleration tube located between two sensitive image charge detectors. The charge and velocity of the macroion are recorded with the first image charge detector. The ion is pulse accelerated through a known voltage drop, and then the charge and velocity are remeasured using the second image charge detector. The mass of the ion is deduced from its charge and its initial and final velocities. The approach has been used to measure masses in the 10(10)-10(14) Da range with z = 10(3)-10(6) and m/z = 10(6)-10(9). It should be extendable to masses of <10(6) Da. We have used the method to determine the size and charge of water droplets transmitted through a capillary interface and an aperture interface. The droplets detected from the aperture interface are approximately 1 order of magnitude smaller in mass than those detected from the capillary interface. The droplets from both interfaces have relatively low charges, particularly with the capillary interface where they are only charged to a small fraction of the Rayleigh limit. These results suggest that the aerodynamic breakup of the droplets plays a significant role in the mechanism of electrospray ionization. PMID:17929878

  12. High performance and reversible ionic polypeptide hydrogel based on charge-driven assembly for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Cui, Haitao; Zhuang, Xiuli; He, Chaoliang; Wei, Yen; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-01-01

    In the pursuit of new strategies for the design and synthesis of high performance, physically associated hydrogels, dynamic materials formed through electrostatic interactions can serve as a powerful model. Here, we introduce a convenient strategy to obtain biodegradable hydrogels from ABA triblock ionic polypeptides formed by mixing poly(L-glutamic acid)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-glutamic acid) (PGA-PEG-PGA) with poly(L-lysine)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lysine) (PLL-PEG-PLL). The hydrogels showed tunable physical properties, high strength and reversible response. The reactive function groups in the ionic blocks can conjugate with oppositely charged drugs or proteins and allow for further modification. These ionic ABA triblock polyelectrolytes can also encapsulate intact cells without significantly compromising cell viability, suggesting that the hydrogels have excellent cytocompatibility. In vivo evaluation performed in rats with subcutaneous injection indicated that the gels were formed and degraded, and hematoxylin and eosin staining suggested good biocompatibility in vivo. In addition, these advantages, combined with the synthetic accessibility of the copolymer, make this cross-linking system a flexible and powerful new tool for the development of injectable hydrogels for biomedical applications. PMID:25242655

  13. Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Trackers For High-Accuracy Guidance Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Phil M.

    1981-02-01

    Recent advances in large area charge-coupled device (CCD) imaging detectors and high-speed microprocessors have prompted the development of a new clss of electro-optical tracking instruments at the Jet Propulsion Labora-tory (JPL). These instruments are designed for standardized NASA-wide usage and are characterized by their extremely high pointing accuracy and stability and performance capabilities which are largely software defined and thus easily adapted to a variety of mission requirements. This paper presents an examination of the methods by which CCD detectors are being incorporated in star tracker instruments and the performance capabilities that can be expected from currently available devices. The multi-function sensor concept, in which a single sensor can function in a variety of guidance applications, is described. Software algorithms designed to provide efficient extraction of guidance information from both point and extended images are also presented. CCD star tracker implementations currently underway at JPL are described, and perfor-mance data obtained during laboratory testing are presented and discussed.

  14. Analysis of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines for Cogeneration Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S; Martinez-Frias, J; Reistad, G

    2004-04-30

    This paper presents an evaluation of the applicability of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines (HCCI) for small-scale cogeneration (less than 1 MWe) in comparison to five previously analyzed prime movers. The five comparator prime movers include stoichiometric spark-ignited (SI) engines, lean burn SI engines, diesel engines, microturbines and fuel cells. The investigated option, HCCI engines, is a relatively new type of engine that has some fundamental differences with respect to other prime movers. Here, the prime movers are compared by calculating electric and heating efficiency, fuel consumption, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions and capital and fuel cost. Two cases are analyzed. In Case 1, the cogeneration facility requires combined power and heating. In Case 2, the requirement is for power and chilling. The results show that the HCCI engines closely approach the very high fuel utilization efficiency of diesel engines without the high emissions of NOx and the expensive diesel fuel. HCCI engines offer a new alternative for cogeneration that provides a unique combination of low cost, high efficiency, low emissions and flexibility in operating temperatures that can be optimally tuned for cogeneration systems. HCCI engines are the most efficient technology that meets the oncoming 2007 CARB NOx standards for cogeneration engines. The HCCI engine appears to be a good option for cogeneration systems and merits more detailed analysis and experimental demonstration.

  15. Addition of Electrostatic Forces to EDEM with Applications to Triboelectrically Charged Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos; Curry, David

    2008-01-01

    Tribocharging of particles is common in many processes including fine powder handling and mixing, printer toner transport and dust extraction. In a lunar environment with its high vacuum and lack of water, electrostatic forces are an important factor to consider when designing and operating equipment. Dust mitigation and management is critical to safe and predictable performance of people and equipment. The extreme nature of lunar conditions makes it difficult and costly to carryout experiments on earth which are necessary to better understand how particles gather and transfer charge between each other and with equipment surfaces. DEM (Discrete Element Modeling) provides an excellent virtual laboratory for studying tribocharging of particles as well as for design of devices for dust mitigation and for other purposes related to handling and processing of lunar regolith. Theoretical and experimental work has been performed pursuant to incorporating screened Coulombic electrostatic forces into EDEM Tm, a commercial DEM software package. The DEM software is used to model the trajectories of large numbers of particles for industrial particulate handling and processing applications and can be coupled with other solvers and numerical models to calculate particle interaction with surrounding media and force fields. In this paper we will present overview of the theoretical calculations and experimental data and their comparison to the results of the DEM simulations. We will also discuss current plans to revise the DEM software with advanced electrodynamic and mechanical algorithms.

  16. Charge-coupled device /CCD/ trackers for high accuracy guidance applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    Recent advances in large area charge coupled device (CCD) imaging detectors and high speed microprocessors have prompted the development of a new class of electro-optical tracking instruments at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). These instruments are designed for standardized NASA-wide usage and are characterized by their extremely high pointing accuracy and stability and performance capabilities which are largely software defined and thus easily adapted to a variety of mission requirements. This paper presents an examination of the methods by which CCD detectors are being incorporated in star tracker instruments and the performance capabilities that can be expected from currently available devices. The multi-function sensor concept, in which a single sensor can function in a variety of guidance applications, is described. Software algorithms designed to provide efficient extraction of guidance information from both point and extended images are also presented. CCD star tracker implementations currently underway at JPL are described, and performance data obtained during laboratory testing is presented and discussed.

  17. Calculation of dose, dose equivalent, and relative biological effectiveness for high charge and energy ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Chun, S. Y.; Reginatto, M.; Hajnal, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Green's function for the transport of ions of high charge and energy is utilized with a nuclear fragmentation database to evaluate dose, dose equivalent, and RBE for C3H10T1/2 cell survival and neo-plastic transformation as function of depth in soft tissue. Such evaluations are useful to estimates of biological risk for high altitude aircraft, space operations, accelerator operations, and biomedical application.

  18. Probing Electronic, Structural, and Charge Transfer Properties of Organic Semiconductor/Inorganic Oxide Interfaces Using Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalenka, Josef Wade

    Interfaces between organic semiconductors and inorganic oxides provide the functionality for devices including field-effect transistors (FETs) and organic photovoltaics. Organic FETs are sensitive to the physical structure and electronic properties of the few molecular layers of material at the interface between the semiconducting channel and the gate dielectric, and provide quantitative information such as the field-effect mobility of charge carriers and the concentration of trapped charge. In this thesis, FET interfaces between organic small-molecule semiconductors and SiO2, and donor/acceptor interfaces between organic small-molecules and the wide bandgap semiconductor ZnO are studied using electrical measurements of field-effect transistor devices. Monolayer-scale films of dihexyl sexithiophene are shown to have higher hole mobility than other monolayer organic semiconductors, and the origin of the high mobility is discussed. Studies of the crystal structure of the monolayer using X-ray structural probes and atomic force microscopy reveal the crystal structure is different in the monolayer regime compared to thicker films and bulk crystals. Progress and remaining challenges are discussed for in situ X-ray diffraction studies of the dynamic changes in the local crystal structure in organic monolayers due to charge carriers generated during the application of electric fields from the gate electrode in working FETs. Studies were conducted of light sensitive organic/inorganic interfaces that are modified with organic molecules grafted to the surface of ZnO nanoparticles and thin films. These interfaces are models for donor/acceptor interfaces in photovoltaics. The process of exciton dissociation at the donor/acceptor interface was sensitive to the insulating or semiconducting molecules grafted to the ZnO, and the photoinduced charge transfer process is measured by the threshold voltage shift of FETs during illumination. Charge transfer between light sensitive donor

  19. Open questions in electronic sputtering of solids by slow highly charged ions with respect to applications in single ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, T.; Rangelow, I.W.; Keller, R.; Park, S.J.; Nilsson, J.; Persaud, A.; Radmilivitc, V.R.; Liddle, J.A.; Grabiec, P.; Bokor, J.; Schneider, D.H.

    2003-07-16

    In this article we discuss open questions in electronic sputtering of solids by slow, highly charged ions in the context of their application in a single ion implantation scheme. High yields of secondary electrons emitted when highly charged dopant ions impinge on silicon wafers allow for formation of non-Poissonian implant structures such as single atom arrays. Control of high spatial resolution and implant alignment require the use of nanometer scale apertures. We discuss electronic sputtering issues on mask lifetimes, and damage to silicon wafers.

  20. An exact method to obtain effective electrostatic interactions from computer simulations: The case of effective charge amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Mozuelos, P.; Guerrero-García, G. I.; Olvera de la Cruz, M.

    2013-08-01

    We discuss here an exact method to determine the parameters regulating the screened Coulomb interactions among spherical macroions immersed in a simple electrolyte. This approach provides rigorous definitions for the corresponding screening length, effective permittivity, and renormalized charges, and can be employed for precise and reliable calculations of these parameters within any scheme. In particular, we introduce a simple procedure for extracting this information from computer simulations. The viability of this approach is demonstrated by applying it to a three-component model system which includes anionic nanoparticles and monovalent cations and anions. The mean forces between nanoparticles are determined directly from simulations with two macroions, plus small ions, inside a single cell with periodic boundary conditions. The values of the parameters of interest, on the other hand, are gathered from two separate sets of computer simulations: one set provides information about the short-range correlations among the small ions, which in turn determine the screening length and effective permittivity; the second set supplies the short-range components of the ionic distribution around one isolated macroion, which also determine its renormalized charge. The method presented here thus avoids the uncertain fitting of these parameters from the asymptotic tail of the mean force and allows us to investigate in detail this connection between the renormalized charge of the macroion and the short-range (virtual) part of the ionic cloud surrounding it. Using the standard prescription to extract an effective charge from the corresponding renormalized value, we then proceed to clarify the mechanisms behind the possibility of effective charge amplification (i.e., an effective charge larger than the bare macroion charge). Complementarily, we report results for the corresponding bridge functions too.

  1. Effect of three-body interactions on the phase behavior of charge-stabilized colloidal suspensions.

    PubMed

    Hynninen, A-P; Dijkstra, M; van Roij, R

    2004-06-01

    We study numerically the effect of attractive triplet interactions on the phase behavior of suspensions of highly charged colloidal particles at low salinity. In our computer simulations, we employ the pair and triplet potentials that were obtained from a numerical Poisson-Boltzmann study [Phys. Rev. E 66, 011402 (2002)

  2. Charged Particle Environments in Earth's Magnetosphere and their Effects on Space System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews information on space radiation environments important to magnetospheric missions including trapped radiation, solar particle events, cosmic rays, and solar winds. It also includes information about ion penetration of the magnetosphere, galactic cosmic rays, solar particle environments, CRRES internal discharge monitor, surface charging and radiation effects.

  3. Dynamic aperture and space charge effect studies for the Recycler ring for Project-X

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, M.; Vorobiev, L.G.; Johnson, D.E.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    A simplified Recycler lattice was created to fine tune injection straight, ring tune, and phase trombone. In this paper, we will present detailed modifications for further optimization of Recycler lattice which requires the investigation of tune footprint and dynamic aperture based on higher order momentum components of the magnetic fields, together with the space charge effects.

  4. Charge Effects for Differentiation of Oligodeoxynucleotide Isomers Containing 8-oxo-dG Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Hai; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2002-02-01

    Dissociation reactions of a series of multiply charged oligonucleotides anions were studied using an ion trap mass spectrometer. These mixed-nucleobase 12-mers fragment first by loss of a nucleobase (A, G, C and/or 5-methyl-cytosine) followed by cleavage at 3' C-O bond of the sugar from which the base is lost to produce the complementary sequence ions, i.e. a-B and w type of ions. No detectable loss of 8-oxo-guanine and/or thymine from these 12-mers is observed for the gentle collision conditions in the ion trap. The primary loss of a nucleobase and the subsequent backbone cleavage to generate sequence ions strongly depend on the charge state of the parent molecular ion. For low charge states (-2 and ?3), product ions due to the loss of a neutral guanine base and related sequence ions are dominant in the tandem mass spectra. However, preferential loss of a neutral adenine becomes the primary reaction channel from the ?5 charge state of the molecular ion. Such charge state dependent fragmentation behavior was utilized to determine the sites of 8-oxo-dG residue in a series of structural isomers. The position of 8-oxo-dG residue can be simply determined from the fragmentation pattern of ?3 charge state, but not of ?5 charge state. The strategy illustrated here for positional mapping of damaged residues in oligonucleotides is highly sensitive due to effective dynamic range enhancement in the product ion spectra by accessing the sequence informative reaction channels.

  5. Shock wave in magnetized dusty plasmas with dust charging and nonthermal ion effects

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Liping; Xue Jukui

    2005-04-15

    The effects of the external magnetized field, nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation, and nonthermally distributed ions on three-dimensional dust acoustic shock wave in dusty plasmas have been investigated. By using the reductive perturbation method, a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) Burger equation governing the dust acoustic shock wave is derived. The results of numerical integrations of KdV Burger equation show that the external magnetized field, nonthermally distributed ions, and nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation have strong influence on the shock structures.

  6. Simulation of space charge effects and transition crossing in the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, P.; MacLachlan, J.

    1987-03-01

    The longitudinal phase space program ESME, modified for space charge and wall impedance effects, has been used to simulate transition crossing in the Fermilab Booster. The simulations yield results in reasonable quantitative agreement with measured parameters. They further indicate that a transition jump scheme currently under construction will significantly reduce emittance growth, while attempts to alter machine impedance are less obviously beneficial. In addition to presenting results, this paper points out a serious difficulty, related to statistical fluctuations, in the space charge calculation. False indications of emittance growth can appear if care is not taken to minimize this problem.

  7. Charge and Hydrophobicity Effects of NIR Fluorophores on Bone-Specific Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Kai; Nasr, Khaled A.; Hyun, Hoon; Lee, Jeong Heon; Gravier, Julien; Gibbs, Summer L.; Choi, Hak Soo

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging enabled real-time intraoperative detection of bone metastases, bone growth, and tissue microcalcification. Pamidronate (PAM) has been widely used for this purpose because of its high binding affinity toward bone and remarkable therapeutic effects. Herein we describe the development of a series of PAM-conjugated NIR fluorophores that varied in net charges and hydrophobicity, and compared their bone targeting efficiency, biodistribution, and blood clearance. Since the targeting moiety, PAM, is highly negatively charged but small, the overall in vivo bone targeting and biodistribution were mediated by the physicochemical properties of conjugated fluorophores. PMID:25825600

  8. Significant curvature effects of partially charged carbon nanotubes on electrolyte behavior investigated using Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Ohba, T

    2016-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes and graphene are among the major nanomaterials in nanoscience and technology. Despite having π electrons, these nanocarbon allotropes have been simply considered as neutral in classical calculations. In this study, the effects of partial charges on graphene and curved interfaces on molecular adsorption were investigated using Monte Carlo simulations of N2 and NaCl aqueous solutions on graphene and carbon nanotubes. The simulated N2 adsorption behavior and adsorption potential on partially charged and non-charged graphene coincided with each other. The adsorption potentials suggested that partially charged graphene attracted Na ions and repelled Cl ions. However, those tendencies were not present in NaCl aqueous solutions on graphene. Conversely, in partially charged carbon nanotube models, a preference for Na ions and repulsion of Cl ions in the internal nanospaces were observed in the adsorption potentials using Monte Carlo simulations. Curved interfaces in the internal nanospaces of carbon nanotubes enhanced these properties, suggesting significant electrostatic interactions in a curved π-conjugated system. PMID:27181336

  9. Bactericidal Effects of Charged Silver Nanoparticles in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Urbina, Dulce; Velazquez-Salazar, J. Jesus; Lara, Humberto H.; Arellano-Jimenez, Josefina; Larios, Eduardo; Yuan, Tony T.; Hwang, Yoon; Desilva, Mauris N.; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    The increased number of infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a major concern to society. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of positively charged AgNPs on methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) cell wall using advanced electron microscopy techniques. Positively charged AgNPs suspensions were synthesized via a microwave heating technique. The suspensions were then characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) showing AgNPs size range from 5 to 30 nm. MSSA and MRSA were treated with positively charged AgNPs concentrations ranging from 0.06 mM to 31 mM. The MIC50 studies showed that viability of MSSA and MRSA could be reduced by 50% at a positively charged AgNPs concentration of 0.12 mM supported by Scanning-TEM (STEM) images demonstrating bacteria cell wall disruption leading to lysis after treatment with AgNPs. The results provide insights into one mechanism in which positively charged AgNPs are able to reduce the viability of MSSA and MRSA. This research is supported by National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (G12MD007591) from NIH, NSF-PREM Grant No. DMR-0934218, The Welch Foundation and NAMRU-SA work number G1009.

  10. Effects of Solar Magnetic Activity on the Charge States of Minor Ions of Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuyu

    We present an investigation of the effects of solar magnetic activity on the charge states of minor ions (Fe, Si, Mg, Ne, O, C) in the solar wind using ACE solar wind data, the Current Sheet Source Surface (CSSS) model of the corona and SoHO/MDI data during the 23rd solar cycle. We found that the mean charge states indicate a clear trend to increase with the solar activity when the solar wind speed is above 550 km/s. Below this speed, no significant solar activity dependence is found. When displayed as a function of solar wind speed, iron is different from other elements in that it displays lower charge states in slow wind than in fast wind. The percentages of the high charge states for species with higher m/q (Fe) increase with the solar wind speed, while for the species with lower m/q (Si,Mg, O, C), the percentages of the high charge states decrease with the solar wind speed.

  11. Space charge enhanced plasma gradient effects on satellite electric field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diebold, Dan; Hershkowitz, Noah; Dekock, J.; Intrator, T.; Hsieh, M-K.

    1991-01-01

    It has been recognized that plasma gradients can cause error in magnetospheric electric field measurements made by double probes. Space charge enhanced Plasma Gradient Induced Error (PGIE) is discussed in general terms, presenting the results of a laboratory experiment designed to demonstrate this error, and deriving a simple expression that quantifies this error. Experimental conditions were not identical to magnetospheric conditions, although efforts were made to insure the relevant physics applied to both cases. The experimental data demonstrate some of the possible errors in electric field measurements made by strongly emitting probes due to space charge effects in the presence of plasma gradients. Probe errors in space and laboratory conditions are discussed, as well as experimental error. In the final section, theoretical aspects are examined and an expression is derived for the maximum steady state space charge enhanced PGIE taken by two identical current biased probes.

  12. Isospin effects via Coulomb forces on the onset of multifragmentation in light and heavily charged systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Arun; Bharti, Arun

    2016-03-01

    We concurrently study the isospin effects via Coulomb forces and the nuclear equation of state and its momentum dependence on the onset of multifragmentation, i.e., critical energy point, in the light and heavily charged reactions of 40Ar + 45Sc and 84Kr + 197Au , respectively, using the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. We find that Coulomb forces influence the onset of multifragmentation and result in the shift of the critical energy point towards lower and higher incident energies with and without their presence, respectively. Also, we observe that the critical energy point is sharper for the heavily charged system of 84Kr + 197Au when compared with the light charged system of 40Ar + 45Sc , where a small dip is observed and thus leads to the dependence of onset of multifragmentation, i.e., the critical energy point, on the reaction asymmetry as well as on the Coulomb forces.

  13. Effect of electron nonthermality on nonlinear electrostatic solitary waves in a charge varying dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Boumezoued, Ghania

    2008-05-15

    The effect of nonthermal electrons with excess of fast energetic electrons on large amplitude electrostatic solitary waves is investigated in a charge varying dusty plasma. The correct nonthermal electron charging is investigated based on the orbit-motion-limited approach. It is found that the nonlinear localized potential structure shrinks when the electrons deviate from isothermality. The dust particles are locally expelled and pushed out the region of the soliton localization as the electrons evolve far away from their thermodynamic equilibrium. Under certain conditions, the dust charge fluctuation may provide an alternate physical mechanism causing anomalous dissipation, the strength of which becomes important and may prevail over that of dispersion as the value of the electron nonthermal parameter {alpha} increases.

  14. Quantum size effects in competing charge and spin orderings of dangling bond wires on Si(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ji Young; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2009-01-01

    Using spin-polarized density-functional theory calculations, we investigate the competition between charge and spin orderings in dangling-bond DB wires of increasing lengths fabricated on an H-terminated Si 001 surface. For wires containing less than ten DBs as studied in recent experiments, we find antiferromagnetic AF ordering to be energetically much more favorable than charge ordering. The energy preference of AF ordering shrinks in an oscillatory way as the wire length increases and preserves its sign even for DB wires of infinite length. The oscillatory behavior can be attributed to quantum size effects as the DB electrons fill discrete quantum levels. The predicted AF ordering is in startling contrast with the prevailing picture of charge ordering due to Jahn-Teller distortion or Peierls instability for wires of finite or infinite lengths, respectively.

  15. Formation of polyelectrolyte complexes with diethylaminoethyl dextran: charge ratio and molar mass effect.

    PubMed

    Le Cerf, Didier; Pepin, Anne Sophie; Niang, Pape Momar; Cristea, Mariana; Karakasyan-Dia, Carole; Picton, Luc

    2014-11-26

    The formation of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) between carboxymethyl pullulan and DEAE Dextran, was investigated, in dilute solution, with emphasis on the effect of charge density (molar ratio or pH) and molar masses. Electrophoretic mobility measurements have evidenced that insoluble PECs (neutral electrophoretic mobility) occurs for charge ratio between 0.6 (excess of polycation) and 1 (stoichiometry usual value) according to the pH. This atypical result is explained by the inaccessibility of some permanent cationic charge when screened by pH dependant cationic ones (due to the Hoffman alkylation). Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) indicates an endothermic formation of PEC with a binding constant around 10(5) L mol(-1). Finally asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation coupled on line with static multi angle light scattering (AF4/MALS) evidences soluble PECs with very large average molar masses and size around 100 nm, in agreement with scrambled eggs multi-association between various polyelectrolyte chains. PMID:25256478

  16. Effect of non-Maxwellian particle trapping and dust grain charging on dust acoustic solitary waves

    SciTech Connect

    Rubab, N.; Murtaza, G.; Mushtaq, A.

    2006-11-15

    The role of adiabatic trapped ions on a small but finite amplitude dust acoustic wave, including the effect of adiabatic dust charge variation, is investigated in an unmagnetized three-component dusty plasma consisting of electrons, ions and massive micron sized negatively charged dust particulates. We have assumed that electrons and ions obey (r,q) velocity distribution while the dust species is treated fluid dynamically. It is found that the dynamics of dust acoustic waves is governed by a modified r dependent Korteweg-de Vries equation. Further, the spectral indices (r,q) affect the charge fluctuation as well as the trapping of electrons and ions and consequently modify the dust acoustic solitary wave.

  17. Effect of Charge Noise on Landau-Zener Interferometry in double quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhenyi; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, Susan; Vavilov, Maxim

    We study the effect of charge noise on the dynamics of semiconductor quantum dot qubits. Recent experiments have demonstrated relatively long coherence times in these systems; however at the same time, the visibility of the Landau-Zener interference pattern is relatively low. We argue that the electromagnetic noise of the environment affects the coherence of the qubit near the charge degeneracy point, including the singlet-triplet avoided level crossing, and results in the reduced visibility of the Landau-Zener interferometry when the singlet-triplet avoided level crossing happens in the vicinity of the charge degeneracy point. Using a master equation, we describe the evolution of the density matrix for the qubit assuming weak coupling of the quantum dot to its electromagnetic environment and compare our results to experimental data.

  18. The effects of charge cloud size and digitisation on the SPAN anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breeveld, A. A.; Edgar, M. L.; Lapington, J. S.; Smith, Alan

    1992-10-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) detectors are often used with charge division anode readouts, such as the spiral-anode (SPAN) anode, to provide high position resolution. This paper discusses the effect on image quality, of digitization (causing fixed patterning), electronic noise, pulse height distribution (PHD) and charge cloud size. The discussion is supported by experimental data obtained from a 1D SPAN anode. Results from a computer model of this detector, and from a charge cloud simulation model, are also included. The SPAN anode normally has three sinusoidal electrodes with phase differences of 120 deg. An alternative configuration is to use a phase difference of 90 deg. This paper compares the advantages and disadvantages of these arrangements.

  19. Swelling properties of montmorillonite and beidellite clay minerals from molecular simulation: Comparison of temperature interlayer cation, and charge location effects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie L.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2015-08-27

    In this study, the swelling properties of smectite clay minerals are relevant to many engineering applications including environmental remediation, repository design for nuclear waste disposal, borehole stability in drilling operations, and additives for numerous industrial processes and commercial products. We used molecular dynamics and grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations to study the effects of layer charge location, interlayer cation, and temperature on intracrystalline swelling of montmorillonite and beidellite clay minerals. For a beidellite model with layer charge exclusively in the tetrahedral sheet, strong ion–surface interactions shift the onset of the two-layer hydrate to higher water contents. In contrast, for amore » montmorillonite model with layer charge exclusively in the octahedral sheet, weaker ion–surface interactions result in the formation of fully hydrated ions (two-layer hydrate) at much lower water contents. Clay hydration enthalpies and interlayer atomic density profiles are consistent with the swelling results. Water adsorption isotherms from grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations are used to relate interlayer hydration states to relative humidity, in good agreement with experimental findings.« less

  20. Swelling properties of montmorillonite and beidellite clay minerals from molecular simulation: Comparison of temperature interlayer cation, and charge location effects

    SciTech Connect

    Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie L.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2015-08-27

    In this study, the swelling properties of smectite clay minerals are relevant to many engineering applications including environmental remediation, repository design for nuclear waste disposal, borehole stability in drilling operations, and additives for numerous industrial processes and commercial products. We used molecular dynamics and grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations to study the effects of layer charge location, interlayer cation, and temperature on intracrystalline swelling of montmorillonite and beidellite clay minerals. For a beidellite model with layer charge exclusively in the tetrahedral sheet, strong ion–surface interactions shift the onset of the two-layer hydrate to higher water contents. In contrast, for a montmorillonite model with layer charge exclusively in the octahedral sheet, weaker ion–surface interactions result in the formation of fully hydrated ions (two-layer hydrate) at much lower water contents. Clay hydration enthalpies and interlayer atomic density profiles are consistent with the swelling results. Water adsorption isotherms from grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations are used to relate interlayer hydration states to relative humidity, in good agreement with experimental findings.

  1. Band bending effect induced by gate voltage on the charge loss behavior of charge trap flash memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, M.; Hwang, H.; Jeon, S.

    2010-02-01

    We found that the polarity of the gate voltage (Vg) during the retention characteristics for a SiO2/Si3N4/Al2O3 (ONA) stack can affect the charge loss direction, due to band bending. Positive Vg could induce electron de-trapping through Al2O3, while a negative Vg could induce the same through SiO2. Consequently, the charge loss rates exhibited a hairpin curve with Vg. We clearly observed that increases of the SiO2 thickness of the ONA stack induced negative shifts of hairpin curve. This result suggests that the dominant charge loss path could be changed from SiO2 to Al2O3 by increasing the SiO2 thickness without Vg.

  2. The electro-mechanical effect from charge dynamics on polymeric insulation lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghamdi, H.; Chen, G.; Vaughan, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    For polymeric material used as electrical insulation, the presence of space charges could be the consequence of material degradations that are thermally activated but increased by the application of an electric field. The dynamics of space charge, therefore, can be potentially used to characterize the material. In this direction, a new aging model in which parameters have clear physical meanings has been developed and applied to the material to extrapolate the lifetime. The kinetic equation has been established based on charge trapping and detrapping of the injected charge from the electrodes. The local electromechanical energy stored in the region surrounding the trap is able to reduce the trap-depth with a value related to the electric field. At a level where the internal electric field exceeds the detrapping field in the material, an electron can be efficiently detrapped and the released energy from detrapping process can cause a weak bond or chain scission i.e. material degradation. The model has been applied to the electro-thermally aged low density polyethylene film samples, showing well fitted result, as well as interesting relationships between parameter estimates and insulation morphology.

  3. The electro-mechanical effect from charge dynamics on polymeric insulation lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Alghamdi, H.; Chen, G.; Vaughan, A. S.

    2015-12-15

    For polymeric material used as electrical insulation, the presence of space charges could be the consequence of material degradations that are thermally activated but increased by the application of an electric field. The dynamics of space charge, therefore, can be potentially used to characterize the material. In this direction, a new aging model in which parameters have clear physical meanings has been developed and applied to the material to extrapolate the lifetime. The kinetic equation has been established based on charge trapping and detrapping of the injected charge from the electrodes. The local electromechanical energy stored in the region surrounding the trap is able to reduce the trap-depth with a value related to the electric field. At a level where the internal electric field exceeds the detrapping field in the material, an electron can be efficiently detrapped and the released energy from detrapping process can cause a weak bond or chain scission i.e. material degradation. The model has been applied to the electro-thermally aged low density polyethylene film samples, showing well fitted result, as well as interesting relationships between parameter estimates and insulation morphology.

  4. Study of the impurity composition and effective plasma charge in the GOL-3 facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokina, N. V. Burdakov, A. V.; Ivanov, I. A.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Postupaev, V. V.; Rovenskikh, A. F.; Shoshin, A. A.

    2015-07-15

    Heating and confinement of plasma in a multimirror magnetic configuration have been studied at the GOL-3 facility (Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk). The experiments are aimed at estimating the densities and charge states of the main impurities in the GOL-3 plasma and determining their contribution to the effective plasma charge. Plasma with a density of ∼10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} was heated by a relativistic electron beam (1 MeV, 8 μs, ⩽200 kJ). At the end of electron beam injection, the plasma temperature reached 1 keV. The densities of impurities were determined using VUV and visible spectroscopy, as well as mass spectrometry of the residual vacuum. To determine the effective plasma charge, the experimental data were compared with the results of numerical simulations of the ionization balance of impurities. It is shown that the effective plasma charge calculated with allowance for the contributions from the main impurities does not exceed Z{sub eff} = 1.8, which cannot explain the experimentally observed improved confinement of low-density plasma.

  5. Effect of ion compensation of the beam space charge on gyrotron operation

    SciTech Connect

    Fokin, A. P.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2015-04-15

    In gyrotrons, the coherent radiation of electromagnetic waves takes place when the cyclotron resonance condition between the wave frequency and the electron cyclotron frequency or its harmonic holds. The voltage depression caused by the beam space charge field changes the relativistic cyclotron frequency and, hence, can play an important role in the beam-wave interaction process. In long pulse and continuous-wave regimes, the beam space charge field can be partially compensated by the ions, which appear due to the beam impact ionization of neutral molecules of residual gases in the interaction space. In the present paper, the role of this ion compensation of the beam space charge on the interaction efficiency is analyzed. We also analyze the effect of the electron velocity spread on the limiting currents and discuss some effects restricting the ion-to-beam electron density ratio in the saturation stage. It is shown that the effect of the ion compensation on the voltage depression caused by the beam space charge field can cause significant changes in the efficiency of gyrotron operation and, in some cases, even result in the break of oscillations.

  6. Effect of ion compensation of the beam space charge on gyrotron operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokin, A. P.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2015-04-01

    In gyrotrons, the coherent radiation of electromagnetic waves takes place when the cyclotron resonance condition between the wave frequency and the electron cyclotron frequency or its harmonic holds. The voltage depression caused by the beam space charge field changes the relativistic cyclotron frequency and, hence, can play an important role in the beam-wave interaction process. In long pulse and continuous-wave regimes, the beam space charge field can be partially compensated by the ions, which appear due to the beam impact ionization of neutral molecules of residual gases in the interaction space. In the present paper, the role of this ion compensation of the beam space charge on the interaction efficiency is analyzed. We also analyze the effect of the electron velocity spread on the limiting currents and discuss some effects restricting the ion-to-beam electron density ratio in the saturation stage. It is shown that the effect of the ion compensation on the voltage depression caused by the beam space charge field can cause significant changes in the efficiency of gyrotron operation and, in some cases, even result in the break of oscillations.

  7. Multiphasic modeling of charged solute transport across articular cartilage: Application of multi-zone finite-bath model.

    PubMed

    Arbabi, Vahid; Pouran, Behdad; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2016-06-14

    Charged and uncharged solutes penetrate through cartilage to maintain the metabolic function of chondrocytes and to possibly restore or further breakdown the cartilage tissue in different stages of osteoarthritis. In this study the transport of charged solutes across the various zones of cartilage was quantified, taken into account the physicochemical interactions between the solute and the cartilage constituents. A multiphasic finite-bath finite element (FE) model was developed to simulate equine cartilage diffusion experiments that used a negatively charged contrast agent (ioxaglate) in combination with serial micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to measure the diffusion. By comparing the FE model with the experimental data both the diffusion coefficient of ioxaglate and the fixed charge density (FCD) were obtained. In the multiphasic model, cartilage was divided into multiple (three) zones to help understand how diffusion coefficient and FCD vary across cartilage thickness. The direct effects of charged solute-FCD interaction on diffusion were investigated by comparing the diffusion coefficients derived from the multiphasic and biphasic-solute models. We found a relationship between the FCD obtained by the multiphasic model and ioxaglate partitioning obtained from micro-CT experiments. Using our multi-zone multiphasic model, diffusion coefficient of the superficial zone was up to ten-fold higher than that of the middle zone, while the FCD of the middle zone was up to almost two-fold higher than that of the superficial zone. In conclusion, the developed finite-bath multiphasic model provides us with a non-destructive method by which we could obtain both diffusion coefficient and FCD of different cartilage zones. The outcomes of the current work will also help understand how charge of the bath affects the diffusion of a charged molecule and also predict the diffusion behavior of a charged solute across articular cartilage. PMID:27033729

  8. Application of the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array to the Total Charge Transfer of Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchfield, J. C.; Bitzer, P. M.; Christian, H. J.

    2012-12-01

    Using the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array (HAMMA) to obtain measurements of the electric field changes due to lightning, we investigate the amount of charge neutralized by lightning flashes. Our analysis includes both cloud-to-ground and intracloud lightning. We compare two different models for each type of lightning: 1) the classic point (CG) or dipole (IC) charge models versus 2) models in which the neutralized charge is distributed along the lightning channel. In order to model the channel path we utilize VHF data taken by the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The source locations determined by NALMA are supplemented with time-of-arrival locations determined from features of the electric field waveforms in HAMMA data as appropriate. For CG flashes, we assume that the channel proceeds vertically downwards from the initiation point. The channel is separated into two portions: an in-cloud part and the part extending from cloud to ground. Each of these segments is assumed to have a constant line charge density. For IC flashes, we follow a similar procedure except we now have a flash occurring between two charge regions of opposing polarity within the cloud. Having both VHF and LF measurements of lightning allows us to use the two data sets in conjunction with one another to investigate the charge structure of lightning. We present results from this analysis and discuss the differences between those derived from the classic models and those derived from the line charge models.

  9. Specific ion effects induced by mono-valent salts in like charged aggregates in water.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ningdong; Tao, Jiaojiao; Liu, Jun; Wei, Shenghui; Li, Liangbin; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-06-28

    While salt mediated association between similarly charged poly-electrolytes occurs in a broad range of biological and colloidal systems, the effects of mono-valent salts remains little known experimentally. In this communication we systematically study influences of assorted mono-valent salts on structures of and interactions in two dimensional ordered bundles of charged fibrils assembled in water using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). By quantitatively analyzing the scattering peak features, we discern two competing effects with opposite influences due to partitioning of salts in the aqueous complex. While electrostatic effects from salts residing between the fibrils suppress attraction between fibrils and expand the bundles, it is compensated by external osmotic pressure from peripheral salts in the aqueous media. The balance between the two effects varies for different salts and gives rise to ion-specific equilibrium behavior as well as structure of ordered bundles in salty water. The specific ions effects in like charged aggregates can be attributed to preferential distribution of ions inside or outside the bundles, correlated to the ranking of ions in Hofmeister series for macromolecules. Unlike conventional studies on Hofmeister effects by thermodynamic measurements relying on modeling for data interpretation, our study is based directly on structural analysis and is model-insensitive. PMID:24828119

  10. Reducing Space Charge Effects in a Linear Ion Trap by Rhombic Ion Excitation and Ejection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Wang, Yuzhuo; Hu, Lili; Guo, Dan; Fang, Xiang; Zhou, Mingfei; Xu, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Space charge effects play important roles in ion trap operations, which typically limit the ion trapping capacity, dynamic range, mass accuracy, and resolving power of a quadrupole ion trap. In this study, a rhombic ion excitation and ejection method was proposed to minimize space charge effects in a linear ion trap. Instead of applying a single dipolar AC excitation signal, two dipolar AC excitation signals with the same frequency and amplitude but 90° phase difference were applied in the x- and y-directions of the linear ion trap, respectively. As a result, mass selective excited ions would circle around the ion cloud located at the center of the ion trap, rather than go through the ion cloud. In this work, excited ions were then axially ejected and detected, but this rhombic ion excitation method could also be applied to linear ion traps with ion radial ejection capabilities. Experiments show that space charge induced mass resolution degradation and mass shift could be alleviated with this method. For the experimental conditions in this work, space charge induced mass shift could be decreased by ~50%, and the mass resolving power could be improved by ~2 times at the same time. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27080008

  11. Effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kausik, S. S.; Kakati, B.; Saikia, B. K.

    2013-05-15

    The effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma has been studied in a dusty plasma experimental setup by applying electrostatic field to each channel of a multicusp magnetic cage. Argon plasma is produced by hot cathode discharge method at a pressure of 5×10{sup −4} millibars and is confined by a full line cusped magnetic field confinement system. Silver dust grains are produced by gas-evaporation technique and move upward in the form of a collimated dust beam due to differential pressure maintained between the dust and plasma chambers. The charged grains in the beam after coming out from the plasma column enter into the diagnostic chamber and are deflected by a dc field applied across a pair of deflector plates at different confining potentials. Both from the amount of deflection and the floating potential, the number of charges collected by the dust grains is calculated. Furthermore, the collimated dust beam strikes the Faraday cup, which is placed above the deflector plates, and the current (∼pA) so produced is measured by an electrometer at different confining potentials. The experimental results demonstrate the significant effect of confining wall potential on charging of dust grains.

  12. Reducing Space Charge Effects in a Linear Ion Trap by Rhombic Ion Excitation and Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Wang, Yuzhuo; Hu, Lili; Guo, Dan; Fang, Xiang; Zhou, Mingfei; Xu, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Space charge effects play important roles in ion trap operations, which typically limit the ion trapping capacity, dynamic range, mass accuracy, and resolving power of a quadrupole ion trap. In this study, a rhombic ion excitation and ejection method was proposed to minimize space charge effects in a linear ion trap. Instead of applying a single dipolar AC excitation signal, two dipolar AC excitation signals with the same frequency and amplitude but 90° phase difference were applied in the x- and y-directions of the linear ion trap, respectively. As a result, mass selective excited ions would circle around the ion cloud located at the center of the ion trap, rather than go through the ion cloud. In this work, excited ions were then axially ejected and detected, but this rhombic ion excitation method could also be applied to linear ion traps with ion radial ejection capabilities. Experiments show that space charge induced mass resolution degradation and mass shift could be alleviated with this method. For the experimental conditions in this work, space charge induced mass shift could be decreased by ~50%, and the mass resolving power could be improved by ~2 times at the same time.

  13. Temperature effects on sealed lead acid batteries and charging techniques to prolong cycle life.

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, Ronda

    2004-06-01

    Sealed lead acid cells are used in many projects in Sandia National Laboratories Department 2660 Telemetry and Instrumentation systems. The importance of these cells in battery packs for powering electronics to remotely conduct tests is significant. Since many tests are carried out in flight or launched, temperature is a major factor. It is also important that the battery packs are properly charged so that the test is completed before the pack cannot supply sufficient power. Department 2665 conducted research and studies to determine the effects of temperature on cycle time as well as charging techniques to maximize cycle life and cycle times on sealed lead acid cells. The studies proved that both temperature and charging techniques are very important for battery life to support successful field testing and expensive flight and launched tests. This report demonstrates the effects of temperature on cycle time for SLA cells as well as proper charging techniques to get the most life and cycle time out of SLA cells in battery packs.

  14. Infrared study of charge injection in organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiqiang

    2008-03-01

    We present a systematic infrared (IR) spectroscopic study of charge injection in organic field-effect transistors (FET). These experiments have revealed new unexpected aspects of both polymers and molecular crystals. IR spectromicroscopy was employed to image the charges in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) FETs. The charge density profile in the conducting channel uncovers a density-dependent mobility in P3HT due to disorder effects. Our IR studies of single crystal rubrene based FETs show that charge transport in these devices at room temperature is governed by light quasiparticles in molecular orbital bands. This result is at variance with the common beliefs of polaron formation in molecular solids. The above experiments have demonstrated the unique potential of IR spectroscopy for investigating physical phenomena at the nanoscale occurring at the semiconductor-insulator interface in FET devices. This work is in collaboration with G. M. Wang, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger (UCSB), V. Podzorov, M.E. Gershenson (Rutgers), Z. Hao, M. C. Martin (ALS), N. Sai, A. D. Meyertholen, M. M. Fogler, M. Di Ventra and D. N. Basov (UCSD).

  15. Electrically charged: An effective mechanism for soft EOS supporting massive neutron star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, ZhenZhen; Wen, DeHua; Zhang, XiangDong

    2015-10-01

    The massive neutron star discoverer announced that strange particles, such as hyperons should be ruled out in the neutron star core as the soft Equation of State (EOS) can-not support a massive neutron star. However, many of the nuclear theories and laboratory experiments support that at high density the strange particles will appear and the corresponding EOS of super-dense matters will become soft. This situation promotes a challenge between the astro-observation and nuclear physics. In this work, we introduce an effective mechanism to answer this challenge, that is, if a neutron star is electrically charged, a soft EOS will be equivalently stiffened and thus can support a massive neutron star. By employing a representative soft EOS, it is found that in order to obtain an evident effect on the EOS and thus increasing the maximum stellar mass by the electrostatic field, the total net charge should be in an order of 1020 C. Moreover, by comparing the results of two kind of charge distributions, it is found that even for different distributions, a similar total charge: ~ 2.3 × 1020 C is needed to support a ~ 2.0 M ⊙ neutron star.

  16. ACTIVE CATHODES FOR SUPER-HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS THROUGH SPACE CHARGE EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Anil V. Virkar

    2004-03-08

    This report summarizes the work done during the fifth quarter of the project. Effort was directed in two areas: (1) Further development of the model on the role of connectivity on ionic conductivity of porous bodies, including the role of grain boundaries and space charge region. (2) Fabrication of porous samaria-doped ceria (SDC) and investigation of the effect of thermal treatment on its conductivity. The model developed accounts for transport through three regions: (a) Transport through the bulk of the grain, RI, which includes parallel transport through space charge region. (b) Transport through the space charge region adjacent to the neck (grain boundary), RII. (c) Transport through the structural part of the neck (grain boundary), RIII. The work on the model development involves calculation RI, RII, RIII, and the sum of these three terms, which is the total resistance, as a function of the grain radius ranging between 0.5 and 5 microns and as a function of the relative neck size, described in terms of the angle theta, ranging between 5 and 45{sup o}. Three values of resistivity of the space charge region were chosen; space charge resistivity greater than grain resistivity, equal to grain resistivity, and lower than grain resistivity. Experimental work was conducted on samaria (Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3})-doped ceria (SDC) samples of differing porosity levels, before and after thermal treatment at 1200 C. The conductivity in the annealed samples was lower, consistent with enhanced Debye length. This shows the important role of space charge on ionic transport, and its implications concerning cathode polarization.

  17. Interplay of Bias-Driven Charging and the Vibrational Stark Effect in Molecular Junctions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yajing; Zolotavin, Pavlo; Doak, Peter; Kronik, Leeor; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Natelson, Douglas

    2016-02-10

    We observe large, reversible, bias driven changes in the vibrational energies of PCBM based on simultaneous transport and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) measurements on PCBM-gold junctions. A combination of linear and quadratic shifts in vibrational energies with voltage is analyzed and compared with similar measurements involving C60-gold junctions. A theoretical model based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggests that both a vibrational Stark effect and bias-induced charging of the junction contribute to the shifts in vibrational energies. In the PCBM case, a linear vibrational Stark effect is observed due to the permanent electric dipole moment of PCBM. The vibrational Stark shifts shown here for PCBM junctions are comparable to or larger than the charging effects that dominate in C60 junctions. PMID:26814562

  18. Effects of charge and size on condensation of supersaturated water vapor on nanoparticles of SiO2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Cheng; Cheng, Hsiu-Chin

    2007-01-21

    The effects of size and charge on the condensation of a supersaturated water vapor on monodisperse nanoparticles of SiO(2) were investigated in a flow cloud chamber. The dependences of the critical supersaturation S(cr) on particle size at diameters of 10, 12, and 15 nm as well as on charge and charge polarity are determined experimentally. A novel electrospray aerosol generator was developed to generate a high concentration of SiO(2) nanoparticles of less than 10 nm by electrospraying silicon tetraethoxide (STE) ethanol solution followed by the thermal decomposition of STE. The effects of liquid flow rate, liquid concentration, flow rate of carrier gas, and liquid conductivity on the particle size distribution and concentration were examined. For charged particles, the nucleation occurs at a critical supersaturation S(cr) lower than that on neutral particles, and the charge effect fades away as particle size increases. The charge effect is stronger than the theoretical predictions. In addition, a sign preference is detected, i.e., water vapor condenses more readily on negatively charged particle, a trend consistent with those observed on ions. However, both effects of charge and charge polarity on S(cr) are stronger than that predicted by Volmer's theory for ion-induced nucleation. PMID:17249890

  19. Charge transport properties of graphene: Effects of Cu-based gate electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qide; Zhang, C. X.; He, Chaoyu; Tang, Chao; Zhong, Jianxin

    2016-07-01

    Using the first-principles nonequilibrium Green's function method, we study effects of Cu and Ni@Cu used as the Cu-based gate electrode on the charge transport of graphene in the field effect transistors (FET). We find that the transmission of graphene decreases with both Cu and Ni@Cu absorbed in the scatter region. Especially, noticeable transmission gaps are present around the Femi level. The transmission gaps are still effective, and considerable cut-off regions are found under the non-equilibrium environment. The Ni@Cu depresses the transmission of graphene more seriously than the Cu and enlarges the transmission gap in armchair direction. The effects on the charge transport are attributed to the redistribution of electronic states of graphene. Both Cu and Ni@Cu induce the localization of states, so as to block the electronic transport. The Ni@Cu transforms the interaction between graphene and gate electrode from the physisorption to the chemisorption, and then induces more localized states, so that the transmission decreases further. Our results suggest that besides being used to impose gate voltage, the Cu-based gate electrode itself will have a considerable effect on the charge transport of graphene and induces noticeable transmission gap in the FET.

  20. GaAs series connected photovoltaic converters for high voltage capacitor charging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, B.H.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the design features of series connected photovoltaic arrays which will be required to charge capacitors to relatively high (400V) voltages in time periods on the order of 1 microsecond. The factors which determine the array voltage and the capacitor charge time are given. Individual element junction designs, along with an interconnect scheme, and a semiconductor process to realize them are presented. Finally, the input laser optical required to meet the requirements is determined.

  1. Charge Storage, Conductivity and Charge Profiles of Insulators as Related to Spacecraft Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, J. R.; Swaminathan, Prasanna; Frederickson, A. R.

    2004-01-01

    Dissipation of charges built up near the surface of insulators due to space environment interaction is central to understanding spacecraft charging. Conductivity of insulating materials is key to determine how accumulated charge will distribute across the spacecraft and how rapidly charge imbalance will dissipate. To understand these processes requires knowledge of how charge is deposited within the insulator, the mechanisms for charge trapping and charge transport within the insulator, and how the profile of trapped charge affects the transport and emission of charges from insulators. One must consider generation of mobile electrons and holes, their trapping, thermal de-trapping, mobility and recombination. Conductivity is more appropriately measured for spacecraft charging applications as the "decay" of charge deposited on the surface of an insulator, rather than by flow of current across two electrodes around the sample. We have found that conductivity determined from charge storage decay methods is 102 to 104 smaller than values obtained from classical ASTM and IEC methods for a variety of thin film insulating samples. For typical spacecraft charging conditions, classical conductivity predicts decay times on the order of minutes to hours (less than typical orbit periods); however, the higher charge storage conductivities predict decay times on the order of weeks to months leading to accumulation of charge with subsequent orbits. We found experimental evidence that penetration profiles of radiation and light are exceedingly important, and that internal electric fields due to charge profiles and high-field conduction by trapped electrons must be considered for space applications. We have also studied whether the decay constants depend on incident voltage and flux or on internal charge distributions and electric fields; light-activated discharge of surface charge to distinguish among differing charge trapping centers; and radiation-induced conductivity. Our

  2. Communication: Nucleation of water on ice nanograins: Size, charge, and quantum effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciante, Mathieu; Calvo, Florent

    2015-05-01

    The sticking cross sections of water molecules on cold size-selected water clusters have been simulated using classical and quantum (path-integral) molecular dynamics trajectories under realistic conditions. The integrated cross sections for charged clusters show significant size effects with comparable trends as in experiments, as well as essentially no sign effect. Vibrational delocalization, although it contributes to enlarging the geometric cross sections, leads to a counter-intuitive decrease in the dynamical cross section obtained from the trajectories. These results are interpreted based on the apparent reduction in the effective interaction between the projectile and the target owing to zero-point effects.

  3. Communication: Nucleation of water on ice nanograins: Size, charge, and quantum effects

    SciTech Connect

    Marciante, Mathieu; Calvo, Florent

    2015-05-07

    The sticking cross sections of water molecules on cold size-selected water clusters have been simulated using classical and quantum (path-integral) molecular dynamics trajectories under realistic conditions. The integrated cross sections for charged clusters show significant size effects with comparable trends as in experiments, as well as essentially no sign effect. Vibrational delocalization, although it contributes to enlarging the geometric cross sections, leads to a counter-intuitive decrease in the dynamical cross section obtained from the trajectories. These results are interpreted based on the apparent reduction in the effective interaction between the projectile and the target owing to zero-point effects.

  4. Space-charge effects of positive ions on the development of pulses in parallel-plate avalanche counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhostin, M.; Baba, M.

    2015-02-01

    The effects of the space-charge of positive ions on the development of α-particle induced pulses in a parallel-plate avalanche counter (PPAC) were studied by using pulse-shape analysis techniques. The analyses were separately carried out on the electron and the positive ion components of the pulses, reflecting the space-charge effects during and after the multiplication of charges in an external uniform electric field. Some calculations of the space-charge electric field and the first Townsend coefficient were carried out to explain the experimental waveforms. The dependence of the shape of the pulses to the amount of primary ionization is particularly discussed.

  5. A method to restrain the charging effect on an insulating substrate in high energy electron beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingyan, Yu; Shirui, Zhao; Yupeng, Jing; Yunbo, Shi; Baoqin, Chen

    2014-12-01

    Pattern distortions caused by the charging effect should be reduced while using the electron beam lithography process on an insulating substrate. We have developed a novel process by using the SX AR-PC 5000/90.1 solution as a spin-coated conductive layer, to help to fabricate nanoscale patterns of poly-methyl-methacrylate polymer resist on glass for phased array device application. This method can restrain the influence of the charging effect on the insulating substrate effectively. Experimental results show that the novel process can solve the problems of the distortion of resist patterns and electron beam main field stitching error, thus ensuring the accuracy of the stitching and overlay of the electron beam lithography system. The main characteristic of the novel process is that it is compatible to the multi-layer semiconductor process inside a clean room, and is a green process, quite simple, fast, and low cost. It can also provide a broad scope in the device development on insulating the substrate, such as high density biochips, flexible electronics and liquid crystal display screens.

  6. Electrolyte effect on gelation behavior of oppositely charged nanocrystalline cellulose and polyelectrolyte.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ang; Song, Yongbo; Boluk, Yaman

    2014-12-19

    The electrolyte (NaCl) influences on the sol-gel transition of the complex solution composed of oppositely charged nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) and polyelectrolyte (quaternized hydroxyethylcellulose ethoxylate, QHEC) were investigated by the rheological means in the present paper. Winter and Chambon theory was applicable to describe the sol-gel transition, and the critical gel points have been successfully determined. When increasing the NaCl concentration, more NCC were needed to form a critical gel due to the screening of the electrostatic interaction, and the larger loss tangent and relaxation exponent (n) values at the gel point demonstrated a less elastic nature of the complex solution with more NaCl. The results indicated the gel network was composed of entanglements and association of QHEC (as polymer network), as well as the electrostatic adsorption interaction between QHEC chains and NCC rods (as cross-linking). With the addition of NaCl, the screening effect led to the enhancement of the entanglements and weakening of the electrostatic adsorption, however, the gel strength decreased with increasing the NaCl amount, suggesting the electrostatic adsorption interaction played a more dominant role than the entanglements when the gel was formed. Moreover, the exponents of the scaling law η0∝ɛ(-γ) and Ge∝ɛ(z) of the QHEC/NCC/NaCl solution revealed that the scaling law n=z/(z+γ) between n, γ, and z was only feasible at the highest NaCl concentration, as a result of that the intermolecular electrostatic interaction was completely screened, indicating the scaling law was only feasible when intermolecular interaction was small enough to be neglected. PMID:25263864

  7. Selective effects of charge on G protein activation by FSH-receptor residues 551-555 and 650-653.

    PubMed

    Grasso, P; Deziel, M R; Reichert, L E

    1995-01-01

    Two cytosolic regions of the rat testicular FSH receptor (FSHR), residues 533-555 and 645-653, have been identified as G protein-coupling domains. We localized the activity in these domains to their C-terminal sequences, residues 551-555 (KIAKR, net charge +3) and 650-653 (RKSH, net charge +3), and examined the effects of charge on G protein activation by the C-terminal peptides, using synthetic analogs containing additions, through alanine (A) linkages, of arginine (R, +), histidine (H, +) or both. RA-KIAKR (net charge +4) mimicked the effect of FSHR-(551-555) on guanine nucleotide exchange in rat testis membranes, but reduced its ability to inhibit FSH-stimulated estradiol biosynthesis in cultured rat Sertoli cells. Further increasing net charge by the addition of H (HARA-KIAKR, net charge +5) increased guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) binding, but eliminated FSHR-(551-555) effects on FSH-stimulated steroidogenesis. HA-RKSH (net charge +4) significantly inhibited guanine nucleotide exchange in rat testis membranes, but stimulated basal and potentiated FSH-induced estradiol biosynthesis in cultured rat Sertoli cells. Addition of two H residues (HAHA-RKSH, net charge +5) restored GTP binding and further potentiated basal and FSH-stimulated steroidogenesis. These results suggest that positive charges in G protein-coupling domains of the FSHR play a role in modulating G protein activation and postbinding effects of FSH, such as steroidogenesis. PMID:8589550

  8. Effects of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2015-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, four new 2012 Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles were instrumented with data loggers and operated over a fixed on-road test cycle. Each vehicle was operated over the test route, and charged twice daily. Two vehicles were charged exclusively by AC level 2 EVSE, while two were exclusively DC fast charged with a 50 kW charger. The vehicles were performance tested on a closed test track when new, and after accumulation of 50,000 miles. The traction battery packs were removed and laboratory tested when the vehicles were new, and at 10,000-mile intervals. Battery tests include constant-current discharge capacity, electric vehicle pulse power characterization test, and low peak power tests. The on-road testing was carried out through 70,000 miles, at which point the final battery tests were performed. The data collected over 70,000 miles of driving, charging, and rest are analyzed, including the resulting thermal conditions and power and cycle demands placed upon the battery. Battery performance metrics including capacity, internal resistance, and power capability obtained from laboratory testing throughout the test program are analyzed. Results are compared within and between the two groups of vehicles. Specifically, the impacts on battery performance, as measured by laboratory testing, are explored as they relate to battery usage and variations in conditions encountered, with a primary focus on effects due to the differences between AC level 2 and DC fast charging. The contrast between battery performance degradation and the effect on vehicle performance is also explored.

  9. Self-Assembling of Tetradecylammonium Chain on Swelling High Charge Micas (Na-Mica-3 and Na-Mica-2): Effect of Alkylammonium Concentration and Mica Layer Charge.

    PubMed

    Pazos, M Carolina; Cota, Agustín; Osuna, Francisco J; Pavón, Esperanza; Alba, María D

    2015-04-21

    A family of tetradecylammonium micas is synthesized using synthetic swelling micas with high layer charge (Na(n)Si(8-n)Al(n)Mg6F4O20·XH2O, where n = 2 and 3) exchanged with tetradecylammonium cations. The molecular arrangement of the surfactant is elucidated on the basis of XRD patterns and DTA. The ordering conformation of the surfactant molecules into the interlayer space of micas is investigated by IR/FT, (13)C, (27)Al, and (29)Si MAS NMR. The structural arrangement of the tetradecylammonium cation in the interlayer space of high-charge micas is more sensitive to the effect of the mica layer charge at high concentration. The surfactant arrangement is found to follow the bilayer-paraffin model for all values of layer charge and surfactant concentration. However, at initial concentration below the mica CEC, a lateral monolayer is also observed. The amount of ordered conformation all-trans is directly proportional to the layer charge and surfactant concentration. PMID:25822908

  10. Opposite counter-ion effects on condensed bundles of highly charged supramolecular nanotubes in water.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shenghui; Chen, Mingming; Wei, Chengsha; Huang, Ningdong; Li, Liangbin

    2016-07-20

    Although ion specificity in aqueous solutions is well known, its manifestation in unconventional strong electrostatic interactions remains implicit. Herein, the ionic effects in dense packing of highly charged polyelectrolytes are investigated in supramolecular nanotube prototypes. Distinctive behaviors of the orthorhombic arrays composed of supramolecular nanotubes in various aqueous solutions were observed by Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), depending on the counter-ions' size and affiliation to the surface -COO(-) groups. Bigger tetra-alkyl ammonium (TAA(+)) cations weakly bonding to -COO(-) will compress the orthorhombic arrays, while expansion is induced by smaller alkaline metal (M(+)) ions with strong affiliation to -COO(-). Careful analysis of the changes in the SAXS peaks with different counter/co-ion combinations indicates dissimilar mechanisms underlying the two explicit types of ionic effects. The pH measurements are in line with the ion specificity by SAXS and reveal the strong electrostatic character of the system. It is proposed that the small distances between the charged surfaces, in addition to the selective adsorption of counter-ions by the surface charge, bring out the observed distinctive ionic effects. Our results manifest the diverse mechanisms and critical roles of counter-ion effects in strong electrostatic interactions. PMID:27373802

  11. Electrospray Charging of Minerals: Surface Chemistry and Applications to High-Velocity Microparticle Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, T.; Call, S.; Austin, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Electrospray is a soft ionization technique commonly used to charge large biomolecules; it has, however, also been applied to inorganic compounds. We are extending this technique to mineral microparticles. Electrospray-charged mineral microparticles are interesting in the context of surface science because surface chemistry dictates where and how charge carriers can bond to mineral surfaces. In addition, using electrospray to charge mineral particles allows these particles to be electrostatically accelerated as projectiles in high- and hyper-velocity impacts. Since current techniques for producing high- and hyper-velocity microparticle impacts are largely limited to metal or metal-coated projectiles, using minerals as projectiles is a significant innovation. Electrospray involves three steps: creation of charged droplets containing solute/particles, evaporation and bifurcation of droplets, and desolvation of the solute/particles. An acidified solution is slowly pumped through a needle in a strong DC field, which causes the solution to break into tiny, charged droplets laden with protons. Solvent evaporates from the electrosprayed droplets as they move through the electric field toward a grounded plate, causing the charge on the droplet to increase relative to its mass. When the electrosprayed droplet’s charge becomes such that the droplet is no longer stable, it bifurcates, and each of the resulting droplets carries some of the original droplet’s charge. Evaporation and bifurcation continues until the solute particle is completely desolvated. The result is a protonated solute molecule or particle. We built an instrument that electrosprays particles into vacuum and measures them using an image charge detector. Mineral microparticles were prepared by grinding natural mineral samples to ~2 µm diameter. These microparticles are then added to a 4:1 methanol:water solution to create a 0.005% w/v suspension. The suspension is electrosprayed into vacuum, where the

  12. Competition between Induced-Charge Electro-Osmosis and Electrothermal Effects at Low Frequencies around a Weakly Polarizable Microchannel Corner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehavi, Matan; Boymelgreen, Alicia; Yossifon, Gilad

    2016-04-01

    Sharp corners are an inherent component of most planar microfluidic systems, and thus their influence on flow within the microchannel is of significant interest. Here, we demonstrate that in electrokinetically driven devices, the presence of a sharp corner may result in localized vortices due to nonlinear induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) and/or electrothermal forces. Application of an alternating-current electric field enables quantification of the nonlinear ICEO ejection-flow effect by isolating it from linear electro-osmotic background flow which is present under dc forcing. The hydrodynamic flow in the vicinity of a sharp channel corner is analyzed using experimental micro-particle-image-velocimetry and numerical simulations for different buffer concentrations, frequencies, and applied voltages. Divergence from the purely ICEO flow with increasing buffer conductivity is shown to be a result of increasing electrothermal effects due to Joule heating.

  13. Peritoneal retention of liposomes: Effects of lipid composition, PEG coating and liposome charge.

    PubMed

    Dadashzadeh, S; Mirahmadi, N; Babaei, M H; Vali, A M

    2010-12-01

    In the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis, systemic chemotherapy is not quite effective due to the poor penetration of cytotoxic agents into the peritoneal cavity, whereas intraperitoneal administration of chemotherapeutic agents is generally accompanied by quick absorption of the free drug from the peritoneum. Local delivery of drugs with controlled-release delivery systems like liposomes could provide sustained, elevated drug levels and reduce local and systemic toxicity. In order to achieve an ameliorated liposomal formulation that results in higher peritoneal levels of the drug and retention, vesicles composed of different phospholipid compositions (distearoyl [DSPC]; dipalmitoyl [DPPC]; or dimiristoylphosphatidylcholine [DMPC]) and various charges (neutral; negative, containing distearoylphosphatidylglycerol [DSPG]; or positive, containing dioleyloxy trimethylammonium propane [DOTAP]) were prepared at two sizes of 100 and 1000nm. The effect of surface hydrophilicity was also investigated by incorporating PEG into the DSPC-containing neutral and charged liposomes. Liposomes were labeled with (99m)Tc and injected into mouse peritoneum. Mice were then sacrificed at eight different time points, and the percentage of injected radiolabel in the peritoneal cavity and the tissue distribution in terms of the percent of the injected dose/gram of tissue (%ID/g) were obtained. The ratio of the peritoneal AUC to the free label ranged from a minimum of 4.95 for DMPC/CHOL (cholesterol) 100nm vesicles to a maximum of 24.99 for DSPC/CHOL/DOTAP 1000nm (DOTAP 1000) vesicles. These last positively charged vesicles had the greatest peritoneal level; moreover, their level remained constant at approximately 25% of the injected dose from 2 to 48h. Among the conventional (i.e., without PEG) 100nm liposomes, the positively charged vesicles again showed the greatest retention. Incorporation of PEG at this size into the lipid structures augmented the peritoneal level, particularly

  14. Charging effects in an electron bombarded Ar matrix and the role of chemiluminescence-driven relaxation.

    PubMed

    Savchenko, Elena V; Khyzhniy, Ivan V; Uyutnov, Sergey A; Gumenchuk, Galina B; Ponomaryov, Alexey N; Beyer, Martin K; Bondybey, Vladimir E

    2011-06-30

    The relaxation processes in pure and doped Ar films preirradiated by an electron beam are studied with the focus on charging effects. Correlated real time measurements have been performed applying current and optical activation spectroscopy methods. Thermally stimulated exoelectron emission and thermally stimulated luminescence are detected in the vacuum ultraviolet and visible range. An appreciable accumulation of electrons in the matrix is found, and prerequisites for negative space charge formation are ascertained. The part played by pre-existing and radiation-induced defects as well as dopants is considered and the temperature range of the electron trap stability is elucidated. It is shown that laser-induced electron detachment from O(-) centers results in an enhancement of electron detrapping via the chemiluminescence mechanism, viz. neutralized and thermally mobilized O atoms recombine. Formation of O(2)* results in the emission of visible photons. These photons act as a stimulating factor for electron release and transport, terminating in exoelectron emission and charge recombination. Chemiluminescence therefore plays an important role in the decay of charged centers. PMID:21604736

  15. Proliposome powders for enhanced intestinal absorption and bioavailability of raloxifene hydrochloride: effect of surface charge.

    PubMed

    Velpula, Ashok; Jukanti, Raju; Janga, Karthik Yadav; Sunkavalli, Sharath; Bandari, Suresh; Kandadi, Prabhakar; Veerareddy, Prabhakar Reddy

    2013-12-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to investigate the combined prospective of proliposomes and surface charge for the improved oral delivery of raloxifene hydrochloride (RXH). Keeping this objective, the present systematic study was focused to formulate proliposomes by varying the ratio of hydrogenated soyphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. Furthermore, to assess the role of surface charge on improved absorption of RXH, anionic and cationic vesicles were prepared using dicetyl phosphate and stearylamine, respectively. The formulations were characterized for size, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency. The improved dissolution characteristics assessed from dissolution efficiency, mean dissolution rate were higher for proliposome formulations. The solid state characterization studies indicate the transformation of native crystalline form of the drug to amorphous and/or molecular state. The higher effective permeability coefficient and fraction absorbed in humans extrapolated from in situ single-pass intestinal absorption study data in rats provide an insight on the potential of proliposomes and cationic surface charge for augment in absorption across gastro intestinal barrier. To draw the conclusions, in vivo pharmacokinetic study carried out in rats indicate a threefold enhancement in the rate and extent of absorption of RXH from cationic proliposome formulation which unfurl the potential of proliposomes and role of cationic charge for improved oral delivery of RXH. PMID:22458264

  16. Effects of the net charge on abundance and stability of supramolecular surfactant aggregates in gas phase.

    PubMed

    Bongiorno, David; Ceraulo, Leopoldo; Giorgi, Gianluca; Indelicato, Serena; Ferrugia, Mirella; Ruggirello, Angela; Liveri, Vincenzo Turco

    2011-02-01

    Self-assembling of amphiphilic molecules under electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions is characterized by quite unexpected phenomenology. The noticeable differences with respect to the condensed phase are attributable to the absence of the surfactant-solvent interactions, the presence of net charge in the aggregates, and the strong deviation from equilibrium conditions. Aiming to investigate the effects of the net charge on abundance and stability of supramolecular surfactant aggregates, positively and negatively charged aggregates of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) and sodium methane sulfonate (MetS), butane sulfonate (ButS) and octane sulfonate (OctS) have been studied by ESI mass spectrometry, energy resolved mass spectrometry and density functional theory calculations. The negatively charged aggregates are found to be less stable than their positive counterparts. The results are consistent with a self-assembling pattern dominated by electrostatic interactions involving the counterions and head groups of the investigated amphiphilic compounds while the alkyl chains point outwards, protecting the aggregates from unlimited growth processes. PMID:21259391

  17. Effect of charge on the dynamics of an acoustically forced bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongray, Thotreithem; Ashok, B.; Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of charge on the dynamics of a gas bubble undergoing forced oscillations in a liquid due to incidence of an ultrasonic wave is theoretically investigated. The limiting values of the possible charge a bubble may physically carry are obtained. The presence of charge influences the regime in which the bubble's radial oscillations fall. The extremal compressive and expansive dimensions of the bubble are also studied as a function of the amplitude of the driving pressure. It is shown that the limiting value of the bubble charge is dictated both by the minimal value reachable of the bubble radius as well as the amplitude of the driving ultrasonic pressure wave. A non-dimensional ratio ζ is defined that is a comparative measure of the extremal values the bubble can expand or contract to, and we find the existence of an unstable regime for ζ as a function of the driving pressure amplitude, Ps. This unstable regime is gradually suppressed with increasing bubble size. The Blake and the upper transient pressure thresholds for the system are then discussed.

  18. A simple method to increase the current range of the TERA chip in charged particle therapy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirio, R.; Fausti, F.; Fanola Guarachi, L.; Giordanengo, S.; Marchetto, F.; Mazza, G.; Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R.; Talpacci, E.; Varasteh Anvar, M.; Vignati, A.

    2015-10-01

    The development of the next generation of accelerators for charged particle radiotherapy aims to reduce dimensions and operational complexity of the machines by engineering pulsed beams accelerators. The drawback is the increased difficulty to monitor the beam delivery. Within each pulse, instantaneous currents larger by two to three orders of magnitude than present applications are expected, which would saturate the readout of the monitor chambers. In this paper, we report of a simple method to increase by almost two orders of magnitude the current range of an Application Specific Integrated Circuit chip previously developed by our group to read out monitor ionization chambers.

  19. Dielectric many-body effects in arrays of charged cylindrical macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkovits, Daniel W.; Barros, Kipton; Dobnikar, Jure; Kandu&{Caron; C}, Matej; Naji, Ali; Podgornik, Rudolf; Luijten, Erik

    2012-02-01

    Nonuniform dielectric constants are a ubiquitous aspect of condensed-matter systems, but nevertheless widely ignored in simulations. Analytical work suggests that the polarization effects resulting from these inhomogeneities can produce many-body interactions that qualitatively alter the behavior of systems driven by electrostatic interactions, but such work relies on approximations. Recently, we have developed an algorithm that computes the fluctuating polarization charge at the interface between dielectric materials during a molecular dynamics simulation, without approximation. Here, we apply this approach to investigate arrays of charged cylindrical macromolecules in the presence of explicit counterions. We study the dielectric many-body effects as a function of separation, dielectric constant variation, and counterion valency. Our findings have implications for the aggregation of polyelectrolytes such as F-actin or DNA.

  20. Reactive Charged Droplets for Reduction of Matrix Effects in Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kulyk, Dmytro S; Miller, Colbert F; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K

    2015-11-01

    A new quantitative contained-electrospray (ES) process is described here that employs a movable ES emitter to control the reactivity of charged microdroplets by varying their exposure time with acid vapor. The method allows elimination of ion suppression effects caused by the presence of various surface active compounds that coelute with the analyte. For mixtures, contained-ESI mass spectrometric analysis produces relative ion intensities that reflect the true concentrations of analytes in solution. The mechanism for this effect has been elucidated and ascribed to the generation of fine initial droplets in the presence of a high abundance of protons; together, these two factors eliminate competition for charge and space during ion formation. Examples of analytes tested include steroids, phospholipids, phosphopeptides, and sialylated glycans. At least 1 order of magnitude improvement in detection limits, sensitivity, and accuracy of detection was observed when compared to conventional electrospray. PMID:26437455