Sample records for effective falls prevention

  1. Preventing falls

    MedlinePLUS

    Gillespie LD, Robertson MC, Gillespie WJ, Lamb SE, Gates S, Cumming RG, Rowe BH. Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue ...

  2. Effects of a multifactorial fall prevention program on balance, gait, and fear of falling in post-stroke inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Younuk; Lee, Kyeongbong; Shin, Seonhae; Lee, Wanhee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of a multifactorial fall prevention program on balance, gait, and fear of falling in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-five stroke patients were divided randomly into multifactorial fall prevention program group (n=15) and control treadmill group (n=10). [Methods] All interventions were applied for 30?min, five times per week, for five weeks. The fall prevention program included interventions based on the “Step Up to Stop Falls” initiative and educational interventions based on the Department of Health guidelines. For those in the treadmill group, the speed was increased gradually. The Korean falls efficacy scale and Korean activities-specific balance confidence scale were used to assess fear of falling. To assess balance and walking ability, the Korean performance-oriented mobility assessment scale and the 10-m and 6-minute walk tests were used. [Results] The fall prevention program interventions were found to be very effective at improving gait, balance, and fear of falling compared with the treadmill intervention and therefore seem appropriate for stroke patients. [Conclusion] A multifactorial fall prevention program is effective at improving balance, gait ability, and fear of falling. It is a more specific and broad intervention for reducing falls among inpatients in facilities and hospitals. PMID:26180337

  3. The Effectiveness of a Participatory Program on Fall Prevention in Oncology Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Li-Chi; Ma, Wei-Fen; Li, Tsai-Chung; Liang, Yia-Wun; Tsai, Li-Yun; Chang, Fy-Uan

    2015-01-01

    Falls are known to be one of the most common in patient adverse events. A high incidence of falls was reported on patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a participatory program on patient's knowledge and self-efficacy of fall prevention and fall incidence in an oncology ward. In this quasi-experimental study,…

  4. The effectiveness of a participatory program on fall prevention in oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Chi; Ma, Wei-Fen; Li, Tsai-Chung; Liang, Yia-Wun; Tsai, Li-Yun; Chang, Fy-Uan

    2015-04-01

    Falls are known to be one of the most common in patient adverse events. A high incidence of falls was reported on patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a participatory program on patient's knowledge and self-efficacy of fall prevention and fall incidence in an oncology ward. In this quasi-experimental study, 68 participants were recruited at a medical centre in Taiwan. A 20-min fall prevention program was given to patients. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the effectiveness of program after on day 3 of intervention. The data of fall incidence rates were collected from hospital record. Fall incidences with and without the program were used to compare the effectiveness of intervention. The patients' knowledge and self-efficacy of fall prevention are better than after intervention. A statistically significant difference in fall incidence rate was observed with (0.0%) and without (19.3%) the program. Our findings suggest that the fact of the bedside is that the most risk for falling in hospital must be communicated to the hospitalized patients. Educating patients about fall prevention and activities associated with falling increases their awareness of the potential of falling and promoting patient safety. PMID:25492057

  5. EFFECTS OF MOVEABLE PLATFORM TRAINING IN PREVENTING SLIP-INDUCED FALLS IN OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Parijat, Prakriti; Lockhart, Thurmon E

    2011-01-01

    Identifying effective interventions is vitalin preventing slip-induced fall accidents in older adults. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of moveable platform training in improving recovery reactions and reducing fall frequency in older adults. Twenty-four older adults were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups (training and control). Both groups underwent three sessions including baseline slip, training, and transfer of training on a slippery surface. Both groups experienced two slips on a slippery surface, one during the baseline and the other (after two weeks) during the transfer of training session. In the training session, the training group underwent twelve simulated slips using a moveable platform while the control group performed normal walking trials. Kinematic, kinetic, and EMG data were collected during all the sessions. Results indicated a reduced incidence of falls in the training group during the transfer of training trial as compared to the control group. The training group was able to transfer proactive and reactive control strategies learned during training to the second slip trial. The proactive adjustments include increased center-of-mass velocity and transitional acceleration after training. Reactive adjustments include reduction in muscle onset and time to peak activations of knee flexors and ankle plantarflexors, reduced ankle and knee coactivation, reduced slip displacement, and reduced time to peak knee flexion, trunk flexion, and hip flexion velocities. In general, the results indicated a beneficial effect of perturbation training in reducing slip severity and recovery kinematics in healthy older adults. PMID:22134467

  6. Effects of moveable platform training in preventing slip-induced falls in older adults.

    PubMed

    Parijat, Prakriti; Lockhart, Thurmon E

    2012-05-01

    Identifying effective interventions is vital in preventing slip-induced fall accidents in older adults. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of moveable platform training in improving recovery reactions and reducing fall frequency in older adults. Twenty-four older adults were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups (training and control). Both groups underwent three sessions including baseline slip, training, and transfer of training on a slippery surface. Both groups experienced two slips on a slippery surface, one during the baseline and the other (after 2 weeks) during the transfer of training session. In the training session, the training group underwent twelve simulated slips using a moveable platform while the control group performed normal walking trials. Kinematic, kinetic, and EMG data were collected during all the sessions. Results indicated a reduced incidence of falls in the training group during the transfer of training trial as compared to the control group. The training group was able to transfer proactive and reactive control strategies learned during training to the second slip trial. The proactive adjustments include increased center-of-mass velocity and transitional acceleration after training. Reactive adjustments include reduction in muscle onset and time to peak activations of knee flexors and ankle plantar flexors, reduced ankle and knee coactivation, reduced slip displacement, and reduced time to peak knee flexion, trunk flexion, and hip flexion velocities. In general, the results indicated a beneficial effect of perturbation training in reducing slip severity and recovery kinematics in healthy older adults. PMID:22134467

  7. Fall prevention conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Falls can have lasting psychological and physical consequences, particularly fractures and slow-healing processes, and patients may also lose confidence in walking. Injuries from falls lead to functional decline, institutionalization, higher health care costs, and decreased quality of life. The process related to the problem of patient falls in the hospital, using the nursing model developed by the theorist, Ida Jean Orlando, is explained in this article. The useful tool that provides guidance to marketers in this endeavor is Maslow's hierarchy of needs. During acute illness, individuals are greatly in need of satisfying their physiological needs. If these needs are not met, patients leave the hospital lacking a positive experience. Initial fall risk assessment is critical to plan intervention and individualize care plan. Interventions depend on the severity of fall risk factors. PMID:21537141

  8. Effectiveness of muscle strengthening and description of protocols for preventing falls in the elderly: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ishigaki, Erika Y.; Ramos, Lidiane G.; Carvalho, Elisa S.; Lunardi, Adriana C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Falls are a geriatric syndrome that is considered a significant public health problem in terms of morbidity and mortality because they lead to a decline in functional capacity and an impaired quality of life in the elderly. Lower limb muscle strengthening seems to be an effective intervention for preventing falls; however, there is no consensus regarding the best method for increasing lower limb muscle strength. Objectives To analyze the effectiveness of lower limb muscle strengthening and to investigate and describe the protocols used for preventing falls in elderly subjects. Method We performed a systematic review of randomized and controlled clinical trials published between 2002 and 2012 in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and PEDro that cited some type of lower limb muscle strengthening protocol and that evaluated the incidence of falls as the primary outcome exclusively in elderly subjects. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Qualitative analysis was performed by independent reviewers applying the PEDro scale. Results The data obtained from the selected studies showed lower fall rates in the intervention groups compared to controls. Six studies described the lower limb muscle strengthening protocol in detail. High methodological quality was found in 6 studies (PEDro score ?7/10 points). Conclusions The methodological quality of the studies in this area appears to leave little doubt regarding the effectiveness of lower limb strengthening exercises for preventing falls in elderly subjects, however the interventions in these studies were poorly reported. PMID:24760166

  9. Cost effectiveness of patient education for the prevention of falls in hospital: economic evaluation from a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Falls are one of the most frequently occurring adverse events that impact upon the recovery of older hospital inpatients. Falls can threaten both immediate and longer-term health and independence. There is need to identify cost-effective means for preventing falls in hospitals. Hospital-based falls prevention interventions tested in randomized trials have not yet been subjected to economic evaluation. Methods Incremental cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken from the health service provider perspective, over the period of hospitalization (time horizon) using the Australian Dollar (A$) at 2008 values. Analyses were based on data from a randomized trial among n = 1,206 acute and rehabilitation inpatients. Decision tree modeling with three-way sensitivity analyses were conducted using burden of disease estimates developed from trial data and previous research. The intervention was a multimedia patient education program provided with trained health professional follow-up shown to reduce falls among cognitively intact hospital patients. Results The short-term cost to a health service of one cognitively intact patient being a faller could be as high as A$14,591 (2008). The education program cost A$526 (2008) to prevent one cognitively intact patient becoming a faller and A$294 (2008) to prevent one fall based on primary trial data. These estimates were unstable due to high variability in the hospital costs accrued by individual patients involved in the trial. There was a 52% probability the complete program was both more effective and less costly (from the health service perspective) than providing usual care alone. Decision tree modeling sensitivity analyses identified that when provided in real life contexts, the program would be both more effective in preventing falls among cognitively intact inpatients and cost saving where the proportion of these patients who would otherwise fall under usual care conditions is at least 4.0%. Conclusions This economic evaluation was designed to assist health care providers decide in what circumstances this intervention should be provided. If the proportion of cognitively intact patients falling on a ward under usual care conditions is 4% or greater, then provision of the complete program in addition to usual care will likely both prevent falls and reduce costs for a health service. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12608000015347. PMID:23692953

  10. Prevention of falls in the construction industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick P Rivara; Diane C Thompson

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to review the evidence for the effectiveness of different strategies to prevent falls from heights in the construction industry.Search Strategy: We used the Cochrane Collaboration search strategy to search the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, NIOSHTIC, PsycINFO and Dissertation Abstracts. The reference lists from each potentially eligible study were checked, and knowledgeable people

  11. Prevention of construction falls by organizational intervention

    PubMed Central

    Becker, P; Fullen, M; Akladios, M; Hobbs, G

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—Determine if a university based (third party) intervention can improve construction contractor organizational performance to increase use of fall prevention practices and technologies. Setting—Falls are the leading cause of worker injury and death in the construction industry. Equipment and practices that can prevent falls are often not used appropriately in the dynamic construction work environment. Methods—A contractual partnership between a university and construction contractors created management systems to ensure use of fall protection measures. Audits by university faculty provided accountability for implementing the fall prevention system. Evaluation was conducted by quasiexperimental methodology comparing changes in audit score from baseline to fifth quarter from baseline for intervention and control contractors. Results—Audit scores improvement was greater for intervention than for control contractor group. Conclusion—A third party intervention can improve contractor fall prevention performance. PMID:11565975

  12. Effectiveness of a multifactorial falls prevention program in community-dwelling older people when compared to usual care: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (Prevquedas Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Falling in older age is a major public health concern due to its costly and disabling consequences. However very few randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted in developing countries, in which population ageing is expected to be particularly substantial in coming years. This article describes the design of an RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactorial falls prevention program in reducing the rate of falls in community-dwelling older people. Methods/design Multicentre parallel-group RCT involving 612 community-dwelling men and women aged 60 years and over, who have fallen at least once in the previous year. Participants will be recruited in multiple settings in Sao Paulo, Brazil and will be randomly allocated to a control group or an intervention group. The usual care control group will undergo a fall risk factor assessment and be referred to their clinicians with the risk assessment report so that individual modifiable risk factors can be managed without any specific guidance. The intervention group will receive a 12-week Multifactorial Falls Prevention Program consisting of: an individualised medical management of modifiable risk factors, a group-based, supervised balance training exercise program plus an unsupervised home-based exercise program, an educational/behavioral intervention. Both groups will receive a leaflet containing general information about fall prevention strategies. Primary outcome measures will be the rate of falls and the proportion of fallers recorded by monthly falls diaries and telephone calls over a 12 month period. Secondary outcomes measures will include risk of falling, fall-related self-efficacy score, measures of balance, mobility and strength, fall-related health services use and independence with daily tasks. Data will be analysed using the intention-to-treat principle.The incidence of falls in the intervention and control groups will be calculated and compared using negative binomial regression analysis. Discussion This study is the first trial to be conducted in Brazil to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention to prevent falls. If proven to reduce falls this study has the potential to benefit older adults and assist health care practitioners and policy makers to implement and promote effective falls prevention interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01698580) PMID:23497000

  13. Influences on Modern Multifactorial Falls Prevention Interventions and Fear of Falling in Non-Frail Older Adults: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Svantesson, Ulla; Babagbemi, Buki; Foster, Lakicia; Alricsson, Marie

    2014-01-01

    This review explores underlying features that may influence fear of falling and the effectiveness of multifactorial falls prevention programs in community dwelling non-frail adults aged 65 and older. It also examines the interrelationship between fear of falling and multifactorial falls prevention interventions. A literature search of medical databases was conducted to identify articles that address the fear of falling and multifactorial programs as either a primary or secondary component of their findings. Multifactorial interventions were assessed in terms of their program content, design, demographics, implementation techniques, and cost-effectiveness. Falls are a common, but preventable, cause of morbidity and injury in older adults 65 and over. In addition to physiological variables, fear of falling and self-efficacy are psychosocial factors that impact the incidence of falls in this population. Addressing fear of falling in addition to physiological parameters may influence the success of multifactorial falls prevention programs for adults 65 and over. PMID:25110534

  14. Older Persons’ Perception of Risk of Falling: Implications for Fall-Prevention Campaigns

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Karen; van Beurden, Eric; Eakin, Elizabeth G.; Barnett, Lisa M.; Patterson, Elizabeth; Backhouse, Jan; Jones, Sue; Hauser, Darren; Beard, John R.; Newman, Beth

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined older people’s attitudes about falls and implications for the design of fall-prevention awareness campaigns. Methods. We assessed data from (1) computer-assisted telephone surveys conducted in 2002 with Australians 60 years and older in Northern Rivers, New South Wales (site of a previous fall-prevention program; n=1601), and Wide Bay, Queensland (comparison community; n=1601), and (2) 8 focus groups (n=73). Results. Participants from the previous intervention site were less likely than were comparison participants to agree that falls are not preventable (odds ratio [OR]=0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.65, 0.90) and more likely to rate the prevention of falls a high priority (OR=1.31; 95% CI=1.09, 1.57). There was no difference between the groups for self-perceived risk of falls; more than 60% rated their risk as low. Those with a low perceived risk were more likely to be men, younger, partnered, and privately insured, and to report better health and no history of falls. Focus group data indicated that older people preferred messages that emphasized health and independence rather than falls. Conclusions. Although older people accepted traditional fall-prevention messages, most viewed them as not personally relevant. Messages that promote health and independence may be more effective. PMID:18172132

  15. Preventing Falls | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Preventing Falls Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of ... departments for fall-related injuries each year. Among older adults, falls are the leading cause of fractures, hospital ...

  16. Interventions to Prevent Falls Among Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence Z. Rubenstein; Judy A. Stevens; Vicky Scott

    Falls consistently rank among the most serious problems facing older persons and cause a tremendous amount of morbidity, mortality,\\u000a and disability (Brown, 1999; Nevitt, 1997; Robbins et al., 1989; Rubenstein, Josephson, & Robbins, 1994; Tinetti, Williams,\\u000a & Mayewski, 1986). At least a third of community-dwelling people aged 65 years and older fall each year (Centers for Disease\\u000a Control and Prevention

  17. Effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to prevent falls in community dwelling older people with disabling foot pain: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention in preventing falls in community dwelling older people with disabling foot pain. Design Parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting University health sciences clinic in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 305 community dwelling men and women (mean age 74 (SD 6) years) with disabling foot pain and an increased risk of falling. 153 were allocated to a multifaceted podiatry intervention and 152 to routine podiatry care, with 12 months’ follow-up. Interventions Multifaceted podiatry intervention consisting of foot orthoses, advice on footwear, subsidy for footwear ($A100 voucher; £65; €74), a home based programme of foot and ankle exercises, a falls prevention education booklet, and routine podiatry care for 12 months. The control group received routine podiatry care for 12 months. Main outcome measures Proportion of fallers and multiple fallers, falling rate, and injuries resulting from falls during follow-up. Results Overall, 264 falls occurred during the study. 296 participants returned all 12 calendars: 147 (96%) in the intervention group and 149 (98%) in the control group. Adherence was good, with 52% of the participants completing 75% or more of the requested three exercise sessions weekly, and 55% of those issued orthoses reporting wearing them most of the time. Participants in the intervention group (n=153) experienced 36% fewer falls than participants in the control group (incidence rate ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.91, P=0.01). The proportion of fallers and multiple fallers did not differ significantly between the groups (relative risk 0.85, 0.66 to 1.08, P=0.19 and 0.63, 0.38 to 1.04, P=0.07). One fracture occurred in the intervention group and seven in the control group (0.14, 0.02 to 1.15, P=0.07). Significant improvements in the intervention group compared with the control group were found for the domains of strength (ankle eversion), range of motion (ankle dorsiflexion and inversion/eversion), and balance (postural sway on the floor when barefoot and maximum balance range wearing shoes). Conclusions A multifaceted podiatry intervention reduced the rate of falls in community dwelling older people with disabling foot pain. The components of the intervention are inexpensive and relatively simple to implement, suggesting that the programme could be incorporated into routine podiatry practice or multidisciplinary falls prevention clinics. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000065392. PMID:21680622

  18. A Culture of Safety: Nursing Rounds As Falls Prevention Best Practice Dr. Judith Moran-Peters, RN, DNSc, CNA, BC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane Peyser; Angela Neglia

    The purpose is to describe the effect of hourly nursing rounds on prevention of falls in hospitalized patients. Implication for practice: The information presented will increase nurses' knowledge regarding the effectiveness of fall prevention nursing activities. Recommendation: direct care nurses making hourly point-of-care rounds on their clinical units will experience positive outcomes in preventing patient falls. Problem: National Patient Safety

  19. Development and Process Evaluation of a 5-Week Exercise Program to Prevent Falls in People after Stroke: The FALLS Program

    PubMed Central

    van Duijnhoven, H. J. R.; De Kam, D.; Hellebrand, W.; Smulders, E.; Geurts, A. C. H.; Weerdesteyn, V.

    2012-01-01

    Falls are a common complication after stroke, with balance and gait deficits being the most important risk factors. Taking into account the specific needs and capacities of people with stroke, we developed the FALLS program (FALL prevention after Stroke), based on the “Nijmegen falls prevention program” (a proven-effective 5-week exercise program designed for community-dwelling elderly people). The program was tested in twelve community-dwelling persons with stroke, and a process evaluation was conducted with patients, trainers, health care professionals, and managers. The FALLS program was considered suitable and feasible by people with stroke in the study and relevant health care professionals, and recommendations for implementation in clinical practice have been suggested. PMID:22195292

  20. Exercise-based fall prevention: can you be a bit more specific?

    PubMed

    Grabiner, Mark D; Crenshaw, Jeremy R; Hurt, Christopher P; Rosenblatt, Noah J; Troy, Karen L

    2014-10-01

    Trip-specific perturbation training reduces trip-related falls after laboratory-induced trips and, prospectively, in the community. Based on an emerging body of evidence, we hypothesize that using task-specific perturbation training as a stand-alone approach or in conjunction with conventional exercise-based approaches will improve the effectiveness of fall prevention interventions significantly. PMID:25062002

  1. Slip, Trip and Fall Prevention for Healthcare Workers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... date. 34 | Slip, Trip, and Fall Prevention Employee Communication: Training and Involvement All healthcare facility employees are ... Umbrella bags? Barrier and access restriction devices? Employee Communication (Training and Employee Involvement)Yes No Locations / CommentsWho ...

  2. Engaging Community-Based Organizations in Fall Prevention Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, B. Josea; Vivrette, Rebecca L.; Rubenstein, Laurence Z.

    2011-01-01

    Falls are a major public health problem for older adults, and community-based organizations play a key role in educating seniors about falls prevention (FP). We conducted a qualitative process evaluation at six sites to report community-based centers' perspectives on adoption, adaptation, and sustainability of an evidence-based multifactorial FP…

  3. The population approach to falls injury prevention in older people: findings of a two community trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a sound rationale for the population-based approach to falls injury prevention but there is currently insufficient evidence to advise governments and communities on how they can use population-based strategies to achieve desired reductions in the burden of falls-related injury. The aim of the study was to quantify the effectiveness of a streamlined (and thus potentially sustainable and cost-effective), population-based, multi-factorial falls injury prevention program for people over 60 years of age. Methods Population-based falls-prevention interventions were conducted at two geographically-defined and separate Australian sites: Wide Bay, Queensland, and Northern Rivers, NSW. Changes in the prevalence of key risk factors and changes in rates of injury outcomes within each community were compared before and after program implementation and changes in rates of injury outcomes in each community were also compared with the rates in their respective States. Results The interventions in neither community substantially decreased the rate of falls-related injury among people aged 60 years or older, although there was some evidence of reductions in occurrence of multiple falls reported by women. In addition, there was some indication of improvements in fall-related risk factors, but the magnitudes were generally modest. Conclusions The evidence suggests that low intensity population-based falls prevention programs may not be as effective as those that are intensively implemented. PMID:20167124

  4. Exercise and Sports Science Australia position statement on exercise and falls prevention in older people.

    PubMed

    Tiedemann, Anne; Sherrington, Catherine; Close, Jacqueline C T; Lord, Stephen R

    2011-11-01

    Falls affect a significant number of older Australians and present a major challenge to health care providers and health systems. The purpose of this statement is to inform and guide exercise practitioners and health professionals in the safe and effective prescription of exercise for older community-dwelling people with the goal of preventing falls. Falls in older people are not random events but can be predicted by assessing a number of risk factors. Of particular importance are lower limb muscle strength, gait and balance, all of which can be improved with appropriate exercise. There is now extensive evidence to demonstrate that many falls are preventable, with exercise playing a crucial role in prevention. Research evidence has identified that programs which include exercises that challenge balance are more effective in preventing falls than those which do not challenge balance. It is important for exercise to be progressively challenging, ongoing and of sufficient dose to maximise its benefits in reducing falls. Other (non-exercise) interventions are necessary for certain people with complex medical conditions or recent hospitalisation and risk factors relating to vision and the use of psychotropic medications. Qualified exercise professionals are well placed to implement the research evidence and to prescribe and supervise specific exercise aimed at preventing falls in both healthy older community-dwelling people and those with co-morbidities. PMID:21570910

  5. Fall prevention modulates decisional saccadic behavior in aging

    PubMed Central

    Coubard, Olivier A.

    2012-01-01

    As society ages and frequency of falls increases in older adults, counteracting motor decline is a challenging issue for developed countries. Physical activity based on aerobic and strength training as well as motor activity based on skill learning both help benefit balance and reduce the risk of falls, as assessed by clinical or laboratory measures. However, how such programs influence motor control is a neglected issue. This study examined the effects of fall prevention (FP) training on saccadic control in older adults. Saccades were recorded in 12 participants aged 64–91 years before and after 2.5 months training in FP. Traditional analysis of saccade timing and dynamics was performed together with a quantitative analysis using the LATER model, enabling us to examine the underlying motor control processes. Results indicated that FP reduced the rate of anticipatory and express saccades in inappropriate directions and enhanced that of express saccades in the appropriate direction, resulting in decreased latency and higher left-right symmetry of motor responses. FP reduced within-participant variability of saccade duration, amplitude, and peak velocity. LATER analysis suggested that FP modulates decisional thresholds, extending our knowledge of motor training influence on central motor control. We introduce the Threshold Interval Modulation with Early Release-Rate of rIse Deviation with Early Release (TIMER-RIDER) model to account for the results. PMID:22807914

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of Vitamin D Screening Compared to Universal Supplementation to Prevent Falls Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard H.; Weber, Thomas; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of population screening for vitamin D insufficiency, compared to universal vitamin D supplementation, among community-dwelling, older adults. Design A Markov decision model, simulating follow-up over a 36-month period. Published data were used to estimate values for the model, including costs (measured in 2011 U.S. dollars), utilities (measured in quality-adjusted life years [QALYs]), and probabilities. Setting Decision analysis simulation from a societal perspective Participants Hypothetical cohort of community-dwelling women and men between age 65 and 80 years. Measurements Net monetary benefit (NMB) was calculated by subtracting the incremental cost of the strategy from the product of the incremental QALYs and the willingness-to-pay threshold. A higher NMB indicates greater cost-effectiveness. Results Among women age 65 to 80 years, population screening was slightly more cost-effective than universal supplementation, with an incremental NMB of $224 compared to $189 (P< 0.001). Population screening among men was also more cost-effective than universal supplementation (incremental NMB: $298 vs. $260, P< 0.001). However, results differed by age group. Among those age 65 years, population screening had similar cost-effectiveness to universal supplementation in women ($59 vs. $71) and men ($114 vs. $120, respectively). Among those age 80 years, population screening was substantially more cost-effective than universal supplementation in women ($563 vs. $428) and men ($703 vs. $571, respectively). Conclusion Both population screening and universal supplementation for vitamin D insufficiency are cost-effective strategies among community-dwelling older women and men. Among the oldest old, population screening may be more cost-effective than universal supplementation. PMID:23631393

  7. A DVD program on fall prevention skills training for cancer family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Potter, Patricia; Olsen, Sarah; Kuhrik, Marilee; Kuhrik, Nancy; Huntley, Lance R

    2012-03-01

    This feasibility study tested an instructional DVD program for improving cancer family caregivers' knowledge and preparedness in fall prevention and reducing fall occurrence among the patients they care for at home. DVD program features included training caregivers on safe mobility skills. Family caregivers of cancer patients were surveyed before and after viewing the DVD program on "Moving Safely" in the home. Cancer patients were followed 4 months postintervention to determine if fall occurrence was reduced. There was a decrease in the number of patients who fell postintervention compared with those who fell preintervention. Caregivers' perceptions of knowledge about fall prevention improved significantly after viewing the DVD. An instructional DVD program is an effective educational tool for preparing family caregivers with the knowledge and skills needed to reduce the incidence of falls in the home setting. Educators must develop programs for preparing family caregivers to perform nursing skills within the home. PMID:22057986

  8. Effectiveness of two year balance training programme on prevention of fall induced injuries in at risk women aged 75-85 living in community: Ossébo randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    El-Khoury, Fabienne; Cassou, Bernard; Latouche, Aurélien; Aegerter, Philippe; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of a two year exercise programme of progressive balance retraining in reducing injurious falls among women aged 75-85 at increased risk of falls and injuries and living in the community. Design Pragmatic multicentre, two arm, parallel group, randomised controlled trial. Setting 20 study sites in 16 medium to large cities throughout France. Participants 706 women aged 75-85, living in their own home, and with diminished balance and gait capacities, randomly allocated to the experimental intervention group (exercise programme, n=352) or the control group (no intervention, n=354). Intervention Weekly supervised group sessions of progressive balance training offered in community based premises for two years, supplemented by individually prescribed home exercises. Outcome measures A geriatrician blinded to group assignment classified falls into one of three categories (no consequence, moderate, severe) based on physical damage and medical care. The primary outcome was the rate of injurious falls (moderate and severe). The two groups were compared for rates of injurious falls with a “shared frailty” model. Other outcomes included the rates of all falls, physical functional capacities (balance and motor function test results), fear of falling (FES-I), physical activity level, and perceived health related quality of life (SF-36). Analysis was by intention to treat. Results There were 305 injurious falls in the intervention group and 397 in the control group (hazard ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.99). The difference in severe injuries (68 in intervention group v 87 in control group) was of the same order of magnitude (0.83, 0.60 to 1.16). At two years, women in the intervention group performed significantly better on all physical tests and had significantly better perception of their overall physical function than women in the control group. Among women who started the intervention (n=294), the median number of group sessions attended was 53 (interquartile range 16-71). Five injurious falls related to the intervention were recorded. Conclusion A two year progressive balance retraining programme combining weekly group and individual sessions was effective in reducing injurious falls and in improving measured and perceived physical function in women aged 75-85 at risk of falling. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00545350). PMID:26201510

  9. Tailored prevention of inpatient falls: development and usability testing of the fall TIPS toolkit.

    PubMed

    Zuyev, Lyubov; Benoit, Angela N; Chang, Frank Y; Dykes, Patricia C

    2011-02-01

    Patient falls and fall-related injuries are serious problems in hospitals. The Fall TIPS application aims to prevent patient falls by translating routine nursing fall risk assessment into a decision support intervention that communicates fall risk status and creates a tailored evidence-based plan of care that is accessible to the care team, patients, and family members. In our design and implementation of the Fall TIPS toolkit, we used the Spiral Software Development Life Cycle model. Three output tools available to be generated from the toolkit are bed poster, plan of care, and patient education handout. A preliminary design of the application was based on initial requirements defined by project leaders and informed by focus groups with end users. Preliminary design partially simulated the paper version of the Morse Fall Scale currently used in hospitals involved in the research study. Strengths and weaknesses of the first prototype were identified by heuristic evaluation. Usability testing was performed at sites where research study is implemented. Suggestions mentioned by end users participating in usability studies were either directly incorporated into the toolkit and output tools, were slightly modified, or will be addressed during training. The next step is implementation of the fall prevention toolkit on the pilot testing units. PMID:20975543

  10. Effects of a Fall Prevention Exercise Program on Muscle Strength and Balance of the Old-old Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seong-Il; An, Duk-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week balance exercise and elastic-resistance exercise program on muscle strength and balance of the old-old elderly (over the age of 75). [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-five elderly persons were recruited from the community and assigned to three groups for convenience: balance exercise (intervention group 1; INT 1), resistance exercise (intervention group 2; INT 2), and control (CON) groups. The intervention was performed twice a week at a senior center and three times a week at home for 8 weeks. Muscle strength and balance were evaluated before and at the end of the trial, using a PowertrackIIand Tetrax. [Results] There were significant improvements in the strength of all seven muscle groups and balance in the INT 2 group. In the INT 1 group, there were significant improvements in the strength of all muscle groups except for the knee flexor and ankle plantar flexor muscle groups. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that an intervention using balance exercises or elastic-resistance exercises is effective at improving the muscle strength and balance of the old-old elderly. These type of exercises should be appropriate for the physical characteristics of the subjects. PMID:25435697

  11. Indoor Gateball’s Influence on Life Satisfaction and the Prevention of Falls by the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kwon-Young

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of indoor gateball exercise on life satisfaction and the prevention of falls by the elderly. [Subjects] Sixteen elderly subjects aged 65 or more, residents in nursing care facilities, were randomly divided into two groups. [Methods] One group performed indoor gateball exercise for 30 minutes a day, five times per week. The Tetrax fall index and life satisfaction were measured before and after four weeks of gateball exercise. [Results] The indoor gate ball exercise group showed significant improvements in the fall index and life satisfaction. [Conclusion] The indoor gateball exercise used in this study should be considered as a therapeutic method for the elderly, for improving their life satisfaction and because of its effectiveness in preventing falls. PMID:25540489

  12. Randomised factorial trial of falls prevention among older people living in their own homes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lesley Day; Brian Fildes; Ian Gordon; Michael Fitzharris; Harold Flamer; Stephen Lord; Victoria Melbourne; Australia Ian Gordon

    2002-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of, and explore interactions between, three interventions to prevent falls among older people. Design A randomised controlled trial with a full factorial design. Setting Urban community in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 1090 aged 70 years and over and living at home. Most were Australian born and rated their health as good to excellent; just over half

  13. Changes in fall prevention training for apprentice carpenters based on a comprehensive needs assessment?

    PubMed Central

    Kaskutas, Vicki; Dale, Ann Marie; Lipscomb, Hester; Gaal, John; Fuchs, Mark; Evanoff, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Problem Falls from heights in residential construction are common, especially among inexperienced workers. Methods We conducted a comprehensive needs assessment to determine gaps in the school-based apprentice carpenters' fall prevention training. A team of carpenter instructors and researchers revised the fall prevention training to fill these gaps. Apprentice evaluation and feedback guided ongoing curricular improvements. Results Most apprentice carpenters performed work tasks at heights prior to training and fall protection techniques were not commonly used at residential construction sites. Priorities of the revised school-based training included safe ladder habits, truss setting, scaffold use, guarding floor openings, and using personal fall arrest systems. New apprentices were targeted to ensure training prior to exposure at the workplace. We used adult learning principles to emphasize hands-on experiences. A framed portion of a residential construction site was fabricated to practice fall protection behaviors in a realistic setting. The revised curriculum has been delivered consistently and apprentice feedback has been very favorable. Conclusions Integration of needs assessment results was invaluable in revising the school-based carpenters apprentice fall prevention curriculum. Working closely with the instructors to tailor learning experiences has provided preliminary positive results. Impact on Industry The fall safety of the residential construction industry continues to lag behind commercial construction and industrial settings. The National Occupational Research Agenda includes a Strategic Goal to strengthen and extend the reach of quality training and education in the construction industry via mechanisms such as construction safety and health training needs assessments. This study demonstrates how a structured process can be used to identify and remedy gaps and improve training effectiveness. We encourage others to take steps to assess and increase the impact of training efforts directed at all residential construction professionals; including both union and non-union workers. The implications are even greater in the non-union sector where most U.S. residential work is done. PMID:20630273

  14. "Better for others than for me": a belief that should shape our efforts to promote participation in falls prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Haines, Terry P; Day, Lesley; Hill, Keith D; Clemson, Lindy; Finch, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Falls are a common occurrence amongst older adults yet participation in prevention strategies is often poor. Although older adults may perceive a strategy works in general, they may not participate because they feel it will not benefit them personally. We aimed to describe how frequently and why older adults identify falls prevention strategies as being "better for others than for me". A cross-sectional survey with n=394 community-dwelling older adults in Victoria, Australia was undertaken. Participants were provided with detailed descriptions of four evidence-based falls prevention strategies and for each were asked whether they felt that the strategy would be effective in preventing falls for people like them, and then whether they felt that the strategy would be effective for preventing falls for them personally. Follow-up questions asked why they thought the strategy would be more effective for people like them than for them personally where this was the case. We found the "better for others than for me" perception was present for between 25% and 34% of the strategies investigated. Participants commonly said they felt this way because they did not think they were at risk of falls, and because they were doing other activities they thought would provide equivalent benefit. Strategies to promote participation in evidence-based falls prevention strategies may need to convince older adults that they are at risk of falls and that what activities they are already doing may not provide adequate protection against falls in order to have greater effect. PMID:24745812

  15. Laboratory review: the role of gait analysis in seniors' mobility and fall prevention.

    PubMed

    Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Kressig, Reto W

    2011-01-01

    Walking is a complex motor task generally performed automatically by healthy adults. Yet, by the elderly, walking is often no longer performed automatically. Older adults require more attention for motor control while walking than younger adults. Falls, often with serious consequences, can be the result. Gait impairments are one of the biggest risk factors for falls. Several studies have identified changes in certain gait parameters as independent predictors of fall risk. Such gait changes are often too discrete to be detected by clinical observation alone. At the Basel Mobility Center, we employ the GAITRite electronic walkway system for spatial-temporal gait analysis. Although we have a large range of indications for gait analyses and several areas of clinical research, our focus is on the association between gait and cognition. Gait analysis with walking as a single-task condition alone is often insufficient to reveal underlying gait disorders present during normal, everyday activities. We use a dual-task paradigm, walking while simultaneously performing a second cognitive task, to assess the effects of divided attention on motor performance and gait control. Objective quantification of such clinically relevant gait changes is necessary to determine fall risk. Early detection of gait disorders and fall risk permits early intervention and, in the best-case scenario, fall prevention. We and others have shown that rhythmic movement training such as Jaques-Dalcroze eurhythmics, tai chi and social dancing can improve gait regularity and automaticity, thus increasing gait safety and reducing fall risk. PMID:20980732

  16. Can social dancing prevent falls in older adults? a protocol of the Dance, Aging, Cognition, Economics (DAnCE) fall prevention randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Falls are one of the most common health problems among older people and pose a major economic burden on health care systems. Exercise is an accepted stand-alone fall prevention strategy particularly if it is balance training or regular participation in Tai chi. Dance shares the ‘holistic’ approach of practices such as Tai chi. It is a complex sensorimotor rhythmic activity integrating multiple physical, cognitive and social elements. Small-scale randomised controlled trials have indicated that diverse dance styles can improve measures of balance and mobility in older people, but none of these studies has examined the effect of dance on falls or cognition. This study aims to determine whether participation in social dancing: i) reduces the number of falls; and ii) improves cognitive functions associated with fall risk in older people. Methods/design A single-blind, cluster randomised controlled trial of 12 months duration will be conducted. Approximately 450 participants will be recruited from 24 self-care retirement villages that house at least 60 residents each in Sydney, Australia. Village residents without cognitive impairment and obtain medical clearance will be eligible. After comprehensive baseline measurements including physiological and cognitive tests and self-completed questionnaires, villages will be randomised to intervention sites (ballroom or folk dance) or to a wait-listed control using a computer randomisation method that minimises imbalances between villages based on two baseline fall risk measures. Main outcome measures are falls, prospectively measured, and the Trail Making cognitive function test. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses will be performed. Discussion This study offers a novel approach to balance training for older people. As a community-based approach to fall prevention, dance offers older people an opportunity for greater social engagement, thereby making a major contribution to healthy ageing. Providing diversity in exercise programs targeting seniors recognises the heterogeneity of multicultural populations and may further increase the number of taking part in exercise. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000889853 The trial is now in progress with 12 villages already have been randomised. PMID:23675705

  17. Formative evaluation of the telecare fall prevention project for older veterans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isomi M Miake-Lye; Angel Amulis; Debra Saliba; Paul G Shekelle; Linda K Volkman; David A Ganz

    2011-01-01

    Background  Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies.\\u000a However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven\\u000a program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program\\u000a used a nurse advice telephone line

  18. What factors influence community-dwelling older people’s intent to undertake multifactorial fall prevention programs?

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Keith D; Day, Lesley; Haines, Terry P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate previous, current, or planned participation in, and perceptions toward, multifactorial fall prevention programs such as those delivered through a falls clinic in the community setting, and to identify factors influencing older people’s intent to undertake these interventions. Design and methods Community-dwelling people aged >70 years completed a telephone survey. Participants were randomly selected from an electronic residential telephone listing, but purposeful sampling was used to include equal numbers with and without common chronic health conditions associated with fall-related hospitalization. The survey included scenarios for fall prevention interventions, including assessment/multifactorial interventions, such as those delivered through a falls clinic. Participants were asked about previous exposure to, or intent to participate in, the interventions. A path model analysis was used to identify factors associated with intent to participate in assessment/multifactorial interventions. Results Thirty of 376 participants (8.0%) reported exposure to a multifactorial falls clinic-type intervention in the past 5 years, and 16.0% expressed intention to undertake this intervention. Of the 132 participants who reported one or more falls in the past 12 months, over one-third were undecided or disagreed that a falls clinic type of intervention would be of benefit to them. Four elements from the theoretical model positively influenced intention to participate in the intervention: personal perception of intervention effectiveness, self-perceived risk of falls, self-perceived risk of injury, and inability to walk up/down steps without a handrail (P<0.05). Conclusion Multifactorial falls clinic-type interventions are not commonly accessed or considered as intended fall prevention approaches among community-dwelling older people, even among those with falls in the past 12 months. Factors identified as influencing intention to undertake these interventions may be useful in promoting or targeting these interventions. PMID:25473276

  19. Does a fall prevention educational programme improve knowledge and change exercise prescribing behaviour in health and exercise professionals? A study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tiedemann, A; Sturnieks, D L; Hill, A-M; Lovitt, L; Clemson, L; Lord, S R; Harvey, L; Sherrington, C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Falling in older age is a serious and costly problem. At least one in three older people fall annually. Although exercise is recognised as an effective fall prevention intervention, low numbers of older people engage in suitable programmes. Health and exercise professionals play a crucial role in addressing fall risk in older adults. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of participation in a fall prevention educational programme, compared with a wait-list control group, on health and exercise professionals’ knowledge about fall prevention and the effect on fall prevention exercise prescription behaviour and confidence to prescribe the exercises to older people. Methods and analysis A randomised controlled trial involving 220 consenting health and exercise professionals will be conducted. Participants will be individually randomised to an intervention group (n=110) to receive an educational workshop plus access to internet-based support resources, or a wait-list control group (n=110). The two primary outcomes, measured 3?months after randomisation, are: (1) knowledge about fall prevention and (2) self-perceived change in fall prevention exercise prescription behaviour. Secondary outcomes include: (1) participants’ confidence to prescribe fall prevention exercises; (2) the proportion of people aged 60+ years seen by trial participants in the past month who were prescribed fall prevention exercise; and (3) the proportion of fall prevention exercises prescribed by participants to older people in the past month that comply with evidence-based guidelines. Outcomes will be measured with a self-report questionnaire designed specifically for the trial. Ethics and dissemination The trial protocol was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee, The University of Sydney, Australia. Trial results will be disseminated via peer reviewed journals, presentations at international conferences and participants’ newsletters. Trial registration number Trial protocol was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (Number ACTRN12614000224628) on 3 March 2014. PMID:25410607

  20. Fall Prevention Research and Practice: A Total Worker Safety Approach

    PubMed Central

    HSIAO, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Slips, trips, and falls (STF) represent a serious hazard to workers and occupants in many industries, homes, and communities. Often, the cause of a STF incident is multifactorial, encompassing human, environmental, and task risk factors. A STF-related disability can greatly diminish the occupational capability and quality of life of individuals in both the workplace and the home. Countering STF hazards and risks both on and off the job and on all aspects of control measures is a “total worker safety” matter, a challenging yet tangible undertaking. As the federal organization responsible for conducting research for the prevention of work-related injuries in the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been conducting research on STF controls for some decades. Many NIOSH research outcomes have been utilized for STF prevention in workplaces, with potential for prevention in homes as well. This paper summarizes the concept of total worker safety for STF control, NIOSH priority research goals, major activities, and accomplishments, and some emerging issues on STF. The strategic planning process for the NIOSH research goals and some identified research focuses are applicable to the development and implementation of global STF research goals. PMID:25345424

  1. ICT-based system to predict and prevent falls (iStoppFalls): study protocol for an international multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Falls are very common, especially in adults aged 65 years and older. Within the current international European Commission’s Seventh Framework Program (FP7) project ‘iStoppFalls’ an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based system has been developed to regularly assess a person’s risk of falling in their own home and to deliver an individual and tailored home-based exercise and education program for fall prevention. The primary aims of iStoppFalls are to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention program, and its effectiveness to improve balance, muscle strength and quality of life in older people. Methods/Design This international, multicenter study is designed as a single-blinded, two-group randomized controlled trial. A total of 160 community-dwelling older people aged 65 years and older will be recruited in Germany (n = 60), Spain (n = 40), and Australia (n = 60) between November 2013 and May 2014. Participants in the intervention group will conduct a 16-week exercise program using the iStoppFalls system through their television set at home. Participants are encouraged to exercise for a total duration of 180 minutes per week. The training program consists of a variety of balance and strength exercises in the form of video games using exergame technology. Educational material about a healthy lifestyle will be provided to each participant. Final reassessments will be conducted after 16 weeks. The assessments include physical and cognitive tests as well as questionnaires assessing health, fear of falling, quality of life and psychosocial determinants. Falls will be followed up for six months by monthly falls calendars. Discussion We hypothesize that the regular use of this newly developed ICT-based system for fall prevention at home is feasible for older people. By using the iStoppFalls sensor-based exercise program, older people are expected to improve in balance and strength outcomes. In addition, the exercise training may have a positive impact on quality of life by reducing the risk of falls. Taken together with expected cognitive improvements, the individual approach of the iStoppFalls program may provide an effective model for fall prevention in older people who prefer to exercise at home. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Trial ID: ACTRN12614000096651. International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number: ISRCTN15932647. PMID:25141850

  2. AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY CONSENSUS STATEMENT Vitamin D for Prevention of Falls and

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY CONSENSUS STATEMENT Vitamin D for Prevention of Falls Geriatrics Society Consensus Statement onVitamin D for Prevention of Falls and their Consequences,'' is published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society and is available online at www

  3. Bedside nurses leading the way for falls prevention: an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Cangany, Marty; Back, Dawn; Hamilton-Kelly, Tori; Altman, Marian; Lacey, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Incidence and characteristics of patient falls and fall prevention programs have been a topic of interest in the literature; however, few articles on fall reduction strategies written by staff nurses have been published. Falls in hospitalized patients are serious threats to patient safety. According to Morse, sequelae of falls are the second leading cause of death in the United States. Costs resulting from falls alone have been reported at between 0.85% and 1.5% of the total health care expenses within the United States, Australia, the European Union, and the United Kingdom. A fall is the most reported safety incident in inpatients and occurs in all adult clinical areas. Accidental falls are among the most common incidents reported in hospitals and occur in approximately 2% of all hospital stays. Growing evidence indicates that falls occurring in the hospital can be reduced with planning and intervention techniques PMID:25834013

  4. Falls Prevention Education for Older Adults during and after Hospitalization: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Den-Ching A.; Pritchard, Elizabeth; McDermott, Fiona; Haines, Terry P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of patient education in reducing falls, promoting behavioural change and the uptake of prevention activities in older adults during and after hospitalization. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: A systematic search of five health science databases was performed up to November 2012. Studies…

  5. The Prevention of Childhood Sexual Abuse VOL. 19 / NO. 2 / FALL 2009 169

    E-print Network

    and development of this approach, in particular efforts to integrate it into comprehensive health and safetyThe Prevention of Childhood Sexual Abuse VOL. 19 / NO. 2 / FALL 2009 169 The Prevention of Childhood Sexual Abuse David Finkelhor Summary David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual

  6. Smartphone-Based Solutions for Fall Detection and Prevention: Challenges and Open Issues

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Mohammad Ashfak; Mohktar, Mas S.; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Lim, Kheng Seang; Pin, Tan Maw; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art survey of smartphone (SP)-based solutions for fall detection and prevention. Falls are considered as major health hazards for both the elderly and people with neurodegenerative diseases. To mitigate the adverse consequences of falling, a great deal of research has been conducted, mainly focused on two different approaches, namely, fall detection and fall prevention. Required hardware for both fall detection and prevention are also available in SPs. Consequently, researchers' interest in finding SP-based solutions has increased dramatically over recent years. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no published review on SP-based fall detection and prevention. Thus in this paper, we present the taxonomy for SP-based fall detection and prevention solutions and systematic comparisons of existing studies. We have also identified three challenges and three open issues for future research, after reviewing the existing articles. Our time series analysis demonstrates a trend towards the integration of external sensing units with SPs for improvement in usability of the systems. PMID:24759116

  7. Scales for assessing self-efficacy of nurses and assistants for preventing falls

    PubMed Central

    Dykes, Patricia C.; Carroll, Diane; McColgan, Kerry; Hurley, Ann C.; Lipsitz, Stuart R.; Colombo, Lisa; Zuyev, Lyubov; Middleton, Blackford

    2011-01-01

    Aim This paper is a report of the development and testing of the Self-Efficacy for Preventing Falls Nurse and Assistant scales. Background Patient falls and fall-related injuries are traumatic ordeals for patients, family members and providers, and carry a toll for hospitals. Self-efficacy is an important factor in determining actions persons take and levels of performance they achieve. Performance of individual caregivers is linked to the overall performance of hospitals. Scales to assess nurses and certified nursing assistants’ self-efficacy to prevent patients from falling would allow for targeting resources to increase SE, resulting in improved individual performance and ultimately decreased numbers of patient falls. Method Four phases of instrument development were carried out to (1) generate individual items from eight focus groups (four each nurse and assistant conducted in October 2007), (2) develop prototype scales, (3) determine content validity during a second series of four nurse and assistant focus groups (January 2008) and (4) conduct item analysis, paired t-tests, Student’s t-tests and internal consistency reliability to refine and confirm the scales. Data were collected during February–December, 2008. Results The 11-item Self-Efficacy for Preventing Falls Nurse had an alpha of 0·89 with all items in the range criterion of 0·3–0·7 for item total correlation. The 8-item Self-Efficacy for Preventing Falls Assistant had an alpha of 0·74 and all items had item total correlations in the 0·3–0·7 range. Conclusions The Self-Efficacy for Preventing Falls Nurse and Self-Efficacy for Preventing Falls Assistant scales demonstrated psychometric adequacy and are recommended to measure bedside staff’s self-efficacy beliefs in preventing patient falls. PMID:21073506

  8. Neuropeptide Y prevents the blood pressure fall induced by endotoxin in conscious rats with adrenal medullectomy.

    PubMed

    Evéquoz, D; Waeber, B; Aubert, J F; Flückiger, J P; Nussberger, J; Brunner, H R

    1988-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a vasoconstrictor peptide known to be present in the adrenal medulla, the terminal nerve endings, and in plasma. This study was designed to test whether NPY could prevent the acute blood pressure fall induced by endotoxin administration. Normotensive rats were subjected to adrenal demedullation on the right side and were either adrenalectomized or sham-operated on the left side. Eight to ten days later, NPY (0.07 microgram/min i.v.) or its vehicle were infused for 95 minutes into these conscious, semirestrained rats. The same experiments were performed with rats that received an infusion of epinephrine (0.1 microgram/min). These doses of NPY and epinephrine when given alone had no blood pressure effect. During the last 75 minutes of the 95-minute infusion, endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide Escherichia coli 0.111:B4, 10 micrograms/min i.v.) or its vehicle were administered. In rats with an intact adrenal gland, endotoxin failed to induce hypotension. In rats lacking a functioning adrenal medulla, however, endotoxin induced a pronounced mean blood pressure fall of 55 +/- 11.6 mm Hg (mean +/- SEM). This blood pressure drop could be prevented equally well with NPY and with epinephrine infusion and averaged 11 +/- 2.3 and 16 +/- 2.4 mm Hg, respectively, at the end of the experiment. Additional rats were biadrenalectomized and supplemented with an excess of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. In these rats also, NPY markedly attenuated the blood pressure fall resulting from endotoxemia. These data taken together indicate that in conscious rats with no adrenal medulla, the acute blood pressure fall induced by endotoxin administration is greatly enhanced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3335055

  9. Preventing falls and related injuries among seniors in assisted living residences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Scott; H Bawa; F Feldman; J S Gould; M Leung; F Rajabali

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionThe purpose of this study was to addresses a gap in the fall prevention literature with a focus on Assisted Living Residences (ALRs) – a new community housing option for a rapidly growing number of older persons that are at high risk falls. The result of the 1-year collaborative study was the development of Best Practice Guidelines for integration into

  10. REVIEW Open Access Fall prevention and vitamin D in the elderly: an

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    REVIEW Open Access Fall prevention and vitamin D in the elderly: an overview of the key role is an objective yet to be reached. There is increasing evi- dence that a supplementation of vitamin D and/or of calcium may reduce the fall and fracture rates. A vitamin D-calcium supplement appears to have a high

  11. How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of ... friends, gardening, walking, or going to the local senior center can help you stay healthy and happy. ...

  12. Chair Alarm for patient fall prevention based on Gesture Recognition and Interactivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather Knight; Jae-Kyu Lee; Hongshen Ma

    2008-01-01

    The Gesture Recognition Interactive Technology (GRiT) Chair Alarm aims to prevent patient falls from chairs and wheelchairs by recognizing the gesture of a patient attempting to stand. Patient falls are one of the greatest causes of injury in hospitals. Current chair and bed exit alarm systems are inadequate because of insufficient notification, high false-alarm rate, and long trigger delays. The

  13. A public health approach to fall and injury prevention among seniors in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Scott; M Herman; E Gallagher; A Sum

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionThe need to prevent falls and related injuries among seniors is a significant public health issue in Canada, and all nations where an aging demographic puts higher numbers at risk. To address this costly and complex problem, a sustained collaboration has occurred over the past 20 years among falls prevention leaders within government, the health system, academia and local communities.MethodsThis

  14. Drawing on Related Knowledge to Advance Multiple Sclerosis Falls-Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Nandini; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.; Finlayson, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    There is much to be learned from falls-related research outside the field of multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as from work within the MS field but not specific to falls or falls prevention. This article describes three examples of such bodies of work that have potential to broaden approaches to falls-prevention research: 1) sensory components of postural control among older adults, 2) lessons learned from physical activity promotion among people with spinal cord injury (SCI), and 3) aging among people with MS. Age-related deterioration in visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems or in sensory integration can adversely affect postural control and can contribute to falls in older people. Sensory-specific interventions designed for improving balance in older people could be adapted for preventing falls in individuals with MS. Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Action Canada's strategy for disseminating physical activity promotion interventions for adults with SCI has been successful and widely accepted by community partners. Many of the peer-based interventions developed by SCI Action Canada are potentially relevant and could be adapted to the MS population for both physical activity promotion and falls prevention. Considering that older people with MS constitute a growing proportion of the MS population and over 70% of older people with MS report moderate to extreme balance problems, falls prevention should be one of the key components, particularly for MS management in older or more disabled groups. Overall, given people's different ages, symptoms, strengths, and barriers, a tailored MS falls-prevention intervention that includes peer/caregiver support is critical. PMID:25694774

  15. Outcomes from the implementation of a facility specific evidence-based falls prevention intervention program in residential aged care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer C. Nitz; Elizabeth Cyarto; Sharon Andrews; Marcia Fearn; Stephanie Fu M. Phty; Terrence Haines; Betty Haralambous; Keith Hill; Susan Hunt; Emma Lea; Kirsten Moore; Emma Renehan

    For residents in long-term care facilities, falling is a major concern requiring preventive intervention. A prospective cohort study measured the impact of falls reduction following the implementation of evidence-based fall prevention interventions in nine Australian residential care facilities. An external project team provided a comprehensive audit of current practice. Facilitated by an action research approach, interventions were individualized to facility

  16. The REFORM study protocol: a cohort randomised controlled trial of a multifaceted podiatry intervention for the prevention of falls in older people

    PubMed Central

    Cockayne, Sarah; Adamson, Joy; Corbacho Martin, Belen; Fairhurst, Caroline; Hewitt, Catherine; Hicks, Kate; Hull, Robin; Keenan, Anne Maree; Lamb, Sarah E; Loughrey, Lorraine; McIntosh, Caroline; Menz, Hylton B; Redmond, Anthony C; Rodgers, Sara; Vernon, Wesley; Watson, Judith; Torgerson, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Falls and fall-related injuries are a serious cause of morbidity and cost to society. Foot problems and inappropriate footwear may increase the risk of falls; therefore podiatric interventions may play a role in reducing falls. Two Cochrane systematic reviews identified only one study of a podiatry intervention aimed to reduce falls, which was undertaken in Australia. The REFORM trial aims to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention in reducing falls in people aged 65?years and over in a UK and Irish setting. Methods and analysis This multicentre, cohort randomised controlled trial will recruit 2600 participants from routine podiatry clinics in the UK and Ireland to the REFORM cohort. In order to detect a 10% point reduction in falls from 50% to 40%, with 80% power 890 participants will be randomised to receive routine podiatry care and a falls prevention leaflet or routine podiatry care, a falls prevention leaflet and a multifaceted podiatry intervention. The primary outcome is rate of falls (falls/person/time) over 12?months assessed by patient self-report falls diary. Secondary self-report outcome measures include: the proportion of single and multiple fallers and time to first fall over a 12-month period; Short Falls Efficacy Scale—International; fear of falling in the past 4?weeks; Frenchay Activities Index; fracture rate; Geriatric Depression Scale; EuroQoL-five dimensional scale 3-L; health service utilisation at 6 and 12?months. A qualitative study will examine the acceptability of the package of care to participants and podiatrists. Ethics and dissemination The trial has received a favourable opinion from the East of England—Cambridge East Research Ethics Committee and Galway Research Ethics Committee. The trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and at conference presentations. Trial registration number Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN68240461assigned 01/07/2011. PMID:25518875

  17. Effect of free fall on higher plants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    The influence of exposure to the free-fall state on the orientation, morphogenesis, physiology, and radiation response of higher plants is briefly summarized. It is proposed that the duration of the space-flight experiments has been to brief to permit meaningful effects of free fall on general biochemistry, growth, and development to appear. However, two types of significant effect did occur. The first is on differential growth - i.e., tropism and epinasty - resulting from the absence of a normal geostimulus. For these phenomena it is suggested that ground-based experiments with the clinostat would suffice to mimic the effect of the free-fall state. The second is an apparent interaction between the radiation response and some flight condition, yielding an enhanced microspore abortion, a disturbed spindle function, and a stunting of stamen hairs. It is suggested that this apparent interaction may be derived from a shift in the rhythm of the cell cycle, induced by the free fall.

  18. Intervention to prevent further falls in older people who call an ambulance as a result of a fall: a protocol for the iPREFER randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An increasing number of falls result in an emergency call and the subsequent dispatch of paramedics. In the absence of physical injury, abnormal physiological parameters or change in usual functional status, it could be argued that routine conveyance by ambulance to the Emergency Department (ED) is not the most effective or efficient use of resources. Further, it is likely that non-conveyed older fallers have the potential to benefit from timely access to fall risk assessment and intervention. The aim of this randomised controlled trial is to evaluate the effect of a timely and tailored falls assessment and management intervention on the number of subsequent falls and fall-related injuries for non-conveyed older fallers. Methods Community dwelling people aged 65 years or older who are not conveyed to the ED following a fall will be eligible to be visited at home by a research physiotherapist. Consenting participants will receive individualised intervention strategies based on risk factors identified at baseline. All pre-test measures will be assessed prior to randomisation. Post-test measures will be undertaken by a researcher blinded to group allocation 6 months post-baseline. Participants in the intervention group will receive individualised pro-active fall prevention strategies from the clinical researcher to ensure that risk factors are addressed adequately and interventions carried out. The primary outcome measure will be the number of falls recorded by a falls diary over a 12 month period. Secondary outcome measures assessed six months after baseline will include the subsequent use of medical and emergency services and uptake of recommendations. Data will be analysed using the intention-to-treat principle. Discussion As there is currently little evidence regarding the effectiveness or feasibility of alternate models of care following ambulance non-conveyance of older fallers, there is a need to explore assessment and intervention programs to help reduce subsequent falls, related injuries and subsequent use of health care services. By linking existing services rather than setting up new services, this pragmatic trial aims to utilise the health care system in an efficient and timely manner. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN 12611000503921 PMID:24070456

  19. Falls after Discharge from Hospital: Is There a Gap between Older Peoples' Knowledge about Falls Prevention Strategies and the Research Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Anne-Marie; Hoffmann, Tammy; Beer, Christopher; McPhail, Steven; Hill, Keith D.; Oliver, David; Brauer, Sandra G.; Haines, Terry P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine whether older people are prepared to engage in appropriate falls prevention strategies after discharge from hospital. Design and Methods: We used a semi-structured interview to survey older patients about to be discharged from hospital and examined their knowledge regarding falls prevention strategies…

  20. Design, delivery, and outcomes from an interprofessional fall prevention course.

    PubMed

    Dauenhauer, Jason A; Glose, Susan; Watt, Celia

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development, delivery, and outcomes from an interprofessional evidence-based falls management course for undergraduate and graduate students. The 3-credit elective course was developed by a gerontological social work and nursing faculty member in partnership with community-based housing and case management organizations. Creation of the course was in response to a mandate by the Health Resources and Services Administration, funding source for federal Geriatric Education Centers, to train interprofessional students using an evidence-based approach while tying the outcomes to improved health measures in the target population. Therefore, this article describes student competencies pre- and postcourse completion and outcomes of community-dwelling older adults completing a Matter of Balance (MOB) program delivered by these students. A total of 16 students completed the course which included delivery of the MOB program to 41 older adults. Results indicate statistically significant improvements in student outcomes from a pre/post falls knowledge test. For older adult participants, many screened positively for fall risk factors pre-post MOB participation showed statistically significant improvements in falls efficacy, control, management, and overall mobility. Opportunities and challenges associated with course delivery are also described. PMID:25941927

  1. Injuries from the Wichita Falls Tornado: Implications for Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger I. Glass; Robert B. Craven; Dennis J. Bregman; Barbara J. Stoll; Neil Horowitz; Peter Kerndt; Joe Winkle

    1980-01-01

    We examined the circumstances of death and injury among victims of the tornado that struck Wichita Falls, Texas, on 10 April 1979. We also assessed the protective measures taken by a representative sample of community residents who suffered no major injury in order to estimate the relative risk of injury to people directly in the tornado's path. Twenty-six (60 percent)

  2. Vision and Relevant Risk Factor Interventions for Preventing Falls among Older People: A Network Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Yi; Shuai, Jian; Li, Li-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Our study objective was to determine the effect of vision intervention and combinations of different intervention components on preventing falls and fall-related injuries among older people. Six electronic databases were searched to identify seven articles published before May, 2014. We conducted a systematic review of data from seven randomized controlled trails and identified eight regimens: vision intervention alone (V), vision plus exercise (referred to as physical exercise) interventions (V?+?E), vision plus home hazard interventions (V?+?HH), vision plus exercise plus home hazard interventions (V?+?E?+?HH), vision plus exercise plus sensation interventions (V?+?E?+?S), vision plus hearing interventions (V?+?H), vision plus various risk factor assessment and interventions (V?+?VRF), and the control group (C, no intervention group). The main outcome was the incidence of falls during the follow-up period. Seven papers included 2723 participants. Network meta-analysis of seven trials, using pairwise comparisons between each intervention, indicated there was no significant difference. However, there was a trend in which intervention incorporating V?+?VRF had more advantages than any other combination of interventions. In conclusion, V?+?VRF proves to be more effective than other V combination interventions in preventing falls in older people (?65 years of age). V alone appears less effective in our network meta-analysis. PMID:26020415

  3. Vision and Relevant Risk Factor Interventions for Preventing Falls among Older People: A Network Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin-Yi; Shuai, Jian; Li, Li-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Our study objective was to determine the effect of vision intervention and combinations of different intervention components on preventing falls and fall-related injuries among older people. Six electronic databases were searched to identify seven articles published before May, 2014. We conducted a systematic review of data from seven randomized controlled trails and identified eight regimens: vision intervention alone (V), vision plus exercise (referred to as physical exercise) interventions (V?+?E), vision plus home hazard interventions (V?+?HH), vision plus exercise plus home hazard interventions (V?+?E?+?HH), vision plus exercise plus sensation interventions (V?+?E?+?S), vision plus hearing interventions (V?+?H), vision plus various risk factor assessment and interventions (V?+?VRF), and the control group (C, no intervention group). The main outcome was the incidence of falls during the follow-up period. Seven papers included 2723 participants. Network meta-analysis of seven trials, using pairwise comparisons between each intervention, indicated there was no significant difference. However, there was a trend in which intervention incorporating V?+?VRF had more advantages than any other combination of interventions. In conclusion, V?+?VRF proves to be more effective than other V combination interventions in preventing falls in older people (?65 years of age). V alone appears less effective in our network meta-analysis. PMID:26020415

  4. Falls Prevention within the Australian General Practice Data Model: Methodology, Information Model, and Terminology Issues

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Sulaiman, Nabil; Pearce, Christopher; Sims, Jane; Hill, Keith; Grain, Heather; Tse, Justin; Ng, Choon-Kiat

    2003-01-01

    The iterative development of the Falls Risk Assessment and Management System (FRAMS) drew upon research evidence and early consumer and clinician input through focus groups, interviews, direct observations, and an online questionnaire. Clinical vignettes were used to validate the clinical model and program logic, input, and output. The information model was developed within the Australian General Practice Data Model (GPDM) framework. The online FRAMS implementation used available Internet (TCP/IP), messaging (HL7, XML), knowledge representation (Arden Syntax), and classification (ICD10-AM, ICPC2) standards. Although it could accommodate most of the falls prevention information elements, the GPDM required extension for prevention and prescribing risk management. Existing classifications could not classify all falls prevention concepts. The lack of explicit rules for terminology and data definitions allowed multiple concept representations across the terminology–architecture interface. Patients were more enthusiastic than clinicians. A usable standards-based online-distributed decision support system for falls prevention can be implemented within the GPDM, but a comprehensive terminology is required. The conceptual interface between terminology and architecture requires standardization, preferably within a reference information model. Developments in electronic decision support must be guided by evidence-based clinical and information models and knowledge ontologies. The safety and quality of knowledge-based decision support systems must be monitored. Further examination of falls and other clinical domains within the GPDM is needed. PMID:12807809

  5. [Putting into place devices for prevention of falls at the hospital center at Haguenau].

    PubMed

    Demangeat, Jean-Louis; Geldreich, Marie-Anne; Kessler, Brigitte; Kohlbecker, Christine; Sure, Marie-Claude; Jeanmougin, Chantal

    2009-12-01

    Falls of patients represent the most frequent reported incidents in our 541-bed urban public hospital, reaching more than 200 occurrences per year.This prompted a fall-prevention program consisting of several steps: i) descriptive analysis of 295 consecutive falls in order to look at the factors commonly supposed to be associated with falls, among physical, psychic and pathological characteristics of patients, medication, circumstances or environmental hazards, ii) case-control study on 10 medicine and surgery wards of high risk (178 patients), designed to identify which factors are discriminant to predict the falls, iii) proposal of a fall-risk assessment score to be calculated at the admission of the patient, iv) if the risk is confirmed, implementation of general and specific actions identified by the components of the score. The score is based on a 15-point scale including age older than 65 years, history of previous falls, weakness or insufficient weight, impaired mobility or altered feet state, psychic disorders (depression-agitation-risky behavior), neuro-psychiatric diseases (CVA-confusion-dementia), fever or infection, polypharmacy. The mean scores of fallers and of control patients were 7.53 +/- 3.02 and 4.81 +/- 2.93 respectively (p < 0.000001). A score range between 5 and 11 was chosen to start the fall prevention program, which may predict a large proportion (about 80%) of valid patients prone to falls in the assessed medical and surgical wards (scores higher than 11 correspond to severely diseased, often bedridden invalid patients, not suspected to fall). However, these criteria are not suitable for nursing homes and for long-staying patients. PMID:20180337

  6. Cognitive and Psychological Foundations of Effective Leadership FALL 2012

    E-print Network

    Cognitive and Psychological Foundations of Effective Leadership FALL 2012 Dr investigates the cognitive and psychological foundations of effective leadership. Students #12;Cognitive and Psychological Foundations of Effective Leadership FALL 2012 Dr

  7. Prevention of falls in the elderly trial (PROFET): a randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline Close; Margaret Ellis; Richard Hooper; Edward Glucksman; Stephen Jackson; Cameron Swift

    1999-01-01

    Summary Background Falls in elderly people are a common presenting complaint to accident and emergency departments. Current practice commonly focuses on the injury, with little systematic assessment of the underlying cause, functional consequences, and possibilities for future prevention. We undertook a randomised controlled study to assess the benefit of a structured inderdisciplinary assessment of people who have fallen in terms

  8. Development of a Fall Prevention Survey to Determine Educational Needs for Primary Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, B. Josea; Ganz, David A.; Vivrette, Rebecca L.; Harker, Judith O.; Josephson, Karen R.; Saliba, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Quality indicators are standardized measures of health care quality. We designed a survey to assess how knowledge, attitude, and organizational practices might affect healthcare provider behaviors in meeting quality indicators for fall prevention to plan curricula for a continuing educational intervention. The survey was pilot tested in the…

  9. Framework for preventing accidental falls in hospitals - management plan for ADL, medication and medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shogo; Tsuru, Satoko; Iizuka, Yoshinori

    2009-01-01

    Prevention and reduction of medical accidents is essential. Among medical accidents, accidental falls remain a serious problem. While "assessment score sheets" have already been used in hospitals to prevent accidental falls, satisfactory results have not actually been achieved. In this study, we aim to establish a methodology for preventing accidental falls. We consider that the 'management plan' for each patient includes three factors. A plan of instructions for patients on actions they can take for safety in their ADL (Activities of Daily Living) is essential as a base. Second, a plan to keep up with any short term change in a patient's state is needed, because the state of a hospitalized patient will usually be temporarily affected by medication and changing medical conditions. We develop a model for preventing accidental falls, which enable us to design appropriate management plan for each patient. Then, we develop a prototype system based on the designed model. Finally, we address the result of verification of the model, by applying the prototype system into actual cases in hospitals. PMID:19592884

  10. Prevention of falls and fractures in old people by administration of calcium and vitamin d. randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are many studies that associate vitamin D serum levels in older persons with muscle strength, physical performance and risk of fractures and falls. However, current evidence is insufficient to make a general recommendation for administrating calcium and vitamin D to older persons. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of calcium and vitamin D supplementation in improving musculoskeletal function and decreasing the number of falls in person aged over 65 years. Methods/Design Phase III, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of already marketed drugs in a new indication. It will be performed at Primary Care doctor visits at several Healthcare Centers in different Spanish Health Areas. A total of 704 non-institutionalized subjects aged 65 years or older will be studied (sample size calculated for a statistical power of 80%, alpha error 0.05, annual incidence of falls 30% and expected reduction of 30% to 20% and expected loss to follow up of 20%). The test drug containing 800 IU of vitamin D and 1000 mg of calcium will be administered daily. The control group will receive a placebo. The subjects will be followed up over two years. The primary variable will be the incidence of spontaneous falls. The secondary variables will include: consequences of the falls (fractures, need for hospitalization), change in calcidiol plasma levels and other analytical determinations (transaminases, PTH, calcium/phosphorous, albumin, creatinine, etc.), change in bone mass by densitometry, change in muscle strength in the dominant hand and change in musculoskeletal strength, risk factors for falls, treatment compliance, adverse effects and socio-demographic data. Discussion The following principles have been considered in the development of this Project: the product data are sufficient to ensure that the risks assumed by the study participants are acceptable, the study objectives will probably provide further knowledge on the problem studied and the available information justifies the performance of the study and its possible risk for the participants. If calcium and vitamin D supplementation is effective in the prevention of falls and fractures in the elderly population, a recommendation may be issued with the aim of preventing some of the consequences of falls that affect quality of life and the ensuing personal, health and social costs. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01452243 Clinical trial authorized by the Spanish Medicines Agency: EudraCT number 2006-001643-63. PMID:22151975

  11. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Fall Prevention Programs and Quality of Life in Older Fallers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mau-Roung Lin; Steven L. Wolf; Hei-Fen Hwang; Sheng-You Gong; Chih-Yi Chen

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of three fall-preven- tion programs (education (ED), home safety assessment and modification (HSAM), and exercise training (ET)) on qual- ity of life (QOL), functional balance and gait, activities of daily living (ADLs), fear of falling, and depression in adults aged 65 and older. DESIGN: A 4-month randomized trial. SETTING: Randomized, controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred

  12. Reexamining the Effect of Antihypertensive Medications on Falls in Old Age.

    PubMed

    Lipsitz, Lewis A; Habtemariam, Daniel; Gagnon, Margaret; Iloputaife, Ikechukwu; Sorond, Farzaneh; Tchalla, Achille E; Dantoine, Thierry F; Travison, Thomas G

    2015-07-01

    Conflicting data on the relationship between antihypertensive medications and falls in elderly people may lead to inappropriate undertreatment of hypertension in an effort to prevent falls. We aimed to clarify the relationships between the chronic use of different classes of antihypertensive medications and different types of falls, to determine the effect of medication dose, and to assess whether the risk of falls is associated with differences in cerebral blood flow. We assessed demographics, clinical characteristics, and chronic antihypertensive medication use in 598 community-dwelling people with hypertension, aged 70 to 97 years, then followed them prospectively for self-reported falls using monthly calendar postcards and telephone interviews. Antihypertensive medication use was not associated with an increased risk of falls. Participants reporting use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors had a significantly decreased 1-year risk of injurious falls (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.96), whereas those using calcium channel blockers had a decreased risk of all falls (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.91) and indoor falls (odds ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.91), compared with participants not taking these drugs. Larger doses of these classes were associated with a lower fall risk. Participants taking calcium channel blockers had higher cerebral blood flow than those not taking these medications. In relatively healthy community-dwelling elderly people, high doses of antihypertensive agents are not associated with an increased risk of falls. PMID:25941341

  13. Outdoor pedestrian fall-related injuries among Swedish senior citizens - injuries and preventive strategies.

    PubMed

    Gyllencreutz, Lina; Björnstig, Johanna; Rolfsman, Ewa; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2015-06-01

    Senior citizens get around, to a large extent, as pedestrians, and safe walking is desirable for senior citizens allowing them to stay mobile, independent and healthy in old age. Senior citizens are over-represented in injury statistics, and fall-related injuries are common. The aim of this study was to investigate fall-related injuries including healthcare costs among senior citizen pedestrians injured when walking in public outdoor environments and to describe their self-reported causes and suggested preventive strategies. The data were based on a combination of information from injury data and a questionnaire. Three hundred senior citizens attended one emergency department after sustaining injuries from pedestrian falls; 60% suffered nonminor injuries, mostly fractures. One-fifth of the pedestrians were hospitalised for an average of 8 days with an indirect hospital cost of 6.2 million EUR (55 million SEK). Environmental factors such as ice were the most commonly described cause of the injury incident. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that the municipality was responsible for the cause of the injury incident. Fewer respondents mentioned their own responsibility as a preventive strategy. Thirty per cent described a combination of improvements such as better road maintenance, changes in human behaviour and use of safety products as preventive strategies. It is of great importance to highlight general safety, products and preventive strategies to minimise injury risks, so that pedestrians can safely realise the known health benefits of walking and thereby limit healthcare costs. PMID:24913321

  14. Health Promotion Board–Ministry of Health Clinical Practice Guidelines: Falls Prevention among Older Adults Living in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Shyamala, Thilagaratnam; Wong, Sweet Fun; Andiappan, Akila; Eong, Kah Guan Au; Bakshi, Anu Birla; Boey, Debbie; Chong, Tsung Wei; Eng, Hui Ping; Ismail, Noor Hafizah; Lau, Tang Ching; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lim, Hsin Wei Wendy; Seong, Lydia; Wong, Wei Chin; Yap, Kai Zhen; Yudah, Sri

    2015-01-01

    The Health Promotion Board (HPB) has developed the Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) on Falls Prevention among Older Adults Living in the Community to provide health professionals in Singapore with recommendations for evidence-based assessments and interventions for falls prevention. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary of the key recommendations from the HPB-MOH CPG on Falls Prevention among Older Adults Living in the Community for the information of SMJ readers. The chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Health Promotion Board website: http://www.hpb.gov. sg/cpg-falls-prevention. The recommendations should be used with reference to the full text of the guidelines. Following this article are multiple choice questions based on the full text of the guidelines. PMID:26034320

  15. Preventing Falls

    MedlinePLUS

    ... aids and how to use them. Lehigh Valley Hospital and Health Network has information on fitting yourself for a cane or walker. ... on using canes safely on the Lehigh Valley Hospital Web site. The More Resources section has contact information. Learn more about assistive devices . back to top ...

  16. Developing an effective pollution prevention program

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, J.J. [Pollution Prevention Inst., Chamblee, GA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Pollution prevention is rapidly becoming a key environmental program element. Congress has increased this emphasis by the passage of the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990. EPA has allocated an increasing share of its budget to pollution prevention activities. Waste minimization/pollution prevention has often been thought of as recycling aluminum cans and paper, but an effective program includes much more. An effective pollution prevention program consists of numerous elements, including a pollution prevention plan, an awareness plan, employee training, process waste assessments, and successful implementation and refinement of the program. This paper discusses what pollution prevention is, the benefits of a pollution prevention program, and the key elements of the program, elements which spell the key theme, Prevention.

  17. Generalization of Gait Adaptation for Fall Prevention: From Moveable Platform to Slippery Floor

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, T.; Pai, Y. C.

    2009-01-01

    A person's ability to transfer the acquired improvements in the control of center of mass (COM) state stability to slips induced in everyday conditions can have profound theoretical and practical implications for fall prevention. This study investigated the extent to which such generalization could take place. A training group (n = 8) initially experienced 24 right-side slips in blocked-and-random order (from the 1st unannounced, novel slip, S-1 to the last, S-24) resulting from release of a low-friction moveable platform in walking. They then experienced a single unannounced slip while walking on an oil-lubricated vinyl floor surface (V-T). A control group (n = 8) received only one unannounced slip on the same slippery floor (V-C). Results demonstrated that the incidence of balance loss and fall on V-T was comparable to that on S-24. In both trials, fall and balance-loss incidence was significantly reduced in comparison with that on S-1 or on V-C, resulting from significant improvements in the COM state stability. The observed generalization indicates that the control of COM stability can be optimally acquired to accommodate alterations in environmental constraints, and it may be broadly coded and easily modifiable within the CNS. Because of such mechanisms, it is possible that the locomotor-balance skills acquired with the aid of low-friction moveable platforms can translate into resisting falls encountered in daily living. PMID:19073804

  18. What do community-dwelling Caucasian and South Asian 60–70 year olds think about exercise for fall prevention?

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Maria; Speed, Shaun; Skelton, Dawn; Todd, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Background: strategies to prevent falls often recommend regular exercise. However, 40% of over 50s in the UK report less physical activity than is recommended. Even higher rates of sedentary behaviour have been reported among South Asian older adults. Objective: to identify salient beliefs that influence uptake and adherence to exercise for fall prevention among community-dwelling Caucasian and South Asian 60–70 year olds in the UK. Methods: we undertook an ethnographic study using participant observation, 15 focus groups (n = 87; mean age = 65.7 years) and 40 individual semi-structured interviews (mean age = 64.8 years). Data analysis used framework analysis. Results: young older adults do not acknowledge their fall risk and are generally not motivated to exercise to prevent falls. Those who had fallen are more likely to acknowledge risk of future falls. Whilst many of the beliefs about falls and exercise expressed were very similar between Caucasians and South Asians, there was a tendency for South Asians to express fatalistic beliefs more often. Conclusion: fall prevention should not be the focus of strategies to increase uptake and adherence to exercise. The wider benefits of exercise, leading to an active healthy lifestyle should be encouraged. PMID:19039019

  19. CIVIL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM EFFECTIVE FALL 2014 MATH 1426 C

    E-print Network

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    CIVIL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM EFFECTIVE FALL 2014 FIRST YEAR MATH 1426 C ...........................................................4 MATH 2425 C ......................................................... 4 HIST 1311 C ...........................................................3 POLS 2311 C ......................................................... 3 ENGL 1301 C

  20. Fall Prevention in Community Settings: Results from Implementing Tai Chi: Moving for Better Balance in Three States

    PubMed Central

    Ory, Marcia G.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Parker, Erin M.; Jiang, Luohua; Chen, Shuai; Wilson, Ashley D.; Stevens, Judy A.; Ehrenreich, Heidi; Lee, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Tai Chi: Moving for Better Balance (TCMBB) is an evidence-based fall prevention exercise program being disseminated in selected communities through state injury prevention programs. This study: (1) describes the personal characteristics of TCMBB participants; (2) quantifies participants’ functional and self-reported health status at enrollment; and (3) measures changes in participants’ functional and self-reported health status post-intervention. There were 421 participants enrolled in 36 TCMBB programs delivered in Colorado, New York, and Oregon. Of the 209 participants who completed both baseline enrollment and post-intervention surveys, the average age of participants was 75.3 (SD?±?8.2) years. Most participants were female (81.3%), non-Hispanic (96.1%), White (94.1%), and described themselves as in excellent or very good health (52.2%). Paired t-test and general estimating equation models assessed changes over the 3-month program period. Pre- and post-assessment self-reported surveys and objective functional data [Timed Up and Go (TUG) test] were collected. On average, TUG test scores decreased (p?falling was five times greater after completing the program. TCMBB, which addresses gait and balance problems, can be an effective way to reduce falls among the older adult population. By helping older adults maintain their functional abilities, TCMBB can help community-dwelling older adults continue to live independently. PMID:25964934

  1. Rapid demountable platform (RDP)--a device for preventing fall from height accidents.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Esther; Chan, Albert P C

    2012-09-01

    The prevention of fall from height accidents has long been a popular topic in the field of construction safety. Previous research has indicated one of the potential hazards was induced by the use of steel bracket as scaffold support. While researchers are focusing to improve the existing scaffolding system, this research introduces a newly developed device to minimize fall accidents. The working platform, namely Rapid Demountable Platform (RDP) can be applied across window frames without fixing anchor bolts. Emphasizing on the rapid installation/dismantling, the RDP provides another safer option for working at height. The development of the RDP has incorporated modular concept and aesthetic factor into the design, achieving a more user-friendly platform. Although the RDP is not intended to totally replace the traditional bamboo truss-out scaffold, it is designed to act as an alternative or a supplement to the existing bamboo truss-out scaffold. The RDP is the first of this kind to minimize fall from height accidents especially in cities similar to Hong Kong where external working at height is frequently encountered. PMID:22664686

  2. Prices effective Fall 2007 Subject to sales taxes.

    E-print Network

    Niu, Guofu

    Prices effective Fall 2007 Subject to sales taxes. Subject to Change and Availability Electronic outputs 74LS244 0.40 ea #12;Prices effective Fall 2007 Subject to sales taxes. Subject to Change CIRCUITS 1 7805T Positive voltage regulator 5V 1A, TO-220 7805T 0.45 ea 2 7812T Positive voltage regulator

  3. Older patients presenting to a county hospital ED after a fall: missed opportunities for prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel A. Paniagua; Julie E. Malphurs; Elizabeth A. Phelan

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the characteristics of elderly persons who present to an ED after a fall or about the nature of the care received for the fall itself. We identified elders presenting to a large urban United States ED after a fall, determined risk factors that may have contributed to the fall, and assessed the extent to which falls

  4. Accident patterns and prevention measures for fatal occupational falls in the construction industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-Fen Chi; Tin-Chang Chang; Hsin-I Ting

    2005-01-01

    Contributing factors to 621 occupational fatal falls have been identified with respect to the victim's individual factors, the fall site, company size, and cause of fall. Individual factors included age, gender, experience, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Accident scenarios were derived from accident reports. Significant linkages were found between causes for the falls and accident events. Falls

  5. MEDICAL DEVICE DIAGNOSTIC ENGR. COURSE PLAN (EFFECTIVE FALL 2008)

    E-print Network

    Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

    515 Quality Systems and Standards OR AVAILABLE YEAR-ROUND ISE 527 Quality Management for Engineers 3MS MDDE MEDICAL DEVICE DIAGNOSTIC ENGR. COURSE PLAN (EFFECTIVE FALL 2008) Name of Medical Devices and Diagnostics 3 AVAILABLE SUMMER & FALL RSCI 527 Medical Product Safety 3 ASK PROGRAM

  6. Falls

    MedlinePLUS

    ... falling. Getting rid of tripping hazards in your home and wearing nonskid shoes may also help. To reduce the chances of breaking a bone if you do fall, make sure that you get enough calcium and vitamin D. NIH: National Institute on Aging

  7. Chair alarm for patient fall prevention based on gesture recognition and interactivity.

    PubMed

    Knight, Heather; Lee, Jae-Kyu; Ma, Hongshen

    2008-01-01

    The Gesture Recognition Interactive Technology (GRiT) Chair Alarm aims to prevent patient falls from chairs and wheelchairs by recognizing the gesture of a patient attempting to stand. Patient falls are one of the greatest causes of injury in hospitals. Current chair and bed exit alarm systems are inadequate because of insufficient notification, high false-alarm rate, and long trigger delays. The GRiT chair alarm uses an array of capacitive proximity sensors and pressure sensors to create a map of the patient's sitting position, which is then processed using gesture recognition algorithms to determine when a patient is attempting to stand and to alarm the care providers. This system also uses a range of voice and light feedback to encourage the patient to remain seated and/or to make use of the system's integrated nurse-call function. This system can be seamlessly integrated into existing hospital WiFi networks to send notifications and approximate patient location through existing nurse call systems. PMID:19163515

  8. Falls in Nursing Homes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... physical restraints help prevent falls? References Falls in Nursing Homes Nursing home residents fall frequently. About 1, ... 5 Why do falls occur more often in nursing homes? Falling can be a sign of other ...

  9. [Assessment and training of strength and balance for fall prevention in the elderly: recommendations of an interdisciplinary expert panel].

    PubMed

    Granacher, U; Muehlbauer, T; Gschwind, Y J; Pfenninger, B; Kressig, R W

    2014-08-01

    The proportion of elderly people in societies of western industrialized countries is continuously rising. Biologic aging induces deficits in balance and muscle strength/power in old age, which is responsible for an increased prevalence of falls. Therefore, nationwide and easy-to-administer fall prevention programs have to be developed in order to contribute to the autonomy and quality of life in old age and to help reduce the financial burden on the public health care system due to the treatment of fall-related injuries. This narrative (qualitative) literature review deals with a) the reasons for an increased prevalence of falls in old age, b) important clinical tests for fall-risk assessment, and c) evidence-based intervention/training programs for fall prevention in old age. The findings of this literature review are based on a cost-free practice guide that is available to the public (via the internet) and that was created by an expert panel (i.e., geriatricians, exercise scientists, physiotherapists, geriatric therapists). The present review provides the scientific foundation of the practice guide. PMID:23912126

  10. Design of a continuous quality improvement program to prevent falls among community-dwelling older adults in an integrated healthcare system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A Ganz; Elizabeth M Yano; Debra Saliba; Paul G Shekelle

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implementing quality improvement programs that require behavior change on the part of health care professionals and patients has proven difficult in routine care. Significant randomized trial evidence supports creating fall prevention programs for community-dwelling older adults, but adoption in routine care has been limited. Nationally-collected data indicated that our local facility could improve its performance on fall prevention in

  11. Data acquisition system using six degree-of-freedom inertia sensor and Zigbee wireless link for fall detection and prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dinh; D. Teng; L. Chen; S. B. Ko; Y. Shi; J. Basran; V. Del Bello-Hass

    2008-01-01

    Fall detection and prevention require logged physiological activity data of a patient for a long period of time. This work develops a data acquisition system to collect motion data from multiple patients and store in a data base. A wireless sensor network is built using high precision inertia sensors and low power Zigbee wireless transceivers. Testing results prove the system

  12. Effectiveness of condoms in preventing HIV transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven D. Pinkerton; Paul R. Abramson

    1997-01-01

    The consistent use of latex condoms continues to be advocated for primary prevention of HIV infection despite limited quantitative evidence regarding the effectiveness of condoms in blocking the sexual transmission of HIV. Although recent meta-analyses of condom effectiveness suggest that condoms are 60 to 70% effective when used for HIV prophylaxis, these studies do not isolate consistent condom use, and

  13. FORESTRY, BSF IPC: 2/8/2011 EFFECTIVE: Fall 2011

    E-print Network

    Selmic, Sandra

    FORESTRY, BSF IPC: 2/8/2011 EFFECTIVE: Fall 2011 SCHOOL OF FORESTRY GENERAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS: PROFESSIONAL CORE: GRADE SCH GRADE SCH ARTS: FORESTRY: ART 290/HPE 280/MUGN 290/SPTH 3 FOR 111 Intro to Forest

  14. Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... LinkedIn Twitter Digg Delicious Reddit StubmleUpon Print About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... try to avoid secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  15. The effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation integration pattern exercise program on the fall efficacy and gait ability of the elders with experienced fall.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun-Seung; Park, Seong-Doo; Kim, Jin-Young

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of exercising program utilizing proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation integration pattern (PIP), which is effective in improvement of the physical function, on the fall efficacy and gait ability of the elders who experienced injuries from falls. Also, this study aims to investigate he applicability of exercise program as methods for fall reoccurrence prevention and physical functions enhancement. The subjects of the study were 30 elders in the local community with experience of injuries from falls. The period of the study was 4 weeks with 12 exercise sessions. The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups where 15 elders were allocated to PIP and the rest 15 elders were allocated to general exercise (GE) group. Fall efficacy scale (FES) and GAITRite were used for the measurements in this study. Paired t-test was used to analyze the differences within the group while independent t-test was used to analyze the difference between two groups. In the comparison of measurements before and after exercise program, FES, velocity, cadence, and stride length were shown to be significantly increased in both PIP group and GE group. Also, in the comparison between two groups after the exercise program, the measurements of FES, cadence, stride length, and step length in PIP group were shown to be significantly increased compared to the GE group. Therefore, the PNF combined pattern is judged to be applicable to as methods for fall reoccurrence prevention and physical functions enhancement of the elders with experience of being fallen. PMID:25210699

  16. Cancer preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni).

    PubMed

    Wang, M Y; Su, C

    2001-12-01

    Morinda citrifolia (Noni) has been extensively used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It has been reported to have broad therapeutic effects, including anticancer activity, in both clinical practice and laboratory animal models. The mechanism for these effects remains unknown. The hypothesis that Morinda citrifolia possesses a cancer preventive effect at the initiation stage of carcinogenesis was studied. Our preliminary data indicated that 10% Tahitian Noni Liquid Dietary Supplement or Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ), made from Morinda citrifolia fruit by Morinda Inc, in drinking water for one week was able to prevent DMBA-DNA adduct formation. The levels of DMBA-DNA adducts were reduced by 30% in the heart, 41% in the lung, 42% in the liver, and 80% in the kidney of female SD rats. Even more dramatic results were obtained in male C57 BL-6 mice: 10% TNJ was able to reduce DMBA-DNA adduct formation by 60% in the heart, 50% in the lung, 70% in the liver, and 90% in the kidney. In order to explore the mechanism of this preventive effect, the antioxidant activity of TNJ was examined in vitro by lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) and tetrazolium nitroblue (TNB) assays. In the LPO assay, LPO oxidizes leucomethylene blue to methylene blue in the presence of hemoglobin. The resultant blue color was quantified at 660 nm spectrophotometrically. In the TNB assay, superoxide anion radicals (SAR) reduce TNB into formazan blue that was also measured by absorption at 602 nm. TNJ showed a dose-dependent inhibition of both LPO and SAR in our system. The antioxidant activity of TNJ was compared to the effects of vitamin C, grape seed powder (GSP), and pycnogenol (PYC) at the daily dose per serving level recommended by U.S.RDAs or manufacturers. The results suggest that prevention of carcinogen-DNA adduct formation and the antioxidant activity of TNJ may contribute to the cancer preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia. PMID:11795436

  17. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted. PMID:22583406

  18. [The preventive effects of physical activity in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Blain, H; Vuillemin, A; Blain, A; Jeandel, C

    2000-06-24

    PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND AGING: Physical activity prevents some age-related impairment. Physical activity reduces the decline of physical capacity which remains limited by maximal heart rate, and reduces the incidence of cardiovascular diseases by decreasing and preventing associated risk factors. Physical activity reduces age-related bone loss, its effect being potentialized by hormonal replacement therapy, and improves balance function, leading to a lower incidence of falls and fractures in older subjects. Physical activity helps to preserve nutritional balance and lean mass/fat mass ratio and reduces age-related insulin resistance. Moreover, physical activity has a beneficial influence on psychological function by improving cognitive performances and decreasing incidence of depression. Lastly, physical activity seems to reduce the incidence of several cancers, colic and mammary cancers particularly. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF LIFE: These multiple actions explain that physical activity, if it's adapted to subject's specificities increases longevity, delay entry in dependence and improves quality of life in older subjects. WHAT ARE THE RECOMMENDED ACTIVITIES: There is a superiority of individualized programs giving greater place to warm-up and associated endurance and resistive exercises intended to improve simultaneously cardiovascular and muscular functions. SPECIAL INTERESTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN FRAIL AND VERY OLD SUBJECTS: Throughout its beneficial effects on aerobic capacity, muscular function, social integration, cognitive function and autonomy, physical activity may have a particular interest in frail subjects, when programs are adapted to physical capacities of these subjects and associated with nutritional supplements. PMID:10916538

  19. Lasers effects on enamel for caries prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ana, P. A.; Bachmann, L.; Zezell, D. M.

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether laser irradiation is able to reduce caries incidence. For this purpose, the effects of laser on enamel and on fluoride uptake were discussed. Current literature regarding the preventive effect of laser irradiation on dental hard tissue has been reviewed. An evaluation of the results of the available in vitro and in vivo studies on the efficacy of anticaries and induced changes on enamel by laser irradiation were also performed. Articles were selected using the Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane databases, and the results of these studies were described. The most common lasers employed for caries prevention on enamel are Nd:YAG; CO2; Er:YAG; Er,Cr:YSGG; and argon. The percentage of inhibition of dental caries varied from 30 to 97.2%, and the association with fluoride has demonstrated the best results on inhibition of caries development. Laser irradiation under specific conditions can change the crystallographic properties of apatite crystals, increasing the acid resistance of lased enamel. The combined treatment of laser irradiation with fluoride propitiates an expressive fluoride uptake, reducing the progression of carieslike lesions, and this treatment is more effective than laser or fluoride alone. Available data suggest that lasers combined with fluoride is a promising treatment in caries prevention.

  20. Selection effects and prevention program outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hill, Laura G; Rosenman, Robert; Tennekoon, Vidhura; Mandal, Bidisha

    2013-12-01

    A primary goal of the paper is to provide an example of an evaluation design and analytic method that can be used to strengthen causal inference in nonexperimental prevention research. We used this method in a nonexperimental multisite study to evaluate short-term outcomes of a preventive intervention, and we accounted for effects of two types of selection bias: self-selection into the program and differential dropout. To provide context for our analytic approach, we present an overview of the counterfactual model (also known as Rubin's causal model or the potential outcomes model) and several methods derived from that model, including propensity score matching, the Heckman two-step approach, and full information maximum likelihood based on a bivariate probit model and its trivariate generalization. We provide an example using evaluation data from a community-based family intervention and a nonexperimental control group constructed from the Washington State biennial Healthy Youth Survey (HYS) risk behavior data (HYS n?=?68,846; intervention n?=?1,502). We identified significant effects of participant, program, and community attributes in self-selection into the program and program completion. Identification of specific selection effects is useful for developing recruitment and retention strategies, and failure to identify selection may lead to inaccurate estimation of outcomes and their public health impact. Counterfactual models allow us to evaluate interventions in uncontrolled settings and still maintain some confidence in the internal validity of our inferences; their application holds great promise for the field of prevention science as we scale up to community dissemination of preventive interventions. PMID:23417667

  1. FORESTRY, BSF IPC: 6/15/2011 EFFECTIVE: Fall 2011

    E-print Network

    Selmic, Sandra

    FORESTRY, BSF IPC: 6/15/2011 EFFECTIVE: Fall 2011 SCHOOL OF FORESTRY GENERAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS: PROFESSIONAL COURSES: GRADE SCH GRADE SCH ARTS: FORESTRY CORE: ART 290/HPE 280/MUGN 290/SPTH 290 3 FOR/WILD 111 Intro to Forestry & Wildlife Management 2 FOR 201 Microcomputer Applications 3 ENGL COMPOSITION: FOR 202

  2. ORIGINAL PAPER Combined effects of pre-hardening and fall fertilization

    E-print Network

    ORIGINAL PAPER Combined effects of pre-hardening and fall fertilization on nitrogen translocation status is important for outplanting success. Fall fertilization of evergreen conifer seedlings is a well, the interaction of N status prior to fall fertilization and the rate of fall fertilization have yet to be fully

  3. The effectiveness of parent education programs for preventing child maltreatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prue J Holzer; Leah M Bromfield; Nick Richardson

    The purpose of each paper in the National Child Protection Clearinghouse's Child Abuse Prevention: What Works? project is to document research concerning the effectiveness of different types of child maltreatment prevention programs. The Child Abuse Prevention: What Works? project is comprised of six individual papers, which are based on research undertaken for the Child Abuse Prevention Issues Paper No. 24

  4. Design of a continuous quality improvement program to prevent falls among community-dwelling older adults in an integrated healthcare system

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Implementing quality improvement programs that require behavior change on the part of health care professionals and patients has proven difficult in routine care. Significant randomized trial evidence supports creating fall prevention programs for community-dwelling older adults, but adoption in routine care has been limited. Nationally-collected data indicated that our local facility could improve its performance on fall prevention in community-dwelling older people. We sought to develop a sustainable local fall prevention program, using theory to guide program development. Methods We planned program development to include important stakeholders within our organization. The theory-derived plan consisted of 1) an initial leadership meeting to agree on whether creating a fall prevention program was a priority for the organization, 2) focus groups with patients and health care professionals to develop ideas for the program, 3) monthly workgroup meetings with representatives from key departments to develop a blueprint for the program, 4) a second leadership meeting to confirm that the blueprint developed by the workgroup was satisfactory, and also to solicit feedback on ideas for program refinement. Results The leadership and workgroup meetings occurred as planned and led to the development of a functional program. The focus groups did not occur as planned, mainly due to the complexity of obtaining research approval for focus groups. The fall prevention program uses an existing telephonic nurse advice line to 1) place outgoing calls to patients at high fall risk, 2) assess these patients' risk factors for falls, and 3) triage these patients to the appropriate services. The workgroup continues to meet monthly to monitor the progress of the program and improve it. Conclusion A theory-driven program development process has resulted in the successful initial implementation of a fall prevention program. PMID:19917122

  5. Evaluation of a comprehensive slip, trip and fall prevention programme for hospital employees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Bell; James W. Collins; Laurie Wolf; Raoul Grönqvist; Sharon Chiou; Wen-Ruey Chang; Gary S. Sorock; Theodore K. Courtney; David A. Lombardi; Bradley Evanoff

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that the incidence rate of lost workday injuries from slips, trips and falls (STFs) on the same level in hospitals was 35.2 per 10,000 full-time equivalents (FTE), which was 75% greater than the average rate for all other private industries combined (20.2 per 10,000 FTEs). The objectives of this 10-year (1996–2005) longitudinal

  6. Planting date effects on the nutritive value of fall-grown oat cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall-grown oat (Avena sativa L.) shows potential to fill an important niche as emergency fall forage throughout central Wisconsin. Our objectives were to assess the effects of planting date on the nutritive value of fall-grown oat from four cultivars exhibiting diverse maturation characteristics. Du...

  7. Developing effective prevention services for the real world: a prevention service development model.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Irwin; Ostrom, Amy; Bitner, Mary Jo; Ayers, Tim S; Wolchik, Sharlene; Daniels, Vicki-Smith

    2005-06-01

    A Prevention Service Development Model (PSDM) is presented as an approach to develop, prevention programs that are both effective and that are readily adopted for implementation in community settings. The model is an integration of concepts and methods from two fields, prevention research and marketing research as applied to new service development. Questions that are posed at each stage of the PSDM are described. Studies from the development of two preventive interventions are presented to illustrate research at several of the stages of the model. PMID:15909790

  8. Depressive symptoms and adverse outcomes from hospitalization in older adults: secondary outcomes of a trial of falls prevention education.

    PubMed

    Haines, Terry P; Williams, Cylie M; Hill, Anne-Marie; McPhail, Steven M; Hill, Keith D; Hill, D; Brauer, Sandy G; Hoffmann, Tammy C; Etherton-Beer, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Depression is common in older people and symptoms of depression are known to substantially increase during hospitalization. There is little known about predictors of depressive symptoms in older adults or impact of common interventions during hospitalization. This study aimed to describe the magnitude of depressive symptoms, shift of depressive symptoms and the impact of the symptoms of depression among older hospital patients during hospital admission and identify whether exposure to falls prevention education affected symptoms of depression. Participants (n=1206) were older adults admitted within two Australian hospitals, the majority of participants completed the Geriatric Depression Scale - Short Form (GDS) at admission (n=1168). Participants' mean age was 74.7 (±SD 11) years and 47% (n=551) were male. At admission 53% (619 out of 1168) of participants had symptoms of clinical depression and symptoms remained at the same level at discharge for 55% (543 out of 987). Those exposed to the low intensity education program had higher GDS scores at discharge than those in the control group (low intensity vs control n=652, adjusted regression coefficient (95% CI)=0.24 (0.02, 0.45), p=0.03). The only factor other than admission level of depression that affected depressive symptoms change was if the participant was worried about falling. Older patients frequently present with symptoms of clinical depression on admission to hospital. Future research should consider these factors, whether these are modifiable and whether treatment may influence outcomes. PMID:25442784

  9. Fall-Risk Evaluation and Management: Challenges in Adopting Geriatric Care Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinetti, Mary E.; Gordon, Catherine; Sogolow, Ellen; Lapin, Pauline; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2006-01-01

    One third of older adults fall each year, placing them at risk for serious injury, functional decline, and health care utilization. Despite the availability of effective preventive approaches, policy and clinical efforts at preventing falls among older adults have been limited. In this article we present the burden of falls, review evidence…

  10. Parenting Through Change: An Effective Prevention Program for Single Mothers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion S. Forgatch; David S. DeGarmo

    1999-01-01

    This randomized experimental prevention study (a) evaluated the effectiveness of a parent-training program in a sample of 238 divorcing mothers with sons in Grades 1–3 and (b) provided an experimental test of coercion theory. The intervention produced reductions in observed coercive parenting, prevented decay in positive parenting, and generally improved effective parenting practices in comparisons of mothers in experimental and

  11. The Moderating Effects of School Climate on Bullying Prevention Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research…

  12. Executive function is independently associated with performances of balance and mobility in community-dwelling older adults after mild stroke: implications for falls prevention

    PubMed Central

    Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Pang, Marco; Eng, Janice J

    2015-01-01

    Background Stroke survivors have a high incidence of falls. Impaired executive-controlled processes are frequent in stroke survivors and are associated with falls in this population. Better understanding of the independent association between executive-controlled processes and physiological fall risk (i.e. performances of balance and mobility) could enhance future interventions that aim to prevent falls and to promote an independent lifestyle among stroke survivors. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 63 adults who suffered a mild stroke >1 year prior to the study, aged > or =50 years. Results Cognitive flexibility was independently associated with performances of balance and mobility in community-dwelling older adults after mild stroke, after accounting for age, quadriceps strength of the paretic side and current physical activity level. Conclusions Clinicians may need to consider cognitive function when assessing and treating impaired balance and mobility in community-dwelling older adults after mild stroke. PMID:17143004

  13. Fall rice straw management and winter flooding treatment effects on a subsequent soybean crop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anders, M.M.; Windham, T.E.; McNew, R.W.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of fall rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw management and winter flooding on the yield and profitability of subsequent irrigated and dryland soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] crops were studied for 3 years. Rice straw treatments consisted of disking, rolling, or standing stubble. Winter flooding treatments consisted of maintaining a minimum water depth of 10 cm by pumping water when necessary, impounding available rainfall, and draining fields to prevent flooding. The following soybean crop was managed as a conventional-tillage system or no-till system. Tillage system treatments were further divided into irrigated or dryland. Results indicated that there were no significant effects from either fall rice straw management or winter flooding treatments on soybean seed yields. Soybean seed yields for, the conventional tillage system were significantly greater than those for the no-till system for the first 2 yrs and not different in the third year. Irrigated soybean seed yields were significantly greater than those from dryland plots for all years. Net economic returns averaged over the 3 yrs were greatest ($390.00 ha-1) from the irrigated no-till system.

  14. Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    NCI’s prevention research has a broad focus, from identifying environmental and lifestyle factors that influence cancer risk to studying the biology of how cancer develops and studying ways to disseminate prevention interventions.

  15. Seeding date and polymer seed coating effects on plant establishment and yield of fall-seeded

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Seeding date and polymer seed coating effects on plant establishment and yield of fall-seeded. and Kirkland, K. J. 2004. Seeding date and polymer seed coating effects on plant establishment and yield of fall-seeded canola in the Northern Great Plains. Can. J. Plant Sci. 84: 955­963. The time interval

  16. [Nursing care of elderly persons: reactions to the use of a security blanket to prevent falling out of bed].

    PubMed

    Ntetu, A L; Courville, F; Chouinard, M C; Tremblay, H

    2001-03-01

    This article presents the results of the first part of a survey aiming at assessing the chances for adoption and use of the safety blanket, a new device preventing the falls from the beds. In this part, the resarchers wanted to know how the caretakers reacted to the use of this material. Thirty four people with five beneficiaries among them, nine family members, fifteen contributors and five managers, interacting in the context of a care unit for elderly people of a hospital centre were interviewed. The data of the interviews were analysed according to a six step procedure: listening to the interviews and reading the descriptions; deriving the significant statements, analysing and reformulating the meaning of the statements; regrouping the signification units under more global themes; gathering the analysis results and describing exhaustively the studied phenomenon; validating the exhaustive description. As a whole, the reactions recorded were positive and indicate that the safety blanket has big chances to be adopted by the healthcare units. PMID:12037882

  17. Treatment Prevents Chemotherapy Side Effects for Children with Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Final results from a phase III randomized clinical trial show that addition of aprepitant to the anti-nausea drug ondansetron, with or without dexamethasone, effectively prevents chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric patients.

  18. Effective HIV prevention: the indispensable role of social science

    PubMed Central

    Kippax, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which HIV prevention is understood including “biomedical”, “behavioural”, “structural”, and “combination” prevention. In it I argue that effective prevention entails developing community capacity and requires that public health addresses people not only as individuals but also as connected members of groups, networks and collectives who interact (talk, negotiate, have sex, use drugs, etc.) together. I also examine the evaluation of prevention programmes or interventions and argue that the distinction between efficacy and effectiveness is often glossed and that, while efficacy can be evaluated by randomized controlled trials, the evaluation of effectiveness requires long-term descriptive strategies and/or modelling. Using examples from a number of countries, including a detailed account of the Australian HIV prevention response, effectiveness is shown to be dependent not only on the efficacy of the prevention technology or tool but also on the responses of people – individuals, communities and governments – to those technologies. Whether a particular HIV prevention technology is adopted and its use sustained depends on a range of social, cultural and political factors. The paper concludes by calling on biomedical and social scientists to work together and describes a “social public health”. PMID:22713254

  19. Who Falls for Phish? A Demographic Analysis of Phishing Susceptibility and Effectiveness of Interventions

    E-print Network

    Cranor, Lorrie Faith

    Who Falls for Phish? A Demographic Analysis of Phishing Susceptibility and Effectiveness between demographics and phishing susceptibility and the effectiveness of several anti- phishing educational materials. Our results suggest that women are more susceptible than men to phishing

  20. An Ounce of Prevention, a Pound of Uncertainty: The Cost-Effectiveness of School-Based Drug Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Rydell, C. Peter; Everingham, Susan S.; Chiesa, James; Bushway, Shawn

    This book describes an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of model school-based drug prevention programs at reducing cocaine consumption. It compares prevention's cost-effectiveness with that of several enforcement programs and with that of treating heavy cocaine users. It also assesses the cost of nationwide implementation of model prevention

  1. A safety band prevents falling of the suspended pupa of the butterfly Inachis io (Nymphalidae) during moult. A comparison with the girdled pupa of Pieris brassicae (Pieridae, Lepidoptera)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Starnecker

    1998-01-01

    During the pupal moult the suspended prepupa of the butterfly Inachis io completely removes its larval skin (exuvia) from the body. In doing this, the attachment to a silken pad has to be transferred\\u000a from the anal prolegs of the prepupa to the cremaster of the pupa without losing the hold at any time. Falling is prevented\\u000a by a short

  2. Reducing Aversion to Side Effects in Preventive Medical Treatment Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Erika A.; Weinstein, Neil D.; Colditz, Graham A.; Emmons, Karen M.

    2007-01-01

    Laypeople tend to be overly sensitive to side effects of treatments that prevent illness, possibly leading them to refuse beneficial therapies. This Internet-based study attempted to reduce such side effect aversion by adding graphic displays to the numerical risk probabilities. It also explored whether graphics reduce side effect aversion by…

  3. Effect of eastern gamagrass on fall armyworm and corn earworm development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) are two important corn pests in the southern U.S. states. Effect of the leaves from the corn relative, the Eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) on fall armyworm and corn earworm development ...

  4. [FALLS IN PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA].

    PubMed

    Aizen, Efraim

    2015-05-01

    Older people with dementia are at increased risk of falls and their consequences. Patients with dementia fall twice as often as elderly cognitively intact people and are at greater risk of injurious falls. Falls in older people with dementia cause higher rates of morbidity, mortality and institutionalization. There is limited literature attempting to show specific risk factors for falls in this population, mainly: Lewy body dementia, dementia related to Parkinson's disease and depression, psychotropic medication, functional disability and behavioral disturbances. The Physiological Profile Assessment (PPAJ has been found to be a good fall risk screening tool in this population. There are few trials that have shown limited effectiveness of targeted fall prevention programs in community-dwelling cognitively impaired elderly. The evidence from hospitals and residential care is not conclusive. However, it has been demonstrated that some interventions, primarily exercise interventions, can modify certain risk factors in patients with dementia. Further research is required in specifically targeting fall prevention in older people with dementia. PMID:26168645

  5. Characteristics of Effective School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise C. Gottfredson; David B. Wilson

    2003-01-01

    This study summarizes, using meta-analytic techniques, results from 94 studies of school-based prevention activities that examined alcohol or other drug use outcomes. It set out to determine what features of school-based substance abuse prevention programs are related to variability in the size of program effects. It asked (1) Which populations (e.g., high risk vs. general population) should be targeted for

  6. Reviewing the evidence on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention strategies in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juntana Pattanaphesaj; Yot Teerawattananon

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following universal access to antiretroviral therapy in Thailand, evidence from National AIDS Spending Assessment indicates a decreasing proportion of expenditure on prevention interventions. To prompt policymakers to revitalize HIV prevention, this study identifies a comprehensive list of HIV\\/AIDs preventive interventions that are likely to be effective and cost-effective in Thailand. METHODS: A systematic review of the national and international

  7. Radiation Therapy: Preventing and Managing Side Effects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of radiation therapy outweigh the risks and side effects? How much does radiation treatment cost? Who gives radiation treatments? Informed consent for radiation therapy How is radiation therapy given? External radiation therapy Internal radiation therapy (brachytherapy) Systemic radiation ...

  8. Prevention and treatment of systemic glucocorticoid side effects

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam-Kia, Siamak; Werth, Victoria P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Systemic glucocorticoids are used in dermatologic practice for various diseases including connective tissue disorders, bullous diseases, and many other dermatologic conditions. Patients with these diseases are at times treated with long-term courses of glucocorticoids, which place them at increased risk for glucocorticoid-induced side effects. Therefore, dermatologists must be knowledgeable of risks related to glucocorticoid use and be familiar with guidelines to manage them. Objective To provide an update of recent advances in the prevention and treatment of major glucocorticoid-induced side effects. Methods Review of the literature Results Data regarding the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced side effects are presented. Conclusion This review should help dermatologists optimally manage and prevent glucocorticoid-induced side effects. PMID:20465658

  9. Effects of Correspondence Training in an Abduction Prevention Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen-Woods, Laurie A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Foreman, Greg

    1998-01-01

    Examines the effects of adding correspondence training to a behavioral skills training package that taught abduction prevention skills to 31 children, ages 4-5 years. Results indicate that correspondence training did not improve correspondence between saying and doing target behaviors. However, both training approaches were equally effective in…

  10. The effectiveness of a combined exercise intervention on physical fitness factors related to falls in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jie; Huang, Liang; Wu, Yanqiang; Zhang, Yanxin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative exercise program on muscle strength, balance, and gait kinematics in elderly community-dwellers. The exercise program included strength and balance training and the 8-form Tai Chi Chuan. The measurements were carried out at baseline and 12 weeks, and consisted of four physical performance tests, joint isokinetic strength tests, and three-dimensional gait analysis. Fifty-six community-dwelling older adults aged 60-80 years old were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. After 12 weeks, the intervention group showed a 17.6% improvement in the timed up and go test, accompanied by a 54.7% increase in the 30-second chair stand test score. Significant increases in the score of star excursion balance tests, and the strength of the extensor and flexor muscles at knee and ankle joints were also observed. In addition, the intervention group walked at a faster speed with a longer step length, shorter support phase, and a greater sagittal plane range of motion at the hip and ankle joints. No statistical improvements were seen in the control group. This study provided an effective, evidence-based falls prevention program that can be implemented in community settings to improve physical fitness and reduce fall risks among community-dwelling older adults. The star excursion balance test could be a sensitive measure of physical performance for fall risk assessment in older people. PMID:24453483

  11. Cardiac rehabilitation: an effective secondary prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Fiona

    A combination of quantitative and qualitative research was used to determine the effectiveness of a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme in a cohort of patients referred to the service at a London hospital. Quantitative data analysis provided evidence of effectiveness of participation in CR in reduced hospital readmission rates and use of recognised pharmacological management strategies. Self-reported physical activity levels and quality of life (QOL) in individuals who participated in the cardiac rehabilitation programme were qualitatively measured with questionnaires. Results provided evidence of benefit in continued participation in exercise. However, there was no evidence of benefit to QOL status post participation at 1 year. A p-value of 0.001 provided significant statistical evidence supporting the hypothesis of benefit in continued participation in exercise in participants following attendance at a cardiac rehabilitation programme. QOL status; a statistically significant p-value of 0.001 rejected the hypothesis (H1) of benefit. This would imply that participation CR programmes does not appear to provide sustained benefits in QOL. A number of moderating variables were suggested as explaining the finding such as homogeneity of respondents, age, mood bias and the timeframe of 1 year between participation in rehabilitation and self-reporting. CR appears to be an effective but time-limited intervention in relation to improvements in QOL. Collaborative working partnerships between specialist interventions, such as CR with chronic disease management strategies may provide greater sustainability of benefits gained from participation in cardiac rehabilitation programmes. PMID:22874777

  12. Falls, fractures, and hip pads.

    PubMed

    Sinaki, Mehrsheed

    2004-12-01

    Improvement of balance along with bone-enhancing pharmacotherapy can improve the level of an individual's physical activity and mobility. Balance can be improved with enhancement of postural proprioception and muscular strength. Postural deformities have been shown to impair quality of life of osteoporotic individuals. Kyphotic posture has been demonstrated to contribute to propensity to fall in osteoporotic individuals. Kyphotic posturing and gait disorders can be managed through proprioceptive training, use of a weighted kypho-orthosis, muscle re-education, and safe resistance exercises. Proprioceptive balance training can reduce falls and fracture. Sarcopenia and osteoporotic fractures create musculoskeletal challenges that cannot be met with pharmacotherapy alone. Bone loss, imbalance, and gait disorder along with cognitive concerns can increase with aging. Even in healthy persons, predisposition to falls increases with age-related neuromuscular changes. Muscle strength decreases approximately 50% from age 30 to 80. Furthermore, the amount of body sway increases with reduction of proprioception. Therefore, measures that can decrease imbalance can reduce the risk for falls and fracture. In normal balance, ankle strategies are recruited rather than hip strategies. Strengthening of the lower extremity muscles reduces the risk for falls. Gait aids can also decrease the risk for falls. During a fall, the risk for hip fracture increases 30-fold if there is direct impact to the hip. The use of hip protectors can decrease the risk for hip fracture during a sideways fall. Training in effective safe-landing strategies should be included in fall prevention programs. PMID:16036094

  13. EFFECTS OF FALL ARMYWORM INTERSTRAIN MATING IN WILD POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm is a significant agricultural pest attacking corn, grasses, sugarcane and other crops. The species is composed of two morphologically identical host strains that differ physiologically and behaviorally. We examined wild populations in southern Florida to test the possibility that int...

  14. Anger and Violence Prevention: Enhancing Treatment Effects through Booster Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Alysha; McWhirter, Paula T.; McWhirter, J. Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of booster sessions on the maintenance of intervention gains following an anger management prevention program: "Student Created Aggression Replacement Education Program" ("SCARE"). Participants who had completed the "SCARE" program a year earlier were randomly assigned into either a booster…

  15. Methadone Maintenance and HIV Prevention: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory S. Zaric; Margaret L. Brandeau; Paul G. Barnett

    2000-01-01

    We assess the cost-effectiveness of maintenance treatment for heroin addiction, with emphasis on its role in preventing HIV infection. The analysis is based on a dynamic compartmental model of the HIV epidemic among a population of adults, ages 18 to 44. The population is divided into nine compartments according to infection status and risk group. The model takes into account

  16. Effective Dropout Prevention and College Attendance Programs for Latino Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fashola, Olatokunbo S.; Slavin, Robert E.

    This paper reviews research related to effective secondary school programs aimed at dropout prevention and increasing college enrollment rates for at-risk Latino youth. The review identifies programs that have demonstrated a significant impact on dropout rates, college attendance, school performance, or related outcomes in rigorous evaluations;…

  17. The Effects of HMO Penetration on Preventable Hospitalizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunliu Zhan; Marlene R. Miller; Herbert Wong; Gregg S. Meyer

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effects of health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration on preventable hospitalizations. Data Source. Hospitalinpatientdischarge abstracts for932 urban countiesin22states from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases (SID), hospital data from American Hospital Association (AHA) annual survey, and population characteristics and health care capacity data from Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Area Resource File

  18. The CDC Steven M. Teutsch Prevention Effectiveness Fellowship

    E-print Network

    -going demand in the field of public health for quantitative policy analysis, health economics-based inquiry CDC as a leader in economics and quantitative policy analysis of public health intervention programs in Public Health Economics and Decision Analysis The Steven M. Teutsch Prevention Effectiveness (PE

  19. Basic Science Effects of Curcumin for Preventing Restenosis in a

    E-print Network

    Park, Jong-Sang

    Basic Science Effects of Curcumin for Preventing Restenosis in a Hypercholesterolemic Rabbit Iliac Kim,1 MD, PhD, and Hyeon-Cheol Gwon,1* MD, PhD Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of the curcumin-coating stent (CCS) on the inhibi- tion of restenosis in a rabbit iliac artery stent model. Background: Curcumin

  20. An integrated approach towards identifying age-related mechanisms of slip initiated falls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thurmon E. Lockhart

    2008-01-01

    The causes of slip and fall accidents, both in terms of extrinsic and intrinsic factors and their associations are not yet fully understood. Successful intervention solutions for reducing slip and fall accidents require a more complete understanding of the mechanisms involved. Before effective fall prevention strategies can be put into practice, it is central to examine the chain of events

  1. A feasibility study and pilot randomised trial of a tailored prevention program to reduce falls in older people with mild dementia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People with dementia have a disproportionately high rate of falls and fractures and poorer outcomes, yet there is currently no evidence to guide falls prevention in this population. Methods A randomised trial design was used to test feasibility of study components and acceptability of a home hazard reduction and balance and strength exercise fall prevention program. The program was tailored to participant’s individual cognitive levels and implemented as a carer-supported intervention. Feasibility of recruitment, retention and implementation of intervention were recorded through observation and documented in field notes. Adherence, carer burden and use of task simplification strategies were also monitored. Outcome measures, collected at 12 weeks included physiological, fear of falling, cognitive and functional measures. Results Recruitment was achievable but may be more challenging in a multisite trial. Twenty two dyads of persons with mild dementia and their carers were randomised to intervention or usual care control group. Of 38 dyads referred to the study, there was a high rate of willingness to participate, with 6 (16%) declining and 10 (26%) not meeting inclusion criteria. The intervention was well received by participants and carers and adherence to both program components was very good. All participants implemented some home safety recommendations (range 19-80%) with half implementing 50% or more. At the end of 12 weeks, 72% of the intervention group were exercising. Both the rate of falling and the risk of a fall were lower in the intervention group but these findings were not significant (RR= 0.50 (95% CI 0.11-2.19). There were no differences in physiological outcome measures between the control and intervention groups. However results were influenced by the small study size and incomplete data primarily in the intervention group at follow up. Conclusions The pilot study was feasible and acceptable to people with mild dementia and their carers. The lessons learnt included: recruitment for a larger trial will require multiple approaches; home safety recommendations should provide a greater emphasis on environmental use compared with behavioural change; strategies to ensure an adequate dosage of exercise should be further explored. We recommend that intervention delivery incorporate an integrated occupational therapy and physiotherapy approach and that carers be provided with an individualised session to enhance dementia-specific skills in management and communication. A refined intervention should be tested in a randomised trial with an adequately powered sample size. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 126100001049066 PMID:24004682

  2. Decision support system for designing effective noise hazard prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Asawarungsaengkul, Krisada; Nanthavanij, Suebsak; Chalidabhongse, Junalux

    2007-01-01

    A decision support system for designing effective noise hazard prevention (NHP) strategies is proposed. NHP consists of four modules: (a) database, (b) input, (c) algorithms, and (d) solution. The user can choose among single-, two-, and three-approach solution procedures. Heuristic and genetic algorithms are used to determine appropriate noise controls (NCs). From the given noise condition and NC budget, NHP recommends a minimum-cost NHP strategy that prevents any worker's daily noise exposure from exceeding the permissible level. If the budget is insufficient, NHP is able to search for a feasible noise hazard strategy that requires a minimum NC budget. PMID:18082028

  3. Preventing Neurocognitive Late Effects in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Askins, Martha A.; Moore, Bartlett D.

    2013-01-01

    Neurocognitive late effects are common sequelae of cancer in children, especially in those who have undergone treatment for brain tumors or in those receiving prophylactic cranial radiation therapy to treat leukemia. Neurocognitive morbidity in attention, executive functioning, processing speed, working memory, and memory frequently occurs and contributes to declines in intellectual and academic abilities. Oncologists are faced with the challenge of using the most effective, often the most intense, therapy to achieve the primary goal of medical success, balanced with the desire to prevent adverse late effects. Not all children with similar diagnoses and treatment have identical neurocognitive outcomes; some do very poorly and some do well. Attention now turns to the reliable prediction of risk for poor outcomes and then, using risk-adapted therapy, to preserve neurocognitive function. Prevention of late effects through rehabilitative strategies, continuation of school, and pharmacotherapy will be explored. PMID:18952582

  4. Texas Tobacco Prevention Pilot Initiative: processes and effects.

    PubMed

    Meshack, A F; Hu, S; Pallonen, U E; McAlister, A L; Gottlieb, N; Huang, P

    2004-12-01

    The study was designed to examine how intensity of anti-smoking media campaigns and differing types of anti-smoking community-based programs influence young adolescents' tobacco use and related psychosocial variables. Sixth grade students attending 11 middle schools in eight study communities assigned to varying intervention conditions were assessed by a pre-intervention survey conducted in spring 2000. The assessment was followed by summer and fall 2000 media and community interventions that were evaluated by post-intervention data collection taking place with a new cohort of sixth graders in the same 11 schools in late fall 2000. In analyses conducted at the school level, the enhanced school and comprehensive community program conditions outperformed the no intervention program condition to reduce tobacco use and intentions to use tobacco. Combining the intensive or low media campaign with the comprehensive community program was most effective in suppressing positive attitudes toward smoking, while the enhanced school program alone was less effective in influencing attitudes. The most consistent changes, at least short-term, to reduce teen tobacco use, susceptibility to smoking and pro-smoking attitudes were achieved by combining the intensive media campaign with the comprehensive community program condition. PMID:15199003

  5. Inpatient Falls

    PubMed Central

    Cumbler, Ethan U.; Simpson, Jennifer R.; Rosenthal, Laura D.; Likosky, David J.

    2013-01-01

    In this 2 part series, analysis of the risk stratification tools that are available, definition for the scope of the problem, and potential solutions through a review of the literature are presented. A systematic review was used to identify articles for risk stratification and interventions. Three risk stratification systems are discussed, St Thomas’s Risk Assessment Tool in Falling Elderly Inpatients, Morse Fall Scale, and the Hendrich Fall Risk Model. Of these scoring systems, the Hendrich Fall Risk Model is the easiest to use and score. Predominantly, multifactorial interventions are used to prevent patient falls. Education and rehabilitation are common themes in studies with statistically significant results. The second article presents a guide to implementing a quality improvement project around hospital falls. A 10-step approach to Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles is described. Specific examples of problems and analysis are easily applicable to any institution. Furthermore, the sustainability of interventions and targeting new areas for improvement is discussed. Although specific to falls in the hospitalized patient, the goal is to present a stepwise approach which is broadly applicable to other areas requiring quality improvement. PMID:24167647

  6. Abstract--The Gesture Recognition Interactive Technology (GRiT) Chair Alarm aims to prevent patient falls from chairs

    E-print Network

    Ma, Hongshen

    patient falls from chairs and wheelchairs by recognizing the gesture of a patient attempting to stand to determine when a patient is attempting to stand and to alarm the care providers. This system also uses are confined to a chair or bed, and are not strong enough to stand or walk, attempt to do so. These patients

  7. Verifying Drug Abuse Prevention Program Effects Using Reciprocal Best Friend Reports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stewart I. Donaldson; Craig W. Thomas; John W. Graham; Judith G. Au; William B. Hansen

    2000-01-01

    Considerable research suggests that social influences-based drug abuse prevention programming has produced the most consistently successful preventive effects. However, a common criticism of this literature is that most prevention intervention studies rely solely on self-reported substance use. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of normative education, arguably the most successful component of social influence based prevention

  8. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Aid: What to Do Pregnant? What to Expect Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > Parents > ... Bones A to Z: Head Injury Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Broken Bones Concussions Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Falling, Climbing, and ...

  9. HIV prevention cost-effectiveness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background After more than 25 years, public health programs have not been able to sufficiently reduce the number of new HIV infections. Over 7,000 people become infected with HIV every day. Lack of convincing evidence of cost-effectiveness (CE) may be one of the reasons why implementation of effective programs is not occurring at sufficient scale. This paper identifies, summarizes and critiques the CE literature related to HIV-prevention interventions in low- and middle-income countries during 2005-2008. Methods Systematic identification of publications was conducted through several methods: electronic databases, internet search of international organizations and major funding/implementing agencies, and journal browsing. Inclusion criteria included: HIV prevention intervention, year for publication (2005-2008), setting (low- and middle-income countries), and CE estimation (empirical or modeling) using outcomes in terms of cost per HIV infection averted and/or cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) or quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Results We found 21 distinct studies analyzing the CE of HIV-prevention interventions published in the past four years (2005-2008). Seventeen CE studies analyzed biomedical interventions; only a few dealt with behavioral and environmental/structural interventions. Sixteen studies focused on sub-Saharan Africa, and only a handful on Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. Many HIV-prevention interventions are very cost effective in absolute terms (using costs per DALY averted), and also in country-specific relative terms (in cost per DALY measured as percentage of GDP per capita). Conclusion There are several types of interventions for which CE studies are still not available or insufficient, including surveillance, abstinence, school-based education, universal precautions, prevention for positives and most structural interventions. The sparse CE evidence available is not easily comparable; thus, not very useful for decision making. More than 25 years into the AIDS epidemic and billions of dollars of spending later, there is still much work to be done both on costs and effectiveness to adequately inform HIV prevention planning. PMID:19922689

  10. False fame prevented: avoiding fluency effects without judgmental correction.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2010-05-01

    Three studies show a way to prevent fluency effects independently of judgmental correction strategies by identifying and procedurally blocking the sources of fluency variations, which are assumed to be embodied in nature. For verbal stimuli, covert pronunciations are assumed to be the crucial source of fluency gains. As a consequence, blocking such pronunciation simulations through a secondary oral motor task decreased the false-fame effect for repeatedly presented names of actors (Experiment 1) as well as prevented increases in trust due to repetition for brand names and names of shares in the stock market (Experiment 2). Extending this evidence beyond repeated exposure, we demonstrated that blocking oral motor simulations also prevented fluency effects of word pronunciation on judgments of hazardousness (Experiment 3). Concerning the realm of judgment correction, this procedural blocking of (biasing) associative processes is a decontamination method not considered before in the literature, because it is independent of exposure control, mood, motivation, and post hoc correction strategies. The present results also have implications for applied issues, such as advertising and investment decisions. PMID:20438220

  11. Maternal epigenetic dietary effects on early breast cancer prevention | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of a School-Based Obesity Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li Yan; Gutin, Bernard; Barbeau, Paule; Moore, Justin B.; Hanes, John, Jr.; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Cavnar, Marlo; Thornburg, Janet; Yin, Zenong

    2008-01-01

    Background: A school-based obesity prevention study (Medical College of Georgia FitKid Project) started in the fall of 2003 in 18 elementary schools. Half of the schools were randomized to an after-school program that included moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, healthy snacks, homework assistance, and academic enrichment. All third graders…

  13. Tunguska meteor fall of 1908 - Effects on stratospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Park, C.; Whitten, R. C.; Pollack, J. B.; Noerdlinger, P.

    1981-01-01

    The Tunguska meteor, whose disintegration over Siberia in 1908 may have generated as much as 30 million metric tons of nitric oxide (NO) in the stratosphere and mesosphere, is discussed. The photochemical aftereffects of the event are simulated using a comprehensive model of atmospheric trace composition. Calculations are made which indicate that up to 45% of the ozone in the Northern Hemisphere may have been depleted by the meteor's nitric oxide cloud early in 1909 and that large ozone reductions may have persisted until 1912. Measurements of atmospheric transparency by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for the years 1909-1911 reveal evidence of a steady ozone recovery from unusually low levels in early 1909, implying a total ozone deficit of 30 + or - 15%. The coincidence in time between the observed ozone recovery and the Tunguska meteor fall suggests that the event may provide a test of current ozone depletion theories.

  14. Prevention of nosocomial infections in ICU. What is really effective?

    PubMed

    Lepape, Alain

    2003-01-01

    In South East of France, about 20% of the ICU patients with a length of stay > or = 2 days will develop a nosocomial infection (NI) related to an invasive device. This elevated rates of NI (the most elevated in the hospital) are related to the usual severity of patients, the use of invasive devices such as indwelling arterial catheter, central venous catheter, intubation and bladder catheter. These two characteristics are associated with an important antimicrobial consumption and a subsequent selection of resistant bacteria. The techniques which could be used in the prevention of NI have now proved to be effective. They are hand disinfection, non sterile gloves utilization and a rationale use of mask, gowns. The application of these measures are known as Standard Precautions, recommended by the CDC. The specificity of prevention in ICU is questionable, since many measures can be applied in ICU, anesthesia or surgery. In the prevention of NI in ICU, without any doubt, the most important (but the most difficult to achieve) is the strict respect of standard precautions. To achieve this goal, the best investment is alcoholic hand rub. Among the specific measures, maximum barrier precaution for CVC insertion, reduction of indication and duration of invasive device exposure. The real challenge is to apply few effective measures, but accepted, associated with behavioural changes and whose compliance is measured. PMID:15017857

  15. Assessing organizational effectiveness in higher education drug prevention consortia.

    PubMed

    Sheldon-Keller, A E; Lloyd-McGarvey, E; Canterbury, R J

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-three consortia of institutions of higher education, organized under funding from the Fund for the Improvement of Post-Secondary Education (FIPSE) Drug Prevention Programs of the Department of Education, were surveyed to measure organizational effectiveness. Generalized satisfaction with the functioning of the consortia was related to the number of active members, the average miles traveled to meetings, satisfaction with performance of task functions, members' roles, the level of trust among members and the level of creativity and innovation in problem-solving. Satisfaction with goal attainment was significantly related to the presence of at least one "internal" goal for the consortium. PMID:7500226

  16. University System Core Curriculum UGA General Education Core Curriculum Effective Fall 2008

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    1 University System Core Curriculum UGA General Education Core Curriculum Effective Fall 2008 Area A-Essential Skills (9 hrs) ENGL 1101-English Composition I ENGL 1102-English Composition II MATH 1101- Introduction to Mathematical Modeling MATH 1113- Precalculus MATH 2200-Analytical Geometry

  17. Urban Studies Doctoral Program Handbook In effect for students entering Fall 2013

    E-print Network

    Kulp, Mark

    Urban Studies Doctoral Program Handbook In effect for students entering Fall 2013 Department of Planning and Urban Studies / College of Liberal Arts 368 Milneburg Hall University of New Orleans 2000 Lakeshore Drive New Orleans, LA 70148 #12;Urban Studies Doctoral Program Handbook 1 DOCTORAL PROGRAM

  18. Transfer Guide: Horticulture Business Management -1 -Revised: 29 March 2013 Effective Term: Fall 2013

    E-print Network

    Transfer Guide: Horticulture Business Management - 1 - Revised: 29 March 2013 Effective Term: Fall Bachelor of Science Degree ­ Horticulture Horticulture Business Management concentration This planning and majoring in Horticulture Business Management. This transfer guide can be used in two ways: o If the student

  19. EP464 Fall 2004 Prof. Michael P. Bradley Edge Effects in the Parallel Plate Capacitor

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    EP464 Fall 2004 Prof. Michael P. Bradley Edge Effects in the Parallel Plate Capacitor: The Maxwell Transformation and the Rogowski Profile The parallel-plate capacitor is a common capacitor geometry = + = and 2 2 2 2 2 v v v( , ) 0x y x y = + = Now the solution to our finite parallel-plate capacitor

  20. Women's and Gender Studies Minor Changes to Catalog, effective Fall 2005: Courses to ADD

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    SB #1004 Women's and Gender Studies Minor Changes to Catalog, effective Fall 2005: Courses to ADD) __________________________________________________ Date approved by Women's and Gender Studies Minor Committee/Brainlore: Thinking with the Body JINS 338 Race, Class, and Gender in Latin America JINS 368 Women and Science Course

  1. AQUACULTURE & FISHERIES TECHNOLOGY, Aquaculture Effective Fall 2005 College of the Environment & Life Sciences (CELS)

    E-print Network

    Rhode Island, University of

    AQUACULTURE & FISHERIES TECHNOLOGY, Aquaculture Effective Fall 2005 College of the Environment Advisor: Dr. Joseph DeAlteris, jdealteris@uri.edu, 874-5333 Option: Aquaculture Science Credits: 130 The Major: The aquaculture program at the University of Rhode Island, begun in 1969 and administered

  2. AQUACULTURE & FISHERIES TECHNOLOGY Effective Fall 2012 College of the Environment & Life Sciences (CELS)

    E-print Network

    Rhode Island, University of

    AQUACULTURE & FISHERIES TECHNOLOGY Effective Fall 2012 College of the Environment & Life Sciences. David Bengtson, bengtson@uri.edu, 874-2668 Option: Aquaculture Science Credits: 130 The Major: The aquaculture and fisheries program at the University of Rhode Island, begun in 1969 and administered

  3. Lives saved from malaria prevention in Africa--evidence to sustain cost-effective gains.

    PubMed

    Korenromp, Eline L

    2012-01-01

    Lives saved have become a standard metric to express health benefits across interventions and diseases. Recent estimates of malaria-attributable under-five deaths prevented using the Lives Saved tool (LiST), extrapolating effectiveness estimates from community-randomized trials of scale-up of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in the 1990s, confirm the substantial impact and good cost-effectiveness that ITNs have achieved in high-endemic sub-Saharan Africa. An even higher cost-effectiveness would likely have been found if the modelling had included the additional indirect mortality impact of ITNs on preventing deaths from other common child illnesses, to which malaria contributes as a risk factor. As conventional ITNs are being replaced by long-lasting insecticidal nets and scale-up is expanded to target universal coverage for full, all-age populations at risk, enhanced transmission reduction may--above certain thresholds--enhance the mortality impact beyond that observed in the trials of the 1990s. On the other hand, lives saved by ITNs might fall if improved malaria case management with artemisinin-based combination therapy averts the deaths that ITNs would otherwise prevent.Validation and updating of LiST's simple assumption of a universal, fixed coverage-to-mortality-reduction ratio will require enhanced national programme and impact monitoring and evaluation. Key indicators for time trend analysis include malaria-related mortality from population-based surveys and vital registration, vector control and treatment coverage from surveys, and parasitologically-confirmed malaria cases and deaths recorded in health facilities. Indispensable is triangulation with dynamic transmission models, fitted to long-term trend data on vector, parasite and human populations over successive phases of malaria control and elimination.Sound, locally optimized budget allocation including on monitoring and evaluation priorities will benefit much if policy makers and programme planners use planning tools such as LiST - even when predictions are less certain than often understood. The ultimate success of LiST for supporting malaria prevention may be to prove its linear predictions less and less relevant. PMID:22455309

  4. Developing and Negotiating Effective School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavela, Kathleen J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated effective drug prevention strategies for school-aged populations from drug prevention programs funded by the Department of Health and Human Services Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. Interviews with model programs' directors and staff highlighted 15 strategies essential for developing effective programs. Strategies focused on…

  5. Development and evaluation of a prior-to-impact fall event detection algorithm.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Lockhart, Thurmon E

    2014-07-01

    Automatic fall event detection has attracted research attention recently for its potential application in fall alarming system and wearable fall injury prevention system. Nevertheless, existing fall detection research is facing various limitations. The current study aimed to develop and validate a new fall detection algorithm using 2-D information (i.e., trunk angular velocity and trunk angle). Ten healthy elderly were involved in a laboratory study. Sagittal trunk angular kinematics was measured using inertial measurement unit during slip-induced backward falls and a variety of daily activities. The new algorithm was, on average, able to detect backward falls prior to impact, with 100% sensitivity, 95.65% specificity, and 255 ms response time. Therefore, it was concluded that the new fall detection algorithm was able to effectively detect falls during motion for the elderly population. PMID:24718566

  6. Effects of the Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentives Grant (SPF SIG) on state prevention infrastructure in 26 states.

    PubMed

    Orwin, Robert G; Stein-Seroussi, Alan; Edwards, Jessica M; Landy, Ann L; Flewelling, Robert L

    2014-06-01

    The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant (SPF SIG) program is a national public health initiative sponsored by the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention to prevent substance abuse and its consequences. State grantees used a data-driven planning model to allocate resources to 450 communities, which in turn launched over 2,200 intervention strategies to target prevention priorities in their respective populations. An additional goal was to build prevention capacity and infrastructure at the state and community levels. This paper addresses whether the state infrastructure goal was achieved, and what contextual and implementation factors were associated with success. The findings are consistent with claims that, overall, the SPF SIG program met its goal of increasing prevention capacity and infrastructure across multiple infrastructure domains, though the mediating effects of implementation were evident only in the evaluation/monitoring domain. The results also show that an initiative like the SPF SIG, which could easily have been compartmentalized within the states, has the potential to permeate more broadly throughout state prevention systems. PMID:24619188

  7. Do weight categories prevent athletes from relative age effect?

    PubMed

    Delorme, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether weight categories prevent young athletes from being exposed to a relative age effect. The dates of birth of all French female (n = 727) and male (n = 5440) amateur boxers who participated in the 2010-2011 season were collected from the federation database. The dates of birth of all French male professional boxers (n = 354) were also collected. The results show an absence of a relative age effect among French female and male amateur boxers. The results also show an absence of this phenomenon among French male professional boxers. The male 18-18+ age category reveal an inverse relative age effect. This inverse relative age effect might be interpreted as the result of a strategic adaptation from relatively younger children who shift from one sport to another where there are weight categories in order to ensure fair competition. The results of this study suggest that the weight category system is a possible solution within the relative age effect phenomenon. PMID:23879217

  8. Squamous Cell Carcinomas - Effects of Retinoids | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  9. The effectiveness of HIV prevention and the epidemiological context.

    PubMed Central

    Grassly, N. C.; Garnett, G. P.; Schwartländer, B.; Gregson, S.; Anderson, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Planning an intervention to prevent infections with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) should be guided by local epidemiological and socioeconomic conditions. The socioeconomic setting and existing public service capacity determine whether an intervention can have a significant outcome in terms of a reduction in a defined risk. The epidemiological context determines whether such risk reduction translates into a measurable impact on HIV incidence. Measurement of variables describing the epidemiological context can be used to determine the local suitability of interventions, thereby guiding planners and policy-makers in their choice of intervention. Such measurements also permit the retrospective analysis of the impact of interventions where HIV incidence was not recorded. The epidemiological context is defined for four different categories of intervention, shown to be effective in lower-income countries by randomized controlled trials. Appropriate indicators for the epidemiological context and methodological guidelines for their measurement are proposed. Their use in the transfer of a successful intervention from one context to another and in scaling up the effort to control HIV infection is explored. These indicators should provide a useful resource for those involved in planning HIV prevention interventions. PMID:11799444

  10. Effects of a Comprehensive Police Suicide Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Mishara, Brian L.; Martin, Normand

    2012-01-01

    Background: Police suicides are an important problem, and many police forces have high rates. Montreal police suicide rates were slightly higher than other Quebec police rates in the 11 years before the program began (30.5/100,000 per year vs. 26.0/100,000). Aims: To evaluate Together for Life, a suicide prevention program for the Montreal police. Methods: All 4,178 members of the Montreal police participated. The program involved training for all officers, supervisors, and union representatives as well as establishing a volunteer helpline and a publicity campaign. Outcome measures included suicide rates, pre-post assessments of learning, focus groups, interviews, and follow-up of supervisors. Results: In the 12 years since the program began the suicide rate decreased by 79% (6.4/100,000), while other Quebec police rates had a nonsignificant (11%) increase (29.0/100,000). Also, knowledge increased, supervisors engaged in effective interventions, and the activities were highly appreciated. Limitations: Possibly some unidentified factors unrelated to the program could have influenced the observed changes. Conclusions: The decrease in suicides appears to be related to this program since suicide rates for comparable populations did not decrease and there were no major changes in functioning, training, or recruitment to explain the differences. Comprehensive suicide prevention programs tailored to the work environment may significantly impact suicide rates. PMID:22450038

  11. Adolescent pregnancy prevention: Choosing an effective program that fits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Beth Harris; Jane G. Allgood

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy prevention remains a high priority issue for communities, schools, and service agencies that work with adolescents. Since the early 1990s the United States has provided funding for pregnancy prevention programs with an emphasis on abstinence only education programs. Also during this time, prevention programs with youth development and service learning foundations have been developed and empirically studied. Current

  12. House fire injury prevention update. Part II. A review of the effectiveness of preventive interventions

    PubMed Central

    Warda, L.; Tenenbein, M.; Moffatt, M.

    1999-01-01

    Objective—To evaluate and summarize the house fire injury prevention literature. Methods—MEDLINE (1983 to March 1997) was searched by keyword: fire, burn, etiology, cause, prevention, epidemiology, and smoke detector/alarm. ERIC (1966 to March 1997) and PSYCLIT (1974 to June 1997) were searched by keyword: as above, and safety, skills, education, and training. Other sources included references of retrieved publications, review articles, and books; Injury Prevention hand search; government documents; and internet sources. Sources relevant to residential fire injury prevention were selected, evaluated, and summarized. Results—Forty three publications were selected for review, including seven randomized controlled trials, nine quasiexperiments, two natural experiments, 21 prospective cohort studies, two cross sectional surveys, one case report, and one program evaluation. These studies examined the following types of interventions: school (9), preschool (1), and community based educational programs (5); fire response training programs for children (7), blind adolescents (2), and mentally retarded adults (5) and children (1); office based counseling (4); home inspection programs (3); smoke detector giveaway campaigns (5); and smoke detector legislation (1). Conclusions—This review of house fire prevention interventions underscores the importance of program evaluation. There is a need for more rigorous evaluation of educational programs, particularly those targeted at schools. An evidence based, coordinated approach to house fire injury prevention is critical, given current financial constraints and the potential for program overload for communities and schools. PMID:10518271

  13. The prevention of schizophrenia: what interventions are safe and effective?

    PubMed

    Warner, R

    2001-01-01

    Obstetric complications appear to increase the risk of developing schizophrenia, and post-World War II improvements in obstetric care may have contributed to a decline in the incidence of the illness in the developed world. Educating providers and consumers of psychiatric and obstetric services about the risk of obstetric complications in increasing the risk of schizophrenia could bring about a further small decrease in the incidence of the illness, safely and at low cost. On the other hand, attempts to prevent the occurrence of schizophrenia by treating people who manifest high-risk indicators prior to the development of the illness have a low probability of success and a high probability of unintended negative consequences. Early intervention with people who have developed the full schizophrenia syndrome is likely to have few negative effects and may yield benefits, although it is not yet clear that it will. PMID:11824482

  14. Assisted and Unassisted Falls: Different Events, Different Outcomes, Different Implications for Quality of Hospital Care

    PubMed Central

    Staggs, Vincent S.; Mion, Lorraine C.; Shorr, Ronald I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many hospitals classify inpatient falls as assisted (if a staff member is present to ease the patient’s descent or break the fall) or unassisted for quality measurement purposes. Unassisted falls are more likely to result in injury, but there is limited research quantifying this effect or linking the assisted/unassisted classification to processes of care. A study was conducted to link the assisted/unassisted fall classification to both processes and outcomes of care, thereby demonstrating its suitability for use in quality measurement. This was only the second known published study to quantify the increased risk of injury associated with falling unassisted (versus assisted), and the first to estimate the effects of falling unassisted (versus assisted) on the likelihood of specific levels of injury. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of falls from all available 2011 data for 6,539 adult medical, surgical, and medical-surgical units in 1,464 general hospitals participating in the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators® (NDNQI®) was performed. Results Participating units reported 166,883 falls (3.44 falls per 1,000 patient-days). Excluding repeat falls, 85.5% of falls were unassisted. Assisted and unassisted falls were associated with different processes and outcomes: Fallers in units without a fall prevention protocol in place were more likely to fall unassisted than those with a protocol in place (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.39 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.32, 1.46]), and unassisted falls were more likely to result in injury (aOR, 1.59 [95% CI, 1.52, 1.67]). Conclusions The assisted/unassisted fall classification is associated with care processes and patient outcomes, making it suitable for quality measurement. Unassisted falls are more likely than assisted falls to result in injury and should be considered as a target for future prevention efforts. PMID:25208441

  15. Initial Indicators of Effectiveness for a High School Drug Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie D.; Wyrick, David L.; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Wyrick, Cheryl H.; Hansen, William B.

    2003-01-01

    All Stars, Sr. is a comprehensive high school health education supplement designed to prevent high-risk behaviors among adolescents. The program includes topics such as personal health, nutrition, interpersonal relationships, and stress, with a special emphasis on drug prevention. Effective research-based programs that target late onset prevention

  16. Forest Fires Prevention in Portugal - Using GIS to Help Improving Early Fire Detection Effectiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filipe X. Catry; Francisco C. Rego; Teresa Santos; Joel Almeida; Paulo Relvas

    Forest fires and burnt area in Portugal have been increasing in the last decades, contrarily to other southern European countries, although more resources are being allocated to prevention, detection and fire fighting. To minimize the probability of wildfires occurrence, it is crucial to assure the effectiveness of the prevention, vigilance and first attack operations. When fire prevention fails, fire fighting

  17. The geomorphological effect of cornice fall avalanches in the Longyeardalen valley, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerstorfer, M.; Christiansen, H. H.; Rubensdotter, L.; Vogel, S.

    2013-09-01

    The study of snow avalanches and their geomorphological effect in the periglacial parts of the cryosphere is important for enhanced geomorphological process understanding as well as hazard-related studies. Only a few field studies, and particularly few in the High Arctic, have quantified avalanche sedimentation. Snow avalanches are traditionally ranked behind rockfall in terms of their significance for mass-wasting processes of rockslopes. Cornice fall avalanches are at present the most dominant snow avalanche type at two slope systems, called Nybyen and Larsbreen, in the valley Longyeardalen in central Svalbard. Both slope systems are on northwest-facing lee slopes underneath a large summit plateau, with annual cornices forming on the top. High-frequency and magnitude cornice fall avalanching is observed by daily automatic time-lapse photography. In addition, rock debris sedimentation by cornice fall avalanches was measured directly in permanent sediment traps or by snow inventories. The results from a maximum of seven years of measurements in a total of 13 catchments show maximum mean rock debris sedimentation rates ranging from 8.2 to 38.7 kg m-2 at Nybyen, and from 0.8 to 55.4 kg m-2 at Larsbreen. Correspondingly, avalanche fan surfaces accreted from 2.6 to 8.8 mm yr-1 at Nybyen, and from 0.2 to 13.9 mm yr-1 at Larsbreen. This comparably efficient rockslope mass wasting is due to collapsing cornices producing cornice fall avalanches containing large amounts of rock debris throughout the entire winter. The rock debris of different origin stems from the plateau crests, the adjacent free rock face and the transport pathway, accumulating distinct avalanche fans at both slope systems. Cornice fall avalanche sedimentation also contributed to the development of a rock glacier at the Larsbreen site during the Holocene. We have recorded present maximum rockwall retreat rates of 0.9 mm yr-1 at Nybyen, but as much as 6.7 mm yr-1 at Larsbreen, while average Holocene rockwall retreat rates of 1.1 mm yr-1 at Nybyen have been determined earlier. As cornice fall avalanches are the dominant type of avalanche in central Svalbard, the related geomorphological effect is assumed to be of significance at periglacial landscape scale. A climate-induced shift in prevailing winter wind direction could change the rockslope sedimentation effectively by changing the snow avalanche activity.

  18. Fall Proofing Your Home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Proofing Your Home Six out of every 10 falls happen at home, where we spend much of our time and tend to move around without thinking about our safety. Many of these falls could be prevented by making simple changes. Go4Life ...

  19. Carcinogenicity of radiation doses caused by the Chernobyl fall-out in Sweden, and prevention of possible tumors.

    PubMed

    Reizenstein, P

    1987-01-01

    The fallout from the Chernobyl reactor resulted in radioactive fall-out in eastern Sweden leading to a ground radiation intensity of between 2 and 500 microR h-1 above the 10-15 microR h-1 background, an average external cumulative dose of about 3-4 mSv (0.3-0.4 rem) to about 1 million people, or about 3500 man-Sv (350,000 man-rem) over 50 years, or 70 man-Sv per year with a maximum dose to a few individuals of 40 mSv. The corresponding figures reported for civilians around Chernobyl is 8.6 million man-rem in 1986 and 29 million man-rem over 50 years, or 600,000 man-rem (equivalent to about 6000 man-Sv) per year. If Swedish doses are averaged over the whole population, the average is about 1 mSv or 10,000 man-Sv, or 200 man-Sv per year. The thyroid uptake of 131I is approximately 0.1-0.2 kBq (0.005 microCi) and the total body uptake of 137Cs, 1 kBq (0.03 microCi), resulting in an approximate internal dose of 0.02 mSv. If a linear dose-response curve is assumed, an increase of the normal cancer mortality incidence in the million Swedes affected by 3500 man-Sv per 50 years from 200,000 to about 200,070 can be assumed. Corresponding figures for all of Sweden are 8,000,000 inhabitants, 7000 man-Sv, 1,720,000 normal cancer deaths, and 1,720,140 expected cancer deaths. Corresponding figures reported for the population outside the 30 km evacuation zone around Chernobyl are 300,000 man-Sv, and an increase from 6,800,000 cancer deaths per 50 years to 6,806,000 cancer deaths. PMID:3600052

  20. Effect of the long-term care prevention project on the motor functions and daily life activities of the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Yoshihiro; Sakuraba, Keisyoku; Kubota, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of the long-term care prevention project and develop an effective program. [Subjects] A total of 81 elderly people (age, 79 ± 5.1?years; height, 149.2 ± 9.2?cm; weight, 54.2 ± 11.4?kg). [Methods] Grip, knee extension muscular strength, 10?m walking speed, and Timed Up and Go time were measured for evaluation of motor functions, and the “Locomo 25”, a 25-question risk assessment questionnaire, was used as the judgment criterion for evaluation of daily life activities, with measurements being taken at the beginning of the project and after three months. [Results] In the motor functions evaluation, significant differences were observed in 10?m walking speed, Timed Up and Go time, and knee extension strength. In the daily life activities evaluation, scores for pain, rising movement, standing movement, indoor walking, outdoor walking, and fear of falling were significantly reduced. In addition, a significant correlation was also observed between motor functions and daily life activities. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicated that the long-term care prevention project is effective in maintaining or improving muscular strength and mitigating pain in the elderly and that it is an effective program for maintaining daily life activities. We were also able to show that it would be effective to develop programs with a low exercise intensity that can be performed on a continuing by the elderly. PMID:25642073

  1. Effect on the femur of a new hip fracture preventive system using dropped-weight impact testing.

    PubMed

    Okuizumi, H; Harada, A; Iwata, H; Konishi, N

    1998-12-01

    To reduce hip fractures during falls, we devised a new hip fracture preventive system to attenuate impact on the greater trochanteric region and studied the effects of the system on the femur. Twelve coupled, embalmed, cadaveric femora were used. Right femora were fractured without protection as a control and compared with left femora covered by the protection system, which consisted of a silicone gel pad or the silicone gel pad combined with a resin cover. The impact of a fall was simulated by mounting a femur in the horizontal plane and dropping an 8.4 kg mass on its greater trochanteric region. The impact load and time were measured using a load cell within the mass. The maximum strain during impact at the inferior side of the femoral neck was determined from an attached strain gauge. Trochanteric fractures were produced in 18 of the 24 femora (75%). The mean impact load for a drop height of 25 cm was reduced from 3117 N to 2176 N by silicone gel (p < 0.01) and to 1681 N by the addition of the resin cover (p < 0.01). The mean maximum strain was similarly reduced from 2276 microvarepsilon to 1872 microvarepsilon (p = 0.15) and to a mean 1559 microvarepsilon (p < 0. 05). The mean impact time was prolonged from 13 ms to 20 ms (p < 0. 01) and 22 ms (p < 0.01), respectively. The effect of the cover became more conspicuous as height increased. We concluded that the silicone gel pad provided effective impact attenuation, and the addition of the rigid cover was even more effective for impact reduction. This system was thought to be clinically useful in preventing hip fractures. PMID:9844113

  2. Hair-Loss Preventing Effect of Grateloupia elliptica

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Han, Sang-Chul; Hong, Hye-Jin; Jeon, You-Jin; Kim, Bora; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Grateloupia elliptica, a seaweed native to Jeju Island, Korea, on the prevention of hair loss. When immortalized rat vibrissa dermal papilla cells were treated with extract of G. elliptica, the proliferation of dermal papilla cells significantly increased. In addition, the G. elliptica extract significantly inhibited the activity of 5?-reductase, which converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a main cause of androgenetic alopecia. On the other hand, the G. elliptica extract promoted PGE2 production in HaCaT cells in a dose-dependent manner. The G. elliptica extract exhibited particularly high inhibitory effect on LPS-stimulated IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-? production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. The G. elliptica extract also showed inhibitory activity against Pityrosporum ovale, a main cause of dandruff. These results suggest that G. elliptica extract has the potential to treat alopecia via the proliferation of dermal papilla, 5?-reductase inhibition, increase of PGE2 production, decrease of LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibitory activity against Pityrosporum ovale. PMID:24116284

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in a South African Setting

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Cost-Effectiveness of Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in a South African Setting James G. Kahn Citation: Kahn JG, Marseille E, Auvert B (2006) Cost-effectiveness of male circumcision for HIV prevention acquisition of 60%. The objective of this study is to present the first cost-effectiveness analysis of the use

  4. Free-fall-effect calculation ensures better cement-operation design

    SciTech Connect

    Campos, W.; Lage, A.C.V.M.; Poggio, A. Jr. (Petrobras Research Center, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1993-09-01

    A cement-operation simulator was developed that takes the free-fall effect into account. This simulator allows prediction of well-fluid behavior and pressure, making proper field-operation design possible. The proposed mathematical model was derived from mass and momentum conservation laws by means of macroscopic balance that reduces field equations to a 1D model. The resulting initial value problem is solved numerically with the Runge-Kutta method. Special care is taken to control the interfaces between two different fluids while the system is in free fall. A microcomputer program has been implemented with a user interface that permits complex well geometries. Other models are compared with the program to demonstrate its software capabilities.

  5. Effectiveness of a Social Change Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith E.

    2009-01-01

    The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…

  6. Predicting the Effectiveness of Prevention: A Role for Epidemiological Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Helen L.; Peeters, Anna; Reid, Christopher M.; Liew, Danny; Mcneil, John J.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that the current combination of aging populations and advances in health technology is resulting in burgeoning health costs in developed countries. Prevention is a potentially important way of containing health costs. In an environment of intense cost pressures, coupled with developments in disease prevention and health promotion,…

  7. Testing the Universality of the Effects of the Communities That Care Prevention System for Preventing Adolescent Drug Use and Delinquency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabrina Oesterle; J. David Hawkins; Abigail A. Fagan; Robert D. Abbott; Richard F. Catalano

    2010-01-01

    Universal community-oriented interventions are an important component in the prevention of youth health and behavior problems.\\u000a Testing the universality of the effects of an intervention that was designed to be universal is important because it provides\\u000a information about how the program operates and for whom and under what conditions it is most effective. The present study\\u000a examined whether the previously

  8. Cost-effectiveness of a helpline for suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    Pil, Lore; Pauwels, Kirsten; Muijzers, Ekke; Portzky, Gwendolyn; Annemans, Lieven

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of a suicide helpline in Belgium, consisting of a telephone- and a chat service. An age- and gender-dependent Markov model with a ten-year time horizon and a one-year cycle length was developed, assuming a societal perspective, to predict cumulative costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) in the helpline users. The model included six transition states: the initial state (at risk), first attempt, re-attempt, follow-up, suicide and death from other causes. Data on the effect of the helpline and costs associated with model states were obtained from the literature. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to capture uncertainty. In addition, the budget impact of the helpline was analysed. Over ten years, the telephone- as well as the chat service could avoid about 36% of suicides and attempts in this high-risk population. In males, 0.063 QALYs (95% confidence interval, CI 0.030-0.097) and 0.035 QALYs (95%CI -0.026-0.096) were gained by users of the telephone- and chat service respectively. The corresponding values for females were 0.019 QALYs (95%CI -0.015-0.052) and a QALY-neutral result of -0.005 (95%CI -0.071-0.062). There were net societal savings of respectively €2382 (95%CI 1953-2859) and €2282 (95%CI 1855-2758) in male users; €2171 (95%CI 1735-2664) and €2458 (95%CI 1945-3025) in female users. At the population level, an investment of €218,899 saved €1,452,022 for the public health service (national health insurance), mainly due to the telephone service. The analysis predicted that both means of telemedicine for suicide prevention in Flanders are cost-saving, and have a modest effect on QALYs. PMID:24163237

  9. Functional levels of floor surface roughness for the prevention of slips and falls: clean-and-dry and soapsuds-covered wet surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Ju; Hsiao, Hongwei; Simeonov, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Literature has shown a general trend that slip resistance performance improves with floor surface roughness. However, whether slip resistance properties are linearly correlated with surface topographies of the floors or what roughness levels are required for effective slip resistance performance still remain to be answered. This pilot study aimed to investigate slip resistance properties and identify functional levels of floor surface roughness for practical design applications in reducing the risk of slip and fall incidents. A theory model was proposed to characterize functional levels of surface roughness of floor surfaces by introducing a new concept of three distinctive zones. A series of dynamic friction tests were conducted using 3 shoes and 9 floor specimens under clean-and-dry as well as soapsuds-covered slippery wet environments. The results showed that all the tested floor-shoe combinations provided sufficient slip resistances performance under the clean-and-dry condition. A significant effect of floor type (surface roughness) on dynamic friction coefficient (DFC) was found in the soapsuds-covered wet condition. As compared to the surface roughness effects, the shoe-type effects were relatively small. Under the soapsuds-covered wet condition, floors with 50 ?m in Ra roughness scale seemed to represent an upper bound in the functional range of floor surface roughness for slip resistance because further increase of surface roughness provided no additional benefit. A lower bound of the functional range for slip resistance under the soapsuds-covered wet condition was estimated from the requirement of DFC > 0.4 at Ra ? 17 ?m. Findings from this study may have potential safety implications in the floor surface design for reducing slip and fall hazards. PMID:22641153

  10. Strategies for Success: New Pathways to Drug Abuse Prevention. Volume 1, Issue 1, Fall/Winter 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Published twice a year and distributed nationwide, "Strategies for Success" keeps readers informed about events and developments in the field of drug testing. It reports the latest research findings on the effectiveness of drug testing as a tool for reducing substance abuse. Each issue also provides a wealth of guidance and resources on student…

  11. Psychosocial effects of an exercise program in older persons who fall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin M. Means; Patricia S. O'Sullivan; Daniel E. Rodell

    2003-01-01

    Falling is associated with psychosocial sequelae that may influence functional performance and fall risk. Exer- cise can improve psychosocial factors. To address the research questions (1) Do psychosocial variables differ among persons with and without falls? and (2) Among persons who fall, can exercise improve psychosocial variables? we evaluated psycho- social and functional performance variables in older persons with and

  12. Syllabus Fall 2014 | APS 1010 Cognitive and Psychological Foundations of Effective Leadership | Prof. Robin Sacks 1 APS 1010 Cognitive and Psychological Foundations of Effective Leadership

    E-print Network

    Prodiæ, Aleksandar

    Syllabus Fall 2014 | APS 1010 Cognitive and Psychological Foundations of Effective Leadership | Prof. Robin Sacks 1 APS 1010 Cognitive and Psychological Foundations of Effective Leadership Prof. Robin Sacks Course Description This course investigates the cognitive and psychological foundations

  13. Effects of obesity on slip-induced fall risks among young male adults

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xuefang; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Yeoh, Han T.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with structural and functional limitations with impairment of normal gait. Although falls have been identified as the most common cause of injuries in the obese, the mechanisms associated with increased fall risk among the obese population are still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gait adaptations of the obese individuals and its implication on risk of slip initiations as measured by friction demand characteristics. To exclude the aging and gender effects, a total of ten healthy young male adults participated in the study. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected using a three-dimensional motion analysis system and force plates while subjects were walking at their self-selected walking pace. Results indicated that young obese adults walked similarly as their lean counterparts except for exhibiting greater step width and higher transversal friction demand, suggesting that slip-induced fall risks are similar along the horizontal direction, but increased along the transversal direction under certain floor conditions. PMID:22304846

  14. Peer Education: An Important Component of an Effective School-Based Tobacco Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciacca, John; Vallenari, Alison

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the detrimental effects of adolescent tobacco use and stresses the importance of prevention efforts targeting youth at school, discussing characteristics of effective school-based approaches and the unique aspects of peer teaching and peer leadership programs. Research suggests that peer-led tobacco prevention programs can foster desirable…

  15. Preventive and curative effects of prostaglandins on stress ulcer in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Yoshimura; Noboru Kan; Nobuya Ogawa

    1989-01-01

    The present study investigated the preventive and curative effects of prostaglandins (PGs) on gastric ulcer in rats induced by physical or psychological stresses; some rats were electrically shocked, while others were exposed to affective stimuli arising from the shocked animals. The synthetic PGs dimethyl-PGE2 and rioprostil were administered orally, and their preventive effect on gastric ulceration was evaluated by determining

  16. "Does Less Ouch Equal Less Umph"? Acetaminophen for the Prevention of Adverse Effects

    E-print Network

    Pillow, Jonathan

    1 "Does Less Ouch Equal Less Umph"? Acetaminophen for the Prevention of Adverse Effects the rationale for and against the use of prophylactic acetaminophen for prevention of adverse effects associated acetaminophen on childhood immunizations. #12;2 I. Thermoregulation A. Integrated network of neural

  17. Child Lures Prevention Program: Development of a Program Specific Assessment Instrument and Evaluation of Program Effectiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carrie Campbell-Bishop; Rebecca Robles Pina

    Article investigates the effectiveness of a personal safety and prevention program titled the Child Lures School Program (CLPP). The measure of effectiveness was conducted through the development of a program specific assessment instrument in association with parental and school counselor surveys. The purpose of the CLPP is to provide elementary through high school students with information to prevent sexual exploitation,

  18. Effectiveness of Litter Removal to Prevent Cambial Kill-Caused Mortality in Northern Arizona Ponderosa Pine

    E-print Network

    Effectiveness of Litter Removal to Prevent Cambial Kill-Caused Mortality in Northern Arizona because of any of the treatments, but litter and duff removal prevented most cambial kill. However, 17% of the burned, no removal trees had some cambial kill. Litter and duff removal to 23 cm was as effective

  19. Verifying Drug Abuse Prevention Program Effects Using Reciprocal Best Friend Reports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stewart I. Donaldson; Craig W. Thomas; John W. Graham; Judith G. Au; William B. Hansen

    2000-01-01

    Considerable research suggests that social influences-based drug abuse preven- tion programming has produced the most consistently successful preventive effects. However, a common criticism of this literature is that most prevention intervention studies rely solely on self-reported substance use. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of normative education, arguably the most successful component of social influence based

  20. Prevention system mediation of communities that care effects on youth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Eric C; Hawkins, J David; Rhew, Isaac C; Shapiro, Valerie B; Abbott, Robert D; Oesterle, Sabrina; Arthur, Michael W; Briney, John S; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-10-01

    This study examined whether the significant intervention effects of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system on youth problem behaviors observed in a panel of eighth-grade students (Hawkins et al. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 163:789-798 2009) were mediated by community-level prevention system constructs posited in the CTC theory of change. Potential prevention system constructs included the community's degree of (a) adoption of a science-based approach to prevention, (b) collaboration on prevention activities, (c) support for prevention, and (d) norms against adolescent drug use as reported by key community leaders in 24 communities. Higher levels of community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention and support for prevention in 2004 predicted significantly lower levels of youth problem behaviors in 2007, and higher levels of community norms against adolescent drug use predicted lower levels of youth drug use in 2007. Effects of the CTC intervention on youth problem behaviors by the end of eighth grade were mediated fully by community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention. No other significant mediated effects were found. Results support CTC's theory of change that encourages communities to adopt a science-based approach to prevention as a primary mechanism for improving youth outcomes. PMID:23828448

  1. Evaluation of Accelerometer-Based Fall Detection Algorithms on Real-World Falls

    PubMed Central

    Bagalà, Fabio; Becker, Clemens; Cappello, Angelo; Chiari, Lorenzo; Aminian, Kamiar; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Klenk, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive preventive efforts, falls continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality among elderly. Real-time detection of falls and their urgent communication to a telecare center may enable rapid medical assistance, thus increasing the sense of security of the elderly and reducing some of the negative consequences of falls. Many different approaches have been explored to automatically detect a fall using inertial sensors. Although previously published algorithms report high sensitivity (SE) and high specificity (SP), they have usually been tested on simulated falls performed by healthy volunteers. We recently collected acceleration data during a number of real-world falls among a patient population with a high-fall-risk as part of the SensAction-AAL European project. The aim of the present study is to benchmark the performance of thirteen published fall-detection algorithms when they are applied to the database of 29 real-world falls. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic comparison of fall detection algorithms tested on real-world falls. We found that the SP average of the thirteen algorithms, was (mean±std) 83.0%±30.3% (maximum value?=?98%). The SE was considerably lower (SE?=?57.0%±27.3%, maximum value?=?82.8%), much lower than the values obtained on simulated falls. The number of false alarms generated by the algorithms during 1-day monitoring of three representative fallers ranged from 3 to 85. The factors that affect the performance of the published algorithms, when they are applied to the real-world falls, are also discussed. These findings indicate the importance of testing fall-detection algorithms in real-life conditions in order to produce more effective automated alarm systems with higher acceptance. Further, the present results support the idea that a large, shared real-world fall database could, potentially, provide an enhanced understanding of the fall process and the information needed to design and evaluate a high-performance fall detector. PMID:22615890

  2. Effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia living in the community: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Elissa; Cavalheri, Vinicius; Adams, Richard; Oakley Browne, Colleen; Bovery-Spencer, Petra; Fenton, Audra M; Campbell, Bruce W; Hill, Keith D

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia who are living in the community. Method Peer-reviewed articles (randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and quasi-experimental trials) published in English between January 2000 and February 2014, retrieved from six electronic databases – Medline (ProQuest), CINAHL, PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE and Scopus – according to predefined inclusion criteria were included. Where possible, results were pooled and meta-analysis was conducted. Results Four articles (three RCT and one single-group pre- and post-test pilot study) were included. The study quality of the three RCTs was high; however, measurement outcomes, interventions, and follow-up time periods differed across studies. On completion of the intervention period, the mean number of falls was lower in the exercise group compared to the control group (mean difference [MD] [95% confidence interval {CI}] =?1.06 [?1.67 to ?0.46] falls). Importantly, the exercise intervention reduced the risk of being a faller by 32% (risk ratio [95% CI] =0.68 [0.55–0.85]). Only two other outcomes were reported in two or more of the studies (step test and physiological profile assessment). No between-group differences were observed in the results of the step test (number of steps) (MD [95% CI] =0.51 [?1.77 to 2.78]) or the physiological profile assessment (MD [95% CI] =?0.10 [?0.62 to 0.42]). Conclusion Findings from this review suggest that an exercise program may potentially assist in preventing falls of older people with dementia living in the community. However, further research is needed with studies using larger sample sizes, standardized measurement outcomes, and longer follow-up periods, to inform evidence-based recommendations. PMID:25709416

  3. Preventive effect of trifluoperazine on atherosclerosis induced by cholesterol & adrenaline in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mohindroo, A; Kukreja, R S; Kaul, D

    1989-06-01

    Studies on the preventive role of trifluoperazine on cholesterol and adrenaline-induced experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits, revealed that trifluoperazine completely prevented the development of atherosclerotic lesions in both the aorta and coronary arteries of animals administered atherogenic diet and adrenaline (im) despite the fact that this drug had no significant effect on the elevated serum lipid profile induced by atherogenic diet. These findings confirm earlier observations of the authors that trifluoperazine has an inherent capacity to prevent atherogenesis. PMID:2767746

  4. Accelerating Recovery from Poverty: Prevention Effects for Recently Separated Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgatch, Marion S.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated benefits of a preventive intervention to the living standards of recently separated mothers. In the Oregon Divorce Study's randomized experimental design, data were collected 5 times over 30 months and evaluated with Hierarchical Linear Growth Models. Relative to their no-intervention control counterparts, experimental mothers…

  5. Effects of Preventive Maintenance on the reliability of production lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Ma; Yong Sun; Joseph Mathew

    2007-01-01

    In determining failure characteristics in typical manufacturing production lines, workcells and components can have different failure patterns and distributions at the same time. The preventive maintenance (PM) of a production line is normally conducted on parts of machines or components in the system. Often, this type of PM does not restore the entire production line back to \\

  6. Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Programs: Theoretical Models for Effective Program Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Jeanne A.

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and parenting remains a pressing social and public health concern because the United States continues to have the highest teen pregnancy rate among Western developed nations and because of the attendant social, psychological, and physical problems for young parents and their children. Prevention efforts to reduce the incidence…

  7. Fifteen Effective Strategies for Improving Student Attendance and Truancy Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smink, Jay; Reimer, Mary S.

    2005-01-01

    Improving student attendance and truancy prevention have always been areas of concern for educators, as well as, community members, and legislators. Students who are not in school cannot learn, and frequently drop out. Truant students often engage in high-risk behaviors that eventually entangle them in the juvenile justice system. Since 1986, the…

  8. MODELING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ISOLATION STRATEGIES IN PREVENTING STD EPIDEMICS #

    E-print Network

    Hyman, James "Mac"

    ­mixing, susceptible­infective­suscep­ tible (SIS), sexually transmitted disease (STD) model where the infection#ective in preventing an epidemic. Key words. sexually transmitted disease models, selective mixing, partner formations into the future course of STD epidemics. For these models to be accurate, they must account for sexual behavior

  9. MODELING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ISOLATION STRATEGIES IN PREVENTING STD EPIDEMICS

    E-print Network

    Hyman, James "Mac"

    -infective-suscep- tible (SIS), sexually transmitted disease (STD) model where the infection-dependent desirability, they are ineffective in preventing an epidemic. Key words. sexually transmitted disease models, selective mixing, they must account for sexual behavior changes that occur while the epidemic is in progress. Substantial

  10. Toolbox Safety Talk Fall Prevention

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    feet (general industry), or 6 feet (construction industry), and used in order when planning work 39 to 45 inches high in Construction and 42 inches high in Industry and must withstand a force. A restraint device is a system that is rigged to allow workers to move only as far as the sides of the work

  11. Efficacy, effectiveness and side effects of medications used to prevent fractures.

    PubMed

    Reid, I R

    2015-06-01

    There is an increasing number of effective therapies for fracture prevention in adults at risk of osteoporosis. However, shortcomings in the evidence underpinning our management of osteoporosis still exist. Evidence of antifracture efficacy in the groups of patients who most commonly use calcium and vitamin D supplements is lacking, the safety of calcium supplements is in doubt, and the safety and efficacy of high doses of vitamin D give cause for concern. Alendronate, risedronate, zoledronate and denosumab have been shown to prevent spine, nonspine and hip fractures; in addition, teriparatide and strontium ranelate prevent both spine and nonspine fractures, and raloxifene and ibandronate prevent spine fractures. However, most trials provide little information regarding long-term efficacy or safety. A particular concern at present is the possibility that oral bisphosphonates might cause atypical femoral fractures. Observational data suggest that the incidence of this type of fracture increases steeply with duration of bisphosphonate use, resulting in concern that the benefit-risk balance may become negative in the long term, particularly in patients in whom the osteoporotic fracture risk is not high. Therefore, reappraisal of ongoing use of bisphosphonates after about 5 years is endorsed by expert consensus, and 'drug holidays' should be considered at this time. Further studies are needed to guide clinical practice in this area. PMID:25495429

  12. Preventive effects of geranylgeranylacetone on rat ethanol-induced gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Jian-Wen; Lin, Guan-Bin; Ji, Feng; Xu, Jia; Sharify, Najeeb

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To establish a rat ethanol gastritis model, we evaluated the effects of ethanol on gastric mucosa and studied the preventive effects of geranylgeranylacetone on ethanol-induced chronic gastritis. METHODS: One hundred male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: normal control group, undergoing gastric perfusion of normal saline (NS) by gastrogavage; model control group and 2 model therapy groups that underwent gastric perfusion with ethanol (distillate spirits with 56% ethanol content) by gastrogavage for 4 wk. Low or high doses of geranylgeranylacetone were added 1 h before ethanol perfusion in the 2 model therapy groups, while the same amount of NS, instead of geranylgeranylacetone was used in that model control group. The rats were then sacrificed and stomachs were removed. The injury level of the gastric mucosa was observed by light and electron microscopy, and the levels of prostaglandin 2 (PGE2), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured by radioimmunoassay and the Griess method. RESULTS: The gastric mucosal epidermal damage score (EDS; 4.5) and ulcer index (UI; 12.0) of the model control group were significantly higher than that of the normal control group (0 and 0 respectively, all P = 0.000). The gastric mucosal EDS and UI of the 2 model therapy groups (EDS: 2.5 and 2.0; UI: 3.5 and 3.0) were significantly lower than that of the model control group (all P < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the low-dose and high-dose model therapy groups. The expression value of plasma ET-1 of the model control group was higher than that of the normal control group (P < 0.01) and the 2 model therapy groups (all P < 0.01). The expression values of gastric mucosal PGE2 and serum NO of the model control group were lower than those of the normal control group (all P < 0.05) and the 2 model therapy groups (all P < 0.05). The thickness of the gastric mucous layerand the hexosamine content in the model control group were significantly lower than that in the normal control group (all P < 0.01) and the 2 model therapy groups (all P < 0.05). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy observation showed that in the model control group, the epithelial junctions were vague, the intercellular joints disappeared and damage of the intracellular organelles were significantly worse than those in the normal control group. However, in the 2 model therapy groups, damage to the intercellular joints and organelles was ameliorate relative to the model control group. CONCLUSION: Administration of geranylgeranylacetone was correlated with a more favorable pattern of gastric mucosa damage after ethanol perfusion. The mechanism could be related to regulation of ET-1, NO and PGE2. PMID:22611321

  13. Effectiveness of blast-mitigation for rock fall endangered critical infrastructure using terrestrial laser scanning (LIDAR)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kos; A. Lunghi; C. Naenni; D. Conforti; W. Tompkinson

    2009-01-01

    Following a national rock fall risk assessment undertaken by the Swiss Federal Roads Office (FEDRO) a potential rock fall area located above the San Bernardino highway (A13) at Brusei, Canton Graubünden was identified. The rockslope at Brusei was characterized by a previous record of rock fall, large overhanging outcrops and open tension cracks up to 2 metres. Combined with the

  14. Effect of fall-out from atomic blast on background counting rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Fafarman; M. H. Shamos

    1953-01-01

    During the measurement of cosmic radiation on the Empire State building, an opportunity was taken to measure the fall-out from the Nevada atomic tests, the background counting rate being augmented by the fall-out and by rain-fall.

  15. Differential Sensitivity to Prevention Programming: A Dopaminergic Polymorphism-Enhanced Prevention Effect on Protective Parenting and Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Beach, Steven R. H.; Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Windle, Michael; Philibert, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate a genetic moderation effect of dopamine receptor-4 gene (DRD4) alleles that have 7 or more repeats on the efficacy of a preventive intervention to deter rural African American adolescents’ substance use. Methods Adolescents (N = 502, M age = 16 years) were assigned randomly to the Strong African American Families–Teen (SAAF–T) program or to a control condition and were followed for 22 months. Adolescents provided data on substance use, and both adolescents and their primary caregivers provided data on intervention-targeted protective parenting practices. Results Male adolescents who carried at least one allele of DRD4 with 7 or more repeats who were assigned to the control condition evinced more substance use across 22 months than did (a) carriers of at least one allele of DRD4 with 7 or more repeats who were assigned to SAAF–T or (b) adolescents assigned to either condition who carried two alleles of DRD4 with 6 or fewer repeats. These findings were mediated by DRD4 × SAAF–T interaction effects on increases in intervention-targeted protective parenting practices, a mediated moderation effect. Conclusions The results imply that prevention effects on health-relevant outcomes for genetically susceptible individuals, such as carriers of at least one allele of DRD4 with 7 or more repeats, may be underestimated. PMID:23379386

  16. A comparative analysis of three prevention initiatives and their effect on reducing special education referrals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla S Harting

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated three prevention initiatives implemented through a grant used in general education settings to help students at-risk for academic failure overcome cognitive deficits that could result in referral for special education services. The prevention initiatives used since the 1998–1999 school year were examined for similarities and differences. Their effectiveness was compared with respect to special education referral and

  17. Stacked Deck: An Effective, School-Based Program for the Prevention of Problem Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert J.; Wood, Robert T.; Currie, Shawn R.

    2010-01-01

    School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and skills…

  18. Testing Mediators of Intervention Effects in Randomized Controlled Trials: An Evaluation of Three Depression Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a new 5-step method for testing mediators hypothesized to account for the effects of depression prevention programs. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, at-risk teens with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…

  19. The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA): Effects after 24 and 30 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Hein; Dijk, Froukje; Wetzels, Joyce; Mudde, Aart; Kremers, Stef; Ariza, Carles; Vitoria, Paulo Duarte; Fielder, Anne; Holm, Klavs; Janssen, Karin; Lehtovuori, Riku; Candel, Math

    2006-01-01

    The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) study in six countries tested the effects of a comprehensive smoking prevention approach after 24 (T3; N = 10751) and 30 months (T4; N = 9282). The programme targeted four levels, i.e. adolescents in schools, school policies, parents and the community. In Portugal, 12.4% of the T1…

  20. Inference of Tamoxifen's Effects on Prevention of Breast U T M. D. Anderson Cancer Center

    E-print Network

    Jin, Jiashun

    Inference of Tamoxifen's Effects on Prevention of Breast Cancer by Yu Shen U T M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Department of Biostatistics, Unit 1411 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 EMAIL yshen Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project's Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (NSABP- BCPT), evaluated

  1. Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview On this Page How big is ... fracture rates than black women. 17 How can older adults prevent falls? Older adults can stay independent and ...

  2. The effect of angiotensin receptor blockers for preventing atrial fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristian Wachtell; Richard B. Devereux; Paulette A. Lyle

    2007-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice, and causes significant burden to\\u000a patients and health care systems. Clinicians treat existing atrial fibrillation with anticoagulation and\\/or drugs that utilize\\u000a either a rate or rhythm control strategy. It remains unclear how best to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in\\u000a this population. Prevention of atrial fibrillation using angiotensin

  3. Common Principles Embedded in Effective Adolescent HIV Prevention Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus; Barbara L. Ingram; Dallas Swendeman; Diane Flannery

    2009-01-01

    Each interpersonally delivered, evidence-based (EB) program for HIV prevention shares common features that aim to shift HIV\\u000a risk behaviors. We used qualitative research methods to examine manuals from five EB programs for adolescents and identified\\u000a 10 core principles embedded in each program’s activities. Principles reflect the stated goals and anticipated lessons in an activity. The principles were: Believe in your

  4. Misdiagnosis of multiple sclerosis: frequency, causes, effects, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Andrew J; Weinshenker, Brian G

    2013-12-01

    A diagnosis of multiple sclerosis is heavily influenced by clinical judgment. Misdiagnosis of multiple sclerosis is common and has important consequences for patients and the cost of healthcare. Although rigorous data about the frequency and causes of misdiagnosis are lacking, misinterpretation and misapplication of clinical and radiographic diagnostic criteria and terminology are likely important factors. Appropriate and stringent application of diagnostic criteria and continued vigilance for "red flags" suggesting alternative diagnoses are strategies critical for prevention of misdiagnosis. PMID:24142849

  5. Portable, Non-Invasive Fall Risk Assessment in End Stage Renal Disease Patients on Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Barth, Adam T.; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Songra, Rahul; Abdel-Rahman, Emaad; Lach, John

    2011-01-01

    Patients with end stage renal diseases (ESRD) on hemodialysis (HD) have high morbidity and mortality due to multiple causes, one of which is dramatically higher fall rates than the general population. The mobility mechanisms that contribute to falls in this population must be understood if adequate interventions for fall prevention are to be achieved. This study utilizes emerging non-invasive, portable gait, posture, strength, and stability assessment technologies to extract various mobility parameters that research has shown to be predictive of fall risk in the general population. As part of an ongoing human subjects study, mobility measures such as postural and locomotion profiles were obtained from five (5) ESRD patients undergoing HD treatments. To assess the effects of post-HD-fatigue on fall risk, both the pre- and post-HD measurements were obtained. Additionally, the effects of inter-HD periods (two days vs. three days) were investigated using the non-invasive, wireless, body-worn motion capture technology and novel signal processing algorithms. The results indicated that HD treatment influenced strength and mobility (i.e., weaker and slower after the dialysis, increasing the susceptibility to falls while returning home) and inter-dialysis period influenced pre-HD profiles (increasing the susceptibility to falls before they come in for a HD treatment). Methodology for early detection of increased fall risk – before a fall event occurs – using the portable mobility assessment technology for out-patient monitoring is further explored, including targeting interventions to identified individuals for fall prevention. PMID:22124286

  6. The effect evaluation of the nursing information application on the fall down precautionary measures of inpatients.

    PubMed

    Shan, Huang; Chi, Menc-Feng; Yang, Li-Hui; Tsai, Lai-Yin

    2006-01-01

    The research is to establish the nursing information system of fall down dangerous cause estimation, build up the standard working process of fall down precaution, reduce the patients' fall down rate and injury rate. I) Build up a complete information system for standard working process of fall down precaution. II) After nurses intervened the education, there are remarkably positive promote on knowledge, attitude and action. III) After intervened the precautionary measures, the fall down rate and the injury rate are remarkably reduced. PMID:17102509

  7. Decreasing fall risk in spinocerebellar ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Santos de Oliveira, Laura Alice; Martins, Camilla Polonini; Horsczaruk, Carlos Henrique Ramos; Lima da Silva, Débora Cristina; Martins, José Vicente Pereira; Vasconcelos, Luiz Felipe Rocha; Rodrigues, Erika de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Spinocerebellar ataxia consists of a group of autosomal dominant disorders that cause progressive degeneration, mainly in the cerebellum and its connections. Falls, which are a significant concern of this condition, reduce patients’ mobility, deteriorate their health and have physical and social consequences. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a modified protocol for improving balance and diminishing the fall risk of spinocerebellar ataxia patients exclusively. [Subjects and Methods] Exercises aiming to improve static and dynamic balance, whole body movements, measures to prevent falls and falling strategies were performed twice per week for four weeks by 11 spinocerebellar ataxia patients. Balance was evaluated using the Berg Balance Scale. [Results] The results show that there was a significant increase in Berg Balance Scale scores after the interventions (Wilcoxon p=0.0034). [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the modified protocol is effective at reducing the fall risk of spinocerebellar ataxia patients. This protocol may be a useful option for appropriately coping with falls caused by spinocerebellar ataxia. PMID:25995594

  8. Comparing the effects of Osteoporosis Prevention Exercise Protocol (OPEP) versus walking in the prevention of osteoporosis in younger females

    PubMed Central

    Soomro, Rabail Rani; Ahmed, Syed Imran; Khan, Muhammad; Ali, Syed Shahzad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of Osteoporosis Prevention Exercise Protocol (OPEP) in younger females. Methods: One hundred young female volunteers aged 20-30 were selected from IPM&R Dow University of Health Sciences. This was a comparative study in which 64 females participants were randomly assigned into two groups (32 in OPEP exercise group and 32 in walking group). The exercise session had three components 1) stretching 2) strengthening 3) high impact weight bearing exercises. Both interventional programs consisted of 3 sessions per week for twelve weeks under the supervision of physiotherapist. Pre and post intervention bone mass density (BMD) was measured on the lumbar spine (L1–L4), hip, femur, and distal forearm by using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. Results: After twelve weeks of intervention BMD was found to be statistically insignificant at hip, femur, lumbar spine and wrist (p > 0.05) comparing the post results in the OPEP and exercise group. Moreover BMD at hip, femur, lumbar spine and wrist was unaltered in both groups comparing the results of pre and post intervention. Though significant changes were observed in BMI in the OPEP exercise group (p value =0.010) mean ± standard deviation pre and post found to be 20.2578 ± 3.11123 and 21.0942 ± 3.64203 but no variations in anthropometrics in walking group were found. Conclusion: The present study highlights the burden of osteopenia in younger females. The Osteoporosis Prevention Exercise Protocol formulated by author was not useful to bring any significant changes in BMD moreover it had no significant effects in comparison to walking group. However additional studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of Osteoporosis Prevention Exercise Protocol on bone quality with long term effects. PMID:26101486

  9. Volcanic Ash Fall

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christopher Kenedi

    This United States Geological Survey (USGS) on-line publication discusses volcanic ash fall in terms of composition and effects. This report discusses the negative effects of volcanic ash fall on machinery, human health, weather and man-made structures, using the Mount Saint Helens eruption of 1980 as an example. The composition of volcanic ash is discussed, as well as ancient and modern ash falls that have occurred in the United States.

  10. Effects of firm size on risks and reporting of elevation fall injury in construction trades.

    PubMed

    Kines, Pete; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby

    2003-10-01

    Although many occupational safety programs are targeted toward large firms, the construction industry is dominated by smaller firms. This study examines the differential effect of firm size on the risk and the reporting of over 3000 serious and minor nonfatal elevation fall injuries in Danish construction industry trades (1993 to 1999). Small firms (<20 employees) accounted for 93% of all firms and 55% of worker-years. There was an inverse relationship between firm size and serious injury rates and a direct relationship between firm size and minor injury rates. An inverse relationship between firm size and injury severity odds ratios (serious versus minor) was found for carpentry, electrical work, general contracting, and the remaining other trades. Health and safety issues, legislation, and enforcement in the construction industry should, to a greater degree, be focused on smaller firms. PMID:14534449

  11. Effectiveness of HIV prevention social marketing with injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Gibson, David R; Zhang, Guili; Cassady, Diana; Pappas, Les; Mitchell, Joyce; Kegeles, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    Social marketing involves applying marketing principles to promote social goods. In the context of health behavior, it has been used successfully to reduce alcohol-related car crashes, smoking among youths, and malaria transmission, among other goals. Features of social marketing, such as audience segmentation and repeated exposure to prevention messages, distinguish it from traditional health promotion programs. A recent review found 8 of 10 rigorously evaluated social marketing interventions responsible for changes in HIV-related behavior or behavioral intentions. We studied 479 injection drug users to evaluate a community-based social marketing campaign to reduce injection risk behavior among drug users in Sacramento, California. Injecting drugs is associated with HIV infection in more than 130 countries worldwide. PMID:20724686

  12. Drug prevention in a community setting: A longitudinal study of the relative effectiveness of a three-year primary prevention program in boys & girls clubs across the nation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tena L. St. Pierre; D. Lynne Kaltreider; Melvin M. Mark; Kathryn J. Aikin

    1992-01-01

    Tested the effectiveness of a youth drug prevention program in a community setting. Boys & Girls Clubs of America's Stay SMART program, adapted from a school-based personal and social competence drug prevention program, was offered, with and without a 2-year booster program, to 13-year-old members of Boys & Girls Clubs. Over 27 months, (a) 5 Boys & Girls Clubs offered

  13. Beneficial effects of vitamin D on falls and fractures: is cognition rather than bone or muscle behind these benefits?

    PubMed

    Marcelli, C; Chavoix, C; Dargent-Molina, P

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial effect of vitamin D on bone tissue has long been attributed mainly to its positive effect on the intestinal absorption of calcium and on bone mineralization, which increases the bone mineral density (BMD) and thus decreases the risk of fracture. Recently, numerous extra osseous effects of vitamin D have been described, amongst them a positive effect on neuromuscular and cognitive functions. Several lines of evidence suggest that the beneficial effects of vitamin D on fall and fracture risk can be explained more by its action on the neuromuscular and cognitive functions than by its direct effect on bone metabolism. In this review, we first report on the relationships between vitamin D and osteoporotic fracture risk. Then, we present the data from the literature regarding the effects of vitamin D on risk factors such as fall risk and reduction in BMD, physical performance, and cognitive performance. Specific emphasis is put on the latter because there is evidence of a relationship between low concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (the primary indicator of vitamin D status) and low cognitive abilities which have been shown to be a risk factor for falling. It can be further suggested that high risk of fracture in cognitively impaired adults could be explained by lower protective reaction when falling, which would result, for instance, from a lack of planning and foresight of the fall. Future studies are nonetheless needed to elucidate the associations between vitamin D and different risk factors, in particular the link between vitamin D and various cognitive functions. PMID:25326374

  14. The cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention targeting: how much more bang for the buck?

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, J G

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the targeting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention to high-risk populations has been widely discussed, its benefits have not been quantified. METHODS: This analysis of cost-effectiveness combines an HIV epidemic model, target population scenarios, and data on the cost and impact of prevention. RESULTS: The number of HIV infections averted in 5 years with $1 million in annual prevention spending ranges from 164 in high-risk populations to 0.4 in very-low-risk populations. Fortyfold to two-hundredfold differences in prevention costs could equalize HIV infections averted. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting appears to provide substantial benefit and should be considered in allocation decisions about prevention. PMID:9003125

  15. The Effectiveness of a Home Visit to Prevent Childhood Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yvonne Robitaille; Douglas Coyle; Milton Tenenbein; I. Barry; Pless W. James King; Terry P. Klassen; John LeBlanc; Anne-Claude Bernard-Bonnin

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Objective. To examine the effectiveness of a home visit program to improve home safety and decrease the frequency of injury in children. We exam- ined the effects of the program on 1) parental injury awareness and knowledge; 2) the extent that families used home safety measures; 3) the rate of injury; and 4) the cost effectiveness of the intervention.

  16. UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE HEALTH SCIENCE CENTER SCHEDULE OF MAINTENANCE, TUITION AND FEES EFFECTIVE FALL 2014(Fees shown are for One Semester Only) College of Medicine -Year 1

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yan

    , TUITION AND FEES EFFECTIVE FALL 2014(Fees shown are for One Semester Only) College of Medicine - Year 3UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE HEALTH SCIENCE CENTER SCHEDULE OF MAINTENANCE, TUITION AND FEES EFFECTIVE FALL 2014(Fees shown are for One Semester Only) College of Medicine - Year 1 Hours Maintenance Fee

  17. EFFECTS OF CROP ROTATIONS AND A FALL COVER CROP ON RHIZOCTONIA CANKER, BLACK SCURF, AND COMMON SCAB OF POTATO, 2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six different rotation crops (barley/clover, canola, green bean, rapeseed, soybean, and sweet corn) planted in 2-yr rotations with potato (and a continuous potato nonrotation control) were evaluated both with and without a fall cover crop of winter rye for their effects on the development of soilbor...

  18. Effects of ants, ground beetles and the seed-fall patterns on myrmecochory of Erythronium japonicum Decne. (Liliaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyohsuke Ohkawara; Seigo Higashi; Masashi Ohara

    1996-01-01

    Erythronium japonicum (Liliaceae) inhabits deciduous mesic forests of Hokkaido, northern Japan. Myrmecochory of this species was investigated, especially the dispersal frequency, the effect of seed predators and the seed fall pattern. In the quadrat census using marked seeds of E. japonicum, the ant Myrmica kotokui frequently transported the seeds. However, the frequency of seed removal was low and most seeds

  19. The effects of fall and spring burning on water quality and vegetative cover in the Post Oak Savannah of Texas 

    E-print Network

    Garza, Nick Ernest

    1983-01-01

    TRE EPFECTS OF FALL AND SPRING BURNING ON WATER QUALITY AND VEGETATIVE COVER IN TRE POST OAK SAVANNAH OF TEKAS A Thesis by NICK ERNEST GARZA Jr. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1983 Major Subject: Range Science THE EFFECTS OF FALL AND SPRING BURNING ON WATER QUALITY AND VEGETATIVE COVER IN THE POST OAK SAVANNAH OF TEXAS A Thesis by NICK ERNEST GARZA Jr. Approved as to style...

  20. The effects of complex exercise on walking ability during direction change and falls efficacy in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun Seung; Kim, Jin Young

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was to assessed the efficacy of a complex exercise program for the elderly, with respect to the effects on walking ability during direction change and on falls efficacy. [Subjects] In total, 40 subjects were selected for this study and assigned randomly to either a complex exercise (n = 20) or a general exercise (n = 20) group. [Methods] The complex exercise consisted of resistance and aerobic exercises. The exercise program was conducted three times a week for eight weeks. We assessed outcome measures of the four square step test, the figure-of-8 walk test, and the falls efficacy scale. [Results] After the intervention, the four step square test, figure-of-8 walk test, and falls efficacy scale values increased significantly in both the complex exercise program and general exercise groups. The complex exercise group showed a more significant improvement than the general exercise group in the figure-of-8 walk test step and falls efficacy scale scores. [Conclusion] Complex exercise improved walking ability during direction change and falls efficacy in elderly individuals.

  1. Preventive effect of piracetam and vinpocetine on hypoxia-reoxygenation induced injury in primary hippocampal culture.

    PubMed

    Solanki, P; Prasad, D; Muthuraju, S; Sharma, A K; Singh, S B; Ilavzhagan, G

    2011-04-01

    The present study investigates the potential of Piracetam and Vinpocetine (nootropic drugs, known to possess neuroprotective properties) in preventing hypoxia-reoxygenation induced oxidative stress in primary hippocampal cell culture. The hippocampal culture was exposed to hypoxia (95% N(2), 5% CO(2)) for 3h and followed by 1h of reoxygenation (21% O(2) and 5% CO(2)) at 37 °C. The primary hippocampal cultures were supplemented with the optimum dose of Piracetam and Vinpocetine, independently, and the cultures were divided into six groups, viz. Control/Normoxia, Hypoxia, Hypoxia+Piracetam, Hypoxia+Vinpocetine, Normoxia + Piracetam and Normoxia+Vinpocetine. The cell-viability assays and biochemical oxidative stress parameters were evaluated for each of the six groups. Administration of 1mM Piracetam or 500 nM Vinpocetine significantly prevents the culture from hypoxia-reoxygenation injury when determined by Neutral Red assay, LDH release and Acetylcholine esterase activity. Results showed that Piracetam and Vinpocetine supplementation significantly prevented the fall of mitochondrial membrane potential, rise in ROS generation and reduction in antioxidant levels associated with the hypoxia-reoxygenation injury. In conclusion, the present study establishes that both Piracetam and Vinpocetine give neuroprotection against hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in primary hippocampal cell culture. PMID:21193009

  2. Identifying Effective School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL ROONA; ANDREI STREKE; PETER OCHSHORN; DIANA MARSHALL; AMY PALMER

    Previous meta-analytic studies of universal school-based drug education program evaluations have found that interactive programs are more effective than non- interactive programs and that within the group of more effective interactive programs, Comprehensive Life Skills programs are more effective overall than Social Influences programs. This study builds upon those earlier meta-analytic studies of universal school-based drug education program evaluations by

  3. Programs for Prevention of Externalizing Problems in Children: Limited Evidence for Effect beyond 6 Months Post Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte; Hjern, Anders; Wiklund, Stefan; Anttila, Sten; Pettersson, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preventing externalizing problems in children is a major societal concern, and a great number of intervention programs have been developed to this aim. To evaluate their preventive effects, well-controlled trials including follow-up assessments are necessary. Methods: This is a systematic review of the effect of prevention programs…

  4. HIV prevention cost-effectiveness: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omar Galárraga; M Arantxa Colchero; Richard G Wamai; Stefano M Bertozzi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After more than 25 years, public health programs have not been able to sufficiently reduce the number of new HIV infections. Over 7,000 people become infected with HIV every day. Lack of convincing evidence of cost-effectiveness (CE) may be one of the reasons why implementation of effective programs is not occurring at sufficient scale. This paper identifies, summarizes and

  5. Preventing the prostaglandin effect on dermal ischemia in the burn wound.

    PubMed

    Del Beccaro, E J; Heggers, J P; Robson, M C

    1978-01-01

    The eventual depth of tissue necrosis after burning is not immediately apparent. In all burn wounds, there exists a zone of stasis which shows progressive microvascular deterioration. These progressive changes have been prevented by methylprednisolone acetate, indomethacin, and ASA. All of these agents are known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis. These data suggest that prostaglandins have a role in the progressive dermal ischemia after thermal trauma and that their effect can be prevented by specific antiprostaglandins. PMID:401278

  6. Prevention of bullying and conflicts at work : Process factors influencing the implementation and effects of interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Gemzøe Mikkelsen; Annie Hogh; Louise Berg Puggaard

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims tp prevent bullying and conflicts at work and to identify process factors associated with the implementation and effects of such interventions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents process evaluation data from an intervention study in two organizations. A quasi-experimental, process-oriented research design was used. The following interventions were implemented: lectures on bullying, courses in conflict prevention

  7. The effect of hexetidine mouthwash on the prevention of plaque and gingival inflammation: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Afennich; D. E. Slot; N. Hossainian; Weijden van der G. A

    2011-01-01

    To cite this article: Int J Dent Hygiene9, 2011; 182–190 DOI: 10.1111\\/j.1601-5037.2010.00478.x Afennich F, Slot DE, Hossainian N, Van der Weijden GA. The effect of hexetidine mouthwash on the prevention of plaque and gingival inflammation: a systematic review. Abstract: Objective: To review the literature concerning hexetidine-containing mouthwash as a monotherapy or as an adjunct to oral hygiene in the prevention

  8. Electronic bidirectional valve circuit prevents crossover distortion and threshold effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kernick, A.

    1966-01-01

    Four-terminal network forms a bidirectional valve which will switch or alternate an ac signal without crossover distortion or threshold effect. In this network, an isolated control signal is sufficient for circuit turn-on.

  9. Modeling the effectiveness of isolation strategies in preventing STD epidemics

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, J.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Li, J. [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences] [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

    1998-06-01

    The authors formulate and analyze a two-group, selective-mixing, susceptible-infective-susceptible (SIS), sexually transmitted disease (STD) model where the infection-dependent desirability and acceptability in partnership formations are zero at high infection levels. They analyze two strategies to limit the spread of the epidemic by avoiding forming partnerships with people in a highly infected group. In one approach, the people in the highly infected group protect themselves by forming partnerships with only people outside their own group. They show that the transmission dynamics for this approach are similar to the situation where people continue to have both intragroup and intergroup partnerships. In the second approach, when one group becomes highly infected, the people in the other group adopt an isolation strategy and stop forming any partnerships with people in this highly infected group. They show that the second approach can limit the epidemic to the highly infected group. The other group will be infection-free, but as long as the epidemic in the total population exceeds the epidemic threshold, the epidemic will continue to persist. If the group reproductive number of the infection-free group is greater than one, and the infection should ever invade the infection-free group, then it will lead to an epidemic similar to the one that would have occurred if they had not isolated themselves from the other group. In this simple two-group model, although these isolation strategies may reduce the extent of an STD epidemic, they are ineffective in preventing an epidemic.

  10. Perceived Cause, Environmental Factors, and Consequences of Falls in Adults with Cerebral Palsy: A Preliminary Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Rachael; McGinley, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Describe perceived cause, environmental influences, and consequences of falls or near-falls in ambulant adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods. Adults with CP completed postal surveys and follow-up semistructured interviews. Surveys sought information on demographic data, self-nominated Gross Motor Function Classification Score (GMFCS-E&R), falls, and near-falls. Interviews gathered additional information on falls experiences, near-falls, and physical and psychosocial consequences. Results. Thirty-four adults with CP participated. Thirty-three participants reported at least one fall in the previous year. Twenty-six participants reported near-falls. Most commonly, falls occurred indoors, at home, and whilst engaged in nonhazardous ambulation. Adults with CP experienced adverse falls consequences, lower limb injuries predominant (37%), and descriptions of fear, embarrassment, powerlessness, and isolation. Discussion. Adults with CP may experience injurious falls. Further investigation into the impact of falls on health-related quality of life and effective remediation strategies is warranted to provide comprehensive falls prevention programs for this population. PMID:25802759

  11. What makes community based injury prevention work? In search of evidence of effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, P

    2004-01-01

    Community based injury prevention work has become a widely accepted strategy among safety promotion specialists. Hundreds of community based injury prevention programs have been implemented since the mid-1970s, but relatively few have been evaluated rigorously, resulting in a lack of consensus regarding the effectiveness of this approach. This study sought to identify key components that contribute to the effectiveness of these programs. The objective was to gain a better understanding of the community based model for injury prevention. The study was performed as a structured review of existing evaluations of injury prevention programs that employed multiple strategies to target different age groups, environments, and situations. The results of this study suggested that there are complex relationships between the outcome and the context, structure, and process of community-wide injury prevention programs. The interconnectedness of these variables made it difficult to provide solid evidence to prioritise in terms of program effectiveness. The evaluations of multifaceted community oriented injury prevention programs were found to have many shortcomings. Meagre descriptions of community characteristics and conditions, insufficient assessment of structural program components, and failure to establish process-outcome relationships contributed to the difficulty of identifying key success factors of the programs. PMID:15470005

  12. Preventive and therapeutic effects of ginsenoside Rb1 for neural injury during cerebral infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhou; Wang, Yuhui; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Peng, Tao; Lu, Yun; Leng, Jianchun; Xie, Quan

    2013-01-01

    To examine the preventive and therapeutic effects of ginsenoside Rb1 for neural injury during cerebral infarction, we used a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats to investigate the effects of ginsenoside Rb1 with Edaravone as a control. Ginsenoside Rb1 was given to the rats by intragastric administration either before or after the MCAO surgery to study its preventive and therapeutic effects. Ginsenoside Rb1-treated rats had a smaller infarct volume than the positive control. Interleukin-1 (IL-1), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), neurofilament (NF) and growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) were measured to determine brain damage and the recovery of nerves. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rb1 has neuroprotective effects in rats, and the protection efficiency is higher than Edaravone. The protective mechanism is different from Edaravone. The preventive ability of ginsenoside Rb1 is higher than its repair ability in neuroprotection in vivo. PMID:23548124

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Novel Oral Anticoagulants for Stroke Prevention in Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sheldon M; Wijeysundera, Harindra C

    2015-08-01

    Recently, novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been approved for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Although these agents overcome some disadvantages of warfarin, they are associated with increased costs. In this review, we will provide an overview of the cost-effectiveness of NOACs for stroke prevention in AF. Our comments and conclusions are limited to studies directly comparing all available NOACs within the same framework. The available cost-effectiveness analyses suggest that NOACs are cost-effective compared to warfarin, with apixaban likely being most favorable. However, significant limitations in these models are present and should be appreciated when interpreting their results. PMID:26081245

  14. Familiarity with Sexual Assault and Its Relationship to the Effectiveness of Acquaintance Rape Prevention Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda S. Forst; J. Timothy Lightfoot; Arthur Burrichter

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of two rape prevention programs on rape-supportive beliefs among college students. The effectiveness was examined in terms of whether or not the students knew someone who had been sexually assaulted, knew someone who had committed a sexual assault, or were themselves a victim of sexual assault.The participants were divided into three groups. One group participated

  15. Cost-effectiveness of water quality interventions for preventing diarrhoeal disease in developing countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Clasen; Sandy Cairncross; Laurence Haller; Jamie Bartram; Damian Walker

    2007-01-01

    Using effectiveness data from a recent systematic review and cost data from programme implementers and World Health Organization (WHO) databases, we conducted a cost- effectiveness analysis to compare non-piped in source- (dug well, borehole and communal stand post) and four types of household- (chlorination, filtration, solar disinfection, flocculation\\/disinfection) based interventions to improve the microbial quality of water for preventing diarrhoeal

  16. Effects of the Saluda Prevention Program: A Review of Controlled Evaluation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espada-Sánchez, José P.; Hernández-Serrano, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to review the evidence on the effectiveness concerning the Saluda program, a school-based substance use prevention protocol used amongst adolescents. We provide a description of the program content and the results from nine controlled trials evaluating the program effectiveness. Participants were Spanish…

  17. Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Project

    E-print Network

    from the Albeni Falls Hydroelectric Project #12;Biological Objective 1 Protect 900 acres of wetland hydroelectric project. · 1988 publication of the Final Report Albeni Falls Wildlife Protection, Mitigation effects on wildlife resulting from hydroelectric development. 2. Select target wildlife species

  18. Effectiveness of Secondary Pregnancy Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Pillai, Vijayan K.

    2007-01-01

    Because subsequent pregnancy in teen parents often worsens the impact of adolescent parenting; therefore, a common goal of teenage parent programs has been to reduce repeat pregnancy. To examine the impact of this goal, a meta-analysis was conducted on 16 control-comparison group studies that evaluated the effect of teenage pregnancy and parenting…

  19. Independent Falls are the main reason

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System Division of VA Desert Pacific Healthcare Network Fall Prevention AngelesVA Geriatric Research Education Clinical Center and affiliates and is a validated fall risk selfStay Independent Falls are the main reason why older people lose their independence. Are you

  20. Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of cardiovascular disease prevention in whole populations: modelling study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate the potential cost effectiveness of a population-wide risk factor reduction programme aimed at preventing cardiovascular disease. Design Economic modelling analysis. Setting England and Wales. Population Entire population. Model Spreadsheet model to quantify the reduction in cardiovascular disease over a decade, assuming the benefits apply consistently for men and women across age and risk groups. Main outcome measures Cardiovascular events avoided, quality adjusted life years gained, and savings in healthcare costs for a given effectiveness; estimates of how much it would be worth spending to achieve a specific outcome. Results A programme across the entire population of England and Wales (about 50 million people) that reduced cardiovascular events by just 1% would result in savings to the health service worth at least £30m (€34m; $48m) a year compared with no additional intervention. Reducing mean cholesterol concentrations or blood pressure levels in the population by 5% (as already achieved by similar interventions in some other countries) would result in annual savings worth at least £80m to £100m. Legislation or other measures to reduce dietary salt intake by 3 g/day (current mean intake approximately 8.5 g/day) would prevent approximately 30?000 cardiovascular events, with savings worth at least £40m a year. Legislation to reduce intake of industrial trans fatty acid by approximately 0.5% of total energy content might gain around 570?000 life years and generate NHS savings worth at least £230m a year. Conclusions Any intervention that achieved even a modest population-wide reduction in any major cardiovascular risk factor would produce a net cost saving to the NHS, as well as improving health. Given the conservative assumptions used in this model, the true benefits would probably be greater. PMID:21798967

  1. Effect of removing user fees on attendance for curative and preventive primary health care services in rural South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, D.; Gouws, E.; Sach, M.; Karim, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    User fees are used to recover costs and discourage unnecessary attendance at primary care clinics in many developing countries. In South Africa, user fees for children aged under 6 years and pregnant women were removed in 1994, and in 1997 all user fees at all primary health care clinics were abolished. The intention of these policy changes was to improve access to health services for previously disadvantaged communities. We investigated the impact of these changes on clinic attendance patterns in Hlabisa health district. Average quarterly new registrations and total attendances for preventive services (antenatal care, immunization, growth monitoring) and curative services (treatment of ailments) at a mobile primary health care unit were studied from 1992 to 1998. Regression analysis was undertaken to assess whether trends were statistically significant. There was a sustained increase in new registrations (P = 0.0001) and total attendances (P = 0.0001) for curative services, and a fall in new registrations (P = 0.01) and total attendances for immunization and growth monitoring (P = 0.0002) over the study period. The upturn in demand for curative services started at the time of the first policy change. The decreases in antenatal registrations (P = 0.07) and attendances (P = 0.09) were not statistically significant. The number of new registrations for immunization and growth monitoring increased following the first policy change but declined thereafter. We found no evidence that the second policy change influenced underlying trends. The removal of user fees improved access to curative services but this may have happened at the expense of some preventive services. Governments should remain vigilant about the effects of new health policies in order to ensure that objectives are being met. PMID:11477970

  2. 75 FR 27625 - Announcement of the Fall 2010 Annual Grant Competition Effective October 1, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ...UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE Announcement of the Fall 2010 Annual Grant...2010 AGENCY: United States Institute of Peace. ACTION: Notice...dissemination of information on international peace and conflict resolution. The Annual...

  3. Experiments in free fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Art, Albert

    2006-09-01

    A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and gravitational masses.

  4. The negative effect of hypokinesia involving injury and preventive measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izakson, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    The optimum length of bed rest for athletes suffering from broken bones is considered. Negative effects of hypokinesia induced by bed rest include general weakness and deconditioning of the muscles as well as sleeplessness, headaches, muscle pain, constipation, unstable pulse and arterial pressure, and changes in reflexes. This is considered to be the result of a vegetative dysfunction induced by the decreased flow of nerve impulses and a decrease in interoceptive and exteroceptive signals. The briefest possible period of bed rest, followed by an increase in motor activity, the prescription of a large quantity of LFK, and an active program of physical therapy are recommended. The symptomology associated with hypokinesia disappears after one month of free motor activity.

  5. Targeting respiratory complex I to prevent the Warburg effect.

    PubMed

    Vatrinet, Renaud; Iommarini, Luisa; Kurelac, Ivana; De Luise, Monica; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Porcelli, Anna Maria

    2015-06-01

    In the last 10 years, studies of energetic metabolism in different tumors clearly indicate that the definition of Warburg effect, i.e. the glycolytic shift cells undergo upon transformation, ought to be revisited considering the metabolic plasticity of cancer cells. In fact, recent findings show that the shift from glycolysis to re-established oxidative metabolism is required for certain steps of tumor progression, suggesting that mitochondrial function and, in particular, respiratory complex I are crucial for metabolic and hypoxic adaptation. Based on these evidences, complex I can be considered a lethality target for potential anticancer strategies. In conclusion, in this mini review we summarize and discuss why it is not paradoxical to develop pharmacological and genome editing approaches to target complex I as novel adjuvant therapies for cancer treatment. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Energy Metabolism Disorders and Therapies. PMID:25668477

  6. Temperature Effects on Bud-Burst and Leaf-Fall in Subalpine Larch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Worrall

    1993-01-01

    Phenology was monitored in natural stands of subalpine larch (Larix lyallii Parl.) in parts of four decades. Bud-burst date varied by about six weeks from year to year, and leaf-fall date by a month, suggesting that the importance of photoperiod in these processes has been over emphasized, even in the case of leaf-fall. Most of the variation in bud-burst date

  7. Potential Effects of Pomegranate Polyphenols in Cancer Prevention and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Turrini, Eleonora; Ferruzzi, Lorenzo; Fimognari, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death and is becoming the leading one in old age. Vegetable and fruit consumption is inversely associated with cancer incidence and mortality. Currently, interest in a number of fruits high in polyphenols has been raised due to their reported chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic potential. Pomegranate has been shown to exert anticancer activity, which is generally attributed to its high content of polyphenols. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of known targets and mechanisms along with a critical evaluation of pomegranate polyphenols as future anticancer agents. Pomegranate evokes antiproliferative, anti-invasive, and antimetastatic effects, induces apoptosis through the modulation of Bcl-2 proteins, upregulates p21 and p27, and downregulates cyclin-cdk network. Furthermore, pomegranate blocks the activation of inflammatory pathways including, but not limited to, the NF-?B pathway. The strongest evidence for its anticancer activity comes from studies on prostate cancer. Accordingly, some exploratory clinical studies investigating pomegranate found a trend of efficacy in increasing prostate-specific antigen doubling time in patients with prostate cancer. However, the genotoxicity reported for pomegranate raised certain concerns over its safety and an accurate assessment of the risk/benefit should be performed before suggesting the use of pomegranate or its polyphenols for cancer-related therapeutic purposes. PMID:26180600

  8. Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination during pregnancy in preventing influenza infection in infants, England, 2013/14.

    PubMed

    Dabrera, G; Zhao, H; Andrews, N; Begum, F; Green, Hk; Ellis, J; Elias, K; Donati, M; Zambon, M; Pebody, R

    2014-01-01

    In this study we used the screening method to estimate the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination during pregnancy in preventing influenza virus infection and influenza-related hospitalisation in infants under?six months, in England in the 2013/14 season. Seasonal influenza vaccination in pregnancy was 71% (95% CI: 24–89%) effective in preventing infant influenza virus infection and 64% (95% CI: 6–86%) effective in preventing infant influenza hospitalisation, and should be recommended in pregnancy. PMID:25411687

  9. Strengthening Effective Parenting Practices Over the Long Term: Effects of a Preventive Intervention for Parentally Bereaved Families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa J. Hagan; Jenn-Yun Tein; Irwin N. Sandler; Sharlene A. Wolchik; Tim S. Ayers; Linda J. Luecken

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the effect of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a preventive intervention for bereaved families, on effective parenting (e.g., caregiver warmth, consistent discipline) 6 years after program completion. Families (n = 101; 69% female caregivers; 77% Caucasian, 11% Hispanic) with children between ages 8 and 16 who had experienced the death of one parent were randomized to the FBP (n = 54)

  10. Strengthening Effective Parenting Practices over the Long Term: Effects of a Preventive Intervention for Parentally Bereaved Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Melissa J.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Ayers, Tim S.; Luecken, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the effect of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a preventive intervention for bereaved families, on effective parenting (e.g., caregiver warmth, consistent discipline) 6 years after program completion. Families (n = 101; 69% female caregivers; 77% Caucasian, 11% Hispanic) with children between ages 8 and 16 who had…

  11. Role of Bioactive Food Components in Diabetes Prevention: Effects on Beta-Cell Function and Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yoon Sin; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive compounds found in fruits and vegetables can have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic effects and can be protective against various diseases and metabolic disorders. These beneficial effects make them good candidates for the development of new functional foods with potential protective and preventive properties for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the most relevant results concerning the effects of various bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, vitamins, and carotenoids on several aspects of beta-cell functionality. Studies using animal models with induced diabetes and diabetic patients support the hypothesis that bioactive compounds could ameliorate diabetic phenotypes. Published data suggest that there might be direct effects of bioactive compounds on enhancing insulin secretion and preventing beta-cell apoptosis, and some compounds might modulate beta-cell proliferation. Further research is needed to establish any clinical effects of these compounds. PMID:25092987

  12. Falling chains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun Wa Wong; Kosuke Yasui

    2005-01-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred

  13. Effectiveness of Peer Education Interventions for HIV Prevention, Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention and Sexual Health Promotion for Young People: A Systematic Review of European Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolli, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    Peer education remains a popular strategy for health promotion and prevention, but evidence of its effectiveness is still limited. This article presents a systematic review of peer education interventions in the European Union that were published between January 1999 and May 2010. The objective of the review is to determine the effectiveness of…

  14. The effectiveness of benzimidazole derivatives for the treatment and prevention of histomonosis (blackhead) in turkeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. N Hegngi; J Doerr; T. S Cummings; R. D Schwartz; G Saunders; A Zajac; C. T Larsen; F. W Pierson

    1999-01-01

    The benzimidazole derivatives, albendazole and fenbendazole were evaluated for their effectiveness in the treatment and prevention of histomonosis (blackhead) in turkeys. Histomonosis was produced in 5 week-old birds by placing them on broiler breeder litter known to be contaminated with Heterakis gallinae ova and the protozoan Histomonas meleagridis. In the first trial, at the onset of confirmed clinical disease, birds

  15. Assessing the effectiveness of problem-based learning of preventive medicine education in China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaojie; Zhao, Liping; Chu, Haiyan; Tong, Na; Ni, Chunhui; Hu, Zhibin; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin

    2014-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is defined as a student-centered pedagogy which can provide learners more opportunities for application of knowledge acquired from basic science to the working situations than traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) method. In China, PBL is increasingly popular among preventive medicine educators, and multiple studies have investigated the effectiveness of PBL pedagogy in preventive medicine education. A pooled analysis based on 15 studies was performed to obtain an overall estimate of the effectiveness of PBL on learning outcomes of preventive medicine. Overall, PBL was associated with a significant increase in students' theoretical examination scores (SMD = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.41-0.83) than LBL. For the attitude- and skill-based outcomes, the pooled PBL effects were also significant among learning attitude (OR = 3.62, 95% CI = 2.40-5.16), problem solved skill (OR = 4.80, 95% CI = 2.01-11.46), self-directed learning skill (OR = 5.81, 95% CI = 3.11-10.85), and collaborative skill (OR = 4.21, 95% CI = 0.96-18.45). Sensitivity analysis showed that the exclusion of a single study did not influence the estimation. Our results suggest that PBL of preventive medicine education in China appears to be more effective than LBL in improving knowledge, attitude and skills. PMID:24874915

  16. The Effect of Preventive Classroom Management Training Program on Approval and Disapproval Behaviors of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guner, Nevin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of Preventive Classroom Management Training Program (PCMTP) on approval and disapproval behaviors of teachers working in inclusive classrooms was investigated. The study group consisted of 45 teachers who were working in public schools and had students with special needs in their classrooms. Data were gathered using…

  17. Restrictions in Means for Suicide: An Effective Tool in Preventing Suicide: The Danish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Restriction of means for suicide is an important part of suicide preventive strategies in different countries. The effect on method-specific suicide rate and overall suicide rate of restrictions on availability of carbon monoxide, barbiturates, and dextropropoxyphene was examined. From 1970 to 2000, overall suicide mortality and method-specific…

  18. Improving Interactions: The Effects of Implementing the Fight-Free Schools Violence Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahsl, Allison J.; Luce, Amanda E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Fight-Free Schools violence prevention process had an effect on the frequency of aggressive acts of elementary school students. Participants included approximately 600 students ranging from Kindergarten to 5th grade in a suburban school in the Midwestern United States. Data were collected over…

  19. One Decade Down: Impact of Substance Prevention after the Principles of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jeremy; Frenzel, Erika

    2010-01-01

    Substance prevention programs proliferate throughout America's Schools. Since 1998, the US Department of Education (US DOE) has required that school-based programs funded with federal subsidies be subject to a four stage process to insure effectiveness. The current study applies multivariate Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) techniques to data from a…

  20. The Effects of a Violence Prevention Program on Alternative High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triplett, Carla A.

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the effectiveness of a violence prevention program in an inner-city alternative school setting. The researcher, an administrator at the school, used a prepackaged curriculum targeting lessons on violence in an eight-week study with the entire school population. Students met bi-weekly with a team of two teachers to review and…

  1. Effective Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse--Educational versus Deterrent Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…

  2. The Effectiveness of Substance Abuse Prevention Videotapes with Mexican American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polansky, Joan M.; Buki, Lydia P.; Horan, John J.; Ceperich, Sherry Dyche; Burows, Deborah Dyer

    1999-01-01

    The effectiveness of three substance-abuse-prevention videotapes derived from contrasting theoretical frameworks was evaluated using 312 rural Mexican-American students in grades seven through eight. The assertion-training video produced higher levels of assertiveness among ninth-graders; the others had no impact. Discusses the importance of…

  3. School-Based Drug Prevention among At-Risk Adolescents: Effects of ALERT Plus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longshore, Douglas; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; St. Clair, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    In a recent randomized field trial, Ellickson et al. found the Project ALERT drug prevention curriculum curbed alcohol misuse and tobacco and marijuana use among eighth-grade adolescents. This article reports effects among ninth-grade at-risk adolescents. Comparisons between at-risk girls in ALERT Plus schools (basic curriculum extended to ninth…

  4. Effects of a Multifocused Prevention Program on Preschool Children's Competencies and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefan, Catrinel A.; Miclea, Mircea

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a multifocused (child-, teacher- and parent-focused) prevention program for Romanian preschoolers, targeting social--emotional competence development, as well as reduction of behavior problems. Fourteen classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention and control conditions. Subsequent…

  5. PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL ABUSE-RELATED BIRTH EFFECTS PUBLIC EDUCATION EFFORTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERNEST L. ABEL

    1998-01-01

    Maternal alcohol abuse during pregnancy can result in a pattern of anomalies in children called 'fetal alcohol syndrome' (FAS) and more recently, 'fetal alcohol abuse syndrome (FAAS)'. FAAS as well as individual alcohol-related anomalies, called 'alcohol abuse-related buth effects' (AARBEs), are widely considered to be totally preventable, because they stem from a behaviour that is presumably modifiable. However, current strategies

  6. Evaluating a Parent Education Program for Preventing the Negative Effects of Marital Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faircloth, W. Brad; Cummings, E. Mark

    2008-01-01

    The effects of marital conflict on children are well documented. This study evaluated a prevention program for changing marital conflict for children's sake. Fifty-five couples were randomly assigned to either an immediate treatment (n = 41) or a six-month waitlisted control (n = 14) group, with assessments at pretest, posttest, and 6-month and…

  7. Sugar Alcohols: What Is the Evidence for Caries-Preventive and Caries-Therapeutic Effects?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. van Loveren

    2004-01-01

    The most widely used sugar alcohols are: xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol, lactitol and the products Lycasin® and Palatinit®. It is often claimed that xylitol is superior to the other sugar alcohols for caries control. This paper examines clinical studies on the caries-preventive and therapeutic effects of sugar alcohols with emphasis on sorbitol and xylitol. It is concluded that chewing sugar-free

  8. The Differential Effects of Rape Prevention Programming on Attitudes, Behavior, and Knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary J. Heppner; Carolyn F. Humphrey; Theresa L. Hillenbrand-Gunn; Kurt A. DeBord

    1995-01-01

    This investigation evaluated whether type of programming differentially affects elaboration likelihood model central route processing of rape prevention messages, attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, and stability of change. The 258 participants were assigned to a didactic-video program, an interactive drama, or control. Measured over 5 time periods, results indicated that (a) the interactive drama was most effective in promoting central route processing;

  9. The Differential Effects of Rape Prevention Programming on Attitudes, Behavior, and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, Mary J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates whether type of programming differentially affects the processing of rape prevention messages, attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, and stability of change. Participants (n=258) were assigned to a didactic-video program, an interactive drama, or control. Results indicated that the interactive video was most effective in central route…

  10. Method for effects evaluation of some forms of power transformers preventive maintenance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladica Mijailovic

    2008-01-01

    The paper suggests a method for effects evaluation of a few activities and measures, undertaken as a part of preventive maintenance of power transformers. The method enables calculation of expected failures repair cost and load curtailment cost. The method identifies minor and major failures. Power transformer is a complex system, consisting of five components (functional parts). It is assumed that

  11. A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Bullying Prevention Programs' Effects on Bystander Intervention Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized bullying prevention programs' effectiveness at increasing bystander intervention in bullying situations. Evidence from 12 school-based programs, involving 12,874 students, indicated that overall the programs were successful (Hedges's g = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11 to 0.29, p = 0.001), with larger…

  12. Use of Comparison Populations for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Hearing Loss Prevention Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Adera; C. Amir; L. Anderson

    2000-01-01

    One approach for evaluating the effectiveness of Hearing loss prevention programs (HLPPs) is to compare the rate of hearing loss in a study population with that in a reference population. This approach was used to evaluate the HLPP of a population of 14,900 employees of an industrial company with branches across the United States. Three reference populations were selected from

  13. Effects of Relative Humidity on the Coalescence of Small Precipitation Drops in Free Fall.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Harry T., III; Beard, Kenneth V.; Laird, Neil F.; Holdridge, Donna J.; Schaufelberger, Daniel E.

    1995-11-01

    Observations of the effects of relative humidity on coalescence are limited to studies using supported drops or streams of drops, and the results are contradictory. In this paper, findings are presented on the effect of high and low relative humidity on collisions between freely falling drops. Comparisons between the collision outcomes (coalescence, bounce, and temporary coalescence with and without satellite drops) for high-humidity (RH > 95%) and low-humidity (RH 30%) experiments were made for small precipitation drops at terminal velocity and with minimal electric charge. Coalescence begins after the air-film between colliding drops is drained sufficiently to allow the drops to make contact. For temporary coalescence, the union of the two drops is not permanent because the rotational energy caused by a non-head-on collision is sufficient to pull the coalesing drops apart. One or more satellite drops form during a temporary coalescence when water filament between the separating drops breaks in more than one location. Experiments with higher drop charge were used to examine further the influence of humidity on coalescence. Our results show that relative humidity does not affect the coalescence efficiency for small precipitation drops. The effect of humidity is limited to collisions where permanent coalescence does not occur, and the collision outcome can be temporary coalescence. In cases where bounce is also a possible outcome, it was found that the probability of bounce is enhanced at the expense of temporary coalescence when relative humidity is decreased. For two of the comparisons between high-humidity and low-humidity results, the fraction of temporary coalescence collision outcomes halved at low humidity. Since the colliding drops are at the wet-bulb temperature, this effect is traced to the colder air gap that drains more slowly and retards coalescence at lower humidifies. At high relative humidity the number of satellite drops about doubles with the increased probability of temporary coalescence. Other experiments showed that the increase in satellite drops at higher relative humidities also occurs for cases where collision outcomes are limited to coalescence or temporary coalescence. Since there are more temporary coalescence outcomes at the higher relative humidities in clouds, there are also more satellite drops that can act as embryos for new raindrops. These results apply to rain shafts within and below clouds.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of whole-of-community obesity prevention programs: an overview of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Flego, Anna; Keating, Catherine; Moodie, Marj

    2014-10-01

    Whole-of-community obesity prevention programs that impact on multiple players and promote community capacity show promise as an important strategy in the fight against global obesity. This paper reviews the economic evaluation literature of multifaceted, community based obesity prevention programs. There are few cost effectiveness studies. Whilst results to date are encouraging, there is considerable uncertainty surrounding the long term results given the lack of evidence regarding sustainability of program effect and a consequent reliance on economic modeling to fill the gaps. More empirical studies of longer duration are needed to demonstrate the longer term effectiveness and cost effectiveness of these programs, and to facilitate identification of the elements necessary for their sustainability. PMID:25209305

  15. An Analysis of the Accuracy of Wearable Sensors for Classifying the Causes of Falls in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Omar; Robinovitch, Stephen N.

    2012-01-01

    Falls are the number one cause of injury in older adults. Wearable sensors, typically consisting of accelerometers and/or gyroscopes, represent a promising technology for preventing and mitigating the effects of falls. At present, the goal of such “ambulatory fall monitors” is to detect the occurrence of a fall and alert care providers to this event. Future systems may also provide information on the causes and circumstances of falls, to aid clinical diagnosis and targeting of interventions. As a first step towards this goal, the objective of the current study was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of a wearable sensor system for determining the causes of falls. Sixteen young adults participated in experimental trials involving falls due to slips, trips, and “other” causes of imbalance. Three-dimensional acceleration data acquired during the falling trials were input to a linear discriminant analysis technique. This routine achieved 96% sensitivity and 98% specificity in distinguishing the causes of a falls using acceleration data from three markers (left ankle, right ankle, and sternum). In contrast, a single marker provided 54% sensitivity and two markers provided 89% sensitivity. These results indicate the utility of a three-node accelerometer array for distinguishing the cause of falls. PMID:21859608

  16. Caries-Preventive Effect of Chlorhexidine Gel Applications among High-Risk Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Petti; H. Hausen

    2006-01-01

    Evidence on the caries-preventive effect of chlorhexidine (CHX) among high-risk children is inconclusive, possibly because obscured by fluoride exposure. We investigated the effect of CHX among initially 3-year-old subjects whose baseline d3ft was = 0 and whose only regular fluoride exposure came from toothpaste. The subjects were assigned to three groups: high-risk test (HRT, n = 70), high-risk control (HRC,

  17. The Cost-Effectiveness of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Infants in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Conteh, Lesong; Sicuri, Elisa; Manzi, Fatuma; Hutton, Guy; Obonyo, Benson; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Biao, Prosper; Masika, Paul; Matovu, Fred; Otieno, Peter; Gosling, Roly D.; Hamel, Mary; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Chandramohan, Daniel; Aponte, John J.; Egan, Andrea; Schellenberg, David; Macete, Eusebio; Slutsker, Laurence; Newman, Robert D.; Alonso, Pedro; Menéndez, Clara; Tanner, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) has been shown to decrease clinical malaria by approximately 30% in the first year of life and is a promising malaria control strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa which can be delivered alongside the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI). To date, there have been limited data on the cost-effectiveness of this strategy using sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) and no published data on cost-effectiveness using other antimalarials. Methods We analysed data from 5 countries in sub-Saharan Africa using a total of 5 different IPTi drug regimens; SP, mefloquine (MQ), 3 days of chlorproguanil-dapsone (CD), SP plus 3 days of artesunate (SP-AS3) and 3 days of amodiaquine-artesunate (AQ3-AS3).The cost per malaria episode averted and cost per Disability-Adjusted Life-Year (DALY) averted were modeled using both trial specific protective efficacy (PE) for all IPTi drugs and a pooled PE for IPTi with SP, malaria incidence, an estimated malaria case fatality rate of 1.57%, IPTi delivery costs and country specific provider and household malaria treatment costs. Findings In sites where IPTi had a significant effect on reducing malaria, the cost per episode averted for IPTi-SP was very low, USD 1.36–4.03 based on trial specific data and USD 0.68–2.27 based on the pooled analysis. For IPTi using alternative antimalarials, the lowest cost per case averted was for AQ3-AS3 in western Kenya (USD 4.62) and the highest was for MQ in Korowge, Tanzania (USD 18.56). Where efficacious, based only on intervention costs, IPTi was shown to be cost effective in all the sites and highly cost-effective in all but one of the sites, ranging from USD 2.90 (Ifakara, Tanzania with SP) to USD 39.63 (Korogwe, Tanzania with MQ) per DALY averted. In addition, IPTi reduced health system costs and showed significant savings to households from malaria cases averted. A threshold analysis showed that there is room for the IPTi-efficacy to fall and still remain highly cost effective in all sites where IPTi had a statistically significant effect on clinical malaria. Conclusions IPTi delivered alongside the EPI is a highly cost effective intervention against clinical malaria with a range of drugs in a range of malaria transmission settings. Where IPTi did not have a statistically significant impact on malaria, generally in low transmission sites, it was not cost effective. PMID:20559558

  18. Effects of a brief pilot sexual harassment prevention workshop on employees' knowledge.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Cody; Kramer, Alaina; Woolman, Kendra; Staecker, Emma; Visker, Joseph; Cox, Carol

    2013-10-01

    Administrators from three workplaces were interested in conducting evidence-based sexual harassment prevention training for their employees, but they could devote little time during the workday to the training. A pilot program to evaluate the use of a 1-hour workshop that followed best practice recommendations and adult learning principles using job-related scenarios was designed. Participants' overall sexual harassment prevention knowledge scores significantly increased from before to after the workshop and were significantly higher after the workshop than those of a control group. The majority of participants also perceived that their workplaces were committed to employees understanding the sexual harassment policy, and that the workplace would seriously investigate claims and take corrective action. Even a brief workshop covering essential content using adult learning principles can be effective in sexual harassment prevention knowledge acquisition. PMID:24088375

  19. Functional neural correlates of reduced physiological falls risk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is currently unclear whether the function of brain regions associated with executive cognitive processing are independently associated with reduced physiological falls risk. If these are related, it would suggest that the development of interventions targeted at improving executive neurocognitive function would be an effective new approach for reducing physiological falls risk in seniors. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of 73 community-dwelling senior women aged 65 to 75 years old who participated in a 12-month randomized controlled trial of resistance training. Functional MRI data were acquired while participants performed a modified Eriksen Flanker Task - a task of selective attention and conflict resolution. Brain volumes were obtained using MRI. Falls risk was assessed using the Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA). Results After accounting for baseline age, experimental group, baseline PPA score, and total baseline white matter brain volume, baseline activation in the left frontal orbital cortex extending towards the insula was negatively associated with reduced physiological falls risk over the 12-month period. In contrast, baseline activation in the paracingulate gyrus extending towards the anterior cingulate gyrus was positively associated with reduced physiological falls risk. Conclusions Baseline activation levels of brain regions underlying response inhibition and selective attention were independently associated with reduced physiological falls risk. This suggests that falls prevention strategies may be facilitated by incorporating intervention components - such as aerobic exercise - that are specifically designed to induce neurocognitive plasticity. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00426881 PMID:21846395

  20. The Effect of Community-Level Unemployment on Preventive Oral Health Care Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Brian C; Catalano, Ralph A; Felber, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that high community-level unemployment is associated with reduced use of preventive dental care services by a dentally insured population. Data The study uses monthly data on population dental visits and unemployment in the Seattle and Spokane areas from 1995 to 2004. Utilization data come from Washington Dental Services. Unemployment data were obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and Washington's Employment Security Department. Study Design The study uses a Box–Jenkins Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) method to measure the association between the variables over time. The approach controls for the effects of autocorrelation, seasonality, and confounding variables. Findings In the Seattle area, an unexpected 10,000 unit increase in the number of unemployed individuals is associated with a 1.24 percent decrease in preventive visits during the month (p=.0043). In the Spokane area, a similar increase in unemployment is associated with a 5.95 percent decrease in preventive visits (p=.0326). The findings persist when the independent variable is the number of initial unemployment insurance claims. Conclusions The analysis suggests that utilization of preventive dental care declines during periods of high community-level unemployment. Community-level unemployment may impede or distract populations from utilizing preventive dental services. The study's findings have implications for insurers, dentists, policy makers, and researchers. PMID:18793212

  1. Effect of Life Skills Training on Drug Abuse Preventive Behaviors among University Students

    PubMed Central

    Moshki, Mahdi; Hassanzade, Tahere; Taymoori, Parvaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Drug abuse is now-a-days one of the gravest social harms. Recent years have experienced a drastic rise in drug abuse among school and university students. Thus, the need for special attention to the issue is deemed important. The present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the impact of life skills training on promotion of drug abuse preventive behaviors. Methods: This field trial experimental study was conducted on 60 students of Gonabad Medical University selected through quota random sampling and assigned randomly into two Intervention and control groups. Data were collected through a questionnaire, including two sections of demographic information and drug abuse preventive behaviors. The questionnaire was first assessed as to its validity and reliability and then administered both before and after educational intervention and also as a follow-up 4 years after intervention – Data were then analyzed using t-tests and Chi-square. Results: Comparison of post-test mean scores of drug abuse preventive behaviors of both groups showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) which remained stable 4 years after intervention. There was a significant relationship between father's educational level and drug abuse preventive behaviors (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Life skills’ training is effective in the promotion of drug abuse preventive behaviors of university students. PMID:24932389

  2. Encouraging responses in sexual and relationship violence prevention: what program effects remain 1 year later?

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Mary M; Banyard, Victoria L; Cares, Alison C; Potter, Sharyn J; Williams, Linda M; Stapleton, Jane G

    2015-01-01

    Colleges and universities are high-risk settings for sexual and relationship violence. To address these problems, institutions of higher education have implemented prevention programs, many of which train students as potential bystanders who can step in to help diffuse risky situations, identify and challenge perpetrators, and assist victims. The impact of bystander sexual and relationship violence prevention programs on long-term behavior of bystanders has remained a key unanswered question for those who seek to offer the most effective programs as well as for policy makers. In this study, the researchers experimentally evaluated the effectiveness of the Bringing in the Bystander® in-person program. Participants were 948 1st-year college students of whom 47.8% were women and 85.2% identified as White (15% also identified as Hispanic in a separate question) between the ages of 18 and 24 at two universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, highly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. To date, this is the first study to have found positive behavior changes as long-lasting as 1 year following an educational workshop focusing on engaging bystanders in preventing sexual and relationship violence. Even so, many questions remain to be answered about prevention and intervention of this type. More prospective research is needed on bystander-focused prevention of these forms of violence to help understand and better predict the complicated relationships both between and among the attitudes and behaviors related to preventing sexual and relationship violence. In this regard, we make specific recommendations for designing and evaluating programs based on our findings relating to the importance of moderators, especially two key understudied ones, readiness to help and opportunity to intervene. PMID:24850763

  3. Preventing weight gain and obesity: indirect effects of the family check-up in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin D; Montaño, Zorash; Dishion, Thomas J; Shaw, Daniel S; Wilson, Melvin N

    2015-04-01

    The early signs of obesity are observable in early childhood. Although the most promising prevention approaches are family-centered, few relevant early prevention programs exist. This study evaluated the effects of an evidence-based, home-visiting intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), on the trajectory of children's weight gain. The FCU was designed to prevent the development of behavior problems by improving family management practices; children's weight has not been an explicit target. On the basis of previous research and conceptual models, we hypothesized that intervention effects on parenting practices, specifically caregivers' use of positive behavior support (PBS) strategies in toddlerhood, would mediate improvements in children's weight trajectories. A total of 731 indigent caregiver-child dyads from a multisite randomized intervention trial were examined. Observational assessment of parenting and mealtime behaviors occurred from age 2-5 years. The child's body mass index (BMI) was assessed yearly from age 5-9.5 years. Path analysis with a latent growth model revealed a significant indirect effect of the FCU on the trajectory of BMI in later childhood. Improvements in caregivers' PBS in toddlerhood, which was related to the nutritional quality of the meals caregivers served to the child during the mealtime task, served as the intervening process. Furthermore, findings indicate that the FCU prevents progression to overweight and obese status amongst at-risk children. These study results add to existing evidence that has demonstrated that family-based interventions aimed at improving general family management skills are effective at preventing weight gain. Future directions are discussed. PMID:25263212

  4. Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Diabetes Prevention among Adherent Participants

    PubMed Central

    Herman, William H.; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Ratner, Robert E.; Montez, Maria G.; Ackermann, Ronald T.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Foulkes, Mary A.; Zhang, Ping; Saudek, Christopher D.; Brown, Morton B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We report the 10 year effectiveness and within-trial cost-effectiveness of the The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and its Outcomes Study (DPPOS) interventions among participants who were adherent to the interventions. STUDY DESIGN DPP was a 3-year randomized clinical trial followed by 7-years of open-label modified intervention followup. METHODS Data on resource utilization, cost, and quality-of-life were collected prospectively. Economic analyses were performed from health system and societal perspectives. Lifestyle adherence was defined as achieving and maintaining a 5% reduction in initial body weight and metformin adherence as taking metformin at 80% of study visits. RESULTS The relative risk reduction was 49.4% among adherent lifestyle participants and 20.8% among adherent metformin participants compared to placebo. Over 10 years, the cumulative, undiscounted, per capita direct medical costs of the interventions, as implemented during the DPP, were greater for adherent lifestyle participants ($4,810) than adherent metformin participants ($2,934) or placebo ($768). Over 10 years, the cumulative, per capita non-intervention-related direct medical costs were $4,250 greater for placebo participants compared to adherent lifestyle participants and $3,251 greater compared to adherent metformin participants. The cumulative quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) accrued over 10 years were greater for lifestyle (6.80) than metformin (6.74) or placebo (6.67). Without discounting, from both a modified societal perspective (excluding participant time), lifestyle cost <$5,000 per QALY-gained and metformin was cost-saving compared to placebo. CONCLUSIONS Over 10 years, lifestyle intervention and metformin were cost-saving compared to placebo. These analyses confirm that lifestyle and metformin represent a good value for money. PMID:23544761

  5. Cost-effectiveness of drug abuse treatment for primary prevention of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: epidemiologic considerations.

    PubMed

    Lampinen, T M

    1991-01-01

    The prevention of AIDS has justified recent increases in drug abuse treatment expenditures. Three of the epidemiologic considerations involved in assessing the cost-effectiveness of drug treatment for primary prevention of AIDS among IV drug users were discussed. First, the considerable geographic variation in the prevalence of the virus that causes AIDS suggests that areas with relatively low infection levels may be more cost-effective targets when allocating limited drug abuse treatment resources. Expansions and modifications in the current national HIV-1 serologic surveillance system will be needed to make informed resource allocation decisions. Second, when comparing the cost-effectiveness of two alternative treatment modalities or programs, the number of new HIV-1 infections does not appear to be an appropriate outcome measure. Serologic testing should be supplemented with self-reported drug use behaviors, with or without drug testing. Finally, significant opportunity costs may be associated with employing drug abuse treatment as the principal approach to primary prevention of HIV-1 infection among IVDUs, when alternative and complementary approaches are also effective. Specifically, treatment expansion is unlikely to be cost-effective when the demand for publicly funded treatment slots exceeds the number available and in communities where only a small minority of IVDUs are enrolled in treatment. PMID:1762635

  6. Structuring and validating a cost-effectiveness model of primary asthma prevention amongst children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Given the rising number of asthma cases and the increasing costs of health care, prevention may be the best cure. Decisions regarding the implementation of prevention programmes in general and choosing between unifaceted and multifaceted strategies in particular are urgently needed. Existing trials on the primary prevention of asthma are, however, insufficient on their own to inform the decision of stakeholders regarding the cost-effectiveness of such prevention strategies. Decision analytic modelling synthesises available data for the cost-effectiveness evaluation of strategies in an explicit manner. Published reports on model development should provide the detail and transparency required to increase the acceptability of cost-effectiveness modelling. But, detail on the explicit steps and the involvement of experts in structuring a model is often unevenly reported. In this paper, we describe a procedure to structure and validate a model for the primary prevention of asthma in children. Methods An expert panel was convened for round-table discussions to frame the cost-effectiveness research question and to select and structure a model. The model's structural validity, which indicates how well a model reflects the reality, was determined through descriptive and parallel validation. Descriptive validation was performed with the experts. Parallel validation qualitatively compared similarity between other published models with different decision problems. Results The multidisciplinary input of experts helped to develop a decision-tree structure which compares the current situation with screening and prevention. The prevention was further divided between multifaceted and unifaceted approaches to analyse the differences. The clinical outcome was diagnosis of asthma. No similar model was found in the literature discussing the same decision problem. Structural validity in terms of descriptive validity was achieved with the experts and was supported by parallel validation. Conclusions A decision-tree model developed with experts in round-table discussions benefits from a systematic and transparent approach and the multidisciplinary contributions of the experts. Parallel validation provides a feasible alternative to validating novel models. The process of structuring and validating a model presented in this paper could be a useful guide to increase transparency, credibility, and acceptability of (future, novel) models when experts are involved. PMID:22070532

  7. The Effectiveness of Two Types of Rape Prevention Programs in Changing the Rape-Supportive Attitudes of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Linda A.; Stoelb, Matthew P.; Duggan, Peter; Hieger, Brad; Kling, Kathleen H.; Payne, June P.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of two rape-prevention programs in changing college students' rape-supportive attitudes was investigated. (N=215) Conditions included an interactive mock talk show and a structured video intervention. Both interventions were effective, but attitudes were found to rebound over time. Implications for future rape-prevention

  8. The Effectiveness of School-Based Smoking Prevention Interventions among Low- and High-SES European Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Crone, M. R.; De Vries, H.; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Lien, N.; Fagiano, F.; Vitoria, P. D.; Van Lenthe, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    Preventing smoking initiation among adolescents of lower socio-economic groups is crucial for the reduction of socio-economic inequalities in health. The aim of the present study was to examine whether effective smoking prevention interventions in Europe are equally effective among adolescents of low- and high-socio-economic status (SES). As part…

  9. Nutrient losses from fall- and winter-applied manure: effects of timing and soil temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil temperature is a major environmental factor that affects meltwater and precipitation infiltration and nutrient cycling. The objective of this study was to determine nutrient losses in runoff and leachate from fall- and winter-applied dairy manure as affected by soil temperature at the time of a...

  10. Effects of cyanogenic plants on fitness in two host strains of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The generalist species fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is actually composed of two genetic subgroups (host strains) that infest a wide range of host plants, including several of agricultural significance. Currently, little is known about the physiological factors that drive host p...

  11. EFFECTS OF FALL ARMYWORM (LEPIDOPTERA:NOCTUIDAE) INTERSTRAIN MATING IN WILD POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm is a significant agricultural pest in the United States, affecting most notably sweet corn and turf grass. Two genetically distinct but morphologically identical strains (R-strain and C-strain) exist that differ physiologically and behaviorally. Recent studies of overwintering populati...

  12. Preventive and therapeutic effects of Zataria multiflora methanolic extract on hydatid cyst: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Larki, Sara; Oryan, Ahmad; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal

    2014-09-15

    The phenolic compounds of Zataria multiflora extract, were identified by HPLC analysis. Gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, and quercetin were found to be the major phenolic compounds. Eighty healthy laboratory Balb/C mice were infected intraperitoneally by injection of 1500 viable protoscoleces and were divided into prevention (40 mice) and therapeutic (40 mice) groups. To prove the preventive effect of Z. multiflora extract on development of hydatid cyst, the 40 infected animals were allocated into three treatment groups including Z. multiflora (4 g/l in drinking water for 8 months), albendazole (150 mg/kg BW/day for 10 days) and untreated (control) group. To estimate the therapeutic effect of Z. multiflora extract on the hydatid cyst, after 8 months of infection, the infected mice were allocated into three experimental treatment groups including Z. multiflora (8 g/l in drinking water for 30 days), albendazole (300 mg/kg BW/day for 20 days) and untreated (control) group. At the end of the treatment period, all mice were euthanized and necropsied, the hydatid cysts were carefully removed, weighed and their size were recorded. Weight and size of the hydatid cysts significantly decreased (p<0.05) upon the treatment with Z. multiflora extract in both prevention and therapeutic groups. The germinal layer of the hydatid cysts recovered from the treated mice, either from the prevention or therapeutic group, were completely damaged at ultrastructural level by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:25070528

  13. Reelin has a preventive effect on phencyclidine-induced cognitive and sensory-motor gating deficits.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kazuhiro; Nagai, Taku; Hirota, Yuki; Noda, Mariko; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Kubo, Ken-Ichiro; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2015-07-01

    Reelin has recently attracted attention because of its connection to several neuropsychiatric diseases. We previously reported the finding that prior transplantation of GABAergic neuron precursor cells into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of mice significantly prevented the induction of cognitive and sensory-motor gating deficits induced by phencyclidine (PCP). The majority of the precursor cells transplanted into the mPFC of the recipient mice differentiated into members of a somatostatin/Reelin-expressing class of GABAergic interneurons. These findings raised the possibility that Reelin secreted by the transplanted cells plays an important role in preventing the deficits induced by PCP. In this study, we investigated whether Reelin itself has a preventive effect on PCP-induced behavioral phenotypes by injecting conditioned medium containing Reelin into the lateral ventricle of the brains of 6- to 7-week-old male mice before administrating PCP. Behavioral analyses showed that the prior Reelin injection had a preventive effect against induction of the cognitive and sensory-motor gating deficits associated with PCP. Moreover, one of the types of Reelin receptor was found to be expressed by neurons in the mPFC. The results of this study point to the Reelin signaling pathway as a candidate target for the pharmacologic treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:25573715

  14. The Effects of Augmented Reality-based Otago Exercise on Balance, Gait, and Falls Efficacy of Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ha-na; Chung, EunJung; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of augmented reality-based Otago exercise on balance, gait, and falls efficacy of elderly women. [Subjects] The subjects were 21 elderly women, who were randomly divided into two groups: an augmented reality-based Otago exercise group of 10 subjects and an Otago exercise group of 11 subjects. [Methods] All subjects were evaluated for balance (Berg Balance Scale, BBS), gait parameters (velocity, cadence, step length, and stride length), and falls efficacy. Within 12 weeks, Otago exercise for muscle strengthening and balance training was conducted three times, for a period of 60 minutes each, and subjects in the experimental group performed augmented reality-based Otago exercise. [Results] Following intervention, the augmented reality-based Otago exercise group showed significant increases in BBS, velocity, cadence, step length (right side), stride length (right side and left side) and falls efficacy. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest the feasibility and suitability of this augmented reality-based Otago exercise for elderly women. PMID:24259856

  15. 5-Year Planning Document for CEE Course Offerings Course Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    5-Year Planning Document for CEE Course Offerings Course Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring CEE 001 Cooperative Education Program Archambault Archambault Archambault Archambault Course Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring 2012-2013 2013-2014 2014

  16. Prevention of Depression in at-risk Adolescents: Longer-term Effects

    PubMed Central

    Beardslee, William R.; Brent, David A.; Weersing, V. Robin; Clarke, Gregory N.; Porta, Giovanna; Hollon, Steven D.; Gladstone, Tracy R.G.; Gallop, Robert; Lynch, Frances L.; Iyengar, Satish; DeBar, Lynn; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Context Adolescent offspring of depressed parents are at high risk for experiencing depressive disorders themselves. Objective To determine whether the positive effects of a group cognitive-behavioral prevention (CBP) program extended to longer term (multi-year) follow-up. Design, Setting, and Participants A four-site, randomized, controlled trial enrolled 316 adolescent (ages 13-17 years) offspring of parents with current and/or prior depressive disorders; adolescents had histories of depression, current elevated depressive symptoms, or both. Intervention The CBP program consisted of 8 weekly, 90-minute group sessions followed by 6 monthly continuation sessions. Adolescents were randomly assigned to either the CBP program or usual care (UC). Main Outcome Measure The primary outcome was a probable or definite episode of depression (Depression Symptom Rating score ?; 4) for at least 2 weeks through the month 33 follow-up evaluation. Results Over the 33-month follow-up period, youths in the CBP condition had significantly fewer onsets of depressive episodes compared to those in UC. Parental depression at baseline significantly moderated the intervention effect. When parents were not depressed at intake, CBP was superior to UC (NNT ratio=6), whereas when parents were actively depressed at baseline, average onset rates between CBP and UC were not significantly different. A three-way interaction among intervention, baseline parental depression, and site indicated that the impact of parental depression on intervention effectiveness varied across sites. Conclusions The CBP program showed significant sustained effects compared to usual care in preventing the onset of depressive episodes in at-risk youth over a nearly three-year period. Important next steps will be to strengthen the CBP intervention to further enhance its preventive effects, improve intervention outcomes when parents are currently depressed, and conduct larger implementation trials to test the broader public health impact of the CBP program for preventing depression in youth. PMID:24005242

  17. Effects of an emotional intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence

    PubMed Central

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Peña-Sarrionandia, Ainize

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence (EI) for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years. The study used an experimental design with repeated pretest–posttest measures and control groups. To measure the variables, four assessment instruments were administered before and after the program, as well as in the follow-up phase (1 year after the conclusion of the intervention). The program consisted of 20 one-hour sessions. The pretest–posttest ANCOVAs showed that the program significantly increased: (1) EI (attention, clarity, emotional repair); (2) assertive cognitive social interaction strategies; (3) internal control of anger; and (4) the cognitive ability to analyze negative feelings. In the follow-up phase, the positive effects of the intervention were generally maintained and, moreover, the use of aggressive strategies as an interpersonal conflict-resolution technique was significantly reduced. Regarding the effect of the program on both genders, the change was very similar, but the boys increased assertive social interaction strategies, attention, and emotional clarity significantly more than the girls. The importance of implementing programs to promote socio-emotional development and prevent violence is discussed. PMID:26082743

  18. Effect of Preventive Hormonal Therapy on Breast Density: A Systematic Qualitative Review

    PubMed Central

    Lienart, Virginie; Carly, Birgit; Liebens, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Breast density (BD) is recognized as one of the strongest independent risk factors of breast cancer (BC). Unlike most other risk factors, BD can be modified, suggesting that it may be a biomarker for preventive interventions. We conducted a qualitative systematic review to address the effect of preventive hormonal therapy on BD. Among the 26 relevant studies, 10 assessed the effect of tamoxifen on BD (TAM: n = 2?877), 9 that of raloxifene (RLX: n = 1?544), and 7 that of aromatase inhibitors (AI: n = 416). The studies were characterized by a large heterogeneity in designs and in methods of BD measurement. BD could be reduced by TAM (10 studies/10). However, the effect of RLX and AI on BD remains unclear due to conflicting results between studies. Consequently, it is crucial to develop practical, accurate, and reproducible methods of measurement in order to be able to compare the effect of preventive hormonal agents on BD and to determine whether change in BD can be used as a predictor of response to therapy. PMID:24895676

  19. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  20. Preventing the preventable through effective surveillance: the case of diphtheria in a rural district of Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemic diphtheria is still poorly understood and continues to challenge both developing and developed countries. In the backdrop of poor immunization coverage, non-existent adult boosters, weak case based surveillance and persistence of multiple foci, there is a heightened risk of re-emergence of the disease in epidemic forms in India. Investigating each outbreak to understand the epidemiology of the disease and its current status in the country is therefore necessary. Dhule a predominantly tribal and rural district in Northern Maharashtra has consistently recorded low vaccination coverages alongside sporaidic cases of diphtheria over the last years. Methods This study reports the findings of an onsite survey conducted to assess a recent outbreak of diphtheria in Dhule district and the response mounted to it. Secondary data regarding outbreak detection and response were obtained from the district surveillance office. Clinical data were extracted from hospital records of eleven lab confirmed cases including one death case. Frequency distributions were calculated for each identified clinical and non- clinical variable using Microsoft™ Excel® 2010. Results Our findings suggest a shift in the median age of disease to adolescents (10-15?years) without gender differences. Two cases (18%) reported disease despite immunization. Clinical symptoms included cough (82%), fever (73%), and throat congestion (64%). About 64% and 36% of the 11 confirmed cases presented with a well defined pseudomembrane and a tonsillar patch respectively. Drug resistance was observed in all three culture positive cases. One death occurred despite the administration of Anti-Diphtheric Serum in a partially immunized case (CFR 9%). Genotyping and toxigenicity of strain was not possible due to specimen contamination during transport as testing facilities were unavailable in the district. Conclusions The outbreak raises several concerns regarding the epidemiology of diphtheria in Dhule. The reason for shift in the median age despite consistently poor immunization coverage (below 50%) remains unclear. Concomitant efforts should now focus on improving and monitoring primary immunization and booster coverages across all age groups. Gradually introducing adult immunization at ten year intervals may become necessary to prevent future vulnerabilities. Laboratory networks for genotyping and toxigenicity testing are urgently mandated at district level given the endemicity of the disease in the surrounding region and its recent introduction in remote Dhule. Contingency funds with pre- agreements to obtain ADS and DT/Td vaccines at short notice and developing standard case management protocols at district level are necessary. Monitoring the disease, emerging strains and mutations, alongside drug resistance through robust and effective surveillance is a pragmatic way forward. PMID:23566309

  1. Falling chains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun Wa Wong; Kosuke Yasui

    2006-01-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a\\u000arigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied.\\u000aBecause their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling\\u000achains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain\\u000aa term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred

  2. Prevention Effects Moderate the Association of 5-HTTLPR and Youth Risk Behavior Initiation: Gene x Environment Hypotheses Tested via a Randomized Prevention Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Murry, Velma McBride

    2009-01-01

    A randomized prevention design was used to investigate a moderation effect in the association between a polymorphism in the "SCL6A4"("5HTT") gene at 5-HTTLPR and increases in youths' risk behavior initiation. Participation in the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program was hypothesized to attenuate the link between 5-HTTLPR status and risk…

  3. Evaluating chemical effects on mammary gland development: A critical need in disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Gwendolyn; Rudel, Ruthann; Schwarzman, Megan

    2015-07-01

    Although understanding the environmental factors that contribute to breast cancer could improve disease prevention, standard chemical testing protocols do not adequately evaluate chemicals' effects on breast development. Evidence suggests: (1) mammary gland (MG) development is a complex process that extends from gestation through fetal and neonatal growth, puberty, and pregnancy; (2) altered MG development can increase the risk of breast cancer and other adverse outcomes; and (3) chemical exposures during susceptible windows of development may alter the MG in ways that increase risk for later disease. Together, these highlight the need to better understand the complex relationship between exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and the alterations in MG morphology and gene expression that ultimately increase disease risk. Changing guideline toxicity testing studies to incorporate perinatal exposures and MG whole mounts would generate critical knowledge about the effects of EDCs on the MG and could ultimately inform disease prevention. PMID:25091782

  4. Effects of preventive family service coordination for parents with mental illnesses and their children, a RCT.

    PubMed

    Wansink, Henny J; Janssens, Jan M A M; Hoencamp, Erik; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Hosman, Clemens M H

    2015-06-01

    Children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) are at increased risk for developing psychiatric disorders, especially when parenting is compromised by multiple risk factors. Due to fragmented services, these families often do not get the support they need. Can coordination between services, as developed in the Preventive Basic Care Management (PBCM) program, improve parenting and prevent child behavioral problems? This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) compared the effectiveness of PBCM with a control condition. Ninety-nine outpatients of a community mental health center were randomized to intervention or control. Primary outcomes included parenting quality (assessed by the HOME instrument), parenting skills (parenting skills subscale of FFQ), and parenting stress (PDH). Secondary outcomes are child behavioral problems (SDQ). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after 9 and 18 months. Effects were analyzed by Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance. Most families were single-parent families belonging to ethnic minorities. The results of the first RCT on effects of PBCM suggest that this intervention is feasible and has a positive effect on parenting skills. There was no evidence for effects on the quality of parenting and parenting stress, nor preventive effects on child behavioral problems. Replication studies in other sites, with more power, including monitoring of the implementation quality and studying a broader palette of child outcomes are needed to confirm the positive effects of PBCM. Long-term prospective studies are needed to investigate if improved parenting skills lead to positive effects in the children in the long run. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25751176

  5. Effect of Childhood Obesity Prevention Programs on Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Li; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee F.; Segal, Jodi B.; Kim, Miyong T.; Wang, Youfa

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity are associated with elevated blood pressure (BP). However, little is known about how childhood obesity lifestyle prevention programs affect BP. We assessed the effects of childhood obesity prevention programs on BP in children in developed countries. Methods and Results We searched databases up to April 22, 2013 for relevant randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and natural experiments. Studies were included if they applied a diet and/or physical activity intervention(s) and were followed for ?1 year (or ? 6 months for school-based intervention studies); they were excluded if they targeted only overweight/obese subjects or those with a medical condition. In our meta-analysis, intervention effects were calculated for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) using weighted random effects models. Of the 23 included intervention studies (involving 18,925 participants), 21 involved a school setting. Our meta-analysis included 19 studies reporting on SBP and 18 on DBP. The pooled intervention effect was ?1.64 mmHg (95% CI: -2.56, ?0.71; P=0.001) for SBP and -1.44 mmHg (95% CI: ?2.28, ?0.60; P=0.001) for DBP. The combined diet and physical activity interventions led to a significantly greater reduction in both SBP and DBP than the diet-only or physical activity-only intervention. Thirteen interventions (46%) had a similar effect on both adiposity-related outcomes and BP; while 11 interventions (39%) showed a significant desirable effect on BP, but not on adiposity-related outcomes. Conclusions Obesity prevention programs have a moderate effect on reducing BP and those targeting at both diet and physical activity seem to be more effective. PMID:24552832

  6. Attitudes & effectiveness of professional programs for primary prevention of violence: exploratory validation of the PREVENT primary prevention of violence self-assessment.

    PubMed

    Hollar, David; Fleming, Phyllis; Strazza, Karen; Runyan, Carol; Dawes Knight, Elizabeth; Villaveces, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The PREVENT (Preventing Violence through Education, Networking, and Technical Assistance) project trained violence practitioners across the USA in Primary Prevention of Violence techniques (PPV). The purpose of this study is to describe the development and psychometric properties of the subscales of the PREVENT PPV Self Assessment. Of 800 participants, 585 responded (73.1%). We analyzed the data using factor analyses, reliabilities and LISREL structural equation measurement models. The Perceived PPV Project Success subscale exhibited a one-factor structure (R2 = .534, X2/df = 1.28, p = .277, GFI = .99, NNFI = .99); PPV Self-Efficacy and Support showed a four-factor structure (R2 = .583, X2/df = 3.7, p = .00, GFI = .94, NNFI = .93); Perceived PPV Collaboration showed a three factor structure (R2 = .544, X2/df = 4.20, p = .00, GFI = .92, NNFI = .93); Anticipated Future PPV Work yielded a three-factor structure (R(2) = .656, X(2)/df = 4.76, p = .00, GFI = .94, NNFI = .91); and PPV Confidence a marginally acceptable two-factor structure (R2 = .759, X2/df = 11.1, p = .00, GFI = .95, NNFI = .99). Perceived PPV Project Success demonstrated very strong predictive validity (?2/df = 2.33, p = .0167, GFI = .984, RMSEA = .0585) of increased time devoted to PPV. These construct validated subscales represent a rich source of material for assessing professionals' attitudes and perseverance towards personal implementation of PPV. From these results, we recommend specific items from each subscale for further use by PPV trainers. PMID:23356657

  7. Distinguishing the causes of falls in humans using an array of wearable tri-axial accelerometers.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Omar; Park, Edward J; Mori, Greg; Robinovitch, Stephen N

    2014-01-01

    Falls are the number one cause of injury in older adults. Lack of objective evidence on the cause and circumstances of falls is often a barrier to effective prevention strategies. Previous studies have established the ability of wearable miniature inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes) to automatically detect falls, for the purpose of delivering medical assistance. In the current study, we extend the applications of this technology, by developing and evaluating the accuracy of wearable sensor systems for determining the cause of falls. Twelve young adults participated in experimental trials involving falls due to seven causes: slips, trips, fainting, and incorrect shifting/transfer of body weight while sitting down, standing up from sitting, reaching and turning. Features (means and variances) of acceleration data acquired from four tri-axial accelerometers during the falling trials were input to a linear discriminant analysis technique. Data from an array of three sensors (left ankle+right ankle+sternum) provided at least 83% sensitivity and 89% specificity in classifying falls due to slips, trips, and incorrect shift of body weight during sitting, reaching and turning. Classification of falls due to fainting and incorrect shift during rising was less successful across all sensor combinations. Furthermore, similar classification accuracy was observed with data from wearable sensors and a video-based motion analysis system. These results establish a basis for the development of sensor-based fall monitoring systems that provide information on the cause and circumstances of falls, to direct fall prevention strategies at a patient or population level. PMID:24148648

  8. Effect of sodium fluoride on the prevention of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Lems; W. G. Jacobs; J. W. J. Bijlsma; A. Croone; H. C. M. Haanen; H. H. M. L. Houben; M. I. Gerrits; H. J. M. van Rijn

    1997-01-01

    To investigate whether sodium fluoride (NaF) is able to prevent bone loss in patients treated with corticosteroids (Cs), we\\u000a performed a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial with 44 Cs-treated patients without established osteoporosis,\\u000a defined as the absence of previous peripheral fractures and vertebral deformities on radiographs. The effects of NaF (25 mg\\u000a twice daily) and placebo on the bone mineral density

  9. Preventive Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Pretreatment on Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Maghsoudi; A. Gol; S. Dabiri; A. Javadi

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The present study examined the preventive effect of ginger against renal ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury. Methods: 30 adultmale rats were used. The animals were allocated to five groups of 6 rats: (1) normal (N), (2) normal + ginger (N+G), (3) right nephrectomy (Sham), (4) I-R, and (5) I-R + ginger (I-R+G). To induce renal ischemia, animals were unilaterally nephrectomized and

  10. Copal Bone Cement Is More Effective in Preventing Biofilm Formation than Palacos RG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geert T. Ensing; Jim R. van Horn; Henny C. van der Mei; Henk J. Busscher; Daniëlle Neut

    2008-01-01

    Bone cements loaded with combinations of antibiotics are assumed more effective in preventing infection than bone cements\\u000a with gentamicin as a single drug. Moreover, loading with an additional antibiotic may increase interconnectivity between antibiotic\\u000a particles to enhance release. We hypothesize addition of clindamycin to a gentamicin-loaded cement yields higher antibiotic\\u000a release and causes larger inhibition zones against clinical isolates grown

  11. Effect of Ascitic Media Formed by Glycerin on the Prevention of Peritoneal Adhesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Aksoy; C. Vatansev; A. Tekin; A. Pamukcu; T. Küçükkartallar; H. Vatansev; H. Esen; N. Aksoy

    2009-01-01

    Aim: We aimed to investigate whether or not artificial ascites media formed using glycerin are effective in the prevention of intraperitoneal adhesions. Methods: Thirty-six Wistar albino male rats were used in the study. The rats were divided into 3 groups as follows. Group I: control group; group II (isotonic group): 3 ml of 0.9% NaCl was injected into the peritoneal

  12. [Prevention of neuro- and cardiotoxic side effects of tuberculosis chemotherapy with noopept].

    PubMed

    Mordyk, A V; Lysov, A V; Kondria, A V; Gol'dzon, M A; Khlebova, N V

    2009-01-01

    The study evaluated clinical efficiency of noopept used to prevent adverse side effects of antituberculous agents. It included 60 patients with newly diagnosed respiratory tuberculosis. Those in group 1 (n = 30) received 10 mg of noopept twice daily during the first month. The treatment promoted functional normalization of vegetative nervous system and antioxidative systems, reduced manifestations of anxiety, decreased frequency of adverse neuro- and cardiotoxic responses to antituberculous drugs. PMID:19565831

  13. Effectiveness of School-Based Drug Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analysis of the Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy S. Tobler; Howard H. Stratton

    1997-01-01

    Effectiveness of different types of drug prevention programs was examined in a meta-analysis of 120 school-based programs (5th-12th) that evaluated success on self-reported drug use measures. Hypothesis tests using Weighted Least Squares regressions were conducted of an a priori classification scheme that was based on program content and its method of delivery. Two major types of programs were identified: Interactive

  14. Slow eye movement detection can prevent sleep-related accidents effectively in a simulated driving task.

    PubMed

    Shin, Duk; Sakai, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Yuji

    2011-09-01

    A delayed response caused by sleepiness can result in severe car accidents. Previous studies suggest that slow eye movement (SEM) is a sleep-onset index related to delayed response. This study was undertaken to verify that SEM detection is effective for preventing sleep-related accidents. We propose a real-time detection algorithm of SEM based on feature-extracted parameters of electrooculogram (EOG), i.e. amplitude and mean velocity of eye movement. In Experiment 1, 12 participants (33.5?±?7.3?years) performed an auditory detection task with EOG measurement to determine the threshold parameters of the proposed algorithm. Consequently, the valid threshold parameters were determined, respectively, as >5° and <30°?s(-1) . In Experiment 2, 11 participants (32.8?±?7.2?years) performed a simulated car-following task to verify that the SEM detection is effective for preventing sleep-related accidents. Accidents in the SEM condition were significantly more numerous than in the non-SEM condition (P?prevent sleep-related accidents effectively in this simulated driving task. PMID:21070424

  15. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a smoking prevention program based on the 'Life Skills Training' approach.

    PubMed

    Luna-Adame, María; Carrasco-Giménez, Tomás Jesús; Rueda-García, María Del Mar

    2013-08-01

    Our objective was to verify the effectiveness of a program based on the Life Skills Training approach with a greater extent than usual, not applied by teachers and a very high degree of reliability regarding the implementation of the expected content. Twenty-eight secondary schools in Granada (Spain) were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The students in the intervention group received 21 one-hour sessions in the first year and 12 one-hour sessions in the second year, whereas those in the control group received no health education or preventive sessions. Students completed questionnaires before and after the first year of sessions, before and after the second year, and at 1 year after the program. All five questionnaires were completed by 77% of the 1048 students initially enrolled in the study. The results suggest that the program had no preventive effects either immediately or at 1 year after its application. Application of the Life Skills Training approach does not appear to prevent the onset of smoking but may prove effective for avoiding escalation of the consumption levels of tobacco or other problematic drugs. PMID:23784075

  16. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in man. 1: Effect of stimulus rise-fall time and duration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecox, K.; Squires, N.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    Short latency (under 10 msec) evoked responses elicited by bursts of white noise were recorded from the scalp of human subjects. Response alterations produced by changes in the noise burst duration (on-time) inter-burst interval (off-time), and onset and offset shapes are reported and evaluated. The latency of the most prominent response component, wave V, was markedly delayed with increases in stimulus rise-time but was unaffected by changes in fall-time. The amplitude of wave V was insensitive to changes in signal rise-and-fall times, while increasing signal on-time produced smaller amplitude responses only for sufficiently short off-times. It is concluded that wave V of the human auditory brainstem evoked response is solely an onset response.

  17. Preventive Effect of Aspirin Eugenol Ester on Thrombosis in ?-Carrageenan-Induced Rat Tail Thrombosis Model

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Xi-Wang; Yang, Ya-Jun; Li, Jian-Yong; Mohamed, Isam; Liu, Guang-Rong; Zhang, Ji-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Based on the prodrug principle, aspirin eugenol ester (AEE) was synthesized, which can reduce the side effects of aspirin and eugenol. As a good candidate for new antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory medicine, it is essential to evaluate its preventive effect on thrombosis. Preventive effect of AEE was investigated in ?-carrageenan-induced rat tail thrombosis model. AEE suspension liquids were prepared in 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na). AEE was administrated at the dosage of 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg. Aspirin (20 mg/kg), eugenol (18 mg/kg) and 0.5% CMC-Na (30 mg/kg) were used as control drug. In order to compare the effects between AEE and its precursor, integration of aspirin and eugenol group (molar ratio 1:1) was also designed in the experiment. After drugs were administrated intragastrically for seven days, each rat was injected intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg BW ?-carrageen dissolved in physiological saline to induce thrombosis. The length of tail-thrombosis was measured at 24 and 48 hours. The blank group just was given physiological saline for seven days without ?-carrageenan administrated. The results indicated that AEE significantly not only reduced the average length of thrombus, PT values and FIB concentration, but also reduced the red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT) and platelet (PLT). The effects of AEE on platelet aggregation and anticoagulant in vitro showed that AEE could inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation as dose-dependence but no notable effect on blood clotting. From these results, it was concluded that AEE possessed positive effect on thrombosis prevention in vivo through the reduction of FIB, PLT, inhibition of platelet aggregation and the change of TT and PT values. PMID:26193677

  18. Lava Falls Rapid in Grand Canyon; effects of late Holocene debris flows on the Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Melis, Theodore S.; Griffiths, Peter G.; Elliott, John G.; Cerling, Thure E.; Poreda, Robert J.; Wise, Thomas W.; Pizzuto, James E.

    1999-01-01

    Lava Falls Rapid is the most formidable reach of whitewater on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and is one of the most famous rapids in the world. Debris flows in 1939, 1954, 1955, 1966, and 1995, as well as prehistoric events, completely changed flow through the rapid. Floods cleared out much of the increased constrictions, but releases from Glen Canyon Dam, including the 1996 controlled flood, are now required to remove the boulders deposited by the debris flows.

  19. The Effects of 10% Front Load Carriage on the Likelihood of Slips and Falls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sukwon KIM; Thurmon E. LOCKHART

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate if anterior load carriage would increase the likelihood of slips or falls while walking over a slippery floor surface. The study hypothesized that anterior load carriage may alter spatial-temporal characteristics, such as heel contact velocity, walking velocity (i.e., the whole body center-of-mass velocity), and step length, as well as friction demand

  20. CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY -MICROBIOLOGY Effective Fall 2012 College of the Environment & Life Sciences (CELS)

    E-print Network

    Rhode Island, University of

    Lab I 1 General Ed. (Cat. S, A, F or L) 3 Total credits: 14 Elective 3 Total credits: 16 Semester V General Ed. (Cat. S, A, F or L) 3 CHM226 Organic Chem Lab 2 General Ed. or Elective 3 General Ed. (Cat. S, A, F or L) 3 General Ed. (Cat. S, A, F or L) 3 Elective 3 Semester VII (Fall) Semester VIII (Spring

  1. Grass species and endophyte effects on survival and development of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Braman, S K; Duncan, R R; Engelke, M C; Hanna, W W; Hignight, K; Rush, D

    2002-04-01

    Grass selections including 10 zoysiagrasses, 18 paspalums, 34 Bermuda grasses, tall fescue, creeping red fescue, and perennial ryegrasses with and without endophyte were evaluated for potential resistance to fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), larvae. Laboratory evaluations assessed the degree of antibiosis among >70 grass lines to first-instar fall armvworms. When all parameters measured were considered, the trend in resistance to fall armyworm among endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) cool season grasses from greatest to least was: 'Dawson' E+ > APR 1234 > 'Dawson' E- > 'Rosalin' E+ > Lp 5425, 'Rosalin' E-, ATF 480 > 'Tulsa' or: E+ slender creeping red fescue > E+ turf- type perennial ryegrass > E- slender creeping red fescue > E+ forage-type perennial ryegrass > E- forage-type perennial ryegrasses, and E+ tall fescue > E- turf-type tall fescue. Among warm season grasses larval weight gain was reduced on all zoysiagrasses. Larval weight gain also was lower on the Bermuda grasses 'Tifsport', 'Tifgreen', 97-4, 97-14, 97-22, 97-28, 97-39, 97-40,97-54, 98-15, 98-30, and 98-45 than when larvae were fed 'Tulsa' tall fescue or the diet control. Only APR1234 and 'Dawson' creeping red fescue reduced larval survival to the same extent that was observed for zoysiagrasses. Survival on Bermuda grasses was least on 97-8. Seashore paspalums were only rarely less susceptible to fall armyworm than tall fescue, although pupal weights were consistently lower on 'Temple 1' and 'Sea Isle 1' paspalums than that on 'Tulsa' tall fescue. Genetic resistance to key grass pests can reduce insecticide use and simplify management of these cultivars. PMID:12020031

  2. Statin cost effectiveness in primary prevention: A systematic review of the recent cost-effectiveness literature in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The literature on the cost-effectiveness of statin drugs in primary prevention of coronary heart disease is complex. The objective of this study is to compare the disparate results of recent cost-effectiveness analyses of statins. Findings We conducted a systematic review of the literature on statin cost-effectiveness. The four studies that met inclusion criteria reported varying conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of statin treatment, without a clear consensus as to whether statins are cost-effective for primary prevention. However, after accounting for each study’s assumptions about statin costs, we found substantial agreement among the studies. Studies that assumed statins to be more expensive found them to be less cost-effective, and vice-versa. Furthermore, treatment of low-risk groups became cost-effective as statins became less expensive. Conclusions Drug price is the primary determinant of statin cost-effectiveness within a given risk group. As more statin drugs become generic, patients at low risk for coronary disease may be treated cost-effectively. Though many factors must be weighed in any medical decision, from a cost-effectiveness perspective, statins may now be considered an appropriate therapy for many patients at low risk for heart disease. PMID:22828389

  3. Effect of different preventive agents on bracket shear bond strength: in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effects of fluoride and CPP-ACP before bracket bonding on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets have been reported with contradicting results. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different preventive agents namely; casein phosphopeptide-amorphous-calcium-phosphate (CPP-ACP), fluoride-containing-CPP-ACP (CPP-ACPF) and 5% sodium fluoride (5% NaF), on the enamel-bracket shear bond strength (SBS) and to compare their effects when applied before or after acid-etching. Methods Human premolar teeth were randomly divided into seven groups (16 teeth per group) as follows: the control group, where no preventive agent was applied on the enamel and 6 experimental groups. Teeth in groups 1a, 2a, and 3a were treated with CPP-ACP paste, CPP-ACPF paste, and 5% NaF, respectively before acid-etching. Teeth in groups 1b, 2b and 3b were treated using the same preventive agents after acid-etching. The brackets were then bonded and the teeth were thermocycled. The brackets' SBS was measured and the adhesive remnant was assessed using adhesive remnant index (ARI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test were performed to compare the SBS among different groups. Chi-square test was used to evaluate differences in ARI scores between the groups. Results Enamel surface treatment with CPP-ACPF after acid-etching significantly increased SBS compared to the control and to its application before acid-etching (P?preventive agents were applied after acid-etching. Conclusion Brackets' SBS significantly increased when fluoride-containing-CPP-ACP was applied after acid-etching. PMID:24678892

  4. Pharmacologic regimens for knee osteoarthritis prevention: Can they be cost-effective?

    PubMed Central

    Losina, Elena; Burbine, Sara A.; Suter, Lisa G.; Hunter, David J.; Solomon, Daniel H.; Daigle, Meghan E.; Dervan, Elizabeth E.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We sought to determine the target populations and drug efficacy, toxicity, cost, and initiation age thresholds under which a pharmacologic regimen for knee osteoarthritis (OA) prevention could be cost-effective. Design We used the Osteoarthritis Policy (OAPol) Model, a validated state-transition simulation model of knee OA, to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of using disease modifying OA drugs (DMOADs) as prophylaxis for the disease. We assessed four cohorts at varying risk for developing OA: (1) no risk factors, (2) obese, (3) history of knee injury, and (4) high-risk (obese with history of knee injury). The base case DMOAD was initiated at age 50 with 40% efficacy in the first year, 5% failure per subsequent year, 0.22% major toxicity, and annual cost of $1,000. Outcomes included costs, quality-adjusted life expectancy, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Key parameters were varied in sensitivity analyses. Results For the high-risk cohort, base case prophylaxis increased quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) by 0.04 and lifetime costs by $4,600, and produced an ICER of $118,000 per QALY gained. ICERs >$150,000/QALY were observed when comparing the base case DMOAD to the standard of care in the knee injury only cohort; for the obese only and no risk factors cohorts, the base case DMOAD was less cost-effective than the standard of care. Regimens priced at $3,000 per year and higher demonstrated ICERs above cost-effectiveness thresholds consistent with current US standards. Conclusions The cost-effectiveness of DMOADs for OA prevention for persons at high risk for incident OA may be comparable to other accepted preventive therapies. PMID:24487044

  5. Effects of genetic variants previously associated with fasting glucose and insulin in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Florez, Jose C; Jablonski, Kathleen A; McAteer, Jarred B; Franks, Paul W; Mason, Clinton C; Mather, Kieren; Horton, Edward; Goldberg, Ronald; Dabelea, Dana; Kahn, Steven E; Arakaki, Richard F; Shuldiner, Alan R; Knowler, William C

    2012-01-01

    Common genetic variants have been recently associated with fasting glucose and insulin levels in white populations. Whether these associations replicate in pre-diabetes is not known. We extended these findings to the Diabetes Prevention Program, a clinical trial in which participants at high risk for diabetes were randomized to placebo, lifestyle modification or metformin for diabetes prevention. We genotyped previously reported polymorphisms (or their proxies) in/near G6PC2, MTNR1B, GCK, DGKB, GCKR, ADCY5, MADD, CRY2, ADRA2A, FADS1, PROX1, SLC2A2, GLIS3, C2CD4B, IGF1, and IRS1 in 3,548 Diabetes Prevention Program participants. We analyzed variants for association with baseline glycemic traits, incident diabetes and their interaction with response to metformin or lifestyle intervention. We replicated associations with fasting glucose at MTNR1B (P<0.001), G6PC2 (P = 0.002) and GCKR (P = 0.001). We noted impaired ?-cell function in carriers of glucose-raising alleles at MTNR1B (P<0.001), and an increase in the insulinogenic index for the glucose-raising allele at G6PC2 (P<0.001). The association of MTNR1B with fasting glucose and impaired ?-cell function persisted at 1 year despite adjustment for the baseline trait, indicating a sustained deleterious effect at this locus. We also replicated the association of MADD with fasting proinsulin levels (P<0.001). We detected no significant impact of these variants on diabetes incidence or interaction with preventive interventions. The association of several polymorphisms with quantitative glycemic traits is replicated in a cohort of high-risk persons. These variants do not have a detectable impact on diabetes incidence or response to metformin or lifestyle modification in the Diabetes Prevention Program. PMID:22984506

  6. [Current aspects of ototoxicity : Local ototoxic effects, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment].

    PubMed

    Walther, L E; Hülse, R; Lauer, K; Wenzel, A

    2015-05-01

    The otorhinolaryngologist is often involved in an interdisciplinary approach to diagnose ototoxic side effects. Under certain conditions, chemical agents-particularly drugs-can have ototoxic effects. This is not only true for systemic administration, but also for local application (e.g., transdermal and transtympanal). Identifying and avoiding ototoxicity is still a challenge in clinical practice. The audiological monitoring of patients receiving potentially cochleotoxic drugs is now standardized. For diagnosis of suspected vestibulotoxic effects, the video head impulse test and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials seem to be suitable procedures for objective assessment. The early detection of such ototoxic effects has important implications for the prevention of hearing and balance disorders. Recent studies show that intratympanic delivery of medications might play an important role in the limitation of ototoxically induced hearing loss. In peripheral vestibulopathies with episodic vertigo, which strongly affect quality of life, ototoxic effects can be used for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25645652

  7. Preventive effect of phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis on alloxan-injured mice.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yu; Lin, Lin; Pan, Qin; Yang, Xuegan; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2012-11-01

    The preventive effect of phycocyanin (obtained from Spirulina platensis) on alloxan-injured mice is investigated. Oral administration of phycocyanin was started two weeks before an alloxan injury and continued until four weeks later. Tests resulted in the following positive results of oral phycocyanin administration on alloxan-injured mice: decrease fasting blood glucose and glycosylated serum protein (GSP); maintain total antioxidative capability (T-AOC); avert malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in the liver, kidney, and pancreas; decrease total cholesterol (TC) level and triglycerides (TG) level in serum and liver; increase the levels of hepatic glycogen level; maintain glucokinase (GK) expression in the liver and decrease p53 expression in the pancreas at mRNA level. The histological observations also supported the above results. Acute toxicity study further shows that phycocyanin is relatively safe. These results led to the conclusion that phycocyanin has significant preventive effect on alloxan-injured mice. The inhibition of p53 pathway could be one of the mechanisms that led to the protection of pancreatic islets from alloxan injury. We also proposed that GK expression that functions to promote liver glycogen synthesis could be the reason for reduced blood glucose level. The encouraging results are the first step in studying the potential of phycocyanin as a clinical measure in preventing diabetes. PMID:23121873

  8. Preventive Effects of Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis var. Assamica) on Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Yong; Park, Yong Hyun; Kim, Bong Sub; Seo, Su Yeon; Jeong, Byong Chang; Kim, Jung-In

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of Camellia sinensis var. assamica (CSVA) on diabetic nephropathy in in vitro and in vivo models. Materials and Methods MDCK cells were incubated with 1 mM of oxalate with or without different concentrations of CSVA, then MTT and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays were performed to investigate the preventive effects of CSVA on oxalate-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. Thirty male db/db mice were divided into three groups. Group 1 were fed AIN-93G ad libitum; group 2 were fed AIN-93G mixed with 10% fermented CSVA ad libitum; group 3 were fed AIN-93G mixed with 10% non-fermented CSVA ad libitum. The mice were sacrificed 14 weeks later, and the serum glucose level, 24-hour urine chemistry, and morphological changes in the kidneys were examined. Results As CSVA concentrations increased, viable MDCK cells increased in concentration. MDA production decreased over time in the CSVA treated group. The creatinine clearance of group 3 was lower than those of groups 1 and 2. The amount of urine microalbumin and protein in group 1 were higher than those in groups 2 and 3. Also, more glomerulus basement membrane foot processes were preserved in groups 2 and 3. Conclusion In conclusion, CSVA has beneficial preventive tendencies towards diabetic nephropathy in both in vitro and in vivo models. PMID:22187244

  9. Dexamethasone Treatment Prevents the Inhibitory Effect of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone on Gonadotropin Release in the Primate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Gindoff; Ennian Xiao; Johannes Luckhaus; Michel Ferin

    1989-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) has been shown to inhibit gonadotropin secretion and this effect is mediated by endogenous opioid peptides, presumably stimulated by CRH. Since glucocorticoids are known to block the CRH-induced ACTH response, it can be hypothesized that by concurrently preventing endogenous opioid peptide release, they would also prevent the inhibitory action of CRH on gonadotropin secretion. We tested this

  10. Translating an Effective Group-Based HIV Prevention Program to a Program Delivered Primarily by a Computer: Methods and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, Josefina J.; Kuhn, Tamara; Solomon, Julie; Benner, Tabitha A.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe development of SAHARA (SiSTAS Accessing HIV/AIDS Resources At-a-click), an innovative HIV prevention program that uses a computer to deliver an updated version of SiSTA, a widely used, effective group-level HIV prevention intervention for African American women ages 18-29. Fidelity to SiSTA's core components was achieved using: (1)…

  11. Commentary on Foubert, Godin, & Tatum (2010): The Evolution of Sexual Violence Prevention and the Urgency for Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp, Andra Teten; DeGue, Sarah; Lang, Karen; Valle, Linda Anne; Massetti, Greta; Holt, Melissa; Matjasko, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Foubert, Godin, and Tatum describe qualitative effects among college men of The Men's Program, a one-session sexual violence prevention program. This article and the program it describes are representative of many sexual violence prevention programs that are in practice and provide an opportunity for a brief discussion of the development and…

  12. Design of the Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS): A randomized clinical trial assessing the effect of a chlorhexidine dental coating for the prevention of adult caries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the primary causes of tooth loss among adults. It is estimated to affect a majority of Americans aged 55 and older, with a disproportionately higher burden in disadvantaged populations. Although a number of treatments are currently in use for caries prevention in adults, evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness is limited. Methods/Design The Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS) is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a chlorhexidine (10% w/v) dental coating in preventing adult caries. Participants (n = 983) were recruited from four different dental delivery systems serving four diverse communities, including one American Indian population, and were randomized to receive either chlorhexidine or a placebo treatment. The primary outcome is the net caries increment (including non-cavitated lesions) from baseline to 13 months of follow-up. A cost-effectiveness analysis also will be considered. Discussion This new dental treatment, if efficacious and approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), would become a new in-office, anti-microbial agent for the prevention of adult caries in the United States. Trial Registration Number NCT00357877 PMID:20923557

  13. The effect of food portion sizes on the obesity prevention using system dynamics modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zulkepli, Jafri Hj; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-09-01

    The rise in income and population growth have increased the demand for food and induced changes in food habits, food purchasing and consumption patterns in Malaysia. With this transition, one of the plausible causes of weight gain and obesity is the frequent consumption of outside food which is synonymous with bigger portion size. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop a system dynamics model to analyse the effect of reducing food portion size on weight and obesity prevention. This study combines the different strands of knowledge comprise of nutrition, physical activity and body metabolism. These elements are synthesized into a system dynamics model called SIMULObese. Findings from this study suggested that changes in eating behavior should not emphasize only on limiting the food portion size consumption. The efforts should also consider other eating events such as controlling the meal frequency and limiting intake of high-calorie food in developing guidelines to prevent obesity.

  14. Mediators of effects of a selective family-focused violence prevention approach for middle school students.

    PubMed

    2012-02-01

    This study examined how parenting and family characteristics targeted in a selective prevention program mediated effects on key youth proximal outcomes related to violence perpetration. The selective intervention was evaluated within the context of a multi-site trial involving random assignment of 37 schools to four conditions: a universal intervention composed of a student social-cognitive curriculum and teacher training, a selective family-focused intervention with a subset of high-risk students, a condition combining these two interventions, and a no-intervention control condition. Two cohorts of sixth-grade students (total N?=?1,062) exhibiting high levels of aggression and social influence were the sample for this study. Analyses of pre-post change compared to controls using intent-to-treat analyses found no significant effects. However, estimates incorporating participation of those assigned to the intervention and predicted participation among those not assigned revealed significant positive effects on student aggression, use of aggressive strategies for conflict management, and parental estimation of student's valuing of achievement. Findings also indicated intervention effects on two targeted family processes: discipline practices and family cohesion. Mediation analyses found evidence that change in these processes mediated effects on some outcomes, notably aggressive behavior and valuing of school achievement. Results support the notion that changing parenting practices and the quality of family relationships can prevent the escalation in aggression and maintain positive school engagement for high-risk youth. PMID:21932067

  15. A systematic review of models used in cost-effectiveness analyses of preventing osteoporotic fractures.

    PubMed

    Si, L; Winzenberg, T M; Palmer, A J

    2014-01-01

    This review was aimed at the evolution of health economic models used in evaluations of clinical approaches aimed at preventing osteoporotic fractures. Models have improved, with medical continuance becoming increasingly recognized as a contributor to health and economic outcomes, as well as advancements in epidemiological data. Model-based health economic evaluation studies are increasingly used to investigate the cost-effectiveness of osteoporotic fracture preventions and treatments. The objective of this study was to carry out a systematic review of the evolution of health economic models used in the evaluation of osteoporotic fracture preventions. Electronic searches within MEDLINE and EMBASE were carried out using a predefined search strategy. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to select relevant studies. References listed of included studies were searched to identify any potential study that was not captured in our electronic search. Data on country, interventions, type of fracture prevention, evaluation perspective, type of model, time horizon, fracture sites, expressed costs, types of costs included, and effectiveness measurement were extracted. Seventy-four models were described in 104 publications, of which 69% were European. Earlier models focused mainly on hip, vertebral, and wrist fracture, but later models included multiple fracture sites (humerus, pelvis, tibia, and other fractures). Modeling techniques have evolved from simple decision trees, through deterministic Markov processes to individual patient simulation models accounting for uncertainty in multiple parameters. Treatment continuance has been increasingly taken into account in the models in the last decade. Models have evolved in their complexity and emphasis, with medical continuance becoming increasingly recognized as a contributor to health and economic outcomes. This evolution may be driven in part by the desire to capture all the important differentiating characteristics of medications under scrutiny, as well as the advancement in epidemiological data relevant to osteoporosis fractures. PMID:24154803

  16. Cost-effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) for averting anaemia in Gabon: a comparison between intention to treat and according to protocol analyses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Gabon, the impact of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) was not statistically significant on malaria reduction, but the impact on moderate anaemia was, with some differences between the intention to treat (ITT) and the according to protocol (ATP) trial analyses. Specifically, ATP was statistically significant, while ITT analysis was borderline. The main reason for the difference between ITT and ATP populations was migration. Methods This study estimates the cost-effectiveness of IPTi on the reduction of anaemia in Gabon, comparing results of the ITT and the ATP clinical trial analyses. Threshold analysis was conducted to identify when the intervention costs and protective efficacy of IPTi for the ATP cohort equalled the ITT cost-effectiveness ratio. Results Based on IPTi intervention costs, the cost per episode of moderate anaemia averted was US$12.88 (CI 95% 4.19, 30.48) using the ITT analysis and US$11.30 (CI 95% 4.56, 26.66) using the ATP analysis. In order for the ATP results to equal the cost-effectiveness of ITT, total ATP intervention costs should rise from 118.38 to 134 US$ ATP or the protective efficacy should fall from 27% to 18.1%. The uncertainty surrounding the cost-effectiveness ratio using ITT trial results was higher than using ATP results. Conclusions Migration implies great challenges in the organization of health interventions that require repeat visits in Gabon. This was apparent in the study as the cost-effectiveness of IPTp-SP worsened when drop out from the prevention was taken into account. Despite such challenges, IPTi was both inexpensive and efficacious in averting cases of moderate anaemia in infants. PMID:22004614

  17. Effects of perturbation-based slip training using a virtual reality environment on slip-induced falls.

    PubMed

    Parijat, Prakriti; Lockhart, Thurmon E; Liu, Jian

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to design and evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality training in improving recovery reactions and reducing fall frequency in older adults. Twenty-four older adults were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups (virtual reality training and control). Both groups underwent three sessions including baseline slip, training and transfer of training on slippery surface. Both groups experienced two slips, one during baseline and the other during the transfer of training trial. The training group underwent 12 simulated slips using a visual perturbation induced by tilting a virtual reality scene while walking on the treadmill and the control group performed normal walking during the training session. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected during all the sessions. Results demonstrated a reduced incidence of falls in the training group during the transfer of training trial as compared to the control group. The training group was able to transfer reactive control strategies learned during training to the second slip trial. The reactive adjustments included reduced slip distance. Additionally, gait parameters reflective of gait instability (stride length, step width, variability in stride velocity) reduced after walking in the VR environment for 15-20 min. The results indicated a beneficial effect of the virtual reality training in reducing slip severity and recovery kinematics in healthy older adults. PMID:25245221

  18. Comparative effectiveness of long term drug treatment strategies to prevent asthma exacerbations: network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the comparative effectiveness and safety of current maintenance strategies in preventing exacerbations of asthma. Design Systematic review and network meta-analysis using Bayesian statistics. Data sources Cochrane systematic reviews on chronic asthma, complemented by an updated search when appropriate. Eligibility criteria Trials of adults with asthma randomised to maintenance treatments of at least 24 weeks duration and that reported on asthma exacerbations in full text. Low dose inhaled corticosteroid treatment was the comparator strategy. The primary effectiveness outcome was the rate of severe exacerbations. The secondary outcome was the composite of moderate or severe exacerbations. The rate of withdrawal was analysed as a safety outcome. Results 64 trials with 59?622 patient years of follow-up comparing 15 strategies and placebo were included. For prevention of severe exacerbations, combined inhaled corticosteroids and long acting ? agonists as maintenance and reliever treatment and combined inhaled corticosteroids and long acting ? agonists in a fixed daily dose performed equally well and were ranked first for effectiveness. The rate ratios compared with low dose inhaled corticosteroids were 0.44 (95% credible interval 0.29 to 0.66) and 0.51 (0.35 to 0.77), respectively. Other combined strategies were not superior to inhaled corticosteroids and all single drug treatments were inferior to single low dose inhaled corticosteroids. Safety was best for conventional best (guideline based) practice and combined maintenance and reliever therapy. Conclusions Strategies with combined inhaled corticosteroids and long acting ? agonists are most effective and safe in preventing severe exacerbations of asthma, although some heterogeneity was observed in this network meta-analysis of full text reports. PMID:24919052

  19. Antiinflammatory Effect of Phytosterols in Experimental Murine Colitis Model: Prevention, Induction, Remission Study

    PubMed Central

    Aldini, Rita; Micucci, Matteo; Cevenini, Monica; Fato, Romana; Bergamini, Christian; Nanni, Cristina; Cont, Massimiliano; Camborata, Cecilia; Spinozzi, Silvia; Montagnani, Marco; Roda, Giulia; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Rosini, Francesca; Roda, Aldo; Mazzella, Giuseppe; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Phytosterols, besides hypocholesterolemic effect, present anti-inflammatory properties. Little information is available about their efficacy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Therefore, we have evaluated the effect of a mixture of phytosterols on prevention/induction/remission in a murine experimental model of colitis. Phytosterols were administered x os before, during and after colitis induction with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) in mice. Disease Activity Index (DAI), colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress in the intestinal tissue (ileum and colon) and gallbladder ileum and colon spontaneous and carbachol (CCh) induced motility, plasma lipids and plasma, liver and biliary bile acids (BA) were evaluated. A similar longitudinal study was performed in a DSS colitis control group. Mice treated with DSS developed severe colitis as shown by DAI, colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress. Both spontaneous and induced ileal and colonic motility were severely disturbed. The same was observed with gallbladder. DSS colitis resulted in an increase in plasma cholesterol, and a modification of the BA pattern. Phytosterols feeding did not prevent colitis onset but significantly reduced the severity of the disease and improved clinical and histological remission. It had strong antioxidant effects, almost restored colon, ileal and gallbladder motility. Plasmatic levels of cholesterol were also reduced. DSS induced a modification in the BA pattern consistent with an increase in the intestinal BA deconjugating bacteria, prevented by phytosterols. Phytosterols seem a potential nutraceutical tool for gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases, combining metabolic systematic and local anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25268769

  20. Antiinflammatory effect of phytosterols in experimental murine colitis model: prevention, induction, remission study.

    PubMed

    Aldini, Rita; Micucci, Matteo; Cevenini, Monica; Fato, Romana; Bergamini, Christian; Nanni, Cristina; Cont, Massimiliano; Camborata, Cecilia; Spinozzi, Silvia; Montagnani, Marco; Roda, Giulia; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Rosini, Francesca; Roda, Aldo; Mazzella, Giuseppe; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Phytosterols, besides hypocholesterolemic effect, present anti-inflammatory properties. Little information is available about their efficacy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Therefore, we have evaluated the effect of a mixture of phytosterols on prevention/induction/remission in a murine experimental model of colitis. Phytosterols were administered x os before, during and after colitis induction with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) in mice. Disease Activity Index (DAI), colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress in the intestinal tissue (ileum and colon) and gallbladder ileum and colon spontaneous and carbachol (CCh) induced motility, plasma lipids and plasma, liver and biliary bile acids (BA) were evaluated. A similar longitudinal study was performed in a DSS colitis control group. Mice treated with DSS developed severe colitis as shown by DAI, colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress. Both spontaneous and induced ileal and colonic motility were severely disturbed. The same was observed with gallbladder. DSS colitis resulted in an increase in plasma cholesterol, and a modification of the BA pattern. Phytosterols feeding did not prevent colitis onset but significantly reduced the severity of the disease and improved clinical and histological remission. It had strong antioxidant effects, almost restored colon, ileal and gallbladder motility. Plasmatic levels of cholesterol were also reduced. DSS induced a modification in the BA pattern consistent with an increase in the intestinal BA deconjugating bacteria, prevented by phytosterols. Phytosterols seem a potential nutraceutical tool for gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases, combining metabolic systematic and local anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25268769

  1. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Abernethy, Cary S.

    2004-09-24

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by PNNL that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall chinook salmon spawning areas. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The hydrologic regime during the 2002?2003 sampling period exhibited one of the lowest, most stable daily discharge patterns of any of the previous 12 water years. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small vertical hydraulic gradients at most sites, the results from the numerical modeling of riverbed pore water velocity and hyporheic zone temperatures suggested that there was significant vertical hydrologic exchange during all time periods. The combined results of temperature monitoring and numerical modeling indicate that only two sites were significantly affected by short-term (hourly to daily) large magnitude changes in discharge. Although the two sites exhibited acute flux reversals between river water and hyporheic water resulting from short-term large magnitude changes in discharge, these flux reversals had minimal effect on emergence timing estimates. Indeed, the emergence timing estimates at all sites was largely unaffected by the changes in river stage resulting from hydropower operations at Hells Canyon Dam. Our results indicate that the range of emergence timing estimates due to differences among the eggs from different females can be as large as or larger than the emergence timing estimates due to site differences (i.e., bed temperatures within and among sites). We conclude that during the 2002-2003 fall chinook salmon incubation period, hydropower operations of Hells Canyon Dam had an insignificant effect on fry emergence timing at the study sites. It appears that short-term (i.e., hourly to daily) manipulations of discharge from the Hells Canyon Complex during the incubation period would not substantially alter egg pocket incubation temperatures, and thus would not affect fry emergence timing at the study sites. However, the use of hydropower operational manipulations at the Hells Canyon Complex to accelerate egg incubation and fry emergence should not be ruled out on the basis of only one water year's worth of study. Further investigation of the incubation environment of Snake River fall chinook salmon is warranted based on the complexity of hyporheic zone characteristics and the variability of surface/subsurface interactions among dry, normal, and wet water years.

  2. Evaluation of preventive effects of colostrum against neonatal conjunctivitis: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Ghaemi, Sadigheh; Navaei, Parsa; Rahimirad, Shima; Behjati, Mohaddeseh; Kelishadi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neonatal conjunctivitis leads to several ocular consequences in the affected neonates such as blindness. Currently available therapeutic options include NaNO3, Gentamicin, Neomycin and so on, in which each of them has their own limitations. Regarding the immunologic content of colostrum and its safety and easy accessibility, we aimed to evaluate its preventive effects against neonatal conjunctivitis. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, conducted from November 2011 to July 2012, 300 preterm neonates, with culture negative eye swab, were enrolled and randomly assigned into three groups. The intervention group received two drops of colostrum. Control group received no treatment and other neonates were treated with topical Erythromycin ointment (0.5%). All neonates were followed for occurrence of clinical conjunctivitis for 28 days. Data analysis were performed by Chi-square test. Results: Our data demonstrate the beneficial preventive effects of Colostrum against neonatal conjunctivitis (P = 0.036). Conclusion: Colostrum is suggested as an alternative prophylactic option for antibiotics against neonatal conjunctivitis. As colostrum is easily accessible without cost, potential hazards and side effects, public education about its topical favorable effects is worthwhile. PMID:25077156

  3. Falling Feather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-12

    In this physics activity, learners recreate Galileo's famous experiment, in which he dropped a heavy weight and a light weight from the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa to show that both weights fall at the same acceleration. Learners prove that Galileo was correct by comparing how fast a feather and coin fall in a tube attached to a vacuum. Use this activity to help learners explore acceleration and terminal velocity as well as how air resistance plays a role in how fast things fall.

  4. [Protect employability: effects of prevention programs offered by the german pension scheme].

    PubMed

    Kittel, J; Fröhlich, S M; Heilmeyer, P; Olbrich, D; Karoff, M; Greitemann, B

    2014-08-01

    A pilot study was carried out in 4 medical rehabilitation centers to examine the practicability and effectiveness of preventive life-style interventions for employees with risk factors. The programs were developed in cooperation with the German pension scheme and employers. Selection criteria were risk factors as lack of physical activity, overweight, dorsal pain or job strain. The results demonstrate that preventive programs, which are conducted in addition to the normal working hours on the job, can be implemented successfully in rehabilitation units. The participation in the multimodal prevention program goes along with a stable reduction of risky health behavior: increased physical activity, stress coping, dietary change und weight reduction. The healthier life-style is reflected in an enhanced state of health and has also positive impact on the occupational field scale: The percentage of employees who believed to be able to work until their old-age pension, could be increased significantly (p<0.001) from 47% to 74%. Work-related risk behaviors like excessive demands on oneself were reduced and protective strategies were -developed. PMID:24399282

  5. Aspirin-induced small bowel injuries and the preventive effect of rebamipide

    PubMed Central

    Mizukami, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Kazunari; Abe, Takashi; Inoue, Kunimitsu; Uchida, Masahiro; Okimoto, Tadayoshi; Kodama, Masaaki; Fujioka, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the influence of taking low-dose aspirin for 4 wk on small intestinal complications and to examine the preventive effect of rebamipide. METHODS: This study was conducted as a single-center, randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study. Eleven healthy male subjects were enrolled. Each subject underwent video capsule endoscopy after 1 and 4 wk of taking aspirin and omeprazole, along with either rebamipide or placebo therapy. The primary endpoint was to evaluate small bowel damage in healthy subjects before and after taking low-dose aspirin for 4 wk. RESULTS: The number of subjects with mucosal breaks (defined as multiple erosions and/or ulcers) were 1 at 1 wk and 1 at 4 wk on the jejunum, and 6 at 1 wk (P = 0.0061) and 7 at 4 wk on the ileum (P = 0.0019). Rebamipide significantly prevented mucosal breaks on the ileum compared with the placebo group (P = 0.0173 at 1 wk and P = 0.0266 at 4 wk). CONCLUSION: Longer-term, low-dose aspirin administration induced damage in the small bowel. Rebamipide prevented this damage, and may be a candidate drug for treating aspirin-induced small bowel complications. PMID:22171147

  6. Beyond the Distinction Between Biomedical and Social Dimensions of HIV Prevention Through the Lens of a Social Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Kippax, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Developing effective HIV prevention requires that we move beyond the historical but problematic distinction between biomedical and social dimensions of HIV. The current claim that prevention has failed has led to a strong interest in the role of treatment as HIV prevention; however, the turn to “biomedical prevention,” “test and treat,” and “combination prevention” instances pervasive confusions about prevention. These confusions arise from a failure to realize that all HIV prevention interventions must engage with the everyday lives of people and be integrated into their social relations and social practices. We challenge the claim that prevention has failed (illustrating this with discussion of prevention in Australia, Uganda, and Zimbabwe). We explain the enduring appeal of misguided approaches to prevention by examining how 1996 can be seen as a pivotal moment in the history of the global response to HIV, a moment marked by the rise and fall of distinct biomedical and social narratives of HIV. PMID:22493997

  7. On the Mechanisms of Harmful Effects of Certain Medicinal Preparations on the Auditory Organ and Methods for Their Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakay, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    Various drugs are discussed and many references are mentioned. It was concluded that the development of methods of pharmacological prevention of the harmful effect of drugs on the auditory analyzor is a necessity.

  8. Preventive Treatments of Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Pregnancy: A Review of Their Effectiveness and Implications for Health System Strengthening

    PubMed Central

    Osungbade, Kayode O.; Oladunjoye, Adeolu O.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a review of effectiveness of preventive treatments of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy in developing countries and highlighted their constraints as well as interventions required to strengthen the health services. Methods. Literature from Pubmed (MEDLINE), AJOL, Google Scholar, and Cochrane database was reviewed. Results. Evidence-based preventive treatment options for iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy include prophylaxis iron supplements and food fortification with iron. Evidence abounds on their effectiveness in reducing the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy. However, these prospects are threatened by side effects of iron supplements, low utilization of maternal health service in developing countries, partial implementation of preventive treatments, and weak infrastructure and political commitment to implement mass fortification of local staple foods by national governments. Conclusion. Sustainability of effectiveness of preventive treatments of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy could be achieved if the identified threats are adequately addressed. PMID:22848829

  9. Height and surfacing as risk factors for injury in falls from playground equipment: a case-control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Chalmers; S. W. Marshall; J. D. Langley; M. J. Evans; C. R. Brunton; A. M. Kelly; A. F. Pickering

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Despite the widespread promotion of safety standards no epidemiological studies have adequately evaluated their effectiveness in preventing injury in falls from playground equipment. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the height and surfacing requirements of the New Zealand standard for playgrounds and playground equipment. SETTING: Early childhood education centres and schools in two major cities in the South Island

  10. [Effective, safe stroke prevention with novel oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation. Focus on dabigatran].

    PubMed

    Szapary, László; Fehér, Gergely; Bosnyák, Edit; Deli, Gabriella; Csécsei, Péter

    2013-05-30

    Non-valvular AF is the most common cardiac arrhytmia. Its incidence increases with age. AF is an independent risk factor for ischaemic stroke, representing a five times higher risk for it, associated with a high mortality rate. Beside AF, there are several other risk factors which influence the risk of stroke. Stroke risk calculator can be used to assess the risk of patient having a stroke. The most endangered group of patients with AF are those who have already suffered from cerebrovascular event. The only effective medication for prevention of stroke due to AF had been the application of vitamin K antagonists (VKA) which considerably decrease the rate of ischaemic event in a patient with AF providing that the INR is in the therapeutic range. VKA have several limitations of use in clinical practice and the fear of bleeding complications results an underusing of these drugs. Only 50% of all patients treated with VKA reaches the therapeutic range of INR. The breakthrough of prevention of stroke in recent years is undisputedly the coming out of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs, thrombin and Xa-factor inhibitors). Recent studies suggest that these novel drugs prove the same efficacy as VKA drugs, furthermore dabigatran in a dose of 2 x 150 mg or apixaban in 2 x 5 mg was statistically superior to warfarin in the prevention of stroke. NOACs have shown a large reduction in intracranial hemorrhage compared with warfarin. They are given as a fixed dose and do not require persistent monitoring making them much more convenient. NOACs at guidelines of European Society of Cardiology act as a preferable drugs in case of ischaemic stroke with AF Probably the extended use of NOACs in clinical practice will be the mainstream of stroke prevention in the future. PMID:23909016

  11. Bridalveil Fall

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    In this image, Bridalveil Fall can be seen from Tunnel View in Yosemite National Park. The waterfall is 617 ft (188 m) in height and is one of the most well-known of Yosemite National Park's waterfalls....

  12. Effect of surface geometry in steam absorption into a falling film of aqueous solution of LiBr

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyota, Masanori; Morioka, Itsuki; Ousaka, Akiharu [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-03-01

    Absorption chillers are becoming attractive since they do not use Freon gases which destroy the ozone layer and can be driven by heat. Improvement of the absorber is necessary to make absorption chillers compact. In this paper, heat-transfer surfaces which show maximum absorption performance are sought. Grooved pipes are known to be effective for promoting gas absorption into falling water. They are tested for water vapor absorption with four different groove depths as well as two different knurled surfaces. The pipe with the deepest groove shows enhancement of about 1.5--1.9 in the Reynolds number range of 200--500. The knurled surfaces are not effective for absorption, but they have better wettability at a lower flow rate and furthermore for higher knurl height, absorption increases at larger flow rates. Film thickness is measured by the contact probe method. The average film thickness curve has large undulation for deeper grooves but it is flat for the shallow grooves.

  13. The effectiveness of commonly used mouthwashes for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. J. Potting; R. J. Uitterhoeve; W. SCHOLTE OP REIMER; T. van Achterberg

    2006-01-01

    Daily chlorhexidine mouthwash is often recommended for preventing chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. Povidone-iodine, NaCl 0.9%, water salt soda solution and chamomile mouthwash are also recommended. However, the effectiveness of these mouthwashes is unclear. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of mouthwashes in preventing and ameliorating chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. Based on study quality, three out of five randomized

  14. Fish oil prevents oxidative stress and exerts sustained antiamnesic effect after global cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Bacarin, Cristiano Correia; de Sa-Nakanishi, Anacharis Babeto; Bracht, Adelar; Matsushita, Makoto; Previdelli, Isolde Santos; Mori, Marco Aurelio; de Oliveira, Rubia Maria Weffort; Milani, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Transient, global cerebral ischemia (TGCI) causes hippocampal/cortical damage and the persistent loss of welltrained, long-term memory (retrograde amnesia). Fish oil (FO), a rich source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, abolishes such amnesia in the absence of neurohistological protection. The present study investigated whether FO prevents ischemia-induced oxidative stress and whether such an action contributes to the lasting effect of FO on memory recovery. In a first experiment, FO was administered for 4 days prior to ischemia, and antioxidant status was subsequently measured after 24 h of reperfusion. In another experiment, naive rats were trained in an eight-arm radial maze until they achieved asymptotic performance and then subjected to TGCI. One group of rats received FO as in the first experiment (i.e., 4 days prior to ischemia), whereas another group received FO for 4 days prior to ischemia plus 6 days postischemia. Retrograde memory performance was assessed 2-5 weeks after ischemia. TGCI depleted the level of antioxidant enzymes and increased the amount of protein carbonylation, indicating oxidative damage. Fish oil reversed oxidative damage to control levels. The same treatment that attenuated oxidative stress after 24 h of reperfusion also prevented retrograde amnesia assessed several weeks later. This antiamnesic effect afforded by short preischemia treatment was comparable to 10 days of treatment but not as consistent. These data indicate that an antioxidant action in the hyperacute phase of ischemia/reperfusion may contribute to the long-term, antiamnesic effect of FO. PMID:25714977

  15. Implementation and process effects on prevention outcomes for middle school students.

    PubMed

    The Multisite Violence Prevention Project

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed 5 research questions about the role of implementation (dosage and fidelity) and process (alliance with the provider, and satisfaction/engagement with the intervention) characteristics in explaining effects on parenting characteristics targeted by a selective family-focused violence prevention program for high-risk, socially influential, middle school youth. The intervention was part of a multisite trial involving random assignment of 37 schools to 4 conditions: (a) a universal intervention composed of a student social-cognitive curriculum and teacher training, (b) this selective intervention, (c) a condition combining these two interventions, and (d) a no-intervention control condition. The present study uses data from 334 participating families who attended at least 1 intervention session at which process measures of alliance with the provider and satisfaction with the intervention were administered. Although parent and child alliance with the provider and satisfaction with the program increased over the course of the intervention, these process characteristics were not associated with higher levels of intervention attendance. Higher intervention dosage was associated with more positive change in the parenting characteristics targeted by the intervention. Process characteristics had mixed positive and negative effects that were limited to a single outcome. Within structured, manualized, family-focused preventive efforts, as contrasted with less structured therapeutic interventions, these findings suggest that monitoring and improving program dosage may have stronger effects on parenting practices than improving therapeutic alliance or engagement in the intervention. PMID:23845010

  16. Preventive effect of Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl. on activated carbon-induced constipation in mice

    PubMed Central

    WANG, RUI; SUN, PENG; ZHOU, YALIN; ZHAO, XIN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl. (D. candidum) on activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR mice. ICR mice were orally administered D. candidum for 9 days. Body weight, defecation status, gastrointestinal (GI) transit and defecation times, in addition to the levels of motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas), endothelin (ET), somatostatin (SS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in serum were used to evaluate the preventive effects of D. candidum on constipation. The laxative drug bisacodyl acted as a positive control. The time to the first defecation of a black stool for the normal, control, bisacodyl-treated (100 mg/kg), 200 and 400 mg/kg D. candidum-treated mice was 84, 202, 126, 161 and 142 min, respectively. Following the consumption of 200 and 400 mg/kg D. candidum or bisacodyl (100 mg/kg), the GI transit was reduced to 57.7, 74.6 and 90.2%, respectively, of the transit in normal mice. The serum levels of MTL, Gas, ET, AChE, SP and VIP were significantly increased and the serum levels of SS were reduced in the mice treated with D. candidum compared with those in the untreated control mice (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that D. candidum has preventive effects on constipation in mice, and a greater functional activity was observed when a higher concentration was administered. PMID:25574235

  17. Preventative antiinflammatory effect of potamogetonan, a pectin from the common pondweed Potamogeton natans L.

    PubMed

    Popov, Sergey V; Popova, Galina Yu; Paderin, Nikita M; Koval, Olga A; Ovodova, Raisa G; Ovodov, Yury S

    2007-07-01

    The pectic polysaccharide named potamogetonan (PN) was obtained using extraction of the leaves and stems of the common pondweed Potamogeton natans L. by an aqueous ammonium oxalate. The purified potamogetonan PN-300 was obtained using membrane ultrafiltration of PN and proved to be pectin with a molecular weight of 300 kDa. The capacity of potamogetonan PN-300 to prevent inflammation was assessed using a carrageenan paw edema test in mice. Oral administration of PN-300 24 h prior to induction of inflammation was found to reduce edema formation in a dose-related manner. The maximal effect of PN-300 was observed at 1 h after carrageenan injection (60% reduction of footpad swelling) and was comparable to that of indomethacin. The delayed edema (5 h) was less affected by pre-administration of PN-300 (33% reduction). PN-300 was found to improve the survival of mice subjected to a lethal dose of LPS. The anti-endotoxemic effect of PN-300 was shown to be mediated by decreased TNF-alpha and IL-1beta and increased IL-10 production.Thus, a pectin named potamogetonan PN-300 was isolated from P. natans and was shown to possess a preventive antiinflammatory effect following oral administration. PMID:17357977

  18. The Interaction of Social Networks and Child Obesity Prevention Program Effects: The Pathways Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hee-Sung; Valente, Thomas W.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Huh, Jimi; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective Social network analysis was used to examine whether peer influence from one’s social networks moderates obesity prevention program effects on obesity related behaviors: healthful behaviors and unhealthful ones. Design and Methods Participants included 557 children residing in Southern California. Survey assessed health promoting behaviors (i.e., physical activity at school, physical activity outside of school, and fruit and vegetable intake), as well as unhealthful ones (high calorie low nutrient intake and sedentary activity), and peer exposure calculated from social network nominations as indicators of peer influence. Multilevel models were conducted separately on outcomes predicted by program participation, peer exposure, and program participation by peer exposure. Results Results indicated that peer exposure was positively associated with one’s own behavior for both healthful and unhealthful behaviors. Program participation effects were moderated by peer influence, but only when unhealthful peer influence was present. Results suggest that peer influence can diminish or amplify prevention programs Conclusion Future interventions should consider peer-led components to promote healthful influence of peers on healthful and unhealthful behaviors, and programs should be mindful that their effects are moderated by social networks. PMID:24616241

  19. Examining the Protective Effects of Brand Equity in the keepin’ it REAL Substance Use Prevention Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Kyu; Hecht, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    While branding appears to be an effective health prevention strategy, it is less clear how successful brands have protective effects. To better understand the role of branding in health prevention and promotion, it is necessary to examine how the persuasive mechanisms of branding function in health campaigns (e.g., modeling socially desirable behaviors). Using a cross-sectional data (N = 709), the current study uncovered the mechanisms explaining branding’s effects on adolescent substance use in a school-based substance use intervention, keepin’ it REAL (kiR) curriculum. Consistent with our predictions, a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that kiR brand equity had a higher-order, multidimensional factor structure. In addition, a path analysis revealed that brand equity affected adolescent substance use directly and through the predicted social cognitive processes including refusal efficacy and resistance skills. Thus it is concluded that kiR brand equity serves as a protective factor for adolescent substance use. Practical implications, research limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:21512924

  20. Effects of the communities that care prevention system on youth reports of protective factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, B K Elizabeth; Gloppen, Kari M; Rhew, Isaac C; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David

    2015-07-01

    Many interventions seeking to reduce problem behaviors and promote healthy youth development target both risk and protective factors, yet few studies have examined the effect of preventive interventions on overall levels of protection community wide. In a community-randomized controlled trial, this study tested the effect of Communities That Care (CTC) on protective factors in 24 communities across seven states. Data on protective factors were collected from a panel of 4407 youths in CTC and control communities followed from grade 5 through grade 8. Hierarchical linear modeling compared mean levels of 15 protective factors derived from the social development model in CTC and control communities in grade 8, adjusted for individual and community characteristics and baseline levels of protective factors in grade 5. Global test statistics were calculated to examine effects on protection overall and by domain. Analyses across all protective factors found significantly higher levels of overall protection in CTC compared to control communities. Analyses by domain found significantly higher levels of protection in CTC than control communities in the community, school, and peer/individual domains, but not in the family domain. Significantly higher levels of opportunities for prosocial involvement in the community, recognition for prosocial involvement in school, interaction with prosocial peers, and social skills among CTC compared to control youth contributed to the overall and domain-specific results. This is consistent with CTC's theory of change, which posits that strengthening protective factors is a mechanism through which CTC prevents behavior problems. PMID:25366931

  1. Falling Asteroids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this game is to protect four cities from falling asteroids. To do this you must shoot them as they fall, either by clicking on the screen or by using a detonator (hitting the space bar) to destroy them all. You receive ten points for every surviving city at the end of each level. Cities are replaced every fifth level, but if all of your cities are destroyed, the game is over!

  2. The suicide prevention effect of lithium: more than 20 years of evidence-a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Lewitzka, U; Severus, E; Bauer, R; Ritter, P; Müller-Oerlinghausen, B; Bauer, M

    2015-12-01

    The management and treatment of patients with suicidal behavior is one of the most challenging tasks for health-care professionals. Patients with affective disorders are at high risk for suicidal behavior, therefore, should be a target for prevention. Numerous international studies of lithium use have documented anti-suicidal effects since the 1970s. Despite the unambiguous evidence of lithium's anti-suicidal effects and recommendations in national and international guidelines for its use in acute and maintenance therapy of affective disorders, the use of lithium is still underrepresented. The following article provides a comprehensive review of studies investigating the anti-suicidal effect of lithium in patients with affective disorders. PMID:26183461

  3. Diagnosis and Tests: Evaluating a Fall or Risk of Falling

    MedlinePLUS

    Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Falls Prevention › Diagnosis & Tests Font size A A A Print Share Glossary ... levels Detailed memory testing Physical therapy assessment A home safety evaluation. Updated: March 2012 Posted: March 2012 © 2015 Health in Aging. All rights reserved. Feedback • Site Map • Privacy Policy • ...

  4. Effect of External Use of Sesame Oil in the Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Phlebitis

    PubMed Central

    Nekuzad, Nilufar; Ashke Torab, Tahereh; Mojab, Faraz; Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Azadeh, Payam; Ehtejab, Gholamreza

    2012-01-01

    Intravenous chemotherapy is an important mean for the treatment of cancers. Infusion phlebitis (Ph) is a common and acute complication of chemotherapy. The frequency of Ph is about 70% in patients undergoing chemotherapeutic management. It can induce the pain, increase the risk of thrombophlebitis, lead to incomplete follow-up, and thereby, affect the patient’s health status. Respecting the great importance of these issues, it is essential to prevent Ph. This study conducted to determine the effect of external use of Sesame Oil (SO) in the prevention of Ph. Sixty patients with colon or rectum cancer, who admitted for chemotherapeutic management, enrolled in clinical trial and were randomly divided into two equal groups: Control and Intervention. Ten drops of SO was applied twice a day for 14 days externally in intervention group, whereas the control group received nothing. Incidence and grade of Ph was measured in both groups. Data was analyzed through independent t-test, ?2, Fisher’s exact test, Mann-Whitney, and Lagrange survival using SPSS 16. The incidence of Ph was 10% and 80% in intervention group and control group, respectively.There was a significant difference between two groups (p < 0.05). Ph was 8 times more frequent in control group (R R = 8; AR R = 70%). In addition, there was statistically significant difference between the grade and incidence of Ph with SO and control group (p < 0.05). According to these results, it seems that external use of SO is effective, safe and well-tolerated for prophylaxis from Ph. Therefore, it can be suggested as a selected prevention method for reducing the complication. PMID:24250538

  5. The 10-Year Cost-Effectiveness of Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin for Diabetes Prevention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and its Outcomes Study (DPPOS) demonstrated that either intensive lifestyle intervention or metformin could prevent type 2 diabetes in high-risk adults for at least 10 years after randomization. We report the 10-year within-trial cost-effectiveness of the interventions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data on resource utilization, cost, and quality of life were collected prospectively. Economic analyses were performed from health system and societal perspectives. RESULTS Over 10 years, the cumulative, undiscounted per capita direct medical costs of the interventions, as implemented during the DPP, were greater for lifestyle ($4,601) than metformin ($2,300) or placebo ($769). The cumulative direct medical costs of care outside the DPP/DPPOS were least for lifestyle ($24,563 lifestyle vs. $25,616 metformin vs. $27,468 placebo). The cumulative, combined total direct medical costs were greatest for lifestyle and least for metformin ($29,164 lifestyle vs. $27,915 metformin vs. $28,236 placebo). The cumulative quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) accrued over 10 years were greater for lifestyle (6.81) than metformin (6.69) or placebo (6.67). When costs and outcomes were discounted at 3%, lifestyle cost $10,037 per QALY, and metformin had slightly lower costs and nearly the same QALYs as placebo. CONCLUSIONS Over 10 years, from a payer perspective, lifestyle was cost-effective and metformin was marginally cost-saving compared with placebo. Investment in lifestyle and metformin interventions for diabetes prevention in high-risk adults provides good value for the money spent. PMID:22442395

  6. Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Preventing Postoperative Agitation in Children: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yusheng; Jiang, Xiaoqin; Luo, Linli; Luo, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Background Emergence agitation (EA) is one of the most common postoperative complications in children. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to assess the effect of dexmedetomidine for preventing postoperative agitation in children. Methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trails, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. Randomized controlled trials were included. The following outcome measures were evaluated: incidence of EA, number of patients requiring rescue, time to eye-open, time to extubation, time to discharge from the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Results We analyzed 19 trials (1608 patients) that met the inclusion criteria. Compared with placebo, intravenous dexmedetomidine significantly reduced the incidence of EA [risk ratio (RR) 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25–0.44, P<0.00001). Dexmedetomidine also decreased the incidence of severe pain (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.27–0.62, P<0.0001) and requirement of a rescue drug (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.18–0.53, P<0.0001). However, compared with placebo, dexmedetomidine increased the time to eye-open by 0.98 min (P = 0.01) and the time to PACU discharge by 4.63 min (P = 0.02). Dexmedetomidine was also compared with midazolam, propofol, ketamine, and fentanyl, among others. No significant difference was found in the incidence of EA for most of these comparisons, with the exception of fentanyl and propofol, where dexmedetomidine was more beneficial. Conclusions Dexmedetomidine was proved effective for preventing EA and for reducing severe pain and the requirement of rescue drugs. It slightly increased the time to eye-open and the time to PACU discharge. Dexmedetomidine was also more beneficial than propofol or fentanyl in preventing EA. PMID:25997021

  7. Effectiveness of an intervention for prevention and treatment of burnout in primary health care professionals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Burnout syndrome is an important health problem that affects many professionals and must be addressed globally, with both organizational measures and personal interventions. Burnout of health professionals can be prevented in order to avoid personal, familial, and social consequences, as well as repercussions for patients. Methods/design This work describes a protocol for a controlled, pragmatic, randomized clinical trial in 2 parallel groups: intervention and control. All health professionals from 7 health care centers will form the intervention group, and all health professionals from 7 different health care centers will form the control group. The intervention group will receive 16 hours of training at their work place. The Maslach's burnout inventory, the Cuestionario de Desgaste Profesional Médico or the Cuestionario de Desgaste Profesional de Enfermería, and the 28-item Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire, validated for our setting, will be used as measurement tools. Change in the average scores from the Maslach's burnout inventory emotional exhaustion scale will be compared between the intervention and control groups, measured as intention-to-treat, and the intervention will be considered effective if a minimum decrease of 20% is achieved. Discussion Due to the deleterious consequences of burnout syndrome for people suffering from it and for the organization where they work, it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of certain interventions for its prevention. Organizational measures are important for preventing burnout syndrome, but so is providing professionals with coping strategies, as this group intervention intends to do. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on June 10, 2013. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01870154. PMID:24237937

  8. Fall Incidence and Outcomes of Falls in a Prospective Study of Adults With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Stanmore, Emma K; Oldham, Jackie; Skelton, Dawn A; O'Neill, Terence; Pilling, Mark; Campbell, A John; Todd, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of falls and to investigate the consequences of falls in adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods A total of 559 community-dwelling adults with RA, ages 18–88 years (mean age 62 years, 69% women), participated in this prospective cohort study. After a detailed clinical assessment, patients were followed for 1 year, using monthly falls calendars and followup telephone calls. Followup took place in the participant's usual place of residence in the Northwest of England. Outcome measures included fall occurrence, reason for fall, type and severity of injuries, fractures, fall location, lie-times, use of health services, and functional ability. Results A total of 535 participants followed for 1 year had a total of 598 falls. Of these participants, 36.4% (95% confidence interval 32%–41%) reported falling during the 1-year followup period, with an incidence rate of 1,313 per 1,000 person-years at risk or 1.11 falls per person. Age and sex were not associated with falls. More than one-third of the falls were reportedly caused by hips, knees, or ankle joints “giving way.” More than half of all the falls resulted in moderate injuries, including head injuries (n = 27) and fractures (n = 26). Treatment by general practitioners or other health professionals was required for 15.0% of falls, and emergency services were required for 8.8% of falls. Conclusion These results indicate that adults with RA are at high risk of falls and fall-related injuries, fractures, and head injuries. Strategies to prevent falls in adults with RA must be prioritized to reduce falls, fall-related injuries, and fractures. PMID:23139011

  9. Effects of a coating resin containing S-PRG filler to prevent demineralization of root surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sai; Imazato, Satoshi; Chen, Ji-Hua; Mayanagi, Gen; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Ishimoto, Takuya; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a coating material containing the surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) filler to protect the root from demineralization in vitro. The proprietary coating resin containing the S-PRG filler (PRG Barrier Coat) was applied to human root dentin and immersed in acid buffer at pH 4.5 for 3 d. Demineralization was evaluated by micro-CT scanning and the dentin-material interface observed by scanning electron microscopy. The ability of the coating resin to modify acid production by Streptococcus mutans was investigated by monitoring pH using an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor pH electrode. Application of PRG Barrier Coat produced a coating layer with the thickness of approximately 200 µm and completely inhibited demineralization. The bacteria-induced pH fall at the material surface was significantly inhibited. We conclude that S-PRG fillercontaining coating resin may be an effective material for protecting exposed root from both chemical and biological challenges. PMID:23207194

  10. Alteration of the phenology of leaf senescence and fall in winter deciduous species by climate change: effects on nutrient proficiency.

    PubMed

    Estiarte, Marc; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Leaf senescence in winter deciduous species signals the transition from the active to the dormant stage. The purpose of leaf senescence is the recovery of nutrients before the leaves fall. Photoperiod and temperature are the main cues controlling leaf senescence in winter deciduous species, with water stress imposing an additional influence. Photoperiod exerts a strict control on leaf senescence at latitudes where winters are severe and temperature gains importance in the regulation as winters become less severe. On average, climatic warming will delay and drought will advance leaf senescence, but at varying degrees depending on the species. Warming and drought thus have opposite effects on the phenology of leaf senescence, and the impact of climate change will therefore depend on the relative importance of each factor in specific regions. Warming is not expected to have a strong impact on nutrient proficiency although a slower speed of leaf senescence induced by warming could facilitate a more efficient nutrient resorption. Nutrient resorption is less efficient when the leaves senesce prematurely as a consequence of water stress. The overall effects of climate change on nutrient resorption will depend on the contrasting effects of warming and drought. Changes in nutrient resorption and proficiency will impact production in the following year, at least in early spring, because the construction of new foliage relies almost exclusively on nutrients resorbed from foliage during the preceding leaf fall. Changes in the phenology of leaf senescence will thus impact carbon uptake, but also ecosystem nutrient cycling, especially if the changes are consequence of water stress. PMID:25384459

  11. Beneficial Effect of a Short-Acting NO Donor for the Prevention of Neointimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Charles G.; Najjar, Samer F.; Kapadia, Muneera R.; Murar, Jozef; Eng, Jason; Lyle, Brian; Aalami, Oliver O.; Jiang, Qun; Hrabie, Joseph A.; Saavedra, Joseph E.; Keefer, Larry K.; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-based therapies effectively inhibit neointimal hyperplasia in animal models of arterial injury and bypass grafting, but are not available clinically. We created a simple, effective, locally-applied NO-eluting therapy to prevent restenosis following vascular procedures. We investigated the efficacy of perivascular delivery of two different distinctly different diazeniumdiolate NO donors, 1-[2-(carboxylato)pyrrolidin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (PROLI/NO), (short half-life) and diazeniumdiolated poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN/NO), (long half-life), in powder or gel form (30% poloxamer 407), at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia using the rat carotid artery injury model. Two weeks post-injury, all of the NO-eluting therapies successfully reduced neointimal hyperplasia. However, most dramatically, PROLI/NO powder reduced intimal area by 91.2% (P<0.05) versus injury alone. PROLI/NO powder was noted to reduce the medial area (40.2% vs. injury alone, P<0.05), while other groups showed no such effect. Three days post-injury, each NO treatment group significantly reduced cellular proliferation. However, inflammatory markers revealed a distinct pattern: PAN/NO groups displayed increased leukocyte infiltration (P<0.05) whereas PROLI/NO groups displayed less macrophage infiltration (P<0.05). In conclusion, perivascular delivery of diazeniumdiolate NO donors in powder or gel form effectively inhibits neointimal hyperplasia. Application of short-acting PROLI/NO powder most effectively inhibited neointimal hyperplasia and inflammation and may represent a simple, clinically applicable NO-eluting therapy to prevent neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis following open vascular interventions. PMID:18045549

  12. Beneficial effect of a short-acting NO donor for the prevention of neointimal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Charles G; Najjar, Samer F; Kapadia, Muneera R; Murar, Jozef; Eng, Jason; Lyle, Brian; Aalami, Oliver O; Jiang, Qun; Hrabie, Joseph A; Saavedra, Joseph E; Keefer, Larry K; Kibbe, Melina R

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-based therapies effectively inhibit neointimal hyperplasia in animal models of arterial injury and bypass grafting, but are not available clinically. We created a simple, effective, locally applied NO-eluting therapy to prevent restenosis after vascular procedures. We investigated the efficacy of perivascular delivery of two distinctly different diazeniumdiolate NO donors, 1-[2-(carboxylato)pyrrolidin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (PROLI/NO) (short half-life) and diazeniumdiolated poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN/NO) (long half-life), in powder or gel form (30% poloxamer 407), at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia using the rat carotid artery injury model. Two weeks postinjury, all of the NO-eluting therapies successfully reduced neointimal hyperplasia. However, most dramatically, PROLI/NO powder reduced intimal area by 91.2% (p<0.05) versus injury alone. PROLI/NO powder was noted to reduce the medial area (40.2% vs injury alone, p<0.05), whereas other groups showed no such effect. Three days postinjury, each NO treatment group significantly reduced cellular proliferation. However, inflammatory markers revealed a distinct pattern: PAN/NO groups displayed increased leukocyte infiltration (p<0.05), whereas PROLI/NO groups displayed less macrophage infiltration (p<0.05). In conclusion, perivascular delivery of diazeniumdiolate NO donors in powder or gel form effectively inhibits neointimal hyperplasia. Application of short-acting PROLI/NO powder most effectively inhibited neointimal hyperplasia and inflammation and may represent a simple, clinically applicable NO-eluting therapy to prevent neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis after open vascular interventions. PMID:18045549

  13. Pulses and lipaemia, short- and long-term effect: potential in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James W; Major, Amy W

    2002-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in most developed countries. Most CVD deaths are preventable through life-style measures such as diet, exercise and avoidance of cigarette smoking. Decreased intake of saturated fat and cholesterol and increased intake of cholesterol-reducing foods, such as pulses, deserve a high priority for activities designed to prevent CVD. Epidemiological and observational studies indicate that habitual intakes of large amounts of dietary fibre or of vegetables are associated with significantly lower rates of CVD. Studies over four decades document the hypocholesterolaemic effect of pulses and soyabeans. We performed a meta-analysis of eleven clinical trials that examined the effects of pulses (not including soyabeans) on serum lipoproteins. Intake of non-soya pulses was associated with these changes: fasting serum cholesterol, -7.2 %, 95 % CI -5.8, -8.6 %; LDL-cholesterol, -6.2 %, 95 % CI -2.8, -9.5 %; HDL-cholesterol, +2.6 %, 95 % CI +6.3, -1.0 %; triacylglycerols, -16.6 %, 95 % CI -11.8 %, -21.5 %; and body weight, -0.9 %, 95 % CI +2.2 %, -4.1 %. The hypocholesterolaemic effects of pulses appear related, in estimated order of importance, to these factors: soluble dietary fibre, vegetable protein, oligosaccharides, isoflavones, phospholipids and fatty acids, saponins and other factors. Intake of pulses may also reduce risk for CVD by favourable effects on blood pressure, glycaemia and risk for diabetes, and risk for obesity. Overall, the available evidence indicates that regular consumption of pulses may have important protective effects on risk for CVD. PMID:12498626

  14. Partnerships for the Design, Conduct, and Analysis of Effectiveness, and Implementation Research: Experiences of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C. Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard G.; Kaupert, Sheila; Muthén, Bengt O.; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Linda K.; Chamberlain, Patricia; PoVey, Craig L.; Cady, Rick; Valente, Thomas W.; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Prado, Guillermo J.; Pantin, Hilda M.; Gallo, Carlos G.; Szapocznik, José; Czaja, Sara J.; McManus, John W.

    2012-01-01

    What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research and especially how rigorous designs, including random assignment, get resolved through a partnership between community stakeholders, institutions, and researchers. These partnerships shape not only study design, but they determine the data that can be collected and how results and new methods are disseminated. We also examine a second type of partnership to improve the implementation of effective prevention programs into practice. We draw on social networks to studying partnership formation and function. The experience of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group, which itself is a networked partnership between scientists and methodologists, is highlighted. PMID:22160786

  15. Preventive effects of Moringa oleifera (Lam) on hyperlipidemia and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes in iron deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Ndong, Moussa; Uehara, Mariko; Katsumata, Shinichi; Sato, Shigeru; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2007-08-01

    The effects of Moringa oleifera (MO), Moringaceae on hyperlipidemia and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes caused by iron deficiency were investigated. Four-week-old male Wistar-strain rats were fed a control diet based on AIN-93G (C), an iron deficient diet (FeD), a FeD + 0.5% MO (FeD-m) diet, or a FeD + MO 1% (FeD-M) diet for 4 weeks. It was found that MO reduced iron-deficient diet-induced increases in serum and hepatic lipids with dose-dependent increases of serum quercetin and kaempherol, but did not prevent anemia. By electron microscopy, in iron deficient hepatocytes, slightly swollen mitochondria and few glycogen granules were observed, but glycogen granules increased and mitochondria were normalized by treatment with MO. Furthermore, lipoproteins were observed in the Golgi complex under treatment with MO. These results suggest a possible beneficial effect of MO in the prevention of hyperlipidemia and ultrastructural changes in hepatocytes due to iron-deficiency. PMID:17690476

  16. Synergistic effect of L-Carnosine and EGCG in the prevention of physiological brain aging.

    PubMed

    Davinelli, Sergio; Di Marco, Roberto; Bracale, Renata; Quattrone, Alessandro; Zella, Davide; Scapagnini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of multi-target action are well established in a variety of pathological models. Many dietary supplements and nutraceuticals may be useful to slow age-related cognitive declines and the risk of developing neurodegenerative disease. L-Carnosine and EGCG are natural compounds that have received particular attention because of their potential role in modulating oxidative stress associated with aging and chronic conditions. The biological activities of these naturally occurring substances have frequently been used to prevent or reduce senile features; however they have never been evaluated as a combined treatment. In the present study we investigated the combined effect of L-Carnosine and EGCG on the activation of two stress-responsive pathways: HO-1 and Hsp72 (the inducible form of Hsp70), which play an important role in cytoprotection against oxidative stress-induced cell damage. We demonstrated that the neuroprotective effects of EGCG and L-Carnosine are achieved through the modulation of HO-1/Hsp72 systems. Furthermore, the combined action of both compounds resulted in a synergistic increase of HO-1 expression which suggests a crosstalk between the HO-1 and the Hsp72-mediated pathways. Our results indicate that the combined administration of EGCG and L-Carnosine would benefit the treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases by reducing the neuronal damage caused by oxidative stress. PMID:23092324

  17. Hip-Hop to Health Jr. Obesity Prevention Effectiveness Trial: postintervention results.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Stolley, Melinda R; Schiffer, Linda A; Braunschweig, Carol L; Gomez, Sandra L; Van Horn, Linda; Dyer, Alan R

    2011-05-01

    The preschool years offer an opportunity to interrupt the trajectory toward obesity in black children. The Hip-Hop to Health Jr. Obesity Prevention Effectiveness Trial was a group-randomized controlled trial assessing the feasibility and effectiveness of a teacher-delivered weight control intervention for black preschool children. The 618 participating children were enrolled in 18 schools administered by the Chicago Public Schools. Children enrolled in the nine schools randomized to the intervention group received a 14-week weight control intervention delivered by their classroom teachers. Children in the nine control schools received a general health intervention. Height and weight, physical activity, screen time, and diet data were collected at baseline and postintervention. At postintervention, children in the intervention schools engaged in more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) than children in the control schools (difference between adjusted group means = 7.46 min/day, P = 0.02). Also, children in the intervention group had less total screen time (-27.8 min/day, P = 0.05). There were no significant differences in BMI, BMI Z score, or dietary intake. It is feasible to adapt an obesity prevention program to be taught by classroom teachers. The intervention showed positive influences on physical activity and screen time, but not on diet. Measuring diet and physical activity in preschool children remains a challenge, and interventions delivered by classroom teachers require both intensive initial training and ongoing individualized supervision. PMID:21193852

  18. Free radical scavengers are more effective than indomethacin in the prevention of experimentally induced heterotopic ossification.

    PubMed

    Vanden Bossche, L C; Van Maele, G; Wojtowicz, I; De Cock, K; Vertriest, S; De Muynck, M; Rimbaut, S; Vanderstraeten, G G

    2007-02-01

    The pathogenesis of heterotopic ossification is still unclear and the preventive therapies are usually insufficient. The present study was designed to investigate the possible preventive effect of free radical scavengers on the development of experimentally induced heterotopic ossification in a rabbit model and to compare free radical scavengers with indomethacin to determine whether they act synergistically. A standard immobilization-manipulation model was used to induce heterotopic ossification in the hind legs of 40 1-year-old female New Zealand albino rabbits. The animals were divided into four groups and received daily either placebo, a free radical scavenger cocktail [allopurinol and N-acetylcysteine (A/A)], indomethacin or the combination of A/A and indomethacin in a randomized double-blind fashion. Every 4 days an X-ray was taken and the thickness and length of new bone formation was measured at the thigh. A marked statistically significant difference was found between the four groups. In the groups that received A/A, either alone or combined with indomethacin, an inhibition of bone growth, both in thickness and in length was demonstrated. In this experimental model free radical scavengers had a superior inhibitory effect on heterotopic ossification than indomethacin. Free radicals could play an important role in the pathogenesis of heterotopic ossification. PMID:17106886

  19. The effects of two different incentives on recruitment rates of families into a prevention program.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, Nina

    2006-07-01

    This study experimentally manipulated two incentives for participation (monetary: paid participation for sessions and setting: group vs. individual) in a child behavior problem prevention program to analyze their effects on recruitment and retention of families. A population of 690 eligible families from 15 preschools located in socially disadvantaged neighborhoods was invited to participate in a parent training (PT) program. The study recruited parents by using advertisements that had information describing only the indicated condition (i.e., PT in group-unpaid, or PT individual-unpaid, or PT in group-paid, or PT individual-paid). Results demonstrate significant impact of payment on recruitment and initial attendance. Training setting alone (individual or group) did not significantly influence these rates. Editors' Strategic Implications: A compelling case is made for the utility of monetary incentives to increase proportions of low-income families in prevention research and programs. Evaluators and program designers should note the impressive use of the experimental design and hierarchical linear modeling to test the effects on recruitment. PMID:16802074

  20. Preventive Effect of Cecropia pachystachya Against Ketamine-Induced Manic Behavior and Oxidative Stress in Rats.

    PubMed

    Gazal, Marta; Kaufmann, Fernanda N; Acosta, Bruna A; Oliveira, Pathise Souto; Valente, Matheus R; Ortmann, Caroline Flach; Sturbelle, Régis; Lencina, Claiton L; Stefanello, Francieli M; Kaster, Manuella P; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Ghisleni, Gabriele

    2015-07-01

    Cecropia species are widely used in traditional medicine by its anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of the crude aqueous extract from Cecropia pachystachya leaves in a rat model of mania induced by ketamine. The results indicated that ketamine treatment (25 mg/kg i.p., for 8 days) induced hyperlocomotion in the open-field test and oxidative damage in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, evaluated by increased lipid peroxidation, carbonyl protein formation and decreased total thiol content. Moreover, ketamine treatment reduced the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in hippocampus. Pretreatment of rats with C. pachystachya aqueous extract (200 and 400 mg/kg p.o., for 14 days) or with lithium chloride (45 mg/kg p.o., for 14 days, used as a positive control) prevented both behavioral and pro-oxidant effects of ketamine. These findings suggest that C. pachystachya might be a useful tool for preventive intervention in bipolar disorder, reducing the episode relapse and the oxidative damage associated with the manic phase of this disorder . PMID:25998886

  1. Transfer effects of fall training on balance performance and spatiotemporal gait parameters in healthy community-dwelling older adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Roth, Ralf; Soltermann, Martin; Kressig, Reto W; Zahner, Lukas

    2014-07-01

    This study examined transfer effects of fall training on fear of falling (Falls Efficacy Scale-International [FES-I]), balance performance, and spatiotemporal gait characteristics in older adults. Eighteen community-dwelling older adults (ages 65-85) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The intervention group completed 12 training sessions (60 min, 6 weeks). During pre- and posttesting, we measured FES-I, balance performance (double limb, closed eyes; single limb, open eyes; double limb, open eyes with motor-interfered task), and gait parameters (e.g., velocity; cadence; stride time, stride width, and stride length; variability of stride time and stride length) under single- and motor-interfered tasks. Dual tasks were applied to appraise improvements of cognitive processing during balance and gait. FES-I (p = .33) and postural sway did not significantly change (0.36 < p < .79). Trends toward significant interaction effects were found for step width during normal walking and stride length variability during the motor dual task (p = .05, ?p 2 = .22). Fall training did not sufficiently improve fear of falling, balance, or gait performance under single- or dual-task conditions in healthy older adults. PMID:23881433

  2. High Structural Stability of Textile Implants Prevents Pore Collapse and Preserves Effective Porosity at Strain

    PubMed Central

    Klinge, Uwe; Otto, Jens; Mühl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Reinforcement of tissues by use of textiles is encouraged by the reduced rate of recurrent tissue dehiscence but for the price of an inflammatory and fibrotic tissue reaction to the implant. The latter mainly is affected by the size of the pores, whereas only sufficiently large pores are effective in preventing a complete scar entrapment. Comparing two different sling implants (TVT and SIS), which are used for the treatment of urinary incontinence, we can demonstrate that the measurement of the effective porosity reveals considerable differences in the textile construction. Furthermore the changes of porosity after application of a tensile load can indicate a structural instability, favouring pore collapse at stress and questioning the use for purposes that are not “tension-free.” PMID:25973427

  3. Complementary effects of nanosilver and superhydrophobic coatings on the prevention of marine bacterial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Yin, Bing; He, Tian; Guo, Na; Dong, Lihua; Yin, Yansheng

    2012-09-26

    A superhydrophobic coating composed of silver nanoparticles enclosed in multilayered polyelectrolyte films was deposited onto copper with the aim of preventing bacterial adhesion. Observations from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that the amplified exponential growth of the multilayers could induce distinguishable, hierarchical micro- and nanostructures simultaneously. This growth caused the surface roughness to amplify in a lotus-leaf-like manner. UV/visible spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the formation of well-dispersed Ag(0) nanoparticles (with sizes from 4-6 nm) in the films. SEM and fluorescence microscope images of the exposed surfaces revealed that the pattern of adhesion and the density of bacterial cells differed depending on the surface energy and the number of Ag(+) ions released during the various immersion time periods. The complementary effects of nanosilver and superhydrophobic coatings can help to effectively reduce bacterial adhesion and the formation of biofilms. PMID:22939431

  4. Effectiveness of school-based violence prevention for children and youth: a research report.

    PubMed

    Santos, Robert G; Chartier, Mariette J; Whalen, Jeanne C; Chateau, Dan; Boyd, Leanne

    2011-04-01

    Aggression, bullying and violence in children and youth are prevalent in Canada (18%) and internationally. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of Roots of Empathy (ROE), a school-based mental health promotion and violence prevention program for children that has been widely implemented but rarely evaluated. Eight school divisions were randomly assigned to either a treatment group that received ROE in 2002-2003 (445 students) or a wait-list control group (315 students). These were compared on three child mental health outcomes (physical aggression, indirect aggression and pro-social behaviour), rated by teachers and students (self-rated). The three wait-list school divisions received ROE in 2003-2004 (new cohort of 265 students) and were compared with the control group from 2002-2003 on the three outcomes, for replication purposes. For both comparisons, the authors report multi-level modelling analyses regarding (1) immediate effects after ROE completion at the end of the school year (pretest to post-test) and (2) long-term ROE effects up to three years after post-test. ROE had replicated, beneficial effects on all teacher-rated outcomes, which were generally maintained or further improved across follow-up. However, ROE had almost no statistically significant or replicated effects on student-rated outcomes. This is the first evaluation to suggest that ROE appears effective when implemented on a large scale under real-world delivery conditions. PMID:24956430

  5. Preventive effect of resistant starch on activated carbon-induced constipation in mice.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yu; Zhao, Xin; Kan, Jianquan

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistant starch (RS) on activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR mice. ICR mice were fed on diet containing 15% RS of type RS2, RS3 or RS4 for 9 days. Gastrointestinal transit, defecation time and intestinal tissue histopathological sections, as well as motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas), endothelin (ET), somatostatin (SS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) levels in serum were used to evaluate the preventive effects of RS on constipation. Bisacodyl, a laxative drug, was used as a positive control. The time to the first black stool defecation for normal, control, bisacodyl-treated (100 mg/kg, oral administration) and RS2-, RS3- and RS4-treated mice was 78, 208, 109, 181, 144 and 173 min, respectively. Following the consumption of RS2, RS3 and RS4 or the oral administration of bisacodyl (100 mg/kg), the gastrointestinal transit was reduced to 37.7, 52.1, 39.3 and 87.3%, respectively, of the transit in normal mice, respectively. Histopathological sections of intestinal tissue also underscored the protective effect of RS3. The serum levels of MTL, Gas, ET, AChE, SP and VIP were significantly increased and the serum levels of SS were reduced in the mice treated with RS compared with those in the untreated control mice (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that RS has preventive effects on mouse constipation and RS3 demonstrated the best functional activity. PMID:23935751

  6. The Preventive Effect of Dexmedetomidine Against Postoperative Intra-abdominal Adhesions in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kuru, Serdar; Bozkirli, Osman Bahadir; Barlas, Aziz Mutlu; Duymus, Mehmet Esat; Senes, Mehmet; Yumusak, Nihat; Yilmaz, Cevdet; Kismet, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the possible preventive effects of dexmedetomidine on postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions. Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective and potent ?2 adrenergic agonist with sedative, analgesic, anxiolytic, sympatholytic, hemodynamic, and diuretic properties. In recent years, investigations have shown that dexmedetomidine possesses secondary antioxidant and also anti-inflammatory effects. Thirty Wistar albino male rats were randomized and divided into 3 groups of 10 animals each: group 1, sham-operated; group 2, cecal abrasion + peritoneal dissection; group 3, cecal abrasion + peritoneal dissection followed by daily intravenous injection of 10 ?g/kg dexmedetomidine for 10 days. The animals were killed on postoperative day 21. Blood and cecal samples were taken for biochemical and histopathologic evaluation. In this study, biochemical and pathologic parameters were significantly better in the cecal abrasion + peritoneal dissection + dexmedetomidine group when compared with the cecal abrasion + peritoneal dissection group. Tissue malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, total sulfhydryl, and catalase were found to be significantly different between the cecal abrasion/peritoneal dissection + dexmedetomidine and the cecal abrasion/peritoneal dissection groups. Plasma malondialdehyde and total sulfhydryl values were also statistically different between these groups (P < 0.05). Statistical analyses of mean pathologic scores showed that the histopathologic damage in the cecal abrasion/peritoneal dissection + dexmedetomidine group was significantly less than the damage in the control group (P < 0.05 for all pathologic parameters). The results of this study show that dexmedetomidine had a significant preventive effect on postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions. We concluded that these effects might be due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:25594644

  7. Promote Health or Prevent Disease? The Effects of Health-Related Advertising on Eating Behavior Intention

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-01-01

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future. PMID:25826394

  8. Emollient enhancement of the skin barrier from birth offers effective atopic dermatitis prevention

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Eric L.; Chalmers, Joanne R.; Hanifin, Jon M.; Thomas, Kim S.; Cork, Michael J.; McLean, W.H. Irwin; Brown, Sara J.; Chen, Zunqiu; Chen, Yiyi; Williams, Hywel C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (atopic eczema) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that has reached epidemic proportions in children worldwide and is increasing in prevalence. Because of the significant socioeconomic effect of atopic dermatitis and its effect on the quality of life of children and families, there have been decades of research focused on disease prevention, with limited success. Recent advances in cutaneous biology suggest skin barrier defects might be key initiators of atopic dermatitis and possibly allergic sensitization. Objective Our objective was to test whether skin barrier enhancement from birth represents a feasible strategy for reducing the incidence of atopic dermatitis in high-risk neonates. Methods We performed a randomized controlled trial in the United States and United Kingdom of 124 neonates at high risk for atopic dermatitis. Parents in the intervention arm were instructed to apply full-body emollient therapy at least once per day starting within 3 weeks of birth. Parents in the control arm were asked to use no emollients. The primary feasibility outcome was the percentage of families willing to be randomized. The primary clinical outcome was the cumulative incidence of atopic dermatitis at 6 months, as assessed by a trained investigator. Results Forty-two percent of eligible families agreed to be randomized into the trial. All participating families in the intervention arm found the intervention acceptable. A statistically significant protective effect was found with the use of daily emollient on the cumulative incidence of atopic dermatitis with a relative risk reduction of 50% (relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28-0.9; P = .017). There were no emollient-related adverse events and no differences in adverse events between groups. Conclusion The results of this trial demonstrate that emollient therapy from birth represents a feasible, safe, and effective approach for atopic dermatitis prevention. If confirmed in larger trials, emollient therapy from birth would be a simple and low-cost intervention that could reduce the global burden of allergic diseases. PMID:25282563

  9. Cost-effectiveness of apixaban vs warfarin for secondary stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Easton, J. Donald; Johnston, S. Claiborne; Kim, Anthony S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the cost-effectiveness of apixaban vs warfarin for secondary stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: Using standard methods, we created a Markov decision model based on the estimated cost of apixaban and data from the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial and other trials of warfarin therapy for AF. We quantified the cost and quality-adjusted life expectancy resulting from apixaban 5 mg twice daily compared with those from warfarin therapy targeted to an international normalized ratio of 2–3. Our base case population was a cohort of 70-year-old patients with no contraindication to anticoagulation and a history of stroke or TIA from nonvalvular AF. Results: Warfarin therapy resulted in a quality-adjusted life expectancy of 3.91 years at a cost of $378,500. In comparison, treatment with apixaban led to a quality-adjusted life expectancy of 4.19 years at a cost of $381,700. Therefore, apixaban provided a gain of 0.28 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) at an additional cost of $3,200, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $11,400 per QALY. Our findings were robust in univariate sensitivity analyses varying model inputs across plausible ranges. In Monte Carlo analysis, apixaban was cost-effective in 62% of simulations using a threshold of $50,000 per QALY and 81% of simulations using a threshold of $100,000 per QALY. Conclusions: Apixaban appears to be cost-effective relative to warfarin for secondary stroke prevention in patients with AF, assuming that it is introduced at a price similar to that of dabigatran. PMID:22993279

  10. Preventive effects of lignan extract from flax hulls on experimentally induced benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Simons, Rudy; Verbruggen, Marian

    2014-06-01

    Consumption of diet rich in lignans may decrease the risk of some chronic hormonal conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigated whether a lignan-rich extract from flaxseed hulls, LinumLife EXTRA (LLE), could prevent BPH using the testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH rat model. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided into four groups of 12 rats each: a negative control group fed with control diet and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of corn oil without TP, and three groups fed with control diet (positive control), diet containing 0.5% LLE (LLE 0.5) or 1.0% LLE (LLE 1.0) and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of TP in corn oil. Treatments with diets started 2 weeks before the induction of BPH and were carried out for 5 consecutive weeks. The influence of TP and LLE on body weight (BW), food and water consumptions, and enterolactone (ENL) levels in serum and urine of rats was examined at the end of the 5-week treatment period. TP significantly diminished the mean body weight gain (MBWG) of positive control rats and their food and water consumptions while LLE reduced significantly this MBWG reduction in a dose-dependent manner. The lignan-rich extract significantly inhibited TP-induced prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat BW) increase in comparison with positive controls (P<.001). This effect was dose dependent. Higher serum and urine levels of ENL correlated well with the dose of extract provided to rats. It was concluded that the lignan-rich flaxseed hull extract prevented the TP-induced BPH indicating it might be beneficial in the prevention of BPH. PMID:24460407

  11. Mediation effects of a culturally generic substance use prevention program for Asian American adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examined the mediation effects of a family-based substance use prevention program on a sample of Asian American families. These families were randomized into an intervention arm or a non-intervention control arm. Using path models, we assessed the effect of the intervention on adolescent girls’ substance use outcomes at 2-year follow-up through family relationships and adolescent self-efficacy pathways. Bias-corrected bootstrapping strategy was employed to assess the significance of the mediation effect by evaluating the 95% confidence interval of the standardized coefficient. The results show that receiving the intervention exerted a positive effect on girls’ family relationships at 1-year follow-up. Such an improvement was associated with girls’ increased self-efficacy, which in turn led to girls’ decreased alcohol use, marijuana use, and future intention to use substances at 2-year follow-up. Considering the diverse cultural backgrounds, as well as languages, nationalities, and acculturation levels under the umbrella term “Asian Americans”, we demonstrate that a universal web-based intervention that tackles the theoretical- and empirical-based risk and protective factors can be effective for Asian Americans. Despite its generic nature, our program may provide relevant tools for Asian American parents in assisting their adolescent children to navigate through the developmental stage and ultimately, resist substance use. PMID:25505939

  12. The Effect of Garcin® in Preventing AntiTB-Induced Hepatitis in Newly Diagnosed Tuberculosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Tabarsi, Payam; Fahimi, Fanak; Heidarzadeh, Nader; Haghgoo, Roodabeh; Kazempour, Mehdi; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Adverse effects of antituberculosis agents such as hepatotoxicity may reduce treatment effectiveness, because they significantly contribute to nonadherence and eventually result in treatment failure, relapse or the emergence of drug resistance. Garlic is an ancient herbal substance, which its effectiveness on isoniazid and rifampicin-induced hepatic injury in animal models has been demonstrated (1). In the present study a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group clinical trial was designed to assess the effect(s) of garlic tablets (1000 mg daily) administered for two weeks orally. Fifty eight newly diagnosed, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients, with age ranges between 18-65 years old, were randomly allocated into two groups. Each patient received either garlic or placebo tablets for the first two weeks of tuberculosis treatment. Of total 58 patients, 31 received garlic tablets while 27 received placebo. No significant difference was found between the two groups regarding age, sex, nationality, smoking, underlying diseases and opium usage. During 8 weeks of anti-TB (antituberculosis) treatment, 8 (13.0%) patients developed drug-induced hepatotoxicity (DIH). Of them, 6 (75%) occurred in the first two weeks of treatment. Fifty percent of the patients who developed DIH were in garlic group. Results indicated no significant difference between groups in developing DIH (p=1.000). We could not show a significant role in preventing DIH by 1000 mg daily garlic administration. PMID:24711843

  13. Effects of a Potash Mine Roof Fall Observed in Nearby Monitoring Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlman, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    At approximately 5 AM on March 18, 2012, a significant collapse occurred in a potash mine near the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The US Geological Survey estimated the event to be magnitude 2.9. Two wells in the WIPP regional groundwater monitoring network experienced oscillatory water level fluctuations greater than 5 feet in response to the event. The changes in water level decayed slowly over several weeks following the event. The potash mine is located in the McNutt Potash zone of the Salado Formation, which is 1000-1400 feet below ground surface (BGS) near the location of the roof fall. The monitoring wells are completed in the semi-confined Culebra Dolomite member of the Rustler Formation, which is 375 feet BGS. The observed response is compared to published well responses to earthquakes and other seismic events. We explore the potential for using the event to characterize aquifer parameters. This research is funded by WIPP programs administered by the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the U.S Department of Energy. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000

  14. Effectiveness and implementation of an obesity prevention intervention: the HeLP-her Rural cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To impact on the obesity epidemic, interventions that prevent weight gain across populations are urgently needed. However, even the most efficacious interventions will have little impact on obesity prevention unless they are successfully implemented in diverse populations and settings. Implementation research takes isolated efficacy studies into practice and policy and is particularly important in obesity prevention where there is an urgent need to accelerate the evidence to practice cycle. Despite the recognised need, few obesity prevention interventions have been implemented in real life settings and to our knowledge rarely target rural communities. Methods Here we describe the rationale, design and implementation of a Healthy Lifestyle Program for women living in small rural communities (HeLP-her Rural). The primary goal of HeLP-her Rural is to prevent weight gain using a low intensity, self-management intervention. Six hundred women from 42 small rural communities in Australia will be randomised as clusters (n-21 control towns and n?=?21 intervention towns). A pragmatic randomised controlled trial methodology will test efficacy and a comprehensive mixed methods community evaluation and cost analysis will inform effectiveness and implementation of this novel prevention program. Discussion Implementing population interventions to prevent obesity is complex, costly and challenging. To address these barriers, evidence based interventions need to move beyond isolated efficacy trials and report outcomes related to effectiveness and implementation. Large pragmatic trials provide an opportunity to inform both effectiveness and implementation leading to potential for greater impact at the population level. Pragmatic trials should incorporate both effectiveness and implementation outcomes and a multidimensional methodology to inform scale-up to population level. The learnings from this trial will impact on the design and implementation of population obesity prevention strategies nationally and internationally. Trial registration ANZ clinical trial registry ACTRN12612000115831. Date of registration 24/01/2012 PMID:24930478

  15. Preventive Effect of Lactobacillus fermentum Zhao on Activated Carbon-Induced Constipation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Qian, Yu; Suo, Huayi; DU, Muying; Li, Guijie; Liu, Zhenhu; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus fermentum Zhao (LF-Zhao) on activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR mice. ICR mice were administered lactic acid bacteria by gavage for 9 d. Body weight, diet intake, drinking amount, stool status, gastrointestinal transit distance and stool time, in addition to motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas), endothelin (ET), somatostatin (SS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) levels in serum were monitored to evaluate the preventive effects of LF-Zhao on constipation. Bisacodyl, a laxative drug, was used as a positive control. Times to the first black stool for normal (untreated), control (no lactic acid bacteria treatment but activated carbon treated), bisacodyl-treated and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (LB), LF-Zhao (L) (low concentration of 1×10(8) CFU/mL)- and LF-Zhao (H) (high concentration of 1×10(9) CFU/mL)-treated mice induced by activated carbon were 90, 218, 117, 180, 169 and 156 min, respectively. Following the consumption of LB, LF-Zhao (L) and LF-Zhao (H) or the oral administration of bisacodyl, the gastrointestinal transit distances were reduced by 55.2%, 61.3%, 70.6% and 94.6%, respectively. The serum levels of MTL, Gas, ET, AChE, SP and VIP were significantly increased and the serum levels of SS were reduced in the mice treated with LF-Zhao compared with those in the control mice (p<0.05). These results demonstrated that lactic acid bacteria demonstrate preventive effects on mouse constipation and that LF-Zhao alleviated constipation symptoms better than LB. PMID:26052143

  16. Preventive effect of Lactobacillus fermentum Lee on activated carbon-induced constipation in mice

    PubMed Central

    QIAN, YU; SUO, HUAYI; DU, MUYING; ZHAO, XIN; LI, JIAN; LI, GUI-JIE; SONG, JIA-LI; LIU, ZHENHU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus fermentum Lee (LF-Lee) on activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR mice. ICR mice were orally administered lactic acid bacteria for nine days. Body weight, dietary and water intake, defecation status, gastrointestinal (GI) transit and defecation time, as well as levels of motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas), endothelin (ET), somatostatin (SS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in serum were measured to evaluate the preventive effects of LF-Lee on constipation. Bisacodyl, a laxative drug, was administered as a positive control. The time taken until the first defecation of a black stool for normal, control, bisacodyl- (100 mg/kg, oral administration), Lactobacillus bulgaricus (LB)-, LF-Lee low dose (L)- and LF-Lee high dose (H)-treated mice was 90, 218, 117, 180, 161 and 151 min, respectively. Following the consumption of LB, LF-Lee (L) or LF-Lee (H), or the oral administration of bisacodyl, the GI transit was reduced to 55.2, 65.8, 73.1 and 94.6%, respectively, of the transit in normal mice. The serum levels of MTL, Gas, ET, AChE, SP and VIP were significantly increased and those of SS were reduced in the mice treated with LF-Lee compared with those in the untreated control mice (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria have preventive effects on constipation in mice and that LF-Lee has superior functional activity. PMID:25452815

  17. Preventive effect of Lactobacillus fermentum Lee on activated carbon-induced constipation in mice.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yu; Suo, Huayi; DU, Muying; Zhao, Xin; Li, Jian; Li, Gui-Jie; Song, Jia-Li; Liu, Zhenhu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus fermentum Lee (LF-Lee) on activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR mice. ICR mice were orally administered lactic acid bacteria for nine days. Body weight, dietary and water intake, defecation status, gastrointestinal (GI) transit and defecation time, as well as levels of motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas), endothelin (ET), somatostatin (SS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in serum were measured to evaluate the preventive effects of LF-Lee on constipation. Bisacodyl, a laxative drug, was administered as a positive control. The time taken until the first defecation of a black stool for normal, control, bisacodyl- (100 mg/kg, oral administration), Lactobacillus bulgaricus (LB)-, LF-Lee low dose (L)- and LF-Lee high dose (H)-treated mice was 90, 218, 117, 180, 161 and 151 min, respectively. Following the consumption of LB, LF-Lee (L) or LF-Lee (H), or the oral administration of bisacodyl, the GI transit was reduced to 55.2, 65.8, 73.1 and 94.6%, respectively, of the transit in normal mice. The serum levels of MTL, Gas, ET, AChE, SP and VIP were significantly increased and those of SS were reduced in the mice treated with LF-Lee compared with those in the untreated control mice (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria have preventive effects on constipation in mice and that LF-Lee has superior functional activity. PMID:25452815

  18. Preventive Effect of Intrathecal Paracetamol on Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Murat; Sayar, Ilyas; Peker, Kemal; Gullu, Huriye; Yildiz, Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ischemic injury of the spinal cord during the surgical repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms might lead to paraplegia. Although a number of different mechanisms have been proposed, the exact cause of paraplegia has remained unknown, hampering the development of effective pharmacologic or other strategies for prevention of this condition. A number of studies suggested that cyclooxygenases (COX) contribute to neural breakdown; thus, COX inhibitors might reduce injury. Objectives: We aimed to assess the preventive effect of intrathecal (IT) pretreatment with paracetamol on spinal cord injury in a rat model. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed in Ataturk University Animal Research Laboratory Center, Erzurum, Turkey. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to three experimental groups (n = 6) to receive IT physiologic saline (controls), 50 µg of paracetamol, or 100 µg paracetamol one hour before induction of spinal cord ischemia. Six other rats were considered as the sham group. For the assessment of ischemic injury, motor functions of the hind limbs and histopathologic changes of the lumbar spinal cord were evaluated. Additional 20 rats were divided into two equal groups for the second part of the study where the survival rates were recorded in controls and in animals receiving 100 µg of paracetamol during the 28-day observation period. Results: Pretreatment with 100 µg of paracetamol resulted in a significant improvement in motor functions and histopathologic findings (P < 0.05). Despite a higher rate of survival in 100 µg of paracetamol group (70%) at day 28, the difference was not statistically significant in comparison with controls. Conclusions: Our results suggest a protective effect of pretreatment with IT paracetamol on ischemic spinal cord injury during thoracolumbar aortic aneurysm surgery. PMID:25763224

  19. Anti-Promoting Effects of Triterpenes Alone or Combined with Other Phytochemicals | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  20. Transgenerational effects of maternal high fat diet during pregnancy on breast ca | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  1. Chemoprotective effects of EPA and DHA on colonic adult stem cells | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  2. Effectiveness of Prophylactic Topical Treatments for Radiation Dermatitis | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  3. Immunomodulatory effects of arginine supplementation in colitis and colon cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  4. Identification of Mechanisms of Cannellini Bean Effects on Breast Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  5. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Cancer Stem Cells | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  6. Nsaid Effects on Clinical and Imaging Breast Biomarkers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  7. Curcuma Longa: epigenetic effects in prostate and colon cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  8. Effect of magnesium treatment on vitamin D resistance | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  9. Chemoprotective effects of natural products on colonic adult stem cells | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  10. (PQA1)The Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Effects of Aspirin on Colorectal Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  11. Green tea effects on gene expression in tobacco users | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  12. Prevention of disuse osteoporosis: Effect of sodium fluoride during five weeks of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Victor S.

    1987-01-01

    An attempt was made to modify factors which promote disuse osteoporosis and thereby prevent it from occurring. Since fluoride is currently used to enhance bone formation in the treatment of low turnover osteoporosis, it was hypothesized that if the fluoride ion was available over a long period of time that it would slow the demonstrated loss of calcium by inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. This study was used to determine whether oral medication with sodium F will modify or prevent 5 weeks of bed rest induced disuse osteoporosis, to determine the longitudinal effects of 5 weeks of bed rest on PTH, CT and calcitriol, to measure muscle volume changes and metabolic activity by magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy during prolonged bed rest, to measure changes in peak muscle strength and fatigability, and to measure bone turnover in bone biopsies. Subjects were studied during 1 week of equilibration, 4 weeks of control ambulation, 5 weeks of bed rest, and 1 week of reambulation.

  13. A randomized comparative effectiveness trial of using cable television to deliver diabetes prevention programming

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Ronald T; Sandy, Lewis G; Beauregard, Tom; Coblitz, Mark; Norton, Kristi L; Vojta, Deneen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the use and effectiveness of two “in-home” strategies for delivering diabetes prevention programming using cable television. Methods An individually randomized, two-arm intervention trial including adults with diabetes risk factors living in two US cities. Interventions involved a 16-session lifestyle intervention delivered via “video-on-demand” cable television, offered alone versus in combination with web-based lifestyle support tools. Repeated measures longitudinal linear regression with imputation of missing observations was used to compare changes in body weight. Results A total of 306 individuals were randomized and offered the interventions. After 5 months, 265 (87%) participants viewed at least 1, and 110 (36%) viewed ?9 of the video episodes. A total of 262 (86%) participants completed a 5-month weight measurement. In intention-to-treat analysis with imputation of missing observations, mean weight loss at 5 months for both treatment groups combined was 3.3% (95% CI 0.7-5.0%), regardless of intervention participation (with no differences between randomized groups (P?=?0.19)), and was 4.9% (95% CI 2.1-6.5%) for participants who viewed ?9 episodes. Conclusions In-home delivery of evidence-based diabetes prevention programming in a reality television format, offered with or without online behavioral support tools, can achieve modest weight losses consistent with past implementation studies of face-to-face programs using similar content. PMID:24740868

  14. On the analysis of effectiveness in mass application of mosquito repellent for dengue disease prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldila, D.; Soewono, E.; Nuraini, N.

    2012-05-01

    Dengue disease has been known as one of dangerous vector-borne diseases and become serious threat in many tropical countries. With no vaccine and antiviral available until nowadays, and frequent appearance of extraordinary dengue outbreaks, many governments are forced to declare national problem for dengue. At this moment, the only method available to prevent dengue disease transmission is to combat the disease-carrying mosquitoes as well as to reduce the contact between human and mosquitoes. The fast growing dengue transmission in many countries in recent years indicates that the mosquito control programs are far from successful. The use of mosquito repellent is one possible instrument which could be used as an effective mass treatment to prevent the dengue outbreak during endemic period. Here in this paper a Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (S-I-R) dengue transmission model with repellent mass treatment is being applied to portions of children and adult compartments. Analysis of the basic reproductive ratio (Ro) of the model is done. It is shown, with reasonable choices of portions of treated children and adults, in combination with reduction of mosquito population, the basic reproductive ratio can be significantly reduced and occurrence of endemic can be avoided. Numerical simulations are shown for various treatment scenarios.

  15. Effective Fall 2009 In order to register in the following math courses, a student must meet at least ONE of the placement criteria indicated for that course.

    E-print Network

    Long, Nicholas

    or higher(1,2) Elements of Calculus - Bus Apps 144 138 or 143 Intro to Probability and Statistics 220 21 500Effective Fall 2009 In order to register in the following math courses, a student must meet Mathematics in Society 110 19 500 230 38 39 63 (1) Intro to Math for Elem Teachers 127 19 500 230 38 39 63 (1

  16. UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE HEALTH SCIENCE CENTER SCHEDULE OF MAINTENANCE, TUITION AND FEES EFFECTIVE FALL 2013 (Fees shown are for One Semester Only) College of Pharmacy Memphis Year 14

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yan

    UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE HEALTH SCIENCE CENTER SCHEDULE OF MAINTENANCE, TUITION AND FEES EFFECTIVE FALL 2013 (Fees shown are for One Semester Only) College of Pharmacy Memphis Year 14 Hours Maintenance Insurance 1st Term Only for year 14 InState Total Outofstate Tuition Difference *Outof State Total 1

  17. UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE HEALTH SCIENCE CENTER SCHEDULE OF MAINTENANCE, TUITION AND FEES EFFECTIVE FALL 2011(Fees shown are for One Semester Only) College of Graduate Health Sciences

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yan

    UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE HEALTH SCIENCE CENTER SCHEDULE OF MAINTENANCE, TUITION AND FEES EFFECTIVE FALL 2011(Fees shown are for One Semester Only) College of Graduate Health Sciences Hours Maintenance-of-State Tuition Diff *Out-of- State Total 1 514 16 9 3 12 554 965 1519 2 1028 32 18 6 24 1108 1930 3038 3 1542 48

  18. UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE HEALTH SCIENCE CENTER SCHEDULE OF MAINTENANCE, TUITION AND FEES EFFECTIVE FALL 2014(Fees shown are for One Semester Only) College of Graduate Health Sciences

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yan

    UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE HEALTH SCIENCE CENTER SCHEDULE OF MAINTENANCE, TUITION AND FEES EFFECTIVE FALL 2014(Fees shown are for One Semester Only) College of Graduate Health Sciences Hours Maintenance-of- State Tuition Diff *Out-of- State Total 1 560 20 12 3 12 607 1054 1661 2 1120 40 24 6 24 1214 2108 3322

  19. UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE HEALTH SCIENCE CENTER SCHEDULE OF MAINTENANCE, TUITION AND FEES EFFECTIVE FALL 2013(Fees shown are for One Semester Only) College of Graduate Health Sciences

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yan

    UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE HEALTH SCIENCE CENTER SCHEDULE OF MAINTENANCE, TUITION AND FEES EFFECTIVE FALL 2013(Fees shown are for One Semester Only) College of Graduate Health Sciences Hours MaintenanceState Total Outof State Tuition Diff *Outof State Total 1 560 20 12 3 12 607 1054 1661 2 1120 40 24 6 24

  20. Determining a Cost Effective Sampling Technique Which Will Provide Estimates of the Number of Patrons Utilizing the Purdue General Library During the Fall Semester of 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolliver, Don L.; Lied, Terry R.

    A study examined the feasibility of developing a cost effective sampling technique which would estimate the mean number of patrons using the Purdue University General Library during one semester. The technique employed, called random sampling without replacement, meant that, from the total population of days in the Fall Semester, particular days…

  1. The Effects of Head Start on Children's Kindergarten Retention, Reading and Math Achievement in Fall Kindergarten--An Application of Propensity Score Method and Sensitivity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Nianbo

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), this paper applied optimal propensity score matching method to evaluate the effects of Head Start on children's kindergarten retention, reading and math achievement in fall kindergarten comparing with center-based care. Both parametric and nonparametric…

  2. Amelioration strategies fail to prevent tobacco smoke effects on neurodifferentiation: Nicotinic receptor blockade, antioxidants, methyl donors.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Skavicus, Samantha; Card, Jennifer; Levin, Edward D; Seidler, Frederic J

    2015-07-01

    Tobacco smoke exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. We used neuronotypic PC12 cells to evaluate the mechanisms by which tobacco smoke extract (TSE) affects neurodifferentiation. In undifferentiated cells, TSE impaired DNA synthesis and cell numbers to a much greater extent than nicotine alone; TSE also impaired cell viability to a small extent. In differentiating cells, TSE enhanced cell growth at the expense of cell numbers and promoted emergence of the dopaminergic phenotype. Nicotinic receptor blockade with mecamylamine was ineffective in preventing the adverse effects of TSE and actually enhanced the effect of TSE on the dopamine phenotype. A mixture of antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, N-acetyl-l-cysteine) provided partial protection against cell loss but also promoted loss of the cholinergic phenotype in response to TSE. Notably, the antioxidants themselves altered neurodifferentiation, reducing cell numbers and promoting the cholinergic phenotype at the expense of the dopaminergic phenotype, an effect that was most prominent for N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Treatment with methyl donors (vitamin B12, folic acid, choline) had no protectant effect and actually enhanced the cell loss evoked by TSE; they did have a minor, synergistic interaction with antioxidants protecting against TSE effects on growth. Thus, components of tobacco smoke perturb neurodifferentiation through mechanisms that cannot be attributed to the individual effects of nicotine, oxidative stress or interference with one-carbon metabolism. Consequently, attempted amelioration strategies may be partially effective at best, or, as seen here, can actually aggravate injury by interfering with normal developmental signals and/or by sensitizing cells to TSE effects on neurodifferentiation. PMID:25891525

  3. Quantification of the Probable Effects of Alternative In-River Harvest Regulations on Recovery of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon : Final Report March 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, Steven P.; Vigg, Steven

    1996-03-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify the probable effects that alternative strategies for managing in-river harvest would have on recovery of Snake River fall chinook salmon. This report presents the analysis of existing data to quantify the way in which various in-river harvest strategies catch Snake River bright (SRB) fall chinook. Because there has been disagreement among experts regarding the magnitude of in-river harvest impacts on Snake River fall chinook, the authors compared the results from using the following three different methods to estimate in-river harvest rates: (1) use of run reconstruction through stock accounting of escapement and landings data to estimate harvest rate of SRB chinook in Zone 6 alone; (2) use of Coded Wire Tag (CWT) recoveries of fall chinook from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in a cohort analysis to estimate age and sex specific harvest rates for Zone 6 and for below Bonneville Dam; (3) comparison of harvest rates estimated for SRB chinook by the above methods to those estimated by the same methods for Upriver Bright (URB) fall chinook.

  4. Moving From Efficacy to Effectiveness in Eating Disorders Prevention: The Sorority Body Image Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn Black Becker; Anna C. Ciao; Lisa M. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Although eating disorders prevention research has begun to produce programs with demonstrated efficacy, many such programs simply target individuals as opposed to engaging broader social systems (e.g., schools, sororities, athletic teams) as participant collaborators in eating disorders prevention. Yet, social systems ultimately will be responsible for the real-world delivery of eating disorder prevention programs, suggesting that an important issue has

  5. Occupational Stress, Safety, and Health: Conceptual Framework and Principles for Effective Prevention Interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara A. Israel; Elizabeth A. Baker; Linda M. Goldenhar; Catherine A. Heaney; Susan J. Schurman

    1996-01-01

    The authors present an overarching conceptual model of occupational stress, safety, and health, incorporating multiple factors from diverse disciplines. They examine specific implications of the model for the development of prevention interventions (e.g., context-specific interventions and primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention). They review prevention interventions and describe and analyze 4 case studies that address exposure to environmental, ergonomic, and psychosocial

  6. Effects of a Cognitive Dissonance-Based Eating Disorder Prevention Program Are Similar for Asian American, Hispanic, and White Participants

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Rosalía; Marchand, Erica; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study explored the effects of participating in a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program on changes in thin ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, and eating symptoms among White, Asian American, and Hispanic participants. Method Participants were (n = 394), 13 to 20-year-old adolescent girls and young women who reported being White (n = 311), Hispanic/Latina (n = 61), or Asian-American/Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 33). The current study used data drawn from the pre- and post assessments of an efficacy trial and an effectiveness trial of this eating disorder prevention program. Results The intervention reduced disordered eating behaviors and eating disorder risk factors for all three ethnic groups at post-intervention assessment; there was no evidence of significantly stronger effects in any particular ethnic group. Conclusion Results suggest that a cognitive dissonance-based prevention program for eating disorders may be equally effective for Asian American, Hispanic, and White adolescent women. PMID:18528871

  7. Global cancer patterns: causes and prevention.

    PubMed

    Vineis, Paolo; Wild, Christopher P

    2014-02-01

    Cancer is a global and growing, but not uniform, problem. An increasing proportion of the burden is falling on low-income and middle-income countries because of not only demographic change but also a transition in risk factors, whereby the consequences of the globalisation of economies and behaviours are adding to an existing burden of cancers of infectious origin. We argue that primary prevention is a particularly effective way to fight cancer, with between a third and a half of cancers being preventable on the basis of present knowledge of risk factors. Primary prevention has several advantages: the effectiveness could have benefits for people other than those directly targeted, avoidance of exposure to carcinogenic agents is likely to prevent other non-communicable diseases, and the cause could be removed or reduced in the long term--eg, through regulatory measures against occupational or environmental exposures (ie, the preventive effort does not need to be renewed with every generation, which is especially important when resources are in short supply). Primary prevention must therefore be prioritised as an integral part of global cancer control. PMID:24351322

  8. Cost-effectiveness of iron supplementation and malaria chemoprophylaxis in the prevention of anaemia and malaria among Tanzanian infants.

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo González, M.; Menéndez, C.; Font, F.; Kahigwa, E.; Kimario, J.; Mshinda, H.; Tanner, M.; Bosch-Capblanch, X.; Alonso, P. L.

    2000-01-01

    Prerequisites for effective interventions against severe anaemia and malaria among infants are economic evaluations to aid the setting of priorities and the making of health policy. In the present study we analysed the cost and effectiveness of three control strategies hypothetically delivered through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). For the prevention of severe anaemia and from the perspective of the health provider, the cost-effectiveness ratios were, respectively, US$ 8, US$ 9, and US$ 21 per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) for malaria chemoprophylaxis with Deltaprim (a combination of 3.125 mg pyrimethamine and 25 mg dapsone) + iron, Deltaprim alone, or iron supplementation alone. For malaria prevention, Deltaprim + iron cost US$ 9.7 per DALY and Deltaprim alone cost US$ 10.2 per DALY. From a sociocultural perspective the cost-effectiveness ratios ranged from US$ 9 to US$ 26 for severe anaemia prevention and from US$ 11 to US$ 12 for the prevention of clinical malaria. These ratios were highly cost-effective, as defined by the World Bank's proposed threshold of less than US$ 25 per DALY for comparative assessments. Furthermore, all the preventive interventions were less costly than the current malaria and anaemia control strategies that rely on clinical case management. This economic analysis supports the inclusion of both malaria chemoprophylaxis and iron supplementation delivered through EPI as part of the control strategies for these major killers of infants in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:10686744

  9. Alcohol misuse prevention for young people: a systematic review reveals methodological concerns and lack of reliable evidence of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Foxcroft, D R; Lister-Sharp, D; Lowe, G

    1997-05-01

    In a systematic review we assessed the methodological quality of evaluations of alcohol misuse prevention programmes for young people, and recorded evidence of effectiveness. Studies were identified through systematic searches of electronic databases; hand searches of all obtained papers, existing reviews and several journals; and mailshots to key organizations, conferences and individuals. Relevant papers were checked and cross-checked by members of the review team, and only those studies with an experimental or quasi-experimental design and positive attributes on a number of other quality criteria were included in the review. After pre-screening over 500 papers which reported prevention programmes, information was systematically abstracted from 155 papers. Only 33 studies merited inclusion in the review, and most of these had some methodological shortcomings. Twenty-one studies reported some significant short- and medium-term reductions in drinking behaviour. Of two studies which carried out longer-term evaluations, only one reported a significant longer-term effect, with small effect sizes. No factors clearly distinguished partially effective from ineffective or harmful prevention programmes. In conclusion, the lack of reliable evidence means that no one type of prevention programme can be recommended. In particular there is a need to carry out well-designed scientific evaluations of the effectiveness of current or new prevention efforts which target young people's alcohol misuse. PMID:9219376

  10. Cost-effectiveness of a European preventive cardiology programme in primary care: a Markov modelling approach

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Hema; Morris, Stephen; Dyer, Matthew; Kotseva, Kornelia; Wood, David; Buxton, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the longer-term cost-effectiveness of a nurse-coordinated preventive cardiology programme for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to routine practice from a health service perspective. Design A matched, paired cluster-randomised controlled trial. Setting Six pairs of general practices in six countries. Participants 1019 patients were randomised to the EUROACTION intervention programme and 1005 patients to usual care (UC) and who completed the 1-year follow-up. Outcome measures Evidence on health outcomes and costs was based on patient-level data from the study, which had a 1-year follow-up period. Future risk of CVD events was modelled, using published risk models based on patient characteristics. An individual-level Markov model for each patient was used to extrapolate beyond the end of the trial, which was populated with data from published sources. We used an 11-year time horizon and investigated the impact on the cost-effectiveness of varying the duration of the effect of the intervention beyond the end of the trial. Results are expressed as incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Results Unadjusted results found the intervention to be more costly and also more effective than UC. However, after adjusting for differences in age, gender, country and baseline risk factors, the intervention was dominated by UC, but this analysis was not able to take into account the lifestyle changes in terms of diet and physical activity. Conclusions Although the EUROACTION study achieved healthier lifestyle changes and improvements in management of blood pressure and lipids for patients at high risk of CVD, compared to UC, it was not possible to show, using available risk equations which do not incorporate diet and physical activity, that the intervention reduced longer-term cardiovascular risk cost-effectively. Whether or not an intervention such as that offered by EUROACTION is cost-effective requires a longer-term trial with major cardiovascular events as the outcome. Trial Registration number ISRCTN 71715857. PMID:23065443

  11. Effects of ketoprofen for prevention of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Takashi; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Iwata, Hideki; Morikawa, Akihiro; Imori, Satoko; Waki, Sayaka; Tamura, Takahiko; Yamazaki, Fumimoto; Eguchi, Satoru; Kumagai, Naoko; Yokoyama, Masataka

    2014-12-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is a common geriatric complication that may be associated with increased mortality. Here, we investigated the effects of postoperative analgesia with ketoprofen on cognitive functions in aged animals and compared its effectiveness to morphine. Rats were randomly allocated to one of four groups: isoflurane anesthesia without surgery (group C), isoflurane anesthesia with laparotomy (group IL), and isoflurane anesthesia with laparotomy plus postoperative analgesia with ketoprofen or morphine. There was no difference in postoperative locomotor activity among groups. In group IL, postoperative pain levels assessed by the Rat Grimace Scale significantly increased until 8 h after surgery, which was similarly inhibited by both ketoprofen and morphine. Cognitive function was assessed using radial arm maze testing for 12 consecutive days from postoperative day 3. Results showed that the number of memory errors in group IL were significantly higher than those in goup C. However, both ketoprofen and morphine could attenuate the increase in memory errors following surgery to a similar degree. Conversely, ketoprofen showed no effect on cognitive function in the nonsurgical rats that did not experience pain. Our findings suggest that postoperative analgesia with ketoprofen can prevent the development of surgery-associated memory deficits via its pain-relieving effects. PMID:24676769

  12. Zero-inflated Poisson regression with random effects to evaluate an occupational injury prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Yau, K K; Lee, A H

    2001-10-15

    This study presents a zero-inflated Poisson regression model with random effects to evaluate a manual handling injury prevention strategy trialled within the cleaning services department of a 600 bed public hospital between 1992 and 1995. The hospital had been experiencing high annual rates of compensable injuries of which over 60 per cent were attributed to manual handling. The strategy employed Workplace Risk Assessment Teams (WRATS) that utilized a workplace risk identification, assessment and control approach to manual handling injury hazard reduction. The WRATS programme was an intervention trial, covering the 1988-1995 financial years. In the course of compiling injury counts, it was found that the data exhibited an excess of zeros, in the context that the majority of cleaners did not suffer any injuries. This phenomenon is typical of data encountered in the occupational health discipline. We propose a zero-inflated random effects Poisson regression model to analyse such longitudinal count data with extra zeros. The WRATS intervention and other concomitant information on individual cleaners are considered as fixed effects in the model. The results provide statistical evidence showing the value of the WRATS programme. In addition, the methods can be applied to assess the effectiveness of intervention trials on populations at high risk of manual handling injury or indeed of injury from other hazards. PMID:11568948

  13. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions for women.

    PubMed

    Mize, S J S; Robinson, B E; Bockting, W O; Scheltema, K E

    2002-04-01

    The present study is a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions for women in the USA. Twenty-four articles from 1989-1997 were included. We evaluated five ethnic groupings (All Ethnicities Combined, African-American, White, Hispanic and a Mixed Ethnicity group) over four time periods (post-test, less than two months after the intervention, 2-3 months after the intervention and 6-24 months after the intervention) on three HIV-related sexuality outcome variables (HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy and sexual risk reduction behaviour). The HIV interventions appear effective at improving knowledge about HIV/AIDS and increasing sexual risk reduction behaviours for all ethnicities examined at all follow-up periods, with one exception. The findings for self-efficacy are less consistent. The interventions were less consistently effective for African-American women, for whom significant improvements in feelings of self-efficacy were only seen six months or longer after the intervention. The present analysis elucidates ethnic differences which may have previously been obscured while demonstrating convincingly that HIV interventions are generally effective for women of many different ethnicities. PMID:11940276

  14. Effects of a psychosocial couple-based prevention program on adverse birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Mark E; Roettger, Michael E; Jones, Damon E; Paul, Ian M; Kan, Marni L

    2015-01-01

    Although maternal stress and depression have been linked to adverse birth outcomes (ABOs), few studies have investigated preventive interventions targeting maternal mental health as a means of reducing ABOs. This randomized controlled study examines the impact of Family Foundations (FF)-a transition to parenthood program for couples focused on promoting coparenting quality, with previously documented impact on maternal stress and depression-on ABOs. We also examine whether intervention buffers birth outcomes from the negative effect of elevated salivary cortisol levels. We use intent-to-treat analyses to assess the main effects of the FF intervention on ABOs (prematurity, birth weight, pregnancy complications, Cesarean section, and days in hospital for mothers and infants) among 148 expectant mothers. We also test the interaction of cortisol with intervention condition status in predicting ABOs. FF participation was associated with reduced risk of C-section (OR .357, p < 0.05, 95 % CI 0.149, 0.862), but did not have main effects on other ABOs. FF significantly buffered (p < 0.05) the negative impact of maternal cortisol on birth weight, gestational age, and days in hospital for infants; that is, among women with relatively higher levels of prenatal cortisol, the intervention reduced ABOs. These results demonstrate that a psycho-educational program for couples reduces incidence of ABOs among higher risk women. Future work should test whether reduced maternal stress and depression mediate these intervention effects. PMID:24969352

  15. Effects of a Psychosocial Couple-Based Prevention Program on Adverse Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Roettger, Michael E.; Jones, Damon E.; Paul, Ian M.; Kan, Marni L.

    2015-01-01

    Although maternal stress and depression have been linked to adverse birth outcomes (ABOs), few studies have investigated preventive interventions targeting maternal mental health as a means of reducing ABOs. This randomized controlled study examines the impact of Family Foundations (FF)—a transition to parenthood program for couples focused on promoting coparenting quality, with previously documented impact on maternal stress and depression—on ABOs. We also examine whether intervention buffers birth outcomes from the negative effect of elevated salivary cortisol levels. We use intent-to-treat analyses to assess the main effects of the FF intervention on ABOs (prematurity, birth weight, pregnancy complications, Cesarean section, and days in hospital for mothers and infants) among 148 expectant mothers. We also test the interaction of cortisol with intervention condition status in predicting ABOs. FF participation was associated with reduced risk of C-section (OR .357, p < 0.05, 95 % CI 0.149, 0.862), but did not have main effects on other ABOs. FF significantly buffered (p < 0.05) the negative impact of maternal cortisol on birth weight, gestational age, and days in hospital for infants; that is, among women with relatively higher levels of prenatal cortisol, the intervention reduced ABOs. These results demonstrate that a psycho-educational program for couples reduces incidence of ABOs among higher risk women. Future work should test whether reduced maternal stress and depression mediate these intervention effects. PMID:24969352

  16. Innovative Strategies for Scale up of Effective Combination HIV Prevention Interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Shanaube, Kwame; Bock, Peter

    2015-06-01

    For the last three decades, sub-Saharan Africa has been the epicentre of the HIV epidemic. Some key drivers of the epidemic are specific to this region and there is an urgent need to develop context-specific strategies to reduce HIV-related burden. Implementation frameworks should endeavour to combine structural, behavioural and biomedical interventions and the future of the HIV response involves embracing different approaches for different populations; it is not 'one-size fits all approach'. Expanded use of community-based interventions will be key in expanding the role of antiretroviral treatment as prevention (TasP) in the region. For TasP to be effective, high antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage rates need to be attained. Data from programmatic trials currently underway will provide crucial data to guide the future implementation of TasP. PMID:25929960

  17. [The evaluation of ceftibuten (Cedax) effectiveness in the prevention of perioperative infections].

    PubMed

    Szmeja, Z; Golusi?ski, W; Kruk-Zagajewska, A; Szyfter, W; Wierzbicka, M; Leszczy?ska, M; Kope?, T; Obrebowska, Z

    1997-01-01

    Cedax is the antibiotic drug of the third generation cephalosporin type. In the Department of Otolaryngology of the University Medical School in Pozna? tests were carried out on the effectiveness of this drug in the prevention of perioperative infections (tonsillectomy, adenotomy, septoplastics, nasal polypectomy, mucotomy). The experiment comprised 50 patients who were administered Cedax once a day of the period of five consecutive days, beginning on the day of the surgery. Control group compare 50 patients who did not receive the antibiotic cover. For the comparison of both groups the following symptoms were taken into account: general condition of the patient, body temperature in the first few days after the surgery, the healing of the operative wound (the condition of mucosa, healing "per primam" or "per secundam"), the presence and type of nasal discharge. A high degree of efficiency of ceftibuten has observed. PMID:9489384

  18. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes. PMID:26081242

  19. Effect of two preventive programs on oral health knowledge and habits among Brazilian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Buischi, Y A; Axelsson, P; Oliveira, L B; Mayer, M P; Gjermo, P

    1994-02-01

    The effect upon dental health knowledge and dental health behavior of a comprehensive and a less comprehensive preventive program was compared in a 3-yr follow up study. The comprehensive program included active participation of the students and parental involvement. The study group consisted of 186 Brazilian schoolchildren 13 yr of age at the start of the program. A reference group from another school of similar socioeconomic level was included in the analyses. The data were collected from questionnaires filled in by the children under surveillance after the completion of the program. Significant differences in knowledge as well as in reported behavior were observed. The children enrolled in the comprehensive program in general scored higher in dental health knowledge than did those in the less comprehensive program. However, the latter group of children seemed to have acquired more correct knowledge during the period than had the control and reference children. Similar results were obtained concerning reported dental health behavior. PMID:8143441

  20. Aspirin in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in the Women's Health Study: effect of noncompliance.

    PubMed

    Cook, Nancy R; Cole, Stephen R; Buring, Julie E

    2012-06-01

    Randomized evidence for aspirin in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among women is limited and suggests at most a modest effect for total CVD. Lack of compliance, however, can null-bias estimated effects. We used marginal structural models (MSMs) to estimate the etiologic effect of continuous aspirin use on CVD events among 39,876 apparently healthy female health professionals aged 45 years and older in the Women's Health Study, a randomized trial of 100 mg aspirin every other day versus placebo. As-treated analyses and MSMs controlled for time-varying determinants of aspirin use and CVD. Predictors of aspirin use differed by randomized group and prior use and included medical history, CVD risk factors, and intermediate CVD events. Previously reported intent-to-treat analyses found small non-significant effects of aspirin on total CVD (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.91, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.81-1.03) and CVD mortality (HR = 0.95, 95 % CI = 0.74-1.22). As-treated analyses were similar for total CVD with a slight reduction in CVD mortality (HR = 0.88, 95 % CI = 0.67-1.16). MSMs, which adjusted for non-compliance, were similar for total CVD (HR = 0.93; 95 % CI: 0.81, 1.07) but suggested lower CVD mortality with aspirin use (HR = 0.76; 95 % CI: 0.54, 1.08). Adjusting for non-compliance had little impact on the estimated effect of aspirin on total CVD, but strengthened the effect on CVD mortality. These results support a limited effect of low-dose aspirin on total CVD in women, but potential benefit for CVD mortality. PMID:22699516

  1. Community Coalitions as a System: Effects of Network Change on Adoption of Evidence-Based Substance Abuse Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas W. Valente; Chich Ping Chou; Mary Ann Pentz

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effect of community coalition network structure on the effectiveness of an intervention designed to accelerate the adoption of evidence-based substance abuse prevention programs. Methods. At baseline, 24 cities were matched and randomly assigned to 3 con- ditions (control, satellite TV training, and training plus technical assistance). We surveyed 415 community leaders at baseline and 406 at

  2. The promise of long-term effectiveness of school-based smoking prevention programs: a critical review of reviews

    PubMed Central

    Flay, Brian R

    2009-01-01

    I provide a review and critique of meta-analyses and systematic reviews of school-based smoking prevention programs that focus on long-term effects. Several of these reviews conclude that the effects of school-based smoking prevention programs are small and find no evidence that they have significant long-term effects. I find that these reviews all have methodological problems limiting their conclusions. These include severe limiting of the studies included because of performance bias, student attrition, non-reporting of ICCs, inappropriate classification of intervention approach, and inclusion of programs that had no short-term effects. The more-inclusive meta-analyses suggest that school-based smoking prevention programs can have significant and practical effects in both the short- and the long-term. Findings suggest that school-based smoking prevention programs can have significant long-term effects if they: 1) are interactive social influences or social skills programs; that 2) involve 15 or more sessions, including some up to at least ninth grade; that 3) produce substantial short-term effects. The effects do decay over time if the interventions are stopped or withdrawn, but this is true of any kind of intervention. PMID:19323827

  3. Effects of a Web-Based Stroke Education Program on Recurrence Prevention Behaviors among Stroke Patients: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jae-Il; Lee, Sook; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of methods to prevent stroke recurrence and of education focusing on learners' needs has not been fully explored. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of such interventions among stroke patients and their primary caregivers and to evaluate the feasibility of a web-based stroke education program. The participants were…

  4. Translating Research to Practice: Overcoming Barriers to Implementing Effective Off-Campus Party Intervention. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on overcoming barriers in implementing effective off-campus party intervention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Confronting the Problems Associated With Off-Campus Parties With Evidence-Based Strategies (John D. Clapp); (2) Overview of Research on Effective Off-Campus Party…

  5. Running Head: Elastic Analysis Procedures Elastic Analysis Procedures--An Incurable (but Preventable) Problem in the Fertility Effect

    E-print Network

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    Preventable) Problem in the Fertility Effect Literature: Comment on Gildersleeve, Haselton, & Fales (2013 Abstract Gildersleeve, Haselton, and Fales (2014) present a meta-analysis of the effects of fertility on mate preferences in women. Research in this area has categorized fertility using a great variety

  6. Fall _________ Spring ________

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    ) _____________________________________________________________ Required Safety and Security Information (All applicants must complete this section.) 1. Have you ever been an institution of higher education on the basis of conduct or behavior.) 4. Have you ever been requiredTerm: Year Fall _________ Spring ________ A_____ B_____ NSE- MSU APPLICATION Personal Information

  7. Fall Webworm 

    E-print Network

    Ree, Bill

    2004-10-08

    they produce. Heavy infestations are rarely fatal, but if they occur repeatedly over several years they can stress trees and make them more suscepti- ble to drought, disease or other insect pests. The feeding preferences of fall webworms vary from one place...

  8. Preventive effect of insect tea against reserpine-induced gastric ulcers in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ya-Lin; Wang, Rui; Feng, Xia; Zhao, Xin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the preventive effect of insect tea against reserpine-induced gastric ulcers in ICR mice. A high (800 mg/kg) dose of insect tea reduced the serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interferon (IFN)-? compared with those in mice treated with a low (400 mg/kg) dose and the control mice. The serum levels of somatostatin (SS) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in mice treated with insect tea were higher compared with those in the control mice; however, the serum levels of motilin (MOT) and substance P (SP) were lower in mice treated with insect tea than in the control mice. Gastric ulcer inhibitory rate of the insect tea treatment group of mice were much lower compared to the control mice, and the high concentration treated mice were similar to the ranitidine treated mice. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in mice treated with insect tea were higher compared with those in control mice, and similar to those in normal mice and ranitidine-treated mice. The nitric oxide (NO) and maleic dialdehyde (MDA) levels of mice treated with a high concentration of insect tea compared with the normal group were close. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, the present study revealed that insect tea significantly induced inflammation in the tissues of mice by downregulating the expression of nuclear factor ?-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and upregulating the expression of nuclear factor of ? light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor ? (I?B-?). These results suggest that insect tea is as effective at preventing gastric ulcers as the gastric ulcer drug, ranitidine and it can be used as medicine. PMID:25187847

  9. Preventive effect of American ginseng against premature ovarian failure in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Ge, Pengling; Xing, Nannan; Ren, Yanhai; Zhu, Lei; Han, Dongwei; Kuang, Haixue; Li, Ji

    2014-12-01

    Preclinical Research Premature ovarian failure (POF) is defined by the WHO as the loss of physiological ovarian function before the age of 40. The effect of American ginseng and its underlying mechanisms in preventing and treating premature ovarian failure (POF) was studied in female Sprague-Dawley rats where POF was induced by ip administration of 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD). Rat behavior, serum hormone levels, ovarian and uterine size, pathological features, and ovarian tissue expression of genes associated with POF were assessed in controls, untreated POF model rats, and POF model rats treated with low- (1.125?g/kg), medium- (2.25?g/kg), and high-dose (4.5?g/kg) American ginseng. Compared with untreated POF model rats, those treated with medium- and high-dose American ginseng had more stable behavior and better coat appearance as well as serum hormone levels closer to those in control rats. Moreover, treatment with medium- or high-dose American ginseng increased ovarian and uterine size. Hematoxylin and eosin-staining revealed mature follicles and endometrium with an alternating concave/convex surface structure with visible capillaries and glands in ginseng- treated POF rats. PLA2G4A expression was positively correlated with POF, while the expression levels of PAPPA, STC2, CCL2, and NELL1 were negatively correlated with POF. Our study showed that American ginseng may effectively prevent POF and alleviate POF symptoms by regulating serum hormone levels and altering the expression levels of genes related to POF in ovarian tissue. PMID:25424468

  10. [Preventive and remineralization effect over incipient lesions of caries decay by phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate].

    PubMed

    Juárez-López, María Lilia Adriana; Hernández-Palacios, Rosa Diana; Hernández-Guerrero, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-Farfán, Dolores; Molina-Frechero, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Dental caries continues to affect a large percentage of Mexican children and currently advises that if diagnosed at an early stage can be reversed with minimally invasive treatments. The casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate known as CPP-ACP is a phosphoprotein capable of releasing calcium and phosphate ions in the oral environment promoting remineralization. OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP with fluoride added in a scholar preventive program. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A cuasi- experimental study was conducted in 104 schools of six years old. The children were classified into three groups and received six months biweekly applications of different treatments: casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate added fluoride (CPP-ACPF), sodium fluoride (NaF) and a control group. Clinical evaluation was performed with the laser fluorescence technique (Diagnodent model 2095). 1340 teeth were included: 294 teeth with incipient lesions and 1,046 healthy teeth. Statistical tests of ?2 y Mc Nemar were used. RESULTS. In the group that received the application of CPP-ACPF, 38% of incipient carious lesions were remineralizing compared with 21% in the group receiving the NaF (p < 0.001) and 15% in the control group (p < 0.0001) The percentage of teeth free of caries were preserved in the therapy group phosphoprotein was the biggest. This group also showed the lower proportion of deep carious lesion development (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION. The application biweekly for six months of CPP-ACPF showed a protective and remineralizing effect on incipient carious lesions. His action was better than the application of NaF. However, to reduce the impact from dental caries in schoolchildren is important to have a comprehensive preventive approach that includes promoting self-care, as well as the application of sealants. PMID:24960324

  11. Effectiveness of Biosecurity Measures in Preventing Badger Visits to Farm Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Johanna; McDonald, Robbie A.; Walker, Neil; Delahay, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a serious and economically important disease of cattle. Badgers have been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the UK since the 1970s. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence of widespread and frequent visits by badgers to farm buildings during which there is the potential for close direct contact with cattle and contamination of cattle feed. Methodology Here we evaluated the effectiveness of simple exclusion measures in improving farm biosecurity and preventing badger visits to farm buildings. In the first phase of the study, 32 farms were surveyed using motion-triggered infrared cameras on potential entrances to farm buildings to determine the background level of badger visits experienced by each farm. In the second phase, they were divided into four treatment groups; “Control”, “Feed Storage”, “Cattle Housing” and “Both”, whereby no exclusion measures were installed, exclusion measures were installed on feed storage areas only, cattle housing only or both feed storage and cattle housing, respectively. Badger exclusion measures included sheet metal gates, adjustable metal panels for gates, sheet metal fencing, feed bins and electric fencing. Cameras were deployed for at least 365 nights in each phase on each farm. Results Badger visits to farm buildings occurred on 19 of the 32 farms in phase one. In phase two, the simple exclusion measures were 100% effective in preventing badger entry into farm buildings, as long as they were appropriately deployed. Furthermore, the installation of exclusion measures also reduced the level of badger visits to the rest of the farmyard. The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate how relatively simple practical measures can substantially reduce the likelihood of badger visits to buildings and reduce some of the potential for contact and disease transmission between badgers and cattle. PMID:22220199

  12. Effect of orally administered simvastatin on prevention of postoperative adhesion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Okan, Ismail; Dursun, Nevra; Bas, Gurhan; Alimoglu, Orhan; Kaya, Bulent; Odabasi, Mehmet; Sahin, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Formation of adhesions in the abdominal region appearing after abdominal pelvic surgery lead to infertility, chronic pelvic pain, intestinal obstructions, difficulty and morbidity at the following operations, and increased morbidity. The aim of our study is to examine the effectiveness of orally administered simvastatin on preventing the postoperative adhesion. Materials and methods: 20 male Wistar Albino rats weighing 230-250 gr were used. The rats were housed for 12 hours day and 12 hours night cycles in cages and were divided into two groups, namely study and control group. Microscopic evaluation of adhesion was assessed under 5 main topics which are the signs of inflammatory response; inflammation, activation, fibroblast activity, vascularity, presence of giant cell. Activation was scored as follows: (0) no activation, (1) while activation was accepted as present the score for other parameters was evaluated between 0 to 3 according to the increased severity. After evaluating all topics separately, the average of all scores has been assessed in both groups. Results: As a result of the macroscopic evaluation of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions, the percentage of adhesion in simvastatin applied group was found to be 0.8 ± 0.17. This value was calculated as 0.6 ± 0.2 in the control group. Regarding the severity of adhesion, while in the simvastatin applied group the value was found to be 9.1 ± 4, in the control group it was 6.8 ± 3. The general adhesion score was found to be 7.7 ± 4.2 in simvastatin applied group and 5.1 ± 3.7 in control group. Conclusion: In this experimental study it was showed that orally administered simvastatin has no significant effect on preventing formation of postoperative adhesions. PMID:24600496

  13. The effectiveness of preventive care at reducing curative care risk for the Taiwanese elderly under National Health Insurance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Shyan; Peng, Yu-I; Lee, Ping-Chang; Liu, Tsai-Ching

    2015-06-01

    Whether provision of free preventive care for the elderly under National Health Insurance has reduced the risk for curative care use raises much concern in Taiwan. This study analyzes the relationship by examining the impact of health examination utilization on the utilizations of outpatient care and inpatient care. Data come from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey and National Health Insurance Research Database. A two-stage method is used in the estimation. We found a negative relationship between the utilization of preventive care and hospitalization care in terms of length of stay and medical expenditures. On average, the elderly people who used preventive care tended to have 16 shorter hospitalization stays and NTD64,220 lower hospitalization expenditures than their counterparts. In order to improve the health of the elderly and reduce the escalation of medical expenditures due to aging, including preventive care in the health insurance is a very effective strategy. PMID:25659262

  14. Novel Anticoagulants for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: A Systematic Review of Cost-Effectiveness Models

    PubMed Central

    Limone, Brendan L.; Baker, William L.; Kluger, Jeffrey; Coleman, Craig I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review of economic models of newer anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (SPAF). Patients and Methods We searched Medline, Embase, NHSEED and HTA databases and the Tuft’s Registry from January 1, 2008 through October 10, 2012 to identify economic (Markov or discrete event simulation) models of newer agents for SPAF. Results Eighteen models were identified. Each was based on a lone randomized trial/new agent, and these trials were clinically and methodologically heterogeneous. Dabigatran 150 mg, 110 mg and sequentially-dosed were assessed in 9, 8, and 9 models, rivaroxaban in 4 and apixaban in 4. Warfarin was a first-line comparator in 94% of models. Models were conducted from United States (44%), European (39%) and Canadian (17%) perspectives. Models typically assumed patients between 65–73 years old at moderate-risk of stroke initiated anticoagulation for/near a lifetime. All models reported cost/quality-adjusted life-year, 22% reported using a societal perspective, but none included indirect costs. Four models reported an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for a newer anticoagulant (dabigatran 110 mg (n?=?4)/150 mg (n?=?2); rivaroxaban (n?=?1)) vs. warfarin above commonly reported willingness-to-pay thresholds. ICERs vs. warfarin ranged from $3,547–$86,000 for dabigatran 150 mg, $20,713–$150,000 for dabigatran 110 mg, $4,084–$21,466 for sequentially-dosed dabigatran and $23,065–$57,470 for rivaroxaban. Apixaban was found economically-dominant to aspirin, and dominant or cost-effective ($11,400–$25,059) vs. warfarin. Indirect comparisons from 3 models suggested conflicting comparative cost-effectiveness results. Conclusions Cost-effectiveness models frequently found newer anticoagulants cost-effective, but the lack of head-to-head trials and the heterogeneous characteristics of underlying trials and modeling methods make it difficult to determine the most cost-effective agent. PMID:23626785

  15. Introduction to Fall & Spring

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    Stat I Introduction to Statistics EDLF 7310 Fall & Spring Foundations of Educational Research EDLF 7300 Fall Qualitative I EDLF 7404 Fall & Spring Stat II Experimental Design EDLF 8300 Fall & Spring Stat III Regression EDLF 8310 Fall & Spring Data Management EDLF 5500 Fall Qualitative II EDLF

  16. Preventive Effects of Collagen Peptide from Deer Sinew on Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, He; Dong, Ying; Qi, Bin; Liu, Li; Zhou, Guangxin; Bai, Xueyuan; Yang, Chunhui; Zhao, Daqing; Zhao, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Deer sinew (DS) has been used traditionally for various illnesses, and the major active constituent is collagen. In this study, we assessed the effects of collagen peptide from DS on bone loss in the ovariectomized rats. Wister female rats were randomly divided into six groups as follows: sham-operated (SHAM), ovariectomized control (OVX), OVX given 1.0?mg/kg/week nylestriol (OVX + N), OVX given 0.4?g/kg/day collagen peptide (OVX + H), OVX given 0.2?g/kg/day collagen peptide (OXV + M), and OVX given 0.1?g/kg/day collagen peptide (OXV + L), respectively. After 13 weeks of treatment, the rats were euthanized, and the effects of collagen peptide on body weight, uterine weight, bone mineral density (BMD), serum biochemical indicators, bone histomorphometry, and bone mechanics were observed. The data showed that BMD and concentration of serum hydroxyproline were significantly increased and the levels of serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were decreased. Besides, histomorphometric parameters and mechanical indicators were improved. However, collagen peptide of DS has no effect on estradiol level, body weight, and uterine weight. Therefore, these results suggest that the collagen peptide supplementation may also prevent and treat bone loss. PMID:25101135

  17. Effectiveness of Palivizumab in Preventing RSV Hospitalization in High Risk Children: A Real-World Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rawlinson, William; Snelling, Thomas L.; Jaffe, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major causes globally of childhood respiratory morbidity and hospitalization. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, has been recommended for high risk infants to prevent severe RSV-associated respiratory illness. This recommendation is based on evidence of efficacy when used under clinical trial conditions. However the real-world effectiveness of palivizumab outside of clinical trials among different patient populations is not well established. We performed a systematic review focusing on postlicensure observational studies of the protective effect of palivizumab prophylaxis for reducing RSV-associated hospitalizations in infants and children at high risk of severe infection. We searched studies published in English between 1 January 1999 and August 2013 and identified 420 articles, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. This review supports the recommended use of palivizumab for reducing RSV-associated hospitalization rates in premature infants born at gestational age < 33 weeks and in children with chronic lung and heart diseases. Data are limited to allow commenting on the protective effect of palivizumab among other high risk children, including those with Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and haematological malignancy, indicating further research is warranted in these groups. PMID:25548575

  18. Aging, practice effects, and genetic risk in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Jonaitis, Erin M.; Koscik, Rebecca L.; La Rue, Asenath; Johnson, Sterling C.; Hermann, Bruce; Sager, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In the last five years, a consensus has developed that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) may begin years before overt cognitive impairment (Sperling et al., 2011). Accordingly, the focus has shifted to identifying preclinical disease in order to match treatments to those most likely to benefit. Subtle cognitive changes, including reduced benefit from practice, may be one such preclinical sign. In this paper, we explore cognitive aging trajectories within a large cohort of clinically intact late-middle-aged adults. METHOD Longitudinal cognitive data were analyzed from 594 participants in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention. Mixed models were used to examine trajectories, adjusting for prior exposure, and the moderation thereof by markers of dementia risk, APOE-?4 status, and family history of AD. RESULTS Practice effects were observed for Verbal Learning & Memory, Working Memory, Speed & Flexibility, and Visual Learning. However, for Working Memory and Speed & Flexibility, these effects were attenuated for FH+ subjects. CONCLUSION Reduced practice effects have previously been observed in clinical groups (Cooper et al., 2001; Machulda et al., 2013). These results in middle-aged adults suggest that they may also indicate preclinical changes on the path to AD. PMID:26012360

  19. High energy diets prevent the enhancing effects of emotional arousal on memory.

    PubMed

    Ross, Amy P; Darling, Jenna N; Parent, Marise B

    2013-10-01

    Over the past five decades, per capita caloric intake has increased by approximately 28% in the United States. Excessive intake of calories from fats and sugars (high energy diets; HEDs) negatively impacts hippocampal-dependent memory. These deleterious effects of HEDs on hippocampal function involve HED-induced decreases in neuronal growth factors, neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. Given that HEDs also alter responses to emotional arousal, the present experiment determined whether the effects of HEDs on memory depend on the emotional arousal produced by the memory task during encoding. Rats were fed a high fat/sugar cafeteria-style diet for 4 weeks and then tested in a low or high emotional arousal version of a spatial object place recognition task. The results demonstrated that the HED prevented the memory-enhancing effects of emotional arousal. Thus, altered responses to emotional arousal likely contribute to HED-induced memory impairments, particularly in stressful memory tasks such as the spatial water maze. PMID:24128364

  20. Feasibility and Effectiveness of HIV Prevention Among Wives of Heavy Drinkers in Bangalore, India

    PubMed Central

    Cottler, Linda B.; Satyanarayana, Veena A.; O'Leary, Catina C.; Vaddiparti, Krishna; Benegal, Vivek; Chandra, Prabha S.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effectiveness of community based HIV interventions for monogamous married women. We examined prevalence of risky behaviors and effectiveness of a Western intervention on increased knowledge and reductions in risky behaviors among wives of heavy drinkers in an urban slum in Bangalore, India. Household enumeration was conducted on 509 households; wives of the youngest married man 18 to 50 years of age who scored 8+ on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) were selected (N=100) and assessed with Indian adaptations of the Substance Abuse Module (SAM), the Washington University Risk Behavior Assessment for Women (WU-RBA-W), the Violence Exposure Questionnaire (VEQ), the CES-D, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS-IV), and a Proxy AUDIT. After random assignment to either the Standard (Pre-post HIV counseling; N=50) or the Enhanced Intervention (Standard + Body Wise Intervention; N=50), women were re-assessed at 2 months; a 100% follow-up rate was achieved. Though no major intervention effects were found, at follow-up women were less likely to report victimization and perpetrated violence, more likely to feel empowered to make decisions about birth control, and were more knowledgeable about how to protect themselves from STDs and HIV. The findings have implications for HIV prevention among at risk monogamous women in community settings. PMID:20574636

  1. Community Effectiveness of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Infants (IPTi) in Rural Southern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna R. M.; Shirima, Kizito; Maokola, Werner; Manzi, Fatuma; Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Mushi, Adiel; Mshinda, Hassan; Alonso, Pedro; Tanner, Marcel; Schellenberg, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine shows evidence of efficacy in individually randomized, controlled trials. In a large-scale effectiveness study, IPTi was introduced in April 2005 by existing health staff through routine contacts in 12 randomly selected divisions out of 24 in 6 districts of rural southern Tanzania. Coverage and effects on malaria and anemia were estimated through a representative survey in 2006 with 600 children aged 2–11 months. Coverage of IPTi was 47–76% depending on the definition. Using an intention to treat analysis, parasitemia prevalence was 31% in intervention and 38% in comparison areas (P = 0.06). In a “per protocol” analysis of children who had recently received IPTi, parasite prevalence was 22%, 19 percentage points lower than comparison children (P = 0.01). IPTi can be implemented on a large scale by existing health service staff, with a measurable population effect on malaria, within 1 year of launch. PMID:20439954

  2. The Preventive Effect of Oxytocin to Cisplatin-Induced Neurotoxicity: An Experimental Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Tulay; Akman, Levent; Erbas, Oytun; Terek, Mustafa Cosan; Ozsaran, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neurotoxicity is a frequent dose-limiting side effect of the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin. This study was conducted to investigate the preventive effect of oxytocin (OT) on cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Forty-four adult female rats were included in the study. Thirty-six rats were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) single dose cisplatin 10?mg/kg and divided in to 3 groups. The first group (n = 12) received saline i.p., whereas the second group (n = 12) and the third group (n = 12) were injected with 80?µg/kg and 160?µg/kg OT, respectively, for 10 days. The remaining 8 rats served as the control group. Electromyography (EMG) studies were recorded and blood samples were collected for the measurement of plasma lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde; MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and glutathione (GSH) levels. EMG findings revealed that compound muscle action potential amplitude was significantly decreased and distal latency was prolonged in the nontreated cisplatin-injected rats compared with the control group (P < 0.005). Also, nontreated cisplatin-injected rats showed significantly higher TNF-? and MDA levels and lower GSH level than control group. The administration of OT significantly ameliorated the EMG alterations, suppressed oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters, and increased antioxidative capacity. We suggest that oxytocin may have beneficial effects against cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:25688351

  3. The alkaloid matrine of the root of Sophora flavescens prevents arrhythmogenic effect of ouabain.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuhong; Wu, Yun; Deng, Lin; Chen, Lanlan; Zhao, Dandan; Lv, Lifang; Chen, Xu; Man, Jinyu; Wang, Yansong; Shan, Hongli; Lu, Yanjie

    2014-06-15

    Matrine, a alkaloid of the root of Sophora flavescens, has multiple protective effects on the cardiovascular system including cardiac arrhythmias. However, the molecular and ionic mechanisms of matrine have not been well investigated. Our study aimed at to shed a light on the issue to investigate the antiarrhythmic effects of matrine by using ouabain to construct an arrhythmic model of cardiomyocytes. In this experiment, matrine significantly and dose-dependently increased the doses of ouabain required to induce cardiac arrhythmias and decreased the duration of arrhythmias in guinea pigs. In cardiomyocytes of guinea pigs, ouabain 10 ?M prolonged action potential duration by 80% (p<0.05) and increased L-type Ca(2+) currents and Ca(2+) transients induced by KCl (p<0.05). Matrine 100 ?M shortened the prolongation of APD and prevented the increase of L-type Ca(2+) currents and Ca(2+) transients induced by ouabain. Taken together, these findings provide the first evidence that matrine possessed arrhythmogenic effect of ouabain by inhibiting of L-type Ca(2+) currents and Ca(2+) overload in guinea pigs. PMID:24680622

  4. IDENTIFYING ROOF FALL PREDICTORS USING FUZZY CLASSIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K. [NDE Lab, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 23187-8795 (United States)

    2010-02-22

    Microseismic monitoring involves placing geophones on the rock surfaces of a mine to record seismic activity. Classification of microseismic mine data can be used to predict seismic events in a mine to mitigate mining hazards, such as roof falls, where properly bolting and bracing the roof is often an insufficient method of preventing weak roofs from destabilizing. In this study, six months of recorded acoustic waveforms from microseismic monitoring in a Pennsylvania limestone mine were analyzed using classification techniques to predict roof falls. Fuzzy classification using features selected for computational ease was applied on the mine data. Both large roof fall events could be predicted using a Roof Fall Index (RFI) metric calculated from the results of the fuzzy classification. RFI was successfully used to resolve the two significant roof fall events and predicted both events by at least 15 hours before visual signs of the roof falls were evident.

  5. Falls Prevention: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eat more salt if that’s appropriate, and drinking coffee at meals if your blood pressure dips after ... may: have illnesses that make it hard to shop for and prepare food (e.g., arthritis , Alzheimer’s ...

  6. Incremental cost-effectiveness of supplementary immunization activities to prevent neonatal tetanus in Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Ulla K.; Wolfson, Lara J.; Quddus, Arshad; Younus, Mohammed; Hafiz, Rehan A.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of supplementary immunization activities to prevent neonatal tetanus in the Loralai district of Pakistan. The supplemental immunization activities were carried out in two phases during 2001-03. METHODS: A state-transition model was used to estimate the effect of routine vaccination with tetanus toxoid as well as vaccination with tetanus toxoid during supplementary immunization activities.The model follows each woman in the target population from birth until the end of her childbearing years, using age-specific fertility data and vaccination history to determine the number of births at risk for neonatal tetanus. Recently published data on the incidence of neonatal tetanus from Loralai were used to determine the number of cases occurring with and without supplementary immunization activities. Data on the costs of the activities were collected from the UNICEF office in Balochistan and from the Provincial Health Department. FINDINGS: Using base-case assumptions we estimated that the supplementary immunization activities would prevent 280 cases of neonatal tetanus and 224 deaths from neonatal tetanus between 2001 and 2034. Implementation of the supplementary activities was relatively inexpensive. The cost per tetanus toxoid dose delivered was 0.40 U.S. dollars. In the base-case analysis the cost per death averted was 117.00 U.S. dollars (95% confidence interval (CI) = 78-205 U.S. dollars) and the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted was 3.61 U.S. dollars (95% Cl = 2.43-6.39 U.S. dollars). CONCLUSION: Compared with similar analyses of other interventions, the cost per DALY averted is a favourable cost-effectiveness ratio. However, if routine diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination coverage in the Loralai district had been higher (at a coverage rate of about 80%) the cost-effectiveness of the intervention would have been even more favourable, at 2.65 U.S. dollars per DALY averted. PMID:15628201

  7. Mitochondrial dysfunction-associated OPA1 cleavage contributes to muscle degeneration: preventative effect of hydroxytyrosol acetate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X; Li, H; Zheng, A; Yang, L; Liu, J; Chen, C; Tang, Y; Zou, X; Li, Y; Long, J; Liu, J; Zhang, Y; Feng, Z

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the development of muscle disorders, including muscle wasting, muscle atrophy and degeneration. Despite the knowledge that oxidative stress closely interacts with mitochondrial dysfunction, the detailed mechanisms remain obscure. In this study, tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) was used to induce oxidative stress on differentiated C2C12 myotubes. t-BHP induced significant mitochondrial dysfunction in a time-dependent manner, accompanied by decreased myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Consistently, endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction triggered by carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP), a mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor, was accompanied by decreased membrane potential and decreased MyHC protein content. However, the free radical scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) efficiently reduced the ROS level and restored MyHC content, suggesting a close association between ROS and MyHC expression. Meanwhile, we found that both t-BHP and FCCP promoted the cleavage of optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) from the long form into short form during the early stages. In addition, the ATPase family gene 3-like 2, a mitochondrial inner membrane protease, was also markedly increased. Moreover, OPA1 knockdown in myotubes was accompanied by decreased MyHC content, whereas NAC failed to prevent FCCP-induced MyHC decrease with OPA1 knockdown, suggesting that ROS might affect MyHC content by modulating OPA1 cleavage. In addition, hydroxytyrosol acetate (HT-AC), an important compound in virgin olive oil, could significantly prevent t-BHP-induced mitochondrial membrane potential and cell viability loss in myotubes. Specifically, HT-AC inhibited t-BHP-induced OPA1 cleavage and mitochondrial morphology changes, accompanied by improvement on mitochondrial oxygen consumption capacity, ATP productive potential and activities of mitochondrial complex I, II and V. Moreover, both t-BHP- and FCCP-induced MyHC decrease was sufficiently inhibited by HT-AC. Taken together, our data provide evidence indicating that mitochondrial dysfunction-associated OPA1 cleavage may contribute to muscle degeneration, and olive oil compounds could be effective nutrients for preventing the development of muscle disorders. PMID:25393477

  8. Mitochondrial dysfunction-associated OPA1 cleavage contributes to muscle degeneration: preventative effect of hydroxytyrosol acetate.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Li, H; Zheng, A; Yang, L; Liu, J; Chen, C; Tang, Y; Zou, X; Li, Y; Long, J; Liu, J; Zhang, Y; Feng, Z

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the development of muscle disorders, including muscle wasting, muscle atrophy and degeneration. Despite the knowledge that oxidative stress closely interacts with mitochondrial dysfunction, the detailed mechanisms remain obscure. In this study, tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) was used to induce oxidative stress on differentiated C2C12 myotubes. t-BHP induced significant mitochondrial dysfunction in a time-dependent manner, accompanied by decreased myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Consistently, endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction triggered by carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP), a mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor, was accompanied by decreased membrane potential and decreased MyHC protein content. However, the free radical scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) efficiently reduced the ROS level and restored MyHC content, suggesting a close association between ROS and MyHC expression. Meanwhile, we found that both t-BHP and FCCP promoted the cleavage of optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) from the long form into short form during the early stages. In addition, the ATPase family gene 3-like 2, a mitochondrial inner membrane protease, was also markedly increased. Moreover, OPA1 knockdown in myotubes was accompanied by decreased MyHC content, whereas NAC failed to prevent FCCP-induced MyHC decrease with OPA1 knockdown, suggesting that ROS might affect MyHC content by modulating OPA1 cleavage. In addition, hydroxytyrosol acetate (HT-AC), an important compound in virgin olive oil, could significantly prevent t-BHP-induced mitochondrial membrane potential and cell viability loss in myotubes. Specifically, HT-AC inhibited t-BHP-induced OPA1 cleavage and mitochondrial morphology changes, accompanied by improvement on mitochondrial oxygen consumption capacity, ATP productive potential and activities of mitochondrial complex I, II and V. Moreover, both t-BHP- and FCCP-induced MyHC decrease was sufficiently inhibited by HT-AC. Taken together, our data provide evidence indicating that mitochondrial dysfunction-associated OPA1 cleavage may contribute to muscle degeneration, and olive oil compounds could be effective nutrients for preventing the development of muscle disorders. PMID:25393477

  9. Assessment of channel changes, model of historical floods, and effects of backwater on flood stage, and flood mitigation alternatives for the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winters, Karl E.; Baldys, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    In cooperation with the City of Wichita Falls, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel changes on the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas, and modeled historical floods to investigate possible causes and potential mitigation alternatives to higher flood stages in recent (2007 and 2008) floods. Extreme flooding occurred on the Wichita River on June 30, 2007, inundating 167 homes in Wichita Falls. Although a record flood stage was reached in June 2007, the peak discharge was much less than some historical floods at Wichita Falls. Streamflow and stage data from two gages on the Wichita River and one on Holliday Creek were used to assess the interaction of the two streams. Changes in the Wichita River channel were evaluated using historical aerial and ground photography, comparison of recent and historical cross sections, and comparison of channel roughness coefficients with those from earlier studies. The floods of 2007 and 2008 were modeled using a one-dimensional step-backwater model. Calibrated channel roughness was larger for the 2007 flood compared to the 2008 flood, and the 2007 flood peaked about 4 feet higher than the 2008 flood. Calibration of the 1941 flood yielded a channel roughness coefficient (Manning's n) of 0.030, which represents a fairly clean natural channel. The step-backwater model was also used to evaluate the following potential mitigation alternatives: (1) increasing the capacity of the bypass channel near River Road in Wichita Falls, Texas; (2) removal of obstructions near the Scott Avenue and Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard bridges in Wichita Falls, Texas; (3) widening of aggraded channel banks in the reach between Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard and River Road; and (4) reducing channel bank and overbank roughness. Reductions in water-surface elevations ranged from 0.1 foot to as much as 3.0 feet for the different mitigation alternatives. The effects of implementing a combination of different flood-mitigation alternatives were not investigated.

  10. Effect of a Two-Year Obesity Prevention Intervention on Percentile Changes in Body Mass Index and Academic Performance in Low-Income Elementary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Messiah, Sarah E.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Almon, Marie; Agatston, Arthur S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effects of a school-based obesity prevention intervention that included dietary, curricula, and physical activity components on body mass index (BMI) percentiles and academic performance among low-income elementary school children. Methods. The study had a quasi-experimental design (4 intervention schools and 1 control school; 4588 schoolchildren; 48% Hispanic) and was conducted over a 2-year period. Data are presented for the subset of the cohort who qualified for free or reduced-price school lunches (68% Hispanic; n = 1197). Demographic and anthropometric data were collected in the fall and spring of each year, and academic data were collected at the end of each year. Results. Significantly more intervention than control children stayed within normal BMI percentile ranges both years (P = .02). Although not significantly so, more obese children in the intervention (4.4%) than in the control (2.5%) decreased their BMI percentiles. Overall, intervention schoolchildren had significantly higher math scores both years (P < .001). Hispanic and White intervention schoolchildren were significantly more likely to have higher math scores (P < .001). Although not significantly so, intervention schoolchildren had higher reading scores both years. Conclusions. School-based interventions can improve health and academic performance among low-income schoolchildren. PMID:20167892

  11. Vaccine effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in Navarre, Spain: 2013/14 mid-season analysis.

    PubMed

    Castilla, J; Martínez-Baz, I; Navascués, A; Fernandez-Alonso, M; Reina, G; Guevara, M; Chamorro, J; Ortega, M T; Albéniz, E; Pozo, F; Ezpeleta, C

    2014-01-01

    We estimate mid-2013/14 season vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the influenza trivalent vaccine in Navarre, Spain. Influenza-like illness cases attended in hospital (n=431) and primary healthcare (n=344) were included. The overall adjusted VE in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza was 24% (95% CI: -14 to 50). The VE was 40% (95% CI: -12 to 68) against influenza A(H1)pdm09 and 13% (95% CI: -36 to 45) against influenza A(H3). These results suggest a moderate preventive effect against influenza A(H1)pdm09 and low protection against influenza A(H3). PMID:24556347

  12. Complex geohazard susceptibility zoning for effective landuse planning and catastroph prevention in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hradecky, P.; Baron, I.

    2012-04-01

    The Czech Geological Survey conducted projects of geological mapping and complex geohazard susceptibility zoning in Nicaragua in the years 1997-2009. For selected areas in vicinity of major cities and towns basic geological maps at a scalle 1:50,000, maps of geomorphic features (Geomorphic Inventory Maps), Morphostructural Maps of estimated fault zones, and derived Geohazard Susceptibility maps were done. These maps were prepared during field campaigns by direct field mapping, analysis of remote-sensing data, communicating the local authorities, interwieving the local inhabitants and with very close cooperation with the local partner of the projects - the Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER). The resulting maps and explanatory reports presented the dangerous natural processes that occurred in each respective area in the past and proposed preventive measures in detail. Zones evaluated as highly susceptible, e.g., to (i) mass movements, (ii) large inundations, (iii) torrential flooding, (iv) seismogenic liquefaction, etc., were presented in bold colours on the maps. Such maps and reports were presented to local authorities and inhabitants of respective cities during public breefings at the end of each mapping campaign. In such a way, areas of Pacific volcanic ridge (1997-2003), Jinotega (2004), Somoto (2005), Estelí (2006), Boaco and Santa Lucia (2007, 2008), Sebaco (2008) and Jalapa (2009) were elaborated. The maps then served to the INETER for implementation into the landuse plans, evacuation routes and other preventive measures to protect and save human lives and inftrastructure. This approach could serve as a muster for a simple, cost effective and relatively fast geohazards susceptibility evaluation of any area in any developing country. The projects also paid attention to capacity building of our Nicaraguan partners. These projects of the Czech Geological Survey were conducted as the international aid of the Czech Republic to Nicaragua, financed by the Ministry of the Czech Republic

  13. Glutamine is highly effective in preventing in vivo cobalt-induced oxidative stress in rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Soledad; Polizio, Ariel H.; Erario, María A.; Tomaro, María L.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the in vivo effect of glutamine on cobalt-generated oxidative stress and (HO-1) induction in rat liver. METHODS: Fasted female Wistar rats received a single injection of cobalt chloride (375 µmol/kg body weight) and then were killed at different times. Lipid peroxidation and soluble and enzymatic antioxidant defense system (reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were measured in liver homogenates. Ferritin and ferritin iron contents as well as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity and expression were also determined. The antioxidant properties of glutamine (Gln) were also evaluated. RESULTS: Cobalt chloride increased lipid peroxidation (50% over control values) 1 h after treatment. GSH reached a minimum at 3 h (40%) increasing thereafter. Twelve hours after CoCl2 injection, the antioxidant enzymes CAT, GSH-Px and SOD also diminished by about 30%. Heme oxygenase-1 induction was observed 6 h after treatment reaching a maximum value of 14-fold over the controls, 12 h after cobalt treatment. A 1.7-fold increase in ferritin and ferritin-bound iron 24 h after treatment were also obtained. Administration of glutamine (300 mg/kg body weight) by gavage 24 h before CoCl2 treatment entirely prevented the increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content, the decrease in GSH levels, and partially reverted heme oxygenase-1 induction. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that a natural product such as glutamine prevents glutathione depletion and consequently heme oxygenase induction. PMID:15962369

  14. Determinants of the Cost-Effectiveness of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Amanda; Maire, Nicolas; Sicuri, Elisa; Smith, Thomas; Conteh, Lesong

    2011-01-01

    Background Trials of intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) and children (IPTc) have shown promising results in reducing malaria episodes but with varying efficacy and cost-effectiveness. The effects of different intervention and setting characteristics are not well known. We simulate the effects of the different target age groups and delivery channels, seasonal or year-round delivery, transmission intensity, seasonality, proportions of malaria fevers treated and drug characteristics. Methods We use a dynamic, individual-based simulation model of Plasmodium falciparum malaria epidemiology, antimalarial drug action and case management to simulate DALYs averted and the cost per DALY averted by IPTi and IPTc. IPT cost components were estimated from economic studies alongside trials. Results IPTi and IPTc were predicted to be cost-effective in most of the scenarios modelled. The cost-effectiveness is driven by the impact on DALYs, particularly for IPTc, and the low costs, particularly for IPTi which uses the existing delivery strategy, EPI. Cost-effectiveness was predicted to decrease with low transmission, badly timed seasonal delivery in a seasonal setting, short-acting and more expensive drugs, high frequencies of drug resistance and high levels of treatment of malaria fevers. Seasonal delivery was more cost-effective in seasonal settings, and year-round in constant transmission settings. The difference was more pronounced for IPTc than IPTi due to the different proportions of fixed costs and also different assumed drug spacing during the transmission season. The number of DALYs averted was predicted to decrease as a target five-year age-band for IPTc was shifted from children under 5 years into older ages, except at low transmission intensities. Conclusions Modelling can extend the information available by predicting impact and cost-effectiveness for scenarios, for outcomes and for multiple strategies where, for practical reasons, trials cannot be carried out. Both IPTi and IPTc are generally cost-effective but could be rendered cost-ineffective by characteristics of the setting, drug or implementation. PMID:21490967

  15. Effect of vanadium on bone metabolism in weanling rats: Zinc prevents the toxic effect of vanadium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yamaguchi; H. Oishi; Y. Suketa

    1989-01-01

    Summary The effect of vanadium on bone metabolism was investigated in the femoral diaphysis of weanling rats. Vanadium pentoxide (1.0–20.0 µmol V\\/100g b.wt.) was administered orally for 3 days. The doses of 15.0 and 20.0 µmol V\\/100 g caused a significant increase in serum calcium concentration. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was increased significantly by the doses of 1.0–20.0 µmol V\\/100g,

  16. The potential of coaching as a strategy to improve the effectiveness of school-based substance use prevention curricula.

    PubMed

    Ringwalt, Christopher L; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Dusenbury, Linda; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Giles, Steven M; Brodish, Paul H

    2009-08-01

    Research-based substance use prevention curricula typically yield small effects when implemented by school teachers under real-world conditions. Using a randomized controlled trial, the authors examined whether expert coaching improves the effectiveness of the All Stars prevention curriculum. Although a positive effect on students' cigarette use was noted, this finding may be attributed to marked baseline differences on this variable across the intervention and control groups. No effects were found on students' alcohol or marijuana use or on any of several variables thought to mediate curriculum effects. The effects of coaching on teachers may not become evident until future years, when they have moved beyond an initial mechanical delivery of the curriculum. PMID:17652615

  17. Proposal for a multiphase fall model based on real-world fall recordings with body-fixed sensors.

    PubMed

    Becker, C; Schwickert, L; Mellone, S; Bagalà, F; Chiari, L; Helbostad, J L; Zijlstra, W; Aminian, K; Bourke, A; Todd, C; Bandinelli, S; Kerse, N; Klenk, J

    2012-12-01

    Falls are by far the leading cause of fractures and accidents in the home environment. The current Cochrane reviews and other systematic reviews report on more than 200 intervention studies about fall prevention. A recent meta-analysis has summarized the most important risk factors of accidental falls. However, falls and fall-related injuries remain a major challenge. One novel approach to recognize, analyze, and work better toward preventing falls could be the differentiation of the fall event into separate phases. This might aid in reconsidering ways to design preventive efforts and diagnostic approaches. From a conceptual point of view, falls can be separated into a pre-fall phase, a falling phase, an impact phase, a resting phase, and a recovery phase. Patient and external observers are often unable to give detailed comments concerning these phases. With new technological developments, it is now at least partly possible to examine the phases of falls separately and to generate new hypotheses.The article describes the practicality and the limitations of this approach using body-fixed sensor technology. The features of the different phases are outlined with selected real-world fall signals. PMID:23184296

  18. Current Perspectives on Linking School Bullying Research to Effective Prevention Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothy L. Espelage; Susan M. Swearer

    In the prevention literature, the terms “primary,” “secondary,” and “tertiary” refer to specific prevention and intervention\\u000a strategies designed to reduce problem behavior in youth. Perhaps the most widely recognized model that embraces this three-tiered\\u000a model is Positive Behavior Supports (PBS; Sprague & Golly, 2004; Sprague & Walker, 2005). PBS is a systems-based, behaviorally\\u000a focused prevention and intervention set of strategies

  19. An assessment of the design and effectiveness of the Environmental Pollution Prevention Project (EP3)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Gallup; Betsy Marcotte

    2004-01-01

    The USAID Environmental Pollution Prevention Project (EP3) established pollution prevention (P2) programs in nine countries in Latin America, Asia, and North Africa. EP3 provided technical assistance, training and policy development to build sustainable pollution prevention programs for the transfer of industrial P2 know-how, equipment and environmental management expertise. Among the most important lessons learned during EP3 were: (1) working with

  20. Prevention Effect of Allopurinol on Post-Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Pancreatitis: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Kai; Xia, Shi-Hai

    2014-01-01

    Background Pancreatitis is the most common complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) which can be severe and cause death in approximately 10% of cases. Up to now, six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been found relevant to the effect of allopurinol on prevention of Post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). However, these results remained controversial. Objective To conduct a meta-analysis with RCTs published in full text to determine the effectiveness of prophylactic allopurinol of different dosages and administration time in the incidence and severity of PEP. Methods Literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library from databases inception to May 2014. RCTs comparing the effect of allopurinol with placebo on prevention of PEP were included. Statistical heterogeneity was quantitatively evaluated by?2 test with the significance set P<0.10 or I2>50%. Results Six RCTs consisting of 1974 participants were eventually included. The incidences of PEP in allopurinol group and placebo group were 8.4%(83/986) and 9.9%(98/988) respectively. Meta-analysis showed no evident prevention effect of allopurinol on the incidence of PEP (RR 0.75, 95%CI 0.39–1.42) with significant heterogeneity (I2?=?70.4%, P?=?0.005). When studies were stratified according to the dosages and administration time of allopurinol they applied, there was still no evident prevention effect of allopurinol on mild, moderate or severe PEP. However, statistically substantial heterogeneity was presented in the subgroup of moderate PEP when the effect of high dose of allopurinol was analyzed (Imoderate2?=?82.3%, Pmoderate?=?0.018). Statistically significant heterogeneity was also observed in subgroup of mild PEP, when the effect of long adminstration time of allopurinol was investigated (Imild2?=?62.8%, Pmild?=?0.068). Conclusion The prophylactic use of allopurinol in different dosages and administration time had no effect in preventing incidence and severity of PEP. PMID:25202907