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Sample records for effective falls prevention

  1. Preventing Falls

    MedlinePLUS

    ... there are simple ways you can prevent most falls. Stay physically active. Regular exercise makes you stronger. ... that may result from falling. Here are some fall prevention tips from Go4Life : l Have your eyes ...

  2. Preventing Falls

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of falling. Exercises that improve balance, such as tai chi, are helpful. Your local health or senior center ... to prevent falls. Do balance exercises, such as tai chi. These types of exercises can lower the chances ...

  3. Preventing falls

    MedlinePLUS

    Gillespie LD, Robertson MC, Gillespie WJ, Lamb SE, Gates S, Cumming RG, Rowe BH. Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue ...

  4. Effects of a multifactorial fall prevention program on balance, gait, and fear of falling in post-stroke inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Younuk; Lee, Kyeongbong; Shin, Seonhae; Lee, Wanhee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of a multifactorial fall prevention program on balance, gait, and fear of falling in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-five stroke patients were divided randomly into multifactorial fall prevention program group (n=15) and control treadmill group (n=10). [Methods] All interventions were applied for 30?min, five times per week, for five weeks. The fall prevention program included interventions based on the “Step Up to Stop Falls” initiative and educational interventions based on the Department of Health guidelines. For those in the treadmill group, the speed was increased gradually. The Korean falls efficacy scale and Korean activities-specific balance confidence scale were used to assess fear of falling. To assess balance and walking ability, the Korean performance-oriented mobility assessment scale and the 10-m and 6-minute walk tests were used. [Results] The fall prevention program interventions were found to be very effective at improving gait, balance, and fear of falling compared with the treadmill intervention and therefore seem appropriate for stroke patients. [Conclusion] A multifactorial fall prevention program is effective at improving balance, gait ability, and fear of falling. It is a more specific and broad intervention for reducing falls among inpatients in facilities and hospitals. PMID:26180337

  5. The Effectiveness of a Participatory Program on Fall Prevention in Oncology Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Li-Chi; Ma, Wei-Fen; Li, Tsai-Chung; Liang, Yia-Wun; Tsai, Li-Yun; Chang, Fy-Uan

    2015-01-01

    Falls are known to be one of the most common in patient adverse events. A high incidence of falls was reported on patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a participatory program on patient's knowledge and self-efficacy of fall prevention and fall incidence in an oncology ward. In this quasi-experimental study,…

  6. Preventing Falls and Related Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Basics Falls and Fractures Preventing Falls and Related Fractures Publication available in: PDF (79 KB) Related Resources Falls and Fractures Caídas y fracturas (Falls and Fractures) Osteoporosis and ...

  7. The Effects of an Education Program on Home Renovation for Fall Prevention of Korean Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Miseon; Lee, Yeunsook

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to verify the effects of an education program on home renovation for fall prevention among older people, more specifically fall efficacy and home renovation intentions. A quasiexperimental study with nonequivalent control and comparative groups was conducted to demonstrate the effects of the education. A total of 51 older people…

  8. Hospital Fall Prevention: A Systematic Review of Implementation, Components, Adherence, and Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Hempel, Susanne; Newberry, Sydne; Wang, Zhen; Booth, Marika; Shanman, Roberta; Johnsen, Breanne; Shier, Victoria; Saliba, Debra; Spector, William D; Ganz, David A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To systematically document the implementation, components, comparators, adherence, and effectiveness of published fall prevention approaches in U.S. acute care hospitals. Design Systematic review. Studies were identified through existing reviews, searching five electronic databases, screening reference lists, and contacting topic experts for studies published through August 2011. Setting U.S. acute care hospitals. Participants Studies reporting in-hospital falls for intervention groups and concurrent (e.g., controlled trials) or historic comparators (e.g., before–after studies). Intervention Fall prevention interventions. Measurements Incidence rate ratios (IRR, ratio of fall rate postintervention or treatment group to the fall rate preintervention or control group) and ratings of study details. Results Fifty-nine studies met inclusion criteria. Implementation strategies were sparsely documented (17% not at all) and included staff education, establishing committees, seeking leadership support, and occasionally continuous quality improvement techniques. Most interventions (81%) included multiple components (e.g., risk assessments (often not validated), visual risk alerts, patient education, care rounds, bed-exit alarms, and postfall evaluations). Fifty-four percent did not report on fall prevention measures applied in the comparison group, and 39% neither reported fidelity data nor described adherence strategies such as regular audits and feedback to ensure completion of care processes. Only 45% of concurrent and 15% of historic control studies reported sufficient data to compare fall rates. The pooled postintervention incidence rate ratio (IRR) was 0.77 (95% confidence interval = 0.52–1.12, P = .17; eight studies; I2: 94%). Meta-regressions showed no systematic association between implementation intensity, intervention complexity, comparator information, or adherence levels and IRR. Conclusion Promising approaches exist, but better reporting of outcomes, implementation, adherence, intervention components, and comparison group information is necessary to establish evidence on how hospitals can successfully prevent falls. PMID:23527904

  9. Fall prevention in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Iacomelli, Iacopo; Brunetti, Maria Angela; Ceccofiglio, Alice; Tesi, Francesca; Marchionni, Niccolò

    2013-05-01

    Falls are frequent in the elderly and affect mortality, morbidity, loss of functional capacity and institutionalization. In the older patient the incidence of falls can sometimes be underestimated, even in the absence of a clear cognitive impairment, because it is often difficult to reconstruct the dynamics. It is quite common that forms due to syncope are associated with retrograde amnesia and in 40 to 60% of the cases falls happen in the absence of witnesses. The pathogenesis of falls is often multifactorial, due to physiological age-related changes or more properly pathological factors, or due to the environment. The identification of risk factors is essential in the planning of preventive measures. Syncope is one of major causes of falls. About 20% of cardiovascular syncope in patients older than 70 appears as a fall and more than 20% of older people with Carotid Sinus Syndrome complain of falls as well as syncope. These data clearly state that older patients with history of falls should undergo a cardiovascular and neuroautonomic assessment besides the survey of other risk factors. Multifactorial assessment requires a synergy of various specialists. The geriatrician coordinates the multidisciplinary intervention in order to make the most effective evaluation of the risk of falling, searching for all predisposing factors, aiming towards a program of prevention. In clear pathological conditions it is possible to enact a specific treatment. Particular attention must indeed be paid to the re-evaluation of drug therapy, with dose adjustments or withdrawal especially for antihypertensive, diuretics and benzodiazepines. The Guidelines of the American Geriatrics Society recommend modification of environmental hazards, training paths, hip protectors and appropriate use of support tools (sticks, walkers), which can be effective elements of a multifactorial intervention program. Balance exercises are also recommended. In conclusion, an initial assessment, supported by a comprehensive cardiovascular and neuroautonomic evaluation, allows for reaching a final diagnosis in most cases, demonstrating a key role in the real identification of the etiology of the fall and implementing the treatment measures. PMID:24133524

  10. Fall prevention in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Iacomelli, Iacopo; Brunetti, Maria Angela; Ceccofiglio, Alice; Tesi, Francesca; Marchionni, Niccolò

    2013-01-01

    Summary Falls are frequent in the elderly and affect mortality, morbidity, loss of functional capacity and institutionalization. In the older patient the incidence of falls can sometimes be underestimated, even in the absence of a clear cognitive impairment, because it is often difficult to reconstruct the dynamics. It is quite common that forms due to syncope are associated with retrograde amnesia and in 40 to 60% of the cases falls happen in the absence of witnesses. The pathogenesis of falls is often multifactorial, due to physiological age-related changes or more properly pathological factors, or due to the environment. The identification of risk factors is essential in the planning of preventive measures. Syncope is one of major causes of falls. About 20% of cardiovascular syncope in patients older than 70 appears as a fall and more than 20% of older people with Carotid Sinus Syndrome complain of falls as well as syncope. These data clearly state that older patients with history of falls should undergo a cardiovascular and neuroautonomic assessment besides the survey of other risk factors. Multifactorial assessment requires a synergy of various specialists. The geriatrician coordinates the multidisciplinary intervention in order to make the most effective evaluation of the risk of falling, searching for all predisposing factors, aiming towards a program of prevention. In clear pathological conditions it is possible to enact a specific treatment. Particular attention must indeed be paid to the re-evaluation of drug therapy, with dose adjustments or withdrawal especially for antihypertensive, diuretics and benzodiazepines. The Guidelines of the American Geriatrics Society recommend modification of environmental hazards, training paths, hip protectors and appropriate use of support tools (sticks, walkers), which can be effective elements of a multifactorial intervention program. Balance exercises are also recommended. In conclusion, an initial assessment, supported by a comprehensive cardiovascular and neuroautonomic evaluation, allows for reaching a final diagnosis in most cases, demonstrating a key role in the real identification of the etiology of the fall and implementing the treatment measures. PMID:24133524

  11. [Prevention programs of risk factors for falls].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shuzo; Sakita, Masahiro

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 17% of Japanese older people fall for a year. The femoral neck fractures with falls caused by various functional problems make them depress remarkably activities of daily living and quality of life. In risk factors for falls in old people, muscle weakness, balance and gait disorders particularly increases to falls. The major results from recent systematic reviews have indicated that interventions of exercise, multifactorial, environmental modification and gradual withdrawal of psychotropic medication in community-dwelling elderly people were effective for preventing falls. Regarding the older people in hospitals and sanatoriums, it appeared that comprehensive multifactorial interventions and vitamin D supplementation could be effective in falls rather than exercises intervention only. However, the short period of the exercise intervention may affect ineffectiveness in preventing falls. PMID:25509808

  12. Osteosarcopenic obesity and fall prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Cruz-Díaz, David; Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2015-02-01

    Sarcopenia, obesity, and osteoporosis are three interrelated entities which may share common pathophysiological factors. In the last decades, overall survival has drastically increased. Postmenopausal women, due to their estrogen depletion, are at higher risk of developing any of these three conditions or the three, which is termed osteosarcopenic obesity. One of the most common health problems among these patients is the elevated risk of falls and fractures. Falls and fall-related injuries are one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in older adults, and have a significant impact on social, economical and health-related costs. Several extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors have been described that play a role in the etiology of falls. A therapeutic approach to osteosarcopenic obesity aimed at the prevention of falls must include several factors, and act on those risk elements which can be effectively modified. An adequate weight-loss diet and a good nutritional intake, with an appropriate amount of vitamin D and the right protein/carbohydrates ratio, may contribute to the prevention of falls. The recommendation of physical exercise, both traditional (resistance or aerobic training) and more recent varieties (Tai Chi, Pilates, body vibration), can improve balance and positively contribute to fall prevention, whether by itself or in combination with other therapeutic strategies. Finally, a pharmacological approach, especially one focused on hormone therapy, has shown to have a positive effect on postmenopausal women's balance, leading to a decreased risk of falls. PMID:25533145

  13. Orthopedic Injuries: Protocols to Prevent and Manage Patient Falls.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Lynn C; Revell, Maria A

    2015-12-01

    Health care organizations must adopt a culture of safety and implement effective fall prevention protocols. The teach-back method is a useful strategy for health providers to determine patient understanding of information taught to maintain a safe environment and prevent falls. Purposeful rounding is a proactive approach to ensure that patient assessments are accurate and research supports that patients use the call light less when nurses participate in hourly rounding. This article provides the reader with evidence-based fall prevention interventions, tips for using the teach-back method, and fall prevention tools to safely care for patients of all ages. PMID:26596654

  14. What Are Ways to Prevent Falls and Related Fractures?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What Are Ways to Prevent Falls and Related Fractures? Fast Facts: An Easy-to-Read Series of ... 57 KB) Español Related Resources Preventing Falls and Fractures Osteoporosis and Falls Osteoporosis and Falls (????) Partner ...

  15. Fall prevention in assisted living: assessment and strategies.

    PubMed

    Mitty, Ethel; Flores, Sandi

    2007-01-01

    Residents in assisted living residences have similar risk factors for falls as do community-residing older adults and, as such, can benefit from the research findings on falls prevention conducted with that population. Some risk factors can be managed, such as, medication side effects, and muscle weakness; others such as degenerative neurological changes, cannot. Knowing a resident's falls history and conducting a full risk assessment, in combination with appropriate interventions, can reduce the probability of a future fall. Exercise appears to be the most effective factor in reducing the risk of falls and injuries from falls. The fear of falling, whether or not associated with a previous fall, is more common among older women and can seriously restrict their quality of life. This article describes evidence-based falls risk assessment instruments and interventions to reduce falls risk. T'ai chi, for example, can reduce falls risk by improving balance. The article describes a standard fall prevention program for older adults that can be part of a resident's care or service plan, criteria for an occurrence report, quality improvement monitoring, and a formula to calculate the residence's monthly falls rate. PMID:18068819

  16. Influences on modern multifactorial falls prevention interventions and fear of falling in non-frail older adults: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Svantesson, Ulla; Babagbemi, Buki; Foster, Lakicia; Alricsson, Marie

    2014-10-01

    This review explores underlying features that may influence fear of falling and the effectiveness of multifactorial falls prevention programs in community dwelling non-frail adults aged 65 and older. It also examines the interrelationship between fear of falling and multifactorial falls prevention interventions. A literature search of medical databases was conducted to identify articles that address the fear of falling and multifactorial programs as either a primary or secondary component of their findings. Multifactorial interventions were assessed in terms of their program content, design, demographics, implementation techniques, and cost-effectiveness. Falls are a common, but preventable, cause of morbidity and injury in older adults 65 and over. In addition to physiological variables, fear of falling and self-efficacy are psychosocial factors that impact the incidence of falls in this population. Addressing fear of falling in addition to physiological parameters may influence the success of multifactorial falls prevention programs for adults 65 and over. PMID:25110534

  17. Influences on Modern Multifactorial Falls Prevention Interventions and Fear of Falling in Non-Frail Older Adults: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Svantesson, Ulla; Babagbemi, Buki; Foster, Lakicia; Alricsson, Marie

    2014-01-01

    This review explores underlying features that may influence fear of falling and the effectiveness of multifactorial falls prevention programs in community dwelling non-frail adults aged 65 and older. It also examines the interrelationship between fear of falling and multifactorial falls prevention interventions. A literature search of medical databases was conducted to identify articles that address the fear of falling and multifactorial programs as either a primary or secondary component of their findings. Multifactorial interventions were assessed in terms of their program content, design, demographics, implementation techniques, and cost-effectiveness. Falls are a common, but preventable, cause of morbidity and injury in older adults 65 and over. In addition to physiological variables, fear of falling and self-efficacy are psychosocial factors that impact the incidence of falls in this population. Addressing fear of falling in addition to physiological parameters may influence the success of multifactorial falls prevention programs for adults 65 and over. PMID:25110534

  18. Research on Fall Prevention and Protection from Heights in Japan

    PubMed Central

    OHDO, Katsutoshi; HINO, Yasumichi; TAKAHASHI, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    The high frequency of fall accidents is a serious problem in Japan. Thus, more stringent countermeasures for preventing falls from scaffolds were developed and incorporated into institutional guidelines. These countermeasures aim to decrease deaths caused by falls from scaffolds. Despite the improvements in such measures, however, the rate of accidental fall deaths remains high in Japan’s construction industries. To improve the rigor of the countermeasures, a committee was established in our institute by the Japan Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. This committee investigated the regulations applied in other countries and evaluated construction industry compliance with existing fall prevention guidelines. After considerable research and discussion, the Occupational Safety and Health Regulations and Guidelines were amended in 2009. The effects of the amended regulations have recently been investigated on the basis of accident reports. This paper describes the investigation and its results. The paper also discusses other research and workplace safety countermeasures for preventing falls and ensuring fall protection from heights. PMID:25098387

  19. Effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to prevent falls in community dwelling older people with disabling foot pain: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention in preventing falls in community dwelling older people with disabling foot pain. Design Parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting University health sciences clinic in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 305 community dwelling men and women (mean age 74 (SD 6) years) with disabling foot pain and an increased risk of falling. 153 were allocated to a multifaceted podiatry intervention and 152 to routine podiatry care, with 12 months’ follow-up. Interventions Multifaceted podiatry intervention consisting of foot orthoses, advice on footwear, subsidy for footwear ($A100 voucher; £65; €74), a home based programme of foot and ankle exercises, a falls prevention education booklet, and routine podiatry care for 12 months. The control group received routine podiatry care for 12 months. Main outcome measures Proportion of fallers and multiple fallers, falling rate, and injuries resulting from falls during follow-up. Results Overall, 264 falls occurred during the study. 296 participants returned all 12 calendars: 147 (96%) in the intervention group and 149 (98%) in the control group. Adherence was good, with 52% of the participants completing 75% or more of the requested three exercise sessions weekly, and 55% of those issued orthoses reporting wearing them most of the time. Participants in the intervention group (n=153) experienced 36% fewer falls than participants in the control group (incidence rate ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.91, P=0.01). The proportion of fallers and multiple fallers did not differ significantly between the groups (relative risk 0.85, 0.66 to 1.08, P=0.19 and 0.63, 0.38 to 1.04, P=0.07). One fracture occurred in the intervention group and seven in the control group (0.14, 0.02 to 1.15, P=0.07). Significant improvements in the intervention group compared with the control group were found for the domains of strength (ankle eversion), range of motion (ankle dorsiflexion and inversion/eversion), and balance (postural sway on the floor when barefoot and maximum balance range wearing shoes). Conclusions A multifaceted podiatry intervention reduced the rate of falls in community dwelling older people with disabling foot pain. The components of the intervention are inexpensive and relatively simple to implement, suggesting that the programme could be incorporated into routine podiatry practice or multidisciplinary falls prevention clinics. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000065392. PMID:21680622

  20. Prevention of falls in the elderly--a review.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, M K; Magnusson, H; von Schewelov, T; Rosengren, B E

    2013-03-01

    The proportion of elderly in the society increases and fall frequency increases with advancing age. Many falls result in fractures and also soft tissue injuries, longstanding pain, functional impairment, reduced quality of life, increased mortality, and excess in healthcare costs. Due to the magnitude of these negative effects, a variety of single- and multicomponent fall-preventive intervention programs has been initiated.This review identifies programs that, in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), have been shown with fall-reductive effects.The most effective strategies in community-dwelling elderly include regular physical training with program that includes several different training modalities. Modification of the overall or patient-specific risk factor profile in home hazard modification program has been proven to decrease fall risk in community-living elderly. The elderly in the community benefit also from wearing antislip shoe devices when walking in icy conditions, from adjustment of psychotropic medication, and from structured modification of multipharmacy. If vitamin D levels in blood are low, supplementation is beneficial as is the first eye cataract surgery and pacemaker implantation in patients with cardioinhibitory carotid sinus hypersensitivity. In addition to modification of specific risk factors, generalized and individualized multifactorial preventive programs, all including some sort of physical training, have been found to decrease the fall risk. In summary, there is now strong evidence in the literature that structured fall-preventive programs in the elderly, especially in high-risk groups, are beneficial in reducing both the number of fallers and the number of falls in community. PMID:23296743

  1. Effects of Aqua Aerobic Therapy Exercise for Older Adults on Muscular Strength, Agility and Balance to Prevent Falling during Gait

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suk Bum; O'sullivan, David Michael

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of an aqua aerobic therapy exercise for older adults on biomechanical and physiological factors affecting gait. [Subjects] A total of 15 subjects participated in this study and they were randomly divided into the experimental and the control group. [Methods] Physiological variables, leg strength, power and flexibility, and biomechanical variables, both kinematic and kinetic, were measured before and after the aqua aerobic therapy exercise. Each subject was instructed to walk along an elevated walkway and during the trials a trapdoor opened at random to create a 10?cm falling perturbation. Full body motion and kinetics was gathered during the gait. [Results] There were significant reductions in body weight, and body fat mass, and stride time after the perturbation. Significant increases in leg strength corresponded to the maximum joint moment of the landing leg showing that the subjects' ability for recovery of balance after the perturbation improved. [Conclusion] As the results showed significant improvements in gait pattern and recovery time after perturbed gait, we conclude that aqua aerobic therapy is an effective exercise method for training older adults to reduce their risk of falling. PMID:24259886

  2. Home Improvements Prevent Falls | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Home Improvements Prevent Falls Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... and ensure your safety. "Safe-ty-fy" Your Home Some Questions for Your Provider Will my medicines ...

  3. Nursing Staff Develop a Video to Prevent Falls: A Quality Improvement Project.

    PubMed

    Silkworth, Amelia L; Baker, Jennifer; Ferrara, Joseph; Wagner, Molly; Gevaart, Melinda; Morin, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Many fall prevention strategies exist with some degree of effectiveness. Evidence to support 1 unique bundling of strategies is limited. The purpose of this article is to describe a staff-driven quality improvement initiative to develop a video in partnership with patients and families to prevent falls when hospitalized. Since the video's release, the fall rate has decreased by 29.4%. PMID:26121052

  4. Integration of Fall Prevention into State Policy in Connecticut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Terrence E.; Baker, Dorothy I.; Leo-Summers, Linda S.; Bianco, Luann; Gottschalk, Margaret; Acampora, Denise; King, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Study: To describe the ongoing efforts of the Connecticut Collaboration for Fall Prevention (CCFP) to move evidence regarding fall prevention into clinical practice and state policy. Methods: A university-based team developed methods of networking with existing statewide organizations to influence clinical practice and state policy.…

  5. Community-based falls prevention: lessons from an Interprofessional Mobility Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Craig A.; Milligan, James D.; Patel, Tejal; Pritchard, Sarah; Labreche, Tammy; Dillon-Martin, Sharon; Ilich, Alexandra; Riva, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Falls are a common and serious risk with an aging population. Chiropractors commonly see firsthand the effects of falls and resulting injuries in their senior patients and they can reduce falls risk through active screening. Ongoing research has provided proven approaches for making falls less likely. Screening for falls should be done yearly for all patients 65 years and older or in those with a predisposing medical condition. Additional specific falls prevention professional education would enable the chiropractor to best assist these patients. Collaboration and communication with the patient’s family physician offers an opportunity for improved interprofessional dialogue to enhance patient care related to falls risk. Frequently falls prevention strategies are implemented by an interprofessional team. Chiropractors increasingly contribute within multidisciplinary teams. Collaboration by the chiropractor requires both simple screening and knowledge of health care system navigation. Such awareness can permit optimal participation in the care of their patient and the best outcome. PMID:25202159

  6. Developing an Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Curriculum for Community Health Workers

    PubMed Central

    St. John, Julie A.; Shubert, Tiffany E.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Rosemond, Cherie A.; Howell, Doris A.; Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2015-01-01

    This perspective paper describes processes in the development of an evidence-based fall prevention curriculum for community health workers/promotores (CHW/P) that highlights the development of the curriculum and addresses: (1) the need and rationale for involving CHW/P in fall prevention; (2) involvement of CHW/P and content experts in the curriculum development; (3) best practices utilized in the curriculum development and training implementation; and (4) next steps for dissemination and utilization of the CHW/P fall prevention curriculum. The project team of CHW/P and content experts developed, pilot tested, and revised bilingual in-person training modules about fall prevention among older adults. The curriculum incorporated the following major themes: (1) fall risk factors and strategies to reduce/prevent falls; (2) communication strategies to reduce risk of falling and strategies for developing fall prevention plans; and (3) health behavior change theories utilized to prevent and reduce falls. Three separate fall prevention modules were developed for CHW/P and CHW/P Instructors to be used during in-person trainings. Module development incorporated a five-step process: (1) conduct informal focus groups with CHW/P to inform content development; (2) develop three in-person modules in English and Spanish with input from content experts; (3) pilot-test the modules with CHW/P; (4) refine and finalize modules based on pilot-test feedback; and (5) submit modules for approval of continuing education units. This project contributes to the existing evidence-based literature by examining the role of CHW/P in fall prevention among older adults. By including evidence-based communication strategies such as message tailoring, the curriculum design allows CHW/P to personalize the information for individuals, which can result in an effective dissemination of a curriculum that is evidence-based and culturally appropriate. PMID:25964920

  7. Multiple component interventions for preventing falls and fall-related injuries among older people: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited attention has been paid in the literature to multiple component fall prevention interventions that comprise two or more fixed combinations of fall prevention interventions that are not individually tailored following a risk assessment. The study objective was to determine the effect of multiple component interventions on fall rates, number of fallers and fall-related injuries among older people and to establish effect sizes of particular intervention combinations. Methods Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Cochrane, AMED, UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio, Current Controlled Trials register and Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials register were systematically searched to August 2013 for randomised controlled trials targeting those aged 60 years and older with any medical condition or in any setting that compared multiple component interventions with no intervention, placebo or usual clinical care on the outcomes reported falls, number that fall or fall-related injuries. Included studies were appraised using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Estimates of fall rate ratio and risk ratio were pooled across studies using random effects meta-analysis. Data synthesis took place in 2013. Results Eighteen papers reporting 17 trials were included (5034 participants). There was a reduction in the number of people that fell (pooled risk ratio?=?0.85, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.80 to 0.91) and the fall rate (pooled rate ratio?=?0.80, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.89) in favour of multiple component interventions when compared with controls. There was a small amount of statistical heterogeneity (I2?=?20%) across studies for fall rate and no heterogeneity across studies examining number of people that fell. Conclusions This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials found evidence that multiple component interventions that are not tailored to individually assessed risk factors are effective at reducing both the number of people that fall and the fall rate. This approach should be considered as a service delivery option. PMID:24495705

  8. Preventing Falls | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoporosis Preventing Falls Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of ... next to your bed Free NIH Videos About Osteoporosis The NIHSeniorHealth Web site features five brief, informative ...

  9. Falls among Older Adults: Public Health Impact and Prevention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Judy A.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of the epidemiology of falls among older adults, describes current prevention strategies, and highlights key areas that need to be addressed, including risk assessments, exercise, and environmental changes. (Contains 50 references.) (JOW)

  10. Preventing Death and Serious Injury from Falling Trees and Branches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Of 128 outdoor education related deaths examined since 1960, 14 have been due to falling trees or branches. This article examines the grounds on which death or serious injury due to falling trees or branches can be regarded as an inherent risk in outdoor education, and the extent to which such incidents can be regarded as preventable. It compares…

  11. Integration of Fall Prevention into State Policy in Connecticut

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Terrence E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Study: To describe the ongoing efforts of the Connecticut Collaboration for Fall Prevention (CCFP) to move evidence regarding fall prevention into clinical practice and state policy. Methods: A university-based team developed methods of networking with existing statewide organizations to influence clinical practice and state policy. Results: We describe steps taken that led to funding and legislation of fall prevention efforts in the state of Connecticut. We summarize CCFP’s direct outreach by tabulating the educational sessions delivered and the numbers and types of clinical care providers that were trained. Community organizations that had sustained clinical practices incorporating evidence-based fall prevention were subsequently funded through mini-grants to develop innovative interventional activities. These mini-grants targeted specific subpopulations of older persons at high risk for falls. Implications: Building collaborative relationships with existing stakeholders and care providers throughout the state, CCFP continues to facilitate the integration of evidence-based fall prevention into clinical practice and state-funded policy using strategies that may be useful to others. PMID:23042690

  12. Effectiveness of two year balance training programme on prevention of fall induced injuries in at risk women aged 75-85 living in community: Ossébo randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    El-Khoury, Fabienne; Cassou, Bernard; Latouche, Aurélien; Aegerter, Philippe; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of a two year exercise programme of progressive balance retraining in reducing injurious falls among women aged 75-85 at increased risk of falls and injuries and living in the community. Design Pragmatic multicentre, two arm, parallel group, randomised controlled trial. Setting 20 study sites in 16 medium to large cities throughout France. Participants 706 women aged 75-85, living in their own home, and with diminished balance and gait capacities, randomly allocated to the experimental intervention group (exercise programme, n=352) or the control group (no intervention, n=354). Intervention Weekly supervised group sessions of progressive balance training offered in community based premises for two years, supplemented by individually prescribed home exercises. Outcome measures A geriatrician blinded to group assignment classified falls into one of three categories (no consequence, moderate, severe) based on physical damage and medical care. The primary outcome was the rate of injurious falls (moderate and severe). The two groups were compared for rates of injurious falls with a “shared frailty” model. Other outcomes included the rates of all falls, physical functional capacities (balance and motor function test results), fear of falling (FES-I), physical activity level, and perceived health related quality of life (SF-36). Analysis was by intention to treat. Results There were 305 injurious falls in the intervention group and 397 in the control group (hazard ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.99). The difference in severe injuries (68 in intervention group v 87 in control group) was of the same order of magnitude (0.83, 0.60 to 1.16). At two years, women in the intervention group performed significantly better on all physical tests and had significantly better perception of their overall physical function than women in the control group. Among women who started the intervention (n=294), the median number of group sessions attended was 53 (interquartile range 16-71). Five injurious falls related to the intervention were recorded. Conclusion A two year progressive balance retraining programme combining weekly group and individual sessions was effective in reducing injurious falls and in improving measured and perceived physical function in women aged 75-85 at risk of falling. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00545350). PMID:26201510

  13. Tailored prevention of inpatient falls: development and usability testing of the fall TIPS toolkit.

    PubMed

    Zuyev, Lyubov; Benoit, Angela N; Chang, Frank Y; Dykes, Patricia C

    2011-02-01

    Patient falls and fall-related injuries are serious problems in hospitals. The Fall TIPS application aims to prevent patient falls by translating routine nursing fall risk assessment into a decision support intervention that communicates fall risk status and creates a tailored evidence-based plan of care that is accessible to the care team, patients, and family members. In our design and implementation of the Fall TIPS toolkit, we used the Spiral Software Development Life Cycle model. Three output tools available to be generated from the toolkit are bed poster, plan of care, and patient education handout. A preliminary design of the application was based on initial requirements defined by project leaders and informed by focus groups with end users. Preliminary design partially simulated the paper version of the Morse Fall Scale currently used in hospitals involved in the research study. Strengths and weaknesses of the first prototype were identified by heuristic evaluation. Usability testing was performed at sites where research study is implemented. Suggestions mentioned by end users participating in usability studies were either directly incorporated into the toolkit and output tools, were slightly modified, or will be addressed during training. The next step is implementation of the fall prevention toolkit on the pilot testing units. PMID:20975543

  14. Evaluating the effectiveness of a home-based exercise programme delivered through a tablet computer for preventing falls in older community-dwelling people over 2?years: study protocol for the Standing Tall randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Delbaere, K; Valenzuela, T; Woodbury, A; Davies, T; Yeong, J; Steffens, D; Miles, L; Pickett, L; Zijlstra, G A R; Clemson, L; Close, J C T; Howard, K; Lord, S R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In order to prevent falls, older people should exercise for at least 2?h per week for 6?months, with a strong focus on balance exercises. This article describes the design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based exercise programme delivered through a tablet computer to prevent falls in older people. Methods and analysis Participants aged 70?years or older, living in the community in Sydney will be recruited and randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. The intervention consists of a tailored, home-based balance training delivered through a tablet computer. Intervention participants will be asked to complete 2?h of exercises per week for 2?years. Both groups will receive an education programme focused on health-related information relevant to older adults, delivered through the tablet computer via weekly fact sheets. Primary outcome measures include number of fallers and falls rate recorded in weekly fall diaries at 12 months. A sample size of 500 will be necessary to see an effect on falls rate. Secondary outcome measures include concern about falling, depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life and physical activity levels (in all 500 participants); and physiological fall risk, balance, functional mobility, gait, stepping and cognitive performance (in a subsample of 200 participants). Adherence, acceptability, usability and enjoyment will be recorded in intervention group participants over 2 years. Data will be analysed using the intention-to-treat principle. Secondary analyses are planned in people with greater adherence. Economic analyses will be assessed from a health and community care provider perspective. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from UNSW Ethics Committee in December 2014 (ref number HC#14/266). Outcomes will be disseminated through publication in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at international conferences. Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN)12615000138583. PMID:26493461

  15. Falls prevention in the elderly: translating evidence into practice.

    PubMed

    Luk, James K H; Chan, T Y; Chan, Daniel K Y

    2015-04-01

    Falls are a common problem in the elderly. A common error in their management is that injury from the fall is treated, without finding its cause. Thus a proactive approach is important to screen for the likelihood of fall in the elderly. Fall assessment usually includes a focused history and a targeted examination. Timed up-and-go test can be performed quickly and is able to predict the likelihood of fall. Evidence-based fall prevention interventions include multi-component group or home-based exercises, participation in Tai Chi, environmental modifications, medication review, management of foot and footwear problems, vitamin D supplementation, and management of cardiovascular problems. If possible, these are best implemented in the form of multifactorial intervention. Bone health enhancement for residential care home residents and appropriate community patients, and prescription of hip protectors for residential care home residents are also recommended. Multifactorial intervention may also be useful in a hospital and residential care home setting. Use of physical restraints is not recommended for fall prevention. PMID:25722468

  16. Slip, Trip and Fall Prevention for Healthcare Workers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... type Slip, Trip, and Fall Prevention? | ?3 An analysis of workers’ compensation injury claims from acute-care ... oil, cleaning solutions, coffee, body fluids)? Are dry contaminants present (powder, sawdust, dirt, flour, food, wax chips)? Are there sudden changes in indoor ...

  17. Slow Down and Concentrate: Time for a Paradigm Shift in Fall Prevention among People with Parkinson's Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Stack, Emma L.; Roberts, Helen C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. We know little about how environmental challenges beyond home exacerbate difficulty moving, leading to falls among people with Parkinson's (PwP). Aims. To survey falls beyond home, identifying challenges amenable to behaviour change. Methods. We distributed 380 questionnaires to PwP in Southern England, asking participants to count and describe falls beyond home in the previous 12 months. Results. Among 255 responses, 136?PwP (diagnosed a median 8 years) reported falling beyond home. They described 249 falls in detail, commonly falling forward after tripping in streets. Single fallers (one fall in 12 months) commonly missed their footing, walking, or changing position and recovered to standing alone or with unfamiliar help. Repeat fallers (median falls, two) commonly felt shaken or embarrassed and sought medical advice. Very frequent fallers (falling at least monthly; median falls beyond home, six) commonly fell backward, in shops and after collapse but often recovered to standing alone. Conclusion. Even independently active PwP who do not fall at home may fall beyond home, often after tripping. Falling beyond home may result in psychological and/or physical trauma (embarrassment if observed by strangers and/or injury if falling backwards onto a hard surface). Prevention requires vigilance and preparedness: slowing down and concentrating on a single task might effectively prevent falling. PMID:23533952

  18. Is there a role for neck manipulation in elderly falls prevention? – An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Julie C.; Hartvigsen, Jan; French, Simon D.; Azari, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Many risk factors exist for falls in the elderly. Dizziness is an important risk factor for such falls. Spinal pain has also been identified as a risk factor for these falls. In this overview of the literature, we examine studies, including trials, of neck manipulation for neck pain, unsteadiness and falls risk relevant to the elderly. We also examine two related, but not mutually exclusive, mechanisms through which a putative beneficial effect may be mediated. These are the effects of neck manipulation on neck pain and on non-specific dizziness. We focus on the available evidence primarily in terms of clinical data rather than laboratory-based measures of balance. We conclude that chiropractors may have a role in falls prevention strategies in the subpopulation of the elderly that suffer from mechanical neck pain or dysfunction and non-specific dizziness. However, this role remains to be rigorously studied and properly defined. PMID:25729086

  19. Survey on Fall Detection and Fall Prevention Using Wearable and External Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Delahoz, Yueng Santiago; Labrador, Miguel Angel

    2014-01-01

    According to nihseniorhealth.gov (a website for older adults), falling represents a great threat as people get older, and providing mechanisms to detect and prevent falls is critical to improve people's lives. Over 1.6 million U.S. adults are treated for fall-related injuries in emergency rooms every year suffering fractures, loss of independence, and even death. It is clear then, that this problem must be addressed in a prompt manner, and the use of pervasive computing plays a key role to achieve this. Fall detection (FD) and fall prevention (FP) are research areas that have been active for over a decade, and they both strive for improving people's lives through the use of pervasive computing. This paper surveys the state of the art in FD and FP systems, including qualitative comparisons among various studies. It aims to serve as a point of reference for future research on the mentioned systems. A general description of FD and FP systems is provided, including the different types of sensors used in both approaches. Challenges and current solutions are presented and described in great detail. A 3-level taxonomy associated with the risk factors of a fall is proposed. Finally, cutting edge FD and FP systems are thoroughly reviewed and qualitatively compared, in terms of design issues and other parameters. PMID:25340452

  20. AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY CONSENSUS STATEMENT Vitamin D for Prevention of Falls and

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY CONSENSUS STATEMENT Vitamin D for Prevention of Falls and their Consequences in Older Adults Developed by the Workgroup of the Consensus Conference on Vitamin D for the Prevention of Falls and their Consequences #12;CONSENSUS STATEMENT:Vitamin D for Prevention of Falls

  1. Strength or power, which is more important to prevent slip-related falls?

    PubMed

    Han, Longzhu; Yang, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Falls are a serious health and medical concern facing older adults worldwide. Both muscle strength and power have been related to falls among older adults. The primary purpose of this study was to identify which one of these two muscular performances is more important in preventing a slip-related fall. Twenty-six healthy young adults participated in this study. Their muscle strength (torque) and power capacities were assessed at the right knee under maximum voluntary isometric (flexion and extension) and isokinetic (concentric extension and flexion at three different contraction speeds: 60deg/s, 120deg/s, and 180deg/s) contractions, respectively. They were then subjected to an identical and unannounced slip during gait on a treadmill under the protection of a safety harness after walking regularly for five times on the treadmill. Accuracy of predicting slip outcome (fall vs. recovery) was examined for each muscle performance measurement using logistic regression. Results showed that overall the joint power capacity measurements predicted the slip outcome among these subjects with higher accuracy than did the joint torque capacity measurements. Such results suggested that muscle power could be more closely related to a fall initiated by a slip during gait. The findings from the present study could provide guidance to identify individuals at increased risk of falling using the joint power capacity measurement and to design effective fall prevention training paradigms aiming at maximizing muscle power among older adults and others with physical disabilities. PMID:26378820

  2. Preventing falls among older people with mental health problems: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Falls are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in older people and the risk of falling is exacerbated by mental health conditions. Existing reviews have focused on people with dementia and cognitive impairment, but not those with other mental health conditions or in mental health settings. The objective of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of fall prevention interventions for older people with mental health problems being cared for across all settings. Methods A systematic review of fall prevention interventions for older people with mental health conditions. We undertook electronic database and lateral searches to identify studies reporting data on falls or fall related injuries. Searches were initially conducted in February 2011 and updated in November 2012 and October 2013; no date restrictions were applied. Studies were assessed for risk of bias. Due to heterogeneity results were not pooled but are reported narratively. Results Seventeen RCTs and four uncontrolled studies met the inclusion criteria; 11 involved single interventions and ten multifactorial. Evidence relating to fall reduction was inconsistent. Eight of 14 studies found a reduction in fallers (statistically significant in five), and nine of 14 reported a significant reduction in rate or number of falls. Four studies found a non-significant increase in falls. Multifactorial, multi-disciplinary interventions and those involving exercise, medication review and increasing staff awareness appear to reduce the risk of falls but evidence is mixed and study quality varied. Changes to the environment such as increased supervision or sensory stimulation to reduce agitation may be promising for people with dementia but further evaluation is needed. Most of the studies were undertaken in nursing and residential homes, and none in mental health hospital settings. Conclusions There is a dearth of falls research in mental health settings or which focus on patients with mental health problems despite the high number of falls experienced by this population group. This review highlights the lack of robust evidence to support practitioners to implement practices that prevent people with mental health problems from falling. PMID:24552165

  3. ["Jaques-Dalcroze eurhythmics" improves gait and prevents falls in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Trombetti, Andrea; Hars, Mélany; Herrmann, François; Kressig, Reto; Ferrari, Serge; Rizzoli, René

    2011-06-15

    Given the significant health and socioeconomic consequences of falls, to develop and promote effective falls prevention strategies among older adults represents a major issue. Jaques-Dalcroze eurhythmics is a music education program through movement method developed in Geneva, Switzerland, in the early 20th century. This new exercise form, adapted for elderly people, features various multitask exercises performed to the rhythm of improvised piano music and mainly challenge gait and balance, but also memory, attention and coordination. We report here the results of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Geneva showing that Jaques-Dalcroze eurythmics practice can improve gait performance under single and dual-task conditions, and balance, as well as reduce both rate of falls and the risk of falling in at-risk elderly community-dwellers. PMID:21793420

  4. Educators’ perspectives about how older hospital patients can engage in a falls prevention education programme: a qualitative process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Anne-Marie; McPhail, Steven M; Francis-Coad, Jacqueline; Waldron, Nicholas; Etherton-Beer, Christopher; Flicker, Leon; Ingram, Katharine; Haines, Terry P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Falls are the most frequent adverse event reported in hospitals. Patient and staff education delivered by trained educators significantly reduced falls and injurious falls in an older rehabilitation population. The purpose of the study was to explore the educators’ perspectives of delivering the education and to conceptualise how the programme worked to prevent falls among older patients who received the education. Design A qualitative exploratory study. Methods Data were gathered from three sources: conducting a focus group and an interview (n=10 educators), written educator notes and reflective researcher field notes based on interactions with the educators during the primary study. The educators delivered the programme on eight rehabilitation wards for periods of between 10 and 40?weeks. They provided older patients with individualised education to engage in falls prevention and provided staff with education to support patient actions. Data were thematically analysed and presented using a conceptual framework. Results Falls prevention education led to mutual understanding between staff and patients which assisted patients to engage in falls prevention behaviours. Mutual understanding was derived from the following observations: the educators perceived that they could facilitate an effective three-way interaction between staff actions, patient actions and the ward environment which led to behaviour change on the wards. This included engaging with staff and patients, and assisting them to reconcile differing perspectives about falls prevention behaviours. Conclusions Individualised falls prevention education effectively provides patients who receive it with the capability and motivation to develop and undertake behavioural strategies that reduce their falls, if supported by staff and the ward environment. PMID:26656027

  5. Definitions and methods of measuring and reporting on injurious falls in randomised controlled fall prevention trials: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The standardisation of the assessment methodology and case definition represents a major precondition for the comparison of study results and the conduction of meta-analyses. International guidelines provide recommendations for the standardisation of falls methodology; however, injurious falls have not been targeted. The aim of the present article was to review systematically the range of case definitions and methods used to measure and report on injurious falls in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on fall prevention. Methods An electronic literature search of selected comprehensive databases was performed to identify injurious falls definitions in published trials. Inclusion criteria were: RCTs on falls prevention published in English, study population ? 65 years, definition of injurious falls as a study endpoint by using the terms "injuries" and "falls". Results The search yielded 2089 articles, 2048 were excluded according to defined inclusion criteria. Forty-one articles were included. The systematic analysis of the methodology applied in RCTs disclosed substantial variations in the definition and methods used to measure and document injurious falls. The limited standardisation hampered comparability of study results. Our results also highlight that studies which used a similar, standardised definition of injurious falls showed comparable outcomes. Conclusions No standard for defining, measuring, and documenting injurious falls could be identified among published RCTs. A standardised injurious falls definition enhances the comparability of study results as demonstrated by a subgroup of RCTs used a similar definition. Recommendations for standardising the methodology are given in the present review. PMID:22510239

  6. Fall Prevention Research and Practice: A Total Worker Safety Approach

    PubMed Central

    HSIAO, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Slips, trips, and falls (STF) represent a serious hazard to workers and occupants in many industries, homes, and communities. Often, the cause of a STF incident is multifactorial, encompassing human, environmental, and task risk factors. A STF-related disability can greatly diminish the occupational capability and quality of life of individuals in both the workplace and the home. Countering STF hazards and risks both on and off the job and on all aspects of control measures is a “total worker safety” matter, a challenging yet tangible undertaking. As the federal organization responsible for conducting research for the prevention of work-related injuries in the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been conducting research on STF controls for some decades. Many NIOSH research outcomes have been utilized for STF prevention in workplaces, with potential for prevention in homes as well. This paper summarizes the concept of total worker safety for STF control, NIOSH priority research goals, major activities, and accomplishments, and some emerging issues on STF. The strategic planning process for the NIOSH research goals and some identified research focuses are applicable to the development and implementation of global STF research goals. PMID:25345424

  7. ICT-based system to predict and prevent falls (iStoppFalls): study protocol for an international multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Falls are very common, especially in adults aged 65 years and older. Within the current international European Commission’s Seventh Framework Program (FP7) project ‘iStoppFalls’ an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based system has been developed to regularly assess a person’s risk of falling in their own home and to deliver an individual and tailored home-based exercise and education program for fall prevention. The primary aims of iStoppFalls are to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention program, and its effectiveness to improve balance, muscle strength and quality of life in older people. Methods/Design This international, multicenter study is designed as a single-blinded, two-group randomized controlled trial. A total of 160 community-dwelling older people aged 65 years and older will be recruited in Germany (n = 60), Spain (n = 40), and Australia (n = 60) between November 2013 and May 2014. Participants in the intervention group will conduct a 16-week exercise program using the iStoppFalls system through their television set at home. Participants are encouraged to exercise for a total duration of 180 minutes per week. The training program consists of a variety of balance and strength exercises in the form of video games using exergame technology. Educational material about a healthy lifestyle will be provided to each participant. Final reassessments will be conducted after 16 weeks. The assessments include physical and cognitive tests as well as questionnaires assessing health, fear of falling, quality of life and psychosocial determinants. Falls will be followed up for six months by monthly falls calendars. Discussion We hypothesize that the regular use of this newly developed ICT-based system for fall prevention at home is feasible for older people. By using the iStoppFalls sensor-based exercise program, older people are expected to improve in balance and strength outcomes. In addition, the exercise training may have a positive impact on quality of life by reducing the risk of falls. Taken together with expected cognitive improvements, the individual approach of the iStoppFalls program may provide an effective model for fall prevention in older people who prefer to exercise at home. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Trial ID: ACTRN12614000096651. International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number: ISRCTN15932647. PMID:25141850

  8. What factors influence community-dwelling older people’s intent to undertake multifactorial fall prevention programs?

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Keith D; Day, Lesley; Haines, Terry P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate previous, current, or planned participation in, and perceptions toward, multifactorial fall prevention programs such as those delivered through a falls clinic in the community setting, and to identify factors influencing older people’s intent to undertake these interventions. Design and methods Community-dwelling people aged >70 years completed a telephone survey. Participants were randomly selected from an electronic residential telephone listing, but purposeful sampling was used to include equal numbers with and without common chronic health conditions associated with fall-related hospitalization. The survey included scenarios for fall prevention interventions, including assessment/multifactorial interventions, such as those delivered through a falls clinic. Participants were asked about previous exposure to, or intent to participate in, the interventions. A path model analysis was used to identify factors associated with intent to participate in assessment/multifactorial interventions. Results Thirty of 376 participants (8.0%) reported exposure to a multifactorial falls clinic-type intervention in the past 5 years, and 16.0% expressed intention to undertake this intervention. Of the 132 participants who reported one or more falls in the past 12 months, over one-third were undecided or disagreed that a falls clinic type of intervention would be of benefit to them. Four elements from the theoretical model positively influenced intention to participate in the intervention: personal perception of intervention effectiveness, self-perceived risk of falls, self-perceived risk of injury, and inability to walk up/down steps without a handrail (P<0.05). Conclusion Multifactorial falls clinic-type interventions are not commonly accessed or considered as intended fall prevention approaches among community-dwelling older people, even among those with falls in the past 12 months. Factors identified as influencing intention to undertake these interventions may be useful in promoting or targeting these interventions. PMID:25473276

  9. Does a fall prevention educational programme improve knowledge and change exercise prescribing behaviour in health and exercise professionals? A study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tiedemann, A; Sturnieks, D L; Hill, A-M; Lovitt, L; Clemson, L; Lord, S R; Harvey, L; Sherrington, C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Falling in older age is a serious and costly problem. At least one in three older people fall annually. Although exercise is recognised as an effective fall prevention intervention, low numbers of older people engage in suitable programmes. Health and exercise professionals play a crucial role in addressing fall risk in older adults. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of participation in a fall prevention educational programme, compared with a wait-list control group, on health and exercise professionals’ knowledge about fall prevention and the effect on fall prevention exercise prescription behaviour and confidence to prescribe the exercises to older people. Methods and analysis A randomised controlled trial involving 220 consenting health and exercise professionals will be conducted. Participants will be individually randomised to an intervention group (n=110) to receive an educational workshop plus access to internet-based support resources, or a wait-list control group (n=110). The two primary outcomes, measured 3?months after randomisation, are: (1) knowledge about fall prevention and (2) self-perceived change in fall prevention exercise prescription behaviour. Secondary outcomes include: (1) participants’ confidence to prescribe fall prevention exercises; (2) the proportion of people aged 60+ years seen by trial participants in the past month who were prescribed fall prevention exercise; and (3) the proportion of fall prevention exercises prescribed by participants to older people in the past month that comply with evidence-based guidelines. Outcomes will be measured with a self-report questionnaire designed specifically for the trial. Ethics and dissemination The trial protocol was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee, The University of Sydney, Australia. Trial results will be disseminated via peer reviewed journals, presentations at international conferences and participants’ newsletters. Trial registration number Trial protocol was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (Number ACTRN12614000224628) on 3 March 2014. PMID:25410607

  10. Vibration Therapy to Prevent Bone Loss and Falls: Mechanisms and Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Beck, Belinda R

    2015-12-01

    A considerable volume of evidence has accumulated to suggest that whole-body vibration (WBV) may have a therapeutic role to play in the prevention of osteoporotic fracture, particularly for individuals who are unable to tolerate vigorous exercise interventions. There is moderate to strong evidence that WBV will prevent falls (likely due to enhanced neuromuscular function), but also some indication that the effects of WBV do not outstrip those of targeted exercise. Animal data indicates that WBV will also improve bone mass, including preventing loss due to hormone withdrawal, disuse and glucocorticoid exposure. Human trials, however, have produced equivocal outcomes for bone. Positive trends are apparent at the hip and spine, but shortcomings in study designs have limited statistical power. The mechanism of the vibration effect on bone tissue is likely to be mechanical coupling between an oscillating cell nucleus and the cytoskeleton. More robust dose-response human data are required before therapeutic guidelines can be developed. PMID:26456496

  11. Preventing Falls | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... But many cannot and need long-term care. Fear of Falling Fear of falling becomes more common with age, even ... and restore your walking confidence. Getting over your fear can help you to stay active, maintain your ...

  12. Differing approaches to falls and fracture prevention between Australia and Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Fernando; Curcio, Carmen Lucia; Suriyaarachchi, Pushpa; Demontiero, Oddom; Duque, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Falls and fractures are major causes of morbidity and mortality in older people. More importantly, previous falls and/or fractures are the most important predictors of further events. Therefore, secondary prevention programs for falls and fractures are highly needed. However, the question is whether a secondary prevention model should focus on falls prevention alone or should be implemented in combination with fracture prevention. By comparing a falls prevention clinic in Manizales (Colombia) versus a falls and fracture prevention clinic in Sydney (Australia), the objective was to identify similarities and differences between these two programs and to propose an integrated model of care for secondary prevention of fall and fractures. A comparative study of services was performed using an internationally agreed taxonomy. Service provision was compared against benchmarks set by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and previous reports in the literature. Comparison included organization, administration, client characteristics, and interventions. Several similarities and a number of differences that could be easily unified into a single model are reported here. Similarities included population, a multidisciplinary team, and a multifactorial assessment and intervention. Differences were eligibility criteria, a bone health assessment component, and the therapeutic interventions most commonly used at each site. In Australia, bone health assessment is reinforced whereas in Colombia dizziness assessment and management is pivotal. The authors propose that falls clinic services should be operationally linked to osteoporosis services such as a "falls and fracture prevention clinic," which would facilitate a comprehensive intervention to prevent falls and fractures in older persons. PMID:23378748

  13. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  14. Falls Prevention Education for Older Adults during and after Hospitalization: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Den-Ching A.; Pritchard, Elizabeth; McDermott, Fiona; Haines, Terry P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of patient education in reducing falls, promoting behavioural change and the uptake of prevention activities in older adults during and after hospitalization. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: A systematic search of five health science databases was performed up to November 2012. Studies…

  15. Smartphone-Based Solutions for Fall Detection and Prevention: Challenges and Open Issues

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Mohammad Ashfak; Mohktar, Mas S.; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Lim, Kheng Seang; Pin, Tan Maw; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art survey of smartphone (SP)-based solutions for fall detection and prevention. Falls are considered as major health hazards for both the elderly and people with neurodegenerative diseases. To mitigate the adverse consequences of falling, a great deal of research has been conducted, mainly focused on two different approaches, namely, fall detection and fall prevention. Required hardware for both fall detection and prevention are also available in SPs. Consequently, researchers' interest in finding SP-based solutions has increased dramatically over recent years. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no published review on SP-based fall detection and prevention. Thus in this paper, we present the taxonomy for SP-based fall detection and prevention solutions and systematic comparisons of existing studies. We have also identified three challenges and three open issues for future research, after reviewing the existing articles. Our time series analysis demonstrates a trend towards the integration of external sensing units with SPs for improvement in usability of the systems. PMID:24759116

  16. Effect of free fall on higher plants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    The influence of exposure to the free-fall state on the orientation, morphogenesis, physiology, and radiation response of higher plants is briefly summarized. It is proposed that the duration of the space-flight experiments has been to brief to permit meaningful effects of free fall on general biochemistry, growth, and development to appear. However, two types of significant effect did occur. The first is on differential growth - i.e., tropism and epinasty - resulting from the absence of a normal geostimulus. For these phenomena it is suggested that ground-based experiments with the clinostat would suffice to mimic the effect of the free-fall state. The second is an apparent interaction between the radiation response and some flight condition, yielding an enhanced microspore abortion, a disturbed spindle function, and a stunting of stamen hairs. It is suggested that this apparent interaction may be derived from a shift in the rhythm of the cell cycle, induced by the free fall.

  17. Vitamin D Treatment for the Prevention of Falls in Older Adults: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kalyani, Rita Rastogi; Stein, Brady; Valiyil, Ritu; Manno, Rebecca; Maynard, Janet W.; Crews, Deidra

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review and quantitatively synthesize the effect of vitamin D therapy on fall prevention in older adults. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Setting MEDLINE, CINAHL,Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, LILACS, bibliographies of selected articles, and previous systematic reviews through February 2009 were searched for eligible studies. Participants Older adults (aged ?60 years) who participated in randomized controlled trials that investigated the effectiveness of vitamin D therapy in the prevention of falls and used an explicit fall definition. Measurements Two authors independently extracted data including study characteristics, quality assessment, and outcomes. The I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity in a randomeffects model. Results Of 1,679 potentially relevant articles, 10 studies met inclusion criteria. In pooled analysis, vitamin D therapy (200-1000IU) reduced falls by 14% (relative risk [RR] 0.86;95% confidence interval 0.79-0.93;I2=7%) compared to calcium or placebo; number needed to treat=15. The following subgroups had significant fall reductions: community-dwelling (age<80 years), adjunctive calcium supplementation, no history of fractures/falls, duration>6 months, cholecalciferol, and dose?800 IU. Meta-regression demonstrated no linear association of vitamin D dose or duration with treatment effect. Post-hoc analysis, including 7 additional studies (17 total) without explicit fall definitions, yielded smaller benefit (RR 0.92,0.87-0.98) and more heterogeneity (I2=36%) but found significant intergroup differences favoring adjunctive calcium versus none (p=0.001). Conclusion Vitamin D treatment effectively reduces the risk of falls in older adults. Future studies should investigate whether particular populations or treatment regimens may have greater benefit. PMID:20579169

  18. In response to Dr. Jose AP da Silva: fall prevention with vitamin D clarifications needed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We agree with Dr. da Silva, and wish to clarify three issues raised by the recent IOM report concerning our 2009 meta-analysis on vitamin D and fall prevention. 1. The IOM questioned the inclusion of Broe et al., which did not pre-specify falls as a primary or secondary outcome. While this did viol...

  19. Obstacle Course Training Can Improve Mobility and Prevent Falls in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hanegem, E.; Enkelaar, L.; Smulders, E.; Weerdesteyn, V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) constitute a special-needs population at high risk of falling. This is the first study to evaluate whether obstacle course training can improve mobility and prevent falls in this population. Methods: The intervention was implemented as part of an institution-wide health care improvement plan…

  20. Preventing falls with Tai Ji Quan: A public health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Judy A.; Voukelatos, Alexander; Ehrenreich, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Falls among people aged 65 and older are a significant public health problem and one that is expected to increase as the population ages. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that Tai Ji Quan can reduce falls and associated injuries among older adults. In this paper, we describe how Tai Ji Quan community programs are being utilized by public health and aging services organizations to reduce older adult falls. We conclude that, to have a population-level impact on reducing falls and improving the health of older adults, Tai Ji Quan interventions must be translated into community programs that meet the needs and abilities of older adults. These programs must be adapted to fit into existing community structures, disseminated through multiple delivery channels, adopted and implemented broadly by organizations, and institutionalized to ensure sustainability.

  1. Preventing Falls in Older Adults Who Live in Community Settings

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Live in Community Settings: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Summaries for Patients are a service provided ... Community-Dwelling Older Adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.” It is in the 7 August ...

  2. Beyond Socks, Signs, and Alarms: A Reflective Accountability Model for Fall Prevention.

    PubMed

    Hoke, Linda M; Guarracino, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Despite standard fall precautions, including nonskid socks, signs, alarms, and patient instructions, our 48-bed cardiac intermediate care unit (CICU) had a 41% increase in the rate of falls (from 2.2 to 3.1 per 1,000 patient days) and a 65% increase in the rate of falls with injury (from 0.75 to 1.24 per 1,000 patient days) between fiscal years (FY) 2012 and 2013. An evaluation of the falls data conducted by a cohort of four clinical nurses found that the majority of falls occurred when patients were unassisted by nurses, most often during toileting. Supported by the leadership team, the clinical nurses developed an accountability care program that required nurses to use reflective practice to evaluate each fall, including sending an e-mail to all staff members with both the nurse's and the patient's perspective on the fall, as well as the nurse's reflection on what could have been done to prevent the fall. Other program components were a postfall huddle and guidelines for assisting and remaining with fall risk patients for the duration of their toileting. Placing the accountability for falls with the nurse resulted in decreases in the unit's rates of falls and falls with injury of 55% (from 3.1 to 1.39 per 1,000 patient days) and 72% (from 1.24 to 0.35 per 1,000 patient days), respectively, between FY2013 and FY2014. Prompt call bell response (less than 60 seconds) also contributed to the goal of fall prevention. PMID:26710147

  3. Falls after Discharge from Hospital: Is There a Gap between Older Peoples' Knowledge about Falls Prevention Strategies and the Research Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Anne-Marie; Hoffmann, Tammy; Beer, Christopher; McPhail, Steven; Hill, Keith D.; Oliver, David; Brauer, Sandra G.; Haines, Terry P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine whether older people are prepared to engage in appropriate falls prevention strategies after discharge from hospital. Design and Methods: We used a semi-structured interview to survey older patients about to be discharged from hospital and examined their knowledge regarding falls prevention strategies…

  4. The REFORM study protocol: a cohort randomised controlled trial of a multifaceted podiatry intervention for the prevention of falls in older people

    PubMed Central

    Cockayne, Sarah; Adamson, Joy; Corbacho Martin, Belen; Fairhurst, Caroline; Hewitt, Catherine; Hicks, Kate; Hull, Robin; Keenan, Anne Maree; Lamb, Sarah E; Loughrey, Lorraine; McIntosh, Caroline; Menz, Hylton B; Redmond, Anthony C; Rodgers, Sara; Vernon, Wesley; Watson, Judith; Torgerson, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Falls and fall-related injuries are a serious cause of morbidity and cost to society. Foot problems and inappropriate footwear may increase the risk of falls; therefore podiatric interventions may play a role in reducing falls. Two Cochrane systematic reviews identified only one study of a podiatry intervention aimed to reduce falls, which was undertaken in Australia. The REFORM trial aims to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention in reducing falls in people aged 65?years and over in a UK and Irish setting. Methods and analysis This multicentre, cohort randomised controlled trial will recruit 2600 participants from routine podiatry clinics in the UK and Ireland to the REFORM cohort. In order to detect a 10% point reduction in falls from 50% to 40%, with 80% power 890 participants will be randomised to receive routine podiatry care and a falls prevention leaflet or routine podiatry care, a falls prevention leaflet and a multifaceted podiatry intervention. The primary outcome is rate of falls (falls/person/time) over 12?months assessed by patient self-report falls diary. Secondary self-report outcome measures include: the proportion of single and multiple fallers and time to first fall over a 12-month period; Short Falls Efficacy Scale—International; fear of falling in the past 4?weeks; Frenchay Activities Index; fracture rate; Geriatric Depression Scale; EuroQoL-five dimensional scale 3-L; health service utilisation at 6 and 12?months. A qualitative study will examine the acceptability of the package of care to participants and podiatrists. Ethics and dissemination The trial has received a favourable opinion from the East of England—Cambridge East Research Ethics Committee and Galway Research Ethics Committee. The trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and at conference presentations. Trial registration number Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN68240461assigned 01/07/2011. PMID:25518875

  5. Identifying clusters of falls-related hospital admissions to inform population targets for prioritising falls prevention programmes

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Caroline F; Stephan, Karen; Shee, Anna Wong; Hill, Keith; Haines, Terry P; Clemson, Lindy; Day, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been limited research investigating the relationship between injurious falls and hospital resource use. The aims of this study were to identify clusters of community-dwelling older people in the general population who are at increased risk of being admitted to hospital following a fall and how those clusters differed in their use of hospital resources. Methods Analysis of routinely collected hospital admissions data relating to 45?374 fall-related admissions in Victorian community-dwelling older adults aged ?65?years that occurred during 2008/2009 to 2010/2011. Fall-related admission episodes were identified based on being admitted from a private residence to hospital with a principal diagnosis of injury (International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10-AM codes S00 to T75) and having a first external cause of a fall (ICD-10-AM codes W00 to W19). A cluster analysis was performed to identify homogeneous groups using demographic details of patients and information on the presence of comorbidities. Hospital length of stay (LOS) was compared across clusters using competing risks regression. Results Clusters based on area of residence, demographic factors (age, gender, marital status, country of birth) and the presence of comorbidities were identified. Clusters representing hospitalised fallers with comorbidities were associated with longer LOS compared with other cluster groups. Clusters delineated by demographic factors were also associated with increased LOS. Conclusions All patients with comorbidity, and older women without comorbidities, stay in hospital longer following a fall and hence consume a disproportionate share of hospital resources. These findings have important implications for the targeting of falls prevention interventions for community-dwelling older people. PMID:25618735

  6. Effective Fall 2013 Computational Science Track

    E-print Network

    Lowd, Daniel

    210, 211 and 212 -- Computer Science I, II and III. q MATH 231, 232 -- Discrete Math I and II ­ Calculus for the Biological Sciences Choose 8 credits from the following ­ courses taken graded: q MATH 233Effective Fall 2013 Computational Science Track Computer & Information Science Department

  7. RESORT TOURISM MANAGEMENT MINOR Effective Fall 2013

    E-print Network

    Hutchens, John

    Current Issues in Resort Tourism (3) RTMA 387 Conventions and Event Management (3) TOTAL CREDITS REQUIREDRESORT TOURISM MANAGEMENT MINOR Effective Fall 2013 The minor in Resort Tourism Management industry. Emphasis is placed on management, marketing, and other special topics relevant to supervisors

  8. Vision and Relevant Risk Factor Interventions for Preventing Falls among Older People: A Network Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin-Yi; Shuai, Jian; Li, Li-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Our study objective was to determine the effect of vision intervention and combinations of different intervention components on preventing falls and fall-related injuries among older people. Six electronic databases were searched to identify seven articles published before May, 2014. We conducted a systematic review of data from seven randomized controlled trails and identified eight regimens: vision intervention alone (V), vision plus exercise (referred to as physical exercise) interventions (V?+?E), vision plus home hazard interventions (V?+?HH), vision plus exercise plus home hazard interventions (V?+?E?+?HH), vision plus exercise plus sensation interventions (V?+?E?+?S), vision plus hearing interventions (V?+?H), vision plus various risk factor assessment and interventions (V?+?VRF), and the control group (C, no intervention group). The main outcome was the incidence of falls during the follow-up period. Seven papers included 2723 participants. Network meta-analysis of seven trials, using pairwise comparisons between each intervention, indicated there was no significant difference. However, there was a trend in which intervention incorporating V?+?VRF had more advantages than any other combination of interventions. In conclusion, V?+?VRF proves to be more effective than other V combination interventions in preventing falls in older people (?65 years of age). V alone appears less effective in our network meta-analysis. PMID:26020415

  9. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent falls in the elderly: evidence and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Fosnight, Susan M; Zafirau, William J; Hazelett, Susan E

    2008-02-01

    Pharmacists in both ambulatory and institutional settings are often in a position to help optimize the drug regimens of patients who are experiencing falls. Supplementation with vitamin D is an important emerging therapy for the prevention of falls. Numerous investigators have recently studied or reviewed the association between vitamin D supplementation and decreased risk of falls in elderly patients, yet little of this information is available in the pharmacy literature. A MEDLINE search was conducted to collect relevant articles about the role of vitamin D in preventing falls among elderly patients; recently published meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials were identified and reviewed. The studies indicated a statistically significant positive relationship between vitamin D supplementation with either cholecalciferol 700 IU/day or greater or ergocalciferol 800 IU/day or greater and decreased risk of falls. Other practical issues, including who should receive vitamin D replacement, what form of vitamin D should be used, and what dosage is required to prevent falls, are discussed. PMID:18225968

  10. Formative evaluation of the telecare fall prevention project for older veterans

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies. However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program used a nurse advice telephone line to identify patients' risk factors for falls and to triage patients to appropriate services. Here we report the formative evaluation of this project. Methods To evaluate the intervention we: 1) interviewed patient and employee stakeholders, 2) reviewed participating patients' electronic health record data and 3) abstracted information from meeting minutes. We describe the implementation process, including whether the project was implemented according to plan; identify barriers and facilitators to implementation; and assess the incremental benefit to the quality of health care for fall prevention received by patients in the project. We also estimate the cost of developing the pilot project. Results The project underwent multiple changes over its life span, including the addition of an option to mail patients educational materials about falls. During the project's lifespan, 113 patients were considered for inclusion and 35 participated. Patient and employee interviews suggested support for the project, but revealed that transportation to medical care was a major barrier in following up on fall risks identified by nurse telephone triage. Medical record review showed that the project enhanced usual medical care with respect to home safety counseling. We discontinued the program after 18 months due to staffing limitations and competing priorities. We estimated a cost of $9194 for meeting time to develop the project. Conclusions The project appeared feasible at its outset but could not be sustained past the first cycle of evaluation due to insufficient resources and a waning of local leadership support due to competing national priorities. Future projects will need both front-level staff commitment and prolonged high-level leadership involvement to thrive. PMID:21605438

  11. The Harstad injury prevention study: community based prevention of fall-fractures in the elderly evaluated by means of a hospital based injury recording system in Norway.

    PubMed Central

    Ytterstad, B

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe a community based programme to prevent fractures resulting from falls and evaluate the outcome in terms of changes in fracture rates and short term hospital care costs. DESIGN: Prospective intervention study. SETTING: The Norwegian municipalities of Harstad (intervention) and Trondheim (reference) from 1 July 1985 to 30 June 1993. PARTICIPANTS: The person-years of the study were estimated from yearly census data on people aged 65 years and over. There were 22970 person years in Harstad and 158911 in Trondheim. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The variables were selected and coded according to the Nordic system and the data were collected as part of a national injury surveillance system. The first three years of the study provided baseline data, while the last five years involved community based interventions-eg, the removal of environmental hazards in homes and promotion of the use of safe footwear outdoors in winter. Rates of fracture from falls did not decline in nursing homes but decreased 26.3% in private homes (p < 0.01). In 65-79 year olds, there was a 48.7% reduction in fall-fracture rates for men in traffic areas in winter (p < 0.05). The data from the reference city, Trondheim, suggested a significant rise in fractures caused by falls. There was a 16.7% reduction in hospital admission rates of fall-fracture patients from private homes, indicating a substantial saving in short term hospital costs. The observed fall-fracture rate reductions in private homes and traffic areas suggest that major parts of the interventions were effective. CONCLUSION: Fall-fracture prophylaxis in the aged is possible in a community based setting that utilises high quality, local injury data. PMID:8944864

  12. Medication-related falls in the elderly: causative factors and preventive strategies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Allen R; Mallet, Louise; Rochefort, Christian M; Eguale, Tewodros; Buckeridge, David L; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2012-05-01

    People are living to older age. Falls constitute a leading cause of injuries, hospitalization and deaths among the elderly. Older people fall more often for a variety of reasons: alterations in physiology and physical functioning, and the use (and misuse) of medications needed to manage their multiple conditions. Pharmacological factors that place the elderly at greater risk of drug-related side effects include changes in body composition, serum albumin, total body water, and hepatic and renal functioning. Drug use is one of the most modifiable risk factors for falls and falls-related injuries. Fall-risk increasing drugs (FRIDs) include drugs for cardiovascular diseases (such as digoxin, type 1a anti-arrhythmics and diuretics), benzodiazepines, antidepressants, antiepileptics, antipsychotics, antiparkinsonian drugs, opioids and urological spasmolytics. Psychotropic and benzodiazepine drug use is most consistently associated with falls. Despite the promise of a more favourable side-effect profile, evidence shows that atypical antipsychotic medications and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants do not reduce the risk of falls and hip fractures. Despite multiple efforts with regards to managing medication-associated falls, there is no clear evidence for an effective intervention. Stopping or lowering the dose of psychotropic drugs and benzodiazepines does work, but ensuring a patient remains off these drugs is a challenge. Computer-assisted alerts coupled with electronic prescribing tools are a promising approach to lowering the risk of falls as the use of information technologies expands within healthcare. PMID:22550966

  13. Framework for preventing accidental falls in hospitals - management plan for ADL, medication and medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shogo; Tsuru, Satoko; Iizuka, Yoshinori

    2009-01-01

    Prevention and reduction of medical accidents is essential. Among medical accidents, accidental falls remain a serious problem. While "assessment score sheets" have already been used in hospitals to prevent accidental falls, satisfactory results have not actually been achieved. In this study, we aim to establish a methodology for preventing accidental falls. We consider that the 'management plan' for each patient includes three factors. A plan of instructions for patients on actions they can take for safety in their ADL (Activities of Daily Living) is essential as a base. Second, a plan to keep up with any short term change in a patient's state is needed, because the state of a hospitalized patient will usually be temporarily affected by medication and changing medical conditions. We develop a model for preventing accidental falls, which enable us to design appropriate management plan for each patient. Then, we develop a prototype system based on the designed model. Finally, we address the result of verification of the model, by applying the prototype system into actual cases in hospitals. PMID:19592884

  14. An educational video to promote multi-factorial approaches for fall and injury prevention in long-term care facilities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Older adults living in long term care (LTC) settings are vulnerable to fall-related injuries. There is a need to develop and implement evidence-based approaches to address fall injury prevention in LTC. Knowledge translation (KT) interventions to support the uptake of evidence-based approaches to fall injury prevention in LTC need to be responsive to the learning needs of LTC staff and use mediums, such as videos, that are accessible and easy-to-use. This article describes the development of two unique educational videos to promote fall injury prevention in long-term care (LTC) settings. These videos are unique from other fall prevention videos in that they include video footage of real life falls captured in the LTC setting. Methods Two educational videos were developed (2012–2013) to support the uptake of findings from a study exploring the causes of falls based on video footage captured in LTC facilities. The videos were developed by: (1) conducting learning needs assessment in LTC settings via six focus groups (2) liaising with LTC settings to identify learning priorities through unstructured conversations; and (3) aligning the content with principles of adult learning theory. Results The videos included footage of falls, interviews with older adults and fall injury prevention experts. The videos present evidence-based fall injury prevention recommendations aligned to the needs of LTC staff and: (1) highlight recommendations deemed by LTC staff as most urgent (learner-centered learning); (2) highlight negative impacts of falls on older adults (encourage meaning-making); and, (3) prompt LTC staff to reflect on fall injury prevention practices (encourage critical reflection). Conclusions Educational videos are an important tool available to researchers seeking to translate evidence-based recommendations into LTC settings. Additional research is needed to determine their impact on practice. PMID:24884899

  15. i Engaging as an innovative approach to engage patients in their own fall prevention care

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Yin, Chang-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Decreasing patient fall injuries during hospitalization continues to be a challenge at the bedside. Empowering patients to become active participants in their own fall prevention care could be a solution. In a previous study, elderly patients recently discharged from a United States hospital expressed a need for nurses to give and repeat directives about fall prevention; when the nurse left a brochure on the topic, but did not provide any (or limited) verbal explanations about the content or the importance of the information, the patient felt that the information was insufficient. To address patients’ needs, we developed “i Engaging”, a Web-based software application for use at the bedside. i Engaging is an innovative approach that is used to engage patients in their own fall prevention care during hospital stays. The application was designed based on the assumption that patients are the best and most critical sources of information about their health status. i Engaging has not yet been tested in clinical trials. PMID:24868148

  16. A novel web-based depth video rewind approach toward fall preventive interventions in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Enayati, Moein; Banerjee, Tanvi; Popescu, Mihail; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement a web based application to provide the ability to rewind and review depth videos captured in hospital rooms to investigate the event chains that led to patient's fall at a specific time. In this research, Kinect depth images are being used to capture shadow-like images of the patient and their room to resolve concerns about patients' privacy. As a result of our previous research, a fall detection system has been developed and installed in hospital rooms, and fall alarms are generated if any falls are detected by the system. Then nurses will go through the stored depth videos to investigate for possible injury as well as the reasons and events that may have caused the patient's fall to prevent future occurrences. This paper proposes a novel web application to ease the process of search and reviewing the videos by means of new visualization techniques to highlight video frames that contain potential risk of fall based on our previous research. PMID:25570994

  17. Recommendations for assessing and preventing falls in adults of all ages with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Stanmore, Emma K

    2015-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating disease that affects younger as well as older adults. It is associated with a high risk of injurious falls due to problems such as lower-limb muscle weakness, balance impairment, swollen and tender joints, pain, and fatigue. Falls are typically associated with older people; hence, many professionals do not recognise the risks for younger persons with diseases such as RA. Falls can lead to devastating consequences, such as fatalities, hip fractures (with 50% of those affected never regaining their previous level of mobility and 30% dying within 1 year), or loss of independence and confidence. Research has shown that many people are either unaware or deny their risk of falling. Therefore, it is important that health professionals, such as community nurses, are aware of the risk factors, methods of assessment, and evidence-based preventative measures, so that falls can be avoided in this population. This article presents research and practice implications for community nurses to enable them to assess, treat, and appropriately refer adults with RA who are also at risk of falls. PMID:26551381

  18. Outdoor pedestrian fall-related injuries among Swedish senior citizens--injuries and preventive strategies.

    PubMed

    Gyllencreutz, Lina; Björnstig, Johanna; Rolfsman, Ewa; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2015-06-01

    Senior citizens get around, to a large extent, as pedestrians, and safe walking is desirable for senior citizens allowing them to stay mobile, independent and healthy in old age. Senior citizens are over-represented in injury statistics, and fall-related injuries are common. The aim of this study was to investigate fall-related injuries including healthcare costs among senior citizen pedestrians injured when walking in public outdoor environments and to describe their self-reported causes and suggested preventive strategies. The data were based on a combination of information from injury data and a questionnaire. Three hundred senior citizens attended one emergency department after sustaining injuries from pedestrian falls; 60% suffered nonminor injuries, mostly fractures. One-fifth of the pedestrians were hospitalised for an average of 8 days with an indirect hospital cost of 6.2 million EUR (55 million SEK). Environmental factors such as ice were the most commonly described cause of the injury incident. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that the municipality was responsible for the cause of the injury incident. Fewer respondents mentioned their own responsibility as a preventive strategy. Thirty per cent described a combination of improvements such as better road maintenance, changes in human behaviour and use of safety products as preventive strategies. It is of great importance to highlight general safety, products and preventive strategies to minimise injury risks, so that pedestrians can safely realise the known health benefits of walking and thereby limit healthcare costs. PMID:24913321

  19. Radar walking speed measurements of seniors in their apartments: technology for fall prevention.

    PubMed

    Cuddihy, Paul E; Yardibi, Tarik; Legenzoff, Zachary J; Liu, Liang; Phillips, Calvin E; Abbott, Carmen; Galambos, Colleen; Keller, James; Popescu, Mihail; Back, Jessica; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn J

    2012-01-01

    Falls are a significant cause of injury and accidental death among persons over the age of 65. Gait velocity is one of the parameters which have been correlated to the risk of falling. We aim to build a system which monitors gait in seniors and reports any changes to caregivers, who can then perform a clinical assessment and perform corrective and preventative actions to reduce the likelihood of falls. In this paper, we deploy a Doppler radar-based gait measurement system into the apartments of thirteen seniors. In scripted walks, we show the system measures gait velocity with a mean error of 14.5% compared to the time recorded by a clinician. With a calibration factor, the mean error is reduced to 10.5%. The radar is a promising sensing technology for gait velocity in a day-to-day senior living environment. PMID:23365880

  20. CIVIL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM EFFECTIVE FALL 2014 MATH 1426 C

    E-print Network

    Huang, Haiying

    CIVIL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM EFFECTIVE FALL 2014 FIRST YEAR MATH 1426 C ...........................................................4 MATH 2425 C ......................................................... 4 HIST 1311 C ...........................................................3 POLS 2311 C ......................................................... 3 ENGL 1301 C

  1. Health Promotion Board–Ministry of Health Clinical Practice Guidelines: Falls Prevention among Older Adults Living in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Shyamala, Thilagaratnam; Wong, Sweet Fun; Andiappan, Akila; Eong, Kah Guan Au; Bakshi, Anu Birla; Boey, Debbie; Chong, Tsung Wei; Eng, Hui Ping; Ismail, Noor Hafizah; Lau, Tang Ching; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lim, Hsin Wei Wendy; Seong, Lydia; Wong, Wei Chin; Yap, Kai Zhen; Yudah, Sri

    2015-01-01

    The Health Promotion Board (HPB) has developed the Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) on Falls Prevention among Older Adults Living in the Community to provide health professionals in Singapore with recommendations for evidence-based assessments and interventions for falls prevention. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary of the key recommendations from the HPB-MOH CPG on Falls Prevention among Older Adults Living in the Community for the information of SMJ readers. The chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Health Promotion Board website: http://www.hpb.gov. sg/cpg-falls-prevention. The recommendations should be used with reference to the full text of the guidelines. Following this article are multiple choice questions based on the full text of the guidelines. PMID:26034320

  2. Health Promotion Board-Ministry of Health Clinical Practice Guidelines: Falls Prevention among Older Adults Living in the Community.

    PubMed

    Shyamala, Thilagaratnam; Wong, Sweet Fun; Andiappan, Akila; Au Eong, Kah Guan; Bakshi, Anu Birla; Boey, Debbie; Chong, Tsung Wei; Eng, Hui Ping; Ismail, Noor Hafizah; Lau, Tang Ching; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lim, Hsin Wei Wendy; Seong, Lydia; Wong, Wei Chin; Yap, Kai Zhen; Yudah, Sri

    2015-05-01

    The Health Promotion Board (HPB) has developed the Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) on Falls Prevention among Older Adults Living in the Community to provide health professionals in Singapore with recommendations for evidence-based assessments and interventions for falls prevention. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary of the key recommendations from the HPB-MOH CPG on Falls Prevention among Older Adults Living in the Community for the information of SMJ readers. The chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Health Promotion Board website: http://www.hpb.gov. sg/cpg-falls-prevention. The recommendations should be used with reference to the full text of the guidelines. Following this article are multiple choice questions based on the full text of the guidelines. PMID:26034320

  3. EFFECTIVE FALL 2011 SYSTEMS ENGINEERING OPTION ADVISING DOCUMENT

    E-print Network

    Gao, Grace Xingxin

    EFFECTIVE FALL 2011 SYSTEMS ENGINEERING OPTION ADVISING DOCUMENT Name Advisor 1. 32 hours Credit Hours #12;EFFECTIVE FALL 2011 7. 2 AE Systems Engineering Courses (AE 542 and AE 543) Course Semester Taken/Planned Grade Credit Hours AE 542 AE 543 8. 2 Systems Engineering technical electives (From

  4. A Population-Based Intervention for the Prevention of Falls and Fractures in Home Dwelling People 65 Years and Older in South Germany: Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Kilian; Küpper, Michaela; Becker, Clemens; Fischer, Torben; Büchele, Gisela; Benzinger, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Background Falls and fall-related injuries pose a major threat to older peoples’ health, and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In the course of demographic changes, development and implementation of fall prevention strategies have been recognized as an urgent public health challenge. Various risk factors for falls and a number of effective interventions have been recognized. A substantial proportion of falls occur for people who are neither frail nor at high risk. Therefore, population-based approaches reaching the entire older population are needed. Objective The objective of the study presented is the development, implementation, and evaluation of a population-based intervention for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries in a medium sized city in Germany. Methods The study is designed as a population-based approach. The intervention community is a mid sized city named Reutlingen in southern Germany with a population of 112,700 people. All community dwelling inhabitants 65 years and older are addressed. There are two main measures that are defined: (1) increase of overall physical activity, and (2) reduction of modifiable risk factors for falls such as deficits in strength and balance, home and environmental hazards, impaired vision, unsafe footwear, and improper use of assistive devices. The implementation strategies are developed in a participatory community planning process. These might include, for example, training of professionals and volunteers, improved availability of exercise classes, and education and raising awareness via newspaper, radio, or lectures. Results The study starts in September 2010 and ends in December 2013. It is evaluated primarily by process evaluation as well as by telephone survey. Conclusions Physical activity as a key message entails multiple positive effects with benefits on a range of geriatric symptoms. The strength of the design is the development of implementation strategies in a participatory community planning. The problems that we anticipate are the dependency on the stakeholders’ willingness to participate, and the difficulty of evaluating population-based programs by hard end points. PMID:24686959

  5. Fall Prevention in Community Settings: Results from Implementing Tai Chi: Moving for Better Balance in Three States

    PubMed Central

    Ory, Marcia G.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Parker, Erin M.; Jiang, Luohua; Chen, Shuai; Wilson, Ashley D.; Stevens, Judy A.; Ehrenreich, Heidi; Lee, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Tai Chi: Moving for Better Balance (TCMBB) is an evidence-based fall prevention exercise program being disseminated in selected communities through state injury prevention programs. This study: (1) describes the personal characteristics of TCMBB participants; (2) quantifies participants’ functional and self-reported health status at enrollment; and (3) measures changes in participants’ functional and self-reported health status post-intervention. There were 421 participants enrolled in 36 TCMBB programs delivered in Colorado, New York, and Oregon. Of the 209 participants who completed both baseline enrollment and post-intervention surveys, the average age of participants was 75.3 (SD?±?8.2) years. Most participants were female (81.3%), non-Hispanic (96.1%), White (94.1%), and described themselves as in excellent or very good health (52.2%). Paired t-test and general estimating equation models assessed changes over the 3-month program period. Pre- and post-assessment self-reported surveys and objective functional data [Timed Up and Go (TUG) test] were collected. On average, TUG test scores decreased (p?falling was five times greater after completing the program. TCMBB, which addresses gait and balance problems, can be an effective way to reduce falls among the older adult population. By helping older adults maintain their functional abilities, TCMBB can help community-dwelling older adults continue to live independently. PMID:25964934

  6. ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM EFFECTIVE FALL 2015 ARCH 1301 C

    E-print Network

    Huang, Haiying

    6/9/2015 ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM EFFECTIVE FALL 2015 FIRST YEAR ARCH 1301 C ........................................................... 3 ENGL 1301 C ......................................................... 3 CE 1105 ........................................................... 1 I E 2308 C ......................................................... 3 ENGR 1300

  7. Chair alarm for patient fall prevention based on gesture recognition and interactivity.

    PubMed

    Knight, Heather; Lee, Jae-Kyu; Ma, Hongshen

    2008-01-01

    The Gesture Recognition Interactive Technology (GRiT) Chair Alarm aims to prevent patient falls from chairs and wheelchairs by recognizing the gesture of a patient attempting to stand. Patient falls are one of the greatest causes of injury in hospitals. Current chair and bed exit alarm systems are inadequate because of insufficient notification, high false-alarm rate, and long trigger delays. The GRiT chair alarm uses an array of capacitive proximity sensors and pressure sensors to create a map of the patient's sitting position, which is then processed using gesture recognition algorithms to determine when a patient is attempting to stand and to alarm the care providers. This system also uses a range of voice and light feedback to encourage the patient to remain seated and/or to make use of the system's integrated nurse-call function. This system can be seamlessly integrated into existing hospital WiFi networks to send notifications and approximate patient location through existing nurse call systems. PMID:19163515

  8. Effect of Preexisting Musculoskeletal Diseases on the 1-Year Incidence of Fall-related Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Kyung; Kong, Kyoung Ae

    2012-01-01

    Objectives People who have chronic diseases, as well as gait imbalance or psychiatric drug use, may be susceptible to injuries from falls and slips. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of musculoskeletal diseases on incidental fall-related injuries among adults in Korea. Methods We analyzed data from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009), which are national data obtained by a rolling survey sampling method. The 1-year incidence of fall-related injuries was defined by health service utilization within the last year due to injury occurring after a slip and fall, and musculoskeletal diseases included osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and back pain. To evaluate the effects of preexisting musculoskeletal diseases, adults diagnosed before the last year were considered the exposed group, and adults who had never been diagnosed were the unexposed group. Results The weighted lifetime prevalence of musculoskeletal disease was 32 540 per 100 000 persons. Musculoskeletal diseases were associated with a higher risk of fall-related injury after adjustment for sex, age, residence, household income, education, occupation, visual disturbance, paralysis due to stroke, and medication for depression (odds ratio [OR], 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.93). As the number of comorbid musculoskeletal diseases increased, the risk of fall-induced injuries increased (p-value for trend <0.001). In particular, patients who had any musculoskeletal condition were at much higher risk of recurrent fall-related injuries (OR, 6.20; 95% CI, 1.06 to 36.08). Conclusions One must take into account the risk of fall-related injuries and provide prevention strategies among adults who have musculoskeletal diseases. PMID:23091653

  9. Fall prevention with supplemental and alpha-hydroxylated vitamin D: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results from fall prevention trials with supplemental vitamin D have been mixed and a possible differential benefit of supplemental versus alpha-hydroxylated vitamin D (activeD) has not been established. We performed a meta-analysis on the efficacy of supplemental vitamin D and activeD with or witho...

  10. The effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation integration pattern exercise program on the fall efficacy and gait ability of the elders with experienced fall.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun-Seung; Park, Seong-Doo; Kim, Jin-Young

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of exercising program utilizing proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation integration pattern (PIP), which is effective in improvement of the physical function, on the fall efficacy and gait ability of the elders who experienced injuries from falls. Also, this study aims to investigate he applicability of exercise program as methods for fall reoccurrence prevention and physical functions enhancement. The subjects of the study were 30 elders in the local community with experience of injuries from falls. The period of the study was 4 weeks with 12 exercise sessions. The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups where 15 elders were allocated to PIP and the rest 15 elders were allocated to general exercise (GE) group. Fall efficacy scale (FES) and GAITRite were used for the measurements in this study. Paired t-test was used to analyze the differences within the group while independent t-test was used to analyze the difference between two groups. In the comparison of measurements before and after exercise program, FES, velocity, cadence, and stride length were shown to be significantly increased in both PIP group and GE group. Also, in the comparison between two groups after the exercise program, the measurements of FES, cadence, stride length, and step length in PIP group were shown to be significantly increased compared to the GE group. Therefore, the PNF combined pattern is judged to be applicable to as methods for fall reoccurrence prevention and physical functions enhancement of the elders with experience of being fallen. PMID:25210699

  11. The Patient Who Falls

    PubMed Central

    Tinetti, Mary E.; Kumar, Chandrika

    2013-01-01

    Falls are common health events that cause discomfort and disability for older adults and stress for caregivers. Using the case of an older man who has experienced multiple falls and a hip fracture, this article, which focuses on community-living older adults, addresses the consequences and etiology of falls; summarizes the evidence on predisposing factors and effective interventions; and discusses how to translate this evidence into patient care. Previous falls; strength, gait, and balance impairments; and medications are the strongest risk factors for falling. Effective single interventions include exercise and physical therapy, cataract surgery, and medication reduction. Evidence suggests that the most effective strategy for reducing the rate of falling in community-living older adults may be intervening on multiple risk factors. Vitamin D has the strongest clinical trial evidence of benefit for preventing fractures among older men at risk. Issues involved in incorporating these evidence-based fall prevention interventions into outpatient practice are discussed, as are the trade-offs inherent in managing older patients at risk of falling. While challenges and barriers exist, fall prevention strategies can be incorporated into clinical practice. PMID:20085954

  12. Exercise for patients with osteoporosis: management of vertebral compression fractures and trunk strengthening for fall prevention.

    PubMed

    Sinaki, Mehrsheed

    2012-11-01

    Maintenance of bone health and quality requires mechanical strain, but the mechanical force needs to be within the bone's biomechanical competence. In osteoporosis, compression of vertebral bodies can be insidious. Therefore, absence of pain does not necessarily indicate absence of vertebral microfracture and deformity. Further, patients with previous vertebral fractures are at risk for further vertebral fractures and their associated morbidity. Exercise is a part of the comprehensive management of patients with osteoporosis and has been associated with improvement of quality of life and lowered risk of future fracture. The exercise prescription needs to match the needs of the patient. If exercise is not prescribed properly, then it may have negative consequences. In general, an exercise program, therapeutic or recreational, needs to address flexibility, muscle strength, core stability, cardiovascular fitness, and gait steadiness. As with pharmacotherapy, therapeutic exercises need to be individualized on the basis of musculoskeletal status and an individual's exercise interest. In osteoporosis, axial strength and stability are of primary importance. In particular, a spinal extensor strengthening program should be performed with progressive measured resistance as tolerated. To address falls and fractures, an exercise program should also include balance and lower extremity strength training. Proper dosing of oral cholecalciferol and calcium supplements can enhance the effect of strengthening exercises. Finally, a coordinated approach, such as the Spinal Proprioception Extension Exercise Dynamic (SPEED) program, can improve back extensor strength, the level of physical activity, and locomotion, and reduce back pain and fear and risk of falls. PMID:23174554

  13. FORESTRY, BSF IPC: 6/15/2011 EFFECTIVE: Fall 2011

    E-print Network

    Selmic, Sandra

    FORESTRY, BSF IPC: 6/15/2011 EFFECTIVE: Fall 2011 SCHOOL OF FORESTRY GENERAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS: PROFESSIONAL COURSES: GRADE SCH GRADE SCH ARTS: FORESTRY CORE: ART 290/HPE 280/MUGN 290/SPTH 290 3 FOR/WILD 111 Intro to Forestry & Wildlife Management 2 FOR 201 Microcomputer Applications 3 ENGL COMPOSITION: FOR 202

  14. HOSPITALITY, RESORT, AND TOURISM MANAGEMENT MINOR Effective Fall 2014

    E-print Network

    Hutchens, John

    HOSPITALITY, RESORT, AND TOURISM MANAGEMENT MINOR Effective Fall 2014 The minor in Hospitality topics relevant to supervisors in resort destination areas. Students completing the Hospitality, Resort application in hospitality and tourism businesses. Additionally, they will be able to respond to challenges

  15. A best practice fall prevention exercise program to improve balance, strength / power, and psychosocial health in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With increasing age neuromuscular deficits (e.g., sarcopenia) may result in impaired physical performance and an increased risk for falls. Prominent intrinsic fall-risk factors are age-related decreases in balance and strength / power performance as well as cognitive decline. Additional studies are needed to develop specifically tailored exercise programs for older adults that can easily be implemented into clinical practice. Thus, the objective of the present trial is to assess the effects of a fall prevention program that was developed by an interdisciplinary expert panel on measures of balance, strength / power, body composition, cognition, psychosocial well-being, and falls self-efficacy in healthy older adults. Additionally, the time-related effects of detraining are tested. Methods/Design Healthy old people (n?=?54) between the age of 65 to 80 years will participate in this trial. The testing protocol comprises tests for the assessment of static / dynamic steady-state balance (i.e., Sharpened Romberg Test, instrumented gait analysis), proactive balance (i.e., Functional Reach Test; Timed Up and Go Test), reactive balance (i.e., perturbation test during bipedal stance; Push and Release Test), strength (i.e., hand grip strength test; Chair Stand Test), and power (i.e., Stair Climb Power Test; countermovement jump). Further, body composition will be analysed using a bioelectrical impedance analysis system. In addition, questionnaires for the assessment of psychosocial (i.e., World Health Organisation Quality of Life Assessment-Bref), cognitive (i.e., Mini Mental State Examination), and fall risk determinants (i.e., Fall Efficacy Scale – International) will be included in the study protocol. Participants will be randomized into two intervention groups or the control / waiting group. After baseline measures, participants in the intervention groups will conduct a 12-week balance and strength / power exercise intervention 3 times per week, with each training session lasting 30 min. (actual training time). One intervention group will complete an extensive supervised training program, while the other intervention group will complete a short version ('3 times 3’) that is home-based and controlled by weekly phone calls. Post-tests will be conducted right after the intervention period. Additionally, detraining effects will be measured 12 weeks after program cessation. The control group / waiting group will not participate in any specific intervention during the experimental period, but will receive the extensive supervised program after the experimental period. Discussion It is expected that particularly the supervised combination of balance and strength / power training will improve performance in variables of balance, strength / power, body composition, cognitive function, psychosocial well-being, and falls self-efficacy of older adults. In addition, information regarding fall risk assessment, dose–response-relations, detraining effects, and supervision of training will be provided. Further, training-induced health-relevant changes, such as improved performance in activities of daily living, cognitive function, and quality of life, as well as a reduced risk for falls may help to lower costs in the health care system. Finally, practitioners, therapists, and instructors will be provided with a scientifically evaluated feasible, safe, and easy-to-administer exercise program for fall prevention. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01906034 PMID:24106864

  16. Independent and Combined Effects of Exercise and Vitamin D on Muscle Morphology, Function and Falls in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Robin M.

    2010-01-01

    Regular exercise, particularly progressive resistance training (PRT), is recognized as one of the most effective strategies to prevent age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia), but its effects on muscle function are mixed. However, emerging data indicates that high velocity PRT (fast concentric muscle contractions) is more effective for improving functional outcomes than traditional PRT. In terms of falls prevention, high-challenging balance training programs appear to be most effective. There is also compelling evidence that supplemental vitamin D is an effective therapeutic option for falls prevention. The findings from a recent meta-analysis revealed that supplemental vitamin D at a dose of at least 700–1,000 IU/d or an achieved serum 25(OH)D level of at least 60 nmol/L was associated with reduced falls risk among older individuals. Based on these findings, it is possible that the combination of exercise and vitamin D could have a synergistic effect on muscle morphology and function, particularly since both interventions have been shown to have beneficial effects on type II “fast twitch” muscle fibers and systemic inflammation, which have both been linked to losses in muscle mass and function. Unfortunately however, the findings from the limited number of factorial 2 × 2 design RCTs indicate that additional vitamin D does not enhance the effects of exercise on measures of muscle morphology, function or falls risk. However, none of these trials were adequately powered to detect a “synergistic” effect between the two treatment strategies, but it is likely that if an exercise-by-vitamin D interaction does exist, it may be limited to situations when vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is corrected. Further targeted research in “high risk” groups is still needed to address this question, and evaluate whether there is a threshold level of serum 25(OH)D to maximize the effects of exercise on muscle and falls risk. PMID:22254069

  17. Effectiveness of riboflavin in pediatric migraine prevention

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Michelle; Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Question The rate of migraine diagnosed among children is increasing. Is riboflavin, an alternative to traditional pharmacologic agents, effective and safe for prevention of migraine in children? Answer Because migraine is a very common condition in childhood and adolescence, often contributing to substantial burden of illness, there is increased interest in alternatives to traditional pharmacologic prevention. The expectation is that over-the-counter alternative medication will be less toxic, better tolerated, and have fewer side effects. A few studies in adults show that riboflavin (vitamin B2) might decrease frequency of migraine headaches. It has become common practice to recommend that children try riboflavin to prevent migraine; however, research on riboflavin use in children is inconclusive. PMID:24627379

  18. Older People's Views of Falls-Prevention Interventions in Six European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yardley, Lucy; Bishop, Felicity L.; Beyer, Nina; Hauer, Klaus; Kempen, Gertrudis I. J. M.; Piot-Ziegler, Chantal; Todd, Chris J.; Cuttelod, Therese; Horne, Maria; Lanta, Kyriaki; Holt, Anne Rosell

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Our study identified factors common to a variety of populations and settings that may promote or inhibit uptake and adherence to falls-related interventions. Design and Methods: Semistructured interviews to assess perceived advantages and barriers to taking part in falls-related interventions were carried out in six European countries…

  19. Difficulties Experienced in Setting and Achieving Goals by Participants of a Falls Prevention Programme: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Wendy; Haines, Terry P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the ability of participants of a falls prevention programme to set and achieve goals. Methods: The study used a prospective longitudinal design and a mixed-methods approach to data collection. Study participants were (1) 220 older adults participating in a 15-week combined exercise and education falls prevention programme and (2) 9 practitioners (3 home-care nurses, 5 community workers, and an exercise physiologist) involved in delivering the programme. Data from goal-setting forms were analyzed, and descriptive statistics were used to determine the number of appropriate goals set and achieved. Data were analyzed according to programme setting (home- or group-based) and whether or not participants were classified as being from a Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) background in the Australian context. Semi-structured interviews with programme practitioners were thematically analyzed. Results: A total of 144 respondents (n=75 CALD group, n=41 non-CALD group, n=6 CALD home, n=22 non-CALD home) set 178 goals. Only 101 (57%) goals could be evaluated according to achievement, because participants set goals that focused on health state instead of behaviour, set goals not relevant to falls prevention, used inappropriate constructs to measure goal achievement, and either did not review their goals or dropped out of the programme before goal review. Of these 101 goals, 64 were achieved. Practitioners described their own difficulties in understanding the process of setting health behaviour goals along with communication, cultural, and logistic difficulties. Conclusions: Both CALD and non-CALD participants and those participating in both group- and home-based programmes experienced difficulty in setting and achieving goals to facilitate behaviour change for falls prevention. Data suggest that home-based participants had more difficulty in setting goals than their group-based counterparts and, to a lesser extent, that CALD participants experienced more difficulty in setting goals than their non-CALD counterparts. The use of a guided approach to goal setting and the need for more specific practitioner training and follow-up support regarding goal setting in the context of a falls prevention programme should be considered. PMID:25922563

  20. Protocol for disseminating an evidence-based fall prevention program in community senior centers: evaluation of translatability and public health impact via a single group pre-post study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Falls are the leading cause of injury death in older adults and present a significant public health problem and a major burden to healthcare. Although there is sufficient evidence from randomized controlled trials to indicate that exercise can prevent falls in older people, few effective, evidence-based fall prevention programs exist in community practice. Thus, there is a pressing need to translate and disseminate evidence-based exercise programs to community providers that serve older adults at increased risk of falling. The current study addresses this public health need by disseminating the evidence-based Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance (TJQMBB) program through community senior centers. Methods/Design The study uses a single-group design in which the TJQMBB program is being delivered to community-dwelling older adults through collaboration with senior centers in selected counties in Oregon, USA, for 48 weeks, followed by a 24-week post-intervention follow-up. Study process and outcome measures will be evaluated in accordance with the components of the RE-AIM framework that focus on Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance. Discussion This study will determine whether the evidence-based TJQMBB fall prevention program can be disseminated through a broad spectrum of community-based senior centers that often cater to low-income, underserved community-dwelling older adults at risk of falling. If shown to be both practically implementable and sustainable, the TJQMBB program will provide an effective, potentially low-cost, easy-to-implement intervention that could be used by public health practitioners and community-based organizations to address the problem of falls among older adults. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01854931 PMID:24884784

  1. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted. PMID:22583406

  2. Stochastic analysis of motor-control stability, polymer based force sensing, and optical stimulation as a preventive measure for falls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrock, Clinton K.

    Falls are the leading cause of all external injuries. Outcomes of falls include the leading cause of traumatic brain injury and bone fractures, and high direct medical costs in the billions of dollars. This work focused on developing three areas of enabling component technology to be used in postural control monitoring tools targeting the mitigation of falls. The first was an analysis tool based on stochastic fractal analysis to reliably measure levels of motor control. The second focus was on thin film wearable pressure sensors capable of relaying data for the first tool. The third was new thin film advanced optics for improving phototherapy devices targeting postural control disorders. Two populations, athletes and elderly, were studied against control groups. The results of these studies clearly show that monitoring postural stability in at-risk groups can be achieved reliably, and an integrated wearable system can be envisioned for both monitoring and treatment purposes. Keywords: electro-active polymer, ionic polymer-metal composite, postural control, motor control, fall prevention, sports medicine, fractal analysis, physiological signals, wearable sensors, phototherapy, photobiomodulation, nano-optics.

  3. Fall prevention with supplemental and active forms of vitamin D: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the efficacy of supplemental vitamin D and active forms of vitamin D with or without calcium in preventing falls among older individuals. Data sources We searched Medline, the Cochrane central register of controlled trials, BIOSIS, and Embase up to August 2008 for relevant articles. Further studies were identified by consulting clinical experts, bibliographies, and abstracts. We contacted authors for additional data when necessary. Review methods Only double blind randomised controlled trials of older individuals (mean age 65 years or older) receiving a defined oral dose of supplemental vitamin D (vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) or vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol)) or an active form of vitamin D (1?-hydroxyvitamin D3 (1?-hydroxycalciferol) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol)) and with sufficiently specified fall assessment were considered for inclusion. Results Eight randomised controlled trials (n=2426) of supplemental vitamin D met our inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity among trials was observed for dose of vitamin D (700-1000 IU/day v 200-600 IU/day; P=0.02) and achieved 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration (25(OH)D concentration: <60 nmol/l v ?60 nmol/l; P=0.005). High dose supplemental vitamin D reduced fall risk by 19% (pooled relative risk (RR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.92; n=1921 from seven trials), whereas achieved serum 25(OH)D concentrations of 60 nmol/l or more resulted in a 23% fall reduction (pooled RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.90). Falls were not notably reduced by low dose supplemental vitamin D (pooled RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.35; n=505 from two trials) or by achieved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of less than 60 nmol/l (pooled RR 1.35, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.84). Two randomised controlled trials (n=624) of active forms of vitamin D met our inclusion criteria. Active forms of vitamin D reduced fall risk by 22% (pooled RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.94). Conclusions Supplemental vitamin D in a dose of 700-1000 IU a day reduced the risk of falling among older individuals by 19% and to a similar degree as active forms of vitamin D. Doses of supplemental vitamin D of less than 700 IU or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of less than 60 nmol/l may not reduce the risk of falling among older individuals. PMID:19797342

  4. 75 FR 27625 - Announcement of the Fall 2010 Annual Grant Competition Effective October 1, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ...Announcement of the Fall 2010 Annual Grant Competition Effective October 1, 2010 AGENCY...The Agency announces its Annual Grant Competition, which offers support for research...conflict resolution. The Annual Grant Competition is open to any project that falls...

  5. Lasers effects on enamel for caries prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ana, P. A.; Bachmann, L.; Zezell, D. M.

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether laser irradiation is able to reduce caries incidence. For this purpose, the effects of laser on enamel and on fluoride uptake were discussed. Current literature regarding the preventive effect of laser irradiation on dental hard tissue has been reviewed. An evaluation of the results of the available in vitro and in vivo studies on the efficacy of anticaries and induced changes on enamel by laser irradiation were also performed. Articles were selected using the Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane databases, and the results of these studies were described. The most common lasers employed for caries prevention on enamel are Nd:YAG; CO2; Er:YAG; Er,Cr:YSGG; and argon. The percentage of inhibition of dental caries varied from 30 to 97.2%, and the association with fluoride has demonstrated the best results on inhibition of caries development. Laser irradiation under specific conditions can change the crystallographic properties of apatite crystals, increasing the acid resistance of lased enamel. The combined treatment of laser irradiation with fluoride propitiates an expressive fluoride uptake, reducing the progression of carieslike lesions, and this treatment is more effective than laser or fluoride alone. Available data suggest that lasers combined with fluoride is a promising treatment in caries prevention.

  6. Design of a continuous quality improvement program to prevent falls among community-dwelling older adults in an integrated healthcare system

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Implementing quality improvement programs that require behavior change on the part of health care professionals and patients has proven difficult in routine care. Significant randomized trial evidence supports creating fall prevention programs for community-dwelling older adults, but adoption in routine care has been limited. Nationally-collected data indicated that our local facility could improve its performance on fall prevention in community-dwelling older people. We sought to develop a sustainable local fall prevention program, using theory to guide program development. Methods We planned program development to include important stakeholders within our organization. The theory-derived plan consisted of 1) an initial leadership meeting to agree on whether creating a fall prevention program was a priority for the organization, 2) focus groups with patients and health care professionals to develop ideas for the program, 3) monthly workgroup meetings with representatives from key departments to develop a blueprint for the program, 4) a second leadership meeting to confirm that the blueprint developed by the workgroup was satisfactory, and also to solicit feedback on ideas for program refinement. Results The leadership and workgroup meetings occurred as planned and led to the development of a functional program. The focus groups did not occur as planned, mainly due to the complexity of obtaining research approval for focus groups. The fall prevention program uses an existing telephonic nurse advice line to 1) place outgoing calls to patients at high fall risk, 2) assess these patients' risk factors for falls, and 3) triage these patients to the appropriate services. The workgroup continues to meet monthly to monitor the progress of the program and improve it. Conclusion A theory-driven program development process has resulted in the successful initial implementation of a fall prevention program. PMID:19917122

  7. Middle College. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 17, Number 4, Fall 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) College As A Bridge to High School Graduation (Terry Cash); (2) 2005 NDPN Crystal Star Awards of Excellence; (3) Mott Middle College (Chery S. Wagonlander); (4) Gateway to College: A…

  8. Fall Prevention in Community Settings: Results from Implementing Stepping On in Three States

    PubMed Central

    Ory, Marcia G.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Jiang, Luohua; Lee, Robin; Chen, Shuai; Wilson, Ashley D.; Stevens, Judy A.; Parker, Erin M.

    2015-01-01

    Stepping On is a community-based intervention that has been shown in a randomized controlled trial to reduce fall risk. The Wisconsin Institute for Healthy Aging adapted Stepping On for use in the United States and developed a training infrastructure to enable dissemination. The purpose of this study is to: (1) describe the personal characteristics of Stepping On participants; (2) quantify participants’ functional and self-reported health status at enrollment, and (3) measure changes in participants’ functional and self-reported health status after completing the program. Both survey and observed functional status [timed up and go (TUG) test] data were collected between September 2011 and December 2013 for 366 participants enrolled in 32 Stepping On programs delivered in Colorado, New York, and Oregon. Paired t-tests and general estimating equations models adjusted for socio-demographic factors were performed to assess changes over the program period. Among the 266 participants with pre–post survey data, the average participant age was 78.7 (SD?±?8.0) years. Most participants were female (83.4%), white (96.9%), and in good health (49.4%). The TUG test scores decreased significantly (p?falling was more than three times greater after completing Stepping On. Further, the adjusted odds ratios of reporting “no difficulty” for getting out of a straight back chair increased by 89%. Intended for older adults who have fallen in the past or are afraid of falling, Stepping On has the potential to reduce the frequency and burden of older adult falls. PMID:25964924

  9. Falls and Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... costs. Home Improvements Prevent Falls Many State and local governments have education and/or home modification programs to help older people prevent falls. Check with your local health department, senior affairs office, or area agency ...

  10. Prophylactic Fresh Frozen Plasma Infusion is Ineffective in Reversing Warfarin Anticoagulation and Preventing Delayed Intracranial Hemorrhage After Falls

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Subhash; Sharma, Rohit; Grotts, Jonathan; Ferrigno, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Elderly patients, with considerable fall risk, are increasingly anticoagulated to prevent thromboembolic disease. We hypothesized that a policy of prophylactic fresh frozen plasma (FFP) infusion in patients having falls would reverse vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and that reversal would decrease delayed intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: A retrospective review of patients with trauma admitted to a level 2 community trauma center was performed from January 2010 until November 2012. Inclusion criteria were: ground level fall (GLF) with suspected head trauma, on VKA, an international normalized ratio (INR) of >1.5, and a negative head computed tomography (CT). Patients were transfused with FFP to a goal INR of <1.5 while observed. Patients were classified as reversed (REV) if the lowest INR achieved within 4 to 24 hours after initial INR was <1.5 or unreversed (NREV) if lowest INR achieved was >1.5. Chi-square and logistic regression were performed. Results: A total of 194 patients met the criteria. In all, 43 (22%) patients were able to be REV, and 151 (78%) patients remained NREV. Unreversed patients were male and younger (P < .05). There was no difference in mean FFP received. Unreversed patients had a higher initial INR of 3.0 compared to REV patients (2.5; P = .018). One patient developed a delayed ICH and belonged to the REV group. Conclusion: The incidence of delayed hemorrhage was 0.5%. A strategy of prophylactic FFP infusion was ineffective in VKA reversal. We recommend against prophylactic infusion of FFP during a period of observation for patients on VKA with suspected head trauma and a negative initial CT. PMID:26425246

  11. Fall rice straw management and winter flooding treatment effects on a subsequent soybean crop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anders, M.M.; Windham, T.E.; McNew, R.W.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of fall rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw management and winter flooding on the yield and profitability of subsequent irrigated and dryland soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] crops were studied for 3 years. Rice straw treatments consisted of disking, rolling, or standing stubble. Winter flooding treatments consisted of maintaining a minimum water depth of 10 cm by pumping water when necessary, impounding available rainfall, and draining fields to prevent flooding. The following soybean crop was managed as a conventional-tillage system or no-till system. Tillage system treatments were further divided into irrigated or dryland. Results indicated that there were no significant effects from either fall rice straw management or winter flooding treatments on soybean seed yields. Soybean seed yields for, the conventional tillage system were significantly greater than those for the no-till system for the first 2 yrs and not different in the third year. Irrigated soybean seed yields were significantly greater than those from dryland plots for all years. Net economic returns averaged over the 3 yrs were greatest ($390.00 ha-1) from the irrigated no-till system.

  12. Obesity and falls in older people: mediating effects of disease, sedentary behavior, mood, pain and medication use.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Lord, Stephen R; Harvey, Lara A; Close, Jacqueline C T

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with an increased risk of falls among older people. However, it is not certain whether factors commonly associated with falls and/or obesity mediate this risk. This research examines whether specific diseases, sedentary behavior, mood, pain, and medication use mediate the association between obesity and falls. A representative sample of community-living individuals aged 65+ years in New South Wales (NSW), Australia were surveyed regarding their experience of falls, height, weight, lifestyle and general health within a 12 month period. Intervening variable effects were examined using Freedman and Schatzkin's difference in coefficients tests and regression analyses were used to estimate relative risks. Obesity was associated with a 25% higher risk (95%confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.41; p<0.0003) of having fallen in the previous 12 months compared to non-obese individuals. The strongest mediators of the association between obesity and falls were sleeping tablets (t=-5.452; p<0.0001), sitting for more than 8h per day on weekdays (t=5.178; p<0.0001), heart disease/angina (t=3.526; p<0.0001), anti-depressant use (t=3.102; p=0.002), moderate/extreme anxiety or depression (t=3.038; p=0.002), and diabetes (t=3.032; p=0.002). Sedentary behavior, chronic health conditions and medication use were identified as mediators for the association between obesity and falls in community living older people. Interventions aimed at weight reduction and increased activity may have benefits not only for fall prevention, but also for the mediating health, mood and lifestyle factors identified here. PMID:25307955

  13. Use of quality management methods in the transition from efficacious prevention programs to effective prevention services.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Vicki-Smith; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene

    2008-06-01

    This paper applies concepts and methods developed in management to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective prevention services. The paper describes Quality Function Deployment (QFD) as a method for structured planning and development that connects the needs and wants of the consumer with the design of the product or service. The paper describes basic tools used in quality management, and discusses how they might be applied to prepare a prevention program for implementation by community agencies. Prevention programs are conceptualized as having multiple consumers (i.e., stakeholders), including the participants who receive the service, the service providers, the organizations that deliver the program, and the researchers who evaluate the programs. As an illustration of one step in the application of QFD to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective prevention services, analysis of the needs and preferences of Family Courts for the implementation of an the New Beginnings Program is presented. PMID:18351452

  14. Older Adults' Participation in a Community-Based Falls Prevention Exercise Program: Relationships between the Easy Tool, Program Attendance, and Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G.; Ahn, SangNam; Bazzarre, Terry L.; Resnick, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The Exercise Assessment Screening for You (EASY) tool was developed to encourage older adults at every functional level to be more physically active. The purposes of this study were to examine characteristics of older adults who participated in an evidence-based falls prevention program by their entry to EASY tool scores,…

  15. Effects of drug pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, characteristics of medication use, and relevant pharmacological interventions on fall risk in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Zhou, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background Falls among the elderly are an issue internationally and a public health problem that brings substantial economic and quality-of-life burdens to individuals and society. Falls prevention is an important measure of nursing quality and patient safety. Numerous studies have evaluated the association of medication use with fall risk in elderly patients. However, an up-to-date review has not been available to summarize the multifaceted pharmaceutical concerns in the prevention of medication-related falls. Materials and methods Relevant literature was identified by performing searches in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library, covering the period until February 2014. We included studies that described an association between medications and falls, and effects of drug pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, characteristics of medication use, and pharmacological interventions on fall risk in elderly patients. The full text of each included article was critically reviewed, and data interpretation was performed. Results Fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRIDs) include central nervous system-acting agents, cough preparations, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-Alzheimer’s agents, antiplatelet agents, calcium antagonists, diuretics, ?-blockers, digoxin, hypoglycemic drugs, neurotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, nasal preparations, and antiglaucoma ophthalmic preparations. The degree of medication-related fall risk was dependent on one or some of the following factors: drug pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties (eg, elimination half-life, metabolic pathway, genetic polymorphism, risk rating of medications despite belonging to the same therapeutic class) and/or characteristics of medication use (eg, number of medications and drug–drug interactions, dose strength, duration of medication use and time since stopping, medication change, prescribing appropriateness, and medication adherence). Pharmacological interventions, including withdrawal of FRIDs, pharmacist-conducted clinical medication review, and computerized drug alerts, were effective in reducing fall risk. Conclusion Based on the literature review, clear practical recommendations for clinicians to prevent falls in the elderly included making a list of FRIDs, establishing a computerized alert system for when to e-prescribe FRIDs, seeking an alternative drug with lower fall risk, withdrawing FRIDs if clinically indicated, taking pertinent cautions when the use of FRIDs cannot be avoidable, paying attention to prescribing appropriateness, simplifying the medication regimen, strengthening pharmacist-conducted clinical medication review, ensuring the label of each FRID dispensed contains a corresponding warning sign, being careful when medication change occurs, enhancing medication adherence, and mandating for periodic reassessment of potential risk associated with the patient’s medication regimen. Further studies should be conducted in this area, such as investigating whether medication reconciliation and improving medication adherence could decrease the rate of falls. PMID:24966681

  16. Mediating mechanisms in a school-based drug prevention program: first-year effects of the Midwestern Prevention Project.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, D P; Johnson, C A; Pentz, M A; Dwyer, J H; Hansen, W B; Flay, B R; Wang, E Y

    1991-01-01

    Describes (a) the effects of a social-influences-based drug prevention program (the Midwestern Prevention Project) on the mediating variables it was designed to change and (b) the process by which the effects on mediating variables changed use of drugs (tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana). Students in 42 middle schools and junior high schools in Kansas City, Missouri, and Kansas City, Kansas, were measured in the fall of 1984 (N = 5,065) and again 1 year later (N = 5,008) after 24 of the schools had been through the program. Compared to students in control schools, students in program schools became less likely to express belief in the positive consequences of drug use, less likely to indicate that they would use such drugs in the future, more likely to report that their friends were less tolerant of drug use, and more likely to believe that they were better able to communicate with their friends about drug or school problems. Change in perceptions of friends' tolerance of drug use was the most substantial mediator of program effects on drug use. There was evidence that intentions to use and beliefs about the positive consequences of use may also mediate program effects on drug use. PMID:1879388

  17. Seeding date and polymer seed coating effects on plant establishment and yield of fall-seeded

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Seeding date and polymer seed coating effects on plant establishment and yield of fall-seeded. and Kirkland, K. J. 2004. Seeding date and polymer seed coating effects on plant establishment and yield of fall-seeded canola in the Northern Great Plains. Can. J. Plant Sci. 84: 955­963. The time interval

  18. Bachelors of Science in Computer Science Department Major Requirements Effective Fall 2007

    E-print Network

    Ravikumar, B.

    course requirements for the BS in Computer Science are changed. o Effective Fall 2007: Math 161 CalculusBachelors of Science in Computer Science Department Major Requirements ­ Effective Fall 2007 The Revised BS in Computer Science aligns our program with the latest curricular guidelines in computer

  19. Falls - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ?????? ?? ???????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Safety Tips to Prevent Falls at Home (Arabic) ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Preventing Falls in the Hospital Sprje?avanje ...

  20. [Less need for prevention through better care? Towards an effective deployment of preventive and curative care].

    PubMed

    van Baal, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    Scientists and politicians repeatedly call for more investment in prevention. Besides improving public health, this would reduce health care spending. This article discusses two mechanisms that are relevant to the debate regarding the efficiency of prevention. The first mechanism concerns the additional demand for health care as a result of increased life expectancy. The second mechanism concerns the impact that improvements in curative care have on the consequences of prevention. Both mechanisms show that prevention and curative care cannot be considered separately. Consequently, decisions on investments in preventive and curative care should ideally be based on the same decision-making framework. An effective deployment of prevention and care will benefit from economic evaluations that give as full a picture as possible of both the costs and benefits of new interventions. PMID:25923498

  1. Measurement of the effect of playground surface materials on hand impact forces during upper limb fall arrests.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woochol J; Kaur, Harjinder; Robinovitch, Stephen N

    2014-04-01

    Distal radius fractures are common on playgrounds. Yet current guidelines for the selection of playground surface materials are based only on protection against fall-related head injuries. We conducted "torso release" experiments to determine how common playground surface materials affect impact force applied to the hand during upper limb fall arrests. Trials were acquired for falls onto a rigid surface, and onto five common playground surface materials: engineered wood fiber, gravel, mulch, rubber tile, and sand. Measures were acquired for arm angles of 20 and 40 degrees from the vertical. Playground surface materials influenced the peak resultant and vertical force (P<.001), but not the peak horizontal force (P=.159). When compared with the rigid condition, peak resultant force was reduced 17% by sand (from 1039 to 864 N), 16% by gravel, 7% by mulch, 5% by engineered wood fiber, and 2% by rubber tile. The best performing surface provided only a 17% reduction in peak resultant force. These results help to explain the lack of convincing evidence from clinical studies on the effectiveness of playground surface materials in preventing distal radius fractures during playground falls, and highlight the need to develop playground surface materials that provide improved protection against these injuries. PMID:24347512

  2. Disseminating Effective Community Prevention Practices: Opportunities for Social Work Education

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, J. David; Shapiro, Valerie B.; Fagan, Abigail A.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States about 17% of adolescents meet diagnostic criteria for mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Six million young people receive treatment services annually for mental, emotional, or behavioral problems. These problems affect 1 in 5 families and cost $247 million annually (O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009). Some strategies for preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders in young people have been developed, tested, and found to be effective in preventing the onset, persistence, and severity of psychological disorders, drug abuse, and delinquency. Unfortunately, tested and effective prevention policies, programs, and practices are not widely used (O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009). This paper highlights recent advances in prevention science and describes some opportunities and challenges in advancing the use of science-based prevention in communities. The chapter concludes by exploring the potential role of social work education in developing a workforce ready to increase community access to effective prevention strategies. PMID:21072250

  3. 75 FR 27625 - Announcement of the Fall 2010 Annual Grant Competition Effective October 1, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... international peace and conflict resolution. The Annual Grant Competition is open to any project that falls... . Dated: May 11, 2010. Michael Graham, Vice President for Management. BILLING CODE 6820-AR-M ... PEACE Announcement of the Fall 2010 Annual Grant Competition Effective October 1, 2010 AGENCY:...

  4. The counterintuitive effect of summer-to-fall mixed layer deepening on eukaryotic new

    E-print Network

    Ward, Bess

    The counterintuitive effect of summer-to-fall mixed layer deepening on eukaryotic new production prokaryotic and eukaryotic phytoplankton was analyzed. The 15 N/14 N of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus of eukaryotic phytoplankton was high, reflecting consumption of subsurface nitrate. In three other fall profiles

  5. Abstract--The Gesture Recognition Interactive Technology (GRiT) Chair Alarm aims to prevent patient falls from chairs

    E-print Network

    Ma, Hongshen

    patient falls from chairs and wheelchairs by recognizing the gesture of a patient attempting to stand. Patient falls are one of the greatest causes of injury in hospitals. Current chair and bed exit alarm dollars per year [1]. In order to minimize patient fall incidents, hospital nurses are currently required

  6. Preventive care and barriers to effective prevention. How do family physicians see it?

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, B. G.; Abelson, J.; Woodward, C. A.; Norman, G.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess how adequately family physicians think they are delivering preventive care and to examine barriers to providing preventive care. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Primary care medical practices in south-central Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred eighty family physicians and general practitioners who graduated from medical school between 1972 and 1988. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Satisfactory preventive care delivery versus self-assessed coverage of patients for 15 preventive maneuvers. Perceived reasons for lack of success in providing recommended preventive care. RESULTS: For 10 of the 15 maneuvers, the proportion of physicians who regarded 90% or higher as satisfactory coverage was twice as great as the proportion who thought they provided that level of coverage. For 11 of the 15 maneuvers, most respondents reported coverage lower than the level they regarded as satisfactory. For six maneuvers, more than two thirds thought they provided less than satisfactory coverage. More than two thirds of respondents suggested these barriers to providing recommended preventive care: patient is healthy and does not visit; patient refuses, is not interested, or does not comply; no effective systems to remind patients to come in for preventive care; and priority given to presenting problem. CONCLUSION: Many family physicians and general practitioners in south-central Ontario provide preventive care to their patients at lower levels than they consider satisfactory. They identified barriers to providing preventive services successfully; these barriers suggest approaches for improving care. PMID:8828872

  7. Comparison of tai chi vs. strength training for fall prevention among female cancer survivors: study protocol for the GET FIT trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Women with cancer are significantly more likely to fall than women without cancer placing them at higher risk of fall-related fractures, other injuries and disability. Currently, no evidence-based fall prevention strategies exist that specifically target female cancer survivors. The purpose of the GET FIT (Group Exercise Training for Functional Improvement after Treatment) trial is to compare the efficacy of two distinct types of exercise, tai chi versus strength training, to prevent falls in women who have completed treatment for cancer. The specific aims of this study are to: 1) Determine and compare the efficacy of both tai chi training and strength training to reduce falls in older female cancer survivors, 2) Determine the mechanism(s) by which tai chi and strength training each reduces falls and, 3) Determine whether or not the benefits of each intervention last after structured training stops. Methods/Design We will conduct a three-group, single-blind, parallel design, randomized controlled trial in women, aged 50–75 years old, who have completed chemotherapy for cancer comparing 1) tai chi 2) strength training and 3) a placebo control group of seated stretching exercise. Women will participate in supervised study programs twice per week for six months and will be followed for an additional six months after formal training stops. The primary outcome in this study is falls, which will be prospectively tracked by monthly self-report. Secondary outcomes are maximal leg strength measured by isokinetic dynamometry, postural stability measured by computerized dynamic posturography and physical function measured by the Physical Performance Battery, all measured at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. The sample for this trial (N=429, assuming 25% attrition) will provide adequate statistical power to detect at least a 47% reduction in the fall rate over 1 year by being in either of the 2 exercise groups versus the control group. Discussion The GET FIT trial will provide important new knowledge about preventing falls using accessible and implementable exercise interventions for women following chemotherapy for cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01635413 PMID:23217054

  8. Musculoskeletal Strength, Balance Performance, and Self-Efficacy in Elderly Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Practitioners: Implications for Fall Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Ng, Shamay S. M.; Liu, Karen P. Y.; Pang, Marco Y. C.; Lee, H. W.; Chung, Joanne W. Y.; Lam, Priscillia L.; Guo, X.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To (1) compare the bone strength, lower limb muscular strength, functional balance performance, and balance self-efficacy between Ving Tsun (VT) martial art practitioners and nonpractitioners and (2) identify the associations between lower limb muscular strength, functional balance performance, and balance self-efficacy among the VT-trained participants. Methods. Thirty-five VT practitioners (mean age ± SD = 62.7 ± 13.3 years) and 49 nonpractitioners (mean age ± SD = 65.9 ± 10.5 years) participated in the study. The bone strength of the distal radius, lower limb muscular strength, functional balance performance, and balance self-efficacy were assessed using an ultrasound bone sonometer, the five times sit-to-stand test (FTSTS), the Berg balance scale (BBS), and the Chinese version of the activities-specific balance confidence scale, respectively. A multivariate analysis of covariance was performed to compare all the outcome variables between the two groups. Results. Elderly VT practitioners had higher radial bone strength on the dominant side (P < 0.05), greater lower limb muscular strength (P = 0.001), better functional balance performance (P = 0.003), and greater balance confidence (P < 0.001) than the nonpractitioners. Additionally, only the FTSTS time revealed a significant association with the BBS score (r = ?0.575, ?P = 0.013). Conclusions. VT may be a suitable health-maintenance exercise for the elderly. Our findings may inspire the development of VT fall-prevention exercises for the community-dwelling healthy elderly. PMID:25530782

  9. [Nursing care of elderly persons: reactions to the use of a security blanket to prevent falling out of bed].

    PubMed

    Ntetu, A L; Courville, F; Chouinard, M C; Tremblay, H

    2001-03-01

    This article presents the results of the first part of a survey aiming at assessing the chances for adoption and use of the safety blanket, a new device preventing the falls from the beds. In this part, the resarchers wanted to know how the caretakers reacted to the use of this material. Thirty four people with five beneficiaries among them, nine family members, fifteen contributors and five managers, interacting in the context of a care unit for elderly people of a hospital centre were interviewed. The data of the interviews were analysed according to a six step procedure: listening to the interviews and reading the descriptions; deriving the significant statements, analysing and reformulating the meaning of the statements; regrouping the signification units under more global themes; gathering the analysis results and describing exhaustively the studied phenomenon; validating the exhaustive description. As a whole, the reactions recorded were positive and indicate that the safety blanket has big chances to be adopted by the healthcare units. PMID:12037882

  10. Moving Forward in Fall Prevention: An Intervention to Improve Balance Among Older Adults in Real-World Settings

    PubMed Central

    Robitaille, Yvonne; Laforest, Sophie; Fournier, Michel; Gauvin, Lise; Parisien, Manon; Corriveau, Hélène; Trickey, Francine; Damestoy, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the effectiveness of a group-based exercise intervention to improve balancing ability among older adults delivered in natural settings by staff in local community organizations. Methods. The main component of the intervention consisted of biweekly group-based exercise sessions conducted over 12 weeks by a professional, coupled with home-based exercises. In a quasiexperimental design, 10 community organizations working with older adults offered the intervention to groups of 5 to 15 persons concerned about falls, while 7 organizations recruited similar groups to participate in the control arm of the study. Participants (98 experimental and 102 control) underwent balance assessments by a physiotherapist at registration and 3 months later. Results. Eighty-nine percent of participants attended the 3-month measurement session (n=177). A linear regression analysis showed that after adjusting for baseline levels of balance and demographic and health characteristics, the intervention significantly improved static balance and mobility. Conclusion. Structured, group-based exercise programs offered by community organizations in natural settings can successfully increase balancing ability among community-dwelling older adults concerned about falls. PMID:16195514

  11. Evaluation of the Frails' Fall Efficacy by Comparing Treatments (EFFECT) on reducing fall and fear of fall in moderately frail older adults: study protocol for a randomised control trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Falls are common in frail older adults and often result in injuries and hospitalisation. The Nintendo® Wii™ is an easily available exercise modality in the community which has been shown to improve lower limb strength and balance. However, not much is known on the effectiveness of the Nintendo® Wii™ to improve fall efficacy and reduce falls in a moderately frail older adult. Fall efficacy is the measure of fear of falling in performing various daily activities. Fear contributes to avoidance of activities and functional decline. Methods This randomised active-control trial is a comparison between the Nintendo WiiActive programme against standard gym-based rehabilitation of the older population. Eighty subjects aged above 60, fallers and non-fallers, will be recruited from the hospital outpatient clinic. The primary outcome measure is the Modified Falls Efficacy Scale and the secondary outcome measures are self-reported falls, quadriceps strength, walking agility, dynamic balance and quality of life assessments. Discussions The study is the first randomised control trial using the Nintendo Wii as a rehabilitation modality investigating a change in fall efficacy and self-reported falls. Longitudinally, the study will investigate if the interventions can successfully reduce falls and analyse the cost-effectiveness of the programme. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12610000576022 PMID:21682909

  12. Effectiveness of personal protective measures to prevent Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Marietta; Muehlenbein, Catherine; Cartter, Matthew; Hayes, Edward B; Ertel, Starr; Shapiro, Eugene D

    2008-02-01

    After the manufacture of Lyme vaccine was discontinued in 2002, strategies to prevent Lyme disease (LD) have focused on personal protective measures. Effectiveness of these measures has not been conclusively demonstrated. The aim of our case-control study was to assess the effectiveness of personal preventive measures in a highly disease-endemic area. Case-patients were persons with LD reported to Connecticut's Department of Public Health and classified as having definite, possible, or unlikely LD. Age-matched controls without LD were identified. Study participants were interviewed to assess the practice of preventive measures and to obtain information on occupational and recreational risk factors. Use of protective clothing was 40% effective; routine use of tick repellents on skin or clothing was 20% effective. Checking one's body for ticks and spraying property with acaricides were not effective. We concluded that use of protective clothing and of tick repellents (on skin or clothing) are effective in preventing LD. PMID:18258112

  13. [FALLS IN PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA].

    PubMed

    Aizen, Efraim

    2015-05-01

    Older people with dementia are at increased risk of falls and their consequences. Patients with dementia fall twice as often as elderly cognitively intact people and are at greater risk of injurious falls. Falls in older people with dementia cause higher rates of morbidity, mortality and institutionalization. There is limited literature attempting to show specific risk factors for falls in this population, mainly: Lewy body dementia, dementia related to Parkinson's disease and depression, psychotropic medication, functional disability and behavioral disturbances. The Physiological Profile Assessment (PPAJ has been found to be a good fall risk screening tool in this population. There are few trials that have shown limited effectiveness of targeted fall prevention programs in community-dwelling cognitively impaired elderly. The evidence from hospitals and residential care is not conclusive. However, it has been demonstrated that some interventions, primarily exercise interventions, can modify certain risk factors in patients with dementia. Further research is required in specifically targeting fall prevention in older people with dementia. PMID:26168645

  14. Fraud Prevention and Detection Effective Date: Policy Number

    E-print Network

    Hua, Kien A.

    SUBJECT: Fraud Prevention and Detection Effective Date: Policy Number: 12/22/2014 2 to proactively exercise due diligence in the prevention and detection of fraud and objectively and independently investigate any misuse of university resources and any suspected acts of fraud, theft, corruption, waste

  15. CIVIL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM EFFECTIVE FALL 2015 CE 1105 ......................................................... 1 CE 1252 ........................................................ 2

    E-print Network

    Huang, Haiying

    6/9/2015 CIVIL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM EFFECTIVE FALL 2015 FIRST YEAR CE 1105 ......................................................... 4 MATH 3319 ........................................................ 3 17 17 See "Civil Engineering school foreign language. REQUIRED COURSE TITLES COMMUNICATIONS CIVIL ENGINEERING (ABET Proficiency test

  16. Effects of density on displacement, falls, injuries, and orientation during horse transportation 

    E-print Network

    Collins, Maranda Nicole

    2000-01-01

    Three groups of horses (totaling 30 mares and 29 geldings) purchased from local auctions, were used to determine density effects on displacement (distance moved during a stop), falls, injuries, and orientation using a single-deck, open-topped...

  17. ICT-based system to predict and prevent falls (iStoppFalls): study protocol for an international multicenter randomized controlled trial

    E-print Network

    -based randomization, participants in the intervention group will conduct a 16-week exercise program using the i that exercise programs can reduce the number of falls in older people. Fast emerging developments of technology have inspired researchers to explore the concept of combining exercise with digital gaming to make

  18. Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    NCI’s prevention research has a broad focus, from identifying environmental and lifestyle factors that influence cancer risk to studying the biology of how cancer develops and studying ways to disseminate prevention interventions.

  19. Radiation Therapy: Preventing and Managing Side Effects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have side effects. How long do side effects last? Radiation therapy can cause early and late side ... often become discouraged about how long their treatment lasts or the side effects they have. If you ...

  20. Treatment Prevents Chemotherapy Side Effects for Children with Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Final results from a phase III randomized clinical trial show that addition of aprepitant to the anti-nausea drug ondansetron, with or without dexamethasone, effectively prevents chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric patients.

  1. SQLPrevent: Effective dynamic detection and prevention of SQL injection

    E-print Network

    SQLPrevent: Effective dynamic detection and prevention of SQL injection San-Tsai Sun , Konstantin as unseen SQL injection attacks (SQLIAs). This approach (1) is resistant to evasion techniques.1 How SQL Injection Attacks Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2 False Positives

  2. Effective HIV prevention: the indispensable role of social science

    PubMed Central

    Kippax, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which HIV prevention is understood including “biomedical”, “behavioural”, “structural”, and “combination” prevention. In it I argue that effective prevention entails developing community capacity and requires that public health addresses people not only as individuals but also as connected members of groups, networks and collectives who interact (talk, negotiate, have sex, use drugs, etc.) together. I also examine the evaluation of prevention programmes or interventions and argue that the distinction between efficacy and effectiveness is often glossed and that, while efficacy can be evaluated by randomized controlled trials, the evaluation of effectiveness requires long-term descriptive strategies and/or modelling. Using examples from a number of countries, including a detailed account of the Australian HIV prevention response, effectiveness is shown to be dependent not only on the efficacy of the prevention technology or tool but also on the responses of people – individuals, communities and governments – to those technologies. Whether a particular HIV prevention technology is adopted and its use sustained depends on a range of social, cultural and political factors. The paper concludes by calling on biomedical and social scientists to work together and describes a “social public health”. PMID:22713254

  3. Diagnosis and Tests: Evaluating a Fall or Risk of Falling

    MedlinePLUS

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Falls Prevention Diagnosis & Tests Evaluating a Fall or Risk of Falling At your next regular ... professional about your risk of falling. Describe any falls or close calls you’ve had, even if ...

  4. An Ounce of Prevention, a Pound of Uncertainty: The Cost-Effectiveness of School-Based Drug Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Rydell, C. Peter; Everingham, Susan S.; Chiesa, James; Bushway, Shawn

    This book describes an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of model school-based drug prevention programs at reducing cocaine consumption. It compares prevention's cost-effectiveness with that of several enforcement programs and with that of treating heavy cocaine users. It also assesses the cost of nationwide implementation of model prevention

  5. Cost-effectiveness and budget impact of Empirical vitamin D therapy on unintentional falls in older adults in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Poole, C D; Smith, J; Davies, J S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the health outcomes and economics associated with the current guidance relating to the prevention of falls in the elderly through vitamin D supplementation. Setting UK. Participants UK population aged 60?years and above. Interventions A Markov health state transition model simulated patient transitions between key fall-related outcomes using a 5-year horizon and annual cycles to assess the costs and benefits of empirical treatment with colecalciferol 800?iu daily. Primary and secondary outcome measures Costs and health outcomes attributable to fall prevention following vitamin D supplementation. Results Our model shows that treating the UK population aged 60?years and above with 800?iu colecalciferol would, over a 5-year period: (1) prevent in excess of 430?000 minor falls; (2) avoid 190?000 major falls; (3) prevent 1579 acute deaths; (4) avoid 84?000 person-years of long-term care and (5) prevent 8300 deaths associated with increased mortality in long-term care. The greatest gains are seen among those 75?years and older. Based on reduction in falls alone, the intervention in all adults aged 65+ is cost-saving and leads to increased quality adjusted life years. Treating all adults aged 60+ incurs an intervention cost of £2.70bn over 5?years, yet produces a ?£3.12bn reduction in fall-related costs; a net saving of £420M. Increasing the lower bound age limit by 5-year increments increases budget impact to ?£1.17bn, ?£1.75bn, and ?£2.06bn for adults 65+, 70+ and 75+, respectively. Conclusions This study shows that treatment of the elderly UK population with colecalciferol 800?iu daily would be associated with reductions in mortality and substantial cost-savings through fall prevention. PMID:26419680

  6. The effect of modified trampoline training on balance, gait, and falls efficacy of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Joohee; Shin, Seonhae; Lee, Wanhee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This research was conducted to investigate the effects of modified trampoline training on the balance, gait, and falls efficacy of stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-four stroke patients participated in this study. The subjects were randomly allocated to one of two groups: the trampoline group (n=12) or the control group (n=12). [Methods] Both groups participated in conventional physical therapy for thirty minutes per day, three times a week for six weeks. The trampoline group also took part in trampoline training for thirty minutes per day, three times a week for six weeks. We evaluated balance (Berg balance scale, timed up and go test), gait (dynamic gait index), and falls efficacy (falls efficacy scale-K) to confirm the effects of the intervention. [Results] Both the trampoline and the control group showed significant improvements in balance, gait, and falls efficacy compared to before the intervention, and the improvements were significantly greater in the trampoline group than in the control group. [Conclusion] Modified trampoline training resulted in significantly improved balance, dynamic gait, and falls efficacy of stroke patients compared to the control group. These results suggest that modified trampoline training is feasible and effective at improving balance, dynamic gait, and falls efficacy after stroke. PMID:26696696

  7. [Preventive effects of fortified pollen on diphenylhydantoin teratogenesis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Zhou, S S

    1989-12-01

    This paper reports the preventive effects of fortified pollen and folic acid on diphenylhydantoin (DPH) teratogenesis in pregnant SD rats. The experiment showed that i.p. injection of DPH 75mg/kg per day to pregnant rats on gestational days 7 through 11, and feeding of fortified pollen (pollen 10g/kg per day plus folic acid 20mg/kg per day) or folic acid (20mg/kg per day) on gestational days 0 through 20 may partly prevent the embryotoxicity and fetal toxicity produced by DPH. However, the preventive effects of fortified pollen is better than those of folic acid on the following: decrease of fetal body weight; retarded ossification of metacarpus, proximal phalanx, metatarsus, and supraoccipital bone; sternebrae ossification agenesis; subcutaneous hemorrhage; single eye defect; hydronephrosis and the widening of subarachnoid space. This paper also discusses the possible mechanism of prevention of fortified pollen and folic acid against DPH teratogenesis. PMID:2630422

  8. 15 Effective Strategies for Dropout Prevention

    E-print Network

    Olszewski Jr., Edward A.

    , or urban centers. School and Community Perspective Systemic Renewal School-Community Collaboration Safe.dropoutprevention.org #12;Effective Strategies Defined Systemic Renewal--Systemic renewal calls for a con- tinuing process

  9. Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Symptoms Transmission Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection ... Veterinarians Transmission Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation ... Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum ...

  10. Tunguska meteor fall of 1908: effects on stratospheric ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Turco, R.P.; Toon, O.B.; Park, C.; Whitten, R.C.; Pollack, J.B.; Noerdlinger, P.

    1981-10-02

    In 1908, when the giant Tunguska meteor disintegrated in the earth's atmosphere over Siberia, it may have generated as much as 30 million metric tons of nitric oxide (NO) in the stratosphere and mesosphere. The photochemical aftereffects of the event have been simulated using a comprehensive model of atmospheric trace composition. Calculations indicate that up to 45 percent of the ozone in the Northern Hemisphere may have been depleted by Tunguska's nitric oxide cloud early in 1909 and large ozone reductions may have persisted until 1912. Measurements of atmospheric transparency by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for the years 1909 to 1911 show evidence of a steady ozone recovery from unusually low levels in early 1909, implying a total ozone deficit of 30 +- 15 percent. The coincidence in time between the observed ozone recovery and the Tungska meteor fall indicates that the event may provide a test of current ozone depletion theories.

  11. Tunguska meteor fall of 1908: effects on stratospheric ozone.

    PubMed

    Turco, R P; Toon, O B; Park, C; Whitten, R C; Pollack, J B; Noerdlinger, P

    1981-10-01

    In 1908, when the giant Tunguska meteor disintegrated in the earth's atmosphere over Siberia, it may have generated as much as 30 million metric tons of nitric oxide (NO) in the stratosphere and mesosphere. The photochemical aftereffects of the event have been simulated using a comprehensive model of atmospheric trace composition. Calculations indicate that up to 45 percent of the ozone in the Northern Hemisphere may have been depleted by Tunguska's nitric oxide cloud early in 1909 and large ozone reductions may have persisted until 1912. Measurements of atmospheric transparentiy by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for the years 1909 to 1911 show evidence of a steady ozone recovery from unusually low levels in early 1909, implying a total ozone deficit of 30 +/- 15 percent. The coincidence in time between the observed ozone recovery and the Tunguska meteor fall indicates that the event may provide a test of current ozone depletion theories. PMID:17802551

  12. A feasibility study and pilot randomised trial of a tailored prevention program to reduce falls in older people with mild dementia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People with dementia have a disproportionately high rate of falls and fractures and poorer outcomes, yet there is currently no evidence to guide falls prevention in this population. Methods A randomised trial design was used to test feasibility of study components and acceptability of a home hazard reduction and balance and strength exercise fall prevention program. The program was tailored to participant’s individual cognitive levels and implemented as a carer-supported intervention. Feasibility of recruitment, retention and implementation of intervention were recorded through observation and documented in field notes. Adherence, carer burden and use of task simplification strategies were also monitored. Outcome measures, collected at 12 weeks included physiological, fear of falling, cognitive and functional measures. Results Recruitment was achievable but may be more challenging in a multisite trial. Twenty two dyads of persons with mild dementia and their carers were randomised to intervention or usual care control group. Of 38 dyads referred to the study, there was a high rate of willingness to participate, with 6 (16%) declining and 10 (26%) not meeting inclusion criteria. The intervention was well received by participants and carers and adherence to both program components was very good. All participants implemented some home safety recommendations (range 19-80%) with half implementing 50% or more. At the end of 12 weeks, 72% of the intervention group were exercising. Both the rate of falling and the risk of a fall were lower in the intervention group but these findings were not significant (RR= 0.50 (95% CI 0.11-2.19). There were no differences in physiological outcome measures between the control and intervention groups. However results were influenced by the small study size and incomplete data primarily in the intervention group at follow up. Conclusions The pilot study was feasible and acceptable to people with mild dementia and their carers. The lessons learnt included: recruitment for a larger trial will require multiple approaches; home safety recommendations should provide a greater emphasis on environmental use compared with behavioural change; strategies to ensure an adequate dosage of exercise should be further explored. We recommend that intervention delivery incorporate an integrated occupational therapy and physiotherapy approach and that carers be provided with an individualised session to enhance dementia-specific skills in management and communication. A refined intervention should be tested in a randomised trial with an adequately powered sample size. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 126100001049066 PMID:24004682

  13. [Transdisciplinary Approach for Sarcopenia. Effect of nutritional support for the prevention of sarcopenia].

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Hiroaki

    2014-10-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as the age-related loss of muscle mass and function. Sarcopenia is closely related with decreased physical function, fall, bone fracture, osteoporosis, and insulin resistance, which lead to increased morbidity and mortality in elderly people. The pathogenesis of sarcopenia is complex and multifactorial, which remains not to be fully understood. Inappropriate food intake and reduced physical activity are known to increase the risk of developing sarcopenia. Resistance training and nutritional support have been shown to be an effective intervention for prevention of sarcopenia. Protein, especially branched chain amino acid, and vitamin D have been reported to improve sarcopenia. The intervention together with nutrition and exercise are more effective. PMID:25266099

  14. Pressure sensor-based tongue-placed electrotactile biofeedback for balance improvement - Biomedical application to prevent pressure sores formation and falls

    E-print Network

    Vuillerme, Nicolas; Pinsault, Nicolas; Moreau-Gaudry, Alexandre; Fleury, Anthony; Demongeot, Jacques; Payan, Yohan

    2007-01-01

    We introduce the innovative technologies, based on the concept of "sensory substitution", we are developing in the fields of biomedical engineering and human disability. Precisely, our goal is to design, develop and validate practical assistive biomedical and/or technical devices and/or rehabilitating procedures for persons with disabilities, using artificial tongue-placed tactile biofeedback systems. Proposed applications are dealing with: (1) pressure sores prevention in case of spinal cord injuries (persons with paraplegia, or tetraplegia); and (2) balance control improvement to prevent fall in older and/or disabled adults. This paper describes the architecture and the functioning principle of these biofeedback systems and presents preliminary results of two feasibility studies performed on young healthy adults.

  15. Effects of CG location on the launch behavior of free-fall lifeboats

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.K.; Fallon, D.J.; Hirsch, T.J.

    1995-05-01

    The free-fall lifeboat was developed to reduce the risk of injury during evacuation in a maritime emergency. It is a generally accepted concept for lifesaving appliances that currently is in use on many ships and offshore platforms. Three concerns during launch of these lifeboats are the attitude of the boat at water entry, the headway immediately after water entry, and the acceleration forces to which the occupants are subjected. Limited quantitative data is available about the behavior of the boats during launch and, in particular, on the effects of mass distribution on the launch behavior of free-fall lifeboats. The purpose of this paper is to discuss quantitatively the launch behavior of free-fall lifeboats, with particular emphasis on the effects of changes in the location of the CG.

  16. Effective Dropout Prevention and College Attendance Programs for Latino Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fashola, Olatokunbo S.; Slavin, Robert E.

    This paper reviews research related to effective secondary school programs aimed at dropout prevention and increasing college enrollment rates for at-risk Latino youth. The review identifies programs that have demonstrated a significant impact on dropout rates, college attendance, school performance, or related outcomes in rigorous evaluations;…

  17. Moving from Efficacy to Effectiveness Trials in Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Marchand, Erica; Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Becker, Carolyn Black

    2013-01-01

    Efficacy trials test whether interventions work under optimal, highly controlled conditions whereas effectiveness trials test whether interventions work with typical clients and providers in real-world settings. Researchers, providers, and funding bodies have called for more effectiveness trials to understand whether interventions produce effects under ecologically valid conditions, which factors predict program effectiveness, and what strategies are needed to successfully implement programs in practice settings. The transition from efficacy to effectiveness with preventive interventions involves unique considerations, some of which are not shared by treatment research. The purpose of this article is to discuss conceptual and methodological issues that arise when making the transition from efficacy to effectiveness research in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention, drawing on the experiences of two complimentary research groups as well as the existing literature. We address (a) program of research, (b) intervention design and conceptualization, (c) participant selection and characteristics, (d) providers, (e) context, (f) measurement and methodology, (g) outcomes, (h) cost, and (i) sustainability. We present examples of research in eating disorder prevention that demonstrate the progression from efficacy to effectiveness trials. PMID:21092935

  18. Gender Differences in Utilization of Effective Cardiovascular Secondary Prevention: A Cleveland Clinic Prevention Database Study

    PubMed Central

    CHO, LESLIE; HOOGWERF, BYRON; HUANG, JULIE; BRENNAN, DANIELLE M.; HAZEN, STANLEY L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that women with cardiovascular disease may receive less aggressive care than men. Using a large cardiology database from a tertiary referral center, we sought to determine if treatment differences still persist in the current era. Methods We analyzed data on 2462 patients who were referred for secondary prevention to the Preventive Cardiology Clinic at The Cleveland Clinic Foundation between 1997 and 2004. The primary objective was to evaluate use of effective secondary preventive therapies, by gender, as outlined in the ACC/AHA guidelines, such as antiplatelet therapy, beta-blockers, statins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the independent effect of gender on all cause mortality. Results Women were older (62.2 ± 11.1 vs. 59.4 ± 11.0, p < 0.001) and more likely to be hypertensive (68.1% vs. 56.1%, p < 0.001) than men. Overall, women were more likely than men to have higher baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) (6.14 ± 13.4 vs. 4.9 ± 10.7, p < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (135 ± 66 vs. 116 ± 46, p < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (52 ± 17 vs. 41 ± 11, p < 0.001), and total cholesterol (238 ± 98 vs. 202 ± 65, p < 0.001). Women were less likely to be on antiplatelet therapy (76.6 % vs. 85.0%, p < 0.001) and statins or any lipid-lowering therapy (62.6% vs. 67.1%, p = 0.04) compared with men on presentation. Conclusions Even in the current era, women with established cardiovascular disease continue to receive less aggressive care than men. They are less likely to be on aspirin and statin therapy. More aggressive efforts should be made to treat both men and women with standard secondary preventive efforts. PMID:18345999

  19. [The new German prevention act: an effective strategy?].

    PubMed

    Garlichs, Dietrich

    2015-10-01

    The new German prevention act attempts to deal with the influx of obesity and chronic diseases by educating and informing. It seeks to change individual behaviour and supress lifestyle-related risk factors. In the past, however this behavioural prevention strategy has proved ineffective. A structural prevention strategy, as requested by the WHO, should additionally be put into effect with measures that reach all walks of life, not just the health-conscious people in society. It proposes the following: · At least one hour of daily physical activity or sport at school and kindergarten. · A differential food tax that makes unhealthy foods more expensive and healthy foods cheaper (taxing sugary / fatty foods). · Mandatory quality standards for kindergarten and school meals. · Banning food advertising targeted at children. PMID:26445263

  20. MASTER OF MUSIC (EFFECTIVE FALL 2015) Core Courses for all concentrations

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    MASTER OF MUSIC (EFFECTIVE FALL 2015) Core Courses for all concentrations Introduction to Graduate Music Concentration 36 CREDITS: CORE + 24 CREDITS FROM BELOW Prerequisites (Course or equivalent Research MUS 6716 2 Music Seminar in Theoretical Styles MUT 6935 3 Music History Seminar MUH 6935 3

  1. MASTER OF MUSIC (EFFECTIVE FALL 2014) Core Courses for all concentrations

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    MASTER OF MUSIC (EFFECTIVE FALL 2014) Core Courses for all concentrations Introduction to Graduate/Recital/Lecture MUS 6971 4 Total 12 Commercial Music Concentration 36 CREDITS: CORE + 24 CREDITS FROM BELOW Special Topics (Music History or Literature) MUS 6933 1-5 Performance Concentration Choral Conducting

  2. Poster Summaries Effects of Oxidant Air Pollutants on Pine Litter-fall and the Forest Floor

    E-print Network

    Poster Summaries Effects of Oxidant Air Pollutants on Pine Litter-fall and the Forest Floor 2 Air Pollution s t o 357 gm/m2 with OIS of 9 t o 14, and decreases a s the t r e e nears death, The weight per needle f

  3. Effectiveness of blast-mitigation for rock fall endangered critical infrastructure using terrestrial laser scanning (LIDAR).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kos, A.; Lunghi, A.; Naenni, C.; Conforti, D.; Tompkinson, W.

    2009-04-01

    Following a national rock fall risk assessment undertaken by the Swiss Federal Roads Office (FEDRO) a potential rock fall area located above the San Bernardino highway (A13) at Brusei, Canton Graubünden was identified. The rockslope at Brusei was characterized by a previous record of rock fall, large overhanging outcrops and open tension cracks up to 2 metres. Combined with the fact that the A13 is a critical north-south traffic corridor in Switzerland and the geological situation, the Public Works Department of the Canton Graubünden made the decision to mitigate the rock fall risk with the use of explosives. We report on the use of terrestrial laser scanning for evaluating the effectiveness of mitigation using explosives for the protection of critical infrastructure. Although modern blast mitigation methods allow for accurate control on removed volumes of rock, it is important to calculate how much was actually removed particularly when protection structures, such as rock fall galleries are located in the transit/deposition zone of the blasted area. High resolution laser scanning is an appropriate technology for monitoring the pre- and post blast situation and provides the basis for: 1) Geological investigations for understanding the initial cause of instabilities; 2) Monitoring the formation of potential new instabilities following blast mitigation; and 3) Integration with other spatial monitoring technologies, such as ground-based radar interferometry.

  4. Effect of Pre-Impact Movement Strategies on the Impact Forces Resulting From a Lateral Fall

    PubMed Central

    Lo, J.; Ashton-Miller, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 90% of hip fractures in older adults result from falls, mostly from landing on or near the hip. A three-dimensional, 11-segment, forward dynamic biomechanical model was developed to investigate whether segment movement strategies prior to impact can affect the impact forces resulting from a lateral fall. Four different pre-impact movement strategies, with and without using the ipsilateral arm to break the fall, were implemented using paired actuators representing the agonist and antagonist muscles acting about each joint. Proportional-derivative feedback controller controlled joint angles and velocities so as to minimize risk of fracture at any of the impact sites. It was hypothesized that (a) use of active knee, hip and arm joint torques during the pre-contact phase neither affects the whole body kinetic energy at impact nor the peak impact forces on the knee, hip, or shoulder; and (b) muscle strength and reaction time do not considerably affect peak impact forces. The results demonstrate that, compared with falling laterally as a rigid body, an arrest strategy that combines flexion of the lower extremities, combined with an axial rotation to progressively present the posterolateral aspects of the thigh, pelvis and then torso, can reduce the peak hip impact force by up to 56%. A 30% decline in muscle strength did not markedly affect the effectiveness of that fall strategy. However, a 300 ms delay in implementing the movement strategy inevitably caused hip impact forces consistent with fracture unless the arm was used to break the fall prior to the hip impact. PMID:18513728

  5. Mt. Hood Community College Institutional Effectiveness (IE) Report Fall 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walleri, R. Dan

    This report examines the indicators of institutional effectiveness for Mount Hood Community College (MHCC) (Oregon). The document reports on five institutional goals: (1) knowledge-based workforce education and services; (2) access for members of the community and development of an environment in which diversity thrives; (3) economic development,…

  6. Moving forward in fall prevention: an intervention to improve balance among patients in a quasi-experimental study of hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Villafañe, Jorge H; Pirali, Caterina; Buraschi, Riccardo; Arienti, Chiara; Corbellini, Camilo; Negrini, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of three different rehabilitative programs: group exercise, individual core stability or balance training intervention with a stabilometric platform to improve balance ability in elderly hospitalized patients. We used a prospective quasi-experimental study design. Twenty-eight patients, 39.3% women [age (mean±SD) 72.4±6.5 years], known to have had at least a fall in the last 12 months, were consecutively assigned to one of the following three groups: group exercise intervention, individual core stability or balance training with a stabilometric platform (five sessions a week for 3 weeks in each group). Outcomes were collected at baseline and immediately following the intervention period. In each intervention group, patients showed improvement in balance and mobility, shown as an improvement in the three functional tests score (the Tinetti scale, the Berg Balance Scale, and the Time Up and Go test) (all, P<0.05), whereas, generally, the changes in the score of the test of the stabilometric platform (Postural Stability Test and Fall Risk Test) were not significant for all the interventions. No significant group-by-time interaction was detected for any of the intervention groups, which suggests that the groups improved in the same way. These findings indicate that participation in an exercise program can improve balance and functional mobility, which might contribute toward the reductions of the falls of elderly hospitalized patients and the subsequent fall-related costs. Functional scales might be more appropriate than an instrumental test (Postural Stability Test and Fall Risk Test of the Biodex Balance System) in detecting the functional improvement because of a rehabilitative intervention. PMID:26230947

  7. The moderating effects of school climate on bullying prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research suggesting that bullying problems and climate are strongly related. The current study examines the moderating role of school climate on the impacts of a stand-alone bullying prevention curriculum. In addition, the current study examined 2 different dimensions of school climate across both student and staff perceptions. Data for this study were derived from a Steps to Respect (STR) randomized efficacy trial that was conducted in 33 elementary schools over a 1-year period. Schools were randomly assigned to intervention or wait-listed control condition. Outcome measures (pre-to-post) were obtained from (a) all school staff, (b) a randomly selected subset of 3rd-5th grade teachers in each school, and (c) all students in classrooms of selected teachers. Multilevel analyses revealed that psychosocial climate was strongly related to reductions in bullying-related attitudes and behaviors. Intervention status yielded only 1 significant main effect, although, STR schools with positive psychosocial climate at baseline had less victimization at posttest. Policies/administrative commitment to bullying were related to reduced perpetration among all schools. Findings suggest positive psychosocial climate (from both staff and student perspective) plays a foundational role in bullying prevention, and can optimize effects of stand-alone programs. PMID:25089333

  8. HIV prevention cost-effectiveness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background After more than 25 years, public health programs have not been able to sufficiently reduce the number of new HIV infections. Over 7,000 people become infected with HIV every day. Lack of convincing evidence of cost-effectiveness (CE) may be one of the reasons why implementation of effective programs is not occurring at sufficient scale. This paper identifies, summarizes and critiques the CE literature related to HIV-prevention interventions in low- and middle-income countries during 2005-2008. Methods Systematic identification of publications was conducted through several methods: electronic databases, internet search of international organizations and major funding/implementing agencies, and journal browsing. Inclusion criteria included: HIV prevention intervention, year for publication (2005-2008), setting (low- and middle-income countries), and CE estimation (empirical or modeling) using outcomes in terms of cost per HIV infection averted and/or cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) or quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Results We found 21 distinct studies analyzing the CE of HIV-prevention interventions published in the past four years (2005-2008). Seventeen CE studies analyzed biomedical interventions; only a few dealt with behavioral and environmental/structural interventions. Sixteen studies focused on sub-Saharan Africa, and only a handful on Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. Many HIV-prevention interventions are very cost effective in absolute terms (using costs per DALY averted), and also in country-specific relative terms (in cost per DALY measured as percentage of GDP per capita). Conclusion There are several types of interventions for which CE studies are still not available or insufficient, including surveillance, abstinence, school-based education, universal precautions, prevention for positives and most structural interventions. The sparse CE evidence available is not easily comparable; thus, not very useful for decision making. More than 25 years into the AIDS epidemic and billions of dollars of spending later, there is still much work to be done both on costs and effectiveness to adequately inform HIV prevention planning. PMID:19922689

  9. Effectiveness of HIV prevention for women: what is working?

    PubMed

    Gil-Llario, María Dolores; Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Giménez-García, Cristina; Salmerón-Sánchez, Pedro

    2014-10-01

    The HIV-AIDS remains a public health problem which disproportionally affects women. However, prevention strategies have rarely considered their specific efficacy for them. For this reason, this study examines the differential effectiveness of six intervention elements based on socio-cognitive theories addressing young women. A controlled between-groups design examined the change in risk profile among 167 young Spanish women (mean age 21.3 years old) involved in five sexual risk prevention interventions (informative talk, attitudinal discussion, role-play, fear induction and informative website) and one control non-intervening group (waiting list). Our findings support the differential efficacy of some HIV preventive intervention elements comparing others for women. In particular, the attitudinal discussion stands out followed by the informative talk and the role play. Contrarily, the fear induction component did not reveal relevant improvements. This study provides new evidence related to HIV prevention. Particularly, the higher efficacy of motivational components for these young Spanish women is revealed. PMID:24452498

  10. The Fall of Oil Prices and the Effects on Biofuels.

    PubMed

    Reboredo, Fernando H; Lidon, Fernando; Pessoa, Fernanda; Ramalho, José C

    2016-01-01

    This analysis is focused on the effect of the abrupt decline of oil prices on biofuels, particularly second-generation ethanol. The efforts to decrease the production costs of biofuels, especially cellulosic ethanol (CE), will be greatly threatened if current oil prices remain low, especially since production is not slowing. Only huge state subsidies could alleviate this threat, but the challenge is to persuade citizens that this sacrifice is worthwhile. PMID:26723755

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of a School-Based Obesity Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li Yan; Gutin, Bernard; Barbeau, Paule; Moore, Justin B.; Hanes, John, Jr.; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Cavnar, Marlo; Thornburg, Janet; Yin, Zenong

    2008-01-01

    Background: A school-based obesity prevention study (Medical College of Georgia FitKid Project) started in the fall of 2003 in 18 elementary schools. Half of the schools were randomized to an after-school program that included moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, healthy snacks, homework assistance, and academic enrichment. All third graders…

  12. Preventing Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Preventing Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) suggests these ...

  13. Maternal epigenetic dietary effects on early breast cancer prevention | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  14. Design an effective storm water pollution prevention plan

    SciTech Connect

    Vivona, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    A case history shows ``how`` to plan and organize a storm water pollution prevention program (SWPPP). Using easy-to-use worksheets and guidelines, hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) operators can build upon existing best management practices (i.e., housekeeping procedures, visual inspections, spill prevention programs, etc.) to meet tighter restrictions set by National Pollutant Discharge Elimination system (NPDES) permits. Especially in high rainfall areas, storm water poses an intermittent, but large volume problem. The facility`s site size is another factor that impacts the scope and cost for SWPPP. The five steps to implementing a SWPPP are: Planning and organization; Assessment; Best management practice (BMP) identification; Implementation; Evaluation and monitoring. Initially, HPI operators must identify all potential contamination sources and past spills and leak areas. Following the SWPP guidelines, operators can map out a cost-effective storm water program that meets all NPDES requirements.

  15. Analyzing the problem of falls among older people

    PubMed Central

    Dionyssiotis, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    Falls are a serious problem facing the elderly. The prevention of falls that contribute to disability, mainly in elderly people, is an important issue. Ensuring the greatest possible functionality for elderly people is an important element in the prevention of disability. This paper analyzes the importance of falls, risk factors for falls, and interventions to prevent falls. Recent publications as well as research regarding the prevention and rehabilitation for falls are reviewed. PMID:23055770

  16. Enhanced Estimates of the Influenza Vaccination Effect in Preventing Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Castilla, Jesús; Guevara, Marcela; Martínez-Baz, Iván; Ezpeleta, Carmen; Delfrade, Josu; Irisarri, Fátima; Moreno-Iribas, Conchi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mortality is a major end-point in the evaluation of influenza vaccine effectiveness. However, this effect is not well known, since most previous studies failed to show good control of biases. We aimed to estimate the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in preventing all-cause mortality in community-dwelling seniors. Since 2009, a population-based cohort study using healthcare databases has been conducted in Navarra, Spain. In 2 late influenza seasons, 2011/2012 and 2012/2013, all-cause mortality in the period January to May was compared between seniors (65 years or over) who received the trivalent influenza vaccine and those who were unvaccinated, adjusting for demographics, major chronic conditions, dependence, previous hospitalization, and pneumococcal vaccination. The cohort included 103,156 seniors in the 2011/2012 season and 105,140 in the 2012/2013 season (58% vaccinated). Seniors vaccinated in the previous season who discontinued vaccination (6% of the total) had excess mortality and were excluded to prevent frailty bias. The final analysis included 80,730 person-years and 2778 deaths. Vaccinated seniors had 16% less all-cause mortality than those unvaccinated (adjusted rate ratio [RR]?=?0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.76–0.93). This association disappeared in the post-influenza period (adjusted RR?=?0.96; 95% confidence interval 0.85–1.09). A similar comparison did not find an association in January to May of the 2009/2010 pandemic season (adjusted RR?=?0.98; 95% confidence interval 0.84–1.14), when no effect of the seasonal vaccine was expected. On average, 1 death was prevented for every 328 seniors vaccinated: 1 for every 649 in the 65 to 74 year age group and 1 for every 251 among those aged 75 and over. These results suggest a moderate preventive effect and a high potential impact of the seasonal influenza vaccine against all-cause mortality. This reinforces the recommendation of annual influenza vaccination in seniors. PMID:26222861

  17. Reviewing the evidence on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention strategies in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Following universal access to antiretroviral therapy in Thailand, evidence from National AIDS Spending Assessment indicates a decreasing proportion of expenditure on prevention interventions. To prompt policymakers to revitalize HIV prevention, this study identifies a comprehensive list of HIV/AIDs preventive interventions that are likely to be effective and cost-effective in Thailand. Methods A systematic review of the national and international literature on HIV prevention strategies from 1997 to 2008 was undertaken. The outcomes used to consider the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions were changes in HIV risk behaviour and HIV incidence. Economic evaluations that presented their results in terms of cost per HIV infection averted or cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained were also included. All studies were assessed against quality criteria. Results The findings demonstrated that school based-sex education plus life-skill programs, voluntary and routine HIV counselling and testing, male condoms, street outreach programs, needle and syringe programs, programs for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, male circumcision, screening blood products and donated organs for HIV, and increased alcohol tax were all effective in reducing HIV infection among target populations in a cost-effective manner. Conclusion We found very limited local evidence regarding the effectiveness of HIV interventions amongst specific high risk populations. This underlines the urgent need to prioritise health research resources to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIV interventions aimed at reducing HIV infection among high risk groups in Thailand. PMID:20604975

  18. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in man. 1: Effect of stimulus rise-fall time and duration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecox, K.; Squires, N.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    Short latency (under 10 msec) responses elicited by bursts of white noise were recorded from the scalps of human subjects. Response alterations produced by changes in the noise burst duration (on-time), inter-burst interval (off-time), and onset and offset shapes were analyzed. The latency of the most prominent response component, wave V, was markedly delayed with increases in stimulus rise time but was unaffected by changes in fall time. Increases in stimulus duration, and therefore in loudness, resulted in a systematic increase in latency. This was probably due to response recovery processes, since the effect was eliminated with increases in stimulus off-time. The amplitude of wave V was insensitive to changes in signal rise and fall times, while increasing signal on-time produced smaller amplitude responses only for sufficiently short off-times. It was concluded that wave V of the human auditory brainstem evoked response is solely an onset response.

  19. Prevention of dipyrone (metamizole) induced inhibition of aspirin antiplatelet effects.

    PubMed

    Polzin, Amin; Richter, Stefan; Schrör, Karsten; Rassaf, Tienush; Merx, Marc W; Kelm, Malte; Hohlfeld, Thomas; Zeus, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    We have recently shown that dipyrone (metamizole), a non-opioid analgesic, can nullify aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid; ASA) antiplatelet effects in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we analysed the aspirin and dipyrone drug-drug interaction in order to identify strategies to prevent the dipyrone induced inhibition of asprin antiplatelet effects. Platelet function was measured by arachidonic acid-induced light-transmission aggregometry, thromboxane (TX) B2- formation by immunoassay. Dipyrone metabolite plasma levels were determined by high-performance-liquid-chromatography (HPLC). In seven healthy individuals, in vitro ASA (30 µM/ 100 µM/ 300 µM/ 1,000 µM) and dipyrone (10 µM) coincubation revealed, that the aspirin and dipyrone interaction can be overcome by increasing doses of aspirin. In 36 aspirin and dipyrone comedicated CAD patients, addition of ASA (30 µM/ 100 µM) in vitro inhibited, but did not completely overcome the dipyrone induced reduction of aspirin antiplatelet effects. Notably, the inhibition of thromboxane formation in aspirin and dipyrone comedicated CAD patients coincided with dipyrone plasma levels. In a cross-over designed study in four healthy individuals, we were able to prove that inhibition of aspirin (100 mg/ day) effects by dipyrone (750 mg/ day) was reversible. Furthermore, aspirin (100 mg/ day) medication prior to dipyrone (750 mg/ day) intake prevented the inhibition of antiplatelet effects by dipyrone in 12 healthy individuals. In conclusion, aspirin medication prior to dipyrone intake preserves antiplatelet effects, circumventing the pharmacodynamic drug-drug interaction at the level of cyclooxygenase-1. PMID:25789542

  20. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Aid: Falls KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Printable Safety Guides > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size What's ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Household Safety Checklists Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents First Aid: Broken Bones A to Z: Head ...

  1. Effects of fall and spring seeding date and other agronomic factors on infestations of root maggots, Delia spp. (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), in canola.

    PubMed

    Dosdall, L M; Clayton, G W; Harker, K N; O'Donovan, J T; Stevenson, F C

    2006-10-01

    Several agronomic benefits can result from fall seeding of canola (Brassica spp.), but extensive research data are lacking on the potential impact of this practice on infestations of root maggots (Delia spp.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), which are major pests of the crop in western Canada. Field experiments making up 13 location by year combinations were conducted in central Alberta, Canada, from 1998 to 2001 to determine the effect of fall versus spring seeding of canola on root maggot damage. Depending on the experiment, interactions with seeding rate, seed treatment, timing of weed removal, and canola species (cultivar) also were investigated. Root maggot damage declined with an increase in seeding rate for plots seeded in May but not in fall or April. Susceptibility to infestation was greater for plants of Brassica rapa L. than Brassica napus L., but seed treatment had no effect on damage by these pests. Combined analysis using data from all experiment by location by year combinations indicated that seeding date had no significant effect on root maggot damage. The extended emergence of Delia spp. adults, which spans the appearance of crop stages vulnerable to oviposition regardless of seeding date, prevented reduced root maggot attack. Covariance analysis demonstrated the importance of increasing seeding rate for reducing root maggot infestations, a practice that can be especially beneficial for May-seeded canola when growing conditions limit the ability of plants to compensate for root maggot damage. Results determined with the small plot studies described here should be validated in larger plots or on a commercial field scale, but both the combined and covariance analyses indicate that seeding canola in fall does not predispose plants to greater damage by larval root maggots than seeding in spring. PMID:17066797

  2. The effectiveness of HIV prevention and the epidemiological context.

    PubMed Central

    Grassly, N. C.; Garnett, G. P.; Schwartländer, B.; Gregson, S.; Anderson, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Planning an intervention to prevent infections with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) should be guided by local epidemiological and socioeconomic conditions. The socioeconomic setting and existing public service capacity determine whether an intervention can have a significant outcome in terms of a reduction in a defined risk. The epidemiological context determines whether such risk reduction translates into a measurable impact on HIV incidence. Measurement of variables describing the epidemiological context can be used to determine the local suitability of interventions, thereby guiding planners and policy-makers in their choice of intervention. Such measurements also permit the retrospective analysis of the impact of interventions where HIV incidence was not recorded. The epidemiological context is defined for four different categories of intervention, shown to be effective in lower-income countries by randomized controlled trials. Appropriate indicators for the epidemiological context and methodological guidelines for their measurement are proposed. Their use in the transfer of a successful intervention from one context to another and in scaling up the effort to control HIV infection is explored. These indicators should provide a useful resource for those involved in planning HIV prevention interventions. PMID:11799444

  3. Effects of a Comprehensive Police Suicide Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Mishara, Brian L.; Martin, Normand

    2012-01-01

    Background: Police suicides are an important problem, and many police forces have high rates. Montreal police suicide rates were slightly higher than other Quebec police rates in the 11 years before the program began (30.5/100,000 per year vs. 26.0/100,000). Aims: To evaluate Together for Life, a suicide prevention program for the Montreal police. Methods: All 4,178 members of the Montreal police participated. The program involved training for all officers, supervisors, and union representatives as well as establishing a volunteer helpline and a publicity campaign. Outcome measures included suicide rates, pre-post assessments of learning, focus groups, interviews, and follow-up of supervisors. Results: In the 12 years since the program began the suicide rate decreased by 79% (6.4/100,000), while other Quebec police rates had a nonsignificant (11%) increase (29.0/100,000). Also, knowledge increased, supervisors engaged in effective interventions, and the activities were highly appreciated. Limitations: Possibly some unidentified factors unrelated to the program could have influenced the observed changes. Conclusions: The decrease in suicides appears to be related to this program since suicide rates for comparable populations did not decrease and there were no major changes in functioning, training, or recruitment to explain the differences. Comprehensive suicide prevention programs tailored to the work environment may significantly impact suicide rates. PMID:22450038

  4. Squamous Cell Carcinomas - Effects of Retinoids | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  5. Connect: An Effective Community-Based Youth Suicide Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Gretchen; Baber, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention is an important public health issue. However, few prevention programs are theory driven or systematically evaluated. This study evaluated Connect, a community-based youth suicide prevention program. Analysis of pre and posttraining questionnaires from 648 adults and 204 high school students revealed significant changes in…

  6. Surface tension effects on the motion of a free-falling liquid sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, Gennaro; De Rosa, Fortunato; de Luca, Luigi

    2013-06-01

    The stationary motion of a liquid curtain falling under the effects of inertia, gravity, and surface tension is analyzed. An original equation governing the streamwise distribution of thickness and velocity is derived by means of a Taylor expansion in the lateral distance from the mean line of the sheet. Approximate solutions are obtained by means of perturbation approaches involving the two parameters governing the problem, namely, the slenderness ratio ? and the Weber number We. The numerical procedure employed in order to integrate the non-linear equation is discussed and a parametric study is presented, together with a comparison with the approximate asymptotic solutions valid for small ? and We.

  7. Effects of sugammadex on the prevention of postoperative peritoneal adhesions.

    PubMed

    ?ahin, Hasan; Toman, Hüseyin; Kiraz, Hasan Ali; ?im?ek, Tuncer; Erba?, Mesut; Özkul, Faruk; Ar?k, Muhammet Kas?m; Hanc?, Volkan

    2015-09-01

    Many materials and techniques have been used to prevent and repair intra-abdominal adhesions, but an effective solution has not been found. The aim of this study is to research the effect of sugammadex on intra-abdominal adhesions in an experimentally induced intra-abdominal adhesion model. Twenty-four female Wistar albino rats were included in the study. The experimental animals were randomly divided into three groups: the sugammadex group (Group SX, n = 8), the control group (Group C, n = 8), and the sham group (Group S, n = 8). After starvation for 1 night, the rats were injected with a 50 mg/kg intramuscular dose of ketamine and a 5 mg/kg intramuscular dose of xylazine for anesthesia. The rats in the SX group were given 3 mL sugammadex into the peritoneal cavity, while rats in the control group were given 3 mL 0.9% sodium chloride. In the sham group, the peritoneal cavity was opened, but no chemicals were administered. All rats were sacrificed on the 10(th) postoperative day. The adhesions were staged as 0, 1, 2, and 3 according to Evans et al.'s model. Our evaluation of macroscopic adhesion intensity found statistically significant differences between the groups. The sugammadex group was observed to have fewer adhesions in a statistically significant manner compared with the control group (p < 0.05). In our experimental intra-abdominal adhesion model in rats, we observed that sugammadex prevented postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions. PMID:26362958

  8. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Walk in Urban Parks in Fall

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chorong; Ikei, Harumi; Igarashi, Miho; Takagaki, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, attention has been focused on the role of urban green spaces in promoting human health and well-being. However, there is a lack of evidence-based research on the physiological effects of walking in urban green areas. This study aimed to clarify the physiological and psychological effects of walking in urban parks during fall. Twenty-three males (mean age 22.3 ± 1.2 years) were instructed to walk predetermined 15-min courses in an urban park and in a nearby city area (control). Heart rate and heart rate variability were measured to assess physiological responses, and the semantic differential method, Profile of Mood States, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to measure psychological responses. We observed that walking in an urban park resulted in a significantly lower heart rate, higher parasympathetic nerve activity, and lower sympathetic nerve activity than walking through the city area. In subjective evaluations, participants were more “comfortable,” “natural,” “relaxed,” and “vigorous” after a walk in the urban park. Furthermore, they exhibited significantly lower levels of negative emotions and anxiety. These findings provide scientific evidence for the physiological and psychological relaxation effects of walking in urban parks during fall. PMID:26569271

  9. Strategies for Success: New Pathways to Drug Abuse Prevention. Volume 1, Issue 1, Fall/Winter 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Published twice a year and distributed nationwide, "Strategies for Success" keeps readers informed about events and developments in the field of drug testing. It reports the latest research findings on the effectiveness of drug testing as a tool for reducing substance abuse. Each issue also provides a wealth of guidance and resources on student…

  10. The relationship of falls to injury among hospital in-patients.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, M; Vignaraja, R; Sharma, J C; Briggs, R; Allen, S

    2005-01-01

    The need to reduce falls is driven by the need to reduce injury. If patients at risk of injury can be distinguished from the patients at risk of falls, there is the potential for a more effective fall risk management policy by targeting injury prevention measures. We conducted a prospective observational study, with blinded endpoint evaluation of 825 consecutive patients admitted to geriatric rehabilitation wards. We identified 150 fallers (18.2%) contributing 243 falls. Fifty-six patients sustained an injury contributing 73 (30.0%) injurious falls. Only five (6.8%) falls resulted in injury of major severity. We identified no significant differences in demographics between injurious and non-injurious falls. A logistic regression analyses of the independent risk factors of suffering an injurious fall were a history of falls (p=0.036), confusion (p=0.001) and an unsafe gait (p=0.03). However, we identified no significant differences in clinical characteristics between patients suffering injurious and non-injurious falls. None of the characteristics studied can identify patients prone to injury after a fall. Injury is largely unpredictable, and more research is needed to determine how injury can be prevented in patients at risk of falls. PMID:15707458

  11. Effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia living in the community: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Elissa; Cavalheri, Vinicius; Adams, Richard; Oakley Browne, Colleen; Bovery-Spencer, Petra; Fenton, Audra M; Campbell, Bruce W; Hill, Keith D

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia who are living in the community. Method Peer-reviewed articles (randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and quasi-experimental trials) published in English between January 2000 and February 2014, retrieved from six electronic databases – Medline (ProQuest), CINAHL, PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE and Scopus – according to predefined inclusion criteria were included. Where possible, results were pooled and meta-analysis was conducted. Results Four articles (three RCT and one single-group pre- and post-test pilot study) were included. The study quality of the three RCTs was high; however, measurement outcomes, interventions, and follow-up time periods differed across studies. On completion of the intervention period, the mean number of falls was lower in the exercise group compared to the control group (mean difference [MD] [95% confidence interval {CI}] =?1.06 [?1.67 to ?0.46] falls). Importantly, the exercise intervention reduced the risk of being a faller by 32% (risk ratio [95% CI] =0.68 [0.55–0.85]). Only two other outcomes were reported in two or more of the studies (step test and physiological profile assessment). No between-group differences were observed in the results of the step test (number of steps) (MD [95% CI] =0.51 [?1.77 to 2.78]) or the physiological profile assessment (MD [95% CI] =?0.10 [?0.62 to 0.42]). Conclusion Findings from this review suggest that an exercise program may potentially assist in preventing falls of older people with dementia living in the community. However, further research is needed with studies using larger sample sizes, standardized measurement outcomes, and longer follow-up periods, to inform evidence-based recommendations. PMID:25709416

  12. Effect of the long-term care prevention project on the motor functions and daily life activities of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yoshihiro; Sakuraba, Keisyoku; Kubota, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of the long-term care prevention project and develop an effective program. [Subjects] A total of 81 elderly people (age, 79 ± 5.1?years; height, 149.2 ± 9.2?cm; weight, 54.2 ± 11.4?kg). [Methods] Grip, knee extension muscular strength, 10?m walking speed, and Timed Up and Go time were measured for evaluation of motor functions, and the "Locomo 25", a 25-question risk assessment questionnaire, was used as the judgment criterion for evaluation of daily life activities, with measurements being taken at the beginning of the project and after three months. [Results] In the motor functions evaluation, significant differences were observed in 10?m walking speed, Timed Up and Go time, and knee extension strength. In the daily life activities evaluation, scores for pain, rising movement, standing movement, indoor walking, outdoor walking, and fear of falling were significantly reduced. In addition, a significant correlation was also observed between motor functions and daily life activities. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicated that the long-term care prevention project is effective in maintaining or improving muscular strength and mitigating pain in the elderly and that it is an effective program for maintaining daily life activities. We were also able to show that it would be effective to develop programs with a low exercise intensity that can be performed on a continuing by the elderly. PMID:25642073

  13. Initial Indicators of Effectiveness for a High School Drug Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie D.; Wyrick, David L.; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Wyrick, Cheryl H.; Hansen, William B.

    2003-01-01

    All Stars, Sr. is a comprehensive high school health education supplement designed to prevent high-risk behaviors among adolescents. The program includes topics such as personal health, nutrition, interpersonal relationships, and stress, with a special emphasis on drug prevention. Effective research-based programs that target late onset prevention

  14. A Concise History of School-Based Smoking Prevention Research: A Pendulum Effect Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve; Black, David S.; Rohrbach, Louise A.

    2010-01-01

    School-based cigarette smoking prevention was initiated shortly after the first Surgeon General's Report in 1964. This article highlights a sequence of events by which school-based tobacco use prevention research developed as a science, and illustrates a pendulum effect, with confidence in tobacco use prevention increasing and decreasing at…

  15. Building and Maintaining an Effective Campus-Wide Coalition for Suicide Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Garcia-Williams, Amanda; Moffitt, Lauren; McLeod, Mark; Zesiger, Heather; Ammirati, Rachel; Berg, John P.; McIntosh, Belinda J.

    2012-01-01

    Preventing suicide is a commonly shared priority among college administrators, faculty, staff, students, and family members. Coalitions are popular health promotion mechanisms for solving community-wide problems and are valuable in campus-wide suicide prevention efforts. This article provides an example of an effective suicide prevention

  16. Effectiveness of Diabetes Prevention Program translations among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Samuel-Hodge, C D; Johnson, C M; Braxton, D F; Lackey, M

    2014-10-01

    The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated risk reduction for incident diabetes through weight loss among all participants, including African Americans. Several DPP translations have been conducted in less controlled settings, including primary care practices and communities; however, there is no detailed compilation of how effective these translations have been for African Americans. This systematic literature review evaluated DPP translations from 2003 to 2012. Eligible records were retrieved using a search strategy of relevant databases and gray literature. Retrieved records (n=1,272) were screened using a priori criteria, which resulted in 21 full-text studies for review. Seventeen studies were included in the full-text qualitative synthesis. Seven studies had 100% African American samples and 10 studies had mixed samples with African American subgroups. African American participants' average weight loss was roughly half of that achieved in the DPP intervention. However, with few higher-quality studies, small sample sizes and differences in intervention designs and implementation, comparisons across interventions were difficult. The suboptimal effectiveness of DPP translations among African American adults, particularly women, signals the need for enhancements to existing evidence-based interventions and more high-quality research that includes other at-risk African American subgroups such as men and younger adults of lower socioeconomic status. PMID:25196409

  17. Glucose prevents the fall in ventromedial hypothalamic GABA that is required for full activation of glucose counterregulatory responses during hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wanling; Czyzyk, Daniel; Paranjape, Sachin A; Zhou, Ligang; Horblitt, Adam; Szabó, Gábor; Seashore, Margretta R; Sherwin, Robert S; Chan, Owen

    2010-05-01

    Local delivery of glucose into a critical glucose-sensing region within the brain, the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), can suppress glucose counterregulatory responses to systemic hypoglycemia. Here, we investigated whether this suppression was accomplished through changes in GABA output in the VMH. Sprague-Dawley rats had catheters and guide cannulas implanted. Eight to ten days later, microdialysis-microinjection probes were inserted into the VMH, and they were dialyzed with varying concentrations of glucose from 0 to 100 mM. Two groups of rats were microdialyzed with 100 mM glucose and microinjected with either the K(ATP) channel opener diazoxide or a GABA(A) receptor antagonist. These animals were then subjected to a hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic glucose clamp. As expected, perfusion of glucose into the VMH suppressed the counterregulatory responses. Extracellular VMH GABA levels positively correlated with the concentration of glucose in the perfusate. In turn, extracellular GABA concentrations in the VMH were inversely related to the degree of counterregulatory hormone release. Of note, microinjection of either diazoxide or the GABA(A) receptor antagonist reversed the suppressive effects of VMH glucose delivery on counterregulatory responses. Some GABAergic neurons in the VMH respond to changes in local glucose concentration. Glucose in the VMH dose-dependently stimulates GABA release, and this in turn dose-dependently suppresses the glucagon and epinephrine responses to hypoglycemia. These data suggest that during hypoglycemia a decrease in glucose concentration within the VMH may provide an important signal that rapidly inactivates VMH GABAergic neurons, reducing inhibitory GABAergic tone, which in turn enhances the counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia. PMID:20304763

  18. Glucose prevents the fall in ventromedial hypothalamic GABA that is required for full activation of glucose counterregulatory responses during hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wanling; Czyzyk, Daniel; Paranjape, Sachin A.; Zhou, Ligang; Horblitt, Adam; Szabó, Gábor; Seashore, Margretta R.; Sherwin, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Local delivery of glucose into a critical glucose-sensing region within the brain, the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), can suppress glucose counterregulatory responses to systemic hypoglycemia. Here, we investigated whether this suppression was accomplished through changes in GABA output in the VMH. Sprague-Dawley rats had catheters and guide cannulas implanted. Eight to ten days later, microdialysis-microinjection probes were inserted into the VMH, and they were dialyzed with varying concentrations of glucose from 0 to 100 mM. Two groups of rats were microdialyzed with 100 mM glucose and microinjected with either the KATP channel opener diazoxide or a GABAA receptor antagonist. These animals were then subjected to a hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic glucose clamp. As expected, perfusion of glucose into the VMH suppressed the counterregulatory responses. Extracellular VMH GABA levels positively correlated with the concentration of glucose in the perfusate. In turn, extracellular GABA concentrations in the VMH were inversely related to the degree of counterregulatory hormone release. Of note, microinjection of either diazoxide or the GABAA receptor antagonist reversed the suppressive effects of VMH glucose delivery on counterregulatory responses. Some GABAergic neurons in the VMH respond to changes in local glucose concentration. Glucose in the VMH dose-dependently stimulates GABA release, and this in turn dose-dependently suppresses the glucagon and epinephrine responses to hypoglycemia. These data suggest that during hypoglycemia a decrease in glucose concentration within the VMH may provide an important signal that rapidly inactivates VMH GABAergic neurons, reducing inhibitory GABAergic tone, which in turn enhances the counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia. PMID:20304763

  19. Do continence management strategies reduce falls? a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Frances A; Dow, Briony; Low, May-Ann

    2013-12-01

    Urinary incontinence is associated with increased fall risk, and fall prevention programs include recommendations to manage continence as one component of fall reduction. However, the evidence to support this recommendation is unclear. The aim of this study was to identify continence management interventions that are effective in decreasing falls. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Studies were included if they evaluated the effect of any type of continence management strategy on falls in older adults. The included studies were assessed for quality, and data relating to participants, interventions and outcomes were extracted by two independent reviewers. Four articles met the inclusion criteria. Two studies were randomised controlled trials, one a retrospective cohort study and one an uncontrolled intervention study. Interventions included pharmacological agents, a toileting regime combined with physical activity and an individualised continence program. Only the study evaluating the combination of physical activity and prompted voiding found an effect on falls. It is surprising that there has been so little research into continence management interventions that include fall outcomes. A toileting regime combined with physical activity may reduce falls in residential care. There is a need for further studies investigating the impact of continence management on falls. PMID:24373039

  20. Differential Susceptibility to Prevention: GABAergic, Dopaminergic, and Multilocus Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Beach, Steven R. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Randomized prevention trials provide a unique opportunity to test hypotheses about the interaction of genetic predispositions with contextual processes to create variations in phenotypes over time. Methods: Using two longitudinal, randomized prevention trials, molecular genetic and alcohol use outcome data were gathered from more than…

  1. Effectiveness of a Social Change Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith E.

    2009-01-01

    The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…

  2. Predicting the Effectiveness of Prevention: A Role for Epidemiological Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Helen L.; Peeters, Anna; Reid, Christopher M.; Liew, Danny; Mcneil, John J.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that the current combination of aging populations and advances in health technology is resulting in burgeoning health costs in developed countries. Prevention is a potentially important way of containing health costs. In an environment of intense cost pressures, coupled with developments in disease prevention and health promotion,…

  3. Effects of Nicotine Fading and Relapse Prevention on Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Richard A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Conducted a pilot study which combined nicotine-fading and relapse prevention with smokers (N=30) and compared this program to conditions where subjects (N=46) received nicotine-fading or relapse prevention only. Results showed no difference among groups in abstinence or rate at any follow-up point. (LLL)

  4. The Effects of Weather on Wetland Habitat Conditions and Shorebirds during Spring and Fall Migration in northwest Minnesota

    E-print Network

    ............................................................................................. 1 Effects of climate change on wetlands and wetland birds..........The Effects of Weather on Wetland Habitat Conditions and Shorebirds during Spring and Fall of the requirements for the Master of Science Major in Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences South Dakota State University

  5. Evaluating a pediatric trauma program: effectiveness versus preventable death rate.

    PubMed

    Wesson, D E; Williams, J I; Salmi, L R; Spence, L J; Armstrong, P F; Filler, R M

    1988-08-01

    We compared effectiveness (E), the proportion of severely injured patients who were salvageable and survived, to the preventable death rate (PDR) over three consecutive 1-year periods. Severely injured patients were those with at least one injury with an Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) of greater than or equal to 4. Those with one fatal injury (AIS greater than or equal to 6), a critical head injury (AIS greater than or equal to 5) apart from acute epidural hematoma, or massive multiple injuries (Injury Severity Score greater than 59) were considered nonsalvageable; the remainder were considered salvageable. In the first year, six of 74 salvageable patients died, in the second year five of 76, and in the third year one of 69. The PDR rates were 0.32 (6/19), 0.23 (5/22), and 0.06 (1/17), respectively. There was no significant difference in the E of our trauma program over the 3 years. The apparent improvement in PDR in the second and third years resulted from an increased number of deaths among nonsalvageable patients and fewer deaths among salvageable patients. This finding demonstrates that PDR is sensitive to case mix and not just quality of care, and confirms the superiority of E over PDR for assessing a trauma program. PMID:3411644

  6. Effects of educating local government officers and healthcare and welfare professionals in suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    Kaniwa, Isao; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Suda, Akira; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2012-03-01

    Suicide is a major public health issue. In Japan, local governments are responsible for suicide prevention, and local government officers are therefore expected to act as gatekeepers for suicide prevention. In this study, through a questionnaire survey, the authors examined the current knowledge and attitudes concerning suicide prevention among local government officers and healthcare and welfare professionals, and the effects of providing suicide prevention education on their knowledge of and attitudes toward suicide and its prevention. One hundred eighty-three local government officers and 432 healthcare/welfare professionals completed the survey before and after a single education session. Before the session, the local government officers and healthcare/welfare professionals showed mainly positive attitudes toward suicide prevention efforts, with little difference between the two groups. After the training, knowledge and attitudes were further improved for most questionnaire items. Respondents with one or more experiences of suicide prevention training showed significantly more knowledge and positive attitudes before the training than those with no such experience. Moreover, knowledge of depression and having a sympathetic attitude were found to be especially associated with the overall attitude that "suicide can be prevented". Training in suicide prevention was shown to be effective in promoting appropriate knowledge and attitudes among local government officers and healthcare/welfare professionals who are gatekeepers for preventing suicide. Our findings confirm the importance of suicide prevention education, and will contribute to creating a standard educational program on suicide prevention in Japan. PMID:22690158

  7. Exercise for Fall Risk Reduction in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Catherine M.; Sran, Meena M.; Harrison, Elizabeth L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of exercise on falls and fall risk reduction in community-dwelling older adults and to present an updated synthesis of outcome measures for the assessment of fall risk in community-dwelling older adults. Method: A systematic review was performed, considering English-language articles published from 2000 to 2006 and accessible through MEDLINE, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, and/or AMED. Included were randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) that used an exercise or physical activity intervention and involved participants over age 50. Screening and methodological quality for internal validity were conducted by two independent reviewers. Results: The search retrieved 156 abstracts; 22 articles met the internal validity criteria. Both individualized and group exercise programmes were found to be effective in reducing falls and fall risk. The optimal type, frequency, and dose of exercise to achieve a positive effect have not been determined. A variety of outcome measures have been used to measure fall risk, especially for balance. Conclusions: Falls and fall risk can be reduced with exercise interventions in the community-dwelling elderly, although the most effective exercise variables are unknown. Future studies in populations with comorbidities known to increase fall risk will help determine optimal, condition-specific fall-prevention programmes. Poor balance is a key risk factor for falls; therefore, the best measure of this variable should be selected when evaluating patients at risk of falling. PMID:20145768

  8. The effects of a long-term care walking program on balance, falls and well-being

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effects of a regular and graduated walking program as a stand-alone intervention for individuals in long-term care are unclear. Exercise and fall prevention programs typically studied in long-term care settings tend to involve more than one exercise mode, such as a combination of balance, aerobic, strengthening, and flexibility exercises; and, measures do not always include mental health symptoms and behaviors, although these may be of even greater significance than physical outcomes. Methods/design We are randomly assigning residents of long-term care facilities into one of three intervention groups: (1) Usual Care Group - individuals receive care as usual within their long-term care unit; (2) Interpersonal Interaction Group - individuals receive a comparable amount of one-on-one stationary interpersonal interaction time with study personnel administering the walking program; and, (3) Walking Program Group – individuals participate in a supervised, progressive walking program five days per week, for up to half an hour per day. Assessments completed at baseline, 2 and 4 months during intervention, and 2 and 4 months post-intervention include: gait parameters using the GAITRite® computerized system, grip strength, the Berg Balance Scale, the Senior Fitness Test, the Older Adult Resource Services Physical Activities of Daily Living, the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist, the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire, the Coloured Analogue Scale, pain assessment scales, and the number and nature of falls. Sophisticated data analytic procedures taking into account both the longitudinal nature of the data and the potential for missing data points due to attrition, will be employed. Discussion Residents in long-term care have a very high number of comorbidities including physical, mental health, and cognitive. The presence of dementia in particular makes standardized research protocols difficult to follow, and staff shortages, along with inconsistencies related to shift changes may impact on the accuracy of caregiver-rated assessment scales. Practical challenges to data collection validity and maintenance of inter-rater reliability due to the large number of research staff required to implement the interventions at multiple sites are also posed. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01277809 PMID:23249431

  9. Exercises to help prevent falls

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your muscles stronger and more flexible Improve your balance Increase how long you can be active You ... You can do some balance exercises during everyday activities. While waiting in line at the store, try balancing on one foot. Try sitting down and ...

  10. Once Is Enough: A Guide to Preventing Future Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Once Is Enough: A Guide to Preventing Future Fractures Publication available in: PDF (79 KB) Chinese ( ???? ) Related Resources Falls and Fractures Caídas y fracturas (Falls and Fractures) Preventing Falls ...

  11. Dilatonic effects on a falling test mass in scalar-tensor theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, J. R.

    2011-10-01

    Effects of a 4d dilaton field on a falling test mass are examined from the Einstein frame perspective of scalar-tensor theory. Results are obtained for the centripetal acceleration of particles in circular orbits, and the radial acceleration for particles with pure radial motion. These results are applied to the specific case of nonrelativistic motion in the weak field approximation of Brans-Dicke theory, employing the exact Xanthopoulos-Zannias solutions. For a given parameter range, the results obtained from Brans-Dicke theory are qualitatively dramatically different from those of general relativity. Comments are made concerning a comparison with the general relativistic results in the limit of an infinite Brans-Dicke parameter.

  12. Vitamin D: A Review on Its Effects on Muscle Strength, the Risk of Fall, and Frailty

    PubMed Central

    Halfon, Matthieu; Phan, Olivier; Teta, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is the main hormone of bone metabolism. However, the ubiquitary nature of vitamin D receptor (VDR) suggests potential for widespread effects, which has led to new research exploring the effects of vitamin D on a variety of tissues, especially in the skeletal muscle. In vitro studies have shown that the active form of vitamin D, calcitriol, acts in myocytes through genomic effects involving VDR activation in the cell nucleus to drive cellular differentiation and proliferation. A putative transmembrane receptor may be responsible for nongenomic effects leading to rapid influx of calcium within muscle cells. Hypovitaminosis D is consistently associated with decrease in muscle function and performance and increase in disability. On the contrary, vitamin D supplementation has been shown to improve muscle strength and gait in different settings, especially in elderly patients. Despite some controversies in the interpretation of meta-analysis, a reduced risk of falls has been attributed to vitamin D supplementation due to direct effects on muscle cells. Finally, a low vitamin D status is consistently associated with the frail phenotype. This is why many authorities recommend vitamin D supplementation in the frail patient. PMID:26000306

  13. The Cost and Effectiveness of School-Based Preventive Dental Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The cost and effectiveness of various types and combinations of school-based preventive dental care procedures were assessed in the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program, a four-year study involving more than 20,000 students, from ten schools nationwide. Communal water fluoridation was reaffirmed as the most cost-effective means of…

  14. Optimizing Violence Prevention Programs: An Examination of Program Effectiveness among Urban High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompkins, Amanda C.; Chauveron, Lisa M.; Harel, Ofer; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: While demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the school-day schedule to accommodate their time requirements has diminished. Viable school-based prevention programs must strike a balance between brevity and effectiveness. This article reports results from an effectiveness trial of a 12-session…

  15. SQLPrevent: Effective Dynamic Detection and Prevention of SQL Injection Attacks Without Access

    E-print Network

    SQLPrevent: Effective Dynamic Detection and Prevention of SQL Injection Attacks Without Access an effective approach for detecting and preventing known as well as novel SQL injection attacks. Unlike to implement a tool we have named SQLPrevent that dynamically detects SQL injection attacks using the above

  16. Inpatient falls in freestanding children's hospitals.

    PubMed

    Jamerson, Patricia A; Graf, Elaine; Messmer, Patricia R; Fields, Heidi W; Barton, Sharon; Berger, Anne; Daraiseh, Nancy M; Fix, Michele; Huth, Myra; Latta, Linda; Smith, Andrea B; Lunbeck, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Patient falls are considered a significant safety risk, but little evidence regarding the significance of falls in children is available. A multisite, observational study of fall events occurring in pediatric inpatients (younger than 18 years of age) from Child Health Corporation of America member hospitals was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of falls. Fall prevalence was 0.84 per 1,000 patient days with 48% classified as preventable. Injuries occurred in 32%, but only two falls resulted in an increased length of stay; none resulted in permanent disability or death. Only 47% of the children who fell were identified to be at risk for fall. Alert mechanisms were used in 60% and preventive measures in 23%. These findings suggest that while inpatient pediatric fall rates are lower than those of adults, greater diligence in identification and risk reduction may further reduce the prevalence of falls and the proportion of fall-related injuries. PMID:25134226

  17. Host effects on fitness in two strains of the fall armyworm (Noctuidae) and a parasitoid of the family Eulophidae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm is known to be a pest of many species of the family Poaceae. In this study we compared the effects of two host plants (Zea mays and Cynodon nlemfuensis var. nlemfuensis) on survivorship of two strains of the FAW and the parasitoid Euplectrus platyhypenae....

  18. EFFECTS OF CROP ROTATIONS AND A FALL COVER CROP ON RHIZOCTONIA CANKER, BLACK SCURF, AND COMMON SCAB OF POTATO, 2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six different rotation crops (barley/clover, canola, green bean, rapeseed, soybean, and sweet corn) planted in 2-yr rotations with potato (and a continuous potato nonrotation control) were evaluated both with and without a fall cover crop of winter rye for their effects on the development of soilbor...

  19. Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics (Effective Fall 2010 or after 126 hours)

    E-print Network

    Carver, Jeffrey C.

    /Social Science & Behavioral Science HU/L/FA= Humanities/Literature/Fine Arts MATH = Mathematics NS = Natural = Computer Science ES = Engineering Science ENGR = Freshman Engineering Legend F S F MATH 126 AEM 349 MATH) FRESHMAN YEAR SOPHOMORE YEAR Fall Spring Fall Spring 15 Hrs 16 Hrs 16 Hrs 16 Hrs Placement PH 105 MATH 126

  20. Teen Depression and Suicide: Effective Prevention and Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Teen depression and suicidal behaviors are intricately intertwined, with untreated depression being a leading cause of adolescent suicide. Most depressed or suicidal teens tend to show warning signs and possess specific risk factors. A key component to preventing teen depression is for adults to remain aware of such warning signs and risk factors…

  1. [Current prevention and treatment strategies for osteoporosis : Fracture-oriented, effective, low side effects and inexpensive].

    PubMed

    Bartl, R; Bartl, C

    2015-12-01

    Osteoporosis is still an underdiagnosed and insufficiently therapied widespread disease in Germany. Of the estimated 7 million osteoporosis patients only 1.5 million receive a guideline conform diagnosis and even less receive appropriate treatment. Some 90?% of patients are provided with analgesics but only 10?% receive an effective therapy, although efficacious, well-tested and affordable medications are available. In addition, approximately one half of the patients terminate treatment after only 1 year although according to the results of recent studies the duration of therapy should be at least 3-5 years. In view of the increasing average life expectancy, a consistent management for prevention of fractures associated with osteoporosis is always most important for society, even if only for reasons of costs. Achievement of this target depends on four circumstances: clarification of the origin of osteoporosis and fractures (bone consciousness), prophylaxis of bone loss and fractures (primary prevention), consistent guideline conform diagnostics and therapy (secondary and tertiary prevention) and cooperation of all disciplines in medicine (bone is everybody's business). This article describes the current state of diagnostics (bone density measurement with dual X-ray absorptiometry, FRAX®), prophylaxis of fractures (screening program) and therapy (use of economic and effective medications with low side effects). Novel medications are already undergoing clinical testing and a "healing" of bone reduction with restoration of the normal bone structure is to be expected. PMID:26452578

  2. Long-run effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the US agricultural economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campiche, Jody L.; Bryant, Henry L.; Richardson, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Renewable energy production has been expanding at a rapid pace. New advances in cellulosic ethanol technologies have the potential to displace the use of petroleum as a transportation fuel, and could have significant effects on both the agricultural economy and the environment. In this letter, the effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the mix of ethanol feedstocks employed and on the US agricultural economy are examined. Results indicate that, as expected, cellulosic ethanol production increases by a substantial amount as conversion technology improves. Corn production increases initially following the introduction of cellulosic technology, because producers enjoy new revenue from sales of corn stover. After cellulosic ethanol production becomes substantially cheaper, however, acres are shifted from corn production to all other agricultural commodities. Essentially, this new technology could facilitate the exploitation of a previously under-employed resource (corn stover), resulting in an improvement in overall welfare. In the most optimistic scenario considered, 68% of US ethanol is derived from cellulosic sources, coarse grain production is reduced by about 2%, and the prices of all food commodities are reduced modestly.

  3. Vision and falls in older people: risk factors and intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Lord, Stephen R; Smith, Stuart T; Menant, Jasmine C

    2010-11-01

    Poor vision impairs balance and increases the risk of falls and fractures in older people. Multifocal glasses can add to this risk by impairing contrast sensitivity, depth perception, and ability to negotiate obstacles. Vision assessment and provision of new spectacles may not reduce, and may even increase, the risk of falls. Restriction of the use of multifocal glasses may reduce falls in active older people. Other effective fall prevention strategies include maximizing vision through cataract surgery and occupational therapy interventions in visually impaired older people. PMID:20934611

  4. Preventive effects of cranberry products on experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium in mice.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Kim, Jonggun; Sun, Quancai; Kim, Daeyoung; Park, Cheon-Seok; Lu, Tzong-Shi; Park, Yeonhwa

    2015-01-15

    With the prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its associated risk for development of colorectal cancer, it is of great importance to prevent and treat IBD. However, due to the complexity of etiology and potentially serious adverse effects, treatment options for IBD are relatively limited. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify a safe food-based approach for the prevention and treatment of IBD. In this study, we tested the effects of cranberry products on preventing dextran sulphate sodium-induced murine colitis. Our results suggest that both cranberry extract and dried cranberries-fed groups had a significantly reduced disease activity index, where dried cranberries were more effective in preventing colitis than cranberry extract. Shortening of colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase activity and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines were attenuated in animals fed dried cranberries compared to the controls. The current report suggests that cranberries can be applied to prevent and reduce the symptoms of IBD. PMID:25149009

  5. When Are Statins Cost-Effective in Cardiovascular Prevention? A Systematic Review of Sponsorship Bias and Conclusions in Economic Evaluations of Statins

    PubMed Central

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel; Ridao, Manuel; Peiró, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Background We examined sponsorship of published cost-effectiveness analyses of statin use for cardiovascular (CV) prevention, and determined whether the funding source is associated with study conclusions. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed/MEDLINE (up to June 2011) to identify cost-effectiveness analyses of statin use for CV prevention reporting outcomes as incremental costs per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) and/or life years gained (LYG). We examined relationships between the funding source and the study conclusions by means of tests of differences between proportions. Seventy-five studies were included. Forty-eight studies (64.0%) were industry-sponsored. Fifty-two (69.3%) articles compared statins versus non-active alternatives. Secondary CV prevention represented 42.7% of articles, followed by primary CV prevention (38.7%) and both (18.7%). Overall, industry-sponsored studies were much less likely to report unfavourable or neutral conclusions (0% versus 37.1%; p<0.001). For primary CV prevention, the proportion with unfavourable or neutral conclusions was 0% for industry-sponsored studies versus 57.9% for non-sponsored studies (p<0.001). Conversely, no statistically significant differences were identified for studies evaluating secondary CV prevention (0% versus 12.5%; p=0.222). Incremental costs per QALY/LYG estimates reported in industry-sponsored studies were generally more likely to fall below a hypothetical willingness-to-pay threshold of US $50,000. Conclusions Our systematic analysis suggests that pharmaceutical industry sponsored economic evaluations of statins have generally favored the cost-effectiveness profile of their products particularly in primary CV prevention. PMID:23861972

  6. The Cost and Effectiveness of School-Based Preventive Dental Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.; And Others

    The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program assessed the cost and effectiveness of various types and combinations of school-based preventive dental care procedures. The program involved 20,052 first, second, and fifth graders from five fluoridated and five non-fluoridated communities. These children were examined at baseline and…

  7. Stacked Deck: An Effective, School-Based Program for the Prevention of Problem Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert J.; Wood, Robert T.; Currie, Shawn R.

    2010-01-01

    School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and skills…

  8. FIRE /SMOKE The most effective method of fighting fires is to prevent them from occurring. All

    E-print Network

    Jia, Songtao

    FIRE /SMOKE The most effective method of fighting fires is to prevent them from occurring. All Columbia University Morningside staff is responsible for contributing to the University's fire prevention efforts. Personnel should neither create nor tolerate conditions that could cause or fuel a fire

  9. The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA): Effects after 24 and 30 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Hein; Dijk, Froukje; Wetzels, Joyce; Mudde, Aart; Kremers, Stef; Ariza, Carles; Vitoria, Paulo Duarte; Fielder, Anne; Holm, Klavs; Janssen, Karin; Lehtovuori, Riku; Candel, Math

    2006-01-01

    The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) study in six countries tested the effects of a comprehensive smoking prevention approach after 24 (T3; N = 10751) and 30 months (T4; N = 9282). The programme targeted four levels, i.e. adolescents in schools, school policies, parents and the community. In Portugal, 12.4% of the T1…

  10. Testing Mediators of Intervention Effects in Randomized Controlled Trials: An Evaluation of Three Depression Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a new 5-step method for testing mediators hypothesized to account for the effects of depression prevention programs. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, at-risk teens with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…

  11. Effects of Comprehensive, Multiple High-Risk Behaviors Prevention Program on High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the effect of a multiple high-risk behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school-system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The prevention program was created based upon the…

  12. Effective Instruction. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 21, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Strategies for Success (Charles W. Hatch); (2) 2009 NDPN Crystal Star Winners; (3) Strategies for More Effective Instruction (Micki Gibson); (4) Some Thoughts on Teaching Strategies…

  13. Multicomponent delirium prevention: not as effective as NICE suggest?

    PubMed

    Teale, Elizabeth; Young, John

    2015-11-01

    Multicomponent delirium prevention strategies have been shown in intervention studies consistently to reduce the occurrence of delirium. Based on this convincing evidence base, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has advocated the widespread adoption of multicomponent delirium prevention interventions into the routine inpatient care of older people. However, despite successful reductions in incident delirium of about a third, anticipated reductions in mortality or admissions to long-term care-both clinically important endpoints statistically correlated with the occurrence of delirium-have not been conclusively observed. We hypothesise that the reasons for this disconnection are partly methodological, due to difficulties in delirium detection and blinding of study personnel to the intervention, but predominantly due to the underlying relationship between delirium and the abnormal health state of frailty; the interaction between these two geriatric syndromes is currently poorly understood. PMID:26316509

  14. Effective Fall 2016Program of Study Post Graduate Psychiatric Nursing Capstone Certificate Program of Study

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    of Study Summer Crs Fall Crs Spring Crs Year1 N657 Clinical Psychopharmacology 3 N726 Foundations for APN the lifespan. Course Descriptions Foundations Courses: N657: Clinical Psychopharmacology This course examines

  15. Comparing the effects of Osteoporosis Prevention Exercise Protocol (OPEP) versus walking in the prevention of osteoporosis in younger females

    PubMed Central

    Soomro, Rabail Rani; Ahmed, Syed Imran; Khan, Muhammad; Ali, Syed Shahzad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of Osteoporosis Prevention Exercise Protocol (OPEP) in younger females. Methods: One hundred young female volunteers aged 20-30 were selected from IPM&R Dow University of Health Sciences. This was a comparative study in which 64 females participants were randomly assigned into two groups (32 in OPEP exercise group and 32 in walking group). The exercise session had three components 1) stretching 2) strengthening 3) high impact weight bearing exercises. Both interventional programs consisted of 3 sessions per week for twelve weeks under the supervision of physiotherapist. Pre and post intervention bone mass density (BMD) was measured on the lumbar spine (L1–L4), hip, femur, and distal forearm by using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. Results: After twelve weeks of intervention BMD was found to be statistically insignificant at hip, femur, lumbar spine and wrist (p > 0.05) comparing the post results in the OPEP and exercise group. Moreover BMD at hip, femur, lumbar spine and wrist was unaltered in both groups comparing the results of pre and post intervention. Though significant changes were observed in BMI in the OPEP exercise group (p value =0.010) mean ± standard deviation pre and post found to be 20.2578 ± 3.11123 and 21.0942 ± 3.64203 but no variations in anthropometrics in walking group were found. Conclusion: The present study highlights the burden of osteopenia in younger females. The Osteoporosis Prevention Exercise Protocol formulated by author was not useful to bring any significant changes in BMD moreover it had no significant effects in comparison to walking group. However additional studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of Osteoporosis Prevention Exercise Protocol on bone quality with long term effects. PMID:26101486

  16. The effectiveness of back pain and injury prevention programs in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Gatty, Carolyn M; Turner, Mynde; Buitendorp, Dinice J; Batman, Heather

    2003-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders in the workplace cause thousands of injuries and cost industry billions of dollars yearly. Work injury prevention programs have been developed and implemented as a means for cost containment. A variety of preventive strategies have been investigated in primary research. The purpose of this review article is to examine the effectiveness of back injury and pain prevention programs in the workplace. Nine studies published between 1995 and 2000 were reviewed and analyzed. Studies used primarily one of three types of preventive strategies: 1) back belts, 2) education and task modification, and 3) education and task modification with workstation redesign. The effectiveness of back belts to prevent back pain and injury remains inconclusive. Positive outcomes were associated with studies reporting high compliance that used job-specific and individualized/small group education and training approaches. Themes that arose following a critical review of primary research studies are discussed. PMID:12775931

  17. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  18. Postharvest irradiation treatment effect on grapefruit functional components and their role in prevention of colon cancer 

    E-print Network

    Vanamala, Jairam Krishna Prasad

    2005-11-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of postharvest treatment and processing on biologically active compounds of orange juice, and ??Rio Red?? grapefruit and their ability to prevent chemically induced colon cancer in ...

  19. Experiments in Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art, Albert

    2006-01-01

    A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

  20. Effectiveness of foot orthoses for treatment and prevention of lower limb injuries : a review.

    PubMed

    Hume, Patria; Hopkins, Will; Rome, Keith; Maulder, Peter; Coyle, Greg; Nigg, Benno

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare professionals prescribe foot orthoses (FOs) for treatment and prevention of lower limb injuries, but previous reviews of the effectiveness of FOs have been inconclusive. We have therefore performed a review emphasizing the magnitude of treatment effects to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of FOs in the treatment and prevention of lower limb injuries.Qualifying studies were mainly controlled trials, but some uncontrolled clinical trials of patients with chronic injuries were analysed separately. Injuries included plantar fasciitis, tibial stress fractures and patellofemoral pain syndrome; these were included because of the large treatment costs for these frequent injuries in New Zealand. Outcomes were pain, comfort, function and injury status. Continuous measures were expressed as standardized differences using baseline between-subject standard deviations, and magnitudes were inferred from the intersection of 90% confidence intervals with thresholds of a modified Cohen scale. Effects based on frequencies were expressed as hazard ratios and their magnitudes were inferred from intersection of confidence intervals with a novel scale of thresholds.The effects of FOs for treatment of pain or injury prevention were mostly trivial. FOs were not effective in treating or preventing patellofemoral pain syndrome. Some studies showed moderate effects for treatment of plantar fasciitis. Only a few studies showed moderate or large beneficial effects of FOs in preventing injuries.Customized semi-rigid FOs have moderate to large beneficial effects in treating and preventing plantar fasciitis and posterior tibial stress fractures, and small to moderate effects in treating patellofemoral pain syndrome. Given the limited randomized controlled trials or clinical controlled trials available for the injuries of interest, it may be that more or less benefit can be derived from the use of FOs, but many studies did not provide enough information for the standardized effect sizes to be calculated. Further research with randomized controlled trials is needed to establish the clinical utility of a variety of FOs for the treatment and prevention of various lower limb injuries. PMID:18712943

  1. Perceived Cause, Environmental Factors, and Consequences of Falls in Adults with Cerebral Palsy: A Preliminary Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Rachael; McGinley, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Describe perceived cause, environmental influences, and consequences of falls or near-falls in ambulant adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods. Adults with CP completed postal surveys and follow-up semistructured interviews. Surveys sought information on demographic data, self-nominated Gross Motor Function Classification Score (GMFCS-E&R), falls, and near-falls. Interviews gathered additional information on falls experiences, near-falls, and physical and psychosocial consequences. Results. Thirty-four adults with CP participated. Thirty-three participants reported at least one fall in the previous year. Twenty-six participants reported near-falls. Most commonly, falls occurred indoors, at home, and whilst engaged in nonhazardous ambulation. Adults with CP experienced adverse falls consequences, lower limb injuries predominant (37%), and descriptions of fear, embarrassment, powerlessness, and isolation. Discussion. Adults with CP may experience injurious falls. Further investigation into the impact of falls on health-related quality of life and effective remediation strategies is warranted to provide comprehensive falls prevention programs for this population. PMID:25802759

  2. Perceived cause, environmental factors, and consequences of falls in adults with cerebral palsy: a preliminary mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Prue; McDonald, Rachael; McGinley, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Describe perceived cause, environmental influences, and consequences of falls or near-falls in ambulant adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods. Adults with CP completed postal surveys and follow-up semistructured interviews. Surveys sought information on demographic data, self-nominated Gross Motor Function Classification Score (GMFCS-E&R), falls, and near-falls. Interviews gathered additional information on falls experiences, near-falls, and physical and psychosocial consequences. Results. Thirty-four adults with CP participated. Thirty-three participants reported at least one fall in the previous year. Twenty-six participants reported near-falls. Most commonly, falls occurred indoors, at home, and whilst engaged in nonhazardous ambulation. Adults with CP experienced adverse falls consequences, lower limb injuries predominant (37%), and descriptions of fear, embarrassment, powerlessness, and isolation. Discussion. Adults with CP may experience injurious falls. Further investigation into the impact of falls on health-related quality of life and effective remediation strategies is warranted to provide comprehensive falls prevention programs for this population. PMID:25802759

  3. Common Principles Embedded in Effective Adolescent HIV Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Ingram, Barbara L.; Swendeman, Dallas; Flannery, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Each interpersonally delivered, evidence-based (EB) program for HIV prevention shares common features that aim to shift HIV risk behaviors. We used qualitative research methods to examine manuals from five EB programs for adolescents and identified 10 core principles embedded in each program’s activities. Principles reflect the stated goals and anticipated lessons in an activity. The principles were: Believe in your own worth and your right to a happy future; Commit to change; Distinguish fact from myth; Plan ahead and be prepared; Practice self-control; Know pleasurable alternatives to high risk activities; Negotiate verbally, not nonverbally; Evaluate options and consequences; Show concern for others; Choose to limit your own freedom; and Act to help others protect themselves. Focusing on common features rather than the unique properties of each EB program may allow community providers to have more flexibility and ownership in adapting EB programs, and may also facilitate development of new EB program. PMID:19224358

  4. Effectiveness of HIV prevention social marketing with injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Gibson, David R; Zhang, Guili; Cassady, Diana; Pappas, Les; Mitchell, Joyce; Kegeles, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    Social marketing involves applying marketing principles to promote social goods. In the context of health behavior, it has been used successfully to reduce alcohol-related car crashes, smoking among youths, and malaria transmission, among other goals. Features of social marketing, such as audience segmentation and repeated exposure to prevention messages, distinguish it from traditional health promotion programs. A recent review found 8 of 10 rigorously evaluated social marketing interventions responsible for changes in HIV-related behavior or behavioral intentions. We studied 479 injection drug users to evaluate a community-based social marketing campaign to reduce injection risk behavior among drug users in Sacramento, California. Injecting drugs is associated with HIV infection in more than 130 countries worldwide. PMID:20724686

  5. Effects of cultivar and grazing initiation date on fall-grown oat for replacement dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Brink, G E; Esser, N M; Cavadini, J S

    2015-09-01

    Fall-grown oat has shown promise for extending the grazing season in Wisconsin, but the optimum date for initiating grazing has not been evaluated. Our objectives for this project were (1) to assess the pasture productivity and nutritive value of 2 oat cultivars [Ogle and ForagePlus (OG and FP, respectively)] with late-September (EG) or mid-October (LG) grazing initiation dates; and (2) to evaluate growth performance by heifers grazing these oat forages compared with heifers reared in confinement (CON). A total of 160 gravid Holstein heifers (80 heifers/yr) were assigned to 10 research groups (8 heifers/group). Mean initial body weight was 509±40.5 kg in 2013 and 517±30.2 kg in 2014. Heifer groups were assigned to specific pastures arranged as a 2×2 factorial of oat cultivars and grazing initiation dates. Grazing heifer groups were allowed to strip-graze oat pastures for 6 h daily before returning to the barn, where they were offered a forage-based basal total mixed ration. Main effects of oat cultivar and sampling date interacted for forage characteristics in 2013, but not in 2014. During 2013, oat forage mass increased until early November before declining in response to freezing weather conditions, thereby exhibiting linear and quadratic effects of sampling date, regardless of oat cultivar. Similar trends over time were observed in 2014. For 2013, the maximum forage mass was 5,329 and 5,046 kg/ha for FP and OG, respectively, whereas the mean maximum forage mass for 2014 was 4,806 kg/ha. ForagePlus did not reach the boot stage of growth during either year of the trial; OG matured more rapidly, reaching the late-heading stage during 2013, but exhibited only minor maturity differences from FP in 2014. For 2013, average daily gain for CON did not differ from grazing heifer groups (overall mean=0.63 kg/d); however, average daily gain from FP was greater than OG (0.68 vs. 0.57 kg/d), and greater from EG compared with LG (0.82 vs. 0.43 kg/d). For 2013, advantages in average daily gain for heifers grazing FP pastures were likely related to the greater energy density of FP oat throughout the fall that reached a maximum of 68.8% total digestible nutrients on November 27 compared with only 63.7% for OG on October 10. During 2014, average daily gain from CON exceeded all grazing heifer groups (0.81 vs. 0.57 kg/d), and average daily gain from EG again exceeded LG (0.70 vs. 0.44 kg/d). These results suggest that delaying grazing until mid-October will consistently suppress heifer growth performance, particularly if rapidly maturing cultivars are used. PMID:26142852

  6. [Falling in geriatrics. Diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Becker, C; Rapp, K

    2011-08-01

    Falls are among the most frequent adverse events in the life of an older person. Accident and emergency units, outpatient services and internal medicine wards should have a diagnostic concept for falls and fall-related injuries and implement an evidence-based risk management for fall prevention. The recently published Reviews of the Cochrane Collaboration and the revised guidelines of the Anglo-American medical societies are a proper basis to plan these steps. This, of course, has to be adapted for the needs of each institution. Currently, it is probable that at least 30% of all falls are preventable. A structured fall history and multifactorial assessment is not part of the routine of outpatient and inpatient services in Germany. The planned revision of the German nursing guideline on fall prevention and the current activities of the Aktionsbündnis Patientensicherheit will also lead to a legal dilemma for those institutions that have not implemented an adequate workup. PMID:21755365

  7. Effects of communal exercise with visual and auditory feedback provided by a smart application on gait ability and fear of falling in Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Yun-Jin

    2014-10-01

    Parkinson's disease is a chronically developing neurodegenerative disease showing typical motor symptoms of the following triad: resting tremor, freezing of gait, and bradykinesia-hypokinesia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a communal exercise program, using the visual and auditory feedback provided by a smart application, to assess gait ability, fear of falling, and fall efficacy in Parkinson's disease patients. Subjects consisted of 29 Parkinson's disease patients who were non-demented individuals. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups: the control group (n= 9, CG), the communal exercise group using the smart application (n= 10, CCEG), and the individual exercise group using the smart application (n= 10, ICEG). The communal exercise program consisted of a warm up (10 min) followed by communal exercise using the smart application (40 min), and a cool down (10 min) for 3 days per week over 10 weeks. The results presented here show that velocity and cadence were significantly increased among groups. Step and stride length were significantly increased among times. Fear of falling and fall efficacy were significantly different among groups and times. In particular, fear of falling was lower and fall efficacy was higher in the CCEG than in the ICEG and CG. These findings indicate that 10 weeks of the communal exercise program using the smart application can be effective in improving gait ability, fear of falling, and fall efficacy in Parkinson's disease patients. PMID:25426465

  8. Perchlorate in dust fall and indoor dust in Malta: An effect of fireworks.

    PubMed

    Vella, Alfred J; Chircop, Cynthia; Micallef, Tamara; Pace, Colette

    2015-07-15

    We report on the presence of perchlorate in the settleable dust of Malta, a small central Mediterranean island. Both dust fall collected directly as it precipitated from atmosphere over a period of one month and deposited indoor dust from domestic residences were studied. Perchlorate was determined by ion chromatography of water extracts of the collected dusts. Dust fall was collected from 43 towns during 2011 to 2013 and indoor dust was sampled from homes in the same localities. Perchlorate was detected in 108 of 153 samples of dust fall (71%) and in 28 of 37 indoor dust samples (76%). Detectable perchlorate in dust fall ranged from 0.52?gg(-1) to 561?gg(-1) with a median value of 6.2?gg(-1); in indoor dust, levels were from 0.79?gg(-1) to 53?gg(-1) with a median value of 7.8?gg(-1), the highest recorded anywhere to date. Statistical analysis suggested that there was no significant difference in perchlorate content of indoor dust and dust fall. Perchlorate levels in dust fall escalate during the summer in response to numerous religious feasts celebrated with fireworks and perchlorate persists at low ?gg(-1) concentrations for several months beyond the summer festive period. In Malta, perchlorate derives exclusively from KClO4, imported for fireworks manufacture. Its residue in dust presents an exposure risk to the population, especially via ingestion by hand to mouth transfer. Our results suggest that wherever intensive burning of fireworks takes place, the environmental impact may be much longer lived than realised, mainly due to re-suspension and deposition of contaminated settled dust in the urban environment. PMID:25828411

  9. Automatic fall detection using wearable biomedical signal measurement terminal.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy-Trang; Cho, Myeong-Chan; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2009-01-01

    In our study, we developed a mobile waist-mounted device which can monitor the subject's acceleration signal and detect the fall events in real-time with high accuracy and automatically send an emergency message to a remote server via CDMA module. When fall event happens, the system also generates an alarm sound at 50Hz to alarm other people until a subject can sit up or stand up. A Kionix KXM52-1050 tri-axial accelerometer and a Bellwave BSM856 CDMA standalone modem were used to detect and manage fall events. We used not only a simple threshold algorithm but also some supporting methods to increase an accuracy of our system (nearly 100% in laboratory environment). Timely fall detection can prevent regrettable death due to long-lie effect; therefore increase the independence of elderly people in an unsupervised living environment. PMID:19964661

  10. Circumstances and outcomes of falls among high risk community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Judy A.; Mahoney, Jane E.; Ehrenreich, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Background For older adults, falls threaten their health, independence, and quality of life. Knowing the circumstances surrounding falls is essential for understanding how behavioral and environmental factors interact in fall events. It is also important for developing and implementing interventions that are effective and acceptable to older adults. This study investigated the circumstances and injury outcomes of falls among community-dwelling older adults at high risk of falling. Methods In this secondary analysis, we examined the circumstances and outcomes of falls experienced by 328 participants in the Dane County (Wisconsin) Safety Assessment for Elders (SAFE) Research Study. SAFE was a randomized controlled trial of a community-based multifactorial falls intervention for older adults at high risk for falls, conducted from October 2002 to December 2007. Participants were community-dwelling adults aged ?65 years who reported at least one fall during the year after study enrollment. Falls were collected prospectively using monthly calendars. Everyone who reported a fall was contacted by telephone to determine the circumstances surrounding the event. Injury outcomes were defined as none, mild (injury reported but no treatment sought), moderate (treatment for any injury except head injury or fracture), and severe (treatment for head injury or fracture). Results Data were available for 1,172 falls. A generalized linear mixed model analysis showed that being age ?85 (OR = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2–3.9), female (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3–3.4), falling backward and landing flat (OR = 5.6, 95% CI = 2.9–10.5), sideways (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 2.6–8.0) and forward (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 2.0–5.7) were significantly associated with the likelihood of injury. Of 783 falls inside the home, falls in the bathroom were more than twice as likely to result in an injury compared to falls in the living room (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2–4.9). Conclusions Most falls among these high risk older adults occurred inside the home. The likelihood of injury in the bathroom supports the need for safety modifications such as grab bars, and may indicate a need for assistance with bathing. These findings will help clinicians tailor fall prevention for their patients and have practical implications for retirement and assisted living communities and community-based fall prevention programs.

  11. Electronic bidirectional valve circuit prevents crossover distortion and threshold effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kernick, A.

    1966-01-01

    Four-terminal network forms a bidirectional valve which will switch or alternate an ac signal without crossover distortion or threshold effect. In this network, an isolated control signal is sufficient for circuit turn-on.

  12. Natural antifouling compounds: Effectiveness in preventing invertebrate settlement and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Joana R; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    Biofouling represents a major economic issue regarding maritime industries and also raise important environmental concern. International legislation is restricting the use of biocidal-based antifouling (AF) coatings, and increasing efforts have been applied in the search for environmentally friendly AF agents. A wide diversity of natural AF compounds has been described for their ability to inhibit the settlement of macrofouling species. However poor information on the specific AF targets was available before the application of different molecular approaches both on invertebrate settlement strategies and bioadhesive characterization and also on the mechanistic effects of natural AF compounds. This review focuses on the relevant information about the main invertebrate macrofouler species settlement and bioadhesive mechanisms, which might help in the understanding of the reported effects, attributed to effective and non-toxic natural AF compounds towards this macrofouling species. It also aims to contribute to the elucidation of promising biotechnological strategies in the development of natural effective environmentally friendly AF paints. PMID:25749324

  13. Methodological Issues in Studies of the Effectiveness of Pressure Ulcer Prevention Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Baumgarten, Mona; Shardell, Michelle; Rich, Shayna

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To enhance the wound care practitioner's understanding of the research methods used to obtain information about the effectiveness of pressure ulcer prevention interventions. TARGET AUDIENCE This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. OBJECTIVES After reading this article and taking this test, the reader should be able to: 1. Differentiate between randomized, historical, and nonrandomized comparison studies. 2. Explain terminology and concepts associated with pressure ulcer prevention research. PMID:19325278

  14. Effects of cyanogenic plants on fitness in two host strains of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The generalist species fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is actually composed of two genetic subgroups (host strains) that infest a wide range of host plants, including several of agricultural significance. Currently, little is known about the physiological factors that drive host p...

  15. EFFECT OF PLUGGING DATE ON FALL FLOWERING AND FRUITING IN SOME SHORT-DAY STRAWBERRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 2002 to 2005, we conducted studies to force June-bearing strawberry plants to flower in the fall and early winter under the mid-Atlantic coast region growing conditions in attempt to crop them twice in one season. Mother plants were grown in a soilless system under protected cultivation and ru...

  16. Seismo-ionospheric effects associated with 'Chelyabinsk' meteorite during the first 25 minutes after its fall

    E-print Network

    Berngardt, Oleg I

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the properties of ionospheric irregularities elongated with Earth magnetic field during the first 25 minutes after the fall of the meteorite 'Chelyabinsk' experimentally observed with EKB radar of Russian segment of the SuperDARN. It is shown that 40 minutes before meteor fall the EKB radar started to observe powerful scattering from irregularities elongated with the Earth magnetic field in the F-layer. Scattering was observed for 80 minutes and stopped 40 minutes after the meteorite fall. During 9-15 minutes after the meteorite fall at ranges 400-1200 km from the explosion site a changes were observed in the spectral and amplitude characteristics of the scattered signal. This features were the sharp increase in the Doppler frequency shift of the scattered signal corresponding to the Doppler velocities about 600 m/s and the sharp increase of the scattered signal amplitude. This allows us to conclude that we detected the growth of small-scale ionospheric irregularities elongated with the Ea...

  17. Modeling the effectiveness of isolation strategies in preventing STD epidemics

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, J.M.; Li, J.

    1998-06-01

    The authors formulate and analyze a two-group, selective-mixing, susceptible-infective-susceptible (SIS), sexually transmitted disease (STD) model where the infection-dependent desirability and acceptability in partnership formations are zero at high infection levels. They analyze two strategies to limit the spread of the epidemic by avoiding forming partnerships with people in a highly infected group. In one approach, the people in the highly infected group protect themselves by forming partnerships with only people outside their own group. They show that the transmission dynamics for this approach are similar to the situation where people continue to have both intragroup and intergroup partnerships. In the second approach, when one group becomes highly infected, the people in the other group adopt an isolation strategy and stop forming any partnerships with people in this highly infected group. They show that the second approach can limit the epidemic to the highly infected group. The other group will be infection-free, but as long as the epidemic in the total population exceeds the epidemic threshold, the epidemic will continue to persist. If the group reproductive number of the infection-free group is greater than one, and the infection should ever invade the infection-free group, then it will lead to an epidemic similar to the one that would have occurred if they had not isolated themselves from the other group. In this simple two-group model, although these isolation strategies may reduce the extent of an STD epidemic, they are ineffective in preventing an epidemic.

  18. Reducing falls and improving mobility in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Sung, JongHun

    2015-06-01

    Falls are common in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), and are related to physical injury and reduce the quality of life. Mobility impairments are a significant risk factor for falls in persons with MS. Although there is evidence that mobility in persons with MS can be improved with rehabilitation, much less is known about fall prevention. This review focuses on fall prevention in persons with MS. Ten fall prevention interventions consisting of 524 participants with a wide range of disability were systematically identified. Nine of the 10 investigations report a reduction in falls and/or proportion of fallers following treatment. The vast majority observed an improvement in balance that co-occurred with the reduction in falls. Methodological limitations preclude any firm conclusions. Numerous gaps in the understanding of fall prevention in persons with MS are discussed. Well-designed randomized control trials targeting mobility and falls are warranted. PMID:25973774

  19. Assessment and management of fall risk in primary care settings.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Elizabeth A; Mahoney, Jane E; Voit, Jan C; Stevens, Judy A

    2015-03-01

    Falls among older adults are neither purely accidental nor inevitable; research has shown that many falls are preventable. Primary care providers play a key role in preventing falls. However, fall risk assessment and management is performed infrequently in primary care settings. This article provides an overview of a clinically relevant, evidence-based approach to fall risk screening and management. It describes resources, including the STEADI (Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries) tool kit that can help providers integrate fall prevention into their practice. PMID:25700584

  20. Effectiveness of Secondary Pregnancy Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Pillai, Vijayan K.

    2007-01-01

    Because subsequent pregnancy in teen parents often worsens the impact of adolescent parenting; therefore, a common goal of teenage parent programs has been to reduce repeat pregnancy. To examine the impact of this goal, a meta-analysis was conducted on 16 control-comparison group studies that evaluated the effect of teenage pregnancy and parenting…

  1. Effectiveness of Residence Restrictions in Preventing Sex Offense Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobles, Matt R.; Levenson, Jill S.; Youstin, Tasha J.

    2012-01-01

    Many municipalities have recently extended residence restrictions for sex offenders beyond the provisions of state law, although the efficacy of these measures in reducing recidivism has not been empirically established. This study used arrest histories in Jacksonville, Florida, to assess the effects of a recently expanded municipal 2,500-foot…

  2. Preventing potential negative effects of competitive actions in the supply market

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    1 Preventing potential negative effects of competitive actions in the supply market Author: Jana have on the rivalry in supply markets but also potential (re)actions of rivals to a firm's competitive managers to decide on the right action level for their firm which avoids the potential negative effects

  3. Effectiveness of a Theory-Based Risk Reduction HIV Prevention Program for Rural Vietnamese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaljee, Linda M.; Genberg, Becky; Riel, Rosemary; Cole, Matthew; Tho, Le Huu; Thoa, Le Thi Kim; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming; Minh, Tuong Tan

    2005-01-01

    As of April 2003, 64,801 HIV cases have been documented in Vietnam (Policy Project 2003), 53.9% of which are among individuals 20-29 years of age. Although HIV education efforts have increased, there remains a need for proven effective programs. We present findings from a randomized-controlled effectiveness trial of an HIV prevention program for…

  4. VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES, SURVEILLANCE, PREVENTION The Effects of Bird Feeders on Lyme Disease Prevalence and

    E-print Network

    VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES, SURVEILLANCE, PREVENTION The Effects of Bird Feeders on Lyme Disease, Millbrook, NY 12545 J. Med. Entomol. 40(4): 540Ð546 (2003) ABSTRACT The effects of bird feeders on local in 2001Ð2002 on residential properties with and without bird feeders. Tick densities and infection

  5. Effects of the Saluda Prevention Program: A Review of Controlled Evaluation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espada-Sánchez, José P.; Hernández-Serrano, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to review the evidence on the effectiveness concerning the Saluda program, a school-based substance use prevention protocol used amongst adolescents. We provide a description of the program content and the results from nine controlled trials evaluating the program effectiveness. Participants were Spanish…

  6. High School Success: An Effective Intervention for Achievement and Dropout Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowder, Christopher Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-design study was to use quantitative and qualitative research to explore the effects of High School Success (a course for at-risk ninth graders) and its effectiveness on student achievement, attendance, and dropout prevention. The research questions address whether there is a significant difference between at-risk ninth…

  7. Effects of a Multicomponent Exercise Program on Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters, Risk of Falling and Physical Activity in Dementia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Perrochon, Anaïck; Tchalla, Achille E.; Bonis, Joelle; Perucaud, Florian; Mandigout, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise programs are presumed to rehabilitate gait disorders and to reduce the risk of falling in dementia patients. This study aimed to analyze the specific effects of multicomponent exercise on gait disorders and to determine the association between gait impairments and the risk of falling in dementia patients before and after intervention. Methods We conducted an 8-week multicomponent exercise program in 16 dementia patients (age 86.7 ± 5.4 years). All participants were assessed several times for gait analysis (Locométrix®), Tinetti score and physical activity (Body Media SenseWear® Pro armband). Results After 8 weeks of the exercise program, the mean gait speed was 0.12 m/s faster than before the intervention (0.55 ± 0.17 vs. 0.67 ± 0.14 m/s). The multicomponent exercise program improved gait performance and Tinetti score (p < 0.05). Gait performance (gait speed, stride length) was correlated with the Tinetti score (p < 0.05). Conclusion Analysis of spatiotemporal gait parameters using an accelerometer method provided a quick and easy tool to estimate the benefits of an exercise program and the risk of falling. PMID:26557134

  8. Effect of self-vibration on accuracy of free-fall absolute gravity measurement with laser interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jin-yang; Wu, Shu-qing; Li, Chun-jian; Su, Duo-wu; Yu, Mei

    2015-02-01

    A free-fall absolute gravimeter was used to measure the gravity acceleration of a corner-cube released in high vacuum, and the gravity acceleration was determined by fitting the free-falling trajectories obtained through optical interferometry. During the measurement, the self-vibration of an absolute gravimeter caused ground vibration and the change in optical path length due to vibration of vacuum-air interface, which resulted in a measurement error. Numerical simulation was run by introducing vibration disturbance to the trajectories of free-fall. The effect of disturbance under different instrumental self-vibration conditions was analyzed. Simulation results indicated that the deviation of calculated gravity acceleration from the preset value and residuals amplitude after fitting depended on the amplitude and initial phase of the vibration disturbance. The deviation value and fitting residuals amplitude increased with the increasing of amplitude and there was a one-to-one correspondence between the two. The deviation of calculated gravity acceleration decreases by properly setting the initial phase difference of vibration disturbance with respect to the interference fringe signal.

  9. Meditation can produce beneficial effects to prevent cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Cardoso, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Coronary heart disease is the major cause of global cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Lifestyle behaviour contributes as a risk factor: unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, tobacco, alcohol, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and psychosocial stress. Atherosclerosis pathologic mechanisms involving oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, inflammation and senescence are associated with arterial wall damage and plaque formation. Stress reduction was observed in several types of meditation. After meditation, hormonal orchestration modulates effects in the central nervous system and in the body. All types of meditation are associated with blood pressure control, enhancement in insulin resistance, reduction of lipid peroxidation and cellular senescence, independent of type of meditation. This review presents scientific evidence to explain how meditation can produce beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, and particularly regarding vascular aspects. PMID:25390009

  10. A randomized controlled trial on Stroke telerehabilitation: The effects on falls self-efficacy and satisfaction with care.

    PubMed

    Chumbler, Neale R; Li, Xinli; Quigley, Patricia; Morey, Miriam C; Rose, Dorian; Griffiths, Patricia; Sanford, Jon; Hoenig, Helen

    2015-04-01

    We determined the effect of a multifaceted stroke telerehabilitation (STeleR) intervention on falls-related self-efficacy and satisfaction with care. We conducted a prospective, randomized, multisite, single-blinded trial in 52 veterans from three Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. Participants who experienced a stroke in the past 24 months were randomized to the STeleR intervention or usual care. Participants in the intervention arm were administered an exit interview to gather specific patient satisfaction data three months after their final outcome measure. The STeleR intervention consisted of three home visits, five telephone calls, and an in-home messaging device provided over three months to instruct patients in functionally based exercises and adaptive strategies. The outcome measures included Falls Efficacy Scale to measure fall-related self-efficacy and a Stroke-Specific Patient Satisfaction with Care (SSPSC) scale, a measure separated into two subscales (satisfaction with home care and satisfaction with hospital care) was employed to measure the participants' satisfaction. At six months, compared with the usual care group, the STeleR group showed statistically significant improvements in one of the two SSPSC scales (satisfaction with hospital care, p =?.029) and approached significance in the second SSPSC scale (satisfaction with home care, p =?.077). There were no improvements in fall-related self-efficacy. Core concepts identified were: (a) beneficial impact of the trained assistant; (b) exercises helpful; (c) home use of technology. The STeleR intervention improved satisfaction with care, especially as it relates to care following their experience from the hospital. With the limited resources available for in-home rehabilitation for stroke survivors, STeleR (and especially its exercise components) can be a useful complement to traditional post-stroke rehabilitation. PMID:25680390

  11. Effects of a social cognitive theory-based hip fracture prevention web site for older adults.

    PubMed

    Nahm, Eun-Shim; Barker, Bausell; Resnick, Barbara; Covington, Barbara; Magaziner, Jay; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a Social Cognitive Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site for older adults and conduct a preliminary evaluation of its effectiveness. The Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site is composed of learning modules and a moderated discussion board. A total of 245 older adults recruited from two Web sites and a newspaper advertisement were randomized into the Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site and the conventional Web sites groups. Outcomes included (1) knowledge (hip fractures and osteoporosis), (2) self-efficacy and outcome expectations, and (3) calcium intake and exercise and were assessed at baseline, end of treatment (2 weeks), and follow-up (3 months). Both groups showed significant improvement in most outcomes. For calcium intake, only the Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site group showed improvement. None of the group and time interactions were significant. The Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site group, however, was more satisfied with the intervention. The discussion board usage was significantly correlated with outcome gains. Despite several limitations, the findings showed some preliminary effectiveness of Web-based health interventions for older adults and the use of a Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site as a sustainable Web structure for online health behavior change interventions. PMID:20978408

  12. Economic Evaluation of a Tai Ji Quan Intervention to Reduce Falls in People With Parkinson Disease, Oregon, 2008–2011

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Exercise is effective in reducing falls in people with Parkinson disease. However, information on the cost effectiveness of this approach is lacking. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of Tai Ji Quan for reducing falls among patients with mild-to-moderate Parkinson disease. Methods We used data from a previous intervention trial to analyze resource use costs related to intervention delivery and number of falls observed during a 9-month study period. Cost effectiveness was estimated via incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in which Tai Ji Quan was compared with 2 alternative interventions (Resistance training and Stretching) on the primary outcome of per fall prevented and the secondary outcome of per participant quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained. We also conducted subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Results Tai Ji Quan was more effective than either Resistance training or Stretching; it had the lowest cost and was the most effective in improving primary and secondary outcomes. Compared with Stretching, Tai Ji Quan cost an average of $175 less for each additional fall prevented and produced a substantial improvement in QALY gained at a lower cost. Results from subgroup and sensitivity analyses showed no variation in cost-effectiveness estimates. However, sensitivity analyses demonstrated a much lower ICER ($27) when only intervention costs were considered. Conclusion Tai Ji Quan represents a cost-effective strategy for optimizing spending to prevent falls and maximize health gains in people with Parkinson disease. While these results are promising, they warrant further validation. PMID:26226067

  13. Effectiveness of methods used by dental professionals for the primary prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Rozier, R G

    2001-10-01

    This paper summarizes and rates the evidence for the effectiveness of methods available to dental professionals for their use in the primary prevention of dental caries. It reviews operator-applied therapeutic agents or materials and patient counseling. Evidence of effectiveness is extracted from published systematic reviews. A search for articles since publication of these reviews was done to provide updates, and a systematic review of the caries-inhibiting effects of fluoride varnish in primary teeth is provided. Good evidence is available for the effectiveness of fluoride gel and varnish, chlorhexidine gel, and sealant when used to prevent caries in permanent teeth of children and adolescents. The evidence for effectiveness of fluoride varnish use in primary teeth, chlorhexidine varnish, and patient counseling is judged to be insufficient. Use of fluoride, chlorhexidine and sealant according to tested protocols and for the populations in which evidence of effect is available can be recommended. However, they may need to be used selectively. Estimates for the number of patients or tooth surfaces needed to treat to prevent a carious event suggest that the effects of these professional treatments are low in patients who are at reduced risk for dental caries. The literature on use of these preventive methods in individuals other than school-aged children needs expansion. PMID:11699978

  14. Evaluation of 37 AIDS prevention projects: successful approaches and barriers to program effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Janz, N K; Zimmerman, M A; Wren, P A; Israel, B A; Freudenberg, N; Carter, R J

    1996-02-01

    In 1988, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation awarded grants to 54 AIDS prevention and service projects. This article presents the results from a survey of the 37 projects that contained a substantial prevention effort and embellishes these findings with qualitative data from in-depth site visits to 12 projects. Survey respondents reported conducting a mean of 19 different intervention activities. Small-group discussion, outreach to populations engaged in high-risk behaviors, and training peers and volunteers were the intervention activities rated most effective by project staff. Qualitative analysis identified eight factors facilitating intervention effectiveness. Three site-visited projects were chosen to exemplify the ways in which these facilitating factors contributed to the perceived effectiveness of small-group discussions, outreach, and the training of peer educators. Recommendations to guide the development and delivery of future community-based AIDS prevention projects are presented. PMID:8822403

  15. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in man. 1: Effect of stimulus rise-fall time and duration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecox, K.; Squires, N.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    Short latency (under 10 msec) evoked responses elicited by bursts of white noise were recorded from the scalp of human subjects. Response alterations produced by changes in the noise burst duration (on-time) inter-burst interval (off-time), and onset and offset shapes are reported and evaluated. The latency of the most prominent response component, wave V, was markedly delayed with increases in stimulus rise-time but was unaffected by changes in fall-time. The amplitude of wave V was insensitive to changes in signal rise-and-fall times, while increasing signal on-time produced smaller amplitude responses only for sufficiently short off-times. It is concluded that wave V of the human auditory brainstem evoked response is solely an onset response.

  16. Effect of the ash Fall on the Human Health at Colima Volcano During 2005-2006.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, A.; Martin, A. L.; Fonseca, R.; Garcia, M.

    2007-05-01

    Colima Volcano in western Mexico had several small ash emitting eruptions during 2005-2006. In this time period we studied the impact of the ash fall on human health through field observations, interviews and health data processing. The volcano was most active in May-June 2005. Data from 15.000 medical records of the Colima and Jalisco State Health Departments show two main health problems in humans during this time: Conjunctivitis was detected in 1,933 people and respiratory disease in 12,630 people in an area of 1,841,283 km2 which was affected by small amounts of ash fall near the volcano in 2005. Ash emissions from Colima Volcano correlate well with increased affections. When emissions increased so did the frequency of these health problems in the population.

  17. Lava Falls Rapid in Grand Canyon; effects of late Holocene debris flows on the Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Melis, Theodore S.; Griffiths, Peter G.; Elliott, John G.; Cerling, Thure E.; Poreda, Robert J.; Wise, Thomas W.; Pizzuto, James E.

    1999-01-01

    Lava Falls Rapid is the most formidable reach of whitewater on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and is one of the most famous rapids in the world. Debris flows in 1939, 1954, 1955, 1966, and 1995, as well as prehistoric events, completely changed flow through the rapid. Floods cleared out much of the increased constrictions, but releases from Glen Canyon Dam, including the 1996 controlled flood, are now required to remove the boulders deposited by the debris flows.

  18. Wave dynamics on falling films and its effects on heat/mass transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.C.

    1992-12-01

    Wave evolution on a falling film is important in many industrial processes such as fiber coating, paper coating, pollutant scrubbing, etc. If the film flows down a cylindrical fiber, the wave transitions are different from those on a vertical plane. Saturated waves are not observed unless film thickness is below a critical value; if above, the waves grow rapidly to form drops with characteristic dimension close to capillary length scale. Some important open problems in these two wave formation processes were studied.

  19. Effective targeted and community HIV/STD prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael W; Williams, Mark L

    2002-02-01

    Community interventions and interventions targeting specific groups at risk of STDs/HIV have demonstrated significant impacts on sexual behavior, particularly condom use and safer sex. The scientific evidence suggests the factors that make these interventions particularly effective include the establishment of community, including business and CBO partnerships; maintainance of the intervention post-research funding; and buy-in by the community or target group. The modification of risky normative beliefs through the use of opinion leaders and role models, and through intervention delivery by peer educators, is an important facet of such interventions. Interventions delivered by health professionals, absent a community base, appear to be unsuccessful. Where cultures or subcultures are targeted, the close involvement of such groups in the design and delivery of messages is critical to their success. Diffusion of interventions through existing social networks further extends the intervention into the community and acts to reinforce and maintain changes in peer norms toward safer sexual behavior. The available data confirm that community or medical infrastructure-based interventions are effective in changing sexual behavior and can reach a wider range of the population than face-to-face programs if they incorporate peer educators as role models in modifying norms, and if diffusion of the intervention is integral to the design. PMID:12476258

  20. Preventive effects of various types of footwear and cleaning methods on dermatophyte adhesion.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kumi; Katoh, Takuro; Irimajiri, Junya; Taniguchi, Hiroko; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2006-08-01

    Tinea pedis is contagious and typically spreads from infected to non-infected persons. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of footwear in preventing tinea pedis adhesion. Using the stamp culture method, we investigated the effectiveness of preventing dermatophyte passage by the wearing of stockings made of nylon, socks made of cotton and tabi (Japanese socks), as well as the effect of removing dermatophytes from these items by washing with soap, cold water and cold water after turning inside-out. For sandals, sneakers and boots, we also investigated the effect of dermatophyte removal by pouring cold water into the footwear, wiping with a wet towel, and pouring boiling water into the footwear. The wearing of socks or tabi was effective in preventing passage of dermatophytes. The stocking material proved to be too thin to prevent passage. On the inner side of socks (the side of the sole), all treatments were effective at removing dermatophytes, but on the outer side of socks (the side touching the surface of the sandals), the treatment of washing in cold water after turning inside-out resulted in significantly more dermatophytes as compared with the other treatments. Pouring cold water, wiping with a wet towel and pouring boiling water were all effective for removing dermatophytes from sandals and sneakers. However, for boots, the treatment of pouring cold water was less effective. To prevent the adhesion of dermatophytes to sandals, wearing socks or tabi was effective, and the treatments of washing socks in cold water after turning inside-out and of pouring cold water into the boots were less effective than the others. PMID:16923133

  1. An integrated approach towards identifying age-related mechanisms of slip initiated falls

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Thurmon E.

    2008-01-01

    The causes of slip and fall accidents, both in terms of extrinsic and intrinsic factors and their associations are not yet fully understood. Successful intervention solutions for reducing slip and fall accidents require a more complete understanding of the mechanisms involved. Before effective fall prevention strategies can be put into practice, it is central to examine the chain of events in an accident, comprising the exposure to hazards, initiation of events and the final outcome leading to injury and disability. These events can be effectively identified and analyzed by applying epidemiological, psychophysical, biomechanical and tribological research principles and methodologies. In this manuscript, various methods available to examine fall accidents and their underlying mechanisms are presented to provide a comprehensive array of information to help pinpoint the needs and requirements of new interventions aimed at reducing the risk of falls among the growing elderly population. PMID:17768070

  2. The negative effect of hypokinesia involving injury and preventive measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izakson, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    The optimum length of bed rest for athletes suffering from broken bones is considered. Negative effects of hypokinesia induced by bed rest include general weakness and deconditioning of the muscles as well as sleeplessness, headaches, muscle pain, constipation, unstable pulse and arterial pressure, and changes in reflexes. This is considered to be the result of a vegetative dysfunction induced by the decreased flow of nerve impulses and a decrease in interoceptive and exteroceptive signals. The briefest possible period of bed rest, followed by an increase in motor activity, the prescription of a large quantity of LFK, and an active program of physical therapy are recommended. The symptomology associated with hypokinesia disappears after one month of free motor activity.

  3. The cost-effectiveness of a school-based smoking prevention program in India

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H. Shelton; Stigler, Melissa; Perry, Cheryl; Dhavan, Poonam; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2013-01-01

    Intervention programs aimed at preventing tobacco use among youth have been shown to be effective in curbing tobacco use onset and progression. However, the effects of even very successful tobacco prevention programs may not always impress policy-makers and lay audiences. Economic analysis potentially strengthens the case. In this paper, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a youth tobacco use prevention program which has been translated and implemented in India, a developing country. Although programs like these are inexpensive to implement in the USA, they are even less expensive in India due to low labor costs. Our results show that the costs per quality-adjusted life-year added, due to averted smoking, was $2057, even without including averted medical costs. If we ignore student time, cost-effectiveness improves by roughly 10%. To put the cost-effectiveness of this smoking prevention program into context, it is over 24 times more cost-effective than dialysis in the USA, which costs $50 000 for a life-year. PMID:22271928

  4. Bridging the gap between the science and service of HIV prevention: transferring effective research-based HIV prevention interventions to community AIDS service providers.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J A; Somlai, A M; DiFranceisco, W J; Otto-Salaj, L L; McAuliffe, T L; Hackl, K L; Heckman, T G; Holtgrave, D R; Rompa, D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: AIDS service organizations (ASOs) rarely have access to the information needed to implement research-based HIV prevention interventions for their clients. We compared the effectiveness of 3 dissemination strategies for transferring HIV prevention models from the research arena to community providers of HIV prevention services. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with the directors of 74 ASOs to assess current HIV prevention services. ASOs were randomized to programs that provided (1) technical assistance manuals describing how to implement research-based HIV prevention interventions, (2) manuals plus a staff training workshop on how to conduct the implementation, or (3) manuals, the training workshop, and follow-up telephone consultation calls. Follow-up interviews determined whether the intervention model had been adopted. RESULTS: The dissemination package that provided ASOs with implementation manuals, staff training workshops, and follow-up consultation resulted in more frequent adoption and use of the research-based HIV prevention intervention for gay men, women, and other client populations. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies are needed to quickly transfer research-based HIV prevention methods to community providers of HIV prevention services. Active collaboration between researchers and service agencies results in more successful program adoption than distribution of implementation packages alone. PMID:10897186

  5. Effects of local extrinsic mortality rate, crime and sex ratio on preventable death in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Uggla, Caroline; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Individual investment in health varies greatly within populations and results in significant differences in the risk of preventable death. Life history theory predicts that individuals should alter their investment in health (somatic maintenance) in response to ecological cues that shift the perceived fitness payoffs to such investments. However, previous research has failed to isolate the effects of different ecological factors on preventable death, and has often relied on macro-level data without individual controls. Here, we test some key predictions concerning the local ecology—that higher extrinsic mortality rate (EMR), crime rate and mate-scarcity (male/female-biased sex ratio) at the ward-level—will be associated with a higher risk of preventable death. Methodology: We use census-based data from Northern Ireland (n = 927 150) on preventable death during an 8.7-year period from the 2001 Census and run Cox regressions for (i) accident/suicide or alcohol-related death and (ii) deaths from preventable diseases, for men and women separately, controlling for a wide range of individual variables. Results: We find evidence of ward-level EMR and crime rate being positively associated with preventable death among men, particularly men with low socioeconomic position. There was a tentative relationship between male-biased sex ratio and preventable death among women, but not among men. Conclusion and implications: Both behaviours that might lead to ‘risky’ death and health neglect might be adaptive responses to local ecologies. Efforts to reduce crime might be as effective as those to reduce extrinsic mortality, and both could have positive effects on various health behaviours. PMID:26338679

  6. [State of suicide and effective efforts in suicide prevention in psychiatric hospitals and clinics].

    PubMed

    Orui, Masatsugu; Hirokawa, Seiko; Akazawa, Masato; Tachimori, Hisateru; Kawano, Kenji; Mori, Takao; Akita, Hiroya; Takeshima, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Although factors related to suicide are complicated, mental health disorders are an important risk factor. It is anticipated that suicide prevention measures will be implemented from the perspective of improved psychiatric medicine. No national-scale study has been carried out in Japan on the state of psychiatric medicine and its influence on suicide since 2000. Moreover, many efforts not intended for suicide prevention have been shown to be effective for this purpose. Here, we conducted surveys to obtain basic data on suicide prevention and improvements in mental health care among 1,728 psychiatric hospitals and clinics in Japan in 2010. The incidence of suicide in psychiatric hospitals and clinics from January to December 2009 was estimated to be 100.5 for outpatients and 154.5 for inpatients per 100,000 patients. Regarding the duration from consultation to suicide, 87% of outpatients committed suicide less than one month following their last consultation. Moreover, approximately two-thirds of patients had undergone consultations for more than one year. A number of suicides in psychiatric hospitals and clinics occurred while patients were continuously undergoing treatment. Efforts shown to be effective in suicide prevention included risk assessment with multiple medical staff (i.e., doctors and nurses), a 24-hour crisis line, and a follow-up system for discontinued outpatients. We expect that the results of this survey will aid in the implementation of effective suicide prevention in psychiatric medicine. PMID:23346816

  7. Polymer/Metal Interfaces and Their Effect on Corrosion Prevention.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahlman, M.

    1998-03-01

    The early stages of interface formation between some metals (iron, aluminum and alloys thereof) and polymers and oligomers (emeraldine base and salt forms of polyaniline and derivatives thereof) were investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy. Chemical shifts of the core level peaks were used to determine the presence and degree of charge transfer between the metals and polymers, with the polymers receiving negative charge, implying anodic corrosion protection of some of the metals. The influence of barrier (oxide) layers at the interface on the charge transfer was studied as well, and was found to be of critical importance to the corrosion protecting effects. XPS depth profiling studies on the oxide layers of thin metal films and metal coupons, coated or uncoated, showed that the rate of oxide growth in humid environments can be significantly reduced for some but not all of the metals and alloys using the polymer coatings. Electrochemical potentiodynamic studies were carried out on polymer-coated metal coupons in deaerated 0.1 M NaCl salt solutions confirmed our XPS results, proving (anodic) corrosion protecting capabilities for this class of materials as coatings for some of the metals and alloys studied.

  8. Potential Effects of Pomegranate Polyphenols in Cancer Prevention and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Turrini, Eleonora; Ferruzzi, Lorenzo; Fimognari, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death and is becoming the leading one in old age. Vegetable and fruit consumption is inversely associated with cancer incidence and mortality. Currently, interest in a number of fruits high in polyphenols has been raised due to their reported chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic potential. Pomegranate has been shown to exert anticancer activity, which is generally attributed to its high content of polyphenols. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of known targets and mechanisms along with a critical evaluation of pomegranate polyphenols as future anticancer agents. Pomegranate evokes antiproliferative, anti-invasive, and antimetastatic effects, induces apoptosis through the modulation of Bcl-2 proteins, upregulates p21 and p27, and downregulates cyclin-cdk network. Furthermore, pomegranate blocks the activation of inflammatory pathways including, but not limited to, the NF-?B pathway. The strongest evidence for its anticancer activity comes from studies on prostate cancer. Accordingly, some exploratory clinical studies investigating pomegranate found a trend of efficacy in increasing prostate-specific antigen doubling time in patients with prostate cancer. However, the genotoxicity reported for pomegranate raised certain concerns over its safety and an accurate assessment of the risk/benefit should be performed before suggesting the use of pomegranate or its polyphenols for cancer-related therapeutic purposes. PMID:26180600

  9. Potential Effects of Pomegranate Polyphenols in Cancer Prevention and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Turrini, Eleonora; Ferruzzi, Lorenzo; Fimognari, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death and is becoming the leading one in old age. Vegetable and fruit consumption is inversely associated with cancer incidence and mortality. Currently, interest in a number of fruits high in polyphenols has been raised due to their reported chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic potential. Pomegranate has been shown to exert anticancer activity, which is generally attributed to its high content of polyphenols. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of known targets and mechanisms along with a critical evaluation of pomegranate polyphenols as future anticancer agents. Pomegranate evokes antiproliferative, anti-invasive, and antimetastatic effects, induces apoptosis through the modulation of Bcl-2 proteins, upregulates p21 and p27, and downregulates cyclin-cdk network. Furthermore, pomegranate blocks the activation of inflammatory pathways including, but not limited to, the NF-?B pathway. The strongest evidence for its anticancer activity comes from studies on prostate cancer. Accordingly, some exploratory clinical studies investigating pomegranate found a trend of efficacy in increasing prostate-specific antigen doubling time in patients with prostate cancer. However, the genotoxicity reported for pomegranate raised certain concerns over its safety and an accurate assessment of the risk/benefit should be performed before suggesting the use of pomegranate or its polyphenols for cancer-related therapeutic purposes. PMID:26180600

  10. The effects of high frequency subthalamic stimulation on balance performance and fear of falling in patients with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Maria H; Fransson, Per-Anders; Jarnlo, Gun-Britt; Magnusson, Måns; Rehncrona, Stig

    2009-01-01

    Background Balance impairment is one of the most distressing symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) even with pharmacological treatment (levodopa). A complementary treatment is high frequency stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Whether STN stimulation improves postural control is under debate. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of STN stimulation alone on balance performance as assessed with clinical performance tests, subjective ratings of fear of falling and posturography. Methods Ten patients (median age 66, range 59–69 years) with bilateral STN stimulation for a minimum of one year, had their anti-PD medications withdrawn overnight. Assessments were done both with the STN stimulation turned OFF and ON (start randomized). In both test conditions, the following were assessed: motor symptoms (descriptive purposes), clinical performance tests, fear of falling ratings, and posturography with and without vibratory proprioceptive disturbance. Results STN stimulation alone significantly (p = 0.002) increased the scores of the Berg balance scale, and the median increase was 6 points. The results of all timed performance tests, except for sharpened Romberg, were significantly (p ? 0.016) improved. The patients rated their fear of falling as less severe, and the total score of the Falls-Efficacy Scale(S) increased (p = 0.002) in median with 54 points. All patients completed posturography when the STN stimulation was turned ON, but three patients were unable to do so when it was turned OFF. The seven patients with complete data showed no statistical significant difference (p values ? 0.109) in torque variance values when comparing the two test situations. This applied both during quiet stance and during the periods with vibratory stimulation, and it was irrespective of visual input and sway direction. Conclusion In this sample, STN stimulation alone significantly improved the results of the clinical performance tests that mimic activities in daily living. This improvement was further supported by the patients' ratings of fear of falling, which were less severe with the STN stimulation turned ON. Posturography could not be performed by three out of the ten patients when the stimulation was turned OFF. The posturography results of the seven patients with complete data showed no significant differences due to STN stimulation. PMID:19405954

  11. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the context of relevant interventions, various techniques are used, such as role playing. At the level of social policy, different measures may contribute to increase the effectiveness of preventive programs (e.g. prohibition of sale of alcohol in young people). Interventions of tertiary prevention aim at the development of motivation for abstinence in alcohol dependent individuals and the prevention of relapse, as well as the acquisition of new behaviors, which support modification of the problem of alcohol dependence. These interventions can take place in the context of psychotherapeutic follow-up provided to alcohol dependent individuals, and may include various short-term interventions, such as motivational interviewing, but also alternative forms of treatment (e.g. acupuncture, meditation). Elements of prevention in combination with elements of promotion of mental health may be incorporated in the same programme for alcohol dependence, endorsing similar or different activities, which may be complementary and may reinforce the effectiveness of the prevention program. Finally, it is necessary to raise the awareness of mental health professionals regarding prevention and provide specialized education to those who work in drug addiction programmes. Mental health professionals may act as therapists and as intervention coordinators, and performing these roles, they may contribute to the effectiveness of preventive programs and more generally to the treatment of disorders connected with alcohol use. PMID:26197102

  12. Strengthening Effective Parenting Practices over the Long Term: Effects of a Preventive Intervention for Parentally Bereaved Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Melissa J.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Ayers, Tim S.; Luecken, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the effect of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a preventive intervention for bereaved families, on effective parenting (e.g., caregiver warmth, consistent discipline) 6 years after program completion. Families (n = 101; 69% female caregivers; 77% Caucasian, 11% Hispanic) with children between ages 8 and 16 who had…

  13. The effect of preventive educational program in cigarette smoking: Extended Parallel Process Model

    PubMed Central

    Gharlipour, Zabihollah; Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Moeini, Babak; Nazari, Mahin; Beigi, Abbas Moghim; Tavassoli, Elahe; Heydarabadi, Akbar Babaei; Reisi, Mahnoush; Barkati, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is one of the preventable causes of diseases and deaths. The most important preventive measure is technique to resist against peer pressure. Any educational program should design with an emphasis upon theories of behavioral change and based on effective educational program. To investigate the interventions through educational program in prevention of cigarette smoking, this paper has used the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). Materials and Methods: This study is a quasi-experimental study. Two middle schools were randomly selected from male students in Shiraz. Therefore, we randomly selected 120 students for the experimental group and 120 students for the control group. After diagnostic evaluation, educational interventions on the consequences of smoking and preventive skills were applied. Results: Our results indicated that there was a significant difference between students in the control and experimental groups in the means of perceived susceptibility (P < 0.000, t = 6.84), perceived severity (P < 0.000, t = ?11.46), perceived response efficacy (P < 0.000, t = ?7.07), perceived self-efficacy (P < 0.000, t = ?11.64), and preventive behavior (P < 0.000, t = ?24.36). Conclusions: EPPM along with educating skills necessary to resist against peer pressure had significant level of efficiency in improving preventive behavior of cigarette smoking among adolescents. However, this study recommends further studies on ways of increasing perceived susceptibility in cigarette smoking among adolescents. PMID:25767815

  14. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent HIV and STDs among women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Abdallah, Arbi Ben; Ng, Nora Y; Luekens, Craig; Cottler, Linda

    2014-10-01

    Injection drug use is a leading transmission route of HIV and STDs, and disease prevention among drug users is an important public health concern. This study assesses cost-effectiveness of behavioral interventions for reducing HIV and STDs infections among injection drug-using women. Cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from societal and provider perspectives for randomized trial data and Bernoullian model estimates of infections averted for three increasingly intensive interventions: (1) NIDA's standard intervention (SI); (2) SI plus a well woman exam (WWE); and (3) SI, WWE, plus four educational sessions (4ES). Trial results indicate that 4ES was cost-effective relative to WWE, which was dominated by SI, for most diseases. Model estimates, however, suggest that WWE was cost-effective relative to SI and dominated 4ES for all diseases. Trial and model results agree that WWE is cost-effective relative to SI per hepatitis C infection averted ($109 308 for in trial, $6 016 in model) and per gonorrhea infection averted ($9 461 in trial, $14 044 in model). In sensitivity analysis, trial results are sensitive to 5 % change in WWE effectiveness relative to SI for hepatitis C and HIV. In the model, WWE remained cost-effective or cost-saving relative to SI for HIV prevention across a range of assumptions. WWE is cost-effective relative to SI for preventing hepatitis C and gonorrhea. WWE may have similar effects as the costlier 4ES. PMID:24699712

  15. A STUDY ON AN EFFECT OF AN ADVERTISEMENT ON GENERAL PEOPLES' OPINIONS TOWARD FLOOD PREVENTION WORKS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katada, Toshitaka; Oikawa, Yasushi; Kimura, Syuji

    In this paper, we considered the factors which affect the general peoples' opinions toward flood prevention works, especially toward dams, and investigat ed the effective advertisement strategy. As a result, it became clear that the advertisemen t strategy which brings up both positive factors and negative factors about plural flood prevention works as a choices is mo re effective than the current strategy which brings up just only single flood prevention work, in order to create the general peoples' opinions which can make it possible to consider comprehensively and relatively from wide-ranging viewpoints, such as not only a reduction of flooding risk, but also a despoilment of the environment, cost and so on.

  16. Assessment of Arm Motions with Fall Direction in Human Subjects

    E-print Network

    Krishnan, Bhargavi

    2012-08-31

    monitoring device [50]. Impact during a fall Studying the mechanics of a fall is important to reducing the impact from a fall. Studies have shown that a sideways fall compared to a fall in the anterior/posterior directions increases hip fracture risk... settings [63]. Other systems to prevent fall injuries include a wearable inflatable system that is designed to protect from falls. It contains at least one inflatable element that can be worn on the body which 10 during a fall inflates itself...

  17. Role of Bioactive Food Components in Diabetes Prevention: Effects on Beta-Cell Function and Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yoon Sin; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive compounds found in fruits and vegetables can have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic effects and can be protective against various diseases and metabolic disorders. These beneficial effects make them good candidates for the development of new functional foods with potential protective and preventive properties for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the most relevant results concerning the effects of various bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, vitamins, and carotenoids on several aspects of beta-cell functionality. Studies using animal models with induced diabetes and diabetic patients support the hypothesis that bioactive compounds could ameliorate diabetic phenotypes. Published data suggest that there might be direct effects of bioactive compounds on enhancing insulin secretion and preventing beta-cell apoptosis, and some compounds might modulate beta-cell proliferation. Further research is needed to establish any clinical effects of these compounds. PMID:25092987

  18. Non-pharmaceutical prevention of hip fractures – a cost-effectiveness analysis of a community-based elderly safety promotion program in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Pia; Sadigh, Siv; Tillgren, Per; Rehnberg, Clas

    2008-01-01

    Background Elderly injuries are a recognized public health concern and are due to two factors; osteoporosis and accidental falls. Several osteoporosis pharmaceuticals are considered cost-effective, but intervention programs aiming at preventing falls should also be subjected to economic evaluations. This study presents a cost-effectiveness analysis of a community-based elderly safety promotion program. Methods A five-year elderly safety promotion program combining environmental structural changes with individually based measures was implemented in a community in the metropolitan area of Stockholm, Sweden. The community had around 5,500 inhabitants aged 65+ years and a first hip fracture incidence of 10.7 per 1,000 in pre-intervention years 1990–1995. The intervention outcome was measured as avoided hip fractures, obtained from a register-based quasi-experimental longitudinal analysis with several control areas. The long-term consequences in societal costs and health effects due to the avoided hip fractures, conservatively assumed to be avoided for one year, were estimated with a Markov model based on Swedish data. The analysis holds the societal perspective and conforms to recommendations for pharmaceutical cost-effectiveness analyses. Results Total societal intervention costs amounted to 6.45 million SEK (in Swedish krona 2004; 1 Euro = 9.13 SEK). The number of avoided hip fractures during the six-year post-intervention period was estimated to 14 (0.44 per 1,000 person-years). The Markov model estimated a difference in societal costs between an individual that experiences a first year hip fracture and an individual that avoids a first year hip fracture ranging from 280,000 to 550,000 SEK, and between 1.1 and 3.2 QALYs (quality-adjusted life-years, discounted 3%), for males and females aged 65–79 years and 80+ years. The cost-effectiveness analysis resulted in zero net costs and a gain of 35 QALYs, and the do-nothing alternative was thus dominated. Conclusion The community-based elderly safety promotion program aiming at preventing accidental falls seems as cost-effective as osteoporosis pharmaceuticals. PMID:18513425

  19. Effects of an Osteoporosis Prevention Program Based on Health Belief Model Among Females

    PubMed Central

    Jeihooni, Ali Khani; Hidarnia, Alireza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Askari, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies reported the efficacy of osteoporosis prevention interventions in improvement of people’s preventive behaviors. However, there are reports that the interventions were not successful in altering osteoporosis health beliefs and preventive behaviors. Objectives: The current study aimed to assess the effect of a program based on health beliefs model (HBM) on females’ health beliefs and performances about osteoporosis preventive behaviors. Patients and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 120 patients registered in two healthcare centers of Fasa, Fars Province, Iran in 2014. A questionnaire including demographic information and HBM constructs was employed to measure the females’ beliefs regarding nutrition and walking performance in prevention of osteoporosis bone mineral density (BMD) measured at the lumbar spine and femur before, immediately after the intervention, and six months after the intervention. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, independent samples t-, Mann-Whitney U tests and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Immediately and six months after the intervention, a significant increase was found in the intervention group’s health beliefs, nutrition, and walking performances to prevent osteoporosis. Six months after the intervention, lumbar spine BMD T-score increased to 0.127 ± 0.061 in the intervention group but reduced to -0.043 ± 0.059 in the control group. Also, hip BMD T-score increased to 0.125 ± 0.088 in the intervention group, but decreased to -0.028 ± 0.052 in control group. Conclusions: The current study showed the effectiveness of HBM in adoption of nutrition and walking behaviors as well as the increase of bone density to prevent osteoporosis. PMID:26576440

  20. Effects of preventive family service coordination for parents with mental illnesses and their children, a RCT.

    PubMed

    Wansink, Henny J; Janssens, Jan M A M; Hoencamp, Erik; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Hosman, Clemens M H

    2015-06-01

    Children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) are at increased risk for developing psychiatric disorders, especially when parenting is compromised by multiple risk factors. Due to fragmented services, these families often do not get the support they need. Can coordination between services, as developed in the Preventive Basic Care Management (PBCM) program, improve parenting and prevent child behavioral problems? This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) compared the effectiveness of PBCM with a control condition. Ninety-nine outpatients of a community mental health center were randomized to intervention or control. Primary outcomes included parenting quality (assessed by the HOME instrument), parenting skills (parenting skills subscale of FFQ), and parenting stress (PDH). Secondary outcomes are child behavioral problems (SDQ). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after 9 and 18 months. Effects were analyzed by Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance. Most families were single-parent families belonging to ethnic minorities. The results of the first RCT on effects of PBCM suggest that this intervention is feasible and has a positive effect on parenting skills. There was no evidence for effects on the quality of parenting and parenting stress, nor preventive effects on child behavioral problems. Replication studies in other sites, with more power, including monitoring of the implementation quality and studying a broader palette of child outcomes are needed to confirm the positive effects of PBCM. Long-term prospective studies are needed to investigate if improved parenting skills lead to positive effects in the children in the long run. PMID:25751176

  1. A Meta-Analytic Review of Depression Prevention Programs for Children and Adolescents: Factors that Predict Magnitude of Intervention Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Bohon, Cara; Marti, C. Nathan; Rohde, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Prob,In this meta-analytic review, the authors summarized the effects of depression prevention programs for youth as well as investigated participant, intervention, provider, and research design features associated with larger effects. They identified 47 trials that evaluated 32 prevention programs, producing 60 intervention effect sizes. The…

  2. The Potential of Coaching as a Strategy to Improve the Effectiveness of School-Based Substance Use Prevention Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Hansen, William B.; Dusenbury, Linda; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Giles, Steven M.; Brodish, Paul H.

    2009-01-01

    Research-based substance use prevention curricula typically yield small effects when implemented by school teachers under real-world conditions. Using a randomized controlled trial, the authors examined whether expert coaching improves the effectiveness of the All Stars prevention curriculum. Although a positive effect on students' cigarette use…

  3. Implementation of cervical cancer prevention services for HIV-infected women in Zambia: measuring program effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Parham, Groesbeck P; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi H; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Westfall, Andrew O; King, Kristin E; Chibwesha, Carla; Pfaendler, Krista S; Mkumba, Gracilia; Mudenda, Victor; Kapambwe, Sharon; Vermund, Sten H; Hicks, Michael L; Stringer, Jeffrey SA; Chi, Benjamin H

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer kills more women in low-income nations than any other malignancy. A variety of research and demonstration efforts have proven the efficacy and effectiveness of low-cost cervical cancer prevention methods but none in routine program implementation settings of the developing world, particularly in HIV-infected women. Methods In our public sector cervical cancer prevention program in Zambia, nurses conduct screening using visual inspection with acetic acid aided by digital cervicography. Women with visible lesions are offered same-visit cryotherapy or referred for histologic evaluation and clinical management. We analyzed clinical outcomes and modeled program effectiveness among HIV-infected women by estimating the total number of cervical cancer deaths prevented through screening and treatment. Results Between 2006 and 2008, 6572 HIV-infected women were screened, 53.6% (3523) had visible lesions, 58.5% (2062) were eligible for cryotherapy and 41.5% (1461) were referred for histologic evaluation. A total of 75% (1095 out of 1462) of patients who were referred for evaluation complied. Pathology results from 65% (715 out of 1095) of women revealed benign abnormalities in 21% (151), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I in 30% (214), CIN 2/3 in 33% (235) and invasive cervical cancer in 16.1% (115, of which 69% were early stage). Using a conditional probability model, we estimated that our program prevented 142 cervical cancer deaths (high/low range: 238–96) among the 6572 HIV-infected women screened, or one cervical cancer death prevented per 46 (corresponding range: 28–68) HIV-infected women screened. Conclusion Our prevention efforts using setting-appropriate human resources and technology have reduced morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer among HIV-infected women in Zambia. Financial support for implementing cervical cancer prevention programs integrated within HIV/AIDS care programs is warranted. Our prevention model can serve as the implementation platform for future low-cost HPV-based screening methods, and our results may provide the basis for comparison of programmatic effectiveness of future prevention efforts. PMID:25419240

  4. One Decade Down: Impact of Substance Prevention after the Principles of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jeremy; Frenzel, Erika

    2010-01-01

    Substance prevention programs proliferate throughout America's Schools. Since 1998, the US Department of Education (US DOE) has required that school-based programs funded with federal subsidies be subject to a four stage process to insure effectiveness. The current study applies multivariate Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) techniques to data from a…

  5. The Development of an Osteoporosis Prevention Education Intervention: Its Effectiveness, Conclusions, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Vu H.; Wang, Ze; Waigandt, Alexander C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis prevention education interventions have been found to be ineffective. Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of a developed intervention based on the health belief model, which emphasized its visible severity and proximal time of onset. Method: A sample of 109 college women were randomly assigned to either a treatment or…

  6. Restrictions in Means for Suicide: An Effective Tool in Preventing Suicide: The Danish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Restriction of means for suicide is an important part of suicide preventive strategies in different countries. The effect on method-specific suicide rate and overall suicide rate of restrictions on availability of carbon monoxide, barbiturates, and dextropropoxyphene was examined. From 1970 to 2000, overall suicide mortality and method-specific…

  7. Effects of Prevent-Teach-Reinforce on Academic Engagement and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJager, Brett W.; Filter, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of prevent-teach-reinforce (P-T-R), a functional behavioral assessment-based intervention for students with behavior problems, using an A-B-A-B design with follow-up. Participants included three students in kindergarten, fourth grade, and fifth grade in a rural Midwestern school district. P-T-R interventions…

  8. The Effectiveness of Peer-Led FAS/FAE Prevention Presentations in Middle and High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulter, Lyn

    2007-01-01

    Pregnant women and women who might become pregnant, including middle school- and high school-age adolescents, continue to consume alcohol, placing themselves at risk of having a child with the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. However, most prevention programs that attempt to increase public awareness and knowledge of FAS and related disorders…

  9. Examining the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Two Delivery Models to Teach Children Abduction Prevention Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seckinger-Bancroft, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all children receive abduction prevention training. Most traditional education programs increase the learner's knowledge, but often fail to produce concomitant behavior change. Behavioral Skills Training (BST) is a multi-component, behavior-based training strategy with empirical support demonstrating its effectiveness in teaching children…

  10. A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Bullying Prevention Programs' Effects on Bystander Intervention Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized bullying prevention programs' effectiveness at increasing bystander intervention in bullying situations. Evidence from 12 school-based programs, involving 12,874 students, indicated that overall the programs were successful (Hedges's g = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11 to 0.29, p = 0.001), with larger…

  11. Assessing the effectiveness of problem-based learning of preventive medicine education in China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaojie; Zhao, Liping; Chu, Haiyan; Tong, Na; Ni, Chunhui; Hu, Zhibin; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin

    2014-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is defined as a student-centered pedagogy which can provide learners more opportunities for application of knowledge acquired from basic science to the working situations than traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) method. In China, PBL is increasingly popular among preventive medicine educators, and multiple studies have investigated the effectiveness of PBL pedagogy in preventive medicine education. A pooled analysis based on 15 studies was performed to obtain an overall estimate of the effectiveness of PBL on learning outcomes of preventive medicine. Overall, PBL was associated with a significant increase in students' theoretical examination scores (SMD = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.41-0.83) than LBL. For the attitude- and skill-based outcomes, the pooled PBL effects were also significant among learning attitude (OR = 3.62, 95% CI = 2.40-5.16), problem solved skill (OR = 4.80, 95% CI = 2.01-11.46), self-directed learning skill (OR = 5.81, 95% CI = 3.11-10.85), and collaborative skill (OR = 4.21, 95% CI = 0.96-18.45). Sensitivity analysis showed that the exclusion of a single study did not influence the estimation. Our results suggest that PBL of preventive medicine education in China appears to be more effective than LBL in improving knowledge, attitude and skills. PMID:24874915

  12. The Differential Effects of Rape Prevention Programming on Attitudes, Behavior, and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, Mary J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates whether type of programming differentially affects the processing of rape prevention messages, attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, and stability of change. Participants (n=258) were assigned to a didactic-video program, an interactive drama, or control. Results indicated that the interactive video was most effective in central route…

  13. Mediating Effects of an Indicated Prevention Program for Reducing Youth Depression and Suicide Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Elaine A.; Eggert, Leona L.; Herting, Jerald R.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the intervention process of an indicated prevention program for high-risk youth (N=106). Results showed that there were direct and/or indirect effects of teacher and peer group support on personal control, depression, and suicide risk behaviors. The hypothesis that personal control mediates between support resources and reductions in…

  14. Improving Interactions: The Effects of Implementing the Fight-Free Schools Violence Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahsl, Allison J.; Luce, Amanda E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Fight-Free Schools violence prevention process had an effect on the frequency of aggressive acts of elementary school students. Participants included approximately 600 students ranging from Kindergarten to 5th grade in a suburban school in the Midwestern United States. Data were collected over…

  15. School-Based Drug Prevention among At-Risk Adolescents: Effects of ALERT Plus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longshore, Douglas; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; St. Clair, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    In a recent randomized field trial, Ellickson et al. found the Project ALERT drug prevention curriculum curbed alcohol misuse and tobacco and marijuana use among eighth-grade adolescents. This article reports effects among ninth-grade at-risk adolescents. Comparisons between at-risk girls in ALERT Plus schools (basic curriculum extended to ninth…

  16. The Effects of a Violence Prevention Program on Alternative High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triplett, Carla A.

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the effectiveness of a violence prevention program in an inner-city alternative school setting. The researcher, an administrator at the school, used a prepackaged curriculum targeting lessons on violence in an eight-week study with the entire school population. Students met bi-weekly with a team of two teachers to review and…

  17. Effects of a Multifocused Prevention Program on Preschool Children's Competencies and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefan, Catrinel A.; Miclea, Mircea

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a multifocused (child-, teacher- and parent-focused) prevention program for Romanian preschoolers, targeting social--emotional competence development, as well as reduction of behavior problems. Fourteen classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention and control conditions. Subsequent…

  18. Effective Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse--Educational versus Deterrent Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…

  19. Principal and Teacher Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Carolyn Spears

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP) and to provide an annotated bibliography of professional literature related to bullying for professional educators. The OBPP used a whole school approach and taught common vocabulary to define the word bullying. Bullying rose to front-page…

  20. Internalizing Symptoms: Effects of a Preventive Intervention on Developmental Pathways from Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard; Randall, G. Kevin; Mason, W. Alex; Shin, Chungyeol

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediated and moderated effects of a universal family-focused preventive intervention, delivered during young adolescence, on internalizing symptoms assessed in young adulthood. Sixth grade students (N = 446; 52% female; 98% White) and their families from 22 rural Midwestern school districts were randomly assigned to the…

  1. Automatic Fall Monitoring: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pannurat, Natthapon; Thiemjarus, Surapa; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit

    2014-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are major incidents, especially for elderly people, which often mark the onset of major deterioration of health. More than one-third of home-dwelling people aged 65 or above and two-thirds of those in residential care fall once or more each year. Reliable fall detection, as well as prevention, is an important research topic for monitoring elderly living alone in residential or hospital units. The aim of this study is to review the existing fall detection systems and some of the key research challenges faced by the research community in this field. We categorize the existing platforms into two groups: wearable and ambient devices; the classification methods are divided into rule-based and machine learning techniques. The relative merit and potential drawbacks are discussed, and we also outline some of the outstanding research challenges that emerging new platforms need to address. PMID:25046016

  2. Effectiveness of Peer Education Interventions for HIV Prevention, Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention and Sexual Health Promotion for Young People: A Systematic Review of European Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolli, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    Peer education remains a popular strategy for health promotion and prevention, but evidence of its effectiveness is still limited. This article presents a systematic review of peer education interventions in the European Union that were published between January 1999 and May 2010. The objective of the review is to determine the effectiveness of…

  3. Cost-effectiveness of injury prevention - a systematic review of municipality based interventions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Injuries are a major cause of mortality and morbidity which together result in avoidable societal costs. Due to limited resources, injury prevention interventions need to demonstrate cost-effectiveness to justify their implementation. However, the existing knowledge in this area is limited. Consequently, a systematic review is needed to support decision-making and to assist in the targeting of future research. The aim of this review is to critically appraise the published economic evidence of injury prevention interventions at the municipal level. Methods A search strategy was developed to focus a literature search in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane and NHS EED. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were economic evaluations of injury prevention interventions that could be implemented by municipalities; had a relevant comparison group; did not include any form of medication or drug use; and were assessed as having at least an acceptable quality from an economic point of view. Articles were screened in three steps. In the final step, studies were critically appraised using a check-list based on Drummond's check-list for assessing economic evaluations. Results Of 791 potential articles 20 were accepted for inclusion. Seven studies showed net savings; four showed a cost per health score gained; six showed both savings and a cost per health score gained but for different time horizons and populations; and three showed no effect. The interventions targeted a range of areas such as traffic safety, fire safety, hip fractures, and sport injuries. One studied a multi-targeted community-based program. Only six articles used effectiveness data generated within the study. Conclusions The results indicate that there are injury prevention interventions that offer good use of societal resources. However, there is a lack of economic evidence surrounding injury prevention interventions. This lack of evidence needs to be met by further research about the economic aspects of injury prevention interventions to improve the information available for decision-making. PMID:20831790

  4. Analysis of prevention program effectiveness with clustered data using generalized estimating equations.

    PubMed

    Norton, E C; Bieler, G S; Ennett, S T; Zarkin, G A

    1996-10-01

    Experimental studies of prevention programs often randomize clusters of individuals rather than individuals to treatment conditions. When the correlation among individuals within clusters is not accounted for in statistical analysis, the standard errors are biased, potentially resulting in misleading conclusions about the significance of treatment effects. This study demonstrates the generalized estimating equations (GEE) method, focusing specifically on the GEE-independent method, to control for within-cluster correlation in regression models with either continuous or binary outcomes. The GEE-independent method yields consistent and robust variance estimates. Data from project DARE, a youth substance abuse prevention program, are used for illustration. PMID:8916620

  5. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Abernethy, Cary S.

    2004-09-24

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by PNNL that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall chinook salmon spawning areas. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The hydrologic regime during the 2002?2003 sampling period exhibited one of the lowest, most stable daily discharge patterns of any of the previous 12 water years. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small vertical hydraulic gradients at most sites, the results from the numerical modeling of riverbed pore water velocity and hyporheic zone temperatures suggested that there was significant vertical hydrologic exchange during all time periods. The combined results of temperature monitoring and numerical modeling indicate that only two sites were significantly affected by short-term (hourly to daily) large magnitude changes in discharge. Although the two sites exhibited acute flux reversals between river water and hyporheic water resulting from short-term large magnitude changes in discharge, these flux reversals had minimal effect on emergence timing estimates. Indeed, the emergence timing estimates at all sites was largely unaffected by the changes in river stage resulting from hydropower operations at Hells Canyon Dam. Our results indicate that the range of emergence timing estimates due to differences among the eggs from different females can be as large as or larger than the emergence timing estimates due to site differences (i.e., bed temperatures within and among sites). We conclude that during the 2002-2003 fall chinook salmon incubation period, hydropower operations of Hells Canyon Dam had an insignificant effect on fry emergence timing at the study sites. It appears that short-term (i.e., hourly to daily) manipulations of discharge from the Hells Canyon Complex during the incubation period would not substantially alter egg pocket incubation temperatures, and thus would not affect fry emergence timing at the study sites. However, the use of hydropower operational manipulations at the Hells Canyon Complex to accelerate egg incubation and fry emergence should not be ruled out on the basis of only one water year's worth of study. Further investigation of the incubation environment of Snake River fall chinook salmon is warranted based on the complexity of hyporheic zone characteristics and the variability of surface/subsurface interactions among dry, normal, and wet water years.

  6. Summary of factors contributing to falls in older adults and nursing implications.

    PubMed

    Enderlin, Carol; Rooker, Janet; Ball, Susan; Hippensteel, Dawn; Alderman, Joanne; Fisher, Sarah Jean; McLeskey, Nanci; Jordan, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Falls are a common cause of serious injury and injury-related death in the older adult population, and may be associated with multiple risks such as age, history of falls, impaired mobility, balance and gait problems, and medications. Sensory and environmental factors as well as the fear of falling may also increase the risk of falls. The purpose of this article is to review current best practice on screening fall risks and fear of falling, fall prevention strategies, and fall prevention resources to assist gerontological nurses in reducing falls by their older adult clients. PMID:26343008

  7. Bridalveil Fall

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    In this image, Bridalveil Fall can be seen from Tunnel View in Yosemite National Park. The waterfall is 617 ft (188 m) in height and is one of the most well-known of Yosemite National Park's waterfalls....

  8. A model of the effects of flow fluctuations on fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat availability in the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Murray, Christopher J.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Xie, YuLong

    2008-12-01

    Previously we reported that about 30% to 60% of the area predicted to be used by fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) for spawning in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River did not contain redds. One explanation for the overprediction of habitat was that our model did not incorporate streamflow fluctuation. Daily fluctuation in flow caused by load-following operations (power generation to meet short-term electrical demand) at Priest Rapids Dam, situated at the upper end of the Hanford Reach, changes the hydraulic characteristics to which fish respond in selecting redd sites. The purpose of the study described here was to examine the effect of flow changes on spawning habitat modeling and, in particular, to look at the connection between spawning and the variability and persistence of habitat variables caused by rapid changes in flow resulting from load-following operations at Priest Rapids Dam. We found that spawning habitat use by fall Chinook salmon was consistent with previous fall Chinook salmon studies in the Reach. Dynamic variables that were based on hourly time series were used to account for the variability in habitat as a result of flow fluctuations. The analysis showed that the proportion of velocities that fell within the range of 1.0 to 2.5 m/s differed significantly between locations that were predicted to be spawning by the logistic regression model where spawning actually occurred and locations that were predicted to be spawning where spawning did not occur. However, the resulting sequential logistic regression model that incorporated the dynamic variables did not provide significant improvement in the percentage of errors for areas predicted to be spawning; the model’s overprediction errors still ranged from 63% to 78%. We suggest that while flow fluctuation may affect spawning habitat and individual fish behavior, the high correlation between time-averaged velocities and the proportion of hourly velocities that fell within the most favorable range negated any improvements in model predictions.

  9. An effective prevention program to reduce electrical burn injuries caused by the use of multimeters.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, Peter A; Smith, Steve; Gomez, Manuel; Fish, Joel S

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the circumstances of electrical burn injuries caused by the use of multimeters among electricians and electrical apprentices in Ontario and to develop a burn prevention program to reduce them. A survey to investigate electrical injuries caused by multimeters was mailed in June 2004 to 5000 Ontario electricians and electrical apprentices. A high voltage laboratory tested the effectiveness of fused leads to reduce multimeters malfunction. The results of the survey and laboratory tests helped to implement a burn prevention program. Then, a mail fused leads multimeter exchange program was implemented, and proposals to improve the multimeters standard were made to the Canadian Standards Association. Nine hundred (18%) workers responded the survey. There were 801 (89%) electricians, 81 (9%) electrical apprentices, and 27 (3%) with other qualifications. Ninety-nine (11%) had a multimeter fail during use, and half of them suffered critical burns. Causes of the injury were operator error (59%), wrong category rating (21%), defective equipment (18%), and others (2%). More than 2000 electrical contractors acquired the new fused leads multimeters. There were no critical injuries caused by multimeters in the years 2006, 2007, and 2008 (January to August) in Ontario. Understanding the cause of electrical burn injuries by multimeters and engaging members of the integrated electrical safety system in a multifaceted prevention program were effective in reducing electrical burn injuries. Fused leads multimeters proved to be effective in preventing most common user errors and electrical burn injuries caused by multimeters. PMID:20182365

  10. Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Diabetes Prevention among Adherent Participants

    PubMed Central

    Herman, William H.; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Ratner, Robert E.; Montez, Maria G.; Ackermann, Ronald T.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Foulkes, Mary A.; Zhang, Ping; Saudek, Christopher D.; Brown, Morton B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We report the 10 year effectiveness and within-trial cost-effectiveness of the The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and its Outcomes Study (DPPOS) interventions among participants who were adherent to the interventions. STUDY DESIGN DPP was a 3-year randomized clinical trial followed by 7-years of open-label modified intervention followup. METHODS Data on resource utilization, cost, and quality-of-life were collected prospectively. Economic analyses were performed from health system and societal perspectives. Lifestyle adherence was defined as achieving and maintaining a 5% reduction in initial body weight and metformin adherence as taking metformin at 80% of study visits. RESULTS The relative risk reduction was 49.4% among adherent lifestyle participants and 20.8% among adherent metformin participants compared to placebo. Over 10 years, the cumulative, undiscounted, per capita direct medical costs of the interventions, as implemented during the DPP, were greater for adherent lifestyle participants ($4,810) than adherent metformin participants ($2,934) or placebo ($768). Over 10 years, the cumulative, per capita non-intervention-related direct medical costs were $4,250 greater for placebo participants compared to adherent lifestyle participants and $3,251 greater compared to adherent metformin participants. The cumulative quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) accrued over 10 years were greater for lifestyle (6.80) than metformin (6.74) or placebo (6.67). Without discounting, from both a modified societal perspective (excluding participant time), lifestyle cost <$5,000 per QALY-gained and metformin was cost-saving compared to placebo. CONCLUSIONS Over 10 years, lifestyle intervention and metformin were cost-saving compared to placebo. These analyses confirm that lifestyle and metformin represent a good value for money. PMID:23544761

  11. A meta-analysis of the effects of dropout prevention programs on school absenteeism.

    PubMed

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Wilson, Sandra Jo

    2013-10-01

    This study reports findings from a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature examining the effects of school dropout prevention and intervention programs on students' school absenteeism outcomes. The meta-analysis synthesized 74 effect sizes measuring posttest differences in school absenteeism outcomes for youth enrolled in dropout prevention programs relative to a comparison group. Although results from randomized controlled trials indicated significant beneficial program effects, findings from quasi-experimental studies indicated no significant beneficial or detrimental effects. Examination of study characteristics suggested that dropout programs may have beneficial effects on school absenteeism among primarily male samples, and younger samples. Although no single type of intervention program was consistently more effective than others, vocational oriented and supplemental academic training programs showed some promise. However, the inconsistency in results and the possibility of small study bias mean the quality of evidence in this literature is low; at this time there is not enough evidence to conclude that dropout prevention programs have a universal impact on youth's school absenteeism outcomes. PMID:23420475

  12. Encouraging responses in sexual and relationship violence prevention: what program effects remain 1 year later?

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Mary M; Banyard, Victoria L; Cares, Alison C; Potter, Sharyn J; Williams, Linda M; Stapleton, Jane G

    2015-01-01

    Colleges and universities are high-risk settings for sexual and relationship violence. To address these problems, institutions of higher education have implemented prevention programs, many of which train students as potential bystanders who can step in to help diffuse risky situations, identify and challenge perpetrators, and assist victims. The impact of bystander sexual and relationship violence prevention programs on long-term behavior of bystanders has remained a key unanswered question for those who seek to offer the most effective programs as well as for policy makers. In this study, the researchers experimentally evaluated the effectiveness of the Bringing in the Bystander® in-person program. Participants were 948 1st-year college students of whom 47.8% were women and 85.2% identified as White (15% also identified as Hispanic in a separate question) between the ages of 18 and 24 at two universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, highly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. To date, this is the first study to have found positive behavior changes as long-lasting as 1 year following an educational workshop focusing on engaging bystanders in preventing sexual and relationship violence. Even so, many questions remain to be answered about prevention and intervention of this type. More prospective research is needed on bystander-focused prevention of these forms of violence to help understand and better predict the complicated relationships both between and among the attitudes and behaviors related to preventing sexual and relationship violence. In this regard, we make specific recommendations for designing and evaluating programs based on our findings relating to the importance of moderators, especially two key understudied ones, readiness to help and opportunity to intervene. PMID:24850763

  13. Counterintuitive effect of fall mixed layer deepening on eukaryotic new production in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawcett, S. E.; Lomas, M. W.; Ward, B. B.; Sigman, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Sargasso Sea is characterized by a short period of deep vertical mixing in the late winter and early spring, followed by strong thermal stratification during the summer. Stratification persists into the fall, impeding the upward flux of nitrate from depth so that recycled forms of nitrogen (N) such as ammonium are thought to support most primary production. We collected particles from surface waters during March, July, October, and December, used flow cytometry to separate the prokaryotic and eukaryotic phytoplankton, and analyzed their respective 15N/14N. In all months, the 15N/14N of the prokaryotic genera, Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, was low, indicative of reliance on recycled N throughout the year. In July, the 15N/14N of eukaryotic phytoplankton was variable but consistently higher than that of the prokaryotes, reflecting eukaryotic consumption of subsurface nitrate. Two eukaryotic profiles from October and December were similar to those from July. In three other fall profiles, the eukaryotes had a 15N/14N similar to that of the prokaryotes, suggesting a switch toward greater reliance on recycled N. This change in the dominant N source supporting eukaryotic production appears to be driven by the density structure of the upper water column. The very shallow low-density surface "mixed layer" (?20 m) that develops in early-to-mid summer does not contribute to stratification at the base of the euphotic zone, and subsurface nitrate can mix up into the lower euphotic zone, facilitating continued production. The deepening of the mixed layer into the fall, typically taken as an indication of weaker overall stratification, actually strengthens the isolation of the euphotic zone as a whole, reducing the upward supply of nitrate to the photosynthetically active layer. The same counterintuitive dynamic explains the latitudinal patterns in a set of three October depth profiles. Two northern stations (32°N and 27°N) were characterized by a thick, low-density surface layer, and the 15N/14N of all phytoplankton was low, consistent with assimilation of recycled N. The southernmost station (23°N) had a shallower mixed layer, and eukaryote 15N/14N reflects growth on nitrate. In the subtropics, evidence for the direct supply of nitrate into surface waters in the face of the strong upper ocean stratification has long been sought. Our N isotope results suggest a mechanism by which subsurface nitrate is imported into shallow waters. This interpretation offers a new perspective on the relationship between euphotic zone stratification and nitrate assimilation, implying that significant new production occurs under conditions previously assumed to drive oligotrophy.

  14. Preventing weight gain and obesity: indirect effects of the family check-up in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin D; Montaño, Zorash; Dishion, Thomas J; Shaw, Daniel S; Wilson, Melvin N

    2015-04-01

    The early signs of obesity are observable in early childhood. Although the most promising prevention approaches are family-centered, few relevant early prevention programs exist. This study evaluated the effects of an evidence-based, home-visiting intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), on the trajectory of children's weight gain. The FCU was designed to prevent the development of behavior problems by improving family management practices; children's weight has not been an explicit target. On the basis of previous research and conceptual models, we hypothesized that intervention effects on parenting practices, specifically caregivers' use of positive behavior support (PBS) strategies in toddlerhood, would mediate improvements in children's weight trajectories. A total of 731 indigent caregiver-child dyads from a multisite randomized intervention trial were examined. Observational assessment of parenting and mealtime behaviors occurred from age 2-5 years. The child's body mass index (BMI) was assessed yearly from age 5-9.5 years. Path analysis with a latent growth model revealed a significant indirect effect of the FCU on the trajectory of BMI in later childhood. Improvements in caregivers' PBS in toddlerhood, which was related to the nutritional quality of the meals caregivers served to the child during the mealtime task, served as the intervening process. Furthermore, findings indicate that the FCU prevents progression to overweight and obese status amongst at-risk children. These study results add to existing evidence that has demonstrated that family-based interventions aimed at improving general family management skills are effective at preventing weight gain. Future directions are discussed. PMID:25263212

  15. Prevalence of and factors associated with head impact during falls in older adults in long-term care

    PubMed Central

    Schonnop, Rebecca; Yang, Yijian; Feldman, Fabio; Robinson, Erin; Loughin, Marie; Robinovitch, Stephen N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Falls cause more than 60% of head injuries in older adults. Lack of objective evidence on the circumstances of these events is a barrier to prevention. We analyzed video footage to determine the frequency of and risk factors for head impact during falls in older adults in 2 long-term care facilities. Methods: Over 39 months, we captured on video 227 falls involving 133 residents. We used a validated questionnaire to analyze the mechanisms of each fall. We then examined whether the probability for head impact was associated with upper-limb protective responses (hand impact) and fall direction. Results: Head impact occurred in 37% of falls, usually onto a vinyl or linoleum floor. Hand impact occurred in 74% of falls but had no significant effect on the probability of head impact (p = 0.3). An increased probability of head impact was associated with a forward initial fall direction, compared with backward falls (odds ratio [OR] 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–5.9) or sideways falls (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2–6.3). In 36% of sideways falls, residents rotated to land backwards, which reduced the probability of head impact (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.04–0.8). Interpretation: Head impact was common in observed falls in older adults living in long-term care facilities, particularly in forward falls. Backward rotation during descent appeared to be protective, but hand impact was not. Attention to upper-limb strength and teaching rotational falling techniques (as in martial arts training) may reduce fall-related head injuries in older adults. PMID:24101612

  16. Evaluating the effectiveness of common disinfectants at preventing the propagation of Mycobacterium spp. isolated from zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chang, Carolyn T; Colicino, Erica G; DiPaola, Elizabeth J; Al-Hasnawi, Hadi Jabbar; Whipps, Christopher M

    2015-12-01

    Mycobacteriosis is a bacterial disease that is common in captive, wild and research fish. There is no one causative agent of mycobacteriosis, as several strains and species of Mycobacterium have been identified in zebrafish. With increased usage and investment in wild-type and mutant zebrafish strains, considerable value is placed on preserving zebrafish health. One control measure used to prevent mycobacterial spread within and between zebrafish facilities is egg disinfection. Here we investigate the effectiveness of three disinfectants [chlorine bleach, hydrogen peroxide, and povidone-iodine (PVPI)] commonly included in egg disinfection protocols for laboratory fish as well as aquaculture fish and compare the knockdown effect of these treatments on Mycobacterium spp. in vitro. Despite current usage, comparison of these disinfection regimes' abilities to prevent mycobacterial growth has not been tested. We found that the germicidal effect of different disinfectants varies by Mycobacterium spp. Hydrogen peroxide was the least effective disinfectant, followed by unbuffered chlorine bleach, which is commonly used to disinfect embryos in zebrafish facilities. Disinfection with 25ppm PVPI for 5min was very effective, and may be an improved alternative to chlorine bleach for embryo disinfection. Results from this study can be utilized by laboratory fish facilities in order to prevent the spread of mycobacteriosis in research fish. PMID:26423444

  17. School-based smoking prevention programs with the promise of long-term effects

    PubMed Central

    Flay, Brian R

    2009-01-01

    I provide a systematic review of trials of school-based smoking prevention programs that had at least 15 sessions, preferably with some in high school, that reported significant short-term effects, and that included long-term follow-up. This is supplemented with a description of some other programs that produce short-term effects that portend large long-term effects. I conclude that school-based programs can have long-term effects of practical importance it they: include 15 or more sessions over multiple years, including some in high school; use the social influence model and interactive delivery methods; include components on norms, commitment not to use, intentions not to use, and training and practice in the use of refusal and other life skills; and use peer leaders in some role. School-based programs of this type can reduce smoking onset by 25–30%, and school plus community programs can reduce smoking onset by 35–40% by the end of high school. Some early childhood programs that do not have smoking prevention as their main aim, including home nursing, the Good Behavior Game, the Positive Action program and others, seem to change the developmental trajectories of children so that they are less likely to engage in multiple problem behaviors, including smoking, as adolescents. This review makes it clear that effective school-based smoking prevention programs exist and can be adopted, adapted and deployed with success – and should be. PMID:19323826

  18. Mold prevention strategies and possible health effects in the aftermath of hurricanes and major floods.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Mary; Brown, Clive; Burkhart, Joe; Burton, Nancy; Cox-Ganser, Jean; Damon, Scott; Falk, Henry; Fridkin, Scott; Garbe, Paul; McGeehin, Mike; Morgan, Juliette; Page, Elena; Rao, Carol; Redd, Stephen; Sinks, Tom; Trout, Douglas; Wallingford, Kenneth; Warnock, David; Weissman, David

    2006-06-01

    Extensive water damage after major hurricanes and floods increases the likelihood of mold contamination in buildings. This report provides information on how to limit exposure to mold and how to identify and prevent mold-related health effects. Where uncertainties in scientific knowledge exist, practical applications designed to be protective of a person's health are presented. Evidence is included about assessing exposure, clean-up and prevention, personal protective equipment, health effects, and public health strategies and recommendations. The recommendations assume that, in the aftermath of major hurricanes or floods, buildings wet for <48 hours will generally support visible and extensive mold growth and should be remediated, and excessive exposure to mold-contaminated materials can cause adverse health effects in susceptible persons regardless of the type of mold or the extent of contamination. For the majority of persons, undisturbed mold is not a substantial health hazard. Mold is a greater hazard for persons with conditions such as impaired host defenses or mold allergies. To prevent exposure that could result in adverse health effects from disturbed mold, persons should 1) avoid areas where mold contamination is obvious; 2) use environmental controls; 3) use personal protective equipment; and 4) keep hands, skin, and clothing clean and free from mold-contaminated dust. Clinical evaluation of suspected mold-related illness should follow conventional clinical guidelines. In addition, in the aftermath of extensive flooding, health-care providers should be watchful for unusual mold-related diseases. The development of a public health surveillance strategy among persons repopulating areas after extensive flooding is recommended to assess potential health effects and the effectiveness of prevention efforts. Such a surveillance program will help CDC and state and local public health officials refine the guidelines for exposure avoidance, personal protection, and clean-up and assist health departments to identify unrecognized hazards. PMID:16760892

  19. Signs of Effectiveness II: Preventing Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use: A Risk Factor/Resiliency-Based Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Stephen E., Ed.; And Others

    In 1993, "Signs of Effectiveness in Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems" appeared. It addressed alcohol and other drug use as a health problem influenced by risk factors in five life spheres or domains: individual, family, school, peer group, and community. Like its predecessor, "Signs of Effectiveness II" reports on promising prevention

  20. Effectiveness of a sports-based HIV prevention intervention in the Dominican Republic: a quasi-experimental study

    E-print Network

    Vermont, University of

    Effectiveness of a sports-based HIV prevention intervention in the Dominican Republic: a quasi prevention interventions using sport as an educational tool. No studies have yet assessed the effect observed in the Control group. Results suggest that this sports-based intervention could play a valuable

  1. The Effectiveness of Two Types of Rape Prevention Programs in Changing the Rape-Supportive Attitudes of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Linda A.; Stoelb, Matthew P.; Duggan, Peter; Hieger, Brad; Kling, Kathleen H.; Payne, June P.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of two rape-prevention programs in changing college students' rape-supportive attitudes was investigated. (N=215) Conditions included an interactive mock talk show and a structured video intervention. Both interventions were effective, but attitudes were found to rebound over time. Implications for future rape-prevention

  2. The Effectiveness of School-Based Smoking Prevention Interventions among Low- and High-SES European Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Crone, M. R.; De Vries, H.; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Lien, N.; Fagiano, F.; Vitoria, P. D.; Van Lenthe, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    Preventing smoking initiation among adolescents of lower socio-economic groups is crucial for the reduction of socio-economic inequalities in health. The aim of the present study was to examine whether effective smoking prevention interventions in Europe are equally effective among adolescents of low- and high-socio-economic status (SES). As part…

  3. Comparing effects of tobacco use prevention modalities: need for complex system models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Many modalities of tobacco use prevention programming have been implemented including various policy regulations (tax increases, warning labels, limits on access, smoke-free policies, and restrictions on marketing), mass media programming, school-based classroom education, family involvement, and involvement of community agents (i.e., medical, social, political). The present manuscript provides a glance at these modalities to compare relative and combined impact of them on youth tobacco use. In a majority of trials, community-wide programming, which includes multiple modalities, has not been found to achieve impacts greater than single modality programming. Possibly, the most effective means of prevention involves a careful selection of program type combinations. Also, it is likely that a mechanism for coordinating maximally across program types (e.g., staging of programming) is needed to encourage a synergistic impact. Studying tobacco use prevention as a complex system is considered as a means to maximize effects from combinations of prevention types. Future studies will need to more systematically consider the role of combined programming. PMID:23339410

  4. Evaluating the potential effectiveness of using computerized information systems to prevent adverse drug events.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J. G.; Jay, S. J.; Anderson, M.; Hunt, T. J.

    1997-01-01

    In this study a dynamic computer simulation model is used to estimate the effectiveness of various information systems applications designed to detect and prevent medication errors that result in adverse drug events (ADEs). The model simulates the four stages of the drug ordering and delivery system: prescribing, transcribing, dispensing and administering drugs. In this study we simulated interventions that have been demonstrated in prior studies to decrease error rates. The results demonstrated that a computerized information system that detected 26% of medication errors and prevented associated ADEs could save 1,226 days of excess hospitalization and $1.4 million in hospital costs annually. Those results suggest that such systems are potentially a cost-effective means of preventing ADEs in hospitals. The results demonstrated the importance of viewing adverse drug events from a systems perspective. Prevention efforts that focus on a single stage of the process had limited impact on the overall error rate. This study suggests that system-wide changes to the drug-ordering and delivery system are required to significantly reduce adverse drug events in a hospital setting. PMID:9357622

  5. Effects of an emotional intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence

    PubMed Central

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Peña-Sarrionandia, Ainize

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence (EI) for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years. The study used an experimental design with repeated pretest–posttest measures and control groups. To measure the variables, four assessment instruments were administered before and after the program, as well as in the follow-up phase (1 year after the conclusion of the intervention). The program consisted of 20 one-hour sessions. The pretest–posttest ANCOVAs showed that the program significantly increased: (1) EI (attention, clarity, emotional repair); (2) assertive cognitive social interaction strategies; (3) internal control of anger; and (4) the cognitive ability to analyze negative feelings. In the follow-up phase, the positive effects of the intervention were generally maintained and, moreover, the use of aggressive strategies as an interpersonal conflict-resolution technique was significantly reduced. Regarding the effect of the program on both genders, the change was very similar, but the boys increased assertive social interaction strategies, attention, and emotional clarity significantly more than the girls. The importance of implementing programs to promote socio-emotional development and prevent violence is discussed. PMID:26082743

  6. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  7. Preventing Alcohol-Related Harm in College Students: Alcohol-Related Harm Prevention Program Effects on Hypothesized Mediating Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, J. W.; Tatterson, J. W.; Roberts, M. M.; Johnston, S. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Alcohol-related Harm Prevention (AHP) program is a normative education and skill-acquisition program designed to reduce serious, long-term alcohol-related harm in college students. Without admonishing students not to drink, which is likely to fail in many student populations, the AHP program attempts to give students the necessary perceptions,…

  8. The Effects of Public Communication Programs on Fire Prevention in the Home: A Review; A Report to The National Commission on Fire Prevention and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jack B.

    In order to learn whether public communications (defined as both personal and impersonal communication) can be effective in preventing residential fires, a search was conducted of all available published literature reporting empirically based research evidence on communications. This paper outlines and discusses the search procedure, the sources…

  9. Prevention Effects Moderate the Association of 5-HTTLPR and Youth Risk Behavior Initiation: Gene x Environment Hypotheses Tested via a Randomized Prevention Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Murry, Velma McBride

    2009-01-01

    A randomized prevention design was used to investigate a moderation effect in the association between a polymorphism in the "SCL6A4"("5HTT") gene at 5-HTTLPR and increases in youths' risk behavior initiation. Participation in the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program was hypothesized to attenuate the link between 5-HTTLPR status and risk…

  10. Evidence of the effect of immunonutrition on the prevention of surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; García, José Gregorio Ruiz

    2014-03-01

    Surgical candidates are often immunosuppressed patients. Immunodeficiency associated with malnutrition are risk factors for developing postoperative SSI. The term "immunonutrition" refers to the addition of omega-3 fatty acids, glutamine and arginine to liquid nutritional supplements. Diverse studies have shown a reduction in septic complications after perioperative use of immunonutrition, but these results could not be confirmed by other authors. In this issue, we will review the actual evidence about the effect of immunonutrition on the prevention of SSI. PMID:24526428

  11. [Prevention of neuro- and cardiotoxic side effects of tuberculosis chemotherapy with noopept].

    PubMed

    Mordyk, A V; Lysov, A V; Kondria, A V; Gol'dzon, M A; Khlebova, N V

    2009-01-01

    The study evaluated clinical efficiency of noopept used to prevent adverse side effects of antituberculous agents. It included 60 patients with newly diagnosed respiratory tuberculosis. Those in group 1 (n = 30) received 10 mg of noopept twice daily during the first month. The treatment promoted functional normalization of vegetative nervous system and antioxidative systems, reduced manifestations of anxiety, decreased frequency of adverse neuro- and cardiotoxic responses to antituberculous drugs. PMID:19565831

  12. Determination of the most effective cooling temperature for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia

    PubMed Central

    EKWALL, EVA M.; NYGREN, LISA M.L.; GUSTAFSSON, ANDERS O.; SORBE, BENGT G.

    2013-01-01

    Computer-controlled scalp cooling to prevent alopecia is currently available for patients undergoing chemo-therapy. Previous studies have suggested that the temperature should be <22°C at a depth of 1–2 mm in the scalp to prevent alopecia. However, the optimal pre-set temperature of the coolant medium to achieve this temperature requires further investigation. A pre-study was conducted to investigate which pre-set coolant temperature of 3 and 8°C was the most effective in achieving a scalp temperature of <22°C. The temperature variations at different sites of the scalp and variations within and among the participants at baseline and during the cooling procedure were also evaluated. A randomized main study was then performed to compare the efficacy and side effects of the two temperature levels during paclitaxel/carboplatin chemotherapy. A group of 5 healthy female volunteers participated in a series of scalp temperature measurements during cooling with 3 and 8°C of the coolant medium. In the randomized main study, a total of 47 patients were included, of whom 43 were evaluable after the first cycle. A pre-set temperature of 3°C tended to be the most efficient in achieving a hair follicle temperature of <22°C. The top of the head was less responsive to scalp cooling. There were no significant differences in the prevention of alopecia between the two temperatures in the main study. However, headache and a feeling of coldness were more common in the 3°C group. A coolant temperature of 3°C was more effective in achieving a subcutaneous temperature of <22°C. However, this finding was not reflected by a significant difference in the prevention of alopecia in this study, although a higher incidence of side effects was associated with a lower temperature level. PMID:24649294

  13. Predicting Falls in Parkinson Disease: What Is the Value of Instrumented Testing in OFF Medication State?

    PubMed Central

    Hoskovcová, Martina; Dušek, Petr; Sieger, Tomáš; Brožová, Hana; Zárubová, Kate?ina; Bezdí?ek, Ond?ej; Šprdlík, Otakar; Jech, Robert; Štochl, Jan; Roth, Jan; R?ži?ka, Evžen

    2015-01-01

    Background Falls are a common complication of advancing Parkinson's disease (PD). Although numerous risk factors are known, reliable predictors of future falls are still lacking. The objective of this prospective study was to investigate clinical and instrumented tests of balance and gait in both OFF and ON medication states and to verify their utility in the prediction of future falls in PD patients. Methods Forty-five patients with idiopathic PD were examined in defined OFF and ON medication states within one examination day including PD-specific clinical tests, instrumented Timed Up and Go test (iTUG) and computerized dynamic posturography. The same gait and balance tests were performed in 22 control subjects of comparable age and sex. Participants were then followed-up for 6 months using monthly fall diaries and phone calls. Results During the follow-up period, 27/45 PD patients and 4/22 control subjects fell one or more times. Previous falls, fear of falling, more severe motor impairment in the OFF state, higher PD stage, more pronounced depressive symptoms, higher daily levodopa dose and stride time variability in the OFF state were significant risk factors for future falls in PD patients. Increased stride time variability in the OFF state in combination with faster walking cadence appears to be the most significant predictor of future falls, superior to clinical predictors. Conclusion Incorporating instrumented gait measures into the baseline assessment battery as well as accounting for both OFF and ON medication states might improve future fall prediction in PD patients. However, instrumented testing in the OFF state is not routinely performed in clinical practice and has not been used in the development of fall prevention programs in PD. New assessment methods for daylong monitoring of gait, balance and falls are thus required to more effectively address the risk of falling in PD patients. PMID:26443998

  14. Effects of a Potash Mine Roof Fall Observed in Nearby Monitoring Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlman, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    At approximately 5 AM on March 18, 2012, a significant collapse occurred in a potash mine near the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The US Geological Survey estimated the event to be magnitude 2.9. Two wells in the WIPP regional groundwater monitoring network experienced oscillatory water level fluctuations greater than 5 feet in response to the event. The changes in water level decayed slowly over several weeks following the event. The potash mine is located in the McNutt Potash zone of the Salado Formation, which is 1000-1400 feet below ground surface (BGS) near the location of the roof fall. The monitoring wells are completed in the semi-confined Culebra Dolomite member of the Rustler Formation, which is 375 feet BGS. The observed response is compared to published well responses to earthquakes and other seismic events. We explore the potential for using the event to characterize aquifer parameters. This research is funded by WIPP programs administered by the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the U.S Department of Energy. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000

  15. Effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines in preventing cases and hospitalizations due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in Navarre, Spain.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Jesús; Beristain, Xabier; Martínez-Artola, Víctor; Navascués, Ana; García Cenoz, Manuel; Alvarez, Nerea; Polo, Isabel; Mazón, Ana; Gil-Setas, Alberto; Barricarte, Aurelio

    2012-01-11

    Two rotavirus vaccines have been available since 2006. This study evaluates the effectiveness of these vaccines using a test-negative case-control design in Navarre, Spain. We included children 3-59 months of age who sought medical care for gastroenteritis and for whom stool samples were taken between January 2008 and June 2011. About 9% had received the pentavalent vaccine (RotaTeq) and another 8% received the monovalent vaccine (Rotarix). Cases were the 756 children with confirmed rotavirus and controls were the 6036 children who tested negative for rotavirus. Thirty-five percent of cases and 9% of controls had required hospitalization (p<0.0001). The adjusted effectiveness of complete vaccination was 78% (95% CI: 68-85%) in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis and 83% (95% CI: 65-93%) in preventing hospitalization for rotavirus gastroenteritis. No differences between the two vaccines were detected (p=0.4523). Both vaccines were highly effective in preventing cases and hospital admissions in children due to rotavirus gastroenteritis. PMID:22122860

  16. Preventive Effect of Aspirin Eugenol Ester on Thrombosis in ?-Carrageenan-Induced Rat Tail Thrombosis Model

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Xi-Wang; Yang, Ya-Jun; Li, Jian-Yong; Mohamed, Isam; Liu, Guang-Rong; Zhang, Ji-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Based on the prodrug principle, aspirin eugenol ester (AEE) was synthesized, which can reduce the side effects of aspirin and eugenol. As a good candidate for new antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory medicine, it is essential to evaluate its preventive effect on thrombosis. Preventive effect of AEE was investigated in ?-carrageenan-induced rat tail thrombosis model. AEE suspension liquids were prepared in 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na). AEE was administrated at the dosage of 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg. Aspirin (20 mg/kg), eugenol (18 mg/kg) and 0.5% CMC-Na (30 mg/kg) were used as control drug. In order to compare the effects between AEE and its precursor, integration of aspirin and eugenol group (molar ratio 1:1) was also designed in the experiment. After drugs were administrated intragastrically for seven days, each rat was injected intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg BW ?-carrageen dissolved in physiological saline to induce thrombosis. The length of tail-thrombosis was measured at 24 and 48 hours. The blank group just was given physiological saline for seven days without ?-carrageenan administrated. The results indicated that AEE significantly not only reduced the average length of thrombus, PT values and FIB concentration, but also reduced the red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT) and platelet (PLT). The effects of AEE on platelet aggregation and anticoagulant in vitro showed that AEE could inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation as dose-dependence but no notable effect on blood clotting. From these results, it was concluded that AEE possessed positive effect on thrombosis prevention in vivo through the reduction of FIB, PLT, inhibition of platelet aggregation and the change of TT and PT values. PMID:26193677

  17. Transfer effects of fall training on balance performance and spatiotemporal gait parameters in healthy community-dwelling older adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Roth, Ralf; Soltermann, Martin; Kressig, Reto W; Zahner, Lukas

    2014-07-01

    This study examined transfer effects of fall training on fear of falling (Falls Efficacy Scale-International [FES-I]), balance performance, and spatiotemporal gait characteristics in older adults. Eighteen community-dwelling older adults (ages 65-85) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The intervention group completed 12 training sessions (60 min, 6 weeks). During pre- and posttesting, we measured FES-I, balance performance (double limb, closed eyes; single limb, open eyes; double limb, open eyes with motor-interfered task), and gait parameters (e.g., velocity; cadence; stride time, stride width, and stride length; variability of stride time and stride length) under single- and motor-interfered tasks. Dual tasks were applied to appraise improvements of cognitive processing during balance and gait. FES-I (p = .33) and postural sway did not significantly change (0.36 < p < .79). Trends toward significant interaction effects were found for step width during normal walking and stride length variability during the motor dual task (p = .05, ?p 2 = .22). Fall training did not sufficiently improve fear of falling, balance, or gait performance under single- or dual-task conditions in healthy older adults. PMID:23881433

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions to Prevent and Control Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Ping; Barker, Lawrence E.; Chowdhury, Farah M.; Zhang, Xuanping

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To synthesize the cost-effectiveness (CE) of interventions to prevent and control diabetes, its complications, and comorbidities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a systematic review of literature on the CE of diabetes interventions recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and published between January 1985 and May 2008. We categorized the strength of evidence about the CE of an intervention as strong, supportive, or uncertain. CEs were classified as cost saving (more health benefit at a lower cost), very cost-effective (?$25,000 per life year gained [LYG] or quality-adjusted life year [QALY]), cost-effective ($25,001 to $50,000 per LYG or QALY), marginally cost-effective ($50,001 to $100,000 per LYG or QALY), or not cost-effective (>$100,000 per LYG or QALY). The CE classification of an intervention was reported separately by country setting (U.S. or other developed countries) if CE varied by where the intervention was implemented. Costs were measured in 2007 U.S. dollars. RESULTS Fifty-six studies from 20 countries met the inclusion criteria. A large majority of the ADA recommended interventions are cost-effective. We found strong evidence to classify the following interventions as cost saving or very cost-effective: (I) Cost saving— 1) ACE inhibitor (ACEI) therapy for intensive hypertension control compared with standard hypertension control; 2) ACEI or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy to prevent end-stage renal disease (ESRD) compared with no ACEI or ARB treatment; 3) early irbesartan therapy (at the microalbuminuria stage) to prevent ESRD compared with later treatment (at the macroalbuminuria stage); 4) comprehensive foot care to prevent ulcers compared with usual care; 5) multi-component interventions for diabetic risk factor control and early detection of complications compared with conventional insulin therapy for persons with type 1 diabetes; and 6) multi-component interventions for diabetic risk factor control and early detection of complications compared with standard glycemic control for persons with type 2 diabetes. (II) Very cost-effective— 1) intensive lifestyle interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes among persons with impaired glucose tolerance compared with standard lifestyle recommendations; 2) universal opportunistic screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in African Americans between 45 and 54 years old; 3) intensive glycemic control as implemented in the UK Prospective Diabetes Study in persons with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes compared with conventional glycemic control; 4) statin therapy for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease compared with no statin therapy; 5) counseling and treatment for smoking cessation compared with no counseling and treatment; 6) annual screening for diabetic retinopathy and ensuing treatment in persons with type 1 diabetes compared with no screening; 7) annual screening for diabetic retinopathy and ensuing treatment in persons with type 2 diabetes compared with no screening; and 8) immediate vitrectomy to treat diabetic retinopathy compared with deferred vitrectomy. CONCLUSIONS Many interventions intended to prevent/control diabetes are cost saving or very cost-effective and supported by strong evidence. Policy makers should consider giving these interventions a higher priority. PMID:20668156

  19. Report 2013 Fall Enrollment

    E-print Network

    VandeVord, Pamela

    Report 2013 Fall Enrollment Office of Budget, Planning and Analysis #12;Page 2 Fall Enrollment............................................5 Total Fall Enrollment/College.........................................................6 Enrollment by Race

  20. FALL ENROLLMENT REPORT 2011

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    FALL ENROLLMENT REPORT 2011 Office of Budget, Planning and Analysis #12;Page 2 Fall Enrollment ............................................5 Total Fall Enrollment/College .........................................................6 Enrollment by Race

  1. Effect of different preventive agents on bracket shear bond strength: in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effects of fluoride and CPP-ACP before bracket bonding on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets have been reported with contradicting results. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different preventive agents namely; casein phosphopeptide-amorphous-calcium-phosphate (CPP-ACP), fluoride-containing-CPP-ACP (CPP-ACPF) and 5% sodium fluoride (5% NaF), on the enamel-bracket shear bond strength (SBS) and to compare their effects when applied before or after acid-etching. Methods Human premolar teeth were randomly divided into seven groups (16 teeth per group) as follows: the control group, where no preventive agent was applied on the enamel and 6 experimental groups. Teeth in groups 1a, 2a, and 3a were treated with CPP-ACP paste, CPP-ACPF paste, and 5% NaF, respectively before acid-etching. Teeth in groups 1b, 2b and 3b were treated using the same preventive agents after acid-etching. The brackets were then bonded and the teeth were thermocycled. The brackets' SBS was measured and the adhesive remnant was assessed using adhesive remnant index (ARI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test were performed to compare the SBS among different groups. Chi-square test was used to evaluate differences in ARI scores between the groups. Results Enamel surface treatment with CPP-ACPF after acid-etching significantly increased SBS compared to the control and to its application before acid-etching (P?preventive agents were applied after acid-etching. Conclusion Brackets' SBS significantly increased when fluoride-containing-CPP-ACP was applied after acid-etching. PMID:24678892

  2. Fall Incidence and Outcomes of Falls in a Prospective Study of Adults With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Stanmore, Emma K; Oldham, Jackie; Skelton, Dawn A; O'Neill, Terence; Pilling, Mark; Campbell, A John; Todd, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of falls and to investigate the consequences of falls in adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods A total of 559 community-dwelling adults with RA, ages 18–88 years (mean age 62 years, 69% women), participated in this prospective cohort study. After a detailed clinical assessment, patients were followed for 1 year, using monthly falls calendars and followup telephone calls. Followup took place in the participant's usual place of residence in the Northwest of England. Outcome measures included fall occurrence, reason for fall, type and severity of injuries, fractures, fall location, lie-times, use of health services, and functional ability. Results A total of 535 participants followed for 1 year had a total of 598 falls. Of these participants, 36.4% (95% confidence interval 32%–41%) reported falling during the 1-year followup period, with an incidence rate of 1,313 per 1,000 person-years at risk or 1.11 falls per person. Age and sex were not associated with falls. More than one-third of the falls were reportedly caused by hips, knees, or ankle joints “giving way.” More than half of all the falls resulted in moderate injuries, including head injuries (n = 27) and fractures (n = 26). Treatment by general practitioners or other health professionals was required for 15.0% of falls, and emergency services were required for 8.8% of falls. Conclusion These results indicate that adults with RA are at high risk of falls and fall-related injuries, fractures, and head injuries. Strategies to prevent falls in adults with RA must be prioritized to reduce falls, fall-related injuries, and fractures. PMID:23139011

  3. Effects of genetic variants previously associated with fasting glucose and insulin in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Florez, Jose C; Jablonski, Kathleen A; McAteer, Jarred B; Franks, Paul W; Mason, Clinton C; Mather, Kieren; Horton, Edward; Goldberg, Ronald; Dabelea, Dana; Kahn, Steven E; Arakaki, Richard F; Shuldiner, Alan R; Knowler, William C

    2012-01-01

    Common genetic variants have been recently associated with fasting glucose and insulin levels in white populations. Whether these associations replicate in pre-diabetes is not known. We extended these findings to the Diabetes Prevention Program, a clinical trial in which participants at high risk for diabetes were randomized to placebo, lifestyle modification or metformin for diabetes prevention. We genotyped previously reported polymorphisms (or their proxies) in/near G6PC2, MTNR1B, GCK, DGKB, GCKR, ADCY5, MADD, CRY2, ADRA2A, FADS1, PROX1, SLC2A2, GLIS3, C2CD4B, IGF1, and IRS1 in 3,548 Diabetes Prevention Program participants. We analyzed variants for association with baseline glycemic traits, incident diabetes and their interaction with response to metformin or lifestyle intervention. We replicated associations with fasting glucose at MTNR1B (P<0.001), G6PC2 (P = 0.002) and GCKR (P = 0.001). We noted impaired ?-cell function in carriers of glucose-raising alleles at MTNR1B (P<0.001), and an increase in the insulinogenic index for the glucose-raising allele at G6PC2 (P<0.001). The association of MTNR1B with fasting glucose and impaired ?-cell function persisted at 1 year despite adjustment for the baseline trait, indicating a sustained deleterious effect at this locus. We also replicated the association of MADD with fasting proinsulin levels (P<0.001). We detected no significant impact of these variants on diabetes incidence or interaction with preventive interventions. The association of several polymorphisms with quantitative glycemic traits is replicated in a cohort of high-risk persons. These variants do not have a detectable impact on diabetes incidence or response to metformin or lifestyle modification in the Diabetes Prevention Program. PMID:22984506

  4. Medial orbitofrontal cortex lesion prevents facilitatory effects of d-cycloserine during fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Rodrigo O; Nítola, Laura P; Duran, Johanna M; Prieto, Daysi R; León, Laura A; Cardenas, Fernando P

    2016-01-01

    Animal models of fear extinction have an important clinical relevance to pharmacological and exposure-based therapies for anxiety disorders. Lesions of prefrontal structures impair fear extinction. On the other hand, d-cycloserine is able to enhance this process. We hypothesize that the integrity of cortical structures involved in inhibitory control of emotional responses is crucial for the facilitatory effects of d-cycloserine. Here, we showed that medial orbitofrontal cortex lesion prevents d-cycloserine enhancement of fear extinction. These preliminary results suggest that effects of pharmacological treatments could be dependent on cortical activity state to promote fear memory reduction. PMID:26306827

  5. Scaling up integrated prevention campaigns for global health: costs and cost-effectiveness in 70 countries

    PubMed Central

    Marseille, Elliot; Jiwani, Aliya; Raut, Abhishek; Verguet, Stéphane; Walson, Judd; Kahn, James G

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study estimated the health impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of an integrated prevention campaign (IPC) focused on diarrhoea, malaria and HIV in 70 countries ranked by per capita disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) burden for the three diseases. Methods We constructed a deterministic cost-effectiveness model portraying an IPC combining counselling and testing, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, referral to treatment and condom distribution for HIV prevention; bed nets for malaria prevention; and provision of household water filters for diarrhoea prevention. We developed a mix of empirical and modelled cost and health impact estimates applied to all 70 countries. One-way, multiway and scenario sensitivity analyses were conducted to document the strength of our findings. We used a healthcare payer's perspective, discounted costs and DALYs at 3% per year and denominated cost in 2012 US dollars. Primary and secondary outcomes The primary outcome was cost-effectiveness expressed as net cost per DALY averted. Other outcomes included cost of the IPC; net IPC costs adjusted for averted and additional medical costs and DALYs averted. Results Implementation of the IPC in the 10 most cost-effective countries at 15% population coverage would cost US$583 million over 3?years (adjusted costs of US$398 million), averting 8.0 million DALYs. Extending IPC programmes to all 70 of the identified high-burden countries at 15% coverage would cost an adjusted US$51.3 billion and avert 78.7 million DALYs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ranged from US$49 per DALY averted for the 10 countries with the most favourable cost-effectiveness to US$119, US$181, US$335, US$1692 and US$8340 per DALY averted as each successive group of 10 countries is added ordered by decreasing cost-effectiveness. Conclusions IPC appears cost-effective in many settings, and has the potential to substantially reduce the burden of disease in resource-poor countries. This study increases confidence that IPC can be an important new approach for enhancing global health. PMID:24969782

  6. Effectiveness of a substituted ?-cyclodextrin to prevent cyclosarin toxicity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Worek, Franz; Seeger, Thomas; Zengerle, Michael; Kubik, Stefan; Thiermann, Horst; Wille, Timo

    2014-04-21

    Standard treatment of poisoning by organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents with atropine and an oxime has a limited efficacy. An alternative approach is the development of stoichiometric or catalytic (bio-)scavengers which should be able to prevent systemic toxicity. Recently, a ?-cyclodextrin derivative, 6-OxP-CD, bearing a pyridinium oximate in 6-position of one glucose unit was synthetized and shown to possess a promising detoxification potential against a variety of alkyl methylfluorophosphonates in vitro. In order to investigate the suitability of 6-OxP-CD as a small molecule scavenger an in vivo guinea pig model was established to determine the protective effect of 6-OxP-CD against the highly toxic nerve agent cyclosarin. Prophylactic i.v. injection of 6-OxP-CD (100mg/kg) prevented systemic toxicity in cyclosarin (?2LD50) poisoned guinea pigs, preserved brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity but did not protect erythrocyte AChE activity. A lower 6-OxP-CD dose (50mg/kg) reduced systemic toxicity and prevented mortality in all animals. Thus, the results of this proof of concept study indicate that 6-OxP-CD may be considered as a potential small molecule scavenger to protect against the toxic effects of a range of highly toxic OP nerve agents. PMID:24561299

  7. To Investigate the Effect of Colchicine in Prevention of Adhesions Caused by Serosal Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Y?ld?z, ?hsan; Koca, Yavuz Savas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aim. Adhesion formation is a process which starts with an inflammation caused by a number of factors and eventually results in fibrosis. Colchicine prevents adhesion formation which is antifibrous process. The effectivity of colchicine in the prevention of adhesions was investigated. Materials and Methods. A total of 36 rats were equally divided into three groups: (I) control group 1 (n = 12), (II) abrasion group 2 (n = 12), and (III) abrasion + colchicine group 3 (n = 12). Group 1 underwent laparotomy and was orally given physiological serum 2?cc/day for 10 days. In Group 2, injury was created in the cecum serosa following laparotomy and they were orally given physiological serum 2?cc/day for 10 days. In Group 3, injury was created in the cecum serosa following laparotomy and the rats were orally given colchicine 50?mcg?kg/day mixed with physiological serum 2?cc/day for 10 days. Laparotomy was performed and adhesions were examined both macroscopically and microscopically. Both macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed using Zühlke's score. Results. A significant difference was observed among the adhesion scores of the groups both macroscopically and microscopically. Macroscopic score was lower in group 3 than group 2. Microscopic score was lower in group 3 than group 2. Conclusion. Oral administration of colchicine is effective in the prevention of adhesions. PMID:26491723

  8. Prevention effects of Schisandra polysaccharide on radiation-induced immune system dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lian-Mei; Jia, Yun-Long; Ma, Ming; Duan, Yu-Qing; Liu, Li-Hua

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the efficacy of SP (Schisandra polysaccharide) in prevention of radiation-induced immune dysfunction and discussed the underlying mechanisms with a Bal/bc mouse model. The data demonstrated that SP could reverse the decreases in the number of white blood cells and lymphocytes in peripheral blood. In addition, the immunoglobulin G (IgG) and complement C3 in blood serum were all decreased after radiation and SP could restore this radiation disorder. Furthermore, SP could reverse the deregulation of CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) T cell subsets in peripheral blood and thymus of mice after radiotherapy. We also performed terminal dexynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) to investigate the apoptosis and underlying mechanisms of SP in thymus. Data showed that radiation-induced apoptosis of thymocytes could be reversed by SP through inducing upregulation of Bcl-2 expression and downregulation of Fas and Bax levels. Furthermore, SP has no any side-effects on immunity of normal mice. In conclusion, our results indicated that SP could effectively prevent immune injury during radiotherapy by protecting the immune system. This valuable information should be of assistance in choosing a rational design for therapeutic interventions of prevention immune system damage in the radiation treatment. PMID:25709011

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Treatment as Prevention in Serodiscordant Couples

    PubMed Central

    Walensky, Rochelle P.; Ross, Eric L.; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Wood, Robin; Noubary, Farzad; Paltiel, A. David; Nakamura, Yoriko M.; Godbole, Sheela V.; Panchia, Ravindre; Sanne, Ian; Weinstein, Milton C.; Losina, Elena; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Chen, Ying Q.; Wang, Lei; McCauley, Marybeth; Gamble, Theresa; Seage, George R.; Cohen, Myron S.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The cost-effectiveness of early antiretroviral therapy (ART) in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in serodiscordant couples is not known. Using a computer simulation of the progression of HIV infection and data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 study, we projected the cost-effectiveness of early ART for such persons. METHODS For HIV-infected partners in serodiscordant couples in South Africa and India, we compared the early initiation of ART with delayed ART. Five-year and lifetime outcomes included cumulative HIV transmissions, life-years, costs, and cost-effectiveness. We classified early ART as very cost-effective if its incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was less than the annual per capita gross domestic product (GDP; $8,100 in South Africa and $1,500 in India), as cost-effective if the ratio was less than three times the GDP, and as cost-saving if it resulted in a decrease in total costs and an increase in life-years, as compared with delayed ART. RESULTS In South Africa, early ART prevented opportunistic diseases and was cost-saving over a 5-year period; over a lifetime, it was very cost-effective ($590 per life-year saved). In India, early ART was cost-effective ($1,800 per life-year saved) over a 5-year period and very cost-effective ($530 per life-year saved) over a lifetime. In both countries, early ART prevented HIV transmission over short periods, but longer survival attenuated this effect; the main driver of life-years saved was a clinical benefit for treated patients. Early ART remained very cost-effective over a lifetime under most modeled assumptions in the two countries. CONCLUSIONS In South Africa, early ART was cost-saving over a 5-year period. In both South Africa and India, early ART was projected to be very cost-effective over a lifetime. With individual, public health, and economic benefits, there is a compelling case for early ART for serodiscordant couples in resource-limited settings. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others.) PMID:24171517

  10. Effectiveness of the Surviving the Teens® Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program: An Impact Evaluation Utilizing a Comparison Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunk, Catherine M.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Sorter, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Youth suicide is a serious public health issue in the United States. It is currently the third leading cause of death for youth aged 10 to 19. School-based prevention programs may be an effective method of educating youth and enhancing their help-seeking. Most school-based suicide prevention programs have not been rigorously evaluated for their…

  11. Translating an Effective Group-Based HIV Prevention Program to a Program Delivered Primarily by a Computer: Methods and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, Josefina J.; Kuhn, Tamara; Solomon, Julie; Benner, Tabitha A.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe development of SAHARA (SiSTAS Accessing HIV/AIDS Resources At-a-click), an innovative HIV prevention program that uses a computer to deliver an updated version of SiSTA, a widely used, effective group-level HIV prevention intervention for African American women ages 18-29. Fidelity to SiSTA's core components was achieved using: (1)…

  12. The Effectiveness of Psycho-Educational School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training Program on Turkish Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…

  13. The Short-Term Effectiveness of a Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Training Program in a College Setting with Residence Life Advisers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Tanya L.; Witt, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Although the college years prove to be a vulnerable time for students and a critical period for suicide prevention, few school-based prevention strategies have been empirically evaluated. The current study examined the short-term effects of Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR), a gatekeeper training program that teaches how to recognize warning…

  14. Commentary on Foubert, Godin, & Tatum (2010): The Evolution of Sexual Violence Prevention and the Urgency for Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp, Andra Teten; DeGue, Sarah; Lang, Karen; Valle, Linda Anne; Massetti, Greta; Holt, Melissa; Matjasko, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Foubert, Godin, and Tatum describe qualitative effects among college men of The Men's Program, a one-session sexual violence prevention program. This article and the program it describes are representative of many sexual violence prevention programs that are in practice and provide an opportunity for a brief discussion of the development and…

  15. Evaluating a prevention program for teenagers on sexual coercion: a differential effectiveness approach.

    PubMed

    Pacifici, C; Stoolmiller, M; Nelson, C

    2001-06-01

    The authors evaluated a coeducational program for teenagers on preventing sexual coercion in dating situations. Students examined individual and social attitudes underlying coercive sexual behavior and learned communication skills aimed at preventing or dealing with unwanted sexual advances. Instruction was enhanced by video and an interactive video "virtual date." Outcomes were assessed using sexual attitude scales with a sample of 458 high school students. Student health education classes were randomly assigned to either a treatment or a control condition. Findings, based on a latent variable model of differential effectiveness, showed that students in the treatment group with initial coercive attitude scores at or above the mean benefited significantly more than students with the same range of scores in the control group. PMID:11495184

  16. Dating violence among adolescents: prevalence, gender distribution, and prevention program effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Laura J; Jaycox, Lisa H; Aronoff, Jessica

    2004-04-01

    Relative to violence among adult intimate partners, violence among adolescent dating partners remains an understudied phenomenon. In this review, we assess the state of the research literature on teen dating violence. Our review reveals that the broad range of estimates produced by major national data sources and single studies make conclusions about the prevalence of teen dating violence premature. Similarly, our review of what is known about risk factors reveals inconsistency among studies. We assess published evaluations of adolescent dating violence prevention programs and discuss their findings and limitations. Finally, we discuss challenges to researchers in this area and suggest that additional investment in high-quality basic research is needed to inform the development of sound theory and effective prevention and intervention programs. PMID:15070553

  17. The Effects of the Fast Track Preventive Intervention on the Development of Conduct Disorder Across Childhood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the Fast Track intervention on externalizing disorders across childhood was examined. Eight hundred-ninety-one early-starting children (69% male; 51% African American) were randomly assigned by matched sets of schools to intervention or control conditions. The 10-year intervention addressed parent behavior-management, child social cognitive skills, reading, home visiting, mentoring, and classroom curricula. Outcomes included psychiatric diagnoses after grades 3, 6, 9, and 12 for conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and any externalizing disorder. Significant interaction effects between intervention and initial risk level indicated that intervention prevented the lifetime prevalence of all diagnoses, but only among those at highest initial risk, suggesting that targeted intervention can prevent externalizing disorders to promote the raising of healthy children. PMID:21291445

  18. The effect of food portion sizes on the obesity prevention using system dynamics modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zulkepli, Jafri Hj; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-09-01

    The rise in income and population growth have increased the demand for food and induced changes in food habits, food purchasing and consumption patterns in Malaysia. With this transition, one of the plausible causes of weight gain and obesity is the frequent consumption of outside food which is synonymous with bigger portion size. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop a system dynamics model to analyse the effect of reducing food portion size on weight and obesity prevention. This study combines the different strands of knowledge comprise of nutrition, physical activity and body metabolism. These elements are synthesized into a system dynamics model called SIMULObese. Findings from this study suggested that changes in eating behavior should not emphasize only on limiting the food portion size consumption. The efforts should also consider other eating events such as controlling the meal frequency and limiting intake of high-calorie food in developing guidelines to prevent obesity.

  19. Exercise and DHA Prevent the Negative Effects of Hypoxia on EEG and Nerve Conduction Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Erken, Gülten; Çolak, R?dvan; Genç, Osman

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Erken, Haydar Ali, Gülten Erken, Ridvan Çolak, Osman Genç. Exercise and DHA prevent the negative effects of hypoxia on EEG and nerve conduction velocity. High Alt Med Biol 14:360–366, 2013.—It is known that hypoxia has a negative effect on nervous system functions, but exercise and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) have positive effect. In this study, it was investigated whether exercise and/or DHA can prevent the effects of hypoxia on EEG and nerve conduction velocity (NCV). 35 adult Wistar albino male rats were divided into five groups (n=7): control (C), hypoxia (H), hypoxia and exercise (HE), hypoxia and DHA (HD), and hypoxia and exercise and DHA (HED) groups. During the 28-day hypoxia exposure, the HE and HED groups of rats were exercised (0% incline, 30?m/min speed, 20?min/day, 5 days a week). In addition, DHA (36?mg/kg/day) was given by oral gavage to rats in the HD and HED groups. While EEG records were taken before and after the experimental period, NCV records were taken after the experimental period from anesthetized rats. Data were analyzed by paired t-test, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey test. In this study, it was shown that exposure to hypoxia decreased theta activity and NCV, but exercise and DHA reduced the delta activity, while theta, alpha, beta activities, and NCV were increased. These results have shown that the effects of hypoxia exposure on EEG and NCV can be prevented by exercise and/or DHA. PMID:24377343

  20. Steroid Administration is Effective to Prevent Strictures After Endoscopic Esophageal Submucosal Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenjin; Ma, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Esophageal stricture is a severe adverse event after circumferential endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Steroid administration is a new method to prevent stricture formation. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy and safety of steroid administration to prevent esophageal stricture after circumferential ESD. PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Database, and Clinicaltrials.gov were searched. Studies on steroid administration?+?endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) versus EBD alone for esophageal stricture were included and pooled analyzed in random-effects models. Besides, subgroup analysis and network analysis were performed to define the influence of ESD type and steroid administration method. Twelve studies involving 513 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that steroid administration significantly achieved a lower stricture rate (risk ratio [RR], 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20–0.81) and less required EBD sessions (mean difference [MD], ?4.33; 95% CI, ?6.10 to ?2.57) than control. Subgroup analysis indicated that steroid was effective after both semi- and complete circumferential ESD. Network meta-analysis showed that compared with oral steroid, local injected steroid had a similar effect to prevent stricture (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.48–2.85), whereas a better effect to reduce required EBD sessions (MD, 7.77; 95%CI, 0.26–15.3). Additional steroid administration is effective to reduce the stricture rate and required EBD sessions. And local injected steroid was superior to oral steroid in EBD reduction, whereas due to the varied method and dose of steroid administration, the finding needs to be clarified in the future. PMID:26426665

  1. JSOM ACCOUNTING INTERNSHIP REQUIREMENT Effective Fall 2014, ALL students are required to complete an internship or community service prior to graduation.

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    JSOM ­ ACCOUNTING INTERNSHIP REQUIREMENT Effective Fall 2014, ALL students are required to complete an internship or community service prior to graduation. ACCT 4V80 The ONLY internship option that will satisfy not count) before the internship semester. All students must have a 3.0 GPA in the 12+ hours of accounting

  2. Effects of a Short Messaging Service–Based Skin Cancer Prevention Campaign in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hingle, Melanie D.; Snyder, Aimee L.; McKenzie, Naja E.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Logan, Robert A.; Ellison, Eden A.; Koch, Stephanie M.; Harris, Robin B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Skin cancer prevention emphasizes early adoption and practice of sun protection behaviors. Adolescence represents a high-risk period for ultraviolet radiation exposure, presenting an opportunity for intervention. The ubiquity of mobile phones among teens offers an engaging medium through which to communicate prevention messages. Purpose To evaluate a skin cancer prevention intervention using short messaging service (SMS, or text messages) to impact sun-related knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors among adolescents. Methods The intervention was conducted in middle school youth (N=113) recruited in April or October 2012. Participants were English speakers, 11–14 years old, routinely carried a mobile phone, and completed a 55-minute sun safety education program. Participants were sent three sun safety–themed SMS messages each week for 12 weeks. Skin and sun protective knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and post-intervention program satisfaction were collected and analyzed at baseline and end of intervention (April/June 2012; October 2012/January 2013). Paired responses were tested for equality using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results Ninety-six students (85%) completed the study. At 12 weeks, significant positive changes were reported for sun avoidance during peak ultraviolet radiation, sunscreen application, wearing hats and sunglasses, and knowledge about skin cancer risk. Participants expressed moderately high satisfaction with the program, and 15% shared messages with family or friends. Conclusions A brief, SMS-based intervention impacted youth skin cancer prevention behaviors and knowledge. Future research will determine whether program effects were sustained at 24 weeks and explore how sun safety parenting practices inform these effects. PMID:25053602

  3. Possible effects of elk harvest on fall distribution of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haroldson, M.A.; Schwartz, C.C.; Cherry, S.; Moody, D.

    2004-01-01

     The tradition of early elk (Cervus elaphus) hunting seasons adjacent to Yellowstone National Park (YNP), USA, provides grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) with ungulate remains left by hunters. We investigated the fall (Aug–Oct) distribution of grizzly bears relative to the boundaries of YNP and the opening of September elk hunting seasons. Based on results from exact tests of conditional independence, we estimated the odds of radiomarked bears being outside YNP during the elk hunt versus before the hunt. Along the northern boundary, bears were 2.40 times more likely to be outside YNP during the hunt in good whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) seed-crop years and 2.72 times more likely in poor seed-crop years. The level of confidence associated with 1-sided confidence intervals with a lower endpoint of 1 was approximately 94% in good seed-crop years and 61% in poor years. Along the southern boundary of YNP, radiomarked bears were 2.32 times more likely to be outside the park during the hunt in good whitebark pine seed-crop years and 4.35 times more likely in poor seed-crop years. The level of confidence associated with 1-sided confidence intervals with a lower endpoint of 1 was approximately 93% in both cases. Increased seasonal bear densities and human presence in early hunt units increases potential for conflicts between bears and hunters. Numbers of reported hunting-related grizzly bear mortalities have increased in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) during the last decade, and nearly half of this increase is due to bear deaths occurring in early hunt units during September. Human-caused grizzly bear mortality thresholds established by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) have not been exceeded in recent years. This is because agency actions have reduced other sources of human-caused mortalities, and because population parameters that mortality thresholds are based on have increased. Agencies must continue to monitor and manage hunter-caused grizzly bear mortality at sustainable levels to ensure the long-term health of the GYE population.

  4. The effects of aquatic walking and jogging program on physical function and fall efficacy in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Hyun; Sung, Eunsook

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 12-week aqua walking and jogging program on muscle function, ankle range of motion (ROM), balance and fell efficacy in degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) patients. Six patients (2 males, 4 females) with DLSS participated in aquatic exercise program 3 times per week with each session of 60 min (warming-up, aqua walking, aqua jogging and cool down) at 1 m 20 cm–1 m 30 cm deep pool. Janda’s muscle function test, ankle ROM, Berg balance scale (BBS) and fall efficacy scale (FES) were analyzed before and after the training intervention. We found significant increases in balance, muscle function, ankle ROM and fall efficacy after training intervention. In conclusion, aquatic exercise seems to affect physical function and fall efficacy positively in elderly DLSS patients. PMID:26535218

  5. Perioperative analgesic effects of intravenous paracetamol: Preemptive versus preventive analgesia in elective cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Hossam Ibrahim Eldesuky Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cesarean section (CS) is the one of the most common surgical procedure in women. There is preoperative stress effect before the delivery of the baby as (intubation and skin incision). There is acute postoperative pain, which may be progressed to chronic pain. All these perioperative stress effects need for various approach of treatment, which including systemic and neuraxial analgesia. The different analgesia modalities may affect and impair early interaction between mother and infant. Preemptive intravenous (I.V.) paracetamol (before induction) may reduce stress response before the delivery of the baby, intraoperative opioids and postoperative pain. Objectives: The aim of this study to compare between the administration of I.V. paracetamol as: Preemptive analgesia (preoperative) and preventive analgesia (at the end of surgery) as regards of hemodynamic, pain control, duration of analgesia, cumulative doses of intraoperative opioids and their related side-effects and to compare between two different protocols of postoperative analgesia and their cumulative doses. Patients and Methods: Sixty patients undergoing elective CS were randomly enrolled in this study and divided into two groups of 30 patients each. Group I: i.V. paracetamol 1 g (100 ml) was given 30 min before induction of anesthesia. Group II: i.V. paracetamol 1 g (100 ml) was given 30 min before the end of surgery. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and peripheral oxygen saturation were recorded. Postoperative pain was assessed by visual analog score. Postoperative pethidine was given by two different protocols: group I: 0.5 mg/kg was divided into 0.25 mg/kg intramuscular and 0.25 mg/kg I.V. Group II was given pethidine 0.5 mg/kg I.V. Doses of intraoperative fentanyl, postoperative pethidine, duration of paracetamol analgesic time, time to next analgesia, and side-effects of opioid were noted and compared. Result: Preemptive group had hemodynamic stability, especially before delivery of the baby P < 0.001. Preventive group had longer duration of paracetamol analgesia and higher intraoperative opioid P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively. Preemptive group had longer time for next analgesia and lower incidences of postoperative side-effects P < 0.001 and P < 0.05. Preemptive group had higher pain scores in immediate postoperative and after 6 h but preventive group had higher pain scores in 4 and 8 h postoperatively P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively. Conclusion: Preemptive paracetamol and immediate postoperative opioid analgesia were more effective than preventive paracetamol. PMID:25886332

  6. Neighborhood Effects on the Efficacy of a Program to Prevent Youth Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Yabiku, Scott; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Lewin, Ben; Nieri, Tanya; Hussaini, Syed

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how neighborhood characteristics affect program efficacy. Data come from a randomized trial of a substance use prevention program called keepin’ it REAL, which was administered to a predominantly Mexican American sample of 4,622 middle school students in Phoenix, Arizona, beginning in 1998. Multilevel models and multiple imputation techniques address clustered data and attrition. Among less linguistically acculturated Latinos, living in poorer neighborhoods and those with many single-mother families decreased program effectiveness in combating alcohol use. High neighborhood immigrant composition increased program effectiveness. Unexpectedly, the program was also more effective in neighborhoods with higher rates of crime. There were no significant effects on program efficacy for the more linguistically acculturated Latinos and non-Hispanic White students. Findings are discussed in light of theories of neighborhood social disorganization, immigrant adaptation, and social isolation. PMID:17366126

  7. Melatonin Has An Ergogenic Effect But Does Not Prevent Inflammation and Damage In Exhaustive Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Wladimir Rafael; Botezelli, José Diego; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    It is well documented that exhaustive physical exercise leads to inflammation and skeletal muscle tissue damage. With this in mind, melatonin has been acutely administered before physical exercise; nevertheless, the use of melatonin as an ergogenic agent to prevent tissue inflammation and damage remains uncertain. We evaluated the effects of melatonin on swimming performance, muscle inflammation and damage and several physiological parameters after exhaustive exercise at anaerobic threshold intensity (iLAn) performed during light or dark circadian periods. The iLAn was individually determined and two days later, the animals performed an exhaustive exercise bout at iLAn 30?minutes after melatonin administration. The exercise promoted muscle inflammation and damage, mainly during the dark period, and the exogenous melatonin promoted a high ergogenic effect. The expressive ergogenic effect of melatonin leads to longer periods of muscle contraction, which superimposes a possible melatonin protective effect on the tissue damage and inflammation. PMID:26669455

  8. The cost-effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: Results from a modelling study.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Linda; Svensson, Mikael

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to bullying affects around 3-5 percent of adolescents in secondary school and is related to various mental health problems. Many different anti-bullying programmes are currently available, but economic evaluations are lacking. The aim of this study is to identify the cost effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP). We constructed a decision-tree model for a Swedish secondary school, using a public payer perspective, and retrieved data on costs and effects from the published literature. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis to reflect the uncertainty in the model was conducted. The base-case analysis showed that using the OBPP to reduce the number of victims of bullying costs 131 250 Swedish kronor (€14 470) per victim spared. Compared to a relevant threshold of the societal value of bullying reduction, this indicates that the programme is cost-effective. Using a relevant willingness-to-pay threshold shows that the OBPP is a cost-effective intervention. PMID:26433734

  9. Melatonin Has An Ergogenic Effect But Does Not Prevent Inflammation and Damage In Exhaustive Exercise.

    PubMed

    Beck, Wladimir Rafael; Botezelli, José Diego; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    It is well documented that exhaustive physical exercise leads to inflammation and skeletal muscle tissue damage. With this in mind, melatonin has been acutely administered before physical exercise; nevertheless, the use of melatonin as an ergogenic agent to prevent tissue inflammation and damage remains uncertain. We evaluated the effects of melatonin on swimming performance, muscle inflammation and damage and several physiological parameters after exhaustive exercise at anaerobic threshold intensity (iLAn) performed during light or dark circadian periods. The iLAn was individually determined and two days later, the animals performed an exhaustive exercise bout at iLAn 30?minutes after melatonin administration. The exercise promoted muscle inflammation and damage, mainly during the dark period, and the exogenous melatonin promoted a high ergogenic effect. The expressive ergogenic effect of melatonin leads to longer periods of muscle contraction, which superimposes a possible melatonin protective effect on the tissue damage and inflammation. PMID:26669455

  10. Comparative effectiveness of long term drug treatment strategies to prevent asthma exacerbations: network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the comparative effectiveness and safety of current maintenance strategies in preventing exacerbations of asthma. Design Systematic review and network meta-analysis using Bayesian statistics. Data sources Cochrane systematic reviews on chronic asthma, complemented by an updated search when appropriate. Eligibility criteria Trials of adults with asthma randomised to maintenance treatments of at least 24 weeks duration and that reported on asthma exacerbations in full text. Low dose inhaled corticosteroid treatment was the comparator strategy. The primary effectiveness outcome was the rate of severe exacerbations. The secondary outcome was the composite of moderate or severe exacerbations. The rate of withdrawal was analysed as a safety outcome. Results 64 trials with 59?622 patient years of follow-up comparing 15 strategies and placebo were included. For prevention of severe exacerbations, combined inhaled corticosteroids and long acting ? agonists as maintenance and reliever treatment and combined inhaled corticosteroids and long acting ? agonists in a fixed daily dose performed equally well and were ranked first for effectiveness. The rate ratios compared with low dose inhaled corticosteroids were 0.44 (95% credible interval 0.29 to 0.66) and 0.51 (0.35 to 0.77), respectively. Other combined strategies were not superior to inhaled corticosteroids and all single drug treatments were inferior to single low dose inhaled corticosteroids. Safety was best for conventional best (guideline based) practice and combined maintenance and reliever therapy. Conclusions Strategies with combined inhaled corticosteroids and long acting ? agonists are most effective and safe in preventing severe exacerbations of asthma, although some heterogeneity was observed in this network meta-analysis of full text reports. PMID:24919052

  11. Antiinflammatory Effect of Phytosterols in Experimental Murine Colitis Model: Prevention, Induction, Remission Study

    PubMed Central

    Aldini, Rita; Micucci, Matteo; Cevenini, Monica; Fato, Romana; Bergamini, Christian; Nanni, Cristina; Cont, Massimiliano; Camborata, Cecilia; Spinozzi, Silvia; Montagnani, Marco; Roda, Giulia; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Rosini, Francesca; Roda, Aldo; Mazzella, Giuseppe; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Phytosterols, besides hypocholesterolemic effect, present anti-inflammatory properties. Little information is available about their efficacy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Therefore, we have evaluated the effect of a mixture of phytosterols on prevention/induction/remission in a murine experimental model of colitis. Phytosterols were administered x os before, during and after colitis induction with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) in mice. Disease Activity Index (DAI), colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress in the intestinal tissue (ileum and colon) and gallbladder ileum and colon spontaneous and carbachol (CCh) induced motility, plasma lipids and plasma, liver and biliary bile acids (BA) were evaluated. A similar longitudinal study was performed in a DSS colitis control group. Mice treated with DSS developed severe colitis as shown by DAI, colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress. Both spontaneous and induced ileal and colonic motility were severely disturbed. The same was observed with gallbladder. DSS colitis resulted in an increase in plasma cholesterol, and a modification of the BA pattern. Phytosterols feeding did not prevent colitis onset but significantly reduced the severity of the disease and improved clinical and histological remission. It had strong antioxidant effects, almost restored colon, ileal and gallbladder motility. Plasmatic levels of cholesterol were also reduced. DSS induced a modification in the BA pattern consistent with an increase in the intestinal BA deconjugating bacteria, prevented by phytosterols. Phytosterols seem a potential nutraceutical tool for gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases, combining metabolic systematic and local anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25268769

  12. Late preventive effects of trifluoperazine on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Villarruel, M.C.; Fernandez, G.; de Ferreyra, E.C.; de Fenos, O.M.; Castro, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    As a very preliminary test for a possible role of calmodulin in CCl/sub 4/-induced hepatic injury, we studied the effects of the anticalmodulin drug trifluoperazine (TFP) on several deleterious actions of CCl/sub 4/ on the liver. TFP administrated 30 min before or 6 or 10 hr after CCl/sub 4/ significantly prevented hepatic necrosis induced by the hepatotoxin at 24 hr but not at 72 hr. TFP did not modify the CCl/sub 4/ concentrations reaching the liver, or the intensity of the covalent binding of CCl/sub 4/-reactive metabolites to hepatic microsomal proteins or lipids or the CCl/sub 4/-induced cytochrome P-450 and glucose 6 phosphatase destruction. TFP administration decreased body temperature between 0 and 1 degree C in controls and between 1.2 and 3.5 degrees C in CCl/sub 4/-treated animals during the 24-hr observation period. When TFP-treated CCl/sub 4/-poisoned animals were kept normothermic, protective effects were eliminated. One possibility is that the protective effect of TFP might be due to a nonspecific action related to decreased body temperature. Alternatively, prevention might result from TFP inhibition of a late-occurring process critical for CCl/sub 4/-induced cell necrosis requiring calmodulin participation. If this alternative were in operation, protective consequences of this inhibitory effect of TFP should be either canceled or counteracted in the normothermic TFP + CCl/sub 4/-treated animal.

  13. TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of ... of coordination, and increased confusion, restlessness or agitation. Diagnosis Imaging tests, including X-rays of the head ...

  14. Aspirin-induced small bowel injuries and the preventive effect of rebamipide

    PubMed Central

    Mizukami, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Kazunari; Abe, Takashi; Inoue, Kunimitsu; Uchida, Masahiro; Okimoto, Tadayoshi; Kodama, Masaaki; Fujioka, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the influence of taking low-dose aspirin for 4 wk on small intestinal complications and to examine the preventive effect of rebamipide. METHODS: This study was conducted as a single-center, randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study. Eleven healthy male subjects were enrolled. Each subject underwent video capsule endoscopy after 1 and 4 wk of taking aspirin and omeprazole, along with either rebamipide or placebo therapy. The primary endpoint was to evaluate small bowel damage in healthy subjects before and after taking low-dose aspirin for 4 wk. RESULTS: The number of subjects with mucosal breaks (defined as multiple erosions and/or ulcers) were 1 at 1 wk and 1 at 4 wk on the jejunum, and 6 at 1 wk (P = 0.0061) and 7 at 4 wk on the ileum (P = 0.0019). Rebamipide significantly prevented mucosal breaks on the ileum compared with the placebo group (P = 0.0173 at 1 wk and P = 0.0266 at 4 wk). CONCLUSION: Longer-term, low-dose aspirin administration induced damage in the small bowel. Rebamipide prevented this damage, and may be a candidate drug for treating aspirin-induced small bowel complications. PMID:22171147

  15. Indicated Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in South Africa: Effectiveness of Case Management.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Marlene M; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Roux, Sumien; Baca, Beth A; Hasken, Julie M; Barnard, Ronel; Buckley, David; Kalberg, Wendy O; Snell, Cudore L; Marais, Anna-Susan; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; May, Philip A

    2015-01-01

    In the Western Cape Province of South Africa (ZA) a subculture of binge drinking produces the highest global documented prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD prevention research activities in ZA use the Comprehensive Prevention approach from the United States Institute of Medicine. Case management (CM) was delivered as a method of indicated prevention to empower heavy drinking pregnant women to achieve cessation or a reduction in drinking. CM activities incorporated life management, Motivational Interviewing (MI) techniques and the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Mean drinking decreases 6 months into CM; but overall alcohol consumption rose significantly over time to levels higher than baseline at 12 and 18 months. Alcohol consumption drops significantly from before pregnancy to the second and third trimesters. AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking decreases significantly even after the vulnerable fetus/baby was born. CM significantly increases client happiness, which correlates with reduced weekend drinking. CM was successful for women with high-risk drinking behaviour, and was effective in helping women stop drinking, or drink less, while pregnant, reducing the risk of FASD. PMID:26703708

  16. An Effectiveness Trial of a New Enhanced Dissonance Eating Disorder Prevention Program among Female College Students

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Butryn, Meghan L.; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Efficacy trials indicate that a dissonance-based prevention program in which female high school and college students with body image concerns critique the thin-ideal reduced risk factors, eating disorder symptoms, and future eating disorder onset, but weaker effects emerged from an effectiveness trial wherein high school clinicians recruited students and delivered the program under real-world conditions. The present effectiveness trial tested whether a new enhanced dissonance version of this program produced larger effects when college clinicians recruited students and delivered the intervention using improved procedures to select, train, and supervise clinicians. Method Young women recruited from seven universities across the US (N = 408, M age = 21.6, SD = 5.64) were randomized to the dissonance intervention or an educational brochure control condition. Results Dissonance participants showed significantly greater decreases in risk factors (thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, negative affect) and eating disorder symptoms versus controls at posttest and 1-year follow-up, resulting in medium average effect size (d = .60). Dissonance participants also reported significant improvements in psychosocial functioning, but not reduced healthcare utilization or unhealthy weight gain. Conclusions This novel multisite effectiveness trial with college clinicians found that the enhanced dissonance version of this program and the improved facilitator selection/training procedures produced average effects that were 83% larger than effects observed in the high school effectiveness trial. PMID:24189570

  17. Performance of High Strength Rock Fall Meshes: Effect of Block Size and Mesh Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzi, Olivier; Leonarduzzi, E.; Krummenacher, B.; Volkwein, A.; Giacomini, A.

    2015-05-01

    In rockfall science, the bullet effect refers to the perforation of a rockfall mesh by a small block traveling at high speed. To date, there is still no comprehensive experimental data set investigating the underlying mechanisms of such effect. The bullet effect illustrates the fact that the capacity of a rockfall mesh depends on the size and speed of the impacting block. This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the effect of block size and mesh geometry (aperture and wire diameter) on the mesh performance. The results clearly show that the amount of energy required to perforate the mesh drops as the blocks get smaller. They also suggest that the mesh performance reaches a maximum and reduces to zero when the mesh cannot sustain the static load imposed by very large blocks. The outcome of the first series validates an analytical model for mesh perforation, making it the first simple model capturing the bullet effect. A second series of tests focused on the effect of mesh geometry and it was found that decreasing the mesh aperture by 19 % improves the performance by 50 % while only an extra 30 % could be gained by increasing the wire diameter by 33 %. The outcomes of the second series were used to discuss and redefine a dimensionless geometrical parameter G* and to validate a simple power type equation relating the mesh characteristics and the mesh performance.

  18. Can a multi-factorial assessment and interventional programme decrease inpatient falls in an elderly care ward?

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Rebecca SJ; Heaney, April; Hull, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Each year approximately 282,000 inpatient falls are reported to the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA). A significant number result in death, or moderate to severe injury. (1) Research shows that falls may be reduced by 18 to 31% through multi-factorial assessments and interventions. (4) If a fall cannot be prevented, the patient should receive a prompt and effective response to achieve the best possible recovery and avoidance of further falls. Using ‘Plan-Do-Study-Act’ learning cycles, our aims were to decrease the inpatient falls rate in an Elderly Care ward by 20% and to improve post-fall care. A baseline audit reviewed incident report forms to establish the number of falls per 1000 patient bed days for one calendar year; the baseline falls rate was 14.70 falls per 1000 bed days between November 2010 and October 2011. A care plan to highlight at-risk patients and allow adaptation of care, a ‘walking-stick’ incentive poster to encourage nursing staff, and post-fall guidelines, were introduced. Feedback sessions with ward staff and a re-audit were organised subsequent to each intervention. Completion of the care plan was monitored to improve compliance. A re-audit at one year was conducted to assess impact. Feedback was positive regarding the interventions. Monthly monitoring of care plans achieved a compliance rate of 89% and highlighted up to 81% of patients were considered high-risk. The inpatient falls rate, re-audited at one year, was 12.44 falls / 1000 patient bed days, November 2011 to October 2012; a 15.4% reduction. This study demonstrates a 15.4% reduction in falls through use of a multi-factorial assessment and care plan and an incentive poster. As we are yet to obtain our initial goal of 20%, implementation and re-audit is ongoing.

  19. On the Mechanisms of Harmful Effects of Certain Medicinal Preparations on the Auditory Organ and Methods for Their Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakay, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    Various drugs are discussed and many references are mentioned. It was concluded that the development of methods of pharmacological prevention of the harmful effect of drugs on the auditory analyzor is a necessity.

  20. Effect of anti-osteoporotic agents on the prevention of bone loss in unloaded bone.

    PubMed

    Siu, Wing Sum; Ko, Chun Hay; Hung, Leung Kim; Lau, Ching Po; Lau, Clara Bik San; Fung, Kwok Pui; Leung, Ping Chung

    2013-10-01

    Pharmaceutical countermeasures to treat disuse osteoporosis are rarely studied. Pharmaceutical studies for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis depend on the ovariectomized rat model, which is a suitable model for the disease in women. Disuse osteoporosis affects men and women, but there is lack of awareness and relevant pharmaceutical studies for this condition. The objectives of this study were to verify the validity of an unusual tail-suspension rat model in the induction of disuse osteoporosis and subsequent pharmaceutical treatments. This model was created by unloading the hind limbs of the rats in order to create a state of weightlessness in their hindlimb bones. Validation of the model was performed with non-suspended rats. This study included five groups of suspended rats fed with different agents, such as distilled water (control), high-, medium- and low-dose raloxifene and a bisphosphonate (alendronate). The experiment lasted for 28 days. Comparisons were made between the suspended control and treatment groups. Ovariectomized and sham?operated rats were also included as a reference for bone changes during osteoporosis. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) at the distal femur and proximal tibia, microarchitecture at the distal femur and biomechanical strength at the diaphyseal femur were studied. Reduction of BMD and deterioration of trabeculae were similar between the suspended control and ovariectomized rats. Loss of BMD induced by tail suspension was reduced most effectively by medium-dose raloxifene. Deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture was also prevented by raloxifene. The tail-suspension rat model is suitable for the study of disuse osteoporosis under the effects of various therapeutic agents. The preventive effects of raloxifene against bone loss under disuse conditions have been demonstrated using this model. PMID:23970373

  1. The Interaction of Social Networks and Child Obesity Prevention Program Effects: The Pathways Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hee-Sung; Valente, Thomas W.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Huh, Jimi; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective Social network analysis was used to examine whether peer influence from one’s social networks moderates obesity prevention program effects on obesity related behaviors: healthful behaviors and unhealthful ones. Design and Methods Participants included 557 children residing in Southern California. Survey assessed health promoting behaviors (i.e., physical activity at school, physical activity outside of school, and fruit and vegetable intake), as well as unhealthful ones (high calorie low nutrient intake and sedentary activity), and peer exposure calculated from social network nominations as indicators of peer influence. Multilevel models were conducted separately on outcomes predicted by program participation, peer exposure, and program participation by peer exposure. Results Results indicated that peer exposure was positively associated with one’s own behavior for both healthful and unhealthful behaviors. Program participation effects were moderated by peer influence, but only when unhealthful peer influence was present. Results suggest that peer influence can diminish or amplify prevention programs Conclusion Future interventions should consider peer-led components to promote healthful influence of peers on healthful and unhealthful behaviors, and programs should be mindful that their effects are moderated by social networks. PMID:24616241

  2. Effectiveness of Anabolic Steroid Preventative Intervention among Gym Users: Applying Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jalilian, Farzad; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Moeini, Babak; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been associated with adverse physical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. This study was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency among gym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework. Methods: Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and control group. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest - posttest series control group design panel study to implement a behaviour modification based intervention to prevent AAS use. Cross -tabulation and t-test by using SPSS statistical package, version 13 was used for the statistical analysis. Results: It was found significant improvements in average response for knowledge about side effects of AAS (P<0.001), attitude toward, and intention not to use AAS. Additionally after intervention, the rate of AAS and supplements use was decreased among intervention group. Conclusion: Comprehensive implementation against AAS abuse among gym users and ado­lescences would be effective to improve adolescents’ healthy behaviors and intend them not to use AAS. PMID:24688897

  3. Preventive effect of Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl. on activated carbon-induced constipation in mice

    PubMed Central

    WANG, RUI; SUN, PENG; ZHOU, YALIN; ZHAO, XIN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl. (D. candidum) on activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR mice. ICR mice were orally administered D. candidum for 9 days. Body weight, defecation status, gastrointestinal (GI) transit and defecation times, in addition to the levels of motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas), endothelin (ET), somatostatin (SS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in serum were used to evaluate the preventive effects of D. candidum on constipation. The laxative drug bisacodyl acted as a positive control. The time to the first defecation of a black stool for the normal, control, bisacodyl-treated (100 mg/kg), 200 and 400 mg/kg D. candidum-treated mice was 84, 202, 126, 161 and 142 min, respectively. Following the consumption of 200 and 400 mg/kg D. candidum or bisacodyl (100 mg/kg), the GI transit was reduced to 57.7, 74.6 and 90.2%, respectively, of the transit in normal mice. The serum levels of MTL, Gas, ET, AChE, SP and VIP were significantly increased and the serum levels of SS were reduced in the mice treated with D. candidum compared with those in the untreated control mice (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that D. candidum has preventive effects on constipation in mice, and a greater functional activity was observed when a higher concentration was administered. PMID:25574235

  4. Examining the Protective Effects of Brand Equity in the keepin’ it REAL Substance Use Prevention Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Kyu; Hecht, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    While branding appears to be an effective health prevention strategy, it is less clear how successful brands have protective effects. To better understand the role of branding in health prevention and promotion, it is necessary to examine how the persuasive mechanisms of branding function in health campaigns (e.g., modeling socially desirable behaviors). Using a cross-sectional data (N = 709), the current study uncovered the mechanisms explaining branding’s effects on adolescent substance use in a school-based substance use intervention, keepin’ it REAL (kiR) curriculum. Consistent with our predictions, a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that kiR brand equity had a higher-order, multidimensional factor structure. In addition, a path analysis revealed that brand equity affected adolescent substance use directly and through the predicted social cognitive processes including refusal efficacy and resistance skills. Thus it is concluded that kiR brand equity serves as a protective factor for adolescent substance use. Practical implications, research limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:21512924

  5. Fish oil prevents oxidative stress and exerts sustained antiamnesic effect after global cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Bacarin, Cristiano Correia; de Sá-Nakanishi, Anacharis Babeto; Bracht, Adelar; Matsushita, Makoto; Santos Previdelli, Isolde; Mori, Marco Aurélio; de Oliveira, Rúbia Maria Weffort; Milani, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Transient, global cerebral ischemia (TGCI) causes hippocampal/cortical damage and the persistent loss of welltrained, long-term memory (retrograde amnesia). Fish oil (FO), a rich source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, abolishes such amnesia in the absence of neurohistological protection. The present study investigated whether FO prevents ischemia-induced oxidative stress and whether such an action contributes to the lasting effect of FO on memory recovery. In a first experiment, FO was administered for 4 days prior to ischemia, and antioxidant status was subsequently measured after 24 h of reperfusion. In another experiment, naive rats were trained in an eight-arm radial maze until they achieved asymptotic performance and then subjected to TGCI. One group of rats received FO as in the first experiment (i.e., 4 days prior to ischemia), whereas another group received FO for 4 days prior to ischemia plus 6 days postischemia. Retrograde memory performance was assessed 2-5 weeks after ischemia. TGCI depleted the level of antioxidant enzymes and increased the amount of protein carbonylation, indicating oxidative damage. Fish oil reversed oxidative damage to control levels. The same treatment that attenuated oxidative stress after 24 h of reperfusion also prevented retrograde amnesia assessed several weeks later. This antiamnesic effect afforded by short preischemia treatment was comparable to 10 days of treatment but not as consistent. These data indicate that an antioxidant action in the hyperacute phase of ischemia/reperfusion may contribute to the long-term, antiamnesic effect of FO. PMID:25714977

  6. The suicide prevention effect of lithium: more than 20 years of evidence-a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Lewitzka, U; Severus, E; Bauer, R; Ritter, P; Müller-Oerlinghausen, B; Bauer, M

    2015-12-01

    The management and treatment of patients with suicidal behavior is one of the most challenging tasks for health-care professionals. Patients with affective disorders are at high risk for suicidal behavior, therefore, should be a target for prevention. Numerous international studies of lithium use have documented anti-suicidal effects since the 1970s. Despite the unambiguous evidence of lithium's anti-suicidal effects and recommendations in national and international guidelines for its use in acute and maintenance therapy of affective disorders, the use of lithium is still underrepresented. The following article provides a comprehensive review of studies investigating the anti-suicidal effect of lithium in patients with affective disorders. PMID:26183461

  7. Assessment of channel changes, model of historical floods, and effects of backwater on flood stage, and flood mitigation alternatives for the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winters, Karl E.; Baldys, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    In cooperation with the City of Wichita Falls, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel changes on the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas, and modeled historical floods to investigate possible causes and potential mitigation alternatives to higher flood stages in recent (2007 and 2008) floods. Extreme flooding occurred on the Wichita River on June 30, 2007, inundating 167 homes in Wichita Falls. Although a record flood stage was reached in June 2007, the peak discharge was much less than some historical floods at Wichita Falls. Streamflow and stage data from two gages on the Wichita River and one on Holliday Creek were used to assess the interaction of the two streams. Changes in the Wichita River channel were evaluated using historical aerial and ground photography, comparison of recent and historical cross sections, and comparison of channel roughness coefficients with those from earlier studies. The floods of 2007 and 2008 were modeled using a one-dimensional step-backwater model. Calibrated channel roughness was larger for the 2007 flood compared to the 2008 flood, and the 2007 flood peaked about 4 feet higher than the 2008 flood. Calibration of the 1941 flood yielded a channel roughness coefficient (Manning's n) of 0.030, which represents a fairly clean natural channel. The step-backwater model was also used to evaluate the following potential mitigation alternatives: (1) increasing the capacity of the bypass channel near River Road in Wichita Falls, Texas; (2) removal of obstructions near the Scott Avenue and Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard bridges in Wichita Falls, Texas; (3) widening of aggraded channel banks in the reach between Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard and River Road; and (4) reducing channel bank and overbank roughness. Reductions in water-surface elevations ranged from 0.1 foot to as much as 3.0 feet for the different mitigation alternatives. The effects of implementing a combination of different flood-mitigation alternatives were not investigated.

  8. Effects of fall-to-winter changes in habitat and frazil ice on the movements and habitat use of juvenile rainbow trout in a Wyoming tailwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Wesche, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    Overwinter declines in the abundance of small rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have been observed in a section of the Big Horn River that lies downstream from Boysen Reservoir, where reservoir releases prevent surface ice formation. To provide insight into the possible causes of these declines in abundance, radiotelemetry was used to determine movement and microhabitat use of juvenile (20-25 cm total length) rainbow trout during the fall and winter of 1995-1996. Throughout the fall and winter, both stocked (hatchery) and naturally spawned (wild) fish were generally found in main-channel pools with cover that reduced current velocities to less than 2 cm/s near the bottom and with nearby (<2 m) water velocities that were greater than 15 cm/s. These locations provided refuges from the current, with adjacent flowing water that could deliver drifting aquatic invertebrates. The fish were generally associated with cover that was formed by aquatic vegetation early in the fall, but they shifted to cobble and boulder cover (in deeper water) as the aquatic vegetation decomposed and as winter progressed. Episodes of frazil ice in January and early February were associated with movements of wild fish in the upstream portion of the study area - from normal activity areas to refuges at the bottom of deep pools or under shelf ice in shallow water near shore. Frazil-ice episodes often initiated long-term movements among fish. Our results suggest that changing habitat features from fall to winter and frazil-ice episodes can cause juvenile rainbow trout to move and to modify their habitat use, depending on their location in a tailwater.

  9. Improving Institutional Effectiveness through Programmatic Assessment. Professional File Number 109, Fall 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Dina

    2008-01-01

    This article identifies concrete steps used at Argosy University/Orange County (Argosy or AUOC) to integrate assessment in daily institutional operations and utilize assessment data for educational and organizational improvements. Additionally, the article addresses the role of an institutional effectiveness committee in facilitating the…

  10. The Effectiveness of Different Interventions to Promote Poison Prevention Behaviours in Households with Children: A Network Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Achana, Felix A.; Sutton, Alex J.; Kendrick, Denise; Wynn, Persephone; Young, Ben; Jones, David R.; Hubbard, Stephanie J.; Cooper, Nicola J.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is evidence from 2 previous meta-analyses that interventions to promote poison prevention behaviours are effective in increasing a range of poison prevention practices in households with children. The published meta-analyses compared any intervention against a “usual care or no intervention” which potentially limits the usefulness of the analysis to decision makers. We aim to use network meta-analysis to simultaneously evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions to increase prevalence of safe storage of i) Medicines only, ii) Other household products only, iii) Poisons (both medicines and non-medicines), iv) Poisonous plants; and v) Possession of poison control centre (PCC) telephone number in households with children. Methods Data on the effectiveness of poison prevention interventions was extracted from primary studies identified in 2 newly-undertaken systematic reviews. Effect estimates were pooled across studies using a random effects network meta-analysis model. Results 28 of the 47 primary studies identified were included in the analysis. Compared to usual care intervention, the intervention with education and low cost/free equipment elements was most effective in promoting safe storage of medicines (odds ratio 2.51, 95% credible interval 1.01 to 6.00) while interventions with education, low cost/free equipment, home safety inspection and fitting components were most effective in promoting safe storage of other household products (2.52, 1.12 to 7.13), safe storage of poisons (11.10, 1.60 to 141.50) and possession of PCC number (38.82, 2.19 to 687.10). No one intervention package was more effective than the others in promoting safe storage of poisonous plants. Conclusion The most effective interventions varied by poison prevention practice, but education alone was not the most effective intervention for any poison prevention practice. Commissioners and providers of poison prevention interventions should tailor the interventions they commission or provide to the poison prevention practices they wish to promote. Highlights Network meta-analysis is useful for comparing multiple injury-prevention interventions. More intensive poison prevention interventions were more effective than education alone. Education and low cost/free equipment was most effective in promoting safe storage of medicines. Education, low cost/free equipment, home safety inspection and fitting was most effective in promoting safe storage of household products and poisons. Education, low cost/free equipment and home inspection were most effective in promoting possession of a poison control centre number. None of the intervention packages was more effective than the others in promoting safe storage of poisonous plants. PMID:25894385

  11. Effectiveness of an intervention for prevention and treatment of burnout in primary health care professionals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Burnout syndrome is an important health problem that affects many professionals and must be addressed globally, with both organizational measures and personal interventions. Burnout of health professionals can be prevented in order to avoid personal, familial, and social consequences, as well as repercussions for patients. Methods/design This work describes a protocol for a controlled, pragmatic, randomized clinical trial in 2 parallel groups: intervention and control. All health professionals from 7 health care centers will form the intervention group, and all health professionals from 7 different health care centers will form the control group. The intervention group will receive 16 hours of training at their work place. The Maslach's burnout inventory, the Cuestionario de Desgaste Profesional Médico or the Cuestionario de Desgaste Profesional de Enfermería, and the 28-item Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire, validated for our setting, will be used as measurement tools. Change in the average scores from the Maslach's burnout inventory emotional exhaustion scale will be compared between the intervention and control groups, measured as intention-to-treat, and the intervention will be considered effective if a minimum decrease of 20% is achieved. Discussion Due to the deleterious consequences of burnout syndrome for people suffering from it and for the organization where they work, it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of certain interventions for its prevention. Organizational measures are important for preventing burnout syndrome, but so is providing professionals with coping strategies, as this group intervention intends to do. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on June 10, 2013. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01870154. PMID:24237937

  12. Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Preventing Postoperative Agitation in Children: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yusheng; Jiang, Xiaoqin; Luo, Linli; Luo, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Background Emergence agitation (EA) is one of the most common postoperative complications in children. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to assess the effect of dexmedetomidine for preventing postoperative agitation in children. Methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trails, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. Randomized controlled trials were included. The following outcome measures were evaluated: incidence of EA, number of patients requiring rescue, time to eye-open, time to extubation, time to discharge from the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Results We analyzed 19 trials (1608 patients) that met the inclusion criteria. Compared with placebo, intravenous dexmedetomidine significantly reduced the incidence of EA [risk ratio (RR) 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25–0.44, P<0.00001). Dexmedetomidine also decreased the incidence of severe pain (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.27–0.62, P<0.0001) and requirement of a rescue drug (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.18–0.53, P<0.0001). However, compared with placebo, dexmedetomidine increased the time to eye-open by 0.98 min (P = 0.01) and the time to PACU discharge by 4.63 min (P = 0.02). Dexmedetomidine was also compared with midazolam, propofol, ketamine, and fentanyl, among others. No significant difference was found in the incidence of EA for most of these comparisons, with the exception of fentanyl and propofol, where dexmedetomidine was more beneficial. Conclusions Dexmedetomidine was proved effective for preventing EA and for reducing severe pain and the requirement of rescue drugs. It slightly increased the time to eye-open and the time to PACU discharge. Dexmedetomidine was also more beneficial than propofol or fentanyl in preventing EA. PMID:25997021

  13. Effect of External Use of Sesame Oil in the Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Phlebitis

    PubMed Central

    Nekuzad, Nilufar; Ashke Torab, Tahereh; Mojab, Faraz; Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Azadeh, Payam; Ehtejab, Gholamreza

    2012-01-01

    Intravenous chemotherapy is an important mean for the treatment of cancers. Infusion phlebitis (Ph) is a common and acute complication of chemotherapy. The frequency of Ph is about 70% in patients undergoing chemotherapeutic management. It can induce the pain, increase the risk of thrombophlebitis, lead to incomplete follow-up, and thereby, affect the patient’s health status. Respecting the great importance of these issues, it is essential to prevent Ph. This study conducted to determine the effect of external use of Sesame Oil (SO) in the prevention of Ph. Sixty patients with colon or rectum cancer, who admitted for chemotherapeutic management, enrolled in clinical trial and were randomly divided into two equal groups: Control and Intervention. Ten drops of SO was applied twice a day for 14 days externally in intervention group, whereas the control group received nothing. Incidence and grade of Ph was measured in both groups. Data was analyzed through independent t-test, ?2, Fisher’s exact test, Mann-Whitney, and Lagrange survival using SPSS 16. The incidence of Ph was 10% and 80% in intervention group and control group, respectively.There was a significant difference between two groups (p < 0.05). Ph was 8 times more frequent in control group (R R = 8; AR R = 70%). In addition, there was statistically significant difference between the grade and incidence of Ph with SO and control group (p < 0.05). According to these results, it seems that external use of SO is effective, safe and well-tolerated for prophylaxis from Ph. Therefore, it can be suggested as a selected prevention method for reducing the complication. PMID:24250538

  14. The Combination of Three Natural Compounds Effectively Prevented Lung Carcinogenesis by Optimal Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhenzhen; Ma, Xiaofang; Cao, Ning; Zheng, Yaqiu; Geng, Shengnan; Duan, Yongjian; Han, Guang; Du, Gangjun

    2015-01-01

    The tumor stroma has been described as “normal wound healing gone awry”. We explored whether the restoration of a wound healing-like microenvironment may facilitate tumor healing. Firstly, we screened three natural compounds (shikonin, notoginsenoside R1 and aconitine) from wound healing agents and evaluated the efficacies of wound healing microenvironment for limiting single agent-elicited carcinogenesis and two-stage carcinogenesis. The results showed that three compounds used alone could promote wound healing but had unfavorable efficacy to exert wound healing, and that the combination of three compounds made up treatment disadvantage of a single compound in wound healing and led to optimal wound healing. Although individual treatment with these agents may prevent cancer, they were not effective for the treatment of established tumors. However, combination treatment with these three compounds almost completely prevented urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis and reduced tumor burden. Different from previous studies, we found that urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis was associated with lung injury independent of pulmonary inflammation. LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation did not increase lung carcinogenesis, whereas decreased pulmonary inflammation by macrophage depletion promoted lung carcinogenesis. In addition, urethane damaged wound healing in skin excision wound model, reversed lung carcinogenic efficacy by the combination of three compounds was consistent with skin wound healing. Further, the combination of these three agents reduced the number of lung cancer stem cells (CSCs) by inducing cell differentiation, restoration of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) and blockade of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our results suggest that restoration of a wound healing microenvironment represents an effective strategy for cancer prevention. PMID:26599445

  15. Real Groups: The Design and Immediate Effects of a Prevention Intervention for Latino Children

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Peña, Verónica; Nieri, Tanya; Nagoshi, Julie L.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development and immediate effects of a small-group intervention designed to complement a school-based prevention program for children and youth. The REAL Groups intervention is the result of a partnership with predominately Mexican American schools located in the central city neighborhoods of a southwestern U.S. metropolitan area. The group members (N = 115) were fifth graders from six central city schools. Group members were identified and referred by their teachers as in need of additional support beyond the keepin'it REAL classroom-based substance abuse prevention intervention, or they were invited by the referred students. The REAL Groups followed a mutual aid approach, and Masters in Social Work student interns trained in the REAL Groups intervention served as the group facilitators. This article describes the small-group intervention and provides an initial report on the results by comparing the small-group members (n = 115) with Mexican-heritage classmates (n = 306) who only received the classroom-based keepin' it REAL prevention intervention. This is a feasibility study in preparation for the follow-up study with seventh graders. As expected due to the low drug-use rates reported by fifth-grade participants, the effectiveness results were inconclusive. The immediate findings, however, provide important information about the design and evaluation of culturally specific group interventions with acculturating children. The article provides important methodological and practice implications for small-group school-based interventions as well as recommendations for future research. PMID:20640232

  16. What Works Well in HIV Prevention Among Spanish Young People? An Analysis of Differential Effectiveness Among Six Intervention Techniques.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Gil-Llario, María Dolores; Giménez-García, Cristina; Kalichman, Setch C

    2015-07-01

    The AIDS epidemic remains a concern of public health among young people and adolescents. Prevention programs have revealed diverse deficiencies to attain their main goal: preventing risky behaviors. This experimental study evaluates the differential effectiveness of six intervention techniques for preventing HIV/AIDS based on informational-motivational-behavioral Model (talk, website, attitudinal discussion, participation of a seropositive person, fear induction and role play). 239 Spanish young people took part in an experimental design to evaluate six intervention techniques and a non-intervention condition, through changes in their knowledge, attitudes and protective sex behavior. Our findings support a general effectiveness of preventive intervention techniques comparing non-intervention. In particular, the motivational techniques reveal more effectiveness for these Spanish young people. Therefore, it is required identifying a differential impact of the intervention techniques when implementing HIV behavioral interventions. PMID:25085080

  17. Rise and fall of endrin usage in Washington state fruit orchards: Effects on wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Grove, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the effects of endrin on wildlife was conducted from 1981 to 1983 in fruit orchards in central Washington state. The single post-harvest application of endrin as a rodenticide resulted in both acute and chronic toxicity to a variety of avian species. Most mortality occurred soon after application, but several raptors died during the spring and summer. Most wildlife sampled in the orchard system contained residues of endrin. There was on evidence that endrin depressed reproductive success.

  18. Effect of human isolated probiotic bacteria on preventing Campylobacter jejuni colonization of poultry.

    PubMed

    Cean, Ada; Stef, Lavinia; Simiz, Eliza; Julean, Calin; Dumitrescu, Gabi; Vasile, Aida; Pet, Elena; Drinceanu, Dan; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae

    2015-02-01

    This study was performed in order to determine whether human isolated probiotic bacteria can be effective in reducing Campylobacter jejuni infection of chicken intestinal cells, in vitro, and in decreasing its colonization abilities within the chicken gut. Our results show that the probiotic strains Lactobacillus paracasei J. R, L. rhamnosus 15b, L. lactis Y, and L. lactis FOa had a significant effect on C. jejuni invasion of chicken primary cells, with the strongest inhibitory effect detected when a combination of four was administered. In regard to the in vivo effect, using all four strains in one combination prevented mucus colonization in the duodenum and cecum. Moreover, the pathogen load in the lumen of these two compartments was significantly reduced. When probiotics were introduced during the early growth period, the presence of the pathogen in feces was increased (p>0.05), but when they were given during the last week of growth, there was no significant effect. In conclusion, our data indicate that these four new probiotic strains are able to cause modifications in the chicken intestinal mucosa and can reduce the ability of C. jejuni to invade, in vitro, and to colonize, in vivo. These probiotics are now proven to be effective even when introduced in broiler's feed 7 days before slaughter, which makes them cost-effective for the producers. PMID:25585278

  19. EFFECTS OF WASTE DISCHARGES ON WATER QUALITY OF THE SNAKE RIVER AND ROCK CREEK, TWIN FALLS AREA, IDAHO. 1971

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comprehensive water quality investigations in the Snake River Basin, Twin Falls Area (17040212) were conducted from November 2 to 17, 1971. Studies included an evaluation of municipal and industrial wastewater treatment facilities. Subsequently, stream surveys were conducted on...

  20. Hip-Hop to Health Jr. Obesity Prevention Effectiveness Trial: postintervention results.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Stolley, Melinda R; Schiffer, Linda A; Braunschweig, Carol L; Gomez, Sandra L; Van Horn, Linda; Dyer, Alan R

    2011-05-01

    The preschool years offer an opportunity to interrupt the trajectory toward obesity in black children. The Hip-Hop to Health Jr. Obesity Prevention Effectiveness Trial was a group-randomized controlled trial assessing the feasibility and effectiveness of a teacher-delivered weight control intervention for black preschool children. The 618 participating children were enrolled in 18 schools administered by the Chicago Public Schools. Children enrolled in the nine schools randomized to the intervention group received a 14-week weight control intervention delivered by their classroom teachers. Children in the nine control schools received a general health intervention. Height and weight, physical activity, screen time, and diet data were collected at baseline and postintervention. At postintervention, children in the intervention schools engaged in more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) than children in the control schools (difference between adjusted group means = 7.46 min/day, P = 0.02). Also, children in the intervention group had less total screen time (-27.8 min/day, P = 0.05). There were no significant differences in BMI, BMI Z score, or dietary intake. It is feasible to adapt an obesity prevention program to be taught by classroom teachers. The intervention showed positive influences on physical activity and screen time, but not on diet. Measuring diet and physical activity in preschool children remains a challenge, and interventions delivered by classroom teachers require both intensive initial training and ongoing individualized supervision. PMID:21193852

  1. Preventive effects of Spirulina platensis on skeletal muscle damage under exercise-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Hsieh, Chin-Cheng; Hsu, Jen-Jung; Yang, Yuh-Kuan; Chou, Hong-Nong

    2006-09-01

    The effects of spirulina supplementation on preventing skeletal muscle damage on untrained human beings were examined. Sixteen students volunteered to take Spirulina platensis in addition to their normal diet for 3-weeks. Blood samples were taken after finishing the Bruce incremental treadmill exercise before and after treatment. The results showed that plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly decreased after supplementation with spirulina (P < 0.05). The activity of blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly raised after supplementation with spirulina or soy protein (P < 0.05). Both of the blood glutathione peroxidaes (GPx) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were significantly different between spirulina and soy protein supplementation by an ANCOVA analysis (P < 0.05). In addition, the lactate (LA) concentration was higher and the time to exhaustion (TE) was significantly extended in the spirulina trail (P < 0.05). These results suggest that ingestion of S. platensis showed preventive effect of the skeletal muscle damage and that probably led to postponement of the time of exhaustion during the all-out exercise. PMID:16944194

  2. Partnerships for the Design, Conduct, and Analysis of Effectiveness, and Implementation Research: Experiences of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C. Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard G.; Kaupert, Sheila; Muthén, Bengt O.; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Linda K.; Chamberlain, Patricia; PoVey, Craig L.; Cady, Rick; Valente, Thomas W.; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Prado, Guillermo J.; Pantin, Hilda M.; Gallo, Carlos G.; Szapocznik, José; Czaja, Sara J.; McManus, John W.

    2012-01-01

    What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research and especially how rigorous designs, including random assignment, get resolved through a partnership between community stakeholders, institutions, and researchers. These partnerships shape not only study design, but they determine the data that can be collected and how results and new methods are disseminated. We also examine a second type of partnership to improve the implementation of effective prevention programs into practice. We draw on social networks to studying partnership formation and function. The experience of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group, which itself is a networked partnership between scientists and methodologists, is highlighted. PMID:22160786

  3. Effectiveness of school-based smoking prevention curricula: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Roger E; McLellan, Julie; Perera, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess effectiveness of school-based smoking prevention curricula keeping children never-smokers. Design Systematic review, meta-analysis. Data: MEDLINE (1966+), EMBASE (1974+), Cinahl, PsycINFO (1967+), ERIC (1982+), Cochrane CENTRAL, Health Star, Dissertation Abstracts, conference proceedings. Data synthesis: pooled analyses, fixed-effects models, adjusted ORs. Risk of bias assessed with Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Setting 50 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of school-based smoking curricula. Participants Never-smokers age 5–18 (n=143?495); follow-up ?6?months; all countries; no date/language limitations. Interventions Information, social influences, social competence, combined social influences/competence and multimodal curricula. Outcome measure Remaining a never-smoker at follow-up. Results Pooling all curricula, trials with follow-up ?1?year showed no statistically significant differences compared with controls (OR 0.91 (0.82 to 1.01)), though trials of combined social competence/social influences curricula had a significant effect on smoking prevention (7 trials, OR 0.59 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.85)). Pooling all trials with longest follow-up showed an overall significant effect in favour of the interventions (OR 0.88 (0.82 to 0.95)), as did the social competence (OR 0.65 (0.43 to 0.96)) and combined social competence/social influences curricula (OR 0.60 (0.43 to 0.83)). No effect for information, social influences or multimodal curricula. Principal findings were not sensitive to inclusion of booster sessions in curricula or to whether they were peer-led or adult-led. Differentiation into tobacco-only or multifocal curricula had a similar effect on the primary findings. Few trials assessed outcomes by gender: there were significant effects for females at both follow-up periods, but not for males. Conclusions RCTs of baseline never-smokers at longest follow-up found an overall significant effect with average 12% reduction in starting smoking compared with controls, but no effect for all trials pooled at ?1?year. However, combined social competence/social influences curricula showed a significant effect at both follow-up periods. Systematic review registration Cochrane Tobacco Review Group CD001293. PMID:25757946

  4. Falling and fall risk factors in adults with haemophilia: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Sammels, M; Vandesande, J; Vlaeyen, E; Peerlinck, K; Milisen, K

    2014-11-01

    Falls are a particular risk in persons with haemophilia (PWH) because of damaged joints, high risk of bleeding, possible impact on the musculoskeletal system and functioning and costs associated with treatment for these fall-related injuries. In addition, fall risk increases with age and PWH are increasingly entering the over 65 age group. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of falls during the past year and to explore which fall risk factors are present in community-dwelling PWH. Dutch speaking community-dwelling adults were included from the age of 40 years with severe or moderate haemophilia A or B, independent in their mobility and registered at the University Hospitals Leuven. They were asked to come to the haemophilia centre; otherwise a telephone survey was conducted. Demographic and social variables, medical variables, fall evaluation and clinical variables were queried. From the 89 PWH, 74 (83.1%) participated in the study. Twenty-four (32.4%) fell in the past year, and 10 of them (41.7%) more than once with an average of four falls. Living conditions, physical activity, avoidance of winter sports due to fear of falling, orthopaedic status, urinary incontinence and mobility impairments are potential fall risk factors in adult PWH. This exploratory study indicates that PWH are attentive to falling since they are at higher risk for falls and because of the serious consequences it might have. Screening and fall prevention should be stimulated in the daily practice of haemophilia care. PMID:25354771

  5. Blueberries prevent the effect of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia in rat epididymis.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, A B; Calaf, G M; Figueroa, C A; Farías, J G

    2014-09-01

    Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) induced a decrease in sperm count and oxidative damage in epididymis. We have previously demonstrated that a blueberry-enriched polyphenol extract (BB-4) reduced the adverse effects of oxidative stress in rat testis under hypobaric hypoxia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether BB-4 could reverse oxidative stress in epididymis. To evaluate the protective role of BB-4 in epididymis, male rats were exposed to IHH. Lipid peroxidation, (LPO) expression and activity of glutathione reductase (GR) were evaluated. Our results showed a reduction in LPO and a decrease in GR activity in rat epididymis exposed to IHH. These results suggest that BB-4 can prevent the effects of IHH in rat epididymis. PMID:23957290

  6. High structural stability of textile implants prevents pore collapse and preserves effective porosity at strain.

    PubMed

    Klinge, Uwe; Otto, Jens; Mühl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Reinforcement of tissues by use of textiles is encouraged by the reduced rate of recurrent tissue dehiscence but for the price of an inflammatory and fibrotic tissue reaction to the implant. The latter mainly is affected by the size of the pores, whereas only sufficiently large pores are effective in preventing a complete scar entrapment. Comparing two different sling implants (TVT and SIS), which are used for the treatment of urinary incontinence, we can demonstrate that the measurement of the effective porosity reveals considerable differences in the textile construction. Furthermore the changes of porosity after application of a tensile load can indicate a structural instability, favouring pore collapse at stress and questioning the use for purposes that are not "tension-free." PMID:25973427

  7. High Structural Stability of Textile Implants Prevents Pore Collapse and Preserves Effective Porosity at Strain

    PubMed Central

    Klinge, Uwe; Otto, Jens; Mühl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Reinforcement of tissues by use of textiles is encouraged by the reduced rate of recurrent tissue dehiscence but for the price of an inflammatory and fibrotic tissue reaction to the implant. The latter mainly is affected by the size of the pores, whereas only sufficiently large pores are effective in preventing a complete scar entrapment. Comparing two different sling implants (TVT and SIS), which are used for the treatment of urinary incontinence, we can demonstrate that the measurement of the effective porosity reveals considerable differences in the textile construction. Furthermore the changes of porosity after application of a tensile load can indicate a structural instability, favouring pore collapse at stress and questioning the use for purposes that are not “tension-free.” PMID:25973427

  8. Effectiveness of school-based violence prevention for children and youth: a research report.

    PubMed

    Santos, Robert G; Chartier, Mariette J; Whalen, Jeanne C; Chateau, Dan; Boyd, Leanne

    2011-04-01

    Aggression, bullying and violence in children and youth are prevalent in Canada (18%) and internationally. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of Roots of Empathy (ROE), a school-based mental health promotion and violence prevention program for children that has been widely implemented but rarely evaluated. Eight school divisions were randomly assigned to either a treatment group that received ROE in 2002-2003 (445 students) or a wait-list control group (315 students). These were compared on three child mental health outcomes (physical aggression, indirect aggression and pro-social behaviour), rated by teachers and students (self-rated). The three wait-list school divisions received ROE in 2003-2004 (new cohort of 265 students) and were compared with the control group from 2002-2003 on the three outcomes, for replication purposes. For both comparisons, the authors report multi-level modelling analyses regarding (1) immediate effects after ROE completion at the end of the school year (pretest to post-test) and (2) long-term ROE effects up to three years after post-test. ROE had replicated, beneficial effects on all teacher-rated outcomes, which were generally maintained or further improved across follow-up. However, ROE had almost no statistically significant or replicated effects on student-rated outcomes. This is the first evaluation to suggest that ROE appears effective when implemented on a large scale under real-world delivery conditions. PMID:24956430

  9. Do the Effects of Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in PAD Patients Differ from Other Atherosclerotic Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Poredos, Pavel; Jezovnik, Mateja Kaja

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is considered a generalized disease. Similar or identical etiopathogenetic mechanisms and risk factors are involved in various atherosclerotic diseases, and the positive effects of preventive measures on atherogenesis in different parts of the arterial system were shown. However, until know, great emphasis has been placed on the aggressive pharmacological management of coronary artery disease (CHD), while less attention has been devoted to the management of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), despite its significant morbidity and mortality. Data on the efficacy of preventive measures in PAD patients have mostly been gained from subgroup analyses from studies devoted primarily to the management of coronary patients. These data have shown that treatment of risk factors for atherosclerosis with drugs can reduce cardiovascular events also in patients with PAD. The effects of some preventive procedures in PAD patients differ from coronary patients. Aspirin as a basic antiplatelet drug has been shown to be less effective in PAD patients than in coronary patients. The latest Antithrombotic Trialists’ Collaboration (ATC) meta-analysis demonstrates no benefit of aspirin in reducing cardiovascular events in PAD. Statins reduce cardiovascular events in all three of the most frequently presented cardiovascular diseases, including PAD to a comparable extent. Recent studies indicate that in PAD patients, in addition to a reduction in cardiovascular events, statins may have some hemodynamic effects. They prolong walking distance and improve quality of life. Similarly, angiotensin enzyme inhibitors are also effective in the prevention of cardiovascular events in coronary, cerebrovascular, as well as PAD patients and show positive effects on the walking capacity of patients with intermittent claudication. In PAD patients, the treatment of hypertension and diabetes also effectively prevents cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As PAD patients are at a highest risk of cardiovascular complications, the risk factors of atherosclerosis should be treated intensively in this group of patients. Most of the preventive measures, including the drugs used for prevention of CHD, are also effective in PAD patients. PMID:26121301

  10. Do the Effects of Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in PAD Patients Differ from Other Atherosclerotic Disease?

    PubMed

    Poredos, Pavel; Jezovnik, Mateja Kaja

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is considered a generalized disease. Similar or identical etiopathogenetic mechanisms and risk factors are involved in various atherosclerotic diseases, and the positive effects of preventive measures on atherogenesis in different parts of the arterial system were shown. However, until know, great emphasis has been placed on the aggressive pharmacological management of coronary artery disease (CHD), while less attention has been devoted to the management of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), despite its significant morbidity and mortality. Data on the efficacy of preventive measures in PAD patients have mostly been gained from subgroup analyses from studies devoted primarily to the management of coronary patients. These data have shown that treatment of risk factors for atherosclerosis with drugs can reduce cardiovascular events also in patients with PAD. The effects of some preventive procedures in PAD patients differ from coronary patients. Aspirin as a basic antiplatelet drug has been shown to be less effective in PAD patients than in coronary patients. The latest Antithrombotic Trialists' Collaboration (ATC) meta-analysis demonstrates no benefit of aspirin in reducing cardiovascular events in PAD. Statins reduce cardiovascular events in all three of the most frequently presented cardiovascular diseases, including PAD to a comparable extent. Recent studies indicate that in PAD patients, in addition to a reduction in cardiovascular events, statins may have some hemodynamic effects. They prolong walking distance and improve quality of life. Similarly, angiotensin enzyme inhibitors are also effective in the prevention of cardiovascular events in coronary, cerebrovascular, as well as PAD patients and show positive effects on the walking capacity of patients with intermittent claudication. In PAD patients, the treatment of hypertension and diabetes also effectively prevents cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As PAD patients are at a highest risk of cardiovascular complications, the risk factors of atherosclerosis should be treated intensively in this group of patients. Most of the preventive measures, including the drugs used for prevention of CHD, are also effective in PAD patients. PMID:26121301

  11. Falls Prevention: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... difficulties. Optimizing Management of Congestive Heart Failure and COPD Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Many older people develop ... watch for water retention. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common ...

  12. Preventing Newborn Falls While Supporting Family Bonding.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Susan C

    2015-11-01

    The Pennsylvania Patient Safety Reporting System is a confidential, statewide Internet reporting system to which all Pennsylvania hospitals, outpatient-surgery facilities, birthing centers, and abortion facilities must file information on incidents and serious events.Safety Monitor is a column from Pennsylvania's Patient Safety Authority, the authority that informs nurses on issues that can affect patient safety and presents strategies they can easily integrate into practice. For more information on the authority, visit www.patientsafetyauthority.org. For the original article discussed in this column or for other articles on patient safety, click on "Patient Safety Advisories" and then "Advisory Library" in the left-hand navigation menu. PMID:26510072

  13. The Preventive Effect of Atorvastatin on Paraquat-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in the Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Kiani, Milad; Hemmati, Ali Asghar; Rezaie, Anahita; Zerafatfard, Mohammad Rahim; Rashidi Nooshabadi, Mohammad Reza; Goudarzi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Pulmonary fibrosis is a potentially lethal inflammatory disease and there has been no effective medication for this progressive disease up to now. As a model, different therapeutic approaches have been applied for paraquat-induced pulmonary injury and fibrosis. Atorvastatin besides cholesterol-lowering effects possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. The current study was designed to investigate the preventive anti-fibrotic effects of atorvastatin on paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Methods: The rats were randomly divided into five experimental groups. Group I, control group (saline), group II received a single oral dose of 20 mg/kg paraquat with no treatment and III, IV and V groups received atorvastatin at the doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg/day orally one week before and three weeks after paraquat administration, respectively. The rats were sacrificed 21 days after paraquat. Lung hydroxyproline and serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined and lung indices and semi-quantitative histopathological changes were evaluated. Results: Paraquat could significantly increase the serum MDA and lung hydroxyproline levels. Elevated content of tissue hydroxyproline and serum levels of malondialdehyde induced by paraquat, attenuated by atorvastatin at the doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg. Furthermore, histopathological findings and the amount of lung indices showed the beneficial preventive role of atorvastatin in rat pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present data show that atorvastatin alleviate the toxic effects of paraquat under the experimental circumstances and may be a useful agent in cases who are in contact or poisoned with paraquat. PMID:25436189

  14. Promote health or prevent disease? The effects of health-related advertising on eating behavior intention.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-04-01

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future. PMID:25826394

  15. Promote Health or Prevent Disease? The Effects of Health-Related Advertising on Eating Behavior Intention

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-01-01

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future. PMID:25826394

  16. Emollient enhancement of the skin barrier from birth offers effective atopic dermatitis prevention

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Eric L.; Chalmers, Joanne R.; Hanifin, Jon M.; Thomas, Kim S.; Cork, Michael J.; McLean, W.H. Irwin; Brown, Sara J.; Chen, Zunqiu; Chen, Yiyi; Williams, Hywel C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (atopic eczema) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that has reached epidemic proportions in children worldwide and is increasing in prevalence. Because of the significant socioeconomic effect of atopic dermatitis and its effect on the quality of life of children and families, there have been decades of research focused on disease prevention, with limited success. Recent advances in cutaneous biology suggest skin barrier defects might be key initiators of atopic dermatitis and possibly allergic sensitization. Objective Our objective was to test whether skin barrier enhancement from birth represents a feasible strategy for reducing the incidence of atopic dermatitis in high-risk neonates. Methods We performed a randomized controlled trial in the United States and United Kingdom of 124 neonates at high risk for atopic dermatitis. Parents in the intervention arm were instructed to apply full-body emollient therapy at least once per day starting within 3 weeks of birth. Parents in the control arm were asked to use no emollients. The primary feasibility outcome was the percentage of families willing to be randomized. The primary clinical outcome was the cumulative incidence of atopic dermatitis at 6 months, as assessed by a trained investigator. Results Forty-two percent of eligible families agreed to be randomized into the trial. All participating families in the intervention arm found the intervention acceptable. A statistically significant protective effect was found with the use of daily emollient on the cumulative incidence of atopic dermatitis with a relative risk reduction of 50% (relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28-0.9; P = .017). There were no emollient-related adverse events and no differences in adverse events between groups. Conclusion The results of this trial demonstrate that emollient therapy from birth represents a feasible, safe, and effective approach for atopic dermatitis prevention. If confirmed in larger trials, emollient therapy from birth would be a simple and low-cost intervention that could reduce the global burden of allergic diseases. PMID:25282563

  17. Preventive effect of resistant starch on activated carbon-induced constipation in mice.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yu; Zhao, Xin; Kan, Jianquan

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistant starch (RS) on activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR mice. ICR mice were fed on diet containing 15% RS of type RS2, RS3 or RS4 for 9 days. Gastrointestinal transit, defecation time and intestinal tissue histopathological sections, as well as motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas), endothelin (ET), somatostatin (SS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) levels in serum were used to evaluate the preventive effects of RS on constipation. Bisacodyl, a laxative drug, was used as a positive control. The time to the first black stool defecation for normal, control, bisacodyl-treated (100 mg/kg, oral administration) and RS2-, RS3- and RS4-treated mice was 78, 208, 109, 181, 144 and 173 min, respectively. Following the consumption of RS2, RS3 and RS4 or the oral administration of bisacodyl (100 mg/kg), the gastrointestinal transit was reduced to 37.7, 52.1, 39.3 and 87.3%, respectively, of the transit in normal mice, respectively. Histopathological sections of intestinal tissue also underscored the protective effect of RS3. The serum levels of MTL, Gas, ET, AChE, SP and VIP were significantly increased and the serum levels of SS were reduced in the mice treated with RS compared with those in the untreated control mice (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that RS has preventive effects on mouse constipation and RS3 demonstrated the best functional activity. PMID:23935751

  18. Rise and fall of endrin usage in Washington state fruit orchards: Effects on wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, Charles J.; Grove, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the effects of endrin on wildlife was conducted from 1981 to 1983 in fruit orchards in central Washington State. The single post-harvest application of endrin as a rodenticide resulted in both acute and chronic toxicity to a variety of avian species. Of 194 birds found dead, brains of 125 were analysed; endrin toxicosis accounted for >24% of the total and 37% of those analysed. Most mortality occurred soon after application, but several raptors died during the spring and summer. Most wildlife sampled in the orchard system contained residues of endrin. There was no evidence that endrin depressed reproductive success. Use of endrin abruptly declined during this study and its use is currently limited to emergency situations. Wildlife mortality from endrin also decreased; only six endrin-related mortalities were detected the last year of the study and there have been no reports of die-offs since the study ended.

  19. Preventing stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention, transient ischemic attack - prevention ... Biology; Council on Hypertension. Guidelines for the primary prevention of stroke: a statement for healthcare professionals from ...

  20. "The Great Cataract" - Effects of Late Holocene Debris Flows on Lava Falls Rapid, Grand Canyon National National Park, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Melis, Theodore S.; Wise, Thomas W.; Elliott, John G.

    1996-01-01

    Lava Falls Rapid is the most formidable reach of whitewater on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and is one of the most famous rapids in the world. Although the rapid was once thought to be controlled by the remnants of lava dams of Pleistocene age, Lava Falls was created and is maintained by frequent debris flows from Prospect Canyon. We used 232 historical photographs, of which 121 were replicated, and 14C and 3He dating methods to reconstruct the ages and, in some cases, the magnitudes of late Holocene debris flows. We quantified the interaction between Prospect Canyon debris flows and the Colorado River using image processing of the historical photographs. The highest and oldest debris-flow deposits on the debris fan yielded a 3He date of 2.9?0.6 ka (950 BC), which indicates predominately late Holocene aggradation of one of the largest debris fans in Grand Canyon. The deposit, which has a 25-m escarpment caused by river reworking, crossed the Colorado River and raised its base level by 30 m for an indeterminate, although probably short, period. We mapped depositional surfaces of 6 debris flows that occurred after 950 BC. The most recent prehistoric debris flow occurred no more than 500 years ago (AD 1434). From April 1872 to July 1939, no debris flows occurred in Prospect Canyon. Debris flows in 1939, 1954, 1955, 1963, 1966, and 1995 constricted the Colorado River between 35 and 80 percent and completely changed the pattern of flow through the rapid. The debris flows had discharges estimated between about 290 and 1,000 m3/s and transported boulders as heavy as 30 Mg. The recurrence interval of these debris flows, calculated from the volume of the aggraded debris fan, ranged from 35 to 200 yrs. The 1939 debris flow in Prospect Canyon appears to have been the largest debris flow in Grand Canyon during the last 125 years. Debris flows in Prospect Canyon are initiated by streamflow pouring over a 325-m waterfall onto unconsolidated colluvium, a process called the firehose effect. Floods in Prospect Valley above the waterfall are generated during regional winter storms, localized summer thunderstorms, and occasional tropical cyclones. Winter precipitation has increased in the Grand Canyon region since the early 1960s, and the most recent debris flows have occurred during winter storms. Summer rainfall has declined in the same period, decreasing the potential for debris flows in the summer months. The history of river reworking of the Prospect Canyon debris fan illustrates the interrelation between tributary debris fans and mainstem floods in bedrock canyons. Lava Falls Rapid did not change despite Colorado River floods of 8,500 m3/s in 1884 and 6,230 m3/s in 1921. Floods up to 3,540 m3/s that occurred after the historical, pre-dam debris flows removed most of the deposits within 3 years. Releases in 1965 from Glen Canyon Dam that were above powerplant capacity but less than 1,640 m3/s removed most of the debris fan deposited in 1963, and the combination of dam releases and a 1973 flood on the Little Colorado River removed the 1966 aggradation. About 4,800 m3 of the 1995 deposit was reworked on the day of the 1995 debris flow, dam releases of less than 570 m3/s had not reworked the remainder of the aggraded debris fan. Lava Falls Rapid has been the most unstable reach of whitewater in Grand Canyon during the late Holocene and particularly during the last 120 years. Rapids in bedrock canyons controlled by tributary deposition in the main channel are aggradational features that reflect the net effect of tributary-mainstem interactions. Boulders that form the core of rapids in Grand Canyon are essentially immobile by both regulated and unregulated Colorado River flows. Historical operation of Glen Canyon Dam, which was completed in 1963, has reduced the potential for reworking of debris fans, and has accelerated the rate of net aggradation at the mouths of tributary canyons. Because debris fans that formed after 196

  1. N-acetyl-cysteine prevents toxic oxidative effects induced by IFN-? in human neurons.

    PubMed

    Alboni, Silvia; Gibellini, Lara; Montanari, Claudia; Benatti, Cristina; Benatti, Stefania; Tascedda, Fabio; Brunello, Nicoletta; Cossarizza, Andrea; Pariante, Carmine M

    2013-09-01

    Currently IFN-? is widely used for effective treatment of viral infections and several malignancies. However, IFN-? can cause neuropsychiatric disturbances and mental impairments, including fatigue, insomnia, depression, irritability and cognitive deficits. Molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to such side-effects are still poorly understood. Neurons seem to be an important target in mediating cellular effects induced by exposure to this cytokine, but so far little is known about IFN-?-induced effects on these cells. We have investigated the ability of IFN-? (2-100 ng/ml) to induce damage and toxicity to the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line, commonly used for studying such phenomena, and the mechanisms underlying these effects. After 24 h treatment, IFN-? increased mitochondrial activity, whereas cell density was reduced in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This effect did not depend on reduced cell proliferation, but rather the activation of apoptosis, as revealed by an increased Bax:Bcl-2 mRNA ratio after 72-h IFN-? exposure. At this time-point, IFN-? also reduced the expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene, and induced an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). A co-treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC; 5 mm), a potent antioxidant and mitochondrial modulator, was able to counteract all of these IFN-?-induced effects. These findings demonstrated that IFN-? induces neurotoxicity and apoptosis that is, in part, very likely due to mitochondrial damages and production of ROS. We suggest that NAC, already tested for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, may be useful to prevent IFN-?-induced central side-effects in a safe and effective way. PMID:23590859

  2. Cost-Effectiveness of Preventive Interventions to Reduce Alcohol Consumption in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda; Ekholm, Ola; Diderichsen, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. Methods We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. Results Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation) were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. Conclusion Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost-saving and should thus be first priority for implementation. PMID:24505370

  3. Aspirin, lysine, mifepristone and doxycycline combined can effectively and safely prevent and treat cancer metastasis: prevent seeds from gemmating on soil.

    PubMed

    Wan, Liyuan; Dong, Haiyan; Xu, Huo; Ma, Ji; Zhu, Yewei; Lu, Yusheng; Wang, Jichuang; Zhang, Ting; Li, Tao; Xie, Jingjing; Xu, Bo; Xie, Fangwei; Gao, Yu; Shao, Jingwei; Tu, Xiaohuang; Jia, Lee

    2015-11-01

    Recent scientific advances have increased our understanding of the cancer metastatic complexities and provided further impetus for new combination therapies to prevent cancer metastasis. Here, we demonstrated that a combination (HAMPT) of aspirin, lysine, mifepristone and doxycycline can effectively and safely prevent cancer metastasis. The pharmaceutically-formulated HAMPT inhibited adhesion of cancer cells to either endothelial cells or extracellular matrix via down-regulating cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and ?4-integrin. HAMPT inhibited the cloak effect by activated platelets on cancer cells, thereby interfering adhesion and invasion of cancer cells to the underlying stroma. At the effective concentration, HAMPT induced cancer cells into dormancy with minor inhibition on cell viability. Four-day pretreatment followed by 30-day oral administration of HAMPT (33.5-134 mg/kg) to the mice inoculated with cancer cells produced significant inhibition on cancer metastasis dose-dependently without marked side effects. Fifty-day rat toxicity study with HAMPT at doses (335-1340 mg/kg) 20-fold higher than its therapeutic dose produced no significant toxicity. Interestingly, the acute toxic death could not be reached at the maximum administrable dose (5 g/kg). This proof-of-concept study provides the first conceptual evidence that cancer metastasis can be controlled by using affordable old drugs to restrain circulating tumor cells from gemmating on the metastatic soil without the need for cytotoxicity. PMID:26459390

  4. FIFA 11+: an effective programme to prevent football injuries in various player groups worldwide—a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, FIFA promoted and disseminated the FIFA 11+ injury prevention programme worldwide. Developed and studied by the FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC), the programme was based on a randomised controlled study and one countrywide campaign in amateur football that significantly reduced injuries and healthcare costs. Since the FIFA 11+ launch, key publications have confirmed the preventive effects of the programme and have evaluated its performance effects in female as well as male amateur football players. Furthermore, implementation strategies of this prevention programme have also been studied. The goal of this narrative review was to summarise the available scientific evidence about the FIFA 11+ programme. While FIFA continues to disseminate and implement FIFA 11+ among its Member Associations, adaptations of the injury prevention programme for children and referees have been developed and are currently being evaluated. PMID:25878073

  5. School engagement mediates long-term prevention effects for Mexican American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Nancy A; Wong, Jessie J; Toomey, Russell B; Millsap, Roger; Dumka, Larry E; Mauricio, Anne M

    2014-12-01

    This 5-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of a family-focused intervention delivered in middle school to increase school engagement following transition to high school (2 years post-test), and also evaluated mediated effects through school engagement on multiple problem outcomes in late adolescence (5 years post-test). The study sample included 516 Mexican American adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program (Bridges/Puentes). Path models representing the direct and indirect effects of the program on four outcome variables were evaluated using school engagement measured in the 9th grade as a mediator. The program significantly increased school engagement, with school engagement mediating intervention effects on internalizing symptoms, adolescent substance use, and school dropout in late adolescence when most adolescents were in the 12th grade. Effects on substance use were stronger for youth at higher risk based on pretest report of substance use initiation. There were no direct or indirect intervention effects on externalizing symptoms. Findings support that school engagement is an important prevention target for Mexican American adolescents. PMID:24398825

  6. The effects of AIDS prevention programs by lay health advisors for migrants in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Martijn, Carolien; de Vries, Nanne K; Voorham, Toon; Brandsma, Jeanine; Meis, Max; Hospers, Harm J

    2004-05-01

    Two studies describe the effectiveness of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention programs by lay health advisors (LHAs) for migrants in The Netherlands. The effects of such AIDS programs were evaluated (Study 1) and compared with the effects of professional health advisors (PHAs, i.e. medical doctors or nurses) (Study 2). The first study concerned Turkish and Moroccan migrants and showed positive effects on knowledge, behavioral control, and social norm towards condom use. Iraqi refugees participated in the second study that concerned a direct comparison of LHA- and PHA-based programs. Both programs result in positive effects in terms of attitude change and knowledge, but the LHA program resulted in a stronger intention to discuss AIDS with children. Analyses predicting intention to use condoms provide evidence that LHA programs lead to a stronger relation between attitudes and intention. This suggests that LHA-based AIDS programs are more successful in inducing internally motivated intentions to safe sex practices, such as condom use. PMID:15140455

  7. School Engagement Mediates Long Term Prevention Effects for Mexican American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Nancy A.; Wong, Jessie J.; Toomey, Russell B.; Millsap, Roger; Dumka, Larry E.; Mauricio, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    This five year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of a family-focused intervention delivered in middle school to increase school engagement following transition to high school (2 years posttest), and also evaluated mediated effects through school engagement on multiple problem outcomes in late adolescence (5 years posttest). The study sample included 516 Mexican American adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program (Bridges/ Puentes). Path models representing the direct and indirect effects of the program on four outcome variables were evaluated using school engagement measured in the 9th grade as a mediator. The program significantly increased school engagement, with school engagement mediating intervention effects on internalizing symptoms, adolescent substance use, and school dropout in late adolescence when most adolescents were in the 12th grade. Effects on substance use were stronger for youth at higher risk based on pretest report of substance use initiation. There were no direct or indirect intervention effects on externalizing symptoms. Findings support that school engagement is an important prevention target for Mexican American adolescents. PMID:24398825

  8. Preventive Effect of Intrathecal Paracetamol on Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Murat; Sayar, Ilyas; Peker, Kemal; Gullu, Huriye; Yildiz, Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ischemic injury of the spinal cord during the surgical repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms might lead to paraplegia. Although a number of different mechanisms have been proposed, the exact cause of paraplegia has remained unknown, hampering the development of effective pharmacologic or other strategies for prevention of this condition. A number of studies suggested that cyclooxygenases (COX) contribute to neural breakdown; thus, COX inhibitors might reduce injury. Objectives: We aimed to assess the preventive effect of intrathecal (IT) pretreatment with paracetamol on spinal cord injury in a rat model. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed in Ataturk University Animal Research Laboratory Center, Erzurum, Turkey. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to three experimental groups (n = 6) to receive IT physiologic saline (controls), 50 µg of paracetamol, or 100 µg paracetamol one hour before induction of spinal cord ischemia. Six other rats were considered as the sham group. For the assessment of ischemic injury, motor functions of the hind limbs and histopathologic changes of the lumbar spinal cord were evaluated. Additional 20 rats were divided into two equal groups for the second part of the study where the survival rates were recorded in controls and in animals receiving 100 µg of paracetamol during the 28-day observation period. Results: Pretreatment with 100 µg of paracetamol resulted in a significant improvement in motor functions and histopathologic findings (P < 0.05). Despite a higher rate of survival in 100 µg of paracetamol group (70%) at day 28, the difference was not statistically significant in comparison with controls. Conclusions: Our results suggest a protective effect of pretreatment with IT paracetamol on ischemic spinal cord injury during thoracolumbar aortic aneurysm surgery. PMID:25763224

  9. Preventive Effect of Lactobacillus fermentum Zhao on Activated Carbon-Induced Constipation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Qian, Yu; Suo, Huayi; Du, Muying; Li, Guijie; Liu, Zhenhu; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus fermentum Zhao (LF-Zhao) on activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR mice. ICR mice were administered lactic acid bacteria by gavage for 9 d. Body weight, diet intake, drinking amount, stool status, gastrointestinal transit distance and stool time, in addition to motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas), endothelin (ET), somatostatin (SS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) levels in serum were monitored to evaluate the preventive effects of LF-Zhao on constipation. Bisacodyl, a laxative drug, was used as a positive control. Times to the first black stool for normal (untreated), control (no lactic acid bacteria treatment but activated carbon treated), bisacodyl-treated and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (LB), LF-Zhao (L) (low concentration of 1×10(8) CFU/mL)- and LF-Zhao (H) (high concentration of 1×10(9) CFU/mL)-treated mice induced by activated carbon were 90, 218, 117, 180, 169 and 156 min, respectively. Following the consumption of LB, LF-Zhao (L) and LF-Zhao (H) or the oral administration of bisacodyl, the gastrointestinal transit distances were reduced by 55.2%, 61.3%, 70.6% and 94.6%, respectively. The serum levels of MTL, Gas, ET, AChE, SP and VIP were significantly increased and the serum levels of SS were reduced in the mice treated with LF-Zhao compared with those in the control mice (p<0.05). These results demonstrated that lactic acid bacteria demonstrate preventive effects on mouse constipation and that LF-Zhao alleviated constipation symptoms better than LB. PMID:26052143

  10. Preventive effect of Lactobacillus fermentum Lee on activated carbon-induced constipation in mice.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yu; Suo, Huayi; DU, Muying; Zhao, Xin; Li, Jian; Li, Gui-Jie; Song, Jia-Li; Liu, Zhenhu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus fermentum Lee (LF-Lee) on activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR mice. ICR mice were orally administered lactic acid bacteria for nine days. Body weight, dietary and water intake, defecation status, gastrointestinal (GI) transit and defecation time, as well as levels of motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas), endothelin (ET), somatostatin (SS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in serum were measured to evaluate the preventive effects of LF-Lee on constipation. Bisacodyl, a laxative drug, was administered as a positive control. The time taken until the first defecation of a black stool for normal, control, bisacodyl- (100 mg/kg, oral administration), Lactobacillus bulgaricus (LB)-, LF-Lee low dose (L)- and LF-Lee high dose (H)-treated mice was 90, 218, 117, 180, 161 and 151 min, respectively. Following the consumption of LB, LF-Lee (L) or LF-Lee (H), or the oral administration of bisacodyl, the GI transit was reduced to 55.2, 65.8, 73.1 and 94.6%, respectively, of the transit in normal mice. The serum levels of MTL, Gas, ET, AChE, SP and VIP were significantly increased and those of SS were reduced in the mice treated with LF-Lee compared with those in the untreated control mice (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria have preventive effects on constipation in mice and that LF-Lee has superior functional activity. PMID:25452815

  11. Preventive effect of Lactobacillus fermentum Lee on activated carbon-induced constipation in mice

    PubMed Central

    QIAN, YU; SUO, HUAYI; DU, MUYING; ZHAO, XIN; LI, JIAN; LI, GUI-JIE; SONG, JIA-LI; LIU, ZHENHU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus fermentum Lee (LF-Lee) on activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR mice. ICR mice were orally administered lactic acid bacteria for nine days. Body weight, dietary and water intake, defecation status, gastrointestinal (GI) transit and defecation time, as well as levels of motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas), endothelin (ET), somatostatin (SS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in serum were measured to evaluate the preventive effects of LF-Lee on constipation. Bisacodyl, a laxative drug, was administered as a positive control. The time taken until the first defecation of a black stool for normal, control, bisacodyl- (100 mg/kg, oral administration), Lactobacillus bulgaricus (LB)-, LF-Lee low dose (L)- and LF-Lee high dose (H)-treated mice was 90, 218, 117, 180, 161 and 151 min, respectively. Following the consumption of LB, LF-Lee (L) or LF-Lee (H), or the oral administration of bisacodyl, the GI transit was reduced to 55.2, 65.8, 73.1 and 94.6%, respectively, of the transit in normal mice. The serum levels of MTL, Gas, ET, AChE, SP and VIP were significantly increased and those of SS were reduced in the mice treated with LF-Lee compared with those in the untreated control mice (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria have preventive effects on constipation in mice and that LF-Lee has superior functional activity. PMID:25452815

  12. Prevention of Pazopanib-Induced Prolonged Cardiac Repolarization and Proarrhythmic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Tulay; Erbas, Oytun; Akman, Levent; Yilmaz, Ahmet U.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pazopanib (PZP) may induce prolonged cardiac repolarization and proarrhythmic effects, similarly to other tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Objectives To demonstrate PZP-induced prolonged cardiac repolarization and proarrhythmic electrophysiological effects and to investigate possible preventive effects of metoprolol and diltiazem on ECG changes (prolonged QT) in an experimental rat model. Methods Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley adult male rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 6). The first group (normal group) received 4 mL of tap water and the other groups received 100 mg/kg of PZP (Votrient® tablet) perorally, via orogastric tubes. After 3 hours, the following solutions were intraperitoneally administered to the animals: physiological saline solution (SP), to the normal group and to the second group (control-PZP+SP group); 1 mg/kg metoprolol (Beloc, Ampule, AstraZeneca), to the third group (PZP+metoprolol group); and 1mg/kg diltiazem (Diltiazem, Mustafa Nevzat), to the fourth group (PZP+diltiazem group). One hour after, and under anesthesia, QTc was calculated by recording ECG on lead I. Results The mean QTc interval values were as follows: normal group, 99.93 ± 3.62 ms; control-PZP+SP group, 131.23 ± 12.21 ms; PZP+metoprolol group, 89.36 ± 3.61 ms; and PZP+diltiazem group, 88.86 ± 4.04 ms. Both PZP+metoprolol and PZP+diltiazem groups had significantly shorter QTc intervals compared to the control-PZP+SP group (p < 0.001). Conclusion Both metoprolol and diltiazem prevented PZP-induced QT interval prolongation. These drugs may provide a promising prophylactic strategy for the prolonged QTc interval associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor use. PMID:25229355

  13. Diltiazem prevention of toxic effects of monosodium glutamate on ovaries in rats.

    PubMed

    Bojani?, Vladmila; Bojani?, Zoran; Najman, Stevo; Savi?, Todorka; Jakovljevi?, Vladimir; Najman, Stasa; Janci?, Snezana

    2009-01-01

    The female reproductive system is very sensitive to different harmful environmental factors. A great danger is hidden in an increased use of food additives like monosodium glutamate (MSG). Numerous studies have shown that application of high doses of MSG to different kinds of animals during the neonatal period may cause lesions of neural structures and the retina. Later in adulthood animals exhibit a series of neuroendocrine disorders: a stunted growth, obesity and infertility. The mechanism of MSG action is not well explained yet. We hypothesized that high concentration of MSG could alter permeability of neural membrane for calcium. We studied whether pretreatment with diltiazem prevented the effects of MSG on ovaries in rats. Female rat pups were treated with: 0.9% NaCl, MSG, diltiazem or diltiazem with MSG. MSG treatment resulted in a cystic degeneration of ovaries and irregular and prolonged estrus phase of estrus cycle. The other treated groups of rats had normal ovarian histology and estrus cycle. The pretreatment with diltiazem prevented development of morphological and functional disorders of ovaries. Our results suggest that calcium overloading play an important role in mechanisms of MSG toxicity. PMID:19893093

  14. Preventive effects of vitamin D treatment on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zongmei; Yu, Xiaoting; Fang, Xia; Liang, Aibin; Yu, Zhang; Gu, Pan; Zeng, Yu; He, Jian; Zhu, Hailong; Li, Shuai; Fan, Desheng; Han, Fei; Zhang, Lanjing; Yi, Xianghua

    2015-01-01

    Patients with pulmonary fibrosis often have low vitamin D levels, the effects of which are largely unknown. We here report that early vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced the severity of pulmonary fibrosis and inflammatory cell accumulationin in the bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model on supplementary days 14, 21 and 28 (P?prevented some ultrastructural changes in response to bleomycin administration, including basement membrane thickening, interstitial fibrin deposition and microvilli flattening or disappearance on days 14, 21 and 28, and lamellar body swelling or vacuolation on days 21 and 28. The bleomycin group had rising hydroxyproline level on days 14, 21 and 28, whereas the vitamin D treatment group showed consistently lower hydroxyproline level but still higher than that of the control group (P?prevent bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by delaying or suppressing ultrastructural changes, as well as attenuating hydroxyproline accumulation and inhibiting myofibroblastic proliferation. These data further our understanding of the roles of vitamin D in pulmonary fibrogenesis and in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:26627341

  15. Preventive effects of vitamin D treatment on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zongmei; Yu, Xiaoting; Fang, Xia; Liang, Aibin; Yu, Zhang; Gu, Pan; Zeng, Yu; He, Jian; Zhu, Hailong; Li, Shuai; Fan, Desheng; Han, Fei; Zhang, Lanjing; Yi, Xianghua

    2015-01-01

    Patients with pulmonary fibrosis often have low vitamin D levels, the effects of which are largely unknown. We here report that early vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced the severity of pulmonary fibrosis and inflammatory cell accumulationin in the bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model on supplementary days 14, 21 and 28 (P?prevented some ultrastructural changes in response to bleomycin administration, including basement membrane thickening, interstitial fibrin deposition and microvilli flattening or disappearance on days 14, 21 and 28, and lamellar body swelling or vacuolation on days 21 and 28. The bleomycin group had rising hydroxyproline level on days 14, 21 and 28, whereas the vitamin D treatment group showed consistently lower hydroxyproline level but still higher than that of the control group (P?prevent bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by delaying or suppressing ultrastructural changes, as well as attenuating hydroxyproline accumulation and inhibiting myofibroblastic proliferation. These data further our understanding of the roles of vitamin D in pulmonary fibrogenesis and in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:26627341

  16. Prevention of disuse osteoporosis: Effect of sodium fluoride during five weeks of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Victor S.

    1987-01-01

    An attempt was made to modify factors which promote disuse osteoporosis and thereby prevent it from occurring. Since fluoride is currently used to enhance bone formation in the treatment of low turnover osteoporosis, it was hypothesized that if the fluoride ion was available over a long period of time that it would slow the demonstrated loss of calcium by inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. This study was used to determine whether oral medication with sodium F will modify or prevent 5 weeks of bed rest induced disuse osteoporosis, to determine the longitudinal effects of 5 weeks of bed rest on PTH, CT and calcitriol, to measure muscle volume changes and metabolic activity by magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy during prolonged bed rest, to measure changes in peak muscle strength and fatigability, and to measure bone turnover in bone biopsies. Subjects were studied during 1 week of equilibration, 4 weeks of control ambulation, 5 weeks of bed rest, and 1 week of reambulation.

  17. Development and preventative effect against pine wilt disease of a novel liquid formulation of emamectin benzoate.

    PubMed

    Takai, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshio; Kawazu, Kazuyoshi

    2003-03-01

    Injection of the poorly water-soluble emamectin benzoate (EB) into pine trunks required the development of an efficient liquid formulation. For injection into big trees in forests a good rate of injection and a high active content were required. Tests on the viscosity and EB-solubilizing ability of 14 various solubilizers in diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DGMBE) led to the selection of Sorpol SM-100PM as the solubilizer of the formulation. Relationships between the solubilizing ability and amounts of Sorpol SM-100PM and DGMBE relative to that of EB, and between the concentration of the latter and the viscosity or the injection rate of the formulation led to a novel 40 g litre(-1) emamectin benzoate formulation (Shot Wan Liquid Formulation), which was composed of EB (40), Sorpol SM-100PM (120), DGMBE (160) and distilled water (50 g litre(-1)) in methanol. Injection of this formulation at a dose of 10 g EB per unit volume of pine tree prevented over 90% of the trees from wilting caused by pine wood nematode, and this preventative effect continued for 3 years. Neither discolouration of the leaves nor injury around the injection hole on the trees was observed after injection of the formulation. PMID:12639056

  18. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    PubMed Central

    Banach, Jennifer L.; Sampers, Imca; Van Haute, Sam; van der Fels-Klerx, H.J. (Ine)

    2015-01-01

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant’s reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer’s efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer. PMID:26213953

  19. On the analysis of effectiveness in mass application of mosquito repellent for dengue disease prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldila, D.; Soewono, E.; Nuraini, N.

    2012-05-01

    Dengue disease has been known as one of dangerous vector-borne diseases and become serious threat in many tropical countries. With no vaccine and antiviral available until nowadays, and frequent appearance of extraordinary dengue outbreaks, many governments are forced to declare national problem for dengue. At this moment, the only method available to prevent dengue disease transmission is to combat the disease-carrying mosquitoes as well as to reduce the contact between human and mosquitoes. The fast growing dengue transmission in many countries in recent years indicates that the mosquito control programs are far from successful. The use of mosquito repellent is one possible instrument which could be used as an effective mass treatment to prevent the dengue outbreak during endemic period. Here in this paper a Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (S-I-R) dengue transmission model with repellent mass treatment is being applied to portions of children and adult compartments. Analysis of the basic reproductive ratio (Ro) of the model is done. It is shown, with reasonable choices of portions of treated children and adults, in combination with reduction of mosquito population, the basic reproductive ratio can be significantly reduced and occurrence of endemic can be avoided. Numerical simulations are shown for various treatment scenarios.

  20. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water.

    PubMed

    Banach, Jennifer L; Sampers, Imca; Van Haute, Sam; van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine

    2015-08-01

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant's reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer's efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer. PMID:26213953

  1. Effect of Plyometric Training on Prevention of ACL Injuries in Females Volleyball Players

    PubMed Central

    Enginsu, Müjdat; Lokmao?lu, Recep; Korkmaz, Erol; Ar?ba?, ?lker; Selimo?lu, ?afak

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To verify the effects of plyometric training on prevention of ACL injuries with lower limp kinematics,eccentric hip and knee torques,and functional performance. Methods: 36 females volleyball players were divided into a training group (TG no:18) that carried out the plyometric training for 12 weeks,and a control group (CG no:18)that carried out no physical training.24 plyometric trainin sessions during approximately 12 weeks with 3 sessions ,30 minutes per week on alternate days. Lower limb kinematics (maximum excursion of hip adduction,hip medial rotation,and knee abduction during the single leg squat),eccentric hip (abductor,adductor,medial and lateral rotator) isokinetic peak torques and knee (flexor and extansor) isokinetic peak torques,and fuctional performance(tr?pl hpo test and the 6-m timed hop test). Results: After 12 weeks, only the TG significantly reduced the values for the maximum excursion of knee abduction (P=0.01) and hip adduction (P 0.001).Similarly ,only the TG significantly increased the eccentic hip abductor (P 0.001) and adductor (P=0.01) torques.Finally,only the TG significantly increased the values in the tripl hop test (P 0.001) and significantly decreased the values in the 6-m timed hop test (P 0.001) after intervention. Conclusion: Plyometric training alters lower limb kinematics and increases eccentric hip torque and functional performance, suggesting the incorporation of these exercises in preventive programs for ACL injuries.

  2. [Preventive effects of various socks against adhesion of dermatophytes to healthy feet].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, H; Nishioka, K; Maruyama, R; Katoh, T

    2000-01-01

    We studied the preventive effects of socks against dermatophyte infection. Wearing various socks (cotton socks, nylon stockings, wool socks and "tabi"), a healthy volunteer walked on a bath mat on which a patient with tinea pedis had stepped earlier. The volunteer pressed her right foot with socks onto large agar medium (Foot-press method), then, took off the socks and performed the Foot-press method again. The number of colonies of isolated dermatophytes on the medium was counted. The number of isolated colonies from the sole after taking off the nylon stockings was larger than that from the foot wearing the stockings. Dermatophytes were also isolated from the sole after taking off cotton socks. In contrast, few dermatophytes were isolated from the sole after taking off wool socks or "tabi". On microscopic observation, fibers of the nylon stockings and cotton socks were seen to be loose enough for dermatophytes to pass through. In contrast with those socks, fibers of wool socks and "tabi" were tight or fluffy. In conclusion, the nylon stockings and cotton socks are unsatisfactory in preventing the adhesion of dermatophytes. PMID:10938520

  3. (PQA1)The Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Effects of Aspirin on Colorectal Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  4. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Cancer Stem Cells | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  5. Chemoprotective effects of EPA and DHA on colonic adult stem cells | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  6. Transgenerational effects of maternal high fat diet during pregnancy on breast ca | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  7. Green tea effects on gene expression in tobacco users | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  8. Effect of magnesium treatment on vitamin D resistance | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  9. Nsaid Effects on Clinical and Imaging Breast Biomarkers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  10. Chemoprotective effects of natural products on colonic adult stem cells | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  11. Curcuma Longa: epigenetic effects in prostate and colon cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  12. Anti-Promoting Effects of Triterpenes Alone or Combined with Other Phytochemicals | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  13. Effectiveness of Prophylactic Topical Treatments for Radiation Dermatitis | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  14. ANALYZING THE EFFECTS OF COLLABORATIVE EFFORTS TO PREVENT CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE IN MINNESOTA

    E-print Network

    Schober, Daniel John

    2008-08-20

    that Stop It Now! Minnesota facilitated numerous changes to the environment to prevent child sexual abuse. Preventative behavior in the form of Helpline calls increased, and reports of CSA in Minnesota decreased. These results suggest that Stop It Now...

  15. The Effectiveness of Screening HIV-Infected Women for Anal Cancer Precursors | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  16. Identification of Mechanisms of Cannellini Bean Effects on Breast Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  17. Immunomodulatory effects of arginine supplementation in colitis and colon cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  18. Preventive Effects of Eccentric Training on Acute Hamstring Muscle Injury in Professional Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Seagrave, Richard A.; Perez, Luis; McQueeney, Sean; Toby, E. Bruce; Key, Vincent; Nelson, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hamstring injuries are the second most common injury causing missed days in professional baseball field players. Recent studies have shown the preventive benefit of eccentric conditioning on the hamstring muscle group in injury prevention. Specifically, Nordic-type exercises have been shown to decrease the incidence of acute hamstring injuries in professional athletes. Purpose: This was a prospective study performed in coordination with a single Major League Baseball (MLB) organization (major and minor league teams) that targeted the effects of Nordic exercises on the incidence of acute hamstring injuries in the professional-level baseball player. Study Design: Prospective cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: The daily workouts of 283 professional baseball players throughout all levels of a single MLB organization were prospectively recorded. The intervention group participated in the Nordic exercise program and was compared with a randomly selected control group of professional athletes within the organization not participating in the exercise program. The incidence of hamstring injuries in both groups was compared, and the total number of days missed due to injury was compared with the 2 previous seasons. Results: There were 10 hamstring injuries that occurred during the 2012 season among the 283 professional athletes that required removal from play. There were no injuries that occurred in the intervention group (n = 65, 0.00%; P = .0381). The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent 1 hamstring injury was 11.3. The average repetitions per week of the injured group were assessed at multiple time points (2, 4, 6, and total weeks) prior to injury. There were significantly fewer repetitions per week performed in the injured group at all time points compared with overall average repetitions per week in the noninjured group (P = .0459, .0127, .0164, and .0299, respectively). After beginning the Nordic exercise program, there were 136 total days missed due to a hamstring injury during the 2012 season. This number was less than the 2011 season (273 days missed) and the 2010 season (309 days missed). Conclusion: Study results indicate the initiation of Nordic hamstring exercises may decrease the incidence of acute hamstring injuries and potentially decrease the total number of days missed due to injury in professional baseball players. Clinical Relevance: The financial and competitive interest in professional baseball players is of large importance to the player, team, and fans. Prevention of injuries is as important to all parties involved as the treatment and rehabilitation following an injury. This prospective study shows the initiation of a simple, free exercise can reduce the incidence of hamstring injury in the professional-level baseball player. PMID:26535336

  19. Effects of Fall Applications of Chemical Defoliants, Urea, and Gibberellic Acid on Defoliation in the Fall and Performance of Hydrangeas during Forcing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In two separate experiments, Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser. ‘Merritt’s Supreme’ plants were used to study the effects of foliar sprays of Def 6 (tributyl phosphorotrithioate, 2500, 5000, 7500 and 10000 mg·L-1), gibberellic acid, (GA, 50 mg·L-1), copper-EDTA (CuEDTA, 0.5% and 1.0%), Florel (2000...

  20. The counterintuitive effect of summer-to-fall mixed layer deepening on eukaryotic new production in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawcett, Sarah E.; Lomas, Michael W.; Ward, Bess B.; Sigman, Daniel M.

    2014-02-01

    The Sargasso Sea is characterized by strong summertime stratification that is thought to drive oligotrophy, but export production is surprisingly similar to that of high-latitude regions with ample major nutrient supply. Here we use the summer-to-fall progression in the northwestern Sargasso Sea to investigate the relationship between upper ocean stratification and phytoplankton nitrogen (N) uptake. Euphotic zone particles collected in July, October, and December were sorted by flow cytometry, and the 15N/14N of separated prokaryotic and eukaryotic phytoplankton was analyzed. The 15N/14N of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus was always low, indicating uniform reliance on recycled N. In July and in two fall profiles, the 15N/14N of eukaryotic phytoplankton was high, reflecting consumption of subsurface nitrate. In three other fall profiles, eukaryotic 15N/14N was similar to prokaryote 15N/14N, suggesting a shift toward more complete reliance on recycled N. The progressive deepening of the mixed layer from summer to fall, although reducing the surface-to-deep density contrast, increases the density difference of the euphotic zone as a whole from underlying nutrient-rich waters, which may play a role in the observed decline in euphotic zone nitrate supply into the fall. The apparent summertime nitrate supply to the euphotic zone, when the mixed layer is shallowest, may help to explain the surprisingly high export production of the subtropical and tropical ocean.

  1. Beyond Rhetoric: The ABCs of Effective Prevention Practice, Science, and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Le'Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the serious public health problems affecting U.S. citizens and the global community can be addressed by prevention science and practice. Instructive standards or guidance for prevention work have largely been missing from the professional literature. Despite empirical evidence that prevention works, the epidemiological literature continues…

  2. Non Castigat Ridendo Mores: evaluating the effectiveness of humor appeal in printed advertisements for HIV/AIDS prevention in Italy.

    PubMed

    Soscia, Isabella; Turrini, Alex; Tanzi, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of different emotional appeals in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns using printed advertisements. More specifically, it examines the effectiveness of humor appeal compared with shock and fear appeals. The authors experimentally test the level of attention drawn and the spontaneous recall arising when young Italian adults are shown different HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns. Findings show that humor appeals are less effective than fear and shock appeals, evidencing the failures in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns in Italy, a country where the former communication strategy has been used in substantive ways. The results also indicate the higher effectiveness of fear appeals (over shock and humor) in printed HIV/AIDS advertising campaigns. The implications of these results for further studies and for improving the design, implementation, and evaluation of HIV/AIDS campaign efforts are also discussed. PMID:22694065

  3. Effects on centre-based training and home-based training on physical function, quality of life and fall incidence in community dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Thomas M K; Tong, C Y

    2014-05-01

    This was a quasi-experimental study to compare the effects of center-based training with home-based training on physical function, quality of life and fall incidence in older adults. Fifty older adults were recruited to receive exercise training for 6?months. Participants in the center-based group received training under supervision of a physiotherapist at the day training center. Those in the home-based group received training assisted by a care worker at home. The outcome measures were the Elderly Mobility Scale (EMS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), Short-form 12 (SF-12) and fall incidence. Assessments were performed on all participants before and after the 6-month intervention period. Center-based training supervised by a physiotherapist was found to have beneficial effects on physical function, quality of life and fall incidence while home-based training assisted by a care worker had no effect on physical condition and self-rated health status in community dwelling older adults. Service agents should provide center-based or home-based training to the ageing population in a user-friendly way with consideration of factors such as rehabilitation potential and accessibility of transportation. PMID:24328932

  4. Metformin prevents DMH-induced colorectal cancer in diabetic rats by reversing the warburg effect

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yanglei; Ma, Zengyi; Liu, Xiaofei; Zhou, Wenjing; He, Shan; Xu, Xia; Ren, Guijie; Xu, Gang; Tian, Keli

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that the treatment of diabetics with metformin reduced the risk of cancer-related mortality. Here, we investigated the chemopreventive effects of metformin on dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in diabetic SD rats following metformin treatment and the effect on Warburg effect involved in this process. Diabetic rat models were induced with high-fat feeding in combination with a low dose of Streptozotocin (STZ) and then induce colorectal cancer with a low dose of DMH. The formation of colorectal Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and the incidence, number and size of the tumor were measured. The proliferation indices of colonic tissues were determined through Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunostaining. Then detect the expression of PK and IDH in colonic tissues using immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The enzyme activities of HK and PDH in colonic tissues were measured. The growth and expression of PK and IDH and activity of HK and PDH in cell lines LoVo and HT-29 were measured after metformin treatment. The results showed that metformin treatment significantly inhibited the formation of ACF and tumors. The proliferation index of colonic tissues was significantly decreased following metformin treatment. In addition, metformin inhibited cell growth and decreased the imbalance in the expression of the enzymes involved in glycolysis and the TCA cycle. These findings suggested that metformin might produce a synergistic colon cancer-preventative effect in diabetic patients through the regulation of the enzymes expression involved in glucose metabolism. PMID:26376762

  5. Effectiveness of the Cigarette Ignition Propensity Standard in Preventing Unintentional Residential Fires in Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Christiani, David C.; Orav, E. John; Dockery, Douglas W.; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the Massachusetts Fire Safe Cigarette Law’s (FSCL’s) effectiveness in preventing residential fires. Methods. We examined unintentional residential fires reported to the Massachusetts Fire Incident Reporting System from 2004 to 2010. We analyzed FSCL effect on the likelihood of cigarette- versus noncigarette-caused fires and effect modification by fire scenario factors by using an interrupted time series regression model. We analyzed the effect of FSCL on monthly fire rates with Poisson regression. Results. Cigarettes caused 1629 unintentional residential fires during the study period. The FSCL was associated with a 28% (95% confidence interval?=?12%, 41%) reduction in the odds of cigarette- versus noncigarette-caused fires, although not in analyses restricted to casualty fires, with smaller sample size. The largest reductions were among fires in which human factors were involved; that were first ignited on furniture, bedding, or soft goods; that occurred in living areas; or that occurred in the summer or winter. Conclusions. The FSCL appears to have decreased the likelihood of cigarette-caused residential fires, particularly in scenarios for which the ignition propensity standard was developed. Current standards should be adopted, and the need for strengthening should be considered. PMID:24524537

  6. Effects of a Psychosocial Couple-Based Prevention Program on Adverse Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Roettger, Michael E.; Jones, Damon E.; Paul, Ian M.; Kan, Marni L.

    2015-01-01

    Although maternal stress and depression have been linked to adverse birth outcomes (ABOs), few studies have investigated preventive interventions targeting maternal mental health as a means of reducing ABOs. This randomized controlled study examines the impact of Family Foundations (FF)—a transition to parenthood program for couples focused on promoting coparenting quality, with previously documented impact on maternal stress and depression—on ABOs. We also examine whether intervention buffers birth outcomes from the negative effect of elevated salivary cortisol levels. We use intent-to-treat analyses to assess the main effects of the FF intervention on ABOs (prematurity, birth weight, pregnancy complications, Cesarean section, and days in hospital for mothers and infants) among 148 expectant mothers. We also test the interaction of cortisol with intervention condition status in predicting ABOs. FF participation was associated with reduced risk of C-section (OR .357, p < 0.05, 95 % CI 0.149, 0.862), but did not have main effects on other ABOs. FF significantly buffered (p < 0.05) the negative impact of maternal cortisol on birth weight, gestational age, and days in hospital for infants; that is, among women with relatively higher levels of prenatal cortisol, the intervention reduced ABOs. These results demonstrate that a psycho-educational program for couples reduces incidence of ABOs among higher risk women. Future work should test whether reduced maternal stress and depression mediate these intervention effects. PMID:24969352

  7. Preventing adolescents’ externalizing and internalizing symptoms: Effects of the Penn Resiliency Program

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, J. J.; Gillham, Jane E.; Chaplin, Tara M.; Reivich, Karen J.; Seligman, Martin E. P.; Gallop, Robert J.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Freres, Derek R.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports secondary outcome analyses from a past study of the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP), a cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for middle-school aged children. Middle school students (N = 697) were randomly assigned to PRP, PEP (an alternate intervention), or control conditions. Gillham et al., (2007) reported analyses examining PRP’s effects on average and clinical levels of depression symptoms. We examine PRP’s effects on parent-, teacher-, and self-reports of adolescents’ externalizing and broader internalizing (depression/anxiety, somatic complaints, and social withdrawal) symptoms over three years of follow-up. Relative to no intervention control, PRP reduced parent-reports of adolescents’ internalizing symptoms beginning at the first assessment after the intervention and persisting for most of the follow-up assessments. PRP also reduced parent-reported conduct problems relative to no-intervention. There was no evidence that the PRP program produced an effect on teacher- or self-report of adolescents’ symptoms. Overall, PRP did not reduce symptoms relative to the alternate intervention, although there is a suggestion of a delayed effect for conduct problems. These findings are discussed with attention to developmental trajectories and the importance of interventions that address common risk factors for diverse forms of negative outcomes. PMID:24634897

  8. Effects of ketoprofen for prevention of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Takashi; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Iwata, Hideki; Morikawa, Akihiro; Imori, Satoko; Waki, Sayaka; Tamura, Takahiko; Yamazaki, Fumimoto; Eguchi, Satoru; Kumagai, Naoko; Yokoyama, Masataka

    2014-12-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is a common geriatric complication that may be associated with increased mortality. Here, we investigated the effects of postoperative analgesia with ketoprofen on cognitive functions in aged animals and compared its effectiveness to morphine. Rats were randomly allocated to one of four groups: isoflurane anesthesia without surgery (group C), isoflurane anesthesia with laparotomy (group IL), and isoflurane anesthesia with laparotomy plus postoperative analgesia with ketoprofen or morphine. There was no difference in postoperative locomotor activity among groups. In group IL, postoperative pain levels assessed by the Rat Grimace Scale significantly increased until 8 h after surgery, which was similarly inhibited by both ketoprofen and morphine. Cognitive function was assessed using radial arm maze testing for 12 consecutive days from postoperative day 3. Results showed that the number of memory errors in group IL were significantly higher than those in goup C. However, both ketoprofen and morphine could attenuate the increase in memory errors following surgery to a similar degree. Conversely, ketoprofen showed no effect on cognitive function in the nonsurgical rats that did not experience pain. Our findings suggest that postoperative analgesia with ketoprofen can prevent the development of surgery-associated memory deficits via its pain-relieving effects. PMID:24676769

  9. Cost-effectiveness of iron supplementation and malaria chemoprophylaxis in the prevention of anaemia and malaria among Tanzanian infants.

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo González, M.; Menéndez, C.; Font, F.; Kahigwa, E.; Kimario, J.; Mshinda, H.; Tanner, M.; Bosch-Capblanch, X.; Alonso, P. L.

    2000-01-01

    Prerequisites for effective interventions against severe anaemia and malaria among infants are economic evaluations to aid the setting of priorities and the making of health policy. In the present study we analysed the cost and effectiveness of three control strategies hypothetically delivered through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). For the prevention of severe anaemia and from the perspective of the health provider, the cost-effectiveness ratios were, respectively, US$ 8, US$ 9, and US$ 21 per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) for malaria chemoprophylaxis with Deltaprim (a combination of 3.125 mg pyrimethamine and 25 mg dapsone) + iron, Deltaprim alone, or iron supplementation alone. For malaria prevention, Deltaprim + iron cost US$ 9.7 per DALY and Deltaprim alone cost US$ 10.2 per DALY. From a sociocultural perspective the cost-effectiveness ratios ranged from US$ 9 to US$ 26 for severe anaemia prevention and from US$ 11 to US$ 12 for the prevention of clinical malaria. These ratios were highly cost-effective, as defined by the World Bank's proposed threshold of less than US$ 25 per DALY for comparative assessments. Furthermore, all the preventive interventions were less costly than the current malaria and anaemia control strategies that rely on clinical case management. This economic analysis supports the inclusion of both malaria chemoprophylaxis and iron supplementation delivered through EPI as part of the control strategies for these major killers of infants in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:10686744

  10. Long-term effect of early-life supplementation with probiotics on preventing atopic dermatitis: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Wang, Lei; Yang, Lijia; Tao, Shiqin; Xia, Rushan; Fan, Weixin

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased over the past few decades. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common allergic disease, for which there is currently no known cure. Administration of probiotics in early life may be an effective method to prevent AD, but very little is known about its long-time preventive effect. In this research, a meta-analysis has been conducted to evaluate the long-term effect of early-life supplementation with probiotics on preventing AD. Meta-analysis was performed by the Review Manager version 5.2 software. Risk ratio and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by a fixed effect model. Six trials and a total of 1955 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The combined risk ratio of the meta-analysis comparing probiotics with placebo for investigating the long-term preventive effect of AD was 0.86 (95% CI 0.77-0.96), which demonstrates that probiotics is likely to produce long-term prevention of AD. PMID:25942569

  11. Antibody to prevent the effects of brevetoxin poisoning in conscious rats. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, C.B.; Poli, M.A.; LeClaire, R.D.

    1988-03-09

    The marine dinoflagellate, Ptychodiscus brevis, primarily responsible for Florida red tides, produces toxins that cause massive fish kills in the Gulf of Mexico and along the Florida coast. In humans, these toxins (brevetoxins) also cause a respiratory tract irritation from contact with seaspray and an intoxication known as neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. These toxins may be considered as potential biological warfare threat agents; therefore, finding a method of prophylaxis and therapy is imperative. The purpose of this study was to determine if an anti-brevetoxin (PbTx-2) antibody could prevent the effects seen in rats in previous brevetoxin studies, namely, reduced respiratory rates, reduced core and peripheral body temperatures, and ECG abnormalities.

  12. Additive Effect of Neutralizing Antibody and Antiviral Drug Treatment in Preventing Virus Escape and Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Peter; Senn, Beatrice M.; Klenerman, Paul; Kalinke, Ulrich; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    2000-01-01

    Poorly cytopathic or noncytopathic viruses can escape immune surveillance and establish a chronic infection. Here we exploited the strategy of combining antiviral drug treatment with the induction of a neutralizing antibody response to avoid the appearance of neutralization-resistant virus variants. Despite the fact that H25 immunoglobulin transgenic mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus mounted an early neutralizing antibody response, the virus escaped from neutralization and persisted. After ribavirin treatment of H25 transgenic mice, the appearance of neutralization-resistant virus was prevented and virus was cleared. Thus, the combination of virus-neutralizing antibodies and chemotherapy efficiently controlled the infection, whereas each defense line alone did not. Similar additive effects may be unexpectedly efficient and beneficial in humans after infections with persistent viruses such as hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus and possibly human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:10846070

  13. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes. PMID:26081242

  14. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes.

  15. Effects of preventive antibiotics on neutrophil phagocytosis as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium dye test.

    PubMed

    Szauer, J S; Schwartz, S A

    1976-05-01

    White blood cell counts and nitroblue tetrazolium dye tests were performed in three groups of dogs before and after the injection of Escherichia coli using colistimethate sodium and cephalothin sodium in the second and third groups, respectively, prior to the induction of sepsis. The response was a diminished white blood count and increased nitroblue tetrazolium dye test percentage in all groups. When antibiotic administration was performed prior to the induction of sepsis, the increase in the nitroblue tetrazolium reduction dye test was much more evident despite the overwhelming dose of bacteria given, suggesting that antibiotics given preoperatively will prevent the toxic effects of bacteria on the neutrophil and will enhance the phagocytic activity of the neutrophil. PMID:772847

  16. Effects of exercise and metformin on the prevention of glucose intolerance: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Molena-Fernandes, C; Bersani-Amado, C A; Ferraro, Z M; Hintze, L J; Nardo, N; Cuman, R K N

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training (4 days) and metformin exposure on acute glucose intolerance after dexamethasone treatment in rats. Forty-two adult male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were divided randomly into four groups: sedentary control (SCT), sedentary dexamethasone-treated (SDX), training dexamethasone-treated (DPE), and dexamethasone and metformin treated group (DMT). Glucose tolerance tests and in situ liver perfusion were undertaken on fasting rats to obtain glucose profiles. The DPE group displayed a significant decrease in glucose values compared with the SDX group. Average glucose levels in the DPE group did not differ from those of the DMT group, so we suggest that exercise training corrects dexamethasone-induced glucose intolerance and improves glucose profiles in a similar manner to that observed with metformin. These data suggest that exercise may prevent the development of glucose intolerance induced by dexamethasone in rats to a similar magnitude to that observed after metformin treatment. PMID:26421869

  17. Effects of exercise and metformin on the prevention of glucose intolerance: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Molena-Fernandes, C.; Bersani-Amado, C. A.; Ferraro, Z. M.; Hintze, L. J.; Nardo, N.; Cuman, R. K. N.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training (4 days) and metformin exposure on acute glucose intolerance after dexamethasone treatment in rats. Forty-two adult male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were divided randomly into four groups: sedentary control (SCT), sedentary dexamethasone-treated (SDX), training dexamethasone-treated (DPE), and dexamethasone and metformin treated group (DMT). Glucose tolerance tests and in situ liver perfusion were undertaken on fasting rats to obtain glucose profiles. The DPE group displayed a significant decrease in glucose values compared with the SDX group. Average glucose levels in the DPE group did not differ from those of the DMT group, so we suggest that exercise training corrects dexamethasone-induced glucose intolerance and improves glucose profiles in a similar manner to that observed with metformin. These data suggest that exercise may prevent the development of glucose intolerance induced by dexamethasone in rats to a similar magnitude to that observed after metformin treatment. PMID:26421869

  18. Dropout Prevention and Intervention Programs: Effects on School Completion and Dropout among School-Aged Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sandra Jo; Tanner-Smith, Emily; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to summarize the available evidence on the effects of prevention and intervention programs aimed at primary and secondary students for increasing school completion or reducing school dropout. Program effects on the closely related outcomes of school attendance (absences, truancy) will also be examined.…

  19. Effects of a Web-Based Stroke Education Program on Recurrence Prevention Behaviors among Stroke Patients: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jae-Il; Lee, Sook; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of methods to prevent stroke recurrence and of education focusing on learners' needs has not been fully explored. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of such interventions among stroke patients and their primary caregivers and to evaluate the feasibility of a web-based stroke education program. The participants were…

  20. The promise of long-term effectiveness of school-based smoking prevention programs: a critical review of reviews

    PubMed Central

    Flay, Brian R

    2009-01-01

    I provide a review and critique of meta-analyses and systematic reviews of school-based smoking prevention programs that focus on long-term effects. Several of these reviews conclude that the effects of school-based smoking prevention programs are small and find no evidence that they have significant long-term effects. I find that these reviews all have methodological problems limiting their conclusions. These include severe limiting of the studies included because of performance bias, student attrition, non-reporting of ICCs, inappropriate classification of intervention approach, and inclusion of programs that had no short-term effects. The more-inclusive meta-analyses suggest that school-based smoking prevention programs can have significant and practical effects in both the short- and the long-term. Findings suggest that school-based smoking prevention programs can have significant long-term effects if they: 1) are interactive social influences or social skills programs; that 2) involve 15 or more sessions, including some up to at least ninth grade; that 3) produce substantial short-term effects. The effects do decay over time if the interventions are stopped or withdrawn, but this is true of any kind of intervention. PMID:19323827