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1

Preventing Falls  

MedlinePLUS

... there are simple ways you can prevent most falls. Stay physically active. Regular exercise makes you stronger. ... that may result from falling. Here are some fall prevention tips from Go4Life : l Have your eyes ...

2

The effectiveness of tailoring falls prevention education for older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Falls in older adults are a major public health concern and education has been proposed as a means of reducing falls in older adults. While falls education is commonly utilized in clinical practice, little research is available on its effectiveness as a falls prevention measure or addressing details of the education that contribute to its effectiveness. This study's purpose

Stacey L Schepens

2009-01-01

3

The Effect of an Individualized Fall Prevention Program on Fall Risk and Falls in Older People: A Randomized, Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether an individualized falls prevention program comprising exercise, visual, and counseling interventions can reduce physiological falls risk and falls in older people. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial of 12 months' du- ration. SETTING: Falls Clinic, Royal North Shore Hospital, Syd- ney, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred twenty people aged 75 and older recruited from a health insurance company member-

Stephen R. Lord; Anne Tiedemann; Kirsten Chapman; Bridget Munro; Susan M. Murray; M Gerontology; Catherine Sherrington

2005-01-01

4

The effectiveness of a participatory program on fall prevention in oncology patients.  

PubMed

Falls are known to be one of the most common in patient adverse events. A high incidence of falls was reported on patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a participatory program on patient's knowledge and self-efficacy of fall prevention and fall incidence in an oncology ward. In this quasi-experimental study, 68 participants were recruited at a medical centre in Taiwan. A 20-min fall prevention program was given to patients. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the effectiveness of program after on day 3 of intervention. The data of fall incidence rates were collected from hospital record. Fall incidences with and without the program were used to compare the effectiveness of intervention. The patients' knowledge and self-efficacy of fall prevention are better than after intervention. A statistically significant difference in fall incidence rate was observed with (0.0%) and without (19.3%) the program. Our findings suggest that the fact of the bedside is that the most risk for falling in hospital must be communicated to the hospitalized patients. Educating patients about fall prevention and activities associated with falling increases their awareness of the potential of falling and promoting patient safety. PMID:25492057

Huang, Li-Chi; Ma, Wei-Fen; Li, Tsai-Chung; Liang, Yia-Wun; Tsai, Li-Yun; Chang, Fy-Uan

2014-12-01

5

Effects of a Community-based Fall Prevention Exercise Program on Activity Participation  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to identify the effects of a fall-prevention exercise program on the participation and static balance of elderly persons in daily life roles. [Subjects] Ten participants over 65?years of age (75.29±2.93) who were healthy community-dwellers (two men and eight women) were recruited. [Methods] The participants exercised three times a week for eight weeks. The exercise program was based on the fitness and mobility exercise (FAME) protocol. The outcome measures were changes in activity participation level and the fall index. [Results] After the exercise, the activity participation level significantly increased, and the fall index significantly decreased. [Conclusion] A fall prevention exercise program can have a positive effect on participation and static balance in older adults. PMID:24926125

Kim, Won-Jin; Chang, Moonyoung; An, Duk-Hyun

2014-01-01

6

Effects of a Randomized Controlled Recurrent Fall Prevention Program on Risk Factors for Falls in Frail Elderly Living at Home in Rural Communities  

PubMed Central

Background Falling can lead to severe health issues in the elderly and importantly contributes to morbidity, death, immobility, hospitalization, and early entry to long-term care facilities. The aim of this study was to devise a recurrent fall prevention program for elderly women in rural areas. Material/Methods This study adopted an assessor-blinded, randomized, controlled trial methodology. Subjects were enrolled in a 12-week recurrent fall prevention program, which comprised strength training, balance training, and patient education. Muscle strength and endurance of the ankles and the lower extremities, static balance, dynamic balance, depression, compliance with preventive behavior related to falls, fear of falling, and fall self-efficacy at baseline and immediately after the program were assessed. Sixty-two subjects (mean age 69.2±4.3 years old) completed the program – 31 subjects in the experimental group and 31 subjects in the control group. Results When the results of the program in the 2 groups were compared, significant differences were found in ankle heel rise test, lower extremity heel rise test, dynamic balance, depression, compliance with fall preventative behavior, fear of falling, and fall self-efficacy (p<0.05), but no significant difference was found in static balance. Conclusions This study shows that the fall prevention program described effectively improves muscle strength and endurance, balance, and psychological aspects in elderly women with a fall history. PMID:25394805

Jeon, Mi Yang; Jeong, HyeonCheol; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Lee, Haneul; Yim, JongEun

2014-01-01

7

Effects of visual biofeedback training for fall prevention in the elderly.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of six weeks of visual biofeedback training for prevention of falling in the elderly. The Tetrax system was used for visual biofeedback training. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty elderly persons (experimental group=15, control group=15) who were above 70 and under 80?years of age participated in biofeedback training. They were trained for 15 minutes a day, three times per week. We measured the weight distribution index, stability index, and fall index in the subjects using the Tetrax system, and paired t-tests were used to evaluate the changes before and after intervention. The difference between the groups was compared using an independent t-test. [Results] The experimental group showed significant differences in weight distribution index, stability index, and fall index. The control group showed no significant differences. According to the comparison of training effects between the two groups, the variables of stability index and fall index revealed a statistically significant difference. [Conclusion] The method of visual biofeedback training used in this study should be considered a therapeutic method for the elderly to improve weight distribution, stability, and effectiveness in preventing falls. PMID:24396196

Kang, Kwon-Young

2013-11-01

8

Effects of Visual Biofeedback Training for Fall Prevention in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of six weeks of visual biofeedback training for prevention of falling in the elderly. The Tetrax system was used for visual biofeedback training. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty elderly persons (experimental group=15, control group=15) who were above 70 and under 80?years of age participated in biofeedback training. They were trained for 15 minutes a day, three times per week. We measured the weight distribution index, stability index, and fall index in the subjects using the Tetrax system, and paired t-tests were used to evaluate the changes before and after intervention. The difference between the groups was compared using an independent t-test. [Results] The experimental group showed significant differences in weight distribution index, stability index, and fall index. The control group showed no significant differences. According to the comparison of training effects between the two groups, the variables of stability index and fall index revealed a statistically significant difference. [Conclusion] The method of visual biofeedback training used in this study should be considered a therapeutic method for the elderly to improve weight distribution, stability, and effectiveness in preventing falls. PMID:24396196

Kang, Kwon-Young

2013-01-01

9

The effect of fall prevention exercise programmes on fall induced injuries in community dwelling older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether, and to what extent, fall prevention exercise interventions for older community dwelling people are effective in preventing different types of fall related injuries. Data sources Electronic databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, and CINAHL) and reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews from inception to July 2013. Study selection Randomised controlled trials of fall prevention exercise interventions, targeting older (>60 years) community dwelling people and providing quantitative data on injurious falls, serious falls, or fall related fractures. Data synthesis Based on a systematic review of the case definitions used in the selected studies, we grouped the definitions of injurious falls into more homogeneous categories to allow comparisons of results across studies and the pooling of data. For each study we extracted or calculated the rate ratio of injurious falls. Depending on the available data, a given study could contribute data relevant to one or more categories of injurious falls. A pooled rate ratio was estimated for each category of injurious falls based on random effects models. Results 17 trials involving 4305 participants were eligible for meta-analysis. Four categories of falls were identified: all injurious falls, falls resulting in medical care, severe injurious falls, and falls resulting in fractures. Exercise had a significant effect in all categories, with pooled estimates of the rate ratios of 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.77, 10 trials) for all injurious falls, 0.70 (0.54 to 0.92, 8 trials) for falls resulting in medical care, 0.57 (0.36 to 0.90, 7 trials) for severe injurious falls, and 0.39 (0.22 to 0.66, 6 trials) for falls resulting in fractures, but significant heterogeneity was observed between studies of all injurious falls (I2=50%, P=0.04). Conclusions Exercise programmes designed to prevent falls in older adults also seem to prevent injuries caused by falls, including the most severe ones. Such programmes also reduce the rate of falls leading to medical care. PMID:24169944

2013-01-01

10

Fall Prevention in Apprentice Carpenters  

PubMed Central

Objectives Falls from heights are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the construction industry, especially among inexperienced workers. We surveyed apprentice carpenters to identify individual and organizational factors associated with falls from heights. Methods We developed a 72-item fall prevention survey with multiple domains including fall experience, fall prevention knowledge, risk perceptions, confidence in ability to prevent falls, training experience, and perceptions of the safety climate and crew safety behaviors. We administered the questionnaire to apprentice carpenters in this cross-sectional study. Results Of the 1,025 respondents, 51% knew someone who had fallen from height at work and 16% had personally fallen in the past year, with ladders accounting for most of the falls. Despite participation in school-based and on-the-job training, fall prevention knowledge was poor. Ladders were perceived as low risk and ladder training was rare. Apprentices reported high levels of unsafe fall-related behaviors on their work crews. Apprentices working residential construction were more likely to fall than those working commercial construction, as were apprentices working on crews with fewer senior carpenters to provide mentorship, and those reporting more unsafe behaviors among fellow workers. Conclusions Despite participation in a formal apprenticeship program, many apprentices work at heights without adequate preparation and subsequently experience falls. Apprenticeship programs can improve the timing and content of fall prevention training. This study suggests that organizational changes in building practices, mentorship, and safety culture must also occur in order to decrease worker falls from heights. PMID:19953214

Kaskutas, Vicki; Dale, Ann Marie; Lipscomb, Hester; Gaal, John; Fuchs, Mark; Evanoff, Bradley; Faucette, Julia; Gillen, Marion; Deych, Elena

2013-01-01

11

Preventing Construction Falls  

MedlinePLUS

... I worked construction for 10 years before my fall. It shattered my body and my livelihood. Work safely. Use the right equipment. Safety Pays. Falls Cost. www.osha.gov/stopfalls/ disconnect from the ...

12

Effects of an Intervention to Increase Bed Alarm Use to Prevent Falls in Hospitalized Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Bed alarm systems intended to prevent hospital falls have not been formally evaluated. Objective To investigate whether an intervention aimed at increasing bed alarm use decreases hospital falls and related events. Design Pair-matched, cluster randomized trial over 18 months. Nursing units were allocated by computer-generated randomization on the basis of baseline fall rates. Patients and outcome assessors were blinded to unit assignment; outcome assessors may have become unblinded. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00183053) Setting 16 nursing units in an urban community hospital. Patients 27 672 inpatients in general medical, surgical, and specialty units. Intervention Education, training, and technical support to promote use of a standard bed alarm system (intervention units); bed alarms available but not formally promoted or supported (control units). Measurements Pre–post difference in change in falls per 1000 patient-days (primary end point); number of patients who fell, fall-related injuries, and number of patients restrained (secondary end points). Results Prevalence of alarm use was 64.41 days per 1000 patient-days on intervention units and 1.79 days per 1000 patient-days on control units (P = 0.004). There was no difference in change in fall rates per 1000 patient-days (risk ratio, 1.09 [95% CI, 0.85 to 1.53]; difference, 0.41 [CI, ?1.05 to 2.47], which corresponds to a greater difference in falls in control vs. intervention units) or in the number of patients who fell, injurious fall rates, or the number of patients physically restrained on intervention units compared with control units. Limitation The study was conducted at a single site and was slightly underpowered compared with the initial design. Conclusion An intervention designed to increase bed alarm use in an urban hospital increased alarm use but had no statistically or clinically significant effect on fall-related events or physical restraint use. Primary Funding Source National Institute on Aging. PMID:23165660

Shorr, Ronald I.; Chandler, A. Michelle; Mion, Lorraine C.; Waters, Teresa M.; Liu, Minzhao; Daniels, Michael J.; Kessler, Lori A.; Miller, Stephen T.

2013-01-01

13

Preventing falls in older adults: New interventions to promote more effective change-in-support balance reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Change-in-support” (CIS) balance-recovery reactions that involve rapid stepping or reaching movements play a critical role in preventing falls; however, age-related deficits in the neuro-musculoskeletal systems may impede ability to execute these reactions effectively. This review describes four new interventions aimed at reducing fall risk in older adults by promoting more effective CIS reactions: (1) balance training, (2) balance-enhancing footwear, (3)

Brian E. Maki; Kenneth C.-C. Cheng; Avril Mansfield; Carol Y. Scovil; Stephen D. Perry; Amy L. Peters; Sandra McKay; Tracy Lee; Aaron Marquis; Philippe Corbeil; Geoff R. Fernie; Barbara Liu; William E. McIlroy

2008-01-01

14

Tailored Prevention of Inpatient Falls  

PubMed Central

Patient falls and fall-related injuries are serious problems in hospitals. The Fall TIPS application aims to prevent patient falls by translating routine nursing fall risk assessment into a decision support intervention that communicates fall risk status and creates a tailored evidence-based plan of care that is accessible to the care team, patients, and family members. In our design and implementation of the Fall TIPS toolkit, we used the Spiral Software Development Life Cycle model. Three output tools available to be generated from the toolkit are bed poster, plan of care, and patient education handout. A preliminary design of the application was based on initial requirements defined by project leaders and informed by focus groups with end users. Preliminary design partially simulated the paper version of the Morse Fall Scale currently used in hospitals involved in the research study. Strengths and weaknesses of the first prototype were identified by heuristic evaluation. Usability testing was performed at sites where research study is implemented. Suggestions mentioned by end users participating in usability studies were either directly incorporated into the toolkit and output tools, were slightly modified, or will be addressed during training. The next step is implementation of the fall prevention toolkit on the pilot testing units. PMID:20975543

ZUYEV, LYUBOV; BENOIT, ANGELA N.; CHANG, FRANK Y.; DYKES, PATRICIA C.

2011-01-01

15

Effectiveness of muscle strengthening and description of protocols for preventing falls in the elderly: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Falls are a geriatric syndrome that is considered a significant public health problem in terms of morbidity and mortality because they lead to a decline in functional capacity and an impaired quality of life in the elderly. Lower limb muscle strengthening seems to be an effective intervention for preventing falls; however, there is no consensus regarding the best method for increasing lower limb muscle strength. Objectives To analyze the effectiveness of lower limb muscle strengthening and to investigate and describe the protocols used for preventing falls in elderly subjects. Method We performed a systematic review of randomized and controlled clinical trials published between 2002 and 2012 in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and PEDro that cited some type of lower limb muscle strengthening protocol and that evaluated the incidence of falls as the primary outcome exclusively in elderly subjects. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Qualitative analysis was performed by independent reviewers applying the PEDro scale. Results The data obtained from the selected studies showed lower fall rates in the intervention groups compared to controls. Six studies described the lower limb muscle strengthening protocol in detail. High methodological quality was found in 6 studies (PEDro score ?7/10 points). Conclusions The methodological quality of the studies in this area appears to leave little doubt regarding the effectiveness of lower limb strengthening exercises for preventing falls in elderly subjects, however the interventions in these studies were poorly reported. PMID:24760166

Ishigaki, Erika Y.; Ramos, Lidiane G.; Carvalho, Elisa S.; Lunardi, Adriana C.

2014-01-01

16

Fall Prevention in Acute Care Hospitals  

PubMed Central

Context Falls cause injury and death for persons of all ages, but risk of falls increases markedly with age. Hospitalization further increases risk, yet no evidence exists to support short-stay hospital-based fall prevention strategies to reduce patient falls. Objective To investigate whether a fall prevention tool kit (FPTK) using health information technology (HIT) decreases patient falls in hospitals. Design, Setting, and Patients Cluster randomized study conducted January 1, 2009, through June 30, 2009, comparing patient fall rates in 4 urban US hospitals in units that received usual care (4 units and 5104 patients) or the intervention (4 units and 5160 patients). Intervention The FPTK integrated existing communication and workflow patterns into the HIT application. Based on a valid fall risk assessment scale completed by a nurse, the FPTK software tailored fall prevention interventions to address patients’ specific determinants of fall risk. The FPTK produced bed posters composed of brief text with an accompanying icon, patient education handouts, and plans of care, all communicating patient-specific alerts to key stakeholders. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was patient falls per 1000 patient-days adjusted for site and patient care unit. A secondary outcome was fall-related injuries. Results During the 6-month intervention period, the number of patients with falls differed between control (n=87) and intervention (n=67) units (P=.02). Site-adjusted fall rates were significantly higher in control units (4.18 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.45-5.06] per 1000 patient-days) than in intervention units (3.15 [95% CI, 2.54-3.90] per 1000 patient-days; P=.04). The FPTK was found to be particularly effective with patients aged 65 years or older (adjusted rate difference, 2.08 [95% CI, 0.61-3.56] per 1000 patient-days; P=.003). No significant effect was noted in fall-related injuries. Conclusion The use of a fall prevention tool kit in hospital units compared with usual care significantly reduced rate of falls. PMID:21045097

Dykes, Patricia C.; Carroll, Diane L.; Hurley, Ann; Lipsitz, Stuart; Benoit, Angela; Chang, Frank; Meltzer, Seth; Tsurikova, Ruslana; Zuyov, Lyubov; Middleton, Blackford

2011-01-01

17

Measuring hospital falls prevention safety climate.  

PubMed

Abstract The prevention of falls is a key safety priority for hospitals. There are no tools that examine the safety climate from a falls prevention perspective. The aim of this study was to measure the falls prevention safety climate at an Australian metropolitan hospital. The Victorian Safety Climate Survey (SCS) was used to examine the general safety climate, with four items replicated and modified to examine the falls prevention climate. Data (N = 458) for the six SCS domains compared favourably with statewide data. The falls prevention items were correlated with the original items from which they were derived but responses regarding falls prevention tended to be less positive than patient safety more broadly. Priorities for improvement identified using a falls SCS can inform the development of falls prevention strategies and form the basis of a more comprehensive tool to explore the falls prevention safety climate. PMID:25267124

Bennett, Paul N; Ockerby, Cherene; Stinson, Judy; Willcocks, Karlene; Chalmers, Cheyne

2014-01-01

18

Measuring hospital falls prevention safety climate.  

PubMed

Abstract The prevention of falls is a key safety priority for hospitals. There are no tools that examine the safety climate from a falls prevention perspective. The aim of this study was to measure the falls prevention safety climate at an Australian metropolitan hospital. The Victorian Safety Climate Survey (SCS) was used to examine the general safety climate, with four items replicated and modified to examine the falls prevention climate. Data (n = 458) for the six SCS domains compared favourably with statewide data. The falls prevention items were correlated with the original items from which they were derived but responses regarding falls prevention tended to be less positive than patient safety more broadly. Priorities for improvement identified using a falls safety climate survey can inform the development of falls prevention strategies and form the basis of a more comprehensive tool to explore the falls prevention safety climate. PMID:24483127

Bennett, Paul N; Ockerby, Cherene; Stinson, Judy; Willcocks, Karlene; Chalmers, Cheyne

2014-02-01

19

Whom to Target for Falls-Prevention Trials  

PubMed Central

Effective falls-prevention approaches for people with multiple sclerosis (MS) are needed. A significant challenge in studying falls-prevention programs for people with MS is deciding whom to include in trials. This article presents and discusses potential criteria for selecting participants for trials of falls-prevention interventions in MS. This narrative review reports on the inaugural meeting of the International MS Falls Prevention Research Network (IMSFPRN), which was held in March 2014 in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Criteria considered were age, assistive device use, cognition, and fall history. The IMSFPRN reached consensus agreement to recommend that participants of all ages with varying levels of cognitive ability who are able to ambulate with or without assistance and who have a history of falling should be included in their future falls-prevention trials.

Coote, Susan; Sosnoff, Jacob J.

2014-01-01

20

What Are Ways to Prevent Falls and Related Fractures?  

MedlinePLUS

... Falls and Fractures What Are Ways to Prevent Falls and Related Fractures? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... in: PDF (122 KB) Español Related Resources Preventing Falls and Fractures Osteoporosis and Falls Osteoporosis and Falls ( ...

21

The Winchester falls project: a randomised controlled trial of secondary prevention of falls in older people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: the mortality and morbidity of falls in older people is significant, with recurrent fallers being at an increased risk. The most effective way to reduce falls in this group is not clear. Objective: to determine the effectiveness of two interventions, one based in primary care and the other in secondary care, at preventing further falls in recurrent fallers. Design:

CLAIRE L. SPICE; W ENDY MOROTTI; S TEVE GEORGE; T HOMAS H. S. DENT; JIM ROSE; HRISTOPHER J. GORDON

2009-01-01

22

Preventing falls among older adults: No \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical activity (exercise) serves primary, second- ary, and tertiary roles in the prevention of falls among older adults. In its primary role, physical activity can prevent the onset of pathology and system impairments that lead to disabil- ity and increased risk for falls. Slowing the progression of dis- ease and system impairments is its secondary role, while its tertiary role

Debra J. Rose

2008-01-01

23

Fall prevention and vitamin D in the elderly: an overview of the key role of the non-bone effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preventing falls and fall-related fractures in the elderly is an objective yet to be reached. There is increasing evidence that a supplementation of vitamin D and\\/or of calcium may reduce the fall and fracture rates. A vitamin D-calcium supplement appears to have a high potential due to its simple application and its low cost. However, published studies have shown conflicting

Cedric Annweiler; Manuel Montero-Odasso; Anne M Schott; Gilles Berrut; Bruno Fantino; Olivier Beauchet

2010-01-01

24

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Tai Chi for Improving Balance and Preventing Falls in the Older Populationâ??A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the challenges faced by people with advancing age is decreased postural stability and increased risks for falls. There has been an increased interest over the last decade in using Tai Chi as an intervention exercise for improving postural balance and preventing falls in older people. De- spite the increased number of studies in recent years relat- ing Tai

Ge Wu

2002-01-01

25

[A "balance" workshop to prevent falls].  

PubMed

In order to respond to the fear of falling or falling again expressed by a large majority of its patients, the department for follow-up care and rehabilitation in Bazas hospital (Gironde) has set up a "balance" workshop in 2004. An account of this prevention strategy. PMID:20560279

Garnaud, Isabelle; Carrere, Barbara; Prosper, Florence; Béziade, Nadine; Devos, Maryse

2010-01-01

26

Influences on modern multifactorial falls prevention interventions and fear of falling in non-frail older adults: a literature review.  

PubMed

This review explores underlying features that may influence fear of falling and the effectiveness of multifactorial falls prevention programs in community dwelling non-frail adults aged 65 and older. It also examines the interrelationship between fear of falling and multifactorial falls prevention interventions. A literature search of medical databases was conducted to identify articles that address the fear of falling and multifactorial programs as either a primary or secondary component of their findings. Multifactorial interventions were assessed in terms of their program content, design, demographics, implementation techniques, and cost-effectiveness. Falls are a common, but preventable, cause of morbidity and injury in older adults 65 and over. In addition to physiological variables, fear of falling and self-efficacy are psychosocial factors that impact the incidence of falls in this population. Addressing fear of falling in addition to physiological parameters may influence the success of multifactorial falls prevention programs for adults 65 and over. PMID:25110534

Svantesson, Ulla; Babagbemi, Buki; Foster, Lakicia; Alricsson, Marie

2014-10-01

27

Interventions to Prevent Falls Among Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Falls consistently rank among the most serious problems facing older persons and cause a tremendous amount of morbidity, mortality,\\u000a and disability (Brown, 1999; Nevitt, 1997; Robbins et al., 1989; Rubenstein, Josephson, & Robbins, 1994; Tinetti, Williams,\\u000a & Mayewski, 1986). At least a third of community-dwelling people aged 65 years and older fall each year (Centers for Disease\\u000a Control and Prevention

Laurence Z. Rubenstein; Judy A. Stevens; Vicky Scott

28

Preventing Falls | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoporosis Preventing Falls Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents Bone ... with osteoporosis need to take care not to fall down. Falls can break bones. Some reasons people ...

29

The FLASSH study: protocol for a randomised controlled trial evaluating falls prevention after stroke and two sub-studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Falls are common in stroke survivors returning home after rehabilitation, however there is currently a lack of evidence about preventing falls in this population. This paper describes the study protocol for the FLASSH (FaLls prevention After Stroke Survivors return Home) project. METHODS AND DESIGN: This randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-factorial falls prevention program

Frances A Batchelor; Keith D Hill; Shylie F Mackintosh; Catherine M Said; Craig H Whitehead

2009-01-01

30

Effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to prevent falls in community dwelling older people with disabling foot pain: randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention in preventing falls in community dwelling older people with disabling foot pain. Design Parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting University health sciences clinic in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 305 community dwelling men and women (mean age 74 (SD 6) years) with disabling foot pain and an increased risk of falling. 153 were allocated to a multifaceted podiatry intervention and 152 to routine podiatry care, with 12 months’ follow-up. Interventions Multifaceted podiatry intervention consisting of foot orthoses, advice on footwear, subsidy for footwear ($A100 voucher; £65; €74), a home based programme of foot and ankle exercises, a falls prevention education booklet, and routine podiatry care for 12 months. The control group received routine podiatry care for 12 months. Main outcome measures Proportion of fallers and multiple fallers, falling rate, and injuries resulting from falls during follow-up. Results Overall, 264 falls occurred during the study. 296 participants returned all 12 calendars: 147 (96%) in the intervention group and 149 (98%) in the control group. Adherence was good, with 52% of the participants completing 75% or more of the requested three exercise sessions weekly, and 55% of those issued orthoses reporting wearing them most of the time. Participants in the intervention group (n=153) experienced 36% fewer falls than participants in the control group (incidence rate ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.91, P=0.01). The proportion of fallers and multiple fallers did not differ significantly between the groups (relative risk 0.85, 0.66 to 1.08, P=0.19 and 0.63, 0.38 to 1.04, P=0.07). One fracture occurred in the intervention group and seven in the control group (0.14, 0.02 to 1.15, P=0.07). Significant improvements in the intervention group compared with the control group were found for the domains of strength (ankle eversion), range of motion (ankle dorsiflexion and inversion/eversion), and balance (postural sway on the floor when barefoot and maximum balance range wearing shoes). Conclusions A multifaceted podiatry intervention reduced the rate of falls in community dwelling older people with disabling foot pain. The components of the intervention are inexpensive and relatively simple to implement, suggesting that the programme could be incorporated into routine podiatry practice or multidisciplinary falls prevention clinics. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000065392. PMID:21680622

2011-01-01

31

Frequently observed risk factors for fall-related injuries and effective preventive interventions: a multihospital survey of nurses' perceptions.  

PubMed

There is an urgent need to prioritize the risk factors for injurious falls and effective interventions in nursing practice. Registered nurses perceived that the most frequently observed risk factors were confusion, gait problems, Alzheimer disease, disorientation, and inability to follow safety instructions. The most effective interventions were keeping hospital bed brakes locked, keeping floor surfaces clean/dry, using appropriate footwear for patients, maintaining a call light within reach, and reducing tripping hazards. PMID:23117794

Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Yin, Chang-Yi

2013-01-01

32

Preventing Falls in Older Adults Who Live in Community Settings  

MedlinePLUS

Preventing Falls in Older Adults Who Live in Community Settings: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Summaries for Patients ... medicine. The full report is titled “Prevention of Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: U.S. Preventive Services ...

33

Wearable Assistive System Design for Fall Prevention Wenyao Xu12  

E-print Network

}ee.ucla.edu Abstract: Fall is the prevalent issue among the elderly, and fall risk assessment and prevention are very for the discussion about fall prevention technology. 1. Introduction Many elder people over 65 are at a high risk-third of all people 65 and older, and have become a leading cause of deaths due to injury among elderly people

He, Lei

34

PHS 650, Fall 2011 1 PREVENTION OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY  

E-print Network

PHS 650, Fall 2011 1 PHS 650 PREVENTION OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY Course Syllabus Fall 2011 Credits knowledge to develop, implement, and evaluate obesity prevention interventions. This course will emphasize pediatric obesity prevention with a focus on nutrition and physical activity health behaviors

Sheridan, Jennifer

35

Fall Incidence as the Primary Outcome in Multiple Sclerosis Falls-Prevention Trials  

PubMed Central

The aim of this article is to provide recommendations on behalf of the International MS Falls Prevention Research Network (IMSFPRN) for the primary outcome measure for multiple sclerosis (MS) falls-prevention interventions. The article will consider the definition of a fall, methods of measuring falls, and the elements of falls that should be recorded, as well as how these elements should be presented and analyzed. While this information can be used to inform the content of falls-prevention programs, the primary aim of the article is to make recommendations on how the outcome of these programs should be captured.

Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Gunn, Hilary

2014-01-01

36

Exercise and Sports Science Australia Position Statement on exercise and falls prevention in older people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Falls affect a significant number of older Australians and present a major challenge to health care providers and health systems. The purpose of this statement is to inform and guide exercise practitioners and health professionals in the safe and effective prescription of exercise for older community-dwelling people with the goal of preventing falls. Falls in older people are not random

Anne Tiedemann; Catherine Sherrington; Jacqueline C. T. Close; Stephen R. Lord

2011-01-01

37

Assessment and prevention of falls in older people - concise guidance.  

PubMed

Falls in later life are a major health issue, both in terms of their injurious consequences and their significance as a diagnostic marker. Cost-effective measures for their assessment and prevention are well documented but insufficiently implemented. This Concise Guideline comprises a distillation of recommendations for the assessment and prevention of falls in older people based on Clinical Guideline 161 (incorporating CG21) published by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in 2013. The recommendations are intended to provide both generalists and specialists with an overview of practical strategies for clinical case and/or risk ascertainment and intervention, and for referral and service implementation across the primary-secondary care interface and within the hospital setting. Recommendations abstracted verbatim from the Guideline are highlighted. Explanatory or supporting comment is given as appropriate. PMID:25468853

Swift, Cameron G; Iliffe, Steve

2014-12-01

38

Integration of Fall Prevention into State Policy in Connecticut  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of Study: To describe the ongoing efforts of the Connecticut Collaboration for Fall Prevention (CCFP) to move evidence regarding fall prevention into clinical practice and state policy. Methods: A university-based team developed methods of networking with existing statewide organizations to influence clinical practice and state policy.…

Murphy, Terrence E.; Baker, Dorothy I.; Leo-Summers, Linda S.; Bianco, Luann; Gottschalk, Margaret; Acampora, Denise; King, Mary B.

2013-01-01

39

Prevention of falls in older people with dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Falls are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in older people with dementia. However, although we know that people with\\u000a dementia can comply with interventions known to reduce falls in cognitively normal populations, and that these interventions\\u000a can modify certain risk factors for falls in patients with dementia, direct evidence that falls can be prevented in older\\u000a people with

F. E. Shaw

2007-01-01

40

Community-based falls prevention: lessons from an Interprofessional Mobility Clinic  

PubMed Central

Falls are a common and serious risk with an aging population. Chiropractors commonly see firsthand the effects of falls and resulting injuries in their senior patients and they can reduce falls risk through active screening. Ongoing research has provided proven approaches for making falls less likely. Screening for falls should be done yearly for all patients 65 years and older or in those with a predisposing medical condition. Additional specific falls prevention professional education would enable the chiropractor to best assist these patients. Collaboration and communication with the patient’s family physician offers an opportunity for improved interprofessional dialogue to enhance patient care related to falls risk. Frequently falls prevention strategies are implemented by an interprofessional team. Chiropractors increasingly contribute within multidisciplinary teams. Collaboration by the chiropractor requires both simple screening and knowledge of health care system navigation. Such awareness can permit optimal participation in the care of their patient and the best outcome. PMID:25202159

Bauman, Craig A.; Milligan, James D.; Patel, Tejal; Pritchard, Sarah; Labreche, Tammy; Dillon-Martin, Sharon; Ilich, Alexandra; Riva, John J.

2014-01-01

41

Community-based falls prevention: lessons from an Interprofessional Mobility Clinic.  

PubMed

Falls are a common and serious risk with an aging population. Chiropractors commonly see firsthand the effects of falls and resulting injuries in their senior patients and they can reduce falls risk through active screening. Ongoing research has provided proven approaches for making falls less likely. Screening for falls should be done yearly for all patients 65 years and older or in those with a predisposing medical condition. Additional specific falls prevention professional education would enable the chiropractor to best assist these patients. Collaboration and communication with the patient's family physician offers an opportunity for improved interprofessional dialogue to enhance patient care related to falls risk. Frequently falls prevention strategies are implemented by an interprofessional team. Chiropractors increasingly contribute within multidisciplinary teams. Collaboration by the chiropractor requires both simple screening and knowledge of health care system navigation. Such awareness can permit optimal participation in the care of their patient and the best outcome. PMID:25202159

Bauman, Craig A; Milligan, James D; Patel, Tejal; Pritchard, Sarah; Labreche, Tammy; Dillon-Martin, Sharon; Ilich, Alexandra; Riva, John J

2014-09-01

42

Development and Process Evaluation of a 5-Week Exercise Program to Prevent Falls in People after Stroke: The FALLS Program  

PubMed Central

Falls are a common complication after stroke, with balance and gait deficits being the most important risk factors. Taking into account the specific needs and capacities of people with stroke, we developed the FALLS program (FALL prevention after Stroke), based on the “Nijmegen falls prevention program” (a proven-effective 5-week exercise program designed for community-dwelling elderly people). The program was tested in twelve community-dwelling persons with stroke, and a process evaluation was conducted with patients, trainers, health care professionals, and managers. The FALLS program was considered suitable and feasible by people with stroke in the study and relevant health care professionals, and recommendations for implementation in clinical practice have been suggested. PMID:22195292

van Duijnhoven, H. J. R.; De Kam, D.; Hellebrand, W.; Smulders, E.; Geurts, A. C. H.; Weerdesteyn, V.

2012-01-01

43

Falls among Older Adults: Public Health Impact and Prevention Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of the epidemiology of falls among older adults, describes current prevention strategies, and highlights key areas that need to be addressed, including risk assessments, exercise, and environmental changes. (Contains 50 references.) (JOW)

Stevens, Judy A.

2003-01-01

44

Improving balance through dance Preventing falls in Parkinson's disease patients  

E-print Network

Improving balance through dance Preventing falls in Parkinson's disease patients Improving quality Lifeaftercancertreatment Providinglong-termsupport forsurvivors. Page4 2 Improvingbalancethroughdance PreventingfallsinParkinson to look at a number of factors influencing recovery which takes into account the disease itself,

Anderson, Jim

45

Engaging Community-Based Organizations in Fall Prevention Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Falls are a major public health problem for older adults, and community-based organizations play a key role in educating seniors about falls prevention (FP). We conducted a qualitative process evaluation at six sites to report community-based centers' perspectives on adoption, adaptation, and sustainability of an evidence-based multifactorial FP…

Kramer, B. Josea; Vivrette, Rebecca L.; Rubenstein, Laurence Z.

2011-01-01

46

Patient Education to Prevent Falls Among Older Hospital Inpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Falls are a common adverse event during hospitalization of older adults, and few interventions have been shown to prevent hem.\\u000aMethods: This study was a 3-group randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of 2 forms of multimedia patient education compared with usual care for the prevention of in-hospital falls. Older hospital patients (n = 1206) admitted to a mixture

Terry P Haines; Anne-Marie Hill; Keith D Hill; Steven McPhail; David Oliver; Sandra Brauer; Tammy Hoffmann; Christopher Beer

2011-01-01

47

Fall prevention modulates decisional saccadic behavior in aging  

PubMed Central

As society ages and frequency of falls increases in older adults, counteracting motor decline is a challenging issue for developed countries. Physical activity based on aerobic and strength training as well as motor activity based on skill learning both help benefit balance and reduce the risk of falls, as assessed by clinical or laboratory measures. However, how such programs influence motor control is a neglected issue. This study examined the effects of fall prevention (FP) training on saccadic control in older adults. Saccades were recorded in 12 participants aged 64–91 years before and after 2.5 months training in FP. Traditional analysis of saccade timing and dynamics was performed together with a quantitative analysis using the LATER model, enabling us to examine the underlying motor control processes. Results indicated that FP reduced the rate of anticipatory and express saccades in inappropriate directions and enhanced that of express saccades in the appropriate direction, resulting in decreased latency and higher left-right symmetry of motor responses. FP reduced within-participant variability of saccade duration, amplitude, and peak velocity. LATER analysis suggested that FP modulates decisional thresholds, extending our knowledge of motor training influence on central motor control. We introduce the Threshold Interval Modulation with Early Release-Rate of rIse Deviation with Early Release (TIMER-RIDER) model to account for the results. PMID:22807914

Coubard, Olivier A.

2012-01-01

48

A student-led demonstration project on fall prevention in a long-term care facility.  

PubMed

Falls are a frequent and serious problem facing people aged 65 and older. The incidence of falls increases with greater numbers of intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors and can be reduced by risk modification and targeted interventions. Falls account for 70% of accidental deaths in persons aged 75 and older. Mortality due to falls is significantly higher for older adults living in extended care facilities versus those living in the community. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a fall prevention training program in a long-term care setting. A single-group repeated-measure design was used, guided by the Precede-Proceed framework. A comprehensive review of the literature and a concept analysis guided the development of testing and educational materials for all nursing and ancillary facility staff. Preliminary testing provided baseline data on knowledge related to fall prevention. Pre- and posttests, a fall prevention newsletter, and informational brochures were distributed to nursing staff and ancillary personnel at training sessions. Certified nursing assistant (CNA) champions were identified and given peer leadership training. "Quick Tips" fall prevention badges were also distributed to staff. Graduate students led interdisciplinary environmental rounds weekly, and new falls were reviewed on a daily basis by the interdisciplinary team. A 60-day posttest evaluated retention of fall prevention knowledge. Fall rates at baseline and for 2 months after the intervention were compared. Preliminary survey data revealed fall prevention learning opportunities, with a pretest mean score of 86.78%. Qualitative data were coded and revealed specific learning gaps in intrinsic, extrinsic, and organizational causes of falls. The 60-day posttest mean score was 90.69%; a paired t test (t score = -1.050; P = .057) suggested that learning may have taken place; however, differences in scores did not reach statistical significance. The fall rate before training was 16.1%; 30-day posttraining fall rate was 12.3%, and 60-day postintervention fall rate was 9%. Based on the program results, the model was expanded from long-term care to the university hospital system and outpatient clinics in the same community. The collaboration between a school of nursing and 1 long-term care facility led to the adoption of a significant quality improvement program that was subsequently extended to a local hospital and clinic system. Student-led projects designed to teach community service learning can be meaningful and can lead to changes in patient safety and quality of care. PMID:17923288

Bonner, Alice; MacCulloch, Patricia; Gardner, Terri; Chase, Chantel W

2007-01-01

49

Exercise in preventing falls and fall related injuries in older people: a review of randomised controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective—To assess the eVectiveness of exercise programmes in preventing falls (and\\/or lowering the risk of falls and fall related injuries) in older people. Design—A review of controlled clinical trials designed with the aim of lowering the risk of falling and\\/or fall injuries through an exercise only intervention or an intervention that included an exercise component Main outcome measures—Falls, fall re-

Melinda M Gardner; M Clare Robertson; A John Campbell

2000-01-01

50

Tailored prevention of inpatient falls: development and usability testing of the fall TIPS toolkit.  

PubMed

Patient falls and fall-related injuries are serious problems in hospitals. The Fall TIPS application aims to prevent patient falls by translating routine nursing fall risk assessment into a decision support intervention that communicates fall risk status and creates a tailored evidence-based plan of care that is accessible to the care team, patients, and family members. In our design and implementation of the Fall TIPS toolkit, we used the Spiral Software Development Life Cycle model. Three output tools available to be generated from the toolkit are bed poster, plan of care, and patient education handout. A preliminary design of the application was based on initial requirements defined by project leaders and informed by focus groups with end users. Preliminary design partially simulated the paper version of the Morse Fall Scale currently used in hospitals involved in the research study. Strengths and weaknesses of the first prototype were identified by heuristic evaluation. Usability testing was performed at sites where research study is implemented. Suggestions mentioned by end users participating in usability studies were either directly incorporated into the toolkit and output tools, were slightly modified, or will be addressed during training. The next step is implementation of the fall prevention toolkit on the pilot testing units. PMID:20975543

Zuyev, Lyubov; Benoit, Angela N; Chang, Frank Y; Dykes, Patricia C

2011-02-01

51

Effects of a Fall Prevention Exercise Program on Muscle Strength and Balance of the Old-old Elderly  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week balance exercise and elastic-resistance exercise program on muscle strength and balance of the old-old elderly (over the age of 75). [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-five elderly persons were recruited from the community and assigned to three groups for convenience: balance exercise (intervention group 1; INT 1), resistance exercise (intervention group 2; INT 2), and control (CON) groups. The intervention was performed twice a week at a senior center and three times a week at home for 8 weeks. Muscle strength and balance were evaluated before and at the end of the trial, using a PowertrackIIand Tetrax. [Results] There were significant improvements in the strength of all seven muscle groups and balance in the INT 2 group. In the INT 1 group, there were significant improvements in the strength of all muscle groups except for the knee flexor and ankle plantar flexor muscle groups. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that an intervention using balance exercises or elastic-resistance exercises is effective at improving the muscle strength and balance of the old-old elderly. These type of exercises should be appropriate for the physical characteristics of the subjects. PMID:25435697

Cho, Seong-Il; An, Duk-Hyun

2014-01-01

52

Effects of a Fall Prevention Exercise Program on Muscle Strength and Balance of the Old-old Elderly.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week balance exercise and elastic-resistance exercise program on muscle strength and balance of the old-old elderly (over the age of 75). [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-five elderly persons were recruited from the community and assigned to three groups for convenience: balance exercise (intervention group 1; INT 1), resistance exercise (intervention group 2; INT 2), and control (CON) groups. The intervention was performed twice a week at a senior center and three times a week at home for 8 weeks. Muscle strength and balance were evaluated before and at the end of the trial, using a PowertrackIIand Tetrax. [Results] There were significant improvements in the strength of all seven muscle groups and balance in the INT 2 group. In the INT 1 group, there were significant improvements in the strength of all muscle groups except for the knee flexor and ankle plantar flexor muscle groups. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that an intervention using balance exercises or elastic-resistance exercises is effective at improving the muscle strength and balance of the old-old elderly. These type of exercises should be appropriate for the physical characteristics of the subjects. PMID:25435697

Cho, Seong-Il; An, Duk-Hyun

2014-11-01

53

Emerging concept: 'central benefit model' of exercise in falls prevention.  

PubMed

Falls are a common geriatric syndrome and are the third leading cause of chonic disability worldwide. Falls are not random events and occur, at least in part, due to impaired physiological function, such as impaired balance, and cognitive impairment. The clinical syndrome of falls is important for Sports and Exercise Medicine Clinicians as there is Level 1 evidence that targeted exercise prescription is an effective intervention strategy. The widely accepted dogma is that improved physical function, balance and muscle strength, underlies the effectiveness of the exercise in reducing falls. However, findings from randomised controlled trials suggest that exercise reduce falls via mechanisms other than improved physiological function. The authors propose that improved cognitive function - specifically, executive functions - and associated functional plasticity may be an important yet underappreciated mechanism by which the exercise reduces falls in older adults. PMID:22522589

Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Hsu, Chun Liang; Bolandzadeh, Niousha

2013-01-01

54

Home Improvements Prevent Falls | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... 2014 Table of Contents Many state and local governments have education and/or home modification programs to help older people prevent falls. Check with your local health department, senior affairs office, or area agency on aging to see if there is ...

55

Cost effectiveness of preventing falls and improving mobility in people with Parkinson disease: protocol for an economic evaluation alongside a clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cost of illness studies show that Parkinson disease (PD) is costly for individuals, the healthcare system and society. The costs of PD include both direct and indirect costs associated with falls and related injuries. METHODS: This protocol describes a prospective economic analysis conducted alongside a randomised controlled trial (RCT). It evaluates whether physical therapy is more cost effective than

Jennifer J Watts; Jennifer L McGinley; Frances Huxham; Hylton B Menz; Robert Iansek; Anna T Murphy; Emma R Waller; Meg E Morris

2008-01-01

56

Indoor Gateball's Influence on Life Satisfaction and the Prevention of Falls by the Elderly.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of indoor gateball exercise on life satisfaction and the prevention of falls by the elderly. [Subjects] Sixteen elderly subjects aged 65 or more, residents in nursing care facilities, were randomly divided into two groups. [Methods] One group performed indoor gateball exercise for 30 minutes a day, five times per week. The Tetrax fall index and life satisfaction were measured before and after four weeks of gateball exercise. [Results] The indoor gate ball exercise group showed significant improvements in the fall index and life satisfaction. [Conclusion] The indoor gateball exercise used in this study should be considered as a therapeutic method for the elderly, for improving their life satisfaction and because of its effectiveness in preventing falls. PMID:25540489

Kang, Kwon-Young

2014-12-01

57

Indoor Gateball’s Influence on Life Satisfaction and the Prevention of Falls by the Elderly  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of indoor gateball exercise on life satisfaction and the prevention of falls by the elderly. [Subjects] Sixteen elderly subjects aged 65 or more, residents in nursing care facilities, were randomly divided into two groups. [Methods] One group performed indoor gateball exercise for 30 minutes a day, five times per week. The Tetrax fall index and life satisfaction were measured before and after four weeks of gateball exercise. [Results] The indoor gate ball exercise group showed significant improvements in the fall index and life satisfaction. [Conclusion] The indoor gateball exercise used in this study should be considered as a therapeutic method for the elderly, for improving their life satisfaction and because of its effectiveness in preventing falls.

Kang, Kwon-Young

2014-01-01

58

Inpatient fall prevention programs as a patient safety strategy: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Falls are common among inpatients. Several reviews, including 4 meta-analyses involving 19 studies, show that multicomponent programs to prevent falls among inpatients reduce relative risk for falls by as much as 30%. The purpose of this updated review is to reassess the benefits and harms of fall prevention programs in acute care settings and to identify factors associated with successful implementation of these programs. We searched for new evidence using PubMed from 2005 to September 2012. Two new, large, randomized, controlled trials supported the conclusions of the existing meta-analyses. An optimal bundle of components was not identified. Harms were not systematically examined, but potential harms included increased use of restraints and sedating drugs and decreased efforts to mobilize patients. Eleven studies showed that the following themes were associated with successful implementation: leadership support, engagement of front-line staff in program design, guidance of the prevention program by a multidisciplinary committee, pilot-testing interventions, use of information technology systems to provide data about falls, staff education and training, and changes in nihilistic attitudes about fall prevention. Future research would advance knowledge by identifying optimal bundles of component interventions for particular patients and by determining whether effectiveness relies more on the mix of the components or use of certain implementation strategies. PMID:23460095

Miake-Lye, Isomi M; Hempel, Susanne; Ganz, David A; Shekelle, Paul G

2013-03-01

59

Survey on Fall Detection and Fall Prevention Using Wearable and External Sensors  

PubMed Central

According to nihseniorhealth.gov (a website for older adults), falling represents a great threat as people get older, and providing mechanisms to detect and prevent falls is critical to improve people's lives. Over 1.6 million U.S. adults are treated for fall-related injuries in emergency rooms every year suffering fractures, loss of independence, and even death. It is clear then, that this problem must be addressed in a prompt manner, and the use of pervasive computing plays a key role to achieve this. Fall detection (FD) and fall prevention (FP) are research areas that have been active for over a decade, and they both strive for improving people's lives through the use of pervasive computing. This paper surveys the state of the art in FD and FP systems, including qualitative comparisons among various studies. It aims to serve as a point of reference for future research on the mentioned systems. A general description of FD and FP systems is provided, including the different types of sensors used in both approaches. Challenges and current solutions are presented and described in great detail. A 3-level taxonomy associated with the risk factors of a fall is proposed. Finally, cutting edge FD and FP systems are thoroughly reviewed and qualitatively compared, in terms of design issues and other parameters. PMID:25340452

Delahoz, Yueng Santiago; Labrador, Miguel Angel

2014-01-01

60

Randomised factorial trial of falls prevention among older people living in their own homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To test the effectiveness of, and explore interactions between, three interventions to prevent falls among older people. Design A randomised controlled trial with a full factorial design. Setting Urban community in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 1090 aged 70 years and over and living at home. Most were Australian born and rated their health as good to excellent; just over half

Lesley Day; Brian Fildes; Ian Gordon; Michael Fitzharris; Harold Flamer; Stephen Lord; Victoria Melbourne; Australia Ian Gordon

2002-01-01

61

Randomised factorial trial of falls prevention among older people living in their own homes  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the effectiveness of, and explore interactions between, three interventions to prevent falls among older people. Design A randomised controlled trial with a full factorial design. Setting Urban community in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 1090 aged 70 years and over and living at home. Most were Australian born and rated their health as good to excellent; just over half lived alone. Interventions Three interventions (group based exercise, home hazard management, and vision improvement) delivered to eight groups defined by the presence or absence of each intervention. Main outcome measure Time to first fall ascertained by an 18 month falls calendar and analysed with survival analysis techniques. Changes to targeted risk factors were assessed by using measures of quadriceps strength, balance, vision, and number of hazards in the home. Results The rate ratio for exercise was 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.97, P=0.02), and a significant effect (P<0.05) was observed for the combinations of interventions that involved exercise. Balance measures improved significantly among the exercise group. Neither home hazard management nor treatment of poor vision showed a significant effect. The strongest effect was observed for all three interventions combined (rate ratio 0.67 (0.51 to 0.88, P=0.004)), producing an estimated 14.0% reduction in the annual fall rate. The number of people needed to be treated to prevent one fall a year ranged from 32 for home hazard management to 7 for all three interventions combined. Conclusions Group based exercise was the most potent single intervention tested, and the reduction in falls among this group seems to have been associated with improved balance. Falls were further reduced by the addition of home hazard management or reduced vision management, or both of these. Cost effectiveness is yet to be examined. These findings are most applicable to Australian born adults aged 70-84 years living at home who rate their health as good. What is already known on this topicMultiple interventions are known to prevent falls among older people, but the relative importance of the different strategies is unknownWhat this study addsA weekly exercise programme focusing on balance, plus exercises at home, can help to prevent falls among Australians aged 70 years and over living at home and in good healthHome hazard management and vision screening and referral are not markedly effective in reducing falls when used alone but add value when combined with the exercise programme PMID:12130606

Day, Lesley; Fildes, Brian; Gordon, Ian; Fitzharris, Michael; Flamer, Harold; Lord, Stephen

2002-01-01

62

How big does the effect of an intervention have to be? Application of two novel methods to determine the smallest worthwhile effect of a fall prevention programme: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction This project concerns the identification of the smallest worthwhile effect (SWE) of exercise-based programmes to prevent falls in older people. The SWE is the smallest effect that justifies the costs, risks and inconveniences of an intervention and is used to inform the design and interpretation of systematic reviews and randomised clinical trials. Methods and analysis This study will comprise two different methodological approaches: the benefit-harm trade-off method and the discrete choice experiment to estimate the SWE of exercise interventions to prevent falls in older people. In the benefit-harm trade-off method, hypothetical scenarios with the benefits, costs, risks and inconveniences associated with the intervention will be presented to each participant. Then, assuming a treatment effect of certain magnitude, the participant will be asked if he or she would choose to have the intervention. The size of the hypothetical benefit will be varied up and down until it is possible to identify the SWE for which the participant would choose to have the intervention. In the discrete choice experiment, the same attributes (benefits, costs, risks and inconveniences) with varying levels will be presented as choice sets, and participants will be asked to choose between these choice sets. With this approach, we will determine the probability that a person will consider the effects of an intervention to be worthwhile, given the particular costs, risks and inconveniences. For each of the two approaches, participants will be interviewed in person and on different occasions. A subsample of the total cohort will participate in both interviews. Ethics and dissemination This project has received Ethics Approval from the University of Sydney Human Ethics Committee (Protocol number: 14404). Findings will be disseminated through conference presentations, seminars and peer-reviewed scientific journals. PMID:23388197

Franco, Marcia Rodrigues; Ferreira, Manuela L; Howard, Kirsten; Sherrington, Catherine; Rose, John; Haines, Terry P; Ferreira, Paulo

2013-01-01

63

Preventing falls among older people with mental health problems: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Falls are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in older people and the risk of falling is exacerbated by mental health conditions. Existing reviews have focused on people with dementia and cognitive impairment, but not those with other mental health conditions or in mental health settings. The objective of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of fall prevention interventions for older people with mental health problems being cared for across all settings. Methods A systematic review of fall prevention interventions for older people with mental health conditions. We undertook electronic database and lateral searches to identify studies reporting data on falls or fall related injuries. Searches were initially conducted in February 2011 and updated in November 2012 and October 2013; no date restrictions were applied. Studies were assessed for risk of bias. Due to heterogeneity results were not pooled but are reported narratively. Results Seventeen RCTs and four uncontrolled studies met the inclusion criteria; 11 involved single interventions and ten multifactorial. Evidence relating to fall reduction was inconsistent. Eight of 14 studies found a reduction in fallers (statistically significant in five), and nine of 14 reported a significant reduction in rate or number of falls. Four studies found a non-significant increase in falls. Multifactorial, multi-disciplinary interventions and those involving exercise, medication review and increasing staff awareness appear to reduce the risk of falls but evidence is mixed and study quality varied. Changes to the environment such as increased supervision or sensory stimulation to reduce agitation may be promising for people with dementia but further evaluation is needed. Most of the studies were undertaken in nursing and residential homes, and none in mental health hospital settings. Conclusions There is a dearth of falls research in mental health settings or which focus on patients with mental health problems despite the high number of falls experienced by this population group. This review highlights the lack of robust evidence to support practitioners to implement practices that prevent people with mental health problems from falling. PMID:24552165

2014-01-01

64

Translating Fall Incidence Data into Fall-Preventive Measures in Geriatric Wards – A Survey in Belgian Hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Fall incidents and their negative outcomes represent a considerable problem in hospitals, especially in geriatric wards, and require implementation of strategies to prevent these undesirable events. For this reason, the College of Geriatrics, a body funded by the Belgian Government to set up quality improvement initiatives in geriatric wards, selected ‘Fall prevention in Belgian hospitals’ as a quality project

Joke Coussement; Eddy Dejaeger; Margareta Lambert; Nele Van Den Noortgate; Leen De Paepe; Steven Boonen; Didier Schoevaerdts; Koen Milisen

2009-01-01

65

Can social dancing prevent falls in older adults? a protocol of the Dance, Aging, Cognition, Economics (DAnCE) fall prevention randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Falls are one of the most common health problems among older people and pose a major economic burden on health care systems. Exercise is an accepted stand-alone fall prevention strategy particularly if it is balance training or regular participation in Tai chi. Dance shares the ‘holistic’ approach of practices such as Tai chi. It is a complex sensorimotor rhythmic activity integrating multiple physical, cognitive and social elements. Small-scale randomised controlled trials have indicated that diverse dance styles can improve measures of balance and mobility in older people, but none of these studies has examined the effect of dance on falls or cognition. This study aims to determine whether participation in social dancing: i) reduces the number of falls; and ii) improves cognitive functions associated with fall risk in older people. Methods/design A single-blind, cluster randomised controlled trial of 12 months duration will be conducted. Approximately 450 participants will be recruited from 24 self-care retirement villages that house at least 60 residents each in Sydney, Australia. Village residents without cognitive impairment and obtain medical clearance will be eligible. After comprehensive baseline measurements including physiological and cognitive tests and self-completed questionnaires, villages will be randomised to intervention sites (ballroom or folk dance) or to a wait-listed control using a computer randomisation method that minimises imbalances between villages based on two baseline fall risk measures. Main outcome measures are falls, prospectively measured, and the Trail Making cognitive function test. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses will be performed. Discussion This study offers a novel approach to balance training for older people. As a community-based approach to fall prevention, dance offers older people an opportunity for greater social engagement, thereby making a major contribution to healthy ageing. Providing diversity in exercise programs targeting seniors recognises the heterogeneity of multicultural populations and may further increase the number of taking part in exercise. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000889853 The trial is now in progress with 12 villages already have been randomised. PMID:23675705

2013-01-01

66

"Better for others than for me": a belief that should shape our efforts to promote participation in falls prevention strategies.  

PubMed

Falls are a common occurrence amongst older adults yet participation in prevention strategies is often poor. Although older adults may perceive a strategy works in general, they may not participate because they feel it will not benefit them personally. We aimed to describe how frequently and why older adults identify falls prevention strategies as being "better for others than for me". A cross-sectional survey with n=394 community-dwelling older adults in Victoria, Australia was undertaken. Participants were provided with detailed descriptions of four evidence-based falls prevention strategies and for each were asked whether they felt that the strategy would be effective in preventing falls for people like them, and then whether they felt that the strategy would be effective for preventing falls for them personally. Follow-up questions asked why they thought the strategy would be more effective for people like them than for them personally where this was the case. We found the "better for others than for me" perception was present for between 25% and 34% of the strategies investigated. Participants commonly said they felt this way because they did not think they were at risk of falls, and because they were doing other activities they thought would provide equivalent benefit. Strategies to promote participation in evidence-based falls prevention strategies may need to convince older adults that they are at risk of falls and that what activities they are already doing may not provide adequate protection against falls in order to have greater effect. PMID:24745812

Haines, Terry P; Day, Lesley; Hill, Keith D; Clemson, Lindy; Finch, Caroline

2014-01-01

67

ICT-based system to predict and prevent falls (iStoppFalls): study protocol for an international multicenter randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Falls are very common, especially in adults aged 65 years and older. Within the current international European Commission’s Seventh Framework Program (FP7) project ‘iStoppFalls’ an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based system has been developed to regularly assess a person’s risk of falling in their own home and to deliver an individual and tailored home-based exercise and education program for fall prevention. The primary aims of iStoppFalls are to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention program, and its effectiveness to improve balance, muscle strength and quality of life in older people. Methods/Design This international, multicenter study is designed as a single-blinded, two-group randomized controlled trial. A total of 160 community-dwelling older people aged 65 years and older will be recruited in Germany (n = 60), Spain (n = 40), and Australia (n = 60) between November 2013 and May 2014. Participants in the intervention group will conduct a 16-week exercise program using the iStoppFalls system through their television set at home. Participants are encouraged to exercise for a total duration of 180 minutes per week. The training program consists of a variety of balance and strength exercises in the form of video games using exergame technology. Educational material about a healthy lifestyle will be provided to each participant. Final reassessments will be conducted after 16 weeks. The assessments include physical and cognitive tests as well as questionnaires assessing health, fear of falling, quality of life and psychosocial determinants. Falls will be followed up for six months by monthly falls calendars. Discussion We hypothesize that the regular use of this newly developed ICT-based system for fall prevention at home is feasible for older people. By using the iStoppFalls sensor-based exercise program, older people are expected to improve in balance and strength outcomes. In addition, the exercise training may have a positive impact on quality of life by reducing the risk of falls. Taken together with expected cognitive improvements, the individual approach of the iStoppFalls program may provide an effective model for fall prevention in older people who prefer to exercise at home. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Trial ID: ACTRN12614000096651. International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number: ISRCTN15932647. PMID:25141850

2014-01-01

68

Implementation of a Home-Based Interactive Training System for Fall Prevention: Requirements and Challenges.  

PubMed

A critical need exists for rehabilitation for improving older adults' physical abilities, especially in the field of fall prevention. Although virtual reality and ambient-assistive technology-based approaches are promising, they are cost intensive and frequently face significant obstacles during the developmental process. The authors of the current article developed a motivational interactive training system for fall prevention and stroke rehabilitation and planned a pilot study to measure its usability, user acceptance, and effect on physical abilities and quality of life. Usability results from a field trial are presented. The purpose of the current article is to describe the technological and organizational problems during the development process and field trial. Recommendations for overcoming these barriers are described. These experiences should be taken into account when planning further field trials with assistive technology and older adults. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, xx(xx), xx-xx.]. PMID:25486114

Kiselev, Jörn; Haesner, Marten; Gövercin, Mehmet; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

2014-12-10

69

Does a fall prevention educational programme improve knowledge and change exercise prescribing behaviour in health and exercise professionals? A study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Falling in older age is a serious and costly problem. At least one in three older people fall annually. Although exercise is recognised as an effective fall prevention intervention, low numbers of older people engage in suitable programmes. Health and exercise professionals play a crucial role in addressing fall risk in older adults. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of participation in a fall prevention educational programme, compared with a wait-list control group, on health and exercise professionals’ knowledge about fall prevention and the effect on fall prevention exercise prescription behaviour and confidence to prescribe the exercises to older people. Methods and analysis A randomised controlled trial involving 220 consenting health and exercise professionals will be conducted. Participants will be individually randomised to an intervention group (n=110) to receive an educational workshop plus access to internet-based support resources, or a wait-list control group (n=110). The two primary outcomes, measured 3?months after randomisation, are: (1) knowledge about fall prevention and (2) self-perceived change in fall prevention exercise prescription behaviour. Secondary outcomes include: (1) participants’ confidence to prescribe fall prevention exercises; (2) the proportion of people aged 60+ years seen by trial participants in the past month who were prescribed fall prevention exercise; and (3) the proportion of fall prevention exercises prescribed by participants to older people in the past month that comply with evidence-based guidelines. Outcomes will be measured with a self-report questionnaire designed specifically for the trial. Ethics and dissemination The trial protocol was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee, The University of Sydney, Australia. Trial results will be disseminated via peer reviewed journals, presentations at international conferences and participants’ newsletters. Trial registration number Trial protocol was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (Number ACTRN12614000224628) on 3 March 2014. PMID:25410607

Tiedemann, A; Sturnieks, D L; Hill, A-M; Lovitt, L; Clemson, L; Lord, S R; Harvey, L; Sherrington, C

2014-01-01

70

Falls Prevention in Older Age in Western Pacific Asia Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary To understand the epidemiology of falls among older population in the region, a literature review was conducted. The results show that incidence of falls were different in different countries and studies. The incidence of the falls in elderly aged 60 years and over was at least more than 10%, and some reached to 30.6%. Falls of elderly occurred frequently

Fu Hua; Sachiyo Yoshida; Gao Junling; Peng Hui

71

Predictors of adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention for the prevention of falls in older people  

PubMed Central

Background Despite emerging evidence that foot problems and inappropriate footwear increase the risk of falls, there is little evidence as to whether foot-related intervention strategies can be successfully implemented. The aim of this study was to evaluate adherence rates, barriers to adherence, and the predictors of adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention for the prevention of falls in older people. Methods The intervention group (n = 153, mean age 74.2 years) of a randomised trial that investigated the effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to prevent falls was assessed for adherence to the three components of the intervention: (i) foot orthoses, (ii) footwear advice and footwear cost subsidy, and (iii) a home-based foot and ankle exercise program. Adherence to each component and the barriers to adherence were documented, and separate discriminant function analyses were undertaken to identify factors that were significantly and independently associated with adherence to the three intervention components. Results Adherence to the three components of the intervention was as follows: foot orthoses (69%), footwear (54%) and home-based exercise (72%). Discriminant function analyses identified that being younger was the best predictor of orthoses use, higher physical health status and lower fear of falling were independent predictors of footwear adherence, and higher physical health status was the best predictor of exercise adherence. The predictive accuracy of these models was only modest, with 62 to 71% of participants correctly classified. Conclusions Adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention in this trial ranged from 54 to 72%. People with better physical health, less fear of falling and a younger age exhibited greater adherence, suggesting that strategies need to be developed to enhance adherence in frailer older people who are most at risk of falling. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000065392. PMID:21871080

2011-01-01

72

AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY CONSENSUS STATEMENT Vitamin D for Prevention of Falls and  

E-print Network

AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY CONSENSUS STATEMENT Vitamin D for Prevention of Falls Geriatrics Society Consensus Statement onVitamin D for Prevention of Falls and their Consequences,'' is published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society and is available online at www

Oliver, Douglas L.

73

Assessing the Quality of a Non-randomized Pragmatic Trial for Primary Prevention of Falls among Older Adults.  

PubMed

Current approaches to falls prevention mostly rely on secondary and tertiary prevention and target individuals at high risk of falls. An alternative is primary prevention, in which all seniors are screened, referred as appropriate, and educated regarding falls risk. Little information is available on research designs that allow investigation of this approach in the setting of aging services delivery, where randomization may not be possible. Healthy Steps for Older Adults, a statewide program of the Pennsylvania (PA) Department of Aging, involves a combination of education about falls and screening for balance problems, with referral to personal physicians and home safety assessments. We developed a non-randomized statewide trial, Falls Free PA, to assess its effectiveness in reducing falls incidence over 12 months. We recruited 814 seniors who completed the program (503 first-time participants, 311 people repeating the program) and 1,020 who did not participate in the program, from the same sites. We assessed the quality of this non-randomized design by examining recruitment, follow-up across study groups, and comparability at baseline. Of older adults approached in senior centers, 90.5 % (n?=?2,219) signed informed consent, and 1,834 (82.4 %) completed baseline assessments and were eligible for follow-up. Attrition in the three groups over 12 months was low and non-differential (<10 % for withdrawal and <2 % for other loss to follow-up). Median follow-up, which involved standardized monthly assessment of falls, was 10 months in all study groups. At baseline, the groups did not differ in measures of health or falls risk factors. Comparable status at baseline, recruitment from common sites, and similar experience with retention suggest that the non-randomized design will be effective for assessment of this approach to primary prevention of falls. PMID:24488533

Albert, Steven M; Edelstein, Offer; King, Jennifer; Flatt, Jason; Lin, Chyongchiou J; Boudreau, Robert; Newman, Anne B

2015-01-01

74

The Effects of Obesity on Fall Efficacy in Elderly People  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify the effects of obesity on falls as a practical verification of the importance of obesity-targeting interventions as part of future fall prevention programs. [Subjects and Methods] The study involved 351 elderly people (172 men, 179 women) living in rural areas. The dependent variable, fall efficacy, was measured using the Falls Efficacy Scale, while the independent variables, body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat, were measured using the InBody 720. The Faces Pain Scale was used to measure pain. Mobility was measured using the Timed Up and Go Test, and balance ability was measured according to the duration subjects could stand on one foot with their eyes closed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed for the final data analysis. [Results] Investigation of the correlations between the variables revealed a negative correlation between fall efficacy and the other variables. Ultimatley, investigation of the causality of fall efficacy revealed that the BMI, pain, and mobility were influential factors. In other words, fall efficacy tends to be lower when there are higher degrees of obesity, increased pain, and decreased mobility. [Conclusion] To improve the fall efficacy of elderly people living in rural areas, pain management and the maintenance of physical functionality are required. The present study confirms that the elderly need continuous obesity management to lead healthy lives. PMID:24396217

Jeon, Byoung-Jin

2013-01-01

75

Falls Prevention Education for Older Adults during and after Hospitalization: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of patient education in reducing falls, promoting behavioural change and the uptake of prevention activities in older adults during and after hospitalization. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: A systematic search of five health science databases was performed up to November 2012. Studies…

Lee, Den-Ching A.; Pritchard, Elizabeth; McDermott, Fiona; Haines, Terry P.

2014-01-01

76

Obstacle Course Training Can Improve Mobility and Prevent Falls in People with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) constitute a special-needs population at high risk of falling. This is the first study to evaluate whether obstacle course training can improve mobility and prevent falls in this population. Methods: The intervention was implemented as part of an institution-wide health care improvement plan…

Van Hanegem, E.; Enkelaar, L.; Smulders, E.; Weerdesteyn, V.

2014-01-01

77

Use of Outlet Barriers to Prevent Fall Emigration of Brook Trout Stocked in Adirondack Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outlet barriers in stocked lakes of the Adirondack Mountains were used to test the hypothesis that preventing fall emigration by adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis would increase trap-net and angling catch rates as well as the number of large trophy fish. Outlet barriers were maintained during the fall spawning season for 6 years on one lake and 10 years on

Daniel C. Josephson; Charles C. Krueger; Patrick J. Sullivan

2001-01-01

78

Detecting and preventing falls with depth camera, tracking the body center  

E-print Network

-lès-Nancy, France Abstract. Fall is a major risk for elderly people. This paper is an outline of the research work analyzed for gait parameters measurement. Keywords. Detecting and preventing falls, Center of mass, Depth camera, Elderly people Introduction In the next decades, the population of elderly people will continue

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

79

In response to Dr. Jose AP da Silva: fall prevention with vitamin D clarifications needed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We agree with Dr. da Silva, and wish to clarify three issues raised by the recent IOM report concerning our 2009 meta-analysis on vitamin D and fall prevention. 1. The IOM questioned the inclusion of Broe et al., which did not pre-specify falls as a primary or secondary outcome. While this did viol...

80

Preventing falls in older multifocal glasses wearers by providing single-lens distance glasses: the protocol for the VISIBLE randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown that wearing multifocal glasses increases the risk of trips and falls in older people. The aim of this study is to determine whether the provision of single-lens distance glasses to older multifocal glasses wearers, with recommendations for wearing them for walking and outdoor activities, can prevent falls. We will also measure the effect of the

Mark J Haran; Stephen R Lord; Ian D Cameron; Rebecca Q Ivers; Judy M Simpson; Bonsan B Lee; Mamta Porwal; Connie Severino

2009-01-01

81

Drawing on Related Knowledge to Advance Multiple Sclerosis Falls-Prevention Research  

PubMed Central

There is much to be learned from falls-related research outside the field of multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as from work within the MS field but not specific to falls or falls prevention. This article describes three examples of such bodies of work that have potential to broaden approaches to falls-prevention research: 1) sensory components of postural control among older adults, 2) lessons learned from physical activity promotion among people with spinal cord injury (SCI), and 3) aging among people with MS. Age-related deterioration in visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems or in sensory integration can adversely affect postural control and can contribute to falls in older people. Sensory-specific interventions designed for improving balance in older people could be adapted for preventing falls in individuals with MS. Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Action Canada's strategy for disseminating physical activity promotion interventions for adults with SCI has been successful and widely accepted by community partners. Many of the peer-based interventions developed by SCI Action Canada are potentially relevant and could be adapted to the MS population for both physical activity promotion and falls prevention. Considering that older people with MS constitute a growing proportion of the MS population and over 70% of older people with MS report moderate to extreme balance problems, falls prevention should be one of the key components, particularly for MS management in older or more disabled groups. Overall, given people's different ages, symptoms, strengths, and barriers, a tailored MS falls-prevention intervention that includes peer/caregiver support is critical.

Deshpande, Nandini; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.; Finlayson, Marcia

2014-01-01

82

Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon  

SciTech Connect

The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL

2011-11-01

83

Qualitative study on the impact of falling in frail older persons and family caregivers: Foundations for an intervention to prevent falls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to explore the impact of falling for frail community-dwelling older persons with and without cognitive impairments who have experienced a recent fall and their primary family caregivers. The secondary aim was to define components for a future fall prevention programme.Methods: Grounded theory interview study, with 10 patients (three cognitively unimpaired, four with

Miriam C. Faes; Miriam F. Reelick; Liesbeth W. Joosten-Weyn Banningh; Maartje de Gier; Rianne A. Esselink; Marcel G. Olde Rikkert

2010-01-01

84

Injuries from the Wichita Falls Tornado: Implications for Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the circumstances of death and injury among victims of the tornado that struck Wichita Falls, Texas, on 10 April 1979. We also assessed the protective measures taken by a representative sample of community residents who suffered no major injury in order to estimate the relative risk of injury to people directly in the tornado's path. Twenty-six (60 percent)

Roger I. Glass; Robert B. Craven; Dennis J. Bregman; Barbara J. Stoll; Neil Horowitz; Peter Kerndt; Joe Winkle

1980-01-01

85

Community fall prevention programs: comparing three InSTEP models by levels of intensity.  

PubMed

The Fall Prevention Center of Excellence designed three progressive-intensity fall prevention program models, Increasing Stability Through Evaluation and Practice (InSTEP), to reduce risk in community-dwelling older adults. Each model included physical activity, medical risk, and home safety components and was implemented as a 12-week program for small class sizes (12-15 people) in community and senior centers. Change in fall rates and fall risk factors was assessed using a battery of performance tests, self-reports of function, and fall diaries in a 3-group within-subjects (N = 200) design measured at baseline, immediately postintervention, and at 3 and 9 months postintervention. Overall, participants experienced a reduction in falls, improved selfperception of gait and balance, and improved dynamic gait function. The medium-intensity InSTEP model significantly (p = .003) reduced self-reported falls in comparison with the other models. InSTEP is a feasible model for addressing fall risk reduction in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:23945593

Kramer, B Josea; Creekmur, Beth; Mitchell, Michael N; Rose, Debra J; Pynoos, Jon; Rubenstein, Laurence Z

2014-07-01

86

The REFORM study protocol: a cohort randomised controlled trial of a multifaceted podiatry intervention for the prevention of falls in older people  

PubMed Central

Introduction Falls and fall-related injuries are a serious cause of morbidity and cost to society. Foot problems and inappropriate footwear may increase the risk of falls; therefore podiatric interventions may play a role in reducing falls. Two Cochrane systematic reviews identified only one study of a podiatry intervention aimed to reduce falls, which was undertaken in Australia. The REFORM trial aims to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention in reducing falls in people aged 65?years and over in a UK and Irish setting. Methods and analysis This multicentre, cohort randomised controlled trial will recruit 2600 participants from routine podiatry clinics in the UK and Ireland to the REFORM cohort. In order to detect a 10% point reduction in falls from 50% to 40%, with 80% power 890 participants will be randomised to receive routine podiatry care and a falls prevention leaflet or routine podiatry care, a falls prevention leaflet and a multifaceted podiatry intervention. The primary outcome is rate of falls (falls/person/time) over 12?months assessed by patient self-report falls diary. Secondary self-report outcome measures include: the proportion of single and multiple fallers and time to first fall over a 12-month period; Short Falls Efficacy Scale—International; fear of falling in the past 4?weeks; Frenchay Activities Index; fracture rate; Geriatric Depression Scale; EuroQoL-five dimensional scale 3-L; health service utilisation at 6 and 12?months. A qualitative study will examine the acceptability of the package of care to participants and podiatrists. Ethics and dissemination The trial has received a favourable opinion from the East of England—Cambridge East Research Ethics Committee and Galway Research Ethics Committee. The trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and at conference presentations. Trial registration number Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN68240461assigned 01/07/2011. PMID:25518875

Cockayne, Sarah; Adamson, Joy; Corbacho Martin, Belen; Fairhurst, Caroline; Hewitt, Catherine; Hicks, Kate; Hull, Robin; Keenan, Anne Maree; Lamb, Sarah E; Loughrey, Lorraine; McIntosh, Caroline; Menz, Hylton B; Redmond, Anthony C; Rodgers, Sara; Vernon, Wesley; Watson, Judith; Torgerson, David

2014-01-01

87

Participation as an Outcome in Multiple Sclerosis Falls-Prevention Research  

PubMed Central

Selecting the outcomes for an intervention trial is a key decision that influences many other aspects of the study design. One of the major tasks during the 3-day inaugural meeting of the International MS Falls Prevention Research Network was to identify the key outcomes for the falls-prevention intervention that was being designed by the Network members for testing across their multiple sites. Through a nominal group process, meeting participants described how engagement in important, meaningful everyday activities, beyond traditional basic and instrumental activities of daily living, should be a long-term outcome of a successful falls-prevention intervention for people with MS. Post-meeting work, which involved literature reviews and comparisons of definitions of major constructs identified during the meeting discussions, led to the consensus recommendation of including participation as a long-term outcome in MS falls-prevention interventions. Participation reflects involvement in a life situation. This article explains the rationale for this recommendation and presents four measures that have the potential for use in tracking long-term participation outcomes in MS falls-prevention research. PMID:25694775

Peterson, Elizabeth; Matsuda, Patricia N.

2014-01-01

88

Tips to Prevent Poisonings  

MedlinePLUS

... Fractures among Older Adults Falls in Nursing Homes Data & Statistics Cost of Fall Injuries Publications & Resources Preventing Falls: What Works. A CDC Compendium of Effective Community–based Interventions ...

89

Slip, Trip and Fall Prevention for Healthcare Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... compensation claims. Researchers worked with hospital staff to design, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive STF prevention program ... debris from walking surfaces. ? Ensure that underground watering system struc- tures are covered or highlighted. Figure 4. ...

90

Applying the RE-AIM Framework to Inform the Development of a Multiple Sclerosis Falls-Prevention Intervention  

PubMed Central

Successfully addressing the problem of falls among people with multiple sclerosis (MS) will require the translation of research findings into practice change. This process is not easy but can be facilitated by using frameworks such as RE-AIM during the process of planning, implementing, and evaluating MS falls-prevention interventions. RE-AIM stands for Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance. Since its initial publication in 1999, the RE-AIM framework has become widely recognized across a range of disciplines as a valuable tool to guide thinking about the development and evaluation of interventions intended for widespread dissemination. For this reason, it was selected by the International MS Falls Prevention Research Network to structure initial discussions with clinicians, people with MS, and representatives of professional and MS societies about the factors we need to consider in the development of an MS falls-prevention intervention for multisite testing that we hope will someday be disseminated widely. Through a combination of small-group work and large-group discussion, participants discussed four of the five RE-AIM elements. A total of 17 recommendations were made to maximize the reach (n = 3), adoption (n = 5), implementation (n = 4), and maintenance (n = 5) of the intervention the Network is developing. These recommendations are likely to be useful for any MS rehabilitation researcher who is developing and testing interventions that he or she hopes will be widely disseminated.

Cattaneo, Davide; Cameron, Michelle; Coote, Susan; Matsuda, Patricia N.; Peterson, Elizabeth; Sosnoff, Jacob J.

2014-01-01

91

CONNECT for Better Fall Prevention in Nursing Homes: Results from a Pilot Intervention Study  

PubMed Central

Background We hypothesized that an intervention which improves nursing home (NH) staff connections, communication, and problem solving (CONNECT) would improve implementation of a falls reduction education program (FALLS). Design Cluster randomized trial. Setting Community (n=4) and VA NHs (n=4) Participants Staff in any role with resident contact (n=497). Intervention NHs received FALLS alone (control) or CONNECT followed by FALLS (intervention), each delivered over 3-months. CONNECT used story-telling, relationship mapping, mentoring, self-monitoring and feedback to help staff identify communication gaps and practice interaction strategies. FALLS included group training, modules, teleconferences, academic detailing, and audit/feedback. Measurements NH staff completed surveys about interactions at baseline, 3 months (immediately following CONNECT or control period), and 6 months (immediately following FALLS). A random sample of resident charts was abstracted for fall risk reduction documentation (n=651). Change in facility fall rates was an exploratory outcome. Focus groups were conducted to explore changes in organizational learning. Results Significant improvements in staff perceptions of communication quality, participation in decision making, safety climate, care giving quality, and use of local interaction strategies were observed in intervention community NHs (treatment by time effect p=.01), but not in VA NHs where a ceiling effect was observed. Fall risk reduction documentation did not change significantly, and the direction of change in individual facilities did not relate to observed direction of change in fall rates. Fall rates did not change in control facilities (2.61 and 2.64 falls/bed/yr), but decreased by 12% in intervention facilities (2.34 to 2.06 falls/bed/yr); the effect of treatment on rate of change was 0.81 (0.55, 1.20). Conclusion CONNECT has the potential to improve care delivery in NHs, but the trend toward improving fall rates requires confirmation in a larger ongoing study. PMID:24279686

Colon-Emeric, Cathleen S.; McConnell, Eleanor; Pinheiro, Sandro O.; Corazzini, Kirsten; Porter, Kristie; Earp, Kelly M.; Landerman, Lawrence; Beales, Julie; Lipscomb, Jeffrey; Hancock, Kathryn; Anderson, Ruth A.

2014-01-01

92

Perspectives of recently discharged patients on hospital fall-prevention programs.  

PubMed

The aim of this exploratory study was to understand the opinions and observations of recently discharged senior patients concerning the fall-prevention education received during their most recent hospitalization. The focus was on the extrinsic risk factors for falls. This project was conducted in a Michigan home care agency. Participants had to be Medicare home care patients, discharged from the affiliated hospital within 30 days, 65 years or older, and alert. Practical implications that might lead to fewer falls in the future as the goal of this research are discussed. PMID:19092478

Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Yin, Chang-Yi

2009-01-01

93

Falls among older adults—risk factors and prevention strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Journal of Safety Research has partnered with the Injury Center at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, to briefly report on some of the latest findings in the research community. This report is the third in a series of CDC articles. Look for other such articles in future issue of the Journal of

Judy A. Stevens

2005-01-01

94

The Interdisciplinary Nature of Unintended Fall Prevention among Older Adults: Renewed Emphasis Needed on Underlying Psychological Constructs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevention of unintended falls among adults is a major public health focus. Previous researchers have indicated the importance of addressing the physiological issues impacting fall risk, as well as the inclusion of activities designed to improve self efficacy regarding the completion of activities of daily living. However, less published research has examined the impact of psychological variables impacting falls efficacy.

John F. Yannessa

95

Psychosocial Issues in Engaging Older People with Physical Activity Interventions for the Prevention of Falls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an overview of the psychosocial factors that influence older people's participation in physical activity interventions to prevent falls. The importance of psychosocial factors is stressed inasmuch as interventions will be rendered useless if they do not successfully gain the active participation of older people. The theory of…

Nyman, Samuel R.

2011-01-01

96

Development of a Fall Prevention Survey to Determine Educational Needs for Primary Care Providers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quality indicators are standardized measures of health care quality. We designed a survey to assess how knowledge, attitude, and organizational practices might affect healthcare provider behaviors in meeting quality indicators for fall prevention to plan curricula for a continuing educational intervention. The survey was pilot tested in the…

Kramer, B. Josea; Ganz, David A.; Vivrette, Rebecca L.; Harker, Judith O.; Josephson, Karen R.; Saliba, Debra

2010-01-01

97

What do community-dwelling Caucasian and South Asian 60-70 year olds think about exercise for fall prevention?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: strategies to prevent falls often recommend regular exercise. However, 40% of over 50s in the UK report less physical activity than is recommended. Even higher rates of sedentary behaviour have been reported among South Asian older adults. Objective: to identify salient beliefs that influence uptake and adherence to exercise for fall prevention among community- dwelling Caucasian and South Asian

MARIA HORNE; S HAUN SPEED; D AWN SKELTON; C HRIS TODD

2008-01-01

98

Home or Away? Choosing a Setting for a Falls-Prevention Program for People with Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Evidence suggests that choice of setting may be important in influencing the outcomes of rehabilitation programs, as well as optimizing participant satisfaction and adherence. This article aims to examine the factors that may inform the choice of setting for a falls-prevention program tailored to the needs of people with multiple sclerosis, including the influence of setting on program effectiveness, participant engagement, cost, and sustainability. Any new program should ensure that the choice of setting is informed by the intended program outcomes as well as an awareness of the opportunities and challenges presented by each type of setting. Evaluations of falls programs for older people suggest that immediate outcomes are similar regardless of setting; however, long-term outcomes may differ by setting, possibly owing to differential effects on adherence. Programs based away from home may offer benefits in terms of maintaining motivation, providing peer-support opportunities, and allowing regular access to facilitator input, while home-based programs offer unique opportunities for context-based practice and the integration of falls-prevention activities into real life. Additionally, home-based programs may address some of the long-term feasibility issues associated with programs away from home. A “mixed” program incorporating elements of home- and community-based activity may be the most sustainable and effective choice to achieve both long- and short-term goals within a falls-prevention program. However, currently there are significant gaps in knowledge relating to comparative program outcomes, cost, and long-term sustainability. PMID:25694777

Cattaneo, Davide; Finlayson, Marcia; Freeman, Jennifer; Sosnoff, Jacob J.

2014-01-01

99

Framework for preventing falls in acute hospitals using passive sensor enabled radio frequency identification technology.  

PubMed

We describe a distributed architecture for a real-time falls prevention framework capable of providing a technological intervention to mitigate the risk of falls in acute hospitals through the development of an AmbIGeM (Ambient Intelligence Geritatric Management system). Our approach is based on using a battery free, wearable sensor enabled Radio Frequency Identification device. Unsupervised classification of high risk falls activities are used to facilitate an immediate response from caregivers by alerting them of the high risk activity, the particular patient, and their location. Early identification of high risk falls activities through a longitudinal and unsupervised setting in real-time allows the preventative intervention to be administered in a timely manner. Furthermore, real-time detection allows emergency protocols to be deployed immediately in the event of a fall. Finally, incidents of high risk activities are automatically documented to allow clinicians to customize and optimize the delivery of care to suit the needs of patients identified as being at most risk. PMID:23367261

Visvanathan, Renuka; Ranasinghe, Damith C; Shinmoto Torres, Roberto L; Hill, Keith

2012-01-01

100

i Engaging as an innovative approach to engage patients in their own fall prevention care  

PubMed Central

Decreasing patient fall injuries during hospitalization continues to be a challenge at the bedside. Empowering patients to become active participants in their own fall prevention care could be a solution. In a previous study, elderly patients recently discharged from a United States hospital expressed a need for nurses to give and repeat directives about fall prevention; when the nurse left a brochure on the topic, but did not provide any (or limited) verbal explanations about the content or the importance of the information, the patient felt that the information was insufficient. To address patients’ needs, we developed “i Engaging”, a Web-based software application for use at the bedside. i Engaging is an innovative approach that is used to engage patients in their own fall prevention care during hospital stays. The application was designed based on the assumption that patients are the best and most critical sources of information about their health status. i Engaging has not yet been tested in clinical trials. PMID:24868148

Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Yin, Chang-Yi

2014-01-01

101

An educational video to promote multi-factorial approaches for fall and injury prevention in long-term care facilities  

PubMed Central

Background Older adults living in long term care (LTC) settings are vulnerable to fall-related injuries. There is a need to develop and implement evidence-based approaches to address fall injury prevention in LTC. Knowledge translation (KT) interventions to support the uptake of evidence-based approaches to fall injury prevention in LTC need to be responsive to the learning needs of LTC staff and use mediums, such as videos, that are accessible and easy-to-use. This article describes the development of two unique educational videos to promote fall injury prevention in long-term care (LTC) settings. These videos are unique from other fall prevention videos in that they include video footage of real life falls captured in the LTC setting. Methods Two educational videos were developed (2012–2013) to support the uptake of findings from a study exploring the causes of falls based on video footage captured in LTC facilities. The videos were developed by: (1) conducting learning needs assessment in LTC settings via six focus groups (2) liaising with LTC settings to identify learning priorities through unstructured conversations; and (3) aligning the content with principles of adult learning theory. Results The videos included footage of falls, interviews with older adults and fall injury prevention experts. The videos present evidence-based fall injury prevention recommendations aligned to the needs of LTC staff and: (1) highlight recommendations deemed by LTC staff as most urgent (learner-centered learning); (2) highlight negative impacts of falls on older adults (encourage meaning-making); and, (3) prompt LTC staff to reflect on fall injury prevention practices (encourage critical reflection). Conclusions Educational videos are an important tool available to researchers seeking to translate evidence-based recommendations into LTC settings. Additional research is needed to determine their impact on practice. PMID:24884899

2014-01-01

102

Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview  

MedlinePLUS

... Fractures among Older Adults Falls in Nursing Homes Data & Statistics Cost of Fall Injuries Publications & Resources Preventing Falls: What Works. A CDC Compendium of Effective Community–based Interventions ...

103

Outdoor pedestrian fall-related injuries among Swedish senior citizens - injuries and preventive strategies.  

PubMed

Senior citizens get around, to a large extent, as pedestrians, and safe walking is desirable for senior citizens allowing them to stay mobile, independent and healthy in old age. Senior citizens are over-represented in injury statistics, and fall-related injuries are common. The aim of this study was to investigate fall-related injuries including healthcare costs among senior citizen pedestrians injured when walking in public outdoor environments and to describe their self-reported causes and suggested preventive strategies. The data were based on a combination of information from injury data and a questionnaire. Three hundred senior citizens attended one emergency department after sustaining injuries from pedestrian falls; 60% suffered nonminor injuries, mostly fractures. One-fifth of the pedestrians were hospitalised for an average of 8 days with an indirect hospital cost of 6.2 million EUR (55 million SEK). Environmental factors such as ice were the most commonly described cause of the injury incident. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that the municipality was responsible for the cause of the injury incident. Fewer respondents mentioned their own responsibility as a preventive strategy. Thirty per cent described a combination of improvements such as better road maintenance, changes in human behaviour and use of safety products as preventive strategies. It is of great importance to highlight general safety, products and preventive strategies to minimise injury risks, so that pedestrians can safely realise the known health benefits of walking and thereby limit healthcare costs. PMID:24913321

Gyllencreutz, Lina; Björnstig, Johanna; Rolfsman, Ewa; Saveman, Britt-Inger

2014-06-01

104

Cluster randomised trial of a targeted multifactorial intervention to prevent falls among older people in hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the efficacy of a targeted multifactorial falls prevention programme in elderly care wards with relatively short lengths of stay.Design Cluster randomised trial.Setting 24 elderly care wards in 12 hospitals in Sydney, Australia.Participants 3999 patients, mean age 79 years, with a median hospital stay of seven days.Interventions A nurse and physiotherapist each worked for 25 hours a week

Robert G Cumming; Catherine Sherrington; Stephen R Lord; Judy M Simpson; Constance Vogler; Ian D Cameron; Vasi Naganathan

2008-01-01

105

Preventing Falls  

MedlinePLUS

... right devices to keep steady: A cane or walker can provide support. Ask your healthcare team about ... information on fitting yourself for a cane or walker. It also provides tips on how to use ...

106

A simple protocol for preventing falls and fractures in elderly individuals with musculoskeletal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Our protocol resulted in a significant prevention of falls and fractures in addition to marked improvements in the balance\\u000a function. Intervention comprised a new balance exercise and quadriceps femoris exercise. Subjects were outpatients aged ?65 years\\u000a old with musculoskeletal disorders who had a result of ?15 s for the timed one-leg balance test.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  A study on chronological changes in the level of

K. Kita; K. Hujino; T. Nasu; K. Kawahara; Y. Sunami

2007-01-01

107

A sustainable programme to prevent falls and near-falls in community-dwelling older people: results of a randomised trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE---In the causative mechanism of falls among older community dwellers, slips and trips have been found to be significant precursors. The purpose of the two year trial was to assess the effectiveness of multi-component interventions targeting major risk factors for falls in reducing the incidence of slips, trips and falls among the well, older community. DESIGN---Four groups with approximately

Margaret A Steinberg; Colleen M Cartwright; Nancy M Peel; Gail M Williams

2000-01-01

108

What Works in Prevention: Principles of Effective Prevention Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a review-of-reviews approach across four areas (substance abuse, risky sexual behavior, school failure, and juvenile delinquency and violence) to identify characteristics consistently associated with effective prevention programs. Programs were comprehensive, included varied teaching methods, provided sufficient dosage, were theory driven,…

Nation, Maury; Crusto, Cindy; Wandersman, Abraham; Kumpfer, Karol L.; Seybolt, Diana; Morrisey-Kane, Erin; Davino, Katrina

2003-01-01

109

Accident patterns and prevention measures for fatal occupational falls in the construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contributing factors to 621 occupational fatal falls have been identified with respect to the victim's individual factors, the fall site, company size, and cause of fall. Individual factors included age, gender, experience, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Accident scenarios were derived from accident reports. Significant linkages were found between causes for the falls and accident events. Falls

Chia-Fen Chi; Tin-Chang Chang; Hsin-I Ting

2005-01-01

110

What Effect Do They Have? Historical Meteorite Falls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a reading-comprehension lesson about historical meteorite falls. Learners will read about large historical meteors and meteorites falls, discuss the effects on people, and compare their reactions with those in recorded history. Suggestions for student mapping and vocabulary words are included. This is lesson 15 of 19 in Exploring Meteorite Mysteries.

111

Radiation Therapy: Preventing and Managing Side Effects  

MedlinePLUS

... radiation therapy Preventing and managing side effects of radiation therapy When the radiation damages nearby healthy tissue, ... to reduce side effects is by using radioprotective ( ray -dee-o pro- TEK -tiv) drugs. These are ...

112

Evidence-Based Guidelines for the Secondary Prevention of Falls in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Falls are a significant problem for older adults. Individuals who have sustained a fall come to the attention of health care providers and are at risk of further falls. To promote the highest quality of care and reduce variation in care, a practice guideline is needed. Summarization of evidence regarding falls may be useful to researchers in this field.

Julie Moreland; Julie Richardson; David H. Chan; John O’Neill; Agostino Bellissimo; Rosa Maria Grum; Lynne Shanks

2003-01-01

113

Department of Linguistics & TESOL Admissions Criteria -Effective Fall 2009  

E-print Network

Department of Linguistics & TESOL Admissions Criteria - Effective Fall 2009 Admission Requirements for Graduate Degree Programs in Linguistics In evaluating candidates for admissions to its graduate degree programs, the Linguistics & TESOL Faculty has adopted a comprehensive approach that is sensitive

Texas at Arlington, University of

114

FORESTRY, BSF IPC: 2/8/2011 EFFECTIVE: Fall 2011  

E-print Network

FORESTRY, BSF IPC: 2/8/2011 EFFECTIVE: Fall 2011 SCHOOL OF FORESTRY GENERAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS: PROFESSIONAL CORE: GRADE SCH GRADE SCH ARTS: FORESTRY: ART 290/HPE 280/MUGN 290/SPTH 3 FOR 111 Intro to Forest

Selmic, Sandra

115

Executive Function Is Independently Associated with Performances of Balance and Mobility in Community-Dwelling Older Adults after Mild Stroke: Implications for Falls Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Stroke survivors have a high incidence of falls. Impaired executive-controlled processes are frequent in stroke survivors and are associated with falls in this population. Better understanding of the independent association between executive-controlled processes and physiological fall risk (i.e. performances of balance and mobility) could enhance future interventions that aim to prevent falls and to promote an independent lifestyle among

Teresa Liu-Ambrose; Marco Y. C. Pang; Janice J. Eng

2007-01-01

116

Randomised controlled trial of a general practice programme of home based exercise to prevent falls in elderly women.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a home exercise programme of strength and balance retraining exercises in reducing falls and injuries in elderly women. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial of an individually tailored programme of physical therapy in the home (exercise group, n = 116) compared with the usual care and an equal number of social visits (control group, n = 117). SETTING: 17 general practices in Dunedin, New Zealand. SUBJECTS: Women aged 80 years and older living in the community and registered with a general practice in Dunedin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of falls and injuries related to falls and time between falls during one year of follow up; changes in muscle strength and balance measures after six months. RESULTS: After one year there were 152 falls in the control group and 88 falls in the exercise group. The mean (SD) rate of falls was lower in the exercise than the control group (0.87 (1.29) v 1.34 (1.93) falls per year respectively; difference 0.47; 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.90). The relative hazard for the first four falls in the exercise group compared with the control group was 0.68 (0.52 to 0.90). The relative hazard for a first fall with injury in the exercise group compared with the control group was 0.61 (0.39 to 0.97). After six months, balance had improved in the exercise group (difference between groups in change in balance score 0.43 (0.21 to 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: An individual programme of strength and balance retraining exercises improved physical function and was effective in reducing falls and injuries in women 80 years and older. PMID:9366737

Campbell, A. J.; Robertson, M. C.; Gardner, M. M.; Norton, R. N.; Tilyard, M. W.; Buchner, D. M.

1997-01-01

117

Effectiveness of condoms in preventing HIV transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consistent use of latex condoms continues to be advocated for primary prevention of HIV infection despite limited quantitative evidence regarding the effectiveness of condoms in blocking the sexual transmission of HIV. Although recent meta-analyses of condom effectiveness suggest that condoms are 60 to 70% effective when used for HIV prophylaxis, these studies do not isolate consistent condom use, and

Steven D. Pinkerton; Paul R. Abramson

1997-01-01

118

Cancer Preventive Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A BSTRACT : Morinda citrifolia (Noni) has been extensively used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It has been reported to have broad thera- peutic effects, including anticancer activity, in both clinical practice and labo- ratory animal models. The mechanism for these effects remains unknown. The hypothesis that Morinda citrifolia possesses a cancer preventive effect at the

M. Y. Wang; C. Su

2001-01-01

119

Exercise for patients with osteoporosis: management of vertebral compression fractures and trunk strengthening for fall prevention.  

PubMed

Maintenance of bone health and quality requires mechanical strain, but the mechanical force needs to be within the bone's biomechanical competence. In osteoporosis, compression of vertebral bodies can be insidious. Therefore, absence of pain does not necessarily indicate absence of vertebral microfracture and deformity. Further, patients with previous vertebral fractures are at risk for further vertebral fractures and their associated morbidity. Exercise is a part of the comprehensive management of patients with osteoporosis and has been associated with improvement of quality of life and lowered risk of future fracture. The exercise prescription needs to match the needs of the patient. If exercise is not prescribed properly, then it may have negative consequences. In general, an exercise program, therapeutic or recreational, needs to address flexibility, muscle strength, core stability, cardiovascular fitness, and gait steadiness. As with pharmacotherapy, therapeutic exercises need to be individualized on the basis of musculoskeletal status and an individual's exercise interest. In osteoporosis, axial strength and stability are of primary importance. In particular, a spinal extensor strengthening program should be performed with progressive measured resistance as tolerated. To address falls and fractures, an exercise program should also include balance and lower extremity strength training. Proper dosing of oral cholecalciferol and calcium supplements can enhance the effect of strengthening exercises. Finally, a coordinated approach, such as the Spinal Proprioception Extension Exercise Dynamic (SPEED) program, can improve back extensor strength, the level of physical activity, and locomotion, and reduce back pain and fear and risk of falls. PMID:23174554

Sinaki, Mehrsheed

2012-11-01

120

The effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation integration pattern exercise program on the fall efficacy and gait ability of the elders with experienced fall  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of exercising program utilizing proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation integration pattern (PIP), which is effective in improvement of the physical function, on the fall efficacy and gait ability of the elders who experienced injuries from falls. Also, this study aims to investigate he applicability of exercise program as methods for fall reoccurrence prevention and physical functions enhancement. The subjects of the study were 30 elders in the local community with experience of injuries from falls. The period of the study was 4 weeks with 12 exercise sessions. The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups where 15 elders were allocated to PIP and the rest 15 elders were allocated to general exercise (GE) group. Fall efficacy scale (FES) and GAITRite were used for the measurements in this study. Paired t-test was used to analyze the differences within the group while independent t-test was used to analyze the difference between two groups. In the comparison of measurements before and after exercise program, FES, velocity, cadence, and stride length were shown to be significantly increased in both PIP group and GE group. Also, in the comparison between two groups after the exercise program, the measurements of FES, cadence, stride length, and step length in PIP group were shown to be significantly increased compared to the GE group. Therefore, the PNF combined pattern is judged to be applicable to as methods for fall reoccurrence prevention and physical functions enhancement of the elders with experience of being fallen. PMID:25210699

Song, Hyun-seung; Park, Seong-doo; Kim, Jin-young

2014-01-01

121

A best practice fall prevention exercise program to improve balance, strength / power, and psychosocial health in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background With increasing age neuromuscular deficits (e.g., sarcopenia) may result in impaired physical performance and an increased risk for falls. Prominent intrinsic fall-risk factors are age-related decreases in balance and strength / power performance as well as cognitive decline. Additional studies are needed to develop specifically tailored exercise programs for older adults that can easily be implemented into clinical practice. Thus, the objective of the present trial is to assess the effects of a fall prevention program that was developed by an interdisciplinary expert panel on measures of balance, strength / power, body composition, cognition, psychosocial well-being, and falls self-efficacy in healthy older adults. Additionally, the time-related effects of detraining are tested. Methods/Design Healthy old people (n?=?54) between the age of 65 to 80 years will participate in this trial. The testing protocol comprises tests for the assessment of static / dynamic steady-state balance (i.e., Sharpened Romberg Test, instrumented gait analysis), proactive balance (i.e., Functional Reach Test; Timed Up and Go Test), reactive balance (i.e., perturbation test during bipedal stance; Push and Release Test), strength (i.e., hand grip strength test; Chair Stand Test), and power (i.e., Stair Climb Power Test; countermovement jump). Further, body composition will be analysed using a bioelectrical impedance analysis system. In addition, questionnaires for the assessment of psychosocial (i.e., World Health Organisation Quality of Life Assessment-Bref), cognitive (i.e., Mini Mental State Examination), and fall risk determinants (i.e., Fall Efficacy Scale – International) will be included in the study protocol. Participants will be randomized into two intervention groups or the control / waiting group. After baseline measures, participants in the intervention groups will conduct a 12-week balance and strength / power exercise intervention 3 times per week, with each training session lasting 30 min. (actual training time). One intervention group will complete an extensive supervised training program, while the other intervention group will complete a short version ('3 times 3’) that is home-based and controlled by weekly phone calls. Post-tests will be conducted right after the intervention period. Additionally, detraining effects will be measured 12 weeks after program cessation. The control group / waiting group will not participate in any specific intervention during the experimental period, but will receive the extensive supervised program after the experimental period. Discussion It is expected that particularly the supervised combination of balance and strength / power training will improve performance in variables of balance, strength / power, body composition, cognitive function, psychosocial well-being, and falls self-efficacy of older adults. In addition, information regarding fall risk assessment, dose–response-relations, detraining effects, and supervision of training will be provided. Further, training-induced health-relevant changes, such as improved performance in activities of daily living, cognitive function, and quality of life, as well as a reduced risk for falls may help to lower costs in the health care system. Finally, practitioners, therapists, and instructors will be provided with a scientifically evaluated feasible, safe, and easy-to-administer exercise program for fall prevention. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01906034 PMID:24106864

2013-01-01

122

Exercise for falls prevention in older people: Assessing the knowledge of exercise science students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participation in appropriate exercise can help reduce the risk of falls and falls injury in older people. Delivery of population-level exercise interventions requires an expert workforce with skills in development and delivery of group exercise programs and prescription of individually targeted exercise. This study assessed the current knowledge of university exercise science students (as future exercise professionals) across different levels

Daina L. Sturnieks; Caroline F. Finch; Jacqueline C. T. Close; Anne Tiedemann; Stephen R. Lord; Deborah A. Pascoe

2010-01-01

123

Effectiveness of riboflavin in pediatric migraine prevention  

PubMed Central

Abstract Question The rate of migraine diagnosed among children is increasing. Is riboflavin, an alternative to traditional pharmacologic agents, effective and safe for prevention of migraine in children? Answer Because migraine is a very common condition in childhood and adolescence, often contributing to substantial burden of illness, there is increased interest in alternatives to traditional pharmacologic prevention. The expectation is that over-the-counter alternative medication will be less toxic, better tolerated, and have fewer side effects. A few studies in adults show that riboflavin (vitamin B2) might decrease frequency of migraine headaches. It has become common practice to recommend that children try riboflavin to prevent migraine; however, research on riboflavin use in children is inconclusive. PMID:24627379

Sherwood, Michelle; Goldman, Ran D.

2014-01-01

124

Cancer preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni).  

PubMed

Morinda citrifolia (Noni) has been extensively used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It has been reported to have broad therapeutic effects, including anticancer activity, in both clinical practice and laboratory animal models. The mechanism for these effects remains unknown. The hypothesis that Morinda citrifolia possesses a cancer preventive effect at the initiation stage of carcinogenesis was studied. Our preliminary data indicated that 10% Tahitian Noni Liquid Dietary Supplement or Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ), made from Morinda citrifolia fruit by Morinda Inc, in drinking water for one week was able to prevent DMBA-DNA adduct formation. The levels of DMBA-DNA adducts were reduced by 30% in the heart, 41% in the lung, 42% in the liver, and 80% in the kidney of female SD rats. Even more dramatic results were obtained in male C57 BL-6 mice: 10% TNJ was able to reduce DMBA-DNA adduct formation by 60% in the heart, 50% in the lung, 70% in the liver, and 90% in the kidney. In order to explore the mechanism of this preventive effect, the antioxidant activity of TNJ was examined in vitro by lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) and tetrazolium nitroblue (TNB) assays. In the LPO assay, LPO oxidizes leucomethylene blue to methylene blue in the presence of hemoglobin. The resultant blue color was quantified at 660 nm spectrophotometrically. In the TNB assay, superoxide anion radicals (SAR) reduce TNB into formazan blue that was also measured by absorption at 602 nm. TNJ showed a dose-dependent inhibition of both LPO and SAR in our system. The antioxidant activity of TNJ was compared to the effects of vitamin C, grape seed powder (GSP), and pycnogenol (PYC) at the daily dose per serving level recommended by U.S.RDAs or manufacturers. The results suggest that prevention of carcinogen-DNA adduct formation and the antioxidant activity of TNJ may contribute to the cancer preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia. PMID:11795436

Wang, M Y; Su, C

2001-12-01

125

New Courses and Course Changes Effective Fall 2007  

E-print Network

New Courses and Course Changes Effective Fall 2007 COLLEGE OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES Asians, and others. Recommended: Anth 103. [NEW] *Anth 457/557 Hunter-Gatherers (4) An investigation-gatherers and hunter-gatherers in the modern world. Recommended: Anth 102, 350. [NEW] Biology Bi 432/532 Plant

Bertini, Robert L.

126

FORESTRY, BSF IPC: 6/15/2011 EFFECTIVE: Fall 2011  

E-print Network

FORESTRY, BSF IPC: 6/15/2011 EFFECTIVE: Fall 2011 SCHOOL OF FORESTRY GENERAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS: PROFESSIONAL COURSES: GRADE SCH GRADE SCH ARTS: FORESTRY CORE: ART 290/HPE 280/MUGN 290/SPTH 290 3 FOR/WILD 111 Intro to Forestry & Wildlife Management 2 FOR 201 Microcomputer Applications 3 ENGL COMPOSITION: FOR 202

Selmic, Sandra

127

The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted. PMID:22583406

Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

2012-12-01

128

Protocol for disseminating an evidence-based fall prevention program in community senior centers: evaluation of translatability and public health impact via a single group pre-post study  

PubMed Central

Background Falls are the leading cause of injury death in older adults and present a significant public health problem and a major burden to healthcare. Although there is sufficient evidence from randomized controlled trials to indicate that exercise can prevent falls in older people, few effective, evidence-based fall prevention programs exist in community practice. Thus, there is a pressing need to translate and disseminate evidence-based exercise programs to community providers that serve older adults at increased risk of falling. The current study addresses this public health need by disseminating the evidence-based Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance (TJQMBB) program through community senior centers. Methods/Design The study uses a single-group design in which the TJQMBB program is being delivered to community-dwelling older adults through collaboration with senior centers in selected counties in Oregon, USA, for 48 weeks, followed by a 24-week post-intervention follow-up. Study process and outcome measures will be evaluated in accordance with the components of the RE-AIM framework that focus on Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance. Discussion This study will determine whether the evidence-based TJQMBB fall prevention program can be disseminated through a broad spectrum of community-based senior centers that often cater to low-income, underserved community-dwelling older adults at risk of falling. If shown to be both practically implementable and sustainable, the TJQMBB program will provide an effective, potentially low-cost, easy-to-implement intervention that could be used by public health practitioners and community-based organizations to address the problem of falls among older adults. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01854931 PMID:24884784

2014-01-01

129

Preventive treatment of migraine: effect on weight.  

PubMed

Weight gain is a common side effect of drugs used for headache prevention. Weight gain can adversely affect patient health, exacerbate comorbid metabolic disorders, and encourage noncompliance. Additionally, obesity may promote the chronification of episodic migraine. Few studies have looked specifically at the effect that headache medications have on weight. The practicing physician needs accurate information about important side effects, including weight gain, when selecting appropriate pharmacologic regimens. This article discusses the potential effects the more common headache medications have on weight. PMID:18796270

Young, William B

2008-06-01

130

ORIGINAL PAPER Combined effects of pre-hardening and fall fertilization  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Combined effects of pre-hardening and fall fertilization on nitrogen translocation status is important for outplanting success. Fall fertilization of evergreen conifer seedlings is a well, the interaction of N status prior to fall fertilization and the rate of fall fertilization have yet to be fully

131

Independent and Combined Effects of Exercise and Vitamin D on Muscle Morphology, Function and Falls in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Regular exercise, particularly progressive resistance training (PRT), is recognized as one of the most effective strategies to prevent age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia), but its effects on muscle function are mixed. However, emerging data indicates that high velocity PRT (fast concentric muscle contractions) is more effective for improving functional outcomes than traditional PRT. In terms of falls prevention, high-challenging balance training programs appear to be most effective. There is also compelling evidence that supplemental vitamin D is an effective therapeutic option for falls prevention. The findings from a recent meta-analysis revealed that supplemental vitamin D at a dose of at least 700–1,000 IU/d or an achieved serum 25(OH)D level of at least 60 nmol/L was associated with reduced falls risk among older individuals. Based on these findings, it is possible that the combination of exercise and vitamin D could have a synergistic effect on muscle morphology and function, particularly since both interventions have been shown to have beneficial effects on type II “fast twitch” muscle fibers and systemic inflammation, which have both been linked to losses in muscle mass and function. Unfortunately however, the findings from the limited number of factorial 2 × 2 design RCTs indicate that additional vitamin D does not enhance the effects of exercise on measures of muscle morphology, function or falls risk. However, none of these trials were adequately powered to detect a “synergistic” effect between the two treatment strategies, but it is likely that if an exercise-by-vitamin D interaction does exist, it may be limited to situations when vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is corrected. Further targeted research in “high risk” groups is still needed to address this question, and evaluate whether there is a threshold level of serum 25(OH)D to maximize the effects of exercise on muscle and falls risk. PMID:22254069

Daly, Robin M.

2010-01-01

132

Common Factors in Effective HIV Prevention Programs  

PubMed Central

We propose a set of common factors in evidence-based interventions (EBI) for HIV prevention, which cut across theoretical models of behavior change. Three existing literatures support this agenda: (1) Common factors in psychotherapy; (2) core elements from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention EBIs; and (3) component analyses of EBI. To stimulate discussion among prevention researchers, we propose a set of common factors at the highest level of abstraction that describe what all effective programs do: (1) establish a framework to understand behavior change; (2) convey issue-specific and population-specific information necessary for healthy actions; (3) build cognitive, affective, and behavioral self-management skills; (4) address environmental barriers to implementing health behaviors; and (5) provide tools to develop ongoing social and community support for healthy actions. A focus on common factors will enhance research on new HIV prevention interventions, encourage collaboration among researchers, provide guidelines for adapting EBI, and simplify and speed the adoption of EBI for providers. PMID:18830813

Swendeman, Dallas; Flannery, Diane; Rice, Eric; Adamson, David M.; Ingram, Barbara

2010-01-01

133

Lasers effects on enamel for caries prevention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to ascertain whether laser irradiation is able to reduce caries incidence. For this purpose, the effects of laser on enamel and on fluoride uptake were discussed. Current literature regarding the preventive effect of laser irradiation on dental hard tissue has been reviewed. An evaluation of the results of the available in vitro and in vivo studies on the efficacy of anticaries and induced changes on enamel by laser irradiation were also performed. Articles were selected using the Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane databases, and the results of these studies were described. The most common lasers employed for caries prevention on enamel are Nd:YAG; CO2; Er:YAG; Er,Cr:YSGG; and argon. The percentage of inhibition of dental caries varied from 30 to 97.2%, and the association with fluoride has demonstrated the best results on inhibition of caries development. Laser irradiation under specific conditions can change the crystallographic properties of apatite crystals, increasing the acid resistance of lased enamel. The combined treatment of laser irradiation with fluoride propitiates an expressive fluoride uptake, reducing the progression of carieslike lesions, and this treatment is more effective than laser or fluoride alone. Available data suggest that lasers combined with fluoride is a promising treatment in caries prevention.

Ana, P. A.; Bachmann, L.; Zezell, D. M.

2006-05-01

134

Randomised controlled trial of prevention of falls in people aged >=75 with severe visual impairment: the VIP trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To assess the efficacy and cost effectiveness of a home safety programme and a home exercise programme to reduce falls and injuries in older people with low vision. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Dunedin and Auckland, New Zealand. Participants 391 women and men aged ? 75 with visual acuity of 6\\/24 or worse who were living in the community;

A John Campbell; M Clare Robertson; Steven J La Grow; Ngaire M Kerse; Gordon F Sanderson; Robert J Jacobs; Dianne M Sharp; Leigh A Hale

2005-01-01

135

A New Scale for Evaluating the Risks for In-Hospital Falls of Newborn Infants: A Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Study  

PubMed Central

We aimed to develop a new scale for evaluating risks and preventive measures for in-hospital falls of newborn infants, from admission to discharge of the expectant mother. Our study was prepared in accordance with Failure Modes and Effects Analysis criteria. The risks and preventive measures for in-hospital falls of newborns were determined. Risk Priority Numbers (RPNs) were determined by multiplication of the scores of severity, probability of occurrence, and probability of detection. Analyses showed that risks having the highest RPNs were the mother with epidural anesthesia (RPN: 350 point), holding of the baby at the moment of delivery (RPN: 240), and transportation of baby right after delivery (RPN: 240). A reduction was detected in all RPNs after the application of preventive measures. Our risk model can function as a guide for obstetric clinics that need to form strategies to prevent newborn falls. PMID:20936144

Abike, Faruk; Tiras, Sinan; Dünder, ?lkkan; Bahtiyar, Ayfer; Akturk Uzun, Ozlem; Demircan, Ozlusen

2010-01-01

136

Effect of flame spray coating on falling film evaporation for multi effect distillation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horizontal tube falling film evaporators find various applications like multi effect distillation for sea water desalination, power and process applications, refrigeration applications, etc. In this system, latent heat released inside the tube due to condensation is transferred to the falling film on the tube surface resulting in convective evaporation. Among many heat transfer enhancement techniques, thermal spray coatings enjoy diverse

Raju Abraham; A. Mani

2012-01-01

137

75 FR 27625 - Announcement of the Fall 2010 Annual Grant Competition Effective October 1, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE Announcement of the Fall 2010 Annual Grant Competition Effective October 1, 2010 AGENCY...resolution. The Annual Grant Competition is open to any project that falls within the Institute's broad mandate of international...

2010-05-17

138

Effectiveness of condoms in preventing HIV transmission.  

PubMed

The consistent use of latex condoms continues to be advocated for primary prevention of HIV infection despite limited quantitative evidence regarding the effectiveness of condoms in blocking the sexual transmission of HIV. Although recent meta-analyses of condom effectiveness suggest that condoms are 60 to 70% effective when used for HIV prophylaxis, these studies do not isolate consistent condom use, and therefore provide only a lower bound on the true effectiveness of correct and consistent condom use. A reexamination of HIV seroconversion studies suggests that condoms are 90 to 95% effective when used consistently, i.e. consistent condom users are 10 to 20 times less likely to become infected when exposed to the virus than are inconsistent or non-users. Similar results are obtained utilizing model-based estimation techniques, which indicate that condoms decrease the per-contact probability of male-to-female transmission of HIV by about 95%. Though imperfect, condoms provide substantial protection against HIV infection. Condom promotion therefore remains an important international priority in the fight against AIDS. PMID:9141163

Pinkerton, S D; Abramson, P R

1997-05-01

139

Evaluation of the effect of patient education on rates of falls in older hospital patients: Description of a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Accidental falls by older patients in hospital are one of the most commonly reported adverse events. Falls after discharge are also common. These falls have enormous physical, psychological and social consequences for older patients, including serious physical injury and reduced quality of life, and are also a source of substantial cost to health systems worldwide. There have been a limited number of randomised controlled trials, mainly using multifactorial interventions, aiming to prevent older people falling whilst inpatients. Trials to date have produced conflicting results and recent meta-analyses highlight that there is still insufficient evidence to clearly identify which interventions may reduce the rate of falls, and falls related injuries, in this population. Methods and design A prospective randomised controlled trial (n = 1206) is being conducted at two hospitals in Australia. Patients are eligible to be included in the trial if they are over 60 years of age and they, or their family or guardian, give written consent. Participants are randomised into three groups. The control group continues to receive usual care. Both intervention groups receive a specifically designed patient education intervention on minimising falls in addition to usual care. The education is delivered by Digital Video Disc (DVD) and written workbook and aims to promote falls prevention activities by participants. One of the intervention groups also receives follow up education training visits by a health professional. Blinded assessors conduct baseline and discharge assessments and follow up participants for 6 months after discharge. The primary outcome measure is falls by participants in hospital. Secondary outcome measures include falls at home after discharge, knowledge of falls prevention strategies and motivation to engage in falls prevention activities after discharge. All analyses will be based on intention to treat principle. Discussion This trial will examine the effect of a single intervention (specifically designed patient education) on rates of falls in older patients in hospital and after discharge. The results will provide robust recommendations for clinicians and researchers about the role of patient education in this population. The study has the potential to identify a new intervention that may reduce rates of falls in older hospital patients and could be readily duplicated and applied in a wide range of clinical settings. Trial Registration ACTRN12608000015347 PMID:19393046

Hill, Anne-Marie; Hill, Keith; Brauer, Sandra; Oliver, David; Hoffmann, Tammy; Beer, Christopher; McPhail, Steven; Haines, Terry P

2009-01-01

140

BLEVEs: Their causes, effects and prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

If pressure vessels and their piping systems are properly designed, relief valve capacity should prevent a BLEVE due to simple pressure rise in closed vessels shell-full of liquid. Mechanically induced BLEVEs are preventable if the accident that caused the damage is preventable. However, the few recorded BLEVEs of this type have occurred in transportation accidents. Such accidents seem impossible to

W. E. Martinsen; D. W. Johnson; W. F. Terrell

1986-01-01

141

Depressive symptoms and adverse outcomes from hospitalization in older adults: Secondary outcomes of a trial of falls prevention education.  

PubMed

Depression is common in older people and symptoms of depression are known to substantially increase during hospitalization. There is little known about predictors of depressive symptoms in older adults or impact of common interventions during hospitalization. This study aimed to describe the magnitude of depressive symptoms, shift of depressive symptoms and the impact of the symptoms of depression among older hospital patients during hospital admission and identify whether exposure to falls prevention education affected symptoms of depression. Participants (n=1206) were older adults admitted within two Australian hospitals, the majority of participants completed the Geriatric Depression Scale - Short Form (GDS) at admission (n=1168). Participants' mean age was 74.7 (±SD 11) years and 47% (n=551) were male. At admission 53% (619 out of 1168) of participants had symptoms of clinical depression and symptoms remained at the same level at discharge for 55% (543 out of 987). Those exposed to the low intensity education program had higher GDS scores at discharge than those in the control group (low intensity vs control n=652, adjusted regression coefficient (95% CI)=0.24 (0.02, 0.45), p=0.03). The only factor other than admission level of depression that affected depressive symptoms change was if the participant was worried about falling. Older patients frequently present with symptoms of clinical depression on admission to hospital. Future research should consider these factors, whether these are modifiable and whether treatment may influence outcomes. PMID:25442784

Haines, Terry P; Williams, Cylie M; Hill, Anne-Marie; McPhail, Steven M; Hill, D; Brauer, Sandy G; Hoffmann, Tammy C; Etherton-Beer, Chris

2015-01-01

142

Developmental approach to prevent adolescent suicides: research pathways to effective upstream preventive interventions.  

PubMed

The 2012 National Strategy for Suicide Prevention expands the current suicide prevention paradigm by including a strategic direction aimed at promoting healthy populations. Childhood and adolescence are key suicide prevention window periods, yet knowledge of suicide prevention pathways through universal interventions is limited (Aspirational Goal 11). Epidemiologic evidence suggests that prevention programs in normative social systems such as schools are needed for broad suicide prevention impact. Prevention trial results show that current universal prevention programs for children and young adolescents are effective in reducing adolescent emotional and behavioral problems that are risk factors for suicidal behavior, and in the case of the Good Behavior Game, suicide attempts. A developmentally sequenced upstream suicide prevention approach is proposed: (1) childhood programs to strengthen a broad set of self-regulation skills through family and school-based programs, followed by (2) adolescent programs that leverage social influences to prevent emerging risk behaviors such as substance abuse and strengthen relationships and skills. Key knowledge breakthroughs needed are evidence linking specific intervention strategies to reduced suicidal behaviors and mortality and their mechanisms of action. Short- and long-term objectives to achieve these breakthroughs include combining evidence from completed prevention trials, increasing motivators for prevention researchers to assess suicide-related outcome, and conducting new trials of upstream interventions in populations using efficient designs acceptable to communities. In conclusion, effective upstream prevention programs have been identified that modify risk and protective factors for adolescent suicide, and key knowledge breakthroughs can jump-start progress in realizing the suicide prevention potential of specific strategies. PMID:25145747

Wyman, Peter A

2014-09-01

143

Older Adults' Participation in a Community-Based Falls Prevention Exercise Program: Relationships between the Easy Tool, Program Attendance, and Health Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the Study: The Exercise Assessment Screening for You (EASY) tool was developed to encourage older adults at every functional level to be more physically active. The purposes of this study were to examine characteristics of older adults who participated in an evidence-based falls prevention program by their entry to EASY tool scores,…

Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G.; Ahn, SangNam; Bazzarre, Terry L.; Resnick, Barbara

2011-01-01

144

[Which diet for an effective cardiovascular prevention?].  

PubMed

Over the last years, numerous evidence on the existing relationship between nutrition and chronic degenerative diseases have led investigators to search for the optimal dietary pattern to maintain a good health status. It's well known, in fact, that nutrition is capable of substantially modifying the risk profile ofa subject in primary and/or secondary prevention. Several models of diet have been imposed on public attention, but the one that got the most interest is certainly the Mediterranean diet. Recently, several studies have shown that a strict adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with a lower incidence of mortality and incidence of chronic degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Meta-analyses conducted by our group have revealed, in a population of over than 2 million of people, that adherence to Mediterranean diet determines a significant reduction on the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular accidents. To the best of the knowledge the most effective indications for an optimal therapeutic strategy in nutrition include: increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables up to the recommended 5 servings a day, prefer whole grains, replace saturated and trans fats with unsaturated fats, reduce the consumption of sugar and sweetened beverages, and limit salt intake. With these simple indications, together with recommendations of following the principles of the traditional Mediterranean diet, a substantial reduction of the risk of incidence and/or mortality from cardiovascular disease can be easily obtained. PMID:23167146

Sofi, Francesco; Abbate, Rosanna; Gensini, Gian Franco; Casini, Alessandro

2012-06-01

145

Fall-Risk Evaluation and Management: Challenges in Adopting Geriatric Care Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One third of older adults fall each year, placing them at risk for serious injury, functional decline, and health care utilization. Despite the availability of effective preventive approaches, policy and clinical efforts at preventing falls among older adults have been limited. In this article we present the burden of falls, review evidence…

Tinetti, Mary E.; Gordon, Catherine; Sogolow, Ellen; Lapin, Pauline; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

2006-01-01

146

Physical therapy approaches to reduce fall and fracture risk among older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Falls and fall-related injuries, such as fractures, are a growing problem among older adults, often causing longstanding pain, functional impairments, reduced quality of life and excess health-care costs and mortality. These problems have led to a variety of single component or multicomponent intervention strategies to prevent falls and subsequent injuries. The most effective physical therapy approach for the prevention of

Maarit Piirtola; Harri Sievänen; Kirsti Uusi-Rasi; Pekka Kannus; Saija Karinkanta

2010-01-01

147

Obesity and falls in older people: Mediating effects of disease, sedentary behavior, mood, pain and medication use.  

PubMed

Obesity has been associated with an increased risk of falls among older people. However, it is not certain whether factors commonly associated with falls and/or obesity mediate this risk. This research examines whether specific diseases, sedentary behavior, mood, pain, and medication use mediate the association between obesity and falls. A representative sample of community-living individuals aged 65+ years in New South Wales (NSW), Australia were surveyed regarding their experience of falls, height, weight, lifestyle and general health within a 12 month period. Intervening variable effects were examined using Freedman and Schatzkin's difference in coefficients tests and regression analyses were used to estimate relative risks. Obesity was associated with a 25% higher risk (95%confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.41; p<0.0003) of having fallen in the previous 12 months compared to non-obese individuals. The strongest mediators of the association between obesity and falls were sleeping tablets (t=-5.452; p<0.0001), sitting for more than 8h per day on weekdays (t=5.178; p<0.0001), heart disease/angina (t=3.526; p<0.0001), anti-depressant use (t=3.102; p=0.002), moderate/extreme anxiety or depression (t=3.038; p=0.002), and diabetes (t=3.032; p=0.002). Sedentary behavior, chronic health conditions and medication use were identified as mediators for the association between obesity and falls in community living older people. Interventions aimed at weight reduction and increased activity may have benefits not only for fall prevention, but also for the mediating health, mood and lifestyle factors identified here. PMID:25307955

Mitchell, Rebecca J; Lord, Stephen R; Harvey, Lara A; Close, Jacqueline C T

2015-01-01

148

Fall rice straw management and winter flooding treatment effects on a subsequent soybean crop  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of fall rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw management and winter flooding on the yield and profitability of subsequent irrigated and dryland soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] crops were studied for 3 years. Rice straw treatments consisted of disking, rolling, or standing stubble. Winter flooding treatments consisted of maintaining a minimum water depth of 10 cm by pumping water when necessary, impounding available rainfall, and draining fields to prevent flooding. The following soybean crop was managed as a conventional-tillage system or no-till system. Tillage system treatments were further divided into irrigated or dryland. Results indicated that there were no significant effects from either fall rice straw management or winter flooding treatments on soybean seed yields. Soybean seed yields for, the conventional tillage system were significantly greater than those for the no-till system for the first 2 yrs and not different in the third year. Irrigated soybean seed yields were significantly greater than those from dryland plots for all years. Net economic returns averaged over the 3 yrs were greatest ($390.00 ha-1) from the irrigated no-till system.

Anders, M.M.; Windham, T.E.; McNew, R.W.; Reinecke, K.J.

2005-01-01

149

Abstract--The Gesture Recognition Interactive Technology (GRiT) Chair Alarm aims to prevent patient falls from chairs  

E-print Network

therapy, gait analysis, and mental status [2]. The fall assessment score, commonly calculated on the Morse in the absence of a care provider. Elderly patients are not the only ones subject to fall. Even an athletic young

Ma, Hongshen

150

Effects of drug pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, characteristics of medication use, and relevant pharmacological interventions on fall risk in elderly patients  

PubMed Central

Background Falls among the elderly are an issue internationally and a public health problem that brings substantial economic and quality-of-life burdens to individuals and society. Falls prevention is an important measure of nursing quality and patient safety. Numerous studies have evaluated the association of medication use with fall risk in elderly patients. However, an up-to-date review has not been available to summarize the multifaceted pharmaceutical concerns in the prevention of medication-related falls. Materials and methods Relevant literature was identified by performing searches in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library, covering the period until February 2014. We included studies that described an association between medications and falls, and effects of drug pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, characteristics of medication use, and pharmacological interventions on fall risk in elderly patients. The full text of each included article was critically reviewed, and data interpretation was performed. Results Fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRIDs) include central nervous system-acting agents, cough preparations, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-Alzheimer’s agents, antiplatelet agents, calcium antagonists, diuretics, ?-blockers, digoxin, hypoglycemic drugs, neurotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, nasal preparations, and antiglaucoma ophthalmic preparations. The degree of medication-related fall risk was dependent on one or some of the following factors: drug pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties (eg, elimination half-life, metabolic pathway, genetic polymorphism, risk rating of medications despite belonging to the same therapeutic class) and/or characteristics of medication use (eg, number of medications and drug–drug interactions, dose strength, duration of medication use and time since stopping, medication change, prescribing appropriateness, and medication adherence). Pharmacological interventions, including withdrawal of FRIDs, pharmacist-conducted clinical medication review, and computerized drug alerts, were effective in reducing fall risk. Conclusion Based on the literature review, clear practical recommendations for clinicians to prevent falls in the elderly included making a list of FRIDs, establishing a computerized alert system for when to e-prescribe FRIDs, seeking an alternative drug with lower fall risk, withdrawing FRIDs if clinically indicated, taking pertinent cautions when the use of FRIDs cannot be avoidable, paying attention to prescribing appropriateness, simplifying the medication regimen, strengthening pharmacist-conducted clinical medication review, ensuring the label of each FRID dispensed contains a corresponding warning sign, being careful when medication change occurs, enhancing medication adherence, and mandating for periodic reassessment of potential risk associated with the patient’s medication regimen. Further studies should be conducted in this area, such as investigating whether medication reconciliation and improving medication adherence could decrease the rate of falls. PMID:24966681

Chen, Ying; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Zhou, Quan

2014-01-01

151

The Otago Exercise Programme: An evidence-based approach to falls prevention for older adults living in the community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Falls in older people are identified as a key priority area in the New Zealand Health Strategy. Falls are ex- pensive, both in the dollar cost to the health system and in reduced quality of life for the older person. Risk factors for falls are multifactorial and complex, how- ever two of the factors, reduced strength and poor bal- ance,

Denise Taylor; Caroline Stretton

152

Disseminating Effective Community Prevention Practices: Opportunities for Social Work Education  

PubMed Central

In the United States about 17% of adolescents meet diagnostic criteria for mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Six million young people receive treatment services annually for mental, emotional, or behavioral problems. These problems affect 1 in 5 families and cost $247 million annually (O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009). Some strategies for preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders in young people have been developed, tested, and found to be effective in preventing the onset, persistence, and severity of psychological disorders, drug abuse, and delinquency. Unfortunately, tested and effective prevention policies, programs, and practices are not widely used (O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009). This paper highlights recent advances in prevention science and describes some opportunities and challenges in advancing the use of science-based prevention in communities. The chapter concludes by exploring the potential role of social work education in developing a workforce ready to increase community access to effective prevention strategies. PMID:21072250

Hawkins, J. David; Shapiro, Valerie B.; Fagan, Abigail A.

2009-01-01

153

Reducing the fear of falling through a community evidence-based intervention.  

PubMed

Falls and the fear of falling are major health concerns among older adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an evidence-based fall prevention program on the fear of falling and health-related quality of life among community-dwelling elders. The program consisted of 6 classes that covered topics such as risk factors for falls, balance exercises, medications, safe footwear, and home safety. Of those elders who were most fearful at baseline, the fall prevention program decreased their fear of falling and improved 1 dimension of their health-related quality of life. PMID:24492268

Beauvais, Audrey; Beauvais, John E

2014-02-01

154

Comparison of tai chi vs. strength training for fall prevention among female cancer survivors: study protocol for the GET FIT trial  

PubMed Central

Background Women with cancer are significantly more likely to fall than women without cancer placing them at higher risk of fall-related fractures, other injuries and disability. Currently, no evidence-based fall prevention strategies exist that specifically target female cancer survivors. The purpose of the GET FIT (Group Exercise Training for Functional Improvement after Treatment) trial is to compare the efficacy of two distinct types of exercise, tai chi versus strength training, to prevent falls in women who have completed treatment for cancer. The specific aims of this study are to: 1) Determine and compare the efficacy of both tai chi training and strength training to reduce falls in older female cancer survivors, 2) Determine the mechanism(s) by which tai chi and strength training each reduces falls and, 3) Determine whether or not the benefits of each intervention last after structured training stops. Methods/Design We will conduct a three-group, single-blind, parallel design, randomized controlled trial in women, aged 50–75 years old, who have completed chemotherapy for cancer comparing 1) tai chi 2) strength training and 3) a placebo control group of seated stretching exercise. Women will participate in supervised study programs twice per week for six months and will be followed for an additional six months after formal training stops. The primary outcome in this study is falls, which will be prospectively tracked by monthly self-report. Secondary outcomes are maximal leg strength measured by isokinetic dynamometry, postural stability measured by computerized dynamic posturography and physical function measured by the Physical Performance Battery, all measured at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. The sample for this trial (N=429, assuming 25% attrition) will provide adequate statistical power to detect at least a 47% reduction in the fall rate over 1 year by being in either of the 2 exercise groups versus the control group. Discussion The GET FIT trial will provide important new knowledge about preventing falls using accessible and implementable exercise interventions for women following chemotherapy for cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01635413 PMID:23217054

2012-01-01

155

Musculoskeletal Strength, Balance Performance, and Self-Efficacy in Elderly Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Practitioners: Implications for Fall Prevention  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To (1) compare the bone strength, lower limb muscular strength, functional balance performance, and balance self-efficacy between Ving Tsun (VT) martial art practitioners and nonpractitioners and (2) identify the associations between lower limb muscular strength, functional balance performance, and balance self-efficacy among the VT-trained participants. Methods. Thirty-five VT practitioners (mean age ± SD = 62.7 ± 13.3 years) and 49 nonpractitioners (mean age ± SD = 65.9 ± 10.5 years) participated in the study. The bone strength of the distal radius, lower limb muscular strength, functional balance performance, and balance self-efficacy were assessed using an ultrasound bone sonometer, the five times sit-to-stand test (FTSTS), the Berg balance scale (BBS), and the Chinese version of the activities-specific balance confidence scale, respectively. A multivariate analysis of covariance was performed to compare all the outcome variables between the two groups. Results. Elderly VT practitioners had higher radial bone strength on the dominant side (P < 0.05), greater lower limb muscular strength (P = 0.001), better functional balance performance (P = 0.003), and greater balance confidence (P < 0.001) than the nonpractitioners. Additionally, only the FTSTS time revealed a significant association with the BBS score (r = ?0.575, ?P = 0.013). Conclusions. VT may be a suitable health-maintenance exercise for the elderly. Our findings may inspire the development of VT fall-prevention exercises for the community-dwelling healthy elderly. PMID:25530782

Fong, Shirley S. M.; Ng, Shamay S. M.; Liu, Karen P. Y.; Pang, Marco Y. C.; Lee, H. W.; Chung, Joanne W. Y.; Lam, Priscillia L.; Guo, X.

2014-01-01

156

The Development of a Community-Based, Pharmacist-Provided Falls Prevention MTM Intervention for Older Adults: Relationship Building, Methods, and Rationale  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this article are to discuss the process of community engagement experienced to plan and implement a pilot study of a pharmacist-provided MTM intervention focused on reducing the use of medications associated with falling, and to present the research methods that emerged from the community engagement process to evaluate the feasibility, acceptance, and preliminary impact of the intervention. Key lessons learned from the community engagement process also are presented and discussed. The relationship building and planning process took twelve months. The RE-AIM framework broadly guided the planning process since an overarching goal for the community partners was developing a program that could be implemented and sustained in the future. The planning phase focused on identifying research questions that were of most interest to the community partners, the population to study, the capacity of partners to perform activities, process evaluation. Much of the planning phase was accomplished with face-to-face meetings. After all study processes, study materials, and data collection tools were developed, a focus group of older adults who represented the likely targets of the MTM intervention provided feedback related to the concept and process of the intervention. Nine key lessons were identified from the community engagement process. One key to successful community engagement is partners taking the time to educate each other about experiences, processes, and success and failures. Additionally, partners must actively listen to each other to better understand barriers and facilitators that likely will impact the planning and implementation process. Successful community engagement will be important to develop both formative and summative evaluation processes that will help to produce valid evidence about the effectiveness of pharmacists in modifying drug therapy and preventing falls as well as promote adoption and implementation of the intervention in other communities. PMID:25309809

Mott, David A.; Martin, Beth; Breslow, Robert; Michaels, Barb; Kirchner, Jeff; Mahoney, Jane; Margolis, Amanda

2014-01-01

157

Diapause Prevention Effect of Bombyx mori by Dimethyl Sulfoxide  

PubMed Central

HCl treatment has been, for about 80 years, the primary method for the prevention of entry into embryonic diapauses of Bombyx mori. This is because no method is as effective as the HCl treatment. In this study, we discovered that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) prevented entry into the diapause of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The effect of diapause prevention was 78% as a result of treatment with 100% DMSO concentration, and the effect was comparable to that of the HCl treatment. In contrast, in the case of non-diapause eggs, hatchability was decreased by DMSO in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect of DMSO was restricted within 24 hours after oviposition of diapause eggs, and the critical period was slightly shorter than the effective period of the HCl treatment. DMSO analogs, such as dimethyl formamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS), did little preventive effect against the diapause. Furthermore, we also investigated the permeation effects of chemical compounds by DMSO. When treated with an inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 (CK2) dissolved in DMSO, the prevention rate of the diapause was less than 40%. This means that the inhibition effect by the CK2 inhibitor was the inhibition of embryonic development after diapause prevention by DMSO. These data suggest that DMSO has the effects of preventing from entering into the diapause and permeation of chemicals into diapause eggs. PMID:23675522

Yamamoto, Takayuki; Mase, Keisuke; Sawada, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

158

Diapause prevention effect of Bombyx mori by dimethyl sulfoxide.  

PubMed

HCl treatment has been, for about 80 years, the primary method for the prevention of entry into embryonic diapauses of Bombyx mori. This is because no method is as effective as the HCl treatment. In this study, we discovered that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) prevented entry into the diapause of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The effect of diapause prevention was 78% as a result of treatment with 100% DMSO concentration, and the effect was comparable to that of the HCl treatment. In contrast, in the case of non-diapause eggs, hatchability was decreased by DMSO in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect of DMSO was restricted within 24 hours after oviposition of diapause eggs, and the critical period was slightly shorter than the effective period of the HCl treatment. DMSO analogs, such as dimethyl formamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS), did little preventive effect against the diapause. Furthermore, we also investigated the permeation effects of chemical compounds by DMSO. When treated with an inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 (CK2) dissolved in DMSO, the prevention rate of the diapause was less than 40%. This means that the inhibition effect by the CK2 inhibitor was the inhibition of embryonic development after diapause prevention by DMSO. These data suggest that DMSO has the effects of preventing from entering into the diapause and permeation of chemicals into diapause eggs. PMID:23675522

Yamamoto, Takayuki; Mase, Keisuke; Sawada, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

159

[Cost]effectiveness of withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs versus conservative treatment in older fallers: design of a multicenter randomized controlled trial (IMPROveFALL-study)  

PubMed Central

Background Fall incidents represent an increasing public health problem in aging societies worldwide. A major risk factor for falls is the use of fall-risk increasing drugs. The primary aim of the study is to compare the effect of a structured medication assessment including the withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs on the number of new falls versus 'care as usual' in older adults presenting at the Emergency Department after a fall. Methods/Design A prospective, multi-center, randomized controlled trial will be conducted in hospitals in the Netherlands. Persons aged ?65 years who visit the Emergency Department due to a fall are invited to participate in this trial. All patients receive a full geriatric assessment at the research outpatient clinic. Patients are randomized between a structured medication assessment including withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs and 'care as usual'. A 3-monthly falls calendar is used for assessing the number of falls, fallers and associated injuries over a one-year follow-up period. Measurements will be at three, six, nine, and twelve months and include functional outcome, healthcare consumption, socio-demographic characteristics, and clinical information. After twelve months a second visit to the research outpatient clinic will be performed, and adherence to the new medication regimen in the intervention group will be measured. The primary outcome will be the incidence of new falls. Secondary outcome measurements are possible health effects of medication withdrawal, health-related quality of life (Short Form-12 and EuroQol-5D), costs, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Data will be analyzed using an intention-to-treat analysis. Discussion The successful completion of this trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness of withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs in older patients as a method for falls reduction. Trial Registration The trial is registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1593) PMID:21854643

2011-01-01

160

Preventive effectiveness of pre-employment medical assessments.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Health gain, prevention of health loss, and avoidance of financial risk all seem to be driving forces for the use of pre-employment medical assessment. An attempt is made to measure the effect of implementing the pre-employment medical assessment on these end points. The anticipated maximum preventive effect (preventive effectiveness) of selection by means of pre-employment medical assessments for work related risks and the potential for disablement in individual workers can be calculated or estimated. Necessary parameters include test validity characteristics and epidemiological data for both the adverse outcome to be prevented, and risk factors of concern. RESULTS: The preventive effectiveness can be expressed as the effort (number of actions) needed to prevent one adverse event-for example, one case of occupational disease or one case of long term disablement. Actions include: a pre-employment health assessment, rejection of the candidate, individual precautions, adjustments of the job, and adjustments of the job environment. It seems that the preventive effectiveness of many actions can be low, implying that large numbers of actions are needed to prevent one adverse outcome. DISCUSSION: The medical assessment should consist of no more questions and tests than are required relevant to the stated aim. Particularly, when the pre-employment medical assessment is used to reject candidates at risk, the use of tests should be carefully weighed. If the preventive effectiveness is considered to be too low, then the question or test should not be incorporated for selection purposes. The application of a so called "expert judgment" should be based on professional guidelines wherever possible and should be made clear. The benefit of reducing the incidence of a serious adverse event by one may outweigh the costs of rejecting many candidates. CONCLUSIONS: The concept of preventive effectiveness may help to reach evidence based occupational medicine, which starts at the pre-employment medical assessment. PMID:9072026

de Kort, W; van Dijk, F

1997-01-01

161

The CDC Steven M. Teutsch Prevention Effectiveness Fellowship  

E-print Network

; the burden of illnesses; the impact of regulations on population health; and ways to optimize expenditures in Public Health Economics and Decision Analysis The Steven M. Teutsch Prevention Effectiveness (PE to the science of health protection, health promotion, and disease prevention. The PE fellowship addresses an on

162

Falls in Older People: Effects of Age and Blurring Vision on the Dynamics of Stepping  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. The risk of falling increases dramatically with age, and visual impairment is known to be an important risk factor. Therefore, it is highly pertinent to assess the effects of age and vision on the performance of everyday tasks linked to falling, such as stepping from one level to another. METHODS. Nine young (age, 26 4 years) and ten elderly

Karen Heasley; John G. Buckley; Andy Scally; Pete Twigg; David B. Elliott

2005-01-01

163

Effect of eastern gamagrass on fall armyworm and corn earworm development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) are two important corn pests in the southern U.S. states. Effect of the leaves from the corn relative, the Eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) on fall armyworm and corn earworm development ...

164

Fall Proofing Your Home  

MedlinePLUS

... Proofing Your Home Six out of every 10 falls happen at home, where we spend much of ... without thinking about our safety. Many of these falls could be prevented by making simple changes. Go4Life ...

165

Effective HIV prevention: the indispensable role of social science  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the ways in which HIV prevention is understood including “biomedical”, “behavioural”, “structural”, and “combination” prevention. In it I argue that effective prevention entails developing community capacity and requires that public health addresses people not only as individuals but also as connected members of groups, networks and collectives who interact (talk, negotiate, have sex, use drugs, etc.) together. I also examine the evaluation of prevention programmes or interventions and argue that the distinction between efficacy and effectiveness is often glossed and that, while efficacy can be evaluated by randomized controlled trials, the evaluation of effectiveness requires long-term descriptive strategies and/or modelling. Using examples from a number of countries, including a detailed account of the Australian HIV prevention response, effectiveness is shown to be dependent not only on the efficacy of the prevention technology or tool but also on the responses of people – individuals, communities and governments – to those technologies. Whether a particular HIV prevention technology is adopted and its use sustained depends on a range of social, cultural and political factors. The paper concludes by calling on biomedical and social scientists to work together and describes a “social public health”. PMID:22713254

Kippax, Susan

2012-01-01

166

Cost-effective analysis of hepatitis a prevention in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to determine the most cost-effective prevention strategy against hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection for healthcare workers and the general population at risk in Ireland.METHODS:Four prevention strategies were compared: active immunization with Havrix Monodose (1440E.U); screening for anti-HAV antibody and then vaccinating; passive immunization; screening for anti-HAV antibody and then passive immunization. The cost-effective ratio

E. Rajan; A. G. Shattock; J. F. Fielding

2000-01-01

167

An Ounce of Prevention, a Pound of Uncertainty: The Cost-Effectiveness of School-Based Drug Prevention Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of model school-based drug prevention programs at reducing cocaine consumption. It compares prevention's cost-effectiveness with that of several enforcement programs and with that of treating heavy cocaine users. It also assesses the cost of nationwide implementation of model prevention

Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Rydell, C. Peter; Everingham, Susan S.; Chiesa, James; Bushway, Shawn

168

Diagnosis and Tests: Evaluating a Fall or Risk of Falling  

MedlinePLUS

... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Falls Prevention Diagnosis & Tests Evaluating a Fall or Risk of Falling At your next regular ... professional about your risk of falling. Describe any falls or close calls you’ve had, even if ...

169

The Effects of HMO Penetration on Preventable Hospitalizations  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the effects of health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration on preventable hospitalizations. Data Source Hospital inpatient discharge abstracts for 932 urban counties in 22 states from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases (SID), hospital data from American Hospital Association (AHA) annual survey, and population characteristics and health care capacity data from Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Area Resource File (ARF) for 1998. Methods Preventable hospitalizations due to 14 ambulatory care sensitive conditions were identified using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Prevention Quality Indicators. Multiple regressions were used to determine the association between preventable hospitalizations and HMO penetration while controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and health care capacity of the counties. Principal Findings A 10 percent increase in HMO penetration was associated with a 3.8 percent decrease in preventable hospitalizations (95 percent confidence interval, 2.0 percent–5.6 percent). Advanced age, female gender, poor health, poverty, more hospital beds, and fewer primary care physicians per capita were significantly associated with more preventable hospitalizations. Conclusions Our study suggests that HMO penetration has significant effects in reducing preventable hospitalizations due to some ambulatory care sensitive conditions. PMID:15032958

Zhan, Chunliu; Miller, Marlene R; Wong, Herbert; Meyer, Gregg S

2004-01-01

170

Repeated-Slip Training: An Emerging Paradigm for Prevention of Slip-Related Falls Among Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Falls frequently cause injury-related hospitalization or death among older adults. This article reviews a new conceptual framework on dynamic stability and weight support in reducing the risk for falls resulting from a forward slip, based on the principles of motor control and learning, in the context of adaptation and longer-term retention induced by repeated-slip training. Although an unexpected slip is

Yi-Chung Pai; Tanvi S Bhatt

171

Prevention and treatment of systemic glucocorticoid side effects  

PubMed Central

Background Systemic glucocorticoids are used in dermatologic practice for various diseases including connective tissue disorders, bullous diseases, and many other dermatologic conditions. Patients with these diseases are at times treated with long-term courses of glucocorticoids, which place them at increased risk for glucocorticoid-induced side effects. Therefore, dermatologists must be knowledgeable of risks related to glucocorticoid use and be familiar with guidelines to manage them. Objective To provide an update of recent advances in the prevention and treatment of major glucocorticoid-induced side effects. Methods Review of the literature Results Data regarding the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced side effects are presented. Conclusion This review should help dermatologists optimally manage and prevent glucocorticoid-induced side effects. PMID:20465658

Moghadam-Kia, Siamak; Werth, Victoria P.

2009-01-01

172

Effective Instruction: An Inconspicuous Strategy for Dropout Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although researchers have clearly connected dropping out of school to prolonged low achievement, to date, effective teaching practices are largely absent from the milieu of interventions and programs that are employed by schools to address dropout prevention. As such, effective instructional design and delivery as a focus for keeping students with…

Bost, Loujeania Williams; Riccomini, Paul J.

2006-01-01

173

A feasibility study and pilot randomised trial of a tailored prevention program to reduce falls in older people with mild dementia  

PubMed Central

Background People with dementia have a disproportionately high rate of falls and fractures and poorer outcomes, yet there is currently no evidence to guide falls prevention in this population. Methods A randomised trial design was used to test feasibility of study components and acceptability of a home hazard reduction and balance and strength exercise fall prevention program. The program was tailored to participant’s individual cognitive levels and implemented as a carer-supported intervention. Feasibility of recruitment, retention and implementation of intervention were recorded through observation and documented in field notes. Adherence, carer burden and use of task simplification strategies were also monitored. Outcome measures, collected at 12 weeks included physiological, fear of falling, cognitive and functional measures. Results Recruitment was achievable but may be more challenging in a multisite trial. Twenty two dyads of persons with mild dementia and their carers were randomised to intervention or usual care control group. Of 38 dyads referred to the study, there was a high rate of willingness to participate, with 6 (16%) declining and 10 (26%) not meeting inclusion criteria. The intervention was well received by participants and carers and adherence to both program components was very good. All participants implemented some home safety recommendations (range 19-80%) with half implementing 50% or more. At the end of 12 weeks, 72% of the intervention group were exercising. Both the rate of falling and the risk of a fall were lower in the intervention group but these findings were not significant (RR= 0.50 (95% CI 0.11-2.19). There were no differences in physiological outcome measures between the control and intervention groups. However results were influenced by the small study size and incomplete data primarily in the intervention group at follow up. Conclusions The pilot study was feasible and acceptable to people with mild dementia and their carers. The lessons learnt included: recruitment for a larger trial will require multiple approaches; home safety recommendations should provide a greater emphasis on environmental use compared with behavioural change; strategies to ensure an adequate dosage of exercise should be further explored. We recommend that intervention delivery incorporate an integrated occupational therapy and physiotherapy approach and that carers be provided with an individualised session to enhance dementia-specific skills in management and communication. A refined intervention should be tested in a randomised trial with an adequately powered sample size. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 126100001049066 PMID:24004682

2013-01-01

174

Effect evaluation of a multifactor community intervention to reduce falls among older persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactor and multi-method community intervention programme to reduce falls among older persons by at least 20%. In a pre-test – post test design, self-reported falls were registered for 10 months in the intervention community and two control communities. After the pre-test registration, participants followed the intervention programme (Information and education,

Gert Jan Wijlhuizen; Peter du Bois; Paula van Dommelen; Marijke Hopman-Rock

2007-01-01

175

National Osteoporosis Prevention Month  

E-print Network

Service Texas A&M University System Eat Smart for Bone Health Exercise & Fall Prevention- Lesson 6 Contents: Lesson - Exercise & Fall Prevention Power Point # P6-1 Eat Smart for Bone Health # P6-2 Weight-Bearing Exercises # P6-3 Weight-Bearing Exercises (continued) # P6-4 Exercise Tips # P6-5 Fall Prevention # P6

176

Basic Science Effects of Curcumin for Preventing Restenosis in a  

E-print Network

Basic Science Effects of Curcumin for Preventing Restenosis in a Hypercholesterolemic Rabbit Iliac Kim,1 MD, PhD, and Hyeon-Cheol Gwon,1* MD, PhD Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of the curcumin-coating stent (CCS) on the inhibi- tion of restenosis in a rabbit iliac artery stent model. Background: Curcumin

Park, Jong-Sang

177

Effective Dropout Prevention and College Attendance Programs for Latino Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews research related to effective secondary school programs aimed at dropout prevention and increasing college enrollment rates for at-risk Latino youth. The review identifies programs that have demonstrated a significant impact on dropout rates, college attendance, school performance, or related outcomes in rigorous evaluations;…

Fashola, Olatokunbo S.; Slavin, Robert E.

178

Anger and Violence Prevention: Enhancing Treatment Effects through Booster Sessions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of booster sessions on the maintenance of intervention gains following an anger management prevention program: "Student Created Aggression Replacement Education Program" ("SCARE"). Participants who had completed the "SCARE" program a year earlier were randomly assigned into either a booster…

Bundy, Alysha; McWhirter, Paula T.; McWhirter, J. Jeffries

2011-01-01

179

Effective Instruction: The Forgotten Component in Preventing School Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of school violence and student misbehavior reviews research showing that violent and unsafe student behaviors are the outcome of a predictable chain of events that begins with academic failure. The paper urges a greater emphasis on effective academic instruction in any efforts to prevent school violence and improve school safety.…

Scott, Terrance M.; Nelson, C. Michael; Liaupsin, Carl J.

2001-01-01

180

Falls and Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Improvements Prevent Falls Many State and local governments have education and/or home modification programs to help older people prevent falls. Check with your local health department, senior affairs office, or area agency on aging to see if there is ...

181

Preventive Interventions for Preterm Children: Effectiveness and Developmental Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

This article provides an integrative review of the effectiveness of and possible developmental mechanisms associated with preventive interventions for preterm children. An analysis of randomized clinical trials carried out within the last 15 years was framed within a contemporary developmental model emphasizing the role of parental adjustments to preterm children’s characteristics. Evidence suggested positive outcomes could be understood in terms of improvements in developmental pathways associated with parental sensitive-responsiveness and child participation in intensive intervention-oriented child care. Implications for the critical role of the Medical Home model for preventive interventions for preterm children were discussed. PMID:22426651

Guralnick, Michael J.

2012-01-01

182

Tunguska meteor fall of 1908: effects on stratospheric ozone  

SciTech Connect

In 1908, when the giant Tunguska meteor disintegrated in the earth's atmosphere over Siberia, it may have generated as much as 30 million metric tons of nitric oxide (NO) in the stratosphere and mesosphere. The photochemical aftereffects of the event have been simulated using a comprehensive model of atmospheric trace composition. Calculations indicate that up to 45 percent of the ozone in the Northern Hemisphere may have been depleted by Tunguska's nitric oxide cloud early in 1909 and large ozone reductions may have persisted until 1912. Measurements of atmospheric transparency by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for the years 1909 to 1911 show evidence of a steady ozone recovery from unusually low levels in early 1909, implying a total ozone deficit of 30 +- 15 percent. The coincidence in time between the observed ozone recovery and the Tungska meteor fall indicates that the event may provide a test of current ozone depletion theories.

Turco, R.P.; Toon, O.B.; Park, C.; Whitten, R.C.; Pollack, J.B.; Noerdlinger, P.

1981-10-02

183

HIV prevention cost-effectiveness: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background After more than 25 years, public health programs have not been able to sufficiently reduce the number of new HIV infections. Over 7,000 people become infected with HIV every day. Lack of convincing evidence of cost-effectiveness (CE) may be one of the reasons why implementation of effective programs is not occurring at sufficient scale. This paper identifies, summarizes and critiques the CE literature related to HIV-prevention interventions in low- and middle-income countries during 2005-2008. Methods Systematic identification of publications was conducted through several methods: electronic databases, internet search of international organizations and major funding/implementing agencies, and journal browsing. Inclusion criteria included: HIV prevention intervention, year for publication (2005-2008), setting (low- and middle-income countries), and CE estimation (empirical or modeling) using outcomes in terms of cost per HIV infection averted and/or cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) or quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Results We found 21 distinct studies analyzing the CE of HIV-prevention interventions published in the past four years (2005-2008). Seventeen CE studies analyzed biomedical interventions; only a few dealt with behavioral and environmental/structural interventions. Sixteen studies focused on sub-Saharan Africa, and only a handful on Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. Many HIV-prevention interventions are very cost effective in absolute terms (using costs per DALY averted), and also in country-specific relative terms (in cost per DALY measured as percentage of GDP per capita). Conclusion There are several types of interventions for which CE studies are still not available or insufficient, including surveillance, abstinence, school-based education, universal precautions, prevention for positives and most structural interventions. The sparse CE evidence available is not easily comparable; thus, not very useful for decision making. More than 25 years into the AIDS epidemic and billions of dollars of spending later, there is still much work to be done both on costs and effectiveness to adequately inform HIV prevention planning. PMID:19922689

2009-01-01

184

False fame prevented: avoiding fluency effects without judgmental correction.  

PubMed

Three studies show a way to prevent fluency effects independently of judgmental correction strategies by identifying and procedurally blocking the sources of fluency variations, which are assumed to be embodied in nature. For verbal stimuli, covert pronunciations are assumed to be the crucial source of fluency gains. As a consequence, blocking such pronunciation simulations through a secondary oral motor task decreased the false-fame effect for repeatedly presented names of actors (Experiment 1) as well as prevented increases in trust due to repetition for brand names and names of shares in the stock market (Experiment 2). Extending this evidence beyond repeated exposure, we demonstrated that blocking oral motor simulations also prevented fluency effects of word pronunciation on judgments of hazardousness (Experiment 3). Concerning the realm of judgment correction, this procedural blocking of (biasing) associative processes is a decontamination method not considered before in the literature, because it is independent of exposure control, mood, motivation, and post hoc correction strategies. The present results also have implications for applied issues, such as advertising and investment decisions. PMID:20438220

Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

2010-05-01

185

AQUACULTURE & FISHERIES TECHNOLOGY, Aquaculture Effective Fall 2005 College of the Environment & Life Sciences (CELS)  

E-print Network

AQUACULTURE & FISHERIES TECHNOLOGY, Aquaculture Effective Fall 2005 College of the Environment Advisor: Dr. Joseph DeAlteris, jdealteris@uri.edu, 874-5333 Option: Aquaculture Science Credits: 130 The Major: The aquaculture program at the University of Rhode Island, begun in 1969 and administered

Rhode Island, University of

186

AQUACULTURE & FISHERIES TECHNOLOGY Effective Fall 2012 College of the Environment & Life Sciences (CELS)  

E-print Network

AQUACULTURE & FISHERIES TECHNOLOGY Effective Fall 2012 College of the Environment & Life Sciences. David Bengtson, bengtson@uri.edu, 874-2668 Option: Aquaculture Science Credits: 130 The Major: The aquaculture and fisheries program at the University of Rhode Island, begun in 1969 and administered

Rhode Island, University of

187

Effects of Tai Chi exercise on balance, functional mobility, and fear of falling among older women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Tai Chi exercise among older women. Multiple regression analysis revealed statistically significant improvements in scores for balance (p < .001), functional mobility (p < .05), and fear of falling (p < .001) and associated demographic factors. Three months of twice weekly, 30-minute Tai Chi classes was associated with statistically

Helen M. Taggart

2002-01-01

188

UMBC Cable Television Channel Lineup Fall 2013 Academic Semester Effective August 7, 2013  

E-print Network

315 Disney Channel 143 Food Network 316 ABC Family 144 Cooking Channel 317 Cartoon Network 145UMBC Cable Television Channel Lineup Fall 2013 Academic Semester ­ Effective August 7, 2013 2 WMAR (ABC) 172 The Tennis Channel 3 Spotlight Channel / Info Channel 173 Sportsman Channel 4 WRC (NBC) 174

Maryland, Baltimore County, University of

189

EP464 Fall 2004 Prof. Michael P. Bradley Edge Effects in the Parallel Plate Capacitor  

E-print Network

EP464 Fall 2004 Prof. Michael P. Bradley Edge Effects in the Parallel Plate Capacitor: The Maxwell Transformation and the Rogowski Profile The parallel-plate capacitor is a common capacitor geometry = + = and 2 2 2 2 2 v v v( , ) 0x y x y = + = Now the solution to our finite parallel-plate capacitor

Saskatchewan, University of

190

PSYCHOLOGY MAJOR -EFFECTIVE FALL 2012 Core Requirements MUST earn a grade C or better in each  

E-print Network

PSYCHOLOGY MAJOR - EFFECTIVE FALL 2012 Core Requirements ­ MUST earn a grade C or better in each Areas of Study: Area 1: Basic Psychological Processes ­ Choose TWO courses Course Title Units Completed Motivation PSY 494 Cognitive Psychology PSY 496 Cognitive Science: Models of Human Psychology PSY 498

191

Transfer Guide: Horticulture Business Management -1 -Revised: 29 March 2013 Effective Term: Fall 2013  

E-print Network

Transfer Guide: Horticulture Business Management - 1 - Revised: 29 March 2013 Effective Term: Fall Bachelor of Science Degree ­ Horticulture Horticulture Business Management concentration This planning and majoring in Horticulture Business Management. This transfer guide can be used in two ways: o If the student

192

Women's and Gender Studies Minor Changes to Catalog, effective Fall 2005: Courses to ADD  

E-print Network

to SUBTRACT: HIST 328 Seminar: Women of Sub-Saharan Africa (NOTE: HIST 328 is a rotating seminar topics course; Women of Sub-Saharan Africa is no longer taught as a 328 seminarSB #1004 Women's and Gender Studies Minor Changes to Catalog, effective Fall 2005: Courses to ADD

Gering, Jon C.

193

Urban Studies Doctoral Program Handbook In effect for students entering Fall 2013  

E-print Network

Urban Studies Doctoral Program Handbook In effect for students entering Fall 2013 Department of Planning and Urban Studies / College of Liberal Arts 368 Milneburg Hall University of New Orleans 2000 Lakeshore Drive New Orleans, LA 70148 #12;Urban Studies Doctoral Program Handbook 1 DOCTORAL PROGRAM

Kulp, Mark

194

Department of Industrial Engineering Fall 2011 Characterizing the Effect of Contact Perturbation on Tool Wear in  

E-print Network

PENNSTATE Department of Industrial Engineering Fall 2011 Characterizing the Effect of Contact Engineering group had any physical experience operating industrial machinery before. The Engineers had first used in machining, to learn the proper steps of the study. · The engineers machined titanium tubes

Demirel, Melik C.

195

EFFECTS OF PRESCRIBED FALL BURNING ON A WETLAND PLANT COMMUNITY, WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT OF PLANTS AND HERBIVORES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important contemporary challenge for adaptive resource management is assessing both the direct and indirect effects of management activities by designing appropriate monitoring programs and sound analysis meth- ods. Here we evaluate the effects of prescribed fall burning on a wetland plant community that is managed primarily for spring-migrating geese. During late fall in 2 consecutive years, we burned vegetation

Scott R. McWilliams; Todd Sloat; Catherine A. Toft; Daphne Hatch

2007-01-01

196

Cost-Effectiveness of a School-Based Obesity Prevention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A school-based obesity prevention study (Medical College of Georgia FitKid Project) started in the fall of 2003 in 18 elementary schools. Half of the schools were randomized to an after-school program that included moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, healthy snacks, homework assistance, and academic enrichment. All third graders…

Wang, Li Yan; Gutin, Bernard; Barbeau, Paule; Moore, Justin B.; Hanes, John, Jr.; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Cavnar, Marlo; Thornburg, Janet; Yin, Zenong

2008-01-01

197

Design an effective storm water pollution prevention plan  

SciTech Connect

A case history shows ``how`` to plan and organize a storm water pollution prevention program (SWPPP). Using easy-to-use worksheets and guidelines, hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) operators can build upon existing best management practices (i.e., housekeeping procedures, visual inspections, spill prevention programs, etc.) to meet tighter restrictions set by National Pollutant Discharge Elimination system (NPDES) permits. Especially in high rainfall areas, storm water poses an intermittent, but large volume problem. The facility`s site size is another factor that impacts the scope and cost for SWPPP. The five steps to implementing a SWPPP are: Planning and organization; Assessment; Best management practice (BMP) identification; Implementation; Evaluation and monitoring. Initially, HPI operators must identify all potential contamination sources and past spills and leak areas. Following the SWPP guidelines, operators can map out a cost-effective storm water program that meets all NPDES requirements.

Vivona, M.A. [Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-08-01

198

Prevention of periprosthetic joint infection: what are the effective strategies?  

PubMed

Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) following total knee arthroplasty is a major burden for patients and health systems. Prevention of this challenging complication through implementation of effective strategies should be a priority. These strategies should encompass various levels of patient care. Multiple modifiable risk factors such as uncontrolled hyperglycemia, obesity, smoking, substance abuse, and nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus have been described for PJI. Preoperative recognition and mitigation of these risk factors along with optimization of nonmodifiable risk factors such as kidney, liver, or immune system insufficiency can considerably decrease the risk of PJI. A comprehensive perioperative protocol should involve optimization of the operative environment to reduce the number of bacteria and particulates in the air. Several surgical and nonsurgical details of intraoperative care such as maintenance of normothermia, skin preparation, surgical field irrigation, wound closure, and duration of surgical and anesthetic procedure can influence the occurrence of PJI. Prophylactic perioperative antibiotic administration is probably one of the most important strategies in preventing PJI. Implementation of surgical safety checklist can diminish the risk of perioperative complications, particularly surgical site infection. Controversy regarding efficacy, efficiency, and optimization of some preventive measures continues to exist due to inconsistency or inadequacy of available evidence. Novel research has focused on designing PJI-resistant implants and developing vaccines that target molecule components with major role in the process of bacterial adhesion to the implant or periprosthetic tissues. PMID:24792971

Alijanipour, Pouya; Heller, Snir; Parvizi, Javad

2014-08-01

199

[Development and effectiveness of struma prevention in East Germany].  

PubMed

For the control of iodine deficiency disorders in man and animal since 1985/1986 measures have been introduced which were interdisciplinary attuned: 84% of the paketed salt are iodized (32 mg KIO3/kg) and iodized mixtures of mineral substances are used in the animal production of agricultural useful animals. The effectiveness of the iodine prevention becomes visible by an increase of the renal iodine excretion, regression of the frequency of connatal goitre and iodine deficiency disorders in the animal production. Increased manifestations of cases of hyperthyroidism as sequelae are of transient importance. PMID:3445659

Bauch, K; Anke, M; Gürtler, H; Hesse, V; Knappe, G; Körber, R; von Kozierowski, F; Meng, W; Thomas, G

1987-12-15

200

Mt. Hood Community College Institutional Effectiveness (IE) Report Fall 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the indicators of institutional effectiveness for Mount Hood Community College (MHCC) (Oregon). The document reports on five institutional goals: (1) knowledge-based workforce education and services; (2) access for members of the community and development of an environment in which diversity thrives; (3) economic development,…

Walleri, R. Dan

201

Reviewing the evidence on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention strategies in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Background Following universal access to antiretroviral therapy in Thailand, evidence from National AIDS Spending Assessment indicates a decreasing proportion of expenditure on prevention interventions. To prompt policymakers to revitalize HIV prevention, this study identifies a comprehensive list of HIV/AIDs preventive interventions that are likely to be effective and cost-effective in Thailand. Methods A systematic review of the national and international literature on HIV prevention strategies from 1997 to 2008 was undertaken. The outcomes used to consider the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions were changes in HIV risk behaviour and HIV incidence. Economic evaluations that presented their results in terms of cost per HIV infection averted or cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained were also included. All studies were assessed against quality criteria. Results The findings demonstrated that school based-sex education plus life-skill programs, voluntary and routine HIV counselling and testing, male condoms, street outreach programs, needle and syringe programs, programs for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, male circumcision, screening blood products and donated organs for HIV, and increased alcohol tax were all effective in reducing HIV infection among target populations in a cost-effective manner. Conclusion We found very limited local evidence regarding the effectiveness of HIV interventions amongst specific high risk populations. This underlines the urgent need to prioritise health research resources to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIV interventions aimed at reducing HIV infection among high risk groups in Thailand. PMID:20604975

2010-01-01

202

Wall effects on terminal falling velocity of spherical particles moving in a Carreau model fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental verification of our previous numerical simulation of wall effects on the terminal falling velocity of spherical\\u000a particles moving slowly along the axis of a cylindrical vessel filled with a Carreau model fluid is presented. Dependences\\u000a of the wall correction factor F\\u000a W on the sphere to tube ratio d\\/D and on the dimensionless Carreau model parameters m, ?, and

Jaroslav Strnadel; Miloslav Simon; Ivan Macha?

2011-01-01

203

[Accidental falls in the elderly].  

PubMed

Falls in the elderly are common with consecutive high mortality and morbidity. Recent consecutive data focus on identification and therapy of intrinsic risk factors. Sarcopenia, imbalance and gait disorders represent the major risk factors. Sarcopenia is caused by a disequilibrium of protein synthesis and breakdown, probably in consequence of age-related changes in protein metabolism. Protein supplements in combination with strength training shows the best benefit. Disorders in balance and gait are caused by age-related or pathologic changes in a complex regulation system of gait. The individual fall risk correlates with the gait variability and even increases with bad dual task performance. Activities with high requirements of attention and body awareness are the most effective prevention for falls in the elderly (-50%). PMID:24938159

Heinimann, Niklas B; Kressig, Reto W

2014-06-18

204

Assisted and Unassisted Falls: Different Events, Different Outcomes, Different Implications for Quality of Hospital Care  

PubMed Central

Background Many hospitals classify inpatient falls as assisted (if a staff member is present to ease the patient’s descent or break the fall) or unassisted for quality measurement purposes. Unassisted falls are more likely to result in injury, but there is limited research quantifying this effect or linking the assisted/unassisted classification to processes of care. A study was conducted to link the assisted/unassisted fall classification to both processes and outcomes of care, thereby demonstrating its suitability for use in quality measurement. This was only the second known published study to quantify the increased risk of injury associated with falling unassisted (versus assisted), and the first to estimate the effects of falling unassisted (versus assisted) on the likelihood of specific levels of injury. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of falls from all available 2011 data for 6,539 adult medical, surgical, and medical-surgical units in 1,464 general hospitals participating in the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators® (NDNQI®) was performed. Results Participating units reported 166,883 falls (3.44 falls per 1,000 patient-days). Excluding repeat falls, 85.5% of falls were unassisted. Assisted and unassisted falls were associated with different processes and outcomes: Fallers in units without a fall prevention protocol in place were more likely to fall unassisted than those with a protocol in place (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.39 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.32, 1.46]), and unassisted falls were more likely to result in injury (aOR, 1.59 [95% CI, 1.52, 1.67]). Conclusions The assisted/unassisted fall classification is associated with care processes and patient outcomes, making it suitable for quality measurement. Unassisted falls are more likely than assisted falls to result in injury and should be considered as a target for future prevention efforts. PMID:25208441

Staggs, Vincent S.; Mion, Lorraine C.; Shorr, Ronald I.

2014-01-01

205

Preventive effect of pidotimod on reactivated toxoplasmosis in mice.  

PubMed

As one of food-borne parasitic diseases, toxoplasmosis entails the risk of developing reactivation in immunocompromised patients. The synthetic dipeptide pidotimod is a potent immunostimulating agent that improves the immunodefenses in immunodepression. To investigate the efficacy of pidotimod as a preventive treatment, we used a murine model of reactivated toxoplasmosis with cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced immunosuppression. Pidotimod administration significantly restored the body weight and spleen organ index, increased survival time (from 70 to 90%), and decreased the parasitemia (from 80 to 35%) of CY-induced mice with reactivated toxoplasmosis. Cytokine profiles and CD4(+) T cells subpopulation analyses by Cytometric Bead Array and flow cytometry demonstrated that pidotimod treatment resulted in a significant upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-?, TNF-?, and IL-2) and Th1 cells (from 3.73 ± 0.39 to 5.88 ± 0.46%) after CY induction in infected mice. Additionally, histological findings and parasite DNA quantification revealed that mice administered with pidotimod had a remarkable reduction of parasite burden (two-log) and amelioration of histopathology in the brains. The in vitro studies showed that pidotimod significantly restored concanavalin A-induced splenocyte proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the supernatants of splenocyte culture. It could be concluded that the administration of pidotimod in immunocompromised mice significantly increases the Th1-biased immune response, prolongs survival time, and ameliorates the load of parasites in the blood. This is the first report of the preventive effect of pidotimod on reactivated toxoplasmosis. PMID:23774843

Huo, Xing-Xing; Wang, Lin; Chen, Zhao-Wu; Chen, He; Xu, Xiu-Cai; Zhang, Ai-Mei; Song, Xiao-Rong; Luo, Qing-Li; Xu, Yuan-Hong; Fu, Yu; Wang, Hua; Du, Jian; Cai, Yi-Hong; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Lu, Fang-Li; Wang, Yong; Shen, Ji-Long

2013-08-01

206

[Passive smoking--health consequences and effects of exposure prevention].  

PubMed

Passive smoking is the third leading but preventable cause of death worldwide. It is associated with an elevated risk of developing acute respiratory diseases, obstructive lung disorders, lung cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Whereas the dose-response relationship between second-hand smoke exposure and respiratory diseases is likely to be linear, a non-linear dose-response curve has been observed with respect to acute cardiovascular events. This explains the disproportionately high risk of myocardial infarction among passive smokers as compared to unexposed individuals. Over the last ten years, exposure to second-hand smoke has declined in Germany, but it is still substantial. With passive smoking in the home being a difficult target for preventive measures, public smoking bans have recently been shown to greatly reduce second-hand smoke-related morbidity and mortality. In addition, such measures are usually well tolerated and highly relevant regarding legal aspects related to workplace issues. This article summarises the current evidence on the health consequences of passive smoking and on the favourable effects of public smoking bans. PMID:18041691

Raupach, T; Radon, K; Nowak, D; Andreas, S

2008-01-01

207

Brainstem auditory evoked responses in man. 1: Effect of stimulus rise-fall time and duration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Short latency (under 10 msec) responses elicited by bursts of white noise were recorded from the scalps of human subjects. Response alterations produced by changes in the noise burst duration (on-time), inter-burst interval (off-time), and onset and offset shapes were analyzed. The latency of the most prominent response component, wave V, was markedly delayed with increases in stimulus rise time but was unaffected by changes in fall time. Increases in stimulus duration, and therefore in loudness, resulted in a systematic increase in latency. This was probably due to response recovery processes, since the effect was eliminated with increases in stimulus off-time. The amplitude of wave V was insensitive to changes in signal rise and fall times, while increasing signal on-time produced smaller amplitude responses only for sufficiently short off-times. It was concluded that wave V of the human auditory brainstem evoked response is solely an onset response.

Hecox, K.; Squires, N.; Galambos, R.

1975-01-01

208

Free-fall-effect calculation ensures better cement-operation design  

SciTech Connect

A cement-operation simulator was developed that takes the free-fall effect into account. This simulator allows prediction of well-fluid behavior and pressure, making proper field-operation design possible. The proposed mathematical model was derived from mass and momentum conservation laws by means of macroscopic balance that reduces field equations to a 1D model. The resulting initial value problem is solved numerically with the Runge-Kutta method. Special care is taken to control the interfaces between two different fluids while the system is in free fall. A microcomputer program has been implemented with a user interface that permits complex well geometries. Other models are compared with the program to demonstrate its software capabilities.

Campos, W.; Lage, A.C.V.M.; Poggio, A. Jr. (Petrobras Research Center, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

1993-09-01

209

[Newborn screening: a prime example for effective secondary prevention].  

PubMed

Newborn screening is a medical population-based preventive measure for the early detection and initiation of therapy for all newborns with treatable endocrine and metabolic diseases. Left untreated, these diseases may lead to severe disabilities or even death. Target diseases have to meet the Wilson and Junger criteria on screening. A high sensitivity and specificity is ensured by an excellent analytic process. High process quality is achieved by offering newborn screening to all newborns and by clarifying pathologic findings very quickly. Therefore, in some federal states tracking centers have been established. Nationwide evaluation of process quality is annually performed and published online. The long-term outcome of diseased children has been investigated on a population-based level in Bavaria and at the University of Heidelberg in other studies. Between 2004 and 2012, 6.1 million children were screened (this is equivalent to 99?% of all newborns). The percentage of pathologic findings was 0.6?%. One out of 1300 children was affected by a target disease. For 90?% of these children, therapy started within the first 2 weeks of life. Studies on the long-term outcome show a positive effect on the course of disease, development of children, and the quality of life. In these studies, further challenges in care such as the first information given to parents regarding a pathologic finding or the care of adolescents with less compliance could also be identified. Newborn screening is an established preventive measure. With regard to ethical criteria and effectiveness, continuous evaluation of the process quality and the long-term outcome assure a high quality of the screening process. PMID:25475525

Nennstiel-Ratzel, U; Lüders, A; Blankenstein, O

2015-02-01

210

Strategies for Success: New Pathways to Drug Abuse Prevention. Volume 1, Issue 1, Fall/Winter 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Published twice a year and distributed nationwide, "Strategies for Success" keeps readers informed about events and developments in the field of drug testing. It reports the latest research findings on the effectiveness of drug testing as a tool for reducing substance abuse. Each issue also provides a wealth of guidance and resources on student…

Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2006

2006-01-01

211

Reducing falls among older people in Victoria: better evidence, better targeting, better outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionWe are undertaking a partnership project to enable more effective policy responses to the falls prevention challenge in Victoria. We report our experience using the REAIM model to inform future Victorian Department of Health falls prevention initiatives.MethodsREAIM was used to identify strategies required for an effective program. Research objectives were developed following an analysis of the current state of knowledge

L Day; C F Finch; K Hill; T Haines; L Clemson; M Thompson; C Thompson

2010-01-01

212

Protecting Youth, Preventing AIDS: A Guide for Effective High School HIV Prevention Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook is for school administrators, teachers, health care workers, parents, and students who want to help their schools prevent HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, and unwanted pregnancy among young people. The experience in more than 120 high schools in New York City has been the basis for the guide, which was developed with the help of…

Freudenberg, Nicholas; Radosh, Alice

213

Designing an Effective Prevention Program: Principles Underlying the Rand Smoking and Drug Prevention Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the Project ALERT program (Adolescent Learning Experiences in Resistance Training) which was established by the Rand Corporation to prevent smoking and drug use among seventh graders. The program is based on the social influence model of drug use initiation. Curriculum features are described including motivation to resist and…

Ellickson, Phyllis L.

214

Hair-Loss Preventing Effect of Grateloupia elliptica.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Grateloupia elliptica, a seaweed native to Jeju Island, Korea, on the prevention of hair loss. When immortalized rat vibrissa dermal papilla cells were treated with extract of G. elliptica, the proliferation of dermal papilla cells significantly increased. In addition, the G. elliptica extract significantly inhibited the activity of 5?-reductase, which converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a main cause of androgenetic alopecia. On the other hand, the G. elliptica extract promoted PGE2 production in HaCaT cells in a dose-dependent manner. The G. elliptica extract exhibited particularly high inhibitory effect on LPS-stimulated IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-? production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. The G. elliptica extract also showed inhibitory activity against Pityrosporum ovale, a main cause of dandruff. These results suggest that G. elliptica extract has the potential to treat alopecia via the proliferation of dermal papilla, 5?-reductase inhibition, increase of PGE2 production, decrease of LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibitory activity against Pityrosporum ovale. PMID:24116284

Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Han, Sang-Chul; Hong, Hye-Jin; Jeon, You-Jin; Kim, Bora; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

2012-01-01

215

Effectiveness of Diabetes Prevention Program translations among African Americans.  

PubMed

The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated risk reduction for incident diabetes through weight loss among all participants, including African Americans. Several DPP translations have been conducted in less controlled settings, including primary care practices and communities; however, there is no detailed compilation of how effective these translations have been for African Americans. This systematic literature review evaluated DPP translations from 2003 to 2012. Eligible records were retrieved using a search strategy of relevant databases and gray literature. Retrieved records (n=1,272) were screened using a priori criteria, which resulted in 21 full-text studies for review. Seventeen studies were included in the full-text qualitative synthesis. Seven studies had 100% African American samples and 10 studies had mixed samples with African American subgroups. African American participants' average weight loss was roughly half of that achieved in the DPP intervention. However, with few higher-quality studies, small sample sizes and differences in intervention designs and implementation, comparisons across interventions were difficult. The suboptimal effectiveness of DPP translations among African American adults, particularly women, signals the need for enhancements to existing evidence-based interventions and more high-quality research that includes other at-risk African American subgroups such as men and younger adults of lower socioeconomic status. PMID:25196409

Samuel-Hodge, C D; Johnson, C M; Braxton, D F; Lackey, M

2014-10-01

216

Hair-Loss Preventing Effect of Grateloupia elliptica  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Grateloupia elliptica, a seaweed native to Jeju Island, Korea, on the prevention of hair loss. When immortalized rat vibrissa dermal papilla cells were treated with extract of G. elliptica, the proliferation of dermal papilla cells significantly increased. In addition, the G. elliptica extract significantly inhibited the activity of 5?-reductase, which converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a main cause of androgenetic alopecia. On the other hand, the G. elliptica extract promoted PGE2 production in HaCaT cells in a dose-dependent manner. The G. elliptica extract exhibited particularly high inhibitory effect on LPS-stimulated IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-? production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. The G. elliptica extract also showed inhibitory activity against Pityrosporum ovale, a main cause of dandruff. These results suggest that G. elliptica extract has the potential to treat alopecia via the proliferation of dermal papilla, 5?-reductase inhibition, increase of PGE2 production, decrease of LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibitory activity against Pityrosporum ovale. PMID:24116284

Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Han, Sang-Chul; Hong, Hye-Jin; Jeon, You-Jin; Kim, Bora; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

2012-01-01

217

Factors related to the high fall rate in long-term care residents with dementia.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: Falls in long-term care residents with dementia represent a costly but unresolved safety issue. The aim of the present study was to (1) determine the incidence of falls, fall-related injuries and fall circumstances, and (2) identify the relationship between patient characteristics and fall rate in long-term care residents with dementia. Methods: Twenty long-term care residents with dementia (80 ± 11 years; 60% male) participated. Falls were recorded on a standardized form, concerning fall injuries, time and place of fall and if the fall was witnessed. Patient characteristics (66 variables) were extracted from medical records and classified into the domains: demographics, activities of daily living, mobility, cognition and behavior, vision and hearing, medical conditions and medication use. We used partial least squares (PLS) regression to determine the relationship between patient characteristics and fall rate. Results: A total of 115 falls (5.1 ± 6.7 falls/person/year) occurred over 19 months, with 85% of the residents experiencing a fall, 29% of falls had serious consequences and 28% was witnessed. A combination of impaired mobility, indicators of disinhibited behavior, diabetes, and use of analgesics, beta blockers and psycholeptics were associated with higher fall rates. In contrast, immobility, heart failure, and the inability to communicate were associated with lower fall rates. Conclusions: Falls are frequent and mostly unwitnessed events in long-term care residents with dementia, highlighting the need for more effective and individualized fall prevention. Our analytical approach determined the relationship between a high fall rate and cognitive impairment, related to disinhibited behavior, in combination with mobility disability and fall-risk-increasing-drugs (FRIDs). PMID:25465203

Kosse, Nienke M; de Groot, Maartje H; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claudine J C

2014-12-01

218

Testing the generalizability of intervening mechanism theories: Understanding the effects of adolescent drug use prevention interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcome research has shown that drug prevention programs based on theories of social influence often prevent the onset of adolescent drug use. However, little is known empirically about the processes through which they have their effects. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate intervening mechanism theories of two program models for preventing the onset of adolescent drug use.

Stewart I. Donaldson; John W. Graham; William B. Hansen

1994-01-01

219

A Concise History of School-Based Smoking Prevention Research: A Pendulum Effect Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-based cigarette smoking prevention was initiated shortly after the first Surgeon General's Report in 1964. This article highlights a sequence of events by which school-based tobacco use prevention research developed as a science, and illustrates a pendulum effect, with confidence in tobacco use prevention increasing and decreasing at…

Sussman, Steve; Black, David S.; Rohrbach, Louise A.

2010-01-01

220

Effect of the long-term care prevention project on the motor functions and daily life activities of the elderly  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of the long-term care prevention project and develop an effective program. [Subjects] A total of 81 elderly people (age, 79 ± 5.1?years; height, 149.2 ± 9.2?cm; weight, 54.2 ± 11.4?kg). [Methods] Grip, knee extension muscular strength, 10?m walking speed, and Timed Up and Go time were measured for evaluation of motor functions, and the “Locomo 25”, a 25-question risk assessment questionnaire, was used as the judgment criterion for evaluation of daily life activities, with measurements being taken at the beginning of the project and after three months. [Results] In the motor functions evaluation, significant differences were observed in 10?m walking speed, Timed Up and Go time, and knee extension strength. In the daily life activities evaluation, scores for pain, rising movement, standing movement, indoor walking, outdoor walking, and fear of falling were significantly reduced. In addition, a significant correlation was also observed between motor functions and daily life activities. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicated that the long-term care prevention project is effective in maintaining or improving muscular strength and mitigating pain in the elderly and that it is an effective program for maintaining daily life activities. We were also able to show that it would be effective to develop programs with a low exercise intensity that can be performed on a continuing by the elderly. PMID:25642073

Wada, Yoshihiro; Sakuraba, Keisyoku; Kubota, Atsushi

2015-01-01

221

Fall-risk evaluation and management: challenges in adopting geriatric care practices.  

PubMed

One third of older adults fall each year, placing them at risk for serious injury, functional decline, and health care utilization. Despite the availability of effective preventive approaches, policy and clinical efforts at preventing falls among older adults have been limited. In this article we present the burden of falls, review evidence concerning the effectiveness of fall-prevention services, describe barriers for clinicians and for payers in promoting these services, and suggest strategies to encourage greater use of these services. The challenges are substantial, but strategies for incremental change are available while more broad-based changes in health care financing and clinical practice evolve to better manage the multiple chronic health conditions, including falls, experienced by older Americans. PMID:17169927

Tinetti, Mary E; Gordon, Catherine; Sogolow, Ellen; Lapin, Pauline; Bradley, Elizabeth H

2006-12-01

222

Preventing Delinquency Through Effective Parent Training and Adult Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

roblem behavior in children is not a disease that can be cured with one treatment. It depends on the situation, changing with the child's circum- stances and development (Dishion, French, & Patterson, 1995). A variety of treatments and preventions are needed to meet the needs of individual children and families throughout childhood. This article discusses research on prevention programs for

David W. Andrews

223

Effectiveness of a Social Change Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…

Edwards, Keith E.

2009-01-01

224

Differential Susceptibility to Prevention: GABAergic, Dopaminergic, and Multilocus Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Randomized prevention trials provide a unique opportunity to test hypotheses about the interaction of genetic predispositions with contextual processes to create variations in phenotypes over time. Methods: Using two longitudinal, randomized prevention trials, molecular genetic and alcohol use outcome data were gathered from more than…

Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Beach, Steven R. H.

2013-01-01

225

Effect of Cholecalciferol Plus Calcium on Falling in Ambulatory Older Men and Women A 3Year Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A recent meta-analysis found that chole- calciferol (vitamin D) should reduce falls by more than 20%. However, little is known about whether supple- mental cholecalciferol plus calcium citrate malate will lower the long-term risk of falling in men, active older individuals, and older individuals with higher 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels. Methods: We studied the effect of 3-year supplemen- tation

Heike A. Bischoff-Ferrari; E. John Orav; Bess Dawson-Hughes; Kevin M. Douglas; Nathan M. Shumway; Patrick G. O'Malley; Erik J. Giltay; Marjolein H. Kamphuis; Sandra Kalmijn; Frans G. Zitman; Daan Kromhout; Mary A. M. Rogers; Kenneth M. Langa; Catherine Kim; Brahmajee K. Nallamothu; Preeti N. Malani; Brant E. Fries; Samuel R. Kaufman; Sanjay Saint

2006-01-01

226

Surface tension effects on the motion of a free-falling liquid sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stationary motion of a liquid curtain falling under the effects of inertia, gravity, and surface tension is analyzed. An original equation governing the streamwise distribution of thickness and velocity is derived by means of a Taylor expansion in the lateral distance from the mean line of the sheet. Approximate solutions are obtained by means of perturbation approaches involving the two parameters governing the problem, namely, the slenderness ratio ? and the Weber number We. The numerical procedure employed in order to integrate the non-linear equation is discussed and a parametric study is presented, together with a comparison with the approximate asymptotic solutions valid for small ? and We.

Coppola, Gennaro; De Rosa, Fortunato; de Luca, Luigi

2013-06-01

227

Influenza vaccine: an effective preventive vaccine for developing countries.  

PubMed

The Influenza virus A, B and C causes disease in humans, birds and animals. The Influenza type A causes moderate to severe illness in all age groups in humans while the illness caused by type B is of milder and it is primarily affects children. Among many subtypes of influenza A viruses, currently influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) subtypes are circulating among humans. Influenza is a serious public health problem that causes severe illnesses and deaths for higher risk populations. Influenza virus is characterized by frequent mutations - antigenic drifts (minor antigenic change, both A and B) and antigenic shifts (major antigenic change, only A). The current human pandemic A/H1N1 is an example of antigenic shift. It slowly established circulation globally; subsequently endemic/seasonal viruses in both hemi-spheres are H3N2 and H1N1. The novel Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus was first identified by United State Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US CDC) on 17th April, 2009 in samples from two Californian children. As of August 2010, 18,000 people had died globally due to the pandemic flu. The illness rates were highest in children and young adults (20-40% of the population), the hospitalization rates highest in children below the age of one. The case fatality rates varied tremendously and were estimated to be between 0.0004- 1.5% (0.05% in US, 0.025% in UK, lowest in children). The most effective way to prevent the disease or severe outcomes from the illness is vaccination. The Trivalent Inactivated vaccines (TIV) are of three types: whole virus, split-product, subunit surface-antigen formulations and they are grown in embryonated hen's eggs. Whole-virus vaccines, because of adverse reactions, especially in children, are not currently used. Most influenza vaccines are split-product vaccines, produced from detergent treated, highly purified influenza virus, or surface-antigen vaccines containing purified hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. PMID:22634439

Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

2012-05-01

228

Evaluation of Accelerometer-Based Fall Detection Algorithms on Real-World Falls  

PubMed Central

Despite extensive preventive efforts, falls continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality among elderly. Real-time detection of falls and their urgent communication to a telecare center may enable rapid medical assistance, thus increasing the sense of security of the elderly and reducing some of the negative consequences of falls. Many different approaches have been explored to automatically detect a fall using inertial sensors. Although previously published algorithms report high sensitivity (SE) and high specificity (SP), they have usually been tested on simulated falls performed by healthy volunteers. We recently collected acceleration data during a number of real-world falls among a patient population with a high-fall-risk as part of the SensAction-AAL European project. The aim of the present study is to benchmark the performance of thirteen published fall-detection algorithms when they are applied to the database of 29 real-world falls. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic comparison of fall detection algorithms tested on real-world falls. We found that the SP average of the thirteen algorithms, was (mean±std) 83.0%±30.3% (maximum value?=?98%). The SE was considerably lower (SE?=?57.0%±27.3%, maximum value?=?82.8%), much lower than the values obtained on simulated falls. The number of false alarms generated by the algorithms during 1-day monitoring of three representative fallers ranged from 3 to 85. The factors that affect the performance of the published algorithms, when they are applied to the real-world falls, are also discussed. These findings indicate the importance of testing fall-detection algorithms in real-life conditions in order to produce more effective automated alarm systems with higher acceptance. Further, the present results support the idea that a large, shared real-world fall database could, potentially, provide an enhanced understanding of the fall process and the information needed to design and evaluate a high-performance fall detector. PMID:22615890

Bagalà, Fabio; Becker, Clemens; Cappello, Angelo; Chiari, Lorenzo; Aminian, Kamiar; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Klenk, Jochen

2012-01-01

229

Evaluation of accelerometer-based fall detection algorithms on real-world falls.  

PubMed

Despite extensive preventive efforts, falls continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality among elderly. Real-time detection of falls and their urgent communication to a telecare center may enable rapid medical assistance, thus increasing the sense of security of the elderly and reducing some of the negative consequences of falls. Many different approaches have been explored to automatically detect a fall using inertial sensors. Although previously published algorithms report high sensitivity (SE) and high specificity (SP), they have usually been tested on simulated falls performed by healthy volunteers. We recently collected acceleration data during a number of real-world falls among a patient population with a high-fall-risk as part of the SensAction-AAL European project. The aim of the present study is to benchmark the performance of thirteen published fall-detection algorithms when they are applied to the database of 29 real-world falls. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic comparison of fall detection algorithms tested on real-world falls. We found that the SP average of the thirteen algorithms, was (mean ± std) 83.0% ± 30.3% (maximum value = 98%). The SE was considerably lower (SE = 57.0% ± 27.3%, maximum value = 82.8%), much lower than the values obtained on simulated falls. The number of false alarms generated by the algorithms during 1-day monitoring of three representative fallers ranged from 3 to 85. The factors that affect the performance of the published algorithms, when they are applied to the real-world falls, are also discussed. These findings indicate the importance of testing fall-detection algorithms in real-life conditions in order to produce more effective automated alarm systems with higher acceptance. Further, the present results support the idea that a large, shared real-world fall database could, potentially, provide an enhanced understanding of the fall process and the information needed to design and evaluate a high-performance fall detector. PMID:22615890

Bagalà, Fabio; Becker, Clemens; Cappello, Angelo; Chiari, Lorenzo; Aminian, Kamiar; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Klenk, Jochen

2012-01-01

230

Exercises to help prevent falls  

MedlinePLUS

... chair. Stand with your back straight and slightly bend both knees. Push up onto your tiptoes as ... back straight, feet shoulder width apart, and slightly bend both knees. Lift one leg straight back behind ...

231

Connect: an effective community-based youth suicide prevention program.  

PubMed

Youth suicide prevention is an important public health issue. However, few prevention programs are theory driven or systematically evaluated. This study evaluated Connect, a community-based youth suicide prevention program. Analysis of pre and posttraining questionnaires from 648 adults and 204 high school students revealed significant changes in knowledge and attitudes about suicide, increased belief in the usefulness of mental health care, and reduction of stigma associated with seeking help. Adults' preparedness to help also increased significantly as did the likelihood that youth participants would seek adult assistance if they were concerned about a peer. Implications of findings are discussed. PMID:21309827

Bean, Gretchen; Baber, Kristine M

2011-02-01

232

The efficacy of a specific balance-strategy training programme for preventing falls among older people: a pilot randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: older people participate in exercise programmes to reduce the risk of falls but no study has investigated a speciWc balance strategy training intervention presented in a workstation format for small groups. Objective: to determine whether a speciWc balance strategy training programmeme delivered in a workstation format was superior to a community based exercise class programme for reducing falls. Design:

JENNIFER C. NITZ; NANCY LOW CHOY

233

The effect of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) on the risk of fall and fracture: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We evaluated the effect of supplementation with vitamin D3 (excluding the potential effect of calcium supplementation) on the risk of fall and fracture, primarily in postmenopausal women, using a systematic literature review of MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for the period January 1985 to June 2005. Studies examining the effect of vitamin D versus

C. Jackson; S. Gaugris; S. S. Sen; D. Hosking

2007-01-01

234

Prevention of Slip-Related Backward Balance Loss: Effect of Session Intensity and Frequency on Long-Term Retention  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine effects of session intensity (number of slip exposures) and frequency on retention of acquired adaptation for prevention of backward balance loss following repeated-slip training. Setting Biomechanics research laboratory. Participants Healthy young subjects (N=46; 21 males). Intervention Twenty-four subjects experienced a high-intensity session of 24 repeated right-side slips; 12 received additional single-slip sessions at a frequency of 1-week, 2-week, and 1-month, while the rest got no ancillary training. Another 24 subjects received a low-intensity initial session of a single slip; 12 received the same high-frequency ancillary training, while the rest got none. All groups were retested with a single-slip, 4 months after first session. Main Outcome Measures Incidence of backward balance loss, gait stability, and limb support. Results The high-intensity groups irrespective of ancillary training displayed similar improvements in all 3 outcome measures. Remarkably, the low-intensity group receiving ancillary training also significantly improved in all measures, with retention comparable to that observed in the other 2 groups. A single slip exposure without ancillary sessions was insufficient to yield longer-term effect. Conclusions Frequent ancillary sessions may be unnecessary for slip-related fall prevention up to 4 months, if initial session intensity is sufficient. Furthermore, the minimum of a single slip may be as effective, if subject is exposed to frequent ancillary sessions. PMID:19154827

Bhatt, Tanvi; Pai, Yi-Chung

2008-01-01

235

Preventive Interventions: Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Prevention in old age is most appropriately defined by referring to prevention of impairments, activity limitations, and inability\\u000a to participate in social activities. Thus, primary prevention strives to prevent activity limitation and nonparticipation (e.g., guidance on possibilities of refitting the home to prevent\\u000a falls). Secondary prevention focuses on discovering early signs of activity limitations and taking urgent and relevant steps

Kirsten Avlund; Mikkel Vass

236

Effect of socioeconomic status on secondary prevention of stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective Cardiovascular risk factors increase risk for stroke recurrence. Secondary prevention of stroke may be affected not only by established risk factors, but also socioeconomic status. This study evaluates relationships between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular and behavioral factors. Design Cross-section study. Setting Public Health and Education Institute, Peking University. Participants Outpatients (n = 2354) with a past diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Intervention(s) The investigation consisted of a questionnaire regarding patients' socioeconomic and living status, and a clinical examination at the research center. Main outcome measure(s) Control rates of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Results With regard to hypertension patients, 67.0% were aware of having hypertension, 63.6% were treated and 53.9% had controlled hypertension; for patients with hypercholesterolemia, 46.7% were aware of having hypercholesterolemia, 38.6% were treated and 3.8% had controlled hypercholesterolemia; for patients with diabetes mellitus, 28.0% were aware of having diabetes mellitus, 25.7% were treated and 3.5% had controlled diabetes mellitus. After multivariate analysis, education was the strongest associated factor for controls of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. After adjustment for sex and age, strong and graduated relationships were noted between the level of education and control of risk factors, with the odds ratios increasing at every increment. Conclusion Education exerts the most important effect on the control of established cardiovascular risk factors; Successful intervention to reduce these risk factors will have to be addressed, not just with regard to specific risk factors, but also with the societal conditions that lead to the adoption and maintenance of high-risk behaviors. PMID:21622716

Liu, Qun; Wang, Mingsheng; Guo, Jingcheng; Li, Jingxing; Li, Cuifen; Qian, Minhui

2011-01-01

237

Exercise for Fall Risk Reduction in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To evaluate the influence of exercise on falls and fall risk reduction in community-dwelling older adults and to present an updated synthesis of outcome measures for the assessment of fall risk in community-dwelling older adults. Method: A systematic review was performed, considering English-language articles published from 2000 to 2006 and accessible through MEDLINE, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, and/or AMED. Included were randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) that used an exercise or physical activity intervention and involved participants over age 50. Screening and methodological quality for internal validity were conducted by two independent reviewers. Results: The search retrieved 156 abstracts; 22 articles met the internal validity criteria. Both individualized and group exercise programmes were found to be effective in reducing falls and fall risk. The optimal type, frequency, and dose of exercise to achieve a positive effect have not been determined. A variety of outcome measures have been used to measure fall risk, especially for balance. Conclusions: Falls and fall risk can be reduced with exercise interventions in the community-dwelling elderly, although the most effective exercise variables are unknown. Future studies in populations with comorbidities known to increase fall risk will help determine optimal, condition-specific fall-prevention programmes. Poor balance is a key risk factor for falls; therefore, the best measure of this variable should be selected when evaluating patients at risk of falling. PMID:20145768

Arnold, Catherine M.; Sran, Meena M.; Harrison, Elizabeth L.

2008-01-01

238

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Project TRUST: An Elementary School-Based Victimization Prevention Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 1,269 elementary school children was conducted to test the effectiveness of Project TRUST (Teaching Reaching Using Students and Theater), a victimization prevention program. The program was found to be effective in increasing prevention knowledge and generating abuse disclosures without creating student anxiety. (CR)

Oldfield, Dick; And Others

1996-01-01

239

Inference of Tamoxifen's Effects on Prevention of Breast U T M. D. Anderson Cancer Center  

E-print Network

Inference of Tamoxifen's Effects on Prevention of Breast Cancer by Yu Shen U T M. D. Anderson the efficacy of tamoxifen in the prevention of breast cancer among women at high risk of developing the disease. The effect of tamoxifen on the time to diagnosis of the disease over the six-year follow-up of the trial has

Jin, Jiashun

240

The effects of rise/fall time and plateau time on ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.  

PubMed

Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP) are strongly influenced by recording conditions and stimulus parameters. Throughout the published literature, a large variety of stimuli is used for eliciting oVEMP. Our objective was to determine the effects of different rise/fall times and plateau times on oVEMP amplitudes and latencies. 32 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. 500 Hz air-conducted tone bursts with the parameters rise-plateau-fall time 0-4-0, 4-0-4, 2-2-2 and 2-4-2 ms were used for eliciting oVEMP. For all stimuli, response prevalences were 100 %. The 4-0-4 ms stimulus generated the smallest amplitudes, whereas the 2-2-2 and 0-4-0 ms stimuli achieved the largest amplitudes. n1 and p1 latencies were significantly shorter for the 0-4-0 ms than for the other stimuli, whereas latencies in response to the 4-0-4 ms stimulus were prolonged. Hence, a variety of stimuli is suitable for evoking oVEMP in healthy subjects. We recommend a 2-2-2 ms stimulus for clinical testing of oVEMP elicited by air conducted sound, because it reproducibly generates oVEMP without exposing the ear to unnecessary amounts of acoustic energy. PMID:24096809

Kantner, Claudia; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Drexl, Markus; Gürkov, Robert

2014-09-01

241

2006 Fall AGU Meeting: MR53B-0989 Effect of Pressure and the FCC to HCP Phase Transition on Trace  

E-print Network

2006 Fall AGU Meeting: MR53B-0989 Effect of Pressure and the FCC to HCP Phase Transition on Trace, pertains to the fcc phase. However, it is widely thought that the relevant structure in the Earth's core is hcp, not fcc. In this study we aim to understand the effects of pressure and the fcc-hcp transition

Campbell, Andrew

242

Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Programs: Theoretical Models for Effective Program Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent pregnancy and parenting remains a pressing social and public health concern because the United States continues to have the highest teen pregnancy rate among Western developed nations and because of the attendant social, psychological, and physical problems for young parents and their children. Prevention efforts to reduce the incidence…

Saunders, Jeanne A.

2005-01-01

243

Disseminating Effective Community Prevention Practices: Opportunities for Social Work Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United States, about 17% of adolescents meet diagnostic criteria for mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) disorders. Six million young people receive treatment services annually for mental, emotional, or behavioral problems. These problems affect one in five families and cost $247 million annually. Some strategies for preventing MEB…

Hawkins, J. David; Shapiro, Valerie B.; Fagan, Abigail A.

2010-01-01

244

Teen Depression and Suicide: Effective Prevention and Intervention Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teen depression and suicidal behaviors are intricately intertwined, with untreated depression being a leading cause of adolescent suicide. Most depressed or suicidal teens tend to show warning signs and possess specific risk factors. A key component to preventing teen depression is for adults to remain aware of such warning signs and risk factors…

King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

2012-01-01

245

Sustaining the utilization and high quality implementation of tested and effective prevention programs using the Communities That Care prevention system  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the extent to which communities implementing the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system adopt, replicate with fidelity, and sustain programs shown to be effective in reducing adolescent drug use, delinquency, and other problem behaviors. Data were collected from directors of community-based agencies and coalitions, school principals, service providers, and teachers, all of whom participated in a randomized, controlled evaluation of CTC in 24 communities. The results indicated significantly increased use and sustainability of tested, effective prevention programs in the 12 CTC intervention communities compared to the 12 control communities, during the active phase of the research project when training, technical assistance, and funding were provided to intervention sites, and two years following provision of such resources. At both time points, intervention communities also delivered prevention services to a significantly greater number of children and parents. The quality of implementation was high in both conditions, with only one significant difference: CTC sites were significantly more likely than control sites to monitor the quality of implementation during the sustainability phase of the project. PMID:21809149

Fagan, Abigail A.; Hanson, Koren; Briney, John S.; Hawkins, J. David

2013-01-01

246

Effectiveness of enoxaparin for prevention of radial artery occlusion after transradial cardiac catheterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of enoxaparin for prevention of radial artery (RA) occlusion after transradial\\u000a access for diagnostic and interventional cardiac procedures. RA occlusion is a potential complication of transradial cardiac\\u000a catheterization. Conventionally, unfractionated heparin is used for prevention of RA occlusion. Effectiveness of low molecular\\u000a weight heparins for prevention of this complication has

Hasan Feray; Cemil Izgi; Diler Cetiner; Ebubekir Emre Men; Yelda Saltan; Ayhan Baltay; Reyhan Kahraman

2010-01-01

247

Effects of symmetry and load absorption of a falling load on 3D trunk muscular moments.  

PubMed

Some epidemiological data have suggested that many physical causes of low back pain such as bending and twisting were, in fact, sudden maximal efforts incidentally carried out at the moment of accident. Sudden loading conditions may be encountered in several circumstances, one of them being the recuperation of a falling load. Such conditions are more likely to occur in conditions of trunk asymmetry. The objective of this study was to determine spinal loadings associated with the reception of a falling box symmetrically and asymmetrically for two mechanisms of load absorption, one limited to the elbows and the other including full absorption with the elbows and lower limbs. It was hypothesized that asymmetrical receptions would be more strenuous for the spine; it was further hypothesized that the full absorption to decelerate the load might be more efficient in reducing the strain in the trunk muscular moments. Nine students in physical education with limited experience in manual materials handling were the subjects of the study. The tasks consisted of receiving a 6.6 kg load falling from a height of 50 cm above the flexed forearms when in a standing position. The subjects were tested with two AMTI force plates and two Locam cameras coupled with two mirrors; dynamic 3D multi-segment models were constructed and the net muscular moments as well as the angular velocities of the trunk relative to pelvis were determined about the three orthogonal axes of the trunk at L5/S1, in twisting, lateral bending, and flexion/extension. The dependent variables included maximal moments, maximal rates of loading for these moments, and the integration of these moments. Statistical analyses were performed to test the main effects of symmetry and absorption and their interaction. The results showed that asymmetrical conditions impose supplementary muscular exertions for trunk muscles, especially the trunk extensors and lateral flexors. Contrary to the proposed hypothesis, full absorption as used in the present study was a condition leading to considerably larger muscular exertions, especially for the loading rates. Thus it was concluded that the process of training for load absorption is essential to effectively decrease the risks of injuries. This factor would merit full consideration in future studies. PMID:7758444

Gagnon, M; Plamondon, A; Gravel, D

1995-06-01

248

Testing the Universality of the Effects of the Communities That Care Prevention System for Preventing Adolescent Drug Use and Delinquency  

PubMed Central

Universal community-oriented interventions are an important component in the prevention of youth health and behavior problems. Testing the universality of the effects of an intervention that was designed to be universal is important because it provides information about how the program operates and for whom and under what conditions it is most effective. The present study examined whether the previously established significant effects of the universal, community-based Communities That Care (CTC) prevention program on the prevalence of substance use and the variety of delinquent behaviors held equally for boys and girls and in risk-related subgroups defined by early substance use, early delinquency, and high levels of community-targeted risk at baseline. Interaction analyses of data from a panel of 4,407 students followed from Grade 5 to Grade 8 in the first randomized trial of CTC in 12 matched community pairs suggests that CTC reduced students' substance use and delinquency equally across risk-related subgroups and gender, with two exceptions: the effect of CTC on reducing substance use in 8th grade was stronger for boys than girls and the impact of CTC on reducing 8th-grade delinquency was stronger for students who were nondelinquent at baseline. PMID:20422289

Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J. David; Fagan, Abigail A.; Abbott, Robert D.; Catalano, Richard F.

2010-01-01

249

Common Principles Embedded in Effective Adolescent HIV Prevention Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each interpersonally delivered, evidence-based (EB) program for HIV prevention shares common features that aim to shift HIV\\u000a risk behaviors. We used qualitative research methods to examine manuals from five EB programs for adolescents and identified\\u000a 10 core principles embedded in each program’s activities. Principles reflect the stated goals and anticipated lessons in an activity. The principles were: Believe in your

Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus; Barbara L. Ingram; Dallas Swendeman; Diane Flannery

2009-01-01

250

Preventive effects of cranberry products on experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium in mice.  

PubMed

With the prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its associated risk for development of colorectal cancer, it is of great importance to prevent and treat IBD. However, due to the complexity of etiology and potentially serious adverse effects, treatment options for IBD are relatively limited. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify a safe food-based approach for the prevention and treatment of IBD. In this study, we tested the effects of cranberry products on preventing dextran sulphate sodium-induced murine colitis. Our results suggest that both cranberry extract and dried cranberries-fed groups had a significantly reduced disease activity index, where dried cranberries were more effective in preventing colitis than cranberry extract. Shortening of colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase activity and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines were attenuated in animals fed dried cranberries compared to the controls. The current report suggests that cranberries can be applied to prevent and reduce the symptoms of IBD. PMID:25149009

Xiao, Xiao; Kim, Jonggun; Sun, Quancai; Kim, Daeyoung; Park, Cheon-Seok; Lu, Tzong-Shi; Park, Yeonhwa

2015-01-15

251

Changes to the Neuroscience Concentration Effective Fall Term 2012 Effective Fall Term 2012 the course Biology 225 (Principles of Animal Physiology) will replace Biology 222 (From  

E-print Network

the course Biology 225 (Principles of Animal Physiology) will replace Biology 222 (From Message to Mind. Bio 222 will be taught during Spring Term 2012 after which time it will no longer be offered. Two new 4 credit 300 level courses will replace Bio 222: MCDB 351 Synapses (offered in fall term beginning

Michigan, University of

252

Folliculitis keloidalis nuchae and pseudofolliculitis barbae: are prevention and effective treatment within reach?  

PubMed

Pseudofolliculitis barbae and folliculitis keloidalis nuchae are chronic follicular disorders disproportionately affecting men of African ancestry. This article explores the etiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention strategies of these conditions. Effective treatment and prevention of these disorders involves pharmacologic and procedural interventions as well as behavioral modifications. PMID:24680005

Alexis, Andrew; Heath, Candrice R; Halder, Rebat M

2014-04-01

253

Effectiveness of a Targeted, Peer-Driven Skin Cancer Prevention Program for Lifeguards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifeguards working at outdoor pools typically receive high amounts of sun exposure, increasing their risk for developing skin cancer. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a targeted, peer-driven intervention for skin cancer prevention among lifeguards. Nine pools received the targeted intervention, Pool Cool Plus, and five received the standard Pool Cool prevention program. Lifeguards completed surveys at the begin- ning

Dawn Michelle Hall; Tom Elliott; Eric Nehl; Karen Glanz

254

Regular Sunscreen Use Is a Cost-Effective Approach to Skin Cancer Prevention in Subtropical Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many developed countries, total costs to health systems for cutaneous basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are among the highest of all cancers, yet the investment value of preventive measures remains unknown. Using primary data from a randomized controlled trial, we estimated the cost-effectiveness of a skin cancer prevention initiative based on regular sunscreen use. Compared

Louisa G Gordon; Paul A Scuffham; Jolieke C van der Pols; Penelope McBride; Gail M Williams; Adèle C Green

2009-01-01

255

The Cost and Effectiveness of School-Based Preventive Dental Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program assessed the cost and effectiveness of various types and combinations of school-based preventive dental care procedures. The program involved 20,052 first, second, and fifth graders from five fluoridated and five non-fluoridated communities. These children were examined at baseline and…

Klein, Stephen P.; And Others

256

Effects of a Single-Lesson Tobacco Prevention Curriculum on Knowledge, Skill Identification and Smoking Intention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One in five students report experimenting with tobacco before the age of 13 and most prevention efforts take place in the school setting. This study measures the effect of a single-lesson tobacco prevention curriculum, conducted by a health education center, focusing on knowledge of tobacco, ability to identify refusal techniques, and intent not…

Brown, Stephen; Birch, David; Thyagaraj, Sujan; Teufel, James; Phillips, Cheryl

2007-01-01

257

When Are Statins Cost-Effective in Cardiovascular Prevention? A Systematic Review of Sponsorship Bias and Conclusions in Economic Evaluations of Statins  

PubMed Central

Background We examined sponsorship of published cost-effectiveness analyses of statin use for cardiovascular (CV) prevention, and determined whether the funding source is associated with study conclusions. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed/MEDLINE (up to June 2011) to identify cost-effectiveness analyses of statin use for CV prevention reporting outcomes as incremental costs per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) and/or life years gained (LYG). We examined relationships between the funding source and the study conclusions by means of tests of differences between proportions. Seventy-five studies were included. Forty-eight studies (64.0%) were industry-sponsored. Fifty-two (69.3%) articles compared statins versus non-active alternatives. Secondary CV prevention represented 42.7% of articles, followed by primary CV prevention (38.7%) and both (18.7%). Overall, industry-sponsored studies were much less likely to report unfavourable or neutral conclusions (0% versus 37.1%; p<0.001). For primary CV prevention, the proportion with unfavourable or neutral conclusions was 0% for industry-sponsored studies versus 57.9% for non-sponsored studies (p<0.001). Conversely, no statistically significant differences were identified for studies evaluating secondary CV prevention (0% versus 12.5%; p=0.222). Incremental costs per QALY/LYG estimates reported in industry-sponsored studies were generally more likely to fall below a hypothetical willingness-to-pay threshold of US $50,000. Conclusions Our systematic analysis suggests that pharmaceutical industry sponsored economic evaluations of statins have generally favored the cost-effectiveness profile of their products particularly in primary CV prevention. PMID:23861972

Catalá-López, Ferrán; Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel; Ridao, Manuel; Peiró, Salvador

2013-01-01

258

Beneficial effects of vitamin D on falls and fractures: is cognition rather than bone or muscle behind these benefits?  

PubMed

The beneficial effect of vitamin D on bone tissue has long been attributed mainly to its positive effect on the intestinal absorption of calcium and on bone mineralization, which increases the bone mineral density (BMD) and thus decreases the risk of fracture. Recently, numerous extra osseous effects of vitamin D have been described, amongst them a positive effect on neuromuscular and cognitive functions. Several lines of evidence suggest that the beneficial effects of vitamin D on fall and fracture risk can be explained more by its action on the neuromuscular and cognitive functions than by its direct effect on bone metabolism. In this review, we first report on the relationships between vitamin D and osteoporotic fracture risk. Then, we present the data from the literature regarding the effects of vitamin D on risk factors such as fall risk and reduction in BMD, physical performance, and cognitive performance. Specific emphasis is put on the latter because there is evidence of a relationship between low concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (the primary indicator of vitamin D status) and low cognitive abilities which have been shown to be a risk factor for falling. It can be further suggested that high risk of fracture in cognitively impaired adults could be explained by lower protective reaction when falling, which would result, for instance, from a lack of planning and foresight of the fall. Future studies are nonetheless needed to elucidate the associations between vitamin D and different risk factors, in particular the link between vitamin D and various cognitive functions. PMID:25326374

Marcelli, C; Chavoix, C; Dargent-Molina, P

2015-01-01

259

The effects of incremental speed-dependent treadmill training on postural instability and fear of falling in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective : To detect the effectiveness of incremental speed-dependent treadmill training on postural instability, dynamic balance and fear of falling in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Design : Randomized controlled trial. Setting : Ankara Education and Research Hospital, 2nd PM&R Clinic, Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Unit. Subjects : Fifty-four patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease in stage 2 or 3 of the Hoehn

Burcu Duyur Cakit; Meryem Saracoglu; Hakan Genc; Hatice Rana Erdem; Levent Inan

2007-01-01

260

Geology -Earth and Space Science Education Model Schedule Effective Fall 2007 YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4  

E-print Network

Geology - Earth and Space Science Education Model Schedule Effective Fall 2007 YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 32160 or BL2170, and CH 1120 are not required for the Earth and Space Science teaching major as described by the Department of Education. The B.S. in Geology with the Earth and Space Science Education

261

Transfer Guide: Soil Resources and Conservation -1 -Revised: 1 August 2010 Effective Term: Fall 2010 Summer 2011  

E-print Network

University Bachelor of Science Degree - Soil and Crop Sciences soil resources and conservation concentration University and majoring in Soil and Crop Sciences: soil resources and conservation concentrationTransfer Guide: Soil Resources and Conservation - 1 - Revised: 1 August 2010 Effective Term: Fall

Stephens, Graeme L.

262

Vision and falls in older people: risk factors and intervention strategies.  

PubMed

Poor vision impairs balance and increases the risk of falls and fractures in older people. Multifocal glasses can add to this risk by impairing contrast sensitivity, depth perception, and ability to negotiate obstacles. Vision assessment and provision of new spectacles may not reduce, and may even increase, the risk of falls. Restriction of the use of multifocal glasses may reduce falls in active older people. Other effective fall prevention strategies include maximizing vision through cataract surgery and occupational therapy interventions in visually impaired older people. PMID:20934611

Lord, Stephen R; Smith, Stuart T; Menant, Jasmine C

2010-11-01

263

Postharvest irradiation treatment effect on grapefruit functional components and their role in prevention of colon cancer  

E-print Network

This dissertation examines the effects of postharvest treatment and processing on biologically active compounds of orange juice, and ??Rio Red?? grapefruit and their ability to prevent chemically induced colon cancer in rat model. The first study...

Vanamala, Jairam Krishna Prasad

2005-11-01

264

Cost-Effectiveness of Primary Implanted Cardioverter Defibrillator for Sudden Death Prevention in Congestive Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Implanted cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is expensive but highly effective in preventing sudden death. The value of primary\\u000a prophylactic ICD in preventing sudden death for congestive heart failure patients (CHF) has not been established.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective: To compare the cost-effectiveness of primary prophylactic ICD vs. standard drug therapy for preventing CHF sudden death.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design: Incremental Cost per Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY)

Lei Chen; Joel W. Hay

2004-01-01

265

Common Principles Embedded in Effective Adolescent HIV Prevention Programs  

PubMed Central

Each interpersonally delivered, evidence-based (EB) program for HIV prevention shares common features that aim to shift HIV risk behaviors. We used qualitative research methods to examine manuals from five EB programs for adolescents and identified 10 core principles embedded in each program’s activities. Principles reflect the stated goals and anticipated lessons in an activity. The principles were: Believe in your own worth and your right to a happy future; Commit to change; Distinguish fact from myth; Plan ahead and be prepared; Practice self-control; Know pleasurable alternatives to high risk activities; Negotiate verbally, not nonverbally; Evaluate options and consequences; Show concern for others; Choose to limit your own freedom; and Act to help others protect themselves. Focusing on common features rather than the unique properties of each EB program may allow community providers to have more flexibility and ownership in adapting EB programs, and may also facilitate development of new EB program. PMID:19224358

Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Ingram, Barbara L.; Swendeman, Dallas; Flannery, Diane

2010-01-01

266

Preventive effect of piracetam and vinpocetine on hypoxia-reoxygenation induced injury in primary hippocampal culture.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the potential of Piracetam and Vinpocetine (nootropic drugs, known to possess neuroprotective properties) in preventing hypoxia-reoxygenation induced oxidative stress in primary hippocampal cell culture. The hippocampal culture was exposed to hypoxia (95% N(2), 5% CO(2)) for 3h and followed by 1h of reoxygenation (21% O(2) and 5% CO(2)) at 37 °C. The primary hippocampal cultures were supplemented with the optimum dose of Piracetam and Vinpocetine, independently, and the cultures were divided into six groups, viz. Control/Normoxia, Hypoxia, Hypoxia+Piracetam, Hypoxia+Vinpocetine, Normoxia + Piracetam and Normoxia+Vinpocetine. The cell-viability assays and biochemical oxidative stress parameters were evaluated for each of the six groups. Administration of 1mM Piracetam or 500 nM Vinpocetine significantly prevents the culture from hypoxia-reoxygenation injury when determined by Neutral Red assay, LDH release and Acetylcholine esterase activity. Results showed that Piracetam and Vinpocetine supplementation significantly prevented the fall of mitochondrial membrane potential, rise in ROS generation and reduction in antioxidant levels associated with the hypoxia-reoxygenation injury. In conclusion, the present study establishes that both Piracetam and Vinpocetine give neuroprotection against hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in primary hippocampal cell culture. PMID:21193009

Solanki, P; Prasad, D; Muthuraju, S; Sharma, A K; Singh, S B; Ilavzhagan, G

2011-04-01

267

Side effects of topical corticosteroids and their prevention.  

PubMed

The goal of topical corticosteroid therapy is to maximise the clinical benefits of this highly effective group of drugs, while minimising their adverse effects. Many types of steroid-induced skin lesions and skin atrophy can occur by such mechanisms as the suppression of cell proliferation, immunosuppression, or hormonal activity, and a trend towards an increased incidence of steroid-induced dermatological disturbances has been observed in recent years. Systemic effects have also been documented. To reduce the risk of local and systemic effects, it is necessary to consider factors such as the intrinsic potency of a drug, type of vehicle used and frequency of application. A potent drug may be changed to a less potent one, or the dosage reduced. Once-daily application is often as effective as three-times-daily application, and intermittent application can also be recommended. The concept of an 'ante-drug' promises new developments in topical corticosteroid therapy. An 'ante-drug', e.g. difluprednate, has potent efficacy but fewer side effects than conventional therapy, since it acts at the application site and then is metabolised to less active or inactive compounds before reaching the systemic circulation. It is likely that future corticosteroids will have the attributes of an ante-drug, thus greatly reducing the risk of systemic effects. At present, however, it is still necessary to recognise the influence of various drug and patient factors that contribute to side effects, in order to balance clinical efficacy with an acceptable side effect profile. PMID:3076129

Takeda, K; Arase, S; Takahashi, S

1988-01-01

268

Experiments in Free Fall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

Art, Albert

2006-01-01

269

Temperature Effects on Bud-Burst and Leaf-Fall in Subalpine Larch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenology was monitored in natural stands of subalpine larch (Larix lyallii Parl.) in parts of four decades. Bud-burst date varied by about six weeks from year to year, and leaf-fall date by a month, suggesting that the importance of photoperiod in these processes has been over emphasized, even in the case of leaf-fall. Most of the variation in bud-burst date

John Worrall

1993-01-01

270

Human offset auditory brainstem response: effects of stimulus acoustic ringing and rise-fall time.  

PubMed

Offset auditory brainstem response (ABR) traditionally has been thought to be an artifactual response elicited by stimulus acoustic ringing. Additionally, offset ABR's sensitivity to stimulus rise-fall time has been associated with concurrent changes in acoustic ringing. The present study tested the validity of offset ABR by recording the response in 40 young, normal-hearing adults using tone burst stimuli with varying degrees of acoustic ringing and various rise-fall times. Stimuli were computer-generated 10-ms tone bursts of 500 and 2000 Hz. In Experiment 1, offset ABR was recorded using stimuli with no acoustic ringing, normal ringing, and excessive ringing. Rise-fall time was held constant at 0.5 ms. In Experiment 2, rise-fall time was manipulated in a stimulus with no ringing. In Experiment 3, only rise time was manipulated in a no-ringing stimulus, while fall time was held constant at 0.5 ms. Reliable offset ABRs were recorded for all degrees of acoustic ringing, including the "no-ringing' condition. Offset ABR was sensitive to rise and fall times, and was elicited best with a 500-Hz stimulus. The results indicate that offset ABR is a real response and not an artifact produced by acoustic ringing. PMID:9007572

Van Campen, L E; Hall, J W; Grantham, D W

1997-01-01

271

Preventive effect of antihistaminics on mouse skin photosensitization with hematoporphyrin derivative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beta-carotene 100 mg/kg per day or vitamin C 50 mg/kg per day was administered orally for two days and did not prevent mouse skin photosensitization caused by hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD). However, (beta) -carotene 100 mg/kg per day administered intramuscularly for two days prevented mouse skin reaction. Cimetidine and benadryl 10 mg/kg per day, P.O.X 2, effectively prevented mouse skin reaction. This suggests histamine may be involved in skin photoreaction induced by HpD.

Fu, Nai-wu; Yan, Li-xue

1993-03-01

272

Stacked Deck: An Effective, School-Based Program for the Prevention of Problem Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs\\u000a are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5–6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and\\u000a “house edge”; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and skills for good decision making\\u000a and problem solving. An overriding

Robert J. WilliamsRobert; Robert T. Wood; Shawn R. Currie

2010-01-01

273

Effectiveness of prophylactic ankle stabilisers for prevention of ankle injuries.  

PubMed

Ankle injuries are common at many levels of athletic participation. A relatively recent approach in injury intervention is the use of prophylactic ankle stabilisers (PAS). PAS are used with the intention of reducing the frequency and severity of ankle injuries in a cost-effective manner. To date, 4 studies have been completed to determine the clinical efficacy of PAS. Although all of the studies have methodological limitations, a general consensus of agreement exists among the findings: PAS are effective in reducing the incidence of acute ankle sprains. However, the effect of PAS on ankle sprain severity remains unclear, as varying results have been reported. PAS do not increase the risk of knee injuries. The use of PAS for ankle injury reduction appears to be justified although further research is required. PMID:7481279

Sitler, M R; Horodyski, M

1995-07-01

274

Preventive and therapeutic effects of ginsenoside Rb1 for neural injury during cerebral infarction in rats.  

PubMed

To examine the preventive and therapeutic effects of ginsenoside Rb1 for neural injury during cerebral infarction, we used a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats to investigate the effects of ginsenoside Rb1 with Edaravone as a control. Ginsenoside Rb1 was given to the rats by intragastric administration either before or after the MCAO surgery to study its preventive and therapeutic effects. Ginsenoside Rb1-treated rats had a smaller infarct volume than the positive control. Interleukin-1 (IL-1), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), neurofilament (NF) and growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) were measured to determine brain damage and the recovery of nerves. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rb1 has neuroprotective effects in rats, and the protection efficiency is higher than Edaravone. The protective mechanism is different from Edaravone. The preventive ability of ginsenoside Rb1 is higher than its repair ability in neuroprotection in vivo. PMID:23548124

Jiang, Zhou; Wang, Yuhui; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Peng, Tao; Lu, Yun; Leng, Jianchun; Xie, Quan

2013-01-01

275

Effectiveness of Secondary Pregnancy Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because subsequent pregnancy in teen parents often worsens the impact of adolescent parenting; therefore, a common goal of teenage parent programs has been to reduce repeat pregnancy. To examine the impact of this goal, a meta-analysis was conducted on 16 control-comparison group studies that evaluated the effect of teenage pregnancy and parenting…

Corcoran, Jacqueline; Pillai, Vijayan K.

2007-01-01

276

Effectiveness of Residence Restrictions in Preventing Sex Offense Recidivism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many municipalities have recently extended residence restrictions for sex offenders beyond the provisions of state law, although the efficacy of these measures in reducing recidivism has not been empirically established. This study used arrest histories in Jacksonville, Florida, to assess the effects of a recently expanded municipal 2,500-foot…

Nobles, Matt R.; Levenson, Jill S.; Youstin, Tasha J.

2012-01-01

277

Preventing Youth Drinking and Driving: Effective Alcohol Policy Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the empirical evidence regarding policy approaches to decreasing drinking and driving by youth. Based on the available evidence, the most effective policies appear to be (a) taxation or price increases, (b) increases in the minimum drinking age, (c) zero tolerance, and (d) graduated licensing. Random breath testing, sobriety check points, increased compliance checks and dram shop liability

JW Grube; P Nygaard

278

Factors associated with falls among older adults living in institutions  

PubMed Central

Background Falls have enormous impact in older adults. Yet, there is insufficient evidence regarding the effectiveness of preventive interventions in this setting. The objectives were to measure the frequency of falls and associated factors among older people living institutions. Methods Data were obtained from a survey on a probabilistic sample of residents aged ?65 years, drawn in 1998-99 from institutions of Madrid (Spain). Residents, their caregivers, and facility physicians were interviewed. Fall rates were computed based on the number of physician-reported falls in the preceding 30 days. Adjusted rate ratios were computed using negative binomial regression models, including age, sex, cognitive status, functional dependence, number of diseases, and polypharmacy. Results The final sample comprised 733 residents. The fall rate was 2.4 falls per person-year (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04-2.82). The strongest risk factor was number of diseases, with an adjusted rate ratio (RR) of 1.32 (95% CI, 1.17-1.50) for each additional diagnosis. Other variables associated with falls were: urinary incontinence (RR?=?2.56 [95% CI, 1.32-4.94]); antidepressant use (RR?=?2.32 [95% CI, 1.22-4.40]); arrhythmias (RR?=?2.00 [95% CI, 1.05-3.81]); and polypharmacy (RR?=?1.07 [95% CI, 0.95-1.21], for each additional medication). The attributable fraction for number of diseases (with reference to those with???1 condition) was 84% (95% CI, 45-95%). Conclusions Number of diseases was the main risk factor for falls in this population of institutionalized older adults. Other variables associated with falls, probably more amenable to preventive action, were urinary incontinence, antidepressants, arrhythmias, and polypharmacy. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/3916151157277337 PMID:23320746

2013-01-01

279

Evaluating the Combined Effectiveness of Influenza Control Strategies and Human Preventive Behavior  

PubMed Central

Control strategies enforced by health agencies are a major type of practice to contain influenza outbreaks. Another type of practice is the voluntary preventive behavior of individuals, such as receiving vaccination, taking antiviral drugs, and wearing face masks. These two types of practices take effects concurrently in influenza containment, but little attention has been paid to their combined effectiveness. This article estimates this combined effectiveness using established simulation models in the urbanized area of Buffalo, NY, USA. Three control strategies are investigated, including: Targeted Antiviral Prophylaxis (TAP), workplace/school closure, community travel restriction, as well as the combination of the three. All control strategies are simulated with and without regard to individual preventive behavior, and the resulting effectiveness are compared. The simulation outcomes suggest that weaker control strategies could suffice to contain influenza epidemics, because individuals voluntarily adopt preventive behavior, rendering these weaker strategies more effective than would otherwise have been expected. The preventive behavior of individuals could save medical resources for control strategies and avoid unnecessary socio-economic interruptions. This research adds a human behavioral dimension into the simulation of control strategies and offers new insights into disease containment. Health policy makers are recommended to review current control strategies and comprehend preventive behavior patterns of local populations before making decisions on influenza containment. PMID:22043275

Mao, Liang

2011-01-01

280

Evaluating the combined effectiveness of influenza control strategies and human preventive behavior.  

PubMed

Control strategies enforced by health agencies are a major type of practice to contain influenza outbreaks. Another type of practice is the voluntary preventive behavior of individuals, such as receiving vaccination, taking antiviral drugs, and wearing face masks. These two types of practices take effects concurrently in influenza containment, but little attention has been paid to their combined effectiveness. This article estimates this combined effectiveness using established simulation models in the urbanized area of Buffalo, NY, USA. Three control strategies are investigated, including: Targeted Antiviral Prophylaxis (TAP), workplace/school closure, community travel restriction, as well as the combination of the three. All control strategies are simulated with and without regard to individual preventive behavior, and the resulting effectiveness are compared. The simulation outcomes suggest that weaker control strategies could suffice to contain influenza epidemics, because individuals voluntarily adopt preventive behavior, rendering these weaker strategies more effective than would otherwise have been expected. The preventive behavior of individuals could save medical resources for control strategies and avoid unnecessary socio-economic interruptions. This research adds a human behavioral dimension into the simulation of control strategies and offers new insights into disease containment. Health policy makers are recommended to review current control strategies and comprehend preventive behavior patterns of local populations before making decisions on influenza containment. PMID:22043275

Mao, Liang

2011-01-01

281

The effects of incremental speed-dependent treadmill training on postural instability and fear of falling in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To detect the effectiveness of incremental speed-dependent treadmill training on postural instability, dynamic balance and fear of falling in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Ankara Education and Research Hospital, 2nd PM&R Clinic, Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Unit. Subjects: Fifty-four patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease in stage 2 or 3 of the Hoehn Yahr staging entered, and

Burcu Duyur Cakit; Meryem Saracoglu; Hatice Rana

282

Preventive effects of Lentinus edodes on homocysteinemia in mice  

PubMed Central

Homocysteinemia is associated with cardiovascular and neuronal degenerative diseases. Deficiencies of the B vitamins lead to high homocysteine serum levels. Lentinus edodes (L. edodes) is also known as the Shiitake mushroom and may have beneficial effects on vascular and lipid metabolic diseases, including hypertension, homocysteinemia and lipidemia. In this study, we induced a homocysteinemia-like condition in mice by the administration of a folate- and vitamin B12-deficient diet and evaluated the effect of L. edodes on the homocysteinemia-like condition. Homocysteinemia was induced by the administration of a diet deficient in folate and vitamin B12 (DFV) for 6 weeks to mice aged 4–10 weeks. The homocysteinemic mice were treated with L. edodes flour (5, 10 and 20%), eritadenine (10 mg/kg) or DFV only (negative control) for 2 weeks. The DFV induced a significant increase in serum homocysteine levels. The increased homocysteine serum levels were reduced by eritadenine and L. edodes flour (5, 10 and 20%). Hepatic levels of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (SAH) were significantly higher under DFV administration and the elevated SAH levels were reduced by treatment with L. edodes in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA expression levels of DNA methyl transferases, DNMT1 and DNMT3a, were reduced in the DFV group, and the reduced levels of DNMT1 and DNMT3a mRNA expression were recovered in the eritadenine and L. edodes (5, 10 and 20%) groups. These results suggest that components of L. edodes, including eritadenine may have beneficial effects on hyperhomocysteinemia and its therapeutic effects may be involved in the regulation of DNA methylation-related genes in mice. PMID:24137209

YANG, HYUN; HWANG, INHO; KIM, SUN; AHN, CHANGHWAN; HONG, EUI-JU; JEUNG, EUI-BAE

2013-01-01

283

Effectiveness of broadcasting guidelines for photosensitive seizure prevention.  

PubMed

Emissions from TV programs are a dangerous light source for photosensitive individuals, because 48.9% of patients have photosensitive seizures caused by TV programs. The authors used a national survey to verify the effectiveness of current Japanese guidelines, which are based on neurophysiologic principles of photosensitivity. They show that the guidelines successfully control TV images to protect many photosensitive persons from harmful TV emissions. PMID:15037709

Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Fujiwara, Tateki

2004-03-23

284

Effectiveness of School-based Drug Prevention Programs for Marijuana Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Synthesizes evaluation of drug use programs (N=37) in schools for grades 6-12 by coding program characteristics and calculating weighted effect sizes (WES) for marijuana use. Program type and sample size were found to be significant predictors of program effectiveness. The primary finding for prevention program planning is that interactive…

Tobler, Nancy S.; Lessard, Terri; Marshall, Diana; Ochshorn, Peter; Roona, Michael

1999-01-01

285

Effectiveness of a Theory-Based Risk Reduction HIV Prevention Program for Rural Vietnamese Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As of April 2003, 64,801 HIV cases have been documented in Vietnam (Policy Project 2003), 53.9% of which are among individuals 20-29 years of age. Although HIV education efforts have increased, there remains a need for proven effective programs. We present findings from a randomized-controlled effectiveness trial of an HIV prevention program for…

Kaljee, Linda M.; Genberg, Becky; Riel, Rosemary; Cole, Matthew; Tho, Le Huu; Thoa, Le Thi Kim; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming; Minh, Tuong Tan

2005-01-01

286

The effectiveness of gain-framed messages for encouraging disease prevention behavior: is all hope lost?  

PubMed

This commentary is a response to O'Keefe and Jensen's (2007/this issue) meta-analysis of the persuasive effects of gain- and loss-framed messages encouraging disease prevention behaviors. We suggest that the future of message framing is promising with newly emerging approaches to increasing message effectiveness. PMID:17934941

Latimer, Amy E; Salovey, Peter; Rothman, Alexander J

2007-01-01

287

Effects of communal exercise with visual and auditory feedback provided by a smart application on gait ability and fear of falling in Parkinson’s disease patients  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease is a chronically developing neurodegenerative disease showing typical motor symptoms of the following triad: resting tremor, freezing of gait, and bradykinesia-hypokinesia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a communal exercise program, using the visual and auditory feedback provided by a smart application, to assess gait ability, fear of falling, and fall efficacy in Parkinson’s disease patients. Subjects consisted of 29 Parkinson’s disease patients who were non-demented individuals. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups: the control group (n= 9, CG), the communal exercise group using the smart application (n= 10, CCEG), and the individual exercise group using the smart application (n= 10, ICEG). The communal exercise program consisted of a warm up (10 min) followed by communal exercise using the smart application (40 min), and a cool down (10 min) for 3 days per week over 10 weeks. The results presented here show that velocity and cadence were significantly increased among groups. Step and stride length were significantly increased among times. Fear of falling and fall efficacy were significantly different among groups and times. In particular, fear of falling was lower and fall efficacy was higher in the CCEG than in the ICEG and CG. These findings indicate that 10 weeks of the communal exercise program using the smart application can be effective in improving gait ability, fear of falling, and fall efficacy in Parkinson’s disease patients. PMID:25426465

Park, Yun-Jin

2014-01-01

288

Preventive Effect of Tamsulosin on Postoperative Urinary Retention  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the prophylactic effect of Tamsulosin, a super-selective alpha-1a adrenergic blocking agent, on the development of urinary retention in men undergoing elective inguinal herniorrhaphy. Materials and Methods From May 2010 through November 2011, a total of 80 males who underwent elective inguinal herniorrhaphy in a university hospital were included in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In group one (control), the patients were given two doses of placebo orally, 6 hours before surgery and 6 to 12 hours after surgery. Patients in group two were given 0.4 mg of Tamsulosin orally in the same manner as the placebo. All patients were closely followed for 24 hours post-operatively, and any voiding difficulties or urinary retention was recorded. Results There were 40 patients in group one (control group) and 40 patients in group two (Tamsulosin group). The patients' mean age was 64 years. In group one, 6 patients and in group two, 1 patient required catheterization. Thus, 15% of patients in group I and 2.5% of patients in group II had urinary retention. The difference in the requirement for catheterization was statistically significant (p=0.04). The technique of herniorrhaphy, the side of the body in which the hernia was located, the type of anesthesia, the duration of the surgery, and the severity of pre-operative urinary symptoms had no significant effect on the incidence of urinary retention. Conclusions The use of perioperative Tamsulosin represents an effective strategy to reduce the risk of post-operative urinary retention following inguinal herniorrhaphy. PMID:22741052

Mohammadi-Fallah, Mohammadreza; Tayyebi-Azar, Ali

2012-01-01

289

Regular sunscreen use is a cost-effective approach to skin cancer prevention in subtropical settings.  

PubMed

In many developed countries, total costs to health systems for cutaneous basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are among the highest of all cancers, yet the investment value of preventive measures remains unknown. Using primary data from a randomized controlled trial, we estimated the cost-effectiveness of a skin cancer prevention initiative based on regular sunscreen use. Compared with usual practice (discretionary use), the sunscreen intervention cost an additional USD 106,449 (2007) to prevent 11 BCCs, 24 SCCs, and 838 actinic keratoses among 812 residents over 5 years. These health outcomes required an annual average investment of USD 0.74 per person and saved the Australian government a total of USD 88,203 in health-care costs over the same period. Such community-based interventions promoting regular sunscreen use among Caucasians in subtropical settings can prevent skin cancer and related skin tumors in practical ways and with great cost efficiency. PMID:19536149

Gordon, Louisa G; Scuffham, Paul A; van der Pols, Jolieke C; McBride, Penelope; Williams, Gail M; Green, Adèle C

2009-12-01

290

The negative effect of hypokinesia involving injury and preventive measures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimum length of bed rest for athletes suffering from broken bones is considered. Negative effects of hypokinesia induced by bed rest include general weakness and deconditioning of the muscles as well as sleeplessness, headaches, muscle pain, constipation, unstable pulse and arterial pressure, and changes in reflexes. This is considered to be the result of a vegetative dysfunction induced by the decreased flow of nerve impulses and a decrease in interoceptive and exteroceptive signals. The briefest possible period of bed rest, followed by an increase in motor activity, the prescription of a large quantity of LFK, and an active program of physical therapy are recommended. The symptomology associated with hypokinesia disappears after one month of free motor activity.

Izakson, K. A.

1981-01-01

291

Effectiveness of Sunscreen at Preventing Solar UV-Induced Alterations of Human Stratum Corneum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum, protects the body from harmful environmental conditions by serving as a selective barrier. Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the most common conditions the body encounters and is responsible for many negative skin responses, including compromised barrier function. UV exposure has dramatic effects on stratum corneum cell cohesion and mechanical integrity that are related to its effects on the stratum corneum's intercellular lipids. Hypothesis Sunscreen contains chemicals that absorb UV radiation to prevent the radiation from penetrating the skin. Thus, it is expected that the application of sunscreen on human stratum corneum will reduce UV-induced alterations of human stratum corneum. Procedures/Equipment Human tissue was processed in order to isolate the stratum corneum, the top layer of the epidermis. Double cantilever beam (DCB) testing was used to study the effect of UV radiation on human stratum corneum. Two different types of DCB samples were created: control DCB samples with the application of carrier and UV light to the stratum corneum and DCB samples with the application of sunscreen and UV light to the stratum corneum. For the control sample, one side of the stratum corneum was glued to a polycarbonate beam and carrier was applied. Then, the sample was placed 10 cm away from the UV lamp inside of the environmental chamber and were exposed to UV dosages of about 800 J/cm2. Once this step was complete, a second polycarbonate beam was glued to the other side of the stratum corneum. The steps were similar for the DCB sample that had sunscreen applied and that was exposed to UV light. After gluing one side of the stratum corneum to a polycarbonate beam, Octinoxate sunscreen was applied. The next steps were similar to those of the control sample. All DCB samples were then let out to dry for two hours in a dry box in order for the moisture from the lab to be extracted. Each DCB sample was tested with a Delaminator test system (DTS Company). The Delaminator was used to measure the force required to break the bonds between the Stratum Corneum lipid layers. Delamination energies, Gc, were presented as mean values ± 1.96 x the standard error of the mean (STDEM) in which the mean values reported are expected to fall within these bounds with 95% confidence. Results The samples for the UV exposed carrier and Octinoxate samples were tested. Various samples were used to compare the average delamination energy in order to fulfill the 95% confidence level. The delamination energy was lower for the carrier samples than for the Octinoxate samples. The average Gc value for the carrier samples was 5, and the average Gc value for the Octinoxate samples was 7. Conclusion In response to the averaging lower Gc value for the carrier, it is evident that sunscreen does protect the stratum corneum's mechanical properties. It took higher delamination energy to break apart the lipids in the sunscreen sample than it did for the carrier sample. Therefore, the sunscreen helps the stratum corneum contain its intercellular cohesion.

Martinez, O.; Dauskardt, R.; Biniek, K.; Novoa, F.

2012-12-01

292

EFFECT OF PLUGGING DATE ON FALL FLOWERING AND FRUITING IN SOME SHORT-DAY STRAWBERRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

From 2002 to 2005, we conducted studies to force June-bearing strawberry plants to flower in the fall and early winter under the mid-Atlantic coast region growing conditions in attempt to crop them twice in one season. Mother plants were grown in a soilless system under protected cultivation and ru...

293

Seismo-ionospheric effects associated with 'Chelyabinsk' meteorite during the first 25 minutes after its fall  

E-print Network

This paper presents the properties of ionospheric irregularities elongated with Earth magnetic field during the first 25 minutes after the fall of the meteorite 'Chelyabinsk' experimentally observed with EKB radar of Russian segment of the SuperDARN. It is shown that 40 minutes before meteor fall the EKB radar started to observe powerful scattering from irregularities elongated with the Earth magnetic field in the F-layer. Scattering was observed for 80 minutes and stopped 40 minutes after the meteorite fall. During 9-15 minutes after the meteorite fall at ranges 400-1200 km from the explosion site a changes were observed in the spectral and amplitude characteristics of the scattered signal. This features were the sharp increase in the Doppler frequency shift of the scattered signal corresponding to the Doppler velocities about 600 m/s and the sharp increase of the scattered signal amplitude. This allows us to conclude that we detected the growth of small-scale ionospheric irregularities elongated with the Ea...

Berngardt, Oleg I

2014-01-01

294

OCEAN DISTRIBUTION. GROWTH, AND EFFECTS OF THE TROLL FISHERY ON YIELD OF FALL CHINOOK SALMON  

E-print Network

chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). ~ur. Sommer. Fish., Columbia Fish. Program Off., Appralsal- chus tshawytscha) produced by a number of Co- lumbia River hatcheries. Approximately 10% of the output. Contriliution of Columbia River hatcheries to harvest of 1962 brood fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tsha- w1

295

Effectiveness of neomycin and polymyxin ointments: prevention of Staphylococcus Aureus keratitis in rabbits.  

PubMed

Combinations of neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate are commonly used in ophthalmic ointments for the treatment or the prevention of bacterial keratoconjunctivitis. In this study we evaluated the effectiveness of various ointments containing these two antibiotics, alone and in combination, in preventing Staphylococcus aureus keratitis in rabbits. Rabbit eyes were infected by intracorneal inoculation, treated topically with ointment and graded by gross observation 24 hours after inoculation. Treatment with ointments containing neomycin alone offered significant protection against these corneal infections. The polymyxin B ointments, as well as the vehicle controls, were ineffective in preventing S aureus infections in the rabbit eyes. However, by far, the most effective ointment formulations tested were the combination ointments and specifically those containing 1.75-3.50 mg neomycin and 3,000-6,000 units polymycin B per gram of ointment. PMID:167644

Schlech, B A; Hansard, J D; Bach, F C

1975-07-01

296

Boris Pasternak Snow fall. Snow fall.  

E-print Network

Pasternak SNOW FALL Snow fall. Snow fall. Toward sparks in twirling clouds Orchids are extending sprouts Through the windows and walls. Snow fall. And in despair All begin a flying ball: Rusty fire-escaping stairs, Overwhelmed newspaper stalls. Snow fall. Snow fall. It is not the flakes are falling

Givental, Alexander

297

Differentiating fall-prone and healthy adults using local dynamic stability  

PubMed Central

Variability in kinematic and spatio-temporal gait parameters has long been equated with stability and used to differentiate fallers from non-fallers. Recently, a mathematically rigorous measure of local dynamic stability has been proposed based on the non-linear dynamics theory to differentiate fallers from non-fallers. This study investigated whether the assessment of local dynamic stability can identify fall-prone elderly individuals who were unable to successfully avoid slip-induced falls. Five healthy young, four healthy elderly and four fall-prone elderly individuals participated in a walking experiment. Local dynamic stability was quantified by the maximum Lyapunov exponent. The fall-prone elderly were found to exhibit significantly lower local dynamic stability (i.e. greater sensitivity to local perturbations), as compared to their healthy counterparts. In addition to providing evidence that the increased falls of the elderly may be due to the inability to attenuate/control stride-to-stride disturbances during locomotion, the current study proposed the opportunity of using local dynamic stability as a potential indicator of risk of falling. Early identification of individuals with a higher risk of falling is important for effective fall prevention. The findings from this study suggest that local dynamic stability may be used as a potential fall predictor to differentiate fall-prone adults. PMID:19034782

Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Liu, Jian

2010-01-01

298

Effectiveness of Culturally Focused and Generic Skills Training Approaches to Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Among Minority Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tested the effectiveness of 2 alcohol and drug abuse prevention programs among inner-city minority 7th-grade students (N = 639) from 6 New York City public schools. Schools were randomly assigned to receive (a) a generic skills training prevention approach, (b) a culturally focused prevention approach, or (c) an information-only control. Results indicate that students in both prevention approaches

Gilbert J. Botvin; Steven P. Schinke; Jennifer A. Epstein; Tracy Diaz

1994-01-01

299

Role of Bioactive Food Components in Diabetes Prevention: Effects on Beta-Cell Function and Preservation  

PubMed Central

Bioactive compounds found in fruits and vegetables can have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic effects and can be protective against various diseases and metabolic disorders. These beneficial effects make them good candidates for the development of new functional foods with potential protective and preventive properties for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the most relevant results concerning the effects of various bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, vitamins, and carotenoids on several aspects of beta-cell functionality. Studies using animal models with induced diabetes and diabetic patients support the hypothesis that bioactive compounds could ameliorate diabetic phenotypes. Published data suggest that there might be direct effects of bioactive compounds on enhancing insulin secretion and preventing beta-cell apoptosis, and some compounds might modulate beta-cell proliferation. Further research is needed to establish any clinical effects of these compounds. PMID:25092987

Oh, Yoon Sin; Jun, Hee-Sook

2014-01-01

300

Evaluating the effects of a message on attitude and intention to eat raw meat: Salmonellosis prevention.  

PubMed

Salmonellosis is one of the most common foodborne human diseases. The risk of infection can be reduced by communication campaigns. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of a food safety message that underlines that eating well-cooked meat is an effective strategy for preventing salmonellosis. The target audience was young adults (university students). They were presented with one of two messages, a prevention message or a control message. The prevention message proved to be very effective. First, it changed the attitude toward raw or rare meat, which after having read the prevention message was evaluated less positively and more negatively. Second, intentions to eat raw or rare meat were weaker in those who read the prevention message compared with those who read the control message. Third, after the message, participants in the experimental condition, but not in the control condition, associated the self-image more with well-done meat than with raw or rare meat. PMID:22289604

Trifiletti, Elena; Crovato, Stefania; Capozza, Dora; Visintin, Emilio Paolo; Ravarotto, Licia

2012-02-01

301

Strengthening Effective Parenting Practices over the Long Term: Effects of a Preventive Intervention for Parentally Bereaved Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the effect of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a preventive intervention for bereaved families, on effective parenting (e.g., caregiver warmth, consistent discipline) 6 years after program completion. Families (n = 101; 69% female caregivers; 77% Caucasian, 11% Hispanic) with children between ages 8 and 16 who had…

Hagan, Melissa J.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Ayers, Tim S.; Luecken, Linda J.

2012-01-01

302

Strengthening Effective Parenting Practices Over the Long Term: Effects of a Preventive Intervention for Parentally Bereaved Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the effect of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a preventive intervention for bereaved families, on effective parenting (e.g., caregiver warmth, consistent discipline) 6 years after program completion. Families (n = 101; 69% female caregivers; 77% Caucasian, 11% Hispanic) with children between ages 8 and 16 who had experienced the death of one parent were randomized to the FBP (n = 54)

Melissa J. Hagan; Jenn-Yun Tein; Irwin N. Sandler; Sharlene A. Wolchik; Tim S. Ayers; Linda J. Luecken

2012-01-01

303

Effect of intra-articular hyaluronic injection on postural stability and risk of fall in patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Knee osteoarthritis is a common cause of disability which influences the quality of life. It is associated with impaired knee joint proprioception, which affects postural stability. Postural stability is critical for mobility and physical activities. Different types of treatment including nonsurgical and surgical are used for knee osteoarthritis. Hyaluronic acid injection is a nonsurgical popular treatment used worldwide. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of hyaluronic acid injections on postural stability in individuals with bilateral knee osteoarthritis. Fifty patients aged between 50 and 70 years with mild and moderate bilateral knee osteoarthritis participated in our study. They were categorized into treatment (n = 25) and control (n = 25) groups. The treatment group received five weekly hyaluronic acid injections for both knees, whereas the control group did not receive any treatment. Postural stability and fall risk were assessed using the Biodex Stability System and clinical "Timed Up and Go" test. All the participants completed the study. The treatment group showed significant decrease in postural stability and fall risk scores after five hyaluronic acid injections. In contrast, the control group showed significant increase. This study illustrated that five intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections could significantly improve postural stability and fall risk in bilateral knee osteoarthritis patients. This trial is registered with: NCT02063373. PMID:25136689

Khalaj, Nafiseh; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; George, John; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan

2014-01-01

304

Effect of Intra-Articular Hyaluronic Injection on Postural Stability and Risk of Fall in Patients with Bilateral Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Knee osteoarthritis is a common cause of disability which influences the quality of life. It is associated with impaired knee joint proprioception, which affects postural stability. Postural stability is critical for mobility and physical activities. Different types of treatment including nonsurgical and surgical are used for knee osteoarthritis. Hyaluronic acid injection is a nonsurgical popular treatment used worldwide. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of hyaluronic acid injections on postural stability in individuals with bilateral knee osteoarthritis. Fifty patients aged between 50 and 70 years with mild and moderate bilateral knee osteoarthritis participated in our study. They were categorized into treatment (n = 25) and control (n = 25) groups. The treatment group received five weekly hyaluronic acid injections for both knees, whereas the control group did not receive any treatment. Postural stability and fall risk were assessed using the Biodex Stability System and clinical “Timed Up and Go” test. All the participants completed the study. The treatment group showed significant decrease in postural stability and fall risk scores after five hyaluronic acid injections. In contrast, the control group showed significant increase. This study illustrated that five intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections could significantly improve postural stability and fall risk in bilateral knee osteoarthritis patients. This trial is registered with: NCT02063373. PMID:25136689

Khalaj, Nafiseh; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; George, John; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar

2014-01-01

305

Implementation of cervical cancer prevention services for HIV-infected women in Zambia: measuring program effectiveness  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer kills more women in low-income nations than any other malignancy. A variety of research and demonstration efforts have proven the efficacy and effectiveness of low-cost cervical cancer prevention methods but none in routine program implementation settings of the developing world, particularly in HIV-infected women. Methods In our public sector cervical cancer prevention program in Zambia, nurses conduct screening using visual inspection with acetic acid aided by digital cervicography. Women with visible lesions are offered same-visit cryotherapy or referred for histologic evaluation and clinical management. We analyzed clinical outcomes and modeled program effectiveness among HIV-infected women by estimating the total number of cervical cancer deaths prevented through screening and treatment. Results Between 2006 and 2008, 6572 HIV-infected women were screened, 53.6% (3523) had visible lesions, 58.5% (2062) were eligible for cryotherapy and 41.5% (1461) were referred for histologic evaluation. A total of 75% (1095 out of 1462) of patients who were referred for evaluation complied. Pathology results from 65% (715 out of 1095) of women revealed benign abnormalities in 21% (151), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I in 30% (214), CIN 2/3 in 33% (235) and invasive cervical cancer in 16.1% (115, of which 69% were early stage). Using a conditional probability model, we estimated that our program prevented 142 cervical cancer deaths (high/low range: 238–96) among the 6572 HIV-infected women screened, or one cervical cancer death prevented per 46 (corresponding range: 28–68) HIV-infected women screened. Conclusion Our prevention efforts using setting-appropriate human resources and technology have reduced morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer among HIV-infected women in Zambia. Financial support for implementing cervical cancer prevention programs integrated within HIV/AIDS care programs is warranted. Our prevention model can serve as the implementation platform for future low-cost HPV-based screening methods, and our results may provide the basis for comparison of programmatic effectiveness of future prevention efforts. PMID:25419240

Parham, Groesbeck P; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi H; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Westfall, Andrew O; King, Kristin E; Chibwesha, Carla; Pfaendler, Krista S; Mkumba, Gracilia; Mudenda, Victor; Kapambwe, Sharon; Vermund, Sten H; Hicks, Michael L; Stringer, Jeffrey SA; Chi, Benjamin H

2014-01-01

306

Effectiveness of Peer Education Interventions for HIV Prevention, Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention and Sexual Health Promotion for Young People: A Systematic Review of European Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peer education remains a popular strategy for health promotion and prevention, but evidence of its effectiveness is still limited. This article presents a systematic review of peer education interventions in the European Union that were published between January 1999 and May 2010. The objective of the review is to determine the effectiveness of…

Tolli, M. V.

2012-01-01

307

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Depression: Replication and Exploration of Differential Relapse Prevention Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovered recurrently depressed patients were randomized to treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU plus mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Replicating previous findings, MBCT reduced relapse from 78% to 36% in 55 patients with 3 or more previous episodes; but in 18 patients with only 2 (recent) episodes corresponding figures were 20% and 50%. MBCT was most effective in preventing relapses not

S. Helen Ma; John D. Teasdale

2004-01-01

308

Internalizing Symptoms: Effects of a Preventive Intervention on Developmental Pathways from Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the mediated and moderated effects of a universal family-focused preventive intervention, delivered during young adolescence, on internalizing symptoms assessed in young adulthood. Sixth grade students (N = 446; 52% female; 98% White) and their families from 22 rural Midwestern school districts were randomly assigned to the…

Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard; Randall, G. Kevin; Mason, W. Alex; Shin, Chungyeol

2012-01-01

309

Teratogenic Effects of a Chelating Agent and Their Prevention by Zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingestion of a chelating agent (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) by female rats during pregnancy impaired reproduction and resulted in congenitally malformed young. When ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was fed from days 6 to 21 of gestation, all of the full-term young had gross congenital malformations. These effects were prevented by simultaneous supplementation with 1000 parts per million of dietary zinc.

Helene Swenerton; Lucille S. Hurley

1971-01-01

310

The Effects of Interventions to Prevent Substance Use among Adolescents: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this systematic review is to describe and evaluate the effects of interventions used for preventing or reducing substance use among adolescents under 18 years of age. Studies (N = 27) available in CINAHL and PubMed from 2007 to 2010 were included. Results showed that family-based interventions and combined interventions have significant…

Karki, Suyen; Pietila, Anna-Maija; Lansimies-Antikainen, Helena; Varjoranta, Pirjo; Pirskanen, Marjatta; Laukkanen, Eila

2012-01-01

311

Effects of a Multifocused Prevention Program on Preschool Children's Competencies and Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a multifocused (child-, teacher- and parent-focused) prevention program for Romanian preschoolers, targeting social--emotional competence development, as well as reduction of behavior problems. Fourteen classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention and control conditions. Subsequent…

Stefan, Catrinel A.; Miclea, Mircea

2013-01-01

312

One Decade Down: Impact of Substance Prevention after the Principles of Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substance prevention programs proliferate throughout America's Schools. Since 1998, the US Department of Education (US DOE) has required that school-based programs funded with federal subsidies be subject to a four stage process to insure effectiveness. The current study applies multivariate Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) techniques to data from a…

Olson, Jeremy; Frenzel, Erika

2010-01-01

313

Glutamate Induces Mitochondrial Dynamic Imbalance and Autophagy Activation: Preventive Effects of Selenium  

PubMed Central

Glutamate-induced cytotoxicity is partially mediated by enhanced oxidative stress. The objectives of the present study are to determine the effects of glutamate on mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption, mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy regulating factors and to explore the protective effects of selenium against glutamate cytotoxicity in murine neuronal HT22 cells. Our results demonstrated that glutamate resulted in cell death in a dose-dependent manner and supplementation of 100 nM sodium selenite prevented the detrimental effects of glutamate on cell survival. The glutamate induced cytotoxicity was associated with mitochondrial hyperpolarization, increased ROS production and enhanced oxygen consumption. Selenium reversed these alterations. Furthermore, glutamate increased the levels of mitochondrial fission protein markers pDrp1 and Fis1 and caused increase in mitochondrial fragmentation. Selenium corrected the glutamate-caused mitochondrial dynamic imbalance and reduced the number of cells with fragmented mitochondria. Finally, glutamate activated autophagy markers Beclin 1 and LC3-II, while selenium prevented the activation. These results suggest that glutamate targets the mitochondria and selenium supplementation within physiological concentration is capable of preventing the detrimental effects of glutamate on the mitochondria. Therefore, adequate selenium supplementation may be an efficient strategy to prevent the detrimental glutamate toxicity and further studies are warranted to define the therapeutic potentials of selenium in animal disease models and in human. PMID:22724008

Li, P. Andy

2012-01-01

314

The Effectiveness of Peer-Led FAS/FAE Prevention Presentations in Middle and High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pregnant women and women who might become pregnant, including middle school- and high school-age adolescents, continue to consume alcohol, placing themselves at risk of having a child with the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. However, most prevention programs that attempt to increase public awareness and knowledge of FAS and related disorders…

Boulter, Lyn

2007-01-01

315

Effective Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse--Educational versus Deterrent Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…

Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline

2012-01-01

316

Improving Interactions: The Effects of Implementing the Fight-Free Schools Violence Prevention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Fight-Free Schools violence prevention process had an effect on the frequency of aggressive acts of elementary school students. Participants included approximately 600 students ranging from Kindergarten to 5th grade in a suburban school in the Midwestern United States. Data were collected over…

Fahsl, Allison J.; Luce, Amanda E.

2012-01-01

317

Effectiveness of Peer-Led Eating Disorders Prevention: A Replication Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to replicate and extend results of a previous trial that investigated the effectiveness of 2 peer-led eating disorders prevention interventions in reducing eating disorder risk factors in undergraduate women (C. B. Becker, L. M. Smith, & A. C. Ciao, 2006). To extend findings from the previous study by allowing for…

Becker, Carolyn Black; Bull, Stephanie; Schaumberg, Katherine; Cauble, Adele; Franco, Amanda

2008-01-01

318

Peer-Facilitated Eating Disorder Prevention: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial of Cognitive Dissonance and Media Advocacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated the effectiveness of 2 interventions in reducing eating disorder risk factors under naturalistic conditions in sororities. On the basis of previous research, the campus sororities chose to implement a semimandatory, 2-session eating disorder prevention program to all new sorority members (N = 90) during sorority…

Becker, Carolyn Black; Smith, Lisa M.; Ciao, Anna C.

2006-01-01

319

School-Based Drug Prevention among At-Risk Adolescents: Effects of ALERT Plus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a recent randomized field trial, Ellickson et al. found the Project ALERT drug prevention curriculum curbed alcohol misuse and tobacco and marijuana use among eighth-grade adolescents. This article reports effects among ninth-grade at-risk adolescents. Comparisons between at-risk girls in ALERT Plus schools (basic curriculum extended to ninth…

Longshore, Douglas; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; St. Clair, Patricia A.

2007-01-01

320

Effective and selective prevention of retinal leukostasis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using gliclazide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis. Early stage leukocyte entrapment in the retinal microcirculation (retinal leukostasis) is considered to be one of the important pathogenetic events in diabetic retinopathy. Gliclazide, a sulphonylurea, was reported to reduce leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in hyperglycaemia in vitro, thus suggesting possible selective efficacy of this sulphonylurea in preventing leukostasis in diabetic patients. This study evaluated the effectiveness and

N. Kinoshita; A. Kakehashi; S. Inoda; Y. Itou; M. Kuroki; T. Yasu; M. Kawakami; Y. Kanazawa

2002-01-01

321

Effectiveness of the "Baby Think It Over" Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the effectiveness of computerized infant simulator that provided realistic infant care experience to prevent teen pregnancy. Surveys examined changes in intervention and control group students' attitudes and sexual behaviors. Overall, the program did not significantly affect intervention students. Many students reported that it taught…

Somers, Cheryl L.; Fahlman, Mariane M.

2001-01-01

322

Use of Comparison Populations for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Hearing Loss Prevention Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

One approach for evaluating the effectiveness of Hearing loss prevention programs (HLPPs) is to compare the rate of hearing loss in a study population with that in a reference population. This approach was used to evaluate the HLPP of a population of 14,900 employees of an industrial company with branches across the United States. Three reference populations were selected from

T. Adera; C. Amir; L. Anderson

2000-01-01

323

A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Bullying Prevention Programs' Effects on Bystander Intervention Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-analysis synthesized bullying prevention programs' effectiveness at increasing bystander intervention in bullying situations. Evidence from 12 school-based programs, involving 12,874 students, indicated that overall the programs were successful (Hedges's g = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11 to 0.29, p = 0.001), with larger…

Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Therese D.

2012-01-01

324

VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES, SURVEILLANCE, PREVENTION The Effects of Bird Feeders on Lyme Disease Prevalence and  

E-print Network

VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES, SURVEILLANCE, PREVENTION The Effects of Bird Feeders on Lyme Disease densities of Ixodes scapularis ticks and prevalence of Lyme disease were examined in residential areas with the prevalence of Lyme disease. These observations suggest that bird feeders should not be considered a risk

325

A Meta-Analytic Review of Depression Prevention Programs for Children and Adolescents: Factors that Predict Magnitude of Intervention Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prob,In this meta-analytic review, the authors summarized the effects of depression prevention programs for youth as well as investigated participant, intervention, provider, and research design features associated with larger effects. They identified 47 trials that evaluated 32 prevention programs, producing 60 intervention effect sizes. The…

Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Bohon, Cara; Marti, C. Nathan; Rohde, Paul

2009-01-01

326

The Potential of Coaching as a Strategy to Improve the Effectiveness of School-Based Substance Use Prevention Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research-based substance use prevention curricula typically yield small effects when implemented by school teachers under real-world conditions. Using a randomized controlled trial, the authors examined whether expert coaching improves the effectiveness of the All Stars prevention curriculum. Although a positive effect on students' cigarette use…

Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Hansen, William B.; Dusenbury, Linda; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Giles, Steven M.; Brodish, Paul H.

2009-01-01

327

The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of valacyclovir in cytomegalovirus prevention in solid organ transplantation.  

PubMed

Prevention of cytomegalovirus infection using antiviral prophylaxis or the pre-emptive therapy approach is an integral part of management of patients after solid organ transplantation. Regarding renal transplantation, valacyclovir is currently the only antiviral agent recommended for prophylaxis as an alternative to valganciclovir. This review article discusses studies documenting the efficacy and safety of valacyclovir prophylaxis as well as those comparing valacyclovir with other prophylactic regimens or with pre-emptive therapy. Also addressed are the economic aspects supporting the cost-effectiveness of valacyclovir prophylaxis and demonstrating lower costs compared with other cytomegalovirus preventive strategies. PMID:25252996

Reischig, Tomas; Kacer, Martin

2014-12-01

328

Brainstem auditory evoked responses in man. 1: Effect of stimulus rise-fall time and duration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Short latency (under 10 msec) evoked responses elicited by bursts of white noise were recorded from the scalp of human subjects. Response alterations produced by changes in the noise burst duration (on-time) inter-burst interval (off-time), and onset and offset shapes are reported and evaluated. The latency of the most prominent response component, wave V, was markedly delayed with increases in stimulus rise-time but was unaffected by changes in fall-time. The amplitude of wave V was insensitive to changes in signal rise-and-fall times, while increasing signal on-time produced smaller amplitude responses only for sufficiently short off-times. It is concluded that wave V of the human auditory brainstem evoked response is solely an onset response.

Hecox, K.; Squires, N.; Galambos, R.

1975-01-01

329

Residual Effects from Fish Wheel Capture and Handling of Yukon River Fall Chum Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1996, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service biologists have annually used fish wheels to capture migrating adult fall chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta in the main-stem Yukon River, Alaska, and estimated their abundance via mark–recapture methods. In each year of the study, the mark rate of captured fish at a site near Rampart has been substantially greater than rates observed at

Jeffrey F. Bromaghin; Tevis J. Underwood; Raymond F. Hander

2007-01-01

330

Lava Falls Rapid in Grand Canyon; effects of late Holocene debris flows on the Colorado River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lava Falls Rapid is the most formidable reach of whitewater on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and is one of the most famous rapids in the world. Debris flows in 1939, 1954, 1955, 1966, and 1995, as well as prehistoric events, completely changed flow through the rapid. Floods cleared out much of the increased constrictions, but releases from Glen Canyon Dam, including the 1996 controlled flood, are now required to remove the boulders deposited by the debris flows.

Webb, Robert H.; Melis, Theodore S.; Griffiths, Peter G.; Elliott, John G.; Cerling, Thure E.; Poreda, Robert J.; Wise, Thomas W.; Pizzuto, James E.

1999-01-01

331

Rapid tolerance to the hypotensive effects of glyceryl trinitrate in the rat: prevention by N-acetyl-L- but not N-acetyl-D-cysteine.  

PubMed Central

1. A new model of tolerance to the hypotensive effect of organic nitrates has been developed in the rat. 2. The fall in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to bolus doses of sodium nitroprusside (NP) (4 micrograms kg-1) and glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) (10 micrograms kg-1) was recorded both before and after a 60 min infusion of either 0.9% saline, NP (20 micrograms kg-1 min-1) or GTN (40 micrograms kg-1 min-1). 3. The hypotensive effects of NP or GTN were unchanged following saline infusion, but were reduced in both cases by approximately 40% following the infusion of NP. 4. Infusion of GTN for 60 min virtually abolished the hypotensive effect of a GTN bolus (i.e. nitrate tolerance), whilst the effect of a NP bolus was reduced only to a similar extent (30%) as after an infusion of NP. This latter effect is attributed to a degree of non-specific cross-tolerance between GTN and NP. 5. Co-treatment of a group of rats with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (L-NAC) prevented the development of nitrate tolerance, confirming the role of thiols in this phenomenon, whereas N-acetyl-D-cysteine (D-NAC) did not. 6. The stereospecificity in the effect of NAC in preventing this specific tolerance to GTN suggests that the interaction between GTN and NAC and/or cysteine involves an enzyme-dependent step. 7. NAC was unable to prevent the non-specific cross-tolerance to NP which followed infusion of GTN, suggesting that the mechanism does not directly involve NAC and/or cysteine. PMID:2113825

Newman, C. M.; Warren, J. B.; Taylor, G. W.; Boobis, A. R.; Davies, D. S.

1990-01-01

332

Hip-Hop to Health Jr. Obesity Prevention Effectiveness Trial: Postintervention Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preschool years offer an opportunity to interrupt the trajectory toward obesity in black children. The Hip-Hop to Health Jr. Obesity Prevention Effectiveness Trial was a group-randomized controlled trial assessing the feasibility and effectiveness of a teacher-delivered weight control intervention for black preschool children. The 618 participating children were enrolled in 18 schools administered by the Chicago Public Schools. Children

Marian L. Fitzgibbon; Melinda R. Stolley; Linda A. Schiffer; Carol L. Braunschweig; Sandra L. Gomez; Linda Van Horn; Alan R. Dyer

2011-01-01

333

Clinical effectiveness analysis of dextran 40 plus dexamethasone on the prevention of fat embolism syndrome  

PubMed Central

This study aims to investigate the clinical efficacy of Dextran 40 plus dexamethasone on the prevention of fat embolism syndrome (FES) in high-risk patients with long bone shaft fractures. According to the different preventive medication, a total of 1837 cases of long bone shaft fracture patients with injury severity score (ISS) > 16 were divided into four groups: dextran plus dexamethasone group, dextran group, dexamethasone group and control group. The morbidity and mortality of FES in each group were analyzed with pairwise comparison analysis. There were totally 17 cases of FES and 1 case died. The morbidity of FES was 0.33% in dextran plus dexamethasone group and significantly lowers than that of other groups (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference among other groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion from our data is dextran 40 plus dexamethasone can effectively prevent long bone shaft fractures occurring in high-risk patients with FES. PMID:25232433

Liu, Xi-Ming; Huang, Jin-Cheng; Wang, Guo-Dong; Lan, Sheng-Hui; Wang, Hua-Song; Pan, Chang-Wu; Zhang, Ji-Ping; Cai, Xian-Hua

2014-01-01

334

Effect of Life Skills Training on Drug Abuse Preventive Behaviors among University Students  

PubMed Central

Background: Drug abuse is now-a-days one of the gravest social harms. Recent years have experienced a drastic rise in drug abuse among school and university students. Thus, the need for special attention to the issue is deemed important. The present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the impact of life skills training on promotion of drug abuse preventive behaviors. Methods: This field trial experimental study was conducted on 60 students of Gonabad Medical University selected through quota random sampling and assigned randomly into two Intervention and control groups. Data were collected through a questionnaire, including two sections of demographic information and drug abuse preventive behaviors. The questionnaire was first assessed as to its validity and reliability and then administered both before and after educational intervention and also as a follow-up 4 years after intervention – Data were then analyzed using t-tests and Chi-square. Results: Comparison of post-test mean scores of drug abuse preventive behaviors of both groups showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) which remained stable 4 years after intervention. There was a significant relationship between father's educational level and drug abuse preventive behaviors (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Life skills’ training is effective in the promotion of drug abuse preventive behaviors of university students. PMID:24932389

Moshki, Mahdi; Hassanzade, Tahere; Taymoori, Parvaneh

2014-01-01

335

Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Diabetes Prevention among Adherent Participants  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES We report the 10 year effectiveness and within-trial cost-effectiveness of the The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and its Outcomes Study (DPPOS) interventions among participants who were adherent to the interventions. STUDY DESIGN DPP was a 3-year randomized clinical trial followed by 7-years of open-label modified intervention followup. METHODS Data on resource utilization, cost, and quality-of-life were collected prospectively. Economic analyses were performed from health system and societal perspectives. Lifestyle adherence was defined as achieving and maintaining a 5% reduction in initial body weight and metformin adherence as taking metformin at 80% of study visits. RESULTS The relative risk reduction was 49.4% among adherent lifestyle participants and 20.8% among adherent metformin participants compared to placebo. Over 10 years, the cumulative, undiscounted, per capita direct medical costs of the interventions, as implemented during the DPP, were greater for adherent lifestyle participants ($4,810) than adherent metformin participants ($2,934) or placebo ($768). Over 10 years, the cumulative, per capita non-intervention-related direct medical costs were $4,250 greater for placebo participants compared to adherent lifestyle participants and $3,251 greater compared to adherent metformin participants. The cumulative quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) accrued over 10 years were greater for lifestyle (6.80) than metformin (6.74) or placebo (6.67). Without discounting, from both a modified societal perspective (excluding participant time), lifestyle cost <$5,000 per QALY-gained and metformin was cost-saving compared to placebo. CONCLUSIONS Over 10 years, lifestyle intervention and metformin were cost-saving compared to placebo. These analyses confirm that lifestyle and metformin represent a good value for money. PMID:23544761

Herman, William H.; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Ratner, Robert E.; Montez, Maria G.; Ackermann, Ronald T.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Foulkes, Mary A.; Zhang, Ping; Saudek, Christopher D.; Brown, Morton B.

2014-01-01

336

The Effects and Costs of a Multifactorial and Interdisciplinary Team Approach to Falls Prevention for Older Home Care Clients 'At Risk' for Falling: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé:Cette étude a déterminé les effets et les coûts d'une approche d'équipe multifactoriel et interdisciplinaire à la prévention des chutes. Essai contrôlé aléatoire de 109 adultes plus âgés qui sont à risque de chutes. Ce fut une stratégie de prévention multifactoriel fondée sur des données probantes de 6 mois, impliquant une équipe interdisciplinaire. Le résultat principal a été le nombre

Maureen Markle-Reid; Gina Browne; Amiram Gafni; Jacqueline Roberts; Robin Weir; Lehana Thabane; Melody Miles; Vida Vaitonis; Catherine Hecimovich; Pamela Baxter; Sandra Henderson

2010-01-01

337

Effects and safety of periconceptional folate supplementation for preventing birth defects  

PubMed Central

Background It has been reported that neural tube defects can be prevented with periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effects of different doses, forms and schemes of folate supplementation for the prevention of other birth defects and maternal and infant outcomes are unclear. Objectives This review updates and expands a previous Cochrane Review assessing the effects of periconceptional supplementation with folic acid to reduce neural tube defects (NTDs). We examined whether folate supplementation before and during early pregnancy can reduce neural tube and other birth defects (including cleft palate) without causing adverse outcomes for mothers or babies. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (July 2010). Additionally, we searched the international clinical trials registry platform and contacted relevant organisations to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria We included all randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effect of periconceptional folate supplementation alone, or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, in women independent of age and parity. Data collection and analysis We assessed trials for methodological quality using the standard Cochrane criteria. Two authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion, one author extracted data and a second checked for accuracy. Main results Five trials involving 6105 women (1949 with a history of a pregnancy affected by a NTD and 4156 with no history of NTDs) were included. Overall, the results are consistent in showing a protective effect of daily folic acid supplementation (alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals) in preventing NTDs compared with no interventions/placebo or vitamins and minerals without folic acid (risk ratio (RR) 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 to 0.52). Only one study assessed the incidence of NTDs and the effect was not statistically significant (RR 0.08, 95% CI 0.00 to 1.33) although no events were found in the group that received folic acid. Folic acid had a significant protective effect for reoccurrence (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.60). There is no statistically significant evidence of any effects on prevention of cleft palate, cleft lip, congenital cardiovascular defects, miscarriages or any other birth defects. There were no included trials assessing the effects of this intervention on maternal blood folate or anaemia at term. We found no evidence of short-term side effects. Authors’ conclusions Folic acid, alone or in combination with vitamins and minerals, prevents NTDs but does not have a clear effect on other birth defects. PMID:20927767

Maria De-Regil, Luz; Fernández-Gaxiola, Ana C; Dowswell, Therese; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

2014-01-01

338

Free Fall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The animation simulates an object in free-fall near the surface of the earth. Use the links to view a projectile released from rest and a projectile initially projected upward. Air resistance is neglected in the simulation.

Wolfgang Christian

339

The Fort McMurray Demonstration Project in Social Marketing: no demonstrable effect on already falling injury rates following intensive community and workplace intervention.  

PubMed

The Fort McMurray Demonstration Project in Social Marketing attempted to achieve mutually reinforcing effects from thematically coordinated educational and awareness efforts in the community as a whole and in the workplace and the inclusion of occupational safety within the framework of a community health promotion project. The study community was Fort McMurray, a small, industrial city in northern Alberta. The Mistahiai Health Region, several hundred kilometers to the west and also dominated by one city, Grande Prairie, served as the reference community. The intervention was based on media and events staged at public events, with supporting educational activities in schools and the community. It relied heavily on community-based partners and volunteers. Data on healthcare utilization of selected preventable injuries were obtained from Alberta Health for the time period 1990-1996 for the Regional Health Authorities of Northern Lights, where the only large population centre is Fort McMurray, and Mistahia. Age-adjusted aggregate injury rates were analyzed for evidence of an effect of the intervention. Severity was measured by proxy, using the number of diagnostic claims submitted for reimbursement for medical services in a given year. The communities differed in age-specific injury rates, with Fort McMurray showing higher rates for residents aged less than 55. Young adults and older adolescents showed higher levels of severity. Injury rates fell substantially and at similar rates in both communities over the five-year period. However, in both communities injury rates were already falling before the intervention in Fort McMurray began and continued to fall at about the same rate, slowing toward the end of the period. No evidence was found for an effect of the Project or for acceleration of the reduction in injury frequency in the intervention area. Over the period, fewer medical services were delivered in office settings and more in emergency rooms, in both communities. The Fort McMurray Demonstration Project in Social Marketing achieved an intensity of intervention and community participation that is unlikely to be sustainable in other communities. Despite this level of effort, the study did not achieve an unequivocal, demonstrable reduction in injury frequency above what was already occurring. This may have been due to a more powerful trend manifested as injury reduction across the province. PMID:19521753

Guidotti, Tee L; Deb, Pooja; Bertera, Robert; Ford, Lynda

2009-10-01

340

Strength, power output and symmetry of leg muscles: effect of age and history of falling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for medically unexplained falls may include reduced muscle power, strength and asymmetry in the lower limbs.\\u000a Conflicting reports exist about strength and there is little information about power and symmetry. Forty-four healthy young\\u000a people (29.3 ± 0.6 years), 44 older non-fallers (75.9 ± 0.6 years), and 34 older fallers (76.4 ± 0.8 years) were studied.\\u000a Isometric, concentric and eccentric strength of the knee and ankle muscles and

Mark C. Perry; Serena F. Carville; I. Christopher H. Smith; Olga M. Rutherford; Di J. Newham

2007-01-01

341

Prevention of Depression in at-risk Adolescents: Longer-term Effects  

PubMed Central

Context Adolescent offspring of depressed parents are at high risk for experiencing depressive disorders themselves. Objective To determine whether the positive effects of a group cognitive-behavioral prevention (CBP) program extended to longer term (multi-year) follow-up. Design, Setting, and Participants A four-site, randomized, controlled trial enrolled 316 adolescent (ages 13-17 years) offspring of parents with current and/or prior depressive disorders; adolescents had histories of depression, current elevated depressive symptoms, or both. Intervention The CBP program consisted of 8 weekly, 90-minute group sessions followed by 6 monthly continuation sessions. Adolescents were randomly assigned to either the CBP program or usual care (UC). Main Outcome Measure The primary outcome was a probable or definite episode of depression (Depression Symptom Rating score ?; 4) for at least 2 weeks through the month 33 follow-up evaluation. Results Over the 33-month follow-up period, youths in the CBP condition had significantly fewer onsets of depressive episodes compared to those in UC. Parental depression at baseline significantly moderated the intervention effect. When parents were not depressed at intake, CBP was superior to UC (NNT ratio=6), whereas when parents were actively depressed at baseline, average onset rates between CBP and UC were not significantly different. A three-way interaction among intervention, baseline parental depression, and site indicated that the impact of parental depression on intervention effectiveness varied across sites. Conclusions The CBP program showed significant sustained effects compared to usual care in preventing the onset of depressive episodes in at-risk youth over a nearly three-year period. Important next steps will be to strengthen the CBP intervention to further enhance its preventive effects, improve intervention outcomes when parents are currently depressed, and conduct larger implementation trials to test the broader public health impact of the CBP program for preventing depression in youth. PMID:24005242

Beardslee, William R.; Brent, David A.; Weersing, V. Robin; Clarke, Gregory N.; Porta, Giovanna; Hollon, Steven D.; Gladstone, Tracy R.G.; Gallop, Robert; Lynch, Frances L.; Iyengar, Satish; DeBar, Lynn; Garber, Judy

2014-01-01

342

Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms  

PubMed Central

Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

2013-01-01

343

Preventing the Preventable  

PubMed Central

Objectives Growing literature suggests that a significant proportion of rehospitalizations could be prevented if systems were put in place aimed at identifying and addressing some of the underlying issues that cause them. This article highlights key risk factors for unplanned rehospitalizations and illustrates a project that has successfully addressed many of the underlying issues that contribute to them. Primary Practice Setting(s) The study illustrated herein took place at an inner-city academic teaching hospital. Findings/Conclusions Proactively identifying patient-, clinician-, and system-associated barriers to successful discharge transitions is critical for effective transitions of care for patients leaving the hospital setting. This process represents a culture change, requires a multidisciplinary approach to care, and mandates clear delineation of roles and responsibilities in the process, with ultimate and clear process ownership being defined. With such steps in place in a system of care, it is reasonable to expect a reduction in preventable rehospitalizations. PMID:19474639

Greenwald, Jeffrey L.; Jack, Brian W.

2009-01-01

344

Experiences in Effective Prevention: The U.S. Department of Education's Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention Models on College Campuses Grants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to ongoing concern about unacceptable levels of AOD (alcohol and other drug) use on campuses, in 1998 Congress authorized the Department of Education to identify and promote effective prevention through a model grants program. In 1999, OSDFS (Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools) launched an important component of the Department's…

DeJong, William; Anderson, Jerry; Colthurst, Tom; Davidson, Laurie; Langford, Linda M.; Mackay-Smith, Virginia L.; Ryan, Barbara; Stubbs, Helen

2007-01-01

345

Preventive effects of polysaccharides from Liriope spicata var. prolifera on diabetic nephropathy in rats.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate preventive effects of polysaccharides (LSP) from Liriope spicata var. prolifera on diabetic nephropathy in rats, which were induced by high fat-fed and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ). The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in diabetic rats were significantly decreased after treated with LSP for 28 days. Additional, the glucose tolerance of diabetes rats showed improvement after administration of LSP. The results also indicated that LSP were able to normalize hyperlipidemia, ameliorate oxidative stress, improve renal function parameters, inhibit the structural damages of kidney tissue and down-regulate the system of advanced glycation end products - receptor for advanced glycation end products (AGE-RAGE). In conclusion, LSP had potential preventive effects on diabetic nephropathy in diabetic rats. PMID:23831538

Xiao, Zuo-qi; Wang, Yong-long; Yue, Yao-dong; Zhang, Yu-tang; Chen, Cui-ping; Wan, Luo-sheng; Deng, Bin; Liu, Zhao-xia; Chen, Jia-chun

2013-10-01

346

Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas  

SciTech Connect

The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by PNNL that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall chinook salmon spawning areas. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The hydrologic regime during the 2002?2003 sampling period exhibited one of the lowest, most stable daily discharge patterns of any of the previous 12 water years. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small vertical hydraulic gradients at most sites, the results from the numerical modeling of riverbed pore water velocity and hyporheic zone temperatures suggested that there was significant vertical hydrologic exchange during all time periods. The combined results of temperature monitoring and numerical modeling indicate that only two sites were significantly affected by short-term (hourly to daily) large magnitude changes in discharge. Although the two sites exhibited acute flux reversals between river water and hyporheic water resulting from short-term large magnitude changes in discharge, these flux reversals had minimal effect on emergence timing estimates. Indeed, the emergence timing estimates at all sites was largely unaffected by the changes in river stage resulting from hydropower operations at Hells Canyon Dam. Our results indicate that the range of emergence timing estimates due to differences among the eggs from different females can be as large as or larger than the emergence timing estimates due to site differences (i.e., bed temperatures within and among sites). We conclude that during the 2002-2003 fall chinook salmon incubation period, hydropower operations of Hells Canyon Dam had an insignificant effect on fry emergence timing at the study sites. It appears that short-term (i.e., hourly to daily) manipulations of discharge from the Hells Canyon Complex during the incubation period would not substantially alter egg pocket incubation temperatures, and thus would not affect fry emergence timing at the study sites. However, the use of hydropower operational manipulations at the Hells Canyon Complex to accelerate egg incubation and fry emergence should not be ruled out on the basis of only one water year's worth of study. Further investigation of the incubation environment of Snake River fall chinook salmon is warranted based on the complexity of hyporheic zone characteristics and the variability of surface/subsurface interactions among dry, normal, and wet water years.

Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Abernethy, Cary S.

2004-09-24

347

Preventive Effects of Traditional Chinese (Kampo) Medicines on Experimental Osteoporosis Induced by Ovariectomy in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Preventive effects by traditional Chinese (Kampo) medicines, Unkei-to, Hachimi-jio-gan, and Juzen-taiho-to, on the progress\\u000a of bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats were investigated for a period of 49 days. The bone mineral density (BMD) of tibia\\u000a in ovariectomized (OVX) rats decreased by 20% from those in sham-operated (Sham) rats, with the decrease completely inhibited\\u000a by the administration of

S. Hidaka; Y. Okamoto; K. Nakajima; M. Suekawa; S. Y. Liu

1997-01-01

348

Preventive Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Pretreatment on Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The present study examined the preventive effect of ginger against renal ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury. Methods: 30 adultmale rats were used. The animals were allocated to five groups of 6 rats: (1) normal (N), (2) normal + ginger (N+G), (3) right nephrectomy (Sham), (4) I-R, and (5) I-R + ginger (I-R+G). To induce renal ischemia, animals were unilaterally nephrectomized and

S. Maghsoudi; A. Gol; S. Dabiri; A. Javadi

2011-01-01

349

Effectiveness of Multidrug Antiretroviral Regimens to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1 in  

E-print Network

2008 in a reference hospital in Cameroon. HIV-positive pregnant women with CD4 #350 cells/mm3 received-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1 in Routine Public Health Services in Cameroon. PLoS ONE 5(4): e10411. doi:10.1371/journalEffectiveness of Multidrug Antiretroviral Regimens to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

350

Choking Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety (Audio) New Study Reinforces Need for Continued Infant Sleep Campaigns to Prevent SIDS Implementing Safe Routes to School Is Effective in Reducing Pedestrian Injuries Healthy Children Radio: Fireworks (Audio) Children ... Health ...

351

[Prevention of cancer and the dose-effect relationship: the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiations].  

PubMed

Cancer prevention has to be based on robust biological and epidemiological data, therefore its reappraisal becomes mandatory in view of recent progress in the understanding of carcinogenesis. The first phase of the carcinogenic process, that of initiation, is generally associated with mutation; however the role of extrinsic mutagens is less critical than was thought two decades ago. During intracellular oxygen metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are made which are potent mutagens. Defense mechanisms against these intrinsic mutagens include scavenger and enzymatic systems which destroy them (catalase, superoxide dismutase). When the radiation dose is low, DNA repair is very effective as well as the elimination of cells with unrepaired or misrepaired DNA. Therefore a small increase in the number of ROS, such as that caused by a small dose of radiation has most probably no significant effect on the risk of DNA damage. These conclusions are consistent with the concept of a practical threshold. The second phase, that of promotion, appears to be the key one. During the promotion phase, initiated cells must acquire new properties (immortalization, release of angiogenic factors, resistance to hypoxia, etc.) in order to become precancerous. This evolution is due to the accumulation in the genome of 6 to 10 new alteration defects. In the clone of initiated cells, the occurrence in one cell of a mutation or an epigenetic event gives birth to a subclone. There is a Darwinian type competition between the subclones and those with the more rapid growth because dominant (the acceleration of the growth rate can be due to shorter cell cycles or to an alleviation of cell proliferation exerted by the neighboring cells or the microenvironment). In the dominant subclones new genomic events provoke the appearance of new subclones growing more rapidly and having greater autonomy. The process is very slow because the specific genetic events that favour this evolution seldom occur. Promoting factors are agents that either perturb intercellular signalling or stimulate cell proliferation (e.g. hormones) or increase cell mortality: mechanical or chemical irritation (e.g. alcohol, bacteria, viruses) thereby inducing compensatory cell proliferation. Thus, gradually precancerous cells become able to divide more rapidly with greater autonomy. This phase ends when a subclone of cells has acquired the capacity of autonomous proliferation. The third phase is that of progression during which cells proliferate regularly without any stimulation. In one of the cells of one of the precancerous lesions (e.g. polyps) a cell acquires the capacity of invading surrounding tissue or to metastasize. The whole carcinogenic process is very slow, extending over several decades, because the specific mutations seldom occur and the probability of an accumulation of several specific mutations in the same cell or cell lineage is very small. It can be accelerated by intense stimulation of cell proliferation or genetic instability. Ionizing radiations act firstly as a mutagen, however when the dose is high they also kill a significant proportion of cells and by a homeostatic mechanism they induce cell proliferation and clonal amplification. It has been claimed that even the smallest dose of radiation can induce a cancer. This concept is associated with the LNT model and it is not based on scientific evidence. It has fuelled a fear of radiation which had detrimental consequences. Conversely the high efficacy of defense mechanisms against radiocarcinogenesis, particularly when the tissue is not disorganized, can explain the lack of carcinogenic effect of contamination by small doses of radium or thorium which has been observed on radium dial painters or in patients injected with thorotrast. The study of second cancers in patients treated by radiotherapy could provide important information and should be actively pursued with two aims: reduce the incidence of second cancers; to better understand radiocarcinogenesis and the relation between dose and carcinogenic effect. PMID:1

Tubiana, M

2009-07-01

352

Counterintuitive effect of fall mixed layer deepening on eukaryotic new production in the Sargasso Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sargasso Sea is characterized by a short period of deep vertical mixing in the late winter and early spring, followed by strong thermal stratification during the summer. Stratification persists into the fall, impeding the upward flux of nitrate from depth so that recycled forms of nitrogen (N) such as ammonium are thought to support most primary production. We collected particles from surface waters during March, July, October, and December, used flow cytometry to separate the prokaryotic and eukaryotic phytoplankton, and analyzed their respective 15N/14N. In all months, the 15N/14N of the prokaryotic genera, Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, was low, indicative of reliance on recycled N throughout the year. In July, the 15N/14N of eukaryotic phytoplankton was variable but consistently higher than that of the prokaryotes, reflecting eukaryotic consumption of subsurface nitrate. Two eukaryotic profiles from October and December were similar to those from July. In three other fall profiles, the eukaryotes had a 15N/14N similar to that of the prokaryotes, suggesting a switch toward greater reliance on recycled N. This change in the dominant N source supporting eukaryotic production appears to be driven by the density structure of the upper water column. The very shallow low-density surface "mixed layer" (?20 m) that develops in early-to-mid summer does not contribute to stratification at the base of the euphotic zone, and subsurface nitrate can mix up into the lower euphotic zone, facilitating continued production. The deepening of the mixed layer into the fall, typically taken as an indication of weaker overall stratification, actually strengthens the isolation of the euphotic zone as a whole, reducing the upward supply of nitrate to the photosynthetically active layer. The same counterintuitive dynamic explains the latitudinal patterns in a set of three October depth profiles. Two northern stations (32°N and 27°N) were characterized by a thick, low-density surface layer, and the 15N/14N of all phytoplankton was low, consistent with assimilation of recycled N. The southernmost station (23°N) had a shallower mixed layer, and eukaryote 15N/14N reflects growth on nitrate. In the subtropics, evidence for the direct supply of nitrate into surface waters in the face of the strong upper ocean stratification has long been sought. Our N isotope results suggest a mechanism by which subsurface nitrate is imported into shallow waters. This interpretation offers a new perspective on the relationship between euphotic zone stratification and nitrate assimilation, implying that significant new production occurs under conditions previously assumed to drive oligotrophy.

Fawcett, S. E.; Lomas, M. W.; Ward, B. B.; Sigman, D. M.

2012-12-01

353

Effect of different preventive agents on bracket shear bond strength: in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of fluoride and CPP-ACP before bracket bonding on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets have been reported with contradicting results. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different preventive agents namely; casein phosphopeptide-amorphous-calcium-phosphate (CPP-ACP), fluoride-containing-CPP-ACP (CPP-ACPF) and 5% sodium fluoride (5% NaF), on the enamel-bracket shear bond strength (SBS) and to compare their effects when applied before or after acid-etching. Methods Human premolar teeth were randomly divided into seven groups (16 teeth per group) as follows: the control group, where no preventive agent was applied on the enamel and 6 experimental groups. Teeth in groups 1a, 2a, and 3a were treated with CPP-ACP paste, CPP-ACPF paste, and 5% NaF, respectively before acid-etching. Teeth in groups 1b, 2b and 3b were treated using the same preventive agents after acid-etching. The brackets were then bonded and the teeth were thermocycled. The brackets' SBS was measured and the adhesive remnant was assessed using adhesive remnant index (ARI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test were performed to compare the SBS among different groups. Chi-square test was used to evaluate differences in ARI scores between the groups. Results Enamel surface treatment with CPP-ACPF after acid-etching significantly increased SBS compared to the control and to its application before acid-etching (P?preventive agents were applied after acid-etching. Conclusion Brackets' SBS significantly increased when fluoride-containing-CPP-ACP was applied after acid-etching. PMID:24678892

2014-01-01

354

Cost effectiveness of primary stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: Swedish national perspective.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To assess the potential effects of primary prevention with anticoagulants or aspirin in atrial fibrillation on Swedish population. DESIGN--Analysis of cost effectiveness based on the following assumptions: about 83,000 people have atrial fibrillation in Sweden, of whom 22,000 would be potential candidates for treatment with anticoagulants and 55,000 for aspirin treatment; the annual 5% stroke rate is reduced by 64% (with anticoagulants) and 25% (with aspirin); incidence of intracranial haemorrhage of 0.3%, 1.3%, or 2.0% per year; direct and indirect costs of a stroke of Kr180,000 and Kr90,000; estimated annual cost of treatment is Kr5030 for anticoagulants and Kr100 for aspirin. SETTING--Total Swedish population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Direct and indirect costs of stroke saved, number of strokes prevented, and cost of preventive treatment. RESULTS--Depending on the rate of haemorrhagic complications 34 to 83 patients would need to be treated annually with anticoagulants to prevent one stroke; 83 patients would need to be treated with aspirin. Giving anticoagulant treatment only would reduce costs by Kr60 million if the incidence of intracranial haemorrhage were 0.3% but would imply a net expense if the complication rate exceeded 1.3%. The total savings from giving anticoagulant (22,000 patients) and aspirin (55,000 patients) treatment would be Kr175 million per year corresponding to 2 million pounds per million inhabitants each year. CONCLUSIONS--Treatment with anticoagulants and, if contraindications exist, with aspirin is cost effective provided that the risk of serious haemorrhage complications due to anticoagulants is kept low. PMID:1493390

Gustafsson, C.; Asplund, K.; Britton, M.; Norrving, B.; Olsson, B.; Marké, L. A.

1992-01-01

355

Effects of genetic variants previously associated with fasting glucose and insulin in the Diabetes Prevention Program.  

PubMed

Common genetic variants have been recently associated with fasting glucose and insulin levels in white populations. Whether these associations replicate in pre-diabetes is not known. We extended these findings to the Diabetes Prevention Program, a clinical trial in which participants at high risk for diabetes were randomized to placebo, lifestyle modification or metformin for diabetes prevention. We genotyped previously reported polymorphisms (or their proxies) in/near G6PC2, MTNR1B, GCK, DGKB, GCKR, ADCY5, MADD, CRY2, ADRA2A, FADS1, PROX1, SLC2A2, GLIS3, C2CD4B, IGF1, and IRS1 in 3,548 Diabetes Prevention Program participants. We analyzed variants for association with baseline glycemic traits, incident diabetes and their interaction with response to metformin or lifestyle intervention. We replicated associations with fasting glucose at MTNR1B (P<0.001), G6PC2 (P = 0.002) and GCKR (P = 0.001). We noted impaired ?-cell function in carriers of glucose-raising alleles at MTNR1B (P<0.001), and an increase in the insulinogenic index for the glucose-raising allele at G6PC2 (P<0.001). The association of MTNR1B with fasting glucose and impaired ?-cell function persisted at 1 year despite adjustment for the baseline trait, indicating a sustained deleterious effect at this locus. We also replicated the association of MADD with fasting proinsulin levels (P<0.001). We detected no significant impact of these variants on diabetes incidence or interaction with preventive interventions. The association of several polymorphisms with quantitative glycemic traits is replicated in a cohort of high-risk persons. These variants do not have a detectable impact on diabetes incidence or response to metformin or lifestyle modification in the Diabetes Prevention Program. PMID:22984506

Florez, Jose C; Jablonski, Kathleen A; McAteer, Jarred B; Franks, Paul W; Mason, Clinton C; Mather, Kieren; Horton, Edward; Goldberg, Ronald; Dabelea, Dana; Kahn, Steven E; Arakaki, Richard F; Shuldiner, Alan R; Knowler, William C

2012-01-01

356

Validating recall of falls by older people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Falls among older people are a priority issue for accident analysis because they are relatively common, carry a significant burden of morbidity and mortality, affect lifestyle choices, are a high cost to the community, and are potentially preventable.

N Peel

2000-01-01

357

Effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff on the water quality of Fall Creek, Indianapolis, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the effects of combined-sewer overflows (CSO's) and urban runoff on the water quality of Fall Creek during summer 1987 by comparing the water quality of base flow with that of storm runoff and by comparing water quality in the urbanized area with that in the less urbanized area upstream from the CSO's. Data were collected at three streamflow-gaging stations located upstream from, downstream from, and in the middle of 27 CSO's on Fall Creek. The most downstream station also was immediately downstream from the discharge of filter backwash from a water-treatment plant for public supply. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen measured at the station in the middle of the CSO's were less than the Indiana minimum ambient water-quality standard of 4.0 mg/L during all storms. Concentra- tions of ammonia, oxygen demand, copper, lead, zinc, and fecal coliform bacteria at the stations down- stream from the CSO's were much larger during runoff than during base flow. Increased concentrations of oxygen demand in storm runoff probably were caused by combined-sewer overflows, urban runoff, and the resuspension of organic material deposited on the streambed. Some of the increased concentrations of lead, zinc, and probably copper can be attributed to the discharge and resuspension of material back- washed from filters at the water-treatment plant.

Martin, J.D.

1995-01-01

358

Scaling up integrated prevention campaigns for global health: costs and cost-effectiveness in 70 countries  

PubMed Central

Objective This study estimated the health impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of an integrated prevention campaign (IPC) focused on diarrhoea, malaria and HIV in 70 countries ranked by per capita disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) burden for the three diseases. Methods We constructed a deterministic cost-effectiveness model portraying an IPC combining counselling and testing, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, referral to treatment and condom distribution for HIV prevention; bed nets for malaria prevention; and provision of household water filters for diarrhoea prevention. We developed a mix of empirical and modelled cost and health impact estimates applied to all 70 countries. One-way, multiway and scenario sensitivity analyses were conducted to document the strength of our findings. We used a healthcare payer's perspective, discounted costs and DALYs at 3% per year and denominated cost in 2012 US dollars. Primary and secondary outcomes The primary outcome was cost-effectiveness expressed as net cost per DALY averted. Other outcomes included cost of the IPC; net IPC costs adjusted for averted and additional medical costs and DALYs averted. Results Implementation of the IPC in the 10 most cost-effective countries at 15% population coverage would cost US$583 million over 3?years (adjusted costs of US$398 million), averting 8.0 million DALYs. Extending IPC programmes to all 70 of the identified high-burden countries at 15% coverage would cost an adjusted US$51.3 billion and avert 78.7 million DALYs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ranged from US$49 per DALY averted for the 10 countries with the most favourable cost-effectiveness to US$119, US$181, US$335, US$1692 and US$8340 per DALY averted as each successive group of 10 countries is added ordered by decreasing cost-effectiveness. Conclusions IPC appears cost-effective in many settings, and has the potential to substantially reduce the burden of disease in resource-poor countries. This study increases confidence that IPC can be an important new approach for enhancing global health. PMID:24969782

Marseille, Elliot; Jiwani, Aliya; Raut, Abhishek; Verguet, Stéphane; Walson, Judd; Kahn, James G

2014-01-01

359

Effect of Stroke on Fall Rate, Location and Predictors: A Prospective Comparison of Older Adults with and without Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background The literature suggests that stroke is a major risk factor for falls, but there is a lack of prospective, controlled studies which quantify fall-risk after stroke. The purpose of this study was to compare the rates, location and predictors among individuals recently discharged home from stroke rehabilitation to age and sex matched controls. Methodology/Principal Findings A sample of 80 people with stroke and 90 controls received baseline assessments of balance, mobility and balance confidence. Falls were recorded prospectively over 13 months for both groups. Group differences in fall rates and contribution of clinical measures to falls were determined using negative binomial regression. Fall location was compared between groups using ?2 statistics. The rate of falls for individuals with stroke was 1.77 times the rate for the control group. People with stroke were more likely to fall at home. Poorer balance (Berg Balance Scale) was associated with greater falls for both stroke and control groups (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.908 and IRR: 0.877 respectively). A faster Timed Up and Go Test was associated with greater falls for the stroke group (IRR: 0.955) while better walking endurance (Six Minute Walk Test) was associated with greater falls for the controls (IRR: 1.004). Balance confidence was not an independent predictor in either group. Conclusions Individuals recently discharged home are at greater risk of falling than individuals without stroke. Attention to home environment is warranted. Balance function can predict falls for both people with stroke and age and sex matched controls. Increased mobility may increase exposure to fall opportunities. PMID:21559367

Simpson, Lisa A.; Miller, William C.; Eng, Janice J.

2011-01-01

360

PLCO News, Fall/Winter 1998  

Cancer.gov

PLCO News, Fall/Winter 1998 Volume 1, Number 2 ----- Fall/Winter 1998 TABLE OF CONTENTS Notes from theNCI's PLCO Project Office Meet John GohaganMeet Phil Prorok From Lab to Life Possible prostate cancer prevention with vitamin E and selenium

361

Effects of a prevention program for divorced families on youth cortisol reactivity 15 years later.  

PubMed

Objective: We examined whether an empirically based, randomised controlled trial of a preventive intervention for divorced mothers and children had a long-term impact on offspring cortisol regulation. Design: Divorced mothers and children (age 9-12) were randomly assigned to a literature control condition or the 11-week New Beginnings Program, a family-focused group preventive intervention for mothers and children in newly divorced families. Main Outcome Measures: Fifteen years after the trial, offspring salivary cortisol (n = 161) was measured before and after a social stress task. Results: Multilevel mixed models were used to predict cortisol from internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, group assignment and potential moderators of intervention effects. Across the sample, higher externalizing symptoms were associated with lower cortisol reactivity. There was a significant group-by-age interaction such that older offspring in the control group had higher reactivity relative to the intervention group, and younger offspring in the control group exhibited a decline across the task relative to younger offspring in the intervention group. Conclusions: Preventive interventions for youth from divorced families may have a long-term impact on cortisol reactivity to stress. Results highlight the importance of examining moderators of program effects. PMID:25367835

Luecken, Linda J; Hagan, Melissa J; Mahrer, Nicole E; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Sandler, Irwin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun

2014-12-01

362

Effectiveness of a substituted ?-cyclodextrin to prevent cyclosarin toxicity in vivo.  

PubMed

Standard treatment of poisoning by organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents with atropine and an oxime has a limited efficacy. An alternative approach is the development of stoichiometric or catalytic (bio-)scavengers which should be able to prevent systemic toxicity. Recently, a ?-cyclodextrin derivative, 6-OxP-CD, bearing a pyridinium oximate in 6-position of one glucose unit was synthetized and shown to possess a promising detoxification potential against a variety of alkyl methylfluorophosphonates in vitro. In order to investigate the suitability of 6-OxP-CD as a small molecule scavenger an in vivo guinea pig model was established to determine the protective effect of 6-OxP-CD against the highly toxic nerve agent cyclosarin. Prophylactic i.v. injection of 6-OxP-CD (100mg/kg) prevented systemic toxicity in cyclosarin (?2LD50) poisoned guinea pigs, preserved brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity but did not protect erythrocyte AChE activity. A lower 6-OxP-CD dose (50mg/kg) reduced systemic toxicity and prevented mortality in all animals. Thus, the results of this proof of concept study indicate that 6-OxP-CD may be considered as a potential small molecule scavenger to protect against the toxic effects of a range of highly toxic OP nerve agents. PMID:24561299

Worek, Franz; Seeger, Thomas; Zengerle, Michael; Kubik, Stefan; Thiermann, Horst; Wille, Timo

2014-04-21

363

Effective Finite Element Mesh Size Distribution for Proposed Numerical Method of Prototype RC Girders under Falling-Weight Impact Loading (Times New Roman, 14pt, Bold)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on an applicability of the proposed numerical analysis method to the large scale RC girder under falling-weight impact loading using effective finite element mesh size distribution in the span directions. The applicability of proposed method using effective finite element mesh size is discussed comparing with the experimental results. In this study, LS-DYNA code is used to estimate

Abdul Qadir BHATTI; Norimitsu KISHI; Hisashi KONNO; Shin-ya OKADA

364

Design of the Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS): A randomized clinical trial assessing the effect of a chlorhexidine dental coating for the prevention of adult caries  

PubMed Central

Background Dental caries is one of the primary causes of tooth loss among adults. It is estimated to affect a majority of Americans aged 55 and older, with a disproportionately higher burden in disadvantaged populations. Although a number of treatments are currently in use for caries prevention in adults, evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness is limited. Methods/Design The Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS) is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a chlorhexidine (10% w/v) dental coating in preventing adult caries. Participants (n = 983) were recruited from four different dental delivery systems serving four diverse communities, including one American Indian population, and were randomized to receive either chlorhexidine or a placebo treatment. The primary outcome is the net caries increment (including non-cavitated lesions) from baseline to 13 months of follow-up. A cost-effectiveness analysis also will be considered. Discussion This new dental treatment, if efficacious and approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), would become a new in-office, anti-microbial agent for the prevention of adult caries in the United States. Trial Registration Number NCT00357877 PMID:20923557

2010-01-01

365

Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress  

MedlinePLUS

... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

366

TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention Past Issues / Fall ... lucky in my ongoing recovery from the traumatic brain injury I suffered in Iraq." —Bob Woodruff Treatment Immediate ...

367

Associations between rates of unassisted inpatient falls and levels of registered and non-registered nurse staffing  

PubMed Central

Objective To enhance understanding of how nurse staffing relates to unassisted falls by exploring non-linear associations between unassisted fall rates and levels of registered nurse (RN) and non-RN staffing on 5 nursing unit types, thereby enabling managers to improve patient safety by making better-informed decisions about staffing. Design Cross-sectional analysis of routinely collected data using hierarchical negative binomial regression. Settings 8069 nursing units in 1361 U.S. hospitals participating in the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators®. Main outcome measure Rate of unassisted falls per inpatient day. Results Associations between unassisted fall rates and nurse staffing varied by unit type. For medical–surgical units, higher RN staffing was weakly associated with lower fall rates. On step-down and medical units, the association between RN staffing and fall rates depended on the level of staffing: At lower staffing levels, the fall rate increased as staffing increased, but at moderate and high staffing levels, the fall rate decreased as staffing increased. Higher levels of non-RN staffing were generally associated with higher fall rates.. Conclusions Increasing non-RN staffing seems ineffective at preventing unassisted falls. Increasing RN staffing may be effective, depending on the unit type and the current level of staffing. PMID:24225270

Staggs, Vincent S.; Dunton, Nancy

2014-01-01

368

The effect of food portion sizes on the obesity prevention using system dynamics modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rise in income and population growth have increased the demand for food and induced changes in food habits, food purchasing and consumption patterns in Malaysia. With this transition, one of the plausible causes of weight gain and obesity is the frequent consumption of outside food which is synonymous with bigger portion size. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop a system dynamics model to analyse the effect of reducing food portion size on weight and obesity prevention. This study combines the different strands of knowledge comprise of nutrition, physical activity and body metabolism. These elements are synthesized into a system dynamics model called SIMULObese. Findings from this study suggested that changes in eating behavior should not emphasize only on limiting the food portion size consumption. The efforts should also consider other eating events such as controlling the meal frequency and limiting intake of high-calorie food in developing guidelines to prevent obesity.

Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zulkepli, Jafri Hj; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

2014-09-01

369

The effects of exercise on bone. Basic concepts and implications for the prevention of fractures  

PubMed Central

Osteogenic dynamic loads delivered to the skeleton during exercise prevent aging-associated bone fragility. Moreover, because of its pleiotropic favourable effects on health, exercise improves quality of life, and specific types of exercise increase muscle strength, a known predictor of bone strength, and coordination and balance, and so reduce the risk of fallrelated fractures. Exercise should definitely be the mainstay of the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis; often however, physicians don’t have enough know-how for evidencebased prescription of exercise. Moreover, the lack of facilities for safe implementation of the exercise programs compound the problem. Scientific societies and health authorities should invest in patient and physicians education about exercise and in promoting facilities (Gyms) devoted to training of persons with, or at risk of, metabolic diseases (osteoporosis, obesity, diabetes), like Metagym in Florence, Italy. PMID:22461250

Russo, Cosimo Roberto

2009-01-01

370

Mediators of Effects of a Selective Family-Focused Violence Prevention Approach for Middle School Students  

PubMed Central

This study examined how parenting and family characteristics targeted in a selective prevention program mediated effects on key youth proximal outcomes related to violence perpetration. The selective intervention was evaluated within the context of a multi-site trial involving random assignment of 37 schools to four conditions: a universal intervention composed of a student social-cognitive curriculum and teacher training, a selective family-focused intervention with a subset of high-risk students, a condition combining these two interventions, and a no-intervention control condition. Two cohorts of sixth-grade students (total N=1,062) exhibiting high levels of aggression and social influence were the sample for this study. Analyses of pre-post change compared to controls using intent-to-treat analyses found no significant effects. However, estimates incorporating participation of those assigned to the intervention and predicted participation among those not assigned revealed significant positive effects on student aggression, use of aggressive strategies for conflict management, and parental estimation of student’s valuing of achievement. Findings also indicated intervention effects on two targeted family processes: discipline practices and family cohesion. Mediation analyses found evidence that change in these processes mediated effects on some outcomes, notably aggressive behavior and valuing of school achievement. Results support the notion that changing parenting practices and the quality of family relationships can prevent the escalation in aggression and maintain positive school engagement for high-risk youth. PMID:21932067

2013-01-01

371

Mediators of effects of a selective family-focused violence prevention approach for middle school students.  

PubMed

This study examined how parenting and family characteristics targeted in a selective prevention program mediated effects on key youth proximal outcomes related to violence perpetration. The selective intervention was evaluated within the context of a multi-site trial involving random assignment of 37 schools to four conditions: a universal intervention composed of a student social-cognitive curriculum and teacher training, a selective family-focused intervention with a subset of high-risk students, a condition combining these two interventions, and a no-intervention control condition. Two cohorts of sixth-grade students (total N?=?1,062) exhibiting high levels of aggression and social influence were the sample for this study. Analyses of pre-post change compared to controls using intent-to-treat analyses found no significant effects. However, estimates incorporating participation of those assigned to the intervention and predicted participation among those not assigned revealed significant positive effects on student aggression, use of aggressive strategies for conflict management, and parental estimation of student's valuing of achievement. Findings also indicated intervention effects on two targeted family processes: discipline practices and family cohesion. Mediation analyses found evidence that change in these processes mediated effects on some outcomes, notably aggressive behavior and valuing of school achievement. Results support the notion that changing parenting practices and the quality of family relationships can prevent the escalation in aggression and maintain positive school engagement for high-risk youth. PMID:21932067

2012-02-01

372

Psychological effects of a suicide prevention unit on adolescents' levels of stress, anxiety and hopelessness: Implications for counselling psychologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of a senior high school suicide prevention unit on students' levels of stress, anxiety, and hopelessness. An experimental group that received instruction in suicide prevention, and that demonstrated special needs, i.e. low social support, high stress, high anxiety, and\\/or high degrees of hopelessness, was compared with an experimental group that did not demonstrate special needs,

Kathy L. Silbert; Gordon L. Berry

1991-01-01

373

The Effectiveness of Psycho-Educational School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training Program on Turkish Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…

Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem

2013-01-01

374

FIRE /SMOKE The most effective method of fighting fires is to prevent them from occurring. All Columbia  

E-print Network

FIRE /SMOKE The most effective method of fighting fires is to prevent them from occurring. All Columbia University Morningside staff is responsible for contributing to the University's fire prevention efforts. Personnel should neither create nor tolerate conditions that could cause or fuel a fire

Jia, Songtao

375

Examining the Effects of School-Based Drug Prevention Programs on Drug Use in Rural Settings: Methodology and Initial Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Although there have been substantial advances in knowledge about drug prevention over the last decade, the majority of school-based drug prevention studies have been conducted in urban settings. There is little knowledge about the effectiveness of such programs when they are implemented in rural populations. Purpose: To examine the…

Brown, C. Hendricks; Guo, Jing; Singer, L. Terri; Downes, Katheryne; Brinales, Joseph M.

2007-01-01

376

Translating an Effective Group-Based HIV Prevention Program to a Program Delivered Primarily by a Computer: Methods and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe development of SAHARA (SiSTAS Accessing HIV/AIDS Resources At-a-click), an innovative HIV prevention program that uses a computer to deliver an updated version of SiSTA, a widely used, effective group-level HIV prevention intervention for African American women ages 18-29. Fidelity to SiSTA's core components was achieved using: (1)…

Card, Josefina J.; Kuhn, Tamara; Solomon, Julie; Benner, Tabitha A.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

2011-01-01

377

[Prevention of osteoporosis by foods and dietary supplements. The effect of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on the calcium absorption and bone].  

PubMed

Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are well known as prebiotics which improve intestinal microflaura. FOS also have increasing effect on the intestinal absorption of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron. These effects were inspected by many animal experiments and then by human studies. Especially, FOS clearly prevent the decrease of bone mineral density by gastrectomy in rats. In this report, we mainly explain the preventive effect of FOS on the bone of gastrectomized rats and introduce relationship between another food ingredient or exercise. PMID:17012821

Ohta, Atsutane

2006-10-01

378

Alteration of the phenology of leaf senescence and fall in winter deciduous species by climate change: effects on nutrient proficiency.  

PubMed

Leaf senescence in winter deciduous species signals the transition from the active to the dormant stage. The purpose of leaf senescence is the recovery of nutrients before the leaves fall. Photoperiod and temperature are the main cues controlling leaf senescence in winter deciduous species, with water stress imposing an additional influence. Photoperiod exerts a strict control on leaf senescence at latitudes where winters are severe and temperature gains importance in the regulation as winters become less severe. On average, climatic warming will delay and drought will advance leaf senescence, but at varying degrees depending on the species. Warming and drought thus have opposite effects on the phenology of leaf senescence, and the impact of climate change will therefore depend on the relative importance of each factor in specific regions. Warming is not expected to have a strong impact on nutrient proficiency although a slower speed of leaf senescence induced by warming could facilitate a more efficient nutrient resorption. Nutrient resorption is less efficient when the leaves senesce prematurely as a consequence of water stress. The overall effects of climate change on nutrient resorption will depend on the contrasting effects of warming and drought. Changes in nutrient resorption and proficiency will impact production in the following year, at least in early spring, because the construction of new foliage relies almost exclusively on nutrients resorbed from foliage during the preceding leaf fall. Changes in the phenology of leaf senescence will thus impact carbon uptake, but also ecosystem nutrient cycling, especially if the changes are consequence of water stress. PMID:25384459

Estiarte, Marc; Peñuelas, Josep

2015-03-01

379

Antiinflammatory Effect of Phytosterols in Experimental Murine Colitis Model: Prevention, Induction, Remission Study  

PubMed Central

Phytosterols, besides hypocholesterolemic effect, present anti-inflammatory properties. Little information is available about their efficacy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Therefore, we have evaluated the effect of a mixture of phytosterols on prevention/induction/remission in a murine experimental model of colitis. Phytosterols were administered x os before, during and after colitis induction with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) in mice. Disease Activity Index (DAI), colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress in the intestinal tissue (ileum and colon) and gallbladder ileum and colon spontaneous and carbachol (CCh) induced motility, plasma lipids and plasma, liver and biliary bile acids (BA) were evaluated. A similar longitudinal study was performed in a DSS colitis control group. Mice treated with DSS developed severe colitis as shown by DAI, colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress. Both spontaneous and induced ileal and colonic motility were severely disturbed. The same was observed with gallbladder. DSS colitis resulted in an increase in plasma cholesterol, and a modification of the BA pattern. Phytosterols feeding did not prevent colitis onset but significantly reduced the severity of the disease and improved clinical and histological remission. It had strong antioxidant effects, almost restored colon, ileal and gallbladder motility. Plasmatic levels of cholesterol were also reduced. DSS induced a modification in the BA pattern consistent with an increase in the intestinal BA deconjugating bacteria, prevented by phytosterols. Phytosterols seem a potential nutraceutical tool for gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases, combining metabolic systematic and local anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25268769

Aldini, Rita; Micucci, Matteo; Cevenini, Monica; Fato, Romana; Bergamini, Christian; Nanni, Cristina; Cont, Massimiliano; Camborata, Cecilia; Spinozzi, Silvia; Montagnani, Marco; Roda, Giulia; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Rosini, Francesca; Roda, Aldo; Mazzella, Giuseppe; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta

2014-01-01

380

Comparative effectiveness of long term drug treatment strategies to prevent asthma exacerbations: network meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the comparative effectiveness and safety of current maintenance strategies in preventing exacerbations of asthma. Design Systematic review and network meta-analysis using Bayesian statistics. Data sources Cochrane systematic reviews on chronic asthma, complemented by an updated search when appropriate. Eligibility criteria Trials of adults with asthma randomised to maintenance treatments of at least 24 weeks duration and that reported on asthma exacerbations in full text. Low dose inhaled corticosteroid treatment was the comparator strategy. The primary effectiveness outcome was the rate of severe exacerbations. The secondary outcome was the composite of moderate or severe exacerbations. The rate of withdrawal was analysed as a safety outcome. Results 64 trials with 59?622 patient years of follow-up comparing 15 strategies and placebo were included. For prevention of severe exacerbations, combined inhaled corticosteroids and long acting ? agonists as maintenance and reliever treatment and combined inhaled corticosteroids and long acting ? agonists in a fixed daily dose performed equally well and were ranked first for effectiveness. The rate ratios compared with low dose inhaled corticosteroids were 0.44 (95% credible interval 0.29 to 0.66) and 0.51 (0.35 to 0.77), respectively. Other combined strategies were not superior to inhaled corticosteroids and all single drug treatments were inferior to single low dose inhaled corticosteroids. Safety was best for conventional best (guideline based) practice and combined maintenance and reliever therapy. Conclusions Strategies with combined inhaled corticosteroids and long acting ? agonists are most effective and safe in preventing severe exacerbations of asthma, although some heterogeneity was observed in this network meta-analysis of full text reports. PMID:24919052

2014-01-01

381

Toward effective school-based substance abuse prevention "breaking the cycle" programme in Antigua and Barbuda.  

PubMed

The "Breaking the Cycle" programme, based on the Project Charlie programme, was developed for Antigua and Barbuda third grade students and was implemented in 2001. Aspects of the programme are compared with aspects recently proven effective in randomized studies in developed countries. The "Breaking the Cycle" programme includes life-skills training, teaches decision making skills, includes peer resistance training, uses trained teachers, interactive teaching methods, effective content and delivery, targets students prior to onset of drug use, teaches drug harm, teaches community values and is culturally sensitive, all aspects of successful programmes overseas. The cost of about $7 US per student would suggests cost-benefit effectiveness compared with overseas programmes. The "Breaking the Cycle" school-based drug and alcohol use prevention programme includes most aspects of evidence-based successful programmes overseas, appears cost effective and could serve as a model for programmes in the Caribbean region. PMID:19566016

Martin, T C; Josiah-Martin, J A; Roberts, C W; Henry, H P

2008-09-01

382

Neighborhood Effects on the Efficacy of a Program to Prevent Youth Alcohol Use  

PubMed Central

This study examines how neighborhood characteristics affect program efficacy. Data come from a randomized trial of a substance use prevention program called keepin’ it REAL, which was administered to a predominantly Mexican American sample of 4,622 middle school students in Phoenix, Arizona, beginning in 1998. Multilevel models and multiple imputation techniques address clustered data and attrition. Among less linguistically acculturated Latinos, living in poorer neighborhoods and those with many single-mother families decreased program effectiveness in combating alcohol use. High neighborhood immigrant composition increased program effectiveness. Unexpectedly, the program was also more effective in neighborhoods with higher rates of crime. There were no significant effects on program efficacy for the more linguistically acculturated Latinos and non-Hispanic White students. Findings are discussed in light of theories of neighborhood social disorganization, immigrant adaptation, and social isolation. PMID:17366126

Yabiku, Scott; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Lewin, Ben; Nieri, Tanya; Hussaini, Syed

2011-01-01

383

Cost-effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) for averting anaemia in Gabon: a comparison between intention to treat and according to protocol analyses  

PubMed Central

Background In Gabon, the impact of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) was not statistically significant on malaria reduction, but the impact on moderate anaemia was, with some differences between the intention to treat (ITT) and the according to protocol (ATP) trial analyses. Specifically, ATP was statistically significant, while ITT analysis was borderline. The main reason for the difference between ITT and ATP populations was migration. Methods This study estimates the cost-effectiveness of IPTi on the reduction of anaemia in Gabon, comparing results of the ITT and the ATP clinical trial analyses. Threshold analysis was conducted to identify when the intervention costs and protective efficacy of IPTi for the ATP cohort equalled the ITT cost-effectiveness ratio. Results Based on IPTi intervention costs, the cost per episode of moderate anaemia averted was US$12.88 (CI 95% 4.19, 30.48) using the ITT analysis and US$11.30 (CI 95% 4.56, 26.66) using the ATP analysis. In order for the ATP results to equal the cost-effectiveness of ITT, total ATP intervention costs should rise from 118.38 to 134 US$ ATP or the protective efficacy should fall from 27% to 18.1%. The uncertainty surrounding the cost-effectiveness ratio using ITT trial results was higher than using ATP results. Conclusions Migration implies great challenges in the organization of health interventions that require repeat visits in Gabon. This was apparent in the study as the cost-effectiveness of IPTp-SP worsened when drop out from the prevention was taken into account. Despite such challenges, IPTi was both inexpensive and efficacious in averting cases of moderate anaemia in infants. PMID:22004614

2011-01-01

384

Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato) Prevents Adverse Effects of Lead on Blood Constituents  

PubMed Central

Background: Lead is known for its adverse effects on various organs and systems. In this study, the ability of lead to adversely affect blood parameters was investigated, and Lycopersicon esculentum, or commonly known as tomato (a source of antioxidants), was administered orally in the form of tomato paste (TP) to reduce the adverse effects of lead. Methods: The study involved 56 Wistar rats divided equally into 4 groups of 14 rats each: Control, LAG, TPG, and LA+TPG. Control and TPG rats were given distilled water ad libitum, while LAG and LA+TPG rats were given 1% lead (II) acetate (LA) per day. TPG and LA+TPG rats were additionally treated with 1.5 ml of TP per day. All treatments lasted for 10 weeks, after which the rats were weighed and sacrificed, and haematological and biochemical parameters were measured. The independent samples t test was used to analyse the results. Results: Lead caused significant reductions in the following parameters: weight; packed cell volume; red blood cell and white blood cell counts; the percentages of lymphocytes and monocytes; total serum protein, albumin, and globulin levels; and plasma superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. In contrast, lead caused a significant increase in the percentage of neutrophils and the plasma malondialdehyde concentration. TP, however, significantly prevented the adverse effects of LA. Conclusion: The oral administration of TP prevents the adverse effects of lead on blood constituents. PMID:22135544

SALAWU, Emmanuel O

2010-01-01

385

Analysis of Core Stability Exercise Effect on the Physical and Psychological Function of Elderly Women Vulnerable to Falls during Obstacle Negotiation.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of core stability exercise (CSE) on the physical and psychological functions of elderly women while negotiating general obstacles. [Subjects and Methods] After allocating 10 elderly women each to the core stability training group and the control group, we carried out Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA) and measured crossing velocity (CV), maximum vertical heel clearance (MVHC), and knee flexion angle for assessing physical performances. We evaluated depression and fear of falling for assessing psychological functions. [Results] Relative to the control group, the core stability training group showed statistically significant overall changes after the training session: an increase in POMA scores, faster CV, lower MVHC, and a decrease in knee flexion angle. Furthermore, depression and fear of falling decreased significantly. [Conclusion] CSE can have a positive effect on the improvement of physical and psychological performances of older women who are vulnerable to falls as they negotiate everyday obstacles. PMID:25435680

Ko, Dae-Sik; Jung, Dae-In; Jeong, Mi-Ae

2014-11-01

386

Adverse effects of isoniazid preventative therapy for latent tuberculosis infection: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Isoniazid preventative therapy (IPT) is a widely used intervention for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), particularly in patients at high risk for reactivation. While treatment-limiting adverse effects have been well studied, few prospective studies have considered the range of adverse effects that patients may experience with IPT. Methods All patients commencing treatment for LTBI were prospectively enrolled in an ongoing database of LTBI treatment outcomes particularly related to adverse effects, treatment adherence, and treatment completion. Results Data on the first 100 patients who were prescribed IPT are presented. Fifty-six patients reported at least one adverse effect at some stage during treatment, with six experiencing at least one World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 3–4 adverse effect. Increased age was significantly associated with risk of adverse effects (odds ratio [OR] =1.05 per year; confidence interval [CI] of 1.02–1.08=95%). Eighty-five patients had documented completion of therapy locally, with ten patients ceasing IPT due to adverse effects. Discussion This report highlights a variety of somatic adverse effects that occurred in a real-world cohort of patients receiving IPT. While adverse effects were frequently identified in this study, the considerable majority were low grade and transient. Despite frequent adverse effects of LTBI in our treatment cohort, the study demonstrated high levels of treatment adherence and completion. PMID:25364275

Denholm, Justin T; McBryde, Emma S; Eisen, Damon P; Penington, Jocelyn S; Chen, Caroline; Street, Alan C

2014-01-01

387

Free Fall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity (page 1 of PDF), learners will use a simple physics of motion and gravity demonstration to test their predicting skills. Learners predict which quarter will hit the floor first during this free fall experiment. This activity not only requires learners to observe carefully, but also listen carefully! Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV: Hockey.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

388

Transfer effects of fall training on balance performance and spatiotemporal gait parameters in healthy community-dwelling older adults: a pilot study.  

PubMed

This study examined transfer effects of fall training on fear of falling (Falls Efficacy Scale-International [FES-I]), balance performance, and spatiotemporal gait characteristics in older adults. Eighteen community-dwelling older adults (ages 65-85) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The intervention group completed 12 training sessions (60 min, 6 weeks). During pre- and posttesting, we measured FES-I, balance performance (double limb, closed eyes; single limb, open eyes; double limb, open eyes with motor-interfered task), and gait parameters (e.g., velocity; cadence; stride time, stride width, and stride length; variability of stride time and stride length) under single- and motor-interfered tasks. Dual tasks were applied to appraise improvements of cognitive processing during balance and gait. FES-I (p = .33) and postural sway did not significantly change (0.36 < p < .79). Trends toward significant interaction effects were found for step width during normal walking and stride length variability during the motor dual task (p = .05, ?p 2 = .22). Fall training did not sufficiently improve fear of falling, balance, or gait performance under single- or dual-task conditions in healthy older adults. PMID:23881433

Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Roth, Ralf; Soltermann, Martin; Kressig, Reto W; Zahner, Lukas

2014-07-01

389

[Protect employability: effects of prevention programs offered by the german pension scheme].  

PubMed

A pilot study was carried out in 4 medical rehabilitation centers to examine the practicability and effectiveness of preventive life-style interventions for employees with risk factors. The programs were developed in cooperation with the German pension scheme and employers. Selection criteria were risk factors as lack of physical activity, overweight, dorsal pain or job strain. The results demonstrate that preventive programs, which are conducted in addition to the normal working hours on the job, can be implemented successfully in rehabilitation units. The participation in the multimodal prevention program goes along with a stable reduction of risky health behavior: increased physical activity, stress coping, dietary change und weight reduction. The healthier life-style is reflected in an enhanced state of health and has also positive impact on the occupational field scale: The percentage of employees who believed to be able to work until their old-age pension, could be increased significantly (p<0.001) from 47% to 74%. Work-related risk behaviors like excessive demands on oneself were reduced and protective strategies were -developed. PMID:24399282

Kittel, J; Fröhlich, S M; Heilmeyer, P; Olbrich, D; Karoff, M; Greitemann, B

2014-08-01

390

Stacked Deck: an effective, school-based program for the prevention of problem gambling.  

PubMed

School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and skills for good decision making and problem solving. An overriding theme of the program is to approach life as a "smart gambler" by determining the odds and weighing the pros versus cons of your actions. A total of 949 grade 9-12 students in 10 schools throughout southern Alberta received the program and completed baseline and follow-up measures. These students were compared to 291 students in 4 control schools. Four months after receiving the program, students in the intervention group had significantly more negative attitudes toward gambling, improved knowledge about gambling and problem gambling, improved resistance to gambling fallacies, improved decision making and problem solving, decreased gambling frequency, and decreased rates of problem gambling. There was no change in involvement in high risk activities or money lost gambling. These results indicate that Stacked Deck is a promising curriculum for the prevention of problem gambling. PMID:20405219

Williams, Robert J; Wood, Robert T; Currie, Shawn R

2010-06-01

391

Effectiveness of the surviving the Teens® suicide prevention and depression awareness program: an impact evaluation utilizing a comparison group.  

PubMed

Youth suicide is a serious public health issue in the United States. It is currently the third leading cause of death for youth aged 10 to 19. School-based prevention programs may be an effective method of educating youth and enhancing their help-seeking. Most school-based suicide prevention programs have not been rigorously evaluated for their effectiveness. This evaluation employs a comparison group to measure whether program group participants differed significantly from comparison group participants on pretest-posttest measures while assessing the immediate impact of the Surviving the Teens® Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program. Findings indicate several positive outcomes in program group students' suicide and depression knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and behavioral intentions compared with the comparison group. Suicide prevention specialists and prevention planners may benefit from study findings. PMID:24786795

Strunk, Catherine M; King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Sorter, Michael T

2014-12-01

392

Epidemiology and prevention of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug effects in the gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

Lesions of the gastric, duodenal and intestinal mucosae are found in large numbers of patients using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); however, no markers have yet been isolated to identify patients at risk for developing gastrointestinal problems or to predict which patients with lesions are at risk for developing catastrophic complications. There appears to be a poor correlation between the presence of ulcer disease and the appearance of symptoms while patients are using NSAIDs. The ideal treatment--namely, withdrawal from NSAIDs--may not always be practicable in patients who require the analgesic benefit of these otherwise generally innocuous agents. It is incumbent on the clinician to identify the agent most appropriate for the needs of the individual, and to supplement NSAID therapy, where appropriate, with a means of preventing or minimizing adverse effects. Four classes of drugs are used to prevent NSAID-related gastric mucosal damage: histamine (H2)-receptor antagonists (ranitidine, cimetidine, nizatidine, famotidine); gastric acid-pump inhibitor (omeprazole); barrier agent (sucralfate); and prostaglandin analogue (misoprostol). The current therapies (H2 antagonists and barriers) have not lived up to their promise for preventing gastroduodenal erosion. Moreover, such protection as they provide is limited to the duodenal mucosa; they afford no protection to the gastric mucosa. Preliminary data indicate that an acid pump inhibitor may be useful, but large-scale studies have yet to be reported. Acute and long-term studies of the prostaglandin analogue misoprostol have shown that this agent has an important role as an adjunctive therapy to prevent both gastric and duodenal ulceration due to NSAIDs. PMID:7780679

Agrawal, N M

1995-04-01

393

Stroke prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stroke prevention is a crucial issue because (i) stroke is a frequent and severe disorder, and (ii) acute stroke therapies\\u000a that are effective at the individual level have only a little impact in term of public health. Stroke prevention consists\\u000a of the combination of 3 strategies: an optimal management of vascular risk factors, associated when appropriate with antithrombotic\\u000a therapies, carotid

Didier Leys; Dominique Deplanque; Claire Mounier-Vehier; Marie-Anne Mackowiak-Cordoliani; Christian Lucas; Régis Bordet

2002-01-01

394

On the Mechanisms of Harmful Effects of Certain Medicinal Preparations on the Auditory Organ and Methods for Their Prevention  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various drugs are discussed and many references are mentioned. It was concluded that the development of methods of pharmacological prevention of the harmful effect of drugs on the auditory analyzor is a necessity.

Bakay, E. A.

1980-01-01

395

Effectiveness of preventive oral health care in Hispanic children living near US–Mexico border  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The effect of preventive oral healthcare on dental caries in Hispanic children in a school district near the US–Mexico border\\u000a in Texas was studied.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We collected socioeconomic and demographic data for enrolled students through a written survey of parents. The information\\u000a was linked to screening data for students in the same school that had been collected during a previously completed

Anjum Khurshid

2010-01-01

396

Examining the protective effects of brand equity in the keepin' it REAL substance use prevention curriculum.  

PubMed

While branding appears to be an effective health prevention strategy, it is less clear how successful brands have protective effects. To better understand the role of branding in health prevention and promotion, it is necessary to examine how the persuasive mechanisms of branding function in health campaigns (e.g., modeling socially desirable behaviors). Using cross-sectional data (n?=?709), the current study uncovered the mechanisms explaining branding's effects on adolescent substance use in a school-based substance use intervention, the keepin' it REAL (kiR) curriculum. Consistent with our predictions, a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that kiR brand equity had a higher order, multidimensional factor structure. In addition, a path analysis revealed that brand equity affected adolescent substance use directly and through the predicted social cognitive processes, including refusal efficacy and resistance skills. Thus, it is concluded that kiR brand equity serves as a protective factor for adolescent substance use. Practical implications, research limitations, and future directions are discussed. PMID:21512924

Lee, Jeong Kyu; Hecht, Michael L

2011-10-01

397

Cyproheptadine for prevention of neuropsychiatric adverse effects of efavirenz: a randomized clinical trial.  

PubMed

Cyproheptadine prevention of the neuropsychiatric adverse effects of an antiretroviral regimen including efavirenz has been evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. Twenty-five patients (16 males and 9 females with mean±SD ages of 36±9 years) in a cyproheptadine group, and 26 patients (17 males and 9 females with mean±SD ages of 34±7 years) in a control group completed the trial. Sexual contact and injection drug use were the main routs of HIV infection in both groups. The patients' neuropsychiatric adverse effects were evaluated based on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Beck Depression Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory, Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation, and Somatization Subscale of Symptom Checklist 90 at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment. Cyproheptadine significantly decreased the scores of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Beck Depression Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory, Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation of the patients after 4 weeks in comparison with control group. All of the scores increased in control group following antiretroviral therapy. Although short duration of the patients' follow-up was a major limitation of the study, the results of the study showed that cyprohepradine is effective in prevention of depression, anxiety, hallucination, aggressive behaviors, emotional withdrawal, poor rapport, poor impulse control, active social avoidance, suicidal ideation, and improved sleep quality of HIV-positive patients after initiation of antiretroviral therapy including efavirenz. PMID:23442031

Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh; Ghaeli, Padideh; Khalili, Hossein; Alimadadi, Abbas; Jafari, Sirous; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Khazaeipour, Zahra

2013-03-01

398

Preventive effect of Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl. on activated carbon-induced constipation in mice  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl. (D. candidum) on activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR mice. ICR mice were orally administered D. candidum for 9 days. Body weight, defecation status, gastrointestinal (GI) transit and defecation times, in addition to the levels of motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas), endothelin (ET), somatostatin (SS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in serum were used to evaluate the preventive effects of D. candidum on constipation. The laxative drug bisacodyl acted as a positive control. The time to the first defecation of a black stool for the normal, control, bisacodyl-treated (100 mg/kg), 200 and 400 mg/kg D. candidum-treated mice was 84, 202, 126, 161 and 142 min, respectively. Following the consumption of 200 and 400 mg/kg D. candidum or bisacodyl (100 mg/kg), the GI transit was reduced to 57.7, 74.6 and 90.2%, respectively, of the transit in normal mice. The serum levels of MTL, Gas, ET, AChE, SP and VIP were significantly increased and the serum levels of SS were reduced in the mice treated with D. candidum compared with those in the untreated control mice (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that D. candidum has preventive effects on constipation in mice, and a greater functional activity was observed when a higher concentration was administered. PMID:25574235

WANG, RUI; SUN, PENG; ZHOU, YALIN; ZHAO, XIN

2015-01-01

399

Perinatal Nitric Oxide Therapy Prevents Adverse Effects of Perinatal Hypoxia on the Adult Pulmonary Circulation  

PubMed Central

Adverse events in utero are associated with the occurrence of chronic diseases in adulthood. We previously demonstrated in mice that perinatal hypoxia resulted in altered pulmonary circulation in adulthood, with a decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation of pulmonary arteries, associated with long-term alterations in the nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP pathway. The present study investigated whether inhaled NO (iNO) administered simultaneously to perinatal hypoxia could have potential beneficial effects on the adult pulmonary circulation. Indeed, iNO is the therapy of choice in humans presenting neonatal pulmonary hypertension. Long-term effects of neonatal iNO therapy on adult pulmonary circulation have not yet been investigated. Pregnant mice were placed in hypoxia (13% O2) with simultaneous administration of iNO 5 days before delivery until 5 days after birth. Pups were then raised in normoxia until adulthood. Perinatal iNO administration completely restored acetylcholine-induced relaxation, as well as endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein content, in isolated pulmonary arteries of adult mice born in hypoxia. Right ventricular hypertrophy observed in old mice born in hypoxia compared to controls was also prevented by perinatal iNO treatment. Therefore, simultaneous administration of iNO during perinatal hypoxic exposure seems able to prevent adverse effects of perinatal hypoxia on the adult pulmonary circulation. PMID:25110713

Peyter, Anne-Christine; Delhaes, Flavien; Diaceri, Giacomo; Menétrey, Steeve; Tolsa, Jean-François

2014-01-01

400

Effectiveness of alcohol prevention interventions based on the principles of social marketing: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol education aims to increase knowledge on the harm related to alcohol, and to change attitudes and drinking behaviour. However, little (lasting) evidence has been found for alcohol education, in changing alcohol-related attitudes and behaviour. Social marketing uses marketing techniques to achieve a social or healthy goal, and can be used in alcohol education. Social marketing consists of eight principles: customer orientation, insight, segmentation, behavioural goals, exchange, competition, methods mix, and is theory based. This review investigates the application of social marketing in alcohol prevention interventions, and whether application of social marketing influences alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour. Method A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsychInfo, Cochrane and Scopus. Inclusion criteria were that original papers had to describe the effects of an alcohol prevention intervention developed according to one or more principles of social marketing. No limits were set on the age of the participants or on the kind of alcohol prevention intervention. The abstracts of the 274 retrieved studies were reviewed and the full texts of potentially relevant studies were screened. Results Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These six studies showed associations for the application of social marketing techniques on alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour; one study relates to participation in a drinking event, four to alcohol drinking behaviour, two to driving a car while under the influence of alcohol, two to recognition of campaign messages or campaign logo, and one to awareness of the campaign. However, no associations were also found. In addition, the studies had several limitations related to a control group, response rate and study methodology. Conclusion Based on this review, the effect of applying the principles of social marketing in alcohol prevention in changing alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour could not be assessed. More research, with a good quality methodology, like using a randomized control trial and measuring short, medium, and long-term effects, is required on this topic. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:23725406

2013-01-01

401

Comparative effectiveness of pharmacotherapies for prevention of atrial fibrillation following coronary artery bypass surgery.  

PubMed

Risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is high, yet the effectiveness of guideline-recommended preoperative prophylaxis in clinical practice remains uncertain. We determined the utilization and variation of preoperative AF prevention and assessed the comparative effectiveness of alternative drugs using the Society of Thoracic Surgeons multicenter Contemporary Analysis of Perioperative Cardiovascular Surgical Care (CAPS-Care) registry. Among 2,177 patients who underwent high-risk CABG and/or valve surgery, the mean age was 71 ± 9, 66% were men, 26% had chronic lung disease, and 21% had cerebrovascular disease. Overall use of AF prophylaxis was 84% and varied across sites (range 52% to 100%). The most common preventive agents were beta blockers (72%), followed by calcium antagonists (17%). Postoperatively, 30% (n = 646) developed AF at a median of 2 (25th to 75th percentiles: 1 to 3) days after surgery. Increasing age, height, white race, body mass index >35, New York Heart Association class IV heart failure, preoperative dialysis, and concomitant aortic valve replacement were associated with greater odds of postoperative AF (p <0.05 for all). Preoperative amiodarone use was associated with a trend to reduction of postoperative AF (26%, adjusted odds ratio 0.72 [95% confidence interval 0.51 to 1.00], p = 0.052). After adjustment, the odds of postoperative AF were not statistically different across agents. In conclusion, use of AF prophylaxis before surgery varied significantly. In this high-risk population, we were unable to demonstrate that any of the commonly used preventive agents were associated with lower rates of AF compared with alternatives or no treatment. PMID:23850476

Piccini, Jonathan P; Zhao, Yue; Steinberg, Benjamin A; He, Xia; Mathew, Joseph P; Fullerton, David A; Hegland, Donald D; Hernandez, Adrian F; Mills, Roger M; Klaskala, Winslow; Peterson, Eric D

2013-10-01

402

Effectiveness of an intervention for prevention and treatment of burnout in primary health care professionals  

PubMed Central

Background Burnout syndrome is an important health problem that affects many professionals and must be addressed globally, with both organizational measures and personal interventions. Burnout of health professionals can be prevented in order to avoid personal, familial, and social consequences, as well as repercussions for patients. Methods/design This work describes a protocol for a controlled, pragmatic, randomized clinical trial in 2 parallel groups: intervention and control. All health professionals from 7 health care centers will form the intervention group, and all health professionals from 7 different health care centers will form the control group. The intervention group will receive 16 hours of training at their work place. The Maslach's burnout inventory, the Cuestionario de Desgaste Profesional Médico or the Cuestionario de Desgaste Profesional de Enfermería, and the 28-item Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire, validated for our setting, will be used as measurement tools. Change in the average scores from the Maslach's burnout inventory emotional exhaustion scale will be compared between the intervention and control groups, measured as intention-to-treat, and the intervention will be considered effective if a minimum decrease of 20% is achieved. Discussion Due to the deleterious consequences of burnout syndrome for people suffering from it and for the organization where they work, it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of certain interventions for its prevention. Organizational measures are important for preventing burnout syndrome, but so is providing professionals with coping strategies, as this group intervention intends to do. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on June 10, 2013. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01870154. PMID:24237937

2013-01-01

403

Quantification of the Probable Effects of Alternative In-River Harvest Regulations on Recovery of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon : Final Report March 1996.  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study was to quantify the probable effects that alternative strategies for managing in-river harvest would have on recovery of Snake River fall chinook salmon. This report presents the analysis of existing data to quantify the way in which various in-river harvest strategies catch Snake River bright (SRB) fall chinook. Because there has been disagreement among experts regarding the magnitude of in-river harvest impacts on Snake River fall chinook, the authors compared the results from using the following three different methods to estimate in-river harvest rates: (1) use of run reconstruction through stock accounting of escapement and landings data to estimate harvest rate of SRB chinook in Zone 6 alone; (2) use of Coded Wire Tag (CWT) recoveries of fall chinook from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in a cohort analysis to estimate age and sex specific harvest rates for Zone 6 and for below Bonneville Dam; (3) comparison of harvest rates estimated for SRB chinook by the above methods to those estimated by the same methods for Upriver Bright (URB) fall chinook.

Cramer, Steven P.; Vigg, Steven

1996-03-01

404

Effect of Human Isolated Probiotic Bacteria on Preventing Campylobacter jejuni Colonization of Poultry.  

PubMed

This study was performed in order to determine whether human isolated probiotic bacteria can be effective in reducing Campylobacter jejuni infection of chicken intestinal cells, in vitro, and in decreasing its colonization abilities within the chicken gut. Our results show that the probiotic strains Lactobacillus paracasei J.R, L. rhamnosus 15b, L. lactis Y, and L. lactis FOa had a significant effect on C. jejuni invasion of chicken primary cells, with the strongest inhibitory effect detected when a combination of four was administered. In regard to the in vivo effect, using all four strains in one combination prevented mucus colonization in the duodenum and cecum. Moreover, the pathogen load in the lumen of these two compartments was significantly reduced. When probiotics were introduced during the early growth period, the presence of the pathogen in feces was increased (p>0.05), but when they were given during the last week of growth, there was no significant effect. In conclusion, our data indicate that these four new probiotic strains are able to cause modifications in the chicken intestinal mucosa and can reduce the ability of C. jejuni to invade, in vitro, and to colonize, in vivo. These probiotics are now proven to be effective even when introduced in broiler's feed 7 days before slaughter, which makes them cost-effective for the producers. PMID:25585278

Cean, Ada; Stef, Lavinia; Simiz, Eliza; Julean, Calin; Dumitrescu, Gabi; Vasile, Aida; Pet, Elena; Drinceanu, Dan; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae

2015-02-01

405

Hip-Hop to Health Jr. Obesity Prevention Effectiveness Trial: postintervention results.  

PubMed

The preschool years offer an opportunity to interrupt the trajectory toward obesity in black children. The Hip-Hop to Health Jr. Obesity Prevention Effectiveness Trial was a group-randomized controlled trial assessing the feasibility and effectiveness of a teacher-delivered weight control intervention for black preschool children. The 618 participating children were enrolled in 18 schools administered by the Chicago Public Schools. Children enrolled in the nine schools randomized to the intervention group received a 14-week weight control intervention delivered by their classroom teachers. Children in the nine control schools received a general health intervention. Height and weight, physical activity, screen time, and diet data were collected at baseline and postintervention. At postintervention, children in the intervention schools engaged in more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) than children in the control schools (difference between adjusted group means = 7.46 min/day, P = 0.02). Also, children in the intervention group had less total screen time (-27.8 min/day, P = 0.05). There were no significant differences in BMI, BMI Z score, or dietary intake. It is feasible to adapt an obesity prevention program to be taught by classroom teachers. The intervention showed positive influences on physical activity and screen time, but not on diet. Measuring diet and physical activity in preschool children remains a challenge, and interventions delivered by classroom teachers require both intensive initial training and ongoing individualized supervision. PMID:21193852

Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Stolley, Melinda R; Schiffer, Linda A; Braunschweig, Carol L; Gomez, Sandra L; Van Horn, Linda; Dyer, Alan R

2011-05-01

406

Preventive effect of crocin on osteoporosis in an ovariectomized rat model.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of crocin on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a sham-operated group (sham) and five ovariectomy (OVX) subgroups, that is, OVX with vehicle (OVX), OVX with 17?-estradiol (E 2, 25??g/kg/day), and OVX with graded crocin doses (5, 10, or 20?mg/kg/day). Daily oral administration of E 2 or crocin started 4 weeks after OVX and lasted for 16 weeks. Our results showed that crocin dose-dependently inhibited the BMD reduction of L4 vertebrae and femurs caused by OVX and prevented the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture, which were accompanied by a significant decrease in skeletal remodeling as evidenced by the lower levels of bone turnover markers. Furthermore, crocin reversed the oxidative stress status in both serum and bone tissue. The present study indicates that the administration of crocin at higher doses over a 16-week period can prevent OVX-induced osteoporosis in rats without hyperplastic effects on the uterus, which may, at least partially, be attributed to crocin's antioxidative property. In brief, crocin is a natural alternative for postmenopausal osteoporosis treatment in elderly women. PMID:25202337

Cao, Peng-Chong; Xiao, Wen-Xing; Yan, Ya-Bo; Zhao, Xiong; Liu, Shuai; Feng, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jun; Feng, Ya-Fei; Lei, Wei

2014-01-01

407

Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations to improve

Timothy P. Hanrahan; David R. Geist; Evan V. Arntzen; Cary S. Abernethy

2004-01-01

408

Falling Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students drop water from different heights to demonstrate the conversion of water's potential energy to kinetic energy. They see how varying the height from which water is dropped affects the splash size. They follow good experiment protocol, take measurements, calculate averages and graph results. In seeing how falling water can be used to do work, they also learn how this energy transformation figures into the engineering design and construction of hydroelectric power plants, dams and reservoirs.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

409

The mechanisms of massage and effects on performance, muscle recovery and injury prevention.  

PubMed

Many coaches, athletes and sports medicine personnel hold the belief, based on observations and experiences, that massage can provide several benefits to the body such as increased blood flow, reduced muscle tension and neurological excitability, and an increased sense of well-being. Massage can produce mechanical pressure, which is expected to increase muscle compliance resulting in increased range of joint motion, decreased passive stiffness and decreased active stiffness (biomechanical mechanisms). Mechanical pressure might help to increase blood flow by increasing the arteriolar pressure, as well as increasing muscle temperature from rubbing. Depending on the massage technique, mechanical pressure on the muscle is expected to increase or decrease neural excitability as measured by the Hoffman reflex (neurological mechanisms). Changes in parasympathetic activity (as measured by heart rate, blood pressure and heart rate variability) and hormonal levels (as measured by cortisol levels) following massage result in a relaxation response (physiological mechanisms). A reduction in anxiety and an improvement in mood state also cause relaxation (psychological mechanisms) after massage. Therefore, these benefits of massage are expected to help athletes by enhancing performance and reducing injury risk. However, limited research has investigated the effects of pre-exercise massage on performance and injury prevention. Massage between events is widely investigated because it is believed that massage might help to enhance recovery and prepare athletes for the next event. Unfortunately, very little scientific data has supported this claim. The majority of research on psychological effects of massage has concluded that massage produces positive effects on recovery (psychological mechanisms). Post-exercise massage has been shown to reduce the severity of muscle soreness but massage has no effects on muscle functional loss. Notwithstanding the belief that massage has benefits for athletes, the effects of different types of massage (e.g. petrissage, effleurage, friction) or the appropriate timing of massage (pre-exercise vs post-exercise) on performance, recovery from injury, or as an injury prevention method are not clear. Explanations are lacking, as the mechanisms of each massage technique have not been widely investigated. Therefore, this article discusses the possible mechanisms of massage and provides a discussion of the limited evidence of massage on performance, recovery and muscle injury prevention. The limitations of previous research are described and further research is recommended. PMID:15730338

Weerapong, Pornratshanee; Hume, Patria A; Kolt, Gregory S

2005-01-01

410

Prevention Science 513 Research Methods in Prevention Science  

E-print Network

#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12; Prevention Science 513 Research Methods in Prevention Science Fall with a theoretical and practical foundation for understanding research methods, especially as they pertain This course is designed to: 1) Increase students' understanding of basic principles of research methods

Collins, Gary S.

411

Blueberries prevent the effect of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia in rat epididymis.  

PubMed

Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) induced a decrease in sperm count and oxidative damage in epididymis. We have previously demonstrated that a blueberry-enriched polyphenol extract (BB-4) reduced the adverse effects of oxidative stress in rat testis under hypobaric hypoxia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether BB-4 could reverse oxidative stress in epididymis. To evaluate the protective role of BB-4 in epididymis, male rats were exposed to IHH. Lipid peroxidation, (LPO) expression and activity of glutathione reductase (GR) were evaluated. Our results showed a reduction in LPO and a decrease in GR activity in rat epididymis exposed to IHH. These results suggest that BB-4 can prevent the effects of IHH in rat epididymis. PMID:23957290

Zepeda, A B; Calaf, G M; Figueroa, C A; Farías, J G

2014-09-01

412

The preventive effect of physical activity on weight maintenance in overweight and obese women.  

PubMed

Prevalence of obesity has increased recently especially in women. Obesity is related to mortality due to non-communicable diseases and has become a public health issue. Among the two important factors to reduce weight calorie limitation alone is modestly effective in initial weight but can result in weight gain after primary weight reduction is common. Therefore adding physical activity to weight maintenance program can reduce weight gain rebound. The aim of this review article was to identify the preventive effect of physical activity on weight maintenance in overweight women. Articles were selected from PubMed database and screened for the relativity to the study objectives, using scoring systems. Eleven studies were found appropriate. No statistical test was done on the data except simple mean and some descriptive analyses. Physical activity is proved to have a significant effect in weight loss/maintenance both in induction and maintenance period. This effect was more significant in higher intensities. Sever intensity physical activity can be effective in weight maintenance in long term but the effect of moderate and light physical activity could not be evaluated due to lack of data. PMID:24999570

Dashti, Sareh; Esfehani, Ali Jafarzadeh; Leonard Joseph, H J

2014-01-01

413

The Preventive Effect of Atorvastatin on Paraquat-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in the Rats  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Pulmonary fibrosis is a potentially lethal inflammatory disease and there has been no effective medication for this progressive disease up to now. As a model, different therapeutic approaches have been applied for paraquat-induced pulmonary injury and fibrosis. Atorvastatin besides cholesterol-lowering effects possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. The current study was designed to investigate the preventive anti-fibrotic effects of atorvastatin on paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Methods: The rats were randomly divided into five experimental groups. Group I, control group (saline), group II received a single oral dose of 20 mg/kg paraquat with no treatment and III, IV and V groups received atorvastatin at the doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg/day orally one week before and three weeks after paraquat administration, respectively. The rats were sacrificed 21 days after paraquat. Lung hydroxyproline and serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined and lung indices and semi-quantitative histopathological changes were evaluated. Results: Paraquat could significantly increase the serum MDA and lung hydroxyproline levels. Elevated content of tissue hydroxyproline and serum levels of malondialdehyde induced by paraquat, attenuated by atorvastatin at the doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg. Furthermore, histopathological findings and the amount of lung indices showed the beneficial preventive role of atorvastatin in rat pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present data show that atorvastatin alleviate the toxic effects of paraquat under the experimental circumstances and may be a useful agent in cases who are in contact or poisoned with paraquat. PMID:25436189

Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Kiani, Milad; Hemmati, Ali Asghar; Rezaie, Anahita; Zerafatfard, Mohammad Rahim; Rashidi Nooshabadi, Mohammad Reza; Goudarzi, Mehdi

2014-01-01

414

Effectiveness of acidic oxidative potential water in preventing bacterial infection in islet transplantation.  

PubMed

At a number of points in the current procedures of islet isolation and islet culture after the harvesting of donor pancreata, microorganisms could potentially infect the islet preparation. Furthermore, the use of islets from multiple donors can compound the risks of contamination of individual recipients. Acidic oxidative potential water (also termed electrolyzed strong acid solution, function water, or acqua oxidation water), which was developed in Japan, is a strong acid formed on the anode in the electrolysis of water containing a small amount of sodium chloride. It has these physical properties: pH, from 2.3 to 2.7; oxidative-reduction potential, from 1,000 to 1,100 mV; dissolved chlorine, from 30 to 40 ppm; and dissolved oxygen, from 10 to 30 ppm. Because of these properties, acidic oxidative potential water has strong bactericidal effects on all bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), viruses including HIV, HBV, HCV, CMV, and fungi as a result of the action of the active oxygen and active chlorine that it contains. We conducted this study to evaluate the effect of acidic oxidative potential water irrigation on bacterial contamination on the harvesting of porcine pancreata from slaughterhouses for islet xenotransplantation by counting the number of pancreatic surface bacteria using the Dip-slide method, and on the results of islet culture; and to evaluate the direct effect on isolated islets when it is used to prevent bacterial contamination by the static incubation test and by morphological examination. Direct irrigation of the pancreas by acidic oxidative potential water was found to be very effective in preventing bacterial contamination, but direct irrigation of isolated islets slightly decreased their viability and function. PMID:10478721

Miyamoto, M; Inoue, K; Gu, Y; Hoki, M; Haji, S; Ohyanagi, H

1999-01-01

415

The Preventive Effect of Dexmedetomidine Against Postoperative Intra-abdominal Adhesions in Rats.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the possible preventive effects of dexmedetomidine on postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions. Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective and potent ?2 adrenergic agonist with sedative, analgesic, anxiolytic, sympatholytic, hemodynamic, and diuretic properties. In recent years, investigations have shown that dexmedetomidine possesses secondary antioxidant and also anti-inflammatory effects. Thirty Wistar albino male rats were randomized and divided into 3 groups of 10 animals each: group 1, sham-operated; group 2, cecal abrasion + peritoneal dissection; group 3, cecal abrasion + peritoneal dissection followed by daily intravenous injection of 10 ?g/kg dexmedetomidine for 10 days. The animals were killed on postoperative day 21. Blood and cecal samples were taken for biochemical and histopathologic evaluation. In this study, biochemical and pathologic parameters were significantly better in the cecal abrasion + peritoneal dissection + dexmedetomidine group when compared with the cecal abrasion + peritoneal dissection group. Tissue malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, total sulfhydryl, and catalase were found to be significantly different between the cecal abrasion/peritoneal dissection + dexmedetomidine and the cecal abrasion/peritoneal dissection groups. Plasma malondialdehyde and total sulfhydryl values were also statistically different between these groups (P < 0.05). Statistical analyses of mean pathologic scores showed that the histopathologic damage in the cecal abrasion/peritoneal dissection + dexmedetomidine group was significantly less than the damage in the control group (P < 0.05 for all pathologic parameters). The results of this study show that dexmedetomidine had a significant preventive effect on postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions. We concluded that these effects might be due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:25594644

Kuru, Serdar; Bozkirli, Osman Bahadir; Barlas, Aziz Mutlu; Duymus, Mehmet Esat; Senes, Mehmet; Yumusak, Nihat; Yilmaz, Cevdet; Kismet, Kemal

2015-01-01

416

Emollient enhancement of the skin barrier from birth offers effective atopic dermatitis prevention  

PubMed Central

Background Atopic dermatitis (atopic eczema) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that has reached epidemic proportions in children worldwide and is increasing in prevalence. Because of the significant socioeconomic effect of atopic dermatitis and its effect on the quality of life of children and families, there have been decades of research focused on disease prevention, with limited success. Recent advances in cutaneous biology suggest skin barrier defects might be key initiators of atopic dermatitis and possibly allergic sensitization. Objective Our objective was to test whether skin barrier enhancement from birth represents a feasible strategy for reducing the incidence of atopic dermatitis in high-risk neonates. Methods We performed a randomized controlled trial in the United States and United Kingdom of 124 neonates at high risk for atopic dermatitis. Parents in the intervention arm were instructed to apply full-body emollient therapy at least once per day starting within 3 weeks of birth. Parents in the control arm were asked to use no emollients. The primary feasibility outcome was the percentage of families willing to be randomized. The primary clinical outcome was the cumulative incidence of atopic dermatitis at 6 months, as assessed by a trained investigator. Results Forty-two percent of eligible families agreed to be randomized into the trial. All participating families in the intervention arm found the intervention acceptable. A statistically significant protective effect was found with the use of daily emollient on the cumulative incidence of atopic dermatitis with a relative risk reduction of 50% (relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28-0.9; P = .017). There were no emollient-related adverse events and no differences in adverse events between groups. Conclusion The results of this trial demonstrate that emollient therapy from birth represents a feasible, safe, and effective approach for atopic dermatitis prevention. If confirmed in larger trials, emollient therapy from birth would be a simple and low-cost intervention that could reduce the global burden of allergic diseases. PMID:25282563

Simpson, Eric L.; Chalmers, Joanne R.; Hanifin, Jon M.; Thomas, Kim S.; Cork, Michael J.; McLean, W.H. Irwin; Brown, Sara J.; Chen, Zunqiu; Chen, Yiyi; Williams, Hywel C.

2014-01-01

417

Falls from heights among children: A retrospective review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Falls are a major cause of emergency room visits and admissions in pediatric hospitals.Methods: To better understand the epidemiology of falls from height and develop prevention strategies, the authors reviewed all admissions after a fall at a single institution from 1994 to 1997. Inclusion criteria are falls from a minimum height of 10 feet.Results: Of 1,410 patients admitted after

M Lallier; S Bouchard; D St-Vil; J Dupont; M Tucci

1999-01-01

418

Differential Effect of Low-Dose Aspirin for Primary Prevention of Atherosclerotic Events in Diabetes Management  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Recent reports showed that low-dose aspirin was ineffective in the primary prevention of cardiovascular events in diabetic patients overall. We hypothesized that low-dose aspirin would be beneficial in patients receiving insulin therapy, as a high-risk group. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study is a subanalysis of the Japanese Primary Prevention of Atherosclerosis With Aspirin for Diabetes (JPAD) trial—a randomized, controlled, open-label trial. We randomly assigned 2,539 patients with type 2 diabetes and no previous cardiovascular disease to the low-dose aspirin group (81 or 100 mg daily) or to the no-aspirin group. The median follow-up period was 4.4 years. We investigated the effect of low-dose aspirin on preventing atherosclerotic events in groups receiving different diabetes management. RESULTS At baseline, 326 patients were treated with insulin, 1,750 with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs), and 463 with diet alone. The insulin group had the longest history of diabetes, the worst glycemic control, and the highest prevalence of diabetic microangiopathies. The diet-alone group had the opposite characteristics. The incidence of atherosclerotic events was 26.6, 14.6, and 10.4 cases per 1,000 person-years in the insulin, OHA, and diet-alone groups, respectively. In the insulin and OHA groups, low-dose aspirin did not affect atherosclerotic events (insulin: hazard ratio [HR] 1.19 [95% CI 0.60?2.40]; OHA: HR 0.84 [0.57?1.24]). In the diet-alone group, low-dose aspirin significantly reduced atherosclerotic events, despite the lowest event rates (HR 0.21 [0.05?0.64]). CONCLUSIONS Low-dose aspirin reduced atherosclerotic events predominantly in the diet-alone group and not in the insulin or OHA groups. PMID:21515838

Okada, Sadanori; Morimoto, Takeshi; Ogawa, Hisao; Kanauchi, Masao; Nakayama, Masafumi; Uemura, Shiro; Doi, Naofumi; Jinnouchi, Hideaki; Waki, Masako; Soejima, Hirofumi; Sakuma, Mio; Saito, Yoshihiko

2011-01-01

419

IDENTIFYING ROOF FALL PREDICTORS USING FUZZY CLASSIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

Microseismic monitoring involves placing geophones on the rock surfaces of a mine to record seismic activity. Classification of microseismic mine data can be used to predict seismic events in a mine to mitigate mining hazards, such as roof falls, where properly bolting and bracing the roof is often an insufficient method of preventing weak roofs from destabilizing. In this study, six months of recorded acoustic waveforms from microseismic monitoring in a Pennsylvania limestone mine were analyzed using classification techniques to predict roof falls. Fuzzy classification using features selected for computational ease was applied on the mine data. Both large roof fall events could be predicted using a Roof Fall Index (RFI) metric calculated from the results of the fuzzy classification. RFI was successfully used to resolve the two significant roof fall events and predicted both events by at least 15 hours before visual signs of the roof falls were evident.

Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K. [NDE Lab, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 23187-8795 (United States)

2010-02-22

420

The limits of prevention.  

PubMed Central

Recent years have been marked by unprecedented accomplishments in preventing disease and reducing mortality. More gains can be expected, but there are limits. The forces shaping the nature and potential of prevention programs can be characterized as points falling along a spectrum ranging from the purely scientific to the purely social. This paper focuses on four elements of that spectrum, discussing some of the limitations to prevention that are presented by biological, technical, ethical, and economic factors. The author concludes with an essentially optimistic perspective on the prospects, special opportunities, and imperatives inherent in each of the categories of limitations discussed. PMID:3923530

McGinnis, J M

1985-01-01

421

Cost-Effectiveness of Preventive Interventions to Reduce Alcohol Consumption in Denmark  

PubMed Central

Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. Methods We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. Results Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation) were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. Conclusion Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost-saving and should thus be first priority for implementation. PMID:24505370

Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda; Ekholm, Ola; Diderichsen, Finn

2014-01-01

422

The Effect of Garcin® in Preventing AntiTB-Induced Hepatitis in Newly Diagnosed Tuberculosis Patients.  

PubMed

Adverse effects of antituberculosis agents such as hepatotoxicity may reduce treatment effectiveness, because they significantly contribute to nonadherence and eventually result in treatment failure, relapse or the emergence of drug resistance. Garlic is an ancient herbal substance, which its effectiveness on isoniazid and rifampicin-induced hepatic injury in animal models has been demonstrated (1). In the present study a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group clinical trial was designed to assess the effect(s) of garlic tablets (1000 mg daily) administered for two weeks orally. Fifty eight newly diagnosed, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients, with age ranges between 18-65 years old, were randomly allocated into two groups. Each patient received either garlic or placebo tablets for the first two weeks of tuberculosis treatment. Of total 58 patients, 31 received garlic tablets while 27 received placebo. No significant difference was found between the two groups regarding age, sex, nationality, smoking, underlying diseases and opium usage. During 8 weeks of anti-TB (antituberculosis) treatment, 8 (13.0%) patients developed drug-induced hepatotoxicity (DIH). Of them, 6 (75%) occurred in the first two weeks of treatment. Fifty percent of the patients who developed DIH were in garlic group. Results indicated no significant difference between groups in developing DIH (p=1.000). We could not show a significant role in preventing DIH by 1000 mg daily garlic administration. PMID:24711843

Tabarsi, Payam; Fahimi, Fanak; Heidarzadeh, Nader; Haghgoo, Roodabeh; Kazempour, Mehdi; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Velayati, Ali Akbar

2014-01-01

423

The Effect of Garcin® in Preventing AntiTB-Induced Hepatitis in Newly Diagnosed Tuberculosis Patients  

PubMed Central

Adverse effects of antituberculosis agents such as hepatotoxicity may reduce treatment effectiveness, because they significantly contribute to nonadherence and eventually result in treatment failure, relapse or the emergence of drug resistance. Garlic is an ancient herbal substance, which its effectiveness on isoniazid and rifampicin-induced hepatic injury in animal models has been demonstrated (1). In the present study a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group clinical trial was designed to assess the effect(s) of garlic tablets (1000 mg daily) administered for two weeks orally. Fifty eight newly diagnosed, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients, with age ranges between 18-65 years old, were randomly allocated into two groups. Each patient received either garlic or placebo tablets for the first two weeks of tuberculosis treatment. Of total 58 patients, 31 received garlic tablets while 27 received placebo. No significant difference was found between the two groups regarding age, sex, nationality, smoking, underlying diseases and opium usage. During 8 weeks of anti-TB (antituberculosis) treatment, 8 (13.0%) patients developed drug-induced hepatotoxicity (DIH). Of them, 6 (75%) occurred in the first two weeks of treatment. Fifty percent of the patients who developed DIH were in garlic group. Results indicated no significant difference between groups in developing DIH (p=1.000). We could not show a significant role in preventing DIH by 1000 mg daily garlic administration. PMID:24711843

Tabarsi, Payam; Fahimi, Fanak; Heidarzadeh, Nader; Haghgoo, Roodabeh; Kazempour, Mehdi; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Velayati, Ali Akbar

2014-01-01

424

Assessment of channel changes, model of historical floods, and effects of backwater on flood stage, and flood mitigation alternatives for the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In cooperation with the City of Wichita Falls, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel changes on the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas, and modeled historical floods to investigate possible causes and potential mitigation alternatives to higher flood stages in recent (2007 and 2008) floods. Extreme flooding occurred on the Wichita River on June 30, 2007, inundating 167 homes in Wichita Falls. Although a record flood stage was reached in June 2007, the peak discharge was much less than some historical floods at Wichita Falls. Streamflow and stage data from two gages on the Wichita River and one on Holliday Creek were used to assess the interaction of the two streams. Changes in the Wichita River channel were evaluated using historical aerial and ground photography, comparison of recent and historical cross sections, and comparison of channel roughness coefficients with those from earlier studies. The floods of 2007 and 2008 were modeled using a one-dimensional step-backwater model. Calibrated channel roughness was larger for the 2007 flood compared to the 2008 flood, and the 2007 flood peaked about 4 feet higher than the 2008 flood. Calibration of the 1941 flood yielded a channel roughness coefficient (Manning's n) of 0.030, which represents a fairly clean natural channel. The step-backwater model was also used to evaluate the following potential mitigation alternatives: (1) increasing the capacity of the bypass channel near River Road in Wichita Falls, Texas; (2) removal of obstructions near the Scott Avenue and Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard bridges in Wichita Falls, Texas; (3) widening of aggraded channel banks in the reach between Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard and River Road; and (4) reducing channel bank and overbank roughness. Reductions in water-surface elevations ranged from 0.1 foot to as much as 3.0 feet for the different mitigation alternatives. The effects of implementing a combination of different flood-mitigation alternatives were not investigated.

Winters, Karl E.; Baldys, Stanley

2011-01-01

425

A randomized comparative effectiveness trial of using cable television to deliver diabetes prevention programming  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the use and effectiveness of two “in-home” strategies for delivering diabetes prevention programming using cable television. Methods An individually randomized, two-arm intervention trial including adults with diabetes risk factors living in two US cities. Interventions involved a 16-session lifestyle intervention delivered via “video-on-demand” cable television, offered alone versus in combination with web-based lifestyle support tools. Repeated measures longitudinal linear regression with imputation of missing observations was used to compare changes in body weight. Results A total of 306 individuals were randomized and offered the interventions. After 5 months, 265 (87%) participants viewed at least 1, and 110 (36%) viewed ?9 of the video episodes. A total of 262 (86%) participants completed a 5-month weight measurement. In intention-to-treat analysis with imputation of missing observations, mean weight loss at 5 months for both treatment groups combined was 3.3% (95% CI 0.7-5.0%), regardless of intervention participation (with no differences between randomized groups (P?=?0.19)), and was 4.9% (95% CI 2.1-6.5%) for participants who viewed ?9 episodes. Conclusions In-home delivery of evidence-based diabetes prevention programming in a reality television format, offered with or without online behavioral support tools, can achieve modest weight losses consistent with past implementation studies of face-to-face programs using similar content. PMID:24740868

Ackermann, Ronald T; Sandy, Lewis G; Beauregard, Tom; Coblitz, Mark; Norton, Kristi L; Vojta, Deneen

2014-01-01

426

Effects of a Culturally Grounded Community-Based Diabetes Prevention Program for Obese Latino Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and preliminary effects of a culturally grounded, community-based diabetes prevention program among obese Latino adolescents. Methods Fifteen obese Latino adolescents (body mass index [BMI] percentile = 96.3 ± 1.1, age = 15.0 ± 0.9 years) completed a 12-week intervention that included weekly lifestyle education classes delivered by bilingual/bicultural promotoras and three, 60-minute physical activity sessions per week. Participants were assessed for anthropometrics (height, weight, BMI, and waist circumference), cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity/inactivity, nutrition behaviors, and insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance by a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Results The intervention resulted in significant decreases in BMI z score, BMI percentile, and waist circumference; increases in cardiorespiratory fitness; and decreases in physical inactivity and dietary fat consumption. In addition to these changes, the intervention led to significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and reductions in 2-hour glucose levels. Conclusions These results support the feasibility and efficacy of a community-based diabetes prevention program for high-risk Latino youth. Translational approaches that are both culturally grounded and biologically meaningful represent a novel and innovative strategy for closing the obesity-related health disparities gap. PMID:22585870

Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Konopken, Yolanda; Hoppin, Erica; Keller, Colleen S.; Ortega, Rocio; Castro, Felipe González

2012-01-01

427

Participatory Action Research: creating an effective prevention curriculum for adolescents in the Southwestern US.  

PubMed

Existing research confirms a need to seek strategies that combine the strengths of researchers and community to create effective prevention curricula for youth. This article describes how components of Participatory Action Research (PAR) methodology were used to create the keepin' it REAL Drug Resistance Strategies (DRS) curriculum designed for a diverse Southwestern US youth population. School community participants were involved in multiple stages of creation and implementation. The research team developed a systematic process for creating lessons built upon strong theoretical foundations, while teachers and students contributed lesson modifications and evaluations, suggestions for supplemental activities, and the actual production of instructional videos. While the experimental design and some methodological constraints served to limit school community involvement in some phases of the DRS project, this article describes how PAR methodology ensured that researchers collaborated with school community members to create this promising drug prevention curriculum. Results of the REAL experiment, discussion of the use of this methodology, implications and recommendations for future research also are included. PMID:12828237

Gosin, M N; Dustman, P A; Drapeau, A E; Harthun, M L

2003-06-01

428

Development and preventative effect against pine wilt disease of a novel liquid formulation of emamectin benzoate.  

PubMed

Injection of the poorly water-soluble emamectin benzoate (EB) into pine trunks required the development of an efficient liquid formulation. For injection into big trees in forests a good rate of injection and a high active content were required. Tests on the viscosity and EB-solubilizing ability of 14 various solubilizers in diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DGMBE) led to the selection of Sorpol SM-100PM as the solubilizer of the formulation. Relationships between the solubilizing ability and amounts of Sorpol SM-100PM and DGMBE relative to that of EB, and between the concentration of the latter and the viscosity or the injection rate of the formulation led to a novel 40 g litre(-1) emamectin benzoate formulation (Shot Wan Liquid Formulation), which was composed of EB (40), Sorpol SM-100PM (120), DGMBE (160) and distilled water (50 g litre(-1)) in methanol. Injection of this formulation at a dose of 10 g EB per unit volume of pine tree prevented over 90% of the trees from wilting caused by pine wood nematode, and this preventative effect continued for 3 years. Neither discolouration of the leaves nor injury around the injection hole on the trees was observed after injection of the formulation. PMID:12639056

Takai, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshio; Kawazu, Kazuyoshi

2003-03-01

429

On the analysis of effectiveness in mass application of mosquito repellent for dengue disease prevention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dengue disease has been known as one of dangerous vector-borne diseases and become serious threat in many tropical countries. With no vaccine and antiviral available until nowadays, and frequent appearance of extraordinary dengue outbreaks, many governments are forced to declare national problem for dengue. At this moment, the only method available to prevent dengue disease transmission is to combat the disease-carrying mosquitoes as well as to reduce the contact between human and mosquitoes. The fast growing dengue transmission in many countries in recent years indicates that the mosquito control programs are far from successful. The use of mosquito repellent is one possible instrument which could be used as an effective mass treatment to prevent the dengue outbreak during endemic period. Here in this paper a Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (S-I-R) dengue transmission model with repellent mass treatment is being applied to portions of children and adult compartments. Analysis of the basic reproductive ratio (Ro) of the model is done. It is shown, with reasonable choices of portions of treated children and adults, in combination with reduction of mosquito population, the basic reproductive ratio can be significantly reduced and occurrence of endemic can be avoided. Numerical simulations are shown for various treatment scenarios.

Aldila, D.; Soewono, E.; Nuraini, N.