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1

Preventing Falls  

MedlinePLUS

... of falling. Exercises that improve balance, such as tai chi, are helpful. Your local health or senior center ... to prevent falls. Do balance exercises, such as tai chi. These types of exercises can lower the chances ...

2

Preventing Falls  

MedlinePLUS

... gov/Go4Life l Find sample exercises to help prevent falls. l Print useful tools. l Share your exercise story. National Institute on Aging National Institutes of Health U.S. Department of Health & ...

3

The effectiveness of a participatory program on fall prevention in oncology patients.  

PubMed

Falls are known to be one of the most common in patient adverse events. A high incidence of falls was reported on patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a participatory program on patient's knowledge and self-efficacy of fall prevention and fall incidence in an oncology ward. In this quasi-experimental study, 68 participants were recruited at a medical centre in Taiwan. A 20-min fall prevention program was given to patients. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the effectiveness of program after on day 3 of intervention. The data of fall incidence rates were collected from hospital record. Fall incidences with and without the program were used to compare the effectiveness of intervention. The patients' knowledge and self-efficacy of fall prevention are better than after intervention. A statistically significant difference in fall incidence rate was observed with (0.0%) and without (19.3%) the program. Our findings suggest that the fact of the bedside is that the most risk for falling in hospital must be communicated to the hospitalized patients. Educating patients about fall prevention and activities associated with falling increases their awareness of the potential of falling and promoting patient safety. PMID:25492057

Huang, Li-Chi; Ma, Wei-Fen; Li, Tsai-Chung; Liang, Yia-Wun; Tsai, Li-Yun; Chang, Fy-Uan

2015-04-01

4

Preventing Falls and Related Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

... Basics Falls and Fractures Preventing Falls and Related Fractures Publication available in: PDF (241 KB) Related Resources Falls and Fractures Caídas y fracturas (Falls and Fractures) Osteoporosis and ...

5

Study protocol for prevention of falls: A randomized controlled trial of effects of vitamin D and exercise on falls prevention  

PubMed Central

Background Falls are the leading cause of unintentional injury and injury-related death among older people. In addition to physical activity, vitamin D also may affect balance and neuromuscular function. Low serum 25-hydroksivitamin D level increases the risk of bone loss, falls and fractures. Thus, an appropriate exercise program and sufficient vitamin D intake may significantly improve not only functional balance, but also balance confidence. Balance represents a complex motor skill determined by reaction time, muscle strength, and speed and coordination of movement. Methods/Design A 2-year randomized double-blind placebo-controlled vitamin D and open exercise trial of 409 home-dwelling women 70 to 80 years of age comprising four study arms: 1) exercise + vitamin D (800 IU/d), 2) exercise + placebo, 3) no exercise + vitamin D (800 IU/d), 4) no exercise + placebo. In addition to monthly fall diaries, general health status, life style, bone health, physical functioning, and vitamin D metabolism will be assessed. The primary outcomes are the rate of falls and fall-related injuries. Secondary outcomes include changes in neuromuscular functioning (e.g. body balance, muscle strength), ADL- and mobility functions, bone density and structure, cardiovascular risk factors, quality of life and fear of falling. Discussion The successful completion of this trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness of exercise and vitamin D for falls reduction. Trial Registration ClinicalTrial.gov -register (NCT00986466). PMID:22448872

2012-01-01

6

Effects of a Community-based Fall Prevention Exercise Program on Activity Participation  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to identify the effects of a fall-prevention exercise program on the participation and static balance of elderly persons in daily life roles. [Subjects] Ten participants over 65?years of age (75.29±2.93) who were healthy community-dwellers (two men and eight women) were recruited. [Methods] The participants exercised three times a week for eight weeks. The exercise program was based on the fitness and mobility exercise (FAME) protocol. The outcome measures were changes in activity participation level and the fall index. [Results] After the exercise, the activity participation level significantly increased, and the fall index significantly decreased. [Conclusion] A fall prevention exercise program can have a positive effect on participation and static balance in older adults. PMID:24926125

Kim, Won-Jin; Chang, Moonyoung; An, Duk-Hyun

2014-01-01

7

Effects of a Randomized Controlled Recurrent Fall Prevention Program on Risk Factors for Falls in Frail Elderly Living at Home in Rural Communities  

PubMed Central

Background Falling can lead to severe health issues in the elderly and importantly contributes to morbidity, death, immobility, hospitalization, and early entry to long-term care facilities. The aim of this study was to devise a recurrent fall prevention program for elderly women in rural areas. Material/Methods This study adopted an assessor-blinded, randomized, controlled trial methodology. Subjects were enrolled in a 12-week recurrent fall prevention program, which comprised strength training, balance training, and patient education. Muscle strength and endurance of the ankles and the lower extremities, static balance, dynamic balance, depression, compliance with preventive behavior related to falls, fear of falling, and fall self-efficacy at baseline and immediately after the program were assessed. Sixty-two subjects (mean age 69.2±4.3 years old) completed the program – 31 subjects in the experimental group and 31 subjects in the control group. Results When the results of the program in the 2 groups were compared, significant differences were found in ankle heel rise test, lower extremity heel rise test, dynamic balance, depression, compliance with fall preventative behavior, fear of falling, and fall self-efficacy (p<0.05), but no significant difference was found in static balance. Conclusions This study shows that the fall prevention program described effectively improves muscle strength and endurance, balance, and psychological aspects in elderly women with a fall history. PMID:25394805

Jeon, Mi Yang; Jeong, HyeonCheol; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Lee, Haneul; Yim, JongEun

2014-01-01

8

The effect of fall prevention exercise programmes on fall induced injuries in community dwelling older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether, and to what extent, fall prevention exercise interventions for older community dwelling people are effective in preventing different types of fall related injuries. Data sources Electronic databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, and CINAHL) and reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews from inception to July 2013. Study selection Randomised controlled trials of fall prevention exercise interventions, targeting older (>60 years) community dwelling people and providing quantitative data on injurious falls, serious falls, or fall related fractures. Data synthesis Based on a systematic review of the case definitions used in the selected studies, we grouped the definitions of injurious falls into more homogeneous categories to allow comparisons of results across studies and the pooling of data. For each study we extracted or calculated the rate ratio of injurious falls. Depending on the available data, a given study could contribute data relevant to one or more categories of injurious falls. A pooled rate ratio was estimated for each category of injurious falls based on random effects models. Results 17 trials involving 4305 participants were eligible for meta-analysis. Four categories of falls were identified: all injurious falls, falls resulting in medical care, severe injurious falls, and falls resulting in fractures. Exercise had a significant effect in all categories, with pooled estimates of the rate ratios of 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.77, 10 trials) for all injurious falls, 0.70 (0.54 to 0.92, 8 trials) for falls resulting in medical care, 0.57 (0.36 to 0.90, 7 trials) for severe injurious falls, and 0.39 (0.22 to 0.66, 6 trials) for falls resulting in fractures, but significant heterogeneity was observed between studies of all injurious falls (I2=50%, P=0.04). Conclusions Exercise programmes designed to prevent falls in older adults also seem to prevent injuries caused by falls, including the most severe ones. Such programmes also reduce the rate of falls leading to medical care. PMID:24169944

2013-01-01

9

Fall Prevention in Apprentice Carpenters  

PubMed Central

Objectives Falls from heights are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the construction industry, especially among inexperienced workers. We surveyed apprentice carpenters to identify individual and organizational factors associated with falls from heights. Methods We developed a 72-item fall prevention survey with multiple domains including fall experience, fall prevention knowledge, risk perceptions, confidence in ability to prevent falls, training experience, and perceptions of the safety climate and crew safety behaviors. We administered the questionnaire to apprentice carpenters in this cross-sectional study. Results Of the 1,025 respondents, 51% knew someone who had fallen from height at work and 16% had personally fallen in the past year, with ladders accounting for most of the falls. Despite participation in school-based and on-the-job training, fall prevention knowledge was poor. Ladders were perceived as low risk and ladder training was rare. Apprentices reported high levels of unsafe fall-related behaviors on their work crews. Apprentices working residential construction were more likely to fall than those working commercial construction, as were apprentices working on crews with fewer senior carpenters to provide mentorship, and those reporting more unsafe behaviors among fellow workers. Conclusions Despite participation in a formal apprenticeship program, many apprentices work at heights without adequate preparation and subsequently experience falls. Apprenticeship programs can improve the timing and content of fall prevention training. This study suggests that organizational changes in building practices, mentorship, and safety culture must also occur in order to decrease worker falls from heights. PMID:19953214

Kaskutas, Vicki; Dale, Ann Marie; Lipscomb, Hester; Gaal, John; Fuchs, Mark; Evanoff, Bradley; Faucette, Julia; Gillen, Marion; Deych, Elena

2013-01-01

10

Fall prevention and vitamin D in the elderly: an overview of the key role of the non-bone effects  

PubMed Central

Preventing falls and fall-related fractures in the elderly is an objective yet to be reached. There is increasing evidence that a supplementation of vitamin D and/or of calcium may reduce the fall and fracture rates. A vitamin D-calcium supplement appears to have a high potential due to its simple application and its low cost. However, published studies have shown conflicting results as some studies failed to show any effect, while others reported a significant decrease of falls and fractures. Through a 15-year literature overview, and after a brief reminder on mechanism of falls in older adults, we reported evidences for a vitamin D action on postural adaptations - i.e., muscles and central nervous system - which may explain the decreased fall and bone fracture rates and we underlined the reasons for differences and controversies between published data. Vitamin D supplementation should thus be integrated into primary and secondary fall prevention strategies in older adults. PMID:20937091

2010-01-01

11

Osteosarcopenic obesity and fall prevention strategies.  

PubMed

Sarcopenia, obesity, and osteoporosis are three interrelated entities which may share common pathophysiological factors. In the last decades, overall survival has drastically increased. Postmenopausal women, due to their estrogen depletion, are at higher risk of developing any of these three conditions or the three, which is termed osteosarcopenic obesity. One of the most common health problems among these patients is the elevated risk of falls and fractures. Falls and fall-related injuries are one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in older adults, and have a significant impact on social, economical and health-related costs. Several extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors have been described that play a role in the etiology of falls. A therapeutic approach to osteosarcopenic obesity aimed at the prevention of falls must include several factors, and act on those risk elements which can be effectively modified. An adequate weight-loss diet and a good nutritional intake, with an appropriate amount of vitamin D and the right protein/carbohydrates ratio, may contribute to the prevention of falls. The recommendation of physical exercise, both traditional (resistance or aerobic training) and more recent varieties (Tai Chi, Pilates, body vibration), can improve balance and positively contribute to fall prevention, whether by itself or in combination with other therapeutic strategies. Finally, a pharmacological approach, especially one focused on hormone therapy, has shown to have a positive effect on postmenopausal women's balance, leading to a decreased risk of falls. PMID:25533145

Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Cruz-Díaz, David; Pérez-López, Faustino R

2015-02-01

12

Fall prevention and vitamin D in the elderly: an overview of the key role of the non-bone effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preventing falls and fall-related fractures in the elderly is an objective yet to be reached. There is increasing evidence that a supplementation of vitamin D and\\/or of calcium may reduce the fall and fracture rates. A vitamin D-calcium supplement appears to have a high potential due to its simple application and its low cost. However, published studies have shown conflicting

Cedric Annweiler; Manuel Montero-Odasso; Anne M Schott; Gilles Berrut; Bruno Fantino; Olivier Beauchet

2010-01-01

13

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Tai Chi for Improving Balance and Preventing Falls in the Older Populationâ??A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the challenges faced by people with advancing age is decreased postural stability and increased risks for falls. There has been an increased interest over the last decade in using Tai Chi as an intervention exercise for improving postural balance and preventing falls in older people. De- spite the increased number of studies in recent years relat- ing Tai

Ge Wu

2002-01-01

14

Effectiveness of a multifactorial falls prevention program in community-dwelling older people when compared to usual care: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (Prevquedas Brazil)  

PubMed Central

Background Falling in older age is a major public health concern due to its costly and disabling consequences. However very few randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted in developing countries, in which population ageing is expected to be particularly substantial in coming years. This article describes the design of an RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactorial falls prevention program in reducing the rate of falls in community-dwelling older people. Methods/design Multicentre parallel-group RCT involving 612 community-dwelling men and women aged 60 years and over, who have fallen at least once in the previous year. Participants will be recruited in multiple settings in Sao Paulo, Brazil and will be randomly allocated to a control group or an intervention group. The usual care control group will undergo a fall risk factor assessment and be referred to their clinicians with the risk assessment report so that individual modifiable risk factors can be managed without any specific guidance. The intervention group will receive a 12-week Multifactorial Falls Prevention Program consisting of: an individualised medical management of modifiable risk factors, a group-based, supervised balance training exercise program plus an unsupervised home-based exercise program, an educational/behavioral intervention. Both groups will receive a leaflet containing general information about fall prevention strategies. Primary outcome measures will be the rate of falls and the proportion of fallers recorded by monthly falls diaries and telephone calls over a 12 month period. Secondary outcomes measures will include risk of falling, fall-related self-efficacy score, measures of balance, mobility and strength, fall-related health services use and independence with daily tasks. Data will be analysed using the intention-to-treat principle.The incidence of falls in the intervention and control groups will be calculated and compared using negative binomial regression analysis. Discussion This study is the first trial to be conducted in Brazil to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention to prevent falls. If proven to reduce falls this study has the potential to benefit older adults and assist health care practitioners and policy makers to implement and promote effective falls prevention interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01698580) PMID:23497000

2013-01-01

15

What Are Ways to Prevent Falls and Related Fractures?  

MedlinePLUS

... What Are Ways to Prevent Falls and Related Fractures? Fast Facts: An Easy-to-Read Series of ... 122 KB) Español Related Resources Preventing Falls and Fractures Osteoporosis and Falls Osteoporosis and Falls (??) Partner ...

16

Preventing Falls in Older Adults Who Live in Community Settings  

MedlinePLUS

Preventing Falls in Older Adults Who Live in Community Settings: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Summaries ... full report is titled “Prevention of Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force ...

17

Barriers to senior centre implementation of falls prevention programmes.  

PubMed

This study examined the prevalence of senior centres providing multi-component falls prevention education and the perceived barriers in implementing this education. A telephone interview was conducted in 2006 with 500 senior centres nationwide. Centre directors were asked about the types of multi-component falls prevention education offered (ie, balance exercise classes, medication management, home safety information) and barriers to offering this education. Seventy percent of senior centres offered balance exercise classes, 68% offered medication management and 53% provided home safety information. Thirty-two percent offered all three components. Lack of staff, time and staff not feeling they had sufficient knowledge to deliver falls prevention education were the leading barriers to providing multi-component education. Senior centres provide components of effective falls prevention education and, while some may not address all components of a multifaceted programme, many have existing resources that may be adapted for translation of evidence-based programmes. PMID:22328631

Zachary, Ciara; Casteel, Carri; Nocera, Maryalice; Runyan, Carol W

2012-08-01

18

Home Improvements Prevent Falls | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Home Improvements Prevent Falls Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents Many state and local governments have education and/or home modification programs to help older people prevent falls. ...

19

Strategies to prevent falls and fractures in hospitals and care homes and effect of cognitive impairment: systematic review and meta-analyses  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the evidence for strategies to prevent falls or fractures in residents in care homes and hospital inpatients and to investigate the effect of dementia and cognitive impairment. Design Systematic review and meta-analyses of studies grouped by intervention and setting (hospital or care home). Meta-regression to investigate the effects of dementia and of study quality and design. Data sources Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsychInfo, Cochrane Database, Clinical Trials Register, and hand searching of references from reviews and guidelines to January 2005. Results 1207 references were identified, including 115 systematic reviews, expert reviews, or guidelines. Of the 92 full papers inspected, 43 were included. Meta-analysis for multifaceted interventions in hospital (13 studies) showed a rate ratio of 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 0.997) for falls but no significant effect on the number of fallers or fractures. For hip protectors in care homes (11 studies) the rate ratio for hip fractures was 0.67 (0.46 to 0.98), but there was no significant effect on falls and not enough studies on fallers. For all other interventions (multifaceted interventions in care homes; removal of physical restraints in either setting; fall alarm devices in either setting; exercise in care homes; calcium/vitamin D in care homes; changes in the physical environment in either setting; medication review in hospital) meta-analysis was either unsuitable because of insufficient studies or showed no significant effect on falls, fallers, or fractures, despite strongly positive results in some individual studies. Meta-regression showed no significant association between effect size and prevalence of dementia or cognitive impairment. Conclusion There is some evidence that multifaceted interventions in hospital reduce the number of falls and that use of hip protectors in care homes prevents hip fractures. There is insufficient evidence, however, for the effectiveness of other single interventions in hospitals or care homes or multifaceted interventions in care homes. PMID:17158580

Connelly, James B; Victor, Christina R; Shaw, Fiona E; Whitehead, Anne; Genc, Yasemin; Vanoli, Alessandra; Martin, Finbarr C; Gosney, Margot A

2007-01-01

20

Research on Fall Prevention and Protection from Heights in Japan  

PubMed Central

The high frequency of fall accidents is a serious problem in Japan. Thus, more stringent countermeasures for preventing falls from scaffolds were developed and incorporated into institutional guidelines. These countermeasures aim to decrease deaths caused by falls from scaffolds. Despite the improvements in such measures, however, the rate of accidental fall deaths remains high in Japan’s construction industries. To improve the rigor of the countermeasures, a committee was established in our institute by the Japan Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. This committee investigated the regulations applied in other countries and evaluated construction industry compliance with existing fall prevention guidelines. After considerable research and discussion, the Occupational Safety and Health Regulations and Guidelines were amended in 2009. The effects of the amended regulations have recently been investigated on the basis of accident reports. This paper describes the investigation and its results. The paper also discusses other research and workplace safety countermeasures for preventing falls and ensuring fall protection from heights. PMID:25098387

OHDO, Katsutoshi; HINO, Yasumichi; TAKAHASHI, Hiroki

2014-01-01

21

Effectiveness and economic evaluation of a nurse delivered home exercise programme to prevent falls. 2: Controlled trial in multiple centres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To assess the effectiveness of trained nurses based in general practices individually prescribing a home exercise programme to reduce falls and injuries in elderly people and to estimate the cost effectiveness of the programme. Design Controlled trial with one year's follow up. Setting 32 general practices in seven southern New Zealand centres. Participants 450 women and men aged 80

M Clare Robertson; Melinda M Gardner; Nancy Devlin; Rob McGee; A John Campbell

2001-01-01

22

Effectiveness and economic evaluation of a nurse delivered home exercise programme to prevent falls. 1: Randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To assess the effectiveness of a trained district nurse individually prescribing a home based exercise programme to reduce falls and injuries in elderly people and to estimate the cost effectiveness of the programme. Design Randomised controlled trial with one year's follow up. Setting Community health service at a New Zealand hospital. Participants 240 women and men aged 75 years

Melinda M Gardner

2001-01-01

23

The effects of Tai Chi Chuan on physiological function and fear of falling in the less robust elderly: An intervention study for preventing falls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this report is to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of intensive Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) training on physiological function and fear of falling (FOF) in the less-robust elderly. Forty-nine community-dwelling elderly, aged 60 or older, were classified randomly into a TCC training or control group. Physical performance measures (including one-leg stance, trunk flexion, and walking speed)

Jian-Guo Zhang; Kazuko Ishikawa-Takata; Hideo Yamazaki; Takae Morita; Toshiki Ohta

2006-01-01

24

Complexities of fall prevention in clinical settings: a commentary.  

PubMed

Falls and associated injury and mortality are of increasing concern among aging Americans. Effective fall risk management is a complicated process requiring involvement by both health care professionals and older adults for three related actions: (a) early screening to detect risk factors; (b) prescription of tailored interventions; and (c) implementation of, adherence to, and compliance with the intervention by the older adult. Early detection of fall risk can prevent future falls; however, uptake of evidence-based screening and assessment protocols in the clinical setting has been limited. A variety of practice guidelines and financial incentives are available to health care professionals to facilitate adoption. Yet, there remains a gap between recommended practices and current clinical activities. This commentary addresses the complexities of fall prevention practices and offers solutions that can facilitate adoption by clinical practices. Toward this end, this commentary will present two models (i.e., a clinical approach and a financial incentive approach) to summarize current clinical recommendations and practice guidelines for fall risk management in clinical settings. The various drivers to encourage adoption of evidence-based fall risk management strategies will be described. In this context, we will discuss how understanding the different system wide practice improvement initiatives and factors that drive action in physician groups, can facilitate adoption and implementation of fall risk management behaviors by clinicians. Additional efforts are needed to explore and assess similar initiatives to adopt and implement fall risk management practices at different entry points into the system (e.g., community settings, patients, caregivers). PMID:23887933

Shubert, Tiffany E; Smith, Matthew Lee; Prizer, Lindsay Penny; Ory, Marcia G

2014-08-01

25

PHS 650, Fall 2011 1 PREVENTION OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY  

E-print Network

PHS 650, Fall 2011 1 PHS 650 PREVENTION OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY Course Syllabus Fall 2011 Credits knowledge to develop, implement, and evaluate obesity prevention interventions. This course will emphasize pediatric obesity prevention with a focus on nutrition and physical activity health behaviors

Sheridan, Jennifer

26

Fall Incidence as the Primary Outcome in Multiple Sclerosis Falls-Prevention Trials  

PubMed Central

The aim of this article is to provide recommendations on behalf of the International MS Falls Prevention Research Network (IMSFPRN) for the primary outcome measure for multiple sclerosis (MS) falls-prevention interventions. The article will consider the definition of a fall, methods of measuring falls, and the elements of falls that should be recorded, as well as how these elements should be presented and analyzed. While this information can be used to inform the content of falls-prevention programs, the primary aim of the article is to make recommendations on how the outcome of these programs should be captured. PMID:25694776

Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Gunn, Hilary

2014-01-01

27

[The use of piribedil for the prevention of falls in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome].  

PubMed

Effects of pirebedil used to prevent falls in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome are discussed. A prospective controlled study showed that therapy with pirebedil significantly decreases the frequency of falls, reduces severity of pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative activities, improves cognitive abilities. Prevention of falls by virtue of improved cognitive abilities is a new clinical effect of pirebedil and gives reason to recommend it for the treatment of geriatric patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:25782306

Il'nitski?, A N; Proshchaev, K I; Shvartsman, G I; Bakhmutova, Iu V; Pozdniakova, N M; Krivetski?, V V; Varavina, L Iu

2014-01-01

28

Assessment and prevention of falls in older people - concise guidance.  

PubMed

Falls in later life are a major health issue, both in terms of their injurious consequences and their significance as a diagnostic marker. Cost-effective measures for their assessment and prevention are well documented but insufficiently implemented. This Concise Guideline comprises a distillation of recommendations for the assessment and prevention of falls in older people based on Clinical Guideline 161 (incorporating CG21) published by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in 2013. The recommendations are intended to provide both generalists and specialists with an overview of practical strategies for clinical case and/or risk ascertainment and intervention, and for referral and service implementation across the primary-secondary care interface and within the hospital setting. Recommendations abstracted verbatim from the Guideline are highlighted. Explanatory or supporting comment is given as appropriate. PMID:25468853

Swift, Cameron G; Iliffe, Steve

2014-12-01

29

Role of physical activity in the prevention of falls and their consequences in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims to provide an inventory of the risk factors and consequences of falling in the elderly, namely fractures, and\\u000a to identify strategies to prevent falls and minimise their effects. Falls in elderly people are a major cause of injuries,\\u000a leading to a general fear of falling, poorer quality of life and even death. The increase in life expectancy

Catarina L. N. Pereira; Peter Vogelaere; Fátima Baptista

2008-01-01

30

Integration of Fall Prevention into State Policy in Connecticut  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of Study: To describe the ongoing efforts of the Connecticut Collaboration for Fall Prevention (CCFP) to move evidence regarding fall prevention into clinical practice and state policy. Methods: A university-based team developed methods of networking with existing statewide organizations to influence clinical practice and state policy.…

Murphy, Terrence E.; Baker, Dorothy I.; Leo-Summers, Linda S.; Bianco, Luann; Gottschalk, Margaret; Acampora, Denise; King, Mary B.

2013-01-01

31

Community-based falls prevention: lessons from an Interprofessional Mobility Clinic.  

PubMed

Falls are a common and serious risk with an aging population. Chiropractors commonly see firsthand the effects of falls and resulting injuries in their senior patients and they can reduce falls risk through active screening. Ongoing research has provided proven approaches for making falls less likely. Screening for falls should be done yearly for all patients 65 years and older or in those with a predisposing medical condition. Additional specific falls prevention professional education would enable the chiropractor to best assist these patients. Collaboration and communication with the patient's family physician offers an opportunity for improved interprofessional dialogue to enhance patient care related to falls risk. Frequently falls prevention strategies are implemented by an interprofessional team. Chiropractors increasingly contribute within multidisciplinary teams. Collaboration by the chiropractor requires both simple screening and knowledge of health care system navigation. Such awareness can permit optimal participation in the care of their patient and the best outcome. PMID:25202159

Bauman, Craig A; Milligan, James D; Patel, Tejal; Pritchard, Sarah; Labreche, Tammy; Dillon-Martin, Sharon; Ilich, Alexandra; Riva, John J

2014-09-01

32

Effectiveness of Web-Based Versus Face-To-Face Delivery of Education in Prescription of Falls-Prevention Exercise to Health Professionals: Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Exercise is an effective intervention for the prevention of falls; however, some forms of exercises have been shown to be more effective than others. There is a need to identify effective and efficient methods for training health professionals in exercise prescription for falls prevention. Objective The objective of our study was to compare two approaches for training clinicians in prescribing exercise to prevent falls. Methods This study was a head-to-head randomized trial design. Participants were physiotherapists, occupational therapists, nurses, and exercise physiologists working in Victoria, Australia. Participants randomly assigned to one group received face-to-face traditional education using a 1-day seminar format with additional video and written support material. The other participants received Web-based delivery of the equivalent educational material over a 4-week period with remote tutor facilitation. Outcomes were measured across levels 1 to 3 of Kirkpatrick’s hierarchy of educational outcomes, including attendance, adherence, satisfaction, knowledge, and self-reported change in practice. Results Of the 166 participants initially recruited, there was gradual attrition from randomization to participation in the trial (n = 67 Web-based, n = 68 face-to-face), to completion of the educational content (n = 44 Web-based, n = 50 face-to-face), to completion of the posteducation examinations (n = 43 Web-based, n = 49 face-to-face). Participant satisfaction was not significantly different between the intervention groups: mean (SD) satisfaction with content and relevance of course material was 25.73 (5.14) in the Web-based and 26.11 (5.41) in the face-to-face group; linear regression P = .75; and mean (SD) satisfaction with course facilitation and support was 11.61 (2.00) in the Web-based and 12.08 (1.54) in the face-to-face group; linear regression P = .25. Knowledge test results were comparable between the Web-based and face-to-face groups: median (interquartile range [IQR]) for the Web-based group was 90.00 (70.89–90.67) and for the face-to-face group was 80.56 (70.67–90.00); rank sum P = .07. The median (IQR) scores for the exercise assignment were also comparable: Web-based, 78.6 (68.5–85.1), and face-to-face, 78.6 (70.8–86.9); rank sum P = .61. No significant difference was identified in Kirkpatrick’s hierarchy domain change in practice: mean (SD) Web-based, 21.75 (4.40), and face-to-face, 21.88 (3.24); linear regression P = .89. Conclusion Web-based and face-to-face approaches to the delivery of education to clinicians on the subject of exercise prescription for falls prevention produced equivalent results in all of the outcome domains. Practical considerations should arguably drive choice of delivery method, which may favor Web-based provision for its ability to overcome access issues for health professionals in regional and remote settings. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number: ACTRN12610000135011; http://www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12610000135011.aspx (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/63MicDjPV) PMID:22189410

Haas, Romi; Keating, Jennifer L; Molloy, Elizabeth; Jolly, Brian; Sims, Jane; Morgan, Prue; Haines, Terry

2011-01-01

33

Designing adverse event prevention programs using quality management methods: the case of falls in hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. From a public health perspective, the effectiveness of any prevention program depends on integrated medical and managerial strategies. In this way, quality management methods drawn from organization and business management can help design prevention programs. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential value of these methods in the specific context of preventing falls in hospital. Setting.

CATHERINE GRENIER-SENNELIER; ISABELLE LOMBARD; CATHERINE JENY-LOEPER; MARIE-CHRISTINE MAILLET-GOURET; ETIENNE MINVIELLE

2002-01-01

34

Improving balance through dance Preventing falls in Parkinson's disease patients  

E-print Network

Improving balance through dance Preventing falls in Parkinson's disease patients Improving quality Lifeaftercancertreatment Providinglong-termsupport forsurvivors. Page4 2 Improvingbalancethroughdance PreventingfallsinParkinson to look at a number of factors influencing recovery which takes into account the disease itself,

Anderson, Jim

35

Preventing Falls | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoporosis Preventing Falls Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of ... next to your bed Free NIH Videos About Osteoporosis The NIHSeniorHealth Web site features five brief, informative ...

36

Falls among Older Adults: Public Health Impact and Prevention Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of the epidemiology of falls among older adults, describes current prevention strategies, and highlights key areas that need to be addressed, including risk assessments, exercise, and environmental changes. (Contains 50 references.) (JOW)

Stevens, Judy A.

2003-01-01

37

Engaging Community-Based Organizations in Fall Prevention Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Falls are a major public health problem for older adults, and community-based organizations play a key role in educating seniors about falls prevention (FP). We conducted a qualitative process evaluation at six sites to report community-based centers' perspectives on adoption, adaptation, and sustainability of an evidence-based multifactorial FP…

Kramer, B. Josea; Vivrette, Rebecca L.; Rubenstein, Laurence Z.

2011-01-01

38

Efeito preventivo da fisioterapia na redução da incidência de quedas em pacientes com Doença de Alzheimer Preventive effect of the physical therapy to minimize the occurrence of falls in patients with Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The purpose of this review is to provide better understanding of the preventive effect resulted by the Physical Therapy in- tervention to minimize the occurrence of falls in patients with Alzheimer Disease. The Alzheimer Disease is the main cause of dementia between aged people. In recent years it has been showing an increase in the number of patients proportional

Tetsadê CB Piermartiri; Naaraí Camboim Bezerra; Alexandre Ademar Hoeller

39

Preventing falls - what to ask your doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... stairs? How can I make the stairs at my house safer? Is it okay to have pets in the home? What are other things that I may trip over? What can I do ... What should I do if I fall? How can I keep my phone near me?

40

An impact evaluation of a falls prevention program among older people.  

PubMed

The aim of this evaluation study was to assess the impact of peer-presented education sessions on the falls-related attitude, knowledge and behaviour of older people. The evaluation was undertaken on the Bellarine Peninsula in Victoria, Australia, and adopted a non-randomised pre-test post-test design. Baseline, 3 and 12 months follow-up data were collected for 107 individuals who attended the education sessions and 116 controls, matched by age range and sex. The groups were not strictly equivalent at baseline, with the intervention group having a greater knowledge about falls and falls prevention. Analyses which controlled for baseline differences showed that those who attended the education sessions maintained a greater knowledge of factors that can prevent falls at 12 months follow-up. The intervention group also made more changes in and around their home to prevent falls by 3 and 12 months follow-up. Younger participants who reported a previous history of falls and having taken action to prevent falls were most likely to take additional action. The results can help target this type of education program and suggest that their major benefit may lie in providing those who voluntarily attend with the impetus to take the most effective preventative action. PMID:10776861

Deery, H A; Day, L M; Fildes, B N

2000-05-01

41

Cost-Effectiveness of Vitamin D Screening Compared to Universal Supplementation to Prevent Falls Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of population screening for vitamin D insufficiency, compared to universal vitamin D supplementation, among community-dwelling, older adults. Design A Markov decision model, simulating follow-up over a 36-month period. Published data were used to estimate values for the model, including costs (measured in 2011 U.S. dollars), utilities (measured in quality-adjusted life years [QALYs]), and probabilities. Setting Decision analysis simulation from a societal perspective Participants Hypothetical cohort of community-dwelling women and men between age 65 and 80 years. Measurements Net monetary benefit (NMB) was calculated by subtracting the incremental cost of the strategy from the product of the incremental QALYs and the willingness-to-pay threshold. A higher NMB indicates greater cost-effectiveness. Results Among women age 65 to 80 years, population screening was slightly more cost-effective than universal supplementation, with an incremental NMB of $224 compared to $189 (P< 0.001). Population screening among men was also more cost-effective than universal supplementation (incremental NMB: $298 vs. $260, P< 0.001). However, results differed by age group. Among those age 65 years, population screening had similar cost-effectiveness to universal supplementation in women ($59 vs. $71) and men ($114 vs. $120, respectively). Among those age 80 years, population screening was substantially more cost-effective than universal supplementation in women ($563 vs. $428) and men ($703 vs. $571, respectively). Conclusion Both population screening and universal supplementation for vitamin D insufficiency are cost-effective strategies among community-dwelling older women and men. Among the oldest old, population screening may be more cost-effective than universal supplementation. PMID:23631393

Lee, Richard H.; Weber, Thomas; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen

2013-01-01

42

A multifactorial intervention for the prevention of falls in psychogeriatric nursing home patients, a randomised controlled trial (RCT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention on incidence of falls in psychogeriatric nursing home patients. Design: cluster-randomised controlled 12-month trial. Setting: psychogeriatric wards in 12 nursing homes in The Netherlands. Participants: psychogeriatric nursing home patients (n = 518). Intervention: a general medical assessment and an additional specific fall risk evaluation tool, applied by a multidisciplinary fall prevention

JACQUES C. L. NEYENS; B. P. J. Dijcks; J. W. R. Twisk; J. M. G. A. Schols; J. C. M. van Haastregt; Witte de L

2009-01-01

43

Tailored prevention of inpatient falls: development and usability testing of the fall TIPS toolkit.  

PubMed

Patient falls and fall-related injuries are serious problems in hospitals. The Fall TIPS application aims to prevent patient falls by translating routine nursing fall risk assessment into a decision support intervention that communicates fall risk status and creates a tailored evidence-based plan of care that is accessible to the care team, patients, and family members. In our design and implementation of the Fall TIPS toolkit, we used the Spiral Software Development Life Cycle model. Three output tools available to be generated from the toolkit are bed poster, plan of care, and patient education handout. A preliminary design of the application was based on initial requirements defined by project leaders and informed by focus groups with end users. Preliminary design partially simulated the paper version of the Morse Fall Scale currently used in hospitals involved in the research study. Strengths and weaknesses of the first prototype were identified by heuristic evaluation. Usability testing was performed at sites where research study is implemented. Suggestions mentioned by end users participating in usability studies were either directly incorporated into the toolkit and output tools, were slightly modified, or will be addressed during training. The next step is implementation of the fall prevention toolkit on the pilot testing units. PMID:20975543

Zuyev, Lyubov; Benoit, Angela N; Chang, Frank Y; Dykes, Patricia C

2011-02-01

44

Dance! Don't Fall - preventing falls and promoting exercise at home.  

PubMed

Falling is a serious danger to older adults that is usually only addressed after a person has fallen, when doctors administer clinical tests to determine the patient's risk of falling again. Having the technological capability of performing fall risk assessment tests with a smartphone, the authors set out to design a mobile application that would enable users to monitor their risk themselves and consequently prevent falls from occurring. The authors conducted a literature review and two observation sessions before beginning the iterative design process that resulted in the Dance! Don't Fall (DDF) game, a mobile application that enables users to both monitor their fall risk and actively reduce it through fun and easy exercise. PMID:22942064

Kerwin, Maureen; Nunes, Francisco; Silva, Paula Alexandra

2012-01-01

45

Indoor Gateball’s Influence on Life Satisfaction and the Prevention of Falls by the Elderly  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of indoor gateball exercise on life satisfaction and the prevention of falls by the elderly. [Subjects] Sixteen elderly subjects aged 65 or more, residents in nursing care facilities, were randomly divided into two groups. [Methods] One group performed indoor gateball exercise for 30 minutes a day, five times per week. The Tetrax fall index and life satisfaction were measured before and after four weeks of gateball exercise. [Results] The indoor gate ball exercise group showed significant improvements in the fall index and life satisfaction. [Conclusion] The indoor gateball exercise used in this study should be considered as a therapeutic method for the elderly, for improving their life satisfaction and because of its effectiveness in preventing falls. PMID:25540489

Kang, Kwon-Young

2014-01-01

46

Is there a role for neck manipulation in elderly falls prevention? - An overview.  

PubMed

Many risk factors exist for falls in the elderly. Dizziness is an important risk factor for such falls. Spinal pain has also been identified as a risk factor for these falls. In this overview of the literature, we examine studies, including trials, of neck manipulation for neck pain, unsteadiness and falls risk relevant to the elderly. We also examine two related, but not mutually exclusive, mechanisms through which a putative beneficial effect may be mediated. These are the effects of neck manipulation on neck pain and on non-specific dizziness. We focus on the available evidence primarily in terms of clinical data rather than laboratory-based measures of balance. We conclude that chiropractors may have a role in falls prevention strategies in the subpopulation of the elderly that suffer from mechanical neck pain or dysfunction and non-specific dizziness. However, this role remains to be rigorously studied and properly defined. PMID:25729086

Kendall, Julie C; Hartvigsen, Jan; French, Simon D; Azari, Michael F

2015-03-01

47

Is there a role for neck manipulation in elderly falls prevention? – An overview  

PubMed Central

Many risk factors exist for falls in the elderly. Dizziness is an important risk factor for such falls. Spinal pain has also been identified as a risk factor for these falls. In this overview of the literature, we examine studies, including trials, of neck manipulation for neck pain, unsteadiness and falls risk relevant to the elderly. We also examine two related, but not mutually exclusive, mechanisms through which a putative beneficial effect may be mediated. These are the effects of neck manipulation on neck pain and on non-specific dizziness. We focus on the available evidence primarily in terms of clinical data rather than laboratory-based measures of balance. We conclude that chiropractors may have a role in falls prevention strategies in the subpopulation of the elderly that suffer from mechanical neck pain or dysfunction and non-specific dizziness. However, this role remains to be rigorously studied and properly defined. PMID:25729086

Kendall, Julie C.; Hartvigsen, Jan; French, Simon D.; Azari, Michael F.

2015-01-01

48

Survey on Fall Detection and Fall Prevention Using Wearable and External Sensors  

PubMed Central

According to nihseniorhealth.gov (a website for older adults), falling represents a great threat as people get older, and providing mechanisms to detect and prevent falls is critical to improve people's lives. Over 1.6 million U.S. adults are treated for fall-related injuries in emergency rooms every year suffering fractures, loss of independence, and even death. It is clear then, that this problem must be addressed in a prompt manner, and the use of pervasive computing plays a key role to achieve this. Fall detection (FD) and fall prevention (FP) are research areas that have been active for over a decade, and they both strive for improving people's lives through the use of pervasive computing. This paper surveys the state of the art in FD and FP systems, including qualitative comparisons among various studies. It aims to serve as a point of reference for future research on the mentioned systems. A general description of FD and FP systems is provided, including the different types of sensors used in both approaches. Challenges and current solutions are presented and described in great detail. A 3-level taxonomy associated with the risk factors of a fall is proposed. Finally, cutting edge FD and FP systems are thoroughly reviewed and qualitatively compared, in terms of design issues and other parameters. PMID:25340452

Delahoz, Yueng Santiago; Labrador, Miguel Angel

2014-01-01

49

Survey on fall detection and fall prevention using wearable and external sensors.  

PubMed

According to nihseniorhealth.gov (a website for older adults), falling represents a great threat as people get older, and providing mechanisms to detect and prevent falls is critical to improve people's lives. Over 1.6 million U.S. adults are treated for fall-related injuries in emergency rooms every year suffering fractures, loss of independence, and even death. It is clear then, that this problem must be addressed in a prompt manner, and the use of pervasive computing plays a key role to achieve this. Fall detection (FD) and fall prevention (FP) are research areas that have been active for over a decade, and they both strive for improving people's lives through the use of pervasive computing. This paper surveys the state of the art in FD and FP systems, including qualitative comparisons among various studies. It aims to serve as a point of reference for future research on the mentioned systems. A general description of FD and FP systems is provided, including the different types of sensors used in both approaches. Challenges and current solutions are presented and described in great detail. A 3-level taxonomy associated with the risk factors of a fall is proposed. Finally, cutting edge FD and FP systems are thoroughly reviewed and qualitatively compared, in terms of design issues and other parameters. PMID:25340452

Delahoz, Yueng Santiago; Labrador, Miguel Angel

2014-01-01

50

Do Dual Tasks Have an Added Value Over Single Tasks for Balance Assessment in Fall Prevention Programs? A Mini-Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Prevention of Falls Network Europe (ProFaNE) aims to bring together European researchers and clinicians to focus on the development of effective falls prevention programs for older people. One of the objectives is to identify suitable balance assessment tools. Assessment procedures that combine a balance task with a cognitive task may be relevant since part of all falls occurs

A. Zijlstra; T. Ufkes; D. A. Skelton; L. Lundin-Olsson; W. Zijlstra

2008-01-01

51

Effects of hydrotherapy in balance and prevention of falls among elderly women Efeitos da hidroterapia na recuperação do equilíbrio e prevenção de quedas em idosas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hydrotherapy is used to treat rheumatic, orthopedic and neurological disorders. It has been the subject of investigations regarding balance recovery in elderly people. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a hydrotherapy program for balance, in relation to the risk of falls in elderly women. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental before\\/after study without a control group. Twenty-five elderly women were

Resende SM; Rassi CM; Viana FP

52

Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Tailoring Methods of Multimedia-Based Fall Prevention Education for Community-Dwelling Older Adults  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE We attempted to determine whether multimedia fall prevention education using different instructional strategies increases older adults’ knowledge of fall threats and their fall prevention behaviors. METHOD Fifty-three community-dwelling older adults were randomized to two educational groups or a control group. Multimedia-based educational interventions to increase fall threats knowledge and encourage fall prevention behaviors had two tailoring strategies: (1) improve content realism for individual learners (authenticity group) and (2) highlight program goals and benefits while using participants’ content selections (motivation group). Knowledge was measured at baseline and 1-mo follow-up. Participants recorded prevention behaviors for 1 mo. RESULTS Intervention group participants showed greater knowledge gains and posttest knowledge than did control group participants. The motivation group engaged in more prevention behaviors over 1 mo than did the other groups. CONCLUSION Tailoring fall prevention education by addressing authenticity and motivation successfully improved fall threats knowledge. Combining motivational strategies with multimedia education increased the effectiveness of the intervention in encouraging fall prevention behaviors. PMID:22214115

Schepens, Stacey L.; Panzer, Victoria; Goldberg, Allon

2012-01-01

53

Hand breakaway strength model-effects of glove use and handle shapes on a person's hand strength to hold onto handles to prevent fall from elevation.  

PubMed

This study developed biomechanical models for hand breakaway strength that account for not only grip force but also hand-handle frictional coupling in generation of breakaway strength. Specifically, models for predicting breakaway strength for two commonly-used handle shapes (circular and rectangular handles) and varying coefficients of friction (COF) between the hand and handle were proposed. The models predict that (i) breakaway strength increases with increasing COF and (ii) a circular handle with a 50.8 mm-diameter results in greater mean breakaway strength than a handle with a rectangular cross-section of 38.1 by 38.1 mm for COFs greater than 0.42. To test these model predictions, breakaway strengths of thirteen healthy young adults were measured for three frequently-encountered COF conditions (represented by three glove types of polyester (COF=0.32), bare hand (COF=0.50), and latex (COF=0.74) against an aluminum handle) and for the two handle shapes. Consistent with the model predictions, mean breakaway strength increased with increasing COF and was greater for the circular than rectangular handle for COFs of 0.50 and 0.74. Examination of breakaway strength normalized to body weight reveals that modification of COF and handle shapes could influence whether one can hold his/her body using the hands or not (thus must fall), highlighting the importance of considering these parameters for fall prevention. The biomechanical models developed herein have the potential to be applied to general handle shapes and COF conditions. These models can be used to optimize handle design to maximize breakaway strength and minimize injuries due to falls from ladders or scaffolds. PMID:22281405

Hur, Pilwon; Motawar, Binal; Seo, Na Jin

2012-04-01

54

Randomised factorial trial of falls prevention among older people living in their own homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To test the effectiveness of, and explore interactions between, three interventions to prevent falls among older people. Design A randomised controlled trial with a full factorial design. Setting Urban community in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 1090 aged 70 years and over and living at home. Most were Australian born and rated their health as good to excellent; just over half

Lesley Day; Brian Fildes; Ian Gordon; Michael Fitzharris; Harold Flamer; Stephen Lord; Victoria Melbourne; Australia Ian Gordon

2002-01-01

55

Shock Attenuation of Various Protective Devices for Prevention of Fall-Related Injuries of the Forearm\\/Hand Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Attenuation of the peak impact force is essential in any protective devices for prevention of fall-related injuries.Hypothesis: Common wrist guards have limited effectiveness because of the multifaceted nature of wrist injury mechanisms, and other modalities may provide enhanced shock-absorbing functions.Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.Methods: A free-fall device was constructed using a mechanical surrogate to simulate falling impact. At 4

Kyu-Jung Kim; Ali M. Alian; William S. Morris; Young-Hwa Lee

2006-01-01

56

Older People's Views of Advice about Falls Prevention: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of older people's perceptions of falls prevention advice, and how best to design communications that will encourage older people to take action to prevent falls. Focus groups and interviews were carried out with 66 people aged 61-94 years recruited from a variety of settings, using falls

Yardley, L.; Donovan-Hall, M.; Francis, K.; Todd, C.

2006-01-01

57

Can social dancing prevent falls in older adults? a protocol of the Dance, Aging, Cognition, Economics (DAnCE) fall prevention randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Falls are one of the most common health problems among older people and pose a major economic burden on health care systems. Exercise is an accepted stand-alone fall prevention strategy particularly if it is balance training or regular participation in Tai chi. Dance shares the ‘holistic’ approach of practices such as Tai chi. It is a complex sensorimotor rhythmic activity integrating multiple physical, cognitive and social elements. Small-scale randomised controlled trials have indicated that diverse dance styles can improve measures of balance and mobility in older people, but none of these studies has examined the effect of dance on falls or cognition. This study aims to determine whether participation in social dancing: i) reduces the number of falls; and ii) improves cognitive functions associated with fall risk in older people. Methods/design A single-blind, cluster randomised controlled trial of 12 months duration will be conducted. Approximately 450 participants will be recruited from 24 self-care retirement villages that house at least 60 residents each in Sydney, Australia. Village residents without cognitive impairment and obtain medical clearance will be eligible. After comprehensive baseline measurements including physiological and cognitive tests and self-completed questionnaires, villages will be randomised to intervention sites (ballroom or folk dance) or to a wait-listed control using a computer randomisation method that minimises imbalances between villages based on two baseline fall risk measures. Main outcome measures are falls, prospectively measured, and the Trail Making cognitive function test. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses will be performed. Discussion This study offers a novel approach to balance training for older people. As a community-based approach to fall prevention, dance offers older people an opportunity for greater social engagement, thereby making a major contribution to healthy ageing. Providing diversity in exercise programs targeting seniors recognises the heterogeneity of multicultural populations and may further increase the number of taking part in exercise. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000889853 The trial is now in progress with 12 villages already have been randomised. PMID:23675705

2013-01-01

58

Definitions and methods of measuring and reporting on injurious falls in randomised controlled fall prevention trials: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background The standardisation of the assessment methodology and case definition represents a major precondition for the comparison of study results and the conduction of meta-analyses. International guidelines provide recommendations for the standardisation of falls methodology; however, injurious falls have not been targeted. The aim of the present article was to review systematically the range of case definitions and methods used to measure and report on injurious falls in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on fall prevention. Methods An electronic literature search of selected comprehensive databases was performed to identify injurious falls definitions in published trials. Inclusion criteria were: RCTs on falls prevention published in English, study population ? 65 years, definition of injurious falls as a study endpoint by using the terms "injuries" and "falls". Results The search yielded 2089 articles, 2048 were excluded according to defined inclusion criteria. Forty-one articles were included. The systematic analysis of the methodology applied in RCTs disclosed substantial variations in the definition and methods used to measure and document injurious falls. The limited standardisation hampered comparability of study results. Our results also highlight that studies which used a similar, standardised definition of injurious falls showed comparable outcomes. Conclusions No standard for defining, measuring, and documenting injurious falls could be identified among published RCTs. A standardised injurious falls definition enhances the comparability of study results as demonstrated by a subgroup of RCTs used a similar definition. Recommendations for standardising the methodology are given in the present review. PMID:22510239

2012-01-01

59

Fall Prevention Research and Practice: A Total Worker Safety Approach  

PubMed Central

Slips, trips, and falls (STF) represent a serious hazard to workers and occupants in many industries, homes, and communities. Often, the cause of a STF incident is multifactorial, encompassing human, environmental, and task risk factors. A STF-related disability can greatly diminish the occupational capability and quality of life of individuals in both the workplace and the home. Countering STF hazards and risks both on and off the job and on all aspects of control measures is a “total worker safety” matter, a challenging yet tangible undertaking. As the federal organization responsible for conducting research for the prevention of work-related injuries in the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been conducting research on STF controls for some decades. Many NIOSH research outcomes have been utilized for STF prevention in workplaces, with potential for prevention in homes as well. This paper summarizes the concept of total worker safety for STF control, NIOSH priority research goals, major activities, and accomplishments, and some emerging issues on STF. The strategic planning process for the NIOSH research goals and some identified research focuses are applicable to the development and implementation of global STF research goals. PMID:25345424

HSIAO, Hongwei

2014-01-01

60

What factors influence community-dwelling older people’s intent to undertake multifactorial fall prevention programs?  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate previous, current, or planned participation in, and perceptions toward, multifactorial fall prevention programs such as those delivered through a falls clinic in the community setting, and to identify factors influencing older people’s intent to undertake these interventions. Design and methods Community-dwelling people aged >70 years completed a telephone survey. Participants were randomly selected from an electronic residential telephone listing, but purposeful sampling was used to include equal numbers with and without common chronic health conditions associated with fall-related hospitalization. The survey included scenarios for fall prevention interventions, including assessment/multifactorial interventions, such as those delivered through a falls clinic. Participants were asked about previous exposure to, or intent to participate in, the interventions. A path model analysis was used to identify factors associated with intent to participate in assessment/multifactorial interventions. Results Thirty of 376 participants (8.0%) reported exposure to a multifactorial falls clinic-type intervention in the past 5 years, and 16.0% expressed intention to undertake this intervention. Of the 132 participants who reported one or more falls in the past 12 months, over one-third were undecided or disagreed that a falls clinic type of intervention would be of benefit to them. Four elements from the theoretical model positively influenced intention to participate in the intervention: personal perception of intervention effectiveness, self-perceived risk of falls, self-perceived risk of injury, and inability to walk up/down steps without a handrail (P<0.05). Conclusion Multifactorial falls clinic-type interventions are not commonly accessed or considered as intended fall prevention approaches among community-dwelling older people, even among those with falls in the past 12 months. Factors identified as influencing intention to undertake these interventions may be useful in promoting or targeting these interventions. PMID:25473276

Hill, Keith D; Day, Lesley; Haines, Terry P

2014-01-01

61

ICT-based system to predict and prevent falls (iStoppFalls): study protocol for an international multicenter randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Falls are very common, especially in adults aged 65 years and older. Within the current international European Commission’s Seventh Framework Program (FP7) project ‘iStoppFalls’ an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based system has been developed to regularly assess a person’s risk of falling in their own home and to deliver an individual and tailored home-based exercise and education program for fall prevention. The primary aims of iStoppFalls are to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention program, and its effectiveness to improve balance, muscle strength and quality of life in older people. Methods/Design This international, multicenter study is designed as a single-blinded, two-group randomized controlled trial. A total of 160 community-dwelling older people aged 65 years and older will be recruited in Germany (n = 60), Spain (n = 40), and Australia (n = 60) between November 2013 and May 2014. Participants in the intervention group will conduct a 16-week exercise program using the iStoppFalls system through their television set at home. Participants are encouraged to exercise for a total duration of 180 minutes per week. The training program consists of a variety of balance and strength exercises in the form of video games using exergame technology. Educational material about a healthy lifestyle will be provided to each participant. Final reassessments will be conducted after 16 weeks. The assessments include physical and cognitive tests as well as questionnaires assessing health, fear of falling, quality of life and psychosocial determinants. Falls will be followed up for six months by monthly falls calendars. Discussion We hypothesize that the regular use of this newly developed ICT-based system for fall prevention at home is feasible for older people. By using the iStoppFalls sensor-based exercise program, older people are expected to improve in balance and strength outcomes. In addition, the exercise training may have a positive impact on quality of life by reducing the risk of falls. Taken together with expected cognitive improvements, the individual approach of the iStoppFalls program may provide an effective model for fall prevention in older people who prefer to exercise at home. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Trial ID: ACTRN12614000096651. International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number: ISRCTN15932647. PMID:25141850

2014-01-01

62

Factors influencing the implementation of fall-prevention programmes: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies  

PubMed Central

Background More than a third of people over the age of 65?years fall each year. Falling can lead to a reduction in quality of life, mortality, and a risk of prolonged hospitalisation. Reducing and preventing falls has become an international health priority. To help understand why research evidence has often not been translated into changes in clinical practice, we undertook a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research in order to identify what factors serve as barriers and facilitators to the successful implementation of fall-prevention programmes. Methods We conducted a review of literature published between 1980 and January 2012 for qualitative research studies that examined barriers and facilitators to the effective implementation of fall-prevention interventions among community-dwelling older people and healthcare professionals. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed methodological quality according to predefined criteria. Findings were synthesised using meta-ethnography. Results Of the 5010 articles identified through database searching, 19 were included in the review. Analysis of the 19 studies revealed limited information about the mechanisms by which barriers to implementation of fall-prevention interventions had been overcome. Data synthesis produced three overarching concepts: (1) practical considerations, (2) adapting for community, and (3) psychosocial. A line of argument synthesis describes the barriers and facilitators to the successful implementation of fall-prevention programmes. These concepts show that the implementation of fall-prevention programmes is complex and multifactorial. This is the first systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies to examine factors influencing the implementation of fall-prevention programmes from the perspectives of both the healthcare professional and the community-dwelling older person. Conclusions The current literature on barriers and facilitators to the implementation of fall-prevention programmes examines a variety of interventions. However, the ways in which the interventions are reported suggests there are substantial methodological challenges that often inhibit implementation into practice. We recommend that successful implementation requires individuals, professionals, and organisations to modify established behaviours, thoughts, and practice. The issues identified through this synthesis need to be fully considered and addressed if fall-prevention programmes are to be successfully implemented into clinical practice. PMID:22978693

2012-01-01

63

How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... healthy and happy. There are simple ways to prevent most falls. "Injuries from falls are a major cause of loss of independence for older people. This is a significant public health problem." —Dr. Richard J. Hodes, Director, National Institute on Aging Take The Right Steps for Safety Most falls ...

64

Accident patterns and prevention measures for fatal occupational falls in the construction industry.  

PubMed

Contributing factors to 621 occupational fatal falls have been identified with respect to the victim's individual factors, the fall site, company size, and cause of fall. Individual factors included age, gender, experience, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Accident scenarios were derived from accident reports. Significant linkages were found between causes for the falls and accident events. Falls from scaffold staging were associated with a lack of complying scaffolds and bodily action. Falls through existing floor openings were associated with unguarded openings, inappropriate protections, or the removal of protections. Falls from building girders or other structural steel were associated with bodily actions and improper use of PPE. Falls from roof edges were associated with bodily actions and being pulled down by a hoist, object or tool. Falls through roof surfaces were associated with lack of complying scaffolds. Falls from ladders were associated with overexertion and unusual control and the use of unsafe ladders and tools. Falls down stairs or steps were associated with unguarded openings. Falls while jumping to a lower floor and falls through existing roof openings were associated with poor work practices. Primary and secondary prevention measures can be used to prevent falls or to mitigate the consequences of falls and are suggested for each type of accident. Primary prevention measures would include fixed barriers, such as handrails, guardrails, surface opening protections (hole coverings), crawling boards/planks, and strong roofing materials. Secondary protection measures would include travel restraint systems (safety belt), fall arrest systems (safety harness), and fall containment systems (safety nets). PMID:15892934

Chi, Chia-Fen; Chang, Tin-Chang; Ting, Hsin-I

2005-07-01

65

Program sustainability of a community-based intervention to prevent falls among older Australians.  

PubMed

Multi-strategy interventions have been demonstrated to prevent falls among older people, but studies have not explored their sustainability. This paper investigates program sustainability of Stay on Your Feet (SOYF), an Australian multi-strategy falls prevention program (1992-1996) that achieved a significant reduction in falls-related hospital admissions. A series of surveys assessed recall, involvement and current falls prevention activities, 5 years post-SOYF, in multiple original SOYF stakeholder groups within the study area [general practitioners (GPs), pharmacists, community health (CH) staff, shire councils (SCs) and access committees (ACs)]. Focus groups explored possible behavioural changes in the target group. Surveys were mailed, except to CH staff and ACs, who participated in guided group sessions and were contacted via the telephone, respectively. Response rates were: GPs, 67% (139/209); pharmacists, 79% (53/67); CH staff, 63% (129/204); SCs, 90% (9/10); ACs, 80% (8/10). There were 73 older people in eight focus groups. Of 117 GPs who were practising during SOYF, 80% recalled SOYF and 74% of these reported an influence on their practice. Of 46 pharmacists operating a business during SOYF, 45% had heard of SOYF and 79% of these reported being 'somewhat' influenced. Of 76 community health staff (59%) in the area at that time, 99% had heard of SOYF and 82% reported involvement. Four SCs retained a SOYF resource, but none thought current activities were related. Seven ACs reported involvement, but no activities were sustained. Thirty-five focus group participants (48%) remembered SOYF and reported a variety of SOYF-initiated behaviour changes. Program sustainability was clearly demonstrated among health practitioners. Further research is required to assess long-term effect sustainability. PMID:15306612

Barnett, L M; Van Beurden, E; Eakin, E G; Beard, J; Dietrich, U; Newman, B

2004-09-01

66

Martial arts fall training to prevent hip fractures in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Hip fractures are a common and serious consequence of falls. Training of proper fall techniques may be useful to prevent hip\\u000a fractures in the elderly. The results suggested that martial arts fall techniques may be trainable in older individuals. Better\\u000a performance resulted in a reduced impact force.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  Hip fractures are a common and serious consequence of falls. Fall training may

B. E. Groen; E. Smulders; D. de Kam; J. E. J. Duysens; V. G. M. Weerdesteijn

2010-01-01

67

Smartphone-Based Solutions for Fall Detection and Prevention: Challenges and Open Issues  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a state-of-the-art survey of smartphone (SP)-based solutions for fall detection and prevention. Falls are considered as major health hazards for both the elderly and people with neurodegenerative diseases. To mitigate the adverse consequences of falling, a great deal of research has been conducted, mainly focused on two different approaches, namely, fall detection and fall prevention. Required hardware for both fall detection and prevention are also available in SPs. Consequently, researchers' interest in finding SP-based solutions has increased dramatically over recent years. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no published review on SP-based fall detection and prevention. Thus in this paper, we present the taxonomy for SP-based fall detection and prevention solutions and systematic comparisons of existing studies. We have also identified three challenges and three open issues for future research, after reviewing the existing articles. Our time series analysis demonstrates a trend towards the integration of external sensing units with SPs for improvement in usability of the systems. PMID:24759116

Habib, Mohammad Ashfak; Mohktar, Mas S.; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Lim, Kheng Seang; Pin, Tan Maw; Ibrahim, Fatimah

2014-01-01

68

Falls Prevention Education for Older Adults during and after Hospitalization: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of patient education in reducing falls, promoting behavioural change and the uptake of prevention activities in older adults during and after hospitalization. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: A systematic search of five health science databases was performed up to November 2012. Studies…

Lee, Den-Ching A.; Pritchard, Elizabeth; McDermott, Fiona; Haines, Terry P.

2014-01-01

69

Falls and injury prevention should be part of every stroke rehabilitation plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate falls incidence, circumstances and consequences in people who return home after stroke rehabilitation, so that appropriate falls and injury prevention strategies can be developed.Design: Prospective cohort study.Setting: Community.Subjects: Fifty-six subjects with stroke who were participating in a rehabilitation programme and returning to live in a community setting completed the study.Main measures: Subjects completed a prospective falls diary

S FH Mackintosh; K Hill; K J Dodd; P Goldie; E Culham

2005-01-01

70

Risks and suggestions to prevent falls in geriatric rehabilitation: a participatory approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to establish the rates and to gather information from patients, staff and family members on risks and potential measures to prevent patient falls on geriatric rehabilitation units in a hospital.MethodsThe falls recorded in the geriatric rehabilitation units between January 2006 and December 2008 were reviewed to establish their rates (falls\\/1000 patient days) and locations.

Edgar Ramos Vieira; Colleen Berean; Debra Paches; Larissa Costa; Natacha Décombas-Deschamps; Penny Caveny; Doris Yuen; Lauralee Ballash

2011-01-01

71

Obstacle Course Training Can Improve Mobility and Prevent Falls in People with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) constitute a special-needs population at high risk of falling. This is the first study to evaluate whether obstacle course training can improve mobility and prevent falls in this population. Methods: The intervention was implemented as part of an institution-wide health care improvement plan…

Van Hanegem, E.; Enkelaar, L.; Smulders, E.; Weerdesteyn, V.

2014-01-01

72

Steady As You Go (SAYGO): A Falls-Prevention Program for Seniors Living in the Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a randomized trial of Steady as You Go, a falls-prevention program for the elderly, the treatment group (n=235) reduced eight of nine risk factors. Over a 4-month follow-up, the treatment group fell less than controls (n=236) and significantly fewer treatment group participants who had fallen before experienced falls (20%) compared to 35% of…

Robson, Ellie; Edwards, Joy; Gallagher, Elaine; Baker, Dorothy

2003-01-01

73

Vitamin D Treatment for the Prevention of Falls in Older Adults: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To systematically review and quantitatively synthesize the effect of vitamin D therapy on fall prevention in older adults. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Setting MEDLINE, CINAHL,Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, LILACS, bibliographies of selected articles, and previous systematic reviews through February 2009 were searched for eligible studies. Participants Older adults (aged ?60 years) who participated in randomized controlled trials that investigated the effectiveness of vitamin D therapy in the prevention of falls and used an explicit fall definition. Measurements Two authors independently extracted data including study characteristics, quality assessment, and outcomes. The I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity in a randomeffects model. Results Of 1,679 potentially relevant articles, 10 studies met inclusion criteria. In pooled analysis, vitamin D therapy (200-1000IU) reduced falls by 14% (relative risk [RR] 0.86;95% confidence interval 0.79-0.93;I2=7%) compared to calcium or placebo; number needed to treat=15. The following subgroups had significant fall reductions: community-dwelling (age<80 years), adjunctive calcium supplementation, no history of fractures/falls, duration>6 months, cholecalciferol, and dose?800 IU. Meta-regression demonstrated no linear association of vitamin D dose or duration with treatment effect. Post-hoc analysis, including 7 additional studies (17 total) without explicit fall definitions, yielded smaller benefit (RR 0.92,0.87-0.98) and more heterogeneity (I2=36%) but found significant intergroup differences favoring adjunctive calcium versus none (p=0.001). Conclusion Vitamin D treatment effectively reduces the risk of falls in older adults. Future studies should investigate whether particular populations or treatment regimens may have greater benefit. PMID:20579169

Kalyani, Rita Rastogi; Stein, Brady; Valiyil, Ritu; Manno, Rebecca; Maynard, Janet W.; Crews, Deidra

2010-01-01

74

Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon  

SciTech Connect

The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL

2011-11-01

75

Falls among hemodialysis patients: potential opportunities for prevention?  

PubMed Central

Background Falls among patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD) have significant consequences for quality of life and functional independence, morbidity, healthcare utilization and even mortality, but studies on the etiology of falls within large HD cohorts are limited. Methods Falls during the past 12 months were ascertained for a prevalent multi-center HD cohort (n = 762) aged 20–92 years, and associations with demographic and treatment characteristics, comorbidities, cognitive function, prescribed medications, balance tests, frailty and depressive symptoms were assessed. Results Falls were sustained by 28.4% of participants. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, participants classified as frail were over two times more likely to report falls [odds ratio (OR): 2.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22–4.71, P = 0.01], and participants with a CES-D score 18+ and/or prescribed antidepressants were over 80% more likely to be fallers (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.23–2.74, P = 0.003) than were participants with a CES-D score <18 and no prescribed antidepressants. Conclusions Frailty and depressed mood, factors that are potentially modifiable, are prominently associated with falls.

Kutner, Nancy G.; Zhang, Rebecca; Huang, Yijian; Wasse, Haimanot

2014-01-01

76

Preventing falls and fall injuries in hospital: a major risk management challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental falls are the commonest patient safety incident in hospital and are especially common in older patients. They are associated with physical and psychological harm, functional impairment, pro- longed hospital stay, cost and opportunity cost. Falls often cause concern and anger from patients' rel- atives, are a frequent cause of complaints and inquests, and may lead to claims in clinical

David Oliver

2007-01-01

77

Effect of free fall on higher plants.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of exposure to the free-fall state on the orientation, morphogenesis, physiology, and radiation response of higher plants is briefly summarized. It is proposed that the duration of the space-flight experiments has been to brief to permit meaningful effects of free fall on general biochemistry, growth, and development to appear. However, two types of significant effect did occur. The first is on differential growth - i.e., tropism and epinasty - resulting from the absence of a normal geostimulus. For these phenomena it is suggested that ground-based experiments with the clinostat would suffice to mimic the effect of the free-fall state. The second is an apparent interaction between the radiation response and some flight condition, yielding an enhanced microspore abortion, a disturbed spindle function, and a stunting of stamen hairs. It is suggested that this apparent interaction may be derived from a shift in the rhythm of the cell cycle, induced by the free fall.

Gordon, S. A.

1973-01-01

78

Falls after Discharge from Hospital: Is There a Gap between Older Peoples' Knowledge about Falls Prevention Strategies and the Research Evidence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine whether older people are prepared to engage in appropriate falls prevention strategies after discharge from hospital. Design and Methods: We used a semi-structured interview to survey older patients about to be discharged from hospital and examined their knowledge regarding falls prevention strategies…

Hill, Anne-Marie; Hoffmann, Tammy; Beer, Christopher; McPhail, Steven; Hill, Keith D.; Oliver, David; Brauer, Sandra G.; Haines, Terry P.

2011-01-01

79

The REFORM study protocol: a cohort randomised controlled trial of a multifaceted podiatry intervention for the prevention of falls in older people  

PubMed Central

Introduction Falls and fall-related injuries are a serious cause of morbidity and cost to society. Foot problems and inappropriate footwear may increase the risk of falls; therefore podiatric interventions may play a role in reducing falls. Two Cochrane systematic reviews identified only one study of a podiatry intervention aimed to reduce falls, which was undertaken in Australia. The REFORM trial aims to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention in reducing falls in people aged 65?years and over in a UK and Irish setting. Methods and analysis This multicentre, cohort randomised controlled trial will recruit 2600 participants from routine podiatry clinics in the UK and Ireland to the REFORM cohort. In order to detect a 10% point reduction in falls from 50% to 40%, with 80% power 890 participants will be randomised to receive routine podiatry care and a falls prevention leaflet or routine podiatry care, a falls prevention leaflet and a multifaceted podiatry intervention. The primary outcome is rate of falls (falls/person/time) over 12?months assessed by patient self-report falls diary. Secondary self-report outcome measures include: the proportion of single and multiple fallers and time to first fall over a 12-month period; Short Falls Efficacy Scale—International; fear of falling in the past 4?weeks; Frenchay Activities Index; fracture rate; Geriatric Depression Scale; EuroQoL-five dimensional scale 3-L; health service utilisation at 6 and 12?months. A qualitative study will examine the acceptability of the package of care to participants and podiatrists. Ethics and dissemination The trial has received a favourable opinion from the East of England—Cambridge East Research Ethics Committee and Galway Research Ethics Committee. The trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and at conference presentations. Trial registration number Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN68240461assigned 01/07/2011. PMID:25518875

Cockayne, Sarah; Adamson, Joy; Corbacho Martin, Belen; Fairhurst, Caroline; Hewitt, Catherine; Hicks, Kate; Hull, Robin; Keenan, Anne Maree; Lamb, Sarah E; Loughrey, Lorraine; McIntosh, Caroline; Menz, Hylton B; Redmond, Anthony C; Rodgers, Sara; Vernon, Wesley; Watson, Judith; Torgerson, David

2014-01-01

80

A protocol for evidence-based targeting and evaluation of statewide strategies for preventing falls among community-dwelling older people in Victoria, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Falls are a significant threat to the safety, health and independence of older citizens. Despite the now substantial evidence about effective falls prevention interventions, translation into falls reductions has not yet been fully realised. While the hip fracture rate is decreasing, the number and rate of fall-related hospital admissions among older people is increasing. The challenge now is to deliver the most effective interventions efficiently at a population level, and for these interventions to be taken up by older people. Objective To support the development, and evaluation of, effective falls prevention policy and practice in the state of Victoria, Australia. Methods The RE-AIM model (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) was used to identify strategies for an effective programme. Research objectives were developed to support the strategies. These include: (1) identification of subgroups of older people most frequently admitted to hospital for falls; (2) examining the acceptability of established falls interventions; (3) identification of factors that encourage and support relevant lifestyle changes; (4) identifying opportunities to incorporate confirmed interventions in existing programmes and services; (5) developing guidelines for sustainability. The research results will subsequently guide strategy details for the falls prevention plan. RE-AIM will provide the framework for the evaluation structure. Outcome measures Measures to monitor the implementation of the selected interventions will be determined for each intervention, based on the five key factors of the RE-AIM model. The overall effect of the falls prevention plan will be monitored by time series analysis of fall-related hospital admission rates for community-dwelling older people. PMID:21186224

Finch, Caroline F; Hill, Keith D; Haines, Terry P; Clemson, Lindy; Thomas, Margaret; Thompson, Catherine

2010-01-01

81

CONNECT for Better Fall Prevention in Nursing Homes: Results from a Pilot Intervention Study  

PubMed Central

Background We hypothesized that an intervention which improves nursing home (NH) staff connections, communication, and problem solving (CONNECT) would improve implementation of a falls reduction education program (FALLS). Design Cluster randomized trial. Setting Community (n=4) and VA NHs (n=4) Participants Staff in any role with resident contact (n=497). Intervention NHs received FALLS alone (control) or CONNECT followed by FALLS (intervention), each delivered over 3-months. CONNECT used story-telling, relationship mapping, mentoring, self-monitoring and feedback to help staff identify communication gaps and practice interaction strategies. FALLS included group training, modules, teleconferences, academic detailing, and audit/feedback. Measurements NH staff completed surveys about interactions at baseline, 3 months (immediately following CONNECT or control period), and 6 months (immediately following FALLS). A random sample of resident charts was abstracted for fall risk reduction documentation (n=651). Change in facility fall rates was an exploratory outcome. Focus groups were conducted to explore changes in organizational learning. Results Significant improvements in staff perceptions of communication quality, participation in decision making, safety climate, care giving quality, and use of local interaction strategies were observed in intervention community NHs (treatment by time effect p=.01), but not in VA NHs where a ceiling effect was observed. Fall risk reduction documentation did not change significantly, and the direction of change in individual facilities did not relate to observed direction of change in fall rates. Fall rates did not change in control facilities (2.61 and 2.64 falls/bed/yr), but decreased by 12% in intervention facilities (2.34 to 2.06 falls/bed/yr); the effect of treatment on rate of change was 0.81 (0.55, 1.20). Conclusion CONNECT has the potential to improve care delivery in NHs, but the trend toward improving fall rates requires confirmation in a larger ongoing study. PMID:24279686

Colon-Emeric, Cathleen S.; McConnell, Eleanor; Pinheiro, Sandro O.; Corazzini, Kirsten; Porter, Kristie; Earp, Kelly M.; Landerman, Lawrence; Beales, Julie; Lipscomb, Jeffrey; Hancock, Kathryn; Anderson, Ruth A.

2014-01-01

82

Current costing models: are they suitable for allocating health resources? The example of fall injury prevention in Australia.  

PubMed

The example of fall injury among older people is used to define and illustrate how current Australian systems for allocation of health resources perform for funding emerging public health issues. While the examples are Australian, the allocation and priority setting methods are common in the health sector in all developed western nations. With an ageing population the number of falls injuries in Australia and the cost of treatment will rise dramatically over the next 20-50 years. Current methods of allocating funds within the health system are not well suited to meeting this coming epidemic. The information requirements for cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness measures cannot be met. Marginal approaches to health funding are likely to continue to fund already well-funded treatment or politically driven prevention processes and to miss the opportunity for new prevention initiatives in areas that do not have a high political profile. Fall injury is one of many emerging areas that struggle to make claims for funding because the critical mass of intervention and evidence of its impact is not available. The beneficiaries of allocation failure may be those who treat the disease burden that could have been easily prevented. Changes to allocation mechanisms, data systems and new initiative funding practices are required to ensure that preventative strategies are able to compete on an equal footing with treatment approaches for mainstream health funding. PMID:15607272

Moller, Jerry

2005-01-01

83

The Harstad injury prevention study: community based prevention of fall-fractures in the elderly evaluated by means of a hospital based injury recording system in Norway.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe a community based programme to prevent fractures resulting from falls and evaluate the outcome in terms of changes in fracture rates and short term hospital care costs. DESIGN: Prospective intervention study. SETTING: The Norwegian municipalities of Harstad (intervention) and Trondheim (reference) from 1 July 1985 to 30 June 1993. PARTICIPANTS: The person-years of the study were estimated from yearly census data on people aged 65 years and over. There were 22970 person years in Harstad and 158911 in Trondheim. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The variables were selected and coded according to the Nordic system and the data were collected as part of a national injury surveillance system. The first three years of the study provided baseline data, while the last five years involved community based interventions-eg, the removal of environmental hazards in homes and promotion of the use of safe footwear outdoors in winter. Rates of fracture from falls did not decline in nursing homes but decreased 26.3% in private homes (p < 0.01). In 65-79 year olds, there was a 48.7% reduction in fall-fracture rates for men in traffic areas in winter (p < 0.05). The data from the reference city, Trondheim, suggested a significant rise in fractures caused by falls. There was a 16.7% reduction in hospital admission rates of fall-fracture patients from private homes, indicating a substantial saving in short term hospital costs. The observed fall-fracture rate reductions in private homes and traffic areas suggest that major parts of the interventions were effective. CONCLUSION: Fall-fracture prophylaxis in the aged is possible in a community based setting that utilises high quality, local injury data. PMID:8944864

Ytterstad, B

1996-01-01

84

Effective Fall 2010 MINOR IN COMMUNICATION STUDIES  

E-print Network

2050 ­ Topics in Oral Communication COMM 2101 ­ Introduction to Rhetorical Theory COMM 2102 ­ AdvancedEffective Fall 2010 MINOR IN COMMUNICATION STUDIES The minor in Communication Studies consists (Communication Theory) and at least 6 credit hours taken at the 3000 level and above. Students must attain

Raja, Anita

85

Development of a Fall Prevention Survey to Determine Educational Needs for Primary Care Providers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quality indicators are standardized measures of health care quality. We designed a survey to assess how knowledge, attitude, and organizational practices might affect healthcare provider behaviors in meeting quality indicators for fall prevention to plan curricula for a continuing educational intervention. The survey was pilot tested in the…

Kramer, B. Josea; Ganz, David A.; Vivrette, Rebecca L.; Harker, Judith O.; Josephson, Karen R.; Saliba, Debra

2010-01-01

86

Framework for preventing accidental falls in hospitals - management plan for ADL, medication and medical conditions.  

PubMed

Prevention and reduction of medical accidents is essential. Among medical accidents, accidental falls remain a serious problem. While "assessment score sheets" have already been used in hospitals to prevent accidental falls, satisfactory results have not actually been achieved. In this study, we aim to establish a methodology for preventing accidental falls. We consider that the 'management plan' for each patient includes three factors. A plan of instructions for patients on actions they can take for safety in their ADL (Activities of Daily Living) is essential as a base. Second, a plan to keep up with any short term change in a patient's state is needed, because the state of a hospitalized patient will usually be temporarily affected by medication and changing medical conditions. We develop a model for preventing accidental falls, which enable us to design appropriate management plan for each patient. Then, we develop a prototype system based on the designed model. Finally, we address the result of verification of the model, by applying the prototype system into actual cases in hospitals. PMID:19592884

Kato, Shogo; Tsuru, Satoko; Iizuka, Yoshinori

2009-01-01

87

Implementing a Community-Based Falls-Prevention Program: From Drawing Board to Reality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of falls-prevention programs designed for community-dwelling seniors using randomized designs. However, little is known about the feasibility of implementing these programs under natural conditions and about the success of these programs when delivered under such conditions. The objectives of this…

Filiatrault, Johanne; Parisien, Manon; Laforest, Sophie; Genest, Carole; Gauvin, Lise; Fournier, Michel; Trickey, Francine; Robitaille, Yvonne

2007-01-01

88

Psychosocial Issues in Engaging Older People with Physical Activity Interventions for the Prevention of Falls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an overview of the psychosocial factors that influence older people's participation in physical activity interventions to prevent falls. The importance of psychosocial factors is stressed inasmuch as interventions will be rendered useless if they do not successfully gain the active participation of older people. The theory of…

Nyman, Samuel R.

2011-01-01

89

Effect of a Multidisciplinary Fall Risk Assessment on Falls Among Neurology Inpatients  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the addition of a physician assessment of patient fall risk at admission would reduce inpatient falls on a tertiary hospital neurology inpatient unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A physician fall risk assessment was added to the existing risk assessment process (clinical nurse evaluation and Hendrich II Fall Risk Model score with specific fall prevention measures for patients at risk). An order to select either “Patient is” or “Patient is not at high risk of falls by physician assessment” was added to the physician electronic admission order set. Nurses and physicians were instructed to reach consensus when assessments differed. Full implementation occurred in second-quarter 2008. Preimplementation (January 1, 2006, to March 31, 2008) and postimplementation (April 1, 2008, to December 31, 2009) rates of falls were compared on the neurology inpatient unit and on 6 other medical units that did not receive intervention. RESULTS: The rate of falls during the 7 quarters after full implementation was significantly lower than that during the 9 preceding quarters (4.12 vs 5.69 falls per 1000 patient-days; P=.04), whereas the rate of falls on other medical units did not significantly change (2.99 vs 3.33 falls per 1000 patient-days; P=.24, Poisson test). The consensus risk assessment at admission correctly identified patients at risk for falls (14/325 at-risk patients fell vs 0/147 low-risk patients; P=.01, ?2 test), but the Hendrich II Fall Risk Model score, nurse, and physician assessments individually did not. CONCLUSION: A multidisciplinary approach to fall risk assessment is feasible, correctly identifies patients at risk, and was associated with a reduction in inpatient falls. PMID:21193651

Hunderfund, Andrea N. Leep; Sweeney, Cynthia M.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Johnson, LeAnn M.; Britton, Jeffrey W.

2011-01-01

90

Prevention of falls and fractures in old people by administration of calcium and vitamin d. randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background There are many studies that associate vitamin D serum levels in older persons with muscle strength, physical performance and risk of fractures and falls. However, current evidence is insufficient to make a general recommendation for administrating calcium and vitamin D to older persons. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of calcium and vitamin D supplementation in improving musculoskeletal function and decreasing the number of falls in person aged over 65 years. Methods/Design Phase III, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of already marketed drugs in a new indication. It will be performed at Primary Care doctor visits at several Healthcare Centers in different Spanish Health Areas. A total of 704 non-institutionalized subjects aged 65 years or older will be studied (sample size calculated for a statistical power of 80%, alpha error 0.05, annual incidence of falls 30% and expected reduction of 30% to 20% and expected loss to follow up of 20%). The test drug containing 800 IU of vitamin D and 1000 mg of calcium will be administered daily. The control group will receive a placebo. The subjects will be followed up over two years. The primary variable will be the incidence of spontaneous falls. The secondary variables will include: consequences of the falls (fractures, need for hospitalization), change in calcidiol plasma levels and other analytical determinations (transaminases, PTH, calcium/phosphorous, albumin, creatinine, etc.), change in bone mass by densitometry, change in muscle strength in the dominant hand and change in musculoskeletal strength, risk factors for falls, treatment compliance, adverse effects and socio-demographic data. Discussion The following principles have been considered in the development of this Project: the product data are sufficient to ensure that the risks assumed by the study participants are acceptable, the study objectives will probably provide further knowledge on the problem studied and the available information justifies the performance of the study and its possible risk for the participants. If calcium and vitamin D supplementation is effective in the prevention of falls and fractures in the elderly population, a recommendation may be issued with the aim of preventing some of the consequences of falls that affect quality of life and the ensuing personal, health and social costs. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01452243 Clinical trial authorized by the Spanish Medicines Agency: EudraCT number 2006-001643-63. PMID:22151975

2011-01-01

91

AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY CONSENSUS STATEMENT Vitamin D for Prevention of Falls and  

E-print Network

focuses on the clinical trials that tested the effects of vitamin D supplementation on reducing fall injuries.The trials varied in vitamin D supplement dose, adherence to the vitamin D regi- men, and achieved vitamin D levels.The vitamin D supplement doses in the trials that were associated with reduced falls

Oliver, Douglas L.

92

Home or Away? Choosing a Setting for a Falls-Prevention Program for People with Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Evidence suggests that choice of setting may be important in influencing the outcomes of rehabilitation programs, as well as optimizing participant satisfaction and adherence. This article aims to examine the factors that may inform the choice of setting for a falls-prevention program tailored to the needs of people with multiple sclerosis, including the influence of setting on program effectiveness, participant engagement, cost, and sustainability. Any new program should ensure that the choice of setting is informed by the intended program outcomes as well as an awareness of the opportunities and challenges presented by each type of setting. Evaluations of falls programs for older people suggest that immediate outcomes are similar regardless of setting; however, long-term outcomes may differ by setting, possibly owing to differential effects on adherence. Programs based away from home may offer benefits in terms of maintaining motivation, providing peer-support opportunities, and allowing regular access to facilitator input, while home-based programs offer unique opportunities for context-based practice and the integration of falls-prevention activities into real life. Additionally, home-based programs may address some of the long-term feasibility issues associated with programs away from home. A “mixed” program incorporating elements of home- and community-based activity may be the most sustainable and effective choice to achieve both long- and short-term goals within a falls-prevention program. However, currently there are significant gaps in knowledge relating to comparative program outcomes, cost, and long-term sustainability. PMID:25694777

Cattaneo, Davide; Finlayson, Marcia; Freeman, Jennifer; Sosnoff, Jacob J.

2014-01-01

93

Falls prevention and support: translating research, integrating services and promoting the contribution of service users for quality and innovative programmes of care.  

PubMed

Falls are a significant threat to the safety, health and independence of older citizens. Despite the substantial evidence that is available around effective falls prevention programmes and interventions, their translation into falls reduction programmes and policies has yet to be fully realised. While hip fracture rates are decreasing, the number and incidence of fall-related hospital admissions among older people continue to rise. Given the demographic trends that highlight increasing numbers of older people in the UK, which is broadly reflected internationally, there is a financial and social imperative to minimise the rate of falls and associated injuries. Falling is closely aligned to growing older (Slips, Trips and Falls Update: From Acute and Community Hospitals and Mental Health Units in England and Wales, Department of Health, HMSO, London, 2010). According to the World Health Organization, around 30% of older people aged over 65 and 50% of those over 80 will fall each year (Falls Fact Sheet Number 344, WHO, Geneva, 2010). Falls happen as a result of many reasons and can have harmful consequences, including loss of mobility and independence, confidence and in many cases even death (Cochrane Database Syst Rev 15, 2009, 146; Slips, Trips and Falls Update: From Acute and Community Hospitals and Mental Health Units in England and Wales, Department of Health, HMSO, London, 2010; Falling Standards, Broken Promises: Report of the National Audit of Falls and Bone Health in Older People 2010, Health Care Quality Improvement Partnership, London, 2011). What is neither fair nor correct is the common belief by old and young alike that falls are just another inconvenience to put up with. The available evidence justifiably supports the view that well-organised services, based upon national standards and expert guidance, can prevent future falls among older people and reduce death and disability from fractures. This paper will draw from the UK, as an exemplar for policy and practice, to discuss the strategic direction of falls prevention programmes for older people and the partnerships that need to exist between researchers, service providers and users of services to translate evidence to the clinical setting. Second, it will propose some mechanisms for disseminating evidence to healthcare professionals and other stakeholders, to improve the quality and capacity of the clinical workforce. PMID:22078021

Gormley, Kevin J

2011-12-01

94

What Works in Prevention: Principles of Effective Prevention Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high prevalence of drug abuse, delinquency, youth violence, and other youth problems creates a need to identify and disseminate effective prevention strategies. General principles gleaned from effective interventions may help prevention practitioners select, modify, or create more effective programs. Using a review-of-reviews approach across 4 areas (substance abuse, risky sexual behavior, school failure, and juvenile delinquency and violence), the

Maury Nation; Cindy Crusto; Abraham Wandersman; Karol L. Kumpfer; Diana Seybolt; Erin Morrissey-Kane; Katrina Davino

2003-01-01

95

An educational video to promote multi-factorial approaches for fall and injury prevention in long-term care facilities  

PubMed Central

Background Older adults living in long term care (LTC) settings are vulnerable to fall-related injuries. There is a need to develop and implement evidence-based approaches to address fall injury prevention in LTC. Knowledge translation (KT) interventions to support the uptake of evidence-based approaches to fall injury prevention in LTC need to be responsive to the learning needs of LTC staff and use mediums, such as videos, that are accessible and easy-to-use. This article describes the development of two unique educational videos to promote fall injury prevention in long-term care (LTC) settings. These videos are unique from other fall prevention videos in that they include video footage of real life falls captured in the LTC setting. Methods Two educational videos were developed (2012–2013) to support the uptake of findings from a study exploring the causes of falls based on video footage captured in LTC facilities. The videos were developed by: (1) conducting learning needs assessment in LTC settings via six focus groups (2) liaising with LTC settings to identify learning priorities through unstructured conversations; and (3) aligning the content with principles of adult learning theory. Results The videos included footage of falls, interviews with older adults and fall injury prevention experts. The videos present evidence-based fall injury prevention recommendations aligned to the needs of LTC staff and: (1) highlight recommendations deemed by LTC staff as most urgent (learner-centered learning); (2) highlight negative impacts of falls on older adults (encourage meaning-making); and, (3) prompt LTC staff to reflect on fall injury prevention practices (encourage critical reflection). Conclusions Educational videos are an important tool available to researchers seeking to translate evidence-based recommendations into LTC settings. Additional research is needed to determine their impact on practice. PMID:24884899

2014-01-01

96

i Engaging as an innovative approach to engage patients in their own fall prevention care  

PubMed Central

Decreasing patient fall injuries during hospitalization continues to be a challenge at the bedside. Empowering patients to become active participants in their own fall prevention care could be a solution. In a previous study, elderly patients recently discharged from a United States hospital expressed a need for nurses to give and repeat directives about fall prevention; when the nurse left a brochure on the topic, but did not provide any (or limited) verbal explanations about the content or the importance of the information, the patient felt that the information was insufficient. To address patients’ needs, we developed “i Engaging”, a Web-based software application for use at the bedside. i Engaging is an innovative approach that is used to engage patients in their own fall prevention care during hospital stays. The application was designed based on the assumption that patients are the best and most critical sources of information about their health status. i Engaging has not yet been tested in clinical trials. PMID:24868148

Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Yin, Chang-Yi

2014-01-01

97

Falls prevention advice and visual feedback to those at risk of falling: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have shown that functional strength and balance exercises can reduce the risk of falling in older people if they are done on a regular basis. However, the repetitive nature of these exercises; combined with the inherent lack of feedback of progress may discourage seniors from exercising in the home, thereby rendering such an intervention ineffective. This study hypothesizes that the use of visual feedback and multimodal games will be more effective in encouraging adherence to home rehabilitation than standard care; thereby promoting independence and improving the quality of life in older adults at risk of falling. Methods A pllel-group pilot randomized controlled trial with 3 groups of participants will be conducted in the home for 12 weeks. Participants will include older adults who have been identified as at risk of falling (n?=?48), over the age of 65, living in the community, and suitable for a home exercise intervention. The primary outcome is adherence to exercise. Secondary outcomes include: variability in stride length, stride time and double support time (DST); walking speed; Timed up and go test (TUG); Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I); CONFbal scale; Romberg’s test; and quality of life measures (SF-12 and EuroQol EQ-5D). Qualitative assessments on personal experiences with rehabilitation tools will be done before and after the trial. Discussion This study will investigate the use of visual feedback and engaging multimodal activities to address the problem of non-compliance to home exercises for falls rehabilitation. One of the unique qualities of this study is the adaptation of special participatory design methods through which the end users (fallers) will be involved in the design of the proposed rehabilitation tools at various stages of the design process. Trial registration ISRCTN79967470 PMID:23510162

2013-01-01

98

Effects of Aging on the Biomechanics of Slips and Falls  

PubMed Central

Although much has been learned in recent decades about the deterioration of muscular strength, gait adaptations, and sensory degradation among older adults, little is known about how these intrinsic changes affect biomechanical parameters associated with slip-induced fall accidents. In general, the objective of this laboratory study was to investigate the process of initiation, detection, and recovery of inadvertent slips and falls. We examined the initiation of and recovery from foot slips among three age groups utilizing biomechanical parameters, muscle strength, and sensory measurements. Forty-two young, middle-age, and older participants walked around a walking track at a comfortable pace. Slippery floor surfaces were placed on the track over force platforms at random intervals without the participants’ awareness. Results indicated that younger participants slipped as often as the older participants, suggesting that the likelihood of slip initiation is similar across all age groups; however, older individuals’ recovery process was much slower and less effective. The ability to successfully recover from a slip (thus preventing a fall) is believed to be affected by lower extremity muscle strength and sensory degradation among older individuals. Results from this research can help pinpoint possible intervention strategies for improving dynamic equilibrium among older adults. PMID:16553061

Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Smith, James L.; Woldstad, Jeffrey C.

2010-01-01

99

Generalization of gait adaptation for fall prevention: from moveable platform to slippery floor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A person's ability to transfer the acquired improvements in the control of center of mass (COM) state stability to slips induced in everyday conditions can have profound theoretical and practical implications for falls prevention. This study investigated the extent to which such generalization could take place. A training group (N=8) initially experienced 24 right-side slips in blocked-and-random order (from the first unannounced, novel slip, S-1 to the last, S-24) resulting from release of a low-friction moveable platform in walking. They then experienced a single unannounced slip while walking on an oil-lubricated vinyl floor surface (V-T). A control group (N=8) received only one unannounced slip on the same slippery floor (V-C). Results demonstrated that the incidence of balance loss and fall on V-T was comparable to that on S-24. In both trials fall and balance loss incidence was significantly reduced in comparison with that on S-1 or on V-C, resulting from significant improvements in the COM state stability. The observed generalization indicates that the control of COM stability can be optimally acquired to accommodate alterations in environmental constraints, and it may be broadly coded and easily modifiable within the CNS. Because of such mechanisms, it is possible that the locomotor-balance skills acquired with the aid of low friction moveable platforms can translate into resisting falls encountered in daily living.

Tanvi Bhatt (University of Illinois)

2008-09-05

100

Falls prevention over 2 years: a randomized controlled trial in women 80 years and older  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: after 1 year, a home-based programme of strength and balance retraining exercises was effective in reducing falls and injuries in women aged 80 years and older. The exercise programme had been individually prescribed by a physiotherapist during the first 2 months of a randomized controlled trial. Objective: we aimed to assess the effectiveness of the programme over 2 years.

A. JOHN CAMPBELL; M. C LARE ROBERTSON; M ELINDA M. GARDNER; N. NORTON; DAVID M. BUCHNER

1999-01-01

101

Efficacy of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to improve balance and prevent falls in older people: study protocol for a randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Background Falls in older people are a major public health problem, with at least one in three people aged over 65 years falling each year. There is increasing evidence that foot problems and inappropriate footwear increase the risk of falls, however no studies have been undertaken to determine whether modifying these risk factors decreases the risk of falling. This article describes the design of a randomised trial to evaluate the efficacy of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to reduce foot pain, improve balance, and reduce falls in older people. Methods Three hundred community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years and over with current foot pain and an increased risk of falling will be randomly allocated to a control or intervention group. The "usual cae" control group will receive routine podiatry (i.e. nail care and callus debridement). The intervention group will receive usual care plus a multifaceted podiatry intervention consisting of: (i) prefabricated insoles customised to accommodate plantar lesions; (ii) footwear advice and assistance with the purchase of new footwear if current footwear is inappropriate; (iii) a home-based exercise program to strengthen foot and ankle muscles; and (iv) a falls prevention education booklet. Primary outcome measures will be the number of fallers, number of multiple fallers and the falls rate recorded by a falls diary over a 12 month period. Secondary outcome measures assessed six months after baseline will include the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12 (SF-12), the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index, the Falls Efficacy Scale International, and a series of balance and functional tests. Data will be analysed using the intention to treat principle. Discussion This study is the first randomised trial to evaluate the efficacy of podiatry in improving balance and preventing falls. The trial has been pragmatically designed to ensure that the findings can be generalised to clinical practice. If found to be effective, the multifaceted podiatry intervention will be a unique addition to common falls prevention strategies already in use. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12608000065392 PMID:19025668

Spink, Martin J; Menz, Hylton B; Lord, Stephen R

2008-01-01

102

CIVIL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM EFFECTIVE FALL 2014 MATH 1426 C  

E-print Network

CIVIL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM EFFECTIVE FALL 2014 FIRST YEAR MATH 1426 C ...........................................................4 MATH 2425 C ......................................................... 4 HIST 1311 C ...........................................................3 POLS 2311 C ......................................................... 3 ENGL 1301 C

Texas at Arlington, University of

103

A Population-Based Intervention for the Prevention of Falls and Fractures in Home Dwelling People 65 Years and Older in South Germany: Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Falls and fall-related injuries pose a major threat to older peoples’ health, and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In the course of demographic changes, development and implementation of fall prevention strategies have been recognized as an urgent public health challenge. Various risk factors for falls and a number of effective interventions have been recognized. A substantial proportion of falls occur for people who are neither frail nor at high risk. Therefore, population-based approaches reaching the entire older population are needed. Objective The objective of the study presented is the development, implementation, and evaluation of a population-based intervention for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries in a medium sized city in Germany. Methods The study is designed as a population-based approach. The intervention community is a mid sized city named Reutlingen in southern Germany with a population of 112,700 people. All community dwelling inhabitants 65 years and older are addressed. There are two main measures that are defined: (1) increase of overall physical activity, and (2) reduction of modifiable risk factors for falls such as deficits in strength and balance, home and environmental hazards, impaired vision, unsafe footwear, and improper use of assistive devices. The implementation strategies are developed in a participatory community planning process. These might include, for example, training of professionals and volunteers, improved availability of exercise classes, and education and raising awareness via newspaper, radio, or lectures. Results The study starts in September 2010 and ends in December 2013. It is evaluated primarily by process evaluation as well as by telephone survey. Conclusions Physical activity as a key message entails multiple positive effects with benefits on a range of geriatric symptoms. The strength of the design is the development of implementation strategies in a participatory community planning. The problems that we anticipate are the dependency on the stakeholders’ willingness to participate, and the difficulty of evaluating population-based programs by hard end points. PMID:24686959

Rapp, Kilian; Küpper, Michaela; Becker, Clemens; Fischer, Torben; Büchele, Gisela; Benzinger, Petra

2014-01-01

104

Developing an effective pollution prevention program  

SciTech Connect

Pollution prevention is rapidly becoming a key environmental program element. Congress has increased this emphasis by the passage of the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990. EPA has allocated an increasing share of its budget to pollution prevention activities. Waste minimization/pollution prevention has often been thought of as recycling aluminum cans and paper, but an effective program includes much more. An effective pollution prevention program consists of numerous elements, including a pollution prevention plan, an awareness plan, employee training, process waste assessments, and successful implementation and refinement of the program. This paper discusses what pollution prevention is, the benefits of a pollution prevention program, and the key elements of the program, elements which spell the key theme, Prevention.

Newton, J.J. [Pollution Prevention Inst., Chamblee, GA (United States)

1994-12-31

105

A simple protocol for preventing falls and fractures in elderly individuals with musculoskeletal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Our protocol resulted in a significant prevention of falls and fractures in addition to marked improvements in the balance\\u000a function. Intervention comprised a new balance exercise and quadriceps femoris exercise. Subjects were outpatients aged ?65 years\\u000a old with musculoskeletal disorders who had a result of ?15 s for the timed one-leg balance test.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  A study on chronological changes in the level of

K. Kita; K. Hujino; T. Nasu; K. Kawahara; Y. Sunami

2007-01-01

106

Exercise therapy for prevention of falls in people with Parkinson's disease: A protocol for a randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background People with Parkinson's disease are twice as likely to be recurrent fallers compared to other older people. As these falls have devastating consequences, there is an urgent need to identify and test innovative interventions with the potential to reduce falls in people with Parkinson's disease. The main objective of this randomised controlled trial is to determine whether fall rates can be reduced in people with Parkinson's disease using exercise targeting three potentially remediable risk factors for falls (reduced balance, reduced leg muscle strength and freezing of gait). In addition we will establish the cost effectiveness of the exercise program from the health provider's perspective. Methods/Design 230 community-dwelling participants with idiopathic Parkinson's disease will be recruited. Eligible participants will also have a history of falls or be identified as being at risk of falls on assessment. Participants will be randomly allocated to a usual-care control group or an intervention group which will undertake weight-bearing balance and strengthening exercises and use cueing strategies to address freezing of gait. The intervention group will choose between the home-based or support group-based mode of the program. Participants in both groups will receive standardized falls prevention advice. The primary outcome measure will be fall rates. Participants will record falls and medical interventions in a diary for the duration of the 6-month intervention period. Secondary measures include the Parkinson's Disease Falls Risk Score, maximal leg muscle strength, standing balance, the Short Physical Performance Battery, freezing of gait, health and well being, habitual physical activity and positive and negative affect schedule. Discussion No adequately powered studies have investigated exercise interventions aimed at reducing falls in people with Parkinson's disease. This trial will determine the effectiveness of the exercise intervention in reducing falls and its cost effectiveness. This pragmatic program, if found to be effective, has the potential to be implemented within existing community services. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12608000303347). PMID:19161631

Canning, Colleen G; Sherrington, Cathie; Lord, Stephen R; Fung, Victor SC; Close, Jacqueline CT; Latt, Mark D; Howard, Kirsten; Allen, Natalie E; O'Rourke, Sandra D; Murray, Susan M

2009-01-01

107

Accident patterns and prevention measures for fatal occupational falls in the construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contributing factors to 621 occupational fatal falls have been identified with respect to the victim's individual factors, the fall site, company size, and cause of fall. Individual factors included age, gender, experience, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Accident scenarios were derived from accident reports. Significant linkages were found between causes for the falls and accident events. Falls

Chia-Fen Chi; Tin-Chang Chang; Hsin-I Ting

2005-01-01

108

The effectiveness of suicide prevention centers.  

PubMed

The presence of suicide prevention centers in a state in 1970 was negatively associated with changes in the suicide rate from 1970 to 1980 in the USA, indicating a preventive effect from suicide prevention centers. This effect, though weak, was consistently found for most demographic subgroups of the population and when a strong social correlate of suicide rates (divorce rates) was taken into account by means of multiple regression analysis. PMID:8249037

Lester, D

1993-01-01

109

Vision and agility training in community dwelling older adults: Incorporating visual training into programs for fall prevention  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to examine the effect of visual training on obstacle course performance of independent community dwelling older adults. Agility is the ability to rapidly alter ongoing motor patterns, an important aspect of mobility which is required in obstacle avoidance. However, visual information is also a critical factor in successful obstacle avoidance. We compared obstacle course performance of a group that trained in visually driven body movements and agility drills, to a group that trained only in agility drills. We also included a control group that followed the American College of Sports Medicine exercise recommendations for older adults. Significant gains in fitness, mobility and power were observed across all training groups. Obstacle course performance results revealed that visual training had the greatest improvement on obstacle course performance (22%) following a 12 week training program. These results suggest that visual training may be an important consideration for fall prevention programs. PMID:22206782

Reed-Jones, Rebecca J.; Dorgo, Sandor; Hitchings, Maija K.; Bader, Julia O.

2012-01-01

110

Falls  

MedlinePLUS

... more loosely. When to call a doctor Possible fractures or severe sprains. Extreme swelling, discoloration, severe or persistent pain, or difficulty walking (for example, after a fall that twists your ankle or injures your hip) can be signs of ...

111

A Successful Approach to Fall Prevention in an Outpatient Hemodialysis Center  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Hemodialysis patients are at high risk both for falling and for serious complications associated with falls, but few fall studies have specifically focused on this population. Falls occurring in an outpatient dialysis unit were reviewed to identify contributing factors and implement interventions designed to reduce fall risk. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: A root cause analysis of all fall incidents occurring at an outpatient hemodialysis center during a 4-year period was conducted. A targeted intervention program to reduce falls was then implemented. Risk of falls in the postintervention period was compared with that of the baseline period. Results: In the baseline period, a total of 22 falls occurred involving 14 patients and 8 staff members or visitors (incidence of 50 falls per 100,000 dialysis treatments). Root cause analyses identified staff educational deficits and environmental hazards as the most significant risk factors for fall incidents. After an interventional period that focused on formal staff education and environmental modifications, a total of only 3 additional falls (2 patients and 1 staff member) during 21 months of follow-up (14 falls per 100,000 dialysis treatments, P = 0.01) were observed. Conclusions: Several modifiable risk factors for falls occurring in the high-risk setting of an outpatient hemodialysis unit were identified as a result of this formal analysis of fall incidents. Through a targeted series of interventions, a marked reduction in fall risk was achieved. PMID:20595694

Adamowski, Therese; Segal, Jonathan H.; Malani, Preeti N.

2010-01-01

112

Children’s perceptions about falls and their prevention: a qualitative study from a rural setting in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood falls is a major public health problem in Bangladesh. In-depth understanding of the situation by the target groups and their families is necessary for successful development, implementation and evaluation of any intervention. The study aimed at knowing the views of Bangladeshi rural children about childhood falls and their suggestions for prevention. Methods Children of 10–17 were selected purposely from 4 villages of Sherpur Sadar upazila (sub-district), Sherpur district of Bangladesh. Six focus group discussions and ten in-depth interviews were conducted during July-August 2010 for this study. Gender and education of the participants were considered. Major themes were identified, coded and categorized from content analysis. Results Participants stated that young children (<5 years of age) and boys appeared to be the main victims of falls and majority of these injuries occurred in and around the households. Boys commonly fall from the tree around their premises and high places. Girls usually fall when they remain busy in household chores and playing with friends around their premises. Participants also mentioned that children mostly sustained injury when they are unsupervised. Supervision, public awareness and putting barriers (e.g. door barrier, putting pillow and use net around the bed etc.) were suggested as the preventive measures. Conclusion Findings of this study could be considered as part of knowledge-base in designing interventions to address childhood falls. PMID:24168265

2013-01-01

113

The financial effects of kidney stone prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The financial effects of kidney stone prevention. Prevention of nephrolithiasis (NL) is now medically feasible and widely recommended. However, diagnosis and treatment of remediable causes of stones requires testing and drugs that impose a cost; this cost is balanced by the presumed reductions in stone related events and medical encounters. In order to assess the balance between these, we have

Joan H Parks; Fredric L Coe

1996-01-01

114

Effective Fall The Graduate School at UMBC, 1000 Hilltop Circle,  

E-print Network

School Catalog and on the Graduate School website, , and with the specialGraduate Assistant Handbook Effective Fall 2011 The Graduate School at UMBC, 1000 Hilltop Circle to the Office of Financial Aid and Scholarships. Its website is . GAs should

Adali, Tulay

115

Data acquisition system using six degree-of-freedom inertia sensor and Zigbee wireless link for fall detection and prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fall detection and prevention require logged physiological activity data of a patient for a long period of time. This work develops a data acquisition system to collect motion data from multiple patients and store in a data base. A wireless sensor network is built using high precision inertia sensors and low power Zigbee wireless transceivers. Testing results prove the system

A. Dinh; D. Teng; L. Chen; S. B. Ko; Y. Shi; J. Basran; V. Del Bello-Hass

2008-01-01

116

Fall prevention and safety communication training for foremen:Report of a pilot project designed to improve residential construction safety  

PubMed Central

Problem Falls from heights account for 64% of residential construction worker fatalities and 20% of missed work days. We hypothesized that worker safety would improve with foremen training in fall prevention and safety communication. Method Training priorities identified through foreman and apprentice focus groups and surveys were integrated into an 8-hour training. We piloted the training with ten foremen employed by a residential builder. Carpenter trainers contrasted proper methods to protect workers from falls with methods observed at the foremen’s worksites. Trainers presented methods to deliver toolbox talks and safety messages. Results from worksite observational audits (n=29) and foremen/crewmember surveys (n=97) administered before and after training were compared. Results We found that inexperienced workers are exposed to many fall hazards that they are often not prepared to negotiate. Fall protection is used inconsistently and worksite mentorship is often inadequate. Foremen feel pressured to meet productivity demands and some are unsure of the fall protection requirements. After the training, the frequency of daily mentoring and toolbox talks increased, and these talks became more interactive and focused on hazardous daily work tasks. Foremen observed their worksites for fall hazards more often. We observed increased compliance with fall protection and decreased unsafe behaviors during worksite audits. Discussion Designing the training to meet both foremen’s and crewmembers’ needs ensured the training was learner-centered and contextually-relevant. This pilot suggests that training residential foremen can increase use of fall protection, improve safety behaviors, and enhance on-the-job training and safety communication at their worksites. Impact on Industry Construction workers’ training should target safety communication and mentoring skills with workers who will lead work crews. Interventions at multiple levels are necessary to increase safety compliance in residential construction and decrease falls from heights. PMID:23398712

Kaskutas, Vicki; Dale, Ann Marie; Lipscomb, Hester; Evanoff, Brad

2013-01-01

117

Executive Function Is Independently Associated with Performances of Balance and Mobility in Community-Dwelling Older Adults after Mild Stroke: Implications for Falls Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Stroke survivors have a high incidence of falls. Impaired executive-controlled processes are frequent in stroke survivors and are associated with falls in this population. Better understanding of the independent association between executive-controlled processes and physiological fall risk (i.e. performances of balance and mobility) could enhance future interventions that aim to prevent falls and to promote an independent lifestyle among

Teresa Liu-Ambrose; Marco Y. C. Pang; Janice J. Eng

2007-01-01

118

Effect of magnetic field profile on the anode fall in a Hall-effect thruster dischargea...  

E-print Network

Effect of magnetic field profile on the anode fall in a Hall-effect thruster dischargea... L. Dorf of the magnetic field configuration on the anode fall in an E B discharge of a Hall thruster is studied both that the anode fall in a Hall thruster can be changed from negative to positive by creating a magnetic field

119

Randomised controlled trial of a general practice programme of home based exercise to prevent falls in elderly women.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a home exercise programme of strength and balance retraining exercises in reducing falls and injuries in elderly women. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial of an individually tailored programme of physical therapy in the home (exercise group, n = 116) compared with the usual care and an equal number of social visits (control group, n = 117). SETTING: 17 general practices in Dunedin, New Zealand. SUBJECTS: Women aged 80 years and older living in the community and registered with a general practice in Dunedin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of falls and injuries related to falls and time between falls during one year of follow up; changes in muscle strength and balance measures after six months. RESULTS: After one year there were 152 falls in the control group and 88 falls in the exercise group. The mean (SD) rate of falls was lower in the exercise than the control group (0.87 (1.29) v 1.34 (1.93) falls per year respectively; difference 0.47; 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.90). The relative hazard for the first four falls in the exercise group compared with the control group was 0.68 (0.52 to 0.90). The relative hazard for a first fall with injury in the exercise group compared with the control group was 0.61 (0.39 to 0.97). After six months, balance had improved in the exercise group (difference between groups in change in balance score 0.43 (0.21 to 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: An individual programme of strength and balance retraining exercises improved physical function and was effective in reducing falls and injuries in women 80 years and older. PMID:9366737

Campbell, A. J.; Robertson, M. C.; Gardner, M. M.; Norton, R. N.; Tilyard, M. W.; Buchner, D. M.

1997-01-01

120

Cancer Preventive Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A BSTRACT : Morinda citrifolia (Noni) has been extensively used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It has been reported to have broad thera- peutic effects, including anticancer activity, in both clinical practice and labo- ratory animal models. The mechanism for these effects remains unknown. The hypothesis that Morinda citrifolia possesses a cancer preventive effect at the

M. Y. Wang; C. Su

2001-01-01

121

The Role of the Physician in Promoting Fall Prevention for Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the proportion of older adults increases in the population, the number of patients over 65 years of age who fall will increase dramatically. These falls can be just as devastating to patients as myocardial infarctions, strokes, and pneumonia, yet relatively little attention has been paid to this syndrome in common everyday practice. Since it has been shown that falls,

David Bauer; Fernando Torres-Gil

122

Investigation of Older Adults' Participation in Exercises Following Completion of a State-wide Survey Targeting Evidence-based Falls Prevention Strategies.  

PubMed

This paper examines whether involvement in an observational study may prompt participants to change their exercise behaviors. Data were collected from 394 older community dwellers in Victoria, Australia using a baseline survey, and 245 of these participated in a follow-up survey one year later. Survey domains were drawn from constructs of relevant health behavior models. Results showed that the proportion of respondents who were currently participating in exercises to prevent falls at follow-up was 12% higher than at baseline (Wilcoxon p value < .001). Twenty-nine percent reported they had changed their perceptions about falls and their risk of falls, with comments focused on threat appraisal. Forty-four percent reported having taken strategies to reduce their risk of falling, with comments based on implementation of different preventive strategies. Respondents who held favorable views toward exercises for the prevention of falls appear to change their behaviors that might address falls when participating in observational studies. PMID:24911221

Lee, Den-Ching; Day, Lesley; Finch, Caroline F; Hill, Keith; Clemson, Lindy; McDermott, Fiona; Haines, Terry P

2015-04-01

123

[Cognitive Function and Calcium. Vitamin D and calcium for the prevention of falls and fractures in patients with dementia].  

PubMed

The prevalence of dementia and fractures has been increasing with age. There is strong evidence that dementia or cognitive impairment in older people has an established fall risk factor. Subjects with dementia have a doubled to threefold risk of falls. In addition to motor impairments (impaired gait, reduced muscular strength and impaired balance) , executive functional impairment is also associated with an increased risk of falls. Falls are more likely found in subjects with dementia with Lewy bodies and vascular dementia and those who had advanced dementia. Patients with AD are at higher risk for fractures and have a lower bone mineral density than healthy controls. Vitamin D decreases vertebral fractures, and moreover, appears to reduce the risk of falls in older subjects. A recent meta-analysis showed that vitamin D concentrations are associated with poor cognitive function and a higher risk of AD. However, treatment with vitamin D alone shows no significant effect on cognition in patients with AD. PMID:25634053

Hanyu, Haruo

2015-01-01

124

Exercise for patients with osteoporosis: management of vertebral compression fractures and trunk strengthening for fall prevention.  

PubMed

Maintenance of bone health and quality requires mechanical strain, but the mechanical force needs to be within the bone's biomechanical competence. In osteoporosis, compression of vertebral bodies can be insidious. Therefore, absence of pain does not necessarily indicate absence of vertebral microfracture and deformity. Further, patients with previous vertebral fractures are at risk for further vertebral fractures and their associated morbidity. Exercise is a part of the comprehensive management of patients with osteoporosis and has been associated with improvement of quality of life and lowered risk of future fracture. The exercise prescription needs to match the needs of the patient. If exercise is not prescribed properly, then it may have negative consequences. In general, an exercise program, therapeutic or recreational, needs to address flexibility, muscle strength, core stability, cardiovascular fitness, and gait steadiness. As with pharmacotherapy, therapeutic exercises need to be individualized on the basis of musculoskeletal status and an individual's exercise interest. In osteoporosis, axial strength and stability are of primary importance. In particular, a spinal extensor strengthening program should be performed with progressive measured resistance as tolerated. To address falls and fractures, an exercise program should also include balance and lower extremity strength training. Proper dosing of oral cholecalciferol and calcium supplements can enhance the effect of strengthening exercises. Finally, a coordinated approach, such as the Spinal Proprioception Extension Exercise Dynamic (SPEED) program, can improve back extensor strength, the level of physical activity, and locomotion, and reduce back pain and fear and risk of falls. PMID:23174554

Sinaki, Mehrsheed

2012-11-01

125

The effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation integration pattern exercise program on the fall efficacy and gait ability of the elders with experienced fall  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of exercising program utilizing proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation integration pattern (PIP), which is effective in improvement of the physical function, on the fall efficacy and gait ability of the elders who experienced injuries from falls. Also, this study aims to investigate he applicability of exercise program as methods for fall reoccurrence prevention and physical functions enhancement. The subjects of the study were 30 elders in the local community with experience of injuries from falls. The period of the study was 4 weeks with 12 exercise sessions. The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups where 15 elders were allocated to PIP and the rest 15 elders were allocated to general exercise (GE) group. Fall efficacy scale (FES) and GAITRite were used for the measurements in this study. Paired t-test was used to analyze the differences within the group while independent t-test was used to analyze the difference between two groups. In the comparison of measurements before and after exercise program, FES, velocity, cadence, and stride length were shown to be significantly increased in both PIP group and GE group. Also, in the comparison between two groups after the exercise program, the measurements of FES, cadence, stride length, and step length in PIP group were shown to be significantly increased compared to the GE group. Therefore, the PNF combined pattern is judged to be applicable to as methods for fall reoccurrence prevention and physical functions enhancement of the elders with experience of being fallen. PMID:25210699

Song, Hyun-seung; Park, Seong-doo; Kim, Jin-young

2014-01-01

126

The effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation integration pattern exercise program on the fall efficacy and gait ability of the elders with experienced fall.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of exercising program utilizing proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation integration pattern (PIP), which is effective in improvement of the physical function, on the fall efficacy and gait ability of the elders who experienced injuries from falls. Also, this study aims to investigate he applicability of exercise program as methods for fall reoccurrence prevention and physical functions enhancement. The subjects of the study were 30 elders in the local community with experience of injuries from falls. The period of the study was 4 weeks with 12 exercise sessions. The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups where 15 elders were allocated to PIP and the rest 15 elders were allocated to general exercise (GE) group. Fall efficacy scale (FES) and GAITRite were used for the measurements in this study. Paired t-test was used to analyze the differences within the group while independent t-test was used to analyze the difference between two groups. In the comparison of measurements before and after exercise program, FES, velocity, cadence, and stride length were shown to be significantly increased in both PIP group and GE group. Also, in the comparison between two groups after the exercise program, the measurements of FES, cadence, stride length, and step length in PIP group were shown to be significantly increased compared to the GE group. Therefore, the PNF combined pattern is judged to be applicable to as methods for fall reoccurrence prevention and physical functions enhancement of the elders with experience of being fallen. PMID:25210699

Song, Hyun-Seung; Park, Seong-Doo; Kim, Jin-Young

2014-08-01

127

An intergenerational approach in the promotion of balance and strength for fall prevention - a mini-review.  

PubMed

The risk of sustaining a fall is particularly high in children and seniors. Deficits in postural control and muscle strength either due to maturation, secular declines or biologic aging are two important intrinsic risk factors for falls. During life span, performance in variables of static postural control follows a U-shaped curve with children and seniors showing larger postural sway than healthy adults. Measures of dynamic postural control (i.e. gait speed) as well as isometric (i.e. maximal strength) and dynamic muscle strength (i.e. muscular power) follow an inverted U-shaped curve during life span, again with children and seniors showing deficits compared to adults. There is evidence that particularly balance and resistance training are effective in counteracting these neuromuscular constraints in both children and seniors. Further, these training regimens are able to reduce the rate of sustaining injuries and falls in these age groups. An intergenerational intervention approach is suggested to enhance the effectiveness of these training programs by improving compliance and increasing motivation of children and seniors exercising together. Thus, the objectives of this mini-review are: (1) to describe the epidemiology and etiology of falls in children and seniors; (2) to discuss training programs that counteract intrinsic fall risk factors by reducing the rate of falling, and (3) to present an intergenerational approach that has the potential to make training programs even more effective by including children and seniors together in one exercise group. PMID:20720401

Granacher, Urs; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Gollhofer, Albert; Kressig, Reto W; Zahner, Lukas

2011-01-01

128

Older People's Views of Falls-Prevention Interventions in Six European Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Our study identified factors common to a variety of populations and settings that may promote or inhibit uptake and adherence to falls-related interventions. Design and Methods: Semistructured interviews to assess perceived advantages and barriers to taking part in falls-related interventions were carried out in six European countries…

Yardley, Lucy; Bishop, Felicity L.; Beyer, Nina; Hauer, Klaus; Kempen, Gertrudis I. J. M.; Piot-Ziegler, Chantal; Todd, Chris J.; Cuttelod, Therese; Horne, Maria; Lanta, Kyriaki; Holt, Anne Rosell

2006-01-01

129

The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted. PMID:22583406

Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

2012-12-01

130

Fall 2000 Institutional Effectiveness Survey: Preliminary Written Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a narrative summary of an institutional effectiveness survey administered in the fall of 2000 at Cerritos College (California). The survey was designed to assess satisfaction with the institution. Administered to help meet the accreditation standards set by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC), the survey…

Ybarra, Michael

131

'They will tell me if there is a problem': limited discussion between health professionals, older adults and their caregivers on falls prevention during and after hospitalization.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to describe the sources of falls prevention information provided to older adults during and after hospitalization, identify and explore reasons why discussion about falls prevention may not take place. Six participant groups were interviewed using semi-structured interviews or focus groups: (i) older patients (n = 16); (ii) caregivers (n = 8); (iii) allied health and nursing professionals (n = 33); (iv) doctors from acute wards (n = 8); (v) doctors from subacute wards (n = 10) and (vi) general practitioners (n = 9). Participants were recruited from three Australian hospitals that provided acute and subacute in-patient services to the older adults. General practitioners were recruited from the community of Melbourne. Findings showed provision of falls prevention information was dependent on setting of the ward and which health professionals the older adult encountered during and after hospitalization. Medical practitioners were reactive in providing information, whereas older adults and their caregivers were passive in seeking falls prevention information. Several barriers in information provision and information seeking were identified. There is great potential to improve the consistency of falls prevention information provision to older adults during hospitalization and in preparation for discharge to assist with prevention of falls in this high risk period. PMID:24045410

Lee, Den-Ching A; McDermott, Fiona; Hoffmann, Tammy; Haines, Terry P

2013-12-01

132

Stochastic analysis of motor-control stability, polymer based force sensing, and optical stimulation as a preventive measure for falls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Falls are the leading cause of all external injuries. Outcomes of falls include the leading cause of traumatic brain injury and bone fractures, and high direct medical costs in the billions of dollars. This work focused on developing three areas of enabling component technology to be used in postural control monitoring tools targeting the mitigation of falls. The first was an analysis tool based on stochastic fractal analysis to reliably measure levels of motor control. The second focus was on thin film wearable pressure sensors capable of relaying data for the first tool. The third was new thin film advanced optics for improving phototherapy devices targeting postural control disorders. Two populations, athletes and elderly, were studied against control groups. The results of these studies clearly show that monitoring postural stability in at-risk groups can be achieved reliably, and an integrated wearable system can be envisioned for both monitoring and treatment purposes. Keywords: electro-active polymer, ionic polymer-metal composite, postural control, motor control, fall prevention, sports medicine, fractal analysis, physiological signals, wearable sensors, phototherapy, photobiomodulation, nano-optics.

Landrock, Clinton K.

133

Fall prevention with supplemental and active forms of vitamin D: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the efficacy of supplemental vitamin D and active forms of vitamin D with or without calcium in preventing falls among older individuals. Data sources We searched Medline, the Cochrane central register of controlled trials, BIOSIS, and Embase up to August 2008 for relevant articles. Further studies were identified by consulting clinical experts, bibliographies, and abstracts. We contacted authors for additional data when necessary. Review methods Only double blind randomised controlled trials of older individuals (mean age 65 years or older) receiving a defined oral dose of supplemental vitamin D (vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) or vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol)) or an active form of vitamin D (1?-hydroxyvitamin D3 (1?-hydroxycalciferol) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol)) and with sufficiently specified fall assessment were considered for inclusion. Results Eight randomised controlled trials (n=2426) of supplemental vitamin D met our inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity among trials was observed for dose of vitamin D (700-1000 IU/day v 200-600 IU/day; P=0.02) and achieved 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration (25(OH)D concentration: <60 nmol/l v ?60 nmol/l; P=0.005). High dose supplemental vitamin D reduced fall risk by 19% (pooled relative risk (RR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.92; n=1921 from seven trials), whereas achieved serum 25(OH)D concentrations of 60 nmol/l or more resulted in a 23% fall reduction (pooled RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.90). Falls were not notably reduced by low dose supplemental vitamin D (pooled RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.35; n=505 from two trials) or by achieved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of less than 60 nmol/l (pooled RR 1.35, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.84). Two randomised controlled trials (n=624) of active forms of vitamin D met our inclusion criteria. Active forms of vitamin D reduced fall risk by 22% (pooled RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.94). Conclusions Supplemental vitamin D in a dose of 700-1000 IU a day reduced the risk of falling among older individuals by 19% and to a similar degree as active forms of vitamin D. Doses of supplemental vitamin D of less than 700 IU or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of less than 60 nmol/l may not reduce the risk of falling among older individuals. PMID:19797342

2009-01-01

134

Lasers effects on enamel for caries prevention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to ascertain whether laser irradiation is able to reduce caries incidence. For this purpose, the effects of laser on enamel and on fluoride uptake were discussed. Current literature regarding the preventive effect of laser irradiation on dental hard tissue has been reviewed. An evaluation of the results of the available in vitro and in vivo studies on the efficacy of anticaries and induced changes on enamel by laser irradiation were also performed. Articles were selected using the Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane databases, and the results of these studies were described. The most common lasers employed for caries prevention on enamel are Nd:YAG; CO2; Er:YAG; Er,Cr:YSGG; and argon. The percentage of inhibition of dental caries varied from 30 to 97.2%, and the association with fluoride has demonstrated the best results on inhibition of caries development. Laser irradiation under specific conditions can change the crystallographic properties of apatite crystals, increasing the acid resistance of lased enamel. The combined treatment of laser irradiation with fluoride propitiates an expressive fluoride uptake, reducing the progression of carieslike lesions, and this treatment is more effective than laser or fluoride alone. Available data suggest that lasers combined with fluoride is a promising treatment in caries prevention.

Ana, P. A.; Bachmann, L.; Zezell, D. M.

2006-05-01

135

Bottom-up subspace clustering suggests a paradigm shift to prevent fall injuries.  

PubMed

Despite over 10,000 publications since 1990, fall injury rates for older people are still increasing, over and above population ageing. Developing new ways to explore highly dimensional health data and better understand high risk individuals is imperative. The hypothesis investigated is: Falls are a complex multi-systems medical problem. And a paradigm shift in statistical methods is required before fall injuries can be substantially reduced. Here, a new bottom-up supervised subspace clustering (BUSSC) approach suggested as one alternative to conventional approaches. Pilot data were used from 96 community-living older people, 35 with a history of falling. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) found no significant group differences between fallers, and non-fallers. Conversely, BUSSC identified many significant interactions between risk factors that might cause different subgroups of older people to fall. A BUSSC model identified 100% of fallers (Kappa 0.73), comparing favourably to results published from similar populations. BUSSC's superior performance suggests developing new statistical methods should be investigated. Different to previous fall risk models, BUSSC does not require all cases to be classified; instead each cluster provides information most relevant to a homogeneous subgroup of people. However, the three interactions documented may only be small pieces of a larger puzzle. To definitively prove the hypothesis: orders of magnitude more participants should be recruited, prospective falls recorded, and interventions prescribed based on an improved understanding of the individual. A paradigm shift in statistical methods could have profound consequences for health care, allowing us to better understand the individual and focusing less on 'average' population benefit. This knowledge may help develop more individualized treatments for many conditions. PMID:25682187

Brodie, Matthew A; Lovell, Nigel H; Redmond, Stephen J; Lord, Stephen R

2015-04-01

136

Preventing Slips and Falls through Leisure-Time Physical Activity: Findings from a Study of Limited-Service Restaurants  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective Physical activity has been shown to be beneficial at improving health in some medical conditions and in preventing injury. Epidemiologic studies suggest that physical activity is one factor associated with a decreased risk for slips and falls in the older (?65 years) adult population. While the risk of slips and falls is generally lower in younger than in older adults; little is known of the relative contribution of physical activity in preventing slips and falls in younger adults. We examined whether engagement in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) was protective of slips and falls among a younger/middle-aged (?50 years old) working population. Methods 475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants in six states in the U.S. were recruited to participate in a prospective cohort study of workplace slipping. Information on LTPA was collected at the time of enrollment. Participants reported their slip experience and work hours weekly for up to 12 weeks. We investigated the association between the rate of slipping and the rate of major slipping (i.e., slips that resulted in a fall and/or injury) and LTPA for workers 50 years of age and younger (n?=?433, range 18–50 years old) using a multivariable negative binomial generalized estimating equation model. Results The rate of major slips among workers who engaged in moderate (Adjusted Rate Ratio (RR) ?=?0.65; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) ?=? [0.18–2.44]) and vigorous (RR?=?0.64; 95%CI ?=? [0.18–2.26]) LTPA, while non-significant, were approximately one-third lower than the rate of major slips among less active workers. Conclusion While not statistically significant, the results suggest a potential association between engagement in moderate and vigorous LTPA and the rate of major slips in younger adults. Additional studies that examine the role of occupational and non-occupational physical activity on the risk of slips, trips and falls among younger and middle aged adults appear warranted. PMID:25329816

Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Courtney, Theodore K.; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Lombardi, David A.; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Brennan, Melanye J.; Perry, Melissa J.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Verma, Santosh K.

2014-01-01

137

Selection Effects and Prevention Program Outcomes  

PubMed Central

A primary goal of the paper is to provide an example of an evaluation design and analytic method that can be used to strengthen causal inference in nonexperimental prevention research. We used this method in a nonexperimental multisite study to evaluate short-term outcomes of a preventive intervention, and we accounted for effects of two types of selection bias: self-selection into the program and differential dropout. To provide context for our analytic approach, we present an overview of the counterfactual model (also known as Rubin’s causal model or the potential outcomes model) and several methods derived from that model, including propensity score matching, the Heckman two-step approach, and full information maximum likelihood based on a bivariate probit model and its trivariate generalization. We provide an example using evaluation data from a community-based family intervention and a nonexperimental control group constructed from the Washington state biennial Healthy Youth risk behavior survey data (HYS) (HYS n = 68,846; intervention n = 1502). We identified significant effects of participant, program, and community attributes in self-selection into the program and program completion. Identification of specific selection effects is useful for developing recruitment and retention strategies, and failure to identify selection may lead to inaccurate estimation of outcomes and their public health impact. Counterfactual models allow us to evaluate interventions in uncontrolled settings and still maintain some confidence in the internal validity of our inferences; their application holds great promise for the field of prevention science as we scale up to community dissemination of preventive interventions. PMID:23417667

Hill, Laura G.; Rosenman, Robert; Tennekoon, Vidhura; Mandal, Bidisha

2013-01-01

138

A community home inspection approach to preventing falls among the elderly.  

PubMed Central

Falls are the leading cause of accidents among those ages 65 and older and the largest single cause of death due to injury of the elderly. Environmental factors play a key role in the probability of a fall in the homes of the elderly. A community health promotion team approach can reduce the prevalence rate of injuries due to falls by eliminating the risk factors precipitating the injuries. A comprehensive program in Wilmington, OH, will incorporate the use of the community senior citizens' center, the local college, fire department, local radio stations and newspapers, community churches, local merchants, educators, and the medical community. Extrinsic factors that previously have been linked directly to falls will be identified in the home inspections. The "Fixer-Up-Team," composed of college students and community volunteers, will rectify any unsafe conditions found by the inspection team. Local merchants and lumber yards will donate materials to make needed repairs. Active senior citizens will be trained as part of the inspection team, allowing this program to be self-perpetuating. Compared with the national prevalence rates, this program will show a decrease in injuries caused by falls in the homes of the participants of this program. PMID:1902313

Urton, M M

1991-01-01

139

REVIEW Open Access Fall prevention and vitamin D in the elderly: an  

E-print Network

is an objective yet to be reached. There is increasing evi- dence that a supplementation of vitamin D and/or of calcium may reduce the fall and fracture rates. A vitamin D-calcium supplement appears to have a high the reasons for differences and controversies between published data. Vitamin D supplementation should thus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

140

Changes to the Neuroscience Concentration Effective Fall Term 2012 Effective Fall Term 2012 the course Biology 225 (Principles of Animal Physiology) will replace Biology 222 (From  

E-print Network

Changes to the Neuroscience Concentration Effective Fall Term 2012 Effective Fall Term 2012: An Introduction to Neurobiology) as a core course in the neuroscience concentration. The name of Bio 225: If you declare neuroscience AFTER September 1, 2012, you must follow the new concentration plan with Bio

Michigan, University of

141

A Randomized, Controlled Trial of tai chi for the Prevention of Falls: The Central Sydney tai chi Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of a 16-week community-based tai chi program in reducing falls and im- proving balance in people aged 60 and older. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial with waiting list control group. SETTING: Community in Sydney, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Seven hundred two relatively healthy community-dwelling people aged 60 and older (mean age 69). INTERVENTION: Sixteen-week program of community- based

Alexander Voukelatos; Robert G. Cumming; Stephen R. Lord; Chris Rissel

2007-01-01

142

Falls and Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

... monitoring systems. Be sure to ask about costs. Home Improvements Prevent Falls Many State and local governments have education and/or home modification programs to help older people prevent falls. ...

143

The Prevention of Childhood Sexual Abuse VOL. 19 / NO. 2 / FALL 2009 169  

E-print Network

for offenders, par- ticularly juveniles, to reduce re-offending, and for victims, to prevent negative mental abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender managment initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying

144

A Fall Preventive iTV Solution for Older Adults Konstantin Aal, Corinna Ogonowski, Thomas von Rekowski, Rainer Wieching, Volker Wulf  

E-print Network

television' (iTV). These solutions have a payoff in terms of fun and motivation and also with regard to long-term that support not only strength and balance training but also fall risk assessment with discrete measuring be described as elderly. The challenge of implementing active prevention and thus reducing health risks

145

Older Adults' Participation in a Community-Based Falls Prevention Exercise Program: Relationships between the Easy Tool, Program Attendance, and Health Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the Study: The Exercise Assessment Screening for You (EASY) tool was developed to encourage older adults at every functional level to be more physically active. The purposes of this study were to examine characteristics of older adults who participated in an evidence-based falls prevention program by their entry to EASY tool scores,…

Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G.; Ahn, SangNam; Bazzarre, Terry L.; Resnick, Barbara

2011-01-01

146

Physical therapy approaches to reduce fall and fracture risk among older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Falls and fall-related injuries, such as fractures, are a growing problem among older adults, often causing longstanding pain, functional impairments, reduced quality of life and excess health-care costs and mortality. These problems have led to a variety of single component or multicomponent intervention strategies to prevent falls and subsequent injuries. The most effective physical therapy approach for the prevention of

Maarit Piirtola; Harri Sievänen; Kirsti Uusi-Rasi; Pekka Kannus; Saija Karinkanta

2010-01-01

147

Fall-Risk Evaluation and Management: Challenges in Adopting Geriatric Care Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One third of older adults fall each year, placing them at risk for serious injury, functional decline, and health care utilization. Despite the availability of effective preventive approaches, policy and clinical efforts at preventing falls among older adults have been limited. In this article we present the burden of falls, review evidence…

Tinetti, Mary E.; Gordon, Catherine; Sogolow, Ellen; Lapin, Pauline; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

2006-01-01

148

Fall rice straw management and winter flooding treatment effects on a subsequent soybean crop  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of fall rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw management and winter flooding on the yield and profitability of subsequent irrigated and dryland soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] crops were studied for 3 years. Rice straw treatments consisted of disking, rolling, or standing stubble. Winter flooding treatments consisted of maintaining a minimum water depth of 10 cm by pumping water when necessary, impounding available rainfall, and draining fields to prevent flooding. The following soybean crop was managed as a conventional-tillage system or no-till system. Tillage system treatments were further divided into irrigated or dryland. Results indicated that there were no significant effects from either fall rice straw management or winter flooding treatments on soybean seed yields. Soybean seed yields for, the conventional tillage system were significantly greater than those for the no-till system for the first 2 yrs and not different in the third year. Irrigated soybean seed yields were significantly greater than those from dryland plots for all years. Net economic returns averaged over the 3 yrs were greatest ($390.00 ha-1) from the irrigated no-till system.

Anders, M.M.; Windham, T.E.; McNew, R.W.; Reinecke, K.J.

2005-01-01

149

Reducing the fear of falling through a community evidence-based intervention.  

PubMed

Falls and the fear of falling are major health concerns among older adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an evidence-based fall prevention program on the fear of falling and health-related quality of life among community-dwelling elders. The program consisted of 6 classes that covered topics such as risk factors for falls, balance exercises, medications, safe footwear, and home safety. Of those elders who were most fearful at baseline, the fall prevention program decreased their fear of falling and improved 1 dimension of their health-related quality of life. PMID:24492268

Beauvais, Audrey; Beauvais, John E

2014-02-01

150

Bachelors of Science in Computer Science Department Major Requirements Effective Fall 2007  

E-print Network

course requirements for the BS in Computer Science are changed. o Effective Fall 2007: Math 161 CalculusBachelors of Science in Computer Science Department Major Requirements ­ Effective Fall 2007 The Revised BS in Computer Science aligns our program with the latest curricular guidelines in computer

Ravikumar, B.

151

Diapause Prevention Effect of Bombyx mori by Dimethyl Sulfoxide  

PubMed Central

HCl treatment has been, for about 80 years, the primary method for the prevention of entry into embryonic diapauses of Bombyx mori. This is because no method is as effective as the HCl treatment. In this study, we discovered that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) prevented entry into the diapause of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The effect of diapause prevention was 78% as a result of treatment with 100% DMSO concentration, and the effect was comparable to that of the HCl treatment. In contrast, in the case of non-diapause eggs, hatchability was decreased by DMSO in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect of DMSO was restricted within 24 hours after oviposition of diapause eggs, and the critical period was slightly shorter than the effective period of the HCl treatment. DMSO analogs, such as dimethyl formamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS), did little preventive effect against the diapause. Furthermore, we also investigated the permeation effects of chemical compounds by DMSO. When treated with an inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 (CK2) dissolved in DMSO, the prevention rate of the diapause was less than 40%. This means that the inhibition effect by the CK2 inhibitor was the inhibition of embryonic development after diapause prevention by DMSO. These data suggest that DMSO has the effects of preventing from entering into the diapause and permeation of chemicals into diapause eggs. PMID:23675522

Yamamoto, Takayuki; Mase, Keisuke; Sawada, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

152

Musculoskeletal Strength, Balance Performance, and Self-Efficacy in Elderly Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Practitioners: Implications for Fall Prevention  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To (1) compare the bone strength, lower limb muscular strength, functional balance performance, and balance self-efficacy between Ving Tsun (VT) martial art practitioners and nonpractitioners and (2) identify the associations between lower limb muscular strength, functional balance performance, and balance self-efficacy among the VT-trained participants. Methods. Thirty-five VT practitioners (mean age ± SD = 62.7 ± 13.3 years) and 49 nonpractitioners (mean age ± SD = 65.9 ± 10.5 years) participated in the study. The bone strength of the distal radius, lower limb muscular strength, functional balance performance, and balance self-efficacy were assessed using an ultrasound bone sonometer, the five times sit-to-stand test (FTSTS), the Berg balance scale (BBS), and the Chinese version of the activities-specific balance confidence scale, respectively. A multivariate analysis of covariance was performed to compare all the outcome variables between the two groups. Results. Elderly VT practitioners had higher radial bone strength on the dominant side (P < 0.05), greater lower limb muscular strength (P = 0.001), better functional balance performance (P = 0.003), and greater balance confidence (P < 0.001) than the nonpractitioners. Additionally, only the FTSTS time revealed a significant association with the BBS score (r = ?0.575, ?P = 0.013). Conclusions. VT may be a suitable health-maintenance exercise for the elderly. Our findings may inspire the development of VT fall-prevention exercises for the community-dwelling healthy elderly. PMID:25530782

Fong, Shirley S. M.; Ng, Shamay S. M.; Liu, Karen P. Y.; Pang, Marco Y. C.; Lee, H. W.; Chung, Joanne W. Y.; Lam, Priscillia L.; Guo, X.

2014-01-01

153

Bullying: Effective Strategies for Its Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some people view bullying as a normal aspect of childhood; teachers who prevent bullying know that this is not true. Bullying is a deliberate act that hurts young victims, both emotionally and physically. Aside from the victims, bullying affects people around them by distracting, intimidating, and upsetting them. Basically, bullying in the…

Scarpaci, Richard T.

2006-01-01

154

The Development of a Community-Based, Pharmacist-Provided Falls Prevention MTM Intervention for Older Adults: Relationship Building, Methods, and Rationale  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this article are to discuss the process of community engagement experienced to plan and implement a pilot study of a pharmacist-provided MTM intervention focused on reducing the use of medications associated with falling, and to present the research methods that emerged from the community engagement process to evaluate the feasibility, acceptance, and preliminary impact of the intervention. Key lessons learned from the community engagement process also are presented and discussed. The relationship building and planning process took twelve months. The RE-AIM framework broadly guided the planning process since an overarching goal for the community partners was developing a program that could be implemented and sustained in the future. The planning phase focused on identifying research questions that were of most interest to the community partners, the population to study, the capacity of partners to perform activities, process evaluation. Much of the planning phase was accomplished with face-to-face meetings. After all study processes, study materials, and data collection tools were developed, a focus group of older adults who represented the likely targets of the MTM intervention provided feedback related to the concept and process of the intervention. Nine key lessons were identified from the community engagement process. One key to successful community engagement is partners taking the time to educate each other about experiences, processes, and success and failures. Additionally, partners must actively listen to each other to better understand barriers and facilitators that likely will impact the planning and implementation process. Successful community engagement will be important to develop both formative and summative evaluation processes that will help to produce valid evidence about the effectiveness of pharmacists in modifying drug therapy and preventing falls as well as promote adoption and implementation of the intervention in other communities. PMID:25309809

Mott, David A.; Martin, Beth; Breslow, Robert; Michaels, Barb; Kirchner, Jeff; Mahoney, Jane; Margolis, Amanda

2014-01-01

155

Preventing Challenging Behaviors in Preschool: Effective Strategies for Classroom Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides practical strategies and techniques that early childhood educators can implement in their classrooms to effectively manage challenging behaviors. The specific strategies addressed fall under the following categories: (a) classroom management, (b) reinforcement, and (c) communication. Suggestions are made for how parents can…

Coleman, Janelle C.; Crosby, Megan G.; Irwin, Heather K.; Dennis, Lindsay R.; Simpson, Cynthia G.; Rose, Chad A.

2013-01-01

156

Use of Quality Management Methods in the Transition from Efficacious Prevention Programs to Effective Prevention Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies concepts and methods developed in management to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective\\u000a prevention services. The paper describes Quality Function Deployment (QFD) as a method for structured planning and development\\u000a that connects the needs and wants of the consumer with the design of the product or service. The paper describes basic tools\\u000a used in quality management, and

Vicki-Smith Daniels; Irwin Sandler

2008-01-01

157

Clobazam-clonazepam combination effective for stimulus-induced falling in hyperekplexia.  

PubMed

A child with the major form of hyperekplexia is presented who stopped ambulating because of frequent unexpected falls associated with acoustic and visual stimuli. A combination of clobazam and clonazepam was well tolerated and was rapidly and dramatically effective in eliminating the falls and restoring ambulation. PMID:24453146

McAbee, Gary N

2015-01-01

158

A safety band prevents falling of the suspended pupa of the butterfly Inachis io (Nymphalidae) during moult. A comparison with the girdled pupa of Pieris brassicae (Pieridae, Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the pupal moult the suspended prepupa of the butterfly Inachis io completely removes its larval skin (exuvia) from the body. In doing this, the attachment to a silken pad has to be transferred\\u000a from the anal prolegs of the prepupa to the cremaster of the pupa without losing the hold at any time. Falling is prevented\\u000a by a short

Gerhard Starnecker

1998-01-01

159

Falls in Nursing Homes  

MedlinePLUS

... intervention for the prevention of falls in psychogeriatric nursing home patients, a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Age and Ageing 2009;38:194-199. Cooper JW. Consultant pharmacist fall risk assessment and reduction within the nursing facility. Consulting Pharmacist ...

160

Abstract--The Gesture Recognition Interactive Technology (GRiT) Chair Alarm aims to prevent patient falls from chairs  

E-print Network

to complete a fall risk assessment form for each admitted patient. This form evaluates a patient's risk do these devices inhibit the basic freedom of patients, thus increasing the risk that they will try patient falls from chairs and wheelchairs by recognizing the gesture of a patient attempting to stand

Ma, Hongshen

161

An Ounce of Prevention, a Pound of Uncertainty: The Cost-Effectiveness of School-Based Drug Prevention Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of model school-based drug prevention programs at reducing cocaine consumption. It compares prevention's cost-effectiveness with that of several enforcement programs and with that of treating heavy cocaine users. It also assesses the cost of nationwide implementation of model prevention

Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Rydell, C. Peter; Everingham, Susan S.; Chiesa, James; Bushway, Shawn

162

The effectiveness of a combined exercise intervention on physical fitness factors related to falls in community-dwelling older adults.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative exercise program on muscle strength, balance, and gait kinematics in elderly community-dwellers. The exercise program included strength and balance training and the 8-form Tai Chi Chuan. The measurements were carried out at baseline and 12 weeks, and consisted of four physical performance tests, joint isokinetic strength tests, and three-dimensional gait analysis. Fifty-six community-dwelling older adults aged 60-80 years old were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. After 12 weeks, the intervention group showed a 17.6% improvement in the timed up and go test, accompanied by a 54.7% increase in the 30-second chair stand test score. Significant increases in the score of star excursion balance tests, and the strength of the extensor and flexor muscles at knee and ankle joints were also observed. In addition, the intervention group walked at a faster speed with a longer step length, shorter support phase, and a greater sagittal plane range of motion at the hip and ankle joints. No statistical improvements were seen in the control group. This study provided an effective, evidence-based falls prevention program that can be implemented in community settings to improve physical fitness and reduce fall risks among community-dwelling older adults. The star excursion balance test could be a sensitive measure of physical performance for fall risk assessment in older people. PMID:24453483

Zhuang, Jie; Huang, Liang; Wu, Yanqiang; Zhang, Yanxin

2014-01-01

163

Full-Time MBA Core Curriculum and Concentration Information Effective Fall 2007  

E-print Network

Solutions w/ ERP SAP II 22:799:661 Business Intelligence 22:799:663 Demand Forecasting & Fulfillment 22 and Concentration Information Effective Fall 2007 22:799:668 Sales & Operations Planning ­ 1 credit Field

Lin, Xiaodong

164

Department of Aerospace Engineering & Mechanics BSAE Program 126 credit hours (effective Fall 2014)  

E-print Network

Department of Aerospace Engineering & Mechanics BSAE Program ­ 126 credit hours (effective Fall contains the official listing of academic information. Aerospace Engineering & Mechanics and other Aerospace Engineering & Mechanics version: 01_28_2014 C Computer Requirement ES Engineering Science FC

Carver, Jeffrey C.

165

A feasibility study and pilot randomised trial of a tailored prevention program to reduce falls in older people with mild dementia  

PubMed Central

Background People with dementia have a disproportionately high rate of falls and fractures and poorer outcomes, yet there is currently no evidence to guide falls prevention in this population. Methods A randomised trial design was used to test feasibility of study components and acceptability of a home hazard reduction and balance and strength exercise fall prevention program. The program was tailored to participant’s individual cognitive levels and implemented as a carer-supported intervention. Feasibility of recruitment, retention and implementation of intervention were recorded through observation and documented in field notes. Adherence, carer burden and use of task simplification strategies were also monitored. Outcome measures, collected at 12 weeks included physiological, fear of falling, cognitive and functional measures. Results Recruitment was achievable but may be more challenging in a multisite trial. Twenty two dyads of persons with mild dementia and their carers were randomised to intervention or usual care control group. Of 38 dyads referred to the study, there was a high rate of willingness to participate, with 6 (16%) declining and 10 (26%) not meeting inclusion criteria. The intervention was well received by participants and carers and adherence to both program components was very good. All participants implemented some home safety recommendations (range 19-80%) with half implementing 50% or more. At the end of 12 weeks, 72% of the intervention group were exercising. Both the rate of falling and the risk of a fall were lower in the intervention group but these findings were not significant (RR= 0.50 (95% CI 0.11-2.19). There were no differences in physiological outcome measures between the control and intervention groups. However results were influenced by the small study size and incomplete data primarily in the intervention group at follow up. Conclusions The pilot study was feasible and acceptable to people with mild dementia and their carers. The lessons learnt included: recruitment for a larger trial will require multiple approaches; home safety recommendations should provide a greater emphasis on environmental use compared with behavioural change; strategies to ensure an adequate dosage of exercise should be further explored. We recommend that intervention delivery incorporate an integrated occupational therapy and physiotherapy approach and that carers be provided with an individualised session to enhance dementia-specific skills in management and communication. A refined intervention should be tested in a randomised trial with an adequately powered sample size. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 126100001049066 PMID:24004682

2013-01-01

166

[Transdisciplinary Approach for Sarcopenia. Effect of nutritional support for the prevention of sarcopenia].  

PubMed

Sarcopenia is defined as the age-related loss of muscle mass and function. Sarcopenia is closely related with decreased physical function, fall, bone fracture, osteoporosis, and insulin resistance, which lead to increased morbidity and mortality in elderly people. The pathogenesis of sarcopenia is complex and multifactorial, which remains not to be fully understood. Inappropriate food intake and reduced physical activity are known to increase the risk of developing sarcopenia. Resistance training and nutritional support have been shown to be an effective intervention for prevention of sarcopenia. Protein, especially branched chain amino acid, and vitamin D have been reported to improve sarcopenia. The intervention together with nutrition and exercise are more effective. PMID:25266099

Nishioka, Hiroaki

2014-10-01

167

Recommendations abstracted from the American Geriatrics Society Consensus Statement on vitamin D for Prevention of Falls and Their Consequences.  

PubMed

The goal of this Consensus Statement is to help primary care practitioners achieve adequate vitamin D intake from all sources in their older patients, with the goal of reducing falls and fall-related injuries. The workgroup graded the quality of evidence and assigned an evidence level using established criteria. Based on the evidence for fall and fracture reduction in the clinical trials of older community-dwelling and institutionalized persons and metaanalyses, the workgroup concluded that a serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration of 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L) should be a minimum goal to achieve in older adults, particularly in frail adults, who are at higher risk of falls, injuries, and fractures. The workgroup concluded that the goal--to reduce fall injuries related to low vitamin D status--could be achieved safely and would not require practitioners to measure serum 25(OH)D concentrations in older adults in the absence of underlying conditions that increase the risk of hypercalcemia (e.g., advanced renal disease, certain malignancies, sarcoidosis). PMID:24350602

2014-01-01

168

Fall fertilization timing effects on nitrate leaching and turfgrass color and growth.  

PubMed

Fall season fertilization is a widely recommended practice for turfgrass. Fertilizer applied in the fall, however, may be subject to substantial leaching losses. A field study was conducted in Connecticut to determine the timing effects of fall fertilization on nitrate N (NO3-N) leaching, turf color, shoot density, and root mass of a 90% Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), 10% creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) lawn. Treatments consisted of the date of fall fertilization: 15 September, 15 October, 15 November, 15 December, or control which received no fall fertilizer. Percolate water was collected weekly with soil monolith lysimeters. Mean log(10) NO3-N concentrations in percolate were higher for fall fertilized treatments than for the control. Mean NO3-N mass collected in percolate water was linearly related to the date of fertilizer application, with higher NO3-N loss for later application dates. Applying fall fertilizer improved turf color and density but there were no differences in color or density among applications made between 15 October and 15 December. These findings suggest that the current recommendation of applying N in mid- to late November in southern New England may not be compatible with water quality goals. PMID:16391287

Mangiafico, Salvatore S; Guillard, Karl

2006-01-01

169

First Aid: Falls  

MedlinePLUS

... Head Injury Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Broken Bones Concussions Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Falling, Climbing, and ... Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist Playgrounds Concussions Babysitting: Dealing With a Head Injury Dealing With ...

170

[Fear of falling].  

PubMed

Fear of falling (FF) can be considered as a protective response to a real threat, preventing the elderly from performing activities with high risk of falling, but can also lead to a restriction of the activities that will result in a long-term adverse effect on social, physical or cognitive functions. There is a prevalence of FF in 30% in the elderly who have no history of falls, and double that in those with a history of falling. Its prevalence is increased in women and with advanced age. Several scales have been developed to measure the psychological effects of FF, among which are noted are, the Fall Efficacy Scale (FES), the Activities-specific Balance and Confidence Scale (ABC), and the survey of activities and fear of falling in the elderly (SAFE). It has negative consequences in the functionality, the subjective feeling of well-being, and in the consequent loss of independence. The functional and physical deterioration, or the quality of life is clearly related to the FF, although it has not been established if these factors are cause or effect. Multiple interventions have been recommended, bringing about changes that reinforce their confidence to carry out activities. Interventions and research should promote a realistic and appropriate approach to the risk of falls and teach the elderly to perform activities safely. The reduction in FF is an important goal in itself to improve the subjective feeling of well-being, and the benefits could be increased if this reduction was also accompanied by an increase in safe behaviour, social participation, and activities of the daily life. PMID:20044172

Alcalde Tirado, Pablo

2010-01-01

171

Inpatient Falls  

PubMed Central

In this 2 part series, analysis of the risk stratification tools that are available, definition for the scope of the problem, and potential solutions through a review of the literature are presented. A systematic review was used to identify articles for risk stratification and interventions. Three risk stratification systems are discussed, St Thomas’s Risk Assessment Tool in Falling Elderly Inpatients, Morse Fall Scale, and the Hendrich Fall Risk Model. Of these scoring systems, the Hendrich Fall Risk Model is the easiest to use and score. Predominantly, multifactorial interventions are used to prevent patient falls. Education and rehabilitation are common themes in studies with statistically significant results. The second article presents a guide to implementing a quality improvement project around hospital falls. A 10-step approach to Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles is described. Specific examples of problems and analysis are easily applicable to any institution. Furthermore, the sustainability of interventions and targeting new areas for improvement is discussed. Although specific to falls in the hospitalized patient, the goal is to present a stepwise approach which is broadly applicable to other areas requiring quality improvement. PMID:24167647

Cumbler, Ethan U.; Simpson, Jennifer R.; Rosenthal, Laura D.; Likosky, David J.

2013-01-01

172

Pressure sensor-based tongue-placed electrotactile biofeedback for balance improvement - Biomedical application to prevent pressure sores formation and falls  

E-print Network

We introduce the innovative technologies, based on the concept of "sensory substitution", we are developing in the fields of biomedical engineering and human disability. Precisely, our goal is to design, develop and validate practical assistive biomedical and/or technical devices and/or rehabilitating procedures for persons with disabilities, using artificial tongue-placed tactile biofeedback systems. Proposed applications are dealing with: (1) pressure sores prevention in case of spinal cord injuries (persons with paraplegia, or tetraplegia); and (2) balance control improvement to prevent fall in older and/or disabled adults. This paper describes the architecture and the functioning principle of these biofeedback systems and presents preliminary results of two feasibility studies performed on young healthy adults.

Vuillerme, Nicolas; Pinsault, Nicolas; Moreau-Gaudry, Alexandre; Fleury, Anthony; Demongeot, Jacques; Payan, Yohan

2007-01-01

173

Basic Science Effects of Curcumin for Preventing Restenosis in a  

E-print Network

Basic Science Effects of Curcumin for Preventing Restenosis in a Hypercholesterolemic Rabbit Iliac Kim,1 MD, PhD, and Hyeon-Cheol Gwon,1* MD, PhD Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of the curcumin-coating stent (CCS) on the inhibi- tion of restenosis in a rabbit iliac artery stent model. Background: Curcumin

Park, Jong-Sang

174

Effective Dropout Prevention and College Attendance Programs for Latino Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews research related to effective secondary school programs aimed at dropout prevention and increasing college enrollment rates for at-risk Latino youth. The review identifies programs that have demonstrated a significant impact on dropout rates, college attendance, school performance, or related outcomes in rigorous evaluations;…

Fashola, Olatokunbo S.; Slavin, Robert E.

175

Effective Dropout Prevention: The Case for Schoolwide Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 3.5-year study of dropout prevention programs in New York City public schools shows that current programs have been effective in increasing professional and public awareness of the dropout problem and providing needed support to some students. However, the categorical approach of most programs is inadequate, providing special services to only a…

Oxley, Diana; And Others

176

Moving from Efficacy to Effectiveness Trials in Prevention Research  

PubMed Central

Efficacy trials test whether interventions work under optimal, highly controlled conditions whereas effectiveness trials test whether interventions work with typical clients and providers in real-world settings. Researchers, providers, and funding bodies have called for more effectiveness trials to understand whether interventions produce effects under ecologically valid conditions, which factors predict program effectiveness, and what strategies are needed to successfully implement programs in practice settings. The transition from efficacy to effectiveness with preventive interventions involves unique considerations, some of which are not shared by treatment research. The purpose of this article is to discuss conceptual and methodological issues that arise when making the transition from efficacy to effectiveness research in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention, drawing on the experiences of two complimentary research groups as well as the existing literature. We address (a) program of research, (b) intervention design and conceptualization, (c) participant selection and characteristics, (d) providers, (e) context, (f) measurement and methodology, (g) outcomes, (h) cost, and (i) sustainability. We present examples of research in eating disorder prevention that demonstrate the progression from efficacy to effectiveness trials. PMID:21092935

Marchand, Erica; Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Becker, Carolyn Black

2013-01-01

177

Cost-effectiveness of smoking prevention measures in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  In view of the serious health risks and high costs to the health care system of tobacco consumption, getting young people\\u000a to avoid smoking is an important element of preventive health care. The aim of this study was to give an overview of the scientific\\u000a literature on cost-effectiveness in smoking preventive interventions within this age group.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A literature search was

Andrej Rasch; Wolfgang Greiner

2008-01-01

178

How Effective Homelessness Prevention Impacts the Length of Shelter Spells  

PubMed Central

Homelessness prevention programs intervene with households apparently in imminent danger of becoming homeless, and try to keep them housed. If they are at least partially successful, how do they change the average shelter spell of households actually becoming homeless? We use data from 2003 to 2008 for Homebase, a New York City homelessness prevention program that studies have found to be effective in reducing shelter entries. Homebase made no difference in average shelter spells at the community level. This result, like many results about shelter spell length, is not easy to reconcile with the idea that shelter spell length is a reflection of the seriousness of underlying problems. PMID:24610995

Goodman, Sarena; Messeri, Peter; O’Flaherty, Brendan

2014-01-01

179

Tunguska meteor fall of 1908: effects on stratospheric ozone  

SciTech Connect

In 1908, when the giant Tunguska meteor disintegrated in the earth's atmosphere over Siberia, it may have generated as much as 30 million metric tons of nitric oxide (NO) in the stratosphere and mesosphere. The photochemical aftereffects of the event have been simulated using a comprehensive model of atmospheric trace composition. Calculations indicate that up to 45 percent of the ozone in the Northern Hemisphere may have been depleted by Tunguska's nitric oxide cloud early in 1909 and large ozone reductions may have persisted until 1912. Measurements of atmospheric transparency by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for the years 1909 to 1911 show evidence of a steady ozone recovery from unusually low levels in early 1909, implying a total ozone deficit of 30 +- 15 percent. The coincidence in time between the observed ozone recovery and the Tungska meteor fall indicates that the event may provide a test of current ozone depletion theories.

Turco, R.P.; Toon, O.B.; Park, C.; Whitten, R.C.; Pollack, J.B.; Noerdlinger, P.

1981-10-02

180

Tunguska meteor fall of 1908 - Effects on stratospheric ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tunguska meteor, whose disintegration over Siberia in 1908 may have generated as much as 30 million metric tons of nitric oxide (NO) in the stratosphere and mesosphere, is discussed. The photochemical aftereffects of the event are simulated using a comprehensive model of atmospheric trace composition. Calculations are made which indicate that up to 45% of the ozone in the Northern Hemisphere may have been depleted by the meteor's nitric oxide cloud early in 1909 and that large ozone reductions may have persisted until 1912. Measurements of atmospheric transparency by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for the years 1909-1911 reveal evidence of a steady ozone recovery from unusually low levels in early 1909, implying a total ozone deficit of 30 + or - 15%. The coincidence in time between the observed ozone recovery and the Tunguska meteor fall suggests that the event may provide a test of current ozone depletion theories.

Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Park, C.; Whitten, R. C.; Pollack, J. B.; Noerdlinger, P.

1981-01-01

181

Tunguska meteor fall of 1908: effects on stratospheric ozone.  

PubMed

In 1908, when the giant Tunguska meteor disintegrated in the earth's atmosphere over Siberia, it may have generated as much as 30 million metric tons of nitric oxide (NO) in the stratosphere and mesosphere. The photochemical aftereffects of the event have been simulated using a comprehensive model of atmospheric trace composition. Calculations indicate that up to 45 percent of the ozone in the Northern Hemisphere may have been depleted by Tunguska's nitric oxide cloud early in 1909 and large ozone reductions may have persisted until 1912. Measurements of atmospheric transparentiy by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for the years 1909 to 1911 show evidence of a steady ozone recovery from unusually low levels in early 1909, implying a total ozone deficit of 30 +/- 15 percent. The coincidence in time between the observed ozone recovery and the Tunguska meteor fall indicates that the event may provide a test of current ozone depletion theories. PMID:17802551

Turco, R P; Toon, O B; Park, C; Whitten, R C; Pollack, J B; Noerdlinger, P

1981-10-01

182

Tuberculosis Prevention in Methadone Maintenance Clinics Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a program to provide screening for tubercu- losis infection and directly observed preventive therapy (DOPT) in methadone maintenance clinics, we determined completion rates of screening for tuberculosis infection, medical evaluation, and pre- ventive therapy, as well as the number of active tuberculosis cases and tuberculosis-related deaths prevented, in five clinics in San Francisco,

DAVID C. SNYDER; E. ANTONIO PAZ; JANET C. MOHLE-BOETANI; ROBERT FALLSTAD; ROSA LEE BLACK; DANIEL P. CHIN

183

Effect of magnetic field profile on the anode fall in a Hall-effect thruster discharge  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the anode fall in an E-vectorxB-vector discharge of a Hall thruster is studied both experimentally and theoretically. Plasma potential, electron temperature, and plasma density in the near-anode region are measured with a biased probe in three configurations of the magnetic field. It is observed that the anode fall in a Hall thruster can be changed from negative to positive by creating a magnetic field configuration with a zero magnetic field region. Similar configurations are utilized in some advanced Hall thrusters, like an ATON thruster. Results of the measurements are employed to model a Hall thruster with different magnetic field configurations, including the one with a zero-field region. Different anode sheath regimes observed experimentally are used to set the boundary conditions for the quasineutral plasma. Numerical solutions obtained with a hydrodynamic quasi-one-dimensional model suggest that varying the magnetic field configuration affects the electron mobility both inside and outside the channel, as well as the plasma density distribution along the axis.

Dorf, L.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2006-05-15

184

Women's and Gender Studies Minor Changes to Catalog, effective Fall 2005: Courses to ADD  

E-print Network

/Brainlore: Thinking with the Body JINS 338 Race, Class, and Gender in Latin America JINS 368 Women and Science CourseSB #1004 Women's and Gender Studies Minor Changes to Catalog, effective Fall 2005: Courses to ADD: Add to Area 1: COMM 458 Special Topics: Gender and Communication Add to Area 2: SOAN 316 Selected

Gering, Jon C.

185

PSYCHOLOGY MAJOR -EFFECTIVE FALL 2012 Core Requirements MUST earn a grade C or better in each  

E-print Network

PSYCHOLOGY MAJOR - EFFECTIVE FALL 2012 Core Requirements ­ MUST earn a grade C or better in each Areas of Study: Area 1: Basic Psychological Processes ­ Choose TWO courses Course Title Units Completed Motivation PSY 494 Cognitive Psychology PSY 496 Cognitive Science: Models of Human Psychology PSY 498

186

Effect of ergot alkaloids from fungal endophyte-infected grasses on fall armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ergot alkaloids produced by endophytic fungi in the tribe Balansiae (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycetes), which infect grasses, may provide plant defense against herbivores. This study examined the effects of six ergot alkaloids on survivorship, feeding, and growth of larvae of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a generalist herbivore of grasses. Corn leaf disks were soaked in solutions of individual ergot

Keith Clay; Gregory P. Cheplick

1989-01-01

187

AQUACULTURE & FISHERIES TECHNOLOGY, Aquaculture Effective Fall 2005 College of the Environment & Life Sciences (CELS)  

E-print Network

AQUACULTURE & FISHERIES TECHNOLOGY, Aquaculture Effective Fall 2005 College of the Environment Advisor: Dr. Joseph DeAlteris, jdealteris@uri.edu, 874-5333 Option: Aquaculture Science Credits: 130 The Major: The aquaculture program at the University of Rhode Island, begun in 1969 and administered

Rhode Island, University of

188

AQUACULTURE & FISHERIES TECHNOLOGY Effective Fall 2012 College of the Environment & Life Sciences (CELS)  

E-print Network

AQUACULTURE & FISHERIES TECHNOLOGY Effective Fall 2012 College of the Environment & Life Sciences. David Bengtson, bengtson@uri.edu, 874-2668 Option: Aquaculture Science Credits: 130 The Major: The aquaculture and fisheries program at the University of Rhode Island, begun in 1969 and administered

Rhode Island, University of

189

EE 321 MOSFETs 1 Fall 2008 MOS Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET's), Part I  

E-print Network

EE 321 MOSFETs 1 Fall 2008 EE321 Lab MOS Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET's), Part I The purpose of this lab is to investigate the characteristics of MOSFETs, and to use them in some simple circuits contains six enhancement MOSFET's, three n-channel and three p-channel. (See the CD4007 datasheet for its

Wedeward, Kevin

190

Department of Industrial Engineering Fall 2011 Characterizing the Effect of Contact Perturbation on Tool Wear in  

E-print Network

PENNSTATE Department of Industrial Engineering Fall 2011 Characterizing the Effect of Contact Engineering group had any physical experience operating industrial machinery before. The Engineers had first used in machining, to learn the proper steps of the study. · The engineers machined titanium tubes

Demirel, Melik C.

191

Transfer Guide: Horticulture Business Management -1 -Revised: 29 March 2013 Effective Term: Fall 2013  

E-print Network

Transfer Guide: Horticulture Business Management - 1 - Revised: 29 March 2013 Effective Term: Fall Bachelor of Science Degree ­ Horticulture Horticulture Business Management concentration This planning and majoring in Horticulture Business Management. This transfer guide can be used in two ways: o If the student

192

Bowling Green State University Course descriptions as of 4/1/2009 (effective fall 2009)  

E-print Network

and generally accepted accounting principles. Preparation of financial statements and accounting for changes in accounting principles. Emphasis on valuation and cost allocation methods for assets and related effects. Subject: Accounting ACCT 2000(3) Accounting Concepts for Nonbusiness Students Fall, Spring, Summer

Moore, Paul A.

193

Effects of Tai Chi exercise on balance, functional mobility, and fear of falling among older women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Tai Chi exercise among older women. Multiple regression analysis revealed statistically significant improvements in scores for balance (p < .001), functional mobility (p < .05), and fear of falling (p < .001) and associated demographic factors. Three months of twice weekly, 30-minute Tai Chi classes was associated with statistically

Helen M. Taggart

2002-01-01

194

Cost-Effectiveness of a School-Based Obesity Prevention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A school-based obesity prevention study (Medical College of Georgia FitKid Project) started in the fall of 2003 in 18 elementary schools. Half of the schools were randomized to an after-school program that included moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, healthy snacks, homework assistance, and academic enrichment. All third graders…

Wang, Li Yan; Gutin, Bernard; Barbeau, Paule; Moore, Justin B.; Hanes, John, Jr.; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Cavnar, Marlo; Thornburg, Janet; Yin, Zenong

2008-01-01

195

Prevention of periprosthetic joint infection: what are the effective strategies?  

PubMed

Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) following total knee arthroplasty is a major burden for patients and health systems. Prevention of this challenging complication through implementation of effective strategies should be a priority. These strategies should encompass various levels of patient care. Multiple modifiable risk factors such as uncontrolled hyperglycemia, obesity, smoking, substance abuse, and nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus have been described for PJI. Preoperative recognition and mitigation of these risk factors along with optimization of nonmodifiable risk factors such as kidney, liver, or immune system insufficiency can considerably decrease the risk of PJI. A comprehensive perioperative protocol should involve optimization of the operative environment to reduce the number of bacteria and particulates in the air. Several surgical and nonsurgical details of intraoperative care such as maintenance of normothermia, skin preparation, surgical field irrigation, wound closure, and duration of surgical and anesthetic procedure can influence the occurrence of PJI. Prophylactic perioperative antibiotic administration is probably one of the most important strategies in preventing PJI. Implementation of surgical safety checklist can diminish the risk of perioperative complications, particularly surgical site infection. Controversy regarding efficacy, efficiency, and optimization of some preventive measures continues to exist due to inconsistency or inadequacy of available evidence. Novel research has focused on designing PJI-resistant implants and developing vaccines that target molecule components with major role in the process of bacterial adhesion to the implant or periprosthetic tissues. PMID:24792971

Alijanipour, Pouya; Heller, Snir; Parvizi, Javad

2014-08-01

196

Effects of age-related gait changes on the biomechanics of slips and falls  

PubMed Central

A laboratory study was conducted to examine gait changes associated with aging and the effect of these changes on initiation of slips and frequency of falls utilizing newly defined biomechanical parameters of slips and falls. Twenty-eight participants from two age groups (young and old) walked around a circular track at a comfortable pace wearing a safety harness. A slippery floor surface was placed on the walking track over the force plate at random time intervals without the participants' awareness. Synchronized kinetic and kinematic measurements were obtained on both slippery and non-slippery walking surfaces. The results indicated that older participants' horizontal heel contact velocity was significantly faster, step length was significantly shorter, and transitional acceleration of the whole body centre-of-mass (COM) was significantly slower than younger participants. Older participants' initial friction demand, as measured by required coefficient of friction (RCOF), was not significantly different than their younger counterparts. Additionally, older participants slipped longer and faster, and fell more often than younger participants. A comparison of horizontal heel contact velocity for participants who fell with participants who did not fall indicated that, in general, fallers' horizontal heel contact velocity was faster than non-fallers. However, a comparison of RCOF for participants who fell with participants who did not fall suggested that RCOF was not a totally deterministic factor influencing actual fall events. These findings suggest that gait changes associated with aging (especially higher horizontal heel contact velocity and slower transition of the whole body COM) affect initiation of slip-induced falls. PMID:12933077

Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Woldstad, Jeffrey C.; Smith, James L.

2010-01-01

197

Proximate Effects of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program in Elementary School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of the sexual child abuse prevention program ESPACE were evaluated with 133 Canadian children (grades 1-3). Children participating in the prevention program showed greater preventive knowledge and skills relative to children not participating. Follow-up data showed knowledge gains were maintained while the preventive skill gains may…

Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Piche, Christiane; Poitras, Michele

2001-01-01

198

Prevention of falls to a lower level: evaluation of an occupational health and safety intervention via subsidies for the replacement of scaffolding.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a subsidy policy for construction companies in Andalusia (Spain), which enables them to acquire new scaffolds. The rate of falls from scaffolds within the Andalusian construction sector in the period 2009-2011 was analysed. A randomised controlled trial was not possible as the subsidy was granted according to a public and competitive call. A quasi-experimental design based on an intervention group (subsidised companies) and a control group was chosen. Companies in the control group were selected from the social security census of companies in order to avoid selection bias. The subsidy policy has led to an overall 71% decrease in the rate of accident involving falls to a lower level in the companies that received grants in the period 2009-2011. The confidence interval for the comparison for the before-after difference in rates between the intervention group and the control group is found significant (confidence 95%, p = 0.05). The improvement of scaffolds was effective in reducing rates of accident with falls to a lower level. This intervention should be a priority in public policies. The process of standardisation of equipment with high accident risk should be developed further. PMID:24111519

Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Carrillo-Castrillo, Jesús Antonio; Gibb, Alistair

2015-03-01

199

TA Orientation Fall 2010 TA Orientation Fall 2010 TA Orientation Fall 2010  

E-print Network

TA Orientation Fall 2010 TA Orientation Fall 2010 TA Orientation Fall 2010 Let's think about your" teacher? Make brief notes. TA Orientation Fall 2010 What are the principles of effective teaching activities well ·Communicate effectively #12;TA Orientation Fall 2010 TA Handbook http://tap.uconn.edu/ TA

Blei, Ron

200

National Osteoporosis Prevention Month  

E-print Network

MAY National Osteoporosis Prevention Month JUNE National Dairy Month Texas AgriLife Extension Service Texas A&M University System Eat Smart for Bone Health Exercise & Fall Prevention- Lesson 6 Contents: Lesson - Exercise & Fall Prevention Power Point # P6-1 Eat Smart for Bone Health # P6-2 Weight

201

Long-term Impact of Prevention Programs to Promote Effective Parenting: Lasting Effects but Uncertain Processes  

PubMed Central

This chapter reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to twenty years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting programs; 1) through program effects on parenting skills, perceptions of parental efficacy and reduction in barriers to effective parenting; 2) through program-induced reductions in short-term problems of youth that persist over time, improvements in youth adaptation to stress, and improvements in youth belief systems concerning the self and their relationships with others; and 3) through effects on contexts in which youth become involved and on youth-environment transactions. PMID:20822438

Sandler, Irwin; Schoenfelder, Erin; Wolchik, Sharlene; MacKinnon, David

2010-01-01

202

Requirements effective Fall 2002 SAN JOSE STATE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE  

E-print Network

Requirements effective Fall 2002 SAN JOSE STATE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE MAJOR. Signature of Advisor Signature of Department Chair Date Date Aug./05 Start Over B.S. COMPUTER SCIENCE San José State 4 San José State 4 San José State 3 San José State 3 San José State 3 San José State 3 San

Eirinaki, Magdalini

203

Caries-inhibiting effect of preventive measures during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic review was performed of published data on the caries-inhibiting effect of preventive measures during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. The purpose was to develop evidence-based recommendations about the most effective means of preventing white spot lesions in orthodontic patients. The 15 studies included were divided into four groups based on comparable preventive measures: fluoride, chlorhexidine, sealants and bonding

A. Derks; C. Katsaros; J. E. F. M. Frencken; M. A. van't Hof; A. M. Kuijpers-Jagtman

2004-01-01

204

Caries-Inhibiting Effect of Preventive Measures during Orthodontic Treatment with Fixed Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic review was performed of published data on the caries-inhibiting effect of preventive measures during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. The purpose was to develop evidence-based recommendations about the most effective means of preventing white spot lesions in orthodontic patients. The 15 studies included were divided into four groups based on comparable preventive measures: fluoride, chlorhexidine, sealants and bonding

A. Derks; C. Katsaros; J. E. Frencken; M. A. van ’t Hof; A. M. Kuijpers-Jagtman

2004-01-01

205

Do weight categories prevent athletes from relative age effect?  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate whether weight categories prevent young athletes from being exposed to a relative age effect. The dates of birth of all French female (n = 727) and male (n = 5440) amateur boxers who participated in the 2010-2011 season were collected from the federation database. The dates of birth of all French male professional boxers (n = 354) were also collected. The results show an absence of a relative age effect among French female and male amateur boxers. The results also show an absence of this phenomenon among French male professional boxers. The male 18-18+ age category reveal an inverse relative age effect. This inverse relative age effect might be interpreted as the result of a strategic adaptation from relatively younger children who shift from one sport to another where there are weight categories in order to ensure fair competition. The results of this study suggest that the weight category system is a possible solution within the relative age effect phenomenon. PMID:23879217

Delorme, Nicolas

2014-01-01

206

The geomorphological effect of cornice fall avalanches in the Longyeardalen valley, Svalbard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of snow avalanches and their geomorphological effect in the periglacial parts of the cryosphere is important for enhanced geomorphological process understanding as well as hazard-related studies. Only a few field studies, and particularly few in the High Arctic, have quantified avalanche sedimentation. Snow avalanches are traditionally ranked behind rockfall in terms of their significance for mass-wasting processes of rockslopes. Cornice fall avalanches are at present the most dominant snow avalanche type at two slope systems, called Nybyen and Larsbreen, in the valley Longyeardalen in central Svalbard. Both slope systems are on northwest-facing lee slopes underneath a large summit plateau, with annual cornices forming on the top. High-frequency and magnitude cornice fall avalanching is observed by daily automatic time-lapse photography. In addition, rock debris sedimentation by cornice fall avalanches was measured directly in permanent sediment traps or by snow inventories. The results from a maximum of seven years of measurements in a total of 13 catchments show maximum mean rock debris sedimentation rates ranging from 8.2 to 38.7 kg m-2 at Nybyen, and from 0.8 to 55.4 kg m-2 at Larsbreen. Correspondingly, avalanche fan surfaces accreted from 2.6 to 8.8 mm yr-1 at Nybyen, and from 0.2 to 13.9 mm yr-1 at Larsbreen. This comparably efficient rockslope mass wasting is due to collapsing cornices producing cornice fall avalanches containing large amounts of rock debris throughout the entire winter. The rock debris of different origin stems from the plateau crests, the adjacent free rock face and the transport pathway, accumulating distinct avalanche fans at both slope systems. Cornice fall avalanche sedimentation also contributed to the development of a rock glacier at the Larsbreen site during the Holocene. We have recorded present maximum rockwall retreat rates of 0.9 mm yr-1 at Nybyen, but as much as 6.7 mm yr-1 at Larsbreen, while average Holocene rockwall retreat rates of 1.1 mm yr-1 at Nybyen have been determined earlier. As cornice fall avalanches are the dominant type of avalanche in central Svalbard, the related geomorphological effect is assumed to be of significance at periglacial landscape scale. A climate-induced shift in prevailing winter wind direction could change the rockslope sedimentation effectively by changing the snow avalanche activity.

Eckerstorfer, M.; Christiansen, H. H.; Rubensdotter, L.; Vogel, S.

2013-09-01

207

The effectiveness of HIV prevention and the epidemiological context.  

PubMed Central

Planning an intervention to prevent infections with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) should be guided by local epidemiological and socioeconomic conditions. The socioeconomic setting and existing public service capacity determine whether an intervention can have a significant outcome in terms of a reduction in a defined risk. The epidemiological context determines whether such risk reduction translates into a measurable impact on HIV incidence. Measurement of variables describing the epidemiological context can be used to determine the local suitability of interventions, thereby guiding planners and policy-makers in their choice of intervention. Such measurements also permit the retrospective analysis of the impact of interventions where HIV incidence was not recorded. The epidemiological context is defined for four different categories of intervention, shown to be effective in lower-income countries by randomized controlled trials. Appropriate indicators for the epidemiological context and methodological guidelines for their measurement are proposed. Their use in the transfer of a successful intervention from one context to another and in scaling up the effort to control HIV infection is explored. These indicators should provide a useful resource for those involved in planning HIV prevention interventions. PMID:11799444

Grassly, N. C.; Garnett, G. P.; Schwartländer, B.; Gregson, S.; Anderson, R. M.

2001-01-01

208

Effective primary prevention programs in public health and their applicability to the prevention of child maltreatment.  

PubMed

Principles of public health practice can be applied to problems, such as child maltreatment, that have behavioral antecedents and injury outcomes. Successful campaigns to promote bicycle helmet use to prevent brain injury and to promote supine sleeping to prevent sudden infant death are described. These programs were universally applied, featured simple behavioral goals, were based on the best available evidence, and monitored both behavioral and health-related outcomes. PMID:24199326

Rivara, Frederick P; Johnston, Brian

2013-01-01

209

Connect: An Effective Community-Based Youth Suicide Prevention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth suicide prevention is an important public health issue. However, few prevention programs are theory driven or systematically evaluated. This study evaluated Connect, a community-based youth suicide prevention program. Analysis of pre and posttraining questionnaires from 648 adults and 204 high school students revealed significant changes in…

Bean, Gretchen; Baber, Kristine M.

2011-01-01

210

Brainstem auditory evoked responses in man. 1: Effect of stimulus rise-fall time and duration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Short latency (under 10 msec) responses elicited by bursts of white noise were recorded from the scalps of human subjects. Response alterations produced by changes in the noise burst duration (on-time), inter-burst interval (off-time), and onset and offset shapes were analyzed. The latency of the most prominent response component, wave V, was markedly delayed with increases in stimulus rise time but was unaffected by changes in fall time. Increases in stimulus duration, and therefore in loudness, resulted in a systematic increase in latency. This was probably due to response recovery processes, since the effect was eliminated with increases in stimulus off-time. The amplitude of wave V was insensitive to changes in signal rise and fall times, while increasing signal on-time produced smaller amplitude responses only for sufficiently short off-times. It was concluded that wave V of the human auditory brainstem evoked response is solely an onset response.

Hecox, K.; Squires, N.; Galambos, R.

1975-01-01

211

The medical effects of radioactive fall-out: role of stable end-products?  

PubMed Central

To summarize, from preliminary observations on the possible effects of radioactive fall-out, it may be inferred that in addition to the secondary products of ionizing irradiation per se, the stable end-products of the transmutation of certain radionuclides may adversely influence cellular metabolism, including mutagenesis. The discussion of the possible role of intracellular barium as an end-product of 137Cs decay is offered as an example of an unpredictable number of broad ecological, as well as the more limited medical, effects that may be of both clinical and climatological significance. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7281411

Burrows, B. A.; Cardarelli, J. C.; Boling, E. A.; Sinex, F. M.

1981-01-01

212

Initial Indicators of Effectiveness for a High School Drug Prevention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All Stars, Sr. is a comprehensive high school health education supplement designed to prevent high-risk behaviors among adolescents. The program includes topics such as personal health, nutrition, interpersonal relationships, and stress, with a special emphasis on drug prevention. Effective research-based programs that target late onset prevention

Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie D.; Wyrick, David L.; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Wyrick, Cheryl H.; Hansen, William B.

2003-01-01

213

Differential effects of exposure and response prevention in obsessive-compulsive washers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the specific effects of prolonged in vivo exposure and continuous response prevention in 8 obsessive-compulsives with washing rituals. Ss were randomly assigned to 2 groups: (a) 2 wks of in vivo exposure only succeeded by 2 wks of exposure combined with response prevention and (b) 2 wks of response prevention only followed by 2 wks of the combined treatment.

Edna B. Foa; Gail Steketee; Jesse B. Milby

1980-01-01

214

ANALYZING THE EFFECTS OF COLLABORATIVE EFFORTS TO PREVENT CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE IN MINNESOTA  

E-print Network

This study analyzes the effects of a community and state level effort to prevent CSA. Stop It Now! Minnesota, a CSA prevention initiative, received a grant from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to implement a multi...

Schober, Daniel John

2008-08-20

215

Testing the generalizability of intervening mechanism theories: Understanding the effects of adolescent drug use prevention interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcome research has shown that drug prevention programs based on theories of social influence often prevent the onset of adolescent drug use. However, little is known empirically about the processes through which they have their effects. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate intervening mechanism theories of two program models for preventing the onset of adolescent drug use.

Stewart I. Donaldson; John W. Graham; William B. Hansen

1994-01-01

216

Building and Maintaining an Effective Campus-Wide Coalition for Suicide Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preventing suicide is a commonly shared priority among college administrators, faculty, staff, students, and family members. Coalitions are popular health promotion mechanisms for solving community-wide problems and are valuable in campus-wide suicide prevention efforts. This article provides an example of an effective suicide prevention

Kaslow, Nadine J.; Garcia-Williams, Amanda; Moffitt, Lauren; McLeod, Mark; Zesiger, Heather; Ammirati, Rachel; Berg, John P.; McIntosh, Belinda J.

2012-01-01

217

A Concise History of School-Based Smoking Prevention Research: A Pendulum Effect Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-based cigarette smoking prevention was initiated shortly after the first Surgeon General's Report in 1964. This article highlights a sequence of events by which school-based tobacco use prevention research developed as a science, and illustrates a pendulum effect, with confidence in tobacco use prevention increasing and decreasing at…

Sussman, Steve; Black, David S.; Rohrbach, Louise A.

2010-01-01

218

Effect of the long-term care prevention project on the motor functions and daily life activities of the elderly  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of the long-term care prevention project and develop an effective program. [Subjects] A total of 81 elderly people (age, 79 ± 5.1?years; height, 149.2 ± 9.2?cm; weight, 54.2 ± 11.4?kg). [Methods] Grip, knee extension muscular strength, 10?m walking speed, and Timed Up and Go time were measured for evaluation of motor functions, and the “Locomo 25”, a 25-question risk assessment questionnaire, was used as the judgment criterion for evaluation of daily life activities, with measurements being taken at the beginning of the project and after three months. [Results] In the motor functions evaluation, significant differences were observed in 10?m walking speed, Timed Up and Go time, and knee extension strength. In the daily life activities evaluation, scores for pain, rising movement, standing movement, indoor walking, outdoor walking, and fear of falling were significantly reduced. In addition, a significant correlation was also observed between motor functions and daily life activities. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicated that the long-term care prevention project is effective in maintaining or improving muscular strength and mitigating pain in the elderly and that it is an effective program for maintaining daily life activities. We were also able to show that it would be effective to develop programs with a low exercise intensity that can be performed on a continuing by the elderly. PMID:25642073

Wada, Yoshihiro; Sakuraba, Keisyoku; Kubota, Atsushi

2015-01-01

219

Effect of the long-term care prevention project on the motor functions and daily life activities of the elderly.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of the long-term care prevention project and develop an effective program. [Subjects] A total of 81 elderly people (age, 79 ± 5.1?years; height, 149.2 ± 9.2?cm; weight, 54.2 ± 11.4?kg). [Methods] Grip, knee extension muscular strength, 10?m walking speed, and Timed Up and Go time were measured for evaluation of motor functions, and the "Locomo 25", a 25-question risk assessment questionnaire, was used as the judgment criterion for evaluation of daily life activities, with measurements being taken at the beginning of the project and after three months. [Results] In the motor functions evaluation, significant differences were observed in 10?m walking speed, Timed Up and Go time, and knee extension strength. In the daily life activities evaluation, scores for pain, rising movement, standing movement, indoor walking, outdoor walking, and fear of falling were significantly reduced. In addition, a significant correlation was also observed between motor functions and daily life activities. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicated that the long-term care prevention project is effective in maintaining or improving muscular strength and mitigating pain in the elderly and that it is an effective program for maintaining daily life activities. We were also able to show that it would be effective to develop programs with a low exercise intensity that can be performed on a continuing by the elderly. PMID:25642073

Wada, Yoshihiro; Sakuraba, Keisyoku; Kubota, Atsushi

2015-01-01

220

Building and Maintaining an Effective Campus-Wide Coalition for Suicide Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preventing suicide is a commonly shared priority among college administrators, faculty, staff, students, and family members. Coalitions are popular health promotion mechanisms for solving community-wide problems and are valuable in campus-wide suicide prevention efforts. This article provides an example of an effective suicide prevention coalition. Recommendations are offered for other campus-based suicide prevention coalitions. These suggestions are based upon the

Nadine J. Kaslow; Amanda Garcia-Williams; Lauren Moffitt; Mark McLeod; Heather Zesiger; Rachel Ammirati; John P. Berg; Belinda J. McIntosh

2012-01-01

221

Effects of a National Indicated Preventive Intervention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As there have been few science-based evaluations of secondary prevention programs, the Federal Office of Public Health in Switzerland carried out a national program evaluation at 12 sites in the French- and German-speaking parts of Switzerland to study the question, "What works in secondary prevention?" These 12 centers offer different forms of…

Husler, Gebhard; Werlen, Egon; Blakeney, Ronny

2005-01-01

222

Differential Susceptibility to Prevention: GABAergic, Dopaminergic, and Multilocus Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Randomized prevention trials provide a unique opportunity to test hypotheses about the interaction of genetic predispositions with contextual processes to create variations in phenotypes over time. Methods: Using two longitudinal, randomized prevention trials, molecular genetic and alcohol use outcome data were gathered from more than…

Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Beach, Steven R. H.

2013-01-01

223

Effectiveness of a Social Change Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…

Edwards, Keith E.

2009-01-01

224

Cost-effectiveness of a helpline for suicide prevention.  

PubMed

We evaluated the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of a suicide helpline in Belgium, consisting of a telephone- and a chat service. An age- and gender-dependent Markov model with a ten-year time horizon and a one-year cycle length was developed, assuming a societal perspective, to predict cumulative costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) in the helpline users. The model included six transition states: the initial state (at risk), first attempt, re-attempt, follow-up, suicide and death from other causes. Data on the effect of the helpline and costs associated with model states were obtained from the literature. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to capture uncertainty. In addition, the budget impact of the helpline was analysed. Over ten years, the telephone- as well as the chat service could avoid about 36% of suicides and attempts in this high-risk population. In males, 0.063 QALYs (95% confidence interval, CI 0.030-0.097) and 0.035 QALYs (95%CI -0.026-0.096) were gained by users of the telephone- and chat service respectively. The corresponding values for females were 0.019 QALYs (95%CI -0.015-0.052) and a QALY-neutral result of -0.005 (95%CI -0.071-0.062). There were net societal savings of respectively €2382 (95%CI 1953-2859) and €2282 (95%CI 1855-2758) in male users; €2171 (95%CI 1735-2664) and €2458 (95%CI 1945-3025) in female users. At the population level, an investment of €218,899 saved €1,452,022 for the public health service (national health insurance), mainly due to the telephone service. The analysis predicted that both means of telemedicine for suicide prevention in Flanders are cost-saving, and have a modest effect on QALYs. PMID:24163237

Pil, Lore; Pauwels, Kirsten; Muijzers, Ekke; Portzky, Gwendolyn; Annemans, Lieven

2013-07-01

225

The effects of r-process heating on fall-back accretion in compact object mergers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the effects of r-process nucleosynthesis on fall-back accretion in\\u000aneutron star(NS)-NS and black hole-NS mergers, and the resulting implications\\u000afor short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Though dynamically important, the\\u000aenergy released during the r-process is not yet taken into account in merger\\u000asimulations. We use a nuclear reaction network to calculate the heating (due to\\u000abeta-decays and nuclear fission)

A. Arcones; G. Mart ´ inez-Pinedo; B. D. Metzger; E. Quataert

2009-01-01

226

The effect of resveratrol on the prevention of cisplatin ototoxicity.  

PubMed

One of the most important adverse effects of cisplatin, a chemotherapeutic agent which is widely used in the treatment of cancer patients, is hearing loss. This has primarily been associated with the loss of inner ear hairy and spiral ganglion cells due to oxidative stress. Resveratrol is known to be an antioxidant agent, which has the theoretical potential of preventing cisplatin-related ototoxicity. This experimental study was approved by Animal Ethics Committee of Inonu University (2008-20) and supported by Inonu University Scientific Research Projects Support Fund (2009-17). Thirty-four 3-month-old Wistar albino female rats weighing 210-270 g were used in the study. The animals were allocated into four groups: in cisplatin group (Group A), a single dose of 12 mg/kg cisplatin was administered intraperitoneally to 10 rats; in cisplatin + resveratrol group (Group B), a single dose of 12 mg/kg cisplatin and 10 mg/kg resveratrol were administered intraperitoneally for 5 days to 10 rats; in resveratrol group (Group C), 10 mg/kg resveratrol was administered intraperitoneally for 5 days to seven rats and in control group (Group D), resveratrol solvent (5% alcohol-95% physiological saline) was administered intraperitoneally for 5 days to seven rats. Resveratrol administration has begun 1 day before cisplatin administration in the group treated with cisplatin and resveratrol combination. Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) (Grason Stadler, Madison, USA) measurements were performed in the same ear of all rats (right ear) under general anesthesia at baseline, 1st and 5th days after drug administration. Statistically significant distortion product amplitude reductions were found in the cisplatin group at 1,418, 2,003, 3,363, 5,660, 8,003 and 9,515 Hz frequencies. Whereas in the cisplatin + resveratrol group, statistically significant difference was found between 1st and 5th day measurements only at 3,996 Hz frequency. No significant differences were noted between the measurements either in the resveratrol or in the control groups. According to these results, cisplatin-related ototoxicity has been greatly prevented by resveratrol use. PMID:22186767

Erdem, T; Bayindir, Tuba; Filiz, A; Iraz, M; Selimoglu, E

2012-10-01

227

Once Is Enough: A Guide to Preventing Future Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

... Once Is Enough: A Guide to Preventing Future Fractures Publication available in: PDF (175 KB) Chinese (??) Related Resources Falls and Fractures Caídas y fracturas (Falls and Fractures) Preventing Falls ...

228

Effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia living in the community: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia who are living in the community. Method Peer-reviewed articles (randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and quasi-experimental trials) published in English between January 2000 and February 2014, retrieved from six electronic databases – Medline (ProQuest), CINAHL, PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE and Scopus – according to predefined inclusion criteria were included. Where possible, results were pooled and meta-analysis was conducted. Results Four articles (three RCT and one single-group pre- and post-test pilot study) were included. The study quality of the three RCTs was high; however, measurement outcomes, interventions, and follow-up time periods differed across studies. On completion of the intervention period, the mean number of falls was lower in the exercise group compared to the control group (mean difference [MD] [95% confidence interval {CI}] =?1.06 [?1.67 to ?0.46] falls). Importantly, the exercise intervention reduced the risk of being a faller by 32% (risk ratio [95% CI] =0.68 [0.55–0.85]). Only two other outcomes were reported in two or more of the studies (step test and physiological profile assessment). No between-group differences were observed in the results of the step test (number of steps) (MD [95% CI] =0.51 [?1.77 to 2.78]) or the physiological profile assessment (MD [95% CI] =?0.10 [?0.62 to 0.42]). Conclusion Findings from this review suggest that an exercise program may potentially assist in preventing falls of older people with dementia living in the community. However, further research is needed with studies using larger sample sizes, standardized measurement outcomes, and longer follow-up periods, to inform evidence-based recommendations. PMID:25709416

Burton, Elissa; Cavalheri, Vinicius; Adams, Richard; Oakley Browne, Colleen; Bovery-Spencer, Petra; Fenton, Audra M; Campbell, Bruce W; Hill, Keith D

2015-01-01

229

Effect of Altitude Concentration Gradient of Soluble Gaseous Pollutants on Their Scavenging by Falling Rain Droplets  

E-print Network

by Falling Rain Droplets TOV ELPERIN, ANDREW FOMINYKH, AND BORIS KRASOVITOV Department of Mechanical This paper analyzes absorption of soluble atmospheric trace gases by falling rain droplets with internal of the absorbate in the bulk of the falling rain droplet was accounted for. The problem is solved

Elperin, Tov

230

The nursing rounds system: effect of patient's call light use, bed sores, fall and satisfaction level.  

PubMed

The nursing round system (NRS) means checking patients on an hourly basis during the A (0700-2200 h) shift and once every 2 h during the B (2200-0700 h) by the assigned nursing staff. The overall goal of this prospective study is to implement an NRS in a major rehabilitation centre-Sultan Bin Abdulaziz Humanitarian City-in the Riyadh area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The purposes of this study are to measure the effect of the NRS on: (i) the use of patient call light; (ii) the number of incidences of patients' fall; (iii) the number of incidences of hospital-acquired bed sores; and (iv) the level of patients' satisfaction. All patients hospitalized in the male stroke unit will be involved in this study. For the period of 8 weeks (17 December 2009-17 February 2010) All Nursing staff on the unit will record each call light and the patient's need. Implementation of the NRS would start on 18 February 2010 and last for 8 weeks, until 18 April 2010. Data collected throughout this period will be compared with data collected during the 8 weeks period immediately preceding the implementation of the NRS (17 December 2009-17 February 2010) in order to measure the impact of the call light use. The following information were collected on all subjects involved in the study: (i) the Demographic Information Form; (ii) authors' developed NRS Audit Form; (iii) Patient Call Light Audit Form; (iv) Patient Fall Audit Record; (v) Hospital-Acquired Bed Sores Audit Form; and (vi) hospital developed Patient Satisfaction Records. The findings suggested that a significant reduction on the use of call bell (P < 0.001), a significant reduction of fall incidence (P < 0.01) while pressure ulcer reduced by 50% before and after the implementation of NRS. Also, the implementation of NRS increased patient satisfaction by 7/5 (P < 0.05). PMID:21605271

Saleh, Bassem S; Nusair, Hussam; Al Zubadi, Nariman; Al Shloul, Shams; Saleh, Usama

2011-06-01

231

Preventive Intervention Effects on Developmental Progression in Drug Use: Structural Equation Modeling Analyses Using Longitudinal Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the plausibility of the gateway hypothesis to account for drug involvement in a sample of middle school students participating in a drug abuse, prevention trial. Analyses focused on a single prevention approach to exemplify intervention effects on drug progression. Improvements to social competence reduced multiple drug use at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Specific program effects disrupted drug

Lawrence M. Scheier; Gilbert J. Botvin; Kenneth W. Griffin

2001-01-01

232

Effectiveness of an alternating pressure air mattress for the prevention of pressure ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: studies of the effectiveness of alternating pressure air mattresses (APAMs) for the prevention of pressure ulcers are scarce and in conflict. Objective: evaluating whether an APAM is more or equally effective as the standard prevention. Design: randomised controlled trial. Setting and subjects: patients admitted to 19 surgical, internal, or geriatric wards in seven Belgian hospitals were included if they

KATRIEN VANDERWEE; MARIA H. F. GRYPDONCK; TOM DEFLOOR

233

The Potency of Primary Prevention: A Meta-Analysis of Effect Size.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary prevention is a major concern in psychology, but data regarding intervention effectiveness, particularly effect sizes (ES) appear to be lacking. A thorough literature search of Psychological Abstracts, community psychology journals, and textbooks yielded 47 primary prevention articles, 22 of which were data-based, and none of which…

Susskind, Edwin C.; Bond, Ronald N.

234

The effects of rise/fall time and plateau time on ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.  

PubMed

Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP) are strongly influenced by recording conditions and stimulus parameters. Throughout the published literature, a large variety of stimuli is used for eliciting oVEMP. Our objective was to determine the effects of different rise/fall times and plateau times on oVEMP amplitudes and latencies. 32 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. 500 Hz air-conducted tone bursts with the parameters rise-plateau-fall time 0-4-0, 4-0-4, 2-2-2 and 2-4-2 ms were used for eliciting oVEMP. For all stimuli, response prevalences were 100 %. The 4-0-4 ms stimulus generated the smallest amplitudes, whereas the 2-2-2 and 0-4-0 ms stimuli achieved the largest amplitudes. n1 and p1 latencies were significantly shorter for the 0-4-0 ms than for the other stimuli, whereas latencies in response to the 4-0-4 ms stimulus were prolonged. Hence, a variety of stimuli is suitable for evoking oVEMP in healthy subjects. We recommend a 2-2-2 ms stimulus for clinical testing of oVEMP elicited by air conducted sound, because it reproducibly generates oVEMP without exposing the ear to unnecessary amounts of acoustic energy. PMID:24096809

Kantner, Claudia; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Drexl, Markus; Gürkov, Robert

2014-09-01

235

Falls - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Falls - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) ... Arabic) ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Preventing Falls in the Hospital Sprje?avanje padova u ...

236

A new multi-effect desalination system with heat pipes by falling film evaporation in the vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative multi-effect heat pipes desalination system with falling film evaporation is presented, in which the evaporation and the condensation is in the negative pressure. The system makes use of the heat pipe to insulate heat source and cold source, has high heat transfer efficiency and effectively avoids producing salt on the surface of pipe because the system operates in

Penghui Gao; Lixi Zhang; Hefei Zhang

2009-01-01

237

Teen Depression and Suicide: Effective Prevention and Intervention Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teen depression and suicidal behaviors are intricately intertwined, with untreated depression being a leading cause of adolescent suicide. Most depressed or suicidal teens tend to show warning signs and possess specific risk factors. A key component to preventing teen depression is for adults to remain aware of such warning signs and risk factors…

King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

2012-01-01

238

Cost-effectiveness criteria for marine oil spill preventive measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil tanker accidents resulting in large quantities of oil spills and severe pollution have occurred in the past, leading to major public attention and an international focus on finding solutions for minimising the risks related to such events. This paper proposes a novel approach for evaluating measures for prevention and control of marine oil spills, based on considerations of oil

Erik Vanem; Øyvind Endresen; Rolf Skjong

2008-01-01

239

Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Programs: Theoretical Models for Effective Program Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent pregnancy and parenting remains a pressing social and public health concern because the United States continues to have the highest teen pregnancy rate among Western developed nations and because of the attendant social, psychological, and physical problems for young parents and their children. Prevention efforts to reduce the incidence…

Saunders, Jeanne A.

2005-01-01

240

Accelerating Recovery from Poverty: Prevention Effects for Recently Separated Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated benefits of a preventive intervention to the living standards of recently separated mothers. In the Oregon Divorce Study's randomized experimental design, data were collected 5 times over 30 months and evaluated with Hierarchical Linear Growth Models. Relative to their no- intervention control counterparts, experimental mothers had greater improvements in gross annual income, discretionary annual income, poverty threshold,

Marion S. Forgatch; David S. DeGarmo

2007-01-01

241

Sustaining the utilization and high quality implementation of tested and effective prevention programs using the communities that care prevention system.  

PubMed

This paper describes the extent to which communities implementing the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system adopt, replicate with fidelity, and sustain programs shown to be effective in reducing adolescent drug use, delinquency, and other problem behaviors. Data were collected from directors of community-based agencies and coalitions, school principals, service providers, and teachers, all of whom participated in a randomized, controlled evaluation of CTC in 24 communities. The results indicated significantly increased use and sustainability of tested, effective prevention programs in the 12 CTC intervention communities compared to the 12 control communities, during the active phase of the research project when training, technical assistance, and funding were provided to intervention sites, and 2 years following provision of such resources. At both time points, intervention communities also delivered prevention services to a significantly greater number of children and parents. The quality of implementation was high in both conditions, with only one significant difference: CTC sites were significantly more likely than control sites to monitor the quality of implementation during the sustainability phase of the project. PMID:21809149

Fagan, Abigail A; Hanson, Koren; Briney, John S; David Hawkins, J

2012-06-01

242

Preventive effect of trifluoperazine on atherosclerosis induced by cholesterol & adrenaline in rabbits.  

PubMed

Studies on the preventive role of trifluoperazine on cholesterol and adrenaline-induced experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits, revealed that trifluoperazine completely prevented the development of atherosclerotic lesions in both the aorta and coronary arteries of animals administered atherogenic diet and adrenaline (im) despite the fact that this drug had no significant effect on the elevated serum lipid profile induced by atherogenic diet. These findings confirm earlier observations of the authors that trifluoperazine has an inherent capacity to prevent atherogenesis. PMID:2767746

Mohindroo, A; Kukreja, R S; Kaul, D

1989-06-01

243

PREVENTIVE EFFECT OF HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR ON ACUTE SIDE EFFECTS OF CYCLOSPORIN A IN MICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a potent, widely-prescribed immunosuppressant which has serious side effects. When recombinant human hepatocyte growth factor (rh-HGF) was co-administrated with CsA to mice, the severe digestive and\\/or neurological symptoms and degenerative changes in renal tubular cells and hepatocytes seen with cases of CsA administration were remarkably attenuated and mortality linked to CsA-administration was prevented by rh-HGF. HGF-administration

Hisashi Amaike; Kunio Matsumoto; Takahiro Oka; Toshikazu Nakamura

1996-01-01

244

Preventive effects of geranylgeranylacetone on rat ethanol-induced gastritis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To establish a rat ethanol gastritis model, we evaluated the effects of ethanol on gastric mucosa and studied the preventive effects of geranylgeranylacetone on ethanol-induced chronic gastritis. METHODS: One hundred male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: normal control group, undergoing gastric perfusion of normal saline (NS) by gastrogavage; model control group and 2 model therapy groups that underwent gastric perfusion with ethanol (distillate spirits with 56% ethanol content) by gastrogavage for 4 wk. Low or high doses of geranylgeranylacetone were added 1 h before ethanol perfusion in the 2 model therapy groups, while the same amount of NS, instead of geranylgeranylacetone was used in that model control group. The rats were then sacrificed and stomachs were removed. The injury level of the gastric mucosa was observed by light and electron microscopy, and the levels of prostaglandin 2 (PGE2), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured by radioimmunoassay and the Griess method. RESULTS: The gastric mucosal epidermal damage score (EDS; 4.5) and ulcer index (UI; 12.0) of the model control group were significantly higher than that of the normal control group (0 and 0 respectively, all P = 0.000). The gastric mucosal EDS and UI of the 2 model therapy groups (EDS: 2.5 and 2.0; UI: 3.5 and 3.0) were significantly lower than that of the model control group (all P < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the low-dose and high-dose model therapy groups. The expression value of plasma ET-1 of the model control group was higher than that of the normal control group (P < 0.01) and the 2 model therapy groups (all P < 0.01). The expression values of gastric mucosal PGE2 and serum NO of the model control group were lower than those of the normal control group (all P < 0.05) and the 2 model therapy groups (all P < 0.05). The thickness of the gastric mucous layerand the hexosamine content in the model control group were significantly lower than that in the normal control group (all P < 0.01) and the 2 model therapy groups (all P < 0.05). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy observation showed that in the model control group, the epithelial junctions were vague, the intercellular joints disappeared and damage of the intracellular organelles were significantly worse than those in the normal control group. However, in the 2 model therapy groups, damage to the intercellular joints and organelles was ameliorate relative to the model control group. CONCLUSION: Administration of geranylgeranylacetone was correlated with a more favorable pattern of gastric mucosa damage after ethanol perfusion. The mechanism could be related to regulation of ET-1, NO and PGE2. PMID:22611321

Ning, Jian-Wen; Lin, Guan-Bin; Ji, Feng; Xu, Jia; Sharify, Najeeb

2012-01-01

245

Volcanic Ash Fall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) on-line publication discusses volcanic ash fall in terms of composition and effects. This report discusses the negative effects of volcanic ash fall on machinery, human health, weather and man-made structures, using the Mount Saint Helens eruption of 1980 as an example. The composition of volcanic ash is discussed, as well as ancient and modern ash falls that have occurred in the United States.

Christopher Kenedi

246

Dilatonic effects on a falling test mass in scalar-tensor theory  

E-print Network

Effects of a 4d dilaton field on a falling test mass are examined from the Einstein frame perspective of scalar-tensor theory. Results are obtained for the centripetal acceleration of particles in circular orbits, and the radial acceleration for particles with pure radial motion. These results are applied to the specific case of nonrelativistic motion in the weak field approximation of Brans-Dicke theory, employing the exact Xanthopoulos-Zannias solutions. For a given parameter range, the results obtained from Brans-Dicke theory are qualitatively dramatically different from those of general relativity. Comments are made concerning a comparison with the general relativistic results in the limit of an infinite Brans-Dicke parameter.

J. R. Morris

2011-05-30

247

Differential Sensitivity to Prevention Programming: A Dopaminergic Polymorphism-Enhanced Prevention Effect on Protective Parenting and Adolescent Substance Use  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate a genetic moderation effect of dopamine receptor-4 gene (DRD4) alleles that have 7 or more repeats on the efficacy of a preventive intervention to deter rural African American adolescents’ substance use. Methods Adolescents (N = 502, M age = 16 years) were assigned randomly to the Strong African American Families–Teen (SAAF–T) program or to a control condition and were followed for 22 months. Adolescents provided data on substance use, and both adolescents and their primary caregivers provided data on intervention-targeted protective parenting practices. Results Male adolescents who carried at least one allele of DRD4 with 7 or more repeats who were assigned to the control condition evinced more substance use across 22 months than did (a) carriers of at least one allele of DRD4 with 7 or more repeats who were assigned to SAAF–T or (b) adolescents assigned to either condition who carried two alleles of DRD4 with 6 or fewer repeats. These findings were mediated by DRD4 × SAAF–T interaction effects on increases in intervention-targeted protective parenting practices, a mediated moderation effect. Conclusions The results imply that prevention effects on health-relevant outcomes for genetically susceptible individuals, such as carriers of at least one allele of DRD4 with 7 or more repeats, may be underestimated. PMID:23379386

Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Beach, Steven R. H.; Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Windle, Michael; Philibert, Robert A.

2013-01-01

248

Preventive effects of cranberry products on experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium in mice.  

PubMed

With the prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its associated risk for development of colorectal cancer, it is of great importance to prevent and treat IBD. However, due to the complexity of etiology and potentially serious adverse effects, treatment options for IBD are relatively limited. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify a safe food-based approach for the prevention and treatment of IBD. In this study, we tested the effects of cranberry products on preventing dextran sulphate sodium-induced murine colitis. Our results suggest that both cranberry extract and dried cranberries-fed groups had a significantly reduced disease activity index, where dried cranberries were more effective in preventing colitis than cranberry extract. Shortening of colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase activity and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines were attenuated in animals fed dried cranberries compared to the controls. The current report suggests that cranberries can be applied to prevent and reduce the symptoms of IBD. PMID:25149009

Xiao, Xiao; Kim, Jonggun; Sun, Quancai; Kim, Daeyoung; Park, Cheon-Seok; Lu, Tzong-Shi; Park, Yeonhwa

2015-01-15

249

Relationship between location and activity in injurious falls: an exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the circumstances under which injurious falls occur could provide healthcare workers with better tools to prevent falls and fall-related injuries. Therefore, we assessed whether older persons who sustain an injurious fall can be classified into specific fall types, based on a combination of fall location and activity up to the moment of the fall. In addition, we

Michel HC Bleijlevens; Joseph PM Diederiks; Marike RC Hendriks; Jolanda CM van Haastregt; Harry FJM Crebolder; Jacques ThM van Eijk

2010-01-01

250

Effective Instruction. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 21, Number 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Strategies for Success (Charles W. Hatch); (2) 2009 NDPN Crystal Star Winners; (3) Strategies for More Effective Instruction (Micki Gibson); (4) Some Thoughts on Teaching Strategies…

Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

2009-01-01

251

Testing Mediators of Intervention Effects in Randomized Controlled Trials: An Evaluation of Three Depression Prevention Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Evaluate a new 5-step method for testing mediators hypothesized to account for the effects of depression prevention programs. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, at-risk teens with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…

Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.

2010-01-01

252

Effects of Training and Feedback on Teachers' Use of Classroom Preventive Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of in-service training with performance feedback on preschool teachers' use of classroom preventive practices. Three practices designed to prevent challenging behavior were selected: transition preparations, rule reminders, and social-emotional teaching strategies. Following a brief training on each practice,…

Artman-Meeker, Kathleen M.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise

2013-01-01

253

Optimal Sharing of Foodborne Illness Prevention between Consumers and Industry: The Effect of Regulation and Liability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers and the food industry can both prevent foodborne illness. Two questions are explored: what is the socially optimal level of preventative effort by each and can tort and regulatory instruments induce such behavior? Analysis is complicated by two aspects of food safety technology: one party's effort can affect the marginal effectiveness of the other party's effort and damage functions

Brian Roe

2004-01-01

254

Stacked Deck: An Effective, School-Based Program for the Prevention of Problem Gambling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and skills…

Williams, Robert J.; Wood, Robert T.; Currie, Shawn R.

2010-01-01

255

The Effect of a College Sexual Assault Prevention Program on First-Year Students' Victimization Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Although a variety of sexual assault prevention programs are currently available to college health professionals, there is a dearth of information about the effect of these programs on sexual assault victimization rates. Participants: The authors evaluated the efficacy of a sexual assault prevention program for first-year students at a…

Rothman, Emily; Silverman, Jay

2007-01-01

256

The Cost and Effectiveness of School-Based Preventive Dental Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program assessed the cost and effectiveness of various types and combinations of school-based preventive dental care procedures. The program involved 20,052 first, second, and fifth graders from five fluoridated and five non-fluoridated communities. These children were examined at baseline and…

Klein, Stephen P.; And Others

257

Fall/Winter CONCERNED ABOUT COLON CANCER?  

E-print Network

TRADITIONS Fall/Winter 2005 #12;CONCERNED ABOUT COLON CANCER? PREVENTION IS POSSIBLE. Introducing the Colon C ancer Prevention Program at UConn Health C enter IT'S TRUE: C OLON CANCER MAY BE PREVENTED colon cancer prevention pl an sta rts w ith a phone call to the new Colon C an cer Prevention P r ogr am

Holsinger, Kent

258

The effects of incremental speed-dependent treadmill training on postural instability and fear of falling in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective : To detect the effectiveness of incremental speed-dependent treadmill training on postural instability, dynamic balance and fear of falling in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Design : Randomized controlled trial. Setting : Ankara Education and Research Hospital, 2nd PM&R Clinic, Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Unit. Subjects : Fifty-four patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease in stage 2 or 3 of the Hoehn

Burcu Duyur Cakit; Meryem Saracoglu; Hakan Genc; Hatice Rana Erdem; Levent Inan

2007-01-01

259

Geology -Earth and Space Science Education Model Schedule Effective Fall 2007 YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4  

E-print Network

Geology - Earth and Space Science Education Model Schedule Effective Fall 2007 YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 32160 or BL2170, and CH 1120 are not required for the Earth and Space Science teaching major as described by the Department of Education. The B.S. in Geology with the Earth and Space Science Education

260

Effects of ants, ground beetles and the seed-fall patterns on myrmecochory of Erythronium japonicum Decne. (Liliaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythronium japonicum (Liliaceae) inhabits deciduous mesic forests of Hokkaido, northern Japan. Myrmecochory of this species was investigated, especially the dispersal frequency, the effect of seed predators and the seed fall pattern. In the quadrat census using marked seeds of E. japonicum, the ant Myrmica kotokui frequently transported the seeds. However, the frequency of seed removal was low and most seeds

Kyohsuke Ohkawara; Seigo Higashi; Masashi Ohara

1996-01-01

261

[Spain's process of passing effective smoking prevention legislation].  

PubMed

The prevention movement has been the key agent involved in smoking control policies. This study describes the context and the process in which Law 28/2005 was passed in Spain with a synthesis of its substance. It provides the background of the events leading up to Spain's current smoking control law in addition to an analysis of the role played by the different social actors in the process and the arguments and strategies employed in opposition by the tobacco industry. A review is also provided of the political agents, highlighting that decentralized countries have further problems in enforcing regulations. This case offers lessons for the future. PMID:17147303

Córdoba, Rodrigo; Villalbí, Joan R; Salvador-Llivina, Teresa; López-García Aranda, Víctor

2006-01-01

262

Photoperiod Effect on Phytochrome and Abscisic Acid in Alfalfa Varieties Differing in Fall Dormancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short daylength (SD) is the main environment-induced factor leading to fall dormancy (FD) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). However, the physiological mechanisms causing varietal differences in shoot growth and fall dormancy of alfalfa crop are not fully understood. The objective of this research was to explore the physiological principles regulating FD in alfalfa by examining phytochrome B (PhyB) and abscisic

Chengzhang Wang; B. L. Ma; Jinfeng Han; Yanhua Wang; Yongge Gao; Xifeng Hu; Chunmei Zhang

2008-01-01

263

Pedestrians' behaviour in cross walks: the effects of fear of falling and age.  

PubMed

Pedestrians are exposed to risks when crossing roads in urban areas. The crossing behaviour of pedestrians was studied as a factor contributing to their exposure to risks on the road and to their involvement in road accidents. This work explores two specific aspects of crossing behaviour: crossing speed and head pitches-the proportion of time pedestrians point their heads down (rather than towards the traffic) when crossing a road. The last one is used as an indicator of the (lack of) attention to cross-traffic. We also explored the possible effect of fear of falling (FOF) among pedestrians, as it might be associated with slow walking, less attention to cross traffic, and more attention to the pavement and their footsteps. This paper reports on a field study that combined an observatory technique with short survey. 203 pedestrians in two sites (signalised and unsignalised crosswalks) were video recorded while crossing the road. The FOF of pedestrians and other measures of pedestrian behaviour at crosswalks were revealed by means of questionnaire. Age and gender had the most significant effects on crossing speed, and FOF had a significant effect on the proportion of downward head pitches during crossing. PMID:22062333

Avineri, Erel; Shinar, David; Susilo, Yusak O

2012-01-01

264

Adverse effects and drug interactions of antithrombotic agents used in prevention of ischaemic stroke.  

PubMed

Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the US. Primary prevention of stroke can be achieved by control of risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, elevated cholesterol levels and smoking. Approximately one-third of all ischaemic strokes occur in patients with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). The mainstay of secondary prevention of ischaemic stroke is the addition of medical therapy with antithrombotic agents to control the risk factors for stroke. Antithrombotic therapy is associated with significant medical complications, particularly bleeding.Low-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) has been shown to be as effective as high-dose aspirin in the prevention of stroke, with fewer adverse bleeding events. Aspirin has been shown to be as effective as warfarin in the prevention of noncardioembolic ischaemic stroke, with significantly fewer bleeding complications. Ticlopidine may be more effective in preventing stroke than aspirin, but is associated with unacceptable haematological complications. Clopidogrel may have some benefit over aspirin in preventing myocardial infarction, but has not been shown to be superior to aspirin in the prevention of stroke. The combination of clopidogrel and aspirin may be more effective than aspirin alone in acute coronary syndromes, but the incidence of adverse bleeding is significantly higher. Furthermore, the combination of aspirin with clopidogrel has not been shown to be more effective for prevention of recurrent stroke than clopidogrel alone, while the rate of bleeding complications was significantly higher with combination therapy. The combination of aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole has been demonstrated to be more effective than aspirin alone, with the same rate of adverse bleeding complications as low-dose aspirin. When selecting the appropriate antithrombotic agent for secondary prevention of stroke, the adverse event profile of the drug must be taken into account when assessing the overall efficacy of the treatment plan. PMID:15733010

Weinberger, Jesse

2005-01-01

265

The effect of rising vs. falling glucose level on amperometric glucose sensor lag and accuracy in Type 1 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Because declining glucose levels should be detected quickly in persons with Type 1 diabetes, a lag between blood glucose and subcutaneous sensor glucose can be problematic. It is unclear whether the magnitude of sensor lag is lower during falling glucose than during rising glucose. Methods Initially, we analysed 95 data segments during which glucose changed and during which very frequent reference blood glucose monitoring was performed. However, to minimize confounding effects of noise and calibration error, we excluded data segments in which there was substantial sensor error. After these exclusions, and combination of data from duplicate sensors, there were 72 analysable data segments (36 for rising glucose, 36 for falling). We measured lag in two ways: (1) the time delay at the vertical mid-point of the glucose change (regression delay); and (2) determination of the optimal time shift required to minimize the difference between glucose sensor signals and blood glucose values drawn concurrently. Results Using the regression delay method, the mean sensor lag for rising vs. falling glucose segments was 8.9 min (95% CI 6.1–11.6) vs. 1.5 min (95% CI ?2.6 to 5.5, P < 0.005). Using the time shift optimization method, results were similar, with a lag that was higher for rising than for falling segments [8.3 (95% CI 5.8–10.7) vs. 1.5 min (95% CI ?2.2 to 5.2), P < 0.001]. Commensurate with the lag results, sensor accuracy was greater during falling than during rising glucose segments. Conclusions In Type 1 diabetes, when noise and calibration error are minimized to reduce effects that confound delay measurement, subcutaneous glucose sensors demonstrate a shorter lag duration and greater accuracy when glucose is falling than when rising. PMID:22150642

Ward, W. K.; Engle, J. M.; Branigan, D.; Youssef, J. El; Massoud, R. G.; Castle, J. R.

2013-01-01

266

Prevention of obesity-linked renal disease: Age-dependent effects of dietary food restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevention of obesity-linked renal disease: Age-dependent effects of dietary food restriction.BackgroundHyperphagic obese Zucker rats develop glomerular injury and die of renal disease, an outcome prevented by food restriction at an early age. We examined the effects of food restriction imposed at different ages on systemic, renal hemodynamic, and hormonal changes to gain insight into the mechanisms of obesity-linked glomerular injury.MethodsAt

David A Maddox; Fred K Alavi; Robert N Santella; Edward T Zawada

2002-01-01

267

Examining the Protective Effects of Brand Equity in the keepin' it REAL Substance Use Prevention Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

While branding appears to be an effective health prevention strategy, it is less clear how successful brands have protective effects. To better understand the role of branding in health prevention and promotion, it is necessary to examine how the persuasive mechanisms of branding function in health campaigns (e.g., modeling socially desirable behaviors). Using cross-sectional data (n?=?709), the current study uncovered

Jeong Kyu Lee; Michael L. Hecht

2011-01-01

268

Compensating the intensity fall-off effect in cone-beam tomography by an empirical weight formula.  

PubMed

The Feldkamp-David-Kress (FDK) algorithm is widely adopted for cone-beam reconstruction due to its one-dimensional filtered backprojection structure and parallel implementation. In a reconstruction volume, the conspicuous cone-beam artifact manifests as intensity fall-off along the longitudinal direction (the gantry rotation axis). This effect is inherent to circular cone-beam tomography due to the fact that a cone-beam dataset acquired from circular scanning fails to meet the data sufficiency condition for volume reconstruction. Upon observations of the intensity fall-off phenomenon associated with the FDK reconstruction of a ball phantom, we propose an empirical weight formula to compensate for the fall-off degradation. Specifically, a reciprocal cosine can be used to compensate the voxel values along longitudinal direction during three-dimensional backprojection reconstruction, in particular for boosting the values of voxels at positions with large cone angles. The intensity degradation within the z plane, albeit insignificant, can also be compensated by using the same weight formula through a parameter for radial distance dependence. Computer simulations and phantom experiments are presented to demonstrate the compensation effectiveness of the fall-off effect inherent in circular cone-beam tomography. PMID:19002227

Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince D; Chang, Shengjiang

2008-11-10

269

Effectiveness of HIV prevention social marketing with injecting drug users.  

PubMed

Social marketing involves applying marketing principles to promote social goods. In the context of health behavior, it has been used successfully to reduce alcohol-related car crashes, smoking among youths, and malaria transmission, among other goals. Features of social marketing, such as audience segmentation and repeated exposure to prevention messages, distinguish it from traditional health promotion programs. A recent review found 8 of 10 rigorously evaluated social marketing interventions responsible for changes in HIV-related behavior or behavioral intentions. We studied 479 injection drug users to evaluate a community-based social marketing campaign to reduce injection risk behavior among drug users in Sacramento, California. Injecting drugs is associated with HIV infection in more than 130 countries worldwide. PMID:20724686

Gibson, David R; Zhang, Guili; Cassady, Diana; Pappas, Les; Mitchell, Joyce; Kegeles, Susan M

2010-10-01

270

Common Principles Embedded in Effective Adolescent HIV Prevention Programs  

PubMed Central

Each interpersonally delivered, evidence-based (EB) program for HIV prevention shares common features that aim to shift HIV risk behaviors. We used qualitative research methods to examine manuals from five EB programs for adolescents and identified 10 core principles embedded in each program’s activities. Principles reflect the stated goals and anticipated lessons in an activity. The principles were: Believe in your own worth and your right to a happy future; Commit to change; Distinguish fact from myth; Plan ahead and be prepared; Practice self-control; Know pleasurable alternatives to high risk activities; Negotiate verbally, not nonverbally; Evaluate options and consequences; Show concern for others; Choose to limit your own freedom; and Act to help others protect themselves. Focusing on common features rather than the unique properties of each EB program may allow community providers to have more flexibility and ownership in adapting EB programs, and may also facilitate development of new EB program. PMID:19224358

Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Ingram, Barbara L.; Swendeman, Dallas; Flannery, Diane

2010-01-01

271

Survival of falling robots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

1992-01-01

272

Identifying Effective School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous meta-analytic studies of universal school-based drug education program evaluations have found that interactive programs are more effective than non- interactive programs and that within the group of more effective interactive programs, Comprehensive Life Skills programs are more effective overall than Social Influences programs. This study builds upon those earlier meta-analytic studies of universal school-based drug education program evaluations by

MICHAEL ROONA; ANDREI STREKE; PETER OCHSHORN; DIANA MARSHALL; AMY PALMER

273

HIV prevention cost-effectiveness: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: After more than 25 years, public health programs have not been able to sufficiently reduce the number of new HIV infections. Over 7,000 people become infected with HIV every day. Lack of convincing evidence of cost-effectiveness (CE) may be one of the reasons why implementation of effective programs is not occurring at sufficient scale. This paper identifies, summarizes and

Omar Galárraga; M Arantxa Colchero; Richard G Wamai; Stefano M Bertozzi

2009-01-01

274

Cancer preventive effects of flavonoids—a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cancer protective effect from plant-derived foods has been found with uncommon consistency in epidemiologic studies. However, it has been difficult to identify specific components responsible for this effect. Many phytochemicals have been shown to be biologically active and they may interact to protect against cancer. In recent years, experimental studies have provided growing evidence for the beneficial action of

2002-01-01

275

Perceived Cause, Environmental Factors, and Consequences of Falls in Adults with Cerebral Palsy: A Preliminary Mixed Methods Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. Describe perceived cause, environmental influences, and consequences of falls or near-falls in ambulant adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods. Adults with CP completed postal surveys and follow-up semistructured interviews. Surveys sought information on demographic data, self-nominated Gross Motor Function Classification Score (GMFCS-E&R), falls, and near-falls. Interviews gathered additional information on falls experiences, near-falls, and physical and psychosocial consequences. Results. Thirty-four adults with CP participated. Thirty-three participants reported at least one fall in the previous year. Twenty-six participants reported near-falls. Most commonly, falls occurred indoors, at home, and whilst engaged in nonhazardous ambulation. Adults with CP experienced adverse falls consequences, lower limb injuries predominant (37%), and descriptions of fear, embarrassment, powerlessness, and isolation. Discussion. Adults with CP may experience injurious falls. Further investigation into the impact of falls on health-related quality of life and effective remediation strategies is warranted to provide comprehensive falls prevention programs for this population. PMID:25802759

McDonald, Rachael; McGinley, Jennifer

2015-01-01

276

Experiments in Free Fall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

Art, Albert

2006-01-01

277

The preventive effect of Daikenchuto on postoperative adhesion-induced intestinal obstruction in rats.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effect of Daikenchuto (DKT) on postoperative intestinal adhesion in rats. We evaluated the effects of DKT, constituent medical herbs and active compounds on talc-induced intestinal adhesion in rats and DKT-induced contractions using isolated guinea pig ileum. DKT significantly prevented adhesion formation, and this action was inhibited by pretreatment with atropine or ruthenium red. The constituent medical herbs, Zanthoxylum Fruit and Maltose Syrup Powder significantly prevented adhesion formation. Moreover, hydroxy sanshool (HS) prevented adhesion formation, and this action was inhibited by pretreatment with ruthenium red. In contrast, DKT-induced contractions were inhibited by tetrodotoxin, atropine, and capsazepine. These results suggested that DKT had a preventive action on postoperative adhesive intestinal obstruction, and that this action was mediated by sensory and cholinergic nerves. Furthermore, HS was found to be one of the active compound of DKT, and its action was mediated by sensory nerves. PMID:17450444

Tokita, Y; Satoh, K; Sakaguchi, M; Endoh, Y; Mori, I; Yuzurihara, M; Sakakibara, I; Kase, Y; Takeda, S; Sasaki, H

2007-04-01

278

Modeling the effectiveness of isolation strategies in preventing STD epidemics  

SciTech Connect

The authors formulate and analyze a two-group, selective-mixing, susceptible-infective-susceptible (SIS), sexually transmitted disease (STD) model where the infection-dependent desirability and acceptability in partnership formations are zero at high infection levels. They analyze two strategies to limit the spread of the epidemic by avoiding forming partnerships with people in a highly infected group. In one approach, the people in the highly infected group protect themselves by forming partnerships with only people outside their own group. They show that the transmission dynamics for this approach are similar to the situation where people continue to have both intragroup and intergroup partnerships. In the second approach, when one group becomes highly infected, the people in the other group adopt an isolation strategy and stop forming any partnerships with people in this highly infected group. They show that the second approach can limit the epidemic to the highly infected group. The other group will be infection-free, but as long as the epidemic in the total population exceeds the epidemic threshold, the epidemic will continue to persist. If the group reproductive number of the infection-free group is greater than one, and the infection should ever invade the infection-free group, then it will lead to an epidemic similar to the one that would have occurred if they had not isolated themselves from the other group. In this simple two-group model, although these isolation strategies may reduce the extent of an STD epidemic, they are ineffective in preventing an epidemic.

Hyman, J.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Li, J. [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences] [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

1998-06-01

279

Explanations for Side Effect Aversion in Preventive Medical Treatment Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Many laypeople demonstrate excessive sensitivity to negative side effects of medical treatments, which may lead them to refuse beneficial therapies. This Internet-based experiment investigated three possible explanations for such \\

Erika A. Waters; Neil D. Weinstein; Graham A. Colditz; Karen Emmons

2009-01-01

280

Effects of alcohol on the fetus: impact and prevention.  

PubMed Central

In the spectrum of adverse effects on the fetus or infant associated with maternal drinking during pregnancy the most dramatic is the fetal alcohol syndrome, a pattern of malformation that has been associated with maternal alcohol abuse. Other undesirable outcomes of pregnancy linked to alcohol exposure in utero include growth deficiency, major and minor anomalies, decrements in mental and motor performance, and fetal and perinatal wastage. Alcohol, like other teratogens, does not uniformly affect all those exposed to it. Rather, there seems to be a continuum of effects of alcohol on the fetus with increasingly severe outcomes generally associated with higher intakes of alcohol by the mother. The cost of fetal damage associated with alcohol exposure is very high. A program to decrease the incidence of fetal alcohol effects is therefore imperative. The cornerstone of such a program must be not only education of the public but also careful training of all professionals who provide health care for pregnant women. PMID:7023638

Little, R. E.; Streissguth, A. P.

1981-01-01

281

Preventive and therapeutic effects of ginsenoside Rb1 for neural injury during cerebral infarction in rats.  

PubMed

To examine the preventive and therapeutic effects of ginsenoside Rb1 for neural injury during cerebral infarction, we used a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats to investigate the effects of ginsenoside Rb1 with Edaravone as a control. Ginsenoside Rb1 was given to the rats by intragastric administration either before or after the MCAO surgery to study its preventive and therapeutic effects. Ginsenoside Rb1-treated rats had a smaller infarct volume than the positive control. Interleukin-1 (IL-1), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), neurofilament (NF) and growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) were measured to determine brain damage and the recovery of nerves. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rb1 has neuroprotective effects in rats, and the protection efficiency is higher than Edaravone. The protective mechanism is different from Edaravone. The preventive ability of ginsenoside Rb1 is higher than its repair ability in neuroprotection in vivo. PMID:23548124

Jiang, Zhou; Wang, Yuhui; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Peng, Tao; Lu, Yun; Leng, Jianchun; Xie, Quan

2013-01-01

282

Effectiveness of Residence Restrictions in Preventing Sex Offense Recidivism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many municipalities have recently extended residence restrictions for sex offenders beyond the provisions of state law, although the efficacy of these measures in reducing recidivism has not been empirically established. This study used arrest histories in Jacksonville, Florida, to assess the effects of a recently expanded municipal 2,500-foot…

Nobles, Matt R.; Levenson, Jill S.; Youstin, Tasha J.

2012-01-01

283

Preventing Youth Drinking and Driving: Effective Alcohol Policy Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the empirical evidence regarding policy approaches to decreasing drinking and driving by youth. Based on the available evidence, the most effective policies appear to be (a) taxation or price increases, (b) increases in the minimum drinking age, (c) zero tolerance, and (d) graduated licensing. Random breath testing, sobriety check points, increased compliance checks and dram shop liability

JW Grube; P Nygaard

284

Effectiveness of Secondary Pregnancy Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because subsequent pregnancy in teen parents often worsens the impact of adolescent parenting; therefore, a common goal of teenage parent programs has been to reduce repeat pregnancy. To examine the impact of this goal, a meta-analysis was conducted on 16 control-comparison group studies that evaluated the effect of teenage pregnancy and parenting…

Corcoran, Jacqueline; Pillai, Vijayan K.

2007-01-01

285

Bactericidal effect of hydrogen peroxide is prevented by the lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate system under anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus sanguis and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius were exposed to various combinations of the components of the lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide system. The bactericidal effect of hydrogen peroxide was prevented under anaerobic conditions by lactoperoxidase together with thiocyanate, but not by lactoperoxidase or thiocyanate alone. Thiocyanate was effective already at a molar ratio to hydrogen peroxide of 1:100. PMID:7429633

Carlsson, J

1980-01-01

286

Effectiveness of School-based Drug Prevention Programs for Marijuana Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Synthesizes evaluation of drug use programs (N=37) in schools for grades 6-12 by coding program characteristics and calculating weighted effect sizes (WES) for marijuana use. Program type and sample size were found to be significant predictors of program effectiveness. The primary finding for prevention program planning is that interactive…

Tobler, Nancy S.; Lessard, Terri; Marshall, Diana; Ochshorn, Peter; Roona, Michael

1999-01-01

287

Effectiveness of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) in reducing robberies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) approach in reducing robberies.Methods: CPTED evaluations were obtained through a comprehensive search mechanism. Two sets of inclusion criteria were used: 16 primary studies evaluated a CPTED program with a comparison period; 12 secondary studies presented some evidence of CPTED effects but

Carri Casteel; Corinne Peek-Asa

2000-01-01

288

Inference of Tamoxifen's Effects on Prevention of Breast U T M. D. Anderson Cancer Center  

E-print Network

Inference of Tamoxifen's Effects on Prevention of Breast Cancer by Yu Shen U T M. D. Anderson to breast cancer. We propose a flexible semiparametric model to assess the effects of tamoxifen Cancer Center Department of Biostatistics, Unit 1411 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 EMAIL yshen

Jin, Jiashun

289

Effectiveness of a Theory-Based Risk Reduction HIV Prevention Program for Rural Vietnamese Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As of April 2003, 64,801 HIV cases have been documented in Vietnam (Policy Project 2003), 53.9% of which are among individuals 20-29 years of age. Although HIV education efforts have increased, there remains a need for proven effective programs. We present findings from a randomized-controlled effectiveness trial of an HIV prevention program for…

Kaljee, Linda M.; Genberg, Becky; Riel, Rosemary; Cole, Matthew; Tho, Le Huu; Thoa, Le Thi Kim; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming; Minh, Tuong Tan

2005-01-01

290

Effectiveness of School Programs in Preventing Childhood Obesity: A Multilevel Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. In light of the alarming increase in childhood obesity and lack of evidence for the effectiveness of school programs, we studied the effects of school programs in regard to preventing excess body weight. Methods. In 2003, we surveyed 5200 grade 5 students along with their parents and school principals. We measured height and weight, assessed dietary intake, and collected

Paul J. Veugelers; Angela L. Fitzgerald

2005-01-01

291

[Possible limitations in the caries preventive effect of fluorides?].  

PubMed

The cariostatic effect of fluoride at different levels of pH in the plaque fluid is discussed. At the pH level 5.5 to 4.5 the plaque fluid is undersaturated with respect to hydroxyapatite and supersaturated with respect to fluorapatite (3). The hydroxyapatite of the enamel then dissolves. With fluoride present in the liquid phase a fluoridated apatite is precipitated in the surface zone of the lesion. In acidic, old plaque the plaque fluid is very likely undersaturated also with respect to fluorapatite (pH less than 4.5) (11). When the liquid phase is undersaturated with respect to fluorapatite no redeposition of mineral lost can occur. In due time an erosion will develop. It is speculated that one reason for the minor effect of fluoride in some caries active patients and in fissures as well is that the plaque fluid is undersaturated with respect to fluorapatite for extended periods. PMID:1650451

Ogaard, B

1991-04-01

292

Measuring the Effectiveness of Stress Prevention Programs in Military Personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The effects of stress on military personnel are a pervasive concern. To mitigate stress’s negative impacts, Defense agencies\\u000a employ stress inoculation training and, more recently, have begun to provide stress resilience instruction. However, such\\u000a pre-deployment programs suffer from measurement limitations, rendering their assessment difficult. Novel application of objective,\\u000a individual, repeated measures, conducted under realistically stressful settings, may help address this

Andrea H. Taylor; Sae Schatz

293

The effects of incremental speed-dependent treadmill training on postural instability and fear of falling in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To detect the effectiveness of incremental speed-dependent treadmill training on postural instability, dynamic balance and fear of falling in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Ankara Education and Research Hospital, 2nd PM&R Clinic, Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Unit. Subjects: Fifty-four patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease in stage 2 or 3 of the Hoehn Yahr staging entered, and

Burcu Duyur Cakit; Meryem Saracoglu; Hatice Rana

294

Effect of the living environment on falls among the elderly in Thailand.  

PubMed

The household environment influences the health of the elderly. We studied home hazards and living arrangements and their association with falls among the elderly in Thailand. The data were obtained from a national survey among the elderly in Thailand conducted by the National Statistical Office in 2007. The survey asked about a history of falls, the household environment and possible risk factors for falls. The survey was conducted in 26,689 subjects aged > or = 60 years. The factors associated with a chance of falls were: a slippery floor in the first storey of the house (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.21-1.59, p = 0.000), a slippery floor in the bathroom or toilet (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.16-1.49, p = 0.000) and bathroom or toilet located outside the house (OR 1.23; 95%CI 1.12-1.35, p = 0.000). Elderly people who lived with spouse had a 32% lower chance (OR 0.68; 95%CI 0.59-0.78, p = 0.000) of experiencing a fall than those who lived alone in the house. PMID:23413718

Sophonratanapokin, Benjawan; Sawangdee, Yothin; Soonthorndhada, Kusol

2012-11-01

295

[Effect of fats on cardiovascular disease prevention in Denmark.  

PubMed

In Denmark death from cardiovascular disease (CVD) has decreased, mainly due to a 72% reduction since 1990 in death from ischaemic heart disease from reduced smoking, elimination of industrial trans fatty acids in the diet, and more effective medical treatment. Replacement of saturated fat by carbohydrate and/or n-6 polyunsaturated fat may increase CVD, but it is reduced by substitution with n-3 fats, monounsaturated fat, or low glycaemic index carbohydrates. Despite a high saturated fat content dark chocolate and cheese may reduce CVD and diabetes risk and eggs may be neutral, and less restrictive dietary recommendations are indicated. PMID:25351669

Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn

2014-05-01

296

Effects of communal exercise with visual and auditory feedback provided by a smart application on gait ability and fear of falling in Parkinson’s disease patients  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease is a chronically developing neurodegenerative disease showing typical motor symptoms of the following triad: resting tremor, freezing of gait, and bradykinesia-hypokinesia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a communal exercise program, using the visual and auditory feedback provided by a smart application, to assess gait ability, fear of falling, and fall efficacy in Parkinson’s disease patients. Subjects consisted of 29 Parkinson’s disease patients who were non-demented individuals. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups: the control group (n= 9, CG), the communal exercise group using the smart application (n= 10, CCEG), and the individual exercise group using the smart application (n= 10, ICEG). The communal exercise program consisted of a warm up (10 min) followed by communal exercise using the smart application (40 min), and a cool down (10 min) for 3 days per week over 10 weeks. The results presented here show that velocity and cadence were significantly increased among groups. Step and stride length were significantly increased among times. Fear of falling and fall efficacy were significantly different among groups and times. In particular, fear of falling was lower and fall efficacy was higher in the CCEG than in the ICEG and CG. These findings indicate that 10 weeks of the communal exercise program using the smart application can be effective in improving gait ability, fear of falling, and fall efficacy in Parkinson’s disease patients. PMID:25426465

Park, Yun-Jin

2014-01-01

297

Effectiveness of three contingency-nonspecific stimuli on bathroom graffiti prevention in a college setting.  

PubMed

An A-B-A design was adopted to test the effectiveness of different types of contingency-nonspecific stimuli in the prevention of bathroom graffiti in a college setting. The three stimuli examined in this study have been frequently used to prevent bathroom graffiti in South Korea and they were: (a) "Please do not write, draw, or mark on these walls;" (b) a mirror; and (c) "Courteous people keep public places clean." No graffiti was observed when the first and second stimuli were presented. In contrast, a notable increase in bathroom graffiti was observed when the third sign was presented. The results suggest that a contingency non-specific stimuli posting intervention can be effective in the prevention of bathroom graffiti only when appropriate stimuli are used. The practical implications, including cost-effectiveness, are discussed. PMID:23833871

Lee, Jin; Chung, Kyong-Mee

2013-04-01

298

A 10-s sprint performed prior to moderate-intensity exercise prevents early post-exercise fall in glycaemia in individuals with type 1 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  We investigated whether a 10-s maximal sprint effort performed immediately prior to moderate-intensity exercise provides another\\u000a means to counter the rapid fall in glycaemia associated with moderate-intensity exercise in individuals with type 1 diabetes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Seven complication-free type 1 diabetic males (21.6?±?3.6 years; mean±SD) with HbA1c levels of 7.4?±?0.7% injected their normal morning insulin dose and ate their usual breakfast.

V. A. Bussau; L. D. Ferreira; T. W. Jones; P. A. Fournier

2007-01-01

299

Effect of removing user fees on attendance for curative and preventive primary health care services in rural South Africa.  

PubMed Central

User fees are used to recover costs and discourage unnecessary attendance at primary care clinics in many developing countries. In South Africa, user fees for children aged under 6 years and pregnant women were removed in 1994, and in 1997 all user fees at all primary health care clinics were abolished. The intention of these policy changes was to improve access to health services for previously disadvantaged communities. We investigated the impact of these changes on clinic attendance patterns in Hlabisa health district. Average quarterly new registrations and total attendances for preventive services (antenatal care, immunization, growth monitoring) and curative services (treatment of ailments) at a mobile primary health care unit were studied from 1992 to 1998. Regression analysis was undertaken to assess whether trends were statistically significant. There was a sustained increase in new registrations (P = 0.0001) and total attendances (P = 0.0001) for curative services, and a fall in new registrations (P = 0.01) and total attendances for immunization and growth monitoring (P = 0.0002) over the study period. The upturn in demand for curative services started at the time of the first policy change. The decreases in antenatal registrations (P = 0.07) and attendances (P = 0.09) were not statistically significant. The number of new registrations for immunization and growth monitoring increased following the first policy change but declined thereafter. We found no evidence that the second policy change influenced underlying trends. The removal of user fees improved access to curative services but this may have happened at the expense of some preventive services. Governments should remain vigilant about the effects of new health policies in order to ensure that objectives are being met. PMID:11477970

Wilkinson, D.; Gouws, E.; Sach, M.; Karim, S. S.

2001-01-01

300

The negative effect of hypokinesia involving injury and preventive measures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimum length of bed rest for athletes suffering from broken bones is considered. Negative effects of hypokinesia induced by bed rest include general weakness and deconditioning of the muscles as well as sleeplessness, headaches, muscle pain, constipation, unstable pulse and arterial pressure, and changes in reflexes. This is considered to be the result of a vegetative dysfunction induced by the decreased flow of nerve impulses and a decrease in interoceptive and exteroceptive signals. The briefest possible period of bed rest, followed by an increase in motor activity, the prescription of a large quantity of LFK, and an active program of physical therapy are recommended. The symptomology associated with hypokinesia disappears after one month of free motor activity.

Izakson, K. A.

1981-01-01

301

Effects of fear of falling and activity restriction on normal and dual task walking in community dwelling older adults.  

PubMed

Fear of falling (FOF) is associated with poor physical and psychosocial health and can have debilitating consequences especially when it leads to activity restriction. This study examined whether normal and dual task gait disruptions were independently associated with FOF and activity restriction or if they were fully explained by impaired health status. Data was obtained from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). Community dwelling adults ?65 years, with a Mini-Mental State Examination score ?18 and who completed a gait assessment (n=1307) were divided into three groups: no FOF, FOF but no activity restriction (FOF-NAR), FOF with activity restriction (FOF-AR). Physical, psychosocial and cognitive measures were obtained and gait characteristics were assessed using a GAITRite(®) mat during normal and dual task (cognitive) walking. After adjusting for sociodemographics, physical, mental and cognitive health, FOF was associated with reduced gait speed and stride length and increased double support phase and step width in normal and dual task conditions; these changes were most pronounced in those who restrict activities as a result of FOF. These gait changes may be associated with an increased fall risk, however some changes especially increased step width may also reflect positive, compensatory adaptations to FOF. The results also highlight the importance of treating underlying health impairments and preventing the transition from FOF to activity restriction. PMID:23200462

Donoghue, Orna A; Cronin, Hilary; Savva, George M; O'Regan, Claire; Kenny, Rose Anne

2013-05-01

302

Effectiveness of Sunscreen at Preventing Solar UV-Induced Alterations of Human Stratum Corneum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum, protects the body from harmful environmental conditions by serving as a selective barrier. Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the most common conditions the body encounters and is responsible for many negative skin responses, including compromised barrier function. UV exposure has dramatic effects on stratum corneum cell cohesion and mechanical integrity that are related to its effects on the stratum corneum's intercellular lipids. Hypothesis Sunscreen contains chemicals that absorb UV radiation to prevent the radiation from penetrating the skin. Thus, it is expected that the application of sunscreen on human stratum corneum will reduce UV-induced alterations of human stratum corneum. Procedures/Equipment Human tissue was processed in order to isolate the stratum corneum, the top layer of the epidermis. Double cantilever beam (DCB) testing was used to study the effect of UV radiation on human stratum corneum. Two different types of DCB samples were created: control DCB samples with the application of carrier and UV light to the stratum corneum and DCB samples with the application of sunscreen and UV light to the stratum corneum. For the control sample, one side of the stratum corneum was glued to a polycarbonate beam and carrier was applied. Then, the sample was placed 10 cm away from the UV lamp inside of the environmental chamber and were exposed to UV dosages of about 800 J/cm2. Once this step was complete, a second polycarbonate beam was glued to the other side of the stratum corneum. The steps were similar for the DCB sample that had sunscreen applied and that was exposed to UV light. After gluing one side of the stratum corneum to a polycarbonate beam, Octinoxate sunscreen was applied. The next steps were similar to those of the control sample. All DCB samples were then let out to dry for two hours in a dry box in order for the moisture from the lab to be extracted. Each DCB sample was tested with a Delaminator test system (DTS Company). The Delaminator was used to measure the force required to break the bonds between the Stratum Corneum lipid layers. Delamination energies, Gc, were presented as mean values ± 1.96 x the standard error of the mean (STDEM) in which the mean values reported are expected to fall within these bounds with 95% confidence. Results The samples for the UV exposed carrier and Octinoxate samples were tested. Various samples were used to compare the average delamination energy in order to fulfill the 95% confidence level. The delamination energy was lower for the carrier samples than for the Octinoxate samples. The average Gc value for the carrier samples was 5, and the average Gc value for the Octinoxate samples was 7. Conclusion In response to the averaging lower Gc value for the carrier, it is evident that sunscreen does protect the stratum corneum's mechanical properties. It took higher delamination energy to break apart the lipids in the sunscreen sample than it did for the carrier sample. Therefore, the sunscreen helps the stratum corneum contain its intercellular cohesion.

Martinez, O.; Dauskardt, R.; Biniek, K.; Novoa, F.

2012-12-01

303

Hormonal effects on prevention or regression of atheroma.  

PubMed

White Leghorn cockerels, fed either normal or cholesterol enriched food, were injected with saline, peanut oil, testosterone, oestradiol, progesterone, or oestradiol plus progesterone for 87 days. The ascending aortas, descending aortas and abdominal aortas were examined by light and electron microscopy and both qualitative and quantitative assessments made. The results were subjected to multivariate analysis. Cholesterol feeding increased lipid storage and round cell infiltration in the endothelium and intima, and both the degree of lipid storage and the amount of lumen obstruction was much greater in the abdominal aorta than in the ascending or descending aorta. Treatment with oestrogen plus progesterone, regardless of diet or site of action, caused a highly significant reduction in the percentage of normal cells of the endothelium. Those cockerels treated with oil, androgen and progesterone showed significantly less large foamy eosinophilic endothelial cells than those treated with oestrogen plus progesterone. The degree of round cell infiltration was increased by androgen and oestrogen, but not by oestrogen plus progesterone, when compared with both saline treated and oil treated controls. Cholesterol feeding caused a reduced percentage of normal endothelial cells. This was significantly enhanced by treatment with androgen, progesterone and saline. The effect of cholesterol feeding as a cause of a reduced percentage of normal, and an increased percentage of foamy eosinophilic endothelial cells, was significantly enhanced in the ascending aorta and the descending aorta but not in the abdominal aorta. The same site-dietary interaction was observed in the trend towards an excess of large clear cells over large eosinophilic cells in the intima. In spite of this the extent of plaque likely to cause obstruction as a result of this site-dietary interaction was increased only in the abdominal aorta. An unexpected treatment-site interaction was that progesterone had an enhanced effect, causing disruption of the internal elastic lamina of the ascending aorta but not of the descending or abdominal aortas. There was no evidence that diet or treatment increased the amount of acid esterase in the tissues, even though the chickens showed the expected species deficiency of this enzyme, but there was a significant relationship between the presence of lipid and the amount of acid esterase in the plaques of the abdominal aorta. Male albino Wistar rats were primed with peanut oil, oestrogen and triamcinolone before subcutaneous granulomas were induced by implanting cholesterol, and then treated with these substances for longer periods. Cryostat sections of the granulo PMID:6731075

Copeman, H A; Papadimitriou, J M; Watson, I G

1984-01-01

304

The cost-effectiveness of a school-based smoking prevention program in India  

PubMed Central

Intervention programs aimed at preventing tobacco use among youth have been shown to be effective in curbing tobacco use onset and progression. However, the effects of even very successful tobacco prevention programs may not always impress policy-makers and lay audiences. Economic analysis potentially strengthens the case. In this paper, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a youth tobacco use prevention program which has been translated and implemented in India, a developing country. Although programs like these are inexpensive to implement in the USA, they are even less expensive in India due to low labor costs. Our results show that the costs per quality-adjusted life-year added, due to averted smoking, was $2057, even without including averted medical costs. If we ignore student time, cost-effectiveness improves by roughly 10%. To put the cost-effectiveness of this smoking prevention program into context, it is over 24 times more cost-effective than dialysis in the USA, which costs $50 000 for a life-year. PMID:22271928

Brown, H. Shelton; Stigler, Melissa; Perry, Cheryl; Dhavan, Poonam; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K. Srinath

2013-01-01

305

Effect of tamoxifen and transdermal hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular risk factors in a prevention trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of tamoxifen and transdermal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may potentially reduce risks and side-effects of either agent, but an adverse interaction could attenuate their beneficial effects. We assessed the effects of their combination on cardiovascular risk factors within a prevention trial of tamoxifen. Baseline and 12-month measurements of total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, platelets and

A Decensi; C Robertson; N Rotmensz; G Severi; P Maisonneuve; V Sacchini; P Boyle; A Costa; U Veronesi

1998-01-01

306

The effect of preventive educational program in cigarette smoking: Extended Parallel Process Model  

PubMed Central

Background: Cigarette smoking is one of the preventable causes of diseases and deaths. The most important preventive measure is technique to resist against peer pressure. Any educational program should design with an emphasis upon theories of behavioral change and based on effective educational program. To investigate the interventions through educational program in prevention of cigarette smoking, this paper has used the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). Materials and Methods: This study is a quasi-experimental study. Two middle schools were randomly selected from male students in Shiraz. Therefore, we randomly selected 120 students for the experimental group and 120 students for the control group. After diagnostic evaluation, educational interventions on the consequences of smoking and preventive skills were applied. Results: Our results indicated that there was a significant difference between students in the control and experimental groups in the means of perceived susceptibility (P < 0.000, t = 6.84), perceived severity (P < 0.000, t = ?11.46), perceived response efficacy (P < 0.000, t = ?7.07), perceived self-efficacy (P < 0.000, t = ?11.64), and preventive behavior (P < 0.000, t = ?24.36). Conclusions: EPPM along with educating skills necessary to resist against peer pressure had significant level of efficiency in improving preventive behavior of cigarette smoking among adolescents. However, this study recommends further studies on ways of increasing perceived susceptibility in cigarette smoking among adolescents. PMID:25767815

Gharlipour, Zabihollah; Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Moeini, Babak; Nazari, Mahin; Beigi, Abbas Moghim; Tavassoli, Elahe; Heydarabadi, Akbar Babaei; Reisi, Mahnoush; Barkati, Hasan

2015-01-01

307

Effectiveness of neomycin and polymyxin ointments: prevention of Staphylococcus Aureus keratitis in rabbits.  

PubMed

Combinations of neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate are commonly used in ophthalmic ointments for the treatment or the prevention of bacterial keratoconjunctivitis. In this study we evaluated the effectiveness of various ointments containing these two antibiotics, alone and in combination, in preventing Staphylococcus aureus keratitis in rabbits. Rabbit eyes were infected by intracorneal inoculation, treated topically with ointment and graded by gross observation 24 hours after inoculation. Treatment with ointments containing neomycin alone offered significant protection against these corneal infections. The polymyxin B ointments, as well as the vehicle controls, were ineffective in preventing S aureus infections in the rabbit eyes. However, by far, the most effective ointment formulations tested were the combination ointments and specifically those containing 1.75-3.50 mg neomycin and 3,000-6,000 units polymycin B per gram of ointment. PMID:167644

Schlech, B A; Hansard, J D; Bach, F C

1975-07-01

308

Cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent HIV and STDs among women: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Injection drug use is a leading transmission route of HIV and STDs, and disease prevention among drug users is an important public health concern. This study assesses cost-effectiveness of behavioral interventions for reducing HIV and STDs infections among injection drug-using women. Cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from societal and provider perspectives for randomized trial data and Bernoullian model estimates of infections averted for three increasingly intensive interventions: (1) NIDA's standard intervention (SI); (2) SI plus a well woman exam (WWE); and (3) SI, WWE, plus four educational sessions (4ES). Trial results indicate that 4ES was cost-effective relative to WWE, which was dominated by SI, for most diseases. Model estimates, however, suggest that WWE was cost-effective relative to SI and dominated 4ES for all diseases. Trial and model results agree that WWE is cost-effective relative to SI per hepatitis C infection averted ($109 308 for in trial, $6 016 in model) and per gonorrhea infection averted ($9 461 in trial, $14 044 in model). In sensitivity analysis, trial results are sensitive to 5 % change in WWE effectiveness relative to SI for hepatitis C and HIV. In the model, WWE remained cost-effective or cost-saving relative to SI for HIV prevention across a range of assumptions. WWE is cost-effective relative to SI for preventing hepatitis C and gonorrhea. WWE may have similar effects as the costlier 4ES. PMID:24699712

Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Abdallah, Arbi Ben; Ng, Nora Y; Luekens, Craig; Cottler, Linda

2014-10-01

309

BACHELOR OF ARTS IN PHYSICS with UTeach Option -126 hours RECOMMENDED COURSE SEQUENCE -EFFECTIVE Fall 2013  

E-print Network

2414 or 2419 Calculus 2# MATH 2418 Linear Algebra HIST 1301 U.S. History to Civil War NATS 1143 STEP 2 Differential Equations. PHYS 3327 Electronics with Laboratory HIST 1302 U.S. History from Civil War NATS 3343 Classroom Interactions (Advanced Elective) Summer ­ 3 hours GOVT 2306 Texas Government Junior Year Fall ­ 17

O'Toole, Alice J.

310

OCEAN DISTRIBUTION. GROWTH, AND EFFECTS OF THE TROLL FISHERY ON YIELD OF FALL CHINOOK SALMON  

E-print Network

chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). ~ur. Sommer. Fish., Columbia Fish. Program Off., Appralsal- chus tshawytscha) produced by a number of Co- lumbia River hatcheries. Approximately 10% of the output. Contriliution of Columbia River hatcheries to harvest of 1962 brood fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tsha- w1

311

Nutrient losses from Fall and Winter-applied manure: Effects of timing and soil temperature  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil temperature is a major environmental factor that affects both the infiltration of meltwater and precipitation, and nutrient cycling. The objectives of this study were to determine nutrient losses in runoff and leachate from fall and winter-applied dairy manure based on the soil temperature at t...

312

Effectiveness of Remedial Programs in Public Colleges and Universities, Fall 1984--Spring 1986.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation is presented of the remedial programs in each of New Jersey's 32 public colleges and universities. The academic outcome of full-time students entering in fall 1984 is tracked over four semesters. This analysis combines measures of the colleges' administrative efficiency in testing and enrolling students in needed remedial courses,…

New Jersey State Dept. of Higher Education, Trenton. New Jersey Basic Skills Council.

313

EFFECT OF PLUGGING DATE ON FALL FLOWERING AND FRUITING IN SOME SHORT-DAY STRAWBERRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

From 2002 to 2005, we conducted studies to force June-bearing strawberry plants to flower in the fall and early winter under the mid-Atlantic coast region growing conditions in attempt to crop them twice in one season. Mother plants were grown in a soilless system under protected cultivation and ru...

314

Nutrient losses from fall- and winter-applied manure: effects of timing and soil temperature  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil temperature is a major environmental factor that affects meltwater and precipitation infiltration and nutrient cycling. The objective of this study was to determine nutrient losses in runoff and leachate from fall- and winter-applied dairy manure as affected by soil temperature at the time of a...

315

Course requirements for the Master's degree (effective for students entering in Fall 2012)  

E-print Network

units 2. PLP201A, Advanced Plant Pathology ­ winter, 3 units 3. PLP210, Host/Parasite Interactions students must complete the following course requirements: 1. Introductory Plant Pathology 120 ­ fall, 4 ­ winter, 4 units 4. PLP202B, Epidemiology and disease control ­ winter, 3 units [offered every other year

Ferrara, Katherine W.

316

Differentiating fall-prone and healthy adults using local dynamic stability  

PubMed Central

Variability in kinematic and spatio-temporal gait parameters has long been equated with stability and used to differentiate fallers from non-fallers. Recently, a mathematically rigorous measure of local dynamic stability has been proposed based on the non-linear dynamics theory to differentiate fallers from non-fallers. This study investigated whether the assessment of local dynamic stability can identify fall-prone elderly individuals who were unable to successfully avoid slip-induced falls. Five healthy young, four healthy elderly and four fall-prone elderly individuals participated in a walking experiment. Local dynamic stability was quantified by the maximum Lyapunov exponent. The fall-prone elderly were found to exhibit significantly lower local dynamic stability (i.e. greater sensitivity to local perturbations), as compared to their healthy counterparts. In addition to providing evidence that the increased falls of the elderly may be due to the inability to attenuate/control stride-to-stride disturbances during locomotion, the current study proposed the opportunity of using local dynamic stability as a potential indicator of risk of falling. Early identification of individuals with a higher risk of falling is important for effective fall prevention. The findings from this study suggest that local dynamic stability may be used as a potential fall predictor to differentiate fall-prone adults. PMID:19034782

Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Liu, Jian

2010-01-01

317

Role of Bioactive Food Components in Diabetes Prevention: Effects on Beta-Cell Function and Preservation  

PubMed Central

Bioactive compounds found in fruits and vegetables can have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic effects and can be protective against various diseases and metabolic disorders. These beneficial effects make them good candidates for the development of new functional foods with potential protective and preventive properties for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the most relevant results concerning the effects of various bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, vitamins, and carotenoids on several aspects of beta-cell functionality. Studies using animal models with induced diabetes and diabetic patients support the hypothesis that bioactive compounds could ameliorate diabetic phenotypes. Published data suggest that there might be direct effects of bioactive compounds on enhancing insulin secretion and preventing beta-cell apoptosis, and some compounds might modulate beta-cell proliferation. Further research is needed to establish any clinical effects of these compounds. PMID:25092987

Oh, Yoon Sin; Jun, Hee-Sook

2014-01-01

318

Effectiveness of school network for childhood obesity prevention (SNOCOP) in primary schools of Saraburi Province, Thailand.  

PubMed

This research was designed to test the effectiveness of a school network for childhood obesity prevention (SNOCOP) in primary schools; a program that aimed to improve student behavior in terms of knowledge, attitude, intention towards obesity prevention, and their food consumption behavior. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest time series study was conducted. By 2-stage stratified sampling selection 180 students from 6 schools were assigned to the intervention group and 195 students from 6 schools to the control group at Saraburi Province, Thailand in 2006- 2007. In addition, thirty-one participants being school administrators, teachers, parents, and community members from six schools formed the social network initiating the intervention. The schoolchildren in the intervention group improved their eating behavior, knowledge, attitude, intention towards obesity preventive behavior. The six schools of the intervention group changed school policies and school activities aiming to reduce the proportion of obesity among their student. No such activities could be observed in the control group. These findings suggest that the School-Social Network of Childhood Obesity Prevention program is an effective means to prevent childhood obesity. PMID:19842420

Banchonhattakit, Pannee; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong; Pradipasen, Mandhana; Miner, Kathleen R; Nityasuddhi, Dechavudh

2009-07-01

319

The Potential of Coaching as a Strategy to Improve the Effectiveness of School-Based Substance Use Prevention Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research-based substance use prevention curricula typically yield small effects when implemented by school teachers under real-world conditions. Using a randomized controlled trial, the authors examined whether expert coaching improves the effectiveness of the All Stars prevention curriculum. Although a positive effect on students' cigarette use…

Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Hansen, William B.; Dusenbury, Linda; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Giles, Steven M.; Brodish, Paul H.

2009-01-01

320

A Meta-Analytic Review of Depression Prevention Programs for Children and Adolescents: Factors that Predict Magnitude of Intervention Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prob,In this meta-analytic review, the authors summarized the effects of depression prevention programs for youth as well as investigated participant, intervention, provider, and research design features associated with larger effects. They identified 47 trials that evaluated 32 prevention programs, producing 60 intervention effect sizes. The…

Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Bohon, Cara; Marti, C. Nathan; Rohde, Paul

2009-01-01

321

Use of Comparison Populations for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Hearing Loss Prevention Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

One approach for evaluating the effectiveness of Hearing loss prevention programs (HLPPs) is to compare the rate of hearing loss in a study population with that in a reference population. This approach was used to evaluate the HLPP of a population of 14,900 employees of an industrial company with branches across the United States. Three reference populations were selected from

T. Adera; C. Amir; L. Anderson

2000-01-01

322

One Decade Down: Impact of Substance Prevention after the Principles of Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substance prevention programs proliferate throughout America's Schools. Since 1998, the US Department of Education (US DOE) has required that school-based programs funded with federal subsidies be subject to a four stage process to insure effectiveness. The current study applies multivariate Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) techniques to data from a…

Olson, Jeremy; Frenzel, Erika

2010-01-01

323

Preventive effects of the deleted form of hepatocyte growth factor against various liver injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a naturally occurring deleted form of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on hepatic disorder were studied in various models of hepatic failure. The pretreatment of rats and mice with the deleted form of HGF prevented the liver injuries and coagulopathy induced by endotoxin, dimethylnitrosamine and acetaminophen and reduced the mortality due to hepatic dysfunction induced by these hepatotoxins.

Hiroaki Masunaga; Nobuaki Fujise; Akira Shiota; Hiromi Ogawa; Yasushi Sato; Eiichi Imai; Hiroshi Yasuda; Kanji Higashio

1998-01-01

324

The Development of an Osteoporosis Prevention Education Intervention: Its Effectiveness, Conclusions, and Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Osteoporosis prevention education interventions have been found to be ineffective. Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of a developed intervention based on the health belief model, which emphasized its visible severity and proximal time of onset. Method: A sample of 109 college women were randomly assigned to either a treatment or…

Nguyen, Vu H.; Wang, Ze; Waigandt, Alexander C.

2012-01-01

325

The uptake of rotavirus vaccine and its effectiveness in preventing acute gastroenteritis in the community  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the uptake of rotavirus vaccine and its effectiveness in preventing acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in the community. Data on rotavirus vaccines purchases and AGE were extracted from the computerized database of a large health maintenance organization in Israel. The incidence of AGE requiring a physician visit during 2008–09 rotavirus season among vaccinated and non-vaccinated children were compared, and vaccine

Khitam Muhsen; Gabriel Chodick; Sophy Goren; Varda Shalev; Dani Cohen

2010-01-01

326

Effective Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse--Educational versus Deterrent Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…

Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline

2012-01-01

327

Peer-Facilitated Eating Disorder Prevention: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial of Cognitive Dissonance and Media Advocacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the effectiveness of 2 interventions in reducing eating disorder risk factors under naturalistic conditions in sororities. On the basis of previous research, the campus sororities chose to implement a semimandatory, 2-session eating disorder prevention program to all new sorority members (N = 90) during sorority orientation. To facilitate evaluation, sororities agreed to random assignment of new members

Carolyn Black Becker; Lisa M. Smith; Anna C. Ciao

2006-01-01

328

Effects of a Multifocused Prevention Program on Preschool Children's Competencies and Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a multifocused (child-, teacher- and parent-focused) prevention program for Romanian preschoolers, targeting social--emotional competence development, as well as reduction of behavior problems. Fourteen classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention and control conditions. Subsequent…

Stefan, Catrinel A.; Miclea, Mircea

2013-01-01

329

Participatory Action Research: creating an effective prevention curriculum for adolescents in the Southwestern US  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing research confirms a need to seek strat- egies that combine the strengths of researchers and community to create effective prevention curricula for youth. This article describes how components of Participatory Action Research (PAR) methodology were used to create the keepin' it REAL Drug Resistance Strategies (DRS) curriculum designed for a diverse South- western US youth population. School commun- ity

M. N. Gosin; P. A. Dustman; A. E. Drapeau; M. L. Harthun

2003-01-01

330

Peer-Facilitated Eating Disorder Prevention: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial of Cognitive Dissonance and Media Advocacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated the effectiveness of 2 interventions in reducing eating disorder risk factors under naturalistic conditions in sororities. On the basis of previous research, the campus sororities chose to implement a semimandatory, 2-session eating disorder prevention program to all new sorority members (N = 90) during sorority…

Becker, Carolyn Black; Smith, Lisa M.; Ciao, Anna C.

2006-01-01

331

Lotus Effect coating and its application for microelectromechanical systems stiction prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stiction problem is one of the major factors that limit the widespread use and reliability of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The fundamental mechanism to prevent stiction is either increasing the surface roughness, or coating MEMS surfaces with hydrophobic materials. By nature, the Lotus Effect coating is a good combination of rough surface and hydrophobic materials. In this work, the feasibility

Jun Li; Jianwen Xu; Lianhua Fan; C. P. Wong

2004-01-01

332

School-Based Drug Prevention among At-Risk Adolescents: Effects of ALERT Plus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a recent randomized field trial, Ellickson et al. found the Project ALERT drug prevention curriculum curbed alcohol misuse and tobacco and marijuana use among eighth-grade adolescents. This article reports effects among ninth-grade at-risk adolescents. Comparisons between at-risk girls in ALERT Plus schools (basic curriculum extended to ninth…

Longshore, Douglas; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; St. Clair, Patricia A.

2007-01-01

333

Improving Interactions: The Effects of Implementing the Fight-Free Schools Violence Prevention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Fight-Free Schools violence prevention process had an effect on the frequency of aggressive acts of elementary school students. Participants included approximately 600 students ranging from Kindergarten to 5th grade in a suburban school in the Midwestern United States. Data were collected over…

Fahsl, Allison J.; Luce, Amanda E.

2012-01-01

334

Dumping Ground or Effective Alternative: Dropout Prevention Programs in Urban Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An alternative dropout-prevention program is examined from the students' perspectives. Findings from interviews and observations suggest that the program is effective in keeping the students in school but does little to help the students develop daily living and social skills. Policy implications are discussed and suggestions for future research…

Groth, Cori

1998-01-01

335

The Effects of Interventions to Prevent Substance Use among Adolescents: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this systematic review is to describe and evaluate the effects of interventions used for preventing or reducing substance use among adolescents under 18 years of age. Studies (N = 27) available in CINAHL and PubMed from 2007 to 2010 were included. Results showed that family-based interventions and combined interventions have significant…

Karki, Suyen; Pietila, Anna-Maija; Lansimies-Antikainen, Helena; Varjoranta, Pirjo; Pirskanen, Marjatta; Laukkanen, Eila

2012-01-01

336

Preventive effects of Spirulina platensis on skeletal muscle damage under exercise-induced oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of spirulina supplementation on preventing skeletal muscle damage on untrained human beings were examined. Sixteen students volunteered to take Spirulina platensis in addition to their normal diet for 3-weeks. Blood samples were taken after finishing the Bruce incremental treadmill exercise before and after treatment. The results showed that plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly decreased after supplementation

Hsueh-Kuan Lu; Chin-Cheng Hsieh; Jen-Jung Hsu; Yuh-Kuan Yang; Hong-Nong Chou

2006-01-01

337

How do you prevent measles? By immunisation -there is a safe and effective vaccine, which  

E-print Network

How do you prevent measles? · By immunisation - there is a safe and effective vaccine, which protects against measles. It is one of the "M" components in MMR vaccine and a child needs two doses personal contact with a person with measles if you are at risk. Because measles vaccine is a "live" vaccine

338

Effectiveness of Peer-Led Eating Disorders Prevention: A Replication Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to replicate and extend results of a previous trial that investigated the effectiveness of 2 peer-led eating disorders prevention interventions in reducing eating disorder risk factors in undergraduate women (C. B. Becker, L. M. Smith, & A. C. Ciao, 2006). To extend findings from the previous study by allowing for…

Becker, Carolyn Black; Bull, Stephanie; Schaumberg, Katherine; Cauble, Adele; Franco, Amanda

2008-01-01

339

A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Bullying Prevention Programs' Effects on Bystander Intervention Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-analysis synthesized bullying prevention programs' effectiveness at increasing bystander intervention in bullying situations. Evidence from 12 school-based programs, involving 12,874 students, indicated that overall the programs were successful (Hedges's g = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11 to 0.29, p = 0.001), with larger…

Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Therese D.

2012-01-01

340

Effectiveness of the "Baby Think It Over" Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the effectiveness of computerized infant simulator that provided realistic infant care experience to prevent teen pregnancy. Surveys examined changes in intervention and control group students' attitudes and sexual behaviors. Overall, the program did not significantly affect intervention students. Many students reported that it taught…

Somers, Cheryl L.; Fahlman, Mariane M.

2001-01-01

341

Principal and Teacher Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP) and to provide an annotated bibliography of professional literature related to bullying for professional educators. The OBPP used a whole school approach and taught common vocabulary to define the word bullying. Bullying rose to front-page…

Daugherty, Carolyn Spears

2011-01-01

342

Assessing the Effectiveness of Problem-Based Learning of Preventive Medicine Education in China  

PubMed Central

Problem-based learning (PBL) is defined as a student-centered pedagogy which can provide learners more opportunities for application of knowledge acquired from basic science to the working situations than traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) method. In China, PBL is increasingly popular among preventive medicine educators, and multiple studies have investigated the effectiveness of PBL pedagogy in preventive medicine education. A pooled analysis based on 15 studies was performed to obtain an overall estimate of the effectiveness of PBL on learning outcomes of preventive medicine. Overall, PBL was associated with a significant increase in students' theoretical examination scores (SMD = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.41–0.83) than LBL. For the attitude- and skill-based outcomes, the pooled PBL effects were also significant among learning attitude (OR = 3.62, 95% CI = 2.40–5.16), problem solved skill (OR = 4.80, 95% CI = 2.01–11.46), self-directed learning skill (OR = 5.81, 95% CI = 3.11–10.85), and collaborative skill (OR = 4.21, 95% CI = 0.96–18.45). Sensitivity analysis showed that the exclusion of a single study did not influence the estimation. Our results suggest that PBL of preventive medicine education in China appears to be more effective than LBL in improving knowledge, attitude and skills. PMID:24874915

Ding, Xiaojie; Zhao, Liping; Chu, Haiyan; Tong, Na; Ni, Chunhui; Hu, Zhibin; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin

2014-01-01

343

Parent Training via CD-ROM: Using Technology to Disseminate Effective Prevention Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family-based prevention programs have demonstrated effectiveness in reducing risk factors for substance abuse. The lack of efficient methods for training staff and insuring treatment integrity and the limited time that program progenitors have for dissemination impede the spread of these programs. Additionally, there are barriers to families who use these programs such as stigma associated with a parent education or

Donald A. Gordon

2000-01-01

344

The Effects of a Violence Prevention Program on Alternative High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addressed the effectiveness of a violence prevention program in an inner-city alternative school setting. The researcher, an administrator at the school, used a prepackaged curriculum targeting lessons on violence in an eight-week study with the entire school population. Students met bi-weekly with a team of two teachers to review and…

Triplett, Carla A.

2013-01-01

345

The Effect of Preventive Classroom Management Training Program on Approval and Disapproval Behaviors of Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the effect of Preventive Classroom Management Training Program (PCMTP) on approval and disapproval behaviors of teachers working in inclusive classrooms was investigated. The study group consisted of 45 teachers who were working in public schools and had students with special needs in their classrooms. Data were gathered using…

Guner, Nevin

2012-01-01

346

Effects of Cognitive Restructuring and Structured Group Discussion as Primary Prevention Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the effectiveness of cognitive restructuring (CR) and a structured group discussion (SGD) in preventing stress and improving self-concept in 209 high school freshmen. Results showed posttreatment attitudes were equal for both programs. The CR homework produced a significant decrease in students' perceived level of emotion. (JAC)

Baker, Stanley B.; And Others

1983-01-01

347

Restrictions in Means for Suicide: An Effective Tool in Preventing Suicide: The Danish Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Restriction of means for suicide is an important part of suicide preventive strategies in different countries. The effect on method-specific suicide rate and overall suicide rate of restrictions on availability of carbon monoxide, barbiturates, and dextropropoxyphene was examined. From 1970 to 2000, overall suicide mortality and method-specific…

Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

2007-01-01

348

Local release of dexamethasone from polymer millirods effectively prevents fibrosis after radiofrequency ablation  

E-print Network

Local release of dexamethasone from polymer millirods effectively prevents fibrosis after, fibrosis occurs at the ablation boundary, hin- dering anticancer drug transport from a locally implanted fibrosis. Polymer millirods consisting of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) were loaded with either DEX

Gao, Jinming

349

Immediate Post Intervention Effects of Two Brief Youth Suicide Prevention Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the immediate postintervention effects of two brief suicide prevention protocols: a brief interview—Counselors CARE (C-CARE)— and C-CARE plus a 12-session Coping and Support Training (CAST) peer-group intervention. Subjects were students \\

Brooke P. Randell; Leona L. Eggert; Kenneth C. Pike

2001-01-01

350

Family Effectiveness Training: An Intervention to Prevent Drug Abuse and Problem Behaviors in Hispanic Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies efficacy of Family Effectiveness Training (FET), a prevention and intervention model used with Hispanic families of preadolescents at risk of drug abuse. Studies 79 Hispanic families assigned to FET or control group. FET families showed greater improvement in structural family functioning, reported problem behaviors, and child…

Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

1989-01-01

351

Sustained Effects of Incredible Years as a Preventive Intervention in Preschool Children with Conduct Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study evaluated preventive effects of the Incredible Years program for parents of preschool children who were at risk for a chronic pattern of conduct problems, in the Netherlands. In a matched control design, 72 parents of children with conduct problems received the Incredible Years program. These families (intervention group) were…

Posthumus, Jocelyne A.; Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; Maassen, Gerard H.; van Engeland, Herman; Matthys, Walter

2012-01-01

352

Effectiveness of Peer Education Interventions for HIV Prevention, Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention and Sexual Health Promotion for Young People: A Systematic Review of European Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peer education remains a popular strategy for health promotion and prevention, but evidence of its effectiveness is still limited. This article presents a systematic review of peer education interventions in the European Union that were published between January 1999 and May 2010. The objective of the review is to determine the effectiveness of…

Tolli, M. V.

2012-01-01

353

Effect of Intra-Articular Hyaluronic Injection on Postural Stability and Risk of Fall in Patients with Bilateral Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Knee osteoarthritis is a common cause of disability which influences the quality of life. It is associated with impaired knee joint proprioception, which affects postural stability. Postural stability is critical for mobility and physical activities. Different types of treatment including nonsurgical and surgical are used for knee osteoarthritis. Hyaluronic acid injection is a nonsurgical popular treatment used worldwide. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of hyaluronic acid injections on postural stability in individuals with bilateral knee osteoarthritis. Fifty patients aged between 50 and 70 years with mild and moderate bilateral knee osteoarthritis participated in our study. They were categorized into treatment (n = 25) and control (n = 25) groups. The treatment group received five weekly hyaluronic acid injections for both knees, whereas the control group did not receive any treatment. Postural stability and fall risk were assessed using the Biodex Stability System and clinical “Timed Up and Go” test. All the participants completed the study. The treatment group showed significant decrease in postural stability and fall risk scores after five hyaluronic acid injections. In contrast, the control group showed significant increase. This study illustrated that five intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections could significantly improve postural stability and fall risk in bilateral knee osteoarthritis patients. This trial is registered with: NCT02063373. PMID:25136689

Khalaj, Nafiseh; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; George, John; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar

2014-01-01

354

A randomized controlled trial on Stroke telerehabilitation: The effects on falls self-efficacy and satisfaction with care.  

PubMed

We determined the effect of a multifaceted stroke telerehabilitation (STeleR) intervention on falls-related self-efficacy and satisfaction with care. We conducted a prospective, randomized, multisite, single-blinded trial in 52 veterans from three Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. Participants who experienced a stroke in the past 24 months were randomized to the STeleR intervention or usual care. Participants in the intervention arm were administered an exit interview to gather specific patient satisfaction data three months after their final outcome measure. The STeleR intervention consisted of three home visits, five telephone calls, and an in-home messaging device provided over three months to instruct patients in functionally based exercises and adaptive strategies. The outcome measures included Falls Efficacy Scale to measure fall-related self-efficacy and a Stroke-Specific Patient Satisfaction with Care (SSPSC) scale, a measure separated into two subscales (satisfaction with home care and satisfaction with hospital care) was employed to measure the participants' satisfaction. At six months, compared with the usual care group, the STeleR group showed statistically significant improvements in one of the two SSPSC scales (satisfaction with hospital care, p?=?.029) and approached significance in the second SSPSC scale (satisfaction with home care, p?=?.077). There were no improvements in fall-related self-efficacy. Core concepts identified were: (a) beneficial impact of the trained assistant; (b) exercises helpful; (c) home use of technology. The STeleR intervention improved satisfaction with care, especially as it relates to care following their experience from the hospital. With the limited resources available for in-home rehabilitation for stroke survivors, STeleR (and especially its exercise components) can be a useful complement to traditional post-stroke rehabilitation. PMID:25680390

Chumbler, Neale R; Li, Xinli; Quigley, Patricia; Morey, Miriam C; Rose, Dorian; Griffiths, Patricia; Sanford, Jon; Hoenig, Helen

2015-04-01

355

Nonpharmacological prevention of osteoporotic fractures  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a systemic, metabolic disease that can result in debilitating fractures. The lasting effects of vertebral and hip fractures can cause acute and chronic pain, deformity, and emotional distress. Research evidence and clinical experience have determined that weight bearing and strength training exercise, fall prevention efforts, hip protectors, and some alternative therapies may assist patients in avoiding the pervasive and lasting effects of osteoporotic fractures. Clinicians should consider the recommendations of nonpharmacological measures to assist patients at risk for experiencing the culminating event of this destructive disease. PMID:18044142

Kessenich, Cathy R

2007-01-01

356

The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of valacyclovir in cytomegalovirus prevention in solid organ transplantation.  

PubMed

Prevention of cytomegalovirus infection using antiviral prophylaxis or the pre-emptive therapy approach is an integral part of management of patients after solid organ transplantation. Regarding renal transplantation, valacyclovir is currently the only antiviral agent recommended for prophylaxis as an alternative to valganciclovir. This review article discusses studies documenting the efficacy and safety of valacyclovir prophylaxis as well as those comparing valacyclovir with other prophylactic regimens or with pre-emptive therapy. Also addressed are the economic aspects supporting the cost-effectiveness of valacyclovir prophylaxis and demonstrating lower costs compared with other cytomegalovirus preventive strategies. PMID:25252996

Reischig, Tomas; Kacer, Martin

2014-12-01

357

Effect of intensified caries prevention on approximal caries in adolescents with high caries risk.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two preventive programs carried out in Public Dental Clinics for children with high caries risk. From all the 13-year-olds living in Kuopio (n = 871), 323 (37%) were selected as a high-risk group on the basis of the level of salivary mutans streptococci or DS score. They were randomly divided into two groups. The first group continued with the preventive care they had received before the study. The dentists treating the children in the second group were specifically informed about their high caries risk, and instructions concerning intensified prevention were given. For comparison, half of the 13-year-olds with low caries risk were included in the study (group 3, n = 248). No special instructions concerning these children were given. After 2 years, approximal caries increment in the two risk groups was three times that of the low-risk group (2.6, 2.3 and 0.7 in groups 1-3, respectively). There was no significant difference between the two risk groups in spite of the fact that significantly more preventive procedures were provided for group 2 than for group 1. The results indicate that assessment of the subjects as high and low-risk groups was successful, but caries prevention targeted for the risk groups failed to lower the rate of caries to the same level as that of the children with an anticipated low risk. For children at high risk, the intensified prevention program monitored by dental authorities was no more successful than prevention planned by individual dentists. PMID:1747891

Seppä, L; Hausen, H; Pöllänen, L; Kärkkäinen, S; Helasharju, K

1991-01-01

358

The preventive effect of heparin on stricture formation after caustic esophageal burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: Preventing thrombus formation after caustic esophageal ingestion has been proposed to have beneficial effects. Therefore, an experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of heparin on the esophagus after caustic burns.Methods: Caustic esophageal burns were produced in rats by irrigation with 50% NaOH as described by Liu. Rats were divided into four groups as follows: group A,

F. Cahit Tanyel; Sevda Müftüo?lu; Nurten Renda; Nur Çakar; Nebil Büyükpamukçu; Akgün Hiçsönmez

1999-01-01

359

Effectiveness of natural protected areas to prevent land use and land cover change in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the extent to which natural protected areas (NPAs) in Mexico have been effective for preventing land\\u000a use\\/land cover change, considered as a major cause of other degradation processes. We developed an effectiveness index including\\u000a NPA percentage of transformed areas (agriculture, induced vegetation, forestry plantations, and human settlements) in 2002,\\u000a the rate and absolute extent of change in

Fernanda Figueroa; Víctor Sánchez-Cordero

2008-01-01

360

Hip-Hop to Health Jr. Obesity Prevention Effectiveness Trial: Postintervention Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preschool years offer an opportunity to interrupt the trajectory toward obesity in black children. The Hip-Hop to Health Jr. Obesity Prevention Effectiveness Trial was a group-randomized controlled trial assessing the feasibility and effectiveness of a teacher-delivered weight control intervention for black preschool children. The 618 participating children were enrolled in 18 schools administered by the Chicago Public Schools. Children

Marian L. Fitzgibbon; Melinda R. Stolley; Linda A. Schiffer; Carol L. Braunschweig; Sandra L. Gomez; Linda Van Horn; Alan R. Dyer

2011-01-01

361

Brainstem auditory evoked responses in man. 1: Effect of stimulus rise-fall time and duration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Short latency (under 10 msec) evoked responses elicited by bursts of white noise were recorded from the scalp of human subjects. Response alterations produced by changes in the noise burst duration (on-time) inter-burst interval (off-time), and onset and offset shapes are reported and evaluated. The latency of the most prominent response component, wave V, was markedly delayed with increases in stimulus rise-time but was unaffected by changes in fall-time. The amplitude of wave V was insensitive to changes in signal rise-and-fall times, while increasing signal on-time produced smaller amplitude responses only for sufficiently short off-times. It is concluded that wave V of the human auditory brainstem evoked response is solely an onset response.

Hecox, K.; Squires, N.; Galambos, R.

1975-01-01

362

The Effects of Drug-Prevention Messages on the Accessibility of Identity-Related Constructs  

PubMed Central

Recent theoretical work has posited that the self-system guides behavior via currently activated self-concepts. We adopt this framework to the study of drug-prevention messages by examining the extent to which messages can alter the accessibility of views of self and of drugs that would support non-use. Participants were exposed to one of three print-ad conditions: autonomy-themed prevention messages (treatment), health-information themed prevention messages (comparison), and informational consumer ads (control). Outcomes were reaction times to make dichotomous judgments. Relative to comparison and control ads, treatment ads were more successful at activating a self-view as a nonuser, a view that marijuana use is inconsistent with autonomy, and unwillingness to use marijuana. Post-hoc analysis revealed that the effect of ad condition on unwillingness was partially mediated by the accessibility of self-view as a nonuser. PMID:21271426

COMELLO, MARIA LEONORA G.; SLATER, MICHAEL D.

2011-01-01

363

The effects of drug-prevention messages on the accessibility of identity-related constructs.  

PubMed

Recent theoretical work has posited that the self-system guides behavior via currently activated self-concepts. The authors adopted this framework to the study of drug-prevention messages by examining the extent to which messages can alter the accessibility of views of self and of drugs that would support nonuse. Participants were exposed to 1 of 3 print-ad conditions: autonomy-themed prevention messages (treatment), health-information themed prevention messages (comparison), and informational consumer ads (control). Outcomes were reaction times to make dichotomous judgments. Relative to comparison and control ads, treatment ads were more successful at activating a self-view as a nonuser, a view that marijuana use is inconsistent with autonomy, and unwillingness to use marijuana. Post-hoc analysis revealed that the effect of ad condition on unwillingness was partially mediated by the accessibility of self-view as a nonuser. PMID:21271426

Comello, Maria Leonora G; Slater, Michael D

2011-05-01

364

Effects of a brief pilot sexual harassment prevention workshop on employees' knowledge.  

PubMed

Administrators from three workplaces were interested in conducting evidence-based sexual harassment prevention training for their employees, but they could devote little time during the workday to the training. A pilot program to evaluate the use of a 1-hour workshop that followed best practice recommendations and adult learning principles using job-related scenarios was designed. Participants' overall sexual harassment prevention knowledge scores significantly increased from before to after the workshop and were significantly higher after the workshop than those of a control group. The majority of participants also perceived that their workplaces were committed to employees understanding the sexual harassment policy, and that the workplace would seriously investigate claims and take corrective action. Even a brief workshop covering essential content using adult learning principles can be effective in sexual harassment prevention knowledge acquisition. PMID:24088375

Campbell, Cody; Kramer, Alaina; Woolman, Kendra; Staecker, Emma; Visker, Joseph; Cox, Carol

2013-10-01

365

Who's calling the shots? Decision-makers and the adoption of effective school-based substance use prevention curricula.  

PubMed

This study investigates the relative roles of school district and school-level decision-makers in the implementation of effective substance use prevention curricula. Drawing on a "Site-Based Management" approach to effective decision-making, we hypothesized that schools whose personnel played active decision-making roles would be more likely to implement effective curricula than those in which decision-making was the prerogative of school district personnel. Study data comprised 1369 questionnaires completed by a representative national sample of both district-level prevention coordinators and middle school-based lead prevention teachers. From the perspective of the lead prevention teachers, the school district-level prevention coordinator was more influential than school staff in selecting effective prevention curricula. However, we did find some support for our hypothesis from our district-level informants, who indicated that community groups and advisory committees also play a modest role in the selection of such curricula. PMID:15468745

Ringwalt, Chris; Ennett, Susan T; Vincus, Amy A; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Simons-Rudolph, Ashley

2004-01-01

366

Effect of Life Skills Training on Drug Abuse Preventive Behaviors among University Students  

PubMed Central

Background: Drug abuse is now-a-days one of the gravest social harms. Recent years have experienced a drastic rise in drug abuse among school and university students. Thus, the need for special attention to the issue is deemed important. The present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the impact of life skills training on promotion of drug abuse preventive behaviors. Methods: This field trial experimental study was conducted on 60 students of Gonabad Medical University selected through quota random sampling and assigned randomly into two Intervention and control groups. Data were collected through a questionnaire, including two sections of demographic information and drug abuse preventive behaviors. The questionnaire was first assessed as to its validity and reliability and then administered both before and after educational intervention and also as a follow-up 4 years after intervention – Data were then analyzed using t-tests and Chi-square. Results: Comparison of post-test mean scores of drug abuse preventive behaviors of both groups showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) which remained stable 4 years after intervention. There was a significant relationship between father's educational level and drug abuse preventive behaviors (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Life skills’ training is effective in the promotion of drug abuse preventive behaviors of university students. PMID:24932389

Moshki, Mahdi; Hassanzade, Tahere; Taymoori, Parvaneh

2014-01-01

367

Encouraging responses in sexual and relationship violence prevention: what program effects remain 1 year later?  

PubMed

Colleges and universities are high-risk settings for sexual and relationship violence. To address these problems, institutions of higher education have implemented prevention programs, many of which train students as potential bystanders who can step in to help diffuse risky situations, identify and challenge perpetrators, and assist victims. The impact of bystander sexual and relationship violence prevention programs on long-term behavior of bystanders has remained a key unanswered question for those who seek to offer the most effective programs as well as for policy makers. In this study, the researchers experimentally evaluated the effectiveness of the Bringing in the Bystander® in-person program. Participants were 948 1st-year college students of whom 47.8% were women and 85.2% identified as White (15% also identified as Hispanic in a separate question) between the ages of 18 and 24 at two universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, highly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. To date, this is the first study to have found positive behavior changes as long-lasting as 1 year following an educational workshop focusing on engaging bystanders in preventing sexual and relationship violence. Even so, many questions remain to be answered about prevention and intervention of this type. More prospective research is needed on bystander-focused prevention of these forms of violence to help understand and better predict the complicated relationships both between and among the attitudes and behaviors related to preventing sexual and relationship violence. In this regard, we make specific recommendations for designing and evaluating programs based on our findings relating to the importance of moderators, especially two key understudied ones, readiness to help and opportunity to intervene. PMID:24850763

Moynihan, Mary M; Banyard, Victoria L; Cares, Alison C; Potter, Sharyn J; Williams, Linda M; Stapleton, Jane G

2015-01-01

368

Preventing weight gain and obesity: indirect effects of the family check-up in early childhood.  

PubMed

The early signs of obesity are observable in early childhood. Although the most promising prevention approaches are family-centered, few relevant early prevention programs exist. This study evaluated the effects of an evidence-based, home-visiting intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), on the trajectory of children's weight gain. The FCU was designed to prevent the development of behavior problems by improving family management practices; children's weight has not been an explicit target. On the basis of previous research and conceptual models, we hypothesized that intervention effects on parenting practices, specifically caregivers' use of positive behavior support (PBS) strategies in toddlerhood, would mediate improvements in children's weight trajectories. A total of 731 indigent caregiver-child dyads from a multisite randomized intervention trial were examined. Observational assessment of parenting and mealtime behaviors occurred from age 2-5 years. The child's body mass index (BMI) was assessed yearly from age 5-9.5 years. Path analysis with a latent growth model revealed a significant indirect effect of the FCU on the trajectory of BMI in later childhood. Improvements in caregivers' PBS in toddlerhood, which was related to the nutritional quality of the meals caregivers served to the child during the mealtime task, served as the intervening process. Furthermore, findings indicate that the FCU prevents progression to overweight and obese status amongst at-risk children. These study results add to existing evidence that has demonstrated that family-based interventions aimed at improving general family management skills are effective at preventing weight gain. Future directions are discussed. PMID:25263212

Smith, Justin D; Montaño, Zorash; Dishion, Thomas J; Shaw, Daniel S; Wilson, Melvin N

2015-04-01

369

Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Diabetes Prevention among Adherent Participants  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES We report the 10 year effectiveness and within-trial cost-effectiveness of the The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and its Outcomes Study (DPPOS) interventions among participants who were adherent to the interventions. STUDY DESIGN DPP was a 3-year randomized clinical trial followed by 7-years of open-label modified intervention followup. METHODS Data on resource utilization, cost, and quality-of-life were collected prospectively. Economic analyses were performed from health system and societal perspectives. Lifestyle adherence was defined as achieving and maintaining a 5% reduction in initial body weight and metformin adherence as taking metformin at 80% of study visits. RESULTS The relative risk reduction was 49.4% among adherent lifestyle participants and 20.8% among adherent metformin participants compared to placebo. Over 10 years, the cumulative, undiscounted, per capita direct medical costs of the interventions, as implemented during the DPP, were greater for adherent lifestyle participants ($4,810) than adherent metformin participants ($2,934) or placebo ($768). Over 10 years, the cumulative, per capita non-intervention-related direct medical costs were $4,250 greater for placebo participants compared to adherent lifestyle participants and $3,251 greater compared to adherent metformin participants. The cumulative quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) accrued over 10 years were greater for lifestyle (6.80) than metformin (6.74) or placebo (6.67). Without discounting, from both a modified societal perspective (excluding participant time), lifestyle cost <$5,000 per QALY-gained and metformin was cost-saving compared to placebo. CONCLUSIONS Over 10 years, lifestyle intervention and metformin were cost-saving compared to placebo. These analyses confirm that lifestyle and metformin represent a good value for money. PMID:23544761

Herman, William H.; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Ratner, Robert E.; Montez, Maria G.; Ackermann, Ronald T.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Foulkes, Mary A.; Zhang, Ping; Saudek, Christopher D.; Brown, Morton B.

2014-01-01

370

School-based smoking prevention programs with the promise of long-term effects  

PubMed Central

I provide a systematic review of trials of school-based smoking prevention programs that had at least 15 sessions, preferably with some in high school, that reported significant short-term effects, and that included long-term follow-up. This is supplemented with a description of some other programs that produce short-term effects that portend large long-term effects. I conclude that school-based programs can have long-term effects of practical importance it they: include 15 or more sessions over multiple years, including some in high school; use the social influence model and interactive delivery methods; include components on norms, commitment not to use, intentions not to use, and training and practice in the use of refusal and other life skills; and use peer leaders in some role. School-based programs of this type can reduce smoking onset by 25–30%, and school plus community programs can reduce smoking onset by 35–40% by the end of high school. Some early childhood programs that do not have smoking prevention as their main aim, including home nursing, the Good Behavior Game, the Positive Action program and others, seem to change the developmental trajectories of children so that they are less likely to engage in multiple problem behaviors, including smoking, as adolescents. This review makes it clear that effective school-based smoking prevention programs exist and can be adopted, adapted and deployed with success – and should be. PMID:19323826

Flay, Brian R

2009-01-01

371

Automatic Fall Monitoring: A Review  

PubMed Central

Falls and fall-related injuries are major incidents, especially for elderly people, which often mark the onset of major deterioration of health. More than one-third of home-dwelling people aged 65 or above and two-thirds of those in residential care fall once or more each year. Reliable fall detection, as well as prevention, is an important research topic for monitoring elderly living alone in residential or hospital units. The aim of this study is to review the existing fall detection systems and some of the key research challenges faced by the research community in this field. We categorize the existing platforms into two groups: wearable and ambient devices; the classification methods are divided into rule-based and machine learning techniques. The relative merit and potential drawbacks are discussed, and we also outline some of the outstanding research challenges that emerging new platforms need to address. PMID:25046016

Pannurat, Natthapon; Thiemjarus, Surapa; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit

2014-01-01

372

Effects and safety of periconceptional folate supplementation for preventing birth defects  

PubMed Central

Background It has been reported that neural tube defects can be prevented with periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effects of different doses, forms and schemes of folate supplementation for the prevention of other birth defects and maternal and infant outcomes are unclear. Objectives This review updates and expands a previous Cochrane Review assessing the effects of periconceptional supplementation with folic acid to reduce neural tube defects (NTDs). We examined whether folate supplementation before and during early pregnancy can reduce neural tube and other birth defects (including cleft palate) without causing adverse outcomes for mothers or babies. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (July 2010). Additionally, we searched the international clinical trials registry platform and contacted relevant organisations to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria We included all randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effect of periconceptional folate supplementation alone, or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, in women independent of age and parity. Data collection and analysis We assessed trials for methodological quality using the standard Cochrane criteria. Two authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion, one author extracted data and a second checked for accuracy. Main results Five trials involving 6105 women (1949 with a history of a pregnancy affected by a NTD and 4156 with no history of NTDs) were included. Overall, the results are consistent in showing a protective effect of daily folic acid supplementation (alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals) in preventing NTDs compared with no interventions/placebo or vitamins and minerals without folic acid (risk ratio (RR) 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 to 0.52). Only one study assessed the incidence of NTDs and the effect was not statistically significant (RR 0.08, 95% CI 0.00 to 1.33) although no events were found in the group that received folic acid. Folic acid had a significant protective effect for reoccurrence (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.60). There is no statistically significant evidence of any effects on prevention of cleft palate, cleft lip, congenital cardiovascular defects, miscarriages or any other birth defects. There were no included trials assessing the effects of this intervention on maternal blood folate or anaemia at term. We found no evidence of short-term side effects. Authors’ conclusions Folic acid, alone or in combination with vitamins and minerals, prevents NTDs but does not have a clear effect on other birth defects. PMID:20927767

Maria De-Regil, Luz; Fernández-Gaxiola, Ana C; Dowswell, Therese; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

2014-01-01

373

Comparing effects of tobacco use prevention modalities: need for complex system models  

PubMed Central

Many modalities of tobacco use prevention programming have been implemented including various policy regulations (tax increases, warning labels, limits on access, smoke-free policies, and restrictions on marketing), mass media programming, school-based classroom education, family involvement, and involvement of community agents (i.e., medical, social, political). The present manuscript provides a glance at these modalities to compare relative and combined impact of them on youth tobacco use. In a majority of trials, community-wide programming, which includes multiple modalities, has not been found to achieve impacts greater than single modality programming. Possibly, the most effective means of prevention involves a careful selection of program type combinations. Also, it is likely that a mechanism for coordinating maximally across program types (e.g., staging of programming) is needed to encourage a synergistic impact. Studying tobacco use prevention as a complex system is considered as a means to maximize effects from combinations of prevention types. Future studies will need to more systematically consider the role of combined programming. PMID:23339410

2013-01-01

374

Preventive effects of Chlorella on cognitive decline in age-dependent dementia model mice.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of age-dependent memory loss and cognitive decline. Cytotoxic aldehydes are derived from lipid peroxides and their accumulation may be responsible for age-dependent neurodegeneration, including Alzheimer's disease. Since aldehyde dehydrogenases detoxify such aldehydes, we constructed transgenic mice with mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) activity deficiency (DAL101 mice) as an age-dependent dementia model. This model animal is age-dependently progressed by persistent oxidative stress, and thus enables us to investigate foods that prevent dementia. Since Chlorella, a kind of alga, exhibits various anti-oxidative effects, we investigated whether Chlorella has the potential to prevent age-dependent cognitive impairment. We fed Chlorella to DAL101 mice and investigated its effects on oxidative stress and the progression of cognitive decline using the Morris water-maze and object recognition tests. The diet with Chlorella tended to reduce oxidative stress and significantly prevented the decline of cognitive ability, as shown by both methods. Moreover, consumption of Chlorella decreased the number of activated astrocytes in the DAL101 brain. These findings suggest that the prolonged consumption of Chlorella has the potential to prevent the progression of cognitive impairment. PMID:19699777

Nakashima, Yuya; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Konishi, Fumiko; Hasegawa, Takashi; Kumamoto, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Ohta, Shigeo

2009-10-30

375

Commentary on Foubert, Godin, & Tatum (2010): the evolution of sexual violence prevention and the urgency for effectiveness.  

PubMed

Foubert, Godin, and Tatum describe qualitative effects among college men of The Men's Program, a one-session sexual violence prevention program. This article and the program it describes are representative of many sexual violence prevention programs that are in practice and provide an opportunity for a brief discussion of the development and evaluation of sexual violence prevention approaches. In this commentary, we will focus on two considerations for an evolving field: the adherence to the principles of prevention and the use of rigorous evaluation methods to demonstrate effectiveness. We argue that the problem of sexual violence has created urgency for effective prevention programs and that scientific and prevention standards provide the best foundation to meet this need. PMID:21362674

Tharp, Andra Teten; DeGue, Sarah; Lang, Karen; Valle, Linda Anne; Massetti, Greta; Holt, Melissa; Matjasko, Jennifer

2011-11-01

376

Preventive Intervention Effects on Developmental Progression in Drug Use: Structural Equation Modeling Analyses Using Longitudinal Data1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the plausibility of the gateway hypothesis to account for drug involvement in a sample of middle school students participating in a drug abuse, prevention trial. Analyses focused on a single prevention approach to exemplify intervention effects on drug progression. Improvements to social competence reduced multiple drug use at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Specific program effects disrupted drug

Lawrence M. Scheier; Gilbert J. Botvin; Kenneth W. Griffin

2001-01-01

377

The Effectiveness of School-Based Smoking Prevention Interventions among Low- and High-SES European Teenagers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preventing smoking initiation among adolescents of lower socio-economic groups is crucial for the reduction of socio-economic inequalities in health. The aim of the present study was to examine whether effective smoking prevention interventions in Europe are equally effective among adolescents of low- and high-socio-economic status (SES). As part…

Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Crone, M. R.; De Vries, H.; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Lien, N.; Fagiano, F.; Vitoria, P. D.; Van Lenthe, F. J.

2012-01-01

378

The Effectiveness of Adapted Versions of an Evidence-Based Prevention Program in Reducing Alcohol Use among Alternative School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there is a strong evidence base for effective substance abuse prevention programs for youths, there is a need to facilitate the implementation and evaluation of these programs in real-world settings. This study evaluates the effectiveness of adapted versions of an evidence-based prevention program, keepin' it REAL (kiR), with alternative…

Hopson, Laura M.; Holleran Steiker, Lori K.

2010-01-01

379

Challenges in Defining and Categorizing Falls on Diverse Unit Types: Lessons from Expansion of the NDNQI Falls Indicator.  

PubMed

In 2012, the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators launched a project to expand its falls indicator for use on pediatric, neonatal, and psychiatric units. We discuss challenges encountered, argue that schemes for categorizing falls by cause or supposed preventability are not suitable for large-scale efforts to track and prevent falls, express concern about the growing burden of collecting increasingly granular quality data, and discuss limitations of total and injurious fall rates as quality measures. PMID:25188525

Staggs, Vincent S; Davidson, Jan; Dunton, Nancy; Crosser, Brandon

2015-01-01

380

Falling Feather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this physics activity, learners recreate Galileo's famous experiment, in which he dropped a heavy weight and a light weight from the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa to show that both weights fall at the same acceleration. Learners prove that Galileo was correct by comparing how fast a feather and coin fall in a tube attached to a vacuum. Use this activity to help learners explore acceleration and terminal velocity as well as how air resistance plays a role in how fast things fall.

The Exploratorium

2012-07-12

381

Prevalence of and factors associated with head impact during falls in older adults in long-term care  

PubMed Central

Background: Falls cause more than 60% of head injuries in older adults. Lack of objective evidence on the circumstances of these events is a barrier to prevention. We analyzed video footage to determine the frequency of and risk factors for head impact during falls in older adults in 2 long-term care facilities. Methods: Over 39 months, we captured on video 227 falls involving 133 residents. We used a validated questionnaire to analyze the mechanisms of each fall. We then examined whether the probability for head impact was associated with upper-limb protective responses (hand impact) and fall direction. Results: Head impact occurred in 37% of falls, usually onto a vinyl or linoleum floor. Hand impact occurred in 74% of falls but had no significant effect on the probability of head impact (p = 0.3). An increased probability of head impact was associated with a forward initial fall direction, compared with backward falls (odds ratio [OR] 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–5.9) or sideways falls (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2–6.3). In 36% of sideways falls, residents rotated to land backwards, which reduced the probability of head impact (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.04–0.8). Interpretation: Head impact was common in observed falls in older adults living in long-term care facilities, particularly in forward falls. Backward rotation during descent appeared to be protective, but hand impact was not. Attention to upper-limb strength and teaching rotational falling techniques (as in martial arts training) may reduce fall-related head injuries in older adults. PMID:24101612

Schonnop, Rebecca; Yang, Yijian; Feldman, Fabio; Robinson, Erin; Loughin, Marie; Robinovitch, Stephen N.

2013-01-01

382

Prevention of Depression in at-risk Adolescents: Longer-term Effects  

PubMed Central

Context Adolescent offspring of depressed parents are at high risk for experiencing depressive disorders themselves. Objective To determine whether the positive effects of a group cognitive-behavioral prevention (CBP) program extended to longer term (multi-year) follow-up. Design, Setting, and Participants A four-site, randomized, controlled trial enrolled 316 adolescent (ages 13-17 years) offspring of parents with current and/or prior depressive disorders; adolescents had histories of depression, current elevated depressive symptoms, or both. Intervention The CBP program consisted of 8 weekly, 90-minute group sessions followed by 6 monthly continuation sessions. Adolescents were randomly assigned to either the CBP program or usual care (UC). Main Outcome Measure The primary outcome was a probable or definite episode of depression (Depression Symptom Rating score ?; 4) for at least 2 weeks through the month 33 follow-up evaluation. Results Over the 33-month follow-up period, youths in the CBP condition had significantly fewer onsets of depressive episodes compared to those in UC. Parental depression at baseline significantly moderated the intervention effect. When parents were not depressed at intake, CBP was superior to UC (NNT ratio=6), whereas when parents were actively depressed at baseline, average onset rates between CBP and UC were not significantly different. A three-way interaction among intervention, baseline parental depression, and site indicated that the impact of parental depression on intervention effectiveness varied across sites. Conclusions The CBP program showed significant sustained effects compared to usual care in preventing the onset of depressive episodes in at-risk youth over a nearly three-year period. Important next steps will be to strengthen the CBP intervention to further enhance its preventive effects, improve intervention outcomes when parents are currently depressed, and conduct larger implementation trials to test the broader public health impact of the CBP program for preventing depression in youth. PMID:24005242

Beardslee, William R.; Brent, David A.; Weersing, V. Robin; Clarke, Gregory N.; Porta, Giovanna; Hollon, Steven D.; Gladstone, Tracy R.G.; Gallop, Robert; Lynch, Frances L.; Iyengar, Satish; DeBar, Lynn; Garber, Judy

2014-01-01

383

Effect of Preventive Hormonal Therapy on Breast Density: A Systematic Qualitative Review  

PubMed Central

Breast density (BD) is recognized as one of the strongest independent risk factors of breast cancer (BC). Unlike most other risk factors, BD can be modified, suggesting that it may be a biomarker for preventive interventions. We conducted a qualitative systematic review to address the effect of preventive hormonal therapy on BD. Among the 26 relevant studies, 10 assessed the effect of tamoxifen on BD (TAM: n = 2?877), 9 that of raloxifene (RLX: n = 1?544), and 7 that of aromatase inhibitors (AI: n = 416). The studies were characterized by a large heterogeneity in designs and in methods of BD measurement. BD could be reduced by TAM (10 studies/10). However, the effect of RLX and AI on BD remains unclear due to conflicting results between studies. Consequently, it is crucial to develop practical, accurate, and reproducible methods of measurement in order to be able to compare the effect of preventive hormonal agents on BD and to determine whether change in BD can be used as a predictor of response to therapy. PMID:24895676

Lienart, Virginie; Carly, Birgit; Liebens, Fabienne

2014-01-01

384

Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms  

PubMed Central

Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

2013-01-01

385

Effects of Different Exercise Interventions on Risk of Falls, Gait Ability, and Balance in Physically Frail Older Adults: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Abstract The aim of this review was to recommend training strategies that improve the functional capacity in physically frail older adults based on scientific literature, focusing specially in supervised exercise programs that improved muscle strength, fall risk, balance, and gait ability. Scielo, Science Citation Index, MEDLINE, Scopus, Sport Discus, and ScienceDirect databases were searched from 1990 to 2012. Studies must have mentioned the effects of exercise training on at least one of the following four parameters: Incidence of falls, gait, balance, and lower-body strength. Twenty studies that investigated the effects of multi-component exercise training (10), resistance training (6), endurance training (1), and balance training (3) were included in the present revision. Ten trials investigated the effects of exercise on the incidence of falls in elderly with physical frailty. Seven of them have found a fewer falls incidence after physical training when compared with the control group. Eleven trials investigated the effects of exercise intervention on the gait ability. Six of them showed enhancements in the gait ability. Ten trials investigated the effects of exercise intervention on the balance performance and seven of them demonstrated enhanced balance. Thirteen trials investigated the effects of exercise intervention on the muscle strength and nine of them showed increases in the muscle strength. The multi-component exercise intervention composed by strength, endurance and balance training seems to be the best strategy to improve rate of falls, gait ability, balance, and strength performance in physically frail older adults. PMID:23327448

Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Sinclair, Alan

2013-01-01

386

Prevention Effects Moderate the Association of 5-HTTLPR and Youth Risk Behavior Initiation: Gene x Environment Hypotheses Tested via a Randomized Prevention Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A randomized prevention design was used to investigate a moderation effect in the association between a polymorphism in the "SCL6A4"("5HTT") gene at 5-HTTLPR and increases in youths' risk behavior initiation. Participation in the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program was hypothesized to attenuate the link between 5-HTTLPR status and risk…

Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Murry, Velma McBride

2009-01-01

387

Current evidence of effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication on prevention of gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide and is usually detected at a late stage, except in Korea and Japan where early screening is in effect. Results from animal and epidemiological studies suggest that Helicobacter pylori infection, and subsequent gastritis, promote development of gastric cancer in the infected mucosa. Relatively effective treatment regimens are available to treat H. pylori infection, and in general, mass eradication of the organism is not currently recommended as a gastric cancer prevention strategy. However, regional guidelines vary regarding the indications and recommendations for H. pylori treatment for gastric cancer prevention. In this review, we discuss the results from intervention studies, provide insight regarding current guideline recommendations, and discuss future study directions. PMID:24009446

2013-01-01

388

Inertial sensing-based pre-impact detection of falls involving near-fall scenarios.  

PubMed

Although near-falls (or recoverable imbalances) are common episodes for many older adults, they have received a little attention and were not considered in the previous laboratory-based fall assessments. Hence, this paper addresses near-fall scenarios in addition to the typical falls and activities of daily living (ADLs). First, a novel vertical velocity-based pre-impact fall detection method using a wearable inertial sensor is proposed. Second, to investigate the effect of near-fall conditions on the detection performance and feasibility of the vertical velocity as a fall detection parameter, the detection performance of the proposed method (Method 1) is evaluated by comparing it to that of an acceleration-based method (Method 2) for the following two different discrimination cases: falls versus ADLs (i.e., excluding near-falls) and falls versus non-falls (i.e., including near-falls). Our experiment results show that both methods produce similar accuracies for the fall versus ADL detection case; however, Method 1 exhibits a much higher accuracy than Method 2 for the fall versus non-fall detection case. This result demonstrates the superiority of the vertical velocity over the peak acceleration as a fall detection parameter when the near-fall conditions are included in the non-fall category, in addition to its capability of detecting pre-impact falls. PMID:25252283

Lee, Jung Keun; Robinovitch, Stephen N; Park, Edward J

2015-03-01

389

Fall Webworm  

E-print Network

The fall webworm is a common pest of trees and shrubs. This insect produces unsightly webs, and repeated infestations can damage plants. Control methods are most successful when one understands the pest's life cycle. This publication suggests...

Ree, Bill

2004-10-08

390

Cost-effectiveness of gargling for the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections  

PubMed Central

Background In Japan, gargling is a generally accepted way of preventing upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). The effectiveness of gargling for preventing URTI has been shown in a randomized controlled trial that compared incidences of URTI between gargling and control groups. From the perspective of the third-party payer, gargling is dominant due to the fact that the costs of gargling are borne by the participant. However, the cost-effectiveness of gargling from a societal perspective should be considered. In this study, economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial was performed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of gargling for preventing URTI from a societal perspective. Methods Among participants in the gargling trial, 122 water-gargling and 130 control subjects were involved in the economic analysis. Sixty-day cumulative follow-up costs and effectiveness measured by quality-adjusted life days (QALD) were compared between groups on an intention-to-treat basis. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was converted to dollars per quality-adjusted life years (QALY). The 95% confidence interval (95%CI) and probability of gargling being cost-effective were estimated by bootstrapping. Results After 60 days, QALD was increased by 0.43 and costs were $37.1 higher in the gargling group than in the control group. ICER of the gargling group was $31,800/QALY (95%CI, $1,900–$248,100). Although this resembles many acceptable forms of medical intervention, including URTI preventive measures such as influenza vaccination, the broad confidence interval indicates uncertainty surrounding our results. In addition, one-way sensitivity analysis also indicated that careful evaluation is required for the cost of gargling and the utility of moderate URTI. The major limitation of this study was that this trial was conducted in winter, at a time when URTI is prevalent. Care must be taken when applying the results to a season when URTI is not prevalent, since the ICER will increase due to decreases in incidence. Conclusion This study suggests gargling as a cost-effective preventive strategy for URTI that is acceptable from perspectives of both the third-party payer and society. PMID:19087312

Sakai, Michi; Shimbo, Takuro; Omata, Kazumi; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Satomura, Kazunari; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kawamura, Takashi; Baba, Hisamitsu; Yoshihara, Masaharu; Itoh, Hiroshi

2008-01-01

391

Effects of Perturbation-Based Slip Training Using a Virtual Reality Environment on Slip-induced Falls.  

PubMed

The purpose of the current study was to design and evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality training in improving recovery reactions and reducing fall frequency in older adults. Twenty-four older adults were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups (virtual reality training and control). Both groups underwent three sessions including baseline slip, training and transfer of training on slippery surface. Both groups experienced two slips, one during baseline and the other during the transfer of training trial. The training group underwent 12 simulated slips using a visual perturbation induced by tilting a virtual reality scene while walking on the treadmill and the control group performed normal walking during the training session. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected during all the sessions. Results demonstrated a reduced incidence of falls in the training group during the transfer of training trial as compared to the control group. The training group was able to transfer reactive control strategies learned during training to the second slip trial. The reactive adjustments included reduced slip distance. Additionally, gait parameters reflective of gait instability (stride length, step width, variability in stride velocity) reduced after walking in the VR environment for 15-20 min. The results indicated a beneficial effect of the virtual reality training in reducing slip severity and recovery kinematics in healthy older adults. PMID:25245221

Parijat, Prakriti; Lockhart, Thurmon E; Liu, Jian

2014-09-23

392

The effects of psychiatric comorbidity on response to an HIV prevention intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug abusers with psychiatric comorbidity are at high risk for becoming exposed to HIV. To address this compelling public health issue, our randomized HIV prevention study compares the effectiveness of the NIDA standard HIV testing and counseling protocol to a four session, peer-delivered, educational intervention for out-of-treatment cocaine users with and without antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and major depression. Among

Wilson M Compton; Linda B Cottler; Arbi Ben-Abdallah; Renee Cunningham-Williams; Edward L Spitznagel

2000-01-01

393

Preventive effect of Ganoderma amboinense on acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo preventive effects of Ganoderma amboinense against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in Balb\\/cA mice were studied. G. amboinense powder at 1% and 2% was mixed with standard diet and supplied to mice for 6 weeks, and followed by acetaminophen (350mg\\/kg body weight) intraperitoneal injection. In normal mice (without acetaminophen treatment), the consumption of G. amboinense significantly increased hepatic glutathione (GSH) level.

Cheng-chin Hsu; Ko-yen Lin; Zhi-hong Wang; Wea-lung Lin; Mei-chin Yin

2008-01-01

394

Preventive and curative effects of Artemisia absinthium on acetaminophen and CCl 4-induced hepatotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Effect of aqueous-methanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium (Compositae) was investigated against acetaminophen- and CCl4-induced hepatic damage.2.2. Acetaminophen produced 100% mortality at the dose of 1 g\\/kg in mice while pretreatment of animals with plant extract (500 mg\\/kg) reduced the death rate to 20%.3.3. Pretreatment of rats with plant extract (500 mg\\/kg, orally twice daily for two days) prevented (P

Anwar-Ul Hassan Gilani; Khalid Hussain Janbaz

1995-01-01

395

Cost-effectiveness of measures to prevent classical swine fever introduction into The Netherlands.  

PubMed

Recent history has demonstrated that classical swine fever (CSF) epidemics can incur high economic losses, especially for exporting countries that have densely populated pig areas and apply a strategy of non-vaccination, such as The Netherlands. Introduction of CSF virus (CSFV) remains a continuing threat to the pig production sector in The Netherlands. Reducing the annual probability of CSFV introduction (P(CSFV)) by preventive measures is therefore of utmost importance. The choice of preventive measures depends not only on the achieved reduction of the annual P(CSFV), but also on the expenditures required for implementing these measures. The objective of this study was to explore the cost-effectiveness of tactical measures aimed at the prevention of CSFV introduction into The Netherlands. For this purpose for each measure (i) model calculations were performed with a scenario tree model for CSFV introduction and (ii) its annual cost was estimated. The cost-effectiveness was then determined as the reduction of the annual P(CSFV) achieved by each preventive measure (DeltaP) divided by the annual cost of implementing that measure (DeltaC). The measures analysed reduce the P(CSFV) caused by import or export of pigs. Results showed that separation of national and international transport of pigs is the most cost-effective measure, especially when risk aversion is assumed. Although testing piglets and breeding pigs by a quick and reliable PCR also had a high cost-effectiveness ratio, this measure is not attractive due to the high cost per pig imported. Besides, implementing such a measure is not allowed under current EU law, as it is trade restrictive. PMID:15927286

De Vos, C J; Saatkamp, H W; Huirne, R B M

2005-09-12

396

Preventive Effect of Commercial Desensitizing Toothpastes on Bovine Enamel Erosion in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated in vitro commercial desensitizing toothpastes with respect to the prevention of erosion and explored the effect of their agents alone or in combination with fluoride. Bovine enamel blocks were randomly allocated to five groups of 20 and exposed to: Sensodyne ProNamel (1,425 ppm F as NaF, 5% KNO3), Sensodyne Original (no fluoride, 10% SrCl2), Colgate Sensitive (1,450

M. T. Kato; M. Lancia; S. H. C. Sales-Peres; M. A. R. Buzalaf

2010-01-01

397

Quest for the Golden Rule: An effective social skills promotion and bullying prevention program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Everyday many students face bullying situations that they are ill equipped to manage. E-learning has recently emerged as a potentially effective tool in teaching children social skills, in addition to academic subject matter. Quest for the Golden Rule is one of the first bullying prevention e-learning programs available, designed by the Practi-Quest Corporation, for children in grades 2 – 5.

Alice Rubin-Vaughan; Debra Pepler; Steven Brown; Wendy Craig

2011-01-01

398

Lack of sustainable prevention effect of the ''Smoke-Free Class Competition'' on German pupils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This study examines the effectiveness of the school-based campaign ''Smoke-Free Class Competition'' as a means of preventing young non-smokers from taking up smoking. Methods. Based on two measurements of the Heidelberg Children's Panel Study (1998 and 2000), a longitudinal sample of 1704 pupils was examined: 948 in the intervention group and 756 in the control group. In order to

Alexander Schulze; Ute Mons; Lutz Edler; Martina Potschke-Langer

2006-01-01

399

Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas  

SciTech Connect

The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by PNNL that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall chinook salmon spawning areas. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The hydrologic regime during the 2002?2003 sampling period exhibited one of the lowest, most stable daily discharge patterns of any of the previous 12 water years. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small vertical hydraulic gradients at most sites, the results from the numerical modeling of riverbed pore water velocity and hyporheic zone temperatures suggested that there was significant vertical hydrologic exchange during all time periods. The combined results of temperature monitoring and numerical modeling indicate that only two sites were significantly affected by short-term (hourly to daily) large magnitude changes in discharge. Although the two sites exhibited acute flux reversals between river water and hyporheic water resulting from short-term large magnitude changes in discharge, these flux reversals had minimal effect on emergence timing estimates. Indeed, the emergence timing estimates at all sites was largely unaffected by the changes in river stage resulting from hydropower operations at Hells Canyon Dam. Our results indicate that the range of emergence timing estimates due to differences among the eggs from different females can be as large as or larger than the emergence timing estimates due to site differences (i.e., bed temperatures within and among sites). We conclude that during the 2002-2003 fall chinook salmon incubation period, hydropower operations of Hells Canyon Dam had an insignificant effect on fry emergence timing at the study sites. It appears that short-term (i.e., hourly to daily) manipulations of discharge from the Hells Canyon Complex during the incubation period would not substantially alter egg pocket incubation temperatures, and thus would not affect fry emergence timing at the study sites. However, the use of hydropower operational manipulations at the Hells Canyon Complex to accelerate egg incubation and fry emergence should not be ruled out on the basis of only one water year's worth of study. Further investigation of the incubation environment of Snake River fall chinook salmon is warranted based on the complexity of hyporheic zone characteristics and the variability of surface/subsurface interactions among dry, normal, and wet water years.

Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Abernethy, Cary S.

2004-09-24

400

Falling Asteroids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this game is to protect four cities from falling asteroids. To do this you must shoot them as they fall, either by clicking on the screen or by using a detonator (hitting the space bar) to destroy them all. You receive ten points for every surviving city at the end of each level. Cities are replaced every fifth level, but if all of your cities are destroyed, the game is over!

2010-01-01

401

The effect of falling particles on the shape and spin rate of an asteroid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This simulation is focused on the specific influence of the gravitational field of a very elongated rotating asteroid on the location of zones of the most intensive bombardment by falling particles. It is assumed that the particles are distributed uniformly in the space surrounding the asteroid. The asteroid shape is approximated by a triaxial ellipsoid with semiaxes 28,12,10.5 km (equal to those of asteroid 243 Ida) and by a dumb-bell of the same mass. The computations and appropriate figures show that at a rotation period faster than approximately 9.1 hours for the triaxial ellipsoid model and 3.3 hours for the dumb-bell one the leading sides of the asteroid receive a higher flux of impacting particles than the trailing sides while at slower periods the situation is the opposite. The zones of possible erosion are computed depending on the asteroid rotation period and on the ratio of impact and rebound velocities of particles. The contribution of all impacting particles to the angular momentum of the asteroid is computed, which leads to the conclusion that falling out of particles damps the asteroid rotation at any spin period.

Vasilkova, O.

2003-05-01

402

A model of the effects of flow fluctuations on fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat availability in the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Previously we reported that about 30% to 60% of the area predicted to be used by fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) for spawning in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River did not contain redds. One explanation for the overprediction of habitat was that our model did not incorporate streamflow fluctuation. Daily fluctuation in flow caused by load-following operations (power generation to meet short-term electrical demand) at Priest Rapids Dam, situated at the upper end of the Hanford Reach, changes the hydraulic characteristics to which fish respond in selecting redd sites. The purpose of the study described here was to examine the effect of flow changes on spawning habitat modeling and, in particular, to look at the connection between spawning and the variability and persistence of habitat variables caused by rapid changes in flow resulting from load-following operations at Priest Rapids Dam. We found that spawning habitat use by fall Chinook salmon was consistent with previous fall Chinook salmon studies in the Reach. Dynamic variables that were based on hourly time series were used to account for the variability in habitat as a result of flow fluctuations. The analysis showed that the proportion of velocities that fell within the range of 1.0 to 2.5 m/s differed significantly between locations that were predicted to be spawning by the logistic regression model where spawning actually occurred and locations that were predicted to be spawning where spawning did not occur. However, the resulting sequential logistic regression model that incorporated the dynamic variables did not provide significant improvement in the percentage of errors for areas predicted to be spawning; the model’s overprediction errors still ranged from 63% to 78%. We suggest that while flow fluctuation may affect spawning habitat and individual fish behavior, the high correlation between time-averaged velocities and the proportion of hourly velocities that fell within the most favorable range negated any improvements in model predictions.

Geist, David R.; Murray, Christopher J.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Xie, YuLong

2008-12-01

403

Cost-Effectiveness of Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy in Southern Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria in pregnancy is a public health problem for endemic countries. Economic evaluations of malaria preventive strategies in pregnancy are needed to guide health policies. Methods and Findings This analysis was carried out in the context of a trial of malaria intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP), where both intervention groups received an insecticide treated net through the antenatal clinic (ANC) in Mozambique. The cost-effectiveness of IPTp-SP on maternal clinical malaria and neonatal survival was estimated. Correlation and threshold analyses were undertaken to assess the main factors affecting the economic outcomes and the cut-off values beyond which the intervention is no longer cost-effective. In 2007 US$, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for maternal malaria was 41.46 US$ (95% CI 20.5, 96.7) per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted. The ICER per DALY averted due to the reduction in neonatal mortality was 1.08 US$ (95% CI 0.43, 3.48). The ICER including both the effect on the mother and on the newborn was 1.02 US$ (95% CI 0.42, 3.21) per DALY averted. Efficacy was the main factor affecting the economic evaluation of IPTp-SP. The intervention remained cost-effective with an increase in drug cost per dose up to 11 times in the case of maternal malaria and 183 times in the case of neonatal mortality. Conclusions IPTp-SP was highly cost-effective for both prevention of maternal malaria and reduction of neonatal mortality in Mozambique. These findings are likely to hold for other settings where IPTp-SP is implemented through ANC visits. The intervention remained cost-effective even with a significant increase in drug and other intervention costs. Improvements in the protective efficacy of the intervention would increase its cost-effectiveness. Provision of IPTp with a more effective, although more expensive drug than SP may still remain a cost-effective public health measure to prevent malaria in pregnancy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00209781 PMID:20976217

Sicuri, Elisa; Bardají, Azucena; Nhampossa, Tacilta; Maixenchs, Maria; Nhacolo, Ariel; Nhalungo, Delino; Alonso, Pedro L.; Menéndez, Clara

2010-01-01

404

Cost-effectiveness of preventative therapies for postmenopausal women with osteopenia  

PubMed Central

Background Limited data are available regarding the cost-effectiveness of preventative therapies for postmenopausal women with osteopenia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of raloxifene, alendronate and conservative care in this population. Methods We developed a microsimulation model to assess the incremental cost and effectiveness of raloxifene and alendronate relative to conservative care. We assumed a societal perspective and a lifetime time horizon. We examined clinical scenarios involving postmenopausal women from 55 to 75 years of age with bone mineral density T-scores ranging from -1.0 to -2.4. Modeled health events included vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, invasive breast cancer, and venous thromboembolism (VTE). Raloxifene and alendronate were assumed to reduce the incidence of vertebral but not nonvertebral fractures; raloxifene was assumed to decrease the incidence of breast cancer and increase the incidence of VTEs. Cost-effectiveness is reported in $/QALYs gained. Results For women 55 to 60 years of age with a T-score of -1.8, raloxifene cost approximately $50,000/QALY gained relative to conservative care. Raloxifene was less cost-effective for women 65 and older. At all ages, alendronate was both more expensive and less effective than raloxifene. In most clinical scenarios, raloxifene conferred a greater benefit (in QALYs) from prevention of invasive breast cancer than from fracture prevention. Results were most sensitive to the population's underlying risk of fracture and breast cancer, assumed efficacy and costs of treatment, and the discount rate. Conclusion For 55 and 60 year old women with osteopenia, treatment with raloxifene compares favorably to interventions accepted as cost-effective. PMID:17439652

Meadows, Eric S; Klein, Robert; Rousculp, Matthew D; Smolen, Lee; Ohsfeldt, Robert L; Johnston, Joseph A

2007-01-01

405

Effects of whole body vibration on bone mineral density and falls: results of the randomized controlled ELVIS study with postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We determined whether the effect of exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) and falls can be enhanced by whole body vibration\\u000a (WBV). In summary, the multi-purpose exercise training was effective to increase lumbar BMD but added WBV did not enhance\\u000a this effect. However, falls were lowest in the exercise program combined with WBV.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  WBV is a new approach to reduce

S. von Stengel; W. Kemmler; K. Engelke; W. A. Kalender

2011-01-01

406

[Prevention of cancer and the dose-effect relationship: the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiations].  

PubMed

Cancer prevention has to be based on robust biological and epidemiological data, therefore its reappraisal becomes mandatory in view of recent progress in the understanding of carcinogenesis. The first phase of the carcinogenic process, that of initiation, is generally associated with mutation; however the role of extrinsic mutagens is less critical than was thought two decades ago. During intracellular oxygen metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are made which are potent mutagens. Defense mechanisms against these intrinsic mutagens include scavenger and enzymatic systems which destroy them (catalase, superoxide dismutase). When the radiation dose is low, DNA repair is very effective as well as the elimination of cells with unrepaired or misrepaired DNA. Therefore a small increase in the number of ROS, such as that caused by a small dose of radiation has most probably no significant effect on the risk of DNA damage. These conclusions are consistent with the concept of a practical threshold. The second phase, that of promotion, appears to be the key one. During the promotion phase, initiated cells must acquire new properties (immortalization, release of angiogenic factors, resistance to hypoxia, etc.) in order to become precancerous. This evolution is due to the accumulation in the genome of 6 to 10 new alteration defects. In the clone of initiated cells, the occurrence in one cell of a mutation or an epigenetic event gives birth to a subclone. There is a Darwinian type competition between the subclones and those with the more rapid growth because dominant (the acceleration of the growth rate can be due to shorter cell cycles or to an alleviation of cell proliferation exerted by the neighboring cells or the microenvironment). In the dominant subclones new genomic events provoke the appearance of new subclones growing more rapidly and having greater autonomy. The process is very slow because the specific genetic events that favour this evolution seldom occur. Promoting factors are agents that either perturb intercellular signalling or stimulate cell proliferation (e.g. hormones) or increase cell mortality: mechanical or chemical irritation (e.g. alcohol, bacteria, viruses) thereby inducing compensatory cell proliferation. Thus, gradually precancerous cells become able to divide more rapidly with greater autonomy. This phase ends when a subclone of cells has acquired the capacity of autonomous proliferation. The third phase is that of progression during which cells proliferate regularly without any stimulation. In one of the cells of one of the precancerous lesions (e.g. polyps) a cell acquires the capacity of invading surrounding tissue or to metastasize. The whole carcinogenic process is very slow, extending over several decades, because the specific mutations seldom occur and the probability of an accumulation of several specific mutations in the same cell or cell lineage is very small. It can be accelerated by intense stimulation of cell proliferation or genetic instability. Ionizing radiations act firstly as a mutagen, however when the dose is high they also kill a significant proportion of cells and by a homeostatic mechanism they induce cell proliferation and clonal amplification. It has been claimed that even the smallest dose of radiation can induce a cancer. This concept is associated with the LNT model and it is not based on scientific evidence. It has fuelled a fear of radiation which had detrimental consequences. Conversely the high efficacy of defense mechanisms against radiocarcinogenesis, particularly when the tissue is not disorganized, can explain the lack of carcinogenic effect of contamination by small doses of radium or thorium which has been observed on radium dial painters or in patients injected with thorotrast. The study of second cancers in patients treated by radiotherapy could provide important information and should be actively pursued with two aims: reduce the incidence of second cancers; to better understand radiocarcinogenesis and the relation between dose and carcinogenic effect. PMID:1

Tubiana, M

2009-07-01

407

Effectiveness of culturally focused and generic skills training approaches to alcohol and drug abuse prevention among minority youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tested the effectiveness of 2 alcohol and drug abuse prevention programs among inner-city minority 7th-grade students (N = 639) from 6 New York City public schools. Schools were randomly assigned to receive (a) a generic skills training preven- tion approach, (b) a culturally focused prevention approach, or (c) an information-only control. Results indicate that students in both prevention

Gilbert J. Botvin; Steven P. Schinke; Jennifer A. Epstein; Tracy Diaz

1994-01-01

408

Effect of different preventive agents on bracket shear bond strength: in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of fluoride and CPP-ACP before bracket bonding on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets have been reported with contradicting results. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different preventive agents namely; casein phosphopeptide-amorphous-calcium-phosphate (CPP-ACP), fluoride-containing-CPP-ACP (CPP-ACPF) and 5% sodium fluoride (5% NaF), on the enamel-bracket shear bond strength (SBS) and to compare their effects when applied before or after acid-etching. Methods Human premolar teeth were randomly divided into seven groups (16 teeth per group) as follows: the control group, where no preventive agent was applied on the enamel and 6 experimental groups. Teeth in groups 1a, 2a, and 3a were treated with CPP-ACP paste, CPP-ACPF paste, and 5% NaF, respectively before acid-etching. Teeth in groups 1b, 2b and 3b were treated using the same preventive agents after acid-etching. The brackets were then bonded and the teeth were thermocycled. The brackets' SBS was measured and the adhesive remnant was assessed using adhesive remnant index (ARI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test were performed to compare the SBS among different groups. Chi-square test was used to evaluate differences in ARI scores between the groups. Results Enamel surface treatment with CPP-ACPF after acid-etching significantly increased SBS compared to the control and to its application before acid-etching (P?preventive agents were applied after acid-etching. Conclusion Brackets' SBS significantly increased when fluoride-containing-CPP-ACP was applied after acid-etching. PMID:24678892

2014-01-01

409

Effects of Genetic Variants Previously Associated with Fasting Glucose and Insulin in the Diabetes Prevention Program  

PubMed Central

Common genetic variants have been recently associated with fasting glucose and insulin levels in white populations. Whether these associations replicate in pre-diabetes is not known. We extended these findings to the Diabetes Prevention Program, a clinical trial in which participants at high risk for diabetes were randomized to placebo, lifestyle modification or metformin for diabetes prevention. We genotyped previously reported polymorphisms (or their proxies) in/near G6PC2, MTNR1B, GCK, DGKB, GCKR, ADCY5, MADD, CRY2, ADRA2A, FADS1, PROX1, SLC2A2, GLIS3, C2CD4B, IGF1, and IRS1 in 3,548 Diabetes Prevention Program participants. We analyzed variants for association with baseline glycemic traits, incident diabetes and their interaction with response to metformin or lifestyle intervention. We replicated associations with fasting glucose at MTNR1B (P<0.001), G6PC2 (P?=?0.002) and GCKR (P?=?0.001). We noted impaired ?-cell function in carriers of glucose-raising alleles at MTNR1B (P<0.001), and an increase in the insulinogenic index for the glucose-raising allele at G6PC2 (P<0.001). The association of MTNR1B with fasting glucose and impaired ?-cell function persisted at 1 year despite adjustment for the baseline trait, indicating a sustained deleterious effect at this locus. We also replicated the association of MADD with fasting proinsulin levels (P<0.001). We detected no significant impact of these variants on diabetes incidence or interaction with preventive interventions. The association of several polymorphisms with quantitative glycemic traits is replicated in a cohort of high-risk persons. These variants do not have a detectable impact on diabetes incidence or response to metformin or lifestyle modification in the Diabetes Prevention Program. PMID:22984506

Florez, Jose C.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; McAteer, Jarred B.; Franks, Paul W.; Mason, Clinton C.; Mather, Kieren; Horton, Edward; Goldberg, Ronald; Dabelea, Dana; Kahn, Steven E.; Arakaki, Richard F.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Knowler, William C.

2012-01-01

410

Effects of genetic variants previously associated with fasting glucose and insulin in the Diabetes Prevention Program.  

PubMed

Common genetic variants have been recently associated with fasting glucose and insulin levels in white populations. Whether these associations replicate in pre-diabetes is not known. We extended these findings to the Diabetes Prevention Program, a clinical trial in which participants at high risk for diabetes were randomized to placebo, lifestyle modification or metformin for diabetes prevention. We genotyped previously reported polymorphisms (or their proxies) in/near G6PC2, MTNR1B, GCK, DGKB, GCKR, ADCY5, MADD, CRY2, ADRA2A, FADS1, PROX1, SLC2A2, GLIS3, C2CD4B, IGF1, and IRS1 in 3,548 Diabetes Prevention Program participants. We analyzed variants for association with baseline glycemic traits, incident diabetes and their interaction with response to metformin or lifestyle intervention. We replicated associations with fasting glucose at MTNR1B (P<0.001), G6PC2 (P = 0.002) and GCKR (P = 0.001). We noted impaired ?-cell function in carriers of glucose-raising alleles at MTNR1B (P<0.001), and an increase in the insulinogenic index for the glucose-raising allele at G6PC2 (P<0.001). The association of MTNR1B with fasting glucose and impaired ?-cell function persisted at 1 year despite adjustment for the baseline trait, indicating a sustained deleterious effect at this locus. We also replicated the association of MADD with fasting proinsulin levels (P<0.001). We detected no significant impact of these variants on diabetes incidence or interaction with preventive interventions. The association of several polymorphisms with quantitative glycemic traits is replicated in a cohort of high-risk persons. These variants do not have a detectable impact on diabetes incidence or response to metformin or lifestyle modification in the Diabetes Prevention Program. PMID:22984506

Florez, Jose C; Jablonski, Kathleen A; McAteer, Jarred B; Franks, Paul W; Mason, Clinton C; Mather, Kieren; Horton, Edward; Goldberg, Ronald; Dabelea, Dana; Kahn, Steven E; Arakaki, Richard F; Shuldiner, Alan R; Knowler, William C

2012-01-01

411

Counterintuitive effect of fall mixed layer deepening on eukaryotic new production in the Sargasso Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sargasso Sea is characterized by a short period of deep vertical mixing in the late winter and early spring, followed by strong thermal stratification during the summer. Stratification persists into the fall, impeding the upward flux of nitrate from depth so that recycled forms of nitrogen (N) such as ammonium are thought to support most primary production. We collected particles from surface waters during March, July, October, and December, used flow cytometry to separate the prokaryotic and eukaryotic phytoplankton, and analyzed their respective 15N/14N. In all months, the 15N/14N of the prokaryotic genera, Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, was low, indicative of reliance on recycled N throughout the year. In July, the 15N/14N of eukaryotic phytoplankton was variable but consistently higher than that of the prokaryotes, reflecting eukaryotic consumption of subsurface nitrate. Two eukaryotic profiles from October and December were similar to those from July. In three other fall profiles, the eukaryotes had a 15N/14N similar to that of the prokaryotes, suggesting a switch toward greater reliance on recycled N. This change in the dominant N source supporting eukaryotic production appears to be driven by the density structure of the upper water column. The very shallow low-density surface "mixed layer" (?20 m) that develops in early-to-mid summer does not contribute to stratification at the base of the euphotic zone, and subsurface nitrate can mix up into the lower euphotic zone, facilitating continued production. The deepening of the mixed layer into the fall, typically taken as an indication of weaker overall stratification, actually strengthens the isolation of the euphotic zone as a whole, reducing the upward supply of nitrate to the photosynthetically active layer. The same counterintuitive dynamic explains the latitudinal patterns in a set of three October depth profiles. Two northern stations (32°N and 27°N) were characterized by a thick, low-density surface layer, and the 15N/14N of all phytoplankton was low, consistent with assimilation of recycled N. The southernmost station (23°N) had a shallower mixed layer, and eukaryote 15N/14N reflects growth on nitrate. In the subtropics, evidence for the direct supply of nitrate into surface waters in the face of the strong upper ocean stratification has long been sought. Our N isotope results suggest a mechanism by which subsurface nitrate is imported into shallow waters. This interpretation offers a new perspective on the relationship between euphotic zone stratification and nitrate assimilation, implying that significant new production occurs under conditions previously assumed to drive oligotrophy.

Fawcett, S. E.; Lomas, M. W.; Ward, B. B.; Sigman, D. M.

2012-12-01

412

Predicting the risk of falling – efficacy of a risk assessment tool compared to nurses' judgement: a cluster-randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN37794278  

PubMed Central

Background Older people living in nursing homes are at high risk of falling because of their general frailty and multiple pathologies. Prediction of falls might lead to an efficient allocation of preventive measures. Although several tools to assess the risk of falling have been developed, their impact on clinically relevant endpoints has never been investigated. The present study will evaluate the clinical efficacy and consequences of different fall risk assessment strategies. Study design Cluster-randomised controlled trial with nursing home clusters randomised either to the use of a standard fall risk assessment tool alongside nurses' clinical judgement or to nurses' clinical judgement alone. Standard care of all clusters will be optimised by structured education on best evidence strategies to prevent falls and fall related injuries. 54 nursing home clusters including 1,080 residents will be recruited. Residents must be ? 70 years, not bedridden, and living in the nursing home for more than three months. The primary endpoint is the number of participants with at least one fall at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures are the number of falls, clinical consequences including side effects of the two risk assessment strategies. Other measures are fall related injuries, hospital admissions and consultations with a physician, and costs. PMID:16285880

Meyer, Gabriele; Köpke, Sascha; Bender, Ralf; Mühlhauser, Ingrid

2005-01-01

413

Scaling up integrated prevention campaigns for global health: costs and cost-effectiveness in 70 countries  

PubMed Central

Objective This study estimated the health impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of an integrated prevention campaign (IPC) focused on diarrhoea, malaria and HIV in 70 countries ranked by per capita disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) burden for the three diseases. Methods We constructed a deterministic cost-effectiveness model portraying an IPC combining counselling and testing, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, referral to treatment and condom distribution for HIV prevention; bed nets for malaria prevention; and provision of household water filters for diarrhoea prevention. We developed a mix of empirical and modelled cost and health impact estimates applied to all 70 countries. One-way, multiway and scenario sensitivity analyses were conducted to document the strength of our findings. We used a healthcare payer's perspective, discounted costs and DALYs at 3% per year and denominated cost in 2012 US dollars. Primary and secondary outcomes The primary outcome was cost-effectiveness expressed as net cost per DALY averted. Other outcomes included cost of the IPC; net IPC costs adjusted for averted and additional medical costs and DALYs averted. Results Implementation of the IPC in the 10 most cost-effective countries at 15% population coverage would cost US$583 million over 3?years (adjusted costs of US$398 million), averting 8.0 million DALYs. Extending IPC programmes to all 70 of the identified high-burden countries at 15% coverage would cost an adjusted US$51.3 billion and avert 78.7 million DALYs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ranged from US$49 per DALY averted for the 10 countries with the most favourable cost-effectiveness to US$119, US$181, US$335, US$1692 and US$8340 per DALY averted as each successive group of 10 countries is added ordered by decreasing cost-effectiveness. Conclusions IPC appears cost-effective in many settings, and has the potential to substantially reduce the burden of disease in resource-poor countries. This study increases confidence that IPC can be an important new approach for enhancing global health. PMID:24969782

Marseille, Elliot; Jiwani, Aliya; Raut, Abhishek; Verguet, Stéphane; Walson, Judd; Kahn, James G

2014-01-01

414

Effectiveness of a substituted ?-cyclodextrin to prevent cyclosarin toxicity in vivo.  

PubMed

Standard treatment of poisoning by organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents with atropine and an oxime has a limited efficacy. An alternative approach is the development of stoichiometric or catalytic (bio-)scavengers which should be able to prevent systemic toxicity. Recently, a ?-cyclodextrin derivative, 6-OxP-CD, bearing a pyridinium oximate in 6-position of one glucose unit was synthetized and shown to possess a promising detoxification potential against a variety of alkyl methylfluorophosphonates in vitro. In order to investigate the suitability of 6-OxP-CD as a small molecule scavenger an in vivo guinea pig model was established to determine the protective effect of 6-OxP-CD against the highly toxic nerve agent cyclosarin. Prophylactic i.v. injection of 6-OxP-CD (100mg/kg) prevented systemic toxicity in cyclosarin (?2LD50) poisoned guinea pigs, preserved brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity but did not protect erythrocyte AChE activity. A lower 6-OxP-CD dose (50mg/kg) reduced systemic toxicity and prevented mortality in all animals. Thus, the results of this proof of concept study indicate that 6-OxP-CD may be considered as a potential small molecule scavenger to protect against the toxic effects of a range of highly toxic OP nerve agents. PMID:24561299

Worek, Franz; Seeger, Thomas; Zengerle, Michael; Kubik, Stefan; Thiermann, Horst; Wille, Timo

2014-04-21

415

Effects of a prevention program for divorced families on youth cortisol reactivity 15 years later.  

PubMed

Objective: We examined whether an empirically based, randomised controlled trial of a preventive intervention for divorced mothers and children had a long-term impact on offspring cortisol regulation. Design: Divorced mothers and children (age 9-12) were randomly assigned to a literature control condition or the 11-week New Beginnings Program, a family-focused group preventive intervention for mothers and children in newly divorced families. Main Outcome Measures: Fifteen years after the trial, offspring salivary cortisol (n = 161) was measured before and after a social stress task. Results: Multilevel mixed models were used to predict cortisol from internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, group assignment and potential moderators of intervention effects. Across the sample, higher externalizing symptoms were associated with lower cortisol reactivity. There was a significant group-by-age interaction such that older offspring in the control group had higher reactivity relative to the intervention group, and younger offspring in the control group exhibited a decline across the task relative to younger offspring in the intervention group. Conclusions: Preventive interventions for youth from divorced families may have a long-term impact on cortisol reactivity to stress. Results highlight the importance of examining moderators of program effects. PMID:25367835

Luecken, Linda J; Hagan, Melissa J; Mahrer, Nicole E; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Sandler, Irwin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun

2014-12-01

416

Prevention effects of Schisandra polysaccharide on radiation-induced immune system dysfunction.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigate the efficacy of SP (Schisandra polysaccharide) in prevention of radiation-induced immune dysfunction and discussed the underlying mechanisms with a Bal/bc mouse model. The data demonstrated that SP could reverse the decreases in the number of white blood cells and lymphocytes in peripheral blood. In addition, the immunoglobulin G (IgG) and complement C3 in blood serum were all decreased after radiation and SP could restore this radiation disorder. Furthermore, SP could reverse the deregulation of CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) T cell subsets in peripheral blood and thymus of mice after radiotherapy. We also performed terminal dexynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) to investigate the apoptosis and underlying mechanisms of SP in thymus. Data showed that radiation-induced apoptosis of thymocytes could be reversed by SP through inducing upregulation of Bcl-2 expression and downregulation of Fas and Bax levels. Furthermore, SP has no any side-effects on immunity of normal mice. In conclusion, our results indicated that SP could effectively prevent immune injury during radiotherapy by protecting the immune system. This valuable information should be of assistance in choosing a rational design for therapeutic interventions of prevention immune system damage in the radiation treatment. PMID:25709011

Zhao, Lian-Mei; Jia, Yun-Long; Ma, Ming; Duan, Yu-Qing; Liu, Li-Hua

2015-05-01

417

Large ozone perturbations caused by the 1908 Tunguska meteor fall - Were there related weather effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnitude of the ozone depletion due to the 1908 Tunguska meteor fall is estimated and observational evidence of such a depletion is presented. Calculated stratospheric ozone and NO(x) perturbations caused by the meteor are shown, with the hemispherically averaged model giving total stratospheric ozone reductions as large as 45 percent in the first year, with significant reductions persisting for at least three more years. Ozone depletion above 10 km altitude is found to be about 85 percent for several months, and higher yet at 20, 30, and 40 km. Data from the early 1900s to calculate the variability of the solar constant is used to calculate the ozone column concentration for 1909-11. The results are in close agreement with the model prediction. Weather records of the early 1900s show a cooling trend in the Northern Hemisphere for almost a decade after Tunguska.

Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Park, C.; Whitten, R. C.; Noerdlinger, P.

1981-01-01

418

Effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff on the water quality of Fall Creek, Indianapolis, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the effects of combined-sewer overflows (CSO's) and urban runoff on the water quality of Fall Creek during summer 1987 by comparing the water quality of base flow with that of storm runoff and by comparing water quality in the urbanized area with that in the less urbanized area upstream from the CSO's. Data were collected at three streamflow-gaging stations located upstream from, downstream from, and in the middle of 27 CSO's on Fall Creek. The most downstream station also was immediately downstream from the discharge of filter backwash from a water-treatment plant for public supply. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen measured at the station in the middle of the CSO's were less than the Indiana minimum ambient water-quality standard of 4.0 mg/L during all storms. Concentra- tions of ammonia, oxygen demand, copper, lead, zinc, and fecal coliform bacteria at the stations down- stream from the CSO's were much larger during runoff than during base flow. Increased concentrations of oxygen demand in storm runoff probably were caused by combined-sewer overflows, urban runoff, and the resuspension of organic material deposited on the streambed. Some of the increased concentrations of lead, zinc, and probably copper can be attributed to the discharge and resuspension of material back- washed from filters at the water-treatment plant.

Martin, J.D.

1995-01-01

419

Comparing the Effectiveness of CDSS on Provider's Behaviors to Implement Obesity Prevention Guidelines.  

PubMed

Obesity is a global epidemic demanding the use of clinical decision support tools to help clinicians in the identification, assessment and management of healthy weight gain in children. Over the last decade, numerous systematic reviews have shown that clinical decision support systems (CDSS) have positively impacted clinician's performance for drug ordering/dosing and preventive care reminders. CDSS that are built into the clinician's workflow at the point of care also have a positive impact on provider's performance. There are limited studies that examine CDSS in nursing practice. This paper describes a comparative effectiveness study being conducted in school-based clinics to examine the impact of web-based training with and without a CDSS that contains tailored recommendations. The study involves the use of a CDSS tool focused on cardiovascular risks, HeartSmartKids™. This research is an important example of an interdisciplinary team using information technology to address the global issue of obesity prevention. PMID:24199124

Skiba, Diane J; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Gilbert, Kevin; Gilbert, Lynn; Dandreaux, Danielle

2012-01-01

420

The effect of food portion sizes on the obesity prevention using system dynamics modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rise in income and population growth have increased the demand for food and induced changes in food habits, food purchasing and consumption patterns in Malaysia. With this transition, one of the plausible causes of weight gain and obesity is the frequent consumption of outside food which is synonymous with bigger portion size. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop a system dynamics model to analyse the effect of reducing food portion size on weight and obesity prevention. This study combines the different strands of knowledge comprise of nutrition, physical activity and body metabolism. These elements are synthesized into a system dynamics model called SIMULObese. Findings from this study suggested that changes in eating behavior should not emphasize only on limiting the food portion size consumption. The efforts should also consider other eating events such as controlling the meal frequency and limiting intake of high-calorie food in developing guidelines to prevent obesity.

Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zulkepli, Jafri Hj; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

2014-09-01

421

Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety Traumatic Brain Injury Injury Response Violence Prevention Data & Statistics (WISQARS) Funded Programs Communications Press Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview On this Page How big is the problem? What outcomes are linked to ...

422

Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Treatment as Prevention in Serodiscordant Couples  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The cost-effectiveness of early antiretroviral therapy (ART) in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in serodiscordant couples is not known. Using a computer simulation of the progression of HIV infection and data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 study, we projected the cost-effectiveness of early ART for such persons. METHODS For HIV-infected partners in serodiscordant couples in South Africa and India, we compared the early initiation of ART with delayed ART. Five-year and lifetime outcomes included cumulative HIV transmissions, life-years, costs, and cost-effectiveness. We classified early ART as very cost-effective if its incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was less than the annual per capita gross domestic product (GDP; $8,100 in South Africa and $1,500 in India), as cost-effective if the ratio was less than three times the GDP, and as cost-saving if it resulted in a decrease in total costs and an increase in life-years, as compared with delayed ART. RESULTS In South Africa, early ART prevented opportunistic diseases and was cost-saving over a 5-year period; over a lifetime, it was very cost-effective ($590 per life-year saved). In India, early ART was cost-effective ($1,800 per life-year saved) over a 5-year period and very cost-effective ($530 per life-year saved) over a lifetime. In both countries, early ART prevented HIV transmission over short periods, but longer survival attenuated this effect; the main driver of life-years saved was a clinical benefit for treated patients. Early ART remained very cost-effective over a lifetime under most modeled assumptions in the two countries. CONCLUSIONS In South Africa, early ART was cost-saving over a 5-year period. In both South Africa and India, early ART was projected to be very cost-effective over a lifetime. With individual, public health, and economic benefits, there is a compelling case for early ART for serodiscordant couples in resource-limited settings. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others.) PMID:24171517

Walensky, Rochelle P.; Ross, Eric L.; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Wood, Robin; Noubary, Farzad; Paltiel, A. David; Nakamura, Yoriko M.; Godbole, Sheela V.; Panchia, Ravindre; Sanne, Ian; Weinstein, Milton C.; Losina, Elena; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Chen, Ying Q.; Wang, Lei; McCauley, Marybeth; Gamble, Theresa; Seage, George R.; Cohen, Myron S.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.

2014-01-01

423

Exercise and DHA Prevent the Negative Effects of Hypoxia on EEG and Nerve Conduction Velocity  

PubMed Central

Abstract Erken, Haydar Ali, Gülten Erken, Ridvan Çolak, Osman Genç. Exercise and DHA prevent the negative effects of hypoxia on EEG and nerve conduction velocity. High Alt Med Biol 14:360–366, 2013.—It is known that hypoxia has a negative effect on nervous system functions, but exercise and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) have positive effect. In this study, it was investigated whether exercise and/or DHA can prevent the effects of hypoxia on EEG and nerve conduction velocity (NCV). 35 adult Wistar albino male rats were divided into five groups (n=7): control (C), hypoxia (H), hypoxia and exercise (HE), hypoxia and DHA (HD), and hypoxia and exercise and DHA (HED) groups. During the 28-day hypoxia exposure, the HE and HED groups of rats were exercised (0% incline, 30?m/min speed, 20?min/day, 5 days a week). In addition, DHA (36?mg/kg/day) was given by oral gavage to rats in the HD and HED groups. While EEG records were taken before and after the experimental period, NCV records were taken after the experimental period from anesthetized rats. Data were analyzed by paired t-test, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey test. In this study, it was shown that exposure to hypoxia decreased theta activity and NCV, but exercise and DHA reduced the delta activity, while theta, alpha, beta activities, and NCV were increased. These results have shown that the effects of hypoxia exposure on EEG and NCV can be prevented by exercise and/or DHA. PMID:24377343

Erken, Gülten; Çolak, R?dvan; Genç, Osman

2013-01-01

424

The promise of long-term effectiveness of school-based smoking prevention programs: a critical review of reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

I provide a review and critique of meta-analyses and systematic reviews of school-based smoking prevention programs that focus on long-term effects. Several of these reviews conclude that the effects of school-based smoking prevention programs are small and find no evidence that they have significant long-term effects. I find that these reviews all have methodological problems limiting their conclusions. These include

Brian R Flay

2009-01-01

425

Cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for American tegumentary leishmaniasis in Argentina.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of reducing tegumentary leishmaniasis transmission using insecticide-impregnated clothing and curtains, and implementing training programs for early diagnosis. A societal perspective was adopted, with outcomes assessed in terms of costs per disability adjusted life years (DALY). Simulation was structured as a Markov model and costs were expressed in American dollars (US$). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of each strategy was calculated. One-way and multivariate sensitivity analyses were performed. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for early diagnosis strategy was estimated at US$ 156.46 per DALY averted, while that of prevention of transmission with insecticide-impregnated curtains and clothing was US$ 13,155.52 per DALY averted. Both strategies were more sensitive to the natural incidence of leishmaniasis, to the effectiveness of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis treatment and to the cost of each strategy. Prevention of vectorial transmission and early diagnosis have proved to be cost-effective measures. PMID:24356692

Orellano, Pablo Wenceslao; Vazquez, Nestor; Salomon, Oscar Daniel

2013-12-01

426

Cost-effectiveness of Recruitment Methods in an Obesity Prevention Trial for Young Children  

PubMed Central

Background Recruitment of participants for clinical trials requires considerable effort and cost. There is no research on the cost-effectiveness of recruitment methods for an obesity prevention trial of young children. Methods This study determined the cost-effectiveness of recruiting 70 families with a child aged 4 to 7 (5.9 ± 1.3) years in Western New York from February, 2003 to November, 2004, for a two year randomized obesity prevention trial to reduce television watching in the home. Results Of the 70 randomized families, 65.7% (n = 46) were obtained through direct mailings, 24.3% (n = 17) were acquired through newspaper advertisements, 7.1 % (n = 5) from other sources (e.g. word of mouth), and 2.9% (n = 2) through posters and brochures. Costs of each recruitment method were computed by adding the cost of materials, staff time, and media expenses. Cost-effectiveness (money spent per randomized participant) was US $0 for other sources, US $227.76 for direct mailing, US $546.95 for newspaper ads, and US $3,020.84 for posters and brochures. Conclusion Of the methods with associated costs, direct mailing was the most cost effective in recruiting families with young children, which supports the growing literature of the effectiveness of direct mailing. PMID:17475318

Robinson, Jodie L.; Fuerch, Janene H.; Winiewicz, Dana D.; Salvy, Sarah J.; Roemmich, James N.; Epstein, Leonard H.

2007-01-01

427

Commentary on Foubert, Godin, & Tatum (2010): The Evolution of Sexual Violence Prevention and the Urgency for Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Foubert, Godin, and Tatum describe qualitative effects among college men of The Men's Program, a one-session sexual violence prevention program. This article and the program it describes are representative of many sexual violence prevention programs that are in practice and provide an opportunity for a brief discussion of the development and…

Tharp, Andra Teten; DeGue, Sarah; Lang, Karen; Valle, Linda Anne; Massetti, Greta; Holt, Melissa; Matjasko, Jennifer

2011-01-01

428

Translating an Effective Group-Based HIV Prevention Program to a Program Delivered Primarily by a Computer: Methods and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe development of SAHARA (SiSTAS Accessing HIV/AIDS Resources At-a-click), an innovative HIV prevention program that uses a computer to deliver an updated version of SiSTA, a widely used, effective group-level HIV prevention intervention for African American women ages 18-29. Fidelity to SiSTA's core components was achieved using: (1)…

Card, Josefina J.; Kuhn, Tamara; Solomon, Julie; Benner, Tabitha A.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

2011-01-01

429

The Effectiveness of Psycho-Educational School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training Program on Turkish Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…

Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem

2013-01-01

430

Psychological effects of a suicide prevention unit on adolescents' levels of stress, anxiety and hopelessness: Implications for counselling psychologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of a senior high school suicide prevention unit on students' levels of stress, anxiety, and hopelessness. An experimental group that received instruction in suicide prevention, and that demonstrated special needs, i.e. low social support, high stress, high anxiety, and\\/or high degrees of hopelessness, was compared with an experimental group that did not demonstrate special needs,

Kathy L. Silbert; Gordon L. Berry

1991-01-01

431

Effects of enteric-coated methylnaltrexone in preventing opioid-induced delay in oral-cecal transit time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Methylnaltrexone is the first peripheral opioid receptor antagonist. It has the potential to prevent or reverse the peripherally mediated gastrointestinal effects of opioids. In previous human volunteer trials, we demonstrated that oral uncoated methylnaltrexone prevented morphine-induced delay in gastrointestinal transit time.Methods: This trial consisted of two studies: a pilot study and a controlled study. The lactulose hydrogen breath test

Chun-Su Yuan; Joseph F. Foss; Michael O'Connor; Theodore Karrison; Joachim Osinski; Michael F. Roizen; Jonathan Moss

2000-01-01

432

Effectiveness of the Surviving the Teens® Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program: An Impact Evaluation Utilizing a Comparison Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth suicide is a serious public health issue in the United States. It is currently the third leading cause of death for youth aged 10 to 19. School-based prevention programs may be an effective method of educating youth and enhancing their help-seeking. Most school-based suicide prevention programs have not been rigorously evaluated for their…

Strunk, Catherine M.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Sorter, Michael T.

2014-01-01

433

The Short-Term Effectiveness of a Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Training Program in a College Setting with Residence Life Advisers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the college years prove to be a vulnerable time for students and a critical period for suicide prevention, few school-based prevention strategies have been empirically evaluated. The current study examined the short-term effects of Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR), a gatekeeper training program that teaches how to recognize warning…

Tompkins, Tanya L.; Witt, Jody

2009-01-01

434

PLCO News, Fall/Winter 1998  

Cancer.gov

PLCO News, Fall/Winter 1998 Volume 1, Number 2 ----- Fall/Winter 1998 TABLE OF CONTENTS Notes from theNCI's PLCO Project Office Meet John GohaganMeet Phil Prorok From Lab to Life Possible prostate cancer prevention with vitamin E and selenium

435

Seniors May Keep Falls a Secret  

MedlinePLUS

... to identify cause of fall and help to prevent another (*this news item will not be available after 04/27/2015) By Robert Preidt Tuesday, January 27, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Falls Seniors' Health TUESDAY, Jan. 27, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Many seniors ...

436

Effectiveness of the WC/rBS oral cholera vaccine in the prevention of traveler's diarrhea  

PubMed Central

Objective: Traveler’s diarrhea (TD) is the most frequent disease among people from industrialized countries who travel to less developed ones, especially sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Asia and South America. The most common bacteria causing TD is enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). The WC/rBS cholera vaccine (Dukoral®) has been shown to induce cross-protection against ETEC by means of the B subunit of the cholera toxin. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the WC/rBS cholera vaccine in preventing TD. Methods: Between May 1 and September 30 (2007), people seeking pre-travel advice in ten Spanish international vaccination centers were included in a prospective cohort study of travelers to cholera risk countries. The incidence rates of TD were adjusted for variables whose frequencies were statistically different (entry point 0.10) between the vaccinated and non-vaccinated cohorts. Findings: The vaccinated cohort (n = 544 travelers) included people vaccinated with the WC/rBS cholera vaccine, and the non-vaccinated cohort (n = 530 travelers) by people not vaccinated. The cumulative incidence rate of TD was 1.69 in vaccinated and 2.14 in non-vaccinated subjects. The adjusted relative risk of TD in vaccinated travelers was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.58–0.88) and the adjusted vaccination effectiveness was 28% (95% CI: 12–42). Conclusions: The WC/rBS cholera vaccine prevents TD in 2 out of 7 travelers (preventive fraction: 28%). The number needed to vaccinate (NNV) to prevent 1 case of TD is 10. PMID:23324573

López-Gigosos, Rosa; Campins, Magda; Calvo, María J.; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Salleras, Luis; Azuara, María T.; Martínez, Xavier; Bayas, José M.; Ramón Torrell, Josep M.; Pérez-Cobaleda, María A.; Núñez-Torrón, María E.; Gorgojo, Lydia; García-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Díez-Díaz, Rosa; Armadans, Luis; Sánchez-Fernández, Concepción; Mejías, Teresa; Masuet, Cristina; Pinilla, Rafael; Antón, Nieves; Segarra, Pilar

2013-01-01

437

TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention Past Issues / Fall ... lucky in my ongoing recovery from the traumatic brain injury I suffered in Iraq." —Bob Woodruff Treatment Immediate ...

438

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Problem-Solving Intervention Addressing Barriers to Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Behaviors in 3 Underserved Populations: Colorado, North Carolina, West Virginia, 2009  

PubMed Central

Introduction In low-income and underserved populations, financial hardship and multiple competing roles and responsibilities lead to difficulties in lifestyle change for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. To improve CVD prevention behaviors, we adapted, pilot-tested, and evaluated a problem-solving intervention designed to address barriers to lifestyle change. Methods The sample consisted of 81 participants from 3 underserved populations, including 28 Hispanic or non-Hispanic white women in a western community (site 1), 31 African-American women in a semirural southern community (site 2), and 22 adults in an Appalachian community (site 3). Incorporating focus group findings, we assessed a standardized intervention involving 6-to-8 week group sessions devoted to problem-solving in the fall of 2009. Results Most sessions were attended by 76.5% of participants, demonstrating participant adoption and engagement. The intervention resulted in significant improvement in problem-solving skills (P < .001) and perceived stress (P < .05). Diet, physical activity, and weight remained stable, although 72% of individuals reported maintenance or increase in daily fruit and vegetable intake, and 67% reported maintenance or increase in daily physical activity. Conclusion Study results suggest the intervention was acceptable to rural, underserved populations and effective in training them in problem-solving skills and stress management for CVD risk reduction. PMID:24602586

Bryant, Lucinda L.; Leary, Janie M.; Vu, Maihan B.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D.; McMilin, Colleen R.; Keyserling, Thomas C.

2014-01-01

439

Comparative effectiveness of long term drug treatment strategies to prevent asthma exacerbations: network meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the comparative effectiveness and safety of current maintenance strategies in preventing exacerbations of asthma. Design Systematic review and network meta-analysis using Bayesian statistics. Data sources Cochrane systematic reviews on chronic asthma, complemented by an updated search when appropriate. Eligibility criteria Trials of adults with asthma randomised to maintenance treatments of at least 24 weeks duration and that reported on asthma exacerbations in full text. Low dose inhaled corticosteroid treatment was the comparator strategy. The primary effectiveness outcome was the rate of severe exacerbations. The secondary outcome was the composite of moderate or severe exacerbations. The rate of withdrawal was analysed as a safety outcome. Results 64 trials with 59?622 patient years of follow-up comparing 15 strategies and placebo were included. For prevention of severe exacerbations, combined inhaled corticosteroids and long acting ? agonists as maintenance and reliever treatment and combined inhaled corticosteroids and long acting ? agonists in a fixed daily dose performed equally well and were ranked first for effectiveness. The rate ratios compared with low dose inhaled corticosteroids were 0.44 (95% credible interval 0.29 to 0.66) and 0.51 (0.35 to 0.77), respectively. Other combined strategies were not superior to inhaled corticosteroids and all single drug treatments were inferior to single low dose inhaled corticosteroids. Safety was best for conventional best (guideline based) practice and combined maintenance and reliever therapy. Conclusions Strategies with combined inhaled corticosteroids and long acting ? agonists are most effective and safe in preventing severe exacerbations of asthma, although some heterogeneity was observed in this network meta-analysis of full text reports. PMID:24919052

2014-01-01

440

Antiinflammatory Effect of Phytosterols in Experimental Murine Colitis Model: Prevention, Induction, Remission Study  

PubMed Central

Phytosterols, besides hypocholesterolemic effect, present anti-inflammatory properties. Little information is available about their efficacy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Therefore, we have evaluated the effect of a mixture of phytosterols on prevention/induction/remission in a murine experimental model of colitis. Phytosterols were administered x os before, during and after colitis induction with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) in mice. Disease Activity Index (DAI), colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress in the intestinal tissue (ileum and colon) and gallbladder ileum and colon spontaneous and carbachol (CCh) induced motility, plasma lipids and plasma, liver and biliary bile acids (BA) were evaluated. A similar longitudinal study was performed in a DSS colitis control group. Mice treated with DSS developed severe colitis as shown by DAI, colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress. Both spontaneous and induced ileal and colonic motility were severely disturbed. The same was observed with gallbladder. DSS colitis resulted in an increase in plasma cholesterol, and a modification of the BA pattern. Phytosterols feeding did not prevent colitis onset but significantly reduced the severity of the disease and improved clinical and histological remission. It had strong antioxidant effects, almost restored colon, ileal and gallbladder motility. Plasmatic levels of cholesterol were also reduced. DSS induced a modification in the BA pattern consistent with an increase in the intestinal BA deconjugating bacteria, prevented by phytosterols. Phytosterols seem a potential nutraceutical tool for gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases, combining metabolic systematic and local anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25268769

Aldini, Rita; Micucci, Matteo; Cevenini, Monica; Fato, Romana; Bergamini, Christian; Nanni, Cristina; Cont, Massimiliano; Camborata, Cecilia; Spinozzi, Silvia; Montagnani, Marco; Roda, Giulia; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Rosini, Francesca; Roda, Aldo; Mazzella, Giuseppe; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta

2014-01-01

441

Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato) Prevents Adverse Effects of Lead on Blood Constituents  

PubMed Central

Background: Lead is known for its adverse effects on various organs and systems. In this study, the ability of lead to adversely affect blood parameters was investigated, and Lycopersicon esculentum, or commonly known as tomato (a source of antioxidants), was administered orally in the form of tomato paste (TP) to reduce the adverse effects of lead. Methods: The study involved 56 Wistar rats divided equally into 4 groups of 14 rats each: Control, LAG, TPG, and LA+TPG. Control and TPG rats were given distilled water ad libitum, while LAG and LA+TPG rats were given 1% lead (II) acetate (LA) per day. TPG and LA+TPG rats were additionally treated with 1.5 ml of TP per day. All treatments lasted for 10 weeks, after which the rats were weighed and sacrificed, and haematological and biochemical parameters were measured. The independent samples t test was used to analyse the results. Results: Lead caused significant reductions in the following parameters: weight; packed cell volume; red blood cell and white blood cell counts; the percentages o