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1

Preventing Falls  

MedlinePLUS

... there are simple ways you can prevent most falls. Stay physically active. Regular exercise makes you stronger. ... that may result from falling. Here are some fall prevention tips from Go4Life : l Have your eyes ...

2

Falls and consequent injuries in hospitalized patients: effects of an interdisciplinary falls prevention program  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Patient falls in hospitals are common and may lead to negative outcomes such as injuries, prolonged hospitalization and legal liability. Consequently, various hospital falls prevention programs have been implemented in the last decades. However, most of the programs had no sustained effects on falls reduction over extended periods of time. METHODS: This study used a serial survey design to

René Schwendimann; Hugo Bühler; Sabina De Geest; Koen Milisen

2006-01-01

3

Preventing falls  

MedlinePLUS

... or keep your balance are a common cause of falls. Balance problems can also cause falls. When you walk, avoid sudden movements or changes in your position. Wear shoes with low heels that fit well. Rubber soles will help keep you from slipping. Stay away ...

4

The effectiveness of a multidisciplinary QI activity for accidental fall prevention: Staff compliance is critical  

PubMed Central

Background Accidental falls among inpatients are a substantial cause of hospital injury. A number of successful experimental studies on fall prevention have shown the importance and efficacy of multifactorial intervention, though success rates vary. However, the importance of staff compliance with these effective, but often time-consuming, multifactorial interventions has not been fully investigated in a routine clinical setting. The purpose of this observational study was to describe the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary quality improvement (QI) activity for accidental fall prevention, with particular focus on staff compliance in a non-experimental clinical setting. Methods This observational study was conducted from July 2004 through December 2010 at St. Luke’s International Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The QI activity for in-patient falls prevention consisted of: 1) the fall risk assessment tool, 2) an intervention protocol to prevent in-patient falls, 3) specific environmental safety interventions, 4) staff education, and 5) multidisciplinary healthcare staff compliance monitoring and feedback mechanisms. Results The overall fall rate was 2.13 falls per 1000 patient days (350/164331) in 2004 versus 1.53 falls per 1000 patient days (263/172325) in 2010, representing a significant decrease (p?=?0.039). In the first 6?months, compliance with use of the falling risk assessment tool at admission was 91.5% in 2007 (3998/4368), increasing to 97.6% in 2010 (10564/10828). The staff compliance rate of implementing an appropriate intervention plan was 85.9% in 2007, increasing to 95.3% in 2010. Conclusion In our study we observed a substantial decrease in patient fall rates and an increase of staff compliance with a newly implemented falls prevention program. A systematized QI approach that closely involves, encourages, and educates healthcare staff at multiple levels is effective. PMID:22788785

2012-01-01

5

Symmetrical body-weight distribution training in stroke patients and its effect on fall prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cheng P-T, Wu S-H, Liaw M-Y, Wong AMK, Tang F-T. Symmetrical body-weight distribution training in stroke patients and its effect on fall prevention. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1650-4. Objective: To determine the role of symmetrical body-weight distribution training in preventing falls among patients with hemiplegic stroke. Design: A prospective study using a standing biofeedback trainer. Setting: Hospital-based rehabilitation units. Patients:

Pao-Tsai Cheng; Shu-Hsia Wu; Mei-Yun Liaw; Alice M. K. Wong; Fuk-Tan Tang

2001-01-01

6

Preventing falls with vitamin D.  

PubMed

Falls are the number one cause for injury-related morbidity and mortality in West Virginia's seniors. Multiple independent variables contribute to the risk of a fall: previous falls, alterations in balance and vision, impairments in gait and strength, and medications most highly correlate with the risk for a fall. Vitamin D supplementation is emerging as an easy, safe and well-tolerated fall reduction/prevention strategy due to the beneficial effects on the musculoskeletal system with improvements in strength, function and navigational abilities. From meta-analysis data, maximal fall reduction benefit in seniors is achieved when correcting vitamin D deficiency and when using adjunctive calcium supplementation. It is therefore recommended that practitioners in our state screen for fall risks and consider the addition of supplementation protocols that provide sufficient vitamin D and calcium to our seniors. PMID:24984399

Shuler, Franklin D; Schlierf, Thomas; Wingate, Matthew

2014-01-01

7

Effective fall-prevention demands a community approach.  

PubMed

Given the rapid aging of the population, we can expect the number of older adult falls and fall-related injuries and deaths to increase exponentially unless we make a serious commitment to providing evidence-based, fall risk screening and assessments, and appropriate interventions to those increasingly at risk. National, state, and local partners are coming together to address this growing public health issue through evidence-based interventions that promote collaboration between public health, health care, and aging service providers. Physical therapists are uniquely positioned to make a significant contribution to this effort and to promote older adult participation in programs and services that can augment or supplement the plan of treatment. The purpose of this special interest paper is to describe the efforts of the National Council on Aging's Falls Free Initiative and the role that physical therapists and other rehabilitation professionals can play in community-based programs aimed at reducing risk and occurrence of falls in later life. PMID:23478394

Beattie, Bonita Lynn

2014-01-01

8

Effects of a Community-based Fall Prevention Exercise Program on Activity Participation.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to identify the effects of a fall-prevention exercise program on the participation and static balance of elderly persons in daily life roles. [Subjects] Ten participants over 65?years of age (75.29±2.93) who were healthy community-dwellers (two men and eight women) were recruited. [Methods] The participants exercised three times a week for eight weeks. The exercise program was based on the fitness and mobility exercise (FAME) protocol. The outcome measures were changes in activity participation level and the fall index. [Results] After the exercise, the activity participation level significantly increased, and the fall index significantly decreased. [Conclusion] A fall prevention exercise program can have a positive effect on participation and static balance in older adults. PMID:24926125

Kim, Won-Jin; Chang, Moonyoung; An, Duk-Hyun

2014-05-01

9

Preventative effect of exercise against falls in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The present study was conducted to determine the effect of 5-month exercise program on the prevention of falls in the elderly.\\u000a The exercise training, which consisted of calisthenics, body balance training, muscle power training, and walking ability\\u000a training 3 days\\/week improved the indices of the flexibility, body balance, muscle power, and walking ability and reduced\\u000a the incidence of falls compared with

J. Iwamoto; H. Suzuki; K. Tanaka; T. Kumakubo; H. Hirabayashi; Y. Miyazaki; Y. Sato; T. Takeda; H. Matsumoto

2009-01-01

10

Fall prevention in the elderly.  

PubMed

Falls are frequent in the elderly and affect mortality, morbidity, loss of functional capacity and institutionalization. In the older patient the incidence of falls can sometimes be underestimated, even in the absence of a clear cognitive impairment, because it is often difficult to reconstruct the dynamics. It is quite common that forms due to syncope are associated with retrograde amnesia and in 40 to 60% of the cases falls happen in the absence of witnesses. The pathogenesis of falls is often multifactorial, due to physiological age-related changes or more properly pathological factors, or due to the environment. The identification of risk factors is essential in the planning of preventive measures. Syncope is one of major causes of falls. About 20% of cardiovascular syncope in patients older than 70 appears as a fall and more than 20% of older people with Carotid Sinus Syndrome complain of falls as well as syncope. These data clearly state that older patients with history of falls should undergo a cardiovascular and neuroautonomic assessment besides the survey of other risk factors. Multifactorial assessment requires a synergy of various specialists. The geriatrician coordinates the multidisciplinary intervention in order to make the most effective evaluation of the risk of falling, searching for all predisposing factors, aiming towards a program of prevention. In clear pathological conditions it is possible to enact a specific treatment. Particular attention must indeed be paid to the re-evaluation of drug therapy, with dose adjustments or withdrawal especially for antihypertensive, diuretics and benzodiazepines. The Guidelines of the American Geriatrics Society recommend modification of environmental hazards, training paths, hip protectors and appropriate use of support tools (sticks, walkers), which can be effective elements of a multifactorial intervention program. Balance exercises are also recommended. In conclusion, an initial assessment, supported by a comprehensive cardiovascular and neuroautonomic evaluation, allows for reaching a final diagnosis in most cases, demonstrating a key role in the real identification of the etiology of the fall and implementing the treatment measures. PMID:24133524

Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Iacomelli, Iacopo; Brunetti, Maria Angela; Ceccofiglio, Alice; Tesi, Francesca; Marchionni, Niccolò

2013-05-01

11

Effects of a randomized controlled recurrent fall prevention program on risk factors for falls in frail elderly living at home in rural communities.  

PubMed

Background Falling can lead to severe health issues in the elderly and importantly contributes to morbidity, death, immobility, hospitalization, and early entry to long-term care facilities. The aim of this study was to devise a recurrent fall prevention program for elderly women in rural areas. Material and Methods This study adopted an assessor-blinded, randomized, controlled trial methodology. Subjects were enrolled in a 12-week recurrent fall prevention program, which comprised strength training, balance training, and patient education. Muscle strength and endurance of the ankles and the lower extremities, static balance, dynamic balance, depression, compliance with preventive behavior related to falls, fear of falling, and fall self-efficacy at baseline and immediately after the program were assessed. Sixty-two subjects (mean age 69.2±4.3 years old) completed the program - 31 subjects in the experimental group and 31 subjects in the control group. Results When the results of the program in the 2 groups were compared, significant differences were found in ankle heel rise test, lower extremity heel rise test, dynamic balance, depression, compliance with fall preventative behavior, fear of falling, and fall self-efficacy (p<0.05), but no significant difference was found in static balance. Conclusions This study shows that the fall prevention program described effectively improves muscle strength and endurance, balance, and psychological aspects in elderly women with a fall history. PMID:25394805

Jeon, Mi Yang; Jeong, HyeonCheol; Lee, Haneul; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Yim, JongEun

2014-01-01

12

Effects of a Randomized Controlled Recurrent Fall Prevention Program on Risk Factors for Falls in Frail Elderly Living at Home in Rural Communities  

PubMed Central

Background Falling can lead to severe health issues in the elderly and importantly contributes to morbidity, death, immobility, hospitalization, and early entry to long-term care facilities. The aim of this study was to devise a recurrent fall prevention program for elderly women in rural areas. Material/Methods This study adopted an assessor-blinded, randomized, controlled trial methodology. Subjects were enrolled in a 12-week recurrent fall prevention program, which comprised strength training, balance training, and patient education. Muscle strength and endurance of the ankles and the lower extremities, static balance, dynamic balance, depression, compliance with preventive behavior related to falls, fear of falling, and fall self-efficacy at baseline and immediately after the program were assessed. Sixty-two subjects (mean age 69.2±4.3 years old) completed the program – 31 subjects in the experimental group and 31 subjects in the control group. Results When the results of the program in the 2 groups were compared, significant differences were found in ankle heel rise test, lower extremity heel rise test, dynamic balance, depression, compliance with fall preventative behavior, fear of falling, and fall self-efficacy (p<0.05), but no significant difference was found in static balance. Conclusions This study shows that the fall prevention program described effectively improves muscle strength and endurance, balance, and psychological aspects in elderly women with a fall history. PMID:25394805

Jeon, Mi Yang; Jeong, HyeonCheol; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Lee, Haneul; Yim, JongEun

2014-01-01

13

The effect of fall prevention exercise programmes on fall induced injuries in community dwelling older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether, and to what extent, fall prevention exercise interventions for older community dwelling people are effective in preventing different types of fall related injuries. Data sources Electronic databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, and CINAHL) and reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews from inception to July 2013. Study selection Randomised controlled trials of fall prevention exercise interventions, targeting older (>60 years) community dwelling people and providing quantitative data on injurious falls, serious falls, or fall related fractures. Data synthesis Based on a systematic review of the case definitions used in the selected studies, we grouped the definitions of injurious falls into more homogeneous categories to allow comparisons of results across studies and the pooling of data. For each study we extracted or calculated the rate ratio of injurious falls. Depending on the available data, a given study could contribute data relevant to one or more categories of injurious falls. A pooled rate ratio was estimated for each category of injurious falls based on random effects models. Results 17 trials involving 4305 participants were eligible for meta-analysis. Four categories of falls were identified: all injurious falls, falls resulting in medical care, severe injurious falls, and falls resulting in fractures. Exercise had a significant effect in all categories, with pooled estimates of the rate ratios of 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.77, 10 trials) for all injurious falls, 0.70 (0.54 to 0.92, 8 trials) for falls resulting in medical care, 0.57 (0.36 to 0.90, 7 trials) for severe injurious falls, and 0.39 (0.22 to 0.66, 6 trials) for falls resulting in fractures, but significant heterogeneity was observed between studies of all injurious falls (I2=50%, P=0.04). Conclusions Exercise programmes designed to prevent falls in older adults also seem to prevent injuries caused by falls, including the most severe ones. Such programmes also reduce the rate of falls leading to medical care. PMID:24169944

2013-01-01

14

Effects of visual biofeedback training for fall prevention in the elderly.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of six weeks of visual biofeedback training for prevention of falling in the elderly. The Tetrax system was used for visual biofeedback training. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty elderly persons (experimental group=15, control group=15) who were above 70 and under 80?years of age participated in biofeedback training. They were trained for 15 minutes a day, three times per week. We measured the weight distribution index, stability index, and fall index in the subjects using the Tetrax system, and paired t-tests were used to evaluate the changes before and after intervention. The difference between the groups was compared using an independent t-test. [Results] The experimental group showed significant differences in weight distribution index, stability index, and fall index. The control group showed no significant differences. According to the comparison of training effects between the two groups, the variables of stability index and fall index revealed a statistically significant difference. [Conclusion] The method of visual biofeedback training used in this study should be considered a therapeutic method for the elderly to improve weight distribution, stability, and effectiveness in preventing falls. PMID:24396196

Kang, Kwon-Young

2013-11-01

15

Effects of Visual Biofeedback Training for Fall Prevention in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of six weeks of visual biofeedback training for prevention of falling in the elderly. The Tetrax system was used for visual biofeedback training. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty elderly persons (experimental group=15, control group=15) who were above 70 and under 80?years of age participated in biofeedback training. They were trained for 15 minutes a day, three times per week. We measured the weight distribution index, stability index, and fall index in the subjects using the Tetrax system, and paired t-tests were used to evaluate the changes before and after intervention. The difference between the groups was compared using an independent t-test. [Results] The experimental group showed significant differences in weight distribution index, stability index, and fall index. The control group showed no significant differences. According to the comparison of training effects between the two groups, the variables of stability index and fall index revealed a statistically significant difference. [Conclusion] The method of visual biofeedback training used in this study should be considered a therapeutic method for the elderly to improve weight distribution, stability, and effectiveness in preventing falls. PMID:24396196

Kang, Kwon-Young

2013-01-01

16

Lack of effect of Tai Chi Chuan in preventing falls in elderly people living at home: a randomized clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of Tai Chi Chuan in fall prevention in elderly people living at home with a high risk of falling. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Two industrial towns in the western part of the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred sixty-nine elderly people (average age 77) living at home with a high risk of falling. INTERVENTIONS: The intervention

Inge H. J. Logghe; Petra E. M. Zeeuwe; Arianne P. Verhagen; Ria M. T. Wijnen-Sponselee; Sten P. Willemsen; Sita M. A. Bierma-Zeinstra; Erik van Rossum; Marjan J. Faber; B. W. Faber

2009-01-01

17

Fall prevention in the elderly  

PubMed Central

Summary Falls are frequent in the elderly and affect mortality, morbidity, loss of functional capacity and institutionalization. In the older patient the incidence of falls can sometimes be underestimated, even in the absence of a clear cognitive impairment, because it is often difficult to reconstruct the dynamics. It is quite common that forms due to syncope are associated with retrograde amnesia and in 40 to 60% of the cases falls happen in the absence of witnesses. The pathogenesis of falls is often multifactorial, due to physiological age-related changes or more properly pathological factors, or due to the environment. The identification of risk factors is essential in the planning of preventive measures. Syncope is one of major causes of falls. About 20% of cardiovascular syncope in patients older than 70 appears as a fall and more than 20% of older people with Carotid Sinus Syndrome complain of falls as well as syncope. These data clearly state that older patients with history of falls should undergo a cardiovascular and neuroautonomic assessment besides the survey of other risk factors. Multifactorial assessment requires a synergy of various specialists. The geriatrician coordinates the multidisciplinary intervention in order to make the most effective evaluation of the risk of falling, searching for all predisposing factors, aiming towards a program of prevention. In clear pathological conditions it is possible to enact a specific treatment. Particular attention must indeed be paid to the re-evaluation of drug therapy, with dose adjustments or withdrawal especially for antihypertensive, diuretics and benzodiazepines. The Guidelines of the American Geriatrics Society recommend modification of environmental hazards, training paths, hip protectors and appropriate use of support tools (sticks, walkers), which can be effective elements of a multifactorial intervention program. Balance exercises are also recommended. In conclusion, an initial assessment, supported by a comprehensive cardiovascular and neuroautonomic evaluation, allows for reaching a final diagnosis in most cases, demonstrating a key role in the real identification of the etiology of the fall and implementing the treatment measures. PMID:24133524

Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Iacomelli, Iacopo; Brunetti, Maria Angela; Ceccofiglio, Alice; Tesi, Francesca; Marchionni, Niccolo

2013-01-01

18

Effect of Group Versus Home Visit Safety Education and Prevention Strategies for Falling in Community-Dwelling Elderly Persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research study explored the effectiveness of group versus home education in teaching fall prevention to community-dwelling elderly. Twelve elderly volunteered to participate. Group 1 received an inservice instructing them in prevention strategies. Group 2 received individual home visits for the same purpose. All subjects received follow-up home visits to assess modifications and fall occurrence. Statistical analysis showed no significant

Natalia Abreu; Jennifer Hutchins; John Matson; Nicole Polizzi; Connie J. Seymour

1998-01-01

19

Preventing Construction Falls  

MedlinePLUS

... I worked construction for 10 years before my fall. It shattered my body and my livelihood. Work safely. Use the right equipment. Safety Pays. Falls Cost. www.osha.gov/stopfalls/ disconnect from the ...

20

Fall prevention conceptual framework.  

PubMed

Falls can have lasting psychological and physical consequences, particularly fractures and slow-healing processes, and patients may also lose confidence in walking. Injuries from falls lead to functional decline, institutionalization, higher health care costs, and decreased quality of life. The process related to the problem of patient falls in the hospital, using the nursing model developed by the theorist, Ida Jean Orlando, is explained in this article. The useful tool that provides guidance to marketers in this endeavor is Maslow's hierarchy of needs. During acute illness, individuals are greatly in need of satisfying their physiological needs. If these needs are not met, patients leave the hospital lacking a positive experience. Initial fall risk assessment is critical to plan intervention and individualize care plan. Interventions depend on the severity of fall risk factors. PMID:21537141

Abraham, Sam

2011-01-01

21

Fall prevention and vitamin D in the elderly: an overview of the key role of the non-bone effects  

PubMed Central

Preventing falls and fall-related fractures in the elderly is an objective yet to be reached. There is increasing evidence that a supplementation of vitamin D and/or of calcium may reduce the fall and fracture rates. A vitamin D-calcium supplement appears to have a high potential due to its simple application and its low cost. However, published studies have shown conflicting results as some studies failed to show any effect, while others reported a significant decrease of falls and fractures. Through a 15-year literature overview, and after a brief reminder on mechanism of falls in older adults, we reported evidences for a vitamin D action on postural adaptations - i.e., muscles and central nervous system - which may explain the decreased fall and bone fracture rates and we underlined the reasons for differences and controversies between published data. Vitamin D supplementation should thus be integrated into primary and secondary fall prevention strategies in older adults. PMID:20937091

2010-01-01

22

Effects of an Intervention to Increase Bed Alarm Use to Prevent Falls in Hospitalized Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Bed alarm systems intended to prevent hospital falls have not been formally evaluated. Objective To investigate whether an intervention aimed at increasing bed alarm use decreases hospital falls and related events. Design Pair-matched, cluster randomized trial over 18 months. Nursing units were allocated by computer-generated randomization on the basis of baseline fall rates. Patients and outcome assessors were blinded to unit assignment; outcome assessors may have become unblinded. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00183053) Setting 16 nursing units in an urban community hospital. Patients 27 672 inpatients in general medical, surgical, and specialty units. Intervention Education, training, and technical support to promote use of a standard bed alarm system (intervention units); bed alarms available but not formally promoted or supported (control units). Measurements Pre–post difference in change in falls per 1000 patient-days (primary end point); number of patients who fell, fall-related injuries, and number of patients restrained (secondary end points). Results Prevalence of alarm use was 64.41 days per 1000 patient-days on intervention units and 1.79 days per 1000 patient-days on control units (P = 0.004). There was no difference in change in fall rates per 1000 patient-days (risk ratio, 1.09 [95% CI, 0.85 to 1.53]; difference, 0.41 [CI, ?1.05 to 2.47], which corresponds to a greater difference in falls in control vs. intervention units) or in the number of patients who fell, injurious fall rates, or the number of patients physically restrained on intervention units compared with control units. Limitation The study was conducted at a single site and was slightly underpowered compared with the initial design. Conclusion An intervention designed to increase bed alarm use in an urban hospital increased alarm use but had no statistically or clinically significant effect on fall-related events or physical restraint use. Primary Funding Source National Institute on Aging. PMID:23165660

Shorr, Ronald I.; Chandler, A. Michelle; Mion, Lorraine C.; Waters, Teresa M.; Liu, Minzhao; Daniels, Michael J.; Kessler, Lori A.; Miller, Stephen T.

2013-01-01

23

Effectiveness of muscle strengthening and description of protocols for preventing falls in the elderly: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Falls are a geriatric syndrome that is considered a significant public health problem in terms of morbidity and mortality because they lead to a decline in functional capacity and an impaired quality of life in the elderly. Lower limb muscle strengthening seems to be an effective intervention for preventing falls; however, there is no consensus regarding the best method for increasing lower limb muscle strength. Objectives To analyze the effectiveness of lower limb muscle strengthening and to investigate and describe the protocols used for preventing falls in elderly subjects. Method We performed a systematic review of randomized and controlled clinical trials published between 2002 and 2012 in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and PEDro that cited some type of lower limb muscle strengthening protocol and that evaluated the incidence of falls as the primary outcome exclusively in elderly subjects. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Qualitative analysis was performed by independent reviewers applying the PEDro scale. Results The data obtained from the selected studies showed lower fall rates in the intervention groups compared to controls. Six studies described the lower limb muscle strengthening protocol in detail. High methodological quality was found in 6 studies (PEDro score ?7/10 points). Conclusions The methodological quality of the studies in this area appears to leave little doubt regarding the effectiveness of lower limb strengthening exercises for preventing falls in elderly subjects, however the interventions in these studies were poorly reported. PMID:24760166

Ishigaki, Erika Y.; Ramos, Lidiane G.; Carvalho, Elisa S.; Lunardi, Adriana C.

2014-01-01

24

Prevention of falls in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of these symposium presentations was to examine the role of physical activity as a means of preventing hip fractures through the prevention of falls. Risk factor identification is necessary to develop preventive strategies. Risk factors related to physical activity and other risk factors for falls were identified. Intervention studies aimed at reducing, preventing or delaying falls were identified

A. H. Myers; Y. Young; J. A. Langlois

1996-01-01

25

A care bundle approach to falls prevention.  

PubMed

Falls cause harm and distress to NHS inpatients every year. One hospital's implementation of a regional FallSafe project has increased the use of evidence-based measures to prevent falls. The project relied on a network of falls champions, who were nurses or healthcare assistants who taught and inspired their colleagues to implement care bundles. PMID:24915673

Sutton, Debbie; Windsor, Julie; Husk, Janet

26

Is Tai Chi Chuan effective in improving lower limb response time to prevent backward falls in the elderly?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the training effect of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) in postural control and backward fall prevention in the elderly, balance\\u000a assessment and visually guided lower limb response time were analyzed in a case-control study conducted in a community setting.\\u000a Thirty-one elderly subjects (mean age: 68.2?±?6.8 years) participated in the TCC group, 30 community-dwelling elderly subjects\\u000a with matched age and body

Alice M. K. Wong; Yu-Cheng Pei; Ching Lan; Shu-Chun Huang; Yin-Chou Lin; Shih-Wei Chou

2009-01-01

27

Review of Tai Chi as an Effective Exercise on Falls Prevention in Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk of accidental falls and fall-related injuries increases with age. Regular physical exercises can delay the age-related changes affecting postural balance and reduce the risk of falls. Although Tai Chi (TC) has become a popular exercise among the elderly, does regular TC exercise lead to fewer falls and fall-related injuries? Who would receive the most benefit from TC exercise?

Molly M. Schleicher; Lauren Wedam; Ge Wu

2012-01-01

28

Preventing falls among older adults: No \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical activity (exercise) serves primary, second- ary, and tertiary roles in the prevention of falls among older adults. In its primary role, physical activity can prevent the onset of pathology and system impairments that lead to disabil- ity and increased risk for falls. Slowing the progression of dis- ease and system impairments is its secondary role, while its tertiary role

Debra J. Rose

2008-01-01

29

Preventing falls and fall-related injuries in hospitals.  

PubMed

Falls are a widespread concern in hospitals settings, with whole hospital rates of between 3 and 5 falls per 1000 bed-days representing around a million inpatient falls occurring in the United States each year. Between 1% and 3% of falls in hospitals result in fracture, but even minor injuries can cause distress and delay rehabilitation. Risk factors most consistently found in the inpatient population include a history of falling, muscle weakness, agitation and confusion, urinary incontinence or frequency, sedative medication, and postural hypotension. Based on systematic reviews, recent research, and clinical and ethical considerations, the most appropriate approach to fall prevention in the hospital environment includes multifactorial interventions with multiprofessional input. There is also some evidence that delirium avoidance programs, reducing sedative and hypnotic medication, in-depth patient education, and sustained exercise programs may reduce falls as single interventions. There is no convincing evidence that hip protectors, movement alarms, or low-low beds reduce falls or injury in the hospital setting. International approaches to developing and maintaining a fall prevention program suggest that commitment of management and a range of clinical and support staff is crucial to success. PMID:20934615

Oliver, David; Healey, Frances; Haines, Terry P

2010-11-01

30

Research on fall prevention and protection from heights in Japan.  

PubMed

The high frequency of fall accidents is a serious problem in Japan. Thus, more stringent countermeasures for preventing falls from scaffolds were developed and incorporated into institutional guidelines. These countermeasures aim to decrease deaths caused by falls from scaffolds. Despite the improvements in such measures, however, the rate of accidental fall deaths remains high in Japan's construction industries. To improve the rigor of the countermeasures, a committee was established in our institute by the Japan Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. This committee investigated the regulations applied in other countries and evaluated construction industry compliance with existing fall prevention guidelines. After considerable research and discussion, the Occupational Safety and Health Regulations and Guidelines were amended in 2009. The effects of the amended regulations have recently been investigated on the basis of accident reports. This paper describes the investigation and its results. The paper also discusses other research and workplace safety countermeasures for preventing falls and ensuring fall protection from heights. PMID:25098387

Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Hino, Yasumichi; Takahashi, Hiroki

2014-10-27

31

What Are Ways to Prevent Falls and Related Fractures?  

MedlinePLUS

... What Are Ways to Prevent Falls and Related Fractures? Fast Facts: An Easy-to-Read Series of ... 122 KB) Español Related Resources Preventing Falls and Fractures Osteoporosis and Falls Osteoporosis and Falls (??) Partner ...

32

September 17, 2010 SLIPS, TRIPS, FALLS PREVENTION  

E-print Network

% of all work related injuries at this location. Injury prevention is everyone's responsibility for weather conditions During wet weather use floor mats and umbrella bags at entry points to reduce water on floors Use slip resistant shoes in icy conditions (Home Health visits) SLIP and FALL PREVENTION TEAM

Leistikow, Bruce N.

33

Effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to prevent falls in community dwelling older people with disabling foot pain: randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention in preventing falls in community dwelling older people with disabling foot pain.Design Parallel group randomised controlled trial.Setting University health sciences clinic in Melbourne, Australia.Participants 305 community dwelling men and women (mean age 74 (SD 6) years) with disabling foot pain and an increased risk of falling. 153 were allocated to

Martin J Spink; Hylton B Menz; Mohammad R Fotoohabadi; Elin Wee; Karl B Landorf; Keith D Hill; Stephen R Lord

2011-01-01

34

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Fall Prevention Strategies in Old Peoples’ Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Falls are a major cause of morbidity in old age. A small number of fall prevention trials in cognitively intact community-dwelling older people have been effective. This study set out to examine the preventability of falls in older people living in institutional care. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of falls risk factor assessment\\/modification and seated balance exercise training in

Marion E. T. McMurdo; Angela M. Millar; Fergus Daly

2000-01-01

35

Preventing Falls | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Preventing Falls Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of ... departments for fall-related injuries each year. Among older adults, falls are the leading cause of fractures, hospital ...

36

Strategies to Prevent Falls and Fractures in Hospitals and Care Homes and Effect of Cognitive Impairment: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the evidence for strategies to prevent falls or fractures in residents in care homes and hospital inpatients and to investigate the effect of dementia and cognitive impairment. Design: Systematic review and meta-analyses of studies grouped by intervention and setting (hospital or care home). Meta-regression to investigate the effects of dementia and of study quality and design. Data

David Oliver; James B. Connelly; Christina R. Victor; Fiona E. Shaw; Anne Whitehead; Yasemin Genc; Alessandra Vanoli; Finbarr C. Martin; Margot A. Gosney; Kurrle

2007-01-01

37

Strategies to prevent falls and fractures in hospitals and care homes and effect of cognitive impairment: systematic review and meta-analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To evaluate the evidence for strategies to prevent falls or fractures in residents in care homes and hospital inpatients and to investigate the effect of dementia and cognitive impairment. Design Systematic review and meta-analyses of studies grouped by intervention and setting (hospital or care home). Meta-regression to investigate the effects of dementia and of study quality and design. Data

David Oliver; James B Connelly; Christina R Victor; Fiona E Shaw; Anne Whitehead; Yasemin Genc; Alessandra Vanoli; Finbarr C Martin; Margot A Gosney

2006-01-01

38

Evidence-based clinical practice in falls prevention: a randomised controlled trial of a falls prevention service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Evidence-based guidelines recommend a range of treatments for falls and injury prevention. We undertook a randomised trial of a falls prevention service to screen for falls risk factors and recommend to GPs an evidenced base prescription for falls prevention. Methods: All patients who presented with a fall to the Emergency Department at Flinders Medical Centre over a 22-week period

Craig Whitehead; Rachel Wundke; Maria Crotty; Paul Finucane

2003-01-01

39

Management of falls in older persons: a prescription for prevention.  

PubMed

Although falls are a common cause of injury in older persons, they are not just a normal part of the aging process. The American Geriatrics Society and British Geriatrics Society recommend that all adults older than 65 years be screened annually for a history of falls or balance impairment. An individualized risk assessment should be performed, with corresponding multifactorial intervention, for those who report a single fall and have unsteadiness; who report two or more falls; who report difficulties with gait or balance; or who seek medical attention because of a fall. The following components should be included in multifactorial interventions: exercise, particularly balance, strength, and gait training; modification of the home environment; minimization of medications, especially psychoactive medications; management of postural hypotension; and management of foot problems and footwear. These interventions are effective in decreasing falls and fall-related injuries in the community and nursing home settings, as well as in decreasing the number of persons who fall in the subacute hospital setting. Prevention of falls and, most importantly, of injury and death is possible. An evidence-based fall prevention prescription may be used to efficiently accomplish management. PMID:22150660

Moncada, Lainie Van Voast

2011-12-01

40

A collaborative approach to fall prevention.  

PubMed

Collaboration among health-care providers has emerged as a key factor in improving client care. The authors describe the Geriatric Emergency Management-Falls Intervention Team (GEM-FIT) project, a nurse-led research initiative to improve fall prevention in older adults through interdisciplinary collaboration. Public health nurses and occupational therapists assessed participants before and after fall-prevention interventions and fou modest improvements in participant outcomes and reductions in modifiable risk factors. The project resulted in successful collaboration, interdisciplinary teamwork and improved service delivery to participants. Among the challenges were delayed timelines, complex issues outside the project protocol and communication difficulties. The authors, who served on the project team, make recommendations for health-care professionals interested in initiating similar projects. PMID:22128708

Merrett, Angela; Thomas, Patricia; Stephens, Anne; Moghabghab, Rola; Gruneir, Marilyn

2011-10-01

41

Wearable Assistive System Design for Fall Prevention Wenyao Xu12  

E-print Network

}ee.ucla.edu Abstract: Fall is the prevalent issue among the elderly, and fall risk assessment and prevention are very for the discussion about fall prevention technology. 1. Introduction Many elder people over 65 are at a high risk technology. Therefore, falls among the elderly have become a growing concern, and preventative measures

He, Lei

42

Reducing fall risk in the elderly: risk factors and fall prevention, a systematic review.  

PubMed

Falls in the elderly are a major source of injury resulting in disability and hospitalization. They have a significant impact on individual basis (loss of quality of live, nursing home admissions) and social basis (healthcare costs). Even though falls in the elderly are common there are some well studied risk factors. Special emphasis should be put on sarcopenia/frailty, polypharmacy, multimorbidity, vitamin D status and home hazards. There are several well evaluated fall prevention approaches that either target a single fall risk factor or focus on multiple riks factors. It has to be kept in mind that not all fall prevention strategies are useful for all patients as for example dietary substitution of vitamin D is only recommended in people with increased riks for a vitamin D deficiency. Home hazard reduction strategies are more effective when combined with other fall prevention approaches such as for example exercise programs. In conclusion elderly patients should routinely be screened for relevant risk factors and if need an indiviudally targeted fall prevention program compiled. PMID:24867188

Pfortmueller, C A; Lindner, G; Exadaktylos, A K

2014-08-01

43

Effectiveness and economic evaluation of a nurse delivered home exercise programme to prevent falls. 1: Randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To assess the effectiveness of a trained district nurse individually prescribing a home based exercise programme to reduce falls and injuries in elderly people and to estimate the cost effectiveness of the programme. Design Randomised controlled trial with one year's follow up. Setting Community health service at a New Zealand hospital. Participants 240 women and men aged 75 years

Melinda M Gardner

2001-01-01

44

Effectiveness and economic evaluation of a nurse delivered home exercise programme to prevent falls. 2: Controlled trial in multiple centres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To assess the effectiveness of trained nurses based in general practices individually prescribing a home exercise programme to reduce falls and injuries in elderly people and to estimate the cost effectiveness of the programme. Design Controlled trial with one year's follow up. Setting 32 general practices in seven southern New Zealand centres. Participants 450 women and men aged 80

M Clare Robertson; Melinda M Gardner; Nancy Devlin; Rob McGee; A John Campbell

2001-01-01

45

Research on Fall Prevention and Protection from Heights in Japan  

PubMed Central

The high frequency of fall accidents is a serious problem in Japan. Thus, more stringent countermeasures for preventing falls from scaffolds were developed and incorporated into institutional guidelines. These countermeasures aim to decrease deaths caused by falls from scaffolds. Despite the improvements in such measures, however, the rate of accidental fall deaths remains high in Japan’s construction industries. To improve the rigor of the countermeasures, a committee was established in our institute by the Japan Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. This committee investigated the regulations applied in other countries and evaluated construction industry compliance with existing fall prevention guidelines. After considerable research and discussion, the Occupational Safety and Health Regulations and Guidelines were amended in 2009. The effects of the amended regulations have recently been investigated on the basis of accident reports. This paper describes the investigation and its results. The paper also discusses other research and workplace safety countermeasures for preventing falls and ensuring fall protection from heights. PMID:25098387

OHDO, Katsutoshi; HINO, Yasumichi; TAKAHASHI, Hiroki

2014-01-01

46

Bridging the gap between research and practice: review of a targeted hospital inpatient fall prevention programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Falls among older inpatients are frequent and have negative consequences. In this study, the effectiveness of a fall prevention programme in reducing falls and fall injuries in an acute hospital was studied.Design:Retrospective audit.Setting:The Northern Hospital, an acute, metropolitan, hospital in Australia.Intervention:A multi-factorial fall prevention programme that included establishment of a multidisciplinary committee, risk assessment of all patients on “high-risk” wards

A Barker; J Kamar; A Morton; D Berlowitz

2009-01-01

47

Comparison of two fall risk assessment tools (FRATs) targeting falls prevention in sub-acute care.  

PubMed

FRATs are designed to identify both persons at high risk of falls and to allow for cost-effective targeting of fall prevention strategies. This study compares two FRATs (BHS FRAT and TNH-STRATIFY) for accuracy of predicting falls and targeting of fall prevention strategies in a sub-acute hospital. Comparisons of retrospective audit data over two periods (use of the BHS-FRAT; post TNH-STRATIFY implementation) were used in the evaluation (n=362). Inter-rater reliability of the TNH-STRATIFY was evaluated from independent assessment by two nurses for 30 sub-acute patients and using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC(2,1)). Event rate (ER) and standard measures of predictive accuracy were calculated for both FRATs. The proportions of patients with documented fall prevention strategies addressing identified fall risk factors were compared between audit phases. The TNH-STRATIFY had high inter-rater reliability (ICC(2,1)=0.96). The BHS-FRAT and TNH-STRATIFY demonstrated poor predictive accuracy using recommended high risk cut-off scores, with low specificity(ER) (0.07 and 0.13 respectively) and very low Youden Index(ER) (0.04 and 0.07 respectively), although these measures improved using modified cut-off scores. Positive and negative predictive values were moderate for the BHS-FRAT (0.51, 0.64) and TNH-STRATIFY (0.52, 0.61). The falls rate and proportion of recurrent fallers did not change between audit phases. Implementation rates for prevention strategies for key risk factors were higher following implementation of the TNH-STRATIFY. The results indicated that the TNH-STRATIFY, combined with associated nursing care plan falls documentation, improved the targeting of prevention strategies for key risk factors such as cognitive impairment, incontinence and mobility impairment. PMID:22658287

Wong Shee, Annkarin; Phillips, Bev; Hill, Keith

2012-01-01

48

Epidemiology and Prevention of Fall Injuries among the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the problem of falls among the elderly. Due to the steadily increasing 65-and-older population, focus on prevention rather than treatment of falls among them has beneficial economic consequences. The authors discuss possible strategies for preventing such falls. Specifically, they argue that people must use the community organization model to form successful strategies because prevention programs cannot succeed

Hengameh Hosseini; Nooshin Hosseini

2008-01-01

49

Prevention of falls in the elderly--a review.  

PubMed

The proportion of elderly in the society increases and fall frequency increases with advancing age. Many falls result in fractures and also soft tissue injuries, longstanding pain, functional impairment, reduced quality of life, increased mortality, and excess in healthcare costs. Due to the magnitude of these negative effects, a variety of single- and multicomponent fall-preventive intervention programs has been initiated.This review identifies programs that, in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), have been shown with fall-reductive effects.The most effective strategies in community-dwelling elderly include regular physical training with program that includes several different training modalities. Modification of the overall or patient-specific risk factor profile in home hazard modification program has been proven to decrease fall risk in community-living elderly. The elderly in the community benefit also from wearing antislip shoe devices when walking in icy conditions, from adjustment of psychotropic medication, and from structured modification of multipharmacy. If vitamin D levels in blood are low, supplementation is beneficial as is the first eye cataract surgery and pacemaker implantation in patients with cardioinhibitory carotid sinus hypersensitivity. In addition to modification of specific risk factors, generalized and individualized multifactorial preventive programs, all including some sort of physical training, have been found to decrease the fall risk. In summary, there is now strong evidence in the literature that structured fall-preventive programs in the elderly, especially in high-risk groups, are beneficial in reducing both the number of fallers and the number of falls in community. PMID:23296743

Karlsson, M K; Magnusson, H; von Schewelov, T; Rosengren, B E

2013-03-01

50

Do sitters prevent falls? A review of the literature.  

PubMed

Preventing falls is a primary nursing concern, especially among older adult patients. Employing a sitter is a common but costly intervention. This article is a comprehensive review of the literature on sitter use and its effect on fall rates in acute care. The search was conducted in CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and the Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection and included articles published between 1995 and 2013. The articles included reported data on studies increasing or decreasing sitter use. Sitter reduction studies showed no increase in fall rates; studies implementing sitters to reduce falls showed conflicting results. Implications include the impact to staffing and nursing practice that results from sitter use, the need for staff education programs, how sitter use can affect patient satisfaction, and the need for additional, more robust research on this topic to determine whether sitter use is evidence-based practice. PMID:24640963

Lang, Carrie E

2014-05-01

51

Development and Implementation of a Pharmacy Fall Prevention Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Describe the development, implementation, and outcomes of a pharmacy fall prevention program (PFPP) that incorporates medication profile review and a medication fall risk score to identify high-risk patients. Summary: Falls are a common cause of morbidity and mortality among el- derly patients in the United States. Injury-related falls may contribute to frequent visits to emergency departments (EDs) and hospitals,

Burl Beasley; Edna Patatanian

2009-01-01

52

Prevention of Falls and Fall-Related Injuries in Community-Dwelling Seniors  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary In early August 2007, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began work on the Aging in the Community project, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding healthy aging in the community. The Health System Strategy Division at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care subsequently asked the secretariat to provide an evidentiary platform for the ministry’s newly released Aging at Home Strategy. After a broad literature review and consultation with experts, the secretariat identified 4 key areas that strongly predict an elderly person’s transition from independent community living to a long-term care home. Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these 4 areas: falls and fall-related injuries, urinary incontinence, dementia, and social isolation. For the first area, falls and fall-related injuries, an economic model is described in a separate report. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.html, to review these titles within the Aging in the Community series. Aging in the Community: Summary of Evidence-Based Analyses Prevention of Falls and Fall-Related Injuries in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis Behavioural Interventions for Urinary Incontinence in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis Caregiver- and Patient-Directed Interventions for Dementia: An Evidence-Based Analysis Social Isolation in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis The Falls/Fractures Economic Model in Ontario Residents Aged 65 Years and Over (FEMOR) Objective To identify interventions that may be effective in reducing the probability of an elderly person’s falling and/or sustaining a fall-related injury. Background Although estimates of fall rates vary widely based on the location, age, and living arrangements of the elderly population, it is estimated that each year approximately 30% of community-dwelling individuals aged 65 and older, and 50% of those aged 85 and older will fall. Of those individuals who fall, 12% to 42% will have a fall-related injury. Several meta-analyses and cohort studies have identified falls and fall-related injuries as a strong predictor of admission to a long-term care (LTC) home. It has been shown that the risk of LTC home admission is over 5 times higher in seniors who experienced 2 or more falls without injury, and over 10 times higher in seniors who experienced a fall causing serious injury. Falls result from the interaction of a variety of risk factors that can be both intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic factors are those that pertain to the physical, demographic, and health status of the individual, while extrinsic factors relate to the physical and socio-economic environment. Intrinsic risk factors can be further grouped into psychosocial/demographic risks, medical risks, risks associated with activity level and dependence, and medication risks. Commonly described extrinsic risks are tripping hazards, balance and slip hazards, and vision hazards. Note: It is recognized that the terms “senior” and “elderly” carry a range of meanings for different audiences; this report generally uses the former, but the terms are treated here as essentially interchangeable. Evidence-Based Analysis of Effectiveness Research Question Since many risk factors for falls are modifiable, what interventions (devices, systems, programs) exist that reduce the risk of falls and/or fall-related injuries for community-dwelling seniors? Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Inclusion Criteria English language; published between January 2000 and September 2007; population of community-dwelling seniors (majority aged 65+); and randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental trials, systematic reviews, or meta-analyses. Exclusion Criteria special populations (e.g., stroke or osteoporosis; however, studies restricted only to women were included); studies only reporting surrogate outcomes; or studies whose outcome cannot be extracted fo

2008-01-01

53

PHS 650, Fall 2011 1 PREVENTION OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY  

E-print Network

PHS 650, Fall 2011 1 PHS 650 PREVENTION OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY Course Syllabus Fall 2011 Credits knowledge to develop, implement, and evaluate obesity prevention interventions. This course will emphasize pediatric obesity prevention with a focus on nutrition and physical activity health behaviors

Sheridan, Jennifer

54

Effects of unipedal standing balance exercise on the prevention of falls and hip fracture among clinically defined high-risk elderly individuals: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the unipedal standing balance exercise for 1?min to prevent falls\\u000a and hip fractures in high-risk elderly individuals with a randomized controlled trial. This control study was designed as\\u000a a 6-month intervention trial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects  Subjects included 553 clinically defined high-risk adults who were living in residences or in the community. They

Keizo Sakamoto; Toshitaka Nakamura; Hiroshi Hagino; Naoto Endo; Satoshi Mori; Yoshiteru Muto; Atsushi Harada; Tetsuo Nakano; Eiji Itoi; Mitsuo Yoshimura; Hiromichi Norimatsu; Hiroshi Yamamoto; Takahiro Ochi

2006-01-01

55

Predictors of falls in a high risk population: results from the prevention of falls in the elderly trial (PROFET)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The prevention of falls in the elderly trial (PROFET) provides evidence of the benefits of structured interdisciplinary assessment of older people presenting to the accident and emergency department with a fall. However, the service implications of implementing this effective intervention are significant. This study therefore examined risk factors from PROFET and used these to devise a practi- cal approach

R Hooper; E Glucksman; C G Swift

2003-01-01

56

A Method Preventing Backward Falling while Walking with a Wearable Robot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the development of a wearable robot assisting paraplegic walking, prevention of falls is important for practical applications. Considering fall prevention, it will be efficient to measure ground reaction force. We developed a measurement system of ground reaction force which consists of small 3-axis force sensors. Measured data, such as ground reaction force and center of pressure (COP), was applied to fall prevention control. In this paper, we propose a control method to adjust the timing of swing motion besed on zero-moment-point (ZMP) and to support weight shift. We evaluate effectiveness of the proposed method for prevention of falls according to measurement experiments of walking.

Kitamura, Hitoshi; Kagawa, Takahiro; Uno, Yoji

57

Integration of Fall Prevention into State Policy in Connecticut  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of Study: To describe the ongoing efforts of the Connecticut Collaboration for Fall Prevention (CCFP) to move evidence regarding fall prevention into clinical practice and state policy. Methods: A university-based team developed methods of networking with existing statewide organizations to influence clinical practice and state policy.…

Murphy, Terrence E.; Baker, Dorothy I.; Leo-Summers, Linda S.; Bianco, Luann; Gottschalk, Margaret; Acampora, Denise; King, Mary B.

2013-01-01

58

An interdisciplinary intervention to prevent falls in community-dwelling elderly persons: protocol of a cluster-randomized trial [PreFalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Prevention of falls in the elderly is a public health target in many countries around the world. While a large number of trials\\u000a have investigated the effectiveness of fall prevention programs, few focussed on interventions embedded in the general practice\\u000a setting and its related network. In the Pre vent Falls (PreFalls) trial we aim to investigate the effectiveness of a

Wolfgang A Blank; Ellen Freiberger; Monika Siegrist; Peter Landendoerfer; Klaus Linde; Tibor Schuster; Klaus Pfeifer; Antonius Schneider; Martin Halle

2011-01-01

59

Community-based falls prevention: lessons from an Interprofessional Mobility Clinic.  

PubMed

Falls are a common and serious risk with an aging population. Chiropractors commonly see firsthand the effects of falls and resulting injuries in their senior patients and they can reduce falls risk through active screening. Ongoing research has provided proven approaches for making falls less likely. Screening for falls should be done yearly for all patients 65 years and older or in those with a predisposing medical condition. Additional specific falls prevention professional education would enable the chiropractor to best assist these patients. Collaboration and communication with the patient's family physician offers an opportunity for improved interprofessional dialogue to enhance patient care related to falls risk. Frequently falls prevention strategies are implemented by an interprofessional team. Chiropractors increasingly contribute within multidisciplinary teams. Collaboration by the chiropractor requires both simple screening and knowledge of health care system navigation. Such awareness can permit optimal participation in the care of their patient and the best outcome. PMID:25202159

Bauman, Craig A; Milligan, James D; Patel, Tejal; Pritchard, Sarah; Labreche, Tammy; Dillon-Martin, Sharon; Ilich, Alexandra; Riva, John J

2014-09-01

60

Screening postmenopausal women for fall and fracture prevention.  

PubMed

Fragility fracture prevention has been historically associated with the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. Given that the strongest determinant of fracture is falls, it is critical to add fall risk into clinical decision-making guidelines for fracture prevention. This special interest paper proposes an algorithm based on 2 validated tools: (1) World Health Organization's Fracture Risk Assessment Tool, which evaluates probability of fracture and (2) Functional Gait Assessment, which evaluates fall risk. Physical therapists can use this algorithm to better identify patients at greatest risk for fracture in order to customize interventions designed to promote bone health, minimize falls, and ultimately prevent fractures. Recommendations for referral, patient education, and exercise are provided for categories of varying fall and fracture risk. PMID:23249725

Downey, Patricia A; Perry, Susan B; Anderson, Janice M

2013-01-01

61

Engaging Community-Based Organizations in Fall Prevention Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Falls are a major public health problem for older adults, and community-based organizations play a key role in educating seniors about falls prevention (FP). We conducted a qualitative process evaluation at six sites to report community-based centers' perspectives on adoption, adaptation, and sustainability of an evidence-based multifactorial FP…

Kramer, B. Josea; Vivrette, Rebecca L.; Rubenstein, Laurence Z.

2011-01-01

62

Improving balance through dance Preventing falls in Parkinson's disease patients  

E-print Network

Improving balance through dance Preventing falls in Parkinson's disease patients Improving quality Lifeaftercancertreatment Providinglong-termsupport forsurvivors. Page4 2 Improvingbalancethroughdance PreventingfallsinParkinson to look at a number of factors influencing recovery which takes into account the disease itself,

Anderson, Jim

63

Falls among Older Adults: Public Health Impact and Prevention Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of the epidemiology of falls among older adults, describes current prevention strategies, and highlights key areas that need to be addressed, including risk assessments, exercise, and environmental changes. (Contains 50 references.) (JOW)

Stevens, Judy A.

2003-01-01

64

Preventing Falls | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoporosis Preventing Falls Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of ... next to your bed Free NIH Videos About Osteoporosis The NIHSeniorHealth Web site features five brief, informative ...

65

Slip, Trip and Fall Prevention for Healthcare Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... that emit light from all sides. 6.Inadequate Lighting Slip, Trip, and Fall Prevention | 21 Figure 7. ... over? Do mats slide around on the floor? Lighting (Check both inside and outside the healthcare facility.) ...

66

Patient Education to Prevent Falls Among Older Hospital Inpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Falls are a common adverse event during hospitalization of older adults, and few interventions have been shown to prevent hem.\\u000aMethods: This study was a 3-group randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of 2 forms of multimedia patient education compared with usual care for the prevention of in-hospital falls. Older hospital patients (n = 1206) admitted to a mixture

Terry P Haines; Anne-Marie Hill; Keith D Hill; Steven McPhail; David Oliver; Sandra Brauer; Tammy Hoffmann; Christopher Beer

2011-01-01

67

Abstract--The Gesture Recognition Interactive Technology (GRiT) Chair Alarm aims to prevent patient falls from chairs  

E-print Network

the patient has been admitted. As a result, hospitals are quickly seeking more effective fall prevention in the absence of a care provider. Elderly patients are not the only ones subject to fall. Even an athletic young injuries [4]. Current commercial fall-prevention systems include weight-based bed alarms (e.g. Stryker

Ma, Hongshen

68

Integration of Fall Prevention into State Policy in Connecticut  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Study: To describe the ongoing efforts of the Connecticut Collaboration for Fall Prevention (CCFP) to move evidence regarding fall prevention into clinical practice and state policy. Methods: A university-based team developed methods of networking with existing statewide organizations to influence clinical practice and state policy. Results: We describe steps taken that led to funding and legislation of fall prevention efforts in the state of Connecticut. We summarize CCFP’s direct outreach by tabulating the educational sessions delivered and the numbers and types of clinical care providers that were trained. Community organizations that had sustained clinical practices incorporating evidence-based fall prevention were subsequently funded through mini-grants to develop innovative interventional activities. These mini-grants targeted specific subpopulations of older persons at high risk for falls. Implications: Building collaborative relationships with existing stakeholders and care providers throughout the state, CCFP continues to facilitate the integration of evidence-based fall prevention into clinical practice and state-funded policy using strategies that may be useful to others. PMID:23042690

Murphy, Terrence E.

2013-01-01

69

Effective Fall 2011 HIGHER EDUCATION  

E-print Network

1 Effective Fall 2011 HIGHER EDUCATION DOCTORATE PROGRAMS INTERNSHIP HANDBOOK.D.) Doctorate of Philosophy (Ph.D.) Higher Education Administration College of Education Program of Higher Education Texas Tech University Box 41071 Lubbock, TX 794091071 (806) 7421997 Fax (806

Rock, Chris

70

Exercise-based fall prevention: can you be a bit more specific?  

PubMed

Trip-specific perturbation training reduces trip-related falls after laboratory-induced trips and, prospectively, in the community. Based on an emerging body of evidence, we hypothesize that using task-specific perturbation training as a stand-alone approach or in conjunction with conventional exercise-based approaches will improve the effectiveness of fall prevention interventions significantly. PMID:25062002

Grabiner, Mark D; Crenshaw, Jeremy R; Hurt, Christopher P; Rosenblatt, Noah J; Troy, Karen L

2014-10-01

71

"The balancing act"-- Licensed practical nurse experiences of falls and fall prevention: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Falls are common in old age and may have serious consequences. There are many strategies to predict and prevent falls from occurring in long-term care and hospitals. The aim of this study was to describe licensed practical nurse experiences of predicting and preventing further falls when working with patients who had experienced a fall-related fracture. Licensed practical nurses are the main caretakers that work most closely with the patients. Methods A qualitative study of focus groups interviews and field observations was done. 15 licensed practical nurses from a rehabilitation ward and an acute ward in a hospital in northern Sweden were interviewed. Content was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The result of the licensed practical nurse thoughts and experiences about risk of falling and fall prevention work is represented in one theme, “the balancing act”. The theme includes three categories: “the right to decide”, “the constant watch”, and “the ongoing negotiation” as well as nine subcategories. The analysis showed similarities and differences between rehabilitation and acute wards. At both wards it was a core strategy in the licensed practical nurse work to always be ready and to pay attention to patients’ appearance and behavior. At the rehabilitation ward, it was an explicit working task to judge the patients’ risk of falling and to be active to prevent falls. At the acute ward, the words “risk of falling” were not used and fall prevention were not discussed; instead the licensed practical nurses used for example “dizzy and pale”. The results also indicated differences in components that facilitate workplace learning and knowledge transfer. Conclusions Differences between the wards are most probably rooted in organizational differences. When it is expected by the leadership, licensed practical nurses can express patient risk of falling, share their observations with others, and take actions to prevent falls. The climate and the structure of the ward are essential if licensed practical nurses are to be encouraged to routinely consider risk of falling and implement risk reduction strategies. PMID:23062203

2012-01-01

72

Efeito preventivo da fisioterapia na redução da incidência de quedas em pacientes com Doença de Alzheimer Preventive effect of the physical therapy to minimize the occurrence of falls in patients with Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The purpose of this review is to provide better understanding of the preventive effect resulted by the Physical Therapy in- tervention to minimize the occurrence of falls in patients with Alzheimer Disease. The Alzheimer Disease is the main cause of dementia between aged people. In recent years it has been showing an increase in the number of patients proportional

Tetsadê CB Piermartiri; Naaraí Camboim Bezerra; Alexandre Ademar Hoeller

73

Efficacy of falls prevention interventions: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Falls are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. Although numerous trials of falls prevention interventions have been completed, there is extensive variation in their intervention components and clinical context, such that the key elements of an effective falls prevention program remain unclear to patients, clinicians, and policy-makers. Our objective is to identify the most effective interventions and combinations of interventions that prevent falls though a systematic review and meta-analysis, including a network meta-analysis. Methods/Design We will search for published (e.g., MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ageline) and unpublished (e.g., trial registries, dissertations) randomised clinical trials (RCTs) in all languages examining interventions to prevent falls compared to usual care or other falls prevention interventions among adults aged ?65 years from all settings (e.g., community, acute care, long-term care, and rehabilitation). The primary outcomes are number of injurious falls and number of hospitalizations due to falls. Secondary outcomes include falls rate, number of fallers, number of emergency room visits due to falls, number of physician visits due to falls, number of fractures, costs, and number of intervention-related harms (e.g., muscle soreness related to exercise). We will calibrate our eligibility criteria amongst the team and two independent team members will screen the literature search results in duplicate. Conflicts will be resolved through team discussion. A similar process will be used for data abstraction and quality appraisal with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Our results will be synthesized descriptively and a random effects meta-analysis will be conducted if the studies are deemed methodologically, clinically, and statistically (e.g., I2<60%) similar. If appropriate, a network meta-analysis will be conducted, which will allow the comparison of interventions that have not been compared in head-to-head RCTs, as well as the effectiveness of interventions. Discussion We will identify the most effective interventions and combinations of interventions that prevent falls in older people. Our results will be used to optimize falls prevention strategies, and our goal is to ultimately improve the health of seniors internationally. Trial registration PROSPERO registry number: CRD42013004151 PMID:23738619

2013-01-01

74

Effects of a Fall Prevention Exercise Program on Muscle Strength and Balance of the Old-old Elderly  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week balance exercise and elastic-resistance exercise program on muscle strength and balance of the old-old elderly (over the age of 75). [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-five elderly persons were recruited from the community and assigned to three groups for convenience: balance exercise (intervention group 1; INT 1), resistance exercise (intervention group 2; INT 2), and control (CON) groups. The intervention was performed twice a week at a senior center and three times a week at home for 8 weeks. Muscle strength and balance were evaluated before and at the end of the trial, using a PowertrackIIand Tetrax. [Results] There were significant improvements in the strength of all seven muscle groups and balance in the INT 2 group. In the INT 1 group, there were significant improvements in the strength of all muscle groups except for the knee flexor and ankle plantar flexor muscle groups. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that an intervention using balance exercises or elastic-resistance exercises is effective at improving the muscle strength and balance of the old-old elderly. These type of exercises should be appropriate for the physical characteristics of the subjects.

Cho, Seong-Il; An, Duk-Hyun

2014-01-01

75

Community falls prevention for people who call an emergency ambulance after a fall: randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate whether a service to prevent falls in the community would help reduce the rate of falls in older people who call an emergency ambulance when they fall but are not taken to hospital. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Community covered by four primary care trusts, England. Participants 204 adults aged more than 60 living at home or in residential care who had fallen and called an emergency ambulance but were not taken to hospital. Interventions Referral to community fall prevention services or standard medical and social care. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the rate of falls over 12 months, ascertained from monthly diaries. Secondary outcomes were scores on the Barthel index, Nottingham extended activities of daily living scale, and falls efficacy scale at baseline and by postal questionnaire at 12 months. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results 102 people were allocated to each group. 99 (97%) participants in the intervention group received the intervention. Falls diaries were analysed for 88.6 person years in the intervention group and 84.5 person years in the control group. The incidence rates of falls per year were 3.46 in the intervention group and 7.68 in the control group (incidence rate ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.35 to 0.58, P<0.001). The intervention group achieved higher scores on the Barthel index and Nottingham extended activities of daily living and lower scores on the falls efficacy scale (all P<0.05) at the 12 month follow-up. The number of times an emergency ambulance was called because of a fall was significantly different during follow-up (incidence rate ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 0.92, P=0.018). Conclusion A service to prevent falls in the community reduced the fall rate and improved clinical outcome in the high risk group of older people who call an emergency ambulance after a fall but are not taken to hospital. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN67535605. PMID:20460331

2010-01-01

76

Attempts to Prevent Falls and Injury: A Prospective Community Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At 16 senior centers, studied effectiveness of exercise and cognitive-behavioral programs, compared to discussion control program, in reducing falls and injuries among 230 older adults. After one year of programs, observed no significant difference in time to first fall among groups. Secondary outcome measures such as strength, balance, fear of…

Reinsch, Sibylle; And Others

1992-01-01

77

Survey on Fall Detection and Fall Prevention Using Wearable and External Sensors  

PubMed Central

According to nihseniorhealth.gov (a website for older adults), falling represents a great threat as people get older, and providing mechanisms to detect and prevent falls is critical to improve people's lives. Over 1.6 million U.S. adults are treated for fall-related injuries in emergency rooms every year suffering fractures, loss of independence, and even death. It is clear then, that this problem must be addressed in a prompt manner, and the use of pervasive computing plays a key role to achieve this. Fall detection (FD) and fall prevention (FP) are research areas that have been active for over a decade, and they both strive for improving people's lives through the use of pervasive computing. This paper surveys the state of the art in FD and FP systems, including qualitative comparisons among various studies. It aims to serve as a point of reference for future research on the mentioned systems. A general description of FD and FP systems is provided, including the different types of sensors used in both approaches. Challenges and current solutions are presented and described in great detail. A 3-level taxonomy associated with the risk factors of a fall is proposed. Finally, cutting edge FD and FP systems are thoroughly reviewed and qualitatively compared, in terms of design issues and other parameters. PMID:25340452

Delahoz, Yueng Santiago; Labrador, Miguel Angel

2014-01-01

78

Twelve month follow up of a falls prevention program in older adults from diverse populations in Australia: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Several randomised trials demonstrate that multi dimensional falls prevention programs are effective in reducing falls in older adults. There is a need to examine the impact of these programs in real life settings where diverse populations exist. The aim of this study was to examine the acceptability and impact on sustained participation in falls prevention activities of a combined exercise and education falls prevention program. A semi structured telephone interview was conducted with 23 participants 12 months following the completion of a 15 week falls prevention program tailored to diverse communities in Victoria, Australia and provided in both a group and home based format. Reported benefits of the falls prevention program included physical improvements in joint flexibility, mobility and balance and enjoyment derived from both the exercises and socialisation. Recall of the educational component was minimal as were ongoing behavioral changes to reduce the risk of falling other than exercise. Participation in sustained exercise for falls prevention following the completion of the program was also inconsistent. Future improvements of such programs could focus upon ensuring the exercises prescribed are sufficiently challenging for each individual in order to be of physical benefit, altering the educational style to be goal directed and more enjoyable, and integrating further strategies to support sustained participation in falls prevention behavioral changes. Linking participants with alternate ongoing exercise opportunities or potential sources of ongoing support may be advantageous in enhancing long term participation in exercise for falls prevention following cessation of the program. PMID:24268766

Haas, Romi; Haines, Terry P

2014-01-01

79

Cost effectiveness of preventing falls and improving mobility in people with Parkinson disease: protocol for an economic evaluation alongside a clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cost of illness studies show that Parkinson disease (PD) is costly for individuals, the healthcare system and society. The costs of PD include both direct and indirect costs associated with falls and related injuries. METHODS: This protocol describes a prospective economic analysis conducted alongside a randomised controlled trial (RCT). It evaluates whether physical therapy is more cost effective than

Jennifer J Watts; Jennifer L McGinley; Frances Huxham; Hylton B Menz; Robert Iansek; Anna T Murphy; Emma R Waller; Meg E Morris

2008-01-01

80

Engaging community-based organizations in fall prevention education.  

PubMed

Falls are a major public health problem for older adults, and community-based organizations play a key role in educating seniors about falls prevention (FP). We conducted a qualitative process evaluation at six sites to report community-based centers' perspectives on adoption, adaptation, and sustainability of an evidence-based multifactorial FP model. Wide dissemination of new health-oriented programs requires marketing to center directors, who must consider sustainability options. The diversity and independence of community-based organizations, together with current staffing and funding limitations, suggest that fidelity to multifactorial evidence-based interventions will be difficult to achieve. PMID:21598150

Kramer, B Josea; Vivrette, Rebecca L; Rubenstein, Laurence Z

2011-01-01

81

Falls prevention focused medication review by a pharmacist in an acute hospital: implications for future practice.  

PubMed

Background Patients at risk of falling are regularly prescribed medicines which increase falls risk. Medication review is a widely advocated risk reduction strategy. Objective The objectives of this descriptive study were to determine the number and types of falls risk medicines suitable for intervention, and to develop guidance to optimise the effectiveness of future medication related falls prevention initiatives. Setting An Irish acute teaching hospital and tertiary referral centre. Method 50 hospital in-patients at risk of falls underwent medication review focused on falls prevention by a pharmacist. Falls risk medicines were identified, and reviewed. If scope to discontinue, dose reduce or switch to a safer alternative was identified by the pharmacist, the suggested medication changes were communicated to the patient's care team. Main outcome measure Identification of the classes of falls risk medicines and types of prescriptions with greatest potential for intervention. Results The mean number of falls risk medicines prescribed to each patient was 4.8 (±2.8) and the total number prescribed to the 50 patients was 238. Following medication review, the pharmacist identified 48 (20 %) as suitable for intervention. Consequently, 34 medication changes (70.8 %) were implemented. Four medication classes accounted for over 80 % of medication changes. These were anti-emetics, opioid analgesics, anti-cholinergic agents acting on the bladder and benzodiazepines/hypnotics. Intervention was statistically significantly more likely to be possible in the case of p.r.n. medicines compared to regular medicines (p < 0.001, Chi square test). Medication reviews focused on falls prevention took an average of 23.5 min per patient to complete. Conclusion Medication reviews focused on falls prevention involve striking a balance between minimising medicines associated with falls and effectively treating medical conditions. We found only 20 % of falls risk medicines were suitable for change, and reviews were time consuming and resource intensive. However, targeting four medication classes, and being particularly alert to the potential to discontinue 'as required' medicines, has the potential to achieve most of the benefits of more comprehensive reviews. This information will guide the development of future falls risk medicine review initiatives in our hospital, increasing their feasibility in the acute hospital setting. PMID:25108410

Browne, Claire; Kingston, Claire; Keane, Claire

2014-10-01

82

Fall prevention in the elderly: analysis and comprehensive review of methods used in the hospital and in the home.  

PubMed

Falls in the elderly are a significant problem both in and out of the hospital. The Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 and the Fiscal Year 2009 Inpatient Prospective Payment System Final Rule, as outlined by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, placed on hospitals the financial burden of fall prevention for falls (ie, hospital-acquired conditions) that could have been prevented by following evidence-based guidelines. Multifaceted and individualized programs have been created to prevent falls in the elderly. Many of these interventions are based on expert opinion and statistical trends. Our review of the literature revealed that the risk of fall is only slightly greater in the hospital environment than in the home and that there is no medical evidence that evidence-based guidelines are effective in fall prevention. PMID:21724919

Clyburn, Terry A; Heydemann, John A

2011-07-01

83

Effects of hydrotherapy in balance and prevention of falls among elderly women Efeitos da hidroterapia na recuperação do equilíbrio e prevenção de quedas em idosas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hydrotherapy is used to treat rheumatic, orthopedic and neurological disorders. It has been the subject of investigations regarding balance recovery in elderly people. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a hydrotherapy program for balance, in relation to the risk of falls in elderly women. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental before\\/after study without a control group. Twenty-five elderly women were

Resende SM; Rassi CM; Viana FP

84

A multidisciplinary fall prevention program for elderly persons: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

Falling is a common problem among elderly people and has many negative consequences. In the Netherlands, there is a need for effective fall prevention interventions aimed at elderly persons with an increased risk of falling. For this reason, we adapted a successful British fall prevention program comprising a medical occupational therapy assessment to the Dutch health care setting. This article describes the adaptation of this program and a pilot study to assess its feasibility in Dutch health care according to the implementers of the intervention as well as the participants (n = 21). This study showed that the Dutch intervention protocol is feasible in Dutch health care for both participants and implementers of the program. However, minor refinement of the intervention is warranted to improve its feasibility. The structured approach to adapt and pretest an intervention protocol appeared to be essential when aiming to implement a complex intervention program in a different health care setting. PMID:18555160

Hendriks, Marike R C; Bleijlevens, Michel H C; van Haastregt, Jolanda C M; de Bruijn, Fleur H; Diederiks, Joseph P M; Mulder, Wubbo J; Ruijgrok, Joop M; Stalenhoef, Paul A; Crebolder, Harry F J M; van Eijk, Jacques Th M

2008-01-01

85

Falls prevention in persons with intellectual disabilities: development, implementation, and process evaluation of a tailored multifactorial fall risk assessment and intervention strategy.  

PubMed

In the general elderly population, multifactorial screening of fall risks has been shown to be effective. Although persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) fall more often, there appears to be no targeted screening for them. The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a falls clinic for persons with ID. Based on guidelines, literature, and expert meetings, a falls clinic for persons with ID was developed. In total, 26 persons with ID and a fall history participated in the study. Process evaluation was conducted with evaluation forms and focus groups. Fifty interventions (0-8 per person) were prescribed. The (para)medical experts, clients, and caregivers described the falls clinic as useful. Advice for improvement included minor changes to clinic content. Logistics were the largest challenge for the falls clinic, for example organizing meetings, completing questionnaires prior to meetings, and ensuring that a personal caregiver accompanied the person with ID. Furthermore, the need for a screening tool to determine whether a person would benefit from the falls clinic was reported. In conclusion, the falls clinic for persons with ID was considered feasible and useful. Some minor content changes are necessary and there is a need for a screening tool. However, logistics concerning the falls clinic need improvement. More attention and time for multifactorial and multidisciplinary treatment of persons with ID is necessary. Implementation on a larger scale would also make it possible to investigate the effectiveness of the falls clinic with regard to the prevention of falls in this population. PMID:23792376

Smulders, Ellen; Enkelaar, Lotte; Schoon, Yvonne; Geurts, Alexander C; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny; Weerdesteyn, Vivian

2013-09-01

86

Can social dancing prevent falls in older adults? a protocol of the Dance, Aging, Cognition, Economics (DAnCE) fall prevention randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Falls are one of the most common health problems among older people and pose a major economic burden on health care systems. Exercise is an accepted stand-alone fall prevention strategy particularly if it is balance training or regular participation in Tai chi. Dance shares the ‘holistic’ approach of practices such as Tai chi. It is a complex sensorimotor rhythmic activity integrating multiple physical, cognitive and social elements. Small-scale randomised controlled trials have indicated that diverse dance styles can improve measures of balance and mobility in older people, but none of these studies has examined the effect of dance on falls or cognition. This study aims to determine whether participation in social dancing: i) reduces the number of falls; and ii) improves cognitive functions associated with fall risk in older people. Methods/design A single-blind, cluster randomised controlled trial of 12 months duration will be conducted. Approximately 450 participants will be recruited from 24 self-care retirement villages that house at least 60 residents each in Sydney, Australia. Village residents without cognitive impairment and obtain medical clearance will be eligible. After comprehensive baseline measurements including physiological and cognitive tests and self-completed questionnaires, villages will be randomised to intervention sites (ballroom or folk dance) or to a wait-listed control using a computer randomisation method that minimises imbalances between villages based on two baseline fall risk measures. Main outcome measures are falls, prospectively measured, and the Trail Making cognitive function test. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses will be performed. Discussion This study offers a novel approach to balance training for older people. As a community-based approach to fall prevention, dance offers older people an opportunity for greater social engagement, thereby making a major contribution to healthy ageing. Providing diversity in exercise programs targeting seniors recognises the heterogeneity of multicultural populations and may further increase the number of taking part in exercise. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000889853 The trial is now in progress with 12 villages already have been randomised. PMID:23675705

2013-01-01

87

Older People's Views of Advice about Falls Prevention: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of older people's perceptions of falls prevention advice, and how best to design communications that will encourage older people to take action to prevent falls. Focus groups and interviews were carried out with 66 people aged 61-94 years recruited from a variety of settings, using falls

Yardley, L.; Donovan-Hall, M.; Francis, K.; Todd, C.

2006-01-01

88

Use of a Fall Prevention Practice Guideline for Community-Dwelling Older Persons at Risk for Falling: A Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Falls among older persons occur frequently and are a common cause of physical and psychological morbidity and healthcare utilization. The problem can be attributed to a complex interaction between health-related, behavioral and environmental factors. To ensure a uniform and evidence-based approach, a practice guideline was developed for fall prevention in community-dwelling older persons at risk for falls. Objective: To

Koen Milisen; Annelies Geeraerts; Eddy Dejaeger

2009-01-01

89

Fall Prevention Research and Practice: A Total Worker Safety Approach  

PubMed Central

Slips, trips, and falls (STF) represent a serious hazard to workers and occupants in many industries, homes, and communities. Often, the cause of a STF incident is multifactorial, encompassing human, environmental, and task risk factors. A STF-related disability can greatly diminish the occupational capability and quality of life of individuals in both the workplace and the home. Countering STF hazards and risks both on and off the job and on all aspects of control measures is a “total worker safety” matter, a challenging yet tangible undertaking. As the federal organization responsible for conducting research for the prevention of work-related injuries in the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been conducting research on STF controls for some decades. Many NIOSH research outcomes have been utilized for STF prevention in workplaces, with potential for prevention in homes as well. This paper summarizes the concept of total worker safety for STF control, NIOSH priority research goals, major activities, and accomplishments, and some emerging issues on STF. The strategic planning process for the NIOSH research goals and some identified research focuses are applicable to the development and implementation of global STF research goals. PMID:25345424

HSIAO, Hongwei

2014-01-01

90

Fall prevention research and practice: a total worker safety approach.  

PubMed

Slips, trips, and falls (STF) represent a serious hazard to workers and occupants in many industries, homes, and communities. Often, the cause of a STF incident is multifactorial, encompassing human, environmental, and task risk factors. A STF-related disability can greatly diminish the occupational capability and quality of life of individuals in both the workplace and the home. Countering STF hazards and risks both on and off the job and on all aspects of control measures is a "total worker safety" matter, a challenging yet tangible undertaking. As the federal organization responsible for conducting research for the prevention of work-related injuries in the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been conducting research on STF controls for some decades. Many NIOSH research outcomes have been utilized for STF prevention in workplaces, with potential for prevention in homes as well. This paper summarizes the concept of total worker safety for STF control, NIOSH priority research goals, major activities, and accomplishments, and some emerging issues on STF. The strategic planning process for the NIOSH research goals and some identified research focuses are applicable to the development and implementation of global STF research goals. PMID:25345424

Hsiao, Hongwei

2014-10-27

91

The Effects of Obesity on Fall Efficacy in Elderly People  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify the effects of obesity on falls as a practical verification of the importance of obesity-targeting interventions as part of future fall prevention programs. [Subjects and Methods] The study involved 351 elderly people (172 men, 179 women) living in rural areas. The dependent variable, fall efficacy, was measured using the Falls Efficacy Scale, while the independent variables, body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat, were measured using the InBody 720. The Faces Pain Scale was used to measure pain. Mobility was measured using the Timed Up and Go Test, and balance ability was measured according to the duration subjects could stand on one foot with their eyes closed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed for the final data analysis. [Results] Investigation of the correlations between the variables revealed a negative correlation between fall efficacy and the other variables. Ultimatley, investigation of the causality of fall efficacy revealed that the BMI, pain, and mobility were influential factors. In other words, fall efficacy tends to be lower when there are higher degrees of obesity, increased pain, and decreased mobility. [Conclusion] To improve the fall efficacy of elderly people living in rural areas, pain management and the maintenance of physical functionality are required. The present study confirms that the elderly need continuous obesity management to lead healthy lives. PMID:24396217

Jeon, Byoung-Jin

2013-01-01

92

Prevention of falling risk in elderly people: the relevance of muscular strength and symmetry of lower limbs in postural stability.  

PubMed

Falls are one of the major health problems affecting the quality of life among older adults. The aging process is associated with decreasing muscle strength and an increasing risk of falling. The variables and techniques adopted to quantify muscular strength and postural stability were different in each protocol; a great number of reports analyzed the risk factors and predictors of falls, but the results appear still uncertain. To date, there is no clear, definitive statement or review that has examined the effect of the quadriceps strength on static balance performances in different sensory conditions. This contribution aims to provide an overview of experimental works to increase the comprehension and prevention of falls and fall-related injuries in the elderly. Based on a review of the literature, this work was designed to explore the relationship among risk of falls, postural stability, and muscular strength of lower limbs in older adults. PMID:20838253

Pizzigalli, Luisa; Filippini, Alberto; Ahmaidi, Said; Jullien, Hugues; Rainoldi, Alberto

2011-02-01

93

Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon  

SciTech Connect

The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL

2011-11-01

94

Factors influencing the implementation of fall-prevention programmes: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies  

PubMed Central

Background More than a third of people over the age of 65?years fall each year. Falling can lead to a reduction in quality of life, mortality, and a risk of prolonged hospitalisation. Reducing and preventing falls has become an international health priority. To help understand why research evidence has often not been translated into changes in clinical practice, we undertook a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research in order to identify what factors serve as barriers and facilitators to the successful implementation of fall-prevention programmes. Methods We conducted a review of literature published between 1980 and January 2012 for qualitative research studies that examined barriers and facilitators to the effective implementation of fall-prevention interventions among community-dwelling older people and healthcare professionals. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed methodological quality according to predefined criteria. Findings were synthesised using meta-ethnography. Results Of the 5010 articles identified through database searching, 19 were included in the review. Analysis of the 19 studies revealed limited information about the mechanisms by which barriers to implementation of fall-prevention interventions had been overcome. Data synthesis produced three overarching concepts: (1) practical considerations, (2) adapting for community, and (3) psychosocial. A line of argument synthesis describes the barriers and facilitators to the successful implementation of fall-prevention programmes. These concepts show that the implementation of fall-prevention programmes is complex and multifactorial. This is the first systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies to examine factors influencing the implementation of fall-prevention programmes from the perspectives of both the healthcare professional and the community-dwelling older person. Conclusions The current literature on barriers and facilitators to the implementation of fall-prevention programmes examines a variety of interventions. However, the ways in which the interventions are reported suggests there are substantial methodological challenges that often inhibit implementation into practice. We recommend that successful implementation requires individuals, professionals, and organisations to modify established behaviours, thoughts, and practice. The issues identified through this synthesis need to be fully considered and addressed if fall-prevention programmes are to be successfully implemented into clinical practice. PMID:22978693

2012-01-01

95

Preventing childhood falls within the home: overview of systematic reviews and a systematic review of primary studies.  

PubMed

In most countries falls are the most common medically attended childhood injury and the majority of injuries in pre-school children occur at home. Numerous systematic reviews have reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of falls prevention interventions, but this evidence has not been synthesised into an overview, making it difficult for policy makers and practitioners to easily access the evidence. To synthesise all available evidence, we conducted an overview of reviews of home safety interventions targeting childhood falls, extracted data from primary studies included in the reviews and supplemented this with a systematic review of primary studies published subsequent to the reviews. Bibliographic databases, websites, conference proceedings, journals and bibliographies of included studies were searched for systematic reviews of studies with experimental or controlled observational designs. Thirteen reviews were identified containing 24 primary studies. Searches for additional primary studies identified five further studies not included in reviews. Evidence of the effect of interventions on falls or fall injuries was sparse, with only one of three primary studies reporting this outcome finding a reduction in falls. Interventions were effective in promoting the use of safety gates and furniture corner covers. There was some evidence of a reduction in baby walker use. The effect on the use of window safety devices, non-slip bath mats/decals and the reduction of tripping hazards was mixed. There was limited evidence that interventions were effective in improving lighting in corridors, altering furniture layout and restricting access to roofs. Most interventions to prevent childhood falls at home have not been evaluated in terms of their effect on reducing falls. Policy makers and practitioners should promote use of safety gates and furniture covers and restriction of baby walker use. Further research evaluating the effect of interventions to reduce falls and falls-related injuries is urgently required. PMID:24080473

Young, Ben; Wynn, Persephone M; He, Zhimin; Kendrick, Denise

2013-11-01

96

Does a fall prevention educational programme improve knowledge and change exercise prescribing behaviour in health and exercise professionals? A study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Falling in older age is a serious and costly problem. At least one in three older people fall annually. Although exercise is recognised as an effective fall prevention intervention, low numbers of older people engage in suitable programmes. Health and exercise professionals play a crucial role in addressing fall risk in older adults. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of participation in a fall prevention educational programme, compared with a wait-list control group, on health and exercise professionals’ knowledge about fall prevention and the effect on fall prevention exercise prescription behaviour and confidence to prescribe the exercises to older people. Methods and analysis A randomised controlled trial involving 220 consenting health and exercise professionals will be conducted. Participants will be individually randomised to an intervention group (n=110) to receive an educational workshop plus access to internet-based support resources, or a wait-list control group (n=110). The two primary outcomes, measured 3?months after randomisation, are: (1) knowledge about fall prevention and (2) self-perceived change in fall prevention exercise prescription behaviour. Secondary outcomes include: (1) participants’ confidence to prescribe fall prevention exercises; (2) the proportion of people aged 60+ years seen by trial participants in the past month who were prescribed fall prevention exercise; and (3) the proportion of fall prevention exercises prescribed by participants to older people in the past month that comply with evidence-based guidelines. Outcomes will be measured with a self-report questionnaire designed specifically for the trial. Ethics and dissemination The trial protocol was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee, The University of Sydney, Australia. Trial results will be disseminated via peer reviewed journals, presentations at international conferences and participants’ newsletters. Trial registration number Trial protocol was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (Number ACTRN12614000224628) on 3 March 2014. PMID:25410607

Tiedemann, A; Sturnieks, D L; Hill, A-M; Lovitt, L; Clemson, L; Lord, S R; Harvey, L; Sherrington, C

2014-01-01

97

Intensive Exercise Reduces the Fear of Additional Falls in Elderly People: Findings from the Korea Falls Prevention Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Falls among older people are a major public health problem and may result in fracture, medical complications that require hospitalization, and fear of additional falls. Given the prevalence and impact of the fear of falling again, reducing the incidence of falls is important to prevent additional falls. This study analyzed whether exercise programs decrease the fear of future falls in elderly patients who have fallen previously. Methods A randomized controlled study was performed that included 65 elderly community-dwelling subjects who had fallen in the previous year. Subjects were randomized into two groups: an exercise group (EG, n = 36) and a control group (CG, n = 29). The EG participated in three exercise sessions per week for 12 weeks. Muscle strength, balance, agility, flexibility, and muscular endurance were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results After the 12-week exercise program, the subjects in the EG demonstrated remarkable improvement in their walking speed, balance (p = 0.003), back strength (p = 0.08), lower extremity strength (p = 0.004), and flexibility (p < 0.001). When asked whether they were afraid of falling, more participants in the EG than in the CG responded "not at all" or "a little." Conclusions The 12-week exercise program described here reduced the fear of falling (p = 0.02). It also improved the balance, flexibility, and muscle strength of the participants and was associated with improved quality of life. PMID:23269883

Oh, Dong Hyun; Park, Ji Eun; Lee, Eon Sook; Oh, Sang Woo; Cho, Sung Il; Jang, Soong Nang

2012-01-01

98

Role of the musculoskeletal system and the prevention of falls.  

PubMed

Approximately 30% of older adults fall at least once per year, with falls being the leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries for individuals in this age group. Because of projected increases in the older adult population, the annual cost of fatal and nonfatal fall-related injuries is estimated to reach $32.4 billion in 2020. Falls in older adults are likely due to an interaction of multiple risk factors, including vitamin D deficiency, diminished strength and coordination, depression, multiple medications, and home hazards. Ultimately, the evidence supports a multifaceted approach to screening for fall-related risk factors and targeting treatment to address specific risks for each patient. While keeping in mind that the patient is the product of the dynamic interaction of body, mind, and spirit, the osteopathic physician is well suited to provide comprehensive, patient-centered care. PMID:22302742

Fraix, Marcel

2012-01-01

99

Preventing falls and fall injuries in hospital: a major risk management challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental falls are the commonest patient safety incident in hospital and are especially common in older patients. They are associated with physical and psychological harm, functional impairment, pro- longed hospital stay, cost and opportunity cost. Falls often cause concern and anger from patients' rel- atives, are a frequent cause of complaints and inquests, and may lead to claims in clinical

David Oliver

2007-01-01

100

Cost Analysis of a Falls-prevention Program in an Orthopaedic Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Falls by orthopaedic patients may lead to negative outcomes such as injury, prolonged hospitalization, delayed rehabilitation,\\u000a and increased costs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  We examined the impact of a multidisciplinary Falls-prevention Program (FPP) on the incidence of inpatient falls and fall-related\\u000a injuries in an orthopaedic hospital during a 6-year period.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Patient data and fall incident report data were reviewed to identify risk factors associated

John G. Galbraith; Joseph S. Butler; Adeel R. Memon; Mark A. Dolan; James A. Harty

101

Preventing falls on an elderly care rehabilitation ward  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Comparison of two flooring types – carpet and vinyl – in the bed areas, and two modes of physiotherapy – conventional therapy and additional leg strengthening exercises – in avoiding falls.Design: Randomized 2 × 2 controlled trial.Setting: Elderly care rehabilitation ward in a community hospital.Subjects: Fifty-four consecutive patients referred for rehabilitation.Outcome measures: The incidence of falls, and the change

I P Donald; K. Pitt; E. Armstrong; H. Shuttleworth

2000-01-01

102

Risks and suggestions to prevent falls in geriatric rehabilitation: a participatory approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to establish the rates and to gather information from patients, staff and family members on risks and potential measures to prevent patient falls on geriatric rehabilitation units in a hospital.MethodsThe falls recorded in the geriatric rehabilitation units between January 2006 and December 2008 were reviewed to establish their rates (falls\\/1000 patient days) and locations.

Edgar Ramos Vieira; Colleen Berean; Debra Paches; Larissa Costa; Natacha Décombas-Deschamps; Penny Caveny; Doris Yuen; Lauralee Ballash

2011-01-01

103

The Development of Foot Orthotics Using Shape Memory Alloy for Preventing Falls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plantar arch has been considered to be important function in walking and to control the body balance. Many of elderly lose this function, tend to fall which to lost activities of daily life. Therefore we attempt to develop the foot orthotics for preventing falls using hyper elasticity with shape memory alloy (SMA). To evaluate orthotics function, the single-leg standing testing

Yuki Shimizu; Masanori Kobayashi

2011-01-01

104

Chair Alarm for patient fall prevention based on Gesture Recognition and Interactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gesture Recognition Interactive Technology (GRiT) Chair Alarm aims to prevent patient falls from chairs and wheelchairs by recognizing the gesture of a patient attempting to stand. Patient falls are one of the greatest causes of injury in hospitals. Current chair and bed exit alarm systems are inadequate because of insufficient notification, high false-alarm rate, and long trigger delays. The

Heather Knight; Jae-Kyu Lee; Hongshen Ma

2008-01-01

105

Detecting and preventing falls with depth camera, tracking the body center  

E-print Network

a person at home. We show that we can easily extract, from depth images, the body center of mass of a perDetecting and preventing falls with depth camera, tracking the body center Amandine DUBOIS a,1-l�s-Nancy, France Abstract. Fall is a major risk for elderly people. This paper is an outline of the research work

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

106

REVIEW Open Access Fall prevention and vitamin D in the elderly: an  

E-print Network

REVIEW Open Access Fall prevention and vitamin D in the elderly: an overview of the key role is an objective yet to be reached. There is increasing evi- dence that a supplementation of vitamin D and/or of calcium may reduce the fall and fracture rates. A vitamin D-calcium supplement appears to have a high

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

107

Process-evaluation of a home visit programme to prevent falls and mobility impairments among elderly people at risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a detailed evaluation of the intervention process of a multifactorial home visit programme aimed at preventing falls and mobility impairments among elderly persons living in the community. The aim of the study is to provide insight in factors related to the intervention process that may have influenced the effectiveness of this home visit programme.

Jolanda C. M. van Haastregt; Erik van Rossum; Jos P. M. Diederiks; Luc P. de Witte; Peter M. Voorhoeve; Harry F. J. M. Crebolder

2002-01-01

108

Falls Prevention Education for Older Adults during and after Hospitalization: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of patient education in reducing falls, promoting behavioural change and the uptake of prevention activities in older adults during and after hospitalization. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: A systematic search of five health science databases was performed up to November 2012. Studies…

Lee, Den-Ching A.; Pritchard, Elizabeth; McDermott, Fiona; Haines, Terry P.

2014-01-01

109

Injuries from the Wichita Falls Tornado: Implications for Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the circumstances of death and injury among victims of the tornado that struck Wichita Falls, Texas, on 10 April 1979. We also assessed the protective measures taken by a representative sample of community residents who suffered no major injury in order to estimate the relative risk of injury to people directly in the tornado's path. Twenty-six (60 percent)

Roger I. Glass; Robert B. Craven; Dennis J. Bregman; Barbara J. Stoll; Neil Horowitz; Peter Kerndt; Joe Winkle

1980-01-01

110

Implementing a Humpty Dumpty Falls ™ Scale & Prevention Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 afety in hospitals is a continuous focus and concern for healthcare providers. Patients are exposed to multitudes of tests, medications and a new and unfamiliar environment. These new exposures, coupled with the patient's diagnosis and current mental status, provides an arena for multiple safety concerns. Safety issues especially of concern are medical errors and falls risk. Moreover, the Joint

Maria Lina; Deborah Hill-Rodriguez; Dania Vasquez; Deborah Salani; Patricia R. Messmer; Maria E. Soto; Maryann Henry; Cheryl Minick

111

Heterogeneity of Falls Among Older Adults: Implications for Public Health Prevention  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examined risk factors for falls among older people according to indoor and outdoor activity at the time of the fall and explored risk factors for seriously injurious falls. Methods Data came from MOBILIZE Boston, a prospective cohort study of 765 community-dwelling women and men, mainly aged 70 years or older. Over 4.3 years, 1737 falls were recorded, along with indoor or outdoor activity at the time of the fall. Results Participants with poor baseline health characteristics had elevated rates of indoor falls while transitioning, walking, or not moving. Healthy, active people had elevated rates of outdoor falls during walking and vigorous activity. For instance, participants with fast, rather than normal, gait speed, had a rate ratio of 7.36 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.54, 21.28) for outdoor falls during vigorous activity. The likelihood of a seriously injurious fall also varied by personal characteristics, activity, and location. For example, the odds ratio for serious injury from an outdoor fall while walking outside compared to inside a participant’s neighborhood was 3.31 (95% CI = 1.33, 8.23). Conclusions Fall prevention programs should be tailored to personal characteristics, activities, and locations. PMID:22994167

Kelsey, Jennifer L.; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Hannan, Marian T.; Li, Wenjun

2012-01-01

112

Effective Fall 2010 MINOR IN COMMUNICATION STUDIES  

E-print Network

Effective Fall 2010 MINOR IN COMMUNICATION STUDIES The minor in Communication Studies consists (Communication Theory) and at least 6 credit hours taken at the 3000 level and above. Students must attain to declare Communication Studies as their minor must have an overall GPA of at least 2.0 Required Courses (6

Raja, Anita

113

Falls after Discharge from Hospital: Is There a Gap between Older Peoples' Knowledge about Falls Prevention Strategies and the Research Evidence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine whether older people are prepared to engage in appropriate falls prevention strategies after discharge from hospital. Design and Methods: We used a semi-structured interview to survey older patients about to be discharged from hospital and examined their knowledge regarding falls prevention strategies…

Hill, Anne-Marie; Hoffmann, Tammy; Beer, Christopher; McPhail, Steven; Hill, Keith D.; Oliver, David; Brauer, Sandra G.; Haines, Terry P.

2011-01-01

114

Effectiveness of a Multifaceted Intervention on Falls in Nursing Home Residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifac- eted, nonpharmaceutical intervention on incidence of falls and fallers. DESIGN: Prospective, cluster-randomized, controlled 12- month trial. SETTING: Six community nursing homes in Germany. PARTICIPANTS: Long-stay residents (n ? 981) aged 60 and older; mean age 85; 79% female. INTERVENTIONS: Staff and resident education on fall prevention, advice on environmental adaptations, progres- sive

Clemens Becker; Martina Kron; Ulrich Lindemann; Elisabeth Sturm; Barbara Eichner; Barbara Walter-Jung; Thorsten Nikolaus

2003-01-01

115

Can volunteer companions prevent falls among inpatients? A feasibility study using a pre-post comparative design  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Falls in hospital are frequent and their consequences place an increased burden on health services. We evaluated a falls prevention strategy consisting of the introduction of volunteers to 'sit' with patients identified as being at high risk of falling. METHODS: Two four bed 'safety bays' located on medical wards in two hospitals within southern Adelaide were used. Ward fall

Lynne C Giles; Denise Bolch; Robyn Rouvray; Beth McErlean; Craig H Whitehead; Paddy A Phillips; Maria Crotty

2006-01-01

116

Cognitive and Psychological Foundations of Effective Leadership FALL 2012  

E-print Network

Cognitive and Psychological Foundations of Effective Leadership FALL 2012 Dr investigates the cognitive and psychological foundations of effective leadership. Students #12;Cognitive and Psychological Foundations of Effective Leadership FALL 2012 Dr

117

Community fall prevention programs: comparing three InSTEP models by levels of intensity.  

PubMed

The Fall Prevention Center of Excellence designed three progressive-intensity fall prevention program models, Increasing Stability Through Evaluation and Practice (InSTEP), to reduce risk in community-dwelling older adults. Each model included physical activity, medical risk, and home safety components and was implemented as a 12-week program for small class sizes (12-15 people) in community and senior centers. Change in fall rates and fall risk factors was assessed using a battery of performance tests, self-reports of function, and fall diaries in a 3-group within-subjects (N = 200) design measured at baseline, immediately postintervention, and at 3 and 9 months postintervention. Overall, participants experienced a reduction in falls, improved selfperception of gait and balance, and improved dynamic gait function. The medium-intensity InSTEP model significantly (p = .003) reduced self-reported falls in comparison with the other models. InSTEP is a feasible model for addressing fall risk reduction in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:23945593

Kramer, B Josea; Creekmur, Beth; Mitchell, Michael N; Rose, Debra J; Pynoos, Jon; Rubenstein, Laurence Z

2014-07-01

118

CONNECT for Better Fall Prevention in Nursing Homes: Results from a Pilot Intervention Study  

PubMed Central

Background We hypothesized that an intervention which improves nursing home (NH) staff connections, communication, and problem solving (CONNECT) would improve implementation of a falls reduction education program (FALLS). Design Cluster randomized trial. Setting Community (n=4) and VA NHs (n=4) Participants Staff in any role with resident contact (n=497). Intervention NHs received FALLS alone (control) or CONNECT followed by FALLS (intervention), each delivered over 3-months. CONNECT used story-telling, relationship mapping, mentoring, self-monitoring and feedback to help staff identify communication gaps and practice interaction strategies. FALLS included group training, modules, teleconferences, academic detailing, and audit/feedback. Measurements NH staff completed surveys about interactions at baseline, 3 months (immediately following CONNECT or control period), and 6 months (immediately following FALLS). A random sample of resident charts was abstracted for fall risk reduction documentation (n=651). Change in facility fall rates was an exploratory outcome. Focus groups were conducted to explore changes in organizational learning. Results Significant improvements in staff perceptions of communication quality, participation in decision making, safety climate, care giving quality, and use of local interaction strategies were observed in intervention community NHs (treatment by time effect p=.01), but not in VA NHs where a ceiling effect was observed. Fall risk reduction documentation did not change significantly, and the direction of change in individual facilities did not relate to observed direction of change in fall rates. Fall rates did not change in control facilities (2.61 and 2.64 falls/bed/yr), but decreased by 12% in intervention facilities (2.34 to 2.06 falls/bed/yr); the effect of treatment on rate of change was 0.81 (0.55, 1.20). Conclusion CONNECT has the potential to improve care delivery in NHs, but the trend toward improving fall rates requires confirmation in a larger ongoing study. PMID:24279686

Colon-Emeric, Cathleen S.; McConnell, Eleanor; Pinheiro, Sandro O.; Corazzini, Kirsten; Porter, Kristie; Earp, Kelly M.; Landerman, Lawrence; Beales, Julie; Lipscomb, Jeffrey; Hancock, Kathryn; Anderson, Ruth A.

2014-01-01

119

Impact of a community-based osteoporosis and fall prevention program on fracture incidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations between a 10-year community-based osteoporosis and fall prevention program and fracture incidence amongst middle-aged and elderly residents in an intervention community are studied, and comparisons are made with a control community. A health-education program was provided to all residents in the intervention community, which addressed dietary intake, physical activity, smoking habits and environmental risk factors for osteoporosis and falls.

Ann-Charlotte Grahn Kronhed; Carina Blomberg; Nadine Karlsson; Owe Löfman; Toomas Timpka; Margareta Möller

2005-01-01

120

A protocol for evidence-based targeting and evaluation of statewide strategies for preventing falls among community-dwelling older people in Victoria, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Falls are a significant threat to the safety, health and independence of older citizens. Despite the now substantial evidence about effective falls prevention interventions, translation into falls reductions has not yet been fully realised. While the hip fracture rate is decreasing, the number and rate of fall-related hospital admissions among older people is increasing. The challenge now is to deliver the most effective interventions efficiently at a population level, and for these interventions to be taken up by older people. Objective To support the development, and evaluation of, effective falls prevention policy and practice in the state of Victoria, Australia. Methods The RE-AIM model (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) was used to identify strategies for an effective programme. Research objectives were developed to support the strategies. These include: (1) identification of subgroups of older people most frequently admitted to hospital for falls; (2) examining the acceptability of established falls interventions; (3) identification of factors that encourage and support relevant lifestyle changes; (4) identifying opportunities to incorporate confirmed interventions in existing programmes and services; (5) developing guidelines for sustainability. The research results will subsequently guide strategy details for the falls prevention plan. RE-AIM will provide the framework for the evaluation structure. Outcome measures Measures to monitor the implementation of the selected interventions will be determined for each intervention, based on the five key factors of the RE-AIM model. The overall effect of the falls prevention plan will be monitored by time series analysis of fall-related hospital admission rates for community-dwelling older people. PMID:21186224

Finch, Caroline F; Hill, Keith D; Haines, Terry P; Clemson, Lindy; Thomas, Margaret; Thompson, Catherine

2010-01-01

121

Falls in people with learning disabilities: what are the risk factors and prevention strategies?  

PubMed

There is a high prevalence of falls and related injuries in adults with learning disabilities. This article highlights the latest evidence on the diverse risk factors for falls among this group. Research into effective falls management strategies is sparse, but there is some evidence to indicate that environmental management, strength and balance training, and careful management of medications may help to reduce falls. Nurses can play an important role by identifying those who are at most risk, implementing management strategies and educating others. PMID:21192592

Willgoss, Thomas George

122

Association Between Treatment or Usual Care Region and Hospitalization for Fall-Related Traumatic Brain Injury in the Connecticut Collaboration for Fall Prevention  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Most traumatic brain injuries among older persons in the U.S. are attributed to falls. Efforts to prevent falls may also plausibly reduce the incidence of TBIs and resultant costs. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the association between the treatment or usual care region of the Connecticut Collaboration for Fall Prevention (CCFP), a clinical intervention for prevention of falls, and the rate of hospitalization for fall-related traumatic brain injury (FR-TBI) among persons ? 70 years. The Medicare charges of FR-TBI hospitalizations are also described. DESIGN Using a quasi-experimental design, rates of hospitalization for FR-TBI were recorded over an eight year period (2000–2007) in two distinct geographic regions (treatment and usual care) chosen for their similarity in characteristics associated with occurrence of falls. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Over 200,000 persons, 70 years and older, residing in two geographical regions in Connecticut. INTERVENTION Clinicians in the treatment region translated research protocols from Yale FICSIT, a successful fall prevention randomized clinical trial, into discipline- and site-specific fall prevention procedures for integration into their clinical practices. MEASUREMENTS The rate of hospitalization for fall-related traumatic brain injury among persons 70 years and older RESULTS Relative to the usual care region, CCFP’s treatment region exhibited lower rates of hospitalization for FR-TBI; RR= 0.84 with 95% credible interval (0.72 – 0.99). CONCLUSION The significantly lower rate of hospitalization for FR-TBI in CCFP’s treatment region suggests that the engagement of practicing clinicians in the implementation of evidence-based fall-prevention practices may reduce hospitalizations for FR-TBI. PMID:24083593

Murphy, Terrence E.; Baker, Dorothy I.; Leo-Summers, Linda S.; Allore, Heather G.; Tinetti, Mary E.

2013-01-01

123

[Prevention of falls by elderly people in oral health care practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health care practices are ever more frequently visited by frail elderly people. Frail elderly people are at risk for fall accidents due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors are patient-related and extrinsic factors are environment-related. Significant intrinsic fall risk factors for elderly people are orthostatic and postprandial hypotension. The most important effect of hypotension is cerebral hypoperfusion, which

S. H. Smit; P. de Baat; J. M. Schols; C. de Baat

2010-01-01

124

A national survey of services for the prevention and management of falls in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The National Health Service (NHS) was tasked in 2001 with developing service provision to prevent falls in older people. We carried out a national survey to provide a description of health and social care funded UK fallers services, and to benchmark progress against current practice guidelines. METHODS: Cascade approach to sampling, followed by telephone survey with senior member of

Sarah E Lamb; Joanne D Fisher; Simon Gates; Rachel Potter; Matthew W Cooke; Yvonne H Carter

2008-01-01

125

Implementing a Community-Based Falls-Prevention Program: From Drawing Board to Reality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of falls-prevention programs designed for community-dwelling seniors using randomized designs. However, little is known about the feasibility of implementing these programs under natural conditions and about the success of these programs when delivered under such conditions. The objectives of this…

Filiatrault, Johanne; Parisien, Manon; Laforest, Sophie; Genest, Carole; Gauvin, Lise; Fournier, Michel; Trickey, Francine; Robitaille, Yvonne

2007-01-01

126

Reactive Stepping to Prevent Falling for Humanoids Mitsuharu Morisawa, Kensule Harada, Shuuji Kajita, Kenji Kaneko,  

E-print Network

such reactive stepping, not only the COG (Center of Gravity) and the ZMP (Zero- Moment Point), but also the foot. INTRODUCTION An improvement of stability is necessary for a humanoid robot to operate in human environment. A humanoid robot can prevent from falling over by a reactive stepping when a large force is affected

Solà, Joan

127

Prevention of falls in the elderly trial (PROFET): a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Falls in elderly people are a common presenting complaint to accident and emergency departments. Current practice commonly focuses on the injury, with little systematic assessment of the underlying cause, functional consequences, and possibilities for future prevention. We undertook a randomised controlled study to assess the benefit of a structured inderdisciplinary assessment of people who have fallen in terms

Jacqueline Close; Margaret Ellis; Richard Hooper; Edward Glucksman; Stephen Jackson; Cameron Swift

1999-01-01

128

Evidence-Based and Evidence-Inspired: An Intergenerational Approach in the Promotion of Balance and Strength for Fall Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk of sustaining a fall and fall-related injuries is particularly high in children and seniors, which is why there is a need to develop fall-preventive intervention programs. An intergenerational approach in balance and strength promotion appears to have great potential because it is specifically tailored to the physical, social and behavioural needs of children and seniors. Burtscher and Kopp

Urs Granacher; Thomas Muehlbauer; Albert Gollhofer; Reto W. Kressig; Lukas Zahner

2011-01-01

129

Tailored Education for Older Patients to Facilitate Engagement in Falls Prevention Strategies after Hospital Discharge--A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background The aims of the study were to evaluate the effect of providing tailored falls prevention education in hospital on: i) engagement in targeted falls prevention behaviors in the month after discharge: ii) patients’ self-perceived risk and knowledge about falls and falls prevention strategies after receiving the education. Methods A pilot randomized controlled trial (n?=?50): baseline and outcome assessments conducted by blinded researchers. Participants: hospital inpatients 60 years or older, discharged to the community. Participants were randomized into two groups. The intervention was a tailored education package consisting of multimedia falls prevention information with trained health professional follow-up, delivered in addition to usual care. Outcome measures were engagement in falls prevention behaviors in the month after discharge measured at one month after discharge with a structured survey, and participants’ knowledge, confidence and motivation levels before and after receiving the education. The feasibility of providing the intervention was examined and falls outcomes (falls, fall-related injuries) were also collected. Results Forty-eight patients (98%) provided follow-up data. The complete package was provided to 21 (84%) intervention group participants. Participants in the intervention group were significantly more likely to plan how to safely restart functional activities [Adjusted odds ratio 3.80, 95% CI (1.07, 13.52), p?=?0.04] and more likely to complete other targeted behaviors such as completing their own home exercise program [Adjusted odds ratio 2.76, 95% CI (0.72, 10.50), p?=?0.14] than the control group. The intervention group was significantly more knowledgeable, confident and motivated to engage in falls prevention strategies after receiving the education than the control group. There were 23 falls (n?=?5 intervention; n?=?18 control) and falls rates were 5.4/1000 patient days (intervention); 18.7/1000 patient days (control). Conclusion This tailored education was received positively by older people, resulted in increased engagement in falls prevention strategies after discharge and is feasible to deliver to older hospital patients. Trial registration The study was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry; ACTRN12611000963921 on 8th November 2011. PMID:23717424

Hill, Anne-Marie; Etherton-Beer, Christopher; Haines, Terry P.

2013-01-01

130

Framework for preventing falls in acute hospitals using passive sensor enabled radio frequency identification technology.  

PubMed

We describe a distributed architecture for a real-time falls prevention framework capable of providing a technological intervention to mitigate the risk of falls in acute hospitals through the development of an AmbIGeM (Ambient Intelligence Geritatric Management system). Our approach is based on using a battery free, wearable sensor enabled Radio Frequency Identification device. Unsupervised classification of high risk falls activities are used to facilitate an immediate response from caregivers by alerting them of the high risk activity, the particular patient, and their location. Early identification of high risk falls activities through a longitudinal and unsupervised setting in real-time allows the preventative intervention to be administered in a timely manner. Furthermore, real-time detection allows emergency protocols to be deployed immediately in the event of a fall. Finally, incidents of high risk activities are automatically documented to allow clinicians to customize and optimize the delivery of care to suit the needs of patients identified as being at most risk. PMID:23367261

Visvanathan, Renuka; Ranasinghe, Damith C; Shinmoto Torres, Roberto L; Hill, Keith

2012-01-01

131

i Engaging as an innovative approach to engage patients in their own fall prevention care  

PubMed Central

Decreasing patient fall injuries during hospitalization continues to be a challenge at the bedside. Empowering patients to become active participants in their own fall prevention care could be a solution. In a previous study, elderly patients recently discharged from a United States hospital expressed a need for nurses to give and repeat directives about fall prevention; when the nurse left a brochure on the topic, but did not provide any (or limited) verbal explanations about the content or the importance of the information, the patient felt that the information was insufficient. To address patients’ needs, we developed “i Engaging”, a Web-based software application for use at the bedside. i Engaging is an innovative approach that is used to engage patients in their own fall prevention care during hospital stays. The application was designed based on the assumption that patients are the best and most critical sources of information about their health status. i Engaging has not yet been tested in clinical trials. PMID:24868148

Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Yin, Chang-Yi

2014-01-01

132

Falls prevention and the value of exercise: salient beliefs among South asian and white british older adults.  

PubMed

The importance of increasing exercise to prevent falls among older adults remains a key worldwide public health priority. However, older adults do not necessarily take up exercise as a preventative measure for falls. This qualitative study aimed to explore the beliefs of community-dwelling South Asian and White British older adults aged 60 to 70 about falls and exercise for fall prevention through 15 focus groups (n = 87) and 40 in-depth interviews. Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a framework approach. Data analysis identified six salient beliefs that influenced older adults' intention to exercise for fall prevention. In general, older adults aged 60 to 70 did not acknowledge their risk of falling and were not motivated to exercise simply to help prevent falls. Positive beliefs were found to be an unlikely barrier to taking up exercise for fall prevention for those who had experienced a fall. The implications for health promotion and health professionals with this group of older adults are discussed. PMID:23749340

Horne, Maria; Skelton, Dawn A; Speed, Shaun; Todd, Chris

2014-02-01

133

Evaluation of a comprehensive slip, trip and fall prevention programme for hospital employees.  

PubMed

In 2007, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that the incidence rate of lost workday injuries from slips, trips and falls (STFs) on the same level in hospitals was 35.2 per 10,000 full-time equivalents (FTE), which was 75% greater than the average rate for all other private industries combined (20.2 per 10,000 FTEs). The objectives of this 10-year (1996-2005) longitudinal study were to: 1) describe occupational STF injury events in hospitals; 2) evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive programme for reducing STF incidents among hospital employees. The comprehensive prevention programme included analysis of injury records to identify common causes of STFs, on-site hazard assessments, changes to housekeeping procedures and products, introduction of STF preventive products and procedures, general awareness campaigns, programmes for external ice and snow removal, flooring changes and slip-resistant footwear for certain employee subgroups. The hospitals' total STF workers' compensation claims rate declined by 58% from the pre-intervention (1996-1999) rate of 1.66 claims per 100 FTE to the post-intervention (2003-2005) time period rate of 0.76 claims per 100 FTE (adjusted rate ratio = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.33-0.54). STFs due to liquid contamination (water, fluid, slippery, greasy and slick spots) were the most common cause (24%) of STF claims for the entire study period 1996-2005. Food services, transport/emergency medical service and housekeeping staff were at highest risk of a STF claim in the hospital environment. Nursing and office administrative staff generated the largest numbers of STF claims. STF injury events in hospitals have a myriad of causes and the work conditions in hospitals are diverse. This research provides evidence that implementation of a broad-scale prevention programme can significantly reduce STF injury claims. PMID:18932056

Bell, Jennifer L; Collins, James W; Wolf, Laurie; Gronqvist, Raoul; Chiou, Sharon; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Sorock, Gary S; Courtney, Theodore K; Lombardi, David A; Evanoff, Bradley

2008-12-01

134

Falls prevention and support: translating research, integrating services and promoting the contribution of service users for quality and innovative programmes of care.  

PubMed

Falls are a significant threat to the safety, health and independence of older citizens. Despite the substantial evidence that is available around effective falls prevention programmes and interventions, their translation into falls reduction programmes and policies has yet to be fully realised. While hip fracture rates are decreasing, the number and incidence of fall-related hospital admissions among older people continue to rise. Given the demographic trends that highlight increasing numbers of older people in the UK, which is broadly reflected internationally, there is a financial and social imperative to minimise the rate of falls and associated injuries. Falling is closely aligned to growing older (Slips, Trips and Falls Update: From Acute and Community Hospitals and Mental Health Units in England and Wales, Department of Health, HMSO, London, 2010). According to the World Health Organization, around 30% of older people aged over 65 and 50% of those over 80 will fall each year (Falls Fact Sheet Number 344, WHO, Geneva, 2010). Falls happen as a result of many reasons and can have harmful consequences, including loss of mobility and independence, confidence and in many cases even death (Cochrane Database Syst Rev 15, 2009, 146; Slips, Trips and Falls Update: From Acute and Community Hospitals and Mental Health Units in England and Wales, Department of Health, HMSO, London, 2010; Falling Standards, Broken Promises: Report of the National Audit of Falls and Bone Health in Older People 2010, Health Care Quality Improvement Partnership, London, 2011). What is neither fair nor correct is the common belief by old and young alike that falls are just another inconvenience to put up with. The available evidence justifiably supports the view that well-organised services, based upon national standards and expert guidance, can prevent future falls among older people and reduce death and disability from fractures. This paper will draw from the UK, as an exemplar for policy and practice, to discuss the strategic direction of falls prevention programmes for older people and the partnerships that need to exist between researchers, service providers and users of services to translate evidence to the clinical setting. Second, it will propose some mechanisms for disseminating evidence to healthcare professionals and other stakeholders, to improve the quality and capacity of the clinical workforce. PMID:22078021

Gormley, Kevin J

2011-12-01

135

Exercise intervention to prevent falls and enhance mobility in community dwellers after stroke: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Stroke is the most common disabling neurological condition in adults. Falls and poor mobility are major contributors to stroke-related disability. Falls are more frequent and more likely to result in injury among stroke survivors than among the general older population. Currently there is good evidence that exercise can enhance mobility after stroke, yet ongoing exercise programs for general community-based stroke survivors are not routinely available. This randomised controlled trial will investigate whether exercise can reduce fall rates and increase mobility and physical activity levels in stroke survivors. Methods and design Three hundred and fifty community dwelling stroke survivors will be recruited. Participants will have no medical contradictions to exercise and be cognitively and physically able to complete the assessments and exercise program. After the completion of the pre-test assessment, participants will be randomly allocated to one of two intervention groups. Both intervention groups will participate in weekly group-based exercises and a home program for twelve months. In the lower limb intervention group, individualised programs of weight-bearing balance and strengthening exercises will be prescribed. The upper limb/cognition group will receive exercises aimed at management and improvement of function of the affected upper limb and cognition carried out in the seated position. The primary outcome measures will be falls (measured with 12 month calendars) and mobility. Secondary outcome measures will be risk of falling, physical activity levels, community participation, quality of life, health service utilisation, upper limb function and cognition. Discussion This study aims to establish and evaluate community-based sustainable exercise programs for stroke survivors. We will determine the effects of the exercise programs in preventing falls and enhancing mobility among people following stroke. This program, if found to be effective, has the potential to be implemented within existing community services. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12606000479505). PMID:19624858

Dean, Catherine M; Rissel, Chris; Sharkey, Michelle; Sherrington, Catherine; Cumming, Robert G; Barker, Ruth N; Lord, Stephen R; O'Rourke, Sandra D; Kirkham, Catherine

2009-01-01

136

An exercise program to prevent falls in institutionalized elderly with cognitive deficits: a crossover pilot study.  

PubMed

Falls are the leading cause of injury among older adults in the United States, with the institutionalized elderly at elevated risk for injury and death. Physical weakness and mental frailty, prevalent in institutionalized elderly, are major risk factors for falls. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a program that addresses both the physical and mental aspects of exercise to reduce falls in institutionalized elderly. Twenty-seven volunteer subjects residing in an assisted living facility participated in the 24 week randomized crossover study. After demographic, fall history, and mental status examinations, subjects were randomly assigned first to ten weeks of either an exercise class or a control group, followed by a four week "washout period" of no activity, then cross assigned to ten weeks as either a control group or exercise class, respectively. Falls as well as mental status changes were monitored during the study. After adjusting for differences in baseline risk between the control and treatment groups, and for potential residual effects of the treatment during the crossover phase, a statistically significant (P = .025) reduction in falls was found during treatment compared to the control periods. No change in mental status was seen. This small, pilot study shows that exercise programs, which emphasize mental strengthening as well as physical fitness, have the potential to reduce falls among mentally impaired, institutionalized seniors. PMID:24251085

DeSure, Ariell R; Peterson, Karen; Gianan, Faith V; Pang, Lorrin

2013-11-01

137

A novel fall prevention scheme for intelligent cane robot by using a motor driven universal joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we propose a novel fall prevention scheme for an omni-direction type cane robot by using a DC motor driven universal joint. The cane robot which is driven by three omni-wheels is called Intelligent Cane Robot (iCane). It is designed for aiding the elderly and handicapped people walking as shown in Fig.1. The motion of cane robot is

Pei Di; Jian Huang; Kosuke Sekiyama; Toshio Fukuda

2011-01-01

138

Randomized controlled trial of exercise intervention for the prevention of falls in community-dwelling elderly Japanese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Falls are common in elderly people. Possible consequences include serious injuries and the post-fall syndrome, with functional decline and limitation of physical activity. The present randomized controlled study sought to clarify the benefits of a combined long-term and home-based fall prevention program for elderly Japanese women. The subjects were individuals aged over 73 years, living at home in a western

Takao Suzuki; Hunkyung Kim; Hideyo Yoshida; Tatsuro Ishizaki

2004-01-01

139

Generalization of Gait Adaptation for Fall Prevention: From Moveable Platform to Slippery Floor  

PubMed Central

A person's ability to transfer the acquired improvements in the control of center of mass (COM) state stability to slips induced in everyday conditions can have profound theoretical and practical implications for fall prevention. This study investigated the extent to which such generalization could take place. A training group (n = 8) initially experienced 24 right-side slips in blocked-and-random order (from the 1st unannounced, novel slip, S-1 to the last, S-24) resulting from release of a low-friction moveable platform in walking. They then experienced a single unannounced slip while walking on an oil-lubricated vinyl floor surface (V-T). A control group (n = 8) received only one unannounced slip on the same slippery floor (V-C). Results demonstrated that the incidence of balance loss and fall on V-T was comparable to that on S-24. In both trials, fall and balance-loss incidence was significantly reduced in comparison with that on S-1 or on V-C, resulting from significant improvements in the COM state stability. The observed generalization indicates that the control of COM stability can be optimally acquired to accommodate alterations in environmental constraints, and it may be broadly coded and easily modifiable within the CNS. Because of such mechanisms, it is possible that the locomotor-balance skills acquired with the aid of low-friction moveable platforms can translate into resisting falls encountered in daily living. PMID:19073804

Bhatt, T.; Pai, Y. C.

2009-01-01

140

Preventing disability and falls in older adults: a population-based randomized trial.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. Because preventing disability and falls in older adults is a national priority, a randomized controlled trial was conducted to test a multicomponent intervention program. METHODS. From a random sample of health maintenance organization (HMO) enrollees 65 years and older, 1559 ambulatory seniors were randomized to one of three groups: a nurse assessment visit and follow-up interventions targeting risk factors for disability and falls (group 1, n = 635); a general health promotion nurse visit (group 2, n = 317); and usual care (group 3, n = 607). Data collection consisted of a baseline and two annual follow-up surveys. RESULTS. After 1 year, group 1 subjects reported a significantly lower incidence of declining functional status and a significantly lower incidence of falls than group 3 subjects. Group 2 subjects had intermediate levels of most outcomes. After 2 years of follow-up, the differences narrowed. CONCLUSIONS. The results suggest that a modest, one-time prevention program appeared to confer short-term health benefits on ambulatory HMO enrollees, although benefits diminished by the second year of follow-up. The mechanisms by which the intervention may have improved outcomes require further investigation. PMID:7977921

Wagner, E H; LaCroix, A Z; Grothaus, L; Leveille, S G; Hecht, J A; Artz, K; Odle, K; Buchner, D M

1994-01-01

141

What Effect Do They Have? Historical Meteorite Falls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a reading-comprehension lesson about historical meteorite falls. Learners will read about large historical meteors and meteorites falls, discuss the effects on people, and compare their reactions with those in recorded history. Suggestions for student mapping and vocabulary words are included. This is lesson 15 of 19 in Exploring Meteorite Mysteries.

142

A simple protocol for preventing falls and fractures in elderly individuals with musculoskeletal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Our protocol resulted in a significant prevention of falls and fractures in addition to marked improvements in the balance\\u000a function. Intervention comprised a new balance exercise and quadriceps femoris exercise. Subjects were outpatients aged ?65 years\\u000a old with musculoskeletal disorders who had a result of ?15 s for the timed one-leg balance test.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  A study on chronological changes in the level of

K. Kita; K. Hujino; T. Nasu; K. Kawahara; Y. Sunami

2007-01-01

143

Nurses' perceived barriers to the implementation of a Fall Prevention Clinical Practice Guideline in Singapore hospitals  

PubMed Central

Background Theories of behavior change indicate that an analysis of barriers to change is helpful when trying to influence professional practice. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived barriers to practice change by eliciting nurses' opinions with regard to barriers to, and facilitators of, implementation of a Fall Prevention clinical practice guideline in five acute care hospitals in Singapore. Methods Nurses were surveyed to identify their perceptions regarding barriers to implementation of clinical practice guidelines in their practice setting. The validated questionnaire, 'Barriers and facilitators assessment instrument', was administered to nurses (n = 1830) working in the medical, surgical, geriatric units, at five acute care hospitals in Singapore. Results An 80.2% response rate was achieved. The greatest barriers to implementation of clinical practice guidelines reported included: knowledge and motivation, availability of support staff, access to facilities, health status of patients, and, education of staff and patients. Conclusion Numerous barriers to the use of the Fall Prevention Clinical Practice Guideline have been identified. This study has laid the foundation for further research into implementation of clinical practice guidelines in Singapore by identifying barriers to change in acute care settings. PMID:18485235

Koh, Serena SL; Manias, Elizabeth; Hutchinson, Alison M; Donath, Susan; Johnston, Linda

2008-01-01

144

Department of Linguistics & TESOL Admissions Criteria -Effective Fall 2009  

E-print Network

Department of Linguistics & TESOL Admissions Criteria - Effective Fall 2009 Admission Requirements for Graduate Degree Programs in Linguistics In evaluating candidates for admissions to its graduate degree programs, the Linguistics & TESOL Faculty has adopted a comprehensive approach that is sensitive

Texas at Arlington, University of

145

FORESTRY, BSF IPC: 2/8/2011 EFFECTIVE: Fall 2011  

E-print Network

FORESTRY, BSF IPC: 2/8/2011 EFFECTIVE: Fall 2011 SCHOOL OF FORESTRY GENERAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS: PROFESSIONAL CORE: GRADE SCH GRADE SCH ARTS: FORESTRY: ART 290/HPE 280/MUGN 290/SPTH 3 FOR 111 Intro to Forest

Selmic, Sandra

146

A Population-Based Intervention for the Prevention of Falls and Fractures in Home Dwelling People 65 Years and Older in South Germany: Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Falls and fall-related injuries pose a major threat to older peoples’ health, and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In the course of demographic changes, development and implementation of fall prevention strategies have been recognized as an urgent public health challenge. Various risk factors for falls and a number of effective interventions have been recognized. A substantial proportion of falls occur for people who are neither frail nor at high risk. Therefore, population-based approaches reaching the entire older population are needed. Objective The objective of the study presented is the development, implementation, and evaluation of a population-based intervention for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries in a medium sized city in Germany. Methods The study is designed as a population-based approach. The intervention community is a mid sized city named Reutlingen in southern Germany with a population of 112,700 people. All community dwelling inhabitants 65 years and older are addressed. There are two main measures that are defined: (1) increase of overall physical activity, and (2) reduction of modifiable risk factors for falls such as deficits in strength and balance, home and environmental hazards, impaired vision, unsafe footwear, and improper use of assistive devices. The implementation strategies are developed in a participatory community planning process. These might include, for example, training of professionals and volunteers, improved availability of exercise classes, and education and raising awareness via newspaper, radio, or lectures. Results The study starts in September 2010 and ends in December 2013. It is evaluated primarily by process evaluation as well as by telephone survey. Conclusions Physical activity as a key message entails multiple positive effects with benefits on a range of geriatric symptoms. The strength of the design is the development of implementation strategies in a participatory community planning. The problems that we anticipate are the dependency on the stakeholders’ willingness to participate, and the difficulty of evaluating population-based programs by hard end points. PMID:24686959

Rapp, Kilian; Kupper, Michaela; Becker, Clemens; Fischer, Torben; Buchele, Gisela; Benzinger, Petra

2014-01-01

147

Implementing falls prevention research into policy and practice: an overview of a new National Health and Medical Research Council Partnership Grant.  

PubMed

Preventing falls and fall-related injuries among older people is an urgent public health challenge. This paper provides an overview of the background to and research planned for a 5-year National Health and Medical Research Council Partnership Grant on implementing falls prevention research findings into policy and practice. This program represents a partnership between key Australian falls prevention researchers, policy makers and information technology companies which aims to: (1) fill gaps in evidence relating to the prevention of falls in older people, involving new research studies of risk factor assessment and interventions for falls prevention; (2) translate evidence into policy and practice, examining the usefulness of new risk-identification tools in clinical practice; and (3) disseminate evidence to health professionals working with older people, via presentations, new evidence-based guidelines, improved resources and learning tools, to improve the workforce capacity to prevent falls and associated injuries in the future. PMID:21632005

Lord, Stephen R; Delbaere, Kim; Tiedemann, Anne; Smith, Stuart T; Sturnieks, Daina L

2011-06-01

148

Accident patterns and prevention measures for fatal occupational falls in the construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contributing factors to 621 occupational fatal falls have been identified with respect to the victim's individual factors, the fall site, company size, and cause of fall. Individual factors included age, gender, experience, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Accident scenarios were derived from accident reports. Significant linkages were found between causes for the falls and accident events. Falls

Chia-Fen Chi; Tin-Chang Chang; Hsin-I Ting

2005-01-01

149

Legionnaires` disease: Seeking effective prevention  

SciTech Connect

During the Bicentennial summer of 1976, American Legion Conventioneers in Philadelphia suffered a dramatic epidemic that left 34 dead. Near the end of 1976, scientists at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta discovered the bacterium that caused Legionnaires` disease and named it Legionella. Nearly two decades later, a wealth of scientific information exists about the organism, its health effects, epidemiology, microbiology, aquatic ecology, molecular biology, immunology, pathophysiology, etc. Fortunately, for the engineer seeking to prevent Legionnaires` disease, it is unnecessary to master this complexity; the practice of prevention requires understanding a few, straightforward facts. The purpose of this paper is to present four messages about Legionnaires` disease that provide a conceptual framework to guide the crucial role of practical prevention. Those messages are: Legionnaires` disease is important; Legionnaires` disease is an environmental disease; Legionnaires` disease is preventable; and Legionnaires` disease prevention requires the right strategy.

Millar, J.D.; Morris, G.K.; Shelton, B.G. [PathCon Labs., Norcross, GA (United States)

1997-01-01

150

Exercise therapy for prevention of falls in people with Parkinson's disease: A protocol for a randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background People with Parkinson's disease are twice as likely to be recurrent fallers compared to other older people. As these falls have devastating consequences, there is an urgent need to identify and test innovative interventions with the potential to reduce falls in people with Parkinson's disease. The main objective of this randomised controlled trial is to determine whether fall rates can be reduced in people with Parkinson's disease using exercise targeting three potentially remediable risk factors for falls (reduced balance, reduced leg muscle strength and freezing of gait). In addition we will establish the cost effectiveness of the exercise program from the health provider's perspective. Methods/Design 230 community-dwelling participants with idiopathic Parkinson's disease will be recruited. Eligible participants will also have a history of falls or be identified as being at risk of falls on assessment. Participants will be randomly allocated to a usual-care control group or an intervention group which will undertake weight-bearing balance and strengthening exercises and use cueing strategies to address freezing of gait. The intervention group will choose between the home-based or support group-based mode of the program. Participants in both groups will receive standardized falls prevention advice. The primary outcome measure will be fall rates. Participants will record falls and medical interventions in a diary for the duration of the 6-month intervention period. Secondary measures include the Parkinson's Disease Falls Risk Score, maximal leg muscle strength, standing balance, the Short Physical Performance Battery, freezing of gait, health and well being, habitual physical activity and positive and negative affect schedule. Discussion No adequately powered studies have investigated exercise interventions aimed at reducing falls in people with Parkinson's disease. This trial will determine the effectiveness of the exercise intervention in reducing falls and its cost effectiveness. This pragmatic program, if found to be effective, has the potential to be implemented within existing community services. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12608000303347). PMID:19161631

Canning, Colleen G; Sherrington, Cathie; Lord, Stephen R; Fung, Victor SC; Close, Jacqueline CT; Latt, Mark D; Howard, Kirsten; Allen, Natalie E; O'Rourke, Sandra D; Murray, Susan M

2009-01-01

151

Progressive load training for the quadriceps muscle associated with proprioception exercises for the prevention of falls in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study aims to evaluate the effect of 18-week progressive muscular strength and proprioception training program on the\\u000a muscle strength of the quadriceps, in prevention of falls in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The incidence of falls\\u000a in the intervention group was significantly lower than in the control group (incidence rate ratio (IRR)?=?0.263, 95% CI 0.10–0.68).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  This study aims to evaluate

L. E. P. P. Teixeira; K. N. G. Silva; A. M. Imoto; T. J. P. Teixeira; A. H. Kayo; R. Montenegro-Rodrigues; M. S. Peccin; V. F. M. Trevisani

2010-01-01

152

Chair alarm for patient fall prevention based on gesture recognition and interactivity.  

PubMed

The Gesture Recognition Interactive Technology (GRiT) Chair Alarm aims to prevent patient falls from chairs and wheelchairs by recognizing the gesture of a patient attempting to stand. Patient falls are one of the greatest causes of injury in hospitals. Current chair and bed exit alarm systems are inadequate because of insufficient notification, high false-alarm rate, and long trigger delays. The GRiT chair alarm uses an array of capacitive proximity sensors and pressure sensors to create a map of the patient's sitting position, which is then processed using gesture recognition algorithms to determine when a patient is attempting to stand and to alarm the care providers. This system also uses a range of voice and light feedback to encourage the patient to remain seated and/or to make use of the system's integrated nurse-call function. This system can be seamlessly integrated into existing hospital WiFi networks to send notifications and approximate patient location through existing nurse call systems. PMID:19163515

Knight, Heather; Lee, Jae-Kyu; Ma, Hongshen

2008-01-01

153

Stumbling with optimal phase reset during gait can prevent a humanoid from falling.  

PubMed

The human biped walking shows phase- dependent transient changes in gait trajectory in response to external brief force perturbations. Such responses, referred to as the stumbling reactions, are usually accompanied with phase reset of the walking rhythm. Our previous studies provided evidence, based on a human gait experiment and analyses of mathematical models of gait in the sagittal plane, that an appropriate amount of phase reset in response to a perturbation depended on the gait phase at the perturbation and could play an important role for preventing the walker from a fall, thus increasing gait stability. In this paper, we provide a further material that supports this evidence by a gait experiment on a biped humanoid. In the experiment, the impulsive force perturbations were applied using push-impacts by a pendulum-like hammer to the back of the robot during gait. The responses of the external perturbations were managed by resetting the gait phase with different delays or advancements. The results showed that appropriate amounts of phase resetting contributed to the avoidance of falling against the perturbation during the three-dimensional robot gait. A parallelism with human gait stumbling reactions was discussed. PMID:16969676

Nakanishi, Masao; Nomura, Taishin; Sato, Shunsuke

2006-11-01

154

Evidence-Based Guidelines for the Secondary Prevention of Falls in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Falls are a significant problem for older adults. Individuals who have sustained a fall come to the attention of health care providers and are at risk of further falls. To promote the highest quality of care and reduce variation in care, a practice guideline is needed. Summarization of evidence regarding falls may be useful to researchers in this field.

Julie Moreland; Julie Richardson; David H. Chan; John O’Neill; Agostino Bellissimo; Rosa Maria Grum; Lynne Shanks

2003-01-01

155

Vision and agility training in community dwelling older adults: incorporating visual training into programs for fall prevention.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the effect of visual training on obstacle course performance of independent community dwelling older adults. Agility is the ability to rapidly alter ongoing motor patterns, an important aspect of mobility which is required in obstacle avoidance. However, visual information is also a critical factor in successful obstacle avoidance. We compared obstacle course performance of a group that trained in visually driven body movements and agility drills, to a group that trained only in agility drills. We also included a control group that followed the American College of Sports Medicine exercise recommendations for older adults. Significant gains in fitness, mobility and power were observed across all training groups. Obstacle course performance results revealed that visual training had the greatest improvement on obstacle course performance (22%) following a 12 week training program. These results suggest that visual training may be an important consideration for fall prevention programs. PMID:22206782

Reed-Jones, Rebecca J; Dorgo, Sandor; Hitchings, Maija K; Bader, Julia O

2012-04-01

156

Effects of spring and fall burns on C3 and C4 productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lack of information about the differing effects of fall and spring burns on aboveground net primary production of C3 forbs and C4 grasses prevents discovery of optimal restoration management techniques for the tallgrass prairie. In order to make progress toward this goal, our study examines how the above- ground biomass and abundance of the late-flowering C3 species Lespedeza capitata

SARAH BATTERMAN; MONICA MUELLER; DAN PRIGNITZ

157

[Assessment and training of strength and balance for fall prevention in the elderly: recommendations of an interdisciplinary expert panel].  

PubMed

The proportion of elderly people in societies of western industrialized countries is continuously rising. Biologic aging induces deficits in balance and muscle strength/power in old age, which is responsible for an increased prevalence of falls. Therefore, nationwide and easy-to-administer fall prevention programs have to be developed in order to contribute to the autonomy and quality of life in old age and to help reduce the financial burden on the public health care system due to the treatment of fall-related injuries. This narrative (qualitative) literature review deals with a) the reasons for an increased prevalence of falls in old age, b) important clinical tests for fall-risk assessment, and c) evidence-based intervention/training programs for fall prevention in old age. The findings of this literature review are based on a cost-free practice guide that is available to the public (via the internet) and that was created by an expert panel (i.e., geriatricians, exercise scientists, physiotherapists, geriatric therapists). The present review provides the scientific foundation of the practice guide. PMID:23912126

Granacher, U; Muehlbauer, T; Gschwind, Y J; Pfenninger, B; Kressig, R W

2014-08-01

158

The Harstad injury prevention study: community based prevention of fall-fractures in the elderly evaluated by means of a hospital based injury recording system in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe a community based programme to prevent fractures resulting from falls and evaluate the outcome in terms of changes in fracture rates and short term hospital care costs. DESIGN: Prospective intervention study. SETTING: The Norwegian municipalities of Harstad (intervention) and Trondheim (reference) from 1 July 1985 to 30 June 1993. PARTICIPANTS: The person-years of the study were

B Ytterstad

1996-01-01

159

Evaluation of an Evidence-based Education Program for Health Professionals: The Canadian Falls Prevention Curriculum© (CFPC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThis paper describes a staged, mixed methods approach to the development and evaluation of an evidence-based education program for health care professionals and community leaders on how to design, implement and evaluate a fall prevention program. Stages of the approach included: 1.) Pre-development, 2.) Development, 3.) Pilot Testing and 4.) Impact on Practice.

V. Scott; A. Higginson; S. Metcalfe; F. Rajabali

160

Do ED staffs have a role to play in the prevention of repeat falls in elderly patients?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFall-related morbidity is a serious public health issue in older adults referred to emergency departments (EDs). Emergency physicians mostly focus on immediate injuries, whereas the specific assessment of functional consequences and opportunities for prevention remain scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing 6-month independence.

Frédéric Bloch; David Jegou; Jean-François Dhainaut; Anne-Sophie Rigaud; Joël Coste; Jean-Eric Lundy; Yann-Erick Claessens

2009-01-01

161

A Holistic Approach to Developing Fall-Prevention Programs for Community-Dwelling Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Falls among older adults are a major public health concern because they have a high incidence and impose substantial personal and societal burdens (Marks & Allegrante, 2004). Physical, emotional, social, environmental, and financial costs of fall-related injuries can be devastating. The direct annual financial cost in the United States for treating fall-related injuries is more than $20 billion annually (Centers

M. Jean Keller

2009-01-01

162

Quality Indicators for the Management and Prevention of Falls and Mobility Problems in Vulnerable Elders  

Microsoft Academic Search

alls and mobility problems are two of the most com- mon and serious concerns facing older adults. In ad- dition to reducing function and causing considerable morbidity and mortality, falls and instability precipitate premature nursing home admissions. Impaired gait and balance, which rank among the most significant under- lying causes of falls, are also common consequences of falls. Because older

Laurence Z. Rubenstein; Christopher M. Powers; Catherine H. MacLean

2001-01-01

163

The effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation integration pattern exercise program on the fall efficacy and gait ability of the elders with experienced fall.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of exercising program utilizing proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation integration pattern (PIP), which is effective in improvement of the physical function, on the fall efficacy and gait ability of the elders who experienced injuries from falls. Also, this study aims to investigate he applicability of exercise program as methods for fall reoccurrence prevention and physical functions enhancement. The subjects of the study were 30 elders in the local community with experience of injuries from falls. The period of the study was 4 weeks with 12 exercise sessions. The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups where 15 elders were allocated to PIP and the rest 15 elders were allocated to general exercise (GE) group. Fall efficacy scale (FES) and GAITRite were used for the measurements in this study. Paired t-test was used to analyze the differences within the group while independent t-test was used to analyze the difference between two groups. In the comparison of measurements before and after exercise program, FES, velocity, cadence, and stride length were shown to be significantly increased in both PIP group and GE group. Also, in the comparison between two groups after the exercise program, the measurements of FES, cadence, stride length, and step length in PIP group were shown to be significantly increased compared to the GE group. Therefore, the PNF combined pattern is judged to be applicable to as methods for fall reoccurrence prevention and physical functions enhancement of the elders with experience of being fallen. PMID:25210699

Song, Hyun-Seung; Park, Seong-Doo; Kim, Jin-Young

2014-08-01

164

HumanWildlife Conflicts 2(2):206211, Fall 2008 Evaluation of physical barriers to prevent  

E-print Network

. 2001), use artificial barriers (Franklin and Garrett 1989, Hygnstrom 1996), use toxicants (Witmer. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness and durability of existing artificial barriers placed to restrict (particularly windy) weather conditions and must prevent prairie dogs from gaining access to the ot

165

Fall 2000 Institutional Effectiveness Survey: Preliminary Written Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a narrative summary of an institutional effectiveness survey administered in the fall of 2000 at Cerritos College (California). The survey was designed to assess satisfaction with the institution. Administered to help meet the accreditation standards set by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC), the survey…

Ybarra, Michael

166

FORESTRY, BSF IPC: 6/15/2011 EFFECTIVE: Fall 2011  

E-print Network

FORESTRY, BSF IPC: 6/15/2011 EFFECTIVE: Fall 2011 SCHOOL OF FORESTRY GENERAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS: PROFESSIONAL COURSES: GRADE SCH GRADE SCH ARTS: FORESTRY CORE: ART 290/HPE 280/MUGN 290/SPTH 290 3 FOR/WILD 111 Intro to Forestry & Wildlife Management 2 FOR 201 Microcomputer Applications 3 ENGL COMPOSITION: FOR 202

Selmic, Sandra

167

Executive Function Is Independently Associated with Performances of Balance and Mobility in Community-Dwelling Older Adults after Mild Stroke: Implications for Falls Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Stroke survivors have a high incidence of falls. Impaired executive-controlled processes are frequent in stroke survivors and are associated with falls in this population. Better understanding of the independent association between executive-controlled processes and physiological fall risk (i.e. performances of balance and mobility) could enhance future interventions that aim to prevent falls and to promote an independent lifestyle among

Teresa Liu-Ambrose; Marco Y. C. Pang; Janice J. Eng

2007-01-01

168

[Physical exercises to prevent falls: a clinical trial with institutionalized elderly in the city of Goiânia in Brazil].  

PubMed

The scope of this study was to evaluate an intervention program with group physical exercises to prevent falls in the elderly in long-term care institutions. This is a non-randomized clinical trial conducted with 20 institutionalized elderly people in the city of Goiânia in Brazil. The interventions occurred over the period of five months, though the proposed exercise program was based on earlier studies. Standardized measures were used to assess falls, balance and gait, muscle strength, flexibility and fear of falling. After the period of 12 months from the start of intervention there was a significant reduction in the number of falls (p = 0.046). Based on the program, significant differences were observed for point allocation of the maneuvers of balance (p = 0.001), total scores of the maneuvers of balance and gait (p = 0.007), muscle strength of hand grip (p = 0.001) and of lower limbs (p < 0.001), flexibility of movement of shoulder flexion (p = 0.001). The intervention using an exercise program proved to be adequate, albeit insufficient to improve the gait, multiple joint flexibility of the spine and hip and fear of falling, or to reduce the number of elderly people who suffered falls from the beginning of the study. PMID:22899152

Sá, Ana Claudia Antonio Maranhão; Bachion, Maria Márcia; Menezes, Ruth Losada de

2012-08-01

169

Older People's Views of Falls-Prevention Interventions in Six European Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Our study identified factors common to a variety of populations and settings that may promote or inhibit uptake and adherence to falls-related interventions. Design and Methods: Semistructured interviews to assess perceived advantages and barriers to taking part in falls-related interventions were carried out in six European countries…

Yardley, Lucy; Bishop, Felicity L.; Beyer, Nina; Hauer, Klaus; Kempen, Gertrudis I. J. M.; Piot-Ziegler, Chantal; Todd, Chris J.; Cuttelod, Therese; Horne, Maria; Lanta, Kyriaki; Holt, Anne Rosell

2006-01-01

170

Determinants of acceptance of a community-based program for the prevention of falls and fractures among the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Low-energy fractures among the elderly may be prevented by measures aimed at reducing the risk of falling or increasing the strength of the skeleton. Acceptance of these interventions in the target population is necessary for their success.Methods. The total elderly population in a Danish municipality 7,543 community-dwelling persons aged 66+ years, were offered participation in one of three intervention

Erik Roj Larsen; Leif Mosekilde; Anders Foldspang

2001-01-01

171

An intergenerational approach in the promotion of balance and strength for fall prevention - a mini-review.  

PubMed

The risk of sustaining a fall is particularly high in children and seniors. Deficits in postural control and muscle strength either due to maturation, secular declines or biologic aging are two important intrinsic risk factors for falls. During life span, performance in variables of static postural control follows a U-shaped curve with children and seniors showing larger postural sway than healthy adults. Measures of dynamic postural control (i.e. gait speed) as well as isometric (i.e. maximal strength) and dynamic muscle strength (i.e. muscular power) follow an inverted U-shaped curve during life span, again with children and seniors showing deficits compared to adults. There is evidence that particularly balance and resistance training are effective in counteracting these neuromuscular constraints in both children and seniors. Further, these training regimens are able to reduce the rate of sustaining injuries and falls in these age groups. An intergenerational intervention approach is suggested to enhance the effectiveness of these training programs by improving compliance and increasing motivation of children and seniors exercising together. Thus, the objectives of this mini-review are: (1) to describe the epidemiology and etiology of falls in children and seniors; (2) to discuss training programs that counteract intrinsic fall risk factors by reducing the rate of falling, and (3) to present an intergenerational approach that has the potential to make training programs even more effective by including children and seniors together in one exercise group. PMID:20720401

Granacher, Urs; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Gollhofer, Albert; Kressig, Reto W; Zahner, Lukas

2011-01-01

172

Transfer Guide: Horticulture Business Management -1 -Revised: 29 March 2013 Effective Term: Fall 2013  

E-print Network

: Horticulture Business Management - 2 - Revised: 29 March 2013 Effective Term: Fall 2013 Arts & Humanities, (9Transfer Guide: Horticulture Business Management - 1 - Revised: 29 March 2013 Effective Term: Fall Bachelor of Science Degree ­ Horticulture Horticulture Business Management concentration This planning

173

Preventing falls in older people with visual impairment - not as straightforward as it seems  

Microsoft Academic Search

nursing homes delivered by the staff at each institution were associated with an increase in falls.5-7 Referral for eye examination The major causes of visual impair- ment, all associated with an in- creased risk of falls, are under-cor- rected refractive error, age-related macular degeneration, cataract, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy.8 Elderly people who have regular eye examinations do experience fewer declines

M Clare Robertson; A John Campbell

174

A best practice fall prevention exercise program to improve balance, strength / power, and psychosocial health in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background With increasing age neuromuscular deficits (e.g., sarcopenia) may result in impaired physical performance and an increased risk for falls. Prominent intrinsic fall-risk factors are age-related decreases in balance and strength / power performance as well as cognitive decline. Additional studies are needed to develop specifically tailored exercise programs for older adults that can easily be implemented into clinical practice. Thus, the objective of the present trial is to assess the effects of a fall prevention program that was developed by an interdisciplinary expert panel on measures of balance, strength / power, body composition, cognition, psychosocial well-being, and falls self-efficacy in healthy older adults. Additionally, the time-related effects of detraining are tested. Methods/Design Healthy old people (n?=?54) between the age of 65 to 80 years will participate in this trial. The testing protocol comprises tests for the assessment of static / dynamic steady-state balance (i.e., Sharpened Romberg Test, instrumented gait analysis), proactive balance (i.e., Functional Reach Test; Timed Up and Go Test), reactive balance (i.e., perturbation test during bipedal stance; Push and Release Test), strength (i.e., hand grip strength test; Chair Stand Test), and power (i.e., Stair Climb Power Test; countermovement jump). Further, body composition will be analysed using a bioelectrical impedance analysis system. In addition, questionnaires for the assessment of psychosocial (i.e., World Health Organisation Quality of Life Assessment-Bref), cognitive (i.e., Mini Mental State Examination), and fall risk determinants (i.e., Fall Efficacy Scale – International) will be included in the study protocol. Participants will be randomized into two intervention groups or the control / waiting group. After baseline measures, participants in the intervention groups will conduct a 12-week balance and strength / power exercise intervention 3 times per week, with each training session lasting 30 min. (actual training time). One intervention group will complete an extensive supervised training program, while the other intervention group will complete a short version ('3 times 3’) that is home-based and controlled by weekly phone calls. Post-tests will be conducted right after the intervention period. Additionally, detraining effects will be measured 12 weeks after program cessation. The control group / waiting group will not participate in any specific intervention during the experimental period, but will receive the extensive supervised program after the experimental period. Discussion It is expected that particularly the supervised combination of balance and strength / power training will improve performance in variables of balance, strength / power, body composition, cognitive function, psychosocial well-being, and falls self-efficacy of older adults. In addition, information regarding fall risk assessment, dose–response-relations, detraining effects, and supervision of training will be provided. Further, training-induced health-relevant changes, such as improved performance in activities of daily living, cognitive function, and quality of life, as well as a reduced risk for falls may help to lower costs in the health care system. Finally, practitioners, therapists, and instructors will be provided with a scientifically evaluated feasible, safe, and easy-to-administer exercise program for fall prevention. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01906034 PMID:24106864

2013-01-01

175

A community home inspection approach to preventing falls among the elderly.  

PubMed

Falls are the leading cause of accidents among those ages 65 and older and the largest single cause of death due to injury of the elderly. Environmental factors play a key role in the probability of a fall in the homes of the elderly. A community health promotion team approach can reduce the prevalence rate of injuries due to falls by eliminating the risk factors precipitating the injuries. A comprehensive program in Wilmington, OH, will incorporate the use of the community senior citizens' center, the local college, fire department, local radio stations and newspapers, community churches, local merchants, educators, and the medical community. Extrinsic factors that previously have been linked directly to falls will be identified in the home inspections. The "Fixer-Up-Team," composed of college students and community volunteers, will rectify any unsafe conditions found by the inspection team. Local merchants and lumber yards will donate materials to make needed repairs. Active senior citizens will be trained as part of the inspection team, allowing this program to be self-perpetuating. Compared with the national prevalence rates, this program will show a decrease in injuries caused by falls in the homes of the participants of this program. PMID:1902313

Urton, M M

1991-01-01

176

Effect of flame spray coating on falling film evaporation for multi effect distillation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horizontal tube falling film evaporators find various applications like multi effect distillation for sea water desalination, power and process applications, refrigeration applications, etc. In this system, latent heat released inside the tube due to condensation is transferred to the falling film on the tube surface resulting in convective evaporation. Among many heat transfer enhancement techniques, thermal spray coatings enjoy diverse

Raju Abraham; A. Mani

2012-01-01

177

Community Interventions and Effective Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of pregnancy, substance abuse, violence, and delinquency among young people is unacceptably high. Interventions for preventing problems in large numbers of youth require more than individual psychological interventions. Successful interventions include the involvement of prevention practitioners and community residents in community-level interventions. The potential of community-level interventions is illustrated by a number of successful studies. However, more inclusive

Abraham Wandersman; Paul Florin

2003-01-01

178

Preventing Slips and Falls through Leisure-Time Physical Activity: Findings from a Study of Limited-Service Restaurants  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective Physical activity has been shown to be beneficial at improving health in some medical conditions and in preventing injury. Epidemiologic studies suggest that physical activity is one factor associated with a decreased risk for slips and falls in the older (?65 years) adult population. While the risk of slips and falls is generally lower in younger than in older adults; little is known of the relative contribution of physical activity in preventing slips and falls in younger adults. We examined whether engagement in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) was protective of slips and falls among a younger/middle-aged (?50 years old) working population. Methods 475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants in six states in the U.S. were recruited to participate in a prospective cohort study of workplace slipping. Information on LTPA was collected at the time of enrollment. Participants reported their slip experience and work hours weekly for up to 12 weeks. We investigated the association between the rate of slipping and the rate of major slipping (i.e., slips that resulted in a fall and/or injury) and LTPA for workers 50 years of age and younger (n?=?433, range 18–50 years old) using a multivariable negative binomial generalized estimating equation model. Results The rate of major slips among workers who engaged in moderate (Adjusted Rate Ratio (RR) ?=?0.65; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) ?=? [0.18–2.44]) and vigorous (RR?=?0.64; 95%CI ?=? [0.18–2.26]) LTPA, while non-significant, were approximately one-third lower than the rate of major slips among less active workers. Conclusion While not statistically significant, the results suggest a potential association between engagement in moderate and vigorous LTPA and the rate of major slips in younger adults. Additional studies that examine the role of occupational and non-occupational physical activity on the risk of slips, trips and falls among younger and middle aged adults appear warranted. PMID:25329816

Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Courtney, Theodore K.; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Lombardi, David A.; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Brennan, Melanye J.; Perry, Melissa J.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Verma, Santosh K.

2014-01-01

179

Strength, power, and postural control in seniors: Considerations for functional adaptations and for fall prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ageing neuromuscular system is affected by structural and functional changes that lead to a general slowing down of neuromuscular performance and an increased risk of falling. As a consequence, the process of ageing results in a reduced ability to develop maximal and explosive force, as well as in deficits in static and dynamic postural control. A decrease in the

Urs Granacher; Lukas Zahner; Albert Gollhofer

2008-01-01

180

'They will tell me if there is a problem': limited discussion between health professionals, older adults and their caregivers on falls prevention during and after hospitalization.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to describe the sources of falls prevention information provided to older adults during and after hospitalization, identify and explore reasons why discussion about falls prevention may not take place. Six participant groups were interviewed using semi-structured interviews or focus groups: (i) older patients (n = 16); (ii) caregivers (n = 8); (iii) allied health and nursing professionals (n = 33); (iv) doctors from acute wards (n = 8); (v) doctors from subacute wards (n = 10) and (vi) general practitioners (n = 9). Participants were recruited from three Australian hospitals that provided acute and subacute in-patient services to the older adults. General practitioners were recruited from the community of Melbourne. Findings showed provision of falls prevention information was dependent on setting of the ward and which health professionals the older adult encountered during and after hospitalization. Medical practitioners were reactive in providing information, whereas older adults and their caregivers were passive in seeking falls prevention information. Several barriers in information provision and information seeking were identified. There is great potential to improve the consistency of falls prevention information provision to older adults during hospitalization and in preparation for discharge to assist with prevention of falls in this high risk period. PMID:24045410

Lee, Den-Ching A; McDermott, Fiona; Hoffmann, Tammy; Haines, Terry P

2013-12-01

181

Radiation Therapy: Preventing and Managing Side Effects  

MedlinePLUS

... effects of radiation therapy Preventing and managing side effects of radiation therapy When the radiation damages nearby ... radiation therapy ” section for more on this. Side effects can vary. Your doctor and nurse are the ...

182

Middle College. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 17, Number 4, Fall 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) College As A Bridge to High School Graduation (Terry Cash); (2) 2005 NDPN Crystal Star Awards of Excellence; (3) Mott Middle College (Chery S. Wagonlander); (4) Gateway to College: A…

Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

2005-01-01

183

Towards falls prevention: a wearable wireless and battery-less sensing and automatic identification tag for real time monitoring of human movements.  

PubMed

Falls related injuries among elderly patients in hospitals or residents in residential care facilities is a significant problem that causes emotional and physical trauma to those involved while presenting a rising healthcare expense in countries such as Australia where the population is ageing. Novel approaches using low cost and privacy preserving sensor enabled Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology may have the potential to provide a low cost and effective technological intervention to prevent falls in hospitals. We outline the details of a wearable sensor enabled RFID tag that is battery free, low cost, lightweight, maintenance free and can be worn continuously for automatic and unsupervised remote monitoring of activities of frail patients at acute hospitals or residents in residential care. The technological developments outlined in the paper forms part of an overall technological intervention developed to reduce falls at acute hospitals or in residential care facilities. This paper outlines the details of the technology, underlying algorithms and the results (where an accuracy of 94-100% was achieved) of a successful pilot trial. PMID:23367394

Ranasinghe, Damith C; Shinmoto Torres, Roberto L; Sample, Alanson P; Smith, Joshua R; Hill, Keith; Visvanathan, Renuka

2012-01-01

184

The Effects of a Walking Exercise Program on Fall-Related Fitness, Bone Metabolism, and Fall-Related Psychological Factors in Elderly Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 3-month walking exercise program with ankle weights on fall-related fitness, bone metabolism, and fall-related psychological factors. Fall-related fitness was determined from strength, balance, agility, aerobic endurance, muscle mass, and fat mass measures. Bone metabolism was measured using bone density, hormones, and biochemical markers. Fall-related psychological factors included fear

Eun Jung Yoo; Tae Won Jun; Steven A. Hawkins

2010-01-01

185

The Prevention of Childhood Sexual Abuse VOL. 19 / NO. 2 / FALL 2009 169  

E-print Network

. Most sexual abusers are not strangers or pedophiles; many (about a third) are themselves juveniles for offenders, par- ticularly juveniles, to reduce re-offending, and for victims, to prevent negative mental is the director of the Crimes against Children Research Center and a professor of sociology at the University

186

Fall rice straw management and winter flooding treatment effects on a subsequent soybean crop  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of fall rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw management and winter flooding on the yield and profitability of subsequent irrigated and dryland soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] crops were studied for 3 years. Rice straw treatments consisted of disking, rolling, or standing stubble. Winter flooding treatments consisted of maintaining a minimum water depth of 10 cm by pumping water when necessary, impounding available rainfall, and draining fields to prevent flooding. The following soybean crop was managed as a conventional-tillage system or no-till system. Tillage system treatments were further divided into irrigated or dryland. Results indicated that there were no significant effects from either fall rice straw management or winter flooding treatments on soybean seed yields. Soybean seed yields for, the conventional tillage system were significantly greater than those for the no-till system for the first 2 yrs and not different in the third year. Irrigated soybean seed yields were significantly greater than those from dryland plots for all years. Net economic returns averaged over the 3 yrs were greatest ($390.00 ha-1) from the irrigated no-till system.

Anders, M.M.; Windham, T.E.; McNew, R.W.; Reinecke, K.J.

2005-01-01

187

Intrinsic factors associated with pregnancy falls.  

PubMed

Approximately 25% to 27% of women sustain a fall during pregnancy, and falls are associated with serious injuries and can affect pregnancy outcomes. The objective of the current study was to identify intrinsic factors associated with pregnancy that may contribute to women's increased risk of falls. A literature search (Medline and Pubmed) identified articles published between January 1980 and June 2013 that measured associations between pregnancy and fall risks, using an existing fall accident investigation framework. The results indicated that physiological, biomechanical, and psychological changes associated with pregnancy may influence the initiation, detection, and recovery phases of falls and increase the risk of falls in this population. Considering the logistic difficulties and ethnic concerns in recruiting pregnant women to participate in this investigation of fall risk factors, identification of these factors could establish effective fall prevention and intervention programs for pregnant women and improve birth outcomes. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(10):403-408.]. PMID:25207589

Wu, Xuefang; Yeoh, Han T

2014-10-01

188

(BSET) -FIRE SAFETY ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM Effective Fall 2003  

E-print Network

Fall ­ Odd Years Sem Hr Grade Notes: ETFS 3113 3 ETFS 3124 3 ETFS 3611 1 ETGR 32221 3 PSYC 2171 3 STAT 12202 3 16 SEM & YR Spring ­ Even Years Sem Hr Grade Notes: ETFS 3103 3 ETFS 4123 3 POLS 3119 3 Gen Ed Elec3 3 Directed Elective6 3 15 Senior Year SEM & YR Fall ­ Even Years Sem Hr Grade Notes: ETFS 3144 3

Raja, Anita

189

Accounting PhD Curriculum Effective Fall 2011 (current students modify accordingly)  

E-print Network

Accounting PhD Curriculum Effective Fall 2011 (current students modify accordingly) First Year Hours Fall courses: ACCT 7021 - Accounting Theory 3 ACCT 7601 ­ International Accounting 3 ECON 7610 Spring courses: ACCT 9001 ­ Accounting Research II 3 ECON 7630 ­ Econometric Methods I 3 ACCT 7270

190

Effects of drug pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, characteristics of medication use, and relevant pharmacological interventions on fall risk in elderly patients  

PubMed Central

Background Falls among the elderly are an issue internationally and a public health problem that brings substantial economic and quality-of-life burdens to individuals and society. Falls prevention is an important measure of nursing quality and patient safety. Numerous studies have evaluated the association of medication use with fall risk in elderly patients. However, an up-to-date review has not been available to summarize the multifaceted pharmaceutical concerns in the prevention of medication-related falls. Materials and methods Relevant literature was identified by performing searches in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library, covering the period until February 2014. We included studies that described an association between medications and falls, and effects of drug pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, characteristics of medication use, and pharmacological interventions on fall risk in elderly patients. The full text of each included article was critically reviewed, and data interpretation was performed. Results Fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRIDs) include central nervous system-acting agents, cough preparations, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-Alzheimer’s agents, antiplatelet agents, calcium antagonists, diuretics, ?-blockers, digoxin, hypoglycemic drugs, neurotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, nasal preparations, and antiglaucoma ophthalmic preparations. The degree of medication-related fall risk was dependent on one or some of the following factors: drug pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties (eg, elimination half-life, metabolic pathway, genetic polymorphism, risk rating of medications despite belonging to the same therapeutic class) and/or characteristics of medication use (eg, number of medications and drug–drug interactions, dose strength, duration of medication use and time since stopping, medication change, prescribing appropriateness, and medication adherence). Pharmacological interventions, including withdrawal of FRIDs, pharmacist-conducted clinical medication review, and computerized drug alerts, were effective in reducing fall risk. Conclusion Based on the literature review, clear practical recommendations for clinicians to prevent falls in the elderly included making a list of FRIDs, establishing a computerized alert system for when to e-prescribe FRIDs, seeking an alternative drug with lower fall risk, withdrawing FRIDs if clinically indicated, taking pertinent cautions when the use of FRIDs cannot be avoidable, paying attention to prescribing appropriateness, simplifying the medication regimen, strengthening pharmacist-conducted clinical medication review, ensuring the label of each FRID dispensed contains a corresponding warning sign, being careful when medication change occurs, enhancing medication adherence, and mandating for periodic reassessment of potential risk associated with the patient’s medication regimen. Further studies should be conducted in this area, such as investigating whether medication reconciliation and improving medication adherence could decrease the rate of falls. PMID:24966681

Chen, Ying; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Zhou, Quan

2014-01-01

191

[Fall and fracture risk].  

PubMed

Falls and fall-related fractures are a major problem among older adults. These injuries often cause continuous pain, functional impairments, and mortality. While the majority of falls do not result in fractures, most fractures are due to falls. Especially, almost all hip fractures (95%) result from falls. And so, it is very important to analyze falls and risk factors for falls. A history of falls is the major independent predictor of future fall risk. To date, several strategies have been provided to control risk factors for fall. To prevent falls and fall-induced injuries and fractures, multicomponent exercise, home hazard assessment and modification and use of hip protectors have proven efficient. PMID:20808042

Koike, Tatsuya

2010-09-01

192

Fall Proofing Your Home  

MedlinePLUS

... Proofing Your Home Six out of every 10 falls happen at home, where we spend much of ... without thinking about our safety. Many of these falls could be prevented by making simple changes. Go4Life ...

193

Effectiveness of riboflavin in pediatric migraine prevention  

PubMed Central

Abstract Question The rate of migraine diagnosed among children is increasing. Is riboflavin, an alternative to traditional pharmacologic agents, effective and safe for prevention of migraine in children? Answer Because migraine is a very common condition in childhood and adolescence, often contributing to substantial burden of illness, there is increased interest in alternatives to traditional pharmacologic prevention. The expectation is that over-the-counter alternative medication will be less toxic, better tolerated, and have fewer side effects. A few studies in adults show that riboflavin (vitamin B2) might decrease frequency of migraine headaches. It has become common practice to recommend that children try riboflavin to prevent migraine; however, research on riboflavin use in children is inconclusive. PMID:24627379

Sherwood, Michelle; Goldman, Ran D.

2014-01-01

194

Effectiveness of Programs to Prevent School Bullying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen major evaluations of programs to prevent school bullying, conducted in 11 different countries, are reviewed in detail. Of these 16 evaluations, 8 produced desirable results, 2 produced mixed results, 4 produced small or negligible effects, and 2 produced undesirable results. These varying findings may reflect variations in programs, in implementation, in assessment methods, or in evaluation designs. It is

Anna C. Baldry; David P. Farrington

2007-01-01

195

Inpatient Falls  

PubMed Central

In this 2 part series, analysis of the risk stratification tools that are available, definition for the scope of the problem, and potential solutions through a review of the literature are presented. A systematic review was used to identify articles for risk stratification and interventions. Three risk stratification systems are discussed, St Thomas’s Risk Assessment Tool in Falling Elderly Inpatients, Morse Fall Scale, and the Hendrich Fall Risk Model. Of these scoring systems, the Hendrich Fall Risk Model is the easiest to use and score. Predominantly, multifactorial interventions are used to prevent patient falls. Education and rehabilitation are common themes in studies with statistically significant results. The second article presents a guide to implementing a quality improvement project around hospital falls. A 10-step approach to Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles is described. Specific examples of problems and analysis are easily applicable to any institution. Furthermore, the sustainability of interventions and targeting new areas for improvement is discussed. Although specific to falls in the hospitalized patient, the goal is to present a stepwise approach which is broadly applicable to other areas requiring quality improvement. PMID:24167647

Cumbler, Ethan U.; Simpson, Jennifer R.; Rosenthal, Laura D.; Likosky, David J.

2013-01-01

196

Comparison of tai chi vs. strength training for fall prevention among female cancer survivors: study protocol for the GET FIT trial  

PubMed Central

Background Women with cancer are significantly more likely to fall than women without cancer placing them at higher risk of fall-related fractures, other injuries and disability. Currently, no evidence-based fall prevention strategies exist that specifically target female cancer survivors. The purpose of the GET FIT (Group Exercise Training for Functional Improvement after Treatment) trial is to compare the efficacy of two distinct types of exercise, tai chi versus strength training, to prevent falls in women who have completed treatment for cancer. The specific aims of this study are to: 1) Determine and compare the efficacy of both tai chi training and strength training to reduce falls in older female cancer survivors, 2) Determine the mechanism(s) by which tai chi and strength training each reduces falls and, 3) Determine whether or not the benefits of each intervention last after structured training stops. Methods/Design We will conduct a three-group, single-blind, parallel design, randomized controlled trial in women, aged 50–75 years old, who have completed chemotherapy for cancer comparing 1) tai chi 2) strength training and 3) a placebo control group of seated stretching exercise. Women will participate in supervised study programs twice per week for six months and will be followed for an additional six months after formal training stops. The primary outcome in this study is falls, which will be prospectively tracked by monthly self-report. Secondary outcomes are maximal leg strength measured by isokinetic dynamometry, postural stability measured by computerized dynamic posturography and physical function measured by the Physical Performance Battery, all measured at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. The sample for this trial (N=429, assuming 25% attrition) will provide adequate statistical power to detect at least a 47% reduction in the fall rate over 1 year by being in either of the 2 exercise groups versus the control group. Discussion The GET FIT trial will provide important new knowledge about preventing falls using accessible and implementable exercise interventions for women following chemotherapy for cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01635413 PMID:23217054

2012-01-01

197

Circumstances and consequences of falls in independent community-dwelling older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: knowledge of the circumstances and consequences of falls in older adults is important for understanding the aetiology of falls as well as for effective clinical assessment and design of fall prevention strategies. Such data, however, are relatively scarce, especially in community-dwelling elders. Method: accidental falls (including their circumstances and consequences) occurring in 96 male and female participants between 60

WILLIAM P. BERG; HELAINE M. ALESSIO; EUGENIA M. MILLS; CHEN TONG

1997-01-01

198

Fall-Risk Evaluation and Management: Challenges in Adopting Geriatric Care Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One third of older adults fall each year, placing them at risk for serious injury, functional decline, and health care utilization. Despite the availability of effective preventive approaches, policy and clinical efforts at preventing falls among older adults have been limited. In this article we present the burden of falls, review evidence…

Tinetti, Mary E.; Gordon, Catherine; Sogolow, Ellen; Lapin, Pauline; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

2006-01-01

199

Physical therapy approaches to reduce fall and fracture risk among older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Falls and fall-related injuries, such as fractures, are a growing problem among older adults, often causing longstanding pain, functional impairments, reduced quality of life and excess health-care costs and mortality. These problems have led to a variety of single component or multicomponent intervention strategies to prevent falls and subsequent injuries. The most effective physical therapy approach for the prevention of

Maarit Piirtola; Harri Sievänen; Kirsti Uusi-Rasi; Pekka Kannus; Saija Karinkanta

2010-01-01

200

The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted. PMID:22583406

Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

2012-12-01

201

The Development of a Community-Based, Pharmacist-Provided Falls Prevention MTM Intervention for Older Adults: Relationship Building, Methods, and Rationale  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this article are to discuss the process of community engagement experienced to plan and implement a pilot study of a pharmacist-provided MTM intervention focused on reducing the use of medications associated with falling, and to present the research methods that emerged from the community engagement process to evaluate the feasibility, acceptance, and preliminary impact of the intervention. Key lessons learned from the community engagement process also are presented and discussed. The relationship building and planning process took twelve months. The RE-AIM framework broadly guided the planning process since an overarching goal for the community partners was developing a program that could be implemented and sustained in the future. The planning phase focused on identifying research questions that were of most interest to the community partners, the population to study, the capacity of partners to perform activities, process evaluation. Much of the planning phase was accomplished with face-to-face meetings. After all study processes, study materials, and data collection tools were developed, a focus group of older adults who represented the likely targets of the MTM intervention provided feedback related to the concept and process of the intervention. Nine key lessons were identified from the community engagement process. One key to successful community engagement is partners taking the time to educate each other about experiences, processes, and success and failures. Additionally, partners must actively listen to each other to better understand barriers and facilitators that likely will impact the planning and implementation process. Successful community engagement will be important to develop both formative and summative evaluation processes that will help to produce valid evidence about the effectiveness of pharmacists in modifying drug therapy and preventing falls as well as promote adoption and implementation of the intervention in other communities.

Mott, David A.; Martin, Beth; Breslow, Robert; Michaels, Barb; Kirchner, Jeff; Mahoney, Jane; Margolis, Amanda

2014-01-01

202

Falls following discharge after an in-hospital fall  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Falls are among the most common adverse events reported in hospitalized patients. While there is a growing body of literature on fall prevention in the hospital, the data examining the fall rate and risk factors for falls in the immediate post-hospitalization period has not been well described. The objectives of the present study were to determine the fall rate

Rick D Davenport; Georgeta D Vaidean; Carol B Jones; A Michelle Chandler; Lori A Kessler; Lorraine C Mion; Ronald I Shorr

2009-01-01

203

An effective community-academic partnership to extend the reach of screenings for fall risk.  

PubMed

Older adults should be screened for fall risk annually. Community providers (people without formal medical training who work with older adults in senior centers or aging services) may be a viable group to expand the reach of screenings. Our community-academic partnership developed a program to increase and assess fall risk screenings by community providers. Community sites hosted training workshops and screening events. Community screenings were well attended and received by providers and older adults. With administrative support from the regional fall prevention coalition and technical support from academia, community providers screened 161 older adults from a broad geographic area. Twenty-one community providers completed the training. Knowledge and confidence surveys demonstrated improvements before and after training (P<.001). Skills assessments demonstrated mastery of most skills, but some providers required additional training. Provider feedback indicated screening procedures were complex. Future projects will examine this model using simplified screening procedures. PMID:23968584

Schrodt, Lori A; Garbe, Kathie C; Chaplin, Rebecca; Busby-Whitehead, Jan; Shubert, Tiffany E

2013-01-01

204

GENERALIZATION OF TREADMILL-SLIP TRAINING TO PREVENT A FALL FOLLLOWING A SUDDEN (NOVEL) SLIP IN OVER-GROUND WALKING  

PubMed Central

The purposes of the study were to determine 1) whether treadmill-slip training could reduce the likelihood of falls during a novel slip in over-ground walking, and 2) to what extent such (indirect) training would be comparable to (direct) over-ground-slip training. A treadmill-slip training group (Group A, n=17) initially experienced repeated perturbations on treadmill intended to simulate forward-slip in over-ground walking. Perturbation continued and its intensity reduced when necessary to ensure subjects’ successful adaptation (i.e., when they could land their trailing foot ahead of the slipping foot in at least 3 of 5 consecutive trials). They then experienced a novel slip during over-ground walking. Another 17 young adults in Group B experienced an identical novel slip that served as the controls. They then underwent more slip trials during over-ground walking. Their 16th slip trial was analyzed to represent the over-ground-slip training effect. Eight subjects (47%) in Group A fell upon their first treadmill slip, while all adapted successfully after a minimum of 15 slip trials. Upon the novel slip during over-ground walking, none of them fell in comparison to four subjects (23.5%) fell in Group B upon the same trial (p<0.05). Group A’s control of stability, both proactive and reactive, was significantly better than that of Group B’s on their first over-ground slip, while the level of improvement derived from indirect treadmill training was not as strong as that from direct over-ground-slip training, as demonstrated in Group B’s 16th slip trial (p<0.001). These results clearly demonstrated the feasibility of fall reduction through treadmill-slip training. PMID:23141636

Yang, Feng; Bhatt, Tanvi; Pai, Yi-Chung

2012-01-01

205

An Intergenerational Approach in the Promotion of Balance and Strength for Fall Prevention – A Mini-Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk of sustaining a fall is particularly high in children and seniors. Deficits in postural control and muscle strength either due to maturation, secular declines or biologic aging are two important intrinsic risk factors for falls. During life span, performance in variables of static postural control follows a U-shaped curve with children and seniors showing larger postural sway than

Urs Granacher; Thomas Muehlbauer; Albert Gollhofer; Reto W. Kressig; Lukas Zahner

2011-01-01

206

The effectiveness of a combined exercise intervention on physical fitness factors related to falls in community-dwelling older adults.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative exercise program on muscle strength, balance, and gait kinematics in elderly community-dwellers. The exercise program included strength and balance training and the 8-form Tai Chi Chuan. The measurements were carried out at baseline and 12 weeks, and consisted of four physical performance tests, joint isokinetic strength tests, and three-dimensional gait analysis. Fifty-six community-dwelling older adults aged 60-80 years old were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. After 12 weeks, the intervention group showed a 17.6% improvement in the timed up and go test, accompanied by a 54.7% increase in the 30-second chair stand test score. Significant increases in the score of star excursion balance tests, and the strength of the extensor and flexor muscles at knee and ankle joints were also observed. In addition, the intervention group walked at a faster speed with a longer step length, shorter support phase, and a greater sagittal plane range of motion at the hip and ankle joints. No statistical improvements were seen in the control group. This study provided an effective, evidence-based falls prevention program that can be implemented in community settings to improve physical fitness and reduce fall risks among community-dwelling older adults. The star excursion balance test could be a sensitive measure of physical performance for fall risk assessment in older people. PMID:24453483

Zhuang, Jie; Huang, Liang; Wu, Yanqiang; Zhang, Yanxin

2014-01-01

207

The effectiveness of a combined exercise intervention on physical fitness factors related to falls in community-dwelling older adults  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative exercise program on muscle strength, balance, and gait kinematics in elderly community-dwellers. The exercise program included strength and balance training and the 8-form Tai Chi Chuan. The measurements were carried out at baseline and 12 weeks, and consisted of four physical performance tests, joint isokinetic strength tests, and three-dimensional gait analysis. Fifty-six community-dwelling older adults aged 60–80 years old were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. After 12 weeks, the intervention group showed a 17.6% improvement in the timed up and go test, accompanied by a 54.7% increase in the 30-second chair stand test score. Significant increases in the score of star excursion balance tests, and the strength of the extensor and flexor muscles at knee and ankle joints were also observed. In addition, the intervention group walked at a faster speed with a longer step length, shorter support phase, and a greater sagittal plane range of motion at the hip and ankle joints. No statistical improvements were seen in the control group. This study provided an effective, evidence-based falls prevention program that can be implemented in community settings to improve physical fitness and reduce fall risks among community-dwelling older adults. The star excursion balance test could be a sensitive measure of physical performance for fall risk assessment in older people. PMID:24453483

Zhuang, Jie; Huang, Liang; Wu, Yanqiang; Zhang, Yanxin

2014-01-01

208

Tunguska meteor fall of 1908: effects on stratospheric ozone  

SciTech Connect

In 1908, when the giant Tunguska meteor disintegrated in the earth's atmosphere over Siberia, it may have generated as much as 30 million metric tons of nitric oxide (NO) in the stratosphere and mesosphere. The photochemical aftereffects of the event have been simulated using a comprehensive model of atmospheric trace composition. Calculations indicate that up to 45 percent of the ozone in the Northern Hemisphere may have been depleted by Tunguska's nitric oxide cloud early in 1909 and large ozone reductions may have persisted until 1912. Measurements of atmospheric transparency by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for the years 1909 to 1911 show evidence of a steady ozone recovery from unusually low levels in early 1909, implying a total ozone deficit of 30 +- 15 percent. The coincidence in time between the observed ozone recovery and the Tungska meteor fall indicates that the event may provide a test of current ozone depletion theories.

Turco, R.P.; Toon, O.B.; Park, C.; Whitten, R.C.; Pollack, J.B.; Noerdlinger, P.

1981-10-02

209

Fall fertilization timing effects on nitrate leaching and turfgrass color and growth.  

PubMed

Fall season fertilization is a widely recommended practice for turfgrass. Fertilizer applied in the fall, however, may be subject to substantial leaching losses. A field study was conducted in Connecticut to determine the timing effects of fall fertilization on nitrate N (NO3-N) leaching, turf color, shoot density, and root mass of a 90% Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), 10% creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) lawn. Treatments consisted of the date of fall fertilization: 15 September, 15 October, 15 November, 15 December, or control which received no fall fertilizer. Percolate water was collected weekly with soil monolith lysimeters. Mean log(10) NO3-N concentrations in percolate were higher for fall fertilized treatments than for the control. Mean NO3-N mass collected in percolate water was linearly related to the date of fertilizer application, with higher NO3-N loss for later application dates. Applying fall fertilizer improved turf color and density but there were no differences in color or density among applications made between 15 October and 15 December. These findings suggest that the current recommendation of applying N in mid- to late November in southern New England may not be compatible with water quality goals. PMID:16391287

Mangiafico, Salvatore S; Guillard, Karl

2006-01-01

210

Selection effects and prevention program outcomes.  

PubMed

A primary goal of the paper is to provide an example of an evaluation design and analytic method that can be used to strengthen causal inference in nonexperimental prevention research. We used this method in a nonexperimental multisite study to evaluate short-term outcomes of a preventive intervention, and we accounted for effects of two types of selection bias: self-selection into the program and differential dropout. To provide context for our analytic approach, we present an overview of the counterfactual model (also known as Rubin's causal model or the potential outcomes model) and several methods derived from that model, including propensity score matching, the Heckman two-step approach, and full information maximum likelihood based on a bivariate probit model and its trivariate generalization. We provide an example using evaluation data from a community-based family intervention and a nonexperimental control group constructed from the Washington State biennial Healthy Youth Survey (HYS) risk behavior data (HYS n?=?68,846; intervention n?=?1,502). We identified significant effects of participant, program, and community attributes in self-selection into the program and program completion. Identification of specific selection effects is useful for developing recruitment and retention strategies, and failure to identify selection may lead to inaccurate estimation of outcomes and their public health impact. Counterfactual models allow us to evaluate interventions in uncontrolled settings and still maintain some confidence in the internal validity of our inferences; their application holds great promise for the field of prevention science as we scale up to community dissemination of preventive interventions. PMID:23417667

Hill, Laura G; Rosenman, Robert; Tennekoon, Vidhura; Mandal, Bidisha

2013-12-01

211

Prevention Education Effects on Fundamental Memory Processes  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated effects of a key session from a nationally recognized drug abuse prevention program on basic memory processes in 211 high-risk youth in Southern California. In a randomized, between-subject design, the authors manipulated assignment to a Myth and Denial program session and the time of assessment (immediate vs. one-week delay). The authors examined program decay effects on memory accessibility and judgment errors. Those participants exposed to the program session generated more myths and facts from the program than those in the control group, suggesting that even a single program session influenced students’ memory for program information and this was retained at least one week and detectable with indirect tests of memory accessibility. However, consistent with basic research perspectives, participants in the program delayed assessment group erroneously generated more fact-related information from the session to the prompt “It is a myth that_____” than the participants in the program immediate assessment group; that is, they retained more facts as myths. These types of program effects, anticipated by basic memory theory, were not detected with a traditional judgment task in the present sample. The results suggest that basic science approaches offer a novel way of conceptually recasting prevention effects to more completely understand how these effects may operate. Implications for program evaluation and conceptualization are discussed. PMID:22544598

Ames, Susan L.; Krank, Marvin; Grenard, Jerry L.; Sussman, Steve; Stacy, Alan W.

2014-01-01

212

[Prevention of detrimental effect of traumatic effect in the workplace].  

PubMed

The workplace may be the source of chronic and traumatic stresses. The latter may lead to the occurrence of disorders which have been listed in the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual (DSM) since 1990. In order to avoid this kind of disorders occupational health service workers should promote preventive activities in the workplace. Depending on the prevalence of traumatic episodes in a given workplace the activities should be carried out according to two models. The first model known as 'debriefing' is adjusted to preventing effects of traumatic stress in special services like the police, fire brigades or emergency services. In workplaces where the risk of traumatic episodes is not so high, the prevention should follow the model of crisis prevention developed by M. Braverman. Both models for preventing stress disorders in the workplace are discussed in this paper. PMID:10746243

Dudek, B

1999-01-01

213

Developing Effective Prevention Services for the Real World: A Prevention Service Development Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Prevention Service Development Model (PSDM) is presented as an approach to develop prevention programs that are both effective and that are readily adopted for implementation in community settings. The model is an integration of concepts and methods from two fields, prevention research and marketing research as applied to new service development. Questions that are posed at each stage of

Irwin Sandler; Amy Ostrom; Mary Jo Bitner; Tim S. Ayers; Sharlene Wolchik; Vicki-Smith Daniels

2005-01-01

214

Eating Disorder Prevention in Sororities: Testing Mediators of Intervention Effects.  

E-print Network

??Abstract Eating Disorder Prevention in Sororities: Testing Mediators of Intervention Effects By Lisa M. Smith This study evaluated mechanisms through which intervention effects were achieved… (more)

Smith, Lisa Marie

2009-01-01

215

Effect of ergot alkaloids from fungal endophyte-infected grasses on fall armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ergot alkaloids produced by endophytic fungi in the tribe Balansiae (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycetes), which infect grasses, may provide plant defense against herbivores. This study examined the effects of six ergot alkaloids on survivorship, feeding, and growth of larvae of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a generalist herbivore of grasses. Corn leaf disks were soaked in solutions of individual ergot

Keith Clay; Gregory P. Cheplick

1989-01-01

216

Urban Studies Doctoral Program Handbook In effect for students entering Fall 2013  

E-print Network

Urban Studies Doctoral Program Handbook In effect for students entering Fall 2013 Department of Planning and Urban Studies / College of Liberal Arts 368 Milneburg Hall University of New Orleans 2000 Lakeshore Drive New Orleans, LA 70148 #12;Urban Studies Doctoral Program Handbook 1 DOCTORAL PROGRAM

Kulp, Mark

217

Department of Industrial Engineering Fall 2011 Characterizing the Effect of Contact Perturbation on Tool Wear in  

E-print Network

PENNSTATE Department of Industrial Engineering Fall 2011 Characterizing the Effect of Contact Engineering group had any physical experience operating industrial machinery before. The Engineers had first used in machining, to learn the proper steps of the study. · The engineers machined titanium tubes

Demirel, Melik C.

218

Bowling Green State University Course descriptions as of 4/1/2004 (effective fall 2004)  

E-print Network

. Applicable to the humanities and arts general education requirement. A&S 200. Seminar in Arts and Sciences (1 and arts general education requirement. Approved for web delivery. A&S 300. Seminar in Arts and Sciences (1Bowling Green State University Course descriptions as of 4/1/2004 (effective fall 2004) A&S Arts

Moore, Paul A.

219

MASTER OF MUSIC (EFFECTIVE FALL 2014) Core Courses for all concentrations  

E-print Network

Graduate Piano Literature MUL 6410 3 Survey of Orchestra Literature MUL 6505 3 Seminar in Music EducationMASTER OF MUSIC (EFFECTIVE FALL 2014) Core Courses for all concentrations Introduction to Graduate Research MUS 6716 2 Music Seminar in Theoretical Styles MUT 6935 3 Music History Seminar MUH 6935 3 Thesis

Fernandez, Eduardo

220

Poster Summaries Effects of Oxidant Air Pollutants on Pine Litter-fall and the Forest Floor  

E-print Network

Poster Summaries Effects of Oxidant Air Pollutants on Pine Litter-fall and the Forest Floor 2 Air Pollution s t o 357 gm/m2 with OIS of 9 t o 14, and decreases a s the t r e e nears death, The weight per needle f

Standiford, Richard B.

221

Women's and Gender Studies Minor Changes to Catalog, effective Fall 2005: Courses to ADD  

E-print Network

SB #1004 Women's and Gender Studies Minor Changes to Catalog, effective Fall 2005: Courses to ADD/Brainlore: Thinking with the Body JINS 338 Race, Class, and Gender in Latin America JINS 368 Women and Science Course to SUBTRACT: HIST 328 Seminar: Women of Sub-Saharan Africa (NOTE: HIST 328 is a rotating seminar topics course

Gering, Jon C.

222

Effective Fall 2010 Checklist for Bachelors of Science in Computer Science  

E-print Network

Effective Fall 2010 Checklist for Bachelors of Science in Computer Science) _________ ________ ____________ ___________________________ _____ ______ Institution Term/YearDept/Course # Title Units Grade CS 415 Algorithm Analysis (4 units Differential Equations, Math 306 Number Theory, Math 3/416 Graph Theory, Math 352 Numerical Analysis, Math 430

Ravikumar, B.

223

Full-Time MBA Core Curriculum and Concentration Information Effective Fall 2007  

E-print Network

22:799:662 Supply Chain Legal Issues 22:799:669 Supply Chain Security and Risk Management Area 2Full-Time MBA Core Curriculum and Concentration Information Effective Fall 2007 SUPPLY CHAIN concentration core, full time students are also required to take 22:799:650 Supply Chain Industry Client Project

Lin, Xiaodong

224

MEDICAL LABORATORY SCIENCE Effective Fall 2012 College of the Environment & Life Sciences (CELS)  

E-print Network

certification examinations and state licensure. Career Options: Job availability for Medical Laboratory Science laboratory science. Graduates of the program have an opportunity for careers in clinical practice, laboratoryMEDICAL LABORATORY SCIENCE Effective Fall 2012 College of the Environment & Life Sciences (CELS

Rhode Island, University of

225

The BIOTELEKINESY home care service: A holistic concept to prevent fall among the elderly based on ICT and computer vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasingly ageing population and the healthcare expenses explosion urge for innovative solutions strongly related to prevention, improvement of quality of life and maintaining an independent life as long as possible. Therefore, the core of the BIOTELEKINESY project is to provide an innovative ICT based interface with a holistic approach to detect and prevent as early as possible in the

C. Barelle; E. Vellidou; D. Koutsouris

2010-01-01

226

Meeting the challenge of falls prevention at the population level: a community-based intervention with older people in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Older people form a large and growing segment of our population, experience disproportionately more illness and require more use of health services than any other group. This differential is largely due to falls, which are the leading cause of injury for those aged 65 plus. The North Coast 'Stay On Your Feet'programme is a 4-year multi-strategic, community-based intervention to

ANDREW HAHN; ERIC VAN BEURDEN; ANNE KEMPTON; TIM SLADDEN; EVERALD GARNER

1996-01-01

227

Non-pharmaceutical prevention of hip fractures – a cost-effectiveness analysis of a community-based elderly safety promotion program in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Elderly injuries are a recognized public health concern and are due to two factors; osteoporosis and accidental falls. Several osteoporosis pharmaceuticals are considered cost-effective, but intervention programs aiming at preventing falls should also be subjected to economic evaluations. This study presents a cost-effectiveness analysis of a community-based elderly safety promotion program. METHODS: A five-year elderly safety promotion program combining

Pia Johansson; Siv Sadigh; Per Tillgren; Clas Rehnberg

2008-01-01

228

Pressure sensor-based tongue-placed electrotactile biofeedback for balance improvement - Biomedical application to prevent pressure sores formation and falls  

E-print Network

We introduce the innovative technologies, based on the concept of "sensory substitution", we are developing in the fields of biomedical engineering and human disability. Precisely, our goal is to design, develop and validate practical assistive biomedical and/or technical devices and/or rehabilitating procedures for persons with disabilities, using artificial tongue-placed tactile biofeedback systems. Proposed applications are dealing with: (1) pressure sores prevention in case of spinal cord injuries (persons with paraplegia, or tetraplegia); and (2) balance control improvement to prevent fall in older and/or disabled adults. This paper describes the architecture and the functioning principle of these biofeedback systems and presents preliminary results of two feasibility studies performed on young healthy adults.

Vuillerme, Nicolas; Pinsault, Nicolas; Moreau-Gaudry, Alexandre; Fleury, Anthony; Demongeot, Jacques; Payan, Yohan

2007-01-01

229

Common Factors in Effective HIV Prevention Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a set of common factors in evidence-based interventions (EBI) for HIV prevention, which cut across theoretical\\u000a models of behavior change. Three existing literatures support this agenda: (1) Common factors in psychotherapy; (2) core elements\\u000a from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention EBIs; and (3) component analyses of EBI. To stimulate discussion among\\u000a prevention researchers, we propose a

Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus; Dallas Swendeman; Diane Flannery; Eric Rice; David M. Adamson; Barbara Ingram

2009-01-01

230

EFFECTS OF PRESCRIBED FALL BURNING ON A WETLAND PLANT COMMUNITY, WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT OF PLANTS AND HERBIVORES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important contemporary challenge for adaptive resource management is assessing both the direct and indirect effects of management activities by designing appropriate monitoring programs and sound analysis meth- ods. Here we evaluate the effects of prescribed fall burning on a wetland plant community that is managed primarily for spring-migrating geese. During late fall in 2 consecutive years, we burned vegetation

Scott R. McWilliams; Todd Sloat; Catherine A. Toft; Daphne Hatch

2007-01-01

231

Developmental approach to prevent adolescent suicides: research pathways to effective upstream preventive interventions.  

PubMed

The 2012 National Strategy for Suicide Prevention expands the current suicide prevention paradigm by including a strategic direction aimed at promoting healthy populations. Childhood and adolescence are key suicide prevention window periods, yet knowledge of suicide prevention pathways through universal interventions is limited (Aspirational Goal 11). Epidemiologic evidence suggests that prevention programs in normative social systems such as schools are needed for broad suicide prevention impact. Prevention trial results show that current universal prevention programs for children and young adolescents are effective in reducing adolescent emotional and behavioral problems that are risk factors for suicidal behavior, and in the case of the Good Behavior Game, suicide attempts. A developmentally sequenced upstream suicide prevention approach is proposed: (1) childhood programs to strengthen a broad set of self-regulation skills through family and school-based programs, followed by (2) adolescent programs that leverage social influences to prevent emerging risk behaviors such as substance abuse and strengthen relationships and skills. Key knowledge breakthroughs needed are evidence linking specific intervention strategies to reduced suicidal behaviors and mortality and their mechanisms of action. Short- and long-term objectives to achieve these breakthroughs include combining evidence from completed prevention trials, increasing motivators for prevention researchers to assess suicide-related outcome, and conducting new trials of upstream interventions in populations using efficient designs acceptable to communities. In conclusion, effective upstream prevention programs have been identified that modify risk and protective factors for adolescent suicide, and key knowledge breakthroughs can jump-start progress in realizing the suicide prevention potential of specific strategies. PMID:25145747

Wyman, Peter A

2014-09-01

232

Use of quality management methods in the transition from efficacious prevention programs to effective prevention services.  

PubMed

This paper applies concepts and methods developed in management to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective prevention services. The paper describes Quality Function Deployment (QFD) as a method for structured planning and development that connects the needs and wants of the consumer with the design of the product or service. The paper describes basic tools used in quality management, and discusses how they might be applied to prepare a prevention program for implementation by community agencies. Prevention programs are conceptualized as having multiple consumers (i.e., stakeholders), including the participants who receive the service, the service providers, the organizations that deliver the program, and the researchers who evaluate the programs. As an illustration of one step in the application of QFD to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective prevention services, analysis of the needs and preferences of Family Courts for the implementation of an the New Beginnings Program is presented. PMID:18351452

Daniels, Vicki-Smith; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene

2008-06-01

233

Condom effectiveness for prevention of Chlamydia trachomatis infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/objectives: A growing body of evidence is increasingly demonstrating the effectiveness of condoms for sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention. The purpose of the present analysis was to provide a disease specific estimate for the effectiveness of condoms in preventing Chlamydia trachomatis infection while controlling for known exposure to infection.Methods: Condom effectiveness for C trachomatis was estimated using a medical record

L M Niccolai; A Rowhani-Rahbar; H Jenkins; S Green; D W Dunne

2005-01-01

234

Charge effects on the coalescence of water drops in free fall  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been recognized that charge can affect the results of collisions in streams of water drops1,2, between drops and a flat water surface3, between two drop streams4-6, and for drops fired at suspended drops7,8. Here we present the first observations of the effect of charge on the coalescence of colliding water drops that were initially falling freely at

Harry T. Ochs; Robert R. Czys

1987-01-01

235

The effects of testing procedure on critical fall height determination for third-generation synthetic turf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test procedures and their accuracy in determining critical fall height (CFH) on sporting grounds are paramount to player safety.\\u000a The procedure currently adopted for synthetic turf in Australian football [1] consists of four consecutive drops at various drop heights at three test locations on the sample. The quantity and packing\\u000a of the infill in third-generation turf and the pooling effect

Dara Twomey; Leonie Otago; Natalie Saunders

2011-01-01

236

First Aid: Falls  

MedlinePLUS

... First Aid & Safety > Printable Safety Guides > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What to Do Seek Medical Care Think Prevention! With all the running, climbing, and exploring kids ...

237

Bicycle helmet effectiveness in preventing injury and death  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case—bicycle helmet effectiveness—is one of a series of teaching cases in the Case-Based Series in Population-Oriented Prevention (C-POP). It has been developed for use in medical school and residency prevention curricula. The complete set of cases is presented in this supplement to the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.This case examines the cost-effectiveness of three interventions to increase utilization of

Lloyd F. Novick; Martha Wojtowycz; Cynthia B. Morrow; Sally M. Sutphen

2003-01-01

238

Disseminating Effective Community Prevention Practices: Opportunities for Social Work Education  

PubMed Central

In the United States about 17% of adolescents meet diagnostic criteria for mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Six million young people receive treatment services annually for mental, emotional, or behavioral problems. These problems affect 1 in 5 families and cost $247 million annually (O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009). Some strategies for preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders in young people have been developed, tested, and found to be effective in preventing the onset, persistence, and severity of psychological disorders, drug abuse, and delinquency. Unfortunately, tested and effective prevention policies, programs, and practices are not widely used (O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009). This paper highlights recent advances in prevention science and describes some opportunities and challenges in advancing the use of science-based prevention in communities. The chapter concludes by exploring the potential role of social work education in developing a workforce ready to increase community access to effective prevention strategies. PMID:21072250

Hawkins, J. David; Shapiro, Valerie B.; Fagan, Abigail A.

2009-01-01

239

Effects of Programs for Prevention of Early Childhood Caries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the most effective intervention program for prevention of early childhood caries. Materials and Methods: All studies published after 1966 were identified by searching electronic databases (Medline, The Cochrane Library, Embase, Dissertation and Serfile databases) and manual searching. Studies were included if they analyzed the effect of an intervention to prevent caries in 0- to 5-year-old children, recorded

Jumana B. Ammari; Zaid H. Baqain; Paul F. Ashley

2007-01-01

240

The cost effectiveness of occupational health interventions: Prevention of silicosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The failure to recognize occupational health as an economic phenomenon limits the effectiveness of interventions ostensibly designed to prevent disease and injury. Hence, consideration of economic efficiency is essential in the evaluations of interventions to reduce hazardous working conditions. In this paper, we present an analysis of the cost effectiveness of alternative means of preventing silicosis. Method To evaluate

Supriya Lahiri; Charles Levenstein; Deborah Imel Nelson; Beth J. Rosenberg

2005-01-01

241

Efficacy of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to improve balance and prevent falls in older people: study protocol for a randomised trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Falls in older people are a major public health problem, with at least one in three people aged over 65 years falling each year. There is increasing evidence that foot problems and inappropriate footwear increase the risk of falls, however no studies have been undertaken to determine whether modifying these risk factors decreases the risk of falling. This article

Martin J Spink; Hylton B Menz; Stephen R Lord

2008-01-01

242

The medical effects of radioactive fall-out: role of stable end-products?  

PubMed Central

To summarize, from preliminary observations on the possible effects of radioactive fall-out, it may be inferred that in addition to the secondary products of ionizing irradiation per se, the stable end-products of the transmutation of certain radionuclides may adversely influence cellular metabolism, including mutagenesis. The discussion of the possible role of intracellular barium as an end-product of 137Cs decay is offered as an example of an unpredictable number of broad ecological, as well as the more limited medical, effects that may be of both clinical and climatological significance. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7281411

Burrows, B. A.; Cardarelli, J. C.; Boling, E. A.; Sinex, F. M.

1981-01-01

243

Stimulating preventive procedures in primary care. Effect of PIUPOZ program on the delivery of preventive procedures  

PubMed Central

Introduction Educational meetings are one of the most frequently used strategies to change doctors’ professional behavior; however, their effectiveness as a single intervention is limited. This study evaluated the effect of a multifactorial intervention, based on interactive workshops, on the GPs’ knowledge and the delivery rates of preventive procedures in primary care. Material and methods The study population comprised 106 GPs working in the Wielkopolska region recruited to the PIUPOZ program (Improving Quality in Primary Care). The intervention in the program consisted of lectures, interactive workshops and an audit, before and three months after the training. Trained medical students directly observed GPs to register which of 12 studied preventive procedures were performed during the consultation in patients aged 40+. Results A total of 1060 consultations were recorded, during which 4899 preventive procedures were delivered: 2115 before and 2784 after workshops. The mean number of preventive procedures per patient before and after workshops was 3.84 and 5.25 respectively (p < 0.0001). The most commonly performed preventive procedures were blood pressure, blood glucose and lipid profile measurement. Mean number of correct answers for 16 questions in the initial knowledge test was 8.7 and 12.7 in the final test (p < 0.0001). Conclusions The observed number of delivered preventive procedures was below the recommended range. Preventive procedures based on laboratory tests were performed more often than lifestyle counseling. PMID:23056084

Avonts, Dirk; Horst-Sikorska, Wanda; Dytfeld, Joanna; Michalak, Michal

2012-01-01

244

Falls and hospitalized patients with cancer: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Preventing falls continues to be a serious issue faced by hospitals. Several studies have demonstrated an increased need for safety in hospitalized patients with cancer compared to other hospitalized populations. In addition, several fall-prevention studies in hospital settings have reported high rates of falls and injuries in this population. A cancer diagnosis is a significant risk factor for falling; however, few hospital studies have examined patients with cancer independently to determine why they are at greater risk for falls and injuries. Patients with cancer are a unique population because cancer treatments can cause side effects that may increase fall risk. Falls also can cause significant morbidity and mortality. More research is needed to better understand what specific oncology risk factors contribute to falls in the hospital setting. PMID:21112855

Allan-Gibbs, Rebecca

2010-12-01

245

Effect of ergot alkaloids from fungal endophyte-infected grasses on fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda).  

PubMed

Ergot alkaloids produced by endophytic fungi in the tribe Balansiae (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycetes), which infect grasses, may provide plant defense against herbivores. This study examined the effects of six ergot alkaloids on survivorship, feeding, and growth of larvae of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a generalist herbivore of grasses. Corn leaf disks were soaked in solutions of individual ergot alkaloids at different concentrations and presented to neonate larvae. At the highest concentrations (77-100 mg/liter) of ergonovine, ergotamine, ergocryptine, agroclavine, and elymoclavine, larval weights and/or leaf area consumed after eight days were reduced relative to controls. Lysergol had no effect on larval weights and leaf consumption at any concentration. Although active concentrations were higher than those reported from two host grasses, in vivo levels of ergot alkaloids have not been quantified for most endophyte-infected grasses. The detrimental effects on fall armyworm observed in this study suggest that ergot alkaloids could be responsible, at least in part, for the greater insect resistance of endophyte-infected grasses. PMID:24271434

Clay, K; Cheplick, G P

1989-01-01

246

Effective HIV prevention: the indispensable role of social science  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the ways in which HIV prevention is understood including “biomedical”, “behavioural”, “structural”, and “combination” prevention. In it I argue that effective prevention entails developing community capacity and requires that public health addresses people not only as individuals but also as connected members of groups, networks and collectives who interact (talk, negotiate, have sex, use drugs, etc.) together. I also examine the evaluation of prevention programmes or interventions and argue that the distinction between efficacy and effectiveness is often glossed and that, while efficacy can be evaluated by randomized controlled trials, the evaluation of effectiveness requires long-term descriptive strategies and/or modelling. Using examples from a number of countries, including a detailed account of the Australian HIV prevention response, effectiveness is shown to be dependent not only on the efficacy of the prevention technology or tool but also on the responses of people – individuals, communities and governments – to those technologies. Whether a particular HIV prevention technology is adopted and its use sustained depends on a range of social, cultural and political factors. The paper concludes by calling on biomedical and social scientists to work together and describes a “social public health”. PMID:22713254

Kippax, Susan

2012-01-01

247

Tradition, Culture, and the Effects of Colonialism in Things Fall Apart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart presents many issues that come along with colonialism. In Things Fall Apart, culture and tradition were challenged through the missionaries coming in to change the Igbo way of life. The Igbo people were beginning to question their values and traditions, so they quickly accepted these new European ways. Although Things Fall Apart is fictional, it

Caitlin Fife

2012-01-01

248

Effect of Cholecalciferol Plus Calcium on Falling in Ambulatory Older Men and Women A 3Year Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A recent meta-analysis found that chole- calciferol (vitamin D) should reduce falls by more than 20%. However, little is known about whether supple- mental cholecalciferol plus calcium citrate malate will lower the long-term risk of falling in men, active older individuals, and older individuals with higher 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels. Methods: We studied the effect of 3-year supplemen- tation

Heike A. Bischoff-Ferrari; E. John Orav; Bess Dawson-Hughes; Kevin M. Douglas; Nathan M. Shumway; Patrick G. O'Malley; Erik J. Giltay; Marjolein H. Kamphuis; Sandra Kalmijn; Frans G. Zitman; Daan Kromhout; Mary A. M. Rogers; Kenneth M. Langa; Catherine Kim; Brahmajee K. Nallamothu; Preeti N. Malani; Brant E. Fries; Samuel R. Kaufman; Sanjay Saint

2006-01-01

249

The nursing rounds system: effect of patient's call light use, bed sores, fall and satisfaction level.  

PubMed

The nursing round system (NRS) means checking patients on an hourly basis during the A (0700-2200 h) shift and once every 2 h during the B (2200-0700 h) by the assigned nursing staff. The overall goal of this prospective study is to implement an NRS in a major rehabilitation centre-Sultan Bin Abdulaziz Humanitarian City-in the Riyadh area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The purposes of this study are to measure the effect of the NRS on: (i) the use of patient call light; (ii) the number of incidences of patients' fall; (iii) the number of incidences of hospital-acquired bed sores; and (iv) the level of patients' satisfaction. All patients hospitalized in the male stroke unit will be involved in this study. For the period of 8 weeks (17 December 2009-17 February 2010) All Nursing staff on the unit will record each call light and the patient's need. Implementation of the NRS would start on 18 February 2010 and last for 8 weeks, until 18 April 2010. Data collected throughout this period will be compared with data collected during the 8 weeks period immediately preceding the implementation of the NRS (17 December 2009-17 February 2010) in order to measure the impact of the call light use. The following information were collected on all subjects involved in the study: (i) the Demographic Information Form; (ii) authors' developed NRS Audit Form; (iii) Patient Call Light Audit Form; (iv) Patient Fall Audit Record; (v) Hospital-Acquired Bed Sores Audit Form; and (vi) hospital developed Patient Satisfaction Records. The findings suggested that a significant reduction on the use of call bell (P < 0.001), a significant reduction of fall incidence (P < 0.01) while pressure ulcer reduced by 50% before and after the implementation of NRS. Also, the implementation of NRS increased patient satisfaction by 7/5 (P < 0.05). PMID:21605271

Saleh, Bassem S; Nusair, Hussam; Al Zubadi, Nariman; Al Shloul, Shams; Saleh, Usama

2011-06-01

250

Reducing Aversion to Side Effects in Preventive Medical Treatment Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laypeople tend to be overly sensitive to side effects of treatments that prevent illness, possibly leading them to refuse beneficial therapies. This Internet-based study attempted to reduce such side effect aversion by adding graphic displays to the numerical risk probabilities. It also explored whether graphics reduce side effect aversion by…

Waters, Erika A.; Weinstein, Neil D.; Colditz, Graham A.; Emmons, Karen M.

2007-01-01

251

An Ounce of Prevention, a Pound of Uncertainty: The Cost-Effectiveness of School-Based Drug Prevention Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of model school-based drug prevention programs at reducing cocaine consumption. It compares prevention's cost-effectiveness with that of several enforcement programs and with that of treating heavy cocaine users. It also assesses the cost of nationwide implementation of model prevention

Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Rydell, C. Peter; Everingham, Susan S.; Chiesa, James; Bushway, Shawn

252

Fall 2013 945 277 Fall 2013 190 115 Fall 2012 957 150 Fall 2012 158 41  

E-print Network

Fall 2012 957 150 Fall 2012 158 41 Fall 2011 1,133 183 1,316 Fall 2011 231 53 Fall 2010 1,065 144 Fall 2010 232 28 Fall 2009 1,066 178 Fall 2009 226 65 Fall 2008 1,078 146 Fall 2008 200 32 Fall 2007 1,296 154 Fall 2007 215 38 Fall 2006 1,325 141 Fall 2006 184 28 Fall 2005 1,404 131 Fall 2005 161 21 Fall

Mohaghegh, Shahab

253

Syllabus Fall 2014 | APS 1010 Cognitive and Psychological Foundations of Effective Leadership | Prof. Robin Sacks 1 APS 1010 Cognitive and Psychological Foundations of Effective Leadership  

E-print Network

Syllabus Fall 2014 | APS 1010 Cognitive and Psychological Foundations of Effective Leadership | Prof. Robin Sacks 1 APS 1010 Cognitive and Psychological Foundations of Effective Leadership Prof. Robin Sacks Course Description This course investigates the cognitive and psychological foundations

Prodiæ, Aleksandar

254

The effect of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) on the risk of fall and fracture: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We evaluated the effect of supplementation with vitamin D3 (excluding the potential effect of calcium supplementation) on the risk of fall and fracture, primarily in postmenopausal women, using a systematic literature review of MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for the period January 1985 to June 2005. Studies examining the effect of vitamin D versus

C. Jackson; S. Gaugris; S. S. Sen; D. Hosking

2007-01-01

255

Volcanic Ash Fall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) on-line publication discusses volcanic ash fall in terms of composition and effects. This report discusses the negative effects of volcanic ash fall on machinery, human health, weather and man-made structures, using the Mount Saint Helens eruption of 1980 as an example. The composition of volcanic ash is discussed, as well as ancient and modern ash falls that have occurred in the United States.

Kenedi, Christopher; Brantley, Steven; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley Ii., James

256

Elucidation of the Scale Prevention Effect by Alternating Magnetic Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process industry remains skeptical of the effect of scale prevention in a water pipe by magnetic treatment despite its long history. In this study, mechanism of scale prevention by ``alternating'' magnetic treatment was investigated. Using suspensions of non-magnetic colloid particles (TiO2 or CaCO3) dispersed in an electrolytic solution, we investigated zeta potential changes of the particles by imposition of alternating

S. Umeki; T. Kato; H. Shimabukuro; N. Yoshikawa; S. Taniguchi; K. Tohji

2007-01-01

257

Cost-effectiveness in preventive cardiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Cardiovascular disease remains a serious medical problem, which can be associated with death and disability on one hand, and\\u000a considerable resource utilization on the other. The primary driver for choice of therapy must remain clinical efficacy. Once\\u000a efficacy is established, cost-effectiveness analysis has an important role. Resources are limited, and responsible choices\\u000a must be made. The methods involved in

William S. Weintraub

2004-01-01

258

Evaluation of Accelerometer-Based Fall Detection Algorithms on Real-World Falls  

PubMed Central

Despite extensive preventive efforts, falls continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality among elderly. Real-time detection of falls and their urgent communication to a telecare center may enable rapid medical assistance, thus increasing the sense of security of the elderly and reducing some of the negative consequences of falls. Many different approaches have been explored to automatically detect a fall using inertial sensors. Although previously published algorithms report high sensitivity (SE) and high specificity (SP), they have usually been tested on simulated falls performed by healthy volunteers. We recently collected acceleration data during a number of real-world falls among a patient population with a high-fall-risk as part of the SensAction-AAL European project. The aim of the present study is to benchmark the performance of thirteen published fall-detection algorithms when they are applied to the database of 29 real-world falls. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic comparison of fall detection algorithms tested on real-world falls. We found that the SP average of the thirteen algorithms, was (mean±std) 83.0%±30.3% (maximum value?=?98%). The SE was considerably lower (SE?=?57.0%±27.3%, maximum value?=?82.8%), much lower than the values obtained on simulated falls. The number of false alarms generated by the algorithms during 1-day monitoring of three representative fallers ranged from 3 to 85. The factors that affect the performance of the published algorithms, when they are applied to the real-world falls, are also discussed. These findings indicate the importance of testing fall-detection algorithms in real-life conditions in order to produce more effective automated alarm systems with higher acceptance. Further, the present results support the idea that a large, shared real-world fall database could, potentially, provide an enhanced understanding of the fall process and the information needed to design and evaluate a high-performance fall detector. PMID:22615890

Bagala, Fabio; Becker, Clemens; Cappello, Angelo; Chiari, Lorenzo; Aminian, Kamiar; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Klenk, Jochen

2012-01-01

259

Simulated Fall Detection via Accelerometers Justin Boyle, Mohan Karunanithi  

E-print Network

falls experienced by elderly patients failed to provide a statistically significant number of fall of actual falls recorded in an elderly population. Nineteen different fall types were represented on young volunteers or fall simulations, due to the conflicting ethical issue of wishing to prevent falls

Chen, Zhuo

260

[Transdisciplinary Approach for Sarcopenia. Effect of nutritional support for the prevention of sarcopenia].  

PubMed

Sarcopenia is defined as the age-related loss of muscle mass and function. Sarcopenia is closely related with decreased physical function, fall, bone fracture, osteoporosis, and insulin resistance, which lead to increased morbidity and mortality in elderly people. The pathogenesis of sarcopenia is complex and multifactorial, which remains not to be fully understood. Inappropriate food intake and reduced physical activity are known to increase the risk of developing sarcopenia. Resistance training and nutritional support have been shown to be an effective intervention for prevention of sarcopenia. Protein, especially branched chain amino acid, and vitamin D have been reported to improve sarcopenia. The intervention together with nutrition and exercise are more effective. PMID:25266099

Nishioka, Hiroaki

2014-10-01

261

Differential Susceptibility to Prevention: GABAergic, Dopaminergic, and Multilocus Effects  

PubMed Central

Background Randomized prevention trials provide a unique opportunity to test hypotheses about the interaction of genetic predispositions with contextual processes to create variations in phenotypes over time. Methods Using two longitudinal, randomized prevention trials, molecular genetic and alcohol use outcome data were gathered from more than 900 youths to determine whether prevention program participation would, across 2 years, moderate genetic risk for increased alcohol use conferred by the dopaminergic and GABAergic systems. Results We found that (a) variance in dopaminergic (DRD2, DRD4, ANKK1) and GABAergic (GABRG1, GABRA2) genes forecast increases in alcohol use across 2 years, and (b) youths at genetic risk who were assigned to the control condition displayed greater increases in alcohol use across 2 years than did youths at genetic risk who were assigned to the prevention condition or youths without genetic risk who were assigned to either condition. Conclusions This study is unique in combining data from two large prevention trials to test hypotheses regarding genetic main effects and gene × prevention interactions. Focusing on gene systems purported to confer risk for alcohol use and abuse, the study demonstrated that participation in efficacious prevention programs can moderate genetic risk. The results also support the differential susceptibility hypothesis that some youths, for genetic reasons, are more susceptible than others to both positive and negative contextual influences. PMID:23294086

Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Beach, Steven R. H.

2013-01-01

262

Effectiveness of taping for the prevention of ankle ligament sprains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of taping in the prevention of sports injuries has only been studied in detail with regard to the lateral ligaments of the ankle. It appears that taping can protect against injury. The mechanism by which taping works is not certain, but mechanical factors play a role which decreases with exercise. The major effect of taping may be its

P Firer

1990-01-01

263

Preventing Falls in Elderly Persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 79-year-old woman with a history of congestive heart failure, arthritis, depression, and difficulty sleeping presents for a follow-up visit. She takes several prescription medications, including an antidepressant, a diuretic, an angiotensin-converting- enzyme inhibitor, and a beta-blocker, as well as over-the-counter sleep and allergy medications. Her chronic conditions appear to be stable. Her daughter reports that the patient has fallen

Mary E. Tinetti

2003-01-01

264

A Spatial Model to Assess the Effects of Hydropower Operations on Columbia River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Priest Rapids Dam on the Columbia River produces large daily and hourly streamflow fluctuations throughout the Hanford Reach during the period when fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are selecting spawning habitat, constructing redds, and actively engaged in spawning. Concern over the detrimental effects of these fluctuations prompted us to quantify the effects of variable flows on the amount and persistence

James R. Hatten; Kenneth F. Tiffan; Donald R. Anglin; Steven L. Haeseker; Joseph J. Skalicky; Howard Schaller

2009-01-01

265

Danielle Hernandez,M.S.and Debra J.Rose,PhD. Fall Prevention Center of Excellence California State University Fullerton  

E-print Network

changes in balance abilities and capable of identifying older adults at different levels of fall risk that are specifically designed to challenge the balance abilities of independently functioning older adults. Purpose (FAB) Scale Introduction Falls are a major concern for the aging population. One in three older adults

de Lijser, Peter

266

Do continence management strategies reduce falls? a systematic review.  

PubMed

Urinary incontinence is associated with increased fall risk, and fall prevention programs include recommendations to manage continence as one component of fall reduction. However, the evidence to support this recommendation is unclear. The aim of this study was to identify continence management interventions that are effective in decreasing falls. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Studies were included if they evaluated the effect of any type of continence management strategy on falls in older adults. The included studies were assessed for quality, and data relating to participants, interventions and outcomes were extracted by two independent reviewers. Four articles met the inclusion criteria. Two studies were randomised controlled trials, one a retrospective cohort study and one an uncontrolled intervention study. Interventions included pharmacological agents, a toileting regime combined with physical activity and an individualised continence program. Only the study evaluating the combination of physical activity and prompted voiding found an effect on falls. It is surprising that there has been so little research into continence management interventions that include fall outcomes. A toileting regime combined with physical activity may reduce falls in residential care. There is a need for further studies investigating the impact of continence management on falls. PMID:24373039

Batchelor, Frances A; Dow, Briony; Low, May-Ann

2013-12-01

267

Cost-Effectiveness of Antiretroviral Therapy for Prevention  

PubMed Central

Recent empirical studies and analyses have heightened interest in the use of expanded antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of HIV transmission. However, ART is expensive, approximately $600 per person per year, raising issues of the cost and cost-effectiveness of ambitious ART expansion. The goal of this review is to equip the reader with the conceptual tools and substantive background needed to understand and evaluate the policy and programmatic implications of cost-effectiveness assessments of ART for prevention. We provide this review in six sections. We start by introducing and explaining basic concepts of health economics as they relate to this issue, including resources, costs, health metrics (such as Disability-Adjusted Life Years), and different types of economic analysis. We then review research on the cost and cost-effectiveness of ART as treatment, and on the cost-effectiveness of traditional HIV prevention. We describe critical issues in the epidemic impact of ART, such as suppression of transmission and the role of the acute phase of infection. We then present a conceptual model for conducting and interpreting cost-effectiveness analyses of ART as prevention, and review the existing preliminary estimates in this area. We end with a discussion of future directions for programmatic demonstrations and evaluation. PMID:21999776

Kahn, James G; Marseille, Elliot A; Bennett, Rod; Williams, Brian G; Granich, Reuben

2011-01-01

268

Reducing falls and fall-related injuries in mental health: a 1-year multihospital falls collaborative.  

PubMed

Despite much research on falls occurring on medical-surgical units and in long-term care settings, falls on inpatient psychiatry units are understudied. On the basis of fall injury program characteristics across multiple inpatient psychiatry units, we developed and implemented an operational strategic plan to address each falls prevention program element and enhance program infrastructure and capacity. Expert faculty provided lectures, coaching, and mentoring through biweekly conference calls and collaborative e-mail exchange. Findings support continued efforts to integrate measures to reduce serious fall-related injuries. PMID:24149183

Quigley, Patricia A; Barnett, Scott D; Bulat, Tatjana; Friedman, Yvonne

2014-01-01

269

MODELING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ISOLATION STRATEGIES IN PREVENTING STD EPIDEMICS #  

E-print Network

MODELING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ISOLATION STRATEGIES IN PREVENTING STD EPIDEMICS # JAMES M. HYMAN­mixing, susceptible­infective­suscep­ tible (SIS), sexually transmitted disease (STD) model where the infection­group model, although these isolation strategies may reduce the extent of an STD epidemic, they are ine

Hyman, James "Mac"

270

MODELING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ISOLATION STRATEGIES IN PREVENTING STD EPIDEMICS  

E-print Network

MODELING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ISOLATION STRATEGIES IN PREVENTING STD EPIDEMICS JAMES M. HYMAN-infective-suscep- tible (SIS), sexually transmitted disease (STD) model where the infection-dependent desirability-group model, although these isolation strategies may reduce the extent of an STD epidemic

Hyman, James "Mac"

271

Basic Science Effects of Curcumin for Preventing Restenosis in a  

E-print Network

Basic Science Effects of Curcumin for Preventing Restenosis in a Hypercholesterolemic Rabbit Iliac Kim,1 MD, PhD, and Hyeon-Cheol Gwon,1* MD, PhD Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of the curcumin-coating stent (CCS) on the inhibi- tion of restenosis in a rabbit iliac artery stent model. Background: Curcumin

Park, Jong-Sang

272

Chin tuck for prevention of aspiration: effectiveness and appropriate posture.  

PubMed

Chin tuck has been has been widely used to prevent aspiration in the patients with dysphagia. This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness and the degree of optimal neck flexion of chin tuck. Ninety-seven patients who showed aspiration in the videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS). Participants were grouped into the effective (patients who showed effect with chin tuck) and ineffective group (those who did not show effect with chin tuck). VFSS was performed in neutral and chin tuck position and findings were compared between the groups. Severity of aspiration was assessed by the point penetration-aspiration scale. Duration of dysphagic symptoms, history of tracheostomy, and other possible contributing factors were also compared. Neck flexion angle was measured to find appropriate posture in which aspiration was prevented with chin tuck. Aspiration was reduced or eliminated in only 19 patients (19.6 %) with chin tuck. Oral transit time, pharyngeal delayed time and pharyngeal transit time were significantly shortened in both groups (p < 0.05), but the difference between the groups was not significant. Female sex and absence of residue in pyriform sinus favored the effect of chin tuck (p < 0.05). At least 17.5° of neck flexion was required to achieve an effect with chin tuck. The effectiveness of chin tuck was less than anticipated. Patients without residue in pyriform sinus were more likely to benefit from chin tuck. Sufficient neck flexion was important in chin tuck to prevent aspiration. PMID:25012700

Ra, Jong Yun; Hyun, Jung Keun; Ko, Kyung Rok; Lee, Seong Jae

2014-10-01

273

Moving from Efficacy to Effectiveness Trials in Prevention Research  

PubMed Central

Efficacy trials test whether interventions work under optimal, highly controlled conditions whereas effectiveness trials test whether interventions work with typical clients and providers in real-world settings. Researchers, providers, and funding bodies have called for more effectiveness trials to understand whether interventions produce effects under ecologically valid conditions, which factors predict program effectiveness, and what strategies are needed to successfully implement programs in practice settings. The transition from efficacy to effectiveness with preventive interventions involves unique considerations, some of which are not shared by treatment research. The purpose of this article is to discuss conceptual and methodological issues that arise when making the transition from efficacy to effectiveness research in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention, drawing on the experiences of two complimentary research groups as well as the existing literature. We address (a) program of research, (b) intervention design and conceptualization, (c) participant selection and characteristics, (d) providers, (e) context, (f) measurement and methodology, (g) outcomes, (h) cost, and (i) sustainability. We present examples of research in eating disorder prevention that demonstrate the progression from efficacy to effectiveness trials. PMID:21092935

Marchand, Erica; Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Becker, Carolyn Black

2013-01-01

274

How Effective Homelessness Prevention Impacts the Length of Shelter Spells  

PubMed Central

Homelessness prevention programs intervene with households apparently in imminent danger of becoming homeless, and try to keep them housed. If they are at least partially successful, how do they change the average shelter spell of households actually becoming homeless? We use data from 2003 to 2008 for Homebase, a New York City homelessness prevention program that studies have found to be effective in reducing shelter entries. Homebase made no difference in average shelter spells at the community level. This result, like many results about shelter spell length, is not easy to reconcile with the idea that shelter spell length is a reflection of the seriousness of underlying problems. PMID:24610995

Goodman, Sarena; Messeri, Peter; O'Flaherty, Brendan

2014-01-01

275

Sexually transmitted disease prevention: adolescents' perceptions of possible side effects.  

PubMed

Forty-eight sexually active adolescents participated in an open-ended interview about the possible secondary consequences (side effects) of implementing measures to reduce the risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD). These adolescents noted 134 different consequences, which were grouped into 15 substantive categories. When four prevention measures (using condoms, being selective about sex partner(s), being monogamous, and abstaining from sexual activity) were analyzed, different patterns of consequences that were salient to these adolescents emerged. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding and improving adolescent decision making about STD prevention. PMID:9426804

Furby, L; Ochs, L M; Thomas, C W

1997-01-01

276

[Fall risk and fracture. Aging and fall/fracture].  

PubMed

Fall deteriorates QOL and ADL of elderly people, especially when they suffer from hip and vertebral fractures. It is not easy to identify the cause of falling, because falling usually result from multiple factors. Among various potential causes, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, medication of hypnotic drugs, and environmental factors are important, because they are frequent and can be modifiable. When evaluating fall risks, grasping power, one-leg standing time, timed up&go test, are useful. On the other hand, fall risk index, 22-item self-assessment test, is easy and even better in predicting future falls. In the Cochrane systematic review article 2009, exercise such as Tai-Chi, withdrawal of hypnotic drugs, and vitamin D supplementation are shown to prevent falls in community-dwelling elderly. PMID:23628677

Kozaki, Koichi

2013-05-01

277

Geology -Earth and Space Science Education Model Schedule Effective Fall 2007 YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4  

E-print Network

Geology - Earth and Space Science Education Model Schedule Effective Fall 2007 YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 32160 or BL2170, and CH 1120 are not required for the Earth and Space Science teaching major as described by the Department of Education. The B.S. in Geology with the Earth and Space Science Education

278

Long-run effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the US agricultural economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy production has been expanding at a rapid pace. New advances in cellulosic ethanol technologies have the potential to displace the use of petroleum as a transportation fuel, and could have significant effects on both the agricultural economy and the environment. In this letter, the effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the mix of ethanol feedstocks employed and on the US agricultural economy are examined. Results indicate that, as expected, cellulosic ethanol production increases by a substantial amount as conversion technology improves. Corn production increases initially following the introduction of cellulosic technology, because producers enjoy new revenue from sales of corn stover. After cellulosic ethanol production becomes substantially cheaper, however, acres are shifted from corn production to all other agricultural commodities. Essentially, this new technology could facilitate the exploitation of a previously under-employed resource (corn stover), resulting in an improvement in overall welfare. In the most optimistic scenario considered, 68% of US ethanol is derived from cellulosic sources, coarse grain production is reduced by about 2%, and the prices of all food commodities are reduced modestly.

Campiche, Jody L.; Bryant, Henry L.; Richardson, James W.

2010-01-01

279

Experiments in Free Fall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

Art, Albert

2006-01-01

280

Effect of Earth's rotation on the trajectories of free-fall bodies in Equivalence Principle Experiment  

E-print Network

Owing to Earth's rotation a free-fall body would move in an elliptical orbit rather than along a straight line forward to the center of the Earth. In this paper on the basis of the theory for spin-spin coupling between macroscopic rotating bodies we study violation of the equivalence principle from long-distance free-fall experiments by means of a rotating ball and a non-rotating sell. For the free-fall time of 40 seconds, the difference between the orbits of the two free-fall bodies is of the order of 10^{-9}cm which could be detected by a SQUID magnetometer owing to such a magnetometer can be used to measure displacements as small as 10^{-13} centimeters.

C. G. Shao; Y. Z. Zhang; J. Luo; Z. Z. Liu

2002-08-16

281

Precise definition of the effective measurement height of free-fall absolute gravimeters  

Microsoft Academic Search

For up-to-date absolute gravimeters, the trajectory of the test mass during a free-fall experiment (drop) is about 20 cm along the vertical, and the corresponding gravity change is about 60×10?8 m s?2. The reference height of the derived free-fall acceleration g has to be defined with an accuracy of 1 mm to 2 mm within the dropping distance to preserve

Ludger Timmen

2003-01-01

282

National Osteoporosis Prevention Month  

E-print Network

Service Texas A&M University System Eat Smart for Bone Health Exercise & Fall Prevention- Lesson 6 Contents: Lesson - Exercise & Fall Prevention Power Point # P6-1 Eat Smart for Bone Health # P6-2 Weight-6 Reduce the Force of a Fall # P6-7 L.I.V.E. Handouts # Newsletter - Exercise for Bone Health - Vol. 1 No

283

[Evaluation of the effectiveness of preventive desensitizing nutrition in a preventive sanatorium].  

PubMed

The effectiveness of prophylactic desensitizing nutrition of workers at microbiological industry enterprises has been evaluated. Three groups of workers were under study. Two groups of subjects were in contact with microbiological synthesis products: one group (prophylactic) was given a specially developed prophylactic ration; the second one (control) received usual nutrition, the third group (intact) was composed of subjects who had no contact with the harmful production factors. Before the use of preventive measures, changes in the lipid and protein metabolism were recorded in workers of microbiological industry, and sensitization to microbiological synthesis products was observed enhancing the development of allergic diseases of the broncho-pulmonary apparatus and skin. The use of a specially developed ration has promoted metabolism normalization, the lowering of sensitization degree, and produced a favourable effect on the disease course. The prophylactic ration has been recommended for workers engaged in the microbiological industry. PMID:1830709

Dotsenko, V A; Buldakov, A S; Ga?kovaia, L B; Dugarova, D V; Lo?ko, V I

1991-01-01

284

Applying root cause analysis to improve patient safety: decreasing falls in postpartum women  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo investigate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent falls designed through hazard analysis using root cause analysis.DesignProspective longitudinal study. Under preceding root cause analysis, root factors were classified into four major categories: environment and facilities, procedure, individual, and communication. Among them, communication, environment and facilities were recognised as the most vital factors to facilitate intervention accordingly. The fall prevention programme

K. H. Chen; L. R. Chen; S. Su

2010-01-01

285

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: Adverse Effects and Their Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To discuss nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), their history, development, mode of action, toxicities, strategies for the prevention of toxicity, and future developments. - \\u000aMethods: Medline search for articles published up to 2007, using the keywords acetylsalicylic acid, aspirin, NSAIDs, cyclooxygenase 2, adverse effects, ulcer, and cardiovascular. - \\u000aResults: NSAIDs are 1 of the oldest, most successful drugs known to

Harald E. Vonkeman; Mart A. F. J. van de Laar

2010-01-01

286

Effectiveness of HIV Prevention for Women: What Is Working?  

PubMed

The HIV-AIDS remains a public health problem which disproportionally affects women. However, prevention strategies have rarely considered their specific efficacy for them. For this reason, this study examines the differential effectiveness of six intervention elements based on socio-cognitive theories addressing young women. A controlled between-groups design examined the change in risk profile among 167 young Spanish women (mean age 21.3 years old) involved in five sexual risk prevention interventions (informative talk, attitudinal discussion, role-play, fear induction and informative website) and one control non-intervening group (waiting list). Our findings support the differential efficacy of some HIV preventive intervention elements comparing others for women. In particular, the attitudinal discussion stands out followed by the informative talk and the role play. Contrarily, the fear induction component did not reveal relevant improvements. This study provides new evidence related to HIV prevention. Particularly, the higher efficacy of motivational components for these young Spanish women is revealed. PMID:24452498

Gil-Llario, María Dolores; Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Giménez-García, Cristina; Salmerón-Sánchez, Pedro

2014-10-01

287

Summer/Fall Summer/Fall  

E-print Network

NU graduate school programs are excluded. Marketing Program Profile Admissions Selectivity Average 2012 Fall 2013 Fall 2008 Fall 2009 Fall 2010 Fall 2011 Fall 2012 Fall 2013 Gender Female * 50% 60% 80% 0% 0% 0% 0% Marketing Program Profile Enrollment and Demographics New Enrollment* Total Enrollment

Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

288

Fall/Winter CONCERNED ABOUT COLON CANCER?  

E-print Network

TRADITIONS Fall/Winter 2005 #12;CONCERNED ABOUT COLON CANCER? PREVENTION IS POSSIBLE. Introducing the Colon C ancer Prevention Program at UConn Health C enter IT'S TRUE: C OLON CANCER MAY BE PREVENTED colon cancer prevention pl an sta rts w ith a phone call to the new Colon C an cer Prevention P r ogr am

Holsinger, Kent

289

Falling Feather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this physics activity, learners recreate Galileo's famous experiment, in which he dropped a heavy weight and a light weight from the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa to show that both weights fall at the same acceleration. Learners prove that Galileo was correct by comparing how fast a feather and coin fall in a tube attached to a vacuum. Use this activity to help learners explore acceleration and terminal velocity as well as how air resistance plays a role in how fast things fall.

Exploratorium, The

2012-07-12

290

Relationship between location and activity in injurious falls: an exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the circumstances under which injurious falls occur could provide healthcare workers with better tools to prevent falls and fall-related injuries. Therefore, we assessed whether older persons who sustain an injurious fall can be classified into specific fall types, based on a combination of fall location and activity up to the moment of the fall. In addition, we

Michel HC Bleijlevens; Joseph PM Diederiks; Marike RC Hendriks; Jolanda CM van Haastregt; Harry FJM Crebolder; Jacques ThM van Eijk

2010-01-01

291

Verifying Drug Abuse Prevention Program Effects Using Reciprocal Best Friend Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable research suggests that social influences-based drug abuse prevention programming has produced the most consistently successful preventive effects. However, a common criticism of this literature is that most prevention intervention studies rely solely on self-reported substance use. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of normative education, arguably the most successful component of social influence based prevention

Stewart I. Donaldson; Craig W. Thomas; John W. Graham; Judith G. Au; William B. Hansen

2000-01-01

292

Design an effective storm water pollution prevention plan  

SciTech Connect

A case history shows ``how`` to plan and organize a storm water pollution prevention program (SWPPP). Using easy-to-use worksheets and guidelines, hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) operators can build upon existing best management practices (i.e., housekeeping procedures, visual inspections, spill prevention programs, etc.) to meet tighter restrictions set by National Pollutant Discharge Elimination system (NPDES) permits. Especially in high rainfall areas, storm water poses an intermittent, but large volume problem. The facility`s site size is another factor that impacts the scope and cost for SWPPP. The five steps to implementing a SWPPP are: Planning and organization; Assessment; Best management practice (BMP) identification; Implementation; Evaluation and monitoring. Initially, HPI operators must identify all potential contamination sources and past spills and leak areas. Following the SWPP guidelines, operators can map out a cost-effective storm water program that meets all NPDES requirements.

Vivona, M.A. [Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-08-01

293

Free Fall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The animation simulates an object in free-fall near the surface of the earth. Use the links to view a projectile released from rest and a projectile initially projected upward. Air resistance is neglected in the simulation.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

294

Explanations for side effect aversion in preventive medical treatment decisions  

PubMed Central

Objective Many laypeople demonstrate excessive sensitivity to negative side effects of medical treatments, which may lead them to refuse beneficial therapies. This Internet-based experiment investigated three possible explanations for such “side effect aversion.” One was derived from mental accounting, one examined the mere presence of a side effect, and one focused on computational difficulties. Design Participants (N = 5,379) were presented with a hypothetical cancer preventive treatment situation that was or was not accompanied by one or two small side effects. The side effects were either beneficial or harmful. In all conditions the net absolute risk reduction associated with the treatment was 15%. Main Outcome Measures Participants indicated their willingness to accept treatment and their perceptions of the treatment’s effects on their overall cancer risk. Results Data were consistent only with the “mere presence” explanation of side effect aversion, the idea that side effects act as a strong negative cue that directly affects treatment appraisal. The number of negative side effects did not influence treatment willingness. Conclusion Side effect aversion is a challenge to informed decision making. Specific mechanisms that produce side effect aversion should be identified. PMID:19290712

Waters, Erika A.; Weinstein, Neil D.; Colditz, Graham A.; Emmons, Karen

2008-01-01

295

TOWARDS ROBUST FALL DETECTION Violeta Mirchevska1  

E-print Network

elderly user in real-time. It encompasses detection of falls as well as changes in behavior and injury danger which prevent collection of large amounts of data by healthy persons simulating falls. NonTOWARDS ROBUST FALL DETECTION Violeta Mirchevska1 , Mitja Lustrek2 , Matjaz Gams2 1 Result d

LuÂ?trek, Mitja

296

Seismo-ionospheric effects associated with 'Chelyabinsk' meteorite during the first 25 minutes after its fall  

E-print Network

This paper presents the properties of ionospheric irregularities elongated with Earth magnetic field during the first 25 minutes after the fall of the meteorite 'Chelyabinsk' experimentally observed with EKB radar of Russian segment of the SuperDARN. It is shown that 40 minutes before meteor fall the EKB radar started to observe powerful scattering from irregularities elongated with the Earth magnetic field in the F-layer. Scattering was observed for 80 minutes and stopped 40 minutes after the meteorite fall. During 9-15 minutes after the meteorite fall at ranges 400-1200 km from the explosion site a changes were observed in the spectral and amplitude characteristics of the scattered signal. This features were the sharp increase in the Doppler frequency shift of the scattered signal corresponding to the Doppler velocities about 600 m/s and the sharp increase of the scattered signal amplitude. This allows us to conclude that we detected the growth of small-scale ionospheric irregularities elongated with the Ea...

Berngardt, Oleg I

2014-01-01

297

OCEAN DISTRIBUTION. GROWTH, AND EFFECTS OF THE TROLL FISHERY ON YIELD OF FALL CHINOOK SALMON  

E-print Network

chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). ~ur. Sommer. Fish., Columbia Fish. Program Off., Appralsal- chus tshawytscha) produced by a number of Co- lumbia River hatcheries. Approximately 10% of the output. Contriliution of Columbia River hatcheries to harvest of 1962 brood fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tsha- w1

298

Bowling Green State University Course descriptions as of 4/1/2009 (effective fall 2009)  

E-print Network

, communications skills, use of electronic media and inquiries into ethics and values within the accounting. Subject: Accounting ACCT 2000(3) Accounting Concepts for Nonbusiness Students Fall, Spring, Summer. Accounting concepts and procedures and their contribution to administrative processes. Enterprise analysis

Moore, Paul A.

299

The development and effectiveness of an osteoporosis prevention education intervention .  

E-print Network

??Osteoporosis prevention education interventions intended to increase the osteoporosis preventive behaviors of weight-bearing physical activity and calcium consumption in young individuals have been found to… (more)

Nguyen, Vu H.

2011-01-01

300

Prevention of periprosthetic joint infection: what are the effective strategies?  

PubMed

Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) following total knee arthroplasty is a major burden for patients and health systems. Prevention of this challenging complication through implementation of effective strategies should be a priority. These strategies should encompass various levels of patient care. Multiple modifiable risk factors such as uncontrolled hyperglycemia, obesity, smoking, substance abuse, and nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus have been described for PJI. Preoperative recognition and mitigation of these risk factors along with optimization of nonmodifiable risk factors such as kidney, liver, or immune system insufficiency can considerably decrease the risk of PJI. A comprehensive perioperative protocol should involve optimization of the operative environment to reduce the number of bacteria and particulates in the air. Several surgical and nonsurgical details of intraoperative care such as maintenance of normothermia, skin preparation, surgical field irrigation, wound closure, and duration of surgical and anesthetic procedure can influence the occurrence of PJI. Prophylactic perioperative antibiotic administration is probably one of the most important strategies in preventing PJI. Implementation of surgical safety checklist can diminish the risk of perioperative complications, particularly surgical site infection. Controversy regarding efficacy, efficiency, and optimization of some preventive measures continues to exist due to inconsistency or inadequacy of available evidence. Novel research has focused on designing PJI-resistant implants and developing vaccines that target molecule components with major role in the process of bacterial adhesion to the implant or periprosthetic tissues. PMID:24792971

Alijanipour, Pouya; Heller, Snir; Parvizi, Javad

2014-08-01

301

Effects of Voluntary Public Reporting on the Nurse Sensitive Measures of Falls and Falls with Injury in Hospitals: A Massachusetts Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Interest and efforts in the health care industry to be transparent by collecting and publicly reporting performance measures about healthcare quality and cost has increased in recent years. The National Quality Forum (NQF) endorsed a set of 15 national quality measures for nursing-sensitive care that could be used for public accountability and quality improvement, including measures of patient falls

Patricia Noga

2011-01-01

302

Prevention in psychiatry: effects of healthy lifestyle on cognition.  

PubMed

People are living longer than ever. With greater longevity, a critical question becomes whether or not our memories endure across the life span. This article reviews the common forms of age-related memory change and the emerging evidence related to putative risk and protective factors for brain aging. With increasing awareness of Alzheimer disease and related dementias, patients, families, and clinicians are eager for concise and accurate information about the effects and limitations of preventative strategies related to lifestyle choices that may improve cognitive health. PMID:21333851

Merrill, David A; Small, Gary W

2011-03-01

303

Summer/Fall Summer/Fall  

E-print Network

graduate school programs are excluded. Marketing Program Profile Admissions Selectivity Average = 11% Yield Fall 2007 Fall 2008 Fall 2009 Fall 2010 Fall 2011 Fall 2012 Gender Female 20% * 50% 60% 80% 60% 38% 36% Marketing Program Profile Enrollment and Demographics New Enrollment* Total Enrollment * If there are 3

Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

304

Summer/Fall Summer/Fall  

E-print Network

graduate school programs are excluded. Marketing Program Profile Admissions Selectivity Average = 11% Yield 2011 Fall 2006 Fall 2007 Fall 2008 Fall 2009 Fall 2010 Fall 2011 Gender Female 25% 20% * 50% 60% 80% 50% 0% 0% 0% Not Specified 0% 0% * 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% Marketing Program Profile Enrollment

Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

305

Lives saved from malaria prevention in Africa--evidence to sustain cost-effective gains.  

PubMed

Lives saved have become a standard metric to express health benefits across interventions and diseases. Recent estimates of malaria-attributable under-five deaths prevented using the Lives Saved tool (LiST), extrapolating effectiveness estimates from community-randomized trials of scale-up of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in the 1990s, confirm the substantial impact and good cost-effectiveness that ITNs have achieved in high-endemic sub-Saharan Africa. An even higher cost-effectiveness would likely have been found if the modelling had included the additional indirect mortality impact of ITNs on preventing deaths from other common child illnesses, to which malaria contributes as a risk factor. As conventional ITNs are being replaced by long-lasting insecticidal nets and scale-up is expanded to target universal coverage for full, all-age populations at risk, enhanced transmission reduction may--above certain thresholds--enhance the mortality impact beyond that observed in the trials of the 1990s. On the other hand, lives saved by ITNs might fall if improved malaria case management with artemisinin-based combination therapy averts the deaths that ITNs would otherwise prevent.Validation and updating of LiST's simple assumption of a universal, fixed coverage-to-mortality-reduction ratio will require enhanced national programme and impact monitoring and evaluation. Key indicators for time trend analysis include malaria-related mortality from population-based surveys and vital registration, vector control and treatment coverage from surveys, and parasitologically-confirmed malaria cases and deaths recorded in health facilities. Indispensable is triangulation with dynamic transmission models, fitted to long-term trend data on vector, parasite and human populations over successive phases of malaria control and elimination.Sound, locally optimized budget allocation including on monitoring and evaluation priorities will benefit much if policy makers and programme planners use planning tools such as LiST - even when predictions are less certain than often understood. The ultimate success of LiST for supporting malaria prevention may be to prove its linear predictions less and less relevant. PMID:22455309

Korenromp, Eline L

2012-01-01

306

Effects of communal exercise with visual and auditory feedback provided by a smart application on gait ability and fear of falling in Parkinson’s disease patients  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease is a chronically developing neurodegenerative disease showing typical motor symptoms of the following triad: resting tremor, freezing of gait, and bradykinesia-hypokinesia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a communal exercise program, using the visual and auditory feedback provided by a smart application, to assess gait ability, fear of falling, and fall efficacy in Parkinson’s disease patients. Subjects consisted of 29 Parkinson’s disease patients who were non-demented individuals. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups: the control group (n= 9, CG), the communal exercise group using the smart application (n= 10, CCEG), and the individual exercise group using the smart application (n= 10, ICEG). The communal exercise program consisted of a warm up (10 min) followed by communal exercise using the smart application (40 min), and a cool down (10 min) for 3 days per week over 10 weeks. The results presented here show that velocity and cadence were significantly increased among groups. Step and stride length were significantly increased among times. Fear of falling and fall efficacy were significantly different among groups and times. In particular, fear of falling was lower and fall efficacy was higher in the CCEG than in the ICEG and CG. These findings indicate that 10 weeks of the communal exercise program using the smart application can be effective in improving gait ability, fear of falling, and fall efficacy in Parkinson’s disease patients.

Park, Yun-Jin

2014-01-01

307

Effect of the ash Fall on the Human Health at Colima Volcano During 2005-2006.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colima Volcano in western Mexico had several small ash emitting eruptions during 2005-2006. In this time period we studied the impact of the ash fall on human health through field observations, interviews and health data processing. The volcano was most active in May-June 2005. Data from 15.000 medical records of the Colima and Jalisco State Health Departments show two main health problems in humans during this time: Conjunctivitis was detected in 1,933 people and respiratory disease in 12,630 people in an area of 1,841,283 km2 which was affected by small amounts of ash fall near the volcano in 2005. Ash emissions from Colima Volcano correlate well with increased affections. When emissions increased so did the frequency of these health problems in the population.

Nieto, A.; Martin, A. L.; Fonseca, R.; Garcia, M.

2007-05-01

308

Commentary: Eight Ways to Prevent Cancer: a framework for effective prevention messages for the public  

PubMed Central

Research over the past 40 years has convincingly shown that lifestyle factors play a huge role in cancer incidence and mortality. The public, though, can often discount the preventability of cancer. That health information on the Internet is a vast and often scientifically suspect commodity makes promoting important and sound cancer prevention messages to the pubic even more difficult. To help address these issues and improve the public’s knowledge of, and attitudes toward, cancer prevention, there need to be concerted efforts to create evidence-based, user-friendly information about behaviors that could greatly reduce overall cancer risk. Toward this end, we condensed the current scientific evidence on the topic into eight key behaviors. While not an end in themselves, “8 Ways to Stay Healthy and Prevent Cancer” forms an evidence-based and targeted framework that supports broader cancer prevention efforts. PMID:22367724

Dart, Hank; Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Colditz, Graham A.

2013-01-01

309

[Effectiveness of antimicrobial prophylaxis in prevention of surgical site infections].  

PubMed

Preventing surgical site infection (SSI) is important in providing safe and high-quality surgical care. Antimicrobial prophylaxis is given to prevent SSI. Many reports revealed that antimicrobial prophylaxis is effective to reduce SSI rates, when its initial dose is given at proper timing and additional dose is properly given in longer operations. Initial dose of antimicrobial prophylaxis is recommended to be administered within one hour before starting operation. Additional dose is recommended to be administered each two to three hours in longer operations. Antimicrobial prophylaxis should be given according to pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD). Beta-lactam drugs are recommended to be administered three or four times a day to obtain longer time above MIC and effective antimicrobial activity. In United States, Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) is ongoing to reduce complications after surgery. Proper usage of antimicrobial prophylaxis is strongly recommended to reduce SSI in this project. Surgical team hopes to reduce SSI by proper administration of antimicrobial prophylaxis with the cooperatiing of anesthesiologists and operating room staffs. PMID:20486570

Harihara, Yasushi; Konishi, Toshiro

2010-05-01

310

Effects of preventive home visits to elderly people.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To assess the effect of preventive home visits by public health nurses on the state of health of and use of services by elderly people living at home. DESIGN--Randomised controlled trial. SETTING--General population of elderly people in one of the southern regions of the Netherlands. SUBJECTS--580 subjects aged between 75 and 84 years randomly allocated to intervention (292) or control (288) group. INTERVENTIONS--Four visits a year over three years in intervention group. Control group received no home visits. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Self rated health, functional state, well being, loneliness, aspects of the mental state (depressive complaints, memory disturbances), and mortality. Use of services and costs. RESULTS--Visits had no effect on the health of the subjects. In the group visited no higher scores were seen on health related measures, fewer died (42 (14%) v 50 (17%)), and community care increased slightly. In the control group more were referred to outpatient clinics (166 (66%) v 132 (55%)), and they had a 40% increased risk of admission (incidence rate ratio 1.4; 90% confidence interval 1.2 to 1.6). No differences were found in long term institutional care, and overall expenditure per person in the intervention group exceeded that in the control group by 4%. Additional analyses showed that visits were effective for subjects who initially rated their health as poor. CONCLUSIONS--Preventive home visits are not beneficial for the general population of elderly people living at home but might be effective when restricted to subjects with poor health. PMID:8343668

van Rossum, E; Frederiks, C M; Philipsen, H; Portengen, K; Wiskerke, J; Knipschild, P

1993-01-01

311

Free Fall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity (page 1 of PDF), learners will use a simple physics of motion and gravity demonstration to test their predicting skills. Learners predict which quarter will hit the floor first during this free fall experiment. This activity not only requires learners to observe carefully, but also listen carefully! Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV: Hockey.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

312

Falling Faster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about gravity (page 6 of the PDF), learners will come to understand how all objects will fall at the same rate, but that air will slow things down. This is a simple activity (it uses only two pieces of paper) that provides an excellent "Wow!" moment.

Cosi

2009-01-01

313

Do weight categories prevent athletes from relative age effect?  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate whether weight categories prevent young athletes from being exposed to a relative age effect. The dates of birth of all French female (n = 727) and male (n = 5440) amateur boxers who participated in the 2010-2011 season were collected from the federation database. The dates of birth of all French male professional boxers (n = 354) were also collected. The results show an absence of a relative age effect among French female and male amateur boxers. The results also show an absence of this phenomenon among French male professional boxers. The male 18-18+ age category reveal an inverse relative age effect. This inverse relative age effect might be interpreted as the result of a strategic adaptation from relatively younger children who shift from one sport to another where there are weight categories in order to ensure fair competition. The results of this study suggest that the weight category system is a possible solution within the relative age effect phenomenon. PMID:23879217

Delorme, Nicolas

2014-01-01

314

Long-term Impact of Prevention Programs to Promote Effective Parenting: Lasting Effects but Uncertain Processes  

PubMed Central

This chapter reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to twenty years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting programs; 1) through program effects on parenting skills, perceptions of parental efficacy and reduction in barriers to effective parenting; 2) through program-induced reductions in short-term problems of youth that persist over time, improvements in youth adaptation to stress, and improvements in youth belief systems concerning the self and their relationships with others; and 3) through effects on contexts in which youth become involved and on youth-environment transactions. PMID:20822438

Sandler, Irwin; Schoenfelder, Erin; Wolchik, Sharlene; MacKinnon, David

2010-01-01

315

House fire injury prevention update. Part II. A review of the effectiveness of preventive interventions  

PubMed Central

Objective—To evaluate and summarize the house fire injury prevention literature. Methods—MEDLINE (1983 to March 1997) was searched by keyword: fire, burn, etiology, cause, prevention, epidemiology, and smoke detector/alarm. ERIC (1966 to March 1997) and PSYCLIT (1974 to June 1997) were searched by keyword: as above, and safety, skills, education, and training. Other sources included references of retrieved publications, review articles, and books; Injury Prevention hand search; government documents; and internet sources. Sources relevant to residential fire injury prevention were selected, evaluated, and summarized. Results—Forty three publications were selected for review, including seven randomized controlled trials, nine quasiexperiments, two natural experiments, 21 prospective cohort studies, two cross sectional surveys, one case report, and one program evaluation. These studies examined the following types of interventions: school (9), preschool (1), and community based educational programs (5); fire response training programs for children (7), blind adolescents (2), and mentally retarded adults (5) and children (1); office based counseling (4); home inspection programs (3); smoke detector giveaway campaigns (5); and smoke detector legislation (1). Conclusions—This review of house fire prevention interventions underscores the importance of program evaluation. There is a need for more rigorous evaluation of educational programs, particularly those targeted at schools. An evidence based, coordinated approach to house fire injury prevention is critical, given current financial constraints and the potential for program overload for communities and schools. PMID:10518271

Warda, L.; Tenenbein, M.; Moffatt, M.

1999-01-01

316

Adolescent pregnancy prevention: Choosing an effective program that fits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent pregnancy prevention remains a high priority issue for communities, schools, and service agencies that work with adolescents. Since the early 1990s the United States has provided funding for pregnancy prevention programs with an emphasis on abstinence only education programs. Also during this time, prevention programs with youth development and service learning foundations have been developed and empirically studied. Current

Mary Beth Harris; Jane G. Allgood

2009-01-01

317

Optimizing footwear for older people at risk of falls.  

PubMed

Footwear influences balance and the subsequent risk of slips, trips, and falls by altering somatosensory feedback to the foot and ankle and modifying frictional conditions at the shoe/floor interface. Walking indoors barefoot or in socks and walking indoors or outdoors in high-heel shoes have been shown to increase the risk of falls in older people. Other footwear characteristics such as heel collar height, sole hardness, and tread and heel geometry also influence measures of balance and gait. Because many older people wear suboptimal shoes, maximizing safe shoe use may offer an effective fall prevention strategy. Based on findings of a systematic literature review, older people should wear shoes with low heels and firm slip-resistant soles both inside and outside the home. Future research should investigate the potential benefits of tread sole shoes for preventing slips and whether shoes with high collars or flared soles can enhance balance when challenging tasks are undertaken. PMID:19235118

Menant, Jasmine C; Steele, Julie R; Menz, Hylton B; Munro, Bridget J; Lord, Stephen R

2008-01-01

318

In search of effective education in burn and fire prevention.  

PubMed

Children younger than 14 years continue to be a high-risk group for burn-related and fire-related injuries. Burn and fire educators must find a way to reach these children that captures their imaginations. There may be no better way than games. Two burn and fire prevention games were developed. The games were distributed to 38 school districts encompassing a total of 164 elementary schools and reaching more than 1,035 youngsters in grades 1 through 4 in a two-county community. Before playing each game, the participants completed a multichoice pretest. A similar posttest was administered after gaming to determine mastery and retention of knowledge. In addition, classroom instructors were given an evaluation form to assess content, quality, and effectiveness. Pretest and posttest results indicated students gained and retained significant knowledge. Instructor evaluation recognized these games as entertaining and exciting, precipitating additional questions leading to further classroom discussion and learning. PMID:11482687

Mondozzi, M A; Harper, M A

2001-01-01

319

School-based Abuse Prevention: Effect on Disclosures.  

PubMed

This paper focuses specifically on the analysis of disclosures and forms part of a wider study which evaluated the effectiveness of the Violence is Preventable program. Participants included a survivor group, grade 6 group, and a grade 7/8 group with equivalent waiting-list comparison groups. Lessons were delivered either by voluntary organization workers or class teachers. Disclosures were systematically recorded by presenters. Video was used to analyze interactions around disclosures. Substantial numbers of disclosures occurred when lessons were delivered by survivor organisation presenters. Video analysis suggested this was partly due to adult-student interactions characterized by low levels of adult control. Studies on a larger scale are needed particularly comparing outcomes from different presenters with an analysis of what leads to disclosure in and beyond the classroom. PMID:23585709

Barron, Ian G; Topping, Keith J

2010-10-01

320

The effects of high frequency subthalamic stimulation on balance performance and fear of falling in patients with Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Background Balance impairment is one of the most distressing symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) even with pharmacological treatment (levodopa). A complementary treatment is high frequency stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Whether STN stimulation improves postural control is under debate. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of STN stimulation alone on balance performance as assessed with clinical performance tests, subjective ratings of fear of falling and posturography. Methods Ten patients (median age 66, range 59–69 years) with bilateral STN stimulation for a minimum of one year, had their anti-PD medications withdrawn overnight. Assessments were done both with the STN stimulation turned OFF and ON (start randomized). In both test conditions, the following were assessed: motor symptoms (descriptive purposes), clinical performance tests, fear of falling ratings, and posturography with and without vibratory proprioceptive disturbance. Results STN stimulation alone significantly (p = 0.002) increased the scores of the Berg balance scale, and the median increase was 6 points. The results of all timed performance tests, except for sharpened Romberg, were significantly (p ? 0.016) improved. The patients rated their fear of falling as less severe, and the total score of the Falls-Efficacy Scale(S) increased (p = 0.002) in median with 54 points. All patients completed posturography when the STN stimulation was turned ON, but three patients were unable to do so when it was turned OFF. The seven patients with complete data showed no statistical significant difference (p values ? 0.109) in torque variance values when comparing the two test situations. This applied both during quiet stance and during the periods with vibratory stimulation, and it was irrespective of visual input and sway direction. Conclusion In this sample, STN stimulation alone significantly improved the results of the clinical performance tests that mimic activities in daily living. This improvement was further supported by the patients' ratings of fear of falling, which were less severe with the STN stimulation turned ON. Posturography could not be performed by three out of the ten patients when the stimulation was turned OFF. The posturography results of the seven patients with complete data showed no significant differences due to STN stimulation. PMID:19405954

Nilsson, Maria H; Fransson, Per-Anders; Jarnlo, Gun-Britt; Magnusson, Måns; Rehncrona, Stig

2009-01-01

321

[The three-step programme of skin protection. A useful instrument of primary prevention or more effective in secondary prevention?].  

PubMed

For many years the three-step programme of skin protection, consisting of skin protection before work, cleaning and skin care after work, is one of the generally recommended measures to prevent occupational contact dermatitis. While protective creams are supposed to prevent skin damage caused by irritant contact, skin cleansing should mildly remove aggressive substances from the skin, whereas post-exposure skin care is intended to enhance epidermal barrier regeneration. This programme is strongly followed by most of the employees. But in spite of intensive preventive measurements the rate of reported occupational skin diseases according to BK 5101 is with a mean of 27.9% unchanged high since 1980. Occupational dermatologists even suggest that the reported cases mimic the top of an iceberg and that the incidence of occupational skin diseases might be much higher. These findings raise the question of how effective the actual recommended three-step programme really is in primary and secondary prevention of occupational contact dermatitis. This review is aimed to give an evaluation on the evidence of each single element of the three-step concept. Following results can be determined: In cases of impaired skin condition the therapeutic properties of skin protection (secondary prevention) is undoubted. The effectiveness of barrier creams in the primary prevention of hand eczema could not be proven. Beyond doubt is the fact that barrier creams facilitate the removal of sticky oils, greases, and resins from the skin, thus decreasing the need to wash with potentially irritating abrasives and waterless cleansers. PMID:18213554

Kütting, B; Drexler, H

2008-02-01

322

Once Is Enough: A Guide to Preventing Future Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

... Once Is Enough: A Guide to Preventing Future Fractures Publication available in: PDF (175 KB) Chinese (??) Related Resources Falls and Fractures Caídas y fracturas (Falls and Fractures) Preventing Falls ...

323

Falling Piston  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains two Physlets that are able to share data using the common superclass or all Physlets, SApplet. The temperature of an ensemble will increase if it compressed in an insulating container due to the work, P DV that is done on the gas. The data graph shows the volume and the temperature, i.e., , of the ensemble as the piston free-falls under the action of a constant force.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-09

324

Falling Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students drop water from different heights to demonstrate the conversion of water's potential energy to kinetic energy. They see how varying the height from which water is dropped affects the splash size. They follow good experiment protocol, take measurements, calculate averages and graph results. In seeing how falling water can be used to do work, they also learn how this energy transformation figures into the engineering design and construction of hydroelectric power plants, dams and reservoirs.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

325

Counterintuitive effect of fall mixed layer deepening on eukaryotic new production in the Sargasso Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sargasso Sea is characterized by a short period of deep vertical mixing in the late winter and early spring, followed by strong thermal stratification during the summer. Stratification persists into the fall, impeding the upward flux of nitrate from depth so that recycled forms of nitrogen (N) such as ammonium are thought to support most primary production. We collected particles from surface waters during March, July, October, and December, used flow cytometry to separate the prokaryotic and eukaryotic phytoplankton, and analyzed their respective 15N/14N. In all months, the 15N/14N of the prokaryotic genera, Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, was low, indicative of reliance on recycled N throughout the year. In July, the 15N/14N of eukaryotic phytoplankton was variable but consistently higher than that of the prokaryotes, reflecting eukaryotic consumption of subsurface nitrate. Two eukaryotic profiles from October and December were similar to those from July. In three other fall profiles, the eukaryotes had a 15N/14N similar to that of the prokaryotes, suggesting a switch toward greater reliance on recycled N. This change in the dominant N source supporting eukaryotic production appears to be driven by the density structure of the upper water column. The very shallow low-density surface "mixed layer" (?20 m) that develops in early-to-mid summer does not contribute to stratification at the base of the euphotic zone, and subsurface nitrate can mix up into the lower euphotic zone, facilitating continued production. The deepening of the mixed layer into the fall, typically taken as an indication of weaker overall stratification, actually strengthens the isolation of the euphotic zone as a whole, reducing the upward supply of nitrate to the photosynthetically active layer. The same counterintuitive dynamic explains the latitudinal patterns in a set of three October depth profiles. Two northern stations (32°N and 27°N) were characterized by a thick, low-density surface layer, and the 15N/14N of all phytoplankton was low, consistent with assimilation of recycled N. The southernmost station (23°N) had a shallower mixed layer, and eukaryote 15N/14N reflects growth on nitrate. In the subtropics, evidence for the direct supply of nitrate into surface waters in the face of the strong upper ocean stratification has long been sought. Our N isotope results suggest a mechanism by which subsurface nitrate is imported into shallow waters. This interpretation offers a new perspective on the relationship between euphotic zone stratification and nitrate assimilation, implying that significant new production occurs under conditions previously assumed to drive oligotrophy.

Fawcett, S. E.; Lomas, M. W.; Ward, B. B.; Sigman, D. M.

2012-12-01

326

The Timed Up and Go test: predicting falls in ALS.  

PubMed

There are few functionally meaningful clinical measures used to guide management of patients with ALS. Falls are common, can be debilitating, and result in increased health care costs. We assessed the performance and ability to predict falls of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, which quantifies walking ability, in a prospective longitudinal study. Thirty-one patients underwent six monthly TUG, ALSFRS-R, forced vital capacity, muscle testing (MMT) and quality of life assessments. Linear and generalized linear mixed effects models assessed the associations among variables and ability to predict falls. The increase in TUG time was linear over six months, and TUG time was negatively associated with ALSFRS-R (p< or =0.001) and MMT scores (p< or =0.001). The TUG test was the only variable that was associated with the chance of falling (p = 0.024); patients with TUG times of 14 s had a 10% chance of falling during the study. In conclusion, TUG performance declined linearly in this longitudinal study, was correlated with standard outcome measures, and predicted falls. The TUG test can guide management of patients with ALS; a time of 14 s can be used to prompt the recommendation for mobility aids to prevent falls. PMID:17852012

Montes, Jacqueline; Cheng, Bin; Diamond, Beverly; Doorish, Carolyn; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Gordon, Paul H

2007-10-01

327

Designing an Effective Prevention Program: Principles Underlying the Rand Smoking and Drug Prevention Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hilton Foundation asked Rand to design, implement, and evaluate a school-based smoking and drug prevention program based on the social influence model of drug-use initiation. The resulting program-project ALERT (Adolescent Learning Experiences in Resi...

P. L. Ellickson

1984-01-01

328

Designing an Effective Prevention Program: Principles Underlying the Rand Smoking and Drug Prevention Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the Project ALERT program (Adolescent Learning Experiences in Resistance Training) which was established by the Rand Corporation to prevent smoking and drug use among seventh graders. The program is based on the social influence model of drug use initiation. Curriculum features are described including motivation to resist and…

Ellickson, Phyllis L.

329

Hair-Loss Preventing Effect of Grateloupia elliptica  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Grateloupia elliptica, a seaweed native to Jeju Island, Korea, on the prevention of hair loss. When immortalized rat vibrissa dermal papilla cells were treated with extract of G. elliptica, the proliferation of dermal papilla cells significantly increased. In addition, the G. elliptica extract significantly inhibited the activity of 5?-reductase, which converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a main cause of androgenetic alopecia. On the other hand, the G. elliptica extract promoted PGE2 production in HaCaT cells in a dose-dependent manner. The G. elliptica extract exhibited particularly high inhibitory effect on LPS-stimulated IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-? production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. The G. elliptica extract also showed inhibitory activity against Pityrosporum ovale, a main cause of dandruff. These results suggest that G. elliptica extract has the potential to treat alopecia via the proliferation of dermal papilla, 5?-reductase inhibition, increase of PGE2 production, decrease of LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibitory activity against Pityrosporum ovale. PMID:24116284

Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Han, Sang-Chul; Hong, Hye-Jin; Jeon, You-Jin; Kim, Bora; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

2012-01-01

330

Effectiveness of Diabetes Prevention Program translations among African Americans.  

PubMed

The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated risk reduction for incident diabetes through weight loss among all participants, including African Americans. Several DPP translations have been conducted in less controlled settings, including primary care practices and communities; however, there is no detailed compilation of how effective these translations have been for African Americans. This systematic literature review evaluated DPP translations from 2003 to 2012. Eligible records were retrieved using a search strategy of relevant databases and gray literature. Retrieved records (n?=?1,272) were screened using a priori criteria, which resulted in 21 full-text studies for review. Seventeen studies were included in the full-text qualitative synthesis. Seven studies had 100% African American samples and 10 studies had mixed samples with African American subgroups. African American participants' average weight loss was roughly half of that achieved in the DPP intervention. However, with few higher-quality studies, small sample sizes and differences in intervention designs and implementation, comparisons across interventions were difficult. The suboptimal effectiveness of DPP translations among African American adults, particularly women, signals the need for enhancements to existing evidence-based interventions and more high-quality research that includes other at-risk African American subgroups such as men and younger adults of lower socioeconomic status. PMID:25196409

Samuel-Hodge, C D; Johnson, C M; Braxton, D F; Lackey, M

2014-10-01

331

A model of the effects of flow fluctuations on fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat availability in the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Previously we reported that about 30% to 60% of the area predicted to be used by fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) for spawning in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River did not contain redds. One explanation for the overprediction of habitat was that our model did not incorporate streamflow fluctuation. Daily fluctuation in flow caused by load-following operations (power generation to meet short-term electrical demand) at Priest Rapids Dam, situated at the upper end of the Hanford Reach, changes the hydraulic characteristics to which fish respond in selecting redd sites. The purpose of the study described here was to examine the effect of flow changes on spawning habitat modeling and, in particular, to look at the connection between spawning and the variability and persistence of habitat variables caused by rapid changes in flow resulting from load-following operations at Priest Rapids Dam. We found that spawning habitat use by fall Chinook salmon was consistent with previous fall Chinook salmon studies in the Reach. Dynamic variables that were based on hourly time series were used to account for the variability in habitat as a result of flow fluctuations. The analysis showed that the proportion of velocities that fell within the range of 1.0 to 2.5 m/s differed significantly between locations that were predicted to be spawning by the logistic regression model where spawning actually occurred and locations that were predicted to be spawning where spawning did not occur. However, the resulting sequential logistic regression model that incorporated the dynamic variables did not provide significant improvement in the percentage of errors for areas predicted to be spawning; the model’s overprediction errors still ranged from 63% to 78%. We suggest that while flow fluctuation may affect spawning habitat and individual fish behavior, the high correlation between time-averaged velocities and the proportion of hourly velocities that fell within the most favorable range negated any improvements in model predictions.

Geist, David R.; Murray, Christopher J.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Xie, YuLong

2008-12-01

332

Differential Susceptibility to Prevention: GABAergic, Dopaminergic, and Multilocus Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Randomized prevention trials provide a unique opportunity to test hypotheses about the interaction of genetic predispositions with contextual processes to create variations in phenotypes over time. Methods: Using two longitudinal, randomized prevention trials, molecular genetic and alcohol use outcome data were gathered from more than…

Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Beach, Steven R. H.

2013-01-01

333

Predicting the Effectiveness of Prevention: A Role for Epidemiological Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well known that the current combination of aging populations and advances in health technology is resulting in burgeoning health costs in developed countries. Prevention is a potentially important way of containing health costs. In an environment of intense cost pressures, coupled with developments in disease prevention and health promotion,…

Walls, Helen L.; Peeters, Anna; Reid, Christopher M.; Liew, Danny; Mcneil, John J.

2008-01-01

334

Effectiveness of a Social Change Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…

Edwards, Keith E.

2009-01-01

335

Building and Maintaining an Effective Campus-Wide Coalition for Suicide Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preventing suicide is a commonly shared priority among college administrators, faculty, staff, students, and family members. Coalitions are popular health promotion mechanisms for solving community-wide problems and are valuable in campus-wide suicide prevention efforts. This article provides an example of an effective suicide prevention

Kaslow, Nadine J.; Garcia-Williams, Amanda; Moffitt, Lauren; McLeod, Mark; Zesiger, Heather; Ammirati, Rachel; Berg, John P.; McIntosh, Belinda J.

2012-01-01

336

A Concise History of School-Based Smoking Prevention Research: A Pendulum Effect Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-based cigarette smoking prevention was initiated shortly after the first Surgeon General's Report in 1964. This article highlights a sequence of events by which school-based tobacco use prevention research developed as a science, and illustrates a pendulum effect, with confidence in tobacco use prevention increasing and decreasing at…

Sussman, Steve; Black, David S.; Rohrbach, Louise A.

2010-01-01

337

Evidence-based HIV prevention in community settings: provider perspectives on evidence and effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the efforts to expand evidence-based practice (EBP) in HIV prevention at the community level, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) created the Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions (DEBI) program. Frontline service providers, who are charged with adopting and implementing these interventions, however, have resisted and criticized the dissemination of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions. Their failure

Jill Owczarzak

2012-01-01

338

Evidence-based HIV prevention in community settings: provider perspectives on evidence and effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the efforts to expand evidence-based practice (EBP) in HIV prevention at the community level, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) created the Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions (DEBI) program. Frontline service providers, who are charged with adopting and implementing these interventions, however, have resisted and criticized the dissemination of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions. Their failure

Jill Owczarzak

2011-01-01

339

Effectiveness of Prevention Programs for Adolescent Pregnancy: A Meta-Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed 32 outcome studies on the primary prevention of adolescent pregnancy and examined several moderator variables in relationship to the findings. Results indicate that certain pregnancy prevention programs had no effect on adolescents' sexual activity. Found sufficient evidence to support the efficacy of pregnancy prevention programs for…

Franklin, Cynthia; Grant, Darlene; Corcoran, Jacqueline; Miller, Pamela O'Dell; Bultman, Linda

1997-01-01

340

Cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in Andhra Pradesh state of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Information on cost-effectiveness of the range of HIV prevention interventions is a useful contributor to decisions on the best use of resources to prevent HIV. We conducted this assessment for the state of Andhra Pradesh that has the highest HIV burden in India. METHODS: Based on data from a representative sample of 128 public-funded HIV prevention programs of 14

Lalit Dandona; SG Prem Kumar; G Anil Kumar; Rakhi Dandona

2010-01-01

341

Testing the generalizability of intervening mechanism theories: Understanding the effects of adolescent drug use prevention interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcome research has shown that drug prevention programs based on theories of social influence often prevent the onset of adolescent drug use. However, little is known empirically about the processes through which they have their effects. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate intervening mechanism theories of two program models for preventing the onset of adolescent drug use.

Stewart I. Donaldson; John W. Graham; William B. Hansen

1994-01-01

342

The effects of promotion and prevention cues on creativity.  

PubMed

This study tested whether cues associated with promotion and prevention regulatory foci influence creativity. The authors predicted that the "risky," explorative processing style elicited by promotion cues, relative to the risk-averse, perseverant processing style elicited by prevention cues, would facilitate creative thought. These predictions were supported by two experiments in which promotion cues bolstered both creative insight (Experiment 1) and creative generation (Experiment 2) relative to prevention cues. Experiments 3 and 4 provided evidence for the process account of these findings. suggesting that promotion cues, relative to prevention cues, produce a riskier response bias (Experiment 3) and bolster memory search for novel responses (Experiment 4). A final experiment provided evidence that individual differences in regulatory focus influence creative problem solving in a manner analogous to that of incidental promotion and prevention cues. PMID:11761303

Friedman, R S; Forster, J

2001-12-01

343

An Analysis of the Accuracy of Wearable Sensors for Classifying the Causes of Falls in Humans  

PubMed Central

Falls are the number one cause of injury in older adults. Wearable sensors, typically consisting of accelerometers and/or gyroscopes, represent a promising technology for preventing and mitigating the effects of falls. At present, the goal of such “ambulatory fall monitors” is to detect the occurrence of a fall and alert care providers to this event. Future systems may also provide information on the causes and circumstances of falls, to aid clinical diagnosis and targeting of interventions. As a first step towards this goal, the objective of the current study was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of a wearable sensor system for determining the causes of falls. Sixteen young adults participated in experimental trials involving falls due to slips, trips, and “other” causes of imbalance. Three-dimensional acceleration data acquired during the falling trials were input to a linear discriminant analysis technique. This routine achieved 96% sensitivity and 98% specificity in distinguishing the causes of a falls using acceleration data from three markers (left ankle, right ankle, and sternum). In contrast, a single marker provided 54% sensitivity and two markers provided 89% sensitivity. These results indicate the utility of a three-node accelerometer array for distinguishing the cause of falls. PMID:21859608

Aziz, Omar; Robinovitch, Stephen N.

2012-01-01

344

Translating Family-Focused Prevention Science Into Effective Practice  

PubMed Central

Family-focused preventive intervention research could serve as an exemplar for the translation of science into practice on a scale that achieves public health impact. This article outlines advances in the field and translational research that still is needed, presenting these within a heuristic framework. The framework is designed to guide a broad translational research agenda fostering a shift toward a paradigm of public health impact—called a translational impact paradigm. Current advances and needed research in the subfield are mapped onto a set of four translational impact factors: effectiveness of interventions; extensiveness of their population coverage; efficiency of interventions; and engagement of eligible populations or organizations, including widespread adoption and sustained, quality implementation (the “4 Es” of intervention impact). The article then highlights key tasks required to progress in this area: improving practitioner–scientist partnership networks embedded in systems for delivery of evidence-based interventions; application of research guidelines and standards that facilitate translational impact; and policy change that supports needed research. PMID:20523761

Spoth, Richard

2010-01-01

345

Testing the Universality of the Effects of the Communities That Care Prevention System for Preventing Adolescent Drug Use and Delinquency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Universal community-oriented interventions are an important component in the prevention of youth health and behavior problems.\\u000a Testing the universality of the effects of an intervention that was designed to be universal is important because it provides\\u000a information about how the program operates and for whom and under what conditions it is most effective. The present study\\u000a examined whether the previously

Sabrina Oesterle; J. David Hawkins; Abigail A. Fagan; Robert D. Abbott; Richard F. Catalano

2010-01-01

346

Effects of a Potash Mine Roof Fall Observed in Nearby Monitoring Wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At approximately 5 AM on March 18, 2012, a significant collapse occurred in a potash mine near the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The US Geological Survey estimated the event to be magnitude 2.9. Two wells in the WIPP regional groundwater monitoring network experienced oscillatory water level fluctuations greater than 5 feet in response to the event. The changes in water level decayed slowly over several weeks following the event. The potash mine is located in the McNutt Potash zone of the Salado Formation, which is 1000-1400 feet below ground surface (BGS) near the location of the roof fall. The monitoring wells are completed in the semi-confined Culebra Dolomite member of the Rustler Formation, which is 375 feet BGS. The observed response is compared to published well responses to earthquakes and other seismic events. We explore the potential for using the event to characterize aquifer parameters. This research is funded by WIPP programs administered by the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the U.S Department of Energy. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000

Kuhlman, K. L.

2012-12-01

347

The Fort McMurray Demonstration Project in Social Marketing: no demonstrable effect on already falling injury rates following intensive community and workplace intervention.  

PubMed

The Fort McMurray Demonstration Project in Social Marketing attempted to achieve mutually reinforcing effects from thematically coordinated educational and awareness efforts in the community as a whole and in the workplace and the inclusion of occupational safety within the framework of a community health promotion project. The study community was Fort McMurray, a small, industrial city in northern Alberta. The Mistahiai Health Region, several hundred kilometers to the west and also dominated by one city, Grande Prairie, served as the reference community. The intervention was based on media and events staged at public events, with supporting educational activities in schools and the community. It relied heavily on community-based partners and volunteers. Data on healthcare utilization of selected preventable injuries were obtained from Alberta Health for the time period 1990-1996 for the Regional Health Authorities of Northern Lights, where the only large population centre is Fort McMurray, and Mistahia. Age-adjusted aggregate injury rates were analyzed for evidence of an effect of the intervention. Severity was measured by proxy, using the number of diagnostic claims submitted for reimbursement for medical services in a given year. The communities differed in age-specific injury rates, with Fort McMurray showing higher rates for residents aged less than 55. Young adults and older adolescents showed higher levels of severity. Injury rates fell substantially and at similar rates in both communities over the five-year period. However, in both communities injury rates were already falling before the intervention in Fort McMurray began and continued to fall at about the same rate, slowing toward the end of the period. No evidence was found for an effect of the Project or for acceleration of the reduction in injury frequency in the intervention area. Over the period, fewer medical services were delivered in office settings and more in emergency rooms, in both communities. The Fort McMurray Demonstration Project in Social Marketing achieved an intensity of intervention and community participation that is unlikely to be sustainable in other communities. Despite this level of effort, the study did not achieve an unequivocal, demonstrable reduction in injury frequency above what was already occurring. This may have been due to a more powerful trend manifested as injury reduction across the province. PMID:19521753

Guidotti, Tee L; Deb, Pooja; Bertera, Robert; Ford, Lynda

2009-10-01

348

Domestic violence prevention effectiveness in the United States Air Force  

E-print Network

scores. The study results suggest, based on PSI scores, the NPSP does not significantly lower the parental stress, thus lowering the potential for maltreatment. According to the literature, which confirms prevention methods such as home visitation...

Hall, Jennifer Michelle

2005-08-29

349

Falls in elderly hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

The elderly, (age ? 65 years) hemodialysis (HD) patient population is growing rapidly across the world. The risk of accidental falls is very high in this patient population due to multiple factors which include aging, underlying renal disease and adverse events associated with HD treatments. Falls, the most common cause of fatal injury among elderly, not only increase morbidity and mortality, but also increase costs to the health system. Prediction of falls and interventions to prevent or minimize fall risk and associated complications will be a major step in helping these patients as well as decreasing financial and social burdens. Thus, it is vital to learn how to approach this important problem. In this review, we will summarize the epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology and complications of falls in elderly HD patients. We will also focus on available methods to assess and predict the patients at higher risk of falling and will provide recommendations for interventions to reduce the occurrence of falls in this population. PMID:21750022

Abdel-Rahman, E M; Turgut, F; Turkmen, K; Balogun, R A

2011-10-01

350

Distinguishing the causes of falls in humans using an array of wearable tri-axial accelerometers.  

PubMed

Falls are the number one cause of injury in older adults. Lack of objective evidence on the cause and circumstances of falls is often a barrier to effective prevention strategies. Previous studies have established the ability of wearable miniature inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes) to automatically detect falls, for the purpose of delivering medical assistance. In the current study, we extend the applications of this technology, by developing and evaluating the accuracy of wearable sensor systems for determining the cause of falls. Twelve young adults participated in experimental trials involving falls due to seven causes: slips, trips, fainting, and incorrect shifting/transfer of body weight while sitting down, standing up from sitting, reaching and turning. Features (means and variances) of acceleration data acquired from four tri-axial accelerometers during the falling trials were input to a linear discriminant analysis technique. Data from an array of three sensors (left ankle+right ankle+sternum) provided at least 83% sensitivity and 89% specificity in classifying falls due to slips, trips, and incorrect shift of body weight during sitting, reaching and turning. Classification of falls due to fainting and incorrect shift during rising was less successful across all sensor combinations. Furthermore, similar classification accuracy was observed with data from wearable sensors and a video-based motion analysis system. These results establish a basis for the development of sensor-based fall monitoring systems that provide information on the cause and circumstances of falls, to direct fall prevention strategies at a patient or population level. PMID:24148648

Aziz, Omar; Park, Edward J; Mori, Greg; Robinovitch, Stephen N

2014-01-01

351

Optimizing Violence Prevention Programs: An Examination of Program Effectiveness among Urban High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: While demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the school-day schedule to accommodate their time requirements has diminished. Viable school-based prevention programs must strike a balance between brevity and effectiveness. This article reports results from an effectiveness trial of a 12-session…

Thompkins, Amanda C.; Chauveron, Lisa M.; Harel, Ofer; Perkins, Daniel F.

2014-01-01

352

Getting inside the House: The Effectiveness of a Rape Prevention Program for College Fraternity Men.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effectiveness of a socialization-focused rape prevention program designed specifically for college fraternity men. Results suggest that a socialization approach to rape education was as effective as a more traditional prevention program with regard to attitudes and knowledge. Although attitudes rebounded to previous levels at the…

Davis, Tracy L.; Liddell, Debora L.

2002-01-01

353

The Cost and Effectiveness of School-Based Preventive Dental Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cost and effectiveness of various types and combinations of school-based preventive dental care procedures were assessed in the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program, a four-year study involving more than 20,000 students, from ten schools nationwide. Communal water fluoridation was reaffirmed as the most cost-effective means of…

Klein, Stephen P.; And Others

1985-01-01

354

Verifying Drug Abuse Prevention Program Effects Using Reciprocal Best Friend Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable research suggests that social influences-based drug abuse preven- tion programming has produced the most consistently successful preventive effects. However, a common criticism of this literature is that most prevention intervention studies rely solely on self-reported substance use. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of normative education, arguably the most successful component of social influence based

Stewart I. Donaldson; Craig W. Thomas; John W. Graham; Judith G. Au; William B. Hansen

2000-01-01

355

Child Lures Prevention Program: Development of a Program Specific Assessment Instrument and Evaluation of Program Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Article investigates the effectiveness of a personal safety and prevention program titled the Child Lures School Program (CLPP). The measure of effectiveness was conducted through the development of a program specific assessment instrument in association with parental and school counselor surveys. The purpose of the CLPP is to provide elementary through high school students with information to prevent sexual exploitation,

Carrie Campbell-Bishop; Rebecca Robles Pina

356

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Project TRUST: An Elementary School-Based Victimization Prevention Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 1,269 elementary school children was conducted to test the effectiveness of Project TRUST (Teaching Reaching Using Students and Theater), a victimization prevention program. The program was found to be effective in increasing prevention knowledge and generating abuse disclosures without creating student anxiety. (CR)

Oldfield, Dick; And Others

1996-01-01

357

Fall 2013 1,144 516 Fall 2013 339 229 Fall 2012 1,279 502 Fall 2012 433 296  

E-print Network

Term WV Resident Non- Resident Term WV Resident Non- Resident Fall 2013 1,144 516 Fall 2013 339 229 Fall 2012 1,279 502 Fall 2012 433 296 Fall 2011 1,333 467 Fall 2011 435 285 Fall 2010 1,385 451 Fall 2010 462 248 Fall 2009 1,379 431 Fall 2009 460 263 Fall 2008 1,173 409 Fall 2008 397 242 Fall 2007 1

Mohaghegh, Shahab

358

Assessing the Risk of Falling in the Elderly A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment  

E-print Network

and Industrial Engineering #12;1 Abstract Elderly falls cost billions annually and preventing these falls.................................................................................................................... 9 6.1 Falls Prevention in the ElderlyAssessing the Risk of Falling in the Elderly Leslie Lai A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment

Sun, Yu

359

Decline and Fall At the White HouseA Longitudinal Analysis of Communication Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

To isolate the long-range effects of Watergate media exposure per se, regression analysis was used to control for the pre-Watergate levels of political effect variables and usual levels of communication behavior. Data were obtained from a longitudinal study of younger and older voters measured during the political campaigns of 1972 and 1974 and in the midst of the Senate Watergate

Jack M. McLeod; Jane D. Brown; Lee B. Becker; Dean A. Ziemke

1977-01-01

360

Analysis of Core Stability Exercise Effect on the Physical and Psychological Function of Elderly Women Vulnerable to Falls during Obstacle Negotiation  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of core stability exercise (CSE) on the physical and psychological functions of elderly women while negotiating general obstacles. [Subjects and Methods] After allocating 10 elderly women each to the core stability training group and the control group, we carried out Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA) and measured crossing velocity (CV), maximum vertical heel clearance (MVHC), and knee flexion angle for assessing physical performances. We evaluated depression and fear of falling for assessing psychological functions. [Results] Relative to the control group, the core stability training group showed statistically significant overall changes after the training session: an increase in POMA scores, faster CV, lower MVHC, and a decrease in knee flexion angle. Furthermore, depression and fear of falling decreased significantly. [Conclusion] CSE can have a positive effect on the improvement of physical and psychological performances of older women who are vulnerable to falls as they negotiate everyday obstacles.

Ko, Dae-Sik; Jung, Dae-In; Jeong, Mi-Ae

2014-01-01

361

Prevention system mediation of communities that care effects on youth outcomes.  

PubMed

This study examined whether the significant intervention effects of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system on youth problem behaviors observed in a panel of eighth-grade students (Hawkins et al. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 163:789-798 2009) were mediated by community-level prevention system constructs posited in the CTC theory of change. Potential prevention system constructs included the community's degree of (a) adoption of a science-based approach to prevention, (b) collaboration on prevention activities, (c) support for prevention, and (d) norms against adolescent drug use as reported by key community leaders in 24 communities. Higher levels of community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention and support for prevention in 2004 predicted significantly lower levels of youth problem behaviors in 2007, and higher levels of community norms against adolescent drug use predicted lower levels of youth drug use in 2007. Effects of the CTC intervention on youth problem behaviors by the end of eighth grade were mediated fully by community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention. No other significant mediated effects were found. Results support CTC's theory of change that encourages communities to adopt a science-based approach to prevention as a primary mechanism for improving youth outcomes. PMID:23828448

Brown, Eric C; Hawkins, J David; Rhew, Isaac C; Shapiro, Valerie B; Abbott, Robert D; Oesterle, Sabrina; Arthur, Michael W; Briney, John S; Catalano, Richard F

2014-10-01

362

Transfer effects of fall training on balance performance and spatiotemporal gait parameters in healthy community-dwelling older adults: a pilot study.  

PubMed

This study examined transfer effects of fall training on fear of falling (Falls Efficacy Scale-International [FES-I]), balance performance, and spatiotemporal gait characteristics in older adults. Eighteen community-dwelling older adults (ages 65-85) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The intervention group completed 12 training sessions (60 min, 6 weeks). During pre- and posttesting, we measured FES-I, balance performance (double limb, closed eyes; single limb, open eyes; double limb, open eyes with motor-interfered task), and gait parameters (e.g., velocity; cadence; stride time, stride width, and stride length; variability of stride time and stride length) under single- and motor-interfered tasks. Dual tasks were applied to appraise improvements of cognitive processing during balance and gait. FES-I (p = .33) and postural sway did not significantly change (0.36 < p < .79). Trends toward significant interaction effects were found for step width during normal walking and stride length variability during the motor dual task (p = .05, ?p 2 = .22). Fall training did not sufficiently improve fear of falling, balance, or gait performance under single- or dual-task conditions in healthy older adults. PMID:23881433

Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Roth, Ralf; Soltermann, Martin; Kressig, Reto W; Zahner, Lukas

2014-07-01

363

Disseminating Effective Community Prevention Practices: Opportunities for Social Work Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United States, about 17% of adolescents meet diagnostic criteria for mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) disorders. Six million young people receive treatment services annually for mental, emotional, or behavioral problems. These problems affect one in five families and cost $247 million annually. Some strategies for preventing MEB…

Hawkins, J. David; Shapiro, Valerie B.; Fagan, Abigail A.

2010-01-01

364

Review: Effectiveness of Interventions in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of childhood obesity, as with that of adulthood, has increased considerably over the past few years and has become a serious public health problem. Once established, its treatment is very difficult and, hence, prevention of childhood obesity using different types of intervention appears promising. The objective of this present report is to review interventions that had been conducted

Inmaculada Bautista-Castaño; Jorge Doreste; Lluis Serra-Majem

2004-01-01

365

Effectiveness of interventions in the prevention of childhood obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of childhood obesity, as with that of adulthood, has increased considerably over the past few years and has become a serious public health problem. Once established, its treatment is very diffi- cult and, hence, prevention of childhood obesity using different types of intervention appears promising. The objective of this present report is to review interven- tions that had

Inmaculada Bautista-Castano; Jorge Doreste; Lluis Serra-Majem

2004-01-01

366

Accelerating Recovery from Poverty: Prevention Effects for Recently Separated Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated benefits of a preventive intervention to the living standards of recently separated mothers. In the Oregon Divorce Study's randomized experimental design, data were collected 5 times over 30 months and evaluated with Hierarchical Linear Growth Models. Relative to their no- intervention control counterparts, experimental mothers had greater improvements in gross annual income, discretionary annual income, poverty threshold,

Marion S. Forgatch; David S. DeGarmo

2007-01-01

367

Effectiveness of the Logan Square Prevention Project: Interim Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though substance abuse prevention programs have been studied for more than two decades, outcome studies of programs focused on inner-city youth are rare. Communities with dense populations, low socio-economic conditions and a high degree of neighborhood disorganization are especially vulnerable to high rates of adolescent substance abuse. The goal of this study was to organize a coalition of neighborhood

Mark D. Godley; Rick Velasquez

1998-01-01

368

Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Programs: Theoretical Models for Effective Program Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent pregnancy and parenting remains a pressing social and public health concern because the United States continues to have the highest teen pregnancy rate among Western developed nations and because of the attendant social, psychological, and physical problems for young parents and their children. Prevention efforts to reduce the incidence…

Saunders, Jeanne A.

2005-01-01

369

Understanding the Impact of Effective Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of five rigorously evaluated adolescent pregnancy prevention programs shows that all five incorporate an emphasis on abstinence or delay of sexual initiation, training in decision-mak- ing and negotiation skills, and education on sexuality and contraception. Four of the five direct- ly or indirectly provide access to contraceptive services. Comparisons between treatment and control groups show that all four

Jennifer J. Frost; Jacqueline Darroch Forrest

370

Listeriosis Prevention for Older Adults: Effective Messages and Delivery Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals aged 60 years and older are at an increased risk for listeriosis and other foodborne illnesses. They can reduce their risk by following recommended food safety practices. A total of 8 focus groups were conducted to characterize older adults' food safety knowledge and practices, their impressions of educational materials on listeriosis prevention, barriers to adopting the recommended practices, and

Sheryl C. Cates; Katherine M. Kosa; Christina M. Moore; Lee-Ann Jaykus; Toby A. Ten Eyck; Peter Cowen

2007-01-01

371

Teen Depression and Suicide: Effective Prevention and Intervention Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teen depression and suicidal behaviors are intricately intertwined, with untreated depression being a leading cause of adolescent suicide. Most depressed or suicidal teens tend to show warning signs and possess specific risk factors. A key component to preventing teen depression is for adults to remain aware of such warning signs and risk factors…

King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

2012-01-01

372

Effective School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substance abuse among school age youth continues to be a significant and costly problem in U.S. society. Schools are asked with increasing frequency to become involved in finding and implementing solutions. A review of the literature regarding school-based substance abuse prevention programs reveals their evolution from a basic informational…

Hickin, Nancy L.; Christenberry, Nola J.

373

Fifteen Effective Strategies for Improving Student Attendance and Truancy Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving student attendance and truancy prevention have always been areas of concern for educators, as well as, community members, and legislators. Students who are not in school cannot learn, and frequently drop out. Truant students often engage in high-risk behaviors that eventually entangle them in the juvenile justice system. Since 1986, the…

Smink, Jay; Reimer, Mary S.

2005-01-01

374

Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention: Adolescents' Perceptions of Possible Side Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on interviews of 48 sexually active adolescents concerning the possible secondary consequences of taking measures to reduce the risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents generated 134 consequences, suggesting that considering all the relevant consequences for a rational decision about STD prevention is not…

Furby, Lita; Ochs, Linda M.; Thomas, Catherine W.

1997-01-01

375

Fall Fall Fall FallSpring Spring Spring Spring Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior  

E-print Network

5.2011 Fall Fall Fall FallSpring Spring Spring Spring Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Chemistry Total cr 17 - 18 16 17 15 14 - 17 13 - 16 Free Elective6 14 - 17 Free Elective9 B.S. with Chemistry Major CHEM Multi Disciplinary3 Team Princ. CHM 194 1 15 - 16 **Fall only class; ^ Spring only class

Kihara, Daisuke

376

^ Physical II Fall Fall Fall FallSpring Spring Spring Spring  

E-print Network

4.11 BC ^ Physical II CHM 37400 3 Fall Fall Fall FallSpring Spring Spring Spring Freshman Sophomore Thesis and a GPA of 3.4 or higher. **Fall only class; ^ Spring only class Gen Ed must be a sequence See Building CHM 194 or SCI 130 Technical Writing/ Presentation COM 21700 Free Elective3 Free Elective3 Free

Kihara, Daisuke

377

^Physical II Fall Fall Fall FallSpring Spring Spring Spring  

E-print Network

4.09 BC ^Physical II CHM 37400 3 Fall Fall Fall FallSpring Spring Spring Spring Freshman Sophomore Thesis and a GPA of 3.4 or higher. **Fall only class; ^ Spring only class Gen Ed must be a sequence (i 58100 1 Research* CHM 49900 3 ^Inorg. I CHM 24100 4 Team Building CHM 194 or SCI 130 Free Elective4

Kihara, Daisuke

378

Analysis of measurement tools of fear of falling for high-risk, community-dwelling older adults.  

PubMed

Fear of falling has many health consequences among older adults and may lead to curtailment of activities, immobility, functional dependence, falls, and serious injury. The lack of clarity as to how to best measure fear of falling among high-risk, community-dwelling older adults defined as those who are nursing home eligible, functionally dependent, and vulnerable is further complicated by the multiple definitions used throughout the science. Fear of falling is important to measure effectively if we are to develop and test interventions to promote safe aging in place and prevent injury and institutionalization. This integrative review, 1982 to the present, leads to the conclusion that the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) long form stands out as the most appropriate measurement tool to best assess fear of falling in this unique, understudied, and underserved population. PMID:22373731

Greenberg, Sherry A

2012-02-01

379

Effectiveness of enoxaparin for prevention of radial artery occlusion after transradial cardiac catheterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of enoxaparin for prevention of radial artery (RA) occlusion after transradial\\u000a access for diagnostic and interventional cardiac procedures. RA occlusion is a potential complication of transradial cardiac\\u000a catheterization. Conventionally, unfractionated heparin is used for prevention of RA occlusion. Effectiveness of low molecular\\u000a weight heparins for prevention of this complication has

Hasan Feray; Cemil Izgi; Diler Cetiner; Ebubekir Emre Men; Yelda Saltan; Ayhan Baltay; Reyhan Kahraman

2010-01-01

380

Automated fall detection with quality improvement "rewind" to reduce falls in hospital rooms.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to test the implementation of a fall detection and "rewind" privacy-protecting technique using the Microsoft® Kinect™ to not only detect but prevent falls from occurring in hospitalized patients. Kinect sensors were placed in six hospital rooms in a step-down unit and data were continuously logged. Prior to implementation with patients, three researchers performed a total of 18 falls (walking and then falling down or falling from the bed) and 17 non-fall events (crouching down, stooping down to tie shoe laces, and lying on the floor). All falls and non-falls were correctly identified using automated algorithms to process Kinect sensor data. During the first 8 months of data collection, processing methods were perfected to manage data and provide a "rewind" method to view events that led to falls for post-fall quality improvement process analyses. Preliminary data from this feasibility study show that using the Microsoft Kinect sensors provides detection of falls, fall risks, and facilitates quality improvement after falls in real hospital environments unobtrusively, while taking into account patient privacy. PMID:24296567

Rantz, Marilyn J; Banerjee, Tanvi S; Cattoor, Erin; Scott, Susan D; Skubic, Marjorie; Popescu, Mihail

2014-01-01

381

Automated Fall Detection With Quality Improvement "Rewind" to Reduce Falls in Hospital Rooms  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to test the implementation of a fall detection and “rewind” privacy-protecting technique using the Microsoft® Kinect™ to not only detect but prevent falls from occurring in hospitalized patients. Kinect sensors were placed in six hospital rooms in a step-down unit and data were continuously logged. Prior to implementation with patients, three researchers performed a total of 18 falls (walking and then falling down or falling from the bed) and 17 non-fall events (crouching down, stooping down to tie shoe laces, and lying on the floor). All falls and non-falls were correctly identified using automated algorithms to process Kinect sensor data. During the first 8 months of data collection, processing methods were perfected to manage data and provide a “rewind” method to view events that led to falls for post-fall quality improvement process analyses. Preliminary data from this feasibility study show that using the Microsoft Kinect sensors provides detection of falls, fall risks, and facilitates quality improvement after falls in real hospital environments unobtrusively, while taking into account patient privacy. PMID:24296567

Rantz, Marilyn J.; Banerjee, Tanvi S.; Cattoor, Erin; Scott, Susan D.; Skubic, Marjorie; Popescu, Mihail

2014-01-01

382

Improving Institutional Effectiveness through Programmatic Assessment. Professional File Number 109, Fall 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article identifies concrete steps used at Argosy University/Orange County (Argosy or AUOC) to integrate assessment in daily institutional operations and utilize assessment data for educational and organizational improvements. Additionally, the article addresses the role of an institutional effectiveness committee in facilitating the…

Brown, Dina

2008-01-01

383

Common Principles Embedded in Effective Adolescent HIV Prevention Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each interpersonally delivered, evidence-based (EB) program for HIV prevention shares common features that aim to shift HIV\\u000a risk behaviors. We used qualitative research methods to examine manuals from five EB programs for adolescents and identified\\u000a 10 core principles embedded in each program’s activities. Principles reflect the stated goals and anticipated lessons in an activity. The principles were: Believe in your

Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus; Barbara L. Ingram; Dallas Swendeman; Diane Flannery

2009-01-01

384

When Are Statins Cost-Effective in Cardiovascular Prevention? A Systematic Review of Sponsorship Bias and Conclusions in Economic Evaluations of Statins  

PubMed Central

Background We examined sponsorship of published cost-effectiveness analyses of statin use for cardiovascular (CV) prevention, and determined whether the funding source is associated with study conclusions. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed/MEDLINE (up to June 2011) to identify cost-effectiveness analyses of statin use for CV prevention reporting outcomes as incremental costs per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) and/or life years gained (LYG). We examined relationships between the funding source and the study conclusions by means of tests of differences between proportions. Seventy-five studies were included. Forty-eight studies (64.0%) were industry-sponsored. Fifty-two (69.3%) articles compared statins versus non-active alternatives. Secondary CV prevention represented 42.7% of articles, followed by primary CV prevention (38.7%) and both (18.7%). Overall, industry-sponsored studies were much less likely to report unfavourable or neutral conclusions (0% versus 37.1%; p<0.001). For primary CV prevention, the proportion with unfavourable or neutral conclusions was 0% for industry-sponsored studies versus 57.9% for non-sponsored studies (p<0.001). Conversely, no statistically significant differences were identified for studies evaluating secondary CV prevention (0% versus 12.5%; p=0.222). Incremental costs per QALY/LYG estimates reported in industry-sponsored studies were generally more likely to fall below a hypothetical willingness-to-pay threshold of US $50,000. Conclusions Our systematic analysis suggests that pharmaceutical industry sponsored economic evaluations of statins have generally favored the cost-effectiveness profile of their products particularly in primary CV prevention. PMID:23861972

Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Sanfelix-Gimeno, Gabriel; Ridao, Manuel; Peiro, Salvador

2013-01-01

385

Rise and fall of endrin usage in Washington state fruit orchards: Effects on wildlife  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study of the effects of endrin on wildlife was conducted from 1981 to 1983 in fruit orchards in central Washington state. The single post-harvest application of endrin as a rodenticide resulted in both acute and chronic toxicity to a variety of avian species. Most mortality occurred soon after application, but several raptors died during the spring and summer. Most wildlife sampled in the orchard system contained residues of endrin. There was on evidence that endrin depressed reproductive success.

Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Grove, R.A.

1989-01-01

386

Results of research to develop cost effective biomonitoring at oil shale lease tracts. Phase I. Fall sampling report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of censuses conducted during October 1981 to estimate the fall abundance of small mammals and avifauna on replicate plots in the vicinity of Federal Tract C-a (Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company). The objectives of the fall censuses were to evaluate alternative census techniques, test assumptions vital to the use of indices and abundance estimators, determine cost-functions associated with monitoring efforts, and estimate variance components needed to devise optimal monitoring designs. Analyses of the fall census data on small mammal abundance were performed.

Skalski, J.R.; Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.

1982-05-01

387

Preventive effects of cranberry products on experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium in mice.  

PubMed

With the prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its associated risk for development of colorectal cancer, it is of great importance to prevent and treat IBD. However, due to the complexity of etiology and potentially serious adverse effects, treatment options for IBD are relatively limited. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify a safe food-based approach for the prevention and treatment of IBD. In this study, we tested the effects of cranberry products on preventing dextran sulphate sodium-induced murine colitis. Our results suggest that both cranberry extract and dried cranberries-fed groups had a significantly reduced disease activity index, where dried cranberries were more effective in preventing colitis than cranberry extract. Shortening of colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase activity and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines were attenuated in animals fed dried cranberries compared to the controls. The current report suggests that cranberries can be applied to prevent and reduce the symptoms of IBD. PMID:25149009

Xiao, Xiao; Kim, Jonggun; Sun, Quancai; Kim, Daeyoung; Park, Cheon-Seok; Lu, Tzong-Shi; Park, Yeonhwa

2015-01-15

388

Effective Instruction. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 21, Number 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Strategies for Success (Charles W. Hatch); (2) 2009 NDPN Crystal Star Winners; (3) Strategies for More Effective Instruction (Micki Gibson); (4) Some Thoughts on Teaching Strategies…

Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

2009-01-01

389

Effects of Training and Feedback on Teachers' Use of Classroom Preventive Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of in-service training with performance feedback on preschool teachers' use of classroom preventive practices. Three practices designed to prevent challenging behavior were selected: transition preparations, rule reminders, and social-emotional teaching strategies. Following a brief training on each practice,…

Artman-Meeker, Kathleen M.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise

2013-01-01

390

Cost-effective prevention of equipment failure in the mining industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

To operate successfully in a competitive world catastrophic failures need to be prevented. This can be achieved by implementing a balanced approach which covers all phases of the life cycle of equipment.To gain maximum benefit, the effective prevention of failures should involve a team of people ranging from the supplier to the maintenance personnel on site. Initially, the logic and

Ernst Dreyer

1995-01-01

391

A Simple and Effective Regimen for Prevention of Radial Artery Spasm during Coronary Catheterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radial artery spasm occurs frequently during the transradial approach for coronary catheterization. Premedications with nitroglycerin and verapamil have been documented to be effective in preventing radial spasms. Verapamil is relatively contraindicated for some patients with left ventricular dysfunction, hypotension and bradycardia. We would like to know whether nitroglycerin alone is sufficient for the prevention of radial artery spasm. We conducted

Chih-Wei Chen; Chin-Lon Lin; Tin-Kwang Lin; Chih-Da Lin

2006-01-01

392

Judged Effectiveness of Common Rape Prevention and Self-Defense Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

All women face the threat of rape, forcing them to (a) decide what to do to reduce their chances of being assaulted (rape prevention) and (b) how to defend themselves if assaulted (self-defense). A principal basis for such decisions should be women's estimates of the effectiveness of possible prevention and self-defense strategies for reducing the risk of rape. This study

LITA FURBY; BARUCH FISCHHOFF; MARCIA MORGAN

1989-01-01

393

Culturally Competent HIV\\/AIDS Prevention: Understanding Program Effects on Adolescent Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corazón de Aztlan is a comprehensive and culturally competent adolescent development program for Mexican American and other Hispanic youth intended to prevent risky sexual behavior. Perceptions of Corazón de Aztlan participants on condom use and their implications are presented. Evaluation of HIV\\/AIDS prevention program effects indicated the program increased accurate knowledge of safer sexual behavior, understanding of peer pressure, negotiation

Junghee Lee; William Donlan; Juan Paz

2009-01-01

394

The Cost and Effectiveness of School-Based Preventive Dental Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program assessed the cost and effectiveness of various types and combinations of school-based preventive dental care procedures. The program involved 20,052 first, second, and fifth graders from five fluoridated and five non-fluoridated communities. These children were examined at baseline and…

Klein, Stephen P.; And Others

395

Folliculitis keloidalis nuchae and pseudofolliculitis barbae: are prevention and effective treatment within reach?  

PubMed

Pseudofolliculitis barbae and folliculitis keloidalis nuchae are chronic follicular disorders disproportionately affecting men of African ancestry. This article explores the etiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention strategies of these conditions. Effective treatment and prevention of these disorders involves pharmacologic and procedural interventions as well as behavioral modifications. PMID:24680005

Alexis, Andrew; Heath, Candrice R; Halder, Rebat M

2014-04-01

396

Rise and fall of endrin usage in Washington state fruit orchards: Effects on wildlife  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study of the effects of endrin on wildlife was conducted from 1981 to 1983 in fruit orchards in central Washington State. The single post-harvest application of endrin as a rodenticide resulted in both acute and chronic toxicity to a variety of avian species. Of 194 birds found dead, brains of 125 were analysed; endrin toxicosis accounted for >24% of the total and 37% of those analysed. Most mortality occurred soon after application, but several raptors died during the spring and summer. Most wildlife sampled in the orchard system contained residues of endrin. There was no evidence that endrin depressed reproductive success. Use of endrin abruptly declined during this study and its use is currently limited to emergency situations. Wildlife mortality from endrin also decreased; only six endrin-related mortalities were detected the last year of the study and there have been no reports of die-offs since the study ended.

Blus, L. J.; Henny, Charles J.; Grove, Robert A.

1989-01-01

397

IDENTIFYING ROOF FALL PREDICTORS USING FUZZY CLASSIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

Microseismic monitoring involves placing geophones on the rock surfaces of a mine to record seismic activity. Classification of microseismic mine data can be used to predict seismic events in a mine to mitigate mining hazards, such as roof falls, where properly bolting and bracing the roof is often an insufficient method of preventing weak roofs from destabilizing. In this study, six months of recorded acoustic waveforms from microseismic monitoring in a Pennsylvania limestone mine were analyzed using classification techniques to predict roof falls. Fuzzy classification using features selected for computational ease was applied on the mine data. Both large roof fall events could be predicted using a Roof Fall Index (RFI) metric calculated from the results of the fuzzy classification. RFI was successfully used to resolve the two significant roof fall events and predicted both events by at least 15 hours before visual signs of the roof falls were evident.

Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K. [NDE Lab, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 23187-8795 (United States)

2010-02-22

398

The role of primary care providers in managing falls.  

PubMed

Falls threaten the ability of older adults to live independently in the community. Fortunately, national and state organizations have created tools that allow primary care providers to easily assess fall risk, and small changes in practice patterns can provide patients with the resources necessary to prevent falls, thus helping to reverse a costly, deadly epidemic. PMID:25237872

Demons, Jamehl L; Duncan, Pamela W

2014-01-01

399

Towards the prevention of potential aluminum toxic effects and an effective treatment for Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

In 1991, treatment with low dose intramuscular desferrioxamine (DFO), a trivalent chelator that can remove excessive iron and/or aluminum from the body, was reported to slow the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by a factor of two. Twenty years later this promising trial has not been followed up and why this treatment worked still is not clear. In this critical interdisciplinary review, we provide an overview of the complexities of AD and involvement of metal ions, and revisit the neglected DFO trial. We discuss research done by us and others that is helping to explain involvement of metal ion catalyzed production of reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of AD, and emerging strategies for inhibition of metal-ion toxicity. Highlighted are insights to be considered in the quests to prevent potentially toxic effects of aluminum toxicity and prevention and intervention in AD. PMID:22099160

Percy, Maire E.; Kruck, Theo P.A.; Pogue, Aileen I.; Lukiw, Walter J.

2013-01-01

400

Effectiveness of prevention programmes for hand dermatitis: a systematic review of the literature.  

PubMed

Hand dermatitis is a prevalent disease with an episodic, chronic character. The use of medical resources is high and is often related to reduced (work) functioning. The burden is therefore high for patients and society. Management of hand dermatitis is often unsatisfactory, and for this reason prevention is important. The effectiveness of prevention programmes is, however, unknown. This study evaluates if comprehensive prevention programmes for hand dermatitis, that include worker education as an element, are effective on occurrence, adherence to preventive measures, clinical outcomes and costs compared to usual care or no intervention. The literature was systematically searched using PubMed and Embase, from the earliest to January 2010 for relevant citations. The methodological quality was assessed by two reviewers using the Cochrane criteria. The GRADE approach was used to determine the level of evidence. After reading the full text articles, 7 publications met our inclusion criteria. We found that there is moderate evidence for the effect of prevention programmes on lowering occurrence and improving adherence to preventive measures, and low evidence for the effect on improving clinical outcomes and self-reported outcomes. No studies reporting on costs were found. It can be concluded that there is moderate evidence for the effectiveness of prevention programmes of hand dermatitis versus usual care or no intervention. However, more high quality studies including cost-effectiveness are needed. PMID:21210820

van Gils, Robin F; Boot, Cécile R L; van Gils, Paul F; Bruynzeel, Derk; Coenraads, Pieter J; van Mechelen, Willem; Riphagen, Ingrid I; Anema, Johannes R

2011-02-01

401

Preventive Effects of Multi-Lamellar Emulsion on Low Potency Topical Steroid Induced Local Adverse Effect  

PubMed Central

Background Topical steroid treatment induces diverse local Wand systemic adverse effects. Several approaches have been tried to reduce the steroid-induced adverse effects. Simultaneous application of physiological lipid mixture is also suggested. Objective Novel vehicles for topical glucocorticoids formulation were evaluated for the efficacy of reducing side-effects and the drug delivery properties of desonide, a low potency topical steroid. Methods Transcutaneous permeation and skin residual amount of desonide were measured using Franz diffusion cells. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using murine model. Results Topical steroids formulation containing desonide, in either cream or lotion form, were prepared using multi-lamellar emulsion (MLE), and conventional desonide formulations were employed for comparison. MLE formulations did not affect the anti-inflammatory activity of the desonide in phobol ester-induced skin inflammation model, compared with conventional formulations. While the penetrated amounts of desonide were similar for all the tested formulations at 24 hours after application, the increased lag time was observed for the MLE formulations. Interestingly, residual amount of desonide in epidermis was significantly higher in lotion type MLE formulation. Steroid-induced adverse effects, including permeability barrier function impairment, were partially prevented by MLE formulation. Conclusion Topical desonide formulation using MLE as a vehicle showed a better drug delivery with increased epidermal retention. MLE also partially prevented the steroid-induced side effects, such as skin barrier impairment. PMID:23467730

Sul, Geun Dong; Park, Hyun Jung; Bae, Jong Hwan; Hong, Keum Duck; Park, Byeong Deog; Chun, Jaesun; Jeong, Se Kyoo; Lee, Seung Hun; Ahn, Sung Ku

2013-01-01

402

Probiotics' Preventive Effect on Pediatric Food Allergy: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.  

PubMed

Objective To investigate the preventive effect of probiotics on pediatric food allergy. Methods From MEDLINE bibliographical database, we searched and reviewed all randomized controlled trials on the preventive effects of probiotics on pediatric food allergies up to September 2013 and excluded the studies that do not meet inclusion criteria and extracted the data. Meta-analysis for the results of homogenous studies was performed using RevMan 5.0 and the co-effect was pooled by using fixed-effects model of relative risk (RR) ratios. Results Ten trials published between 2007 and 2012 including 2701 cases were included. Meta-analysis based on included data showed that the preventive effect of prenatal and postnatal probiotic supplementation on food allergies was not significant with the RR=0.88 (95% CI: 0.76-1.03). Conclusion Present evidences cannot show in unequivocal terms that prenatal and postnatal probiotic supplementation will prevent food allergic diseases. PMID:25264881

Kong, Xiang-Yi; Yang, Yi; Guan, Jian; Wang, Ren-Zhi

2014-09-29

403

Dose Effect of Cosmic Rays in Aircraft at SPE in Fall of 2003  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large solar flare occurred in October 28, 2003, which caused a sensation around the world. Our group decided to measure the aviation dose promptly and started the survey within two days. Measurements have been conducted in Oct.30-Oct.30, Oct.30*-Nov.11*, Oct. 31-Oct.31, Oct.31*-Nov.3*, Nov.3-Nov.3, Nov.5-Nov.5, Nov.5*-Nov.7*, and Nov.6-Nov.6. Here, days with asterisks represent Tokyo to JFK (and vice versa) airport, while others represent Tokyo from/to Sapporo. Unfortunately, the measurement met the flare only once (Nov.3), but the dose was suppressed considerably in the nearby date, and a typical Forbush decrease is seen (Oct.31). While the dose measured in the Tokyo/JFK flight (Oct.31) varied largely, we cannot infer the net dose contribution from the flare. That is because any small variation of the dose tends to be masked by other large one. In short, we do not have to worry about effect of solar activity on board airplane in the present case.

Fujitaka, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Kitamura, H.; Nojima, K.; Takada, M.; Yasuda, N.; Okano, M.

404

Effect of fall-grazed sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) on gastrointestinal nematode infections of growing goats.  

PubMed

High prevalence of anthelmintic-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in goats has increased pressure to find effective, alternative non-synthetic control methods, one of which is adding forage of the high condensed tannin (CT) legume sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) to the animal's diet. Previous work has demonstrated good efficacy of dried SL (hay, pellets) against small ruminant GIN, but information is lacking on consumption of fresh SL, particularly during the late summer-autumn period in the southern USA when perennial warm-season grass pastures are often low in quality. A study was designed to determine the effects of autumn (September-November) consumption of fresh SL forage, grass pasture (predominantly bermudagrass, BG; Cynodon dactylon), or a combination of SL+BG forage by young goats [intact male Spanish kids, 9 months old (20.7 ± 1.1 kg), n = 10/treatment group] on their GIN infection status. Three forage paddocks (0.40 ha) were set up at the Fort Valley State University Agricultural Research Station (Fort Valley, GA) for an 8-week trial. The goats in each paddock were supplemented with a commercial feed pellet at 0.45 kg/head/d for the first 4 weeks of the trial, and 0.27 kg/head/d for the final 4 weeks. Forage samples taken at the start of the trial were analyzed for crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) content, and a separate set of SL samples was analyzed for CT in leaves, stems, and whole plant using the benzyl mercaptan thiolysis method. Animal weights were taken at the start and end of the trial, and fecal and blood samples were collected weekly for determination of fecal egg counts (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), respectively. Adult GIN was recovered from the abomasum and small intestines of all goats at the end of the experiment for counting and speciation. The CP levels were highest for SL forage, intermediate for SL+BG, and lowest for BG forage samples, while NDF and ADF values were the opposite, with highest levels in BG and lowest in SL forage samples. Sericea lespedeza leaves had more CT than stems (16.0 g vs. 3.3g/100g dry weight), a slightly higher percentage of PDs (98% vs. 94%, respectively) and polymers of larger mean degrees of polymerization (42 vs. 18, respectively). There were no differences in average daily gain or blood PCV between the treatment groups, but SL goats had lower FEC (P < 0.05) than the BG or SL+BG forage goats throughout most of the trial. The SL+BG goats had lower FEC than the BG forage animals by the end of the trial (week 8, P < 0.05). The SL goats had lower numbers (P < 0.05) of male Haemonchus contortus and tended to have fewer female (P < 0.10) and total (P < 0.07) H. contortus compared with the BG goats. The predominant GIN in all the goats was Trichostrongylus colubriformis (73% of total GIN). As a low-input forage with activity against pathogenic GIN (H. contortus), SL has a potential to reduce producers' dependence upon synthetic anthelmintics and also to fill the autumn 'window' in good-quality fresh forages for goat grazing in the southern USA. PMID:24996964

Mechineni, A; Kommuru, D S; Gujja, S; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Burke, J M; Ramsay, A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Kannan, G; Lee, J H; Kouakou, B; Terrill, T H

2014-08-29

405

Combination implementation for HIV prevention: moving from clinical trial evidence to population-level effects.  

PubMed

The promise of combination HIV prevention-the application of multiple HIV prevention interventions to maximise population-level effects-has never been greater. However, to succeed in achieving significant reductions in HIV incidence, an additional concept needs to be considered: combination implementation. Combination implementation for HIV prevention is the pragmatic, localised application of evidence-based strategies to enable high sustained uptake and quality of interventions for prevention of HIV. In this Review, we explore diverse implementation strategies including HIV testing and counselling models, task shifting, linkage to and retention in care, antiretroviral therapy support, behaviour change, demand creation, and structural interventions, and discusses how they could be used to complement HIV prevention efforts such as medical male circumcision and treatment as prevention. HIV prevention and treatment have arrived at a pivotal moment when combination efforts might result in substantial enough population-level effects to reverse the epidemic and drive towards elimination of HIV. Only through careful consideration of how to implement and operationalise HIV prevention interventions will the HIV community be able to move from clinical trial evidence to population-level effects. PMID:23257232

Chang, Larry W; Serwadda, David; Quinn, Thomas C; Wawer, Maria J; Gray, Ronald H; Reynolds, Steven J

2013-01-01

406

Physical therapy approaches to reduce fall and fracture risk among older adults.  

PubMed

Falls and fall-related injuries, such as fractures, are a growing problem among older adults, often causing longstanding pain, functional impairments, reduced quality of life and excess health-care costs and mortality. These problems have led to a variety of single component or multicomponent intervention strategies to prevent falls and subsequent injuries. The most effective physical therapy approach for the prevention of falls and fractures in community-dwelling older adults is regular multicomponent exercise; a combination of balance and strength training has shown the most success. Home-hazard assessment and modification, as well as assistive devices, such as canes and walkers, might be useful for older people at a high risk of falls. Hip protectors are effective in nursing home residents and potentially among other high-risk individuals. In addition, use of anti-slip shoe devices in icy conditions seems beneficial for older people walking outdoors. To be effective, multifactorial preventive programs should include an exercise component accompanied by individually tailored measures focused on high-risk populations. In this Review, we focus on evidence-based physical therapy approaches, including exercise, vibration training and improvements of safety at home and during periods of mobility. Additionally, the benefits of multifaceted interventions, which include risk factor assessment, dietary supplements, elements of physical therapy and exercise, are addressed. PMID:20517287

Karinkanta, Saija; Piirtola, Maarit; Sievänen, Harri; Uusi-Rasi, Kirsti; Kannus, Pekka

2010-07-01

407

Falling and fall risk factors in adults with haemophilia: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

Falls are a particular risk in persons with haemophilia (PWH) because of damaged joints, high risk of bleeding, possible impact on the musculoskeletal system and functioning and costs associated with treatment for these fall-related injuries. In addition, fall risk increases with age and PWH are increasingly entering the over 65 age group. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of falls during the past year and to explore which fall risk factors are present in community-dwelling PWH. Dutch speaking community-dwelling adults were included from the age of 40 years with severe or moderate haemophilia A or B, independent in their mobility and registered at the University Hospitals Leuven. They were asked to come to the haemophilia centre; otherwise a telephone survey was conducted. Demographic and social variables, medical variables, fall evaluation and clinical variables were queried. From the 89 PWH, 74 (83.1%) participated in the study. Twenty-four (32.4%) fell in the past year, and 10 of them (41.7%) more than once with an average of four falls. Living conditions, physical activity, avoidance of winter sports due to fear of falling, orthopaedic status, urinary incontinence and mobility impairments are potential fall risk factors in adult PWH. This exploratory study indicates that PWH are attentive to falling since they are at higher risk for falls and because of the serious consequences it might have. Screening and fall prevention should be stimulated in the daily practice of haemophilia care. PMID:25354771

Sammels, M; Vandesande, J; Vlaeyen, E; Peerlinck, K; Milisen, K

2014-11-01

408

The Effect of Pramipexole Therapy on Balance Disorder and Fall Risk in Parkinson's Disease at Early Stage: Clinical and Posturographic Assessment  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine balance problems and severity and ratio of postural instability of newly diagnosed, early stage Parkinson's patients who did not receive any antiparkinson treatment before, to evaluate fall risk clinically and posturographically and to examine the effects of pramipexole on these signs and symptoms. Detailed posturographic assessments which involved central vestibular, visual, peripheric vestibular somatosensory field tests were applied to both patient and control subjects and fall risk was determined. There was not statistically significant difference between patients and control subjects before and after drug therapy in the assesment of fall risk in posturography and there was not any improvement with drug usage in the patient group. However, in the analysis of subsystems separately, only the involvement in central vestibular field was more severe and could appear at all positions in Parkinson's patients comparing with the control group, and pramipexole was partially effective in improving this disorder. Central vestibular field is the subsystem that should be examined with first priority. Posturography is relatively reliable in defining fall risk and postural instability ratio in Parkinson's disease. But it should be considered that clinical assessment tools can be more sensitive in the evaluation of balance and postural disorders and in the follow-up of the response to drug therapy. PMID:22919514

Guler, Sibel; Bir, Levent Sinan; Akdag, Beyza; Ard?c, Fusun

2012-01-01

409

Effectiveness of HIV prevention social marketing with injecting drug users.  

PubMed

Social marketing involves applying marketing principles to promote social goods. In the context of health behavior, it has been used successfully to reduce alcohol-related car crashes, smoking among youths, and malaria transmission, among other goals. Features of social marketing, such as audience segmentation and repeated exposure to prevention messages, distinguish it from traditional health promotion programs. A recent review found 8 of 10 rigorously evaluated social marketing interventions responsible for changes in HIV-related behavior or behavioral intentions. We studied 479 injection drug users to evaluate a community-based social marketing campaign to reduce injection risk behavior among drug users in Sacramento, California. Injecting drugs is associated with HIV infection in more than 130 countries worldwide. PMID:20724686

Gibson, David R; Zhang, Guili; Cassady, Diana; Pappas, Les; Mitchell, Joyce; Kegeles, Susan M

2010-10-01

410

Common Principles Embedded in Effective Adolescent HIV Prevention Programs  

PubMed Central

Each interpersonally delivered, evidence-based (EB) program for HIV prevention shares common features that aim to shift HIV risk behaviors. We used qualitative research methods to examine manuals from five EB programs for adolescents and identified 10 core principles embedded in each program’s activities. Principles reflect the stated goals and anticipated lessons in an activity. The principles were: Believe in your own worth and your right to a happy future; Commit to change; Distinguish fact from myth; Plan ahead and be prepared; Practice self-control; Know pleasurable alternatives to high risk activities; Negotiate verbally, not nonverbally; Evaluate options and consequences; Show concern for others; Choose to limit your own freedom; and Act to help others protect themselves. Focusing on common features rather than the unique properties of each EB program may allow community providers to have more flexibility and ownership in adapting EB programs, and may also facilitate development of new EB program. PMID:19224358

Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Ingram, Barbara L.; Swendeman, Dallas; Flannery, Diane

2010-01-01

411

Effects of fall-to-winter changes in habitat and frazil ice on the movements and habitat use of juvenile rainbow trout in a Wyoming tailwater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Overwinter declines in the abundance of small rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have been observed in a section of the Big Horn River that lies downstream from Boysen Reservoir, where reservoir releases prevent surface ice formation. To provide insight into the possible causes of these declines in abundance, radiotelemetry was used to determine movement and microhabitat use of juvenile (20-25 cm total length) rainbow trout during the fall and winter of 1995-1996. Throughout the fall and winter, both stocked (hatchery) and naturally spawned (wild) fish were generally found in main-channel pools with cover that reduced current velocities to less than 2 cm/s near the bottom and with nearby (<2 m) water velocities that were greater than 15 cm/s. These locations provided refuges from the current, with adjacent flowing water that could deliver drifting aquatic invertebrates. The fish were generally associated with cover that was formed by aquatic vegetation early in the fall, but they shifted to cobble and boulder cover (in deeper water) as the aquatic vegetation decomposed and as winter progressed. Episodes of frazil ice in January and early February were associated with movements of wild fish in the upstream portion of the study area - from normal activity areas to refuges at the bottom of deep pools or under shelf ice in shallow water near shore. Frazil-ice episodes often initiated long-term movements among fish. Our results suggest that changing habitat features from fall to winter and frazil-ice episodes can cause juvenile rainbow trout to move and to modify their habitat use, depending on their location in a tailwater.

Simpkins, D. G.; Hubert, W. A.; Wesche, T. A.

2000-01-01

412

Adverse effects and drug interactions of antithrombotic agents used in prevention of ischaemic stroke.  

PubMed

Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the US. Primary prevention of stroke can be achieved by control of risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, elevated cholesterol levels and smoking. Approximately one-third of all ischaemic strokes occur in patients with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). The mainstay of secondary prevention of ischaemic stroke is the addition of medical therapy with antithrombotic agents to control the risk factors for stroke. Antithrombotic therapy is associated with significant medical complications, particularly bleeding.Low-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) has been shown to be as effective as high-dose aspirin in the prevention of stroke, with fewer adverse bleeding events. Aspirin has been shown to be as effective as warfarin in the prevention of noncardioembolic ischaemic stroke, with significantly fewer bleeding complications. Ticlopidine may be more effective in preventing stroke than aspirin, but is associated with unacceptable haematological complications. Clopidogrel may have some benefit over aspirin in preventing myocardial infarction, but has not been shown to be superior to aspirin in the prevention of stroke. The combination of clopidogrel and aspirin may be more effective than aspirin alone in acute coronary syndromes, but the incidence of adverse bleeding is significantly higher. Furthermore, the combination of aspirin with clopidogrel has not been shown to be more effective for prevention of recurrent stroke than clopidogrel alone, while the rate of bleeding complications was significantly higher with combination therapy. The combination of aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole has been demonstrated to be more effective than aspirin alone, with the same rate of adverse bleeding complications as low-dose aspirin. When selecting the appropriate antithrombotic agent for secondary prevention of stroke, the adverse event profile of the drug must be taken into account when assessing the overall efficacy of the treatment plan. PMID:15733010

Weinberger, Jesse

2005-01-01

413

Effectiveness of Disposable Face Masks in Preventing Cross Contamination during Dental Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosols generated by the air turbine handpiece contain oral microorganisms that are a potential health hazard to the dentist. The effectiveness of different face masks in preventing cross contamination varied greatly but in all instances was significant.

Richard Bailey; Phyllis Giglio; Harry Blechman; Carlos Nunez

1968-01-01

414

Combined effects of prevention and quarantine on a breakout in SIR model  

PubMed Central

Recent breakouts of several epidemics, such as flu pandemics, are serious threats to human health. The measures of protection against these epidemics are urgent issues in epidemiological studies. Prevention and quarantine are two major approaches against disease spreads. We here investigate the combined effects of these two measures of protection using the SIR model. We use site percolation for prevention and bond percolation for quarantine applying on a lattice model. We find a strong synergistic effect of prevention and quarantine under local interactions. A slight increase in protection measures is extremely effective in the initial disease spreads. Combination of the two measures is more effective than a single protection measure. Our results suggest that the protection policy against epidemics should account for both prevention and quarantine measures simultaneously. PMID:22355529

Kato, Fuminori; Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Sone, Shogo; Morita, Satoru; Iida, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Jin

2011-01-01

415

Postharvest irradiation treatment effect on grapefruit functional components and their role in prevention of colon cancer  

E-print Network

This dissertation examines the effects of postharvest treatment and processing on biologically active compounds of orange juice, and ??Rio Red?? grapefruit and their ability to prevent chemically induced colon cancer in rat model. The first study...

Vanamala, Jairam Krishna Prasad

2005-11-01

416

The Effectiveness of a Home Visit to Prevent Childhood Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective. To examine the effectiveness of a home visit program to improve home safety and decrease the frequency of injury in children. We exam- ined the effects of the program on 1) parental injury awareness and knowledge; 2) the extent that families used home safety measures; 3) the rate of injury; and 4) the cost effectiveness of the intervention.

Yvonne Robitaille; Douglas Coyle; Milton Tenenbein; I. Barry; Pless W. James King; Terry P. Klassen; John LeBlanc; Anne-Claude Bernard-Bonnin

2010-01-01

417

Preventive effect of piracetam and vinpocetine on hypoxia-reoxygenation induced injury in primary hippocampal culture.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the potential of Piracetam and Vinpocetine (nootropic drugs, known to possess neuroprotective properties) in preventing hypoxia-reoxygenation induced oxidative stress in primary hippocampal cell culture. The hippocampal culture was exposed to hypoxia (95% N(2), 5% CO(2)) for 3h and followed by 1h of reoxygenation (21% O(2) and 5% CO(2)) at 37 °C. The primary hippocampal cultures were supplemented with the optimum dose of Piracetam and Vinpocetine, independently, and the cultures were divided into six groups, viz. Control/Normoxia, Hypoxia, Hypoxia+Piracetam, Hypoxia+Vinpocetine, Normoxia + Piracetam and Normoxia+Vinpocetine. The cell-viability assays and biochemical oxidative stress parameters were evaluated for each of the six groups. Administration of 1mM Piracetam or 500 nM Vinpocetine significantly prevents the culture from hypoxia-reoxygenation injury when determined by Neutral Red assay, LDH release and Acetylcholine esterase activity. Results showed that Piracetam and Vinpocetine supplementation significantly prevented the fall of mitochondrial membrane potential, rise in ROS generation and reduction in antioxidant levels associated with the hypoxia-reoxygenation injury. In conclusion, the present study establishes that both Piracetam and Vinpocetine give neuroprotection against hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in primary hippocampal cell culture. PMID:21193009

Solanki, P; Prasad, D; Muthuraju, S; Sharma, A K; Singh, S B; Ilavzhagan, G

2011-04-01

418

Falling Feather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Exploratorium presents a demonstration showing that the acceleration of gravity is the same for different objects. The site contains a materials list, assembly instructions for creating the vacuum, and basic procedures for the demonstration. Also provided is an explanation of gravitation effects, freefall, and terminal velocity.

2009-12-11

419

Falls Prevention: Unique to Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... kills the cells in the brain that produce dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that allows messages to transfer ... extent by drug treatments that increase the brain’s dopamine levels. Very rarely, surgery may be used, or ...

420

Effective Fall 2014 PREREQUISITE  

E-print Network

course. l At least one course with a national or regional focus (Portuguese 460: Portuguese Culture, 461 Advanced Port. Conversation & Composition B. NATIONAL OR REGIONAL FOCUS- At least one of the following (or equivalent): w Portuguese 460: Portuguese Culture w Portuguese 461: Brazilian Culture w Portuguese 462

Eustice, Ryan

421

Antioxidation in Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases – An Effect of Polyphenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Catechins are major components of green\\u000a tea with many biological functions, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. Antioxidative\\u000a effects of tea catechins are characterized by the ability to inhibit free radical generation and to scavenge free radicals,\\u000a among other effects. They also influence activation of transcription factors such

Jun-ichi Suzuki; Mitsuaki Isobe; Ryuichi Morishita; Ryozo Nagai

422

Identifying Effective School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous meta-analytic studies of universal school-based drug education program evaluations have found that interactive programs are more effective than non- interactive programs and that within the group of more effective interactive programs, Comprehensive Life Skills programs are more effective overall than Social Influences programs. This study builds upon those earlier meta-analytic studies of universal school-based drug education program evaluations by

MICHAEL ROONA; ANDREI STREKE; PETER OCHSHORN; DIANA MARSHALL; AMY PALMER

423

Fall Webworm  

E-print Network

or on rough tree bark. The moths emerge from silken cocoons in the spring, then disperse and portions of tall trees. Because webworm larvae remain inside their webbing, insecticide sprays must penetrate the web to be effective. For best control, apply... insecticides after eggs hatch and before larvae develop dense webs. Insecticides containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), carbaryl (Sevin ? ), chlorpyrifos (Lorsban ? ), malathion, tebufenozide (Confirm ? 2F), spinosad (Spintor ? ), and methoxyfenozide (Intrepid...

Ree, Bill

2004-10-08

424

HIV prevention cost-effectiveness: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: After more than 25 years, public health programs have not been able to sufficiently reduce the number of new HIV infections. Over 7,000 people become infected with HIV every day. Lack of convincing evidence of cost-effectiveness (CE) may be one of the reasons why implementation of effective programs is not occurring at sufficient scale. This paper identifies, summarizes and

Omar Galárraga; M Arantxa Colchero; Richard G Wamai; Stefano M Bertozzi

2009-01-01

425

Fall Classification by Machine Learning Using Mobile Phones  

PubMed Central

Fall prevention is a critical component of health care; falls are a common source of injury in the elderly and are associated with significant levels of mortality and morbidity. Automatically detecting falls can allow rapid response to potential emergencies; in addition, knowing the cause or manner of a fall can be beneficial for prevention studies or a more tailored emergency response. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate techniques to not only reliably detect a fall but also to automatically classify the type. We asked 15 subjects to simulate four different types of falls–left and right lateral, forward trips, and backward slips–while wearing mobile phones and previously validated, dedicated accelerometers. Nine subjects also wore the devices for ten days, to provide data for comparison with the simulated falls. We applied five machine learning classifiers to a large time-series feature set to detect falls. Support vector machines and regularized logistic regression were able to identify a fall with 98% accuracy and classify the type of fall with 99% accuracy. This work demonstrates how current machine learning approaches can simplify data collection for prevention in fall-related research as well as improve rapid response to potential injuries due to falls. PMID:22586477

Albert, Mark V.; Kording, Konrad; Herrmann, Megan; Jayaraman, Arun

2012-01-01

426

Fall classification by machine learning using mobile phones.  

PubMed

Fall prevention is a critical component of health care; falls are a common source of injury in the elderly and are associated with significant levels of mortality and morbidity. Automatically detecting falls can allow rapid response to potential emergencies; in addition, knowing the cause or manner of a fall can be beneficial for prevention studies or a more tailored emergency response. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate techniques to not only reliably detect a fall but also to automatically classify the type. We asked 15 subjects to simulate four different types of falls-left and right lateral, forward trips, and backward slips-while wearing mobile phones and previously validated, dedicated accelerometers. Nine subjects also wore the devices for ten days, to provide data for comparison with the simulated falls. We applied five machine learning classifiers to a large time-series feature set to detect falls. Support vector machines and regularized logistic regression were able to identify a fall with 98% accuracy and classify the type of fall with 99% accuracy. This work demonstrates how current machine learning approaches can simplify data collection for prevention in fall-related research as well as improve rapid response to potential injuries due to falls. PMID:22586477

Albert, Mark V; Kording, Konrad; Herrmann, Megan; Jayaraman, Arun

2012-01-01

427

External Validity of Physical Activity Interventions for Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Fall Risk: A Quantitative Systematic Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Aim To appraise the external validity of physical activity interventions designed to reduce falls among community-dwelling older adults, using the reach, efficacy/effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance framework. Background Falls are a globally common, significant, and preventable problem. The efficacy of physical activity interventions to reduce falls among older adults is well established. Translation of this research into practice is slow as evidenced by persistently low proportions of older adults who engage in physical activities and the rising incidence of falls. Data Sources Four electronic databases were searched for relevant studies published between 2000 and 2010. Studies that examined the effects of physical activity interventions designed to reduce falls among community dwelling older adults were included in this review (n = 46). Review Methods This was a quantitative systematic review with narrative synthesis. The reach, efficacy/effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance framework guided the identification, appraisal, and synthesis of indicators representing study validity. Results The majority of studies in this review described indicators representing internal validity. Details about indicators representing external validity were reported infrequently, limiting the generalizability of fall-preventive physical activity interventions in diverse cultures and social contexts over time. Conclusions To foster translational research in real world settings, additional programmatic intervention research is needed that: (a) targets diverse populations; (b) incorporates theories of behavioural change; (c) describes and operationalizes critical content that enables replication and translation; (d) tests innovative measures of fall risk and physical activity; and (e) evaluates feasibility and acceptability. PMID:22416905

McMahon, Siobhan; Fleury, Julie

2012-01-01

428

PASHA: Facilitating the Replication and Use of Effective Adolescent Pregnancy and STI\\/HIV Prevention Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeIt is important that interventions that have been shown effective in changing risky behavior be disseminated, so that they can be replicated (implemented in a new site) and so that their effectiveness in a new setting can be investigated. This article provides an update on an innovative resource for promoting the replication of effective teen pregnancy and STI\\/HIV prevention programs.

Josefina J. Card; Laura Lessard; Tabitha Benner

2007-01-01

429

PASHA: Facilitating the Replication and Use of Effective Adolescent Pregnancy and STI\\/HIV Prevention Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: It is important that interventions that have been shown effective in changing risky behavior be disseminated, so that they can be replicated (implemented in a new site) and so that their effectiveness in a new setting can be investigated. This article provides an update on an innovative resource for promoting the replication of effective teen pregnancy and STI\\/HIV prevention

Josefina J. Card; Laura Lessard; Tabitha Benner

430

Modeling the effectiveness of isolation strategies in preventing STD epidemics  

SciTech Connect

The authors formulate and analyze a two-group, selective-mixing, susceptible-infective-susceptible (SIS), sexually transmitted disease (STD) model where the infection-dependent desirability and acceptability in partnership formations are zero at high infection levels. They analyze two strategies to limit the spread of the epidemic by avoiding forming partnerships with people in a highly infected group. In one approach, the people in the highly infected group protect themselves by forming partnerships with only people outside their own group. They show that the transmission dynamics for this approach are similar to the situation where people continue to have both intragroup and intergroup partnerships. In the second approach, when one group becomes highly infected, the people in the other group adopt an isolation strategy and stop forming any partnerships with people in this highly infected group. They show that the second approach can limit the epidemic to the highly infected group. The other group will be infection-free, but as long as the epidemic in the total population exceeds the epidemic threshold, the epidemic will continue to persist. If the group reproductive number of the infection-free group is greater than one, and the infection should ever invade the infection-free group, then it will lead to an epidemic similar to the one that would have occurred if they had not isolated themselves from the other group. In this simple two-group model, although these isolation strategies may reduce the extent of an STD epidemic, they are ineffective in preventing an epidemic.

Hyman, J.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Li, J. [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences] [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

1998-06-01

431

Circumcision rates in the United States: rising or falling? What effect might the new affirmative pediatric policy statement have?  

PubMed

The objective of this review was to assess the trend in the US male circumcision rate and the impact that the affirmative 2012 American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement might have on neonatal circumcision practice. We searched PubMed for the term circumcision to retrieve relevant articles. This review was prompted by a recent report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that found a slight increase, from 79% to 81%, in the prevalence of circumcision in males aged 14 to 59 years during the past decade. There were racial and ethnic disparities, with prevalence rising to 91% in white, 76% in black, and 44% in Hispanic males. Because data on neonatal circumcision are equivocal, we undertook a critical analysis of hospital discharge data. After correction for underreporting, we found that the percentage had declined from 83% in the 1960s to 77% by 2010. A risk-benefit analysis of conditions that neonatal circumcision protects against revealed that benefits exceed risks by at least 100 to 1 and that over their lifetime, half of uncircumcised males will require treatment for a medical condition associated with retention of the foreskin. Other analyses show that neonatal male circumcision is cost-effective for disease prevention. The benefits of circumcision begin in the neonatal period by protection against infections that can damage the pediatric kidney. Given the substantial risk of adverse conditions and disease, some argue that failure to circumcise a baby boy may be unethical because it diminishes his right to good health. There is no long-term adverse effect of neonatal circumcision on sexual function or pleasure. The affirmative 2012 American Academy of Pediatrics policy supports parental education about, access to, and insurance and Medicaid coverage for elective infant circumcision. As with vaccination, circumcision of newborn boys should be part of public health policies. Campaigns should prioritize population subgroups with lower circumcision prevalence and a higher burden of diseases that can be ameliorated by circumcision. PMID:24702735

Morris, Brian J; Bailis, Stefan A; Wiswell, Thomas E

2014-05-01

432

Proposal for a multiphase fall model based on real-world fall recordings with body-fixed sensors.  

PubMed

Falls are by far the leading cause of fractures and accidents in the home environment. The current Cochrane reviews and other systematic reviews report on more than 200 intervention studies about fall prevention. A recent meta-analysis has summarized the most important risk factors of accidental falls. However, falls and fall-related injuries remain a major challenge. One novel approach to recognize, analyze, and work better toward preventing falls could be the differentiation of the fall event into separate phases. This might aid in reconsidering ways to design preventive efforts and diagnostic approaches. From a conceptual point of view, falls can be separated into a pre-fall phase, a falling phase, an impact phase, a resting phase, and a recovery phase. Patient and external observers are often unable to give detailed comments concerning these phases. With new technological developments, it is now at least partly possible to examine the phases of falls separately and to generate new hypotheses.The article describes the practicality and the limitations of this approach using body-fixed sensor technology. The features of the different phases are outlined with selected real-world fall signals. PMID:23184296

Becker, C; Schwickert, L; Mellone, S; Bagalà, F; Chiari, L; Helbostad, J L; Zijlstra, W; Aminian, K; Bourke, A; Todd, C; Bandinelli, S; Kerse, N; Klenk, J

2012-12-01

433

Effects of alcohol on the fetus: impact and prevention.  

PubMed Central

In the spectrum of adverse effects on the fetus or infant associated with maternal drinking during pregnancy the most dramatic is the fetal alcohol syndrome, a pattern of malformation that has been associated with maternal alcohol abuse. Other undesirable outcomes of pregnancy linked to alcohol exposure in utero include growth deficiency, major and minor anomalies, decrements in mental and motor performance, and fetal and perinatal wastage. Alcohol, like other teratogens, does not uniformly affect all those exposed to it. Rather, there seems to be a continuum of effects of alcohol on the fetus with increasingly severe outcomes generally associated with higher intakes of alcohol by the mother. The cost of fetal damage associated with alcohol exposure is very high. A program to decrease the incidence of fetal alcohol effects is therefore imperative. The cornerstone of such a program must be not only education of the public but also careful training of all professionals who provide health care for pregnant women. PMID:7023638

Little, R. E.; Streissguth, A. P.

1981-01-01

434

Atomic Physics I 80301 Answers to Problem Set 7 Fall 2005 Zeeman effect: The vector potential for a uniform magnetic B can be written  

E-print Network

Atomic Physics I 80301 Answers to Problem Set 7 Fall 2005 Zeeman effect: The vector potential of this equation as [r � ] = -i 2 r · C (0) 1 (^r) Assuming B is in the z direction, the interaction becomes hint(r) = i ecB 2 2 r · C (0) 10 (^r) 2. The interaction energy Wv in a valence state |v of a one electron

Johnson, Walter R.

435

Effects of Flow and Spill on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Fall and Summer Chinook Salmon in John Day Reservior : Annual Report 1987.  

SciTech Connect

Juvenile fall chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, were freeze branded, coded wire tagged, and released into the Columbia River in the tailrace below McNary Dam during the summers of 1981--1983. The objectives of the study were to examine the effects of river flow on the passage time and migrational behavior of the juveniles and to subsequently assess any relationship to adult survival. This report details adult recovery data to June 1987. 2 refs., 11 tabs.

Miller, David R.; Glorgi, Albert E.

1987-12-01

436

Effects of Flow on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Fall and Summer Chinook Salmon in John Day Reservoir : Annual Report 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of instream river flow on the passage time, survival, and migrational behavior of juvenile fall and summer (O-age) chinook salmon in John Day Reservoir is being studied. In 1983, the final year of juvenile sampling in the reservoir, research activities continued to refine flow\\/travel time relationships and distributional behavior of O-age chinook salmon. Fifteen groups (72,559 fish) of

David R. Miller; Carl W. Sims

1984-01-01

437

Effectiveness of dimethlydicarbonate to prevent Brettanomyces bruxellensis growth in wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-microbial properties of the dimethyldicarbonate (DMDC) towards the wine spoilage yeast Brettanomyces bruxellensis at different winemaking stages. DMDC anti-microbial activity was estimated in red must for diverse wine microorganisms including different strains of B. bruxellensis. DMDC effect before alcoholic fermentation, before malolactic fermentation, and in finished wine were investigated. DMDC was

Vincent Renouf; Pierre Strehaiano; Aline Lonvaud-Funel

2008-01-01

438

Preventing Youth Drinking and Driving: Effective Alcohol Policy Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the empirical evidence regarding policy approaches to decreasing drinking and driving by youth. Based on the available evidence, the most effective policies appear to be (a) taxation or price increases, (b) increases in the minimum drinking age, (c) zero tolerance, and (d) graduated licensing. Random breath testing, sobriety check points, increased compliance checks and dram shop liability

JW Grube; P Nygaard

439

Climate Change Effects on Mediterranean Forests and Preventive Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper synthesizes and reviews literature concerning climate change effects on Mediterranean forest ecology and management as well as the restorative techniques necessary to maintain forest health, forest yield and biodiversity. Climate change compounded with trends of rural abandonment are likely to diminish forested areas within the Mediterranean basin that will be replaced by fire prone shrub communities. This could

Víctor Resco de Dios; Christine Fischer; Carlos Colinas

2007-01-01