Sample records for effective media communication

  1. Effects of the Mass Media of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Walter

    The mass media are considered to be television, radio, movies, and newspapers. They may generate changes in cognition and comprehension. They do effect emotional arousal, sex and behavior identification, and changes in allocation of time, consumer purchase, and voting behavior. The only data which show a clear relationship between the mass media

  2. International Summer School in Political Communication and Electoral Behaviour (New) Media Effects on Electoral Behaviour

    E-print Network

    De Cindio, Fiorella

    International Summer School in Political Communication and Electoral Behaviour (New) Media Effects of Milan (Italy) and the Political Communication Division of the International Communication Association and empirical questions at the intersection of political communication, political science, and political

  3. Communications and media services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcculla, James W.; Kukowski, James F.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's internal and external communication methods are reviewed. NASA information services for the media, for the public, and for employees are discussed. Consideration is given to electron information distribution, the NASA TV-audio system, the NASA broadcast news service, astronaut appearances, technology and information exhibits, speaker services, and NASA news reports for internal communications. Also, the NASA worldwide electronic mail network is described and trends for future NASA communications and media services are outlined.

  4. Effect of propagating media on wireless communication system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Hossain

    2008-01-01

    Electronic communication system i.e. the radio wave propagation is completely depends on the medium. The signals of LF and VLF are rapidly alternated by the earth's surface. The medium and short wave signals are also affected by troposphere and ionosphere conditions. The line of sight propagation depend both the troposphere condition and ground conductivity. There are various propagation models currently

  5. Communication & Media Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Anderson

    The Communication & Media Studies Division is one of the growing academic divisions at Cornerstone. We are passionate about instructing, equipping, and mentoring students who we can empower to engage the marketplace of ideas in creative and strategic ways as they take their graduation portfolios into their first jobs as skilled agents of reconciliation in their spheres of influence. Our

  6. Interpersonal communication as an indirect pathway for the effect of antismoking media content on smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    van den Putte, Bas; Yzer, Marco; Southwell, Brian G; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Willemsen, Marc C

    2011-05-01

    In the context of health campaigns, interpersonal communication can serve at least 2 functions: (a) to stimulate change through social interaction and (b) in a secondary diffusion process, to further disseminate message content. In a 3-wave prospective study of 1,079 smokers, the authors demonstrate that mass media messages (antismoking campaigns and news coverage relevant to smoking cessation) have an indirect effect on smoking cessation intention and behavior via interpersonal communication. Exposure to campaigns and news coverage prompts discussion about the campaigns, and, in turn, about smoking cessation. Interpersonal communication regarding smoking cessation then influences intention to quit smoking and attempts to quit smoking. The study finds evidence not only for the social interaction function of interpersonal communication, but also for the secondary diffusion function. A substantial number of smokers who are not directly exposed to the antismoking campaigns are nevertheless indirectly exposed via communication with people who have seen these campaigns. These results imply that encouragement of interpersonal communication can be an important campaign objective. PMID:21337250

  7. A Multi-User Model for Effectively Communicating Research Through Electronic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinds, J. J.; Fairley, J. P.

    2003-12-01

    Electronic media have demonstrated potential for data exchange, dissemination of results to other scientists, communication with community interest groups, and education of the general public regarding scientific advances. Few researchers, however, receive training in the skills required to capture the attention of the broad spectrum of Internet users. Because different people assimilate information in different ways, effective communication is best accomplished using an appropriate mix of photographs, graphics, tables, and text. In addition, effective web page design requires a clear, consistent organizational structure, easily-navigated layout, and attention to details such as page printability, downloading time, and minimal page scrolling. One of the strengths of electronic media is that the user can chose an appropriate level of involvement for his or her interest. In designing a web page for the multidisciplinary NSF/EPSCoR "Biocomplexity in Extreme Environments" project, we divided potential users into three categories based on our perception of the level of detail they required: 1) project participants, 2) non-participants with technical backgrounds, and 3) the general public. By understanding the needs and expectations of potential viewers, it was possible to present each group with an appropriate balance of visual and textural elements. For example, project participants are often most interested in raw data, which can be effectively presented in tabular format. Non-participants with technical backgrounds are more interested in analyzed data, while a project overview, presented through photographs and graphics with minimal text, will be most effective for communicating with the general public. The completed web page illustrates one solution for effectively communicating with a diverse audience, and provides examples for meeting many of the challenges of web page design.

  8. [Effect of mass communication media in food purchasing at the family level].

    PubMed

    Moya de Sifontes, M Z; Dehollain, P L

    1986-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mass media advertisement of food products (TV, radio and the press), particularly in pre-school and school-age children, as well as the concomitant impact these age groups have on the family food buying patterns. To test the hypothesis that the impact of mass media advertising on foods varied in the different socioeconomic levels of a community, a stratified sample of all children below 13 years of age, who attended the Francisco Fajardo school in the central coast of Venezuela, was drawn. Mass media contact, food and nutrition knowledge and other socioeconomic characteristics were related to the family's food-buying patterns. More specifically, the age, working status and educational level of the mother in regard to beliefs concerning the nutritional value of advertized food products, were related. A semi-structured questionnaire was designed, tested and applied to the housewife or whoever performed this role within the family. Findings revealed that families of low socioeconomic status are prone to be most influenced by mass media food product advertising. This is reflected not only in food purchasing practices but also in food consumption patterns at the family level. Chocolate drinks, cereals, jello, sausages, and ice cream are the most popular products among pre-school and school-aged children, without social class distinction. Furthermore, results revealed that the degree of exposure to mass communication media--television, radio and newspapers--is a determining factor in children's food preferences at all socioeconomic levels, and that television is the media exerting the greatest influence. PMID:3632198

  9. Social Media QMUL Digital Communications Strategy Social Media

    E-print Network

    Chittka, Lars

    Social Media ­ QMUL Digital Communications Strategy 1 Social Media QMUL Social Media Strategy provides staff with a framework for using social media. The strategy will be reviewed in July 2013. Social media rationale QMUL

  10. Communication and Media Studies Communicating is something we all do on a daily basis. An

    E-print Network

    Miles, Will

    Communication and Media Studies Communicating is something we all do on a daily basis. An understanding of human communication, and the ability to communicate well, is key to a successful career. Communication and media studies offers courses that help students learn how to be effective creators and critics

  11. Memory Processes in Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermann, Kathy

    1985-01-01

    Explores the role of memory in mediating mass communication effects. Examines (1) the nature of memory, (2) issues in retention and recall of media messages, (3) methods of promoting retention and recall of media messages, and (4) implications of memory processes for mass media effects. (PD)

  12. The Health Communicator's Social Media Toolkit

    E-print Network

    Klein, Ophir

    July 2011 #12;#12;The Health Communicator's Social Media Toolkit Table of Contents Social Media Introduction Social Media Overview 1 Getting Your Feet Wet With Social Media 2 CDC's Top Lessons Learned from Using Social Media 4 Developing a Social Media Strategy 5 Social Media Monitoring and Evaluation 6

  13. TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION BUILDING

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION BUILDING Emergency Action Plan June 2013 The purpose & Communication building to a safe location in the case of an emergency. This plan also serves to provide Facility Information Media & Communication Building: The Media & Communication Building is located

  14. Communication Media: Properties and Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Rudy

    Although much has been written about techniques of artistic expression in the various media and about the social implications of the more persuasive of these, there is little information on communications theory which is useful to those who must make decisions concerning the applications of this new technology. Information refers to something…

  15. Communications and Marketing Social Media Marketing Guidelines

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    Communications and Marketing Social Media Marketing Guidelines This document represents a general set of guidelines on the use of social media in marketing. It doesn't aim to cover details of individual services, or the use of social media tools in other forms of communication. What is social media

  16. Do Shy People Prefer to Send E-Mail?: Personality Effects on Communication Media Preferences in Threatening and Nonthreatening Situations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido Hertel; Joachim Schroer; Bernad Batinic; Sonja Naumann

    2008-01-01

    Personality aspects are largely neglected in existing models of media preferences. Based on a functional approach, it is hy- pothesized that media preferences are affected by Extraversion and Neuroticism particularly in situations that correspond to the motiva- tional implications of these traits. The results of a questionnaire study (N = 228) on preferences for communication media with varying levels of

  17. Interferon Scientific Memoranda: A Report on the Feasibility of Increasing the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Scientific Research Through the Use of New Communications Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aries Corp., McLean, VA.

    The desirability of increasing the speed of informal communications of information among investigators in well-defined areas of scientific discipline has been well established. The purpose of this study was to develop more advanced media for this type of communication and to determine the overall effect on cost and efficiency on a selected area of…

  18. SLAC Social Media Office of Communications

    E-print Network

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    SLAC Social Media March 2012 Office of Communications #12;2 Social media tools enhance our ability openness, transparency and accessibility #12;3 Pre-launch: SLAC Social Media Policy Official use: Main? Klout? Meet quarterly with social media group to get feedback, discuss new ideas and share lessons

  19. Enhancing Organizational Communication using Sociometric Badges MIT Media Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Enhancing Organizational Communication using Sociometric Badges Taemie Kim MIT Media Laboratory 20, and Follow the Star, a socially intelligent, location-aware visualization tool. 1 Introduction Social scientists have always been interested in enhanc- ing organizational effectiveness and individual well

  20. Teens and alcohol: A consumer behavior analysis of interpersonal communication and mass media effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanuja R Sheth

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a health and public policy issue in terms of consumer behavior and communication theories. The Health Belief Model (Rosenstock, 1974) provided the foundation for studying social marketing and liquor industry advertising with interpersonal communication between a teen and peers, a teen and parents and a teen and other adults with alcohol consumption

  1. NEW MEDIA LITERACY communication for sustainability

    E-print Network

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    1 NEW MEDIA LITERACY communication for sustainability John Blewitt, Director of Lifelong Learning of sustainability literacy is connected with ongoing work on media literacy. Many individuals and virtually every persuasiveness. In this context, sustainability literacy, however defined, requires a sensitivity to virtual

  2. Political Communication via the Media. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that critics charge that news reporting focuses on the superficial, personal characteristics of candidates and ignores the issues underlying elections, this Digest examines the relationship between the political process and political communication through the media. It addresses the power of advertising, cyberspace political communication,…

  3. Communications and Media: Grade 7. Cluster II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 7, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Communications and Media." It is divided into six units: advertising, film and photography, radio and television, journalism and publishing, library and periodicals, and transocean communications. Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

  4. Who is my audience, what is my message, and know my reporters deadline: How to be more effective communicating with the media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. M.

    2006-12-01

    In the United States where most scientists receive their research support from federal funds, scientists need to expand their audience beyond their peers and consider the taxpayers, too. The media can play an important conduit for scientists and the lay public. However, many scientists do not do the best public relations jobs for their profession. We talk very well with each other and not very well with almost anyone else. We need to learn to avoid jargon, communicate our results more clearly, and examine the relationship between communication techniques and how to assess the outcomes. Scientists assess outcome based only on factual accuracy. Journalists assess their results based on accuracy and storycraft. In my experiences interacting with the media during various oil spills as well as training from the Aldo Leopold Leadership Program, I will discuss how scientists can be more effective when communicating with the media. First, scientists need to understand who their audience is and what their educational background is. In addition, it is important to stay on message and have only one message per interaction with a member of the media. That is, do not confuse a reporter with the results from one study when he or she is really interested in another story or just looking for background information. Last, scientists must understand that the media must often publish their stories with deadlines having timescales of hours and not months or years, hence it is important to be brief and to promptly return phone calls and emails. Hopefully, such efforts between scientists and the media will lead to a more scientifically informed public.

  5. Some Traditional and Modern Media for Generating Social Change in Rural Africa: A Study of Some Traditional and Modern Media for Communicating Family Planning in Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bame, K. N.

    Conducted in two phases, the study assessed and compared the effectiveness of various modern mass communication media and two traditional media for communicating the idea of family planning in Ghana. The comic or concert party play and the town or village discussion were used as the traditional modes of communication; the modern media used were…

  6. The Media and Communications Studies Site

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chandler, Daniel.

    This is a British-based gateway from University of Wales professor, Daniel Chandler, to Web resources useful in the academic study of media and communication. As the server is located in Wales, the initial loading of the homepage may require some patience for those users located in other areas, but once the icons are loaded navigation is straightforward. The site is organized into twenty areas, including film studies, media influence, textual analysis, and gender, & ethnicity. Several of the links are preformatted searches of the Alta Vista index, providing up-to-date information on media-related topics.

  7. Helen Nissenbaum Media, Culture, & Communication; Computer Science

    E-print Network

    Nissenbaum, Helen

    attempt to access) #12;3 any of the Services by any means other than through the interface1 Helen Nissenbaum Media, Culture, & Communication; Computer Science New York University Presented and that other information companies have been doing this for a while. I don't think they're using my searches

  8. Multilevel secure mixed-media communication networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond Cole; Donald Kallgren; Richard Hale; John R. Davis

    1989-01-01

    A communication system architecture that provides security for different groups of users while allowing each group access to a common pool of network and transmission assets is presented. Transmission assets can be mixed, operating with different propagation media and network protocols. Placement of encryption processes required to support security services is of particular interest. Support of secure relaying services within

  9. English 7-8: Modern Media of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Madelon

    This grade 7-8 level course guide covers aspects of media communication such as verbal and nonverbal communication theory, forms of modern media (newspapers, feature films, artistic films, music, advertising, etc.), and practice for the student in the various aspects of communication media. The guide is designed for a one-year course and enhances…

  10. A Media Mosaic: Canadian Communications Through a Critical Eye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDayter, Walt, Ed.

    The 19 articles that comprise this book are concerned with the subject of communications and media in Canada. In Part One, "The Media: A Diagnosis," the articles are "The Power and Impotence of the Media" by Russell Elman, "The Myth of Objectivity" by Walt McDayter, "In the Shadow of Giants: Concentration and Monopolies in the Media" by Walt…

  11. Tenure-Track Assistant Professor of Digital Media (Games) School of Literature, Media, and Communication

    E-print Network

    of three potential references emailed as one single PDF to hiring@mail.gatech.edu. Review of applicationsTenure-Track Assistant Professor of Digital Media (Games) School of Literature, Media, and Communication The School of Literature, Media, and Communication (LMC) at the Georgia Institute of Technology

  12. Media saturation, communication exposure and HIV stigma in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Babalola, Stella; Fatusi, Adesegun; Anyanti, Jennifer

    2009-04-01

    HIV-related stigma constitutes an impediment to public health as it hampers HIV/AIDS control efforts in many ways. To address the complex problems of increasing HIV infection rate, widespread misinformation about the infection and the rising level of HIV-related stigma, the various tiers of government in Nigeria are working with local and international non-governmental organizations to develop and implement strategic communication programs. This paper assesses the link between these communication efforts and HIV-related stigma using data from a nationally representative household survey. The results show that accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV are more prevalent among men than among women. Exposure to HIV-related communication on the media is associated with increased knowledge about HIV, which is in turn a strong predictor of accepting attitudes. Communication exposure also has a significant and positive association with accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV. In contrast, community media saturation is not strongly linked with accepting attitudes for either sex. The findings strongly suggest that media-based HIV programs constitute an effective strategy to combat HIV/AIDS-related stigma and should therefore be intensified in Nigeria. PMID:19231054

  13. Mass Communication Functions in a Media-Rich Developing Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Steven H.; Izcaray, Fausto

    1975-01-01

    Discusses media-centered communication research models and applies them to a field setting in Venezuela in an attempt to assess the extent to which social processes depend on mass communication. See CS 703 632 for subscription information. (MH)

  14. Communicating vaccine safety to the media and general public.

    PubMed

    Oubari, Hiba; Tuttle, Ryan; Rath, Barbara; Bravo, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are among the most effective measures to control and prevent infectious diseases. Yet, the topic of vaccination is difficult to communicate, as it bears upon individual versus common good. The efficacy and safety of vaccines can only be shown by the absence of undesired events, such as vaccine-preventable diseases or adverse events following immunization. The authors of this paper view accurate, transparent and timely vaccine-safety communication to the media and general public as a core responsibility of healthcare providers. The authors wish to explore potential difficulties faced by immunization specialists when talking to the media, and suggest how to successfully convey vaccination messages to the general public. PMID:25859680

  15. Guidelines for Teaching Non-Verbal Communications Through Visual Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kundu, Mahima Ranjan

    1976-01-01

    There is a natural unique relationship between non-verbal communication and visual media such as television and film. Visual media will have to be used extensively--almost exclusively--in teaching non-verbal communications, as well as other methods requiring special teaching skills. (Author/ER)

  16. Medicine, media communication and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2010-01-01

    On World Press Freedom Day (3rd of May 2009) details of the Frida Haus ranking list of press freedom in countries around the world were officially disclosed. Bosnia and Herzegovina is ranked at 98 place, and in the region better ranked is only Montenegro, which is located between 78 and 80 place along with Botswana and Eastern Timor. Top rated is Iceland with 9 points and on the last place is North Korea, with 98 points. Almost every profession has its deontology/ethical principles. However, medicine and the media are specifically targeted by public controversy with regard to the consequences of their responsibilities for the individual and the overall population. Until twenty years ago, the media were the main social system or a reflection of the social system and dominated the field of public communication, which implicitly reflected in the organization, operation and effects of companies, corporations, etc. as the overall social system, increasing the gross national product and its various categories enabled boom. Medicine and health represent to a wide range of people, perhaps, the most interesting source of information, and probably there isn't a person that once was not interested in quality professional and verified information regarding some of their medical condition or overall health status. It is estimated that today there are more than a million Web sites on health and diseases, which means that the availability of health information for users is better today than ever before. However, it is important to patients and users of web sites with health information to learn how to properly use them, and learn to assess whether the information published on this site are of reliable quality, which depends on the authors who put the information on the web site, their topicality, simplicity in use and especially the diversity of the medical content of these web pages. It is the Internet that allows the revolution in relation patient-health care- health services provider. First look is at the symptoms and other health information on the Internet before patients actually go to the doctor. In response to this there is change in the relation patient- doctor, there are attempts to allow the patient to make a test, for example, cholesterol in the blood prior to scheduling the examination by the doctor. The vision of the future is Web-based and secure health record (Medical Record) that can be maintained in some kind of health plan or supervised by a physician. Such a site can be used when the patient is traveling or when he or she goes to the pharmacy or doctor of any specialty. Access to appropriate information may strengthen patients to express their demands and medical professionalism in order to improve clinical decision making. Information on support of patients and their involvement in prevention, alternative treatments and their care should be a central part of quality improvement strategies. Improving the quality of information and helping people use the most of what is offered have to be realized by implementing the strategies. Governments should invest in public education programs to encourage people to critically evaluate health information. For their share, they will have to be aware of the scope and quality of information sources that can be used by patients, so that they can get advice from them in an appropriate manner. PMID:24493979

  17. PR practitioners’ use of social media tools and communication technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina Eyrich; Monica L. Padman; Kaye D. Sweetser

    2008-01-01

    As social media moves from “buzz word” status to strategic tool, more practitioners are developing skills related to this online communication technology. This study surveyed working public relations practitioners about their adoption of 18 social media tools and their perception on the growth of social media trends in public relations practice. Results provide an overview of the adoption of social

  18. Communications Through Media: A Career Program for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Norman H.

    The Brookline, Massachusetts, Public School System's career education program includes a Communications Through Media curriculum. The four-year sequence is designed primarily for students oriented to media careers, but is also open to others with media interests. The program's core course is taught in the 9th grade and seeks to acquaint students…

  19. Tenure-Track Assistant Professor of Technical Communication School of Literature, Media, and Communication

    E-print Network

    , and Communication The School of Literature, Media, and Communication of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Atlanta and technology to public audiences. The School of Literature, Media, and Communication is a multi. The Georgia Institute of Technology is an equal opportunity employer whose academic core mission is based

  20. Using social media to communicate during crises: an analytic methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Marjorie

    2011-06-01

    The Emerging Media Integration Team at the Department of the Navy Office of Information (CHINFO) has recently put together a Navy Command Social Media Handbook designed to provide information needed to safely and effectively use social media. While not intended to be a comprehensive guide on command use of social media or to take the place of official policy, the Handbook provides a useful guide for navigating a dynamic communications environment. Social media are changing the way information is diffused and decisions are made, especially for Humanitarian Assistance missions when there is increased emphasis on Navy commands to share critical information with other Navy command sites, government, and official NGO (nongovernmental organization) sites like the American Red Cross. In order to effectively use social media to support such missions, the Handbook suggests creating a centralized location to funnel information. This suggests that as the community of interest (COI) grows during a crisis, it will be important to ensure that information is shared with appropriate organizations for different aspects of the mission such as evacuation procedures, hospital sites, location of seaports and airports, and other topics relevant to the mission. For example, in the first 14 days of the U.S. Southern Command's Haiti HA/DR (Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief) mission, the COI grew to over 1,900 users. In addition, operational conditions vary considerably among incidents, and coordination between different groups is often set up in an ad hoc manner. What is needed is a methodology that will help to find appropriate people with whom to share information for particular aspects of a mission during a wide range of events related to the mission. CNA has developed such a methodology and we would like to test it in a small scale lab experiment.

  1. Implications of a Contextualist Approach to Media-Effects Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, David K.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses implications of the contextualism of William McGuire for media-effects research and for the answers media-effects researchers give to questions of social concern. Argues that mass communication research long has contained latent contextualist orientations. (MS)

  2. India: Implications of Communication Infrastructure on the Production of Media in State Training Institutes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, George R.

    1989-01-01

    Description of training institutes developed by the government of India to improve the irrigation system focuses on the communication system infrastructure for the production and use of audiovisual materials for training. Highlights include local production of media; equipment and communication networks; cost effectiveness; and recommendations for…

  3. A Model of International Communication Media Appraisal and Exposure: A Comprehensive Test in Belize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, J. David; Oliveira, Omar Souki

    A study constituted the fifth phase of a programmatic research effort designed to develop and test a model of international communications media exposure and appraisal. The model posits that three variables--editorial tone, communication potential, and utility--have positive determinant effects on these dependent variables. Research was carried…

  4. Strategic Communication and Social Media: An MBA Course from a Business Communication Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Social media offers an exciting new area for our discipline to produce research and pedagogy that is in high demand by students, industry constituents, and other disciplines. This article discusses why business communication scholars should focus on social media as an important stream of study and outlines an MBA course in social media strategy…

  5. THE NEW MEDIA AND OUR POLITICAL COMMUNICATION DISCONTENTS: DEMOCRATIZING CYBERSPACE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay G. Blumler; Michael Gurevitch

    2001-01-01

    This article argues that the new interactive media have a 'vulnerable potential' to enhance public communications and enrich democracy, which can be realized only through appropriate policy support and imaginative institution building. After outlining the main shortcomings of the prevailing political communication system, certain elements of redemptive potential, inherent in distinctive features of the Internet, are identified. The policy implications

  6. The Impact of Developing Technology on Media Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.

    1997-01-01

    Examines changes in media communications resulting from new information technologies: communications technologies (networks, World Wide Web, digital set-top box); graphic arts (digital photography, CD and digital archives, desktop design and publishing, printing technology); television and video (digital editing, interactive television, news and…

  7. SLAC-I-050-603-003-00-R000 Page 1 of 8 Communications Policy Social Media Use

    E-print Network

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    SLAC-I-050-603-003-00-R000 Page 1 of 8 Communications Policy ­ Social Media Use Approvers Name ..............................................................................................................................7 #12;SLAC Lab-Wide Policy ­ Social Media Use Effective Date: February 17, 2012 SLAC-I-050-603-003-00-R001 Page 3 of 8 1 Policy Statement Social media tools, such as Facebook and Twitter, have emerged

  8. Collaborating with Your Clients Using Social Media & Mobile Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Typhina, Eli; Bardon, Robert E.; Gharis, Laurie W.

    2015-01-01

    Many Extension educators are still learning how to effectively integrate social media into their programs. By using the right social media platforms and mobile applications to create engaged, online communities, Extension educators can collaborate with clients to produce and to share information expanding and enhancing their social media and…

  9. Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

  10. 77 FR 36305 - Stream Communications Network & Media, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...Stream Communications Network & Media, Inc...It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission...information concerning the securities of Stream Communications Network & Media, Inc....

  11. Prevocational Exploration Communications and Media. Competency-Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall Univ., Huntington, WV. Dept. of Occupational, Adult, and Safety Education.

    This competency-based communications and media-cluster curriculum is designed for use by teachers and students at the early high school level during the exploration of a variety of occupations. The purpose of the materials is to assist students in assessing whether or not they would like to prepare for these kinds of occupations. The curriculum…

  12. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Media Use and Communication Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirzinger, Ashley E.; Weber, Christopher; Johnson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of scholarly work has explored the motivations behind media consumption and other various communication traits. However, little research has investigated the sources of these motivations and virtually no research considers their potential genetic underpinnings. Drawing on the field of behavior genetics, we use a classical twin design…

  13. A rich media framework for communication-broadcasting converged IPTV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minyoung Sung

    2010-01-01

    As the trend toward communication and broadcasting convergence grows, a hybrid Internet Protocol television (IPTV) that supports both IP network-based video and traditional TV broadcast is attracting increasing attention. This paper proposes a rich media framework for hybrid IPTV with support of the latest H.264 codec. The problem of software incompatibility along with the resource constraints of IPTV settops limits

  14. Advanced meteor-burst radio for multi-media communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert I. Desourdis; A. K. McDonough; Steven C. Merrill; Ronald M. Bauman; D. A. Neumann; Jeffrey A. Lucas; Donald Spector; Daniel E. Warren

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the advanced meteor-burst test bed (AMBTB) operated between Charleston, South Carolina and Verona, New York (750 miles). The AMBTB was established by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) to demonstrate the capabilities of multi-media communication via meteor scatter to prospective Government and commercial users. A demonstration site has also been established near ARPA headquarters in Arlington, Virginia.

  15. Rhetorics and Communication Media across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatcher, Barry

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in contrastive rhetoric have looked at a variety of cultural, linguistic, historical, and social factors that influence the complex acts of acquiring and demonstrating second language (L2) writing competencies. These developments, however, focus almost exclusively on writing. The present paper suggests that other communication

  16. Social Media Start-Up Kit Office of Communications and Marketing

    E-print Network

    Kearfott, R. Baker

    Social Media Start-Up Kit Office of Communications and Marketing #12; Table of Contents How ...................................................................................................................................1 University of Louisiana at Lafayette Social Media Policy.............................................................................4 B. Guidelines for Faculty, Staff, and Students Representing UL Lafayette through Social Media

  17. MASTER OF ARTS IN COMMUNICATION & NEW MEDIA at McMASTER ADMISSIONS DEADLINE

    E-print Network

    Haykin, Simon

    /media literacy) Philip Savage, PhD (audience research/communication policy/political economy) Alex Sévigny, PhD (language & discourse/political communication/media measurement) CSMM ASSOCIATE MEMBERS Karin Humphreys, PhMASTER OF ARTS IN COMMUNICATION & NEW MEDIA at McMASTER UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS DEADLINE Monday

  18. How to maximize science communication efficacy by combining old and new media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuccitelli, D. A.; Cook, J.

    2014-12-01

    Traditional science communication approaches (such as relying on university press releases about new scientific publications), and new communication approaches (such as utilizing infographics and social media), can each reach a wide audience when successful. However, probability of successful the science communication can be amplified by taking advantage of both traditional and new media, especially when 'sticky' messaging techniques are applied. The example of Cook et al., 2013 (C13), which found a 97% consensus in the peer-reviewed climate literature on human-caused global warming, is considered. C13 implemented this optimal combined communications approach strategy and became the most-downloaded study in all Institute of Physics journals, with over 200,000 downloads to date. Due to the effective 'sticky' messaging approaches implemented by the study authors, its results received broad coverage from international media and reached millions of people via social media. Strategies to avoid misrepresentations of one's work while maximizing the communications efficacy of its key points will also be discussed.

  19. Group Communication Media Choice and the Use of Information and Communication Technology to Support Learning: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul Karim, Nor Shariza; Heckman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports a study conducted longitudinally to investigate group communication media choice and the use of a web-based learning tool, as well as other types of communication media, such as e-mail, telephone, and face-to-face, for communication and collaboration to complete given tasks. Design/methodology/approach: This study was…

  20. A Subcultural Account of Media Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howitt, Dennis; Dembo, Richard

    1974-01-01

    A critical review and analysis of the literature on the effects--aggressive drive, behavior or attitude--of mass media violence, suggesting that the processes of media influence are more subtle than traditional effects formulations imply. (Author/SF)

  1. Effective Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parratt, Smitty

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the importance of understanding nonverbal communication in enhancing the personal and work relationships of interpreters and increasing their effectiveness in meeting the needs of customers. Discusses the mystique of body language, cultural variation in the use of gestures, the stages of an encounter, interpreting gesture clusters, and…

  2. Interactive real-time media streaming with reliable communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xunyu; Free, Kevin M.

    2014-02-01

    Streaming media is a recent technique for delivering multimedia information from a source provider to an end- user over the Internet. The major advantage of this technique is that the media player can start playing a multimedia file even before the entire file is transmitted. Most streaming media applications are currently implemented based on the client-server architecture, where a server system hosts the media file and a client system connects to this server system to download the file. Although the client-server architecture is successful in many situations, it may not be ideal to rely on such a system to provide the streaming service as users may be required to register an account using personal information in order to use the service. This is troublesome if a user wishes to watch a movie simultaneously while interacting with a friend in another part of the world over the Internet. In this paper, we describe a new real-time media streaming application implemented on a peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture in order to overcome these challenges within a mobile environment. When using the peer-to-peer architecture, streaming media is shared directly between end-users, called peers, with minimal or no reliance on a dedicated server. Based on the proposed software p?v?a (pronounced [revma]), named for the Greek word meaning stream, we can host a media file on any computer and directly stream it to a connected partner. To accomplish this, p?v?a utilizes the Microsoft .NET Framework and Windows Presentation Framework, which are widely available on various types of windows-compatible personal computers and mobile devices. With specially designed multi-threaded algorithms, the application can stream HD video at speeds upwards of 20 Mbps using the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Streaming and playback are handled using synchronized threads that communicate with one another once a connection is established. Alteration of playback, such as pausing playback or tracking to a different spot in the media file, will be reflected in all media streams. These techniques are designed to allow users at different locations to simultaneously view a full length HD video and interactively control the media streaming session. To create a sustainable media stream with high quality, our system supports UDP packet loss recovery at high transmission speed using custom File- Buffers. Traditional real-time streaming protocols such as Real-time Transport Protocol/RTP Control Protocol (RTP/RTCP) provide no such error recovery mechanism. Finally, the system also features an Instant Messenger that allows users to perform social interactions with one another while they enjoy a media file. The ultimate goal of the application is to offer users a hassle free way to watch a media file over long distances without having to upload any personal information into a third party database. Moreover, the users can communicate with each other and stream media directly from one mobile device to another while maintaining an independence from traditional sign up required by most streaming services.

  3. Effective toughness of heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. Z.; Hsueh, C.-J.; Bourdin, B.; Bhattacharya, K.

    2014-11-01

    We propose a versatile approach to computing the effective toughness of heterogeneous media. This approach focusses on the material property independent of the details of the boundary condition. The key idea is what we call a surfing boundary condition, where a steadily propagating crack opening displacement is applied as a boundary condition to a large domain while the crack set is allowed to evolve as it chooses. The approach is verified and used to study examples in brittle fracture. We demonstrate that effective toughness is different from effective or weighted surface area of the crack set. Furthermore, we demonstrate that elastic heterogeneity can have a profound effect on fracture toughness: it can be a significant toughening mechanism and it can lead to toughness asymmetry wherein the toughness depends not only on the direction but also on the sense of propagation. The role of length-scale is also discussed.

  4. Digital Media Tenure Track Position Georgia Tech's School of Literature, Media, and Communication (LMC), which provides diverse

    E-print Network

    Li, Mo

    PDF to hiring@lmc.gatech.edu. Review of applications will begin November 16 and continue untilDigital Media Tenure Track Position Georgia Tech's School of Literature, Media, and Communication), a CV, and a link to a targeted online portfolio or work sample (website or PDF). Applications should

  5. Learning to Use the Internet and Online Social Media: What Is the Effectiveness of Home-Based Intervention for Youth with Complex Communication Needs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Emma; Raghavendra, Parimala; Newman, Lareen; Wood, Denise; Connell, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Youth with complex communication needs (CCN) face increased barriers to their social participation due to limited communication abilities and opportunities. Youth today use the internet as a social tool and youth with CCN may also benefit from internet use to increase their social participation. Five youth between the ages of 10-18 with CCN who…

  6. Module 7-AA: Communicating Effectively

    Cancer.gov

    The seventh module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores communication issues pertinent to African Americans with cancer and their health care providers, discusses strategies for culturally sensitive communication, and presents the SPIKES protocol, a practical framework for effective communication.

  7. Framing as a Theory of Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    1999-01-01

    Systematizes the fragmented approaches to framing in political communication and integrates them into a comprehensive model. Classifies previous approaches to framing research along two dimensions: media frames versus audience frames; and the way frames are operationalized (independent variable or dependent variable). Identifies four key processes…

  8. EarthScope's Education, Outreach, and Communications: Using Social Media from Continental to Global Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohon, W.; Frus, R.; Arrowsmith, R.; Fouch, M. J.; Garnero, E. J.; Semken, S. C.; Taylor, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    Social media has emerged as a popular and effective form of communication among all age groups, with nearly half of Internet users belonging to a social network or using another form of social media on a regular basis. This phenomenon creates an excellent opportunity for earth science organizations to use the wide reach, functionality and informal environment of social media platforms to disseminate important scientific information, create brand recognition, and establish trust with users. Further, social media systems can be utilized for missions of education, outreach, and communicating important timely information (e.g., news agencies are common users). They are eminently scaleable (thus serving from a few to millions of users with no cost and no performance problem), searchable (people are turning to them more frequently as conduits for information), and user friendly (thanks to the massive resources poured into the underlying technology and design, these systems are easy to use and have been widely adopted). They can be used, therefore, to engage the public interactively with the EarthScope facilities, experiments, and discoveries, and continue the cycle of discussions, experiments, analysis and conclusions that typify scientific advancement. The EarthScope National Office (ESNO) is launching an effort to utilize social media to broaden its impact as a conduit between scientists, facilities, educators, and the public. The ESNO will use the opportunities that social media affords to offer high quality science content in a variety of formats that appeal to social media users of various age groups, including blogs (popular with users 18-29), Facebook and Twitter updates (popular with users ages 18-50), email updates (popular with older adults), and video clips (popular with all age groups). We will monitor the number of "fans" and "friends" on social media and networking pages in order to gauge the increase in the percentage of the user population visiting the site. We will also use existing tools available on social media sites to track the relationships between users who visit or "friend" the site to determine how knowledge of the site is transferred amongst various social, educational or geographic groups. Finally, we will use this information to iteratively improve the variety of content and media on the site to increase our user pool, improve EarthScope recognition, and provide appropriate and user-specific Earth science information, especially for time sensitive events of wide interest such as natural disasters.

  9. Media richness or media naturalness? The evolution of our biological communication apparatus and its influence on our behavior toward E-communication tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NED KOCK

    2005-01-01

    E-communication in businesses has been the target of intense research. The theoretical hypotheses that have informed the media richness hypothesis have been influential in some circles and have also been strongly attacked by social theorists. It is argued in this paper that this theoretical polarization involving advocates of the media richness hypothesis and social theorists is due to two problems.

  10. The communication media in postliteracy education: New dimensions of literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semali, Ladislaus M.

    1993-05-01

    Postliteracy programs have been used to produce written materials for newly literate adults, but this narrow view falls short of preventing relapse into illiteracy. Furthermore, the gradual move away from mass educational programs and government financing of education has put postliteracy at greater risk. This study tests levels of retention of literacy among neo-literates in Tanzania who gained a literacy certificate five years ago. Some modest success is noted. The pattern of radio broadcasting, newspaper coverage and library provision in the country is summarized, and the influence of these media on literacy retention assessed. Investment in them is seen as crucial to the maintenance of literacy. However, it is also suggested that the cultural context cannot be overlooked, that the importance of oral communication does not swiftly diminish and that excessive emphasis on functional postliteracy texts does not coincide with the leisure-time interests of neo-literates.

  11. Active Media: A framework for digital media effectiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamil Alio; Mohammad Ibrahim; David Pickton; Marie Bassford

    2008-01-01

    This paper defines active media as a new paradigm that captures the richness of digital media in affecting every aspect of our lives. The term active media embraces interactive, coactive, and proactive digital media. Active media provide more dynamic and individualized experiences, and target recipients more accurately. Active media allow the integration of different human-centric systems into the era of

  12. COMMUNICATING PUBLIC HEALTH INFORMATION EFFECTIVELY POP HEALTH SCIENCES 660 (1 credit)

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    1 COMMUNICATING PUBLIC HEALTH INFORMATION EFFECTIVELY POP HEALTH SCIENCES 660 (1 credit) Summer to help students improve their ability to communicate with different audiences. From the news media to legislators, and from written to oral communication, students will learn strategies for health communication

  13. The value and use of social media as communication tool in the plant sciences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Social media now complements many parts of our lives. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and many other social networking sites allow users to share and interact with online content and to connect with like-minded people. Its strengths – rapid dissemination and amplification of content and the ability to lead informal conversations – make it a powerful tool to use in a professional context. This commentary explains the overall concept of social media and offers suggestions on usage and possible types of scientific content. It advises researchers on the potential benefits and how to take a strategic approach towards building a social media presence. It also presents examples of effective social media use within the plant science community. Common reasons for scientists to not engage with social media include the fear of appearing unprofessional, posting something wrong or being misunderstood, or a lack of confidence in their computer skills. With the rapid changes in academic publishing, dissemination and science communication, as well as the rise of ‘altmetrics’ to track online engagement with scientific content, digital literacy will become an essential skill in a scientist’s tool kit. PMID:23845168

  14. PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE, FRONTIERS OF AUDIOVISUAL COMMUNICATIONS: CONVERGENCES OF BROADBAND, COMPUTING AND RICH MEDIA 1 Haptic Communications

    E-print Network

    Steinbach, Eckehard

    perspective, we address perceptual coding of haptic information and the transmission of haptic data streams, telepresence, telemanip- ulation, haptic compression, perceptual coding, psychophysics, multimodal integration, COMPUTING AND RICH MEDIA 1 Haptic Communications Eckehard Steinbach, Senior Member, IEEE, Sandra Hirche

  15. Teenagers' Use of MSN Features, Discussion Topics, and Online Friendship Development: The Impact of Media Richness and Communication Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivian C. Sheer

    2011-01-01

    With a sample of 248 Hong Kong adolescents, this study probed the impact of media richness and communication control on teenagers' use of MSN® for online friendship development. Both media richness and communication control contributed to MSN's overall functionality and teenagers' self-presentation and friendship development. Media richness positively influenced both social and task communications and shortened the time needed to

  16. Effects of telecommunication media upon information sharing and team performance: some theoretical and empirical observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rodney Wellens; Coral Gables; Wright-Patterson AFB

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical concepts related to decision-making, group dynamics, and communication processes are reviewed. A psychological distancing model of electronic media is described. Issues related to the role of electronic media in networking decision-makers are highlighted. Several laboratory studies that show some of the effects video, audio, and computer teleconferencing can have upon group interaction patterns and productivity are described. It is

  17. Virtually Living Together A Design Framework for New Communication Media

    E-print Network

    Tollmar, Konrad

    -levelled understanding of a product possible. Keywords Blue-sky research, emotional communication, interaction design approach of understanding the language of emotional communication is studies on emotional communication, what non-verbal communication can actuall

  18. Selecting Communications and Public Relations Database Media: Online, CD-ROM, and Paper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Buchholz

    Communication managers in the nineties confront a bewildering array of possibilities in accessing, maintaining, and promulgating information. Planners in charge of developing and accessing communication databases must appraise their needs across all the information storage media currently available, but especially in paper and electronic modes. Many of today's communication databases are in fact evolving into complex interactive systems that incorporate

  19. [The perils of risk communication and the role of the mass media].

    PubMed

    Rossmann, C; Brosius, H-B

    2013-01-01

    Based on theories and empirical results from communication science, the present paper provides an overview of the role of mass media in risk communication. It is guided by the following questions: How do risk issues find their way into the media and how does the media depict them? How do mass-mediated risk messages affect people's perception of risks, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior? What potential does the media have in disseminating health risk information in campaigns? Hence, the present paper aims to provide a basis for the appropriate use of mass media in health risk communication so as to make use of the potential of mass media without neglecting its limits. PMID:23275964

  20. Media as System: A Revisionist Approach to Mass Communications History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Richard C.

    Media historians have been criticized for their inability to ask substantive questions, for ignoring underlying conditions in media's past, and for their failure to relate the narration of technological developments to existing social and cultural tensions. One problem media historians confront is the scope of their research--many media histories…

  1. Crowdsourcing affective responses for predicting media effectiveness

    E-print Network

    McDuff, Daniel Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Emotion is key to the effectiveness of media, whether it be in influencing memory, likability or persuasion. Stories and narratives, even if fictional, have the ability to induce a genuine emotional response. However, the ...

  2. Anlage zur Prfungsordnung-Besondere Bestimmungen fr den bilingualen Master-Studiengang "Medien-und Kommunikationsforschung / Media and Communication Research"

    E-print Network

    Knobloch,Jürgen

    in empirical Communication Research b PL - 1 4 5 SG Module Political and International Communication b mPL 45- und Kommunikationsforschung / Media and Communication Research" Art, Form und Dauer der min 1 2 3 SG Module Organisational Communication and Media Management b mPL 45 min 4 4 TIW Module

  3. Performance evaluation of switched ethernet as communication media in controller networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolay Kakanakov; Mitko Shopov; Grisha Spasov; Hristo Hristev

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a simulation scenario for performance evaluation of switched Ethernet as communication media in controller networks. Ethernet is the most accepted Local Area Network technology, characterized with low price and deployment robustness. Using Ethernet instead of custom industrial communication protocol can ease the development of applications. The introduction of Fast Ethernet and micro-segmentation eliminates some of the biggest

  4. Fast, Broad, and Frequent: Campus Crisis Communications Today Demand Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liggett, Billy

    2012-01-01

    The importance of communication during a school crisis has not changed in the 21st century. What has changed--and quite dramatically since 1999--is the way people communicate. Social media tools are now used in some form by 100 percent of all four-year universities in the United States as a way to reach students, according to a 2011 University of…

  5. Traditional Forms of Communication and the Mass Media in India. Communication and Society, 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Madhu

    Oral folklore and folk drama are emphasized in this report, which focuses on the use of folk media to convey developmental messages through mass media agencies. Discussion covers the relationship between folk and mass media, experiments in India to integrate the two media, problems encountered in the integration process, and folk media's potential…

  6. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (77th, Atlanta, Georgia, August 10-13, 1994). Part VI: Mass Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Mass Media Effects section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 13 papers: "The Nature of the Public's Objections to Television Programs: An Examination of Third-Person Effects" (Guy E. Lometti and others); "An Examination of the Relationship of Structural Pluralism, News Role and Source Use with Framing in the…

  7. Building an Effective Social Media Strategy for Science Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohon, Wendy; Robinson, Sarah; Arrowsmith, Ramon; Semken, Steven

    2013-07-01

    Social media has emerged as a popular mode of communication, with more than 73% of the teenage and adult population in the United States using it on a regular basis [Lenhart et al., 2010]. Young people in particular (ages 12-29) are deeply involved in the rapidly evolving social media environment and have an expectation of communication through these media. This engagement creates a valuable opportunity for scientific organizations and programs to use the wide reach, functionality, and informal environment of social media to create brand recognition, establish trust with users, and disseminate scientific information.

  8. Importance of Effective Communication to Library Leadership or Communication, Communication, Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Susan

    This discussion of the nature and role of communication skills in implementing job responsibilities of librarians and information specialists argues that the most important foundation of effective library leadership is communication. The paper begins by reviewing the literature on leadership and developing a set of leadership characteristics. It…

  9. DEPARTMENT OF MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITETET OF OSLO

    E-print Network

    Løw, Erik

    's Telecommunication Authority, Singapore Telecommunication, Singapore Cable Vision Ltd, Pacific Internet Pte Ltd Industrialized Countries NML News Media & the Law NPPA Newspaper and Printing Presses Act PAP Peoples Action

  10. WILLIAMS COLLEGE SOCIAL MEDIA GUIDELINES Office of Communications

    E-print Network

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    : (http://www.flickr.com/photos/williamscollege) Instagram: williamscollege Why social media? The benefits: LinkedIn, YouTube, Flickr, Pinterest, Instagram, Digg, StumbleUpon, Yelp, Foursquare, Google+, blogs

  11. Climate Change Media Forum - for Enhanced Communication between Journalists and Climate Scientists in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto-Maeda, Y.; Emori, S.; Takahashi, K.; Aoyagi-Usui, M.; Fukushi, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Fukuda, H.; Matsumoto, Y.; Asakura, A.; Hiramatsu, A.; Sumi, A.

    2011-12-01

    For researchers, being reported by mass media is an effective way to share their studies with others, although some have concerns that scientific results are often exaggerated by highlighting sensational parts and ignoring essential results by the media. Obviously, journalists have their own criteria of effective science reporting for their newspapers or magazines which do not necessarily conform to how researchers report their results. Climate Change Media Forum was started in 2009 by researchers specializing in climate science and communication to fill such gaps and enhance communication between climate scientists and journalists as part of a climate change research project funded by the Ministry of Environment of Japan. Since its start, forum events have been held once a year to exchange ideas on reporting of climate change science through mass media. At the first event in March, 2009, we started with learning about what actually the journalists and researchers think about media reports on climate change sciences. Using onsite questionnaire surveys, the participants (39 journalists and 31 researchers) discussed their problems on reporting climate change and what they would like to tell to the public. Some of the survey results suggested that researchers are willing to emphasize more about the conditions and assumptions of studies, while journalists would like to know more about current and short-term impacts. From the second year, two journalists joined the committee to make the events more meaningful for journalists. For the event in March, 2010, three months after COP15 in Copenhagen, the 2 degrees temperature target, which was the only written number on the Copenhagen Accord, was selected as a timely topic. Although researchers understand that a specific target is necessary for setting a concrete pathway, many of them also feel uncomfortable about selecting one single value from the temperature range with uncertainty. After two lectures on the history of the target and possible impacts by the temperature rise, the participants discussed reporting of target selected from data with uncertainty. The third forum event was held in February, 2011, on climate change projections by numerical models. After the lecture on the ongoing projects of climate change prediction for AR5 in Japan, one of the presenters at the press conference on climate change projections for AR4 in 2007 shared his own thoughts on the media reports based on the press conference. In the following session, the researchers and journalists actively discussed how the climate change projection should be reported based on their own "mission" which is conducting reliable research for scientists and writing informative articles for journalists. Through the previous three events, we have obtained sincere comments and suggestions from the participants to improve the communication between journalists and researchers. In the presentation, more comments from the discussions and the survey results of the forum events will be shared.

  12. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    PubMed

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior PMID:23833841

  13. The Influence of Mass Media and Interpersonal Communication on Societal and Personal Risk Judgments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CYNTHIA-LOU COLEMAN

    1993-01-01

    The study described in this article examines the influences of mass media, interpersonal channels, and self-efficacy on risk judgment, using data from a sample of New York State residents. Risk judgment is conceptualized on two distinct domains: personal-level risk judgment and social-level risk judgment. The health and risk communication literature suggests that mass media channels are more likely to influence

  14. Space weather effects on communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    In the 150 years since the advent of the first electrical communication system - the electrical telegraph - the diversity of communications technologies that are embedded within space-affected environments have vastly increased. The increasing sophistication of these communications technologies, and how their installation and operations may relate to the environments in which they are embedded, requires ever more sophisticated understanding of natural physical phenomena. At the same time, the business environment for most present-day communications technologies that are affected by space phenomena is very dynamic. The commercial and national security deployment and use of these technologies do not wait for optimum knowledge of possible environmental effects to be acquired before new technological embodiments are created, implemented, and marketed. Indeed, those companies that might foolishly seek perfectionist understanding of natural effects can be left behind by the marketplace. A well-considered balance is needed between seeking ever deeper understanding of physical phenomena and implementing `engineering' solutions to current crises. The research community must try to understand, and operate in, this dynamic environment.

  15. Holistic Media Education: An Assessment of the Effectiveness of a College Course in Media Literacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Duran; Bill Yousman; Kaitlin M. Walsh; Melanie A. Longshore

    2008-01-01

    The general purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a college course in media literacy. Specifically, the course took a holistic approach to media literacy and was designed to heighten college students' awareness of media structures, content, and impact, as well as to encourage students to become more critical\\/informed participants in the media environment. A pre-test, post-test,

  16. 11.204 Planning, Communications, and Digital Media, Fall 2002

    E-print Network

    Hoyt, Lorlene M.

    Subject focuses on methods of digital visualization and communication and their application to planning issues. Lectures introduce methods for describing or representing a place and its residents, for simulating actions ...

  17. Effectively executing a comprehensive marketing communication strategy.

    PubMed

    Gombeski, William R; Taylor, Jan; Piccirilli, Ami; Cundiff, Lee; Britt, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Marketers are under increasing scrutiny from their management to demonstrate accountability for the resources they receive. Three models are presented to help marketers execute their customer communication activities more effectively. Benefits of using the "Identification of Strategic Communication Elements," "Business Communication" and "Communications Management Process" models include (1) more effective upfront strategic and tactical planning, (2) ensuring key communication principles are addressed, (3) easier communication program communication, (4) provides a framework for program evaluation and market research and (5) increases the creative thinking marketers need when addressing the major marketing challenges. The ultimate benefit is the greater likelihood of more positive marketing results. PMID:19042530

  18. On the Responsible Use of Communication Media for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    2009-01-01

    Just as Bob Heinich states that technology makes instruction visible (1970, 1971), putting the professional ethics into practice makes technology visible. The window for social insight into teachers' professional field is open to a particular view at the present. There are learner questions surrounding the use of media which need answering and…

  19. Study on Data Transmission Using MediaLB Communication in Vehicle Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-Young Kim; Jong-Wook Jang

    \\u000a As demands for the Infotainment System, the Multimedia Networking technology for automobile, called MOST(Media Oriented Systems\\u000a Transport), has been actively applied to the automobile industry, to meet the demands of the Infotainment System. The existing\\u000a MOST devices relied on 12C, 12S communication mode for internal bus communication but the widening bandwidth in the MOST network\\u000a and additional installations in a

  20. Transmission media effects on precise Doppler tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, P. S.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of the transmission media - the earth's troposphere and ionosphere, and the solar wind - on precise Doppler tracking are discussed. The charged particle effects can be largely removed by dual frequency observations; however there are limitations to these corrections (besides system noise and/or finite integration times) including the effects of magnetic fields, diffraction, and differential refraction, all of which must be carefully evaluated. The earth's troposphere can contribute an error of delta f/f approximately 10 to the minus 14th power.

  1. The Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut - A Communications and Media Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Cordero, L.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.; Gómez, G.; Giménez-Porrata, A.; Ramos-Gómez, W.; Colón-Daleccio, N.

    2012-12-01

    On October 18, 2012 the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) in collaboration with Puerto Rico Emergency Management Agency (PREMA) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will be conducting the first Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut. Adequate communications strategies and redundant dissemination methods are a key component for the success of this earthquake exercise. EAS and NOAA Radio messages, indicating the beginning of the earthquake drill, will help emergency managers and the general public better coordinate their practices. Dissemination tools routinely used as part of PRSN earthquake and tsunami protocols, such as PRSNDANIS Broadcast, Ring Down, Ham Radio, RSS, SMS, fax and email service lists, will also be tested. Emergency Management and First Response Agencies at local, regional and state level are being asked to report the times the messages are received, thus allowing us to better assess the effectiveness of our dissemination methods and to establish a baseline for next year ShakeOut. In addition, a partnership with the Puerto Rico Radiobroadcaster Association allows a direct access through this media, facilitating PRSN staff participation on radio programming targeting diverse audiences. Radio spots have been developed to inform the public about the exercise, how to participate, what to do to be safe during an earthquake and how to develop or improve their safety plans. A media approach is critical for the success of the 2012 Puerto Rico ShakeOut since our earthquake drill takes place 2 weeks prior to the Island general election and on the peak-period of the hurricane season.

  2. A systematic review of the use and effectiveness of social media in child health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social media use is highly prevalent among children, youth, and their caregivers, and its use in healthcare is being explored. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine: 1) for what purposes social media is being used in child health and its effectiveness; and 2) the attributes of social media tools that may explain how they are or are not effective. Methods We searched Medline, CENTRAL, ERIC, PubMed, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Alt Health Watch, Health Source, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Web of Knowledge, and Proquest Dissertation and Theses Database from 2000–2013. We included primary research that evaluated the use of a social media tool, and targeted children, youth, or their families or caregivers. Quality assessment was conducted on all included analytic studies using tools specific to different quantitative designs. Results We identified 25 studies relevant to child health. The majority targeted adolescents (64%), evaluated social media for health promotion (52%), and used discussion forums (68%). Most often, social media was included as a component of a complex intervention (64%). Due to heterogeneity in conditions, tools, and outcomes, results were not pooled across studies. Attributes of social media perceived to be effective included its use as a distraction in younger children, and its ability to facilitate communication between peers among adolescents. While most authors presented positive conclusions about the social media tool being studied (80%), there is little high quality evidence of improved outcomes to support this claim. Conclusions This comprehensive review demonstrates that social media is being used for a variety of conditions and purposes in child health. The findings provide a foundation from which clinicians and researchers can build in the future by identifying tools that have been developed, describing how they have been used, and isolating components that have been effective. PMID:24886048

  3. Media Appropriateness in the Conduct and Discovery of Deceptive Communication: The Relative Influence of Richness and Synchronicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Carlson; Joey F. George

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the role that media synchronicity and media richness play in the particular communication context of deception. Hypotheses are developed based on prior models of mediated-deception as well as media richness theory and channel expansion theory. Two survey-based studies were conducted to look at this construct from the separate standpoints of the deceiver and the receiver. Study 1 (the

  4. Communication as group process media of aircrew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, B. G.; Foushee, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    This study of group process was motivated by a high-fidelity flight simulator project in which aircrew performance was found to be better when the crew had recently flown together. Considering recent operating experience as a group-level input factor, aspects of the communication process between crewmembers (Captain and First Officer), were explored as a possible mediator to performance. Communication patterns were defined by a speech act typology adapted for the flightdeck setting and distinguished crews that had previously flown together (FT) from those that had not flown together (NFT). A more open communication channel with respect to information exchange and validation and greater First Officer participation in task-related topics was shown by FT crews while NFT crews engaged in more non-task discourse, a speech mode less structured by roles and probably serving a more interpersonal function. Relationships between the speech categories themselves, representing linguistic, and role-related interdependencies provide guidelines for interpreting the primary findings.

  5. Doing the Traditional Media Sidestep: Comparing the Effects of the Internet and Other Nontraditional Media with Traditional Media in the 1996 Presidential Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas J.; Braima, Mahmoud A. M.; Sothirajah, Jayanthi

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on political communication by examining the extent to which heavy users of the Internet and other non-traditional media differ from heavy users of traditional media in their knowledge of issue stances of Bill Clinton and Bob Dole. Finds that non-traditional media had little influence on political knowledge; and few…

  6. Facial Media for Non-verbal Communication in Production Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuma Funahashi; Takayuki Fujiwara; Hiroyasu Koshimizu

    2006-01-01

    We took the face, especially eye or eye gaze, into consideration for discussing the non-verbal interface media. We first proposed a passive eye-camera system based on the facial image processing such as Hough transform for iris recognition. Next we proposed a method for generating eye-contacted facial images by computer image processing for enforcing and improving the quality of facial, nonverbal

  7. The Formative Period of Listen Look Learn, a Multi-Media Communication Skills System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heflin, Virginia A.; And Others

    A 2-year study was conducted in 1965-67 for the following purposes: (1) to evaluate the materials and techniques of a new beginning reading program, Listen Look Learn (LLL) Multi-Media Communication Skills System, in order to make revisions where necessary and (2) to compare the LLL system in its formative stage with that of basal reader programs.…

  8. Communicating Anthrax in 2001: A Comparison of CDC Information and Print Media Accounts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FELICIA MEBANE; SARAH TEMIN; CLAUDIA F. PARVANTA

    2003-01-01

    Information about anthrax released by news media from October 4 to December 3, 2001, was identified, sampled, coded, and compared with information released by CDC during that period using statistical analysis. In addition, communications about two anthrax-related issues were examined in depth. The quantitative analysis showed that, overall, CDC information releases and news coverage tracked fairly closely. When weight was

  9. NEW MEDIA TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT TO ENHANCE AND IMPROVE COMMUNICATIONS AT USEPA'S NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    New media technology (NT) interactive applications are currently being developed in house at ORD/NRMRL to enhance and improve communication of NRMRL's 1) research projects, 2) workshops/conferences and 3) specialized training. NT is an exciting mix of cutting-edge information tec...

  10. Social Media Use to Enhance Internal Communication: Course Design for Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Amy M.; Hinesly, Mary D.

    2014-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly using social media to improve their internal communication. When successfully implemented, such initiatives can have a dramatic impact on internal efficiency, team collaboration, innovation, organizational alignment, and cultural transformation. This article describes a course offered by the Ross School of Business,…

  11. Communication, Fine Arts, and Media. Occupational Analyses. Worker Task Lists and Supplementary Information for Selected Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.

    This publication contains worker task lists and supplementary information for four occupations in the communication, fine arts, and media cluster: (1) graphic designer; (2) newspaper reporter; (3) radio announcer; and (4) recording technologies occupations. The task lists were generated through the DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process and/or by…

  12. Construction/Communication & Media. B5. CHOICE: Challenging Options in Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam and Northern Westchester Counties Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Yorktown Heights, NY.

    The documents aggregated here comprise the fourth grade unit of a career education curriculum for migrant students. The unit focuses on the tools and tasks of workers in 11 jobs in the construction, communication, and media occupational clusters: heavy equipment operator, architect, mason, carpenter, plumber, electrician, telephone line worker,…

  13. Geoethics in communication of science: the relationship between media and geoscientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foresta Martin, Franco; Peppoloni, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    In the urgency to reconsider the relationship between humankind and planet Earth, in the light of the issues of a sustainable economic and technological development, the defence against natural risks and climate change, the themes addressed by Geoethics are becoming central to the scientific debate. A growing number of scientists begins to consider this discipline as an effective tool to increase, in the scientific community and society as a whole, the awareness of local and global environmental problems that humanity is facing. Geoethics deals with the ethical, social and cultural aspects related to geosciences. It was born with the goal of orienting humankind toward a balanced relationship with the planet and providing references and guidelines to find socio-economic solutions compatible both with the respect for the environment and the protection of nature and land. Geoethics addresses fundamental issues such as the exploitation of geo-resources, the management of natural hazards, the defence of the geoheritage as a common value to be protected and enhanced. But above all geoethics aims at raising in the community of geoscientists the awareness of their responsibilities in conducting the scientific and professional activity. In order to extend this awareness to the whole civil society and also to foster the recognition of the usefulness of geosciences in daily life, it is important to develop a proper communication of the geological knowledge, that is capable to contribute substantially to the construction of the social knowledge of human communities. But nowadays what is the role played by geosciences in the scientific mass culture? Are geosciences part of the collective cultural heritage? Do the publishing world and media in general offer an adequate space to geosciences? Through the analysis of case studies, the authors will highlight the critical features of the relationship between geoscientists and the media system, their different languages, times and perspectives that characterize the geological community and the media world, as well as the most common mistakes made in the communication of geosciences. And as far as the authors are concerned, they will try to suggest some actions, useful to make more functional the relationship between these two separate fields, with the goal of bringing citizens closer to geosciences and increasing the awareness of the individual and collective responsibility towards the planet Earth.

  14. Undesirable Effects of Media on Children: Why Limitation is Necessary?

    PubMed

    Karaagac, Aysu Turkmen

    2015-06-01

    Pervasive media environment is a social problem shared by most of the countries around the world. Several studies have been performed to highlight the undesired effects of media on children. Some of these studies have focused on the time spent by children watching television, playing with computers or using mobile media devices while some others have tried to explain the associations between the obesity, postural abnormalities or psychological problems of children, and their media use. This article discusses the recent approaches to curb influence of media on children, and the importance of family media literacy education programs with particular relevance to developing countries. PMID:26121718

  15. Media saturation, communication exposure and HIV stigma in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stella Babalola; Adesegun Fatusi; Jennifer Anyanti

    2009-01-01

    HIV-related stigma constitutes an impediment to public health as it hampers HIV\\/AIDS control efforts in many ways. To address the complex problems of increasing HIV infection rate, widespread misinformation about the infection and the rising level of HIV-related stigma, the various tiers of government in Nigeria are working with local and international non-governmental organizations to develop and implement strategic communication

  16. Unsubscribe, pleeezz!!!: management and training of media competence in computer-mediated communication.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Kai J; Boos, Margarete; Sassenberg, Kai

    2002-08-01

    Computer-mediated communication (CMC) has created a new communication divide. Mostly, this division is due to technical and access problems. Overlooked is yet another divide in terms of user communication competence. This contribution focuses on media competence based on theories about communication competence and theories about CMC. Two field studies are presented: an analysis of a virtual seminar chat communication (22 participants, 3 weeks' duration) and an analysis of unsubscribe-failures within 2 years of a German mailing list (average of 1,000 subscriptions). Data from both studies reveal that help-seeking CMC users with low media-specific competence experience setbacks in terms of interpersonal relations and information gathering. There is a spiral of neutral to negative reactions and an increase in stress and aggression-related language in the reaction of the addressed peers. From the perspective of external raters, we found a contraintuitive result: The style, content, and wording of the message of the respondent is considered as an indicator for a less competent and socially attractive person behind the follow-up message than those of the initial message. On the one hand, media experts are needed and appreciated as technical problem-solvers; on the other hand, they might be perceived as socially narrow-minded freaks who are less interested in the task itself than in CMC-based task completion. This leads to the question of how sensibility for the social context, task orientation, and media competence can be combined (and trained for) in one person. Two competence trainings for text-based synchronous and asynchronous communication are introduced as interventions. PMID:12216697

  17. Time Series Analysis of Alternative Media Effects Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; van den Berg, Sjef A.

    A study was conducted in the Washington, D.C., area to test mass media effects in a community controversy. Five possible theories were hypothesized to explain the effects media have on a community: indirect and direct effects, null effects, agenda setting, reverse effects, and reverse agenda setting. During the 16-month test period of the British…

  18. Shadow-hiding effect in inhomogeneous layered particulate media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Stankevich; Yu. G. Shkuratov; K. Muinonen

    1999-01-01

    Shadow hiding is studied for particulate media consisting of opaque, spherical particles with Lambertian scattering phase functions. The present computer modeling allows geometric optics calculations of the photometric characteristics of layered particulate media with accuracies better than 1%. For statistically homogeneous particulate media, packing density is the single parameter that characterizes the opposition effect due to shadow hiding. The opposition

  19. Teenagers Media Habits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Laurence R.

    This study attempted to determine what media most effectively communicated to teenagers, how the media habits of Florida teenagers compared with those in other states, and how the media habits of journalism students compared with those not in journalism. A total of 430 students from Florida high schools and 457 from high schools in other states…

  20. Effective communication skills in nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Bramhall, Elaine

    2014-12-01

    This article highlights the importance of effective communication skills for nurses. It focuses on core communication skills, their definitions and the positive outcomes that result when applied to practice. Effective communication is central to the provision of compassionate, high-quality nursing care. The article aims to refresh and develop existing knowledge and understanding of effective communication skills. Nurses reading this article will be encouraged to develop a more conscious style of communicating with patients and carers, with the aim of improving health outcomes and patient satisfaction. PMID:25467362

  1. The Communication Studies major is designed to give you the background in general communication while providing the opportunity to learn about media, interpersonal and organizational communication. Depending upon your interests, the

    E-print Network

    de Doncker, Elise

    while providing the opportunity to learn about media, interpersonal and organizational communication or better in COM 1000 and COM 2400) * COM4700:AdvancedInterpersonalCommunication 3 (Prerequisites: CThe Communication Studies major is designed to give you the background in general communication

  2. Bio-objects and the media: the role of communication in bio-objectification processes

    PubMed Central

    Maeseele, Pieter; Allgaier, Joachim; Martinelli, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The representation of biological innovations in and through communication and media practices is vital for understanding the nature of “bio-objects” and the process we call “bio-objectification.” This paper discusses two ideal-typical analytical approaches based on different underlying communication models, ie, the traditional (science- and media-centered) and media sociological (a multi-layered process involving various social actors in defining the meanings of scientific and technological developments) approach. In this analysis, the latter is not only found to be the most promising approach for understanding the circulation, (re)production, and (re)configuration of meanings of bio-objects, but also to interpret the relationship between media and science. On the basis of a few selected examples, this paper highlights how media function as a primary arena for the (re)production and (re)configuration of scientific and biomedical information with regards to bio-objects in the public sphere in general, and toward decision-makers, interest groups, and the public in specific. PMID:23771763

  3. Moderating effects of media exposure on associations between socioeconomic position and cancer worry.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Chan, Carina Ka Yee; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2014-01-01

    Reducing fear of cancer is significant in developing cancer screening interventions, but the levels of fear may vary depending on the degrees of media exposure as well as individuals' socioeconomic positions (SEP). However, few studies have examined how the SEP influences the fear of cancer under the moderating process of general and specific forms of media exposure. We investigated the moderating effect of media exposure on the relationship between SEP and the level of fear of cancer by assuming that cancer knowledge is a covariate between those two. In particular, this study examined how exposure to both general and specific media changes the series of processes from SEP to fear of cancer. We conducted path analyses with three types of media--television, radio and the Internet--using data from a health communication survey of 613 adults in Massachusetts in the United States. We found that SEP influences cancer knowledge directly and fear of cancer indirectly, as moderated by the level of media exposure. Health-specific exposure, however, had a more consistent effect than general media exposure in lowering the fear of cancer by increasing knowledge about cancer. A higher level of health-specific exposure and greater amount of cancer knowledge lessened the fear of cancer. In addition, the more people were exposed to health information on television and the Internet, the lower the level of fear of cancer as a result. These findings indicate a relationship between SEP and fear of cancer, as moderated by the level and type of media exposure. Furthermore, the findings suggest that for early detection or cancer prevention strategies, health communication approaches through mass media need to be considered. PMID:25081712

  4. Stepping up for democracy: using new communication media to revitalize citizen participation in climate change activism 

    E-print Network

    Minion, Jodi Michele

    2009-05-15

    STEPPING UP FOR DEMOCRACY: USING NEW COMMUNICATION MEDIA TO REVITALIZE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION IN CLIMATE CHANGE ACTIVISM A Thesis by JODI MICHELE MINION Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... IN CLIMATE CHANGE ACTIVISM A Thesis by JODI MICHELE MINION Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee...

  5. Media Compensation Theory: A Darwinian Perspective on Adaptation to Electronic Communication and Collaboration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald A. Hantula; Ned Kock; John P. D’Arcy; Darleen M. DeRosa

    \\u000a This chapter proceeds from the paradox that virtual work, teams, and collaboration are generally successful, sometimes even\\u000a outperforming face-to-face collaborative work efforts in spite of much theory that predicts the opposite. We review theories\\u000a that have previously been used to explain behavior toward electronic communication media, highlighting a theoretical gap,\\u000a which is partially filled with a new Darwinian perspective called

  6. Contrast media: Biologic effects and clinical application

    SciTech Connect

    Parvez, Z.; Moncada, R.; Sovak, M.

    1987-01-01

    An overview is presented of the recent developments in contrast media and their clinical applications, plus the current state-of-the-art in computerized tomography, digital subtraction angiography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Contents of these volumes include: an in-depth review of the historical development, modern perspectives in structure-function relationships, biologic effects on hemostats, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular systems and drug interactions. Critical and basic issues, including cellular toxicity, mutagenesis, synergism between radiation and contrast agents, mechanisms in contrast-induced reactions, and the management of such reactions in high-risk patients are also presented. Specific applications of paramagnetic compounds in MRI and the recent concept of liposome-encapsulated and particulate suspension of contrast materials in diagnostic imaging are thoroughly discussed.

  7. Using mass-media communications to increase population usage of Australia’s Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service®

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Global obesity prevalence is increasing and population health programs are required to support changes to modifiable lifestyle risk factors. Such interventions benefit from mass-communications to promote their use. The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service ® (GHS) utilised mass-reach media advertising to recruit participants to an Australian state-wide program. Methods A stand alone population survey collected awareness, knowledge and behavioural variables before the first advertising phase, (n?=?1,544; August -September 2010), during (n?=?1,500; February - March 2011) and after the advertising period (n?=?1,500; June-July 2011). GHS usage data (n?=?6,375) was collated during July 2010 – June 2011. Results The results showed that television-lead mass-media significantly increased unprompted awareness (0% to 31.8%, p?media (television, print and mail out information) was more often cited as the source of referral by males, those aged 18 – 49?years, employed, and from the lowest socio-economic groups. During the weeks when mass-media advertising was present, 4 and 2.5 times more information and coaching participants respectively registered than when there was no advertising present. Participants who cited television and print were less likely to enrol in GHS coaching, but this was not the case for mail out information and secondary referral sources. Conclusions GHS mass-communications campaigns are effective at increasing awareness and usage of the GHS, especially among hard-to-reach population groups. Television advertising provides universal reach, but should be supplemented by health professional referrals and targeted mail-out information to recruit participants to the intensive GHS coaching program. PMID:22967230

  8. International Association for Media and Communication Research (IAMCR); Annual congress on Human Rights and Communication; Mexico City 21-24 July 2009

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Section and the Global Media Policy Working Group COMMUNICATION AS A HUMAN RIGHT: POLICY CHALLENGES, PUBLIC INTEREST NARRATIVES AND VISIONS FOR THE FUTURE Investigating evolving discourses on Human Rights look at different settings where the discourse on human rights and communication is being elaborated

  9. Integrating Media into the Communication Classroom as an Experiential Learning Tool: A Guide To Processing and Debriefing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinck, Shelly Schaefer; And Others

    This paper shows how visual media may be used in the high school and college classroom to foster analytical, communicative, and interpretive skills traditionally developed through reading. It suggests that L. Joplin's (1985) 5-stage experiential learning model and Anita Covert's (1980) EDIT system can be used to teach a range of media. It…

  10. Subjective Norms as a Driver of Mass Communication Students' Intentions to Adopt New Media Production Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Toby M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students' intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students…

  11. The Role of Communication in Effective Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolle, Joni R.

    Suggesting that the old saying "It's not what you say, it's how you say it" rings true for one educational leader, a Speech Pathologist, keenly aware of the necessity of effective communication and its impact on leadership. Possessing the quality of effective communication makes for a high quality leader because it enables one to express ideas…

  12. Media Coverage in a Community Controversy: Initial and Subsequent Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; van den Berg, Sjef

    The choice of time lag between variables can affect surveys of public opinion and audience behavior, according to this report on the effects of media coverage of the controversy surrounding the operation of the supersonic transport Concorde out of Dulles Airport, near Washington, D.C. Five theories of media effects are outlined, including direct…

  13. Effectiveness of Multi-Media Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Charles W.

    Applied Business Technologies, Inc. is in the process of developing multi-media training CD's to support the implementation of its PowerCAMPUS student information system product. Multi-media training is a very powerful tool for achieving objectives. Trainees take the course at a time convenient for them and progress at a pace suited to their…

  14. Effective hydraulic conductivity of bounded, strongly heterogeneous porous media

    E-print Network

    Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    Effective hydraulic conductivity of bounded, strongly heterogeneous porous media Evangelos K of Arizona, Tucson Abstract. We develop analytical expressions for the effective hydraulic conductivity Ke boundaries. The log hydraulic conductivity Y forms a Gaussian, statistically homogeneous and anisotropic

  15. Effective interactions between biopolymers in aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashl, Robert Jay

    1998-12-01

    We examine the effective interactions in aqueous media between rod-like and planar macroions. Experiments investigating the self-assembly of DNA and lipids in solution and the adsorption of DNA onto oppositely charged surfaces have fostered renewed interest in testing our notions of fundamental electrostatic interactions. Understanding these interactions is crucial to emerging technologies such as gene therapy. Both analytic and particle simulation methodologies are used to explore a range of length scales ranging from large distances down to lengths at which the interaction energy between two point charges is comparable to thermal energies. The mean-field Debye-Huckel and Poisson-Boltzmann theories provide approximate descriptions of electrostatic interactions, while Brownian dynamics simulations are used to study the effects of discretizing the macroion charges and the role of discrete salt particles in the aqueous medium. We show that short-ranged attractions, due to ion-ion correlations, occur between two like-charged rods (modeling DNA molecules) or a rod and like-charged surface (cell membrane). From the modeling point of view, the size of the rod, or, equivalently, the magnitude of the ion-rod binding energy, is an important control parameter for determining whether the interaction is attractive or repulsive. Simulations of surfaces with discrete, mobile charges, modeling lipids found in multi-component cell membranes, enhance these short-ranged attractions through polarization effects. Debye-Huckel theory predicts the correct order of magnitude of the force between rods and an oppositely charged surface, suggesting that further work using continuum theories may prove useful in predicting interactions between oppositely charged macroions.

  16. Cultural Effects and Uses of Communication Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, Wilbur

    The communication satellite already has developed a mature technology. It carries a substantial part of the world's long range communication, and is now useable for special cultural and educational purposes. Major cultural effects come from its contribution to increasing enormously the flow of information in the world. It will increase human…

  17. EVALUATION AND EFFECTIVE RISK COMMUNICATION WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To explore a number of questions in the area of risk communications, the Interagency Task Force on Environmental Cancer and Heart and Lung Disease, held a Workshop on Evaluation and Effective Risk Communication which brought together experts from academia, government agencies, an...

  18. Surfactant Effects on Residual Water and Oil Saturations in Porous Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason E. Flaming; Robert C. Knox; David A. Sabatini; Tohren C. Kibbey

    2003-01-01

    Two recent field demonstrations of surfactant-enhanced LNAPL mobilization (Surbec-ART Environmental, LLC, A series of soil column tests was performed to determine surfactant personal communication, 1999) produced anecdotal evi- effects on residual water and oil saturations in porous media. In particular, these tests focused on the impact of submicellar surfactant dence of increased postremediation free-phase mobility; solutions and the potential application

  19. Realism and Romance: The Study of Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuchman, Gaye

    1993-01-01

    Compares and contrasts two studies representing diametrical approaches (Romanticism versus Realism) toward the issue of agency and media effects: P. Willis's "Common Culture" and W. A. Gamson's "Talking Politics." Argues that both studies find that people make their own uses of media. (SR)

  20. The Effect of Instructional Media on Learner Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, David L.; Withrow-Thorton, Beverly J.

    2005-01-01

    Motivation is an important element required for learning. Educators have a variety of instructional media and teaching formats available to present information. Selecting a medium that motivates learners is an important consideration. This study compares the effect of different media on learners' motivation to learn. Through the use of a survey…

  1. Effectiveness of Alcohol Media Literacy Programmes: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindmarsh, Chloe S.; Jones, Sandra C.; Kervin, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To…

  2. Media Cartoons: Effects on Issue Resolution in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo, Michael A.; Yangco, Rosanelia; Espinosa, Allen A.

    2014-01-01

    The study focused on media cartoons as a teaching strategy in Environmental Education. Specifically, it sought to determine the effects of media cartoons on the issue resolution skills of first year high school students. The study was conducted in La Salle Green Hills that had eleven sections in the first year high school level for the School Year…

  3. Communication - An Effective Tool for Implementing ISO 14001/EMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman

    2004-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS activities through VPP geographic units. In summary, the ISMS and VPP process at the INEEL provided the basic framework of management support and worker involvement to implement our EMS. A cross-functional communication team was established to facilitate the implementation with great success. Communication has been an effective tool for implementing an ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL.

  4. Social media and its dual use in biopreparedness: communication and visualization tools in an animal bioterrorism incident.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C; Landgren, Jonas; Griberg, Isaac; Skiby, Jeffrey E; Tubbin, Anna; von Stapelmohr, Anne; Härenstam, Malin; Jansson, Mikael; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-09-01

    This article focuses on social media and interactive challenges for emergency organizations during a bioterrorism or agroterrorism incident, and it outlines the dual-use dilemma of social media. Attackers or terrorists can use social media as their modus operandi, and defenders, including emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty-six experts and crisis communicators from international and national organizations participated. As a result of the workshop, it was concluded that emergency organizations can collect valuable information and monitor social media before, during, and after an outbreak. In order to make use of interactive communication to obtain collective intelligence from the public, emergency organizations must adapt to social networking technologies, requiring multidisciplinary knowledge in the fields of information, communication, IT, and biopreparedness. Social network messaging during a disease outbreak can be visualized in stream graphs and networks showing clusters of Twitter and Facebook users. The visualization of social media can be an important preparedness tool in the response to bioterrorism and agroterrorism. PMID:23971817

  5. Evaluating the effects of a youth health media campaign.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Christopher E; Thorson, Esther

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a socially oriented public health media campaign that aims to influence social indicators among adults as a means to advances in youth health outcomes. Hierarchical regression analyses are conducted on telephone survey data from 18 weekly telephone surveys of adults in Kansas. Media campaign exposure was positively associated with two outcome measures: beliefs about youth development and behaviors toward youth development. In addition, these two outcome measures increased significantly over time, with the dissemination of the campaign's television and newspaper advertisements. Furthermore, these over-time increases were present only among respondents who were exposed to the media campaign. These findings offer support for the campaign's influence on the two social indicators, which would, per other research, be expected to influence improvements in youth health. Findings are discussed in reference to previous research in the areas of public health and mass communication, with implications made for practitioners and researchers. PMID:17710595

  6. Communicating Culture in the 21st Century: The Power of Media-Enhanced Immersive Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stogner, Maggie Burnette

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of digital media technologies and new storytelling techniques in giving objects an emotional dimension and thus encouraging affective learning. The use of new immersive and participatory techniques is a means of contextualizing real objects, and perhaps a more effective way to reach diverse audiences and create…

  7. Mass Media in Society: The Need of Research. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication, Number 59.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    More and better research should be undertaken, nationally and internationally, on the effect of mass media upon society. Prior to such research, there needs to be an awareness of the realities of society today and of broadcasting structure. There should also be an understanding of the research that has already been done and of the gaps in that…

  8. Finding a happy medium: explaining the negative effects of electronic communication on social life at work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lynne Markus

    1994-01-01

    The sometimes observed negative social effects of electronic communication technology are often attributed to the characteristics of the technology itself. Electronic mail, for instance, filters out personal and social cues and provides new capabilities not found in traditional media, and it has been argued that these factors have consequences such as “flaming” and depersonalization. Alternative theoretical perspectives on the impacts

  9. Media formulation influences chemical effects on neuronal growth and morphology.

    PubMed

    Harrill, Joshua A; Robinette, Brian L; Freudenrich, Theresa M; Mundy, William R

    2015-06-01

    Screening for developmental neurotoxicity using in vitro, cell-based systems has been proposed as an efficient alternative to performing in vivo studies. One tool currently used for developmental neurotoxicity screening is automated high-content imaging of neuronal morphology. While high-content imaging (HCI) has been demonstrated to be useful in detection of potential developmental neurotoxicants, comparison of results between laboratories or assays can be complicated due to methodological differences. In order to determine whether high-content imaging-based developmental neurotoxicity assays can be affected by differences in media formulation, a systematic comparison of serum-supplemented (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's media (DMEM) + 10% serum) and serum-free (Neurobasal A + B27) culture media on neuronal morphology was performed using primary rat cortical neurons. Concentration-response assays for neuritogenesis, axon and dendrite outgrowth, and synaptogenesis were performed in each media type using chemicals with previously demonstrated effects. Marked qualitative and quantitative differences in the characteristics of neurons cultured in the two media types were observed, with increased neuronal growth and less basal cell death in Neurobasal A + B27. Media formulation also affected assay sensitivity and selectivity. Increases in assay sensitivity were observed in Neurobasal A + B27 media as compared to serum-supplemented DMEM. In some instances, a greater difference between effective concentrations for cell death and neurodevelopmental-specific endpoints was also observed in Neurobasal A + B27 media as compared to serum-supplemented DMEM. These data show that media formulation must be considered when comparing data for similar endpoints between studies. Neuronal culture maintained in Neurobasal A + B27 media had several features advantageous for HCI applications including less basal cell death, less cell clustering and neurite fasciculation, and a tendency towards increased sensitivity and selectivity in chemical concentration-response studies. PMID:25678462

  10. Effective communication with primary care providers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Karen

    2014-08-01

    Effective communication requires direct interaction between the hospitalist and the primary care provider using a standardized method of information exchange with the opportunity to ask questions and assign accountability for follow-up roles. The discharge summary is part of the process but does not provide the important aspects of handoff, such as closed loop communication and role assignments. Hospital discharge is a significant safety risk for patients, with more than half of discharged patients experiencing at least one error. Hospitalist and primary care providers need to collaborate to develop a standardized system to communicate about shared patients that meets handoff requirements. PMID:25084716

  11. Media Priming in a Multi-Party Context: A Controlled Naturalistic Study in Political Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wouter van der Brug; Holli A. Semetko; Patti M. Valkenburg

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates media priming effects in the context of a Summit meeting of European Union (EU) leaders. It differs\\u000a in four ways from most previous non-experimental priming studies: (1) it provides survey data accompanied by a content analysis\\u000a of the news, (2) it compares priming effects on evaluations of a number of political leaders, who differed in their visibility

  12. Effects of media campaign messages targeting parents on adolescent sexual beliefs: a randomized controlled trial with a national sample.

    PubMed

    Palen, Lori-Ann; Ashley, Olivia Silber; Gard, Jennifer C; Kan, Marni L; Davis, Kevin C; Evans, W Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Using a randomized controlled trial, this study evaluated the effects of media messages targeting parents on the sexual beliefs of 404 adolescents. The messages aimed to increase parent-child communication about waiting to initiate sexual activity. Compared with children of unexposed parents, children of parents exposed to media messages were more likely to believe that teen sexual activity is psychologically harmful. However, effects varied by parent and adolescent gender; treatment effects were only significant among adolescents whose opposite-sex parent was exposed. Parent exposure strengthened beliefs that teen sexual activity is physically harmful only among adolescents with at least 1 sexually active friend. PMID:21135626

  13. The effect of dissipation in direct communication scheme

    E-print Network

    Fu Li; Jun-Xiang Zhang; Shi-Yao Zhu

    2014-10-11

    The effect of the dissipation and finite number of beam splitters are discussed. A method using balanced dissipation to improve the communication for finite beam splitters, which greatly increases communication reliability with an expense of decreasing communication efficiency.

  14. The Use of Traditional Media in Family Planning Programs in Rural Java. Cornell University, Current Papers in the Communication Arts #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Robert H.; Adhikarya, Ronny

    Java's present national family planning program is hampered not only by a serious lack of formal communication media, but also by cultural, social and economic barriers that impede the communication effort. To reach the predominantly rural population, family planning programs could utilize Java's traditional mass media: the folk operas, comedies,…

  15. Effects of media ingredient substitution and comparison of growth of Flavobacterium psychrophilum among four media.

    PubMed

    Oplinger, Randall W; Wagner, Eric J

    2012-03-01

    The etiological agent of bacterial cold-water disease, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, can cause significant losses of salmonid fishes in aquaculture facilities. Few studies describing the value of media components on the growth of F. psychrophilum are available in the literature. We therefore conducted a study that began with the standard enriched Anacker-Ordal broth (EAO) and over the course of multiple iterations evaluated the effects of various media supplements by adding or subtracting them from the base EAO medium. Different media formulations were made, and samples were removed from each broth formulation every 24 h for 72 h. From those samples we determined bacterial density by measuring absorbance values with a spectrophotometer. The medium with the highest absorbance value from one iteration was used as the base medium in the next iteration. Using this iterative approach, we determined that sodium acetate, calcium chloride, and magnesium sulfate inhibit growth and that maltose has no effect on the proliferation of the bacterium. The addition of skimmed milk (0.2%) and horse serum (1%) appears to provide a slight improvement in bacterial proliferation. Variations in agar concentration had no effect on the growth of the bacterium. Even though the addition and removal of some ingredients increased the mean absorbance values, the benefit of these substitutions was not significant. Even so, we found that the growth of F. psychrophilum in EAO was better than that in two other widely used media: tryptone-yeast extract salts and maltose infused tryptone-yeast extract salts. PMID:22779214

  16. Atmospheric propagation effects relevant to optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaik, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    A number of atmospheric phenomena affect the propagation of light. The effects of clear air turbulence are reviewed as well as atmospheric turbidity on optical communications. Among the phenomena considered are astronomical and random refraction, scintillation, beam broadening, spatial coherence, angle of arrival, aperture averaging, absorption and scattering, and the effect of opaque clouds. An extensive reference list is also provided for further study. Useful information on the atmospheric propagation of light in relation to optical deep space communications to an earth based receiving station is available, however, further data must be generated before such a link can be designed with committed performance.

  17. Atmospheric Propagation Effects Relevant to Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaik, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    A number of atmospheric phenomena affect the propagation of light. This article reviews the effects of clear-air turbulence as well as atmospheric turbidity on optical communications. Among the phenomena considered are astronomical and random refraction, scintillation, beam broadening, spatial coherence, angle of arrival, aperture averaging, absorption and scattering, and the effect of opaque clouds. An extensive reference list is also provided for further study, Useful information on the atmospheric propagation of light in resolution to optical deep-space communications to an earth-based receiving station is available, however, further data must be generated before such a link can be designed with committed performance.

  18. The effects of media violence on anxiety in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Wright, Rex A

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to media violence is related to anxiety in youth, but the causality of the effect has not been established. This experimental study examined the effects of media violence on anxiety, blood pressure, and heart rate in late adolescents. We also examined whether these responses varied by previous exposure to media and real-life violence. College students (N = 209; M age = 18.74; 75 % female; 50 % Caucasian, 34 % African American, 9 % Asian, 3 % Hispanic, and 3 % other racial minorities) were randomized to view either violent or nonviolent high-action movie clips. Participants reported on their anxiety before and after watching the clips, as well as their previous exposure to violence. Measures of blood pressure and heart rate were taken at baseline and during movie viewing. Participants watching violent movie clips showed a greater anxiety increase than those watching nonviolent clips. Both groups experienced increased blood pressure and reduced heart rate during movie watching compared to baseline. Prior exposure to media violence was associated with diminished heart rate response. Additionally, students previously exposed to high levels of real-life violence showed lower blood pressure increases when watching violent clips compared to nonviolent clips. Thus, relatively brief exposure to violent movie clips increased anxiety among late adolescents. Prior exposure to media and real-life violence were associated with lower physiological reactivity to high-action and violent movies, respectively, possibly indicating desensitization. Future studies should investigate long-term anxiety and physiological consequences of regular exposure to media violence in adolescence. PMID:24014349

  19. Review of the effectiveness of video media in instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, C. D.; Radtke, Paul H.; Stern, Hervey W.; Dickieson, Jan; McLachlan, J. C.

    1993-04-01

    Visual forms of instruction are increasingly used as a result of the widespread use of video technologies such as broadcasts, teleconferencing, tapes, videodiscs, and emerging multimedia combinations of computer and digital video technologies. The considerable amount of research that stretches back to early work with film, television, and static visual materials can be of benefit in developing these new forms of instruction. The objective is to present a review of the current research literature regarding the use of dynamic video media in instruction. Research on the following topics was reviewed: general reviews of the effectiveness, acceptance, and costs of several forms of educational television; teaching techniques used effectively with video media; combining visual and verbal information; the effects of motion, animation, and interactivity, the relationship between media perceptions and learning; the effect of various video production techniques on learning; and critical perspectives on learning from media. This review can be used as background material for future research or instructional development efforts concerned with learning from video-based media.

  20. Media Selection for Marketing Communication - an exploratory study among marketing managers -

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia A. Rademaker

    2011-01-01

    For marketing managers, decisions in media planning and consequently the media selection are becoming increasingly complex and challenging as more media options are available. This exploratory study examines the factors that guide and influence marketing managers when selecting media for their ad campaigns. The extent to which green environmental issues, advertiser-agency cooperation and the economic recession influence media selection is

  1. Polarization Effects in Optical Free Space Communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. B. Gindele; T. L. Miller

    1986-01-01

    Polarization control in free space laser communications systems plays a critical role in systems modeling, design and configuration. The key issues of transmit\\/receive isolation and transmitted beam polarization form the basis of the discussion. Optical systems utilizing polarization effects differ from conventional optical systems in both design and analytical treatment. Starting with a review of polarization definitions and concepts, the

  2. Polarization effects in optical free space communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. B. Gindele; T. L. Miller

    1986-01-01

    Polarization control in free space laser communications systems plays a critical role in systems modeling, design, and configuration. The key issues of transmit\\/receive isolation and transmitted beam polarization form the basis of the discussion. Optical systems utilizing polarization effects differ from conventional optical systems in both design and analytical treatment. Starting with a review of polarization definitions and concepts, the

  3. Effective and efficient communication of information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Willem Marck; Leon Kester; Jeroen Bergmans; Miranda van Iersel; Eelke van Foeken

    2008-01-01

    Research fields such as Network Enabled Capabilities, ubiquitous computing and distributed sensor networks, etc. deal with a lot of information and a lot of different processes to fuse data to a desired level of situation awareness. Already quite some research is done in applying information theoretic concepts to sensor management. Effective communication between functional components in the fusion hierarchy can

  4. Using Personality Traits and Effective Communication to Improve Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddy, Juanita Warren

    2007-01-01

    Various research studies have shed evidence on the importance of collaboration between teachers and library media specialists. Nearly every aspect of business, management in particular, requires an ability to interact effectively with others. As such, it is advantageous for the library media specialist to view the library media program as a…

  5. Telling our own story: Effective communication for ANS professionals

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom-Kulieke, B. [Kulieke Communications and Training, Inc., Oakbrook Terrace, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Nuclear professionals often shy away from communicating as much or as well as we could, especially outside of our own work groups. Public speaking or media interviews may be especially uncomfortable or difficult. But as classic communication theory states, {open_quotes}It is impossible not to communicate.{close_quotes} Our silence speaks volumes. And if we do not tell our own story, someone else will. This paper outlines how nuclear professionals may develop themselves as excellent communicators to the benefit of our own work groups and the public.

  6. Effectiveness of alcohol media literacy programmes: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hindmarsh, Chloe S; Jones, Sandra C; Kervin, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To provide insight into some of these questions, a systematic literature review of alcohol media literacy studies was conducted. The review was guided by the following research question: What considerations are needed to develop an effective school-based alcohol media literacy programme? On the basis of a critical synthesis of 10 interventions (published in the period 1997 to May 2014), our findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the descriptive, methodological and outcome characteristics of this small body of significant research. The review provides considerations for future alcohol media literacy programmes, including the need for an interactive pedagogical approach within the naturalistic school setting, implementation fidelity and a holistic approach to programme evaluation, a means for maintaining relevance, consideration of gender differences, relevance for an international audience and use of follow-up and longitudinal data. PMID:25840435

  7. Effect of media use on HIV-related stigma in Sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven; Ramanadhan, Shoba; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2014-01-01

    It is known that HIV-related stigma hinders prevention efforts. Previous studies have documented that HIV-related stigma may be associated with socioeconomic and socioecological factors. Mass media use may moderate this association, but there is limited research addressing that possibility. In this study, based on cross-sectional data pooled from the 2006-2011 Demographic and Health Surveys of 11 sub-Saharan African countries (N?=?204,343), we investigated the moderating effects of exposure to mass media on HIV-related stigma. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that HIV-related stigma tends to be higher among rural residents and individuals with low levels of education and HIV knowledge, as well as those who do not know people living with HIV. Media use was generally associated with low levels of HIV-related stigma, and attenuated the gap between individuals with high and low educational levels. However, the effect of mass media was found to be stronger among urbanites rather than among rural residents, which could lead to a widening gap between the two groups in endorsement of HIV-related stigma. The implication of this study regarding the effect of media use on HIV-related stigma in sub-Saharan Africa is twofold: 1) mass media may have the potential to minimize the gap in HIV-related stigma between individuals with high and low educational levels, and hence future efforts of reducing HIV-related stigma in the region may benefit from utilizing media; 2) due perhaps to low media penetration to rural sub-Saharan Africa, mass media could have the unintended effect of widening the urban-rural gap further unless other more customized and rural-focused communication interventions are put in place. PMID:24945251

  8. The effective homogeneous behavior of heterogeneous porous media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Sáez; Carlos J. Otero; Isak Rusinek

    1989-01-01

    The macroscopic equations that govern the processes of one- and two-phase flow through heterogeneous porous media are derived by using the method of multiple scales. The resulting equations are mathematically similar to the point equations, with the fundamental difference that the local permeabilities are replaced by effective parameters. The method allows the determination of these parameters from a knowledge of

  9. An effective media toolset for use in metamaterial design.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, William Arthur; Sinclair, Michael B.; Warne, Larry Kevin; Langston, William L.; Basilio, Lorena I.

    2010-06-01

    This paper introduces an effective-media toolset that can be used for the design of metamaterial structures based on metallic components such as split-ring resonators and dipoles, as well as dielectric spherical resonators. For demonstration purposes the toolset will be used to generate infrared metamaterial designs, and the predicted performances will be verified with full-wave numerical simulations.

  10. Effects of Media Alcohol Messages on Adolescent Audiences.

    PubMed

    Atkin

    1993-10-01

    Research into the effects of the media on teenage alcohol consumption has concentrated on positive portrayals of beer drinking in advertising, depiction of alcohol in movies and television programs, and public service announcements that warn against abuse and drunk driving. After examining each of these areas, the author focuses on the future role of messages related to alcohol consumption. PMID:10356230

  11. Incoherent surface solitons in effectively instantaneous nonlocal nonlinear media

    SciTech Connect

    Alfassi, Barak; Rotschild, Carmel; Segev, Mordechai [Physics Department and Solid State Institute, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2009-10-15

    We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically random-phase surface solitons in effectively instantaneous nonlinear media. The key mechanism for self-trapping is played by a nonlocal nature of the nonlinearity, in contrast to other incoherent solitons involving time averaging. These incoherent surface solitons display features different from their bulk counterparts and from other surface waves.

  12. The Effective Use of Media in Innovative Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Richard B.

    Abstracts of 37 documents recently input to the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) are compiled in this report. These documents were selected as being among the most significant of those dealing with the effective use of media in innovative schools and because they were of special interest to district level administrators, curriculum…

  13. The Geography of Political Communication: Effects of Regional Variations in Campaign Advertising on Citizen Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jaeho

    2011-01-01

    This study explores whether and how campaign-induced changes in local information environments influence citizens' everyday communication activities. The empirical analysis in this study centers on a comparison of two New Jersey media markets that showed idiosyncratic differences in the amount of political advertising during the 2000 presidential…

  14. The effect of the troposphere on radio wave propagation in a ground-satellite-ground communications system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ogulewicz

    1979-01-01

    The principal effects of the troposphere on radio wave propagation at centimeter wavelengths are described, with emphasis on space communications systems operating at frequencies above 10 GHz. These effects include: absorption by atmospheric gases, absorption and scattering by hydrometeors, noise emission from absorbing media, antenna beam divergence due to normal refraction, slow fading due to large-scale variations of refractive index,

  15. Effect of Solute Size on Transport in Structured Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qinhong; Brusseau, Mark L.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of solute size on transport in structured porous media. Miscible displacement experiments were performed with tracers of different sizes (i.e., tritiated water (3H2O), pentafluorobenzoate (PFBA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HPCD)) in aggregated, stratified, and macroporous media. The breakthrough curves exhibited both early breakthrough and tailing, indicative of nonideal transport in these structured media. Comparison of breakthrough curves revealed that the extent of nonideality (e.g., tailing) was HPCD > PFBA, 2,4-D > 3H2O. This behavior is consistent with the impact of solute size on the relative degree of "nonequilibrium" experienced by solutes whose transport is constrained by diffusive mass transfer. The capability of the first-order, dual-porosity mobile-immobile model to represent solute transport in these structured systems was evaluated by comparing independently determined values of the input parameters to values obtained by curve fitting of the experimental measurements. The calculated and optimized values compared quite well for the aggregated and stratified media, but not for the macroporous media. xperiments performed with tracers of different size are useful for characterizing the nature of the porous medium through which transport is occurring.

  16. Effect of solute size on transport in structured porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Qinhong; Brusseau, M.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of solute size on transport in structured porous media. Miscible displacement experiments were performed with tracers of different sizes (i.e., tritiated water {sup 3}H{sub 2}O), pentafluorobenzoate (PFBA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) in aggregated, stratified, and macroporous media. The breakthrough curves exhibited both early breakthrough and tailing, indicative of nonideal transport in these structured media. Comparison of breakthrough curves revealed that the extent of nonideality (e.g., tailing) was HPCD > PFBA, 2,4-D > {sup 3}H{sub 2}O. This behavior is consistent with the impact of solute size on the relative degree of {open_quotes}nonequilibrium{close_quotes} experienced by solutes whose transport is constrained by diffusive mass transfer. The capability of the first-order, dual-porosity mobile-immobile model to represent solute transport in these structured systems was evaluated by comparing independently determined values of the input parameters to values obtained by curve fitting of the experimental measurements. The calculated and optimized values compared quite well for the aggregated and stratified media, but not for the macroporous media. Experiments performed with tracers of different size are useful for characterizing the nature of the porous medium through which transport is occurring. 25 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. The Effects of Central Bank Communication on Financial Stability

    E-print Network

    Güting, Ralf Hartmut

    The Effects of Central Bank Communication on Financial Stability: A Systematization://www.fernuni-hagen.de/HWagner #12;The Effects of Central Bank Communication on Financial Stability: A Systematization channels. The analysis identifies a pronounced effect of central bank communication on financial market

  18. Natural hazard communication : effectiveness and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presta, A.; Sole, A.; de Luca, G.

    2009-04-01

    Scientific, technological and methodological knowledge regarding the risks caused by natural events are in continuous evolution. A careful analysis of the communication and information, practiced by administrations and institutions involved in the decision-making processes, show a peculiar difference between the quality of the theoretical-operating level and the effectiveness of communication systems of the risk obtained. This is the level which involves directly citizens and institutions and needs, therefore, an efficacious and shared system whose aim is to inform the whole community, in a simple and clear way, during the different phases correlated to the environmental risk. The hypotesis is, in fact, to create a distinct typology of message, corresponding to each phase: • prevention of the risk > sensitization > information. If the potential risk is imminent or changes into real emergency, it is necessary to plan a communication aimed at supporting a very fast alarm to the community. • anticipation of the risk > pre-alert > information • imminence of the risk > alert > alarm • post-event /risk > information > precept and rules. The lack of a uniform and coerent planning process, both on the linguistic field (the typology of the message, iconic and verbal) and technical (the typology of supports) it is clear analysing the reference scenario in Italy. This involves the creation of deeply discordant systems which don't communicate the different typologies of risk efficaciously during distinct moments. To come to a systemic vision of the problem we proceed to collect and to obtain documentation about the "alarm" and communication systems existing in Italy nowadays. So we will have a classification of the different typologies about natural risk and communication systems related to them. The aim of this research is to propose a rationalization and a standard coding of signals. The logical conclusion of this course can be the creation of a national/international "catalogue system" which has the function of convalidating and guaranteeing the conformity of the communication in the ambit of the environmental risk. To continue the project, that has been proposed in the last year, is necessary to create a working group - with interdisciplinary expertise - to address the various issues related to the project and the definition of content spread: experts disciplinary course, but also the psychologists of perception , designers of communication, typedesigner, leading to the establishment of a system of signs (iconic and visual) that can carry useful and unambiguous messages.

  19. Effective and Efficient Communication of Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Willem Marck; Leon Kester; Miranda van Iersel; Jeroen Bergmans; Eelke van Foeken

    Research fields such as Network Enabled Capabilities, ubiquitous computing and distributed sensor networks, etc. deal with\\u000a a lot of information and a lot of different processes to fuse data to a desired level of situation awareness. Already quite\\u000a some research is done in applying information theoretic concepts to sensor management. Effective communication between functional\\u000a components in the fusion hierarchy can

  20. Dynamic effective mass of granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David; Ingale, Rohit; Valenza, John; Hsu, Chaur-Jian; Gland, Nicolas; Makse, Hernan

    2009-03-01

    We report an experimental and theoretical investigation of the frequency-dependent effective mass, M(?), of loose granular particles which occupy a rigid cavity to a filling fraction of 48%, the remaining volume being air of differing humidities. We demonstrate that this is a sensitive and direct way to measure those properties of the granular medium that are the cause of the changes in acoustic properties of structures containing grain-filled cavities. Specifically, we apply this understanding to the case of the flexural resonances of a rectangular bar with a grain-filled cavity within it. The dominant features of M(?) are a sharp resonance and a broad background, which we analyze within the context of simple models. We find that: a) These systems may be understood in terms of a height-dependent and diameter-dependent effective sound speed (˜130 m/s) and an effective viscosity (˜2x10^4 Poise). b) There is a dynamic Janssen effect in the sense that, at any frequency, and depending on the method of sample preparation, approximately one-half of the effective mass is borne by the side walls of the cavity and one-half by the bottom. c) On a fundamental level, dissipation is dominated by adsorbed films of water at grain-grain contacts in our experiments.

  1. Thermal Effects in High-Density Recording Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Moser; Dieter Weller

    \\u000a Magnetic recording is an efficient method to record, store and retrieve vast amounts of digital information. In such a storage\\u000a system, instability of the stored data or data loss cannot be tolerated. This chapter reviews the effects of thermal excitations\\u000a on the stability of stored data in magnetic recording media. In order to understand the effect of thermal excitations we

  2. Humidity Effects and Aging Behavior in Granular Media

    E-print Network

    F. Restagno; H. Gayvallet; L. Bocquet; E. Charlaix

    1999-08-10

    We present a study of humidity effects on the maximum stability angle in granular media. We show that a granular medium of small glass beads exhibits aging properties : the first avalanche angle increases logarithmically with the resting time of the pile. This aging behavior is found to depend on the relative humidity of the surrounding atmosphere. A short interpretation of this effect, based on a model of activated capillary condensation, is proposed.

  3. Effect of Power Cable Insulator for Power Line Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takato, Kenji; Seki, Kouichi; Arai, Toshihiko

    This paper describes calculation method of equivalent relative dielectric constant ?s of VVF cable. For Power line communication (PLC), VVF cables in homes are used as 2M to 30MHz high frequency transmission media. As they are not designed and installed for such transmission media, there are many branches and impedance mismatch points that cause PLC signal reflections and standing waves. In order to estimate such standing wave generation and estimate undesirable PLC signal radio wave leakage, the length of cable and relative dielectric constant ?s is important. However the insulator of VVF cable is thin and not symmetric, it is not easy to calculate ?s mathematically. In this paper, equivalent ?s is calculated numerically using PC soft EXCEL by dividing the electromagnetic field lines and analyzing the effect of insulator for each field line. The calculation result of VVF cable considering the limited insulator area around the conductors shows that the equivalent ?s is about 13% less and transmission speed is 7% faster than the insulator is full space around the cable.

  4. A Brief Survey of Media Access Control, Data Link Layer, and Protocol Technologies for Lunar Surface Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallett, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper surveys and describes some of the existing media access control and data link layer technologies for possible application in lunar surface communications and the advanced wideband Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DSCDMA) conceptual systems utilizing phased-array technology that will evolve in the next decade. Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are standard Media Access Control (MAC) techniques that can be incorporated into lunar surface communications architectures. Another novel hybrid technique that is recently being developed for use with smart antenna technology combines the advantages of CDMA with those of TDMA. The relatively new and sundry wireless LAN data link layer protocols that are continually under development offer distinct advantages for lunar surface applications over the legacy protocols which are not wireless. Also several communication transport and routing protocols can be chosen with characteristics commensurate with smart antenna systems to provide spacecraft communications for links exhibiting high capacity on the surface of the Moon. The proper choices depend on the specific communication requirements.

  5. Public media communications about H1N1, risk perceptions and immunization behaviours: A Quebec-France comparison.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Cécile; Moreau, Nicolas; Dumas, Marie-Pier; Bost, Ida; Lefebvre, Sylvie; Atlani-Duault, Laëtitia

    2015-02-01

    During the H1N1 pandemic, governments tailored their communications plans in order to influence risk perception and promote public compliance with the public health plan measures. Considering the volume and the content of calls to flu information centres as indicators of the public risk perception, this mixed method study compares the relation between public communications, risk perception and immunization behaviour in Quebec and France. Results suggest that advocating for clear information and coordination between health authorities and the media promotes adherence to preventive behaviour. However, over-exaggerating the risks and minimizing the population's agency may undermine health authority credibility. PMID:23942830

  6. The Interplay between Media Use and Interpersonal Communication in the Context of Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors: Reinforcing or Substituting?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chul-joo

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore how media use for health information and interpersonal health communication interact in the context of healthy lifestyle behaviors. This study hypothesizes that media use for health information and interpersonal health communication will serve as substitutes for one another. To test this hypothesis, this study uses a nationally representative survey of 2,107 civilian, noninstitutionalized adults in the United States. The results show that the associations between television use and Internet use and healthy lifestyle behaviors are enhanced among those who talk about health issues with their family and friends less frequently, which supports the substitution model. The implications that these findings have for future research are discussed. PMID:25598709

  7. Coherent quantum effects through dispersive bosonic media

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Saiyun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Yang Zhenbiao; Zheng Shibiao [Department of Physics, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Serafini, Alessio [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    The coherent evolution of two qubits mediated by a set of bosonic field modes is investigated. By assuming a specific asymmetric encoding of the quantum states in the internal levels of the qubits, we show that entangling quantum gates can be realized, with high fidelity, even when a large number of mediating modes is involved. The effect of losses and imperfections on the gates' operation is also considered in detail.

  8. I can see, hear, and smell your fear: comparing olfactory and audiovisual media in fear communication.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Jasper H B; Semin, Gün R; Smeets, Monique A M

    2014-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that humans can become fearful after exposure to olfactory fear signals, yet these studies have reported the effects of fear chemosignals without examining emotion-relevant input from traditional communication modalities (i.e., vision, audition). The question that we pursued here was therefore: How significant is an olfactory fear signal in the broader context of audiovisual input that either confirms or contradicts olfactory information? To test this, we manipulated olfactory (fear, no fear) and audiovisual (fear, no fear) information and demonstrated that olfactory fear signals were as potent as audiovisual fear signals in eliciting a fearful facial expression. Irrespective of confirmatory or contradictory audiovisual information, olfactory fear signals produced by senders induced fear in receivers outside of conscious access. These findings run counter to traditional views that emotions are communicated exclusively via visual and linguistic channels. PMID:23855495

  9. Shared language:Towards more effective communication.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Joyce; McDonagh, Deana

    2013-01-01

    The ability to communicate to others and express ourselves is a basic human need. As we develop our understanding of the world, based on our upbringing, education and so on, our perspective and the way we communicate can differ from those around us. Engaging and interacting with others is a critical part of healthy living. It is the responsibility of the individual to ensure that they are understood in the way they intended.Shared language refers to people developing understanding amongst themselves based on language (e.g. spoken, text) to help them communicate more effectively. The key to understanding language is to first notice and be mindful of your language. Developing a shared language is an ongoing process that requires intention and time, which results in better understanding.Shared language is critical to collaboration, and collaboration is critical to business and education. With whom and how many people do you connect? Your 'shared language' makes a difference in the world. So, how do we successfully do this? This paper shares several strategies.Your sphere of influence will carry forward what and how you are communicating. Developing and nurturing a shared language is an essential element to enhance communication and collaboration whether it is simply between partners or across the larger community of business and customers. Constant awareness and education is required to maintain the shared language. We are living in an increasingly smaller global community. Business is built on relationships. If you invest in developing shared language, your relationships and your business will thrive. PMID:23422948

  10. Effects of therapists nonverbal communication on rated skill and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Sherer, M; Rogers, R W

    1980-07-01

    A therapist's nonverbal behavior may communicate emotion and feelings toward a client. Thus, skilled utilization of appropriate nonverbal cues should facilitate many nonbehavioral therapies. A 2 X 2 X 2 factorial experiment investigated the therapy-facilitating effects of three theoretical dimensions of nonverbal communication: Immediacy, potency or status, and responsivity. A reenacted client-centered therapy session was videotaped. Verbal content was held constant, but all combinations of the three nonverbal dimensions were portrayed. A total of 118 male and female nonparticipant observers rated the therapist's interpersonal skills (empathy, warmth, and genuineness) and effectiveness. The results disclosed that the nonverbal cues of immediacy (close therapist-client distance and eye contact) significantly improved ratings of the therapist's interpersonal skills and effectiveness. Thus, the study demonstrated that a therapist's nonverbal behavior is a basis for interpretations of empathy, warmth, genuiness, and effectiveness. These findings were interpreted in terms of the therapist's nonverbal cues communicating liking and acceptance of the client. PMID:7410567

  11. Effective communications bring greater public acceptance

    SciTech Connect

    Clawson, C. (GPU Nuclear Corp., Parsippany, NJ (United States))

    1992-01-01

    In 1986, GPU Nuclear Corporation announced a plan to evaporate into the atmosphere 2.3 million gal of water remaining from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. The water would be processed to remove most of the radioactivity, but still remaining were >1,000 Ci of tritium to be released to the atmosphere during the evaporation process. It was expected that, following regulatory approvals, it would take >2 yr to complete the process. Fed by well-established antinuclear groups, public concern about evaporating the TMI-2-accident-generated water ran high among residents living near the plant. In the years since the TMI-2 accident, GPU Nuclear had developed a highly effective communications program in the communities surrounding TMI. This ongoing program provided a solid foundation on which to create and implement a risk communications approach to community understanding and acceptance of the evaporation process.

  12. The Influence of Mass Media and Interpersonal Communication on Societal and Personal Risk Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Cynthia-Lou.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the influence of mass media, interpersonal channels, and self-efficacy on risk judgment. Confirms that mass media channels influence social-level risk judgments. Finds that personal-level risk was influenced to some degree by mass media channels and that interpersonal channels and self-efficacy account for some variance on social-level…

  13. Perspectives Nanotechnology and the public: Effectively communicating nanoscale science

    E-print Network

    Crone, Wendy C.

    Perspectives Nanotechnology and the public: Effectively communicating nanoscale science August 2006 Key words: nanotechnology, communication, public knowledge, public understanding the public on concepts and applications associated with nanotechnology. The goal of our work

  14. Multi-media campaign exposure and interpersonal communication on sexual abstinence among young people in Nigeria: a propensity-matched study.

    PubMed

    Fatusi, Adesegun O; Wang, Wenjuan; Anyanti, Jennifer

    A national multi-media campaign (Zip-Up!) was initiated in Nigeria in 2004 to promote sexual abstinence among young people as part of comprehensive efforts to reduce sexually transmitted infection and unwanted pregnancy. This study assessed the effect of the campaign exposure on interpersonal communication about abstinence among a nationally representative sample of never-married young people (15-24 years). A propensity score matching technique was used to create a comparison group statistically equivalent to the group exposed to the campaign and assess the campaign effect. Of the 3,388 people sampled, 29.1% had been exposed to the campaign. Factors significantly associated with campaign exposure included age (OR = 1.08; 95% C.I. = 1.04-1.12), urban location (OR = 1.31; 95% C.I. = 1.04-1.66), and frequency of media use. Compared to the non-exposed group, campaign exposure was associated with a statistically significant adjusted increase of 10.9% in the proportion of young people who engaged in interpersonal communication about abstinence. PMID:19193524

  15. Training Scientists to be Effective Communicators: AAAS Communicating Science Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cendes, L.; Lohwater, T.

    2012-12-01

    "Communicating Science: Tools for Scientists and Engineers" is a workshop program developed by AAAS to provide guidance and practice for scientists and engineers in communicating about science with public audiences. The program was launched at the 2008 AAAS Annual Meeting in Boston and has since provided 24 workshops for more than 1,500 scientist and engineer attendees at universities, science society meetings, and government agency labs around the United States. Each interactive workshop targets scientists and engineers specifically and has included content such as message development, defining audience, identifying opportunities for engaging the public, and practice with public presentations and cameras. The workshop format allows for collaborative learning through small-group discussion, resource sharing, and participation in critique of other participants' presentations. Continuous monitoring of the program includes on-site and online surveys and evaluation. On an assessment of workshops from 2008-2010, attendees reported that knowledge gained from the workshop helped in crafting messages about their scientific work for use in communicating with public audiences, and approximately 80 percent of respondents reported participation in communication with a public audience after attending the workshop. Through workshop content and feedback of participating scientists, this presentation will highlight some best practices and resources for scientists who want to take a proactive role in science communication.

  16. Communicating effectively at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Chopra, A

    2001-10-01

    A majority of patients and families are interested in discussing end-of-life issues with their physicians. End of life conversations can be difficult and challenging for physicians. Several barriers hamper effective communication between physicians and their patients and families. Physicians have received little training to acquire needed interpersonal skills to address end-of-life issues. This article reviews practical approaches for conducting end-of-life discussions. These general guidelines can be used in situations such as advanced care planning, do not resuscitate orders, artificial hydration, and nutrition, and implementation of palliative/hospice care. PMID:11681167

  17. Gender on the Brain: A Case Study of Science Communication in the New Media Environment

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Cliodhna; Joffe, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience research on sex difference is currently a controversial field, frequently accused of purveying a ‘neurosexism’ that functions to naturalise gender inequalities. However, there has been little empirical investigation of how information about neurobiological sex difference is interpreted within wider society. This paper presents a case study that tracks the journey of one high-profile study of neurobiological sex differences from its scientific publication through various layers of the public domain. A content analysis was performed to ascertain how the study was represented in five domains of communication: the original scientific article, a press release, the traditional news media, online reader comments and blog entries. Analysis suggested that scientific research on sex difference offers an opportunity to rehearse abiding cultural understandings of gender. In both scientific and popular contexts, traditional gender stereotypes were projected onto the novel scientific information, which was harnessed to demonstrate the factual truth and normative legitimacy of these beliefs. Though strains of misogyny were evident within the readers’ comments, most discussion of the study took pains to portray the sexes’ unique abilities as equal and ‘complementary’. However, this content often resembled a form of benevolent sexism, in which praise of women’s social-emotional skills compensated for their relegation from more esteemed trait-domains, such as rationality and productivity. The paper suggests that embedding these stereotype patterns in neuroscience may intensify their rhetorical potency by lending them the epistemic authority of science. It argues that the neuroscience of sex difference does not merely reflect, but can actively shape the gender norms of contemporary society. PMID:25354280

  18. Gender on the brain: a case study of science communication in the new media environment.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Cliodhna; Joffe, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience research on sex difference is currently a controversial field, frequently accused of purveying a 'neurosexism' that functions to naturalise gender inequalities. However, there has been little empirical investigation of how information about neurobiological sex difference is interpreted within wider society. This paper presents a case study that tracks the journey of one high-profile study of neurobiological sex differences from its scientific publication through various layers of the public domain. A content analysis was performed to ascertain how the study was represented in five domains of communication: the original scientific article, a press release, the traditional news media, online reader comments and blog entries. Analysis suggested that scientific research on sex difference offers an opportunity to rehearse abiding cultural understandings of gender. In both scientific and popular contexts, traditional gender stereotypes were projected onto the novel scientific information, which was harnessed to demonstrate the factual truth and normative legitimacy of these beliefs. Though strains of misogyny were evident within the readers' comments, most discussion of the study took pains to portray the sexes' unique abilities as equal and 'complementary'. However, this content often resembled a form of benevolent sexism, in which praise of women's social-emotional skills compensated for their relegation from more esteemed trait-domains, such as rationality and productivity. The paper suggests that embedding these stereotype patterns in neuroscience may intensify their rhetorical potency by lending them the epistemic authority of science. It argues that the neuroscience of sex difference does not merely reflect, but can actively shape the gender norms of contemporary society. PMID:25354280

  19. Effects of Communication Methods on Communication Patterns and Performance in a Remote Spatial Orientation Task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wai-Tat Fu; Laura DAndrea; Sven Bertel

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the impact of communication methods (text-only, audio-only, and audio-plus-video) on communication patterns and effectiveness in a 2-person remote spatial orientation task. The task required a pair of participants to figure out the cardinal direction of a target object by communicating spatial information and perspectives. Results showed that overall effectiveness in the audio-only condition was

  20. Effective media communication of disasters: Pressing problems and recommendations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilson Lowrey; William Evans; Karla K Gower; Jennifer A Robinson; Peter M Ginter; Lisa C McCormick; Maziar Abdolrasulnia

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Public health officials and journalists play a crucial role in disseminating information regarding natural disasters, terrorism and other human-initiated disasters. However, research suggests that journalists are unprepared to cover terrorism and many types of natural disasters, in part because of lack sufficient expertise in science and medicine and training. The objective of this research was to identify solutions to

  1. How Effective Is Communication Training For Aircraft Crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, Charlotte; Goguen, Joseph; Devenish, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Report surveys communication training for aircraft crews. Intended to alleviate problems caused or worsened by poor communication and coordination among crewmembers. Focuses on two training methods: assertiveness training and grid-management training. Examines theoretical background of methods and attempts made to validate their effectiveness. Presents criteria for evaluating applicability to aviation environment. Concludes communication training appropriate for aircraft crews.

  2. College of Communication and Information COM Communication

    E-print Network

    MacAdam, Keith

    .Designedtoenhanceeffective communication and informed use of the mass media. COM 181 BASIC PUBLIC SPEAKING. (3) A course designed to give, Basic Public Speaking. It will count toward partial completion of the oral communication skills the student platform experience in the fundamentals of effective speaking. COM 199 PRESENTATIONAL

  3. Communications Impact of Hall Effect Plasma Thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickens, James Claude

    1995-01-01

    A Hall effect thruster is an electric space propulsion device, in which a gas (typically xenon) is ionized and accelerated by a self induced electric field. Because the exhaust plume of a Hall effect thruster is an ionized gas, the thruster's plume can affect the propagation of electromagnetic radiation. These effects could have a significant impact on the channel capacity of satellite communication systems. The first part of the study was devoted to developing a far field plume model that can predict both the spatial and temporal number density in the plume of three different Hall effect thrusters. The spatial dependence of the number density in the plume was determined using a swept Langmuir probe. The temporal dependence was determined using a high speed Langmuir probe positioned along the centerline of the plume. In an effort to verify the far field number density plume model, a sampling microwave interferometer was developed, that can accurately measure the phase shift of microwave signals propagating through the plume of a Hall effect thruster. The interferometer was used to measure the phase shift of a 6 GHz microwave signal during the startup of a Hall effect thruster with several different propagation paths. A comparison between the model predicted phase shift and the experimentally obtained phase shift are made. A microwave spectrum analyzer was used to qualify and quantify the plumes effect on the phase noise of a microwave signal propagating through the plume.

  4. Effective Gradients in Porous Media Due to Susceptibility Differences

    PubMed

    Hürlimann

    1998-04-01

    In porous media, magnetic susceptibility differences between the solid phase and the fluid filling the pore space lead to field inhomogeneities inside the pore space. In many cases, diffusion of the spins in the fluid phase through these internal inhomogeneities controls the transverse decay rate of the NMR signal. In disordered porous media such as sedimentary rocks, a detailed evaluation of this process is in practice not possible because the field inhomogeneities depend not only on the susceptibility difference but also on the details of the pore geometry. In this report, the major features of diffusion in internal gradients are analyzed with the concept of effective gradients. Effective gradients are related to the field inhomogeneities over the dephasing length, the typical length over which the spins diffuse before they dephase. For the CPMG sequence, the dependence of relaxation rate on echo spacing can be described to first order by a distribution of effective gradients. It is argued that for a given susceptibility difference, there is a maximum value for these effective gradients, gmax, that depends on only the diffusion coefficient, the Larmor frequency, and the susceptibility difference. This analysis is applied to the case of water-saturated sedimentary rocks. From a set of NMR measurements and a compilation of a large number of susceptibility measurements, we conclude that the effective gradients in carbonates are typically smaller than gradients of current NMR well logging tools, whereas in many sandstones, internal gradients can be comparable to or larger than tool gradients. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9571098

  5. On cost-effective communication network designing

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Guoqiang

    2009-01-01

    How to efficiently design a communication network is a paramount task for network designing and engineering. It is, however, not a single objective optimization process as perceived by most previous researches, i.e., to maximize its transmission capacity, but a multi-objective optimization process, with lowering its cost to be another important objective. These two objectives are contradictive in that optimizing one will inevitably deteriorate the other. After a deep investigation of the impact that network topology, node capability scheme and routing algorithm as well as their interplays have on the two objectives, this Letter presents a systematic approach to achieving a cost-effective design by carefully choosing the three designing aspects. Only when routing algorithm and node capability scheme are elaborately chosen can BA-like scale-free networks have the potential of achieving good tradeoff between the two objectives. Random networks, on the other hand, have the built-in character for a cost-effect des...

  6. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 587: Effective patient-physician communication.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Physicians' ability to effectively and compassionately communicate information is key to a successful patient-physician relationship. The current health care environment demands increasing clinical productivity and affords less time with each patient, which can impede effective patient-physician communication. The use of patient-centered interviewing, caring communication skills, and shared decision making improves patient-physician communication. Involving advanced practice nurses or physician assistants may improve the patient's experience and understanding of her visit. Electronic communication with established patients also can enhance the patient experience in select situations. PMID:24451677

  7. Nonlinear effects of salt concentrations on evaporation from porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norouzi Rad, Mansoureh; Shokri, Nima

    2012-02-01

    Evaporation from porous media saturated with salt solution is influenced by the interactions among the transport properties of porous media, thermodynamics of the evaporating solution and environmental conditions. To study the effects of salt concentrations on the evaporation dynamics, we conducted a series of evaporation experiments under constant atmospheric conditions using columns packed with sand particles saturated with various NaCl solutions differing in concentrations. Results show that the evaporation rate decreases as NaCl concentration increases only up to a certain level. When exceeding this level, any further increase of NaCl concentration results in higher evaporation rates which is described theoretically using the thermodynamics of the solution. Results also reveal a nonlinear relation between NaCl concentrations and onset of efflorescence which is described by the numerical solution of the classical convection-diffusion equation. Moreover, we found a strong correlation between the growth dynamics of precipitated salt at the surface and the evaporation rate such that the maximum rate of surface coverage by salt coincide with the end of stage-1 evaporation. This potentially offers a new method to nondestructively study the evaporation process from saline porous media.

  8. Superfund TIO videos: Set B. Community relations, communicating with the media and presenting technical information. Part 9. Audio-Visual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The videotape is divided into three sections. Section 1 discusses the Superfund Community Relations (CR) Program and its history and objectives. Community Relations requirements as defined by CERCLA for Superfund actions are outlined. Community Relations requirements, the nature of community involvement in CR plans, effective CR techniques, and the roles of the OSC, RPM, and EPA Community Relations Coordinator (CRC) are discussed. Section 2 (1) describes the media's perspective on seeking information; (2) identifies five settings and mechanisms for interacting with the media; (3) offers good media-relations techniques; and (4) lists tips for conducting media interviews. Section 3 outlines techniques for presenting technical information, describes how to be prepared to address typical issues of community concern, and identifies the four key elements in handling tough questions.

  9. A Measured Approach to Adopting New Media in the Business Communication Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Peter W.; Okoro, Ephraim

    2010-01-01

    At each Association for Business Communication (ABC) conference the authors have attended in the past 2 to 3 years, the many presentations focusing on social networking, blogs, wikis, and various Web 2.0 technologies have captured their attention. They welcome the wonderful, new communication tools that increasingly allow people to communicate and…

  10. Integrated Marketing Communications in the Era of New Media-Blue Ocean for SMEs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaohui Li; Jishun Niu; Youfang Chen; Xue Gao

    2010-01-01

    New media are changing the entire environment of IMC. With its unique advantages, NM extends the concepts, theories and methods of IMC to a brand new stage. In the background of fast development of new media, SMEs and large enterprises are once again standing on the same starting line.

  11. Global Communication, for the Powerful or the People? Media & Values 61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Rosalind, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of "Media & Values" explores the growing influence of mass media and how that influence is concentrated in the hands of a few powerful individuals or corporations. The essays present various interpretations of that influence and the implications for the world. Articles include: (1) "All Power to the Conglomerate" (Stewart Hoover); (2)…

  12. A FRAMEWORK FOR INTERPERSONAL ATTITUDE AND NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION IN IMPROVISATIONAL VISUAL MEDIA PRODUCTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Ballin; M F Gillies; I B Crabtree

    2004-01-01

    Computer generated characters are now commonplace in television and film. In some media productions like the Matrix™ they feature as frequently as the real cast. A visual media that is being explored by the research community is that of real-time improvisational theatre using virtual characters. This is a non-trivial problem with many research challenges; this paper starts to address one,

  13. What can I do with a degree in Media and Communication?

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    /design, tourism, museums, libraries, IT and telecommunications, social services, management and business its introduction in 2000 reflects the robust growth of media as a profession and the strength of our place a high value on people who can develop relationships with the media and public and manage internal

  14. Promoting the Michigan organ donor registry: evaluating the impact of a multifaceted intervention utilizing media priming and communication design.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tyler R; Morgan, Susan E; King, Andy J; Di Corcia, Mark J; Williams, Elizabeth A; Ivic, Rebecca K; Hopeck, Paula

    2010-12-01

    There are currently more than 100,000 individuals waiting for an organ transplant. Organ donor registries represent the easiest and most concrete way for people to declare their intent to donate, but organ donor registries are vastly underutilized. This study reports a campaign intervention designed to increase the rate of joining the Michigan Organ Donor Registry. Grounding intervention development in the theoretical principles of media priming and communication design, the intervention took place in two waves in three counties in Michigan. Each intervention consisted of a media component, point-of-decision materials, and an interpersonal component. Increases in registration rates of 200 to 300% in each intervention county, compared to stable statewide trends in registry rates, provide evidence of highly successful intervention efforts. The rate of registry increase in intervention counties was approximately 1,900% higher than statewide on a per capita basis. PMID:21153986

  15. Effect of magnetic softness in a soft layer on media properties of hard/soft stacked composite perpendicular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H. S.; Malhotra, S. S.; Acharya, B. R.; Bertero, G.; Suess, D.

    2009-04-01

    Adding Pt into CoCr-oxide alloy for controlling magnetic softness in a soft layer on hard/soft (H/S) stacked composite media significantly affects magnetic properties and microstructure. Hc values for capping layer (CL) media with a relatively high-Hk soft layer initially increase with increasing tcap. However, Hc values are relatively constant for H/S media with Pt 3% and 10% soft layers and reduced for the media with a CoTaZr-SiO2 soft layer having in-plane Hk. The simulation results explain these experimental Hc trends by the compensation effect between the decrease in average Ku due to the use of less-Ku soft layer and the increases in volume with increasing tsoft. Reduction in Hc with increasing tsoft is anticipated when Ku in a soft layer reduces by >27%. As the Pt content in a soft layer increases from 3% to 18%, higher Hc and Hn but lower Hs are observed. Plan-view transmission electron microscopy images for the medium with Pt 18% soft layer show no subgrains and thinner grain boundary width and explain the significant increase in lateral Aex. Thus, the Pt content in a soft layer needs to be optimized. Compared to CL media, H/S composite media with the Pt 5% and 8% soft layers improve both SNRme and media writability.

  16. Revealing the Effectivenesses of Communication Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the history of communication strategy and highlight the importance of strategic competence. It provides the histories and characterizations of communication strategy. Besides, it presents from which perspectives these definitions of communication strategies were developed. Various earlier and latter…

  17. 76 FR 23812 - Reliability and Continuity of Communications Networks, Including Broadband Technologies; Effects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION [PS Docket Nos...Reliability and Continuity of Communications Networks, Including Broadband...Technologies; Effects on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage or...

  18. Bioelectronic Learning: The Effects of Electronic Media on a Developing Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Considers the effects of electronic media on the developing brains of children. Topics include the attentional demands of electronic media; commercial sponsorship; brain development, including memory systems and response systems; and what a developing mind can bring to the electronic media. (LRW)

  19. Media Guidelines for the Responsible Reporting of Suicide: A Review of Effectiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    India Bohanna; Xiangdong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Background: The media have a powerful influence on those at risk of suicide. Evidence linking sensational media reporting with imitative suicidal behavior continues to grow, prompting the widespread development of guidelines for media professionals on the reporting of suicide. While such guidelines have been widely implemented, only a small amount of research has addressed their use and effectiveness. Aims: To

  20. Exploring Spanish health social media for detecting drug effects

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) cause a high number of deaths among hospitalized patients in developed countries. Major drug agencies have devoted a great interest in the early detection of ADRs due to their high incidence and increasing health care costs. Reporting systems are available in order for both healthcare professionals and patients to alert about possible ADRs. However, several studies have shown that these adverse events are underestimated. Our hypothesis is that health social networks could be a significant information source for the early detection of ADRs as well as of new drug indications. Methods In this work we present a system for detecting drug effects (which include both adverse drug reactions as well as drug indications) from user posts extracted from a Spanish health forum. Texts were processed using MeaningCloud, a multilingual text analysis engine, to identify drugs and effects. In addition, we developed the first Spanish database storing drugs as well as their effects automatically built from drug package inserts gathered from online websites. We then applied a distant-supervision method using the database on a collection of 84,000 messages in order to extract the relations between drugs and their effects. To classify the relation instances, we used a kernel method based only on shallow linguistic information of the sentences. Results Regarding Relation Extraction of drugs and their effects, the distant supervision approach achieved a recall of 0.59 and a precision of 0.48. Conclusions The task of extracting relations between drugs and their effects from social media is a complex challenge due to the characteristics of social media texts. These texts, typically posts or tweets, usually contain many grammatical errors and spelling mistakes. Moreover, patients use lay terminology to refer to diseases, symptoms and indications that is not usually included in lexical resources in languages other than English. PMID:26100267

  1. Journalism and Technical Communication presents the Fourth Biennial Colorado State University Media Festival

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    Festival September 25--28, 2013 Share your creativity, your passion for producing media, and your secrets the CSU- UTEP football game Saturday, September 28. Follow festival updates on Facebook (CSUCammy

  2. Communicating Genetics and Smoking Through Social Media: Are We There Yet?

    PubMed Central

    Suggs, L Suzanne; Brand, Angela; Van Oyen, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Background Social media is a recent source of health information that could disseminate new scientific research, such as the genetics of smoking. Objective The objectives were (1) to evaluate the availability of genetic information about smoking on different social media platforms (ie, YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter) and (2) to assess the type and the content of the information displayed on the social media as well as the profile of people publishing this information. Methods We screened posts on YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter with the terms “smoking” and “genetic” at two time points (September 18, 2012, and May 7, 2013). The first 100 posts were reviewed for each media for the time points. Google was searched during Time 2 as an indicator of available information on the Web and the other social media that discussed genetics and smoking. The source of information, the country of the publisher, characteristics of the posts, and content of the posts were extracted. Results On YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter, 31, 0, and 84 posts, respectively, were included. Posts were mostly based on smoking-related diseases, referred to scientific publications, and were largely from the United States. From the Google search, most results were scientific databases. Six scientific publications referred to within the Google search were also retrieved on either YouTube or Twitter. Conclusions Despite the importance of public understanding of smoking and genetics, and the high use of social media, little information on this topic is actually present on social media. Therefore, there is a need to monitor the information that is there and to evaluate the population’s understanding of the information related to genetics and smoking that is displayed on social media. PMID:24018012

  3. Media education.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents. PMID:20876180

  4. Effective Protocols for Mobile Communications and Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, J.; Sholander, P.; Van Leeuwen, B,

    1998-12-01

    This report examines methods of mobile communications with an emphasis on mobile computing and wireless communications. Many of the advances in communications involve the use of Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ad hoc network protocols. However, many of the advances in these protocols have been focused on wired communications. Recently much focus has been directed at advancing communication technology in the area of mobile wireless networks. This report discusses various protocols used in mobile communications and proposes a number of extensions to existing protocols. A detailed discussion is also included on desirable protocol characteristics and evaluation criteria. In addition, the report includes a discussion on several network simulation tools that maybe used to evaluate network protocols.

  5. Texas County Extension Agents Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Using Facebook to Communicate with Constituents 

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Lacey

    2014-01-08

    Background and Setting Social media in the continuously changing world of technology has provided new ways of communicating. Uses of social media range from networking with friends to advertising businesses and organizations. The first form of social media... was developed in 1979; Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis from Duke University created Usenet, which was a worldwide discussion system that allowed Internet users to post public messages (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010). Today’s version of social media started 20 years ago...

  6. Towards Efficient Use of Shared Communication Media in the Timed Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido Menkhaus; Michael Holzmann; Sebastian Fischmeister; Claudiu Farcas

    2005-01-01

    Embedded computers are increasingly tighter integrated with each other forming distributed embedded systems that interact through a shared communication medium. Often these embedded systems perform services for safety-critical operations that require deterministic computation and pre- dictable communication. However, since these systems are embedded, they must cope with limited resources. One fun- damental challenge is to make efficient use of the

  7. Cross-Cultural Communication, Media and Learning Processes in Asynchronous Learning Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ting-ting Chang; Xiaoying Wang; John Lim

    2002-01-01

    Cross-cultural interactions across educational boundaries have been enhanced in asynchronous learning networks. The issue of cross-cultural communication is fundamental in asynchronous learning research since the learners involved have significant communication norms that are distinctly different across cultures. The influence wielded by the cultural values of individual and group learners can impact upon the learning process. Concurrently, the degree of social

  8. Media and Adult Learning. Volume 3, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Michael, Ed.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Two articles are presented relevant to media and adult learning. In the first article, "The Pedagogy of Communication: Conscientization through Mass Media," David G. Gueulette sets forth ideas derived from Freire's theory of literacy training and suggests means by which effective teaching strategies can be developed through popular mass media

  9. Effective Communication between Preservice and Cooperating Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawley, Ji Ji; Moore, Jenifer; Smajic, Almir

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews research on communication between preservice and cooperating teachers during a teacher internship. The research reveals that poor communication between preservice teachers and cooperating teachers can cause barriers to planning lessons, feedback, and teaching experiences. Additionally, research indicates that…

  10. Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Andre

    The following essays on communication are presented: communication as a condition of survival, communication for special purposes, the means of transmission of communication, communication within social and economic structures, the teaching of communication through the press, the teaching of modern languages, communication as a point of departure,…

  11. Scientists as communicators: A randomized experiment to assess public reactions to scientists' social media communication along the science-advocacy continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotcher, J.; Vraga, E.; Myers, T.; Stenhouse, N.; Roser-Renouf, C.; Maibach, E.

    2014-12-01

    The question of what type of role scientists, or experts more generally, should play in policy debates is a perennial point of discussion within the scientific community. It is often thought that communication containing some form of policy advocacy is likely to compromise the perceived credibility of the individual scientist engaged in such behavior, with the possibility that it may also harm the credibility of the scientific community more broadly. Rather than evaluating statements in a binary fashion as representing either pure objectivity or pure advocacy, one recent model proposes that public communication by scientists should instead be thought of as falling along a continuum based upon the extent of normative judgment implicit in a statement. This approach predicts that as the extent of normative judgment increases, it poses a relatively greater risk to a scientist's perceived credibility. Though such a model is conceptually useful, little empirical social science research has systematically explored how individuals form judgments about different types of advocacy to examine common assumptions about the relative risks associated with such behaviors. In this presentation, we will report results from a national online experiment (N=1200) that examines audience responses to fictional social media posts written by either a climate scientist or a television weathercaster. Following the above model, the posts represent differing degrees of advocacy defined by the extent of normative judgment implicit in each statement. In instances where a specific policy is advocated, we examine whether participants' reactions are shaped by the extent to which the policy mentioned is congruent with one's political ideology. We hope this study will serve as an exemplar of applied science communication research that can begin to help inform scientists and other experts about the potential implications of different communication options they may choose from in deciding how to engage with policy.

  12. Ahimsa Media -For Educators -The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect: Extension Activity

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Ahimsa Media - For Educators - The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect: Extension Activity By Erica Hargreave Extensions Have students brainstorm ways they can reduce greenhouse gases at home, play and school. Visit a local organization that is successfully reducing greenhouse gas emissions

  13. How effective and cost-effective was the national mass media smoking cessation campaign ‘Stoptober’??

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jamie; Kotz, Daniel; Michie, Susan; Stapleton, John; Walmsley, Matthew; West, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background A national smoking cessation campaign based on behaviour change theory and operating through both traditional and new media was launched across England during late 2012 (‘Stoptober’). In addition to attempting to start a movement in which smokers would quit at the same time in response to a positive mass quitting trigger, the campaign set smokers the goal of being smoke-free for October and embodied other psychological principles in a range of tools and communications. Methods Data on quit attempts were obtained from 31,566 past-year smokers during nationally representative household surveys conducted monthly between 2007 and 2012. The effectiveness of the campaign was assessed by the increase in national quit attempt rate in October relative to other months in 2012 vs. 2007–2011. Results Relative to other months in the year, more people tried to quit in October in 2012 compared with 2007–2011 (OR = 1.79, 95%CI = 1.20–2.68). In 2012 there was an approximately 50% increase in quitting during October compared with other months of the same year (9.6% vs. 6.6%; OR = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.05–2.15), whereas in 2007–2011 the rate in October was non-significantly less than in other months of the same period (6.4% vs. 7.5%; OR = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.70–1.00). Stoptober is estimated to have generated an additional 350,000 quit attempts and saved 10,400 discounted life years (DLY) at less than £415 per DLY in the modal age group. Conclusions Designing a national public health campaign with a clear behavioural target (making a serious quit attempt) using key psychological principles can yield substantial behaviour change and public health impact. PMID:24322004

  14. FlickerThis : a mobile service to facilitate grounding in communication through viewable media content

    E-print Network

    Lin, Dori Tung-Yun

    2009-01-01

    Remote communication has become part of our daily lives. Technology plays a decisive role in filling the gap caused by discrepancies in time and space between us and the people we want to reach. However, the level of ...

  15. Medicine and the Media: A Course in Communication Skills for Clinician-Executives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan-Davidson, Dorothy J.; Kunz, Jeffrey

    The Administrative Medicine Program of the University of Wisconsin-Madison has developed a course entitled "Medicine and the Media" for clinician-executives and health care professionals who may assume administrative responsibilities. The course is designed to help students (1) understand the respective roles and demands of both the medical…

  16. Children, Television and the New Media. Communication Research and Broadcasting No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Paul, Ed.; Meyer, Manfred, Ed.

    This book is a collection of selected articles (published in the 1990s) from "TelevIZIon," a specialized journal of the "Internationales Zentralinstitut fur das Jugend--und Bildungsfernsehen," that take up problems relating to media research and present national and international developments in the field of children's and young people's…

  17. Stepping up for democracy: using new communication media to revitalize citizen participation in climate change activism

    E-print Network

    Minion, Jodi Michele

    2009-05-15

    agitation and to shift power away from the federal government to the local grassroots level. I recommend activists use new media as a unifying tool, to provide a fragmented and apathetic citizenry with a message that can be used to affect change. I conducted...

  18. Science, Politics, and the Mass Media: On Biased Communication of Environmental Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll-Hansen, Nils

    1994-01-01

    Based on the study of two issues, forest death from acid rain and the size of whale stocks, this article shows how the constraints of commercial mass media can be contrary to the task of enlightenment. (42 references) (Author/MKR)

  19. Media Literacy and Information Literacy: A Need for Collaboration and Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angel Kymes

    2011-01-01

    Both media literacy and information literacy struggle for legitimacy in school curricula, and seek to be recognized as relevant to student learning initiatives. While each has a distinct historical context, a dedicated group of followers, and base of research and intervention, neither has alone achieved the scale needed to make systemic change in public education in the United States. The

  20. Communicating Effectively with All Colleagues, Even "Difficult" Ones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Heidi H.

    2011-01-01

    To help create a supportive learning environment for students, school psychologists must collaborate daily with parents, teachers, and other professionals. Effective communication is an indispensable tool for helping to ensure that all parties understand how they play an essential role in a student's development. The ability to communicate

  1. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Developing Effective Communication in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cresencio; Katz, Judy H.

    Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) is a method that teachers can use to increase their communication effectiveness by matching their communication patterns with those of their students. The basic premise of NLP is that people operate and make sense of their experience through information received from the world around them. This information is…

  2. Neuro-Linguistics Programming: Developing Effective Communication in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cresencio; Katz, Judy H.

    1983-01-01

    Students and teachers experience the world primarily through visual, kinesthetic, or auditory representational systems. If teachers are aware of their own favored system and those of their students, classroom communication will improve. Neurolinguistic programing can help teachers become more effective communicators. (PP)

  3. Perceptions of Women's Communication Skills Related to Managerial Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman-Fink, Cynthia

    In a study designed to document empirically perceptions about women managers' communication skills and training needs, 101 managers (53 females and 48 males) responded to two open-ended questions: (1) From your observation and experience, what specific communication skills do women possess that might help promote their managerial effectiveness?…

  4. Improving outpatient safety through effective electronic communication: a study protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia J Hysong; Mona K Sawhney; Lindsey Wilson; Dean F Sittig; Adol Esquivel; Monica Watford; Traber Davis; Donna Espadas; Hardeep Singh

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health information technology and electronic medical records (EMRs) are potentially powerful systems-based interventions to facilitate diagnosis and treatment because they ensure the delivery of key new findings and other health related information to the practitioner. However, effective communication involves more than just information transfer; despite a state of the art EMR system, communication breakdowns can still occur. 123 In

  5. An Experimental Study Designed to Test the Relative Effectiveness of a Multi-Media Instructional System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senter, Donald R.

    Summative evaluation of Cycles R-40 of the Listen Look Learn (LLL) Multi-Media Communication Skills System was conducted in 1967-68, using 28 experimental (LLL system) and 28 control (variety of basal reading programs) classes of first-grade children. Testing included the use of the Metropolitan Readiness Tests; the Pintner-Cunningham Primary…

  6. Effect of social media in health care and orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Jenine; Robinson, Brooke S; Kugler, Nathan W; Illingworth, Kenneth D; Patel, Pranay; Saleh, Khaled J

    2012-04-01

    With the growth of social media platforms, their potential to affect health care, and orthopedics specifically, continues to expand. We reviewed the literature to obtain all pertinent information on social media in health care and examined its strengths and weaknesses from patient and physician perspectives. Health care professionals have slowly begun to use social media to stay connected with patients. The recent use of networking sites aims to improve education, provide a forum to discuss relevant medical topics, and allow for improved patient care. The use of social media, with the understanding of its limitations, may help promote patient happiness and safety and serve as an educational platform. PMID:22495836

  7. Ethical media competence as a protective factor against cyberbullying and cybervictimization among german school students.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christin R; Pfetsch, Jan; Ittel, Angela

    2014-10-01

    The use of digital information and communication technologies is an integral part of adolescents' everyday life. Besides various opportunities for information, entertainment, and communication, media use is associated with risks such as cyberbullying. Cyberbullying refers to aggressive behavior in the context of computer-mediated communication, characterized by repetition, an intention to harm, and power imbalance. Previous studies have shown that increased media use is a major risk factor for cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Given that restricting media use is not a practical way to reduce the negative effects inherent in media use, the present study examines the relevance of ethical media competence. We expected ethical media competence to buffer the effect of increased media use on cyberbullying and cybervictimization. A survey was conducted with 934 students (53% female) aged 10-17 years (M=13.26, SD=1.63). As expected, hierarchical regression analyses showed a positive main effect of media use, a negative main effect of ethical media competence, and a negative interaction effect of media use and media competence on cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Simple slope analyses revealed that at high levels of ethical media competence, media use has almost no effect on cybervictimization and a significant negative effect on cyberbullying. Consequently, promoting ethical media competence constitutes a potential measure to prevent the risks of increased media use for cyberbullying and cybervictimization. PMID:25272238

  8. Effective dielectric tensor for electromagnetic wave propagation in random media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechtsman, M. C.; Torquato, S.

    2008-04-01

    We derive exact strong-contrast expansions for the effective dielectric tensor ?e of electromagnetic waves propagating in a two-phase composite random medium with isotropic components explicitly in terms of certain integrals over the n-point correlation functions of the medium. Our focus is the long-wavelength regime, i.e., when the wavelength is much larger than the scale of inhomogeneities in the medium. Lower-order truncations of these expansions lead to approximations for the effective dielectric constant that depend upon whether the medium is below or above the percolation threshold. In particular, we apply two- and three-point approximations for ?e to a variety of different three-dimensional model microstructures, including dispersions of hard spheres, hard oriented spheroids, and fully penetrable spheres as well as Debye random media, the random checkerboard, and power-law-correlated materials. We demonstrate the importance of employing n-point correlation functions of order higher than two for high dielectric-phase-contrast ratio. We show that disorder in the microstructure results in an imaginary component of the effective dielectric tensor that is directly related to the coarseness of the composite, i.e., local-volume-fraction fluctuations for infinitely large windows. The source of this imaginary component is the attenuation of the coherent homogenized wave due to scattering. We also remark on whether there is such attenuation in the case of a two-phase medium with a quasiperiodic structure.

  9. The effectiveness of mass communication to change public behavior.

    PubMed

    Abroms, Lorien C; Maibach, Edward W

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the ways in which mass communication has been used -- or can be used -- to promote beneficial changes in behavior among members of populations. We use an ecological perspective to examine the ways in which mass media interventions can be used to influence public behavior both directly and indirectly. Mass media interventions that seek to influence people directly -- by directly targeting the people burdened by the public health problem of concern and/or the people who influence them -- have a long basis in public health history, and recent reviews have clarified our expectations about what can be expected from such approaches. Mass media interventions that seek to influence people indirectly -- by creating beneficial changes in the places (or environments) in which people live and work -- have equal if not greater potential to promote beneficial changes in population health behaviors, but these are currently less explored options. To have the greatest possible beneficial influence on public behavior with the public health resources available, we recommend that public health program planners assess their opportunities to use media to target both people and places in a manner that complements and extends other investments being made in population health enhancement. PMID:18173391

  10. Strength and Duration of the Effect of Aggressive,, Violent, and Erotic Communications On Subsequent Aggressive Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dolf Zillmann; James L. Hoyt; Kenneth D. Day

    1974-01-01

    This study investigated the aggression-modifying, immediate effect on provoked individuals of exposure to a neutral, an aggressive, a violent, or an erotic communication. All communications were followed by a common, non-involving, nonaggressive communication. Under these conditions, neither the effect of the aggressive nor that of the violent communication differed appreciably from the effect of the neutral communication. In contrast, the

  11. Experimental comparisons of face-to-face and mediated communication: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ederyn Williams

    1977-01-01

    Reviews approximately 30 recent research studies that have investigated how human communication is affected by the use of telecommunications media. These studies used various types of media and both cooperative and conflictful communication situations. Several media effects were described in these studies, and consistencies among these results have begun to emerge. Accordingly, it is now possible to test theories of

  12. Hydrogen sulfide removal by compost biofiltration: effect of mixing the filter media on operational factors.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Sagastume, J M; Noyola, A

    2006-09-01

    The overall goal of this work was to determine the effect of mixing the filter media of a compost biofilter on H(2)S removal efficiency. The behavior of important operational factors such as moisture of filter media, pressure drop and sulfate accumulation were evaluated, considering mixing the media. Additionally, tracer studies were performed in order to determine the effect of mixing the media on gas distribution. H(2)S removal capacity decreased over time, from 100% to 90%. When bed mixing was carried out, the removal capacity remained constant, close to 100%, and moisture content and sulfates accumulation were better controlled at 50% and at 12 mg S-SO(4)/g dry media respectively. In addition, under this operational pattern, an improvement in gas and particle size distribution was observed inside the filter media, fitting the axial dispersion model and the Ergun equation. PMID:16051484

  13. The effect of different media on the survival and induction of stress responses by Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Caroline; Carroll, Cyril; Jordan, Kieran N

    2005-08-01

    The survival kinetics of Campylobacter jejuni strain CI 120 to a challenge of pH 4.5 was studied in seven different media. A medium effect was observed, showing up to a 5-log difference in stress resistance of cells. Strain variation in survival of C. jejuni was observed in Brucella broth (BBL). The ability of C. jejuni CI 120 to respond to a stress after growth in seven different media was also examined. An Adaptive Tolerance Response (ATR) was induced in only three of the seven media tested. The degree of resistance induced by the ATR varied between the different media. The production, during growth, of an extracellular component that confers stress resistance against subsequent acid challenge was observed in only four of seven media tested. Due to the direct effect of medium on stress/survival of C. jejuni, the results suggest that studies using different media may not be comparable. PMID:16009274

  14. Impacts of Diversity on Communication Effectiveness: A Proposed Typology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Willie E.; Hopkins, Shirley A.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes a typology of impacts that greater increases in workforce diversity might have on communication effectiveness in organizations. Proposes the typology to stimulate further interest in the research domain. (SR)

  15. Lights, camera, promotion: making media relations work.

    PubMed

    Kaldy, Joanne

    2009-03-01

    Media relations isn't part of the typical pharmacy school curriculum, but communicating with the media is a skill that senior care pharmacists need to get their message out to consumers. These practitioners must be able to conduct effective interviews, develop relationships with reporters and producers, and establish themselves as experts in their fields. When pharmacists are media savvy, they enjoy the benefit of increased visibility and opportunities to positively influence safe medication use by consumers nationwide. PMID:19555134

  16. Int. J. Advanced Media and Communication, Vol. 3, Nos. 1/2, 2009 35 A 3D scanning system for biomedical purposes

    E-print Network

    Hayes, John

    . Keywords: 3D geometric modelling; 3D scanning; laser light-sectioning; biomedical scanner; EFDs; ellipticalInt. J. Advanced Media and Communication, Vol. 3, Nos. 1/2, 2009 35 A 3D scanning system ON, Canada E-mail: jhayes@mae.carleton.ca Abstract: The use of three-dimensional (3D) scanning

  17. Construccion/Communicacion y Medios Publicitarios. Libro del Profesor (Construction/Communication & Media. Teacher's Guide). B5. CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Hudson Migrant Education Center, New Paltz, NY.

    The guide, written in Spanish, comprises the fourth grade unit of a career education curriculum for migrant students. Focus of the unit is on the tools and tasks of workers in 11 jobs in the construction, communication, and media occupational clusters: heavy equipment operator, architect, mason, carpenter, plumber, electrician, telephone line…

  18. School Library Media Specialists as Effective School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhart, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    According to the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (2006), "Accomplished library media specialists are instructional leaders who forge greater opportunities for learners" (55). As one of the few school personnel responsible for all students, the media specialist can serve as a coordinator and an advocate. They can ensure equitable…

  19. Otitis Media: Coping with the Effects in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dorinne S.

    This curriculum adaptation provides a methodology that enables the classroom teacher to recognize the needs of the otitis media-affected child in the classroom. It discusses areas of concern related to otitis media; suggests activities that can enhance these children's language skills; and shows ways to enhance the learning environment by…

  20. Effective Gradients in Porous Media Due to Susceptibility Differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin D. Hürlimann

    1998-01-01

    In porous media, magnetic susceptibility differences between the solid phase and the fluid filling the pore space lead to field inhomogeneities inside the pore space. In many cases, diffusion of the spins in the fluid phase through these internal inhomogeneities controls the transverse decay rate of the NMR signal. In disordered porous media such as sedimentary rocks, a detailed evaluation

  1. Studies on the Effects of Different Bio-Media on Bio-Contact Oxidation Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fei Qingzhi; Xu Zhi; Liu Xiaoxu

    2008-01-01

    Bio-media was one of the major factors that affect the performance of bio-contact oxidation. Two kinds of Bio-medias were compared from the effects of different bio-media on bio-contact oxidation reactor. The results showed that, the dosage impact on web-like filler was bigger than combined filler, for web-like filler, when the dosage rate was optimum, the oxygen transfer rate increased with

  2. Law of Mass Communications: Freedom and Control of Print and Broadcast Media. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Harold L.; Teeter, Dwight L., Jr.

    This book is divided into three major sections: principles and development of freedom of expression, rights in conflict with free expression, and communications law and the public interest. Specific areas covered in the two chapters of the first section are freedom and control and a historical background of freedom of expression. The second…

  3. Ocean environmental effects on walrus communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denes, Samuel L.

    This work aimed to develop source characteristics and transmission effects for the acoustic breeding displays of male Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). Pacific walrus breeding activities occur in late winter in the Bering Sea, an area renowned for extreme weather conditions and high biological productivity. During the breeding season, males perform acoustic displays while swimming in the vicinity of females hauled out on ice. Underwater vocalizations heard by individuals hauled out on ice may be important in the mate selection process. The extreme environment in which walrus breeding activities occur precludes direct observation of these animals during this important period and has resulted in a lack of data. A combination of remote-sensing data, captive animal research, controlled environment experiment, and computational modeling was used to increase our understanding of the acoustic displays of Pacific walrus. Analysis of recordings of captive and wild male Pacific walrus vocalizations during breeding season provided quantification of source characteristics. Working with a captive animal provided the ability to make direct observations of a male producing breeding vocalizations and the direct calculation of source level. The mean peak to peak source level of the impulsive knocks produced by the captive male was 183 dB (re: 1 microPa) with the middle 95% of the knocks between 168 dB and 195 dB. The broadband knock signals contained significant acoustic energy up to 13 kHz. To estimate source level from wild vocalizations, the location of the source walrus first needed to be determined. Using a method of relative multipath arrival time, more than 37,000 knocks were localized from six years of data from autonomous recorders deployed in the Bering Sea. The mean peak-peak source level from the wild recordings was 177 dB (re: 1 microPa) with 95% of the knocks between 163 dB and 189 dB. For both wild and captive vocalizations, a significant relationship between ambient noise level and source level was identified. The Lombard effect, the increase in source level in response to an increase in noise level has not previously been identified in any pinniped species. In both datasets, an increase of approximately 5 dB in source level was found for an increase in 10 dB of noise level. A propagation experiment was conducted to measure the transmission of an impulsive acoustic signal, similar to a walrus knock, from an underwater source through ice and into air. Peak to peak pressure measured in air was approximately 2,500 times lower than pressure measured in water separated by two meters of shorefast ice. The results from this experiment were used to verify the adequacy of a wavenumber integration acoustic propagation model for determining transmission loss in this multi-media environment. Propagation model environments were generated from historical ice thickness and oceanographic data. Modeled received signals were compared with walrus audiometric data to determine what factors impact signal detectability with source level, ice thickness, and range having the greatest impact. The findings of this work suggest that the underwater vocalizations of males making breeding vocalizations are received by females hauled out on ice at audible levels when the females are within a few hundred meters of the males. As the signals exceed the levels estimated to be perceived, these signals may play a role in mate selection by the females. If climate change affects the ice conditions, water depth, and bathymetry where walrus congregate for breeding, mate selection and therefore offspring fitness may be impacted.

  4. ESTIMATION OF EFFECTIVE SHEAR STRESS WORKING ON FLAT SHEET MEMBRANE USING FLUIDIZED MEDIA IN MBRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaw, Hlwan Moe; Li, Tairi; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Mishima, Iori

    This study was aimed at estimating effective shear stress working on flat sheet membrane by the addition of fluidized media in MBRs. In both of laboratory-scale aeration tanks with and without fluidized media, shear stress variations on membrane surface and water phase velocity variations were measured and MBR operation was conducted. For the evaluation of the effective shear stress working on membrane surface to mitigate membrane surface, simulation of trans-membrane pressure increase was conducted. It was shown that the time-averaged absolute value of shear stress was smaller in the reactor with fluidized media than without fluidized media. However, due to strong turbulence in the reactor with fluidized media caused by interaction between water-phase and media and also due to the direct interaction between membrane surface and fluidized media, standard deviation of shear stress on membrane surface was larger in the reactor with fluidized media than without media. Histograms of shear stress variation data were fitted well to normal distribution curves and mean plus three times of standard deviation was defined to be a maximum shear stress value. By applying the defined maximum shear stress to a membrane fouling model, trans-membrane pressure curve in the MBR experiment was simulated well by the fouling model indicting that the maximum shear stress, not time-averaged shear stress, can be regarded as an effective shear stress to prevent membrane fouling in submerged flat-sheet MBRs.

  5. Tweeting About Testing: Do Low-Income, Parenting Adolescents and Young Adults Use New Media Technologies to Communicate About Sexual Health?

    PubMed Central

    Divecha, Zai; Divney, Anna; Ickovics, Jeannette; Kershaw, Trace

    2014-01-01

    Context Little research exists about adolescents' and young adults' use of new media technologies to communicate about sexual health. Understanding how young people at high risk for STDs use these technologies can inform media-based interventions. Methods Between October 2010 and March 2011, a sample of 94 low-income, parenting adolescents and young adults recruited at clinics in Connecticut completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview about their use of media technologies, communication with friends about sexual health and willingness to use media technologies for such communication. Descriptive statistics were calculated; characteristics of those willing and those unwilling to communicate were compared in chi-square, t and Mann-Whitney tests. Results Ninety-three percent of participants had mobile phones; 71% used Facebook regularly. Participants discussed sexual health more often with close friends than with casual friends, and preferred to have such conversations in person (71% with close friends and 68% with casual friends), over the phone (52% and 45%) or via text message (30% and 28%), rather than through social networking sites (0–9% and 2–7%). Fewer than one-third reported being willing to share sexual health information with friends through a specific new media technology. Those who were willing were predominantly black (59%); of those who were unwilling, 51% were Latino. Condom self-efficacy, STD knowledge and number of Facebook friends were greater among those who were willing than among those who were unwilling. Conclusions For conversations about sexual health, young urban parents prefer private forms of communication; thus, social networking sites may not aid STD interventions. PMID:22958662

  6. Connecting Communications Waveforms for Combat Effectiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siamak Dastangoo; Steven A. Davidson; Thomas G. Macdonald

    2007-01-01

    Future networks, and in particular military networks, will connect numerous types of homogeneous networks, where a homogeneous network is one that uses the same communications waveform and algorithms to inter-connect all the users of the network. There are a number of challenges in inter-networking disparate waveforms including interacting with a network that does not behave in the same manner as

  7. Workplace Communication: The Effect of Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanetic, Sally A.; Jeffery, Christopher J.

    1996-01-01

    Differences in men's and women's communication styles affect their interactions with each other. Organizations must be flexible enough to recognize situations in which traditional male values of competition may be most functional and those in which more collaborative, female strategies are more appropriate. Personnel training can help ensure that…

  8. Effective Fall 2010 MINOR IN COMMUNICATION STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Raja, Anita

    of 18 semester hours of COMM classes, including, COMM 1101 (Public Speaking) and COMM 2100 Credit Hours) Course Description Hours Date Completed Grade COMM 1101 ­ Public Speaking 3 COMM 2100 Public Speaking COMM 2103 ­ Argumentation and Debate COMM 2105 ­ Small Group Communication COMM 2107

  9. Effects of Cognitive Compatibility on Communicative Accuracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzer, Harold James

    If individuals who react to a variety of phenomena tend to have compatible cognitive dimensions, then development of similar meanings and responses among individuduals is facilitated. A study of compatibilities and communication responses utilized two methods of analysis: the "unfolding technique" of scales whereby subjects rank-ordered visual…

  10. Cue Effectiveness in Communicatively Efficient Discourse Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Ting; Jaeger, T. Florian

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge in accounts motivated by information theory that consider language production to be partially driven by a preference for communicative efficiency. Evidence from discourse production (i.e., production beyond the sentence level) has been argued to suggest that speakers distribute information across discourse so as to…

  11. Genre Taxonomy: A Knowledge Repository of Communicative Actions

    E-print Network

    in the innovation of new document templates or methods for communication because it helps to clarify different-service training courses, people learn effective managerial communication methods. In managerial communication media. We believe that this genre taxonomy can help people both to learn communication knowledge

  12. From Mars to Media: The Phoenix Mars Mission and the Challenges of Real-Time, Multimedia Science Communication and Public Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S.; Bitter, C.

    2008-12-01

    Although the Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Mars Odyssey Missions set the standard for science communication and public education about Mars, the Phoenix Mission was presented with robust new communication challenges and opportunities. The new frontier includes Web 2.0, international forums, internal and external blogs, social networking sites, as well as the traditional media and education outlets for communicating science and information. We will explore the highlights and difficulties of managing the 'message from Mars' in our current multimedia saturated world while balancing authentic science discoveries, public expectations, and communication demands. Our goal is to create a more science savvy public and a more communication oriented science community for the future. The key issues are helping the public and our scientists distinguish between information and knowledge and managing the content that connects the two.

  13. 1 Media and Public Affairs MEDIA AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    of Arts with majors in journalism and mass communication and in political communication. Entering freshmen://bulletin.gwu.edu/arts-sciences/ media-public-affairs/ba-journalism-mass-communication) · Bachelor of Arts with a major in political communication (http://bulletin.gwu.edu/arts-sciences/media-public-affairs/ ba-political-communication

  14. Basic Books in the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Eleanor

    References to information on the background, structure, function, contents, and effects of mass communications are provided in this annotated booklist. Material is included on theory, popular culture, the Black press, communications technology, the underground press and film, and mass media violence and the entries are arranged according to the…

  15. [MR effects of x-ray contrast media].

    PubMed

    Wicke, L; Frühwald, F; Neuhold, A; Schwaighofer, B

    1987-12-01

    Although Pantopaque has now been widely replaced by water-soluble contrast media for intrathecal application, retained residuals of oily contrast media are still a very common finding. Whereas other contrast media, e.g. barium in the GI tract, are inert in magnetic resonance imaging, the signal behaviour of Pantopaque may lead to false interpretations. Similar to fat, the T1 and T2 relaxation times of Pantopaque are short. Conventional radiographs of the spine are recommended in patients with intradural MRI findings similar to fat in case of previous myelography. PMID:2827262

  16. Physicians who use social media and other internet-based communication technologies.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Rim, Sun Hee; Hawkins, Nikki A; Rodriguez, Juan L; Polonec, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The demographic and practice-related characteristics of physicians who use social networking websites, portable devices to access the internet, email to communicate with patients, podcasts, widgets, RSS feeds, and blogging were investigated. Logistic regression was used to analyze a survey of US primary care physicians, pediatricians, obstetrician/gynecologists, and dermatologists (N=1750). Reported technology use during the last 6 months ranged from 80.6% using a portable device to access the internet to 12.9% writing a blog. The most consistent predictors of use were being male, being younger, and having teaching hospital privileges. Physician specialty, practice setting, years in practice, average number of patients treated per week, and number of physicians in practice were found to be inconsistently associated or unassociated with use of the technologies examined. Demographic characteristics, rather than practice-related characteristics, were more consistent predictors of physician use of seven internet-based communication technologies with varying levels of uptake. PMID:22634078

  17. Brave New Media World: A Science Communications Voyage to the Great Pacific Garbage Patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisewitz, A.; Clark, C. L.

    2009-12-01

    By leveraging online tools, such as blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Google Earth, flickr and web-based discussion boards, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography team recently took science communications out of the static webpage to create an interactive journey that sparked social dialogue and helped raise awareness of science-based research on global marine environmental problems. A crew of 16 researchers, volunteers and support staff, with assistance from the shore-based Scripps Oceanography communications team, took readers and viewers aboard Scripps’ research vessel New Horizon during the 20-day and more than 2,500-mile SEAPLEX expedition (Scripps Environmental Accumulation of Plastic Expedition). The journey to the North Pacific Ocean Gyre, aka “The Great Pacific Garbage Patch,” was chronicled through popular daily blogs and tweets as the researchers shared interesting scientific facts and unusual findings contained in the 100 oceanographic tow samples conducted in the water to collect data on the distribution of plastic near the gyre.

  18. Prediction of the effects of rain on satellite communication systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Crane

    1977-01-01

    The major propagation effects for satellite communication systems operating above 4 GHz are caused by rain. With the possible exceptions of depolarization and multiple scattering at frequencies above 20 GHz, these effects may be calculated if the distribution of rain intensity is known in both time and space. The major effects-attenuation and interference-require information about path and volume averaged rain

  19. Effect of anode diffusion media on direct formic acid fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunghyun Uhm; Jae Kwang Lee; Sung Taik Chung; Jaeyoung Lee

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the anode diffusion media on the cell performance and mass transport in a direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) has been characterized. Based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy along with the cell performance tests of the fuel cell, it was found that, depending on the properties of the diffusion media, different molar concentrations of formic acid were required

  20. Inhibitory effects of vanillin on some food spoilage yeasts in laboratory media and fruit purées

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Cerrutti; Stella M. Alzamora

    1996-01-01

    The effect of vanillin and essential oil of mint on the growth of different strains of food spoilage yeasts in laboratory media and fruit purées was studied. Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Debaryomyces hansenii and Z. bailii was inhibited in culture media and apple purée containing 2000 ppm of vanillin for 40 days storage at 27 °C and aw

  1. Effect of X-ray Contrast Media, Chlorination, and Chloramination on Zebrafish Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effect of X-ray Contrast Media, Chlorination, and Chloramination on Zebrafish Development Little is known about the vertebrate developmental toxicity of chlorinated or chloraminated drinking water (DW), iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM, a common contaminate of DW) or how the c...

  2. The Effect of Media on Citizens' Fear of Crime in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdonmez, Erhan

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted on-site in Istanbul, Turkey, to determine the effects that mass media has on citizens' perceptions about fear of crime, in particular, and fear, in general. Specifically, the study was designed to (1) determine the tendency of citizens' media consumption, (2) determine the level of fear of crime among Turkish citizens, (3)…

  3. EFFECT OF ANAEROBIOSIS ON FILTER MEDIA POLLUTANT RETENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the results of experiments conducted to determine if four potential filter media (sand, activated carbon, peat moss, and compost) could retain previously-trapped pollutants even under anaerobic conditions. The results indicated that permanent retention of heav...

  4. Media as social influence: racial differences in the effects of peers and media on adolescent alcohol cognitions and consumption.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Frederick X; Pomery, Elizabeth A; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Wills, Thomas A; Kingsbury, John; Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen

    2010-12-01

    Racial differences in the effects of peer and media influence on adolescents' alcohol cognitions and consumption were examined in a large-scale panel study. With regard to peer influence, results from cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the relation between perceived peer drinking and own drinking was significant for both Black and White adolescents, but it was stronger for the White adolescents. With regard to media influence, structural modeling analyses indicated that exposure to drinking in movies was associated with more alcohol consumption 8 months and 16 months later. These effects were mediated by increases in the favorability of the adolescents' drinker prototypes, their willingness to drink, and their tendency to affiliate with friends who were drinking. Multiple group analyses indicated that, once again, the effects (both direct and indirect) were much stronger for White adolescents than for Black adolescents. The results suggest media influence works in a similar manner to social influence and that Whites may be more susceptible to both types of influence. PMID:21198226

  5. Effect of iron exposure in SRB media on pitting initiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Starosvetsky; O. Khaselev; J. Starosvetsky; R. Armon; J. Yahalom

    2000-01-01

    Pitting corrosion of iron (99.9%) in Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) media containing 0.09–0.30 g\\/l sulphides and 0.1–5.0 g\\/l [Cl?] was studied. Iron electrode immersed in SRB media undergoes fast activation and numerous active sites formed on the surface. Depending on exposure time, pitting was initiated at different potentials. After short period (<2 h) in open circuit potential, when active sites were

  6. Feasibility and induced effects of subsurface porous media hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmann Pfeiffer, Wolf; Li, Dedong; Wang, Bo; Bauer, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    Fluctuations in energy production from renewable sources like wind or solar power can lead to shortages in energy supply which can be mitigated using energy storage concepts. Underground storage of hydrogen in porous sandstone formations could be a storage option for large amounts of energy over long storage cycles. However, this use of the subsurface requires an analysis of possible interactions with other uses of the subsurface such as geothermal energy storage or groundwater abstraction. This study aims at quantifying the feasibility of porous media hydrogen storage to provide stored energy on a timescale of several days to weeks as well as possible impacts on the subsurface. The hypothetical storage site is based on an anticlinal structure located in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany. The storage is injected and extracted using five wells completed in a partially eroded, heterogeneous sandstone layer in the top of the structure at a depth of about 500 m. The storage formation was parameterized based on a local facies model with intrinsic permeabilities of 250-2500 mD and porosities of 35-40%. Storage initialization and subsequent storage cycles, each consisting of a hydrogen injection and extraction, were numerically simulated. The simulation results indicate the general feasibility of this hydrogen storage concept. The simulated sandstone formation is able to provide an average of around 1480 t of hydrogen per week (1830 TJ) which is about 5% of the total weekly energy production or about 10% of the weekly energy consumption of Schleswig-Holstein with the hydrogen production rate being the limiting factor of the overall performance. Induced hydraulic effects are a result of the induced overpressure within the storage formation. Propagation of the pressure signal does not strongly depend on the formation heterogeneity and thus shows approximately radial characteristics with one bar pressure change in distances of about 5 km from the injection wells. Thermal effects are mainly limited to the gas phase and the near vicinity of the injection wells. However, conductive heat transport into the overlying barrier formations can be observed, causing temperature changes of 1 K in distances less than 300 m in lateral and 30 m in vertical direction. The area of induced chemical effects is given by the distribution of the injected gas phase. The spatial distribution of the gas phase shows a strong dependence on formation heterogeneity, with a maximum reach of around 3 km from the injection wells and a covered area of around 4 km². The results indicate that it is possible to use porous media hydrogen storage to store and retrieve energy from the subsurface to mitigate shortages in energy production. The induced effects associated with such a storage operation range from the meter to the kilometer scale depending on the individual process.

  7. How effective is tailored print communication?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celette Sugg Skinner; Marci K. Campbell; Barbara K. Rimer; Susan Curry; James O. Prochaska

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the “frist generation” of tailored print communications studies in the published literature, describing\\u000a the purpose, theoretical framework, sample, research design, message type and source, outcomes measured, and findings of each.\\u000a Eight studies compared tailored versus similar nontailored print; one compared tailored print versus an alternate intervention,\\u000a and three included tailored print as one of several intervention components.

  8. Effect of media use on HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and condom use in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Arya, Monisha; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and the degree of condom use varies by socioeconomic status (SES). However, there is limited research on the effect of mass media use on HIV/AIDS-related cognitive and behavioral outcomes in low-income countries and how it might influence the association between SES and HIV-related outcomes. We investigated the moderating effect of media use on the relationship between SES and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and condom use in sub-Saharan Africa in terms of communication inequalities. Cross-sectional data from the Demographic Health Surveys from 13 sub-Saharan countries (2004-10) were pooled. Gender-stratified multivariable poisson regression of 151,209 women and 68,890 men were used to calculate adjusted relative ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between SES, media use, HIV-related outcomes, and condom use. We found significant disparities in mass media use among people from different SES groups as well as among countries. Education and wealth are strongly and positively associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS and knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS and are significantly associated with condom use. These associations are attenuated when the use of various types of mass media is added to the models, with newspapers showing the strongest effect. The findings of this study suggest that media use has the potential to blunt the impact of socioeconomic status though not completely eliminate it. Thus, we need to pay attention to reducing communication inequalities among social groups and countries to moderate the effect of wealth and SES on HIV/AIDS. PMID:23874598

  9. Performance effects of irregular communications patterns on massively parallel multiprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltz, Joel; Berryman, Harry; Petiton, Serge; Rifkin, Adam

    1991-01-01

    A detailed study of the performance effects of irregular communications patterns on the CM-2 was conducted. The communications capabilities of the CM-2 were characterized under a variety of controlled conditions. In the process of carrying out the performance evaluation, extensive use was made of a parameterized synthetic mesh. In addition, timings with unstructured meshes generated for aerodynamic codes and a set of sparse matrices with banded patterns on non-zeroes were performed. This benchmarking suite stresses the communications capabilities of the CM-2 in a range of different ways. Benchmark results demonstrate that it is possible to make effective use of much of the massive concurrency available in the communications network.

  10. Effects of continuing paediatric education in interpersonal communication skills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra M. van Dulmen; Robert A. Holl

    2000-01-01

    Paediatric care places great demands on interpersonal communication skills, especially as regards the handling of psychosocial\\u000a issues. Recent shifts in paediatric morbidity and increases in patient empowerment furthermore emphasize the need for continuing\\u000a paediatric education in communication skills. It is, however, debatable, whether after residency paediatric education can\\u000a influence paediatrician performance. This study evaluated the effects of a 5-day experiential

  11. Environmental effects of information and communications technologies.

    PubMed

    Williams, Eric

    2011-11-17

    The digital revolution affects the environment on several levels. Most directly, information and communications technology (ICT) has environmental impacts through the manufacturing, operation and disposal of devices and network equipment, but it also provides ways to mitigate energy use, for example through smart buildings and teleworking. At a broader system level, ICTs influence economic growth and bring about technological and societal change. Managing the direct impacts of ICTs is more complex than just producing efficient devices, owing to the energetically expensive manufacturing process, and the increasing proliferation of devices needs to be taken into account. PMID:22094696

  12. News Releases Media Resources

    E-print Network

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    News Media Contacts News Releases Media Resources University Community Communications Help News Policies Submit News Submit Announcements All Top Stories | « Previous Top Story | Next Top Story » Top Research Admission & Aid Administration & Services Campus Life Visiting Campus News@Princeton Friday

  13. Nonlinear Effects in Advanced Communications Circuits Excited by Pulsed RF

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    , lower voltage · Develop basis for modeling RF effects #12;IREAP Outline · Overview of basic circuit Direct Injection RF Test System Pull-up Resistor RF Source Bias-T RF Amplifier Spectrum AnalyzerIREAP Nonlinear Effects in Advanced Communications Circuits Excited by Pulsed RF John Rodgers, Todd

  14. Communicating and Learning in Engineering Online Resources 1 Studying effectively

    E-print Network

    Sekercioglu, Y. Ahmet

    Communicating and Learning in Engineering Online Resources 1 Studying effectively Effective study a comprehensive time management system. Memory and Study practices We really only learn and remember material to understand and remember. Check that you actually understand what you are learning by explaining it to someone

  15. SHORT COMMUNICATION Metabolic and Weight Loss Effects of Long-

    E-print Network

    Suchard, Marc A.

    SHORT COMMUNICATION Metabolic and Weight Loss Effects of Long- Term Dietary Intervention in Obese A. SUCHARD, AND GUIDO ADLER. Metabolic and weight loss effects of long-term dietary intervention a 3 months of weight loss, all patients were prescribed the same energy-restricted diet (1200 to 1500

  16. Media Ecology and Symbolic Interactionism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan B. Barnes

    This paper examines Mead's role in media ecological studies and will explore his relationship to media ecology from an interpersonal communication perspective. Included in this discussion are Mead's concepts of self, symbolic interactionism, and the relationship between symbolic interactionism and media ecology. Examples from Internet research are used to illustrate how media ecology can be applied to interpersonal mediated communication

  17. Effects of temperature on bacterial transport and destruction in bioretention media: Field and laboratory evaluations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial activities (such as metabolism, predation, and proliferation) are significantly influenced by temperature. This study investigated the effects of temperature on the capture and destruction of bacteria from urban stormwater runoff in bioretention media using 2-yr field evaluations coupled ...

  18. The communication triangle: elements of an effective warning message

    SciTech Connect

    Vaught, C.; Brnich, M.J. Jr.; Mallett, L. [NIOSH-PRL (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The lack of good communication is a very real problem in mine emergencies. To counter communication breakdowns, researchers at the NIOSH Pittsburgh Research Laboratory developed the Emergency Communication Triangle. It is a training intervention designed to help those giving a warning to provide the right sort of information and those receiving a warning to ask the right questions. The Triangle has six ordered components with the first three considered most important. The Emergency Communication is packaged as a short safety talk to be given by supervisors at the start of a shift. It was first tested in 1998 with a group of 236 workers at an underground mine in Colorado, and proved effective. It was followed up in 2003 and again in 2004. Now, more than half the miners would report who was affected by an event, 60% would report in its severity, and 70% would say what had been done so far. 3 figs.

  19. Effective Nurse Communication With Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Review.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Bob C; Lokhorst, Anne Marike; Rutten, Guy E H M; van Woerkum, Cees M J

    2015-08-01

    Many type 2 diabetes mellitus patients have difficulties reaching optimal blood glucose control. With patients treated in primary care by nurses, nurse communication plays a pivotal role in supporting patient health. The twofold aim of the present review is to categorize common barriers to nurse-patient communication and to review potentially effective communication methods. Important communication barriers are lack of skills and self-efficacy, possibly because nurses work in a context where they have to perform biomedical examinations and then perform patient-centered counseling from a biopsychosocial approach. Training in patient-centered counseling does not seem helpful in overcoming this paradox. Rather, patient-centeredness should be regarded as a basic condition for counseling, whereby nurses and patients seek to cooperate and share responsibility based on trust. Nurses may be more successful when incorporating behavior change counseling based on psychological principles of self-regulation, for example, goal setting, incremental performance accomplishments, and action planning. PMID:24757047

  20. New Media in IYA2009: Communicating with the world via the web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Pamela L.; Koppelman, M.; IYA New Media Task Group

    2009-01-01

    In the 2009 International Year of Astronomy, new media will play a prominent role in engaging people in the universe that is theirs to discover. New online projects will take advantage of a diversity of technologies, allowing us to bring content to people through a variety of devices in places they work, play and learn. In this session we will give an overview of our programs, high-lighting: "AstroTwitter," an interface that asks 'What are you looking at?' and allows you to see how observers around the globe (professional and amateur) answer that same question; "Portal to the Universe," your one stop shop for all things new in astronomy; the "365 Days of Astronomy" podcast, which brings you an 8-minute podcast on the people, places, things, thoughts and discoveries in astronomy each day of 2009; new projects to extend Galaxy Zoo to new areas of science both in our solar system and at the edge of the cosmos; our social networking initiatives in Facebook, Flickr and YouTube; and the IYA Second Life® Island, which will be unveiled during this session. In addition to showing you how to access each of these new projects, we will also tell you how you can become a part of the projects in the coming months.

  1. Use of New Media by Turkish Fans in Sport Communication: Facebook and Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Özsoy, Selami

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the use of Facebook and Twitter, two social networks, for sportive reasons in Turkey. To this end, the literature was surveyed and a 5 Likert type data collection tool consisting of 21 questions was developed by the researcher based on the expert views. The sample of the research included 460 sport fans who are college students at Abant ?zzet Baysal University and Sakarya University. It was found in the research that 91.7% of the participants had a profile on Facebook and 13.3% had a profile on Twitter. The rate of opening an account on Twitter, which still has no version in Turkish language, was low. It was found that the fans mostly followed the official site of their favorite team on Facebook, got informed about the sports activities through Facebook and learned news, which they did not hear from other sources. It was also ascertained that male fans used social networks for sportive reasons more than female fans did (p<.05). It is possible to state that social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have become a rapidly-developing alternative medium in sports against traditional media such as newspaper and television. PMID:23487565

  2. Effect of Contrast Media on Megavoltage Photon Beam Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Rankine, Ashley W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Verdun Street, Nedlands, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia)], E-mail: Ashley.Rankine@health.wa.gov.au; Lanzon, Peter J.; Spry, Nigel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Verdun Street, Nedlands, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in photon beam dosimetry caused by using contrast media during computed tomography (CT) simulation and determine if the resulting changes are clinically significant. The effect of contrast on dosimetry was first examined for a single 6-MV photon beam incident on a plane phantom with a structure of varying electron densities ({rho}{sub e}) and thickness. Patient studies were then undertaken in which CT data sets were collected with and without contrast for 6 typical patients. Three patients received IV contrast (Optiray-240{sup TM}) only and 3 received IV plus oral (Gastrograffin{sup TM}) contrast. Each patient was planned using conformal multifield techniques in accordance with the department standards. Two methods were used to compare the effect of contrast on dosimetry for each patient. The phantom analysis showed that the change in dose at the isocenter for a single 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} 6-MV photon beam traversing 10 cm of a contrast-enhanced structure with {rho}{sub e} 1.22 was 7.0% (1.22 was the highest average {rho}{sub e} observed in the patient data). As a result of using contrast, increases in {rho}{sub e} were observed in structures for the 6 patients studied. Consequently, when using contrast-enhanced CT data for multifield planning, increases in dose at the isocenter and in critical structures were observed up to 2.1% and 2.5%, respectively. Planning on contrast-enhanced CT images may result in an increase in dose of up to 2.1% at the isocenter, which would generally be regarded as clinically insignificant. If, however, a critical organ is in close proximity to the planning target volume (PTV) and is planned to receive its maximum allowable dose, planning on contrast-enhanced CT images may result in that organ receiving dose beyond the recommended tolerance. In these instances, pre-contrast CT data should be used for dosimetry.

  3. Effect of pore geometry in porous media on the miscibility of crude oil and carbon dioxide 

    E-print Network

    Sarkhosh, Hamed

    1977-01-01

    EFFECT OF PORE GEOMETRY IN POROUS MEDIA ON THE MISCIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL AND CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by HAMED SARKHOSH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1977 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering EFFECT OF PORE GEOMETRY IN POROUS MEDIA ON THE MISCIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL AND CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by HAMED SARKHOSH Approved as to styie and content by Chai, an of Committee Head...

  4. Media Literacy and Attitude Change: Assessing the Effectiveness of Media Literacy Training on Children's Responses to Persuasive Messages within the ELM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Bradford L.

    This study adds to the small but growing body of literature that examines the effectiveness of media literacy training on children's responses to persuasive messages. Within the framework of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of persuasion, this research investigates whether media literacy training is a moderating variable in the persuasion…

  5. The Media and Their Effect on Black Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawles, Beth

    Certain myths, images and stereotypes of blacks have existed in American minds since the late 1800's. The movie industry has taught the public a great deal of what they know about blacks and reinforced the stereotypes. Blacks have also been stereotyped in radio and television and although the electronic media has helped many black actors to obtain…

  6. The Media and Its Effect on Black Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawles, Beth

    While the media is not directly responsible for establishing bigoted attitudes and prejudices, movies, television, radio, and print have reinforced racial prejudice and perpetuated the negative images and stereotypes of blacks in this country. Movies as early as 1902 reflect many of the early black stereotypes: the black male is stupid and lazy,…

  7. The Immediate Effects of Media Violence on Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geen, Russell G.; Thomas, Susan L.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews experimental studies and field investigations of the influence of violence in the mass media on aggressive behavior. Relates this research to recent developments in cognitive psychology. Suggests that the cognitive-neoassociationist hypothesis provides the best explanation for the overall findings and may subsume other hypotheses…

  8. The Effect of Interactive Media on Children's Story Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricci, Christine M.; Beal, Carole R.

    2002-01-01

    In order to examine the influence of interactive media on children's story memory, first-grade children experienced a computer-based story in one of four presentation modes, two of which were interactive. In the interaction groups, there was no relation between the amount of interaction with the story and subsequent memory. (Author)

  9. The effects of hands-free communication device systems: communication changes in hospital organizations

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Joshua E; Ash, Joan S

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effects that hands-free communication device (HCD) systems have on healthcare organizations from multiple user perspectives. Design This exploratory qualitative study recruited 26 subjects from multiple departments in two research sites located in Portland, Oregon: an academic medical center and a community hospital. Interview and observation data were gathered January through March, 2007. Measurements Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Because this study was exploratory, data were coded and patterns identified until overall themes ‘emerged’. Results Five themes arose: (1) Communication access—the perception that HCD systems provide fast and efficient communication that supports workflow; (2) Control—social and technical considerations associated with use of an HCD system; (3) Training—processes that should be used to improve use of the HCD system; (4) Organizational change—changes to organizational design and behavior caused by HCD system implementation; and (5) Environment and infrastructure—HCD system use within the context of physical workspaces. Conclusion HCD systems improve communication access but users experience challenges integrating the system into workflow. Effective HCD use depends on how well organizations train users, adapt to changes brought about by HCD systems, and integrate HCD systems into physical surroundings. PMID:20064808

  10. Effects of the troposphere on radio communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. M. Hall

    1980-01-01

    The book is concerned primarily with the effects of the troposphere and the ground on wave propagation at frequencies greater than about 30 MHz, although reference is made also to ionospheric phenomena where these are relevant. Consideration is given to the nature of atmospheric refractive index variations and of hydrometeor characteristics and their effects on radio waves. The characteristics of

  11. Communication constraints, indexical countermeasures, and crew configuration effects in simulated space-dwelling groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Hienz; Joseph V. Brady; Steven R. Hursh; Michele J. Banner; Eric D. Gasior; Kevin R. Spence

    2007-01-01

    Previous research with groups of individually isolated crews communicating and problem-solving in a distributed interactive simulation environment has shown that the functional interchangeability of available communication channels can serve as an effective countermeasure to communication constraints. The present report extends these findings by investigating crew performance effects and psychosocial adaptation following: (1) the loss of all communication channels, and (2)

  12. Comfortably numb: desensitizing effects of violent media on helping others.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Brad J; Anderson, Craig A

    2009-03-01

    Two studies tested the hypothesis that exposure to violent media reduces aid offered to people in pain. In Study 1, participants played a violent or nonviolent video game for 20 min. After game play, while completing a lengthy questionnaire, they heard a loud fight, in which one person was injured, outside the lab. Participants who played violent games took longer to help the injured victim, rated the fight as less serious, and were less likely to "hear" the fight in comparison to participants who played nonviolent games. In Study 2, violent- and nonviolent-movie attendees witnessed a young woman with an injured ankle struggle to pick up her crutches outside the theater either before or after the movie. Participants who had just watched a violent movie took longer to help than participants in the other three conditions. The findings from both studies suggest that violent media make people numb to the pain and suffering of others. PMID:19207695

  13. Dynamic nonlinear effect on lasing in random media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hui; Yamilov, Alexey; Liu, Bo; Xu, Jun-Ying; Ling, Yong; Seelig, Eric; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2004-08-01

    We review our recent work on lasing in active random media. Light scattering, which had been regarded detrimental to lasing action for a long time, actually provided coherent feedback for lasing. We also trapped laser light in micrometer-sized random media. The trapping was caused by disorder-induced scattering and inference. This nontraditional way of light confinement has important application to microlasers. The threshold of random laser can be reduced by incorporating some degree of order into an active random medium. Our calculation result shows that by optimizing the degree of order one can dramatically reduce the threshold of random laser to the values comparable to those of photonic bandgap defect lasers.

  14. Cover Image: Photography, Creative Media Cover Design: Jane Parrott

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    #12;Cover Image: Photography, Creative Media Cover Design: Jane Parrott Graphics, Creative Media Communications & External Relations Oak Ridge National Laboratory Cover Image: Photography, Creative Media Cover

  15. The role of attention problems and impulsiveness in media violence effects on aggression.

    PubMed

    Swing, Edward L; Anderson, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has established media violence as a causal risk factor for aggressive behavior. Several theoretical mechanisms have been identified to explain this effect. The present study assessed 422 undergraduate students to test the possibility that individual differences in attention problems and impulsiveness can help explain the link between violent media and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness proved to be a distinct construct from other processes believed to mediate aggression (aggressive beliefs, aggression related schemata, trait anger, and trait hostility). Attention problems and impulsiveness were uniquely related to both media exposure (total weekly hours and violent content) and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness were particularly related to impulsive (as opposed to premeditated) aggression. These results suggest that attention problems and impulsiveness may play an important role in violent media effects on aggression. PMID:24452487

  16. Gun violence and media effects: challenges for science and public policy.

    PubMed

    Elson, Malte; Ferguson, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    In response to the Sandy Hook shooting in December 2012, the White House published an action plan to reduce gun violence that, among other things, calls for research into the relationship with violence in digital games or other media images. We acknowledge the administration's efforts to reduce violent crime in society and their obligation to dedicate resources to matters of public interest, such as media effects. However, research projects launched in the midst of a moral panic bear the risk of introducing bias and distracting from more important issues. Ideological rigidity has repeatedly shaped past research on media violence. Current initiatives could be an opportunity to restore credibility to the field and to engage in a responsible dialogue on media effects. In order to inform public policy, we need to close gaps, both in empirical research and the academic debate, while being alert for potential political and social influences. PMID:24187065

  17. Short communication The effects of predictable and unpredictable feeding

    E-print Network

    Raghanti, Mary Ann

    Short communication The effects of predictable and unpredictable feeding schedules on the behavior unpredictability would alter behavior and fecal cortisol concentrations. Major differences in behavior typically restricted to on-time and early feeds. More negative changes in behavior were seen in the unpredictable phase

  18. Toward a Standard of Communication Training Effectiveness Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Matthew D.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    Communication training efforts in American business have increased steadily for the past several years. While this increase may be viewed as positive from several vantage points, it has not been matched by an increase in any systematic application of evaluation measures. Effective evaluation should take place at various levels. D. L. Kirkpatrick…

  19. Learning the Intricacies of Effective Communication through Game Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    As many teachers of communication come to realize, students often operate under the misconception that the effective use of language consists primarily of memorizing and applying the rules and regulations of grammar. Even worse, some students believe that they must inherit a talent for language and that without a genetic predisposition, they can…

  20. Radiation effects on semiconductor optical devices for space communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. W. Aukerman; Y. Song; F. L. Vernon Jr.; G. A. Evans; J. Z. Wilcox

    1982-01-01

    A survey of the published literature on radiation effects in laser diodes and photodiodes as applied to space communications is presented. Laser diodes should be relatively hard to nuclear environments, especially if operated well above threshold, and should be quite hard to the natural environment. Photodiodes, on the other hand, may experience excess noise due to sustained ionization by Van

  1. Effective Communication in Legal and Public Policy Hearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Jim; Sonsteng, John; Thorstad, Linda

    2014-04-01

    Scientists play a special role in legal debates and public policy decisions. The challenge for scientists who serve as expert witnesses is to communicate effectively in various legal forums, including litigation and legislative hearings. Expert witnesses must not advocate for one side or the other but must be able to convey the meaning as well as the quality and accuracy of their work.

  2. Effective erasure codes for reliable computer communication protocols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Rizzo

    1997-01-01

    Reliable communication protocols require that all the intended recipients of a message receive the message intact. Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) techniques are used in unicast protocols, but they do not scale well to multicast protocols with large groups of receivers, since segment losses tend to become uncorrelated thus greatly reducing the effectiveness of retransmissions. In such cases, Forward Error Correction

  3. Shielding effectiveness of reinforced concrete structures in cellular communication bands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Elkamchouchi; A. T. Abdelkader

    2002-01-01

    The proliferation of cellular communication systems in and around man-made structures has resulted in a growing need to determine the shielding properties of various materials commonly used in buildings. This will be useful in two major branches of applications, namely radio base station planning and the effect of exposure to very near radiation sources inside buildings, especially those carrying radio

  4. Prediction of tropospheric multipath effects on microwave communication system performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Vasseur; D Vanhoenacker-Janvier

    1996-01-01

    A simple deterministic model is proposed to represent in a realistic way the time evolution of nocturnal refractive layers in the lower troposphere. It enables simulations of the multipath fading effects induced on both microwave terrestrial links and low-elevation satellite paths. It offers an efficient means for characterising the transmission channel and predicting the error performances of radio communication systems

  5. Promoting open access to science through effective communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Egger

    2006-01-01

    Geology is a difficult subject to communicate effectively. Many people associate geology with memorizing rock and mineral names and not with dynamic earth processes. Even more challenging for the non-geologist is the concept of deep time, and why processes that happened millions of years ago are important to us today. Additionally, many people view science itself as inaccessible and difficult.

  6. Structured Communication: Effects on Teaching Efficacy of Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Don W.; Roberts, T. Grady; Murphy, Tim H.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching efficacy beliefs of agricultural science student teachers during field experiences may affect the number of student teachers entering the profession. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects implementing structured communication between cooperating teachers and student teachers would have on student teachers' self-perceived…

  7. Reduction of adjacent channel interference effects in GMSK communication links

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Mendlovitz

    2002-01-01

    The problem of adjacent channel interference (ACI) in GMSK communication links is addressed, and a new high-performance demodulator is proposed for reducing the effects of ACI. The key modification in our (hard or soft-decision) trellis demodulator is the addition of persurvivor LMS adaptive filtering to \\

  8. Terminology Revisited: Effective Communications for the Agricultural Community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA, particularly on small farms. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information as effectively as possible. Many...

  9. "Media Violence Is Made to Attract and Entertain People": Responses to Media Literacy Lessons on the Effects of and Institutional Motives behind Media Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekarasih, Laras; Walsh, Kimberly R.; Scharrer, Erica

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the following research question: How do sixth-graders respond to a media literacy lesson that was designed to, among other goals, introduce the concept of the presence of commercial interest in media production, particularly regarding the prevalence of media violence? Forty-seven responses were analyzed thematically using…

  10. Body force effect on consolidation of porous elastic media due to pumping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the linear poro?elasticity theory is applied to examine the body force effect on consolidation of porous media due to pumping. The steady?state solutions of displacement and incremental effective stress for a stratum of clay sandwiched between sandy strata are analytically given. The effect of body force could be represented by the body force number that depends on

  11. Effects of contrast media on the hepato-pancreato-biliary system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omer Topcu; Atilla Kurt; Isilay Nadir; Sema Arici; Ayhan Koyuncu; Cengiz Aydin

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of high osmolarity contrast media (HOCM) and iso-osmolar contrast media (CM) application, with or without pressure, on hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) system. METHODS: Sixty rats were divided into six equal groups as follows: Group 1: (0.9% NaCl, control), Group 2: (diatrizoate meglumine Na, ionic HOCM, Urographin®), Group 3: (iodixanol, iso-osmolar non- ionic CM, Visipaque®); each of which

  12. Retroreflective effect on a right angle left-handed media prism.

    PubMed

    Monzon, Cesar; Forester, Donald W; Burkhart, Richard

    2006-03-01

    A different retroreflective effect which parallels that encountered with dihedral corner reflectors is found in the scattering response of a penetrable left-handed media epsilon= mu= -1 right angle prism. More significantly, no diffraction from the vertex is found to exist and hence no field singularity for the right angle wedge. Although the results are illustrated with microwaves, the concept finds applications in optics, acoustics, elasticity, and other media characterized by negative index wave propagation. PMID:16605690

  13. Information and Communication Technology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Communication is a central aspect of all our lives. Today, our modes of communication are highly dependent on technologies such as the internet, wireless networks, phones, and computers. This issue of Topic in Depth explores the ways these forms of communication are part of our lives and highlights some new directions in communication technology.WordIQ Dictionary and Encyclopedia (1) offers this definition: "Communication is the process of exchanging information usually via a common system of symbols." The website explains some of the key process involved in communication and describes different forms of communication, such as animal communication, interpersonal communication, and computer-mediated communication. Also taking a broad view on communication, this world history website (2) provides some background on the mathematical theories that are used in designing telecommunications systems. The articles highlighted on this website from the Center for the Study of Technology and Society (4) attest to the far reaching influence of communication technology. As research on the MediaLab Europe website suggests (5), we have moved into not just developing technology that mediates interpersonal communication (such as phones) but also creating "intimate and personal connections with and through new technologies." This NSF website (6) also highlights some recent discoveries in Computer Information Science and Engineering. Finally, this article from First Monday (7) discusses the far-reaching effects these new developments in technology and globalization are having on language and learning.

  14. Spacetime effects on satellite-based quantum communications

    E-print Network

    Bruschi, David Edward; Fuentes, Ivette; Jennewein, Thomas; Razavi, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of space-time curvature on space-based quantum communication protocols. We analyze tasks that require either the exchange of single photons in a certain entanglement distribution protocol or beams of light in a continuous-variable quantum key distribution scheme. We find that gravity affects the propagation of photons, therefore acting as a noisy channel for the transmission of information. The effects can be measured with current technology.

  15. Data communications

    SciTech Connect

    Preckshot, G.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining computer communication systems used in nuclear power plants. The recommendations cover three areas important to these communications systems: system design, communication protocols, and communication media. The first area, system design, considers three aspects of system design--questions about architecture, specific risky design elements or omissions to look for in designs being reviewed, and recommendations for multiplexed data communication systems used in safety systems. The second area reviews pertinent aspects of communication protocol design and makes recommendations for newly designed protocols or the selection of existing protocols for safety system, information display, and non-safety control system use. The third area covers communication media selection, which differs significantly from traditional wire and cable. The recommendations for communication media extend or enhance the concerns of published IEEE standards about three subjects: data rate, imported hazards and maintainability.

  16. The Effects of Media Richness/Media Poorness on the Accuracy of Assessments about Candidate Stands on Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Randal A.

    A secondary analysis of data collected by Thomas Patterson during the 1976 presidential campaign was made to test three hypotheses: (1) respondents in a media-rich environment will show higher levels of political information holding than respondents in a media-poor environment, (2) differences in information holding levels between a media-rich…

  17. Examining the effects of media on learners' mental representations and cognitive processes in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Adrienne L.

    This study examined the effects of television and video games as media on the science knowledge and understanding of middle school students in a Midwest, urban charter school. Twenty-five study participants were organized into eight focus groups. Each group, which comprised of three to four members, was introduced to one of two media types, a television show episode or video games, and then asked a series of questions prompting group dialogue. Results show that students were able to distinguish science ideas presented in the media and made science content connections from previous classroom learning. Implications suggest how teachers can utilize weapons of mass instruction, the tools of media technology, to fight against the challenges that plague our current system of education.

  18. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (76th, Kansas City, Missouri, August 11-14, 1993). Part V: Media and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Media and Technology section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 13 papers: "The 'Talking Newspaper': The Technical Virtuosity and Monologic Modality of Audiotex(t)" (George Albert Gladney); "An Historic Opportunity?: Communication Research in the Design of Communication Interfaces and Systems" (Frank Biocca);…

  19. Social media.

    PubMed

    Foster, James

    2013-01-01

    There is an argument that with the common use of a variety of media the professional expectations on our everyday life are becoming increasingly important. A moan about a patient on a Monday night 20 years ago may have been harmless. The same comment made using today's communication methods could result in a regulatory challenge. PMID:23729056

  20. A challenging empirical question: What are the effects of media on psychogenic illness during a community crisis?

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Elizabeth; Kaplan-Liss, Evonne; Dorf, Dennis; Broderick, Joan E.

    2012-01-01

    Psychogenic illness during disasters can cripple emergency healthcare services. Almost all research into this phenomenon has been retrospective and observational, and much of it suggests that media coverage can amplify psychogenic outbreaks. But there is little empirical evidence that this is true or that, conversely, media reports can mitigate psychogenic symptoms. In their work experimentally inducing psychogenic illness, the authors became sharply aware that it is difficult to experimentally mimic real-time media coverage. Yet clarifying media’s effects on psychogenic illness is important if we want to prevent psychological disturbance. To meet this challenge, the authors advocate the funding and development of research protocols in advance of public emergencies, ready to be implemented in real-time. Coupled with digital media, which can track the reading and viewing behavior of millions of people, this approach can help us better understand media’s impact on public health during an emergency, for better or for worse. PMID:23125953

  1. Laser satellite communication network-vibration effect and possible solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHLOMI ARNON; N. S. Kopeika

    1997-01-01

    A number of serious consortiums develop satellite communication networks. The objective of these communication projects is to service personal communication users almost everywhere on Earth. The intersatellite links in those projects use microwave radiation as the carrier. Free-space optical communication between satellites networked together can make possible high-speed communication between different places on Earth. Some advantages of an optical communication

  2. Accessing the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Judy

    This guide for school districts offers a quick outline for developing good communications skills and public relations with news media personnel. Guidelines for good press relations are provided that emphasize the importance of keeping two-way, open communications with the media, with attention to: accuracy; being prepared; sharing the bad news as…

  3. Body image disturbances: the effects of media on self-appraisal and ideal mate selection 

    E-print Network

    Litzsinger, Sara Kay

    2013-02-22

    dissatisfaction, most researchers have found no effect. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of printed media images and interventions on participants' perceived body image, ideal body image, ideal body shape for the opposite sex, and current mood...

  4. Comparison of the effects of rolling resistance and angularity in sheared granular media

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    particle shape. Keywords: Granular material, rolling resistance, angularity, shear strength, solid fractionComparison of the effects of rolling resistance and angularity in sheared granular media Nicolas. In this paper, we compare the effect of rolling resistance at the contacts in granular systems composed of disks

  5. The effect of a health communication campaign on compliance with mass drug administration for schistosomiasis control in western Kenya--the SCORE project.

    PubMed

    Omedo, Martin; Ogutu, Michael; Awiti, Alphonce; Musuva, Rosemary; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan; Mwinzi, Pauline

    2014-11-01

    Compliance with mass drug administration (MDA) can be affected by rumors and mistrust about the drug. Communication campaigns are an effective way to influence attitudes and health behaviors in diverse public health contexts, but there is very little documentation about experiences using health communications in schistosomiasis control programs. A qualitative study was conducted with community health workers (CHWs) as informants to explore the effect of a health communication campaign on their experiences during subsequent praziquantel MDA for schistosomiasis. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated into English where applicable, and analyzed thematically using ATLAS.ti software. According to the CHWs, exposure to mass media messages improved awareness of the MDA, which in turn, led to better treatment compliance. Our findings suggest that communication campaigns influence health behaviors and create awareness of schistosomiasis control interventions, which may ultimately improve praziquantel MDA. PMID:25246690

  6. Effect of pore structure on gas trapping in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadian, Sadjad; Geistlinger, Helmut; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Capillary trapping of nonwetting phase in porous media plays an important role in many geological processes. For example, large portions of hydrocarbons cannot be extracted from reservoirs due to capillary forces, while in carbon sequestration processes; capillary trapping might improve the storage efficiency. An important case is when the wetting phase (mostly water) displaces a low-viscosity low-density fluid. In such cases, like water encroachment into gas reservoirs or rising of water table in soils, competition of gravity, viscous, and capillary forces determines the final configuration of the fluids in invaded zone. The trapped nonwetting phase and its distribution within the porous media will affect many other processes such as flow of the other fluids and mass transfer phenomena. Thus, investigating the parameters affecting phase trapping and distribution, especially their relation to pore structure, which controls the capillary action, is required. The aim is to predict gas trapping from structural properties of the material. We conducted a series of column experiments, in which water displaces air at a range of flow rates in different glass-bead packs. The final 3D configuration and morphology of fluids was observed using X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT). We extracted 3D structure of porous media as well as of the trapped gas phase, and quantified them in terms of volume ratios, interfacial area, and morphology. Then we investigated the relations of the trapped phase to capillary forces (pore structure) and viscous forces (front velocity). The results give us new insights to explore the flow and dissolution processes: We found no systematic dependency of the front velocity of the invading water phase in the velocity range from 0.1 to 0.6 cm/min what corresponds to capillary numbers from 2 to 12 ×10^-6. Our experimental results indicate that the capillary trapping mechanism is controlled by the local pore structure and local connectivity and not by thermodynamics, i.e. large pores are occupied first by the gas phase.

  7. Effects of Communication, Information Overlap, and Behavioral Consistency on Consensus in Social Perception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas E. Malloy; Fredric Agatstein; Aaron Yarlas; Linda Albright

    1997-01-01

    Three experiments (N = 69, 162, and 201, respectively) were conducted to test the mathematically derived predictions of the Weighted Average Model (D. A. Kenny, 1991) of consensus in interpersonal perception. Study 1 estimated the effect of perceiver communication, Study 2 estimated the effects of communication and stimulus overlap, and Study 3 estimated the effects of communication, overlap, and target

  8. Penetration and blown air effect in granular media.

    PubMed

    Clément, Raphaël; du Pont, Sylvain Courrech; Ould-Hamouda, Mehdi; Duveau, Donald; Douady, Stéphane

    2011-03-01

    Sand is known to oppose an increasing resistance to penetration with depth. This is different from what happens in liquids since granular media, usually nonthermal systems, oppose solid friction to the motion. We report another striking and "counterintuitive" difference between the penetration dynamics observed in sand and in liquids. When pushing a top-closed shell (e.g., an upside down glass) into a liquid, the trapped air increases the buoyancy and opposes the penetration. It is more difficult to push a top capped cylinder than an opened one vertically into liquids. In contrast, the penetration is considerably easier in dense sand when cylinders are top capped. In this discrete and biphasic medium, the trapped air escapes from the shell, fluidizes the sand, and eases the motion. PMID:21405652

  9. Penetration and Blown Air Effect in Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Raphaël; Du Pont, Sylvain Courrech; Ould-Hamouda, Mehdi; Duveau, Donald; Douady, Stéphane

    2011-03-01

    Sand is known to oppose an increasing resistance to penetration with depth. This is different from what happens in liquids since granular media, usually nonthermal systems, oppose solid friction to the motion. We report another striking and “counterintuitive” difference between the penetration dynamics observed in sand and in liquids. When pushing a top-closed shell (e.g., an upside down glass) into a liquid, the trapped air increases the buoyancy and opposes the penetration. It is more difficult to push a top capped cylinder than an opened one vertically into liquids. In contrast, the penetration is considerably easier in dense sand when cylinders are top capped. In this discrete and biphasic medium, the trapped air escapes from the shell, fluidizes the sand, and eases the motion.

  10. Evaluating New Media Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Ronald E.

    1984-01-01

    New media, such as electronic mail and word processing, are playing increasingly important roles in communication activities, especially in organizational settings. This article reviews the process by which new media are diffused, and describes some characteristics of new media that have implications for evaluation research. (Author/BW)

  11. Effects of Implementing the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) with Adults with Developmental Disabilities and Severe Communication Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Carl G.; Mayer, G. Roy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of "Picture Exchange Communication System" (PECS) training, using a multiple baseline design on the independent initiations of three adults with developmental disabilities and severe communication deficits. All participants increased their independent initiations, although at different levels of…

  12. Using Communication Strategies to Promote Sexual Health: Can Mass Media Get in Bed with the "Female" Condom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Sarah Mariel; Austin, S. Bryn

    2010-01-01

    Many public health students receive little, if any, formal training in communicating health information to the public. Public health practitioners, however, are regularly asked to use communication strategies to convey health information. The lesson plan was designed to teach students mass communication strategies in the context of sexual health…

  13. Spacetime effects on satellite-based quantum communications

    E-print Network

    David Edward Bruschi; Tim Ralph; Ivette Fuentes; Thomas Jennewein; Mohsen Razavi

    2014-04-26

    We investigate the consequences of space-time being curved on space-based quantum communication protocols. We analyze tasks that require either the exchange of single photons in a certain entanglement distribution protocol or beams of light in a continuous-variable quantum key distribution scheme. We find that gravity affects the propagation of photons, therefore adding additional noise to the channel for the transmission of information. The effects could be measured with current technology.

  14. The effects of visual proxemic information in video mediated communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Grayson; Lynne Coventry

    1998-01-01

    One of the simplest examples of non-verbal communication is that of proximity, i.e. the distance at which conversants stand (or sit) from each other when interacting. This is known to be guided by certain social rules which take into account personal relationships, culture, personality and the purpose of the discussion, violation of which leads to various psychological and behavioural effects.One

  15. Quantitative dosimetric assessment for effect of gold nanoparticles as contrast media on radiotherapy planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Shu-Ju; Yang, Pei-Ying; Hong, Ji-Hong; Lo, Ching-Jung

    2013-07-01

    In CT planning for radiation therapy, patients may be asked to have a medical procedure of contrast agent (CA) administration as required by their physicians. CA media improve quality of CT images and assist radiation oncologists in delineation of the target or organs with accuracy. However, dosimetric discrepancy may occur between scenarios in which CA media are present in CT planning and absent in treatment delivery. In recent preclinical experiments of small animals, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been identified as an excellent contrast material of x-ray imaging. In this work, we quantitatively evaluate the effect of AuNPs to be used as a potential material of contrast enhancement in radiotherapy planning with an analytical phantom and clinical case. Conray 60, an iodine-based product for contrast enhancement in clinical uses, is included as a comparison. Other additional variables such as different concentrations of CA media, radiation delivery techniques and dose calculation algorithms are included. We consider 1-field AP, 4-field box, 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a recent technique of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). CA media of AuNPs (Conray 60) with concentrations of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% containing 28.2, 56.4, 84.6, 112.8 and 141.0 mg of gold (iodine) per mL were prepared prior to CT scanning. A virtual phantom with a target where nanoparticle media are loaded and clinical case of gastric lymphoma in which the Conray 60 media were given to the patient prior to the CT planning are included for the study. Compared to Conray 60 media with concentration of 10%/50%, Hounsfield units for AuNP media of 10%/50% are 322/1608 higher due to the fact that atomic number of Au (Z=79) is larger than I (Z=53). In consequence, dosimetric discrepancy of AuNPs is magnified between presence and absence of contrast media. It was found in the phantom study that percent dose differences between presence and absence of CA media may be reduced by delivery techniques of 7-field IMRT or VMAT. To manage less than 3% of percent dose difference, it was suggested an upper limit of 15% (or 42.3 mg Au/mL) of AuNP media in the phantom study; 8% (or 22.5 mg Au/mL) in the specific clinical case.

  16. Corporate Communications Media Relations

    E-print Network

    CSCS-Direktor: «Ich freue mich sehr, nach etlichen Jahren Forschungsarbeit in den USA, in die Schweiz zurückzukehren und beim weiteren Ausbau des für die Schweiz so wichtigen Hochleistungsrechenzentrums in Manno

  17. Fluid effects on seismic waves in hard rocks with fractures and in soft granular media

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, James G.

    2009-03-01

    When fractures in otherwise hard rocks are filled with fluids (oil, gas, water, CO{sub 2}), the type and physical state of the fluid (liquid or gas) can make a large difference in the wave speeds and attenuation properties of seismic waves. The present work summarizes methods of deconstructing theses effects of fractures, together with any fluids contained within them, on wave propagation as observed in reflection seismic data. Additional studies of waves in fluid-saturated granular media show that the behavior can be quite different from that for fractured media, since these materials are typically much softer mechanically than are the fractured rocks (i.e., having a very small drained moduli). Important fluid effects in such media are often governed as much by fluid viscosity as by fluid bulk modulus.

  18. The Mass Media Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmgren, Rod, Ed.; Norton, William, Ed.

    This anthology consists of two major sections, "The News Media" and "The Entertainment Media." Both feature essays by critics, working professionals, and professional observers of the media. One aim of the anthology is to show the pervasive effect of the media on us. The section on news media comments on such topics as credibility gap, Vice…

  19. The Interactive Media Package for Assessment of Communication and Critical Thinking (IMPACCT[c]): Testing a Programmatic Online Communication Competence Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzberg, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    IMPACCT is an online survey covering over 40 self-report types of student communication competency, as well as a test of critical thinking based on cognitive problem-solving. The student nominates two peers who rate the student's interpersonal, computer-mediated, group and leadership, and public speaking communication competence. The student takes…

  20. The effect of priming materialism on women's responses to thin-ideal media.

    PubMed

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga

    2012-12-01

    Consumer culture is characterized by two prominent ideals: the 'body perfect' and the material 'good life'. Although the impact of these ideals has been investigated in separate research literatures, no previous research has examined whether materialism is linked to women's responses to thin-ideal media. Data from several studies confirm that the internalization of materialistic and body-ideal values is positively linked in women. After developing a prime for materialism (N = 50), we present an experimental examination (N = 155) of the effects of priming materialism on women's responses to thin-ideal media, using multiple outcome measures of state body dissatisfaction. Priming materialism affects women's body dissatisfaction after exposure to thin media models, but differently depending on the dimension of body image measured. The two main novel findings are that (1) priming materialism heightens the centrality of appearance to women's self-concept and (2) priming materialism influences the activation of body-related self-discrepancies (BRSDs), particularly for highly materialistic women. Exposure to materialistic media has a clear influence on women's body image, with trait materialism a further vulnerability factor for negative exposure effects in response to idealized, thin media models. PMID:21466563

  1. Antiobesity effect of Stellaria media against drug induced obesity in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Chidrawar, Vijay R.; Patel, Krishnakant N.; Sheth, Navin R.; Shiromwar, Shruti S.; Trivedi, Piyush

    2011-01-01

    The whole plant of Stellaria media (family: Caryophyllaceae) has been tested for its antiobesity activity by using progesterone-induced obesity model in female albino mice. The effect of S. media on food consumption pattern, change in body weight, thermogenesis, lipid metabolism, and histology of fat pad. were examined. Methanolic and alcoholic extracts of the S. media were used in the study. Methanolic extract of S. media (MESM) have prevented the increase in body weight, adipose tissue weight and size, and upturned obesity and associated complications. MESM has also shown promising effects compared with alcoholic extract of S. media may be because of its multiple mechanisms. These findings suggest that antiobesity activity produced by MESM is because of its anorexic property mediated by saponin and flavonoid and partly of by its ?-sitosterol content. ?-Sitosterol in the plant extract was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography study. ?-sitosterol is plant sterol having structural similarity with dietary fat which do the physical competition in the gastrointestinal tract and reduces fat absorption. Before carrying in vivo activity detail pharmacognostic and phytochemical analysis of the extracts was carried out. The plant has shown the presence of saponin, flavonoids, steroids and triterpenoids, glycosides, and anthocynidine. By this study, it can be concluded that, MESM is beneficial in suppression of obesity induced by progesterone. PMID:22661858

  2. Antiobesity effect of Stellaria media against drug induced obesity in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Chidrawar, Vijay R; Patel, Krishnakant N; Sheth, Navin R; Shiromwar, Shruti S; Trivedi, Piyush

    2011-10-01

    The whole plant of Stellaria media (family: Caryophyllaceae) has been tested for its antiobesity activity by using progesterone-induced obesity model in female albino mice. The effect of S. media on food consumption pattern, change in body weight, thermogenesis, lipid metabolism, and histology of fat pad. were examined. Methanolic and alcoholic extracts of the S. media were used in the study. Methanolic extract of S. media (MESM) have prevented the increase in body weight, adipose tissue weight and size, and upturned obesity and associated complications. MESM has also shown promising effects compared with alcoholic extract of S. media may be because of its multiple mechanisms. These findings suggest that antiobesity activity produced by MESM is because of its anorexic property mediated by saponin and flavonoid and partly of by its ?-sitosterol content. ?-Sitosterol in the plant extract was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography study. ?-sitosterol is plant sterol having structural similarity with dietary fat which do the physical competition in the gastrointestinal tract and reduces fat absorption. Before carrying in vivo activity detail pharmacognostic and phytochemical analysis of the extracts was carried out. The plant has shown the presence of saponin, flavonoids, steroids and triterpenoids, glycosides, and anthocynidine. By this study, it can be concluded that, MESM is beneficial in suppression of obesity induced by progesterone. PMID:22661858

  3. Effects of Mass Media Coverage on Timing and Annual Receipt of Influenza Vaccination among Medicare Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byung-Kwang; Holland, Margaret L; Bhattacharya, Jay; Phelps, Charles E; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2010-01-01

    Objective To measure the association between mass media coverage on flu-related topics and influenza vaccination, regarding timing and annual vaccination rates, among the nationally representative community-dwelling elderly. Data Source Years 1999, 2000, and 2001 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Study Design Cross-sectional survival analyses during each of three influenza vaccination seasons between September 1999 and December 2001. The outcome variable was daily vaccine receipt. We measured daily media coverage by counting the number of television program transcripts and newspaper/wire service articles, including keywords of influenza/flu and vaccine/shot shortage/delay. All models' covariates included three types of media, vaccine supply, and regional/individual factors. Principal Findings Influenza-related reports in all three media sources had a positive association with earlier vaccination timing and annual vaccination rate. Four television networks' reports had most consistent positive effects in all models, for example, shifting the mean vaccination timing earlier by 1.8–4.1 days (p<.001) or increasing the annual vaccination rate by 2.3–7.9 percentage points (p<.001). These effects tended to be greater when reported in a headline rather than in text only and if including additional keywords, for example, vaccine shortage/delay. Conclusions Timing and annual receipt of influenza vaccination appear to be influenced by media coverage, particularly by headlines and specific reports on shortage/delay. PMID:20579128

  4. New media, old media: The technologies of international development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingle, Henry T.

    1986-09-01

    The research, theory and practice of educational technology over the past 75 years provide convincing evidence that this process offers a comprehensive and integrated approach to solving educational and social problems. The use of media and technology in development has shifted from an emphasis on mass media to personal media. A variety of electronic delivery systems are being used and are usually coordinated by centralized governmental agencies. There are no patterns of use since the problems vary and the medium used is responsive to the problem. Computers are used most frequently and satellite telecommunication networks follow. The effective use of these and other technologies requires a long-term commitment to financial support and training of personnel. The extension model of face-to-face contact still prevails in developing nations whether in agriculture, education or rural development. Low-cost technologies are being used in local projects while major regional and national companies use radio, film and related video technologies. The use of all available and cost-effective media and technologies make possible appropriate communications for specific goals with specific audiences. There appears to be no conflict among proponents of various media formats. Development in education and other sectors has much to gain from old and new communication technologies and has hardly been tapped. Several new educational technology developments are discussed as potential contributors to formal and nonformal education.

  5. Mediated interpersonal communication: Toward a new typology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Cathcart; Gary Gumpert

    1983-01-01

    Traditional conceptualizations of communication have excluded media or relegated them to a minor role as components of channel. Furthermore, the exclusive identification of media with “mass communication” has restricted understanding of the symbiotic relationship of media and interpersonal communication. This essay argues that media pervade all dimensions of human communication and must be considered in all research. It examines the

  6. The effects of a mass media HIV-risk reduction strategy on HIV-related stigma and knowledge among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jelani C; Valois, Robert F; DiClemente, Ralph J; Carey, Michael P; Stanton, Bonita; Romer, Daniel; Fletcher, Faith; Farber, Naomi; Brown, Larry K; Vanable, Peter A; Salazar, Laura F; Juzang, Ivan; Fortune, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    HIV-related stigma undermines HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. Multipronged risk-reduction strategies may reduce stigma among African American adolescents. To test the effectiveness of a risk-reduction strategy in addressing stigma, 1613 African American adolescents from four mid-sized cities participated in a randomized control trial. Participants received a sexual-risk reduction [Focus on Youth (FOY)] or general health curriculum [Promoting Health Among Teens (PHAT)]. Two cities received a culturally-tailored media intervention. Participants completed baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month surveys to measure HIV-related stigma and knowledge. Analysis of covariance tested for stigma and knowledge differences by media city status and curriculum/media city status (PHAT media vs. PHAT non-media, FOY media vs. FOY non-media; FOY media vs. PHAT media; FOY non-media vs. PHAT non-media) at each measurement. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) determined stigma and knowledge differences over time. Media participants demonstrated greater HIV-related knowledge (p<0.10) at 6 months and lower stigma at 3 months (p<0.10). FOY media participants had lower 3-month (p<0.05) and 12-month (p<0.10) stigma scores than non-media FOY participants. FOY media and non-media participants had greater knowledge than PHAT for all intervals after baseline. FOY media had lower stigma than PHAT media after baseline for all intervals after baseline. HLM indicated greater knowledge slopes for the media group (p<0.05). FOY media participants had greater knowledge slopes (p<0.05) relative to non-media FOY participants and media PHAT participants (p<0.01). A combination of a HIV risk-reduction curriculum and culturally-tailored media demonstrated some effectiveness in reducing stigma. Future use of media in HIV-prevention should include and evaluate effects on stigma. PMID:25738952

  7. Multi-level functionality of social media in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Jung, Joo-Young; Moro, Munehito

    2014-07-01

    This study examines the multi-level functionalities of social media in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011. Based on a conceptual model of multi-level story flows of social media (Jung and Moro, 2012), the study analyses the multiple functionalities that were ascribed to social media by individuals, organisations, and macro-level social systems (government and the mass media) after the earthquake. Based on survey data, a review of Twitter timelines and secondary sources, the authors derive five functionalities of social media: interpersonal communications with others (micro level); channels for local governments; organisations and local media (meso level); channels for mass media (macro level); information sharing and gathering (cross level); and direct channels between micro-/meso- and macro-level agents. The study sheds light on the future potential of social media in disaster situations and suggests how to design an effective communication network to prepare for emergency situations. PMID:24905811

  8. Closing Gaps in Political Communication and KnowledgeEffects of a School Intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL McDEVITT; STEVEN CHAFFEE

    2000-01-01

    A model of family influence that reverses the traditional roles of parents and children is presented to explain the results of a school intervention that narrowed political communication and knowledge gaps between parents of high and low socioeconomic status (SES). Students' exposure to a civics curriculum stimulated adolescent news media use at home and discussions with parents about an ongoing

  9. The foxconn suicides and their media prominence: is the werther effect applicable in china?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Media reporting of suicide and its relationship with actual suicide has rarely been investigated in Mainland China. The "Foxconn suicides" is a description referring to a string of suicides/attempts during 2010, all of which were related to a giant electrical manufacturing company, Foxconn. This study aimed to examine the clustering and copycat effects of the Foxconn suicides, and to investigate temporal patterns in how they were reported by the media in Mainland China, Hong Kong (HK), and Taiwan (TW). Methods Relevant articles were collected from representative newspapers published in three big cities in Mainland China (Beijing (BJ), Shenzhen (SZ), and Guangzhou (GZ)), HK, and TW, together with searching intensity data on the topic conducted using the Baidu search engine in Mainland China. The temporal clustering effects of the Foxconn suicides and their media prominence were assessed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The media reports of the Foxconn suicides' temporal patterns were explored using a nonparametric curve estimation method (that is, the local linear method). The potential mutual interactions between the Foxconn suicides and their media prominence were also examined, using logistic and Poisson regression methods. Results The results support a temporal clustering effect for the Foxconn suicides. The BJ-based newspapers' reporting and the occurrence of a Foxconn suicide/attempt are each found to be associated with an elevated chance of a further Foxconn suicide 3 days later. The occurrence of a Foxconn suicide also immediately influenced the intensity of both Baidu searching and newspaper reporting. Regional diversity in suicide reporting tempo-patterns within Mainland China, and similarities between HK and TW, are also demonstrated. Conclusions The Foxconn suicides were temporally clustered. Their occurrences were influenced by the reporting of BJ-based newspapers, and contagion within the company itself. Further suicide research and prevention work in China should consider its special media environment. PMID:22044598

  10. Effective Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity for Computing One-Dimensional Flow in Heterogeneous Porous Media

    E-print Network

    Effective Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity for Computing One-Dimensional Flow in Heterogeneous-dimensional unsaturated flow in vertically stratified porous media are examined. Saturated hydraulic conductivity and the alpha parameter of the exponential hydraulic conductivity function were assumed to vary from soil layer

  11. A Framework for Modeling Subgrid Effects for Two-Phase Flows in Porous Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Y. Hou; Andrew Westhead; Danping Yang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study upscaling for two-phase flows in strongly heterogeneous porous media. Upscaling a hyperbolic convection equation is known to be very difficult due to the presence of nonlocal memory effects. Even for a linear hyperbolic equation with a shear velocity field, the upscaled equation involves a nonlocal history dependent diffusion term, which is not amenable to computation.

  12. Practical Tips to Help the Collaborative Process Work More Effectively in the School Library Media Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collett, Amy

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author presents six tips to help school library media specialists achieve effective collaboration with teachers: (1) Schedule a set time for collaboration meetings and use a meeting log; (2) Be flexible; (3) Be an advocate for collaboration; (4) Co-plan, co-teach, and co-access; (5) Be positive; and (6) Keep a meeting log, log…

  13. Paraxial imaging and walk-off effects with birefringent media in refracting surfaces, lenses, and slabs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Paraxial imaging and walk-off effects with birefringent media in refracting surfaces, lenses The paraxial theory of spherical refracting surfaces, spherical lenses, and slabs with one birefringent medium and images are deduced, along with cardinal elements, in the case where the optic axis is parallel

  14. Effect of the reservoir size on gas adsorption in inhomogeneous porous media E. Kierlik,1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of the reservoir size on gas adsorption in inhomogeneous porous media E. Kierlik,1 J characterized by many local minima, i.e. metastable states.[2, 3, 4] The above picture of gas adsorption: September 12, 2008) We study the influence of the relative size of the reservoir on the adsorption isotherms

  15. Reversed and Anomalous Doppler Effects in Photonic Crystals and other Time-dependent Periodic Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan J. Reed; Marin Soljacic; Mihai Ibanescu; J. D. Joannopoulos

    2005-01-01

    We predict that reversed and anomalous non-relativistic Doppler shifts can be observed under some circumstances when light reflects from a shock wave front propagating through a photonic crystal, or material with a periodic modulation of the dielectric. This theoretical prediction is generalizable and applies to wave-like excitations in a variety of periodic media. An experimental observation of this effect has

  16. Displacement of polymers in waterflooded porous media and its effects on a subsequent micellar flood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dabbous

    1976-01-01

    Injection of polymers in advance of a micellar fluid slug has been considered to improve reservoir volumetric sweep in a tertiary mode micellar flood for improved oil recovery. An investigation was made of the injection of polyacrylamide type polymers in waterflooded porous media and its effects on a subsequent micellar flood. It was found that the presence of waterflood residual

  17. Nonlinear birefringence due to non-resonant, higher-order Kerr effect in isotropic media

    E-print Network

    Boyd, Robert W.

    Nonlinear birefringence due to non-resonant, higher-order Kerr effect in isotropic media George@creol.ucf.edu Abstract: The recent interpretation of experiments on the nonlinear non- resonant birefringence induced in the non- resonant birefringence due to higher-order Kerr nonlinearities. Here a simple formalism

  18. Photodegradation Kinetics of Fenitrothion in Various Aqueous Media and Its Effect on Steroid Hormones Biosynthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Derbalah; T. Yamazaki; H. Sakugawa

    2003-01-01

    The photodegradation kinetics of fenitrothion in various water media were examined under both direct and indirect photolysis with respect to degradation rate, half-life, and phototransformation kinetics of fenitrothion. The effect of fenitrothion and its photoproducts on steroid hormone biosynthesis was also investigated. The results indicate that the degradation rate of fenitrothion under indirect photolysis to which nitrate was added was

  19. The Effect of Otitis Media on Articulation in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Vyver, Marguerite; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study involving 20 Afrikaans-speaking children with cerebral palsy found that recurrent otitis media in early childhood had a negative effect on articulation abilities of the 7 to 11-year-old children but that other factors such as intelligence also played a role. (JDD)

  20. The Effects of Otitis Media on the Attention Skills of Day-Care-Attending Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feagans, Lynne V.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated whether otitis media (OM), middle ear disease, affected toddlers' attention to language. Children were studied during a picture book-reading task at high- or low-quality day-care centers. Children with chronic OM in low-quality care showed the most negative effects on attention during episodes of OM; mothers rated children with…

  1. The effects of centrifugation, various synthetic media and temperature on the motility and vitality

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The effects of centrifugation, various synthetic media and temperature on the motility and vitality staining. Centrifugation of semen (diluted 1 : 1 with Tyrode) at forces of 500, 800, 1 800 and 2 500 x g (Al), dilution, centrifugation and influence of incubation temperature must also be evaluated

  2. The Effects of Early Bilateral Otitis Media with Effusion on Educational Attainment: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Sylvia A. F.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examination of the relationship between educational attainment and long-lasting, bilateral otitis media with effusion (OME) in 270 Dutch children (ages 2 to 4) found that, at age 7, early bilateral OME affected spelling ability but not reading ability. Effects of treatment with ventilation tubes were not found. (DB)

  3. Effects of spatial inhomogeneities and microwave emission enhancement in random media: an experimental study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Macelloni; Paolo Pampaloni; Simonetta Paloscia; Roberto Ruisi

    1996-01-01

    The effects of spatial distribution of the scattering elements on microwave emission from random media have been investigated using an experimental model composed of long, thin vertical dielectric cylinders on a reflecting screen. The measurements have been carried out at 10 and 37 GHz, H, V polarizations and different nadir and azimuth angles. Random “uniform” and “cluster” distributions as well

  4. Experimental study of the effects of spatial inhomogeneities on microwave emission from random media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Macelloni; P. Pampaloni; S. Paloscia; R. Ruisi

    1995-01-01

    The effects of spatial distribution of the scattering elements on microwave emission from random media have been investigated using an experimental model composed of long, thin vertical dielectric cylinders on a reflecting screen. The measurements have been carried out at 10 GHz, H, V and 45° polarizations and different incidence angles between 10° and 50°. Uniform and cluster distributions with

  5. Effects of Guided Writing Strategies on Students' Writing Attitudes Based on Media Richness Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Yu-Feng; Hung, Chun-Ling; Hsu, Hung-Ju

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop different guided writing strategies based on media richness theory and further evaluate the effects of these writing strategies on younger students' writing attitudes in terms of motivation, enjoyment and anxiety. A total of 66 sixth-grade elementary students with an average age of twelve were invited to…

  6. Media background effect on the performance in perpendicular recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenzhong; Kaiser, David; Judy, Jack; Palmer, Dean

    2003-05-01

    The worst case bit error rate performance degradation due to the effect of stray fields from the recording layer on the reading and writing processes has been measured for a perpendicular recording system. The system consists of a single pole writer with a conventional spin-value reader and a double layer recording medium. A new method is developed to distinguish the reading and writing effects separately by adjusting the write current time asymmetry. Both effects have also been measured by using the dipulse extraction method. The data show that the measured writing effect is correlated to the value which one gets from adjusting write current time asymmetry.

  7. Media violence.

    PubMed

    Cantor, J

    2000-08-01

    Research on the effects of media violence is not well understood by the general public. Despite this fact, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific literature about the unhealthy effects of media violence. Meta-analyses show that media-violence viewing consistently is associated with higher levels of antisocial behavior, ranging from the trivial (imitative violence directed against toys) to the serious (criminal violence), with many consequential outcomes in between (acceptance of violence as a solution to problems, increased feelings of hostility, and the apparent delivery of painful stimulation to another person). Desensitization is another well-documented effect of viewing violence, which is observable in reduced arousal and emotional disturbance while witnessing violence, the reduced tendency to intervene in a fight, and less sympathy for the victims of violence. Although there is evidence that youth who are already violent are more likely to seek out violent entertainment, there is strong evidence that the relationship between violence viewing and antisocial behavior is bidirectional. There is growing evidence that media violence also engenders intense fear in children which often lasts days, months, and even years. The media's potential role in solutions to these problems is only beginning to be explored, in investigations examining the uses and effects of movie ratings, television ratings, and the V-chip, and the effects of media literacy programs and public education efforts. Future research should explore important individual differences in responses to media violence and effective ways to intervene in the negative effects. PMID:10904203

  8. Effect of grain-slag media for the treatment of wastewater in a biological aerated filter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanzhen Yu; Yan Feng; Liping Qiu; Wenwen Han; Lipang Guan

    2008-01-01

    Grain-slag was applied as the media of biological aerated filters (BAF). The performance of two lab-scale BAF was monitored for 6 months to compare the effect of grain-slag with haydite as media. Under ammonia nitrogen load rates varying from 0.49 to 1.21kgNH3-N(m3d)?1, the overall NH3-N reductions of the BAF supported by grain-slag and haydite averaged 84.30% and 80.87%, respectively. Higher

  9. Planning an effective anti-smoking mass media campaign targeting adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pechmann, C; Reibling, E T

    2000-05-01

    This article addresses the following issues: Can an anti-smoking campaign that depends largely on mass media vehicles effectively reduce adolescent tobacco use? Why is an integrated campaign recommended and what are the steps in designing such a campaign? How should the campaign be evaluated? Specific topics include recommended campaign expenditures, target audience identification, selection of persuasive message content, executional (stylistic) considerations, media buying decisions, the use of focus group research and advertising copy-testing research, and outcome evaluations. It is concluded that comprehensive strategic planning and extensive research at all phases of the campaign are essential to success. PMID:10848488

  10. Effective conductivity of periodic media with cuboid inclusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Harter; Christen Knudby

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical solution for the effective conductivity of a periodic binary medium with cuboid inclusions located on an octahedral lattice. The problem is defined by five dimensionless geometric parameters and one dimensionless conductivity contrast parameter. The effective conductivity is determined by considering the flow through the “elementary flow domain” (EFD), which is an octant of the unitary

  11. The Effect of Bad News and CEO Apology of Corporate on User Responses in Social Media.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoh; Park, Jaram; Cha, Meeyoung; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2015-01-01

    While social media has become an important platform for social reputation, the emotional responses of users toward bad news have not been investigated thoroughly. We analyzed a total of 20,773 Twitter messages by 15,513 users to assess the influence of bad news and public apology in social media. Based on both computerized, quantitative sentiment analysis and in-depth qualitative analysis, we found that rapid public apology effectively and immediately reduced the level of negative sentiment, where the degree of change in sentiments differed by the type of interactions users engaged in. The majority of users who directly conversed with corporate representatives on the new media were not typical consumers, but experts and practitioners. We extend the existing cognitive model and suggest the audiences' psychological reaction model to describe the information processing process during and after an organizational crisis and response. We also discuss various measures through which companies can respond to a crisis properly in social media in a fashion that is different from conventional mass media. PMID:25951231

  12. A media information analysis for implementing effective countermeasure against harmful rumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Mitsuyoshi; Suto, Kazuhiro; Ohuchi, Azuma

    2010-04-01

    When large scale earthquake occurred, the word of "harmful rumor" came to be frequently heard. The harmful rumor means an economic damage which is caused by the action that people regard actually safe foods or areas as dangerous and then abort consumption or sightseeing. In the case of harmful rumor caused by earthquake, especially, tourism industry receives massive economic damage. Currently, harmful rumor which gives substantial economic damage have become serious social issue which must be solved. In this paper, we propose a countermeasure method for harmful rumor on the basis of media trend in order to implement speedy recovery from harmful rumor. Here, we investigate the amount and content of information which is transmitted to the general public by the media when an earthquake occurred. In addition, the media information in three earthquakes is treated as instance. Finally, we discuss an effective countermeasure method for dispeling harmful rumor through these analysis results.

  13. Communicating Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.

    2010-12-01

    We are in an era of rapidly changing communication media, which is driving a major evolution in the modes of communicating science. In the past, a mainstay of scientific communication in popular media was through science “translators”; science journalists and presenters. These have now nearly disappeared and are being replaced by widespread dissemination through, e.g., the internet, blogs, YouTube and journalists who often have little scientific background and sharp deadlines. Thus, scientists are required to assume increasing responsibility for translating their scientific findings and calibrating their communications to non-technical audiences, a task for which they are often ill prepared, especially when it comes to controversial societal issues such as tobacco, evolution, and most recently climate change (Oreskes and Conway 2010). Such issues have been politicized and hi-jacked by ideological belief systems to such an extent that constructive dialogue is often impossible. Many scientists are excellent communicators, to their peers. But this requires careful attention to detail and logical explanation, open acknowledgement of uncertainties, and dispassionate delivery. These qualities become liabilities when communicating to a non-scientific audience where entertainment, attention grabbing, 15 second sound bites, and self assuredness reign (e.g. Olson 2009). Here we report on a program initiated by NCAR and UCAR to develop new approaches to science communication and to equip present and future scientists with the requisite skills. If we start from a sound scientific finding with general scientific consensus, such as the warming of the planet by greenhouse gases, then the primary emphasis moves from the “science” to the “art” of communication. The art cannot have free reign, however, as there remains a strong requirement for objectivity, honesty, consistency, and above all a resistance to advocating particular policy positions. Targeting audience attitudes and beliefs, which studies such as the Six Americas research help identify, is key to effective science communications (e.g. Leiserowitz, Maibach, et al, 2009). We argue that the impact of the scientific message can be substantially improved by targeting it to these additional factors. This does require an understanding of the audience and a repackaging of the message to different societal groups. Logical and dispassionate presentation of evidence works for a target scientific audience, but major decisions from the policy to the personal level are influenced by many factors including immediacy, economics, culture, community leaders, emotional framing, and ideological filters.

  14. Effectively Responding to Public Scrutiny When Communicating Climate Science.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, A.; Halpern, M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate researchers face regular scrutiny of their work from groups outside academia. In recent years, interest groups that oppose climate policy have targeted scientists with hate-mail campaigns, invasive document requests, hostile questioning and legal threats. In their day-to-day work, scientists struggle to respond to heated discussions about their research, whether from online commentators, opinion columnists, or special interest groups. Based on decades of experience and interviews with scientists, the Union of Concerned Scientists has developed a guide for communicating science amid heightened scrutiny. Building on the information contained in the UCS guide, this presentation will discuss best practices for climate researchers, including suggestions for when scrutiny can be ignored or when it deserves a response and methods for responding that can uphold scientific integrity while also protecting an individual researcher's reputation and ability to publicly communicate. Examples include scientists who have responded to bloggers criticizing their research, advocacy groups demanding their personal emails and policymakers targeting them with personal attacks. In understanding how to respond to scrutiny, scientists can bolster their own ability to communicate and curtail the chilling effect that scrutiny can have on other scientists conducting public enegagement.

  15. Drench effects of media portrayal of fatal virus disease on health locus of control beliefs.

    PubMed

    Bahk, C M

    2001-01-01

    Drawing on the notion of the drench hypothesis proposed by Greenberg (1988), the author proposes a preliminary theoretical framework to explain "drenching" effects of dramatic media. Three drench variables-perceived realism, role identification, and media involvement-were identified and tested regarding their role in mediating the impact of virus disease portrayals on health locus-of-control belief orientations. Participants in the experimental condition watched the movie Outbreak (a portrayal of an outbreak of a deadly virus disease). Perceived realism, role identification, and media involvement were measured concerning the movie depiction of the virus disease. The findings indicate that the dramatized portrayal significantly weakened the viewers' beliefs in self-controllability over health and strengthened their beliefs in chance outcomes of health. Beliefs in provider control over health were affected by the viewers' perception of realism regarding the movie portrayals. Effects of role identification were different between male and female viewers. The results are discussed in relation to drench analysis as a theoretical approach to media effects. PMID:11451104

  16. Effect of external feedback on lasing in random media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, H.; Zhao, Y. G.; Liu, X.; Seelig, E. W.; Chang, R. P. H.

    1999-08-01

    We have studied the effect of external feedback on random laser action in ZnO polycrystalline thin films. Reinjection of light into scattering-formed cavities strongly influences modes, intensity, and threshold of random lasers. We have compared the effect of external feedback from the side of the film and that from the film surface. Our study opens the possibility of controlling random laser frequencies by external feedback.

  17. Application of generalised effective-medium theory to transport in porous media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. Harris; Koninklijke Shell

    1990-01-01

    The use of effective-medium treatments to estimate bulk properties pertaining to transport (of, for example, fluids, heat, particles or electricity) through random composite media (such as reservoir rocks), is widespread. This is because they are relatively simple, often reasonably accurate (on occasion, remarkably so) and in many cases yield closed-form expressions for the properties concerned. However, the single-bond effective-medium treatment

  18. The effect of radiographic contrast media on human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y X; Chan, P; Morcos, S K

    1998-04-01

    The relation between intravascular radiographic contrast media (RCM) and myointimal hyperplasia after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is not known. We have investigated the cytotoxic effects of RCM on human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and their effect on the growth of these cells. The cytotoxic effects of RCM were studied using human VSMCs. The cells after being grown to confluency were exposed for 60 min to 250 mgI ml-1 of diatrizoate, ioxaglate, iopromide, iotrolan and saturated mannitol solutions. The control group was treated with only 15% fetal calf serum (FCS) containing medium. The viability of the cells was examined using the trypan blue exclusion test. The effect of RCM on growth was assessed by exposing the VSMCs after growth arrest, for either 15 or 60 min to 250 mgI ml-1 of diatrozoate, ioxaglate, iopromide, iotrolan and saturated mannitol solution. There was no significant change in the viability of the VSMCs after 60 min exposure to iopromide, iotrolan, saturated mannitol solution, and after 15 min exposure to diatrizoate or ioxaglate. After exposure to diatrizoate or ioxaglate for 60 min, 16.5 +/- 2.2% or 9.2 +/- 2.6% dead cells were found, respectively (p < 0.05 versus control). In the growth assay of VSMCs, diatrizoate, ioxaglate and saturated mannitol solutions reduced the growth rate (p < 0.05 versus control). No significant change was observed with iopromide and iotrolan. In conclusion, ionic RCM have cytotoxic and cytostatic effects on VSMCs while non-ionic media have no effects. There is no direct stimulatory effect of contrast media on the growth of VSMCs. The cytotoxic and cytostatic effects of contrast media seems to be both osmolality and chemotoxicity dependent. Low osmolar non-ionic RCM are not likely to contribute to the mechanisms responsible for myointimal hyperplasia after angioplasty. PMID:9659129

  19. Effect of attenuation models on communication system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimabukuro, Fred I.

    1995-01-01

    The atmosphere has a significant impact on the design of a global communication system operating at 20 GHz. The system under consideration has a total atmospheric link attenuation budget that is less than 6 dB. For this relatively small link margin, rain, cloud, and molecular attenuation have to be taken into account. For an assessment of system performance on a global basis, attenuation models are utilized. There is concern whether current models can adequately describe the atmospheric effects such that a system planner can properly allocate his resources for superior overall system performance. The atmospheric attenuation as predicted by models will be examined.

  20. White Paper Using Social Media to Improve

    E-print Network

    Michigan, University of

    White Paper Using Social Media to Improve Organizational Communication & Efficiency Amy M. Young of Business, University of Michigan 2 Most businesses today use social media to enhance their competitive media and are using it to improve communication within their organization. When done right, social media

  1. Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailenson, Jeremy; Buzzanell, Patrice; Deetz, Stanley; Tewksbury, David; Thompson, Robert J.; Turow, Joseph; Bichelmeyer, Barbara; Bishop, M. J.; Gayeski, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of communications were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Jeremy Bailenson, Patrice Buzzanell, Stanley Deetz, David Tewksbury, Robert J. Thompson, and…

  2. Dynamics of electrostatically-driven granular media. Effects of Humidity

    E-print Network

    D. W. Howell; I. S. Aranson; G. W. Crabtree

    2000-11-03

    We performed experimental studies of the effect of humidity on the dynamics of electrostatically-driven granular materials. Both conducting and dielectric particles undergo a phase transition from an immobile state (granular solid) to a fluidized state (granular gas) with increasing applied field. Spontaneous precipitation of solid clusters from the gas phase occurs as the external driving is decreased. The clustering dynamics in conducting particles is primarily controlled by screening of the electric field but is aided by cohesion due to humidity. It is shown that humidity effects dominate the clustering process with dielectric particles.

  3. Shaping effective communication skills and therapeutic relationships at work: the foundation of collaboration.

    PubMed

    Grover, Susan M

    2005-04-01

    Effective communication is essential to practice and can result in improved interpersonal relationships at the workplace. Effective communication is shaped by basic techniques such as open-ended questions, listening, empathy, and assertiveness. However, the relationship between effective communication and successful interpersonal relationships is affected by intervening variables. The variables of gender, generation, context, collegiality, cooperation, self-disclosure, and reciprocity can impede or enhance the outcome of quality communication. It is essential for occupational health nurses to qualitatively assess the degree to which each of these concepts affects communication and, in turn, relationships at work. PMID:15853294

  4. Effective solute transport in temporally fluctuating flow through heterogeneous media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Dentz; Jesus Carrera

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the effective spreading of a passive solute evolving from a finite source in temporally fluctuating flow through a heterogeneous porous medium. To this end, we distinguish between two stochastic processes: one to represent the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity (K) and one to model the temporal fluctuations of the hydraulic gradient (J). In a second-order perturbation approach we

  5. Effects of Alternative Language Media on Learning in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awoniyi, Adedeji; Ala, Florence B. O.

    1985-01-01

    A study of Nigerian bilingual (Yoruba and English) students supported other research indicating that primary education in the child's mother tongue is most effective for the learning process. An experimental group taught and tested in a structured bilingual medium performed significantly better than one taught and tested in English. (Author/GC)

  6. Pacific Islands Mass Communications; Selected Information Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richstad, Jim; McMillan, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of materials on such area of mass communications in the Pacific Islands as broadcasting, radio and television, cinema, communication research, mass media in education, Honululu Media Council, newspapers and newspapermen, and printing and satellite communication. (JEG)

  7. Effects of culture media on metabolic profiling of the human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zicheng; Shao, Wei; Gu, Jinping; Hu, Xiaomin; Shi, Yuanzhi; Xu, Wenqi; Huang, Caihua; Lin, Donghai

    2015-06-16

    Cell culture metabolomics has demonstrated significant advantages in cancer research. However, its applications have been impeded by some influencing factors such as culture media, which could significantly affect cellular metabolic profiles and lead to inaccuracy and unreliability of comparative metabolomic analysis of cells. To evaluate the effects of different culture media on cellular metabolic profiling, we performed NMR-based metabolomic analysis of the human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 cultured in both RPMI1640 and DMEM. We found that SGC7901 cultured in the two media exhibited distinct metabolic profiles with obviously different levels of discrepant metabolites, even though they showed almost the same cellular morphology and proliferation rates. When SGC7901 originally cultured in RPMI1640 was gradually acclimated in DMEM, both the metabolic profiles and most of the discrepant metabolite levels gradually converged toward those of the cells originally cultured in DMEM without significantly altered cell proliferation rates. However, several metabolite levels did not show the converging trends. Our results indicate that the effects of culture media on metabolic profiling must be carefully taken into account for comparative metabolomic analysis of cell lines. This work may be of benefit to the development of cell culture metabolomics. PMID:25925870

  8. Effects of texture on salt precipitation dynamics and deposition patterns in drying porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norouzi Rad, Mansoureh; Shokri, Nima

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the physics of water evaporation from saline porous media is important in many natural and engineering applications such as durability of building materials and preservation of monuments, CO2 sequestration and water quality. Also excess of salt accumulation in soil may result in soil salinization which is a global problem adversely affecting vegetation, plant growth and crop production. Thus it is important to understand the parameters affecting salt transport and precipitation in porous media. We applied X-ray micro-tomography to investigate the dynamics of salt precipitation during evaporation from porous media as influenced by the particle and pore sizes. The packed beds were saturated with NaCl solution of 3 Molal and the time-lapse X-ray imaging was continued for one day. The results show that the presence of preferential evaporation sites (associated with fine pores) on the surface of the sand columns influences significantly the patterns and dynamics of NaCl precipitation (Norouzi Rad et al., 2013; Norouzi Rad and Shokri, 2014). They confirm the formation of an increasingly thick and discrete salt crust with increasing grain size in the sand column due to the presence of fewer fine pores (preferential precipitation sites) at the surface compared to the sand packs with finer grains. Fewer fine pores on the surface also results in shorter stage-1 precipitation for the columns with larger grain sizes. A simple model for the evolution of salt crust thickness based on this principle shows a good agreement with our experiments. Our results provide new insights regarding the physics of salt precipitation and its complex dynamics in porous media during evaporation. References Norouzi Rad, M., Shokri, N., Sahimi, M. (2013), Pore-Scale Dynamics of Salt Precipitation in Drying Porous Media, Phys. Rev. E, 88, 032404. Norouzi Rad, M., Shokri, N. (2014), Effects of grain angularity on NaCl precipitation in porous media during evaporation, Water Resour. Res., 50, 9020-9030, doi:10.1002/2014WR016125.

  9. Mechanics of layered anisotropic poroelastic media with applications to effective stress for fluid permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J.G.

    2010-06-01

    The mechanics of vertically layered porous media has some similarities to and some differences from the more typical layered analysis for purely elastic media. Assuming welded solid contact at the solid-solid interfaces implies the usual continuity conditions, which are continuity of the vertical (layering direction) stress components and the horizontal strain components. These conditions are valid for both elastic and poroelastic media. Differences arise through the conditions for the pore pressure and the increment of fluid content in the context of fluid-saturated porous media. The two distinct conditions most often considered between any pair of contiguous layers are: (1) an undrained fluid condition at the interface, meaning that the increment of fluid content is zero (i.e., {delta}{zeta} = 0), or (2) fluid pressure continuity at the interface, implying that the change in fluid pressure is zero across the interface (i.e., {delta}p{sub f} = 0). Depending on the types of measurements being made on the system and the pertinent boundary conditions for these measurements, either (or neither) of these two conditions might be directly pertinent. But these conditions are sufficient nevertheless to be used as thought experiments to determine the expected values of all the poroelastic coefficients. For quasi-static mechanical changes over long time periods, we expect drained conditions to hold, so the pressure must then be continuous. For high frequency wave propagation, the pore-fluid typically acts as if it were undrained (or very nearly so), with vanishing of the fluid increment at the boundaries being appropriate. Poroelastic analysis of both these end-member cases is discussed, and the general equations for a variety of applications to heterogeneous porous media are developed. In particular, effective stress for the fluid permeability of such poroelastic systems is considered; fluid permeabilities characteristic of granular media or tubular pore shapes are treated in some detail, as are permeabilities of some of the simpler types of fractured materials.

  10. Effects of smokeless tobacco (Maras powder) use on carotid intima media thickness

    PubMed Central

    Sucakli, Mustafa Haki; Ozkan, Fuat; Inci, Mehmet Fatih; Celik, Mustafa; Keten, Hamit Sirri; Bozoglan, Orhan

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of smokeless tobacco (Maras powder, Nicotiana rustica Linn) on carotid intima media thickness. Material/Methods The study included 32 Maras powder users presenting to our Family Medicine outpatient clinic and 30 non-users of Maras powder as a control group. Carotid intima media thickness was measured by duplex ultrasonography. Results All the participants were male. The mean duration of Maras powder use was 27.3±11.6 years. Carotid intima media thickness was 0.73±0.20 mm in the Maras powder users and 0.49±0.14 mm in the controls. Blood pressure measured before Maras powder use in Maras powder users was similar to that measured in the control group (p>0.05). Systolic blood pressures were 136.6±12.4 mmHg and 109.7±9.7 mmHg after 30–60 minutes using Maras powder in the Maras powder users and in the controls, respectively. Diastolic blood pressures were 87.2±6.1 mmHg and 62.8±8.1 mmHg after 30–60 minutes using Maras powder in the Maras powder users and the controls, respectively. Carotid intima media thickness was significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure (r=0.613, p<0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (r=0.612, p<0.001). Conclusions Carotid intima media thickness was higher in Maras powder users than in nonusers of the powder. Increased carotid intima media thickness can be associated with an immediate increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Therefore, attempts to increase public awareness about smoking should also be directed towards prevention of Maras powder use. PMID:24129168

  11. Hawking effect in dielectric media and the Hopfield model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgiorno, F.; Cacciatori, S. L.; Dalla Piazza, F.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the so-called Hopfield model for the electromagnetic field in a dielectric dispersive medium in a framework in which one allows a space-time dependence of microscopic parameters, aimed at a phenomenological description of a space-time varying dielectric perturbation induced by means of the Kerr effect. We discuss the analogue Hawking effect by introducing a simplified model which avoids some difficulties which characterize in the full Hopfield model, still keeping the same dispersion relation. Our main result is an analytical calculation of the spontaneous thermal emission in the single-branch case, which is provided nonperturbatively for the first time in the framework of dielectric black holes. A universal mechanism for thermality which is shared both by optical black holes and acoustic black holes is also pointed out.

  12. Guidelines for using electronic and social media: the regulatory perspective.

    PubMed

    Spector, Nancy; Kappel, Dawn M

    2012-09-01

    Social media can be a very effective way of communicating in nursing, but guidelines for appropriate use by healthcare providers are essential. This article briefly introduces the phenomenon of social media and introduces three actual scenarios where nurses unintentionally violated appropriate use of social media in healthcare. The scenarios are discussed related to social media, career, concerns, and nursing regulation. Incorporating these and other examples with data from board of nursing cases, the nature of complaints against nurses is explored as well as common myths and misunderstandings about using social media platforms. Guidelines for appropriate use by nurses and available resources to inform policy are highlighted. Next steps in social media in nursing should include development of organizational level policies and educational programs on the use of social media. PMID:23036057

  13. 1986 AAHE Scholar's Address. Communication: A Crucial Competency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Richard K.

    1986-01-01

    The most important skill demanded of health educators is effective communication. Where health educators have been least effective is in conveying the overall values of health education in any setting, including the mass media. Selected aspects of the communication process are discussed. (MT)

  14. The Effects of Ongoing Communication between Teachers and Adolescents with Disabilities. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gary; Lenz, B. Keith; Laraux, Michelle; Graner, Patricia; Pouliot, Norman

    This study evaluated differences in teacher and student perceptions about communication patterns within classrooms and the effect of a teacher-student communication system, the Learning Expressways System, on teacher-student communication. High school teachers who had or have had students with disabilities in their classes participated. In the…

  15. Protective Effects of Parent-College Student Communication during the First Semester of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Meg L.; Morgan, Nicole; Abar, Caitlin; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies suggest that parents maintain influence as their adolescents transition into college. Advances in communication technology make frequent communication between parents and college students easy and affordable. This study examines the protective effect of parent-college student communication on student drinking behaviors,…

  16. Guidebook for Selecting Cost-Effective Wireless Communication Technologies for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    . Innovative surveillance systems powered by various communication technologies have been installed to support in communication technologies, a web-based Knowledge Management System that enables on-line learning0-4449-P1 Guidebook for Selecting Cost-Effective Wireless Communication Technologies

  17. The Effectiveness of the "Picture Exchange Communication System" with Nonspeaking Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, Julia B.; Beck, Ann R.; Bock, Stacey Jones; Hickey, Katherine; Kosuwan, Kullaya; Thompson, James R.

    2006-01-01

    "Picture Exchange Communication System" (PECS) training was implemented with 5 nonspeaking adults with mental retardation who were not currently using any type of functional communication system. A modified ABAB, single-subject design was used to assess the effectiveness of PECS in enhancing the functional communication skills of these…

  18. Attribution of Arousal as a Mediator of the Effectiveness of Fear-Arousing Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Norbert; And Others

    Characteristics of the situation in which a fear-arousing communication is received affect the effectiveness of the communication. The influence of situational factors affecting a recipient's interpretation of the arousal induced by communication were investigated with smokers (N=37) who were exposed to a fear-arousing anti-smoking movie. Prior to…

  19. Volcanic hazard communication using maps: an evaluation of their effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Katharine; Barclay, Jenni; Pidgeon, Nick

    2007-11-01

    Hazard maps are considered essential tools in the communication of volcanic risk between scientists, the local authorities and the public. This study investigates the efficacy of such maps for the volcanic island of Montserrat in the West Indies using both quantitative and qualitative research techniques. Normal plan view maps, which have been used on the island over the last 10 years of the crisis, are evaluated against specially produced three-dimensional (3D) maps and perspective photographs. Thirty-two demographically representative respondents of mixed backgrounds, sex, education and location were interviewed and asked to complete a range of tasks and identification on the maps and photographs. The overall results show that ordinary people have problems interpreting their environment as a mapped representation. We found respondents’ ability to locate and orientate themselves as well as convey information relating to volcanic hazards was improved when using aerial photographs rather than traditional plan view contour maps. There was a slight improvement in the use of the 3D maps, especially in terms of topographic recognition. However, the most striking increase in effectiveness was found with the perspective photographs, which enabled people to identify features and their orientation much more readily. For Montserrat it appears that well labelled aerial and perspective photographs are the most effective geo-spatial method of communicating volcanic risks.

  20. Mechano-chemical effects in weakly charged porous media.

    PubMed

    Zholkovskij, Emiliy K; Yaroshchuk, Andriy E; Koval'chuk, Volodymyr I; Bondarenko, Mykola P

    2014-10-01

    The paper is concerned with mechano-chemical effects, namely, osmosis and pressure-driven separation of ions that can be observed when a charged porous medium is placed between two electrolyte solutions. The study is focused on porous systems with low equilibrium interfacial potentials (about 30mV or lower). At such low potentials, osmosis and pressure-driven separation of ions noticeably manifest themselves provided that the ions in the electrolyte solutions have different diffusion coefficients. The analysis is conducted by combining the irreversible thermodynamic approach and the linearized (in terms of the normalized equilibrium interfacial potential) version of the Standard Electrokinetic Model. Osmosis and the pressure-driven separation of ions are considered for an arbitrary mixed electrolyte solution and various porous space geometries. It is shown that the effects under consideration are proportional to a geometrical factor which, for all the considered geometries of porous space, can be expressed as a function of porosity and the ?- parameter of porous medium normalized by the Debye length. For all the studied geometries, this function turns out to be weakly dependent on both the porosity and the geometry type. The latter allows for a rough evaluation of the geometrical factor from experimental data on electric conductivity and hydraulic permeability without previous knowledge of the porous space geometry. The obtained results are used to illustrate how the composition of electrolyte solution affects the mechano-chemical effects. For various examples of electrolyte solution compositions, the obtained results are capable of describing positive, negative and anomalous osmosis, positive and negative rejection of binary electrolytes, and pressure-driven separation of binary electrolyte mixtures. PMID:25438703

  1. Experimental and theoretical studies of interfacial effects in multiphase media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harik, Vasyl Michael

    The main focus of this dissertation is the study of interfacial effects caused by various compliant interfaces in multiphase materials which are subjected to compressive and extensional loads. The dissertation includes experimental modeling with model materials and a number of theoretical studies of interfacial mechanics in different settings characterizing interfacial phenomena in two-phase materials. These investigations provide analysis of the effects caused by imperfect, compliant, or weak interfaces on mechanical behavior of multiphase materials. In this study, formation of various interfacial defects (e.g., interfacial separation and voids) and other structural defects involving formation of new surfaces or localized shearing is emphasized. The experimental research is represented by the physical modeling simulations of interfacial phenomena such as interfacial sliding and separation, nucleation of voids and large deformation of interfacial free surfaces. Theoretical studies can be divided into two parts which include numerical investigations of large and small nonlinear deformation of composite unit cells with free surfaces, respectively. The nonlinear free boundary value problems considered simulate different aspects of the particulate flows studied in the experimental part. The methodology for physical modeling of interfacial void formation in the particulate extrusion flows involving perfectly weak interfaces is developed. Boundary layer effects on the temporal evolution of interfacial voids are analyzed in detail to determine the best simulation conditions. The temporal evolution of interfacial voids in front of and behind spherical and cylindrical inclusions is simulated by the physical modeling for the case of axisymmetric extrusion flows. Similarities between the resulting void size distributions for different die angles and the distributions based on a similar study are established and analyzed. The finite element modeling of the time-dependent evolution of interfacial voids at rectangular and cylindrical inclusions is carried out in two-dimensional setting. The influence of large extensional strains and applied external pressure on the development of voids at inclusions in a highly viscous matrix is examined for a variety of cases. The combined influence of extensional and radial strains and the axial pressure drop on the evolution of asymmetric interfacial voids at cylindrical and spherical inclusions is investigated for the extrusion dies having small angles. This study is carried out by using the front extrusion cell model, in which the deformation flows and the interfacial voids are asymmetric because of the axial pressure drop across the unit cell. The effects of various homogeneous and inhomogeneous interphases on local and global deformation of a two-phase composite unit cell subjected to compressive loads are investigated by finite element analysis with the commercial code ABAQUS. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  2. The Hawking effect in dielectric media and the Hopfield model

    E-print Network

    F. Belgiorno; S. L. Cacciatori; F. Dalla Piazza

    2014-11-28

    We consider the so-called Hopfield model for the electromagnetic field in a dielectric dispersive medium in a framework in which one allows a space-time dependence of microscopic parameters, aimed to a phenomenological description of a space-time varying dielectric perturbation induced by means of the Kerr effect. We discuss the analogue Hawking effect, by first analyzing the geometrical optics for the Hopfield model, and then by introducing a simplified model which has the bonus to avoid many difficulties which are involved in the full Hopfield model, still keeping the same dispersion relation. Amplitude calculations are indicated, and generalized Manley-Rowe identities are derived in a quantum scattering theory framework. Our main result is an analytical calculation of the spontaneous thermal emission in the single-branch case, which is provided non perturbatively for the first time in the framework of dielectric black holes. An universal mechanism for thermality between optical black holes and acoustic black holes is also pointed out.

  3. Effects of Numerical Dispersion on the Accuracy of FDTD Modeling of Propagating and Evanescent Waves in Negative Index Media

    E-print Network

    Effects of Numerical Dispersion on the Accuracy of FDTD Modeling of Propagating and Evanescent Waves in Negative Index Media Costas D. Sarris The Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical media. Yet, a survey of the relevant FDTD literature indicates a number of contradictory results, which

  4. Tailored copolymers structures: Effect on drag reduction in aqueous media

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.L.; Mumick, P.S. [Univ. of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Water soluble polyampholytes as well as hydrophobically associating copolymers based on acrylamide (AM), sodium 2-(acrylamido)-2-methylpropanesulfonate (NaAMPS), 2-(acrylamido)-2-methylpropanetrimethylammonium chloride (AMPTAC), sodium 3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate (NaAMB), 3-(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanedimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate (AMPDAPS), and N-isopropylacrylamide (IPAM) have been synthesized and thoroughly characterized. The drag reduction properties were measured on a rotating disk rheometer. The relative drag reduction efficiencies have been reported in terms of absolute drag reduction (DR) as well as parameter, {Delta}, that has been obtained through volume fraction normalization (from a plot of %DR/{eta}C vs {eta}C.). This {Delta} parameter has also been correlated with other parameters reported in literature which bring out the effect of polymer structure and composition on drag reduction.

  5. INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Daniel

    ) TRANSFORMING GLOBAL INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION MARKETS The Political Economy of Innovation Peter F. Cowhey) Information Revolution and Global Politics series 2012 Surveillance Studies Book Prize, Surveillance Studies Howard Rheingold A media guru shows us how to use social media intelligently, humanely, and, above all

  6. Generalized lattice Boltzmann model for flow through tight porous media with Klinkenberg's effect.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Fang, Wenzhen; Kang, Qinjun; De'Haven Hyman, Jeffrey; Viswanathan, Hari S; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2015-03-01

    Gas slippage occurs when the mean free path of the gas molecules is in the order of the characteristic pore size of a porous medium. This phenomenon leads to Klinkenberg's effect where the measured permeability of a gas (apparent permeability) is higher than that of the liquid (intrinsic permeability). A generalized lattice Boltzmann model is proposed for flow through porous media that includes Klinkenberg's effect, which is based on the model of Guo et al. [Phys. Rev. E 65, 046308 (2002)]. The second-order Beskok and Karniadakis-Civan's correlation [A. Beskok and G. Karniadakis, Microscale Thermophys. Eng. 3, 43 (1999) and F. Civan, Transp. Porous Med. 82, 375 (2010)] is adopted to calculate the apparent permeability based on intrinsic permeability and the Knudsen number. Fluid flow between two parallel plates filled with porous media is simulated to validate the model. Simulations performed in a heterogeneous porous medium with components of different porosity and permeability indicate that Klinkenberg's effect plays a significant role on fluid flow in low-permeability porous media, and it is more pronounced as the Knudsen number increases. Fluid flow in a shale matrix with and without fractures is also studied, and it is found that the fractures greatly enhance the fluid flow and Klinkenberg's effect leads to higher global permeability of the shale matrix. PMID:25871199

  7. A Continuous Media Data Transport Service and Protocol for Real-Time Communication in High Speed Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd E. Wolfinger; Mark Moran

    1991-01-01

    An important class of applications with real-time data transport requirements is defined by applications requiring transmission of data units at regular intervals. These applications, which we call continuous media (CM) clients, include video conferencing, voice communica- tion, and high-quality digital sound. The design of a data transport service for CM clients and its underlying protocol (within the XUNET II project)

  8. Time and Money Spent on the Mass Media in an Age of New Communication Technologies: A Market Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogan, Christine L.; Kelly, James D.

    A study surveyed 276 residents of Indianapolis, Indiana to determine how the people might be changing media use and spending habits in a time of growing interest in video cassette recorders (VCRs), backyard satellite dishes, pay-TV, and personal computers. Questions were designed to determine the degree to which people would buy into the new…

  9. Enhancing communication, facilitating shared understanding, and creating better artifacts by integrating physical and computational media for design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernesto Arias; Hal Eden; Gerhard Fischer

    1997-01-01

    Frequently, the design of interactive systems focuses exclusively on the capabilities provided by the dynamic nature of computational media. Yet our have provided many examples in which physical models provide certain strengths not found in computational models. Rather than viewing this as a dichotomy—where one must choose between one or the other—we are exploring the creation of computational environments that

  10. Local Appropriation of Global Communication Forms: A Micro Case Study of Teacher and Learners' Uses of Mass Media Genres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Fiona M.

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual Blending Theory (CBT) (Fauconnier & Turner, 2002), a cognitive theory of human processes of innovation, can be productively used alongside critical literacy approaches, for the analysis of how teachers and learners draw selectively, transformatively and purposively from aspects of the mass media. While numerous studies have pointed to…

  11. Final Report on the 1972-1973 Media Learning Systems Design and Administration Training Project in Educational Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittich, Walter A.; Kucera, Geoffrey Z.

    This final report covers the third year of a three-year authorization to carry out media learning systems design and administration training. Nine of twelve educators accepting grant awards successfully completed the program. This project was offered as a block of thirty credits of graduate study beyond the Master's degree. The teaching of the…

  12. Visual Communication in Transition: Designing for New Media Literacies and Visual Culture Art Education across Activities and Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuiker, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    As an example of design-based research, this case study describes and analyses the enactment of a collaborative drawing and animation studio in a Singapore secondary school art classroom. The design embodies principles of visual culture art education and new media literacies in order to organize transitions in the settings of participation and…

  13. Computers in the Curriculum: Science: Using the Power of Media to Communicate Science--A Question of Style?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhof, Heidi

    1991-01-01

    Discusses visual style in instructional science materials; describes problems with science media, including too much print on a page or screen and inappropriate designs for children; and highlights new products that have good design style as well as good content, including books, computer simulations, videos, computer software, and microworlds.…

  14. Getting the message: media images and stereotypes and their effect on Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Mok, T A

    1998-01-01

    Mass media sources such as television and movies arguably offer up little in the way of positive Asian/Asian American images or role models. This article contends that the media do not often portray the diversity that is inherent within the Asian American culture and that such a paucity of Asian images may greatly affect perceptions Asian Americans may hold both of their own racial group and of the larger society. This article examines both media images of Asians and Asian Americans and autobiographical information from Asian American literature to illustrate the potentially detrimental effects of being a person of color in a society that emphasizes a monoracial standard of beauty. Information gleaned from first-hand accounts from Asian Americans often points to the media as a potent source of information as to how attractiveness is defined and measured. This article concludes with a discussion of some brief case examples and ethical imperatives for mental health workers in terms of both self-awareness and education as well as considerations for culturally sensitive therapy. PMID:9713159

  15. 75 FR 26180 - Effects on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage To or Failure of Network Equipment or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Chapter I [PS Docket...FCC 10-62] Effects on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage To or Failure of...or Severe Overload AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed...

  16. Cellular communication and “non-targeted effects”: Modelling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, Francesca; Facoetti, Angelica; Mariotti, Luca; Nano, Rosanna; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    2009-10-01

    During the last decade, a large number of experimental studies on the so-called "non-targeted effects", in particular bystander effects, outlined that cellular communication plays a significant role in the pathways leading to radiobiological damage. Although it is known that two main types of cellular communication (i.e. via gap junctions and/or molecular messengers diffusing in the extra-cellular environment, such as cytokines, NO etc.) play a major role, it is of utmost importance to better understand the underlying mechanisms, and how such mechanisms can be modulated by ionizing radiation. Though the "final" goal is of course to elucidate the in vivo scenario, in the meanwhile also in vitro studies can provide useful insights. In the present paper we will discuss key issues on the mechanisms underlying non-targeted effects and cell communication, for which theoretical models and simulation codes can be of great help. In this framework, we will present in detail three literature models, as well as an approach under development at the University of Pavia. More specifically, we will first focus on a version of the "State-Vector Model" including bystander-induced apoptosis of initiated cells, which was successfully fitted to in vitro data on neoplastic transformation supporting the hypothesis of a protective bystander effect mediated by apoptosis. The second analyzed model, focusing on the kinetics of bystander effects in 3D tissues, was successfully fitted to data on bystander damage in an artificial 3D skin system, indicating a signal range of the order of 0.7-1 mm. A third model for bystander effect, taking into account of spatial location, cell killing and repopulation, showed dose-response curves increasing approximately linearly at low dose rates but quickly flattening out for higher dose rates, also predicting an effect augmentation following dose fractionation. Concerning the Pavia approach, which can model the release, diffusion and depletion/degradation of candidate signals (e.g. cytokines) travelling in the extra-cellular environment, the good agreement with ad hoc experimental data obtained in our laboratory validated the adopted approach, which in the future can be applied also to other candidate signals. Although the available information is still not sufficient to decide whether the Linear No Threshold approach for low dose risk - including space radiation risk - has to be modified, these studies confirmed the need of a paradigm shift in (low-dose) radiobiology, where the DNA-centric vision needs to be integrated by a wider vision where cells constitute an organized population responding to external stimuli in a collective fashion, communicating by means of different molecular signals. Further studies, in particular in vivo (or at least in 3D tissues) and possibly combined with human epidemiological data, will be crucial to help solving such questions in the future.

  17. Mass Communication and Journalism Faculty's Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Email Communication with College Students: A Nationwide Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Bradford L.; Adams, Jennifer Wood; Brunner, Brigitta R.

    2009-01-01

    Nearly 700 US journalism and mass communication faculty (all teaching personnel) reported their perceptions of student email use via a web-based survey. This nationwide study focused on the content of email sent by faculty to students, email's effectiveness, and email's effect on student learning. Comparisons were made based on faculty gender,…

  18. The effect of wettability on capillary fracturing in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojer, M.; Szulczewski, M.; Juanes, R.

    2012-12-01

    During multiphase flow in a granular medium, capillary pressures can overcome cohesive forces between the grains and cause grain displacements that macroscopically resemble fracture patterns. These patterns were recently studied in experiments of air displacing water in a thin bed of glass beads, for which air is a strongly non-wetting fluid (Holtzman et al. 2012). The experiments showed that the transition from viscous fingering and capillary fingering to capillary fracturing could be predicted by a single dimensionless number called the fracturing number, which is the ratio of the capillary forces that promote grain displacements to the frictional forces that resist displacements. Here, we extend those experiments to study exclusively how the wettability of the invading fluid affects fracturing by visually observing the morphology of the pattern. As in the previous work, we inject a less viscous fluid into a thin bed of glass beads saturated with a more viscous fluid. However, we now vary the fluids to change the wettability of the invading fluid from perfectly non-wetting to wetting. We hypothesize that the emergence of fracturing can be predicted by a modified fracturing number that includes the contact angle to account for the effect of wettability on the capillary pressure. Since the contact angle is a function of the capillary number, we expect the emergence of fracturing will depend on the capillary number when the invading fluid is partially wetting.

  19. Solvent and media effects on the photophysics of naphthoxazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Curitol, Manuel; Ragas, Xavier; Nonell, Santi; Pizarro, Nancy; Encinas, María V; Rojas, Pedro; Zanocco, Renzo P; Lemp, Else; Günther, Germán; Zanocco, Antonio L

    2013-01-01

    The photophysical properties of 2-phenyl-naphtho[1,2-d][1,3]oxazole, 2(4-N,N-dimethylaminophenyl)naphtho[1,2-d][1,3]oxazole and 2(4-N,N-diphenylaminophenyl) naphtho[1,2-d][1,3]oxazole were studied in a series of solvents. UV-Vis absorption spectra are insensitive to solvent polarity whereas the fluorescence spectra in the same solvent set show an important solvatochromic effect leading to large Stokes shifts. Linear solvation energy relationships were employed to correlate the position of fluorescence spectra maxima with microscopic empirical solvent parameters. This study indicates that important intramolecular charge transfer takes place during the excitation process. In addition, an analysis of the solvatochromic behavior of the UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectra in terms of the Lippert-Mataga equation shows a large increase in the excited-state dipole moment, which is also compatible with the formation of an intramolecular charge-transfer excited state. We propose both naphthoxazole derivatives as suitable fluorescent probes to determine physicochemical microproperties in several systems and as dyes in dye lasers; consequence of their high fluorescence quantum yields in most solvents, their large molar absorption coefficients, with fluorescence lifetimes in the range 1-3 ns as well as their high photostability. PMID:23834078

  20. Interface effects on multiphase flows in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Duan Z [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Most models for multiphase flows in a porous medium are based on the straightforward extension of Darcy's law, in which each fluid phase is driven by its own pressure gradient. The pressure difference between the phases is thought to be an effect of surface tension and is called capillary pressure. Independent of Darcy's law, for liquid imbibition processes in a porous material, diffusion models are sometime used. In this paper, an ensemble phase averaging technique for continuous multi phase flows is applied to derive averaged equations and to examine the validity of the commonly used models. The closure for the averaged equations is quite complicated for general multiphase flows in a porous material. For flows with a small ratio of the characteristic length of the phase interfaces to the macroscopic length, the closure relations can be simplified significantly by an approximation with a second order error in the length ratio. The approximation reveals the information of the length scale separation obscured during the ensemble averaging process, and leads to an equation system similar to Darcy's law, but with additional terms. Based on interactions on phase interfaces, relations among closure quantities are studied.

  1. Quantifying the Effect of Sentiment on Information Diffusion in Social Media

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Social media have become the main vehicle of information production and consumption online. Millions of users every day log on their Facebook or Twitter accounts to get updates and news, read about their topics of interest, and become exposed to new opportunities and interactions. Although recent studies suggest that the contents users produce will affect the emotions of their readers, we still lack a rigorous understanding of the role and effects of contents sentiment on the dynamics of information diffusion. This work aims at quantifying the effect of sentiment on information diffusion, to understand: (i) whether positive conversations spread faster and/or broader than negative ones (or vice-versa); (ii) what kind of emotions are more typical of popular conversations on social media; and, (iii) what type of sentiment is expressed in conversations characterized by different temporal dynamics. Our findings show that, at the level of contents, negative messages spread faster than positive ones, but positive on...

  2. Enhancing near-field heat transfer in composite media: Effects of the percolation transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Caneda, P. I.; Rosa, F. S. S.; Pinheiro, F. A.

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the near-field heat transfer between a semi-infinite medium and a nanoparticle made of composite materials. We show that in the effective medium approximation, the heat transfer can be greatly enhanced by considering composite media, being maximal at the percolation transition. Specifically, for titanium inclusions embedded in a polystyrene sphere, this enhancement can be up to thirty times larger than in the case of the corresponding homogeneous titanium sphere. We demonstrate that our findings are robust against material losses, to changes in the shape of inclusions and materials, and apply for different effective medium theories. These results suggest the use of composite media as a new, versatile material platform to enhance, optimize, and tailor near-field heat transfer in nanostructures.

  3. Effect of surface stress on magneto-elastic surface waves in finitely conducting media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debi Pada Acharya; Chaitali Maji

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of the effect of surface stress and conductivity on the propagation of surface wave\\u000a in isotropic, homogeneous, elastic media under the action of a primary magnetic field. Formulation of the general surface\\u000a wave propagation problem has been made, and the corresponding frequency equation has been derived. Frequency equations for\\u000a Rayleigh wave, surface shear wave

  4. Effects of couple stresses on anti-plane problems of piezoelectric media with inhomogeneities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Shodja; M. Ghazisaeidi

    2007-01-01

    The examination of the effect of couple stresses on anti-plane electro-mechanical behaviour of piezoelectric media is of interest. The constitutive equations of piezoelectricity for a transversely isotropic piezoelectric medium of crystal class C6v=6 mm are derived in the context of couple stress elasticity. In this framework, a characteristic length appears in the formulation of anti-plane problems, by which examination of the

  5. Solitary Waves in the Model of Active Media, Taking into Account Effects of Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likus, W.; Vladimirov, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    We study a system of differential equations simulating transport phenomena in active structured media. The model is a generalization of McKean's modification of the celebrated FitzHugh-Nagumo system, describing the nerve impulse propagation in axon. It takes into account the effects of memory, connected with the presence of internal structure. We construct explicitly the localized traveling wave solutions and analyze their stability.

  6. Drilling mud filtration and its effect on the electrical resistivity of porous media 

    E-print Network

    Flock, Donald Louis

    1957-01-01

    of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY January 195? Major Subject? Petroleum Engineering DRILLING MUD FILTRATION AND ITS EFFECT ON THE ELECTR ICAL RESISTIVITY OF POROUS MEDIA A Dissertation... . Residual Core Water and Clay Content Profiles after Invasion by Bentonite Mud A 0 ? 0 ? a o . . . . . . . . . . 24 13. Resistivity-Ratio Profiles after Bentonite Mud Invasion (Cores Initially Saturated with Filtrate A) . ? ? 25 14 o Resistivity...

  7. Solitary waves in the model of active media, taking into account relaxing effects

    E-print Network

    Wojciech Likus; Vsevolod A. Vladimirov

    2014-07-18

    We study a system of differential equation simulating transport phenomena in active structured media. The model is a generalization of the McKean s modification of the celebrated FitzHugh--Nagumo system, describing the nerve impulse propagation in axon. It takes into account the effects of memory, connected with the presence of internal structure. We construct explicitly the localized traveling wave solutions and analyze their stability.

  8. Flexomagnetoelectric effect in nonuniform external fields in isotropic centrosymmetric nonlinear media with spatial dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabychenkov, A. F.; Lisovskii, F. V.

    2014-04-01

    The flexomagnetoelectric effects in isotropic centrosymmetric nonlinear media with spatial dispersion in nonuniform external fields are theoretically analyzed. General theoretical concepts are applied to the case of a capacitor with metallic plates in the form of two infinite cylinders with confocal elliptic generatrices that is filled with a nonlinear dielectric. The developed theory is generalized to the case of an isotropic centrosymmetric collinear antiferromagnet in a disordered phase.

  9. Effects of condensation on steam flow and hydraulic fracture propagation in permeable media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nilson

    1985-01-01

    A review of analytical, numerical, and experimental work on condensing flow in porous media indicates that the primary effect of condensation is the large, typically ten-fold, reduction in penetration depth associated with the collapse of the vapor. As a result, the pressure gradient is about ten-fold larger and, hence, the mass flow rate into the medium is ten-fold greater than

  10. Effect of Ascitic Media Formed by Glycerin on the Prevention of Peritoneal Adhesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Aksoy; C. Vatansev; A. Tekin; A. Pamukcu; T. Küçükkartallar; H. Vatansev; H. Esen; N. Aksoy

    2009-01-01

    Aim: We aimed to investigate whether or not artificial ascites media formed using glycerin are effective in the prevention of intraperitoneal adhesions. Methods: Thirty-six Wistar albino male rats were used in the study. The rats were divided into 3 groups as follows. Group I: control group; group II (isotonic group): 3 ml of 0.9% NaCl was injected into the peritoneal

  11. Size and scale effects as constraints in insect sound communication

    PubMed Central

    Bennet-Clark, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    For optimal transfer of power to the surrounding medium, a sound source should have a radius of 1/6 to 1/4 of the sound wavelength. Sound-waves propagate from the source as compressions and rarefactions of the fluid medium, which decay by spreading and viscous losses. Higher frequencies are more easily refracted and reflected by objects in the environment, causing degradation of signal structure. In open air or water, the sound spreads spherically and decays by the inverse square law. If the sound is restricted to two dimensions rather than three, it decays as the inverse of range, whereas waves within a rod decay largely due to viscous losses; such calls are usually rather simple pulses and rely on the initial time of arrival because of multiple pathlengths or different propagation velocities in the environment. Because of the relationship between calling success and reproductive success, singing insects are under selective pressure to optimize the range, and to maintain the specificity, of their calls. Smaller insects have less muscle power; because of their small sound sources, higher frequencies will be radiated more efficiently than lower frequencies, but in order to produce brief loud pulses from a long-duration muscle contraction they may use both a frequency multiplier mechanism and a mechanical power amplifier. Airborne insect sounds in the range from 1 to 5 kHz tend to have sustained puretone components and a specific pattern of pulses which propagate accurately. Where the song frequency is higher, the pulses tend to become briefer, with a rapid initial build-up that gives a reliable time of onset through obstructed transmission pathways. These scale effects may be related both to the sound-producing mechanism and the auditory system of the receiver. Tiny insects have the special acoustic problem of communicating with only a small amount of available power. Some, such as fruit flies, communicate at low frequencies, at close range, by generating air currents; these currents may also be used to waft specific pheromones. Other small insects, such as Hemiptera, beetles, etc., communicate using substrate vibration. This enables long-range communication, but signal structure degrades with distance from the source; vibration signals tend to be confined to certain types of linear substrate, such as vegetation.

  12. Media events: The case of international terrorism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Weimann

    1987-01-01

    Media?oriented terrorism has stirred growing interest in the communication strategy of modern terrorism and in the quantity, forms, and consequences of media coverage of terrorist events. One limitation of previous analyses is the lack of a theoretical framework to pinpoint the uniqueness of terrorism as media drama, and the commonalities with other kinds of media drama. A theoretical media?event framework

  13. An Experimental Study Designed to Test the Relative Effectiveness of a Multi-Media Instructional System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheier, Elaine

    A study compared the effectiveness of Learning 100 (L-100), a multimedia, multimodal, multilevel communication skills system, with that of a more conventional reading program with functional illiterates in Bedford-Stuyvesant, a ghetto area in Brooklyn, New York. In January, 1968, under the Title III Adult Education Act of 1966, Adult Basic…

  14. Mass Media and Global Warming: A Public Arenas Model of the Greenhouse Effect's Scientific Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuzil, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Uses the Public Arenas model to examine the historical roots of the greenhouse effect issue as communicated in scientific literature from the early 1800s to modern times. Utilizes a constructivist approach to discuss several possible explanations for the rise and fall of global warming as a social problem in the scientific arena. (PA)

  15. Effects of grain angularity on NaCl precipitation in porous media during evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norouzi Rad, Mansoureh; Shokri, Nima

    2014-11-01

    Three dimensional pore-scale analysis was carried out using X-ray microtomography to investigate the effects of grain angularity on NaCl precipitation dynamics and patterns during evaporation from saline porous media. To do so, quartz sand and glass beads with almost similar average particle size and porosity were used enabling us to constrain the effects of grain angularity on NaCl precipitation since the glass beads were spherical and smooth whereas the sand consisted of irregularly shaped grains. Presence of angularity resulted in different pore sizes and shapes influencing the dynamics of evaporation and NaCl precipitation. Our results demonstrate that the preferential evaporation exclusively in fine pores at the surface of porous media results in discrete efflorescence. We observed a higher cumulative NaCl precipitation in the case of glass beads at the early stages of precipitation due to the presence of a fewer number of evaporation sites at the surface. This phenomenon resulted in formation of a thicker and more discrete NaCl crust at the surface of glass beads compared to sand grains. Also, computed water saturation profiles reveals formation of a wider unsaturated zone above the receding drying front in the case of sand compared to glass beads due to the presence of finer pores affecting the capillary flow though the partially wet zone. Our results provide new insights regarding the effects of grain angularity on NaCl precipitation dynamics and patterns during evaporation from saline porous media.

  16. The effect of bargaining orientation and communication medium on negotiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Sheffield

    1992-01-01

    A controlled experiment was conducted to examine how the use of either audio or text forms of verbal communication, and the presence or absence of visual communication impacts the form, content and outcome of negotiation in a bilateral monopoly task. As hypothesized, a cooperative bargaining orientation and\\/or an audio mode of communication lead to a higher joint outcome. In addition,

  17. Pore scale investigation of textural effects on salt precipitation dynamics and patterns in drying porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norouzi Rad, Mansoureh; Shokri, Nima

    2014-05-01

    During stage-1 evaporation from saline porous media, the capillary-induced liquid flow from the interior to the surface of porous media supplies the evaporative demand and transfers the dissolved salt toward the surface where evaporation occurs. This mode of mass transfer is influenced by several factors such as properties of the evaporating fluid and transport properties of porous media. In this work, we carried out a comprehensive pore scale study using X-ray micro-tomography to understand the effects of the texture on the dynamics of salt precipitation and deposition patterns in drying saline porous media. To do so, four different samples of quartz sand with different particle size distributions were used enabling us to constrain the effects of particle size on the salt precipitation patterns and dynamics. The packed beds were saturated with NaCl solution of 3 Molal and the X-ray imaging was continued for 22 hours with temporal resolution of 30 min resulting in pore scale information about the evaporation and precipitation dynamics. During evaporation from saline porous media, salt concentration continuously increases in preferential evaporating sites at the surface until it reaches the solubility limit which is followed by salt precipitation. Thanking to the pore-scale information, the effects of pore size distribution on the dynamics and patterns of salt precipitation were delineated with high spatial and temporal resolutions. Our results show more precipitation at the early stage of the evaporation in the case of sand with the larger particle size due to the presence of a fewer evaporation sites at the surface. Having more preferential evaporation sites at the surface of sand with finer particle sizes affects the patterns and thickness of the salt crust deposited on the surface such that a thinner salt crust was formed in the case of sand with smaller particle size which covered a larger area at the surface as opposed to the thicker patchy crusts in samples with larger particle sizes. Our results provide new insights regarding the physics of salt precipitation and its complex dynamics in porous media during evaporation.

  18. Social media Introduction

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    .ca/university_secretary/policies). Be consistent with the U of S brand Make yourself familiar with the U of S brand (communications to ensure consistency. Naming of a social media account should include"University of Saskatchewan

  19. Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: Design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies") aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe. Methods/Design This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to communicating coherent messages to consumers in Europe. Discussion The FoodRisC project offers a unique approach to the investigation of food risk/benefit communication. The effective spread of food risk/benefit information will assist initiatives aimed at reducing the burden of food-related illness and disease, reducing the economic impact of food crises and ensuring that confidence in safe and nutritious food is fostered and maintained in Europe. PMID:21569458

  20. Selecting Media for Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, L. J.

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of instruction on using a formal media selection procedure on the media selection choices made by novice instructional designers. Twenty-nine male and female graduate students enrolled in a media design course at Arizona State University participated in the study. Media design problems were used…

  1. Gender, equity: new approaches for effective management of communicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Theobald, Sally; Tolhurst, Rachel; Squire, S Bertel

    2006-04-01

    This editorial article examines what is meant by sex, gender and equity and argues that these are critical concepts to address in the effective management of communicable disease. Drawing on examples from the three major diseases of poverty (HIV, tuberculosis [TB] and malaria), the article explores how, for women and men, gender and poverty can lead to differences in vulnerability to illness; access to quality preventive and curative measures; and experience of the impact of ill health. This exploration sets the context for the three companion papers which outline how gender and poverty shape responses to the three key diseases of poverty in different geographical settings: HIV/AIDS in Kenya; TB in India; and malaria in Ghana. PMID:16430933

  2. The Science of Effectively Communicating about Drought in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gann, T. M.; Conklin, M. H.; Gonzales, J. P.; Matlock, T.

    2014-12-01

    The ongoing drought in California is having a tremendous impact on the state economy and the daily lives of its citizens. The impact of the drought is also exacerbated by the complexity of water issues in California, and the lack of understanding in the general public about this complexity. Our project has two goals, both focused on the broader issue of increasing the public's understanding of water issues by helping scientists engage more effectively with the public. The first is to use a survey to assess the perceptions of California residents regarding the ongoing drought affecting the state. The first portion of our survey allows our participants to share, in a free response format, their understanding of the causes, consequences, and potential solutions to the problems caused by drought. This allowed us to get some insight into how people view the drought prior to being lead by our questions, and allows us to conduct a detailed linguistic analysis of the text they provide. Next we asked a battery of questions meant to assess our participants' views on issues such as their views of water rights, the commoditization of water, and what role the government (both state and local) should play in managing California's water. The second goal is to use this data to create profiles that can then be used to more effectively communicate with and educate the public. Together, the results will provide new and valuable insights into how views of drought vary across stakeholders, and could inform policies related to water use. The presentation will include discussion of these results, their implications for best practices by science communicators, and potential impact on policy.

  3. Staff social media guidelines University of Kent June 2012

    E-print Network

    Banaji,. Murad

    Staff social media guidelines University of Kent ­ June 2012 Social media channels in the use of social media on third party sites, such as Facebook and Twitter, to promote and communicate media when communicating on one of the University's official social media channels or commenting

  4. Highlighting media modifications: can a television commercial mitigate the effects of music videos on female appearance satisfaction?

    PubMed

    Quigg, Stephanie L; Want, Stephen C

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to idealized media portrayals of women induces appearance dissatisfaction in females, in the short term. Interventions that highlight the artificial nature of media portrayals can mitigate this effect. The present research investigated whether a 75 second television commercial, that demonstrates behind-the-scenes techniques used to artificially enhance media models, could be similarly effective. Eighty-seven Caucasian female undergraduates were randomly assigned to one of three conditions. The first group viewed music videos and ordinary television commercials. A second group viewed the same music videos and the "intervention" commercial. A final, control, group viewed television and commercials featuring no people. Viewing music videos resulted in significantly lower levels of self-reported appearance satisfaction compared to viewing control television, p<.05, d=-.67. However, exposure to the intervention commercial counter-acted this effect. Demonstrating the extent to which media portrayals of women are artificially enhanced can mitigate detrimental effects on female appearance satisfaction. PMID:21353655

  5. Enhancement of magneto-optic effects via large atomic coherence in optically dense media RID B-9041-2008 

    E-print Network

    Sautenkov, V. A.; Lukin, M. D.; Bednar, CJ; Novikova, I.; Mikhailov, E.; Fleischhauer, M.; Velichansky, V. L.; Welch, George R.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2000-01-01

    We utilize the generation of large atomic coherence in optically dense media to enhance the resonant nonlinear magneto-optic effect by several orders of magnitude, thereby eliminating power broadening and improving the fundamental signal...

  6. Investigation of Media Effects on Removal of Heavy Metals in Bioretention Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülbaz, Sezar; Melek Kazezyilmaz-Alhan, Cevza; Copty, Nadim K.

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals are the most toxic elements at high concentrations, although some of them such as Cu and Zn are essential to plants, humans, and animals within a limited value. However, some heavy metals, such as Pb, have adverse effects even at low concentrations. Therefore, it is known that the toxic metals such as Zn, Cu and Pb in storm water runoff are serious threat for aquatic organisms. It is very important to control and reduce heavy metal concentration in urban storm water runoff. There are several methods to remove the aforementioned toxic metals such as electrolyte extraction, chemical precipitation, ion-exchange, reverse osmosis, membrane filtration, adsorption, cementation, and electrochemical treatment technologies. However, these methods are highly expensive and hard to implement for treatment of big volumes of water such as storm water. For this purpose, Low Impact Development (LID) Best Management Practices (BMPs) have become popular to collect, infiltrate, and treat toxic metals in storm water runoff in recent years. LID-BMP is a land planning method which is used to manage storm water runoff and improve water quality by reducing contaminant in storm water runoff. Bioretention is an example of LID-BMP application of which usage has recently been started in storm water treatment. Researchers have been investigating the advantages of bioretention systems and this study contributes to these research efforts by seeking for the media effects of bioretention on heavy metal removal. For this purpose, batch sorption experiments were performed to determine the distribution coefficients and retardation factor of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) for bioretention media such as mulch, turf, local or vegetative soil, sand and gravel. Furthermore, sorption reaction kinetics of Cu, Pb and Zn are tested in order to assess the sorption equilibrium time of these metals for 5 bioretention media. The results of sorption test show that turf has higher sorption capacity than mulch and local soil for heavy metals used in the experiment. On the other hand, sand and gravel have relatively lower sorption capacities. Linear equilibrium isotherm represents sorption of these metals for all bioretention media. The highest sorption is observed for Pb followed by Cu and Zn for all bioretention media. The time required for reaching equilibrium conditions for bioretention column media is ranged from 1 to 6 hours for each metal investigated.

  7. Re-Examination of Mixed Media Communication: The Impact of Voice, Data Link, and Mixed Air Traffic Control Environments on the Flight Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Melisa; McGann, Alison; Mackintosh, Margaret-Anne; Lozito, Sandra; Ashford, Rose (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A simulation in the B747-400 was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center that compared how crews handled voice and data link air traffic control (ATC) messages in a single medium versus a mixed voice and data link ATC environment The interval between ATC messages was also varied to examine the influence of time pressure in voice, data link, and mixed ATC environments. For messages sent via voice, transaction times were lengthened in the mixed media environment for closely spaced messages. The type of environment did not affect data link times. However, messages times were lengthened in both single and mixed-modality environments under time pressure. Closely spaced messages also increased the number of requests for clarification for voice messages in the mixed environment and review menu use for data link messages. Results indicated that when time pressure is introduced, the mix of voice and data link does not necessarily capitalize on the advantages of both media. These findings emphasize the need to develop procedures for managing communication in mixed voice and data link environments.

  8. Non-verbal communication of compassion: measuring psychophysiologic effects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Calm, compassionate clinicians comfort others. To evaluate the direct psychophysiologic benefits of non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), it is important to minimize the effect of subjects' expectation. This preliminary study was designed to a) test the feasibility of two strategies for maintaining subject blinding to non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), and b) determine whether blinded subjects would experience psychophysiologic effects from NVCC. Methods Subjects were healthy volunteers who were told the study was evaluating the effect of time and touch on the autonomic nervous system. The practitioner had more than 10 years' experience with loving-kindness meditation (LKM), a form of NVCC. Subjects completed 10-point visual analog scales (VAS) for stress, relaxation, and peacefulness before and after LKM. To assess physiologic effects, practitioners and subjects wore cardiorespiratory monitors to assess respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) throughout the 4 10-minute study periods: Baseline (both practitioner and subjects read neutral material); non-tactile-LKM (subjects read while the practitioner practiced LKM while pretending to read); tactile-LKM (subjects rested while the practitioner practiced LKM while lightly touching the subject on arms, shoulders, hands, feet, and legs); Post-Intervention Rest (subjects rested; the practitioner read). To assess blinding, subjects were asked after the interventions what the practitioner was doing during each period (reading, touch, or something else). Results Subjects' mean age was 43.6 years; all were women. Blinding was maintained and the practitioner was able to maintain meditation for both tactile and non-tactile LKM interventions as reflected in significantly reduced RR. Despite blinding, subjects' VAS scores improved from baseline to post-intervention for stress (5.5 vs. 2.2), relaxation (3.8 vs. 8.8) and peacefulness (3.8 vs. 9.0, P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Subjects also had significant reductions in RR (P < 0.0001) and improved HRV (P < 0.05) with both tactile and non-tactile LKM. Conclusion It is possible to test the effects of LKM with tactile and non-tactile blinding strategies; even with blinding in this small preliminary study, subjects reported significant improvements in well-being which were reflected in objective physiologic measures of autonomic activity. Extending compassion is not only good care; it may also be good medicine. Trial registration number US National ClinicalTrials.gov registration number, NCT01428674 PMID:22185349

  9. Renewing the Minds of the Media: An Interview with Cardinal William Keeler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mary Ann

    1999-01-01

    Presents an interview with Cardinal William Keeler, Archbishop of Baltimore, on the exploitation of sex and violence in communications, and the Church's concern about contemporary media. Discusses specific topics such as violence on television, pornography, and what families and parishes can do to combat media's negative effects on society. (EMH)

  10. The effect of indoor air pollutants on otitis media and asthma in children

    SciTech Connect

    Daigler, G.E.; Markello, S.J.; Cummings, K.M. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

    1991-03-01

    This case-control study investigated the possible association between home environmental air pollutants and their effect on otitis media and asthma in children. Patients with physician-diagnosed otitis (n = 125, 74% response), with asthma (n = 137, 80% response), and controls (n = 237, 72% response) from a private pediatric practice seen between October 1986 and May 1987 were studied. A questionnaire inquired about housing characteristics (i.e., age, insulation, heating system) and sources of indoor air pollution such as cigarette smoking, use of woodburning stoves, household pets, etc. Analysis of the responses confirmed previous findings of significant relationships between maternal smoking (P = .021), and the presence of pets (P = .034) and the occurrence of asthma. A newly reported relationship between exposure to woodburning stoves and the occurrence of otitis (P less than .05) was reported. This implicates yet another risk factor (wood burning) in the etiology of otitis media.

  11. The effect of indoor air pollutants on otitis media and asthma in children.

    PubMed

    Daigler, G E; Markello, S J; Cummings, K M

    1991-03-01

    This case-control study investigated the possible association between home environmental air pollutants and their effect on otitis media and asthma in children. Patients with physician-diagnosed otitis (n = 125, 74% response), with asthma (n = 137, 80% response), and controls (n = 237, 72% response) from a private pediatric practice seen between October 1986 and May 1987 were studied. A questionnaire inquired about housing characteristics (i.e., age, insulation, heating system) and sources of indoor air pollution such as cigarette smoking, use of woodburning stoves, household pets, etc. Analysis of the responses confirmed previous findings of significant relationships between maternal smoking (P = .021), and the presence of pets (P = .034) and the occurrence of asthma. A newly reported relationship between exposure to woodburning stoves and the occurrence of otitis (P less than .05) was reported. This implicates yet another risk factor (wood burning) in the etiology of otitis media. PMID:2000018

  12. Polar and low polar solvents media effect on dipole moments of some diazo Sudan dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Golghasemi Sorkhabi, Sh.; Shamkhali, A. N.

    2014-06-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectra of three Sudan dyes (SudanIII, SudanIV and Sudan black B) were recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 300-800 nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic method was used to investigate dipole moments of these dyes in ground and excited states, in different media. The solvatochromic behavior of these substances and their solvent-solute interactions were analyzed via solvent polarity parameters. Obtained results express the effects of solvation on tautomerism and molecular configuration (geometry) of Sudan dyes in solvent media with different polarity. Furthermore, analyze of solvent-solute interactions and value of ground and excited states dipole moments suggests different forms of resonance structures for Sudan dyes in polar and low-polar solvents.

  13. Perceptions of Sources of Sex Education and Targets of Sex Communication: Sociodemographic and Cohort Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Sprecher; Gardenia Harris; Adena Meyers

    2008-01-01

    As part of a larger survey study on young adult sexuality conducted over a 17-year period at a Midwest U.S. university, more than 6,000 college students completed questions on the sources of their sex education and the degree to which they have communicated about sex with various types of individuals. Participants reported receiving more sex education from peers and media

  14. Encounters with consumption during computer-mediated play: the development of digital games as marketing communication media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Molesworth

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the use of digital games for marketing communications using two theoretical perspectives. Firstly, the external contexts in which video game play takes place and secondly, internal game processes that are likely to be of interest to marketers and game developers. Findings from exploratory focus groups support the use of brand placement in games. Players feel that it

  15. Communication and Political Mobilization: Digital Media and the Organization of Anti-Iraq War Demonstrations in the U.S

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Lance Bennett; Christian Breunig; Terri Givens

    2008-01-01

    The speed and scale of mobilization in many contemporary protest events may reflect a transformation of movement organizations toward looser ties with members, enabling broader mobilization through the mechanism of dense individual-level political networks. This analysis explores the dynamics of this communication process in the case of U.S. protests against the Iraq war in 2003. We hypothesize that individual activists

  16. Communication Media in Education for Low-Income Countries: Implications for Planning. Fundamentals of Educational Planning--29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnany, Emile G.; Mayo, John K.

    This booklet discusses, in the context of low-income countries, a series of planning issues bridging education and communication. The planning issues include the democratization of educational opportunity, the quality of instruction and learning, the impact of education through technology on rural areas, and the participation of people in their…

  17. Social Media as a Practical Approach in Engaging Key Stakeholders in School Crisis Communication Plans: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agozzino, Alisa; Kaiser, Candace

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined how public relations specialists within school systems are developing, implementing, and revising their communication crisis plans in an effort to fully engage all key stakeholders. Four research questions and two hypotheses were posed. Members from a state public relations association for schools were asked to…

  18. Empathetic living media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian David Cheok; Roger Thomas Kok; Chuen Tan; Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Tim Merritt; Janyn Yen Ping Sen

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new form of interactive living media used to communicate social or ecological information in the form of an empathetic ambient media. In the fast paced modern world people are generally too busy to monitor various significant social or human aspects of their lives, such as time spent with their family, their overall health, state of the ecology,

  19. The Media Gospel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christians, Clifford G.; Fortner, Robert S.

    1981-01-01

    Examines four recent books on the religious media: Ben Armstrong's "The Electric Church," James F. Engel's "Contemporary Christian Communications: Its Theory and Practice," Malcolm Muggeridge's "Christ and the Media," and Virginia Stem Owens'"The Total Image: or Selling Jesus in the Modern Age." Evaluates the internal validity of each. (JMF)

  20. Digital Media and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    MacArthur launched the digital media and learning initiative in 2006 to explore how digital media are changing the way young people learn, socialize, communicate, and play. Since 2006, the Foundation has awarded grants totaling more than $100 million for research, development of innovative new technologies, new learning environments for youth,…

  1. Building Social Media Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferriter, William N.; Ramsden, Jason T.; Sheninger, Eric C.

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating social media tools into your professional practices does not have to be intimidating as long as you are willing to tackle five action steps. It is far easier to articulate the strengths--and to imagine the possibilities--of social media spaces as tools for communication and professional development when you are actively using those…

  2. Speaking through the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrick, Andrea; Dessoff, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Offers advice for college communications officers in dealing with the media. Tips include: "bring in the big guns", "play show and tell", expand the media circle, understand reporters' jobs and respect deadlines, "keep it real", "stay in touch", and "hedge your bets". (EV)

  3. News Releases Media Resources

    E-print Network

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    News Media Contacts News Releases Media Resources University Community Communications Help News Policies Submit News Submit Announcements To News Archive | « Previous by Date | Next by Date » Web Stories & Aid Administration & Services Campus Life Visiting Campus News@Princeton Friday, July 15, 2005 Other

  4. Comparison of numerical and effective-medium modeling of porosity in layered media.

    PubMed

    Veres, Istvan A; Smith, Robert A; Pinfield, Valerie J

    2015-06-01

    In this study, modeling approaches for porosity in layered media are presented and compared. First, an effective-medium model is used to account for the frequencydependent attenuation of the elastic waves. The effective-medium model is based on a single-scattering approach, i.e., it neglects multiple-scattering effects. Then, the effective-medium model is compared in time-domain finite element simulations. The numerical model allows the study of the scattering of the elastic waves on randomly distributed spherical cavities and also accounts for multiple-scattering effects. The models are compared to investigate the validity of the effective-medium model approach. The calculated reflected laminate responses and transmission spectra from the two models show a good agreement. PMID:26067043

  5. Simulation of fluid displacement in porous media - improved methods to minimize numerical dispersion and grid orientation effects

    E-print Network

    Laprea-Bigott, Marcelo

    1976-01-01

    SIMULATION OF FLUID DISPLACEMENT IN POROUS MEDIA ? IMPROVED METHODS TO MINIMIZE NUMERICAL DISPERSION AND GRID ORIENTATION EFFECTS A Thesis by MARCELO LAPREA-BIGOTT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering SIMULATION OF FLUID DISPLACEMENT IN POROUS MEDIA - IMPROVED METHODS TO MINIMIZE NUMERICAL DISPERSION AND GRID ORIENTATION EFFECTS A...

  6. The effect of temperature on the formation resistivity factor of porous media

    E-print Network

    Brannan, Geryl Owen

    1972-01-01

    TlIE EFFECT OF TEI1PERATU1K ON TllE FOIQEATION RESISTIVITY FACTOR OP POROUS 11EDIA A Thesis by Geryl Omen Ersnncn Submittccl to the G aUvate College of Tc::ss A&N University ic Purtis1 fulfillment of the requirement for th = clegrc of. Pl...ASTER OF SCIENCE December. 1972 major S?b jcct: Petroleum Pnfinccrinf THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE FORMATION RESISTIVITY FACTOR OF POROUS MEDIA A Thesis by Geryl Owen Brannan Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee Head...

  7. Cherenkov and Fano effects at the origin of asymmetric vector mesons in nuclear media

    E-print Network

    Dremin, I M

    2015-01-01

    It is argued that the experimentally observed phenomenon of asymmetric vector mesons produced in nuclear media during high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions can be explained as Cherenkov and Fano effects. The mass distributions of lepton pairs created at meson decays decline from the traditional Breit-Wigner shape in the low-mass wing of the resonance. That is explained by the positive real part of the amplitude in this wing for classic Cherenkov treatment and further detalized in quantum mechanics as the interference of direct and continuum states in Fano effect. The corresponding parameters are found from the comparison with rho-meson data and admit reasonable explanation.

  8. Communicating and Learning in Engineering Online Resources 1 Learning effectively through Groupwork

    E-print Network

    Sekercioglu, Y. Ahmet

    Communicating and Learning in Engineering Online Resources 1 Learning effectively through Groupwork to handle behavioural problems Communicating and Learning in Engineering Online Resources 2 #12;You and as early as possible. · Research shows that we all learn effectively from each other. Hence, your teams

  9. Analyzing Effective Communication in Mathematics Group Work: The Role of Visual Mediators and Technical Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryve, Andreas; Nilsson, Per; Pettersson, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing and designing productive group work and effective communication constitute ongoing research interests in mathematics education. In this article we contribute to this research by using and developing a newly introduced analytical approach for examining effective communication within group work in mathematics education. By using data from…

  10. The Effects of Behavioral Skills Training on Implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosales, Rocio; Stone, Karen; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of a behavioral skills training (BST) package to teach the implementation of the first three phases of the picture exchange communication system (PECS) was evaluated with 3 adults who had no history teaching any functional communication system. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effectiveness

  11. Some experimental results for the head\\/hand effects in personal communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Neto; N. Nogueiru de Carvalho; J. da Costa e Silva

    1997-01-01

    In this work, some experimental results for the head\\/hand effects in personal communications are presented, for the real situation of a person during a call in the AMPS system. The hand-held unit has a monopole antenna. A simple measurement procedure is described and experimental results are discussed including biological effect aspects and wireless communication system performance. The obtained results will

  12. Media portrayal of mental illness and its treatments: what effect does it have on people with mental illness?

    PubMed

    Stuart, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews dominant media portrayals of mental illness, the mentally ill and mental health interventions, and examines what social, emotional and treatment-related effects these may have. Studies consistently show that both entertainment and news media provide overwhelmingly dramatic and distorted images of mental illness that emphasise dangerousness, criminality and unpredictability. They also model negative reactions to the mentally ill, including fear, rejection, derision and ridicule. The consequences of negative media images for people who have a mental illness are profound. They impair self-esteem, help-seeking behaviours, medication adherence and overall recovery. Mental health advocates blame the media for promoting stigma and discrimination toward people with a mental illness. However, the media may also be an important ally in challenging public prejudices, initiating public debate, and projecting positive, human interest stories about people who live with mental illness. Media lobbying and press liaison should take on a central role for mental health professionals, not only as a way of speaking out for patients who may not be able to speak out for themselves, but as a means of improving public education and awareness. Also, given the consistency of research findings in this field, it may now be time to shift attention away from further cataloguing of media representations of mental illness to the more challenging prospect of how to use the media to improve the life chances and recovery possibilities for the one in four people living with mental disorders. PMID:16478286

  13. Media Now: A Historical Review of a Media Literacy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesem, Yonty; Quaglia, Diane; Crane, Ed

    2014-01-01

    The Elizabeth Thoman Archive at the Harrington School of Communication and Media, University of Rhode Island, has the last complete kit of one of the milestones in the early chronology of media literacy, the 1972 Media Now curriculum. This curriculum was the first of its kind, using self-contained lesson modules that were part of a larger series…

  14. Experimental Investigation of the Effective Foam Viscosity in Unsaturated Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. F.; Zhong, Lirong; White, Mark D.; Szecsody, James E.

    2012-11-01

    Foam has the potential to effectively carry and distribute either aqueous or gaseous amendments to the deep vadose zone for contaminant remediation. However, the transport of foam in porous media is complicated because flow characteristics such as the effective viscosity are affected not only by foam properties but also by the sediment properties and flow conditions. We determined the average effective foam viscosity via a series of laboratory experiments and found that the effective foam viscosity increased with the liquid fraction in foam, the injection rate, and sediment permeability. These impacts are quantified with an empirical expression, which is further demonstrated with data from literature. The results show that the liquid fraction in foam and sediment permeability are two primary factors affecting effective foam viscosity. These results suggest that, when foam is used in deep vadose zone remediation, foam flow will not suffer from gravitational drainage and can distribute amendments uniformly in heterogeneous sediments.

  15. Effect of communications training on medical student performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Yedidia; Colleen C. Gillespie; Elizabeth Kachur; Mark D. Schwartz; Judith K. Ockene; Amy E. Chepaitis; Clint W. Snyder; Aaron Lazare; Lipkin Mack Jr

    2003-01-01

    CONTEXT: Although physicians' communication skills have been found to be related to clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction, teaching of communication skills has not been fully integrated into many medical school curricula or adequately evaluated with large-scale controlled trials.\\u000aOBJECTIVE: To determine whether communications training for medical students improves specific competencies known to affect outcomes of care.\\u000aDESIGN AND SETTING: A

  16. Assessing the effectiveness of communication in organisations: the communication audit approach.

    PubMed

    Hargie, O D; Tourish, D

    1993-11-01

    Within the past decade there has been an enormous growth of interest in the field of organisational communication. Numerous books, book chapters and journal articles have been devoted to this topic. However, much of this output has been at the level of common sense exhortation, has tended to be anecdotal, or at best has been based upon the personal experience of the authors. Certainly within the UK there has been little hard empirical research into the nature, flow and functions of communication within organisations. This paper proposes the introduction of a much more systematic methodology for the study of such communication, based upon what is known as the 'communication audit' approach. This approach is fully explained and the main methods employed in communication audits outlined, together with their relative advantages and disadvantages. It is also pointed out that audits are now widely employed to measure performance in other spheres of the organisation, such as finance, and it is argued that the implementation of this system to measure communication performance is therefore long overdue. The benefits for organisations of carrying out audits are highlighted and suggestions are made about possible future directions for research in this area. PMID:10130970

  17. The effectiveness in utilizing Chinese media to promote breast health among Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Sun, Angela; Zhang, Jian; Tsoh, Janice; Wong-Kim, Evaon; Chow, Edward

    2007-03-01

    To increase the awareness and practice of breast health guidelines, a media-based education campaign on breast health was launched among immigrant Chinese community in San Francisco. The media campaign included airing two public service announcements (PSAs) on Chinese television and radio stations and publishing the same message in Chinese newspapers during 2000. Seven-hundred-ten face-to-face interviews were conducted with women who were recruited from various settings in the city of San Francisco to evaluate the impact of the campaign. Survey participants were asked to describe the content of the PSAs. Having viewed the PSA was significantly associated with the ability to identify all four guidelines (OR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.35-2.85), knowing how to perform breast self-exam (BSE; OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.53-3.29), having performed BSE within the past month (OR = 3.12; 95% CI: 2.05-4.74), and having a clinical breast exam (CBE; OR = 2.98; 95% CI: 1.82-4.90) and mammogram (MAM; OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.16-3.36) in the past year. The study findings support that a media campaign utilizing PSAs is effective in improving knowledge of breast health guidelines, teaching Chinese women how to (BSEs), and increasing breast health practices. PMID:17365357

  18. Green roof stormwater retention: effects of roof surface, slope, and media depth.

    PubMed

    VanWoert, Nicholaus D; Rowe, D Bradley; Andresen, Jeffrey A; Rugh, Clayton L; Fernandez, R Thomas; Xiao, Lan

    2005-01-01

    Urban areas generate considerably more stormwater runoff than natural areas of the same size due to a greater percentage of impervious surfaces that impede water infiltration. Roof surfaces account for a large portion of this impervious cover. Establishing vegetation on rooftops, known as green roofs, is one method of recovering lost green space that can aid in mitigating stormwater runoff. Two studies were performed using several roof platforms to quantify the effects of various treatments on stormwater retention. The first study used three different roof surface treatments to quantify differences in stormwater retention of a standard commercial roof with gravel ballast, an extensive green roof system without vegetation, and a typical extensive green roof with vegetation. Overall, mean percent rainfall retention ranged from 48.7% (gravel) to 82.8% (vegetated). The second study tested the influence of roof slope (2 and 6.5%) and green roof media depth (2.5, 4.0, and 6.0 cm) on stormwater retention. For all combined rain events, platforms at 2% slope with a 4-cm media depth had the greatest mean retention, 87%, although the difference from the other treatments was minimal. The combination of reduced slope and deeper media clearly reduced the total quantity of runoff. For both studies, vegetated green roof systems not only reduced the amount of stormwater runoff, they also extended its duration over a period of time beyond the actual rain event. PMID:15888889

  19. Effectiveness of a mass media campaign in promoting HIV testing information seeking among African American women.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kevin C; Uhrig, Jennifer; Rupert, Douglas; Fraze, Jami; Goetz, Joshua; Slater, Michael

    2011-10-01

    "Take Charge. Take the Test." (TCTT), a media campaign promoting HIV testing among African American women, was piloted in Cleveland and Philadelphia from October 2006 to October 2007. This study assesses TCTT's effectiveness in promoting HIV testing information seeking among target audiences in each pilot city. The authors analyzed data on telephone hotlines promoted by the campaign and the www.hivtest.org Web site to examine trends in hotline calls and testing location searches before, during, and after the campaign. Cleveland hotline data were available from October 1, 2005, through February 28, 2008, for a total of 29 months (N = 126 weeks). Philadelphia hotline data were available from May 1, 2006, through February 28, 2008, for a total of 22 months (N = 96 weeks). The authors assessed the relation between market-level measures of the campaign's advertising activities and trends in hotline call volume and testing location searches. They found a significant relation between measures of TCTT advertising and hotline calls. Specifically, they found that increases in advertising gross ratings points were associated with increases in call volume, controlling for caller demographics and geographic location. The campaign had similar effects on HIV testing location searches. Overall, it appears the campaign generated significant increases in HIV information seeking. Results are consistent with other studies that have evaluated the effects of media campaigns on similar forms of information seeking. This study illustrates useful methods for evaluating campaign effects on information seeking with data on media implementation, hotline calls, and zip code-based searches for testing locations. PMID:21707409

  20. Development Communication in Action: Building Understanding and Creating Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moemeka, Andrew A.

    Addressing the use of communication (interpersonal, folk, traditional, group, organizational, and mass media) in the development process, this book discusses some of the conceptual and theoretical basis for integrating communication effectively into development plans and execution. It also examines the rationale and practical necessity for such…