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1

Effects of the Mass Media of Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mass media are considered to be television, radio, movies, and newspapers. They may generate changes in cognition and comprehension. They do effect emotional arousal, sex and behavior identification, and changes in allocation of time, consumer purchase, and voting behavior. The only data which show a clear relationship between the mass media

Weiss, Walter

2

Culture and Communication: Cultural Variations and Media Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in communication technologies have made great progress in bridging time and distance, but social and cultural differences are still formidable obstacles to effective communication. Communication processes occur in specific cultural contexts, with unique normative beliefs, assumptions, and shared symbols. Culture influences what people communicate, to whom they communicate, and how they communicate. There has been little systematic cross-cultural research

Karen Moustafa Leonard; James R. Van Scotter; Fatma Pakdil

2009-01-01

3

Effective Use of Social Media in Communicating Climate Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internet and social media have been a critical vector for misinformation on climate change. Scientists have not always been proactive or effective in utilizing the medium to bring attention to the best science, to correct misinformation and overcome urban myths. Similarly, mainstream journalists have been handicapped in dealing with the wide open nature of the medium, and often muted by editorial concerns or budget restrictions. Independent communicators who are highly motivated can make inroads in this area by using the internet's immediacy and connectivity to consistently connect viewers and readers to reliable information. Over the last 4 years, I have developed a series of you tube videos, made deliberately provocative to engage the internet's confrontational culture, but carefully crafted to bring the best science into the freewheeling community. In doing so, I have won the confidence of leading climate scientists, and in some cases assisted them in clarifying their message. This presentation will share simple tips, useful practices, and effective strategies for making complex material more clear and user friendly, and help scientists better convey the stories hidden in their data.

Sinclair, P. W.

2012-12-01

4

Communications and media services  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's internal and external communication methods are reviewed. NASA information services for the media, for the public, and for employees are discussed. Consideration is given to electron information distribution, the NASA TV-audio system, the NASA broadcast news service, astronaut appearances, technology and information exhibits, speaker services, and NASA news reports for internal communications. Also, the NASA worldwide electronic mail network is described and trends for future NASA communications and media services are outlined.

Mcculla, James W.; Kukowski, James F.

1990-01-01

5

Communication Addiction Disorder: Concern over Media, Behavior and Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent attention to Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD) raises concerns about conceptualization and etiology of such a syndrome. An alternative syndrome, Communication Addiction Disorder, is proposed. Research describing symptomatology and deleterious effects of too much talking are reviewed which parallel IAD characteristics in several respects. These disorders are then critiqued, as a means to identify problems in the reification of new

Joseph B. Walther

6

Scientific Story Telling & Social Media The role of social media in effectively communicating science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific discourse generally takes place in appropriate journals, using the language and conventions of science. That's fine, as long as the discourse remains in scientific circles. It is only outside those circles that the rules and techniques of engaging social media tools gain importance. A young generation of scientists are eager to share their experiences by using social media, but is this effective? And how can we better integrate all outreach & media channels to engage general audiences? How can Facebook, Twitter, Skype and YouTube be used as synergy tools in scientific story telling? Case: during IODP Expedtion 342 (June-July 2012) onboard the scientific drillship JOIDES Resolution an onboard educator and videographer worked non-stop fort two months on an integrated outreach plan that tried and tested the limits of all social media tools available to interact with an international public while at sea. The results are spectacular!

Brinkhuis, D.; Peart, L.

2012-12-01

7

Evaluating the effectiveness of communication media on remote collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different institutions worldwide, such as economic, social and political, are relying increasingly on the communication technology to perform a variety of functions: holding remote business meetings, discussing design issues in product development, enabling consumers to remain connected with their families and children, and so on. In this environment, where geographic and temporal boundaries are shrinking rapidly, electronic communication medium are

Rahul Malik; Melissa Dobosh; Marshall S. Poole; Kenton McHenry; Peter Bajcsy

2010-01-01

8

Effects of media messages on parent-child sexual communication.  

PubMed

Parent-child communication about sex is an important reproductive health outcome. Consistent, positive perceptions of communication by parents and children can promote behavioral outcomes such as delaying sexual debut and increasing contraceptive use. The authors investigated whether exposure to messages from the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC), a social marketing campaign to promote increased parent-child sexual communication, led to increased children's self-reports of communication. Also, the authors examined whether PSUNC message exposure increased agreement about communication between parents and their children. In a randomized experimental design, the authors surveyed children of parents exposed and not exposed to PSUNC messages. Parents and children completed online instruments asking matched questions about sexual attitudes, beliefs, and communication. The authors matched 394 parents and children for analysis. They used ordinal logistic regression modeling and kappa statistics. Children of parents exposed to PSUNC messages were more likely to (a) report sexual communication than were those not exposed and (b) agree with their parents about extent and content. Parent-child pairs of the same gender, younger pairs, and non-White pairs were more likely to agree. Overall, PSUNC message exposure appears to have promoted more extensive sexual communication. Future research should examine behavioral mechanisms and message receptivity among subgroups of parents and children. PMID:22339275

Evans, W Douglas; Davis, Kevin C; Silber Ashley, Olivia; Khan, Munziba

2012-01-01

9

Canadian Communication\\/Media Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discussion in this paper examines the influence of Harold Innis' medium theory on contemporary media and communication scholarship in Canada and abroad. The methodological construction of Innis' medium theory comprises several dimensions including: media bias; the exercising of power through the use and control of media; the bias of communication media toward favouring control over space and control through

Robert E. Babe

10

Communication Theory and Alternative Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article draws firstly on theories that question the exclusionary nature of mass communication in terms of the emancipatory potential of 'new media'; of the democratization of communication; or even in terms of advancing alternative forms of communication. By probing specifically into various small-scale, decentralised media projects, issues concerning the social as well as the cultural context of their implementation;

Pantelis Vatikiotis

2005-01-01

11

TRADITIONAL FOLK MEDIA: A POTENTIALLY EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION TOOL IN RURAL AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication pattern of any society is a part its total culture and it can be understood in the context of its social structure, organization and institutions. The process of communication is as old as mankind. Every country has its own traditional and folk media communication, which serves as significant tools in the process of motivating the people in the desired

Rajendra Chapke; Rekha Bhagat

12

Further explorations of post-crisis communication: Effects of media and response strategies on perceptions and intentions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crisis communication represents a rapidly growing body of research and is seeing an increased use of experimental methods. However, the experiments have relied exclusively on print stimuli resulting in little knowledge of channel effects on crisis communication. This study evaluates the effects of different response strategies and media channels on respondents exposed to a crisis. The study used a 2

W. Timothy Coombs; Sherry J. Holladay

2009-01-01

13

[Effect of mass communication media in food purchasing at the family level].  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mass media advertisement of food products (TV, radio and the press), particularly in pre-school and school-age children, as well as the concomitant impact these age groups have on the family food buying patterns. To test the hypothesis that the impact of mass media advertising on foods varied in the different socioeconomic levels of a community, a stratified sample of all children below 13 years of age, who attended the Francisco Fajardo school in the central coast of Venezuela, was drawn. Mass media contact, food and nutrition knowledge and other socioeconomic characteristics were related to the family's food-buying patterns. More specifically, the age, working status and educational level of the mother in regard to beliefs concerning the nutritional value of advertized food products, were related. A semi-structured questionnaire was designed, tested and applied to the housewife or whoever performed this role within the family. Findings revealed that families of low socioeconomic status are prone to be most influenced by mass media food product advertising. This is reflected not only in food purchasing practices but also in food consumption patterns at the family level. Chocolate drinks, cereals, jello, sausages, and ice cream are the most popular products among pre-school and school-aged children, without social class distinction. Furthermore, results revealed that the degree of exposure to mass communication media--television, radio and newspapers--is a determining factor in children's food preferences at all socioeconomic levels, and that television is the media exerting the greatest influence. PMID:3632198

Moya de Sifontes, M Z; Dehollain, P L

1986-03-01

14

Converged Media and Communication Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Converged media and communication services (COMCO) is the conceptual approach of integrating telecommunication, Web 2.0 and Media\\/IPTV in one architectural approach. Current available service delivery platform (SDP) concepts are silo approaches, which belong more or less to one of the three groups: (mobile\\/fix) telecommunication SDP, IPTV SDP and pure Web SDP. The groups have in common the integration of OSS\\/BSS

Jens Fiedler; Christian Riede; Thomas Magedanz

2008-01-01

15

Effect of communication media on developmental relationships: Self-reported and observed behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of four communication modes (computer-based video teleconferencing, computer-based electronic chat, telephone, and face-to-face) on developmental interactions between dyads; specifically on the transmission of psychosocial versus instrumental information. The dyads con- sisted of undergraduates at a southeastern university. One member of the dyad was an incoming first year student; the second member was an upper division

Rosemarie Reynolds; Michael T. Brannick

2009-01-01

16

Political Communication —Old and New Media Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reflects upon the ways television changed the political landscape and considers how far new media, such as the Internet, are displacing television or reconfiguring the political communications ecology. The analysis explores opportunities and challenges facing media producers, politicians, and citizens. The authors conclude by suggesting that the television-politics relationship that emerged in the 1960s still prevails to some

Michael Gurevitch; Stephen Coleman; Jay G. Blumler

2009-01-01

17

Teens and alcohol: A consumer behavior analysis of interpersonal communication and mass media effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate a health and public policy issue in terms of consumer behavior and communication theories. The Health Belief Model (Rosenstock, 1974) provided the foundation for studying social marketing and liquor industry advertising with interpersonal communication between a teen and peers, a teen and parents and a teen and other adults with alcohol consumption

Tanuja R Sheth

2003-01-01

18

Communications and Media: Grade 7. Cluster II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A curriculum guide for grade 7, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Communications and Media." It is divided into six units: advertising, film and photography, radio and television, journalism and publishing, library and periodicals, and transocean communications. Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

Calhoun, Olivia H.

19

Communication structure and collective actions in social media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I present results a study of different types of social media communication and networking channels that allow for collective action (CA): Twitter, Jaiku \\/ Qaiku, Ning and Facebook. My preliminary findings indicate, that the visual outlining and the structure of communication create different kinds of collectivity and collective actions. A status stream is effective for simple and

Kari A. Hintikka

2010-01-01

20

Highly survivable communications: complementary media packet switched networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirement for reliable communications for many national security, crisis management and natural disaster related requirements is clear. The ability to communicate under extreme conditions including intense and\\/or sophisticated jamming and adverse propagation conditions (possibly induced by high altitude nuclear events) is a very important requirement. This paper presents complementary multi (propagation) media approach as the most cost-effective manner for

D. Yavuz; F. Eken; N. Karavassilis

1994-01-01

21

Communication, Media and the Elderly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography of 76 citations and abstracts focuses on communication with, by, and about the elderly. Publications span the period from 1949 to 1987. References to convention papers and materials that have not been published have been included only if available through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service or a similar organization.…

Goodman, R. Irwin

22

Dictating Modes of Communication: How Communication Media Usage Norms Limit Freedom of Expression in Virtual Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined communication selection within virtual organizations and the effects of these media. The subjects, who were 681 participants from 3 separate virtual organizations that used face-to-face communication, telephone, documents, voice mail, and electronic mail, completed a survey instrument. Follow-up interviews were conducted with key…

Mayer-Guell, Ann M.

23

Effectiveness of a National Media Campaign to Promote Parent-Child Communication about Sex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although there is debate on the effectiveness of youth-focused abstinence education programs, research confirms that parents can influence their children’s decisions about sexual behavior. To leverage parent-based approaches to adolescent sexual health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the "Parents Speak Up…

Davis, Kevin C.; Evans, W. Douglas; Kamyab, Kian

2013-01-01

24

Communication Studies, Cultural Studies, and Media Studies Infobase  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mick Underwood's extensive infobase of communication, culture, and media studies introduces various models and theories of communication and explains their social and cultural implications. In addition, the infobase includes a detailed index of terms, a bibliography of references, a list of links, a message forum, a chat room, and a series of online quizzes. The great volume of information at this site is effectively managed via several navigation tools: a site map, an index, pull-down menus, and meaningful icons.

25

Who is my audience, what is my message, and know my reporters deadline: How to be more effective communicating with the media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the United States where most scientists receive their research support from federal funds, scientists need to expand their audience beyond their peers and consider the taxpayers, too. The media can play an important conduit for scientists and the lay public. However, many scientists do not do the best public relations jobs for their profession. We talk very well with each other and not very well with almost anyone else. We need to learn to avoid jargon, communicate our results more clearly, and examine the relationship between communication techniques and how to assess the outcomes. Scientists assess outcome based only on factual accuracy. Journalists assess their results based on accuracy and storycraft. In my experiences interacting with the media during various oil spills as well as training from the Aldo Leopold Leadership Program, I will discuss how scientists can be more effective when communicating with the media. First, scientists need to understand who their audience is and what their educational background is. In addition, it is important to stay on message and have only one message per interaction with a member of the media. That is, do not confuse a reporter with the results from one study when he or she is really interested in another story or just looking for background information. Last, scientists must understand that the media must often publish their stories with deadlines having timescales of hours and not months or years, hence it is important to be brief and to promptly return phone calls and emails. Hopefully, such efforts between scientists and the media will lead to a more scientifically informed public.

Reddy, C. M.

2006-12-01

26

Media communication center using brain computer interface.  

PubMed

This paper attempts to make use of brain computer interface (BCI) in implementing an application called the media communication center for the paralyzed people. The application is based on the event-related potential called P300 to perform button selections on media and communication programs such as the mp3 player, video player, photo gallery and e-book. One of the key issues in such system is the usability. We study how various tasks affect the application operation, in particular, how typical mental activities cause false trigger during the operation of the application. We study the false acceptance rate under the conditions of closing eyes, reading a book, listening to music and watching a video. Data from 5 subjects is used to obtain the false rejection rate and false acceptance rate of the BCI system. Our study shows that different mental activities show different impacts on the false acceptance performances. PMID:17946993

Teo, Eugene; Huang, Alvin; Lian, Yong; Guan, Cuntai; Li, Yuanqing; Zhang, Haihong

2006-01-01

27

Social Media as Means for Company Communication and Service Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Service development in companies can have a new form when using social media as a communication interface. This communication\\u000a can occur between company and its customers, but also the company’s internal communication using social media services can\\u000a prove beneficial. In this paper, we review and analyze the use of social media as a means for company communication in general\\u000a and

Elina Annanperä; Jouni Markkula

2010-01-01

28

Strategic Communication in the New Media Sphere.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Government continues to seek a comprehensive, effective communication strategy through which it may project and promote American interests, policies, and objectives abroad. Many believe that the government and military have been outcommunicated s...

T. Cunningham

2010-01-01

29

The Relationship of Communication Apprehension Level and Media Competency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of the relationship between communication apprehension (CA) and the attainment of media competencies employs the first null hypothesis that there would be no significant difference in the achievement of media competencies and the second n...

C. A. Anderson

1980-01-01

30

Displaying employee testimonials on recruitment web sites: effects of communication media, employee race, and job seeker race on organizational attraction and information credibility.  

PubMed

This study investigated participants' reactions to employee testimonials presented on recruitment Web sites. The authors manipulated the presence of employee testimonials, richness of media communicating testimonials (video with audio vs. picture with text), and representation of racial minorities in employee testimonials. Participants were more attracted to organizations and perceived information as more credible when testimonials were included on recruitment Web sites. Testimonials delivered via video with audio had higher attractiveness and information credibility ratings than those given via picture with text. Results also showed that Blacks responded more favorably, whereas Whites responded more negatively, to the recruiting organization as the proportion of minorities shown giving testimonials on the recruitment Web site increased. However, post hoc analyses revealed that use of a richer medium (video with audio vs. picture with text) to communicate employee testimonials tended to attenuate these racial effects. PMID:19702377

Walker, H Jack; Feild, Hubert S; Giles, William F; Armenakis, Achilles A; Bernerth, Jeremy B

2009-09-01

31

Mass Communication Functions in a Media-Rich Developing Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses media-centered communication research models and applies them to a field setting in Venezuela in an attempt to assess the extent to which social processes depend on mass communication. See CS 703 632 for subscription information. (MH)

Chaffee, Steven H.; Izcaray, Fausto

1975-01-01

32

Communicating Effectively PDF  

Cancer.gov

Effective communication is essential for the delivery of quality cancer palliative care. And yet, healthcare providers often lack the skills to communicate effectively with their patients and families.

33

Uniform Media Effects and Uniform Audience Responses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea that mass communication effects may decrease diversity among people or societies exposed to it arises constantly. However, discussions of mass media effects do not highlight differences between mass communications that "affect" people uniformly and messages that members of audiences "respond to" in similar ways. A number of modern…

Perry, David K.

34

Media Convergence and the Cross-Cultural Communication of Media Events: A Sharon Stone Case Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impulsed by both the communication globalization and new-tech application, media convergence has become an inevitable trend for the media development of countries around the world. Based on the analysis of enormous controversies provoked by Sharon Stone's \\

Jun Xiao; Helin Li

2009-01-01

35

Interactive Communication by Applying Contemporary Media in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today society has become a multimedia society, turned towards new forms of communication, ready for changes and the new communicational challenges. The students, surrounded by PCs, mobile phones and ever so sophisticated software, videos, wireless sets and TVs, DVDs, satellite transmissions and "the media above all other media"--the Internet.…

Tatkovic, Nevenka; Ruzic, Maja

2005-01-01

36

A behavioural model of the adoption and use of new telecommunications media: the effects of communication scenarios and media product\\/service attributes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen the dramatic growth of new modes of communication. Above and beyond using land line and mobile phone for voice real-time communication, people spend increasing amounts of time receiving and sending messages through social networks (e.g. Myspace or Facebook) and also through real-time communication software (e.g. Skype or MSN). As indicated by the significant decline on the

Tun-I Hu; Robert Fildes

2010-01-01

37

How scientists use social media to communicate their research  

PubMed Central

Millions of people all over the world are constantly sharing an extremely wide range of fascinating, quirky, funny, irrelevant and important content all at once. Even scientists are no strangers to this trend. Social media has enabled them to communicate their research quickly and efficiently throughout each corner of the world. But which social media platforms are they using to communicate this research and how are they using them? One thing is clear: the range of social media platforms that scientists are using is relatively vast and dependent on discipline and sentiment. While the future of social media is unknown, a combination of educated speculation and persuasive fact points to the industry's continual growth and influence. Thus, is that not only are scientists utilizing social media to communicate their research, they must. The ability to communicate to the masses via social media is critical to the distribution of scientific information amongst professionals in the field and to the general population.

2011-01-01

38

How scientists use social media to communicate their research.  

PubMed

Millions of people all over the world are constantly sharing an extremely wide range of fascinating, quirky, funny, irrelevant and important content all at once. Even scientists are no strangers to this trend. Social media has enabled them to communicate their research quickly and efficiently throughout each corner of the world. But which social media platforms are they using to communicate this research and how are they using them? One thing is clear: the range of social media platforms that scientists are using is relatively vast and dependent on discipline and sentiment. While the future of social media is unknown, a combination of educated speculation and persuasive fact points to the industry's continual growth and influence. Thus, is that not only are scientists utilizing social media to communicate their research, they must. The ability to communicate to the masses via social media is critical to the distribution of scientific information amongst professionals in the field and to the general population. PMID:22085450

Van Eperen, Laura; Marincola, Francesco M

2011-01-01

39

78 FR 1247 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media Players, and Televisions, and Components...communication devices, tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and components...communication devices, tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and...

2013-01-08

40

Highly survivable communications: Complementary media packet switched networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirement for highly survivable communications (HSC) for essential command functions in military operations does not need any justification. The ability to communicate under extreme jamming levels and adverse propagation conditions, including high altitude nuclear events, is a very important requirement. There are also many natural disaster related requirements that also need such highly survivable communications. The prevalent and in a sense classical, approach to provide highly assured connectivity can be summarized as follows: Take a particular propagation medium and try to obtain the ultimate performance from it. There are many examples of this philosophy some successful, most not. Our approach, on the other hand, is to use complementary multi-media or mixed-media where communication links utilizing essentially commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment are integrated using packet radio (PR) techniques. There is also, in our view, an even more fundamental, recently discovered consideration why the expectation of continuous incremental refinement of a system using a given single media may be be achievable. This is derived from the theory of 'deterministic uncertainty' or more popularly known as 'theory of CHAOS', systems whose state space behavior has fractal characteristics. We will elaborate on this novel argument. Complementary multi-media approach has been the focus for all HSC communications activities at STC since 1982. The original STC studies and prototypes were in response to requirements of broadcasting (i.e., one-way transmission) information. A high frequency (HF)/meteorburst (MB) system was developed/prototyped/tested demonstrating the cost effectiveness of the approach. These results are reviewed. More recently, in 1992 STC has completed the development/test of an Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) HF packet radio protocol as no such open or non-proprietary protocol exists. This protocol has been fully tested, documented and made available to all NATO nations/industries. These extensive results show that significant improvements in throughput of up to many times are obtained. A similar development for an OSI MB protocol has also been completed and combined with the HF protocol to obtain an OSI HF/MB link layer protocol with unique properties for HSC networks. Description of these protocols and the relevant results are presented. media diversity.

Yavuz, D.; Eken, F.; Karavassilis, N.

1994-07-01

41

Bridging Service-Learning with Media Literacy: Creating Contexts for Communication Students to Educate Youth on Media Content, Consumption, and Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the last decade, service-learning has experienced impressive growth in higher education, particularly within communication departments. According to Jacoby (1996), service-learning is a "form of experiential education in which students engage in activities that address human and community needs together with structured opportunities…

Paradise, Angela M.

2011-01-01

42

A Retransmission-Based Continuous Media Multicast Communication Scheme: The Effect of Buffering Time for Media Synchronization on Application-Level QoS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a retransmission-based error recov- ery scheme in multicast communications for live audio and video streams transferred over the Internet\\/intranets. The scheme is referred to as MRVTR (Multicast based on Re- transmission with Virtual-Time Rendering). In order to suppress retransmission traffic, MRVTR adopts a method for controlling NACK (Negative Acknowledgment) trans- mission according to the network load. By

Toshiro NUNOME; Shuji TASAKA

43

Displaying Employee Testimonials on Recruitment Web Sites: Effects of Communication Media, Employee Race, and Job Seeker Race on Organizational Attraction and Information Credibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated participants’ reactions to employee testimonials presented on recruitment Web sites. The authors manipulated the presence of employee testimonials, richness of media communicating testimonials (video with audio vs. picture with text), and representation of racial minorities in employee testimonials. Participants were more attracted to organizations and perceived information as more credible when testimonials were included on recruitment Web

H. Jack Walker; Hubert S. Feild; William F. Giles; Achilles A. Armenakis; Jeremy B. Bernerth

2009-01-01

44

Towards Intelligent Media Technology for Communicative Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of the major problems that might hinder the construction of the knowledge society on the information network is what I\\u000a call the understanding and communication bottlenecks, which might be caused by the limitation of human cognitive capability.\\u000a In this paper, I present Communicative Intelligence as a step towards solving the understanding and communication bottleneck\\u000a by inventing communicative artifacts that

Toyoaki Nishida

2004-01-01

45

The Media Environment: Mass Communications in American Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to provide the reader with an informational frame of reference that will permit the formation of critical judgments concerning America's mass media institutions. The book covers the broad spectrum of the communications media in terms of their impact on American society. Such topics are discussed as social aspects of…

Stanley, Robert H.; Steinberg, Charles S.

46

Strategic Communication and Social Media: An MBA Course from a Business Communication Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social media offers an exciting new area for our discipline to produce research and pedagogy that is in high demand by students, industry constituents, and other disciplines. This article discusses why business communication scholars should focus on social media as an important stream of study and outlines an MBA course in social media strategy…

Meredith, Michael J.

2012-01-01

47

The Influence of Family Communication on Media Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Independent investigations have demonstrated consistent relationships among family communication, cognitive style, and media behavior when any two of these variables are associated in the same study. The evidence so far supports the hypotheses that family communication patterns are associated with different strategies for dealing with persons and…

Stanford, Serena Wade

48

Using social media to communicate during crises: an analytic methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Emerging Media Integration Team at the Department of the Navy Office of Information (CHINFO) has recently put together a Navy Command Social Media Handbook designed to provide information needed to safely and effectively use social media. While not intended to be a comprehensive guide on command use of social media or to take the place of official policy, the

Marjorie Greene

2011-01-01

49

India: Implications of Communication Infrastructure on the Production of Media in State Training Institutes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Description of training institutes developed by the government of India to improve the irrigation system focuses on the communication system infrastructure for the production and use of audiovisual materials for training. Highlights include local production of media; equipment and communication networks; cost effectiveness; and recommendations for…

Maughan, George R.

1989-01-01

50

A Model of International Communication Media Appraisal and Exposure: A Comprehensive Test in Belize.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study constituted the fifth phase of a programmatic research effort designed to develop and test a model of international communications media exposure and appraisal. The model posits that three variables--editorial tone, communication potential, and utility--have positive determinant effects on these dependent variables. Research was carried…

Johnson, J. David; Oliveira, Omar Souki

51

Using social media to communicate child health information to low-income parents.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the value of using social media to communicate child health information to low-income parents. We evaluated qualitative data obtained through focus groups with low-income, predominantly Hispanic parents. Results were mixed; lack of time and credibility were the primary objections parents cited in using social media to obtain information about their children's health. Social media has value as part of an overall communication strategy, but more work is needed to determine the most effective way to use this channel in low-income populations. PMID:22005641

Stroever, Stephanie J; Mackert, Michael S; McAlister, Alfred L; Hoelscher, Deanna M

2011-11-01

52

Communications Policy, Media Development, and Convergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the deliberations of scholars, policy analysts, and policy makers, television has exceptional power and influence. Yet the historical record shows that television has not changed the economics of attention for large populations in the course of their daily lives. By the mid- 1920s, print media alone were highly successful in creating new consumer visions and aspirations, building national brands,

Douglas A. Galbi

2003-01-01

53

The MAVEN mission to Mars: Communicating science through social media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While science literacy rates in the U.S. have recently increased, overall levels remain remarkably low.There are opportunities for the public to learn about science and to engage directly with real-life practitioners. It is the responsibility of science education and communications professionals to provide these opportunities and to assess the effectiveness of each platform. At the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), we utilize a diverse, well-tested approach to introduce science to the public and to give scientists access to the broadest possible audience. This poster will focus on NASA's MAVEN mission to Mars and the social media outlets we have incorporated into our Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program in order to introduce rather complex science concepts to the public. We'll examine several evaluation tools that are used to provide ongoing, immediate feedback regarding our strategies and to guide long-term efforts. MAVEN educators and scientists are capitalizing on the recent excitement surrounding Mars science and the public's fascination with the search for life to bring the science of the mission directly to a variety of audiences. Our EPO professionals are using cross-platform, transportable content to maximize exposure and create pathways for two-way interactions between our audience and mission experts. We are using social media tools to build a community that will join us in the MAVEN journey and its important scientific discoveries.

Mason, T.; Renfrow, S.

2012-12-01

54

Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

2007-01-01

55

Creating Metaphors to Analyze Media and Apply Mass Communication Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses having students in an undergraduate mass communication theory class create metaphors of their own relationships with mass media. Highlights literature in the field related to critical thinking and teaching methods. Describes application of the assignment. Notes that this assignment provides the professor with a means to evaluate…

Bourland-Davis, Pamela G.

1998-01-01

56

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Media Use and Communication Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great deal of scholarly work has explored the motivations behind media consumption and other various communication traits. However, little research has investigated the sources of these motivations and virtually no research considers their potential genetic underpinnings. Drawing on the field of behavior genetics, we use a classical twin design…

Kirzinger, Ashley E.; Weber, Christopher; Johnson, Martin

2012-01-01

57

Prevocational Exploration Communications and Media. Competency-Based Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This competency-based communications and media-cluster curriculum is designed for use by teachers and students at the early high school level during the exploration of a variety of occupations. The purpose of the materials is to assist students in assessing whether or not they would like to prepare for these kinds of occupations. The curriculum…

Marshall Univ., Huntington, WV. Dept. of Occupational, Adult, and Safety Education.

58

Mass media entertainment for AIDS communication in Zaire.  

PubMed

Health communicators use entertainment and mass media to prevent HIV transmission. Population Services International operates an AIDS Mass Media Project as an adjunct to its Condom Social Marketing Project. It collaborates with the Government of Zaire's National AIDS Program. Its 1st target is urban youth because most AIDS cases in Zaire were infected as teenagers, urban youth have access to television (TV), and they take part in high risk sexual behavior. The project uses various AIDS songs to reach this group. A 6-month posttest shows that the 1st song was so effective that 65% heard it and that 93% of them recalled the major AIDS messages and 85% said that they changed their behavior. The project distributes a video of the 1990 World AIDS Day concert. Research in Zaire and other African countries shows that the threat AIDS poses to children's health strongly motivates parents' behavior. Thus the 2nd target is the 20-30 year old group--young and prospective parents. The project boasts a 4-part TV series about a groom who does not reveal his AIDS status to his young bride until after their wedding night. 2 scenes stress the benefits of condoms. After its 1st airing, 66% of the 20-30 year old group in Kinshasa watched all 4 parts of the series. Of these, about 75% said they would change their behavior. Most people in Zaire change behavior by using condoms. Indeed, during the mass media campaign, condom sales grew 1000% which saved almost 7200 lives. The project also features comic strips informing working men and women and teenagers about AIDS and distributes an inexpensive notebook listening AIDS facts and myths for school children. The project uses regional radio stations to broadcast 28 AIDS feature programs, 22 radio spots, 8 AIDS radio dramas, and 2 songs to high priority rural areas. These AIDS radio efforts have indeed influenced AIDS knowledge and attitudes. PMID:12285440

Convisser, J

1992-01-01

59

New media and political communication in Asia: a critical assessment of research on media and politics, 1988–2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on reviewing research on the interplay between new media and political communication in Asian societies. To assess the state of the discipline of political communication and how the research advances knowledge of the role and impact of media in politics, this study content-analyzed articles concerning media use in political arenas in Asian societies that were published in

Ven-hwei Lo; Ran Wei

2010-01-01

60

New AGU Mass Media Fellow Initiated College Science Communication Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marissa Weiss, this year's AGU Mass Media Fellow, feels so strongly about communicating science that she and a fellow graduate student started a course on the subject. Three years ago, she and the other student in the biogeochemistry and environmental biocomplexity program at Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., developed—with the aid of mentors—a semester­long science communication class. The course has since become a regular offering at Cornell, where Weiss defended her dissertation in ecology this past August. A soil ecologist, Weiss showed in her thesis research that nitrogen pollution can cause slowing of soil decomposition because of a declining abundance of microbes that break the soil down.

Weiss, Peter

2010-10-01

61

Communicative Development in Twins with Discordant Histories of Recurrent Otitis Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The communicative abilities of six sets of same-sex, preschool dizygotic twins were examined. In each dyad, one sibling had a strong history of recurrent otitis media (ROM) but the other twin did not. History of ROM was associated with lowered receptive vocabulary, with no consistent effects detected in expressive speech and language tasks.…

Hemmer, Virginia Hoey; Ratner, Nan Bernstein

1994-01-01

62

An Experimental Evaluation of Selected Printed Graphic Communication Media for Recruiting Industrial Arts and Technology Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experimental study, involving a sample 252 male freshmen students who were not enrolled in industrial arts or technology classes, was designed to investigate the effectiveness of printed graphic communication media in recruiting. The sample was randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups containing 85 students each and a control group…

Weir, E. Lee

63

Video Production for School Library Media Specialists: Communication and Production Techniques. Professional Growth Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book aims to help show school librarians how camcorders and other video production equipment can help them communicate more effectively with students, teachers, parents, and administrators. The book sees video production as an integral part of a library media center program because learning how to produce videos is an excellent way to learn…

McConnell, Terry; Sprouse, Harry W.

64

Crisis Communication Strategies in the Media Coverage of Chemical Accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examine media reports of chemical accident crises to explore the extent to which crisis communication strategies are included. Study 1 found that although reputation repair strategies were rarely included, about 1\\/4 of the reports included some combination of information-giving strategies attributed to organizational spokespersons. First responders were quoted more frequently than organizational representatives. Study 2 examined follow-up stories

Sherry J. Holladay

2009-01-01

65

The Influence of Media Communication on Risk Perception and Behavior Related to Mad Cow Disease in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to ascertain the influence of media communication on risk behavior related to mad cow disease (MCD). Methods Mothers of elementary school students in Seoul were recruited as the survey participants of this study. Results Media reports affected risk behavior related to MCD. Also, knowledge and attitude toward MCD affects risk behavior. Conclusion Risk-related information provided by the media should maintain consistency and objectivity. For effective risk communication, there should be an open communication between the government and public, experts, and related industries, who should all collaborate.

Park, Jee-Eun; Sohn, Aeree

2013-01-01

66

Group communication media choice and the use of information and communication technology to support learning: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper reports a study conducted longitudinally to investigate group communication media choice and the use of a web-based learning tool, as well as other types of communication media, such as e-mail, telephone, and face-to-face, for communication and collaboration to complete given tasks. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study was designed following the case study research methodology and design of

Nor Shahriza Abdul Karim; Robert Heckman

2005-01-01

67

Explaining the use of text-based communication media: an examination of three theories of media use.  

PubMed

The present study examined the factors associated with individuals' use of three different text-based communication media: e-mail, cell-phone texting, and Facebook Wall postings. Three theoretical perspectives, including media richness theory, uses and gratifications, and perceived network effects, were examined. Using data from a survey of college students (N=280), the study found that the theoretical constructs from these theories play different roles when applied to different technologies. The results suggest that a simultaneous consideration of technological attributes, users' motivations, and social circumstances in which users select and use the technology is useful for fully understanding the dynamics of the selection and the use of a given technology. PMID:22780995

Park, Namkee; Chung, Jae Eun; Lee, Seungyoon

2012-07-01

68

The communication media in postliteracy education: New dimensions of literacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Postliteracy programs have been used to produce written materials for newly literate adults, but this narrow view falls short of preventing relapse into illiteracy. Furthermore, the gradual move away from mass educational programs and government financing of education has put postliteracy at greater risk. This study tests levels of retention of literacy among neo-literates in Tanzania who gained a literacy certificate five years ago. Some modest success is noted. The pattern of radio broadcasting, newspaper coverage and library provision in the country is summarized, and the influence of these media on literacy retention assessed. Investment in them is seen as crucial to the maintenance of literacy. However, it is also suggested that the cultural context cannot be overlooked, that the importance of oral communication does not swiftly diminish and that excessive emphasis on functional postliteracy texts does not coincide with the leisure-time interests of neo-literates.

Semali, Ladislaus M.

1993-05-01

69

A BRIEF REVIEW OF CHINESE CONTRIBUTIONS TO COMMUNICATION AND MEDIA STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews contributions to communication and media studies originating in Taiwan and China during the past decade. While China has provided Chinese readers with a relatively rich critical literature in the media histories of advanced capitalist societies, this literature has been weak in providing discourses regarding Chinaís own changing media political economy. In comparison, the situation in Taiwan has

CHIEN-SAN FENG

1998-01-01

70

77 FR 19932 - Inmate Communication With News Media: Removal of Byline Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1120-AB49 Inmate Communication With News Media: Removal of Byline Regulations AGENCY...envisions a relationship between the news media and the inmate, for which the inmate is...publishes a writing under a byline in the news media is much more remote. Id. at 1123....

2012-04-03

71

75 FR 21163 - Inmate Communication With News Media: Removal of Byline Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1120-AB49 Inmate Communication With News Media: Removal of Byline Regulations AGENCY...value for correspondence with the news media. The inmate may not act as reporter or...correspondence with representatives of the news media. * * * * * (b) The inmate may not...

2010-04-23

72

AAAS Mass Media Science and Engineering Fellowship Program: Building Communication Skills in Young Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AAAS Mass Media Science &Engineering Fellowship program has succeeded in training scientists to become more effective communicators for more than 30 years. The program places advanced science, engineering and mathematics students at media sites to work as science reporters for ten weeks each summer. AAAS places between 15 to 20 students a year at newspapers, magazines and radio stations. Our goal is to create better science communicators who understand their role in fostering the public's understanding of science. Fellows leave the program with a greater awareness of how to communicate complex issues by making the connection as to why people should be interested in certain developments, and more specifically, how they will impact their communities. 2004 AGU Fellow Rei Ueyama put her lessons learned to good use during her Fellowship at the Sacramento Bee. "In a regional paper like The Bee, a (story) also had to have a local touch. I needed to show why people in Sacramento (or California) should bother to read the story. One example is the story I wrote about seeding the ocean with iron particles to fight global warming. Since ocean fertilization is a global issue, I had to clearly specify the reason why The Bee and not The New York Times was running the story. The local angle I chose was to point out that the core group of scientists involved in this study was from Monterey Bay, Calif." Many alumni tell us the program has been an integral force in shaping the course of their career. Similarly, sites often report that having a scientist on staff is an invaluable resource that allows them to cover additional science stories as well as report some technical stories in more depth. The American Geophysical Union has sponsored a Mass Media Fellow since 1997. Sponsorship allows affiliate program partners to establish connections with young professionals in their field. They are then also able to take advantage of the communication skills resident in their alumni base. The OS28 Communicating Broadly: Perspectives and Tools for Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Scientists Session would provide an ideal platform for Fellowship management to share lessons learned about science communication and to offer insight as to the challenges scientists face when communicating with the general public or media.

Pasco, S.

2006-12-01

73

Effective Cross Cultural Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

When we speak about communication it is imperative to consider it as being cultural — it draws on ways we have learned to speak and give nonverbal messages. We do not always communicate the same way from day to day, since there are factors like context, individual personality, and mood interact usually with the variety of cultural influences we have

Adriana Vintean

2008-01-01

74

School Boards, Public Relations, and the Media: Your Practical Communications Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The way that a school board responds to media attention can make or break a school district's image and its communication program. Since elected officials govern by public consent gained from trust, a responsible communications program is based on willingness to do business in the light of day. Schools must be able to communicate the difficult…

Thomas, Diane

75

"Always Use Protection": Communication Boys Receive about Sex from Parents, Peers, and the Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although parents are often thought to be the primary communicators of sexual information, studies have found that many adolescent boys report receiving little or no parental communication about sex. Instead, boys report learning about sex mostly from their peers and the media. However, little is known about the content of these communications,…

Epstein, Marina; Ward, L. Monique

2008-01-01

76

Teenagers' Use of MSN Features, Discussion Topics, and Online Friendship Development: The Impact of Media Richness and Communication Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a sample of 248 Hong Kong adolescents, this study probed the impact of media richness and communication control on teenagers' use of MSN® for online friendship development. Both media richness and communication control contributed to MSN's overall functionality and teenagers' self-presentation and friendship development. Media richness positively influenced both social and task communications and shortened the time needed to

Vivian C. Sheer

2011-01-01

77

[The perils of risk communication and the role of the mass media].  

PubMed

Based on theories and empirical results from communication science, the present paper provides an overview of the role of mass media in risk communication. It is guided by the following questions: How do risk issues find their way into the media and how does the media depict them? How do mass-mediated risk messages affect people's perception of risks, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior? What potential does the media have in disseminating health risk information in campaigns? Hence, the present paper aims to provide a basis for the appropriate use of mass media in health risk communication so as to make use of the potential of mass media without neglecting its limits. PMID:23275964

Rossmann, C; Brosius, H-B

2013-01-01

78

Implicit Measures and Media Effects Research: Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although implicit measures are now widely used in different areas of psychology, they have received only little attention in communication science. This paper discusses the potential benefits of implicit measures such as the Implicit Association Test (IAT) for media effects research. We first address more general theoretical and methodological issues and introduce some practical challenges that come along with implicit

Dorothée Hefner; Tobias Rothmund; Christoph Klimmt; Mario Gollwitzer

2011-01-01

79

Communication: Key to Effective Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major factors associated with effective teaching are identified and communication concepts that are used are shown. An attempt is made to relate each of these to a communication ability. Components include the analytic/synthetic approach, organization/clarity, instructor group interaction, instructor individual student interaction, and enthusiasm.…

Johnson, Betty S.

1980-01-01

80

On Effective Communication | Poster  

Cancer.gov

I have previously described the communication model in which a sender encodes a message and then sends it via some channel (or medium) to a receiver, who decodes the message and, ideally, understands what was sent. Surely the most common way of encoding a message is in choosing the most appropriate words for the listener or reader.

81

Service Description of Communication Systems Supporting Multi-Media Multi-User Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents a service description of communication systems supporting multi-media multi-user applications. In particular, it focuses on service elements related to the call control. The service description specifies the functional behavior of the c...

G. J. Heijenk X. Hou I. G. Niemegeers

1993-01-01

82

Brief Survey of Media Access Control, Data Link Layer, and Protocol Technologies for Lunar Surface Communications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper surveys and describes some of the existing media access control and data link layer technologies for possible application in lunar surface communications and the advanced wideband Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DSCDMA) conceptua...

T. M. Wallett

2009-01-01

83

Charisma and Media Evangelists: An Explication and Model of Communication Influence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the emergence of media evangelists in times of situational crisis. Discusses the appeal such leaders have to listeners possessing a "crisis mentality." Offers a model to explain the communication influence process associated with these charismatic speakers. (SR)

Lewis, Todd V.

1988-01-01

84

Xiaoling Zhang - Seeking Effective Public Space: Chinese Media at the Local Level? - China: An International Journal 5:1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores a hitherto neglected aspect of the contemporary Chinese communication network: media outlets at the county level, the lowest level of the media hierarchy in China. It considers whether county level media outlets constitute more autonomy from the state and thus serve as more effective channels for participation and representation. The findings suggest that although official media outlets

Xiaoling Zhang

2007-01-01

85

A Subcultural Account of Media Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most laboratory and field studies into media effect have focussed on aggressive drive or attitude. Overall, their results suggest that a relationship exists between media violence and personal aggression -though the findings are by no means clear-cut. In contrast to this assessment, the present paper asserts that the mass media exert no proven influence at all. Reinterpreting previous work and

Dennis Howitt; Richard Dembo

1974-01-01

86

The Communicative Arts: An Introduction to Mass Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All areas of mass communication are surveyed. Man's earliest efforts as a communicator are considered, and what is known about the development of speech and writing is explored. Various theories (including mathematical ones) are reviewed which attempt to explain the processes of both personal and mass communication. Separate chapters focus on the…

Steinberg, Charles S.

87

Communication media, memory, and social?political change in Eric Havelock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classicist Eric Havelock is often viewed as one of the strongest proponents of the so?called orality?literacy theses. His work is foundational to the idea of media ecology. His most noteworthy contribution to the theory of media ecology, it is argued, is the manner in which he makes moral codes and communication codes inseparable through a theory of memory (echoing).

Bruce E. Gronbeck

2000-01-01

88

Historical Development of Media Systems. II. German Democratic Republic. Communication and Society 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes a study of the systems of mass communication in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) that concentrated on the ideological and political bases of mass media as they developed after the Second World War. Topics discussed include (1) the history of journalism in the GDR, (2) the roles of the various media in that country, (3)…

Dusiska, Emil

89

Fast, Broad, and Frequent: Campus Crisis Communications Today Demand Social Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of communication during a school crisis has not changed in the 21st century. What has changed--and quite dramatically since 1999--is the way people communicate. Social media tools are now used in some form by 100 percent of all four-year universities in the United States as a way to reach students, according to a 2011 University of…

Liggett, Billy

2012-01-01

90

Synergy Access: A Global Newsletter on Futuristic Communications, Media & Networking. Number 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A global newsletter on futuristic communications, media and networking is dedicated to creating open, humanistic environments for better interpersonal communication and to exploring the phenomenon of synergy, the coming together of people, ideas and environments for creation of something greater than the sum of the parts. Editorials, poetry, and…

Thomas, Wes, Ed.

91

Media Casebook; An Introductory Reader in American Mass Communications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each selection in this anthology offers a single example of a major problem or characteristic of the American mass media. The anthology has four sections: development, responsibility, media, and coverage. Development in journalism is shown by comparing accounts of Presidential conventions over a 125-year period. Articles about responsibility deal…

Sandman, Peter M., Ed.; And Others

92

News Media and Diplomacy: Roles, Relationships and Communication Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflecting and influencing foreign policy, the mass media are important, if nontraditional, diplomatic channels. The role the news media assume, ranging from neutral to participant, depends largely on the society within which it operates. Journalists in authoritarian governments, for example, who rely on press releases and briefings of foreign…

Bullion, Stuart James

93

Communication about scientific uncertainty in environmental nanoparticle research - a comparison of scientific literature and mass media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research about the fate and behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment is despite its wide applications still in the early stages. 'There is a high level of scientific uncertainty in nanoparticle research' is often stated in the scientific community. Knowledge about these uncertainties might be of interest to other scientists, experts and laymen. But how could these uncertainties be characterized and are they communicated within the scientific literature and the mass media? To answer these questions, the current state of scientific knowledge about scientific uncertainty through the example of environmental nanoparticle research was characterized and the communication of these uncertainties within the scientific literature is compared with its media coverage in the field of nanotechnologies. The scientific uncertainty within the field of environmental fate of nanoparticles is by method uncertainties and a general lack of data concerning the fate and effects of nanoparticles and their mechanisms in the environment, and by the uncertain transferability of results to the environmental system. In the scientific literature, scientific uncertainties, their sources, and consequences are mentioned with different foci and to a different extent. As expected, the authors in research papers focus on the certainty of specific results within their specific research question, whereas in review papers, the uncertainties due to a general lack of data are emphasized and the sources and consequences are discussed in a broader environmental context. In the mass media, nanotechnology is often framed as rather certain and positive aspects and benefits are emphasized. Although reporting about a new technology, only in one-third of the reports scientific uncertainties are mentioned. Scientific uncertainties are most often mentioned together with risk and they arise primarily from unknown harmful effects to human health. Environmental issues itself are seldom mentioned. Scientific uncertainties, sources, and consequences have been most widely discussed in the review papers. Research papers and mass media tend to emphasize more the certainty of their scientific results or the benefits of the nanotechnology applications. Neither the broad spectrum nor any specifications of uncertainties have been communicated. This indicates that there has been no effective dialogue over scientific uncertainty with the public so far.

Heidmann, Ilona; Milde, Jutta

2014-05-01

94

“Always Use Protection”: Communication Boys Receive About Sex From Parents, Peers, and the Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although parents are often thought to be the primary communicators of sexual information, studies have found that many adolescent\\u000a boys report receiving little or no parental communication about sex. Instead, boys report learning about sex mostly from their\\u000a peers and the media. However, little is known about the content of these communications, from any source. Using a sample of\\u000a 286

Marina Epstein; L. Monique Ward

2008-01-01

95

Architecture of a Vehicle Communication Gateway for Media Independent Handover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication within and from a vehicle is a key function for various vehicle applications, like telematics, logistics, and traffic control applications. This paper describes the flexible and extendable architecture of a vehicle communication gateway which acts as a central communication device embedded in the vehicle and managing the in-vehicle, inter-vehicle, and vehicle-to-infrastructure com- munication. The focus of this paper is

Guido Gehlen; Erik Weiss; Sven Lukas; Carl-Herbert Rokitansky; Bernhard Walke

96

Effective Language for Communicating Children's Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintaining that only by integrating communications into program planning and policy can Kids Count grantees and other child advocates achieve their goals, this document presents four studies examining the ways in which the media currently frame children's issues, the consequences of those frames, and possibilities for reframing media depictions…

Coalition for America's Children, Washington, DC.

97

A New Dimension of Health Care: Systematic Review of the Uses, Benefits, and Limitations of Social Media for Health Communication  

PubMed Central

Background There is currently a lack of information about the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals from primary research. Objective To review the current published literature to identify the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals, and identify current gaps in the literature to provide recommendations for future health communication research. Methods This paper is a review using a systematic approach. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using nine electronic databases and manual searches to locate peer-reviewed studies published between January 2002 and February 2012. Results The search identified 98 original research studies that included the uses, benefits, and/or limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals. The methodological quality of the studies assessed using the Downs and Black instrument was low; this was mainly due to the fact that the vast majority of the studies in this review included limited methodologies and was mainly exploratory and descriptive in nature. Seven main uses of social media for health communication were identified, including focusing on increasing interactions with others, and facilitating, sharing, and obtaining health messages. The six key overarching benefits were identified as (1) increased interactions with others, (2) more available, shared, and tailored information, (3) increased accessibility and widening access to health information, (4) peer/social/emotional support, (5) public health surveillance, and (6) potential to influence health policy. Twelve limitations were identified, primarily consisting of quality concerns and lack of reliability, confidentiality, and privacy. Conclusions Social media brings a new dimension to health care as it offers a medium to be used by the public, patients, and health professionals to communicate about health issues with the possibility of potentially improving health outcomes. Social media is a powerful tool, which offers collaboration between users and is a social interaction mechanism for a range of individuals. Although there are several benefits to the use of social media for health communication, the information exchanged needs to be monitored for quality and reliability, and the users’ confidentiality and privacy need to be maintained. Eight gaps in the literature and key recommendations for future health communication research were provided. Examples of these recommendations include the need to determine the relative effectiveness of different types of social media for health communication using randomized control trials and to explore potential mechanisms for monitoring and enhancing the quality and reliability of health communication using social media. Further robust and comprehensive evaluation and review, using a range of methodologies, are required to establish whether social media improves health communication practice both in the short and long terms.

Hazlett, Diane E; Harrison, Laura; Carroll, Jennifer K; Irwin, Anthea; Hoving, Ciska

2013-01-01

98

Communications Pretesting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The majority of social development programs around the world stand to benefit from communicating their activities through the mass media. Most program administrators will invest in communication that will effectively reach a target population but will avo...

1978-01-01

99

Communication and Social Change: A Summary of Theories, Policies and Experiences for Media Practitioners in the Third World. Communication Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for media practitioners in developing nations, this manual summarizes theories, policies, and experiences pertaining to the role of communication in Third World societies. The nine major headings of the manual are as follows: (1) Explanation of Terms: Theoretical Considerations; (2) Developing-Country Research: From Cultural Arrogance to…

Kunczik, Michael

100

Active Media: A framework for digital media effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper defines active media as a new paradigm that captures the richness of digital media in affecting every aspect of our lives. The term active media embraces interactive, coactive, and proactive digital media. Active media provide more dynamic and individualized experiences, and target recipients more accurately. Active media allow the integration of different human-centric systems into the era of

Jamil Alio; Mohammad Ibrahim; David Pickton; Marie Bassford

2008-01-01

101

Communicating with the So-Called Monster Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The public interest is best served when articulate, credible school leaders and spokespersons work closely with responsible, knowledgeable journalists. Schools cannot forge productive relationships by disdaining or stonewalling the media. People have become cynical about the public engagement process. Blaming the press diverts energy from real…

Bohen, Dolores Boylston

1998-01-01

102

Designing interactivity in media interfaces: a communications perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactivity has become ubiquitous in the digital media landscape. Numerous interactive tools are designed, tested, deployed and evaluated. Yet, we do not have generalizable knowledge about the larger concept of interactivity and its psychological impact on user experience. As a first step toward a theory of interface interactivity, this paper identifies three species of interactivity corresponding to three central elements

S. Shyam Sundar; Qian Xu; Saraswathi Bellur

2010-01-01

103

On the Responsible Use of Communication Media for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just as Bob Heinich states that technology makes instruction visible (1970, 1971), putting the professional ethics into practice makes technology visible. The window for social insight into teachers' professional field is open to a particular view at the present. There are learner questions surrounding the use of media which need answering and…

Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

2009-01-01

104

The Role of Media Communications in Developing Tourism Policy and Cross-Cultural Communication for Peace, Security for Sustainable Tourism Industry in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives are :(1) to highlight the theoretical or conceptual implications of: the new media communication technologies, globalisation, and cultural contestations on the Africa’s tourism industry; (2) to present an overview of the current challenges of tourism policy issues and options in Africa and how they can be slowed, halted and reversed by media communications campaigns process; (3) to explain

Wilson Truman Okaka

2007-01-01

105

Climate Change Media Forum - for Enhanced Communication between Journalists and Climate Scientists in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For researchers, being reported by mass media is an effective way to share their studies with others, although some have concerns that scientific results are often exaggerated by highlighting sensational parts and ignoring essential results by the media. Obviously, journalists have their own criteria of effective science reporting for their newspapers or magazines which do not necessarily conform to how researchers report their results. Climate Change Media Forum was started in 2009 by researchers specializing in climate science and communication to fill such gaps and enhance communication between climate scientists and journalists as part of a climate change research project funded by the Ministry of Environment of Japan. Since its start, forum events have been held once a year to exchange ideas on reporting of climate change science through mass media. At the first event in March, 2009, we started with learning about what actually the journalists and researchers think about media reports on climate change sciences. Using onsite questionnaire surveys, the participants (39 journalists and 31 researchers) discussed their problems on reporting climate change and what they would like to tell to the public. Some of the survey results suggested that researchers are willing to emphasize more about the conditions and assumptions of studies, while journalists would like to know more about current and short-term impacts. From the second year, two journalists joined the committee to make the events more meaningful for journalists. For the event in March, 2010, three months after COP15 in Copenhagen, the 2 degrees temperature target, which was the only written number on the Copenhagen Accord, was selected as a timely topic. Although researchers understand that a specific target is necessary for setting a concrete pathway, many of them also feel uncomfortable about selecting one single value from the temperature range with uncertainty. After two lectures on the history of the target and possible impacts by the temperature rise, the participants discussed reporting of target selected from data with uncertainty. The third forum event was held in February, 2011, on climate change projections by numerical models. After the lecture on the ongoing projects of climate change prediction for AR5 in Japan, one of the presenters at the press conference on climate change projections for AR4 in 2007 shared his own thoughts on the media reports based on the press conference. In the following session, the researchers and journalists actively discussed how the climate change projection should be reported based on their own "mission" which is conducting reliable research for scientists and writing informative articles for journalists. Through the previous three events, we have obtained sincere comments and suggestions from the participants to improve the communication between journalists and researchers. In the presentation, more comments from the discussions and the survey results of the forum events will be shared.

Goto-Maeda, Y.; Emori, S.; Takahashi, K.; Aoyagi-Usui, M.; Fukushi, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Fukuda, H.; Matsumoto, Y.; Asakura, A.; Hiramatsu, A.; Sumi, A.

2011-12-01

106

Communication as group process media of aircrew performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study of group process was motivated by a high-fidelity flight simulator project in which aircrew performance was found to be better when the crew had recently flown together. Considering recent operating experience as a group-level input factor, aspects of the communication process between crewmembers (Captain and First Officer), were explored as a possible mediator to performance. Communication patterns were defined by a speech act typology adapted for the flightdeck setting and distinguished crews that had previously flown together (FT) from those that had not flown together (NFT). A more open communication channel with respect to information exchange and validation and greater First Officer participation in task-related topics was shown by FT crews while NFT crews engaged in more non-task discourse, a speech mode less structured by roles and probably serving a more interpersonal function. Relationships between the speech categories themselves, representing linguistic, and role-related interdependencies provide guidelines for interpreting the primary findings.

Kanki, B. G.; Foushee, H. C.

1989-01-01

107

The Influence of Mass Media and Interpersonal Communication on Societal and Personal Risk Judgments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study described in this article examines the influences of mass media, interpersonal channels, and self-efficacy on risk judgment, using data from a sample of New York State residents. Risk judgment is conceptualized on two distinct domains: personal-level risk judgment and social-level risk judgment. The health and risk communication literature suggests that mass media channels are more likely to influence

CYNTHIA-LOU COLEMAN

1993-01-01

108

Convergence in Germany: the Information, Communication and Media Center (ICMC\\/IKMZ) of Cottbus University  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to ask why the libraries and the computer and media centres of German universities are picking up too little to improve the conditions for learning, teaching and research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – With the founding of the Information, Communication and Media Center\\/Informations-, Kommunikations- und Medienzentrums (ICMC\\/IKMZ), the central services of the Brandenburg Technical University

Andreas Degkwitz

2006-01-01

109

Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (77th, Atlanta, Georgia, August 10-13, 1994). Part VI: Mass Media Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mass Media Effects section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 13 papers: "The Nature of the Public's Objections to Television Programs: An Examination of Third-Person Effects" (Guy E. Lometti and others); "An Examination of the Relationship of Structural Pluralism, News Role and Source Use with Framing in the…

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

110

Wavefront conjugation and amplification for optical communication through distorting media.  

PubMed

Combining double-phase conjugation with various coherent amplifiers leads to an amplified beam (forward or conjugated) derived from a local laser but bearing the transversal phase pattern of a received signal beam from a remote laser. We suggest several uses in optical communication through a distorting atmosphere. PMID:20531861

Shamir, J; Caulfield, H J; Hendrickson, B M

1988-07-15

111

Communication in time-frequency spread media using adaptive equalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In high-speed communication through a medium with time-frequency spread (such as in HF ionospheric, sonic underwater, and voice-quality telephone line transmission), the transmission speed and system errors are determined by an overall system variance (or equivalent noise). This overall variance comprises: 1) the intersymbol interference variance from time spread (or dispersion in the unit impulse response of the medium); 2)

MICHAEL J. DI TORO

1968-01-01

112

Instructional Effectiveness of Video Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is a blend of media research, cognitive science research, and tradecraft knowledge regarding video production techniques. The research covers: visual learning; verbal-auditory information; news broadcasts; the value of motion and animation in film and video; simulation (including realism and fidelity); the relationship of text and…

Wetzel, C. Douglas; And Others

113

The Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut - A Communications and Media Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 18, 2012 the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) in collaboration with Puerto Rico Emergency Management Agency (PREMA) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will be conducting the first Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut. Adequate communications strategies and redundant dissemination methods are a key component for the success of this earthquake exercise. EAS and NOAA Radio messages, indicating the beginning of the earthquake drill, will help emergency managers and the general public better coordinate their practices. Dissemination tools routinely used as part of PRSN earthquake and tsunami protocols, such as PRSNDANIS Broadcast, Ring Down, Ham Radio, RSS, SMS, fax and email service lists, will also be tested. Emergency Management and First Response Agencies at local, regional and state level are being asked to report the times the messages are received, thus allowing us to better assess the effectiveness of our dissemination methods and to establish a baseline for next year ShakeOut. In addition, a partnership with the Puerto Rico Radiobroadcaster Association allows a direct access through this media, facilitating PRSN staff participation on radio programming targeting diverse audiences. Radio spots have been developed to inform the public about the exercise, how to participate, what to do to be safe during an earthquake and how to develop or improve their safety plans. A media approach is critical for the success of the 2012 Puerto Rico ShakeOut since our earthquake drill takes place 2 weeks prior to the Island general election and on the peak-period of the hurricane season.

Soto-Cordero, L.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.; Gómez, G.; Giménez-Porrata, A.; Ramos-Gómez, W.; Colón-Daleccio, N.

2012-12-01

114

The Effects of Evidence in Persuasive Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies the effects of evidence in persuasive communication and suggests that the nature of the communication topic may be significantly related to evidence effectiveness and the attitude change process. (MH)

Harte, Thomas B.

1976-01-01

115

Studies and advances on joint source-channel encoding\\/decoding techniques in flow media communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joint source-channel coding\\/decoding (JSCC\\/JSCD) techniques in flow media communications have become a state-of-the-art and\\u000a one of the challenging research subjects in the spatial communication area. They have great application prospective and deep\\u000a impact in various manned space flights, satellite missions, mobile radio communications and deep-space explorations. In the\\u000a last few years, there have been influential achievements in JSCC\\/JSCD studies. This

Guofang Tu; Jianjun Liu; Can Zhang; Shaoshuai Gao; Shidong Li

2010-01-01

116

Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). Part VIII: Mass Media Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mass Media Effects section of the proceedings contains the following eight papers: "The Spiral of Static: A Multivariate Analysis of a Public Opinion Theory Applied to Perception of Radio Station Popularity" (Terry Wedel and Tony Rimmer); "More Than Just Talk: Uses, Gratifications and the Telephone" (Garrett J. O'Keefe and Barbara K.…

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

117

Anisotropic Effective Moduli of Microcrack Damaged Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report combines four recent papers related to using the generalized self-consistent method (GSCM) for determining the homogenized constitutive response of microcracked media for use in the development of multiscale constitutive models. In 'The effect...

G. A. Gazonas

2010-01-01

118

Program Model in New Careers for Handicapped Children and Youth (Communication and Media Cluster).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book describes a project designed to develop, pilot, and assess a prototypic career education model to prepare handicapped children and youth for new careers in communication and media-related occupations. Some methodological issues are described, along with the construction and evaluation of the program model and the development,…

Rice, Eric; Etheridge, Rose

119

Applications and implementations of new media in corporate communications : An action research approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Advances in new media and web technology are making it easier for organizations and their employees, suppliers, customers and stakeholders to participate in the creation and management of content. It is therefore, useful to understand how a corporate communication strategy can leverage these trends. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the take-up and use of new

Greg Hearn; Marcus Foth; Heather Gray

2009-01-01

120

Cross-media Translation Based on Mental Image Directed Semantic Theory toward More Comprehensible Multimedia Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized intelligent systems should be more human-friendly considering rapid increase of aged societies, floods of multimedia information over the WWW and development of robots for practical use. Even for people without any physical handicap, it is not always easy to communicate with each other comprehensively by limited information media. Not only for the cases between humans but also for humans

Masao Yokota; Daisuke Hironaka

2004-01-01

121

Achieving Scientific Literacy through the Mass Media and Other Communication Technologies: A NASA Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative research approach was used to investigate the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) educational efforts in achieving scientific literacy through mass media and other communication technologies. Six in-depth telephone interviews were conducted with various NASA education and public affairs officers throughout the…

Yates, Bradford L.

122

How Different Kinds of Communication and the Mass Media Affect Tourism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis attempts to investigate the impact of the mass media and other kinds of communication in terms of making American tourists aware of Egypt as a desirable place to visit and helping them to decide to come to Egypt. The study concentrates on Amer...

M. Z. Goher S. A. Aly

1984-01-01

123

Transmedia Storytelling in Science Communication: One Subject, Multiple Media, Multiple Stories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each communication medium has particular storytelling strengths. For example, video is particularly good at illustrating a progression of events, text at background and context, and games at describing systems. In what USC's Prof. Henry Jenkins described as "transmedia storytelling," multiple media are used simultaneously, in an expansive rather than repetitive way, to better tell a single, complex story. The audience is given multiple entry points to the story, and the story is exposed to diverse and dispersed audiences, ultimately engaging a broader public. We will examine the effectiveness of a transmedia approach to communicating scientific and other complex concepts to a broad and diverse audience. Using the recently developed Educational Visitor Center at the NCAR-Wyoming Supercomputing Center as a case study, we will evaluate the reach of various means of presenting information about the geosciences, climate change and computational science. These will include an assessment of video, mechanical and digital interactive elements, animated movie segments, web-based content, photography, scientific visualizations, printed material and docent-led activities.

Unger, M.; Moloney, K.

2012-12-01

124

Media Use Habits, Audience Expectations and Media Effects in Hong Kong's First Legislative Council Election  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates the origin of audience expectations and their subsequent role in the media use-to-effects process. It argues that a significant portion of perceptions of media is couched in people's media habits and these perceptions in turn mediate political effects attributable to mass media. Contextualized in the first Legislative Council election in Hong Kong, our analysis of data from

Zhongshi Guo

2000-01-01

125

Social Media in School Emergency Management: Using New Media Technology to Improve Emergency Management Communications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social Media is the use of social networking sites, messaging sites, texting, and other web-based or mobile technologies to support social interaction. Facebook is by far the most widely used social networking site. Twitter is by far the most widely used messaging site. The goals of this presentation are: (1) To provide an understanding of the…

Stephens, Kim

2011-01-01

126

Internet and Social Media For Health-Related Information and Communication in Health Care: Preferences of the Dutch General Population  

PubMed Central

Background Health care is increasingly featured by the use of Web 2.0 communication and collaborative technologies that are reshaping the way patients and professionals interact. These technologies or tools can be used for a variety of purposes: to instantly debate issues, discover news, analyze research, network with peers, crowd-source information, seek support, and provide advice. Not all tools are implemented successfully; in many cases, the nonusage attrition rates are high. Little is known about the preferences of the Dutch general population regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. Objective To determine the preferences of the general population in the Netherlands regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. Methods A cross-sectional survey was disseminated via a popular Dutch online social network. Respondents were asked where they searched for health-related information, how they qualified the value of different sources, and their preferences regarding online communication with health care providers. Results were weighed for the Dutch population based on gender, age, and level of education using official statistics. Numbers and percentages or means and standard deviations were presented for different subgroups. One-way ANOVA was used to test for statistical differences. Results The survey was completed by 635 respondents. The Internet was found to be the number one source for health-related information (82.7%), closely followed by information provided by health care professionals (71.1%). Approximately one-third (32.3%) of the Dutch population search for ratings of health care providers. The most popular information topics were side effects of medication (62.5%) and symptoms (59.7%). Approximately one-quarter of the Dutch population prefer to communicate with a health care provider via social media (25.4%), and 21.2% would like to communicate via a webcam. Conclusions The Internet is the main source of health-related information for the Dutch population. One in 4 persons wants to communicate with their physician via social media channels and it is expected that this number will further increase. Health care providers should explore new ways of communicating online and should facilitate ways for patients to connect with them. Future research should aim at comparing different patient groups and diseases, describing best practices, and determining cost-effectiveness.

Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Berben, Sivera AA; Teerenstra, Steven; Samsom, Melvin; Schoonhoven, Lisette

2013-01-01

127

Performance evaluation of a media access control scheme using vehicle position information for an inter-vehicle communication system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a consideration of a media access control scheme based on CSMA using vehicle position information for an inter-vehicle communication (IVC) system in safety driving assist systems. IVC systems are demanded to perform the real-time and reliable communication among vehicles on the road from safety driving assist systems. The IVC system in this paper can communicate among vehicles

T. Nagaosa; N. Takahashi

2009-01-01

128

Bio-objects and the media: the role of communication in bio-objectification processes  

PubMed Central

The representation of biological innovations in and through communication and media practices is vital for understanding the nature of “bio-objects” and the process we call “bio-objectification.” This paper discusses two ideal-typical analytical approaches based on different underlying communication models, ie, the traditional (science- and media-centered) and media sociological (a multi-layered process involving various social actors in defining the meanings of scientific and technological developments) approach. In this analysis, the latter is not only found to be the most promising approach for understanding the circulation, (re)production, and (re)configuration of meanings of bio-objects, but also to interpret the relationship between media and science. On the basis of a few selected examples, this paper highlights how media function as a primary arena for the (re)production and (re)configuration of scientific and biomedical information with regards to bio-objects in the public sphere in general, and toward decision-makers, interest groups, and the public in specific.

Maeseele, Pieter; Allgaier, Joachim; Martinelli, Lucia

2013-01-01

129

A self-adaptive method for creating high efficiency communication channels through random scattering media.  

PubMed

Controlling the propagation of electromagnetic waves is important to a broad range of applications. Recent advances in controlling wave propagation in random scattering media have enabled optical focusing and imaging inside random scattering media. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a new method to deliver optical power more efficiently through scattering media. Drastically different from the random matrix characterization approach, our method can rapidly establish high efficiency communication channels using just a few measurements, regardless of the number of optical modes, and provides a practical and robust solution to boost the signal levels in optical or short wave communications. We experimentally demonstrated analog and digital signal transmission through highly scattering media with greatly improved performance. Besides scattering, our method can also reduce the loss of signal due to absorption. Experimentally, we observed that our method forced light to go around absorbers, leading to even higher signal improvement than in the case of purely scattering media. Interestingly, the resulting signal improvement is highly directional, which provides a new means against eavesdropping. PMID:25070592

Hao, Xiang; Martin-Rouault, Laure; Cui, Meng

2014-01-01

130

Effects of Media Attributes in Anchored Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effects of computer-assisted video-based anchored instruction on promoting students' attitudes toward mathematical instruction and problem-solving skills. Examines the effects of different media attributes on students' mathematical achievement and attitudes in a situated learning environment. Findings suggest that anchored…

Shyu, Hsin-Yih

1999-01-01

131

Resilience in an Age of Terrorism: Psychology, Media and Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, research about the psychological effects of terrorism seems to lack pre-trauma research assessing the resilience of the civil population in the face of a terrorist threat. We have developed and tested a conceptual model on the general population in Flanders, Belgium with psychological resilience as the underlying concept. It is vital to know perceptions and behaviors to the

Verleye Gino; Maeseele Pieter; Stevens Isabelle; Speckhard Anne

132

[Dehiberations over the semantics of mass communication media].  

PubMed

The radio, cinema and T.V. have developed their own idiolects and aesthetic standards. These in turn have influenced social relationships and education. Their effect is the reduction of society to a common mass, in which no attentuon is paid to individual motive forces. PMID:1161188

Martines, R

1975-09-12

133

Not just a matter of time: Field differences and the shaping of electronic media in supporting scientific communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shift towards the use of electronic media in scholarly communication\\u000aappears to be an inescapable imperative. However, these shifts are uneven, both\\u000awith respect to field and with respect to the form of communication. Different\\u000ascientific fields have developed and use distinctly different communicative\\u000aforums, both in the paper and electronic arenas, and these forums play\\u000adifferent communicative roles

Rob Kling; Geoffrey W. Mckim

2000-01-01

134

Using Blogs and Social Media in the Battle to Communicate Climate Change: Lessons from The Front Lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will share insights that I have accumulated in my own communications and outreach efforts using different types of internet-based communication including blogs (i.e. the 'RealClimate' blog that I co-founded with other climate scientists), and social media tools such as Facebook and Twitter. I will discuss the complementary strengths and weaknesses of the different communication tools, and possible ways of exploiting them collectively as part of a more coordinated communication strategy.

Mann, M. E.

2012-12-01

135

Nonverbal Expectancy Effects in the Political Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expectancy effects--the unconscious shaping of receiver behavior by signalling sender expectations--while recognized in science, have not been documented extensively from a communication perspective, nor are nonverbal aspects of expectancy effects fully known. Expectancy is a function of three elements, the sender's predisposition (including…

Corder, Lloyd E.

136

Subjective Norms as a Driver of Mass Communication Students' Intentions to Adopt New Media Production Technologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students' intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students…

Hopp, Toby M.

2013-01-01

137

"Digitize Me": Generating E-Learning Profiles for Media and Communication Students in a Jamaican Tertiary-Level Institution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this project was to develop an e-learning profile for a group of media and communication students enrolled in a Jamaican tertiary-level institution in order to make informed decisions most the appropriate [online] learning complement for these students. The objectives sought to determine the e-learning profile of media and…

Stewart-McKoy, Michelle A.

2014-01-01

138

Using mass-media communications to increase population usage of Australia's Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service(R)  

PubMed Central

Background Global obesity prevalence is increasing and population health programs are required to support changes to modifiable lifestyle risk factors. Such interventions benefit from mass-communications to promote their use. The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service ® (GHS) utilised mass-reach media advertising to recruit participants to an Australian state-wide program. Methods A stand alone population survey collected awareness, knowledge and behavioural variables before the first advertising phase, (n?=?1,544; August -September 2010), during (n?=?1,500; February - March 2011) and after the advertising period (n?=?1,500; June-July 2011). GHS usage data (n?=?6,375) was collated during July 2010 – June 2011. Results The results showed that television-lead mass-media significantly increased unprompted awareness (0% to 31.8%, p?media (television, print and mail out information) was more often cited as the source of referral by males, those aged 18 – 49?years, employed, and from the lowest socio-economic groups. During the weeks when mass-media advertising was present, 4 and 2.5 times more information and coaching participants respectively registered than when there was no advertising present. Participants who cited television and print were less likely to enrol in GHS coaching, but this was not the case for mail out information and secondary referral sources. Conclusions GHS mass-communications campaigns are effective at increasing awareness and usage of the GHS, especially among hard-to-reach population groups. Television advertising provides universal reach, but should be supplemented by health professional referrals and targeted mail-out information to recruit participants to the intensive GHS coaching program.

2012-01-01

139

Effective Usage of Social Media for Dark Skies Awareness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social media has become a daily tool in our culture. Networks such as Facebook with 900 million active users and Twitter with 140 million active users make an ideal platform to create awareness. It helps to generate and share new content and enables multi-communication channels. This presentation will address how effectively social media can be used as an education tool to create awareness of light pollution. As a "green" focus becomes more important in our world the topic of light pollution is also rising as an important issue. Light Pollution affects many aspects of our world ranging from flora and fauna to the economic well-being of many industrialized countries. Mixed among the many important pollutants in our world light pollution can fall by the way-side, forgotten, but it is imperative to bring out awareness of this problem, especially since studies are beginning to show how by fighting light pollution we will also be fighting other pollution such as air pollutants. GLOBE at Night has combined social media tools such as Facebook and Twitter with its educational awareness campaign on light pollution to reach out to social media community. Currently our Facebook reaches citizens of twenty separate countries ranging from the Czech Republic and Peru to the United States and the United Kingdom. On Facebook our reach is estimated at over 800,000 friends of our fans. These networks help us to directly answer users' immediate questions and encourage participation in the GLOBE at Night campaigns. Important news on light pollution appearing in cyberspace is monitored regularly using Google Alerts and Twitter hash tags filters which gets posted regularly on our networks. Social media networking has become a tool for users not only for information about GLOBE at Night but also for information about the overall topic of light pollution itself. Many individuals and organizations struggle with the mass content shared in social networks. It is important to know where to look for the right content and what to share with whom. This presentation will highlight on; the importance of engaging in social media to gain and share new content, how to filter the right content, and best uses of social media to create an awareness of light pollution. We will discuss the proper ways to get the most use out of social media networking.

Hennig, A. J.; Heenatigala, T.; Walker, C. E.

2012-12-01

140

Beyond the political model of reporting: nonspecific symptoms in media communication about AIDS.  

PubMed

Mass media have functioned well in transmitting much of the basic information about the AIDS epidemic; however, media coverage of AIDS has been flawed. In many ways these flaws have resulted from the limitations and conventions of traditional journalism, especially the need to appeal to a large mainstream audience and a reliance on authorities as sources and validators of information. News stories typically rely on a single articulate authority, and articles that involve conspiracy or controversy or have a high entertainment value are favored. Although coverage of politics and social issues is not distorted by these journalistic conventions, coverage of science suffers. Analysis of news coverage of AIDS shows that mass media often respond to sensationalism rather than to important scientific developments. In addition, scientific disagreements are better adjudicated by evidence than by appeals to authority. As a result, media coverage often obscures the process of scientific deliberation. Public health officials need to consider setting up a special channel of communications to clarify information about AIDS. PMID:3317741

Check, W A

1987-01-01

141

Social Media and the Army.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Social media has had an undeniable effect on the way we live, work, and communicate throughout the world. Military leaders are recognizing the importance of social media and taking steps to incorporate change into their organizational cultures. This is pa...

C. Perry

2010-01-01

142

Public and Media Communication of Volcanic Hazard Before and During the 2010 Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 39 day long explosive eruption in Eyjafjallajökull was the largest natural hazard event in Iceland for decades. It began with a small flank eruption in March, but the main event was the explosive summit eruption. The flooding that resulted from melting of ice at the eruption site posed considerable danger for the local population, fallout of ash made conditions south of the volcano difficult for several weeks, threatening the future of farming in this rural area, and lead to unprecedented disruption to air traffic in Europe and the North Atlantic. About 800 people were evacuated in a hurry three times during these events because of imminent flood hazard, but fortunately no dwellings were damaged and people could usually return to their homes the same day. These events called for extensive media coverage, both locally and internationally. Some staff at research institutes had for several days to devote their time exclusively to giving interviews to the international media. Scientific communication with the local population was mainly conducted through four channels: (1) the web pages of institutions, (2) the national media; (3) indirectly at meetings on the status of the eruption with local and national officials, and (4) public meetings in the affected areas. In addition the scientific community issued daily status reports to the Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management, these reports served both national and local Civil Protection officials when preparing their statements on the eruption and answer basic questions from the media. During media communication, it is important to stick to facts, avoid speculation and use plain language without scientific jargon. However, the most critical part of the communication occurred in the years before the eruption through meetings with the local inhabitants. At these meetings the results of a detailed hazard assessment on eruptions in Eyjafjallajökull and the neighboring ice-filled Katla caldera where presented to the communities around these volcanoes. The most dangerous hazard is large scale floods due to melting of glacier ice in eruptions. Further meetings took place where evacuation plans for areas potentially impacted by flooding were presented. These plans have been updated through dialogue with the inhabitants and a drill was held in 2006, where people evacuated their homes and moved to safer ground in nearby villages. This extensive preparation was possible not least because of very active leadership by the local chief of police, his staff and the national coordination body for Civil Protection i.e. the Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management. The preparatory meetings provided a very important background for officials, scientists and the local inhabitants. Where communities are small, trust is most easily established through face to face contact at local meetings.

Gylfason, A. G.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Reynisson, V.

2010-12-01

143

Effects of Instruction on Communication Apprehension and Communication Competence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows that, for students in a basic communication class, communication competence increased and communication apprehension decreased, and communication competence with strangers increased and communication apprehension in groups decreased. Shows that high apprehensive and low competence students experienced greater changes in their scores than did…

Rubin, Rebecca B.; And Others

1997-01-01

144

Method and apparatus for enabling services and media in a communication network  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method and apparatus in a group manager of a central service node, for enabling services or media in a communication network. A monitoring unit detects and monitors activities and conditions of communication entities in the network. A context collecting unit collects individual context data relating to a plurality of monitored entities in order to survey the current situation of each respective entity. A group defining unit then defines a group of correlated entities that are found to be correlated or similar with respect to at least some feature or characteristics based on the collected individual context data, by selecting context parameters of relevance to the group and using one or more membership conditions determined for the group. If the monitored entities have changed their status in a predetermined way that affects the group, the group defining unit will update the group.

2014-02-18

145

A systematic review of the use and effectiveness of social media in child health  

PubMed Central

Background Social media use is highly prevalent among children, youth, and their caregivers, and its use in healthcare is being explored. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine: 1) for what purposes social media is being used in child health and its effectiveness; and 2) the attributes of social media tools that may explain how they are or are not effective. Methods We searched Medline, CENTRAL, ERIC, PubMed, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Alt Health Watch, Health Source, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Web of Knowledge, and Proquest Dissertation and Theses Database from 2000–2013. We included primary research that evaluated the use of a social media tool, and targeted children, youth, or their families or caregivers. Quality assessment was conducted on all included analytic studies using tools specific to different quantitative designs. Results We identified 25 studies relevant to child health. The majority targeted adolescents (64%), evaluated social media for health promotion (52%), and used discussion forums (68%). Most often, social media was included as a component of a complex intervention (64%). Due to heterogeneity in conditions, tools, and outcomes, results were not pooled across studies. Attributes of social media perceived to be effective included its use as a distraction in younger children, and its ability to facilitate communication between peers among adolescents. While most authors presented positive conclusions about the social media tool being studied (80%), there is little high quality evidence of improved outcomes to support this claim. Conclusions This comprehensive review demonstrates that social media is being used for a variety of conditions and purposes in child health. The findings provide a foundation from which clinicians and researchers can build in the future by identifying tools that have been developed, describing how they have been used, and isolating components that have been effective.

2014-01-01

146

The New Guide to Effective Media Relations. The Best of "CASE Currents."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing an effective communications program is crucial for the survival of colleges, universities, and independent schools because they must be well understood and have broad public support. This guide to media relations compiles articles from "CASE Currents" into five sections: "The Basics of a News Service" (17 papers); "So You Want National…

Raley, Nancy, Ed.; Carter, Laura, Ed.

147

The Effect of Information Overlap on Communication Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It makes sense that the more information people share, the better they communicate. To evaluate the effect of knowledge overlap on the effectiveness of communication, participants played a communication game where the "director" identified objects to the "addressee". Pairs either shared information about most objects' names (high overlap), or…

Wu, Shali; Keysar, Boaz

2007-01-01

148

A Dependency Model of MassMedia Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that one of the reasons that there is such a lack of clarity as to whether the media have effects is that researchers have proceeded from the wrong theoretical conceptualizations to study the wrong questions. The dependency model of media effects is presented as a theoretical alternative in which the nature of the tripartite audience-media-society relationship is

S. J. Ball-Rokeach; M. L. DeFleur

1976-01-01

149

The Effects of Evidence in Persuasive Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lends support to the idea that the nature of the communication topic may be significantly related to evidence effectiveness and perhaps to the process of attitude change employed by the receivers. (MH)

Harte, Thomas B.

1976-01-01

150

Social media and its dual use in biopreparedness: communication and visualization tools in an animal bioterrorism incident.  

PubMed

This article focuses on social media and interactive challenges for emergency organizations during a bioterrorism or agroterrorism incident, and it outlines the dual-use dilemma of social media. Attackers or terrorists can use social media as their modus operandi, and defenders, including emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty-six experts and crisis communicators from international and national organizations participated. As a result of the workshop, it was concluded that emergency organizations can collect valuable information and monitor social media before, during, and after an outbreak. In order to make use of interactive communication to obtain collective intelligence from the public, emergency organizations must adapt to social networking technologies, requiring multidisciplinary knowledge in the fields of information, communication, IT, and biopreparedness. Social network messaging during a disease outbreak can be visualized in stream graphs and networks showing clusters of Twitter and Facebook users. The visualization of social media can be an important preparedness tool in the response to bioterrorism and agroterrorism. PMID:23971817

Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C; Landgren, Jonas; Griberg, Isaac; Skiby, Jeffrey E; Tubbin, Anna; von Stapelmohr, Anne; Härenstam, Malin; Jansson, Mikael; Knutsson, Rickard

2013-09-01

151

Communication - An Effective Tool for Implementing ISO 14001/EMS  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS activities through VPP geographic units. In summary, the ISMS and VPP process at the INEEL provided the basic framework of management support and worker involvement to implement our EMS. A cross-functional communication team was established to facilitate the implementation with great success. Communication has been an effective tool for implementing an ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL.

Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman

2004-04-01

152

[The pandemic of the experts in the mass media. How to create trust in public communication by acknowledging ignorance and uncertainty].  

PubMed

The first influenza pandemic in the twenty-first century is an example of how public trust in expert recommendations can erode if prognostic ability of these experts is suddenly doubted in the mass media. A highly consonant pandemic alarm communicated through the mass media can later cause heightened resonance concerning the appropriateness of the same alarm. In this case a paradoxical effect can develop, in which the same media outlet first paints an overly risky picture of an unfolding pandemic only to later condemn this assessment as alarmist. Can such behavior be considered a defect of journalism? In this article I describe the circumstances under which such media dynamics and "hypes" without trust in expertise are more likely to develop: when there is nontransparent decision making; when uncertainty and nescience of expert judgments are not communicated transparently; when warnings and measures taken are not readily adapted to the evolving risk situation in reality. If these basic principles are recognized in future pandemic risk communication, long-term public trust in scientific expertise can be secured. In this way, despite a public health crisis, a long-lasting break in the credibility of sound science can be avoided. PMID:23275963

Stollorz, V

2013-01-01

153

Communicating Culture in the 21st Century: The Power of Media-Enhanced Immersive Storytelling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the potential of digital media technologies and new storytelling techniques in giving objects an emotional dimension and thus encouraging affective learning. The use of new immersive and participatory techniques is a means of contextualizing real objects, and perhaps a more effective way to reach diverse audiences and create…

Stogner, Maggie Burnette

2011-01-01

154

The use of social media to communicate child health information to low-income parents: A formative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet, and specifically web 2.0 social media applications, offers an innovative method for communicating child health information to low-income parents. The main objective of this study was to use qualitative data to determine the value of using social media to reach low-income parents with child health information. A qualitative formative evaluation employing focus groups was used to determine the

Stephanie Jean Stroever

2011-01-01

155

Social media and organ donor registration: the Facebook effect.  

PubMed

Despite countless media campaigns, organ donation rates in the United States have remained static while need has risen dramatically. New efforts to increase organ donation through public education are necessary to address the waiting list of over 100,000 patients. On May 1, 2012, the online social network, Facebook, altered its platform to allow members to specify "Organ Donor" as part of their profile. Upon such choice, members were offered a link to their state registry to complete an official designation, and their "friends" in the network were made aware of the new status as a donor. Educational links regarding donation were offered to those considering the new organ donor status. On the first day of the Facebook organ donor initiative, there were 13 054 new online registrations, representing a 21.1-fold increase over the baseline average of 616 registrations. This first-day effect ranged from 6.9× (Michigan) to 108.9× (Georgia). Registration rates remained elevated in the following 12 days. During the same time period, no increase was seen in registrations from the DMV. Novel applications of social media may prove effective in increasing organ donation rates and likewise might be utilized in other refractory public health problems in which communication and education are essential. PMID:23777475

Cameron, A M; Massie, A B; Alexander, C E; Stewart, B; Montgomery, R A; Benavides, N R; Fleming, G D; Segev, D L

2013-08-01

156

A Social Identity Model of Media Usage and Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a social identity model of media usage and effects. This model explains how the media might cultivate power arrangements (i.e., promote social stasis) on the one hand, and contribute to social change on the other. We argue that current media theories are ill-equipped to meet both of these explanatory challenges. The model integrates (1) social identity processes with

Scott A. Reid; Jessica R. Abrams

157

Comparative Cost-Effectiveness of the Components of a Behavior Change Communication Campaign on HIV\\/AIDS in North India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies show that exposure to entertainment–education-based mass media campaigns is associated with reduction in risk behaviors. Concurrently, there is a growing interest in comparing the cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions taking into account infrastructural and programmatic costs. In such analyses, though few in number, mass media campaigns have fared well. Using data from a mass media communication campaign in

Suruchi Sood; Devaki Nambiar

2006-01-01

158

Virtual Team Leadership: The Effects of Leadership Style and Communication Medium on Team Interaction Styles and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of transformational and transactional leadership styles and communication media on team interaction styles and outcomes. Teams communicated through one of the following three ways: (a) face-to-face, (b) desktop videoconference, or (c) text-based chat. Results indicated that transformational and transactional…

Hambley, Laura A.; O'Neill, Thomas A.; Kline, Theresa J. B.

2007-01-01

159

Media Choice for Intra-School Communication: The Role of Environment, User, and Medium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influence of media richness, media attentional load, social influence and users' prior experience with media on selection of media to transmit different messages to peers within an educational organization was tested. Media were discriminated by all potential variables. Support was found for the role of prior experience and social influence in…

Caspi, Avner; Blau, Ina

2011-01-01

160

Media Effects on Prose Learning in Two Populations of Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of media presentations (oral, print, pictures, and combinations) on prose learning between high socioeconomic status white and low socioeconomic black children is compared and analyzed. (DEP)

Rohwer, William D., Jr.; Harris, Wendy J.

1975-01-01

161

What's in a Frame? A Content Analysis of Media Framing Studies in the World's Leading Communication Journals, 1990-2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a systematic analysis of media framing studies in the world's leading communication journals. A quantitative content analysis of 131 studies published in fifteen international journals demonstrates how frames are conceptualized and measured. Current problems in framing research include lack of operational precision, the descriptive focus of many analyses, neglect of visuals, and insufficient reporting of reliability.

Jörg Matthes

2009-01-01

162

Scholarly but Relevant: A Comparison of Topic Frequency between "Journalism Quarterly,""Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media," and RTNDA "Communicator."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared the topics addressed in a professional trade publication, the RTNDA (Radio and Television News Directors Association) "Communicator," with topics specifically addressing broadcast news in the scholarly journals "Journalism Quarterly" and "Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media." The purpose of the research was to help…

Ozmun, David

163

Mass Media and Developing Nations: A Global Perspective of the Present State of Mass Communication and Its Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four features characterize the current global scene in mass communications: (1) an imbalance of resources between industrialized and developing countries, (2) an imbalance of information flow between countries, (3) an irrelevance of media content to the social and cultural problems of the Third World, and (4) a considerable impact on the operation…

Nordenstreng, Kaarle

164

Contrast media: Biologic effects and clinical application  

SciTech Connect

An overview is presented of the recent developments in contrast media and their clinical applications, plus the current state-of-the-art in computerized tomography, digital subtraction angiography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Contents of these volumes include: an in-depth review of the historical development, modern perspectives in structure-function relationships, biologic effects on hemostats, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular systems and drug interactions. Critical and basic issues, including cellular toxicity, mutagenesis, synergism between radiation and contrast agents, mechanisms in contrast-induced reactions, and the management of such reactions in high-risk patients are also presented. Specific applications of paramagnetic compounds in MRI and the recent concept of liposome-encapsulated and particulate suspension of contrast materials in diagnostic imaging are thoroughly discussed.

Parvez, Z.; Moncada, R.; Sovak, M.

1987-01-01

165

Atmospheric propagation effects relevant to optical communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of atmospheric phenomena affect the propagation of light. The effects of clear air turbulence are reviewed as well as atmospheric turbidity on optical communications. Among the phenomena considered are astronomical and random refraction, scintillation, beam broadening, spatial coherence, angle of arrival, aperture averaging, absorption and scattering, and the effect of opaque clouds. An extensive reference list is also provided for further study. Useful information on the atmospheric propagation of light in relation to optical deep space communications to an earth based receiving station is available, however, further data must be generated before such a link can be designed with committed performance.

Shaik, K. S.

1988-01-01

166

Atmospheric Propagation Effects Relevant to Optical Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of atmospheric phenomena affect the propagation of light. This article reviews the effects of clear-air turbulence as well as atmospheric turbidity on optical communications. Among the phenomena considered are astronomical and random refraction, scintillation, beam broadening, spatial coherence, angle of arrival, aperture averaging, absorption and scattering, and the effect of opaque clouds. An extensive reference list is also provided for further study, Useful information on the atmospheric propagation of light in resolution to optical deep-space communications to an earth-based receiving station is available, however, further data must be generated before such a link can be designed with committed performance.

Shaik, K. S.

1988-01-01

167

Modelling the effects of media during an influenza epidemic  

PubMed Central

Background Mass media is used to inform individuals regarding diseases within a population. The effects of mass media during disease outbreaks have been studied in the mathematical modelling literature, by including ‘media functions’ that affect transmission rates in mathematical epidemiological models. The choice of function to employ, however, varies, and thus, epidemic outcomes that are important to inform public health may be affected. Methods We present a survey of the disease modelling literature with the effects of mass media. We present a comparison of the functions employed and compare epidemic results parameterized for an influenza outbreak. An agent-based Monte Carlo simulation is created to access variability around key epidemic measurements, and a sensitivity analysis is completed in order to gain insight into which model parameters have the largest influence on epidemic outcomes. Results Epidemic outcome depends on the media function chosen. Parameters that most influence key epidemic outcomes are different for each media function. Conclusion Different functions used to represent the effects of media during an epidemic will affect the outcomes of a disease model, including the variability in key epidemic measurements. Thus, media functions may not best represent the effects of media during an epidemic. A new method for modelling the effects of media needs to be considered.

2014-01-01

168

Finding a happy medium: explaining the negative effects of electronic communication on social life at work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sometimes observed negative social effects of electronic communication technology are often attributed to the characteristics of the technology itself. Electronic mail, for instance, filters out personal and social cues and provides new capabilities not found in traditional media, and it has been argued that these factors have consequences such as “flaming” and depersonalization. Alternative theoretical perspectives on the impacts

M. Lynne Markus

1994-01-01

169

Effective Communication for Academic Chairs. SUNY Series in Speech Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 11 contributed papers which examine communication aspects of the department chair position in academia. It is noted that most academic department chairs are not trained in management skills, including communication strategies. After an introductory chapter by Christopher H. Spicer and Ann Q. Staton, the following papers are…

Hickson, Mark, III, Ed.; Stacks, Don W.

170

Otitis Media Effects on Language/Attention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This 5-year study was designed to determine whether there was a causal relationship between otitis media observed in a day care setting and developmental delays in language and attention. Otitis media is the second most frequent reason parents take their ...

L. Vernon-Feagans

1998-01-01

171

Time stamp creation and evaluation in media effect template  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method of creating a template data structure for a media effect involving a media data item to be presented during a presentation of the media effect is disclosed. The method comprises: defining a time stamp for an event of the template data structure, the time stamp comprising a relative time stamp component indicating a time span within the presentation of the media data item as a portion of a duration of the presentation, and an absolute time offset component indicating a time span independent from the duration of the presentation. A related method defines the processing of a media data item to be presented during a presentation, the related method using the above mentioned time stamps to determine a temporal position of an event to occur during the presentation. A corresponding template creator, a media data processor, and a computer readable medium are also disclosed.

2014-06-03

172

Effect Size Reporting Practices in Communication Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, reporting estimates of effect size have become more important in social and behavioral science research. Four full volumes (2003–2006) of four influential communication journals were examined. The findings show that the rate of reporting effect size was very high for some types of statistical analyses (e.g., correlation, regression), and considerably lower for others (e.g., t-test, ? test).

Shaojing Sun; Xitao Fan

2010-01-01

173

Congressional Oversight of Agency Public Communications: Implications of Agency New Media Use, March 14, 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report intends to assist Congress in its oversight of executive branch agencies public communications. Here, public communications refers to agency communications that are directed to the public. Many, and perhaps most, federal agencies routinely com...

K. R. Kosar

2012-01-01

174

Scale dependence of effective media properties  

SciTech Connect

For problems where media properties are measured at one scale and applied at another, scaling laws or models must be used in order to define effective properties at the scale of interest. The accuracy of such models will play a critical role in predicting flow and transport through the Yucca Mountain Test Site given the sensitivity of these calculations to the input property fields. Therefore, a research programhas been established to gain a fundamental understanding of how properties scale with the aim of developing and testing models that describe scaling behavior in a quantitative-manner. Scaling of constitutive rock properties is investigated through physical experimentation involving the collection of suites of gas permeability data measured over a range of discrete scales. Also, various physical characteristics of property heterogeneity and the means by which the heterogeneity is measured and described are systematically investigated to evaluate their influence on scaling behavior. This paper summarizes the approach that isbeing taken toward this goal and presents the results of a scoping study that was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed research.

Tidwell, V.C.; VonDoemming, J.D.; Martinez, K.

1992-12-31

175

A quantative and qualitative analysis of science communication in the greek mass media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade there has been increasing interest on how science is communicated by the mass media. Studies have been done in order to define the amount and the quality of science information passing from the experts to the public through newspapers, radio broadcasts and TV programs. In this study, we have tried to find the amount of science presented in 4 Greek newspapers and 4 major Greek TV channels. We've also done an initial evaluation on the quality of the newspaper science articles. The results show that the amount of scientific content in TV and newspapers in Greece, is comparable to those in larger and more scientifically advanced countries such as Canada, USA and Great Britain. The quality of the newspaper articles was studied under a simple but relevant coding scheme. The results demonstrate that scientists do not write popularizing articles but they play an important role as experts. The more serious newspapers provide more reliable information in the form of integrated articles and not as fragmentary science news. Furthermore, Greek newspapers avoid publishing articles on controversial scientific issues and they present science as abstract and authoritative.

Matsopoulos, N.; Zoulias, M.

176

CCR - Office of Communications  

Cancer.gov

CCR's Office of Communications, located in the Office of the Director, Center for Cancer Research, communicates both inside the Center and outside to diverse audiences. Our goal is to effectively communicate the importance of CCR's ongoing basic, translational, and clinical research to the media, the general public, cancer patients and their physicians, other scientists, advocacy groups, and policy makers.

177

Theories and Evidence: Mass Media Effects and Fertility Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop four major hypotheses for why mass media might affect fertility. These include economic and time use effects of the medium, effects of ideas on policy actions of members of the elite, general effects on population basic val- ues and fertility-specific cognitions, and effects of deliberate mass media-based interventions on fertility-related behavior. The paper examines correlational and some longitudinal

Robert Hornik; Emile McAnany

2001-01-01

178

Skepticism About Media Effects Concerning the Environment: Examining Lomborg's Hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistician Bjorn Lomborg's tacit hypotheses regarding the effect of mass media exposure (what he calls “the Litany”) on environmental beliefs are tested using General Social Survey data from 1993, 1994, and 2000. Two core hypotheses and a research question are drawn from Lomborg's The Skeptical Environmentalist for discussion. Lomborg's apparent belief in a strong relationship between stilted media coverage and

JOHN C. BESLEY; JAMES SHANAHAN

2004-01-01

179

Social Effects of Mass Media Advertising on the Elderly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the effects of media advertising on the elderly to determine whether they use the media to help combat social disengagement, whether they perceived the elderly as positively portrayed in advertising, whether they perceive their role as consumer as declining, whether television advertising reinforced sex roles, and whether the…

Smith, Ruth B.; And Others

180

Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Mass Media Ethics Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effectiveness of an ethics education component in a media law and ethics course. Suggests that a short-term mass media ethics study could not develop values considered essential for ethical behavior. Argues that students developed more complexity in their reasoning not measurable by the scale. Suggests a course or module on ethics…

Lee, Byung; Padgett, George

2000-01-01

181

Influence of Mass Media on Body Image and Eating Disordered Attitudes and Behaviors in Females: A Review of Effects and Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews research on the effects of television and magazines on body image and on disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in females. Evidence from different types of studies in the fields of eating disorders, media psychology, health psychology, and mass communication indicates that mass media are an extremely important source of information and reinforcement in relation to the nature

Gemma López-Guimerà; Michael P. Levine; David Sánchez-carracedo; Jordi Fauquet

2010-01-01

182

Message Expression Effects in Online Social Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Framed within the O-S-R-O-R (Orientations-Stimulus-Reasoning-Orientations-Response) communication mediation framework, this study examines the bi-directional effects of personal message expression on individuals' cognitive elaboration, message learning, and attitudes when exposed to social campaign messages in blogs (anti-drunk driving). Findings from an online-based experiment, expression of personal message (yes and no), and perceived homophily to message audiences (yes and no) revealed that expressing

Elmie Nekmat

2012-01-01

183

Geosciences in an Immersive Fulldome Environment: Developing Science and Communication Skills by Creating Digital Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ho Tung Visualization Laboratory and Planetarium at Colgate University provides an opportunity for students of diverse backgrounds to learn scientific concepts and communication techniques through the creation of fulldome digital animations. Students give presentations to classes, school groups, and the public in the planetarium setting, and enhance learning by creating digital content appropriate to these audiences. The immersive environment is well-suited for showing large-scale geologic processes that may not be easily seen in the field. Geoscience projects include fly-bys of the Hudson River Valley, Cascade Mountain Range, Grand Canyon, and Basin and Range province, animation of the advance of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, evolution of continental positions since the late Precambrian, and comparisons of volcanic eruption styles. In order to create a digital animation, students must have a detailed understanding of the subject matter as well as all aspects of presentation, ranging from intended audience to relevant production technologies. This encourages students to explore material at a depth beyond conventional learning methods while integrating the skills necessary to effectively communicate scientific concepts to varied audiences. Based on these explorations, it appears beneficial to promote scientific visualization creation as a tool in itself to help students develop both scientific knowledge and communication skills.

Alley, K. E.; Crawford, A.; Eakin, J.

2011-12-01

184

Social-Communicative Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a common treatment choice for non-verbal children with autism. However, little empirical evidence is available on the usefulness of PECS in treating social-communication impairments in autism. Aims: To test the effects of PECS on social-communicative skills in children with autism,…

Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Russo, Luigi; Massagli, Angelo

2012-01-01

185

The Effect of Covert Modeling on Communication Apprehension, Communication Confidence, and Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of covert modeling on communication apprehension, public speaking anxiety, and communication competence. Students identified as highly communication apprehensive received covert modeling, a technique in which one first observes a model doing a behavior, then visualizes oneself performing the behavior and obtaining a…

Nimocks, Mittie J.; Bromley, Patricia L.; Parsons, Theron E.; Enright, Corinne S.; Gates, Elizabeth A.

186

The Effect of Communication Apprehension and Situation on Communication Strategy Choices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines students' perceptions of the probable use of certain persuasive strategies in a given situation in relation to students' level of communication apprehension. Data confirms the impact of situation on strategy selection but fails to demonstrate the effect of communication apprehension or an interaction between communication apprehension and…

Lustig, Myron W.; King, Stephen W.

1980-01-01

187

Effect of Race, Sex, Nonverbal Communication and Verbal Communication of Perception of Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 2X2X2X2 study tested the effect of a) nonverbal communication (NVC), b) verbal communication (VC), 3) race of communicator, and d) sex of perceiver on the perception of leadership. Results indicated that when one pits NVC against VC, NVC proved to be more potent in the perception of leadership. (Author/NQ)

Gitter, A. George; And Others

1975-01-01

188

Working with News Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To work effectively with personnel in the news media, one needs to assist them in doing their job by getting accurate information to them (in plenty of time for their deadline) and in providing information about meetings (when they do not have a reporter to cover the event). Familiarity aids in communication with news media personnel so one should…

Grosenbaugh, Dick

189

Exploring Perspectives of Communications Students toward Media Access and Use: A Q Method Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to help news industry professionals and educators tailor their services to a young audience that has grown up among a plethora of media options. To better reach and educate today's up-and-coming media professionals, those in the industry need a better understanding of modern media students' perspectives of news. This study used Q…

Riggs, Angel Noel

2011-01-01

190

Media risk communication – what was said by whom and how was it interpreted  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to provide some insight into the level and type of media coverage that food risks received and consider the translation of press releases into media articles. Past scientific messages dealing with two food risks (Salmonella and Genetically Modified (GM) potatoes) were collected from various Irish media sources over a defined period. In addition, press

Mary McCarthy; Mary Brennan; Martine De Boer; Christopher Ritson

2008-01-01

191

Effective communications bring greater public acceptance  

SciTech Connect

In 1986, GPU Nuclear Corporation announced a plan to evaporate into the atmosphere 2.3 million gal of water remaining from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. The water would be processed to remove most of the radioactivity, but still remaining were >1,000 Ci of tritium to be released to the atmosphere during the evaporation process. It was expected that, following regulatory approvals, it would take >2 yr to complete the process. Fed by well-established antinuclear groups, public concern about evaporating the TMI-2-accident-generated water ran high among residents living near the plant. In the years since the TMI-2 accident, GPU Nuclear had developed a highly effective communications program in the communities surrounding TMI. This ongoing program provided a solid foundation on which to create and implement a risk communications approach to community understanding and acceptance of the evaporation process.

Clawson, C. (GPU Nuclear Corp., Parsippany, NJ (United States))

1992-01-01

192

Foundations for Effective School Library Media Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 38 articles, reprinted from "Emergency Librarian," addresses critical elements of school library media program development and implementation, organized by seven areas: foundations; the school context; role clarification; information literacy; collaborative program planning and teaching; program development; and accountability.…

Haycock, Ken, Ed.

193

Effective Electromagnetic Properties of Lossy Ferrite Composite Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses both the theoretical and experimental aspects of the problem of defining effective electromagnetic properties of non-homogeneous media. A simple theory has been developed for a one-dimensionally periodic medium containing lossy ferri...

K. S. Ananthanarayanan

1976-01-01

194

Making media work in space: an interdisciplinary perspective on media and communication requirements for current and future space communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

As humans expand into space communities will form. These have already begun to form in small ways, such as long-duration missions on the International Space Station and the space shuttle, and small-scale tourist excursions into space. Social, behavioural and communications data emerging from such existing communities in space suggest that the physically-bounded, work-oriented and traditionally male-dominated nature of these extremely

S. Babidge; J. Cokley; F. Gordon; E. Louw

2005-01-01

195

An approach to effective UHF (S/L band) data communications for satellite Personal Communication Service (PCS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable signaling information transfer is fundamental in supporting the needs of data communication PCS via LMS (Land Mobile Service) SSs (satellite systems). The needs of the system designer can be satisfied only through the collection of media information that can be brought to bear on the pertinent design issues. We at ISI hope to continue our dialogue with fading media experts to address the unique data communications needs of PCS via LMS SSs.

Hayase, Joshua Y.

1995-08-01

196

Army Cultural Change and Effective Media Relations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper focuses on the Army's need to be more successful in communicating its side of the story to American and international publics. It posits that Army culture and climate must continue to change in a way that encourages a more open relationship wit...

D. L. Baggio

2006-01-01

197

Communication by Central Bank Committee Members: Different Strategies, Same Effectiveness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper assesses the communication strategies of the Federal Reserve, the Bank of England, and the European Central Bank and their effectiveness. We find that the effectiveness of communication is not independent from the decision-making process. The paper shows that the Federal Reserve has been pursuing a highly individualistic communication strategy amid a collegial approach to decision making, while the

MICHAEL EHRMANN; MARCEL FRATZSCHER

2007-01-01

198

Global Communication, for the Powerful or the People? Media & Values 61.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Media & Values" explores the growing influence of mass media and how that influence is concentrated in the hands of a few powerful individuals or corporations. The essays present various interpretations of that influence and the implications for the world. Articles include: (1) "All Power to the Conglomerate" (Stewart Hoover); (2)…

Silver, Rosalind, Ed.

1993-01-01

199

Communication Linkages between Elected and Electorate: The Usefulness of News Media for Constituent Contact.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated whether the frequency of a legislator's direct contact with constituents was related negatively to the legislator's evaluation of mass media as sources of information on constituent concerns. The study also explored whether the legislators' evaluations of mass media as sources of information on constituent concerns were more…

Riffe, Daniel

200

In vivo effects of contrast media on coronary thrombolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of radiographic contrast media (CM) on alteplase-induced coronary thrombolysis.Background. Contrast media inhibit fibrinolysis in vitro and interact with endothelial cells, platelets and the coagulation system. The in vivo effects of CM on thrombolysis are not known.Methods. Occlusive coronary artery thrombosis was induced in 4 groups of 10 dogs

Sorin Pislaru; Cristina Pislaru; Monika Szilard; Jef Arnout; Frans Van de Werf

1998-01-01

201

A quality comparison of preventive control schemes for media synchronization in voice and video communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper assesses the media synchronization quality of preventive control schemes employed at media sources and media destinations for voice and video over a network. Preventive control is required to try to avoid asynchrony (i.e., out of synchronization). We here deal with two preventive control techniques employed at sources: Advancement of transmission timing of media units (MUs), each of which is the information unit for media synchronization (e.g., a video picture), with network delay estimation and temporal resolution control of video. We also handle three preventive control techniques employed at destinations: Change of buffering time with network delay estimation, preventive pausing, and preventive shortening of output duration. By experiment, we make a performance comparison among preventive control schemes which employ the preventive control techniques at sources and destinations. We also clarify the relations between subjective and objective assessment results.

Minezawa, Satoshi; Ishibashi, Yutaka; Psannis, Kostas E.

2007-09-01

202

Bit-array alignment effect of perpendicular SOMA media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One effective way to overcome the superparamagnetic limit of magnetic recording system is to reduce the grain number per bit at given signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) level by using uniformed media grains. The self organized magnetic array (SOMA) is designed to have uniform grains with perfect grain array structure. It is believed that high enough SNR with small number of grains per bit can be acheived. But in the engineering application, the recorded bit on SOMA media may align with the regular array at different locations and angles due to non-grain synchronized writing, skew angle, and circular track. This induces the bit-array alignment effect and degrades system performance of SOMA media. In this paper, the micromagnetic simulation results show that the bit array alignment effect causes large level SNR fluctuation on the same media. The SOMA media is not preferred to be used in the conventional recording configuration. It is only suitable for the configuration of patterned media.

Xiao, Peiying; Yuan, Zhimin; Kuan Lee, Hwee; Guo, Guoxiao

2006-08-01

203

Revealing the Effectivenesses of Communication Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to report the history of communication strategy and highlight the importance of strategic competence. It provides the histories and characterizations of communication strategy. Besides, it presents from which perspectives these definitions of communication strategies were developed. Various earlier and latter…

Lin, Grace Hui Chin

2013-01-01

204

Crisis Communications. Seminar Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communicating effectively is seldom easy; it requires planning, effort, understanding, and follow-through. Communicating effectively in the tense atmosphere which often surrounds a crisis requires redoubled effort, greater understanding, and increased attention to proper planning. The presentations in this booklet deal with the needs of the media

New York State School Boards Association, Albany.

205

Promoting the Michigan organ donor registry: evaluating the impact of a multifaceted intervention utilizing media priming and communication design.  

PubMed

There are currently more than 100,000 individuals waiting for an organ transplant. Organ donor registries represent the easiest and most concrete way for people to declare their intent to donate, but organ donor registries are vastly underutilized. This study reports a campaign intervention designed to increase the rate of joining the Michigan Organ Donor Registry. Grounding intervention development in the theoretical principles of media priming and communication design, the intervention took place in two waves in three counties in Michigan. Each intervention consisted of a media component, point-of-decision materials, and an interpersonal component. Increases in registration rates of 200 to 300% in each intervention county, compared to stable statewide trends in registry rates, provide evidence of highly successful intervention efforts. The rate of registry increase in intervention counties was approximately 1,900% higher than statewide on a per capita basis. PMID:21153986

Harrison, Tyler R; Morgan, Susan E; King, Andy J; Di Corcia, Mark J; Williams, Elizabeth A; Ivic, Rebecca K; Hopeck, Paula

2010-12-01

206

ACOG Committee Opinion No. 587: Effective patient-physician communication.  

PubMed

Physicians' ability to effectively and compassionately communicate information is key to a successful patient-physician relationship. The current health care environment demands increasing clinical productivity and affords less time with each patient, which can impede effective patient-physician communication. The use of patient-centered interviewing, caring communication skills, and shared decision making improves patient-physician communication. Involving advanced practice nurses or physician assistants may improve the patient's experience and understanding of her visit. Electronic communication with established patients also can enhance the patient experience in select situations. PMID:24451677

2014-02-01

207

Impact of Communication Media Characteristics on Information Acquisition and Favorability of Attitudes Toward the Navy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigated the impact of media characteristics on receiver's acquisition of recruiting information, the favorability of receiver's attitudes toward the Navy and joining the Navy. The study use a 4x2x2 experimental design which manipulated med...

J. Van Scotter D. Allen R. Otondo P. Palvia K. Moustafa

2001-01-01

208

Science Express: Out-of-Home-Media to Communicate Climate Change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science Express is an initiative to explore, develop, and test various approaches to using Out-of-Home-Media (OHM) to engage adults riding mass transit. To date, three projects represent this work: 1) Carbon Smarts Conference, 2) Cool Science, and 3) ScienceToGo.org. While the aim of each project is different, together they serve an immediate need to understand how OHM can be leveraged as an informal science learning medium. Using Climate Change as the content focus, each project is a variation on the theme of understanding mass transit as a form of mobile classroom for riders. The basic idea behind these initiatives is to engage individuals who do not necessarily read the science magazines, listen to science radio shows, or watch science programming on television. Science Express is about bringing the science learning opportunity to the audience during their daily routines. Mass Transit provides an ideal opportunity for engaging the disengaged in science learning since they represent a ';captive' audience while waiting at the bus stop, standing on the platform, riding inside the bus or train. These ';downtimes' present informal science educators with the opportunity to foster some science learning. With the advent of smartphone technology and its explosion in popularity among consumers, OHM is poised to offer riders a new kind of real time learning experience. The Science Express projects aim to understand the strengths and weaknesses of this new model for informal science learning so as to refine and improve its effectiveness at achieving desired goals. While the Science Express model for informal science learning could be used to foster understanding about any relevant scientific content, the research team chose to use Climate Change as the focus. Climate Change seemed like an obvious because of its timeliness, complexity, robust scientific foundation, and presence in popular media. Nearly all our riders have heard of 'Climate Change' or 'Global Warming', but a much smaller percentage actually understand the underlying science. In addition, riders appear to be very curious and want to know more about these issues.

Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R.

2013-12-01

209

[The mass communication media in diffusing the ideology of human reproduction].  

PubMed

This study was conducted with women assisted at public health units of one municipality of São Paulo's metropolitan region. Its objectives were: to verify the mass-media to which they have access and to correlate these findings to these women's social class. It also intended to analysis the permeability of these subjects to the mass-media messages about human reproduction, correlating it to the biological profile presented by such women. PMID:1295020

da Fonseca, R M

1992-08-01

210

A Case Study of a Retracted Systematic Review on Interactive Health Communication Applications: Impact on Media, Scientists, and Patients  

PubMed Central

Background In October 2004, a flawed systematic review entitled “Interactive Health Communication Applications for People with Chronic Disease” was published in the Cochrane Library, accompanied by several press releases in which authors warned the public of the negative health consequences of interactive health communication applications, including the Internet. Within days of the review's publication, scientists identified major coding errors and other methodological problems that invalidated the principal conclusions of the study and led to a retraction. While the original study results and their negative conclusions were widely publicized in the media, the retraction seemed to go unnoticed. Objective This paper aims to document an unprecedented case of misinformation from a Cochrane review and its impact on media, scientists, and patients. As well, it aims to identify the generic factors leading to the incident and suggest remedies. Methods This was a qualitative study of the events leading to the retraction of the publication and of the reactions from media, scientists, and patients. This includes a review and content analysis of academic and mass media articles responding to the publication and retraction. Mass media articles were retrieved in May 2005 from LexisNexis Academic and Google and were classified and tallied. The extended case method is employed, and the analysis is also applied to comparable publishing events. Results A search on LexisNexis Academic database with the query “Elizabeth Murray AND health” for the period of June 2004 to May 2005 revealed a total of 15 press reports, of which only 1 addressed the retraction. Google was searched for references to the review, and the first 200 retrieved hits were analyzed. Of these, 170 pages were not related to the review. Of the remaining 30 pages, 23 (77%) were reports about the original publication that did not mention the retraction, 1 (3%) was a bibliography not mentioning the retraction, and 6 (20%) addressed the retraction, of which only 1 was a non-Cochrane–related source. Conclusions Analyzed retrievals showed that the mass media gave more coverage to the Cochrane review than to the retraction or to a related systematic review with a similar scope but a different conclusion. Questionable results were prematurely disseminated, oversimplified, and sensationalized, while the retraction was hardly noticed by the public. Open commentary by scientists and patients helped to rapidly identify the errors but did not prevent or correct the dissemination of misinformation.

2005-01-01

211

The effect of gender and age differences on media selection in small and medium tourism enterprises.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact that gender and age differences have on the communication media selection within the context of small and medium tourism enterprises (SMEs). Media Richness Theory (MRT) was used to assess media preferences in the firms. Using a mail questionnaire, data from 78 firms were collected on seven popular media in use. Historical data of the firms, media characteristics, and other firm-specific factors were included in the analysis. The results indicated that there are substantial gender and age differences in term of communication media selection. This is consistent with MRT and highlights the importance of choosing the appropriate media in SMEs, according with the employee's behaviors, in order to achieve better outcomes and to smooth the path towards good performance in the future. PMID:18954272

Dehkordi, Majid A; Zarei, Behrouz; Dehkordi, Shabnam A

2008-12-01

212

Effects of noise and task loading on a communication task loading on a communication task  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research had shown the effect of noise on a single communication task. This research has been criticized as not being representative of a real world situation since subjects allocated all of their attention to only one task. In the present study, the effect of adding a loading task to a standard noise-communication paradigm was investigated. Subjects performed both a communication task (Modified Rhyme Test; House et al. 1965) and a short term memory task (Sternberg, 1969) in simulated levels of aircraft noise (95, 105 and 115 dB overall sound pressure level (OASPL)). Task loading was varied with Sternberg's task by requiring subjects to memorize one, four, or six alphanumeric characters. Simulated aircraft noise was varied between levels of 95, 105 and 115 dB OASPL using a pink noise source. Results show that the addition of Sternberg's task and little effect on the intelligibility of the communication task while response time for the communication task increased.

Orrell, Dean H., II

213

Effects of Cultural Exposure through Pre-Event Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of mega events on international tourism is partially a consequence of their capacity to attract an international audience through the media they obtain. While researchers have examined the effects of induced images of the event and its broadcast on destination image and interest in travel to the host country, there is scant research examining the effects of organic

B. Christine Green; So Youn Lim; Won Jae Seo; Yongjun Sung

2010-01-01

214

Effective Protocols for Mobile Communications and Networking  

SciTech Connect

This report examines methods of mobile communications with an emphasis on mobile computing and wireless communications. Many of the advances in communications involve the use of Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ad hoc network protocols. However, many of the advances in these protocols have been focused on wired communications. Recently much focus has been directed at advancing communication technology in the area of mobile wireless networks. This report discusses various protocols used in mobile communications and proposes a number of extensions to existing protocols. A detailed discussion is also included on desirable protocol characteristics and evaluation criteria. In addition, the report includes a discussion on several network simulation tools that maybe used to evaluate network protocols.

Espinoza, J.; Sholander, P.; Van Leeuwen, B,

1998-12-01

215

New Communication Technologies, Old Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent emergence of new media, or better, new communication technologies, has afforded substantial commentary regarding societal effects, the latest chapter in a decades-old trend that rises and falls with each new communication technology. Whereas this article does not deny that the current generation of communication technologies differs from predecessors, it argues against the need for wholesale changes in theory

Marco C. Yzer; Brian G. Southwell

2008-01-01

216

Propagation Effects in Extended Random Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the effects of scatter on fields propagated through an ionosphere with random fluctuations in electron density. In particular it considers those effects associated with the finite extent of the region of irregularities (e.g. multiple s...

L. J. Nickisch

1990-01-01

217

Media-Cultivated Perceptions of Criminal Victimization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many television viewers construct their social reality from media content as well as from sensory and interpersonally communicated information. One aspect of this media-influenced social reality is television viewers' estimates of crime in society, or their fear of criminal victimization. Several media-effects studies have demonstrated the…

Ogles, Robert M.

218

Communication Planning for Effective Nutrition Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary health and nutrition have been linked with communication in a variety of well-publicized projects. This partnership between communication and nutrition was made necessary by the confrontation between an expanded demand for services and limited resources for meeting the demand. Senior officials have a substantial role to play in seeing that…

Colle, Royal D.

219

On cost-effective communication network designing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How to efficiently design a communication network is a paramount task for network designing and engineering. It is, however, not a single objective optimization process as perceived by most previous researches, i.e., to maximize its transmission capacity, but a multi-objective optimization process, with lowering its cost to be another important objective. These two objectives are often contradictive in that optimizing one objective may deteriorate the other. After a deep investigation of the impact that network topology, node capability scheme and routing algorithm as well as their interplays have on the two objectives, this letter presents a systematic approach to achieve a cost-effective design by carefully choosing the three designing aspects. Only when routing algorithm and node capability scheme are elegantly chosen can BA-like scale-free networks have the potential of achieving good tradeoff between the two objectives. Random networks, on the other hand, have the built-in character for a cost-effective design, especially when other aspects cannot be determined beforehand.

Zhang, Guo-Qiang

2010-02-01

220

Effect of Media Use on HIV-Related Stigma in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

It is known that HIV-related stigma hinders prevention efforts. Previous studies have documented that HIV-related stigma may be associated with socioeconomic and socioecological factors. Mass media use may moderate this association, but there is limited research addressing that possibility. In this study, based on cross-sectional data pooled from the 2006–2011 Demographic and Health Surveys of 11 sub-Saharan African countries (N?=?204,343), we investigated the moderating effects of exposure to mass media on HIV-related stigma. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that HIV-related stigma tends to be higher among rural residents and individuals with low levels of education and HIV knowledge, as well as those who do not know people living with HIV. Media use was generally associated with low levels of HIV-related stigma, and attenuated the gap between individuals with high and low educational levels. However, the effect of mass media was found to be stronger among urbanites rather than among rural residents, which could lead to a widening gap between the two groups in endorsement of HIV-related stigma. The implication of this study regarding the effect of media use on HIV-related stigma in sub-Saharan Africa is twofold: 1) mass media may have the potential to minimize the gap in HIV-related stigma between individuals with high and low educational levels, and hence future efforts of reducing HIV-related stigma in the region may benefit from utilizing media; 2) due perhaps to low media penetration to rural sub-Saharan Africa, mass media could have the unintended effect of widening the urban-rural gap further unless other more customized and rural-focused communication interventions are put in place.

Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven; Ramanadhan, Shoba; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

2014-01-01

221

Effect of Media Use on HIV-Related Stigma in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-Sectional Study.  

PubMed

It is known that HIV-related stigma hinders prevention efforts. Previous studies have documented that HIV-related stigma may be associated with socioeconomic and socioecological factors. Mass media use may moderate this association, but there is limited research addressing that possibility. In this study, based on cross-sectional data pooled from the 2006-2011 Demographic and Health Surveys of 11 sub-Saharan African countries (N?=?204,343), we investigated the moderating effects of exposure to mass media on HIV-related stigma. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that HIV-related stigma tends to be higher among rural residents and individuals with low levels of education and HIV knowledge, as well as those who do not know people living with HIV. Media use was generally associated with low levels of HIV-related stigma, and attenuated the gap between individuals with high and low educational levels. However, the effect of mass media was found to be stronger among urbanites rather than among rural residents, which could lead to a widening gap between the two groups in endorsement of HIV-related stigma. The implication of this study regarding the effect of media use on HIV-related stigma in sub-Saharan Africa is twofold: 1) mass media may have the potential to minimize the gap in HIV-related stigma between individuals with high and low educational levels, and hence future efforts of reducing HIV-related stigma in the region may benefit from utilizing media; 2) due perhaps to low media penetration to rural sub-Saharan Africa, mass media could have the unintended effect of widening the urban-rural gap further unless other more customized and rural-focused communication interventions are put in place. PMID:24945251

Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven; Ramanadhan, Shoba; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

2014-01-01

222

An effective media toolset for use in metamaterial design.  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces an effective-media toolset that can be used for the design of metamaterial structures based on metallic components such as split-ring resonators and dipoles, as well as dielectric spherical resonators. For demonstration purposes the toolset will be used to generate infrared metamaterial designs, and the predicted performances will be verified with full-wave numerical simulations.

Johnson, William Arthur; Sinclair, Michael B.; Warne, Larry Kevin; Langston, William L.; Basilio, Lorena I.

2010-06-01

223

Review article Effects of radiographic contrast media on the lung  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pulmonary adverse effects of intravascular use of water soluble radiographic contrast media (RCM) include bronchospasm, pulmonary oedema and increase in the pulmonary arterial blood pressure (Ppa). Symptomatic bronchospasm is rare but subclinical increase in airways resistance is common after intravascular injection of RCM. Experimental studies have demonstrated that the low osmolar ionic dimer ioxaglate can induce significant bronchospasm in

S K MORCOS

2003-01-01

224

The Variable Influence of Audience Activity on Media Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hypothesizes that instrumental media motivation, selectivity, attention, and involvement are positive predictors of satisfaction, parasocial interaction, and cultivation effects from watching daytime television serials; avoidance, distraction, and skepticism were seen as negative predictors. Finds support for these expectations through three path…

Kim, JungKee; Rubin, Alan M.

1997-01-01

225

Communication Effectiveness of Individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among speech intelligibility and communication effectiveness as rated by speakers and their listeners. Participants completed procedures to measure (a) speech intelligibility, (b) self-perceptions of communication effectiveness, and (c) listener (spouse or family member) perceptions of…

Ball, Laura J.; Beukelman, David R.; Pattee, Gary L.

2004-01-01

226

Communication in Surveys: Examining Cognitive Effects in Survey Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Panel studies have frequently been used by mass communication researchers. While these studies allow researchers to draw inferences about mass communication effects over time, they also tend to sensitize respondents to the issue under study. A study was undertaken to investigate panel effects by examining the survey interview as a medium of…

Salmon, Charles T.; And Others

227

Dynamical Casimir effect in oscillating media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that oscillations of a homogeneous medium with constant material coefficients produce pairs of photons. Classical analysis of an oscillating medium reveals regions of parametric resonance where the electromagnetic waves are exponentially amplified. The quantum counterpart of parametric resonance is an exponentially growing number of photons in the same parameter regions. This process may be viewed as another manifestation of the dynamical Casimir effect. However, in contrast to the standard dynamical Casimir effect, photon production here takes place in the entire volume and is not due to time dependence of the boundary conditions or material constants.

Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia

2008-10-01

228

Persuasive Communication in the Mass Media: Implications for Preventing Drug-Related Behavior among Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the efficacy of anti-drug public service announcements (PSAs) for preventing drug-related behavior (DRB) among youth. Focuses on persuasive communication and drug prevention and the factors associated with DRB. Claims that the success of any anti-drug PSA will be limited to that scope of behavior targeted for change. (RJM)

Davis, Norris

1997-01-01

229

Assessment Issues: Speech Communication Association. Speaking. Listening, and Media Literacy Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As individual states and communities work out curriculum and instructional expectations, high quality assessments of communication skills will continue to evolve. An active cycle of setting goals, developing instruction, teaching, testing, and assessing student and system success is the key to the process of renewal and improvement. All types of…

Fenton, Ray; O'Leary, Neil

230

Coherent quantum effects through dispersive bosonic media  

SciTech Connect

The coherent evolution of two qubits mediated by a set of bosonic field modes is investigated. By assuming a specific asymmetric encoding of the quantum states in the internal levels of the qubits, we show that entangling quantum gates can be realized, with high fidelity, even when a large number of mediating modes is involved. The effect of losses and imperfections on the gates' operation is also considered in detail.

Ye Saiyun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Yang Zhenbiao; Zheng Shibiao [Department of Physics, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Serafini, Alessio [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

2010-07-15

231

Effective Intermolecular Pair Potentials in Nonpolar Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using third-order perturbation theory, effective London dispersion forces between two molecules in a medium are evaluated. The reduction in the pair interaction is calculated for spherical and polymeric bodies at various separations. For nearest neighbors in pure liquids, pair potentials decrease by 1.8% in helium, and 32% in carbon tetrachloride. The contribution to the total energy of the liquid is

NEIL R. KESTNERt

1963-01-01

232

Effective nonlinear Hamiltonians in dielectric media  

SciTech Connect

We derive an effective Hamiltonian for the nonlinear process of parametric downconversion in the presence of absorption. Based upon the Green-function method for quantizing the electromagnetic field, we first set up Heisenberg's equations of motion for a single atom driven by an external electric field and in the presence of an absorbing dielectric material. The equations of motion are then solved to second order in perturbation theory which, in rotating-wave approximation, yields the standard effective interaction Hamiltonian known from free-space nonlinear optics. In a second step, we derive the local-field-corrected Hamiltonian for an atom embedded in a dielectric host medium, that is, a nonlinear crystal. Here we show that the resulting effective Hamiltonian is found to be trilinear in the electric and noise-polarization fields and is thus capable of describing nonlinear noise processes. Furthermore, it reduces to the phenomenological nonlinear Hamiltonian for the cases where absorption, and hence the noise-polarization field, vanishes.

Crosse, J. A.; Scheel, Stefan [Quantum Optics and Laser Science, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2010-03-15

233

Inertial effects in dispersion in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we develop the macroscale transport equation for dispersion of a nonreactive chemical species, with a particular focus on the influence of inertial contributions at moderate Reynolds numbers. Our starting point is the continuum level description of transport written at the subpore scale. Volume averaging is used to upscale these equations to develop the macroscale solute balance that applies at the Darcy scale. We develop a fully transient version of the ancillary closure problem that predicts the total dispersion tensor, and we solve the closure using finite Fourier transforms. The result of this effort is a nonlocal macroscale transport equation, where the nonlocal dispersion depends upon the microscale geometry of the pore space and the physical characteristics of the fluid. Both the longitudinal and transverse components of the total dispersion tensor are computed for a simple three-dimensional unit cell. The computational results indicate that a simple three-dimensional periodic unit cell is able to capture the correct behavior for the longitudinal dispersion in the range 101 < Pep < 2.5 × 105, although the magnitude of the longitudinal dispersion coefficient is underpredicted by up to a factor of about 4. For the transverse dispersion coefficient, the simple unit cell provides much less satisfactory results when compared with experimental data. The inertial effects for the longitudinal dispersion coefficient were relatively small, but for the transverse dispersion coefficient, inertial effects were predicted to increase the transverse dispersion coefficient up to 40 times that which would be predicted for Stokes flow.

Wood, Brian D.

2007-12-01

234

Digital television's position and effect in the media ecology environment of broadcast and television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various media owns its living space for its specific dissemination feature and ecological niche with special time and space. This article uses media ecology theory to study the effect and function of digital television on the living environment of television media, with the purpose of analyzing the change for the whole media ecology environment. With the application of basic analysis

Lun Liu

2010-01-01

235

Effective Communication in Educational Policy Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electronic mail and other telecommunications processes may prove to be valuable tools for the active involvement of educators in legislative and policy development. Involving educators in regulations development could reduce implementation problems significantly. Using electronic media to disseminate policy information to educational agencies and…

Wooten, Charles L.; Wooten, Sharon M.

236

Are pharmaceutical marketing decisions calibrated to communications effects?  

PubMed

Marketing managers continually struggle with how to maximize the effects of an integrated marketing communications strategy. The growing number of available communication outlets, as well as highly varying competitive landscapes, adds further complexity to this challenge. This empirical study examines the differential impact within a pharmaceutical market therapeutic category where both "push" and "pull" communication strategies operate on consumers and gatekeepers alike, in an atmosphere of unrelenting product innovation and broad competition. Furthermore, we explore how two contingency variables-(a) the competitive landscape, and (b) the product's length of time on the market-interact with these communication efforts and affect brand and category sales. PMID:22054028

Cavusgil, Erin; Calantone, Roger

2011-10-01

237

Effective parameters and energy of acoustic metamaterials and media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach is proposed to describe a general form of acoustic media, in particular, acoustic metamaterials, based on their modeling with the simplest discrete periodic structures. The parameters of the discrete models, determined from the dispersion equation, are taken as the effective parameters of the modeled media. Transfer to an effective continuous medium is achieved by uniform distribution of these parameters over the length of the periodicity cell. It is shown that all of the wave motion characteristics of the medium, including the energy characteristics, are expressed through the effective parameters thus introduced. The necessary formulas are derived. Examples are given. The proposed method is useful for designing acoustic materials with the given wave properties.

Bobrovnitskii, Yu. I.

2014-03-01

238

Wave propagation and inhomogeneous media: Beyond effective medium theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk will focus on various topics connected with wave propagation and inhomogeneous media. Their common factor is the impossibility to obtain a correct physical description within effective medium type theories: these problems cannot be tackled through an homogeneization of the medium. One of the topics is Anderson localization for classical waves in a random medium: a pedagogical approach to the theoretical aspects of this problem will be presented and the experimental status reviewed. Another topic will be the reflectance/transmittance/absorption properties of a disordered granular metal-insulator film under a perpendicularly incident electromagnetic (infra-red, hyperfrequences,…) wave. Here again effective medium theories can fail badly. New approaches will be presented. The study of nonlinear waves in inhomogeneous media raises also new problems which cannot always be discussed in the spirit of effective medium theories.

Souillard, Bernard

1989-05-01

239

Focal Event, Contextualization, and Effective Communication in the Mathematics Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to develop analytical tools for studying mathematical communication in collaborative activities. The theoretical construct of contextualization is elaborated methodologically in order to study diversity in individual thinking in relation to effective communication. The construct of contextualization highlights issues of…

Nilsson, Per; Ryve, Andreas

2010-01-01

240

Brave New Media World: A Science Communications Voyage to the Great Pacific Garbage Patch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By leveraging online tools, such as blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Google Earth, flickr and web-based discussion boards, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography team recently took science communications out of the static webpage to create an interactive journey that sparked social dialogue and helped raise awareness of science-based research on global marine environmental problems. A crew of 16 researchers, volunteers and support staff, with assistance from the shore-based Scripps Oceanography communications team, took readers and viewers aboard Scripps’ research vessel New Horizon during the 20-day and more than 2,500-mile SEAPLEX expedition (Scripps Environmental Accumulation of Plastic Expedition). The journey to the North Pacific Ocean Gyre, aka “The Great Pacific Garbage Patch,” was chronicled through popular daily blogs and tweets as the researchers shared interesting scientific facts and unusual findings contained in the 100 oceanographic tow samples conducted in the water to collect data on the distribution of plastic near the gyre.

Reisewitz, A.; Clark, C. L.

2009-12-01

241

Physicians who use social media and other internet-based communication technologies  

PubMed Central

The demographic and practice-related characteristics of physicians who use social networking websites, portable devices to access the internet, email to communicate with patients, podcasts, widgets, RSS feeds, and blogging were investigated. Logistic regression was used to analyze a survey of US primary care physicians, pediatricians, obstetrician/gynecologists, and dermatologists (N=1750). Reported technology use during the last 6?months ranged from 80.6% using a portable device to access the internet to 12.9% writing a blog. The most consistent predictors of use were being male, being younger, and having teaching hospital privileges. Physician specialty, practice setting, years in practice, average number of patients treated per week, and number of physicians in practice were found to be inconsistently associated or unassociated with use of the technologies examined. Demographic characteristics, rather than practice-related characteristics, were more consistent predictors of physician use of seven internet-based communication technologies with varying levels of uptake.

Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Rim, Sun Hee; Hawkins, Nikki A; Rodriguez, Juan L; Polonec, Lindsey

2012-01-01

242

Effects of sea surface on underwater communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During High Frequency Experiment in 2003 (HFX-03) various ocean parameters such as the surface wave spectrum, salinity, and temperature profiles were recorded simultaneously with the broadband acoustic signals. Including broadband probe chirps as well as several other communication sequences. Received data are collected and analyzed from different receiver arrays. The statistics of arrival rays and the performances of communication system are studied in two periods of calm and rough sea conditions. Surface reflected rays show variable coherence during different sea surface conditions. This has large influence on the structure of the received signals. Strong dependence between sea surface condition and the performance of communication system is observed. Two types of receiver structures are used and their performances are compared: (1) single channel receiver with decision feedback equalizer, (2) multichannel receiver with signal combining scheme. Similar trends of dependence are found on both receivers. [Work supported by ONR-321OA.

Luo, Jing; Badiey, Mohsen

2005-09-01

243

Media Affordances of a Mobile Push-To-Talk Communication Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an exploratory study of college-age students using two- way, push-to-talk cellular radios. We describe the observed and reported use of cellular radio by the participants, the activities and purposes for which they adopted it, and their responses. We then examine these empirical results using mediated communication theory. Cellular radios have a unique combination of affordances relative to

Allison Woodruff; Paul M. Aoki

2003-01-01

244

Effective Communication: Faculty and Students with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide offers guidance to college instructors about working with students who have communication-related disabilities including speech, language, hearing, emotional, or medical disorders. It offers some general accommodation strategies including a statement in the syllabus encouraging students to discuss any special needs with you, ask the…

Washington Univ., Seattle.

245

Transmission Range Effects on AODV Multicast Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

As laptop computers begin to dominate the marketplace, wireless adapters with varying bandwidth and range capabilities are being developed by hardware vendors. To provide multihop communication between these computers, ad hoc mobile networking is receiving increasing research interest. While increasing a node's transmission range allows fewer hops between a source and destination and enhances overall network connectivity, it also increases

Elizabeth M. Belding-royer; Charles E. Perkins

2002-01-01

246

Effect of interpersonal communication on attraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

56 undergraduates received written opinions from an attitudinally similar or dissimilar stranger and then either were or were not given an opportunity to respond to the stranger. Attraction for disagreeing strangers was enhanced when Ss responded directly to a disagreer and when Ss responded in their own words. Under these circumstances communication with attitudinally similar and dissimilar strangers eliminated the

John H. Brink

1977-01-01

247

Five Strategic Imperatives for Interdisciplinary Study in Mass Communications/Media Studies in the U.S. and U.K.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interdisciplinary study can allow students to share ideas with scholars in allied fields and broaden their knowledge of global issues. Mass communication/media studies programs in the U.S. and U.K. can serve as models to lead students into successful learning through interdisciplinary study. This paper outlines five strategic imperatives for the…

Petrausch, Robert J.

2005-01-01

248

ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION, SOCIAL MEDIA, AND SENSEMAKING DURING A CASCADING CRISIS: TOKYO DISNEY AND THE 2011 JAPAN EARTHQUAKE\\/TSUNAMI\\/NUCLEAR CRISIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the connection between organizational crisis communication and sensemaking. In particular, the research focuses on messages of instructing, adjusting and reputation management and the use of social media in distributing these messages through and by the Tokyo Disney Resort during the earthquake\\/tsunami\\/nuclear crisis that hit Japan in 2011. Case study methods are used to analyze news coverage, Twitter

Holly Ann Roberts

2012-01-01

249

Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (84th, Washington, DC, August 5-8, 2001). Media Ethics Division.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Media Ethics section of the proceedings contains the following 7 selected papers: "The Ethics Agenda of the Mass Communication Professorate" (Jay Black, Bruce Garrison, Fred Fedler, and Doug White); "What Would the Editor Do? A Three-Year Study of Student-Journalists and the Naming of Rape Victims in the Press" (Kim E. Karloff); "The Role of…

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

250

Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on communication includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROM and computer software, videos, books, and professional resources that deal with various methods of communication. Sidebars discuss mythology, photojournalism, sharing ideas on the Web, and songs of protest. Suggestions for class activities are also included. (LRW)

Online-Offline, 1998

1998-01-01

251

The effectiveness of mass communication to change public behavior.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of the ways in which mass communication has been used -- or can be used -- to promote beneficial changes in behavior among members of populations. We use an ecological perspective to examine the ways in which mass media interventions can be used to influence public behavior both directly and indirectly. Mass media interventions that seek to influence people directly -- by directly targeting the people burdened by the public health problem of concern and/or the people who influence them -- have a long basis in public health history, and recent reviews have clarified our expectations about what can be expected from such approaches. Mass media interventions that seek to influence people indirectly -- by creating beneficial changes in the places (or environments) in which people live and work -- have equal if not greater potential to promote beneficial changes in population health behaviors, but these are currently less explored options. To have the greatest possible beneficial influence on public behavior with the public health resources available, we recommend that public health program planners assess their opportunities to use media to target both people and places in a manner that complements and extends other investments being made in population health enhancement. PMID:18173391

Abroms, Lorien C; Maibach, Edward W

2008-01-01

252

Brave New Media World: Science Communication Voyages through the Global Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By leveraging online tools, such as blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Google Earth, flickr, web-based discussion boards, and a bi-monthly electronic magazine for the non-scientist, Scripps Institution of Oceanography is taking science communications out of the static webpage to create interactive journeys that spark social dialogue and helped raise awareness of science-based research on global marine environmental issues. Several new initiatives are being chronicled through popular blogs and expedition web sites as researchers share interesting scientific facts and unusual findings in near real-time.

Clark, C. L.; Reisewitz, A.

2010-12-01

253

Macroeconomic Effects of Computer and Communications Technology: An Intermediate Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Content: Introduction; The C&C Technology Using Industry; Studying the Economic Effects of New Technology - the problem; The Nature of Information and Communications Technology; The Firm Based Macro Model of the Swedish Economy - a brief presentation; Som...

G. Eliasson

1998-01-01

254

Developing Tools and Techniques to Increase Communication Effectiveness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Public Affairs Office (PAO) of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for communicating current JSC Space Program activities as well as goals and objectives to the American Public. As part of the 1996 Strategic Communications Plan, a review of PAO' s current communication procedures was conducted. The 1996 Summer Faculty Fellow performed research activities to support this effort by reviewing current research concerning NASA/JSC's customers' perceptions and interests, developing communications tools which enable PAO to more effectively inform JSC customers about the Space Program, and proposing a process for developing and using consistent messages throughout PAO. Note that this research does not attempt to change or influence customer perceptions or interests but, instead, incorporates current customer interests into PAO's communication process.

Hayes, Linda A.; Peterson, Doug

1997-01-01

255

The silent healer: the role of communication in placebo effects.  

PubMed

Placebo effects have an ambiguous reputation, as they are associated with sham treatment and deceit on the one hand and as interesting phenomena, which might be clinically relevant on the other. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that placebo effects are relevant and can be used as an effective part of many treatments by using communication targeting placebo effect mechanisms. We examined the history of placebos and the placebo effect, addressing common misconceptions and disentangling ambiguities. We then reviewed whether the placebo effect can be robustly shown in the current literature, and zoomed in on the plausible mechanisms (conditioning, expectancies and affect manipulation) through which the placebo effect might be produced. Observing the link with the doctor-patient communication literature, and pleading for a better integration of the two research traditions we conclude by setting out a research agenda for testing the role of communication in placebo effects. PMID:20638817

Bensing, Jozien M; Verheul, William

2010-09-01

256

Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Communication impairment is a core deficit associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, it should not be surprising\\u000a that this topic has become a major thrust of assessment and treatment in applied behavior analysis (ABA). The types of communication\\u000a skills to target for intervention and the behavioral assessment methods that can be used to identify these target behaviors\\u000a are reviewed

Jeff Sigafoos; Mark F. O’Reilly; Giulio E. Lancioni

257

New Media in IYA2009: Communicating with the world via the web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 2009 International Year of Astronomy, new media will play a prominent role in engaging people in the universe that is theirs to discover. New online projects will take advantage of a diversity of technologies, allowing us to bring content to people through a variety of devices in places they work, play and learn. In this session we will give an overview of our programs, high-lighting: "AstroTwitter," an interface that asks 'What are you looking at?' and allows you to see how observers around the globe (professional and amateur) answer that same question; "Portal to the Universe," your one stop shop for all things new in astronomy; the "365 Days of Astronomy" podcast, which brings you an 8-minute podcast on the people, places, things, thoughts and discoveries in astronomy each day of 2009; new projects to extend Galaxy Zoo to new areas of science both in our solar system and at the edge of the cosmos; our social networking initiatives in Facebook, Flickr and YouTube; and the IYA Second Life® Island, which will be unveiled during this session. In addition to showing you how to access each of these new projects, we will also tell you how you can become a part of the projects in the coming months.

Gay, Pamela L.; Koppelman, M.; IYA New Media Task Group

2009-01-01

258

Use of New Media by Turkish Fans in Sport Communication: Facebook and Twitter  

PubMed Central

This research examines the use of Facebook and Twitter, two social networks, for sportive reasons in Turkey. To this end, the literature was surveyed and a 5 Likert type data collection tool consisting of 21 questions was developed by the researcher based on the expert views. The sample of the research included 460 sport fans who are college students at Abant ?zzet Baysal University and Sakarya University. It was found in the research that 91.7% of the participants had a profile on Facebook and 13.3% had a profile on Twitter. The rate of opening an account on Twitter, which still has no version in Turkish language, was low. It was found that the fans mostly followed the official site of their favorite team on Facebook, got informed about the sports activities through Facebook and learned news, which they did not hear from other sources. It was also ascertained that male fans used social networks for sportive reasons more than female fans did (p<.05). It is possible to state that social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have become a rapidly-developing alternative medium in sports against traditional media such as newspaper and television.

Ozsoy, Selami

2011-01-01

259

The effects of hands-free communication device systems: communication changes in hospital organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To analyze the effects that hands-free communication device (HCD) systems have on healthcare organizations from multiple user perspectives. Design This exploratory qualitative study recruited 26 subjects from multiple departments in two research sites located in Portland, Oregon: an academic medical center and a community hospital. Interview and observation data were gathered January through March, 2007. Measurements Data were analyzed

Joshua E Richardson; Joan S Ash

2010-01-01

260

Effectiveness factor in reactive transport in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex microscale processes significantly influence macroscale reactive transport in porous materials. In systems where there is a heterogenous reaction at the fluid-solid surface, large pore-scale concentration gradients can develop when the rate of reaction is significantly larger than the rate of diffusion. The result is that the concentration near the surface is much lower than the average concentration within the fluid phase. Because the rate of reaction is dependent on only the concentration near the solid phase, the actual reaction rate will be significantly lower than the rate that would be computed if one were to use the average concentration. The frequent experimental observation that reaction rates predicted from batch experiments are greater than those that are actually observed in porous media systems is often due, in part, to this phenomenon. In the chemical engineering literature, the discrepancy between the observed reaction rate versus that predicted from the average coccentration is accounted for using an effectiveness factor. For this work, we report on a method to predict the effectiveness factor for heterogeneous reactions in porous media. This is accomplished by upscaling the microscale transport and reaction phenomena to obtain a macroscale form for the mass balance equation. The effective parameters for this problem (which includes the effectiveness factor) are predicted from a closure problem. We will show that the effectiveness factor is inherently included in the physics the microscale processes, and offer insight into it's computation for a variety of cases.

Lambert, A. L.; Wood, B. D.

2012-12-01

261

Performance effects of irregular communications patterns on massively parallel multiprocessors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed study of the performance effects of irregular communications patterns on the CM-2 was conducted. The communications capabilities of the CM-2 were characterized under a variety of controlled conditions. In the process of carrying out the performance evaluation, extensive use was made of a parameterized synthetic mesh. In addition, timings with unstructured meshes generated for aerodynamic codes and a set of sparse matrices with banded patterns on non-zeroes were performed. This benchmarking suite stresses the communications capabilities of the CM-2 in a range of different ways. Benchmark results demonstrate that it is possible to make effective use of much of the massive concurrency available in the communications network.

Saltz, Joel; Petiton, Serge; Berryman, Harry; Rifkin, Adam

1991-01-01

262

Health literacy and its importance for effective communication. Part 2.  

PubMed

This is the second of two articles exploring the concept of health literacy, an often hidden barrier to effective healthcare communication. Part 1 was published in April ( Lambert and Keogh 2014 ). This article explains how to detect low levels of health literacy among parents and children, and outlines the challenges to assessing health literacy levels, including the stigma and discrimination some people experience. Some basic healthcare communication strategies for supporting health literacy in practice are suggested. PMID:24805035

Lambert, Veronica; Keogh, Deborah

2014-05-01

263

Effects of continuing paediatric education in interpersonal communication skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paediatric care places great demands on interpersonal communication skills, especially as regards the handling of psychosocial\\u000a issues. Recent shifts in paediatric morbidity and increases in patient empowerment furthermore emphasize the need for continuing\\u000a paediatric education in communication skills. It is, however, debatable, whether after residency paediatric education can\\u000a influence paediatrician performance. This study evaluated the effects of a 5-day experiential

Alexandra M. van Dulmen; Robert A. Holl

2000-01-01

264

Effects of Mass and Interpersonal Communication on Breast Cancer Screening: Advancing Agenda-Setting Theory in Health Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on components of agenda-setting theory and the two-step flow of information from mass media to news audiences, this study examines the effects of mass and interpersonal communication on breast cancer screening practices among college- and middle-aged women (n?=?284). We theorized that screening behaviors among younger women would be influenced more by interpersonal sources of information while screening among middle-aged

Karyn Ogata Jones; Bryan E. Denham; Jeffrey K. Springston

2006-01-01

265

Communications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five articles discussing communications in vocational education include "The Golden Rule of Administration" by Ben Mortensen; "Vital Link with Parents" by Richard Sullivan; "An Interpersonal Exercise" by John Villiers; "Face to Face with Employers" by Gregg Bosak; and "Recruitment Strategies" by Susan Miller. (SK)

Mortensen, Ben F.; And Others

1981-01-01

266

Lunar Surface Propagation Modeling and Effects on Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper analyzes the lunar terrain effects on the signal propagation of the planned NASA lunar wireless communication and sensor systems. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate that the terrain geometry, antenna location, and lunar surface material are important factors determining the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless communication systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, operating frequency, and surface material. The analysis results from this paper are important for the lunar communication link margin analysis in determining the limits on the reliable communication range and radio frequency coverage performance at planned lunar base worksites. Key Words lunar, multipath, path loss, propagation, wireless.

Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

2008-01-01

267

Using the Power of Media to Communicate Science: A Question of Style?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses educational effects of the style, content, and quality inherent in several multimedia and desktop-publishing products available to science teachers, including books, interactive software, videos, and computer simulations. (JJK)

Imhof, Heidi

1991-01-01

268

Case Studies in School Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This two-part source book offers administrators both general information for effective communications in public education and case studies describing methods used by individual Texas school districts to solve communications problems. General articles include guidelines for working with the news media, producing school newsletters, developing a…

Texas School Public Relations Association.

269

Mass media campaigns within reach: effective efforts with limited resources in Russia's capital city.  

PubMed

Mass media campaigns, while often expensive, are proven, cost-effective interventions and should not be considered out-of-reach, especially where governments have some sway over media markets, where large media discounts are possible or where other novel strategies can be employed. PMID:21685490

Perl, Rebecca; Stebenkova, Ludmila; Morozova, Irina; Murukutla, Nandita; Kochetova, Veronika; Kotov, Alexey; Voylokova, Tatiana; Baskakova, Julia

2011-11-01

270

Media and Adult Learning. Volume 3, Number 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two articles are presented relevant to media and adult learning. In the first article, "The Pedagogy of Communication: Conscientization through Mass Media," David G. Gueulette sets forth ideas derived from Freire's theory of literacy training and suggests means by which effective teaching strategies can be developed through popular mass media

Collins, Michael, Ed.; And Others

1981-01-01

271

Understanding Media Development: A Framework and Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ongoing evolution of communications technologies and systems creates significant challenges for any effort to understand the role of media in the lives of children and adolescents. The dominant paradigm in studying the relationship between children and media has been one of media effects. However, we propose a reciprocal relationship in which…

O'Keefe, B.J.; Zehnder, S.

2004-01-01

272

Organizational Communication Effectiveness: The View of Corporate Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares previous findings regarding dimensions of organizational communication effectiveness with the results of interviews with 48 northwest corporate administrators. Lists six major dimensions of effectiveness: (1) coaching and motivating employees, (2) encouraging worker involvement and participation, (3) self-motivation, (4) problem-solving…

Glaser, Susan R.; Eblen, Anna

1986-01-01

273

Organizational Change: Motivation, Communication, and Leadership Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that numerous variables have an impact on a leader's effectiveness. This study explores the behaviors associated with leadership effectiveness in driving change. The findings confirm previous research that identifies change effectiveness skills, while isolating the specific leader behaviors deemed most valuable to implementing…

Gilley, Ann; Gilley, Jerry W.; McMillan, Heather S.

2009-01-01

274

Not Just a Matter of Time: Field Differences and the Shaping of Electronic Media in Supporting Scientific Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to examine the future of electronic communications in science. The analysis concludes that communicative plurality and communicative heterogeneity are durable features of the scholarly landscape, and that field differences in the use of and meaning ascribed to communications forums are likely to persist, even as…

Kling, Rob; McKim, Geoffrey

2000-01-01

275

Information and Communication Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Communication is a central aspect of all our lives. Today, our modes of communication are highly dependent on technologies such as the internet, wireless networks, phones, and computers. This issue of Topic in Depth explores the ways these forms of communication are part of our lives and highlights some new directions in communication technology.WordIQ Dictionary and Encyclopedia (1) offers this definition: "Communication is the process of exchanging information usually via a common system of symbols." The website explains some of the key process involved in communication and describes different forms of communication, such as animal communication, interpersonal communication, and computer-mediated communication. Also taking a broad view on communication, this world history website (2) provides some background on the mathematical theories that are used in designing telecommunications systems. The articles highlighted on this website from the Center for the Study of Technology and Society (4) attest to the far reaching influence of communication technology. As research on the MediaLab Europe website suggests (5), we have moved into not just developing technology that mediates interpersonal communication (such as phones) but also creating "intimate and personal connections with and through new technologies." This NSF website (6) also highlights some recent discoveries in Computer Information Science and Engineering. Finally, this article from First Monday (7) discusses the far-reaching effects these new developments in technology and globalization are having on language and learning.

276

Effect of biofilm on colloid attachment in saturated porous media.  

PubMed

Biofilm plays an important role in controlling the transport of colloids in a porous media. Biofilms are formed when micro-organisms come in contact with substrates, and are able to attach and grow with availability of nutrients. The microorganisms get embedded in a matrix of the substrate and extracellular polymeric substances which are responsible for the morphology, physico-chemical properties, structure and coherence of the biofilm. In this study, the effect of biofilm and its aging on colloid removal was studied on a glass bead column. Oocysts, polystyrene microspheres and inorganic colloids were used as colloidal particles. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was used as a model biofilm-forming microorganism. Presence of biofilm significantly enhanced colloid removal in the column. After 3 weeks, almost complete colloid removal was observed. The formation of biofilm was confirmed by various physical characterization techniques. During the extended aging study, biofilm sloughed off under shear stress. The loss of biofilm was higher during the early stage of its growth, and subsequently slowed down probably due to the formation of a more rigid biofilm. This research indicates that biofilm formation, maturation and sloughing-off play a critical role in colloid removal through porous media. PMID:25051470

Majumdar, Udayan; Alexander, Thrisha; Waskar, Morris; Dagaonkar, Manoj V

2014-01-01

277

Effect of Apolactoferrin on Experimental Pneumococcal Otitis Media  

PubMed Central

Objective To find the effect of apolactoferrin administration on the middle and inner ears after experimentally induced pneumococcal otitis media. Design Histopathologic and morphometric analysis of the middle and inner ears. Setting University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Subjects Ten chinchillas. Interventions The middle ear cavities of chinchillas were inoculated bilaterally with type 2 wild-type Streptococcus pneumoniae. Twenty-four hours later, the ears of 5 of the animals were injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and the other 5 with human apolactoferrin. The animals were killed 24 hours after the last injection. Bacterial counts were made of the middle ear effusions, and the cochleae were processed for histologic analysis. The thickness of the round window membranes and bacterial and inflammatory cell infiltration of the round window membranes, and scala tympani and damage of the hair cells and stria vascularis were compared for these 2 groups of animals. Main Outcome Measures Comparison of inflammatory and bacterial cells in the middle and inner ears, and damage to inner ear structures. Results Bacterial plate counts of middle ear effusions (P = .005) and the number of inflammatory cells in the round window membrane (P = .047) were significantly lower in the apolactoferrin group compared with the group treated with PBS. Conclusion Further investigation of apolactoferrin as a nonantibiotic approach for the treatment of otitis media and its complications is needed to confirm its safety and efficacy.

Schachern, Patricia A.; Tsuprun, Vladimir; Cureoglu, Sebahatin; Ferrieri, Patricia A.; Briles, David E.; Paparella, Michael M.; Juhn, Steven K.

2014-01-01

278

The effects of hands free communication devices on clinical communication: balancing communication access needs with user control.  

PubMed

Hands Free Communication Device (HFCD) systems are a relatively new information and communication technology. HFCD systems enable clinicians to directly contact and communicate with one another using wearable, voice-controlled badges that are VoIP-based (voice-over IP) and are linked to one another over a wireless local area network (WLAN). This qualitative study utilized a grounded theory, multiple perspectives approach to understand how the use of HFCDs affected communication in the hospitals that implemented them. The study generated five themes revolving around HFCDs impact on communication. This paper specifically focuses on two of those themes: Communication Access and Control. PMID:18999046

Richardson, Joshua E; Richardson, Joshua Edwin; Ash, Joan S; Ash, Joan

2008-01-01

279

The Coming of Age of Media Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A decade into a new millennium marks a coming of age for media literacy education (MLE). Born from teaching the critical analysis of media texts, MLE has evolved into helping individuals of all ages "develop the habits of inquiry and skills of expression that they need to be critical thinkers, effective communicators and active citizens in today's…

Domine, Vanessa

2011-01-01

280

THE DOPPLER EFFECT IN DISPERSIVE, INHOMOGENEOUS MEDIA WITH APPLICATIONS TO ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN IONIZED MEDIA. Research Report No. 10  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex Doppler effect in dispersive, inhomogeneous media is studied ; with both geometrical optics and wave methods. The geometrical optics method is ; also extended to the case of a magneto-ionic medium. The isotropic ionosphere is ; used as an example of a resonant medium to derive simple interpretations of the ; Doppler modes, which can then be applied

Rydbeck; O. E. H

1960-01-01

281

Effects of a brief media intervention on expectations, attitudes, and intentions of mental health help seeking.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of a mass-media video intervention on expectations, attitudes, and intentions to seek help from professional mental health care services. A public service announcement-style, mass-media video intervention was developed, with prior empirical research on help-seeking behaviors organized according to the theory of reasoned action/planned behavior. In total, 228 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: (a) the media-exposed intervention group, who watched programming in which the media intervention was inserted, and (b) the control group, who watched the same programming without the media intervention. The media intervention was not influential on expectation and belief-based barrier variables. However, the media intervention was effective at increasing positive attitudes toward help seeking. Findings regarding the intervention's ability to increase help-seeking intentions for interpersonal problems were complex. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed. PMID:22352947

Demyan, Amy L; Anderson, Timothy

2012-04-01

282

Some Communication Effects of Charity Advertising Campaigns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to examine the relationship of advertising exposure to a variety of cognitive and affective variables in a nonprofit charity campaign. The study also tested the transactional model of advertising effects, which combines exposure, motivations, and gratifications for viewing. A sample of 350 adults was randomly selected and…

Moore, Roy L.; And Others

283

Effective Communication with Cultural Heritage Using Virtual Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cultural heritage is neither static nor stable. There is a need to explore ways for effectively communicating with cultural heritage to tourists and society at large, in an age of immediacy, a time of multiple realities and to multi-cultural tourists. It is vital to consider cultural heritage as a creative and relational process where places and communities are constantly remade through creative performance. The paper introduces virtual technologies as an approach to attain effective communication with cultural heritage. This approach emphasizes the importance of "user, content and context" in guiding the production of virtual heritage, as opposed to technology being the sole motivator. It addresses how these three issues in virtual heritage need to be transformed from merely representing quantitative data towards cultural information using the proposed effective communication triangle through representing meaningful relationships between cultural heritage elements, users and context. The paper offers a focused articulation of a proposed computational platform of "interactive, personalized and contextual-based navigation" with Egyptian heritage monuments as a one step forward towards achieving effective communication with Egyptian cultural heritage.

Reffat, R. M.; Nofal, E. M.

2013-07-01

284

Differential Effectiveness of Explicit Verbal Feedback on Children's Communication Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to specify the combinations of content and form dimensions in which explicit verbal feedback becomes most effective in enhancing communication skills, a training experiment was designed in which both dimensions were factorially manipulated. Forty children between the ages of 5 and 10 participated. (Author/RH)

Lefebvre-Pinard, Monique; And Others

1982-01-01

285

Learning the Intricacies of Effective Communication through Game Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As many teachers of communication come to realize, students often operate under the misconception that the effective use of language consists primarily of memorizing and applying the rules and regulations of grammar. Even worse, some students believe that they must inherit a talent for language and that without a genetic predisposition, they can…

Bednar, Lucy

2008-01-01

286

Evidence of Halo Effects in Student Evaluations of Communication Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that the halo effect is a construct reserved to explain individual rater's failure to discriminate among conceptually distinct aspects of a stimulus person's behavior. Examines instructor evaluations completed by 128 students from three communication courses. Finds significant inter-correlations among five measures indicating the presence of…

Feeley, Thomas Hugh

2002-01-01

287

The Communicative Effectiveness Survey: Preliminary Evidence of Construct Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To provide preliminary evidence of the construct validity of the Communicative Effectiveness Survey (CES) for individuals with dysarthria and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: In a prospective, quasi-experimental design, 25 participants each were assigned to 3 groups (N = 75): PD and dysarthria, non-PD and no dysarthria, and PD…

Donovan, Neila J.; Kendall, Diane L.; Young, Mary Ellen; Rosenbek, John C.

2008-01-01

288

Teaching Effective Communication Skills with ACE: Analyzing, Composing, & Evaluating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most business communication classes teach students to use a writing process to compose effective documents. Students practice the process by applying it to various types of writing with various purposes-reports, presentations, bad news letters, persuasive memos, etc. However, unless students practice that process in other contexts outside of the…

Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph; Shwom, Barbara

2011-01-01

289

Effective integration of information and communications technology in teacher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective delivery of the new information technology (IT) curriculum for student teachers in the United Kingdom, which started in September 1998, is an important challenge for initial teacher training institutions. This article identifies three main obstacles that may limit its successful implementation – student access to computers, the communications and information technology (ICT) policy adopted by initial teacher training providers

Colette Murphy; Lillian Greenwood

1998-01-01

290

Experimentally Evaluating Communicative Strategies: The Effect of the Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective problem solving among multiple agents requires a better understanding of the role of communication in collaboration. In this paper we show that there are commu- nicative strategies that greatly improve the performance of resource-bounded agents, but that these strategies are highly sensitive to the task requirements, situation parameters and agents' resource limitations. We base our ar- gument on two

Marilyn A. Walker

1994-01-01

291

Cross-Cultural Barriers to Effective Communication in Aviation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent research on communication and performance in airline flight crews has led to a concept of shared mental models that is associated with effective, efficient team coordination in problem solving and decision making situations. Elements that characterize efficient communication have been identified. This research, however, was based strictly on US crews. More recent studies supported by NASA have identified cultural factors that influence communication among team members who vary in their status and roles. Research is just beginning to identify commonalities and culturally distinct strategies for accomplishing joint tasks. ASRS incident reports have been analyzed to identify language barriers in flight that have safety consequences. Implications of these concepts and findings for multi-cultural command and control will be explored.

Orasanu, Judith; Davison, Jeannie; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

292

Who Listens to Trash Talk?: Education and Public Media Effects on Recycling Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Observes that research has shown a curvilinear relationship between education and media effects, with media having the greatest effect on people with moderate levels of education. Examines the effects of public service messages about recycling, and finds that the messages actually have greater impact on people with higher levels of education. (DSK)

Martinez, Michael D.; Scicchitano, Michael J.

1998-01-01

293

The Interactive Media Package for Assessment of Communication and Critical Thinking (IMPACCT[c]): Testing a Programmatic Online Communication Competence Assessment System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IMPACCT is an online survey covering over 40 self-report types of student communication competency, as well as a test of critical thinking based on cognitive problem-solving. The student nominates two peers who rate the student's interpersonal, computer-mediated, group and leadership, and public speaking communication competence. The student takes…

Spitzberg, Brian H.

2011-01-01

294

From liftoff to landing: NASA's crisis communications and resulting media coverage following the Challenger and Columbia tragedies  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's public relations effort following the explosion of the Challenger in 1986 is considered an example of crisis communications failure. After the Columbia disaster in 2003, NASA was praised for its successful handling of the crisis. This paper identifies how four newspapers presented NASA's crisis communication efforts following the two crises, utilizing widely accepted crisis communication concepts associated with stakeholder

Ryan M. Martin; Lois A. Boynton

2005-01-01

295

Using Communication Strategies to Promote Sexual Health: Can Mass Media Get in Bed with the "Female" Condom?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many public health students receive little, if any, formal training in communicating health information to the public. Public health practitioners, however, are regularly asked to use communication strategies to convey health information. The lesson plan was designed to teach students mass communication strategies in the context of sexual health…

Levine, Sarah Mariel; Austin, S. Bryn

2010-01-01

296

Effective utilization of forms for efficient office communication.  

PubMed

The efficient use of forms can increase the effectiveness of communication with the office, staff, and with the patient. An effective form meets a specific need, does so in the simplest possible way, and is flexible in its use. The use of the modified buck slip with the pegboard system directs the treatment schedule for the receptionist, gives the patient more detailed financial information, and postpones the ledger card and journal entry until a more convenient time. It also permits you to communicate with the office staff in a clear manner. At the very least it eliminates second guessing. The use of the modified truth-in-lending form increases the effectiveness of the communication with the patient as to the procedures to be performed and reinforces the diagnosis and the payment arrangements. The use of a patient treatment follow-up slip provides a simple system for communication between the postoperative patient and doctor. Such forms increase the efficiency of the total practice. PMID:267604

Lefcoe, S

1977-07-01

297

Cross-Cultural Barriers to Effective Communication in Aviation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Communication is essential to safe flight, as evidenced by several accidents in which crew communicates was found to have contributed to the accidents. This chapter documents the essential role of explicit efficient communication to flight safety with a global context. It addresses communication between flight crews and air traffic controllers in regions a the world where pilots and controllers speak different native languages, as well as cases in which crew members within the flight deck represent different native languages and cultures. It also addresses problems associated with "exporting" crew resource management training programs to parts of the world which values and norms differ from those of the United States, where these programs were initially developed. This chapter is organized around several central questions: (1) What are various kinds of communication failures and what are their consequences; (2) What are the causes of communication failure; (3) What are features of effective crew communication; (4) What can be done to enhance communication success? To explore a wider range of communication failures than available from accident reports, we examined a set of incident reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System. These could be classified into three major categories: those in which language actually interfered with transmission of a message; those in which transmission was adequate but the context was not expressed unambiguously and thus the message received was not the same as the message intended; and those in which the message was received as intended, but was not adequately understood or acted upon, mainly because of cultural factors. The consequences of failed communication can be flight errors (such as when a clearance is not received correctly), loss of situation awareness, or failure of crew members (or ATC and pilots) to build a shared understanding of a situation. Causes of misunderstanding can be traced to a number of sources, often grounded in faulty assumptions held by one or both parties to a conversation. Speakers and listeners often experience "illusionary understanding" in which they think they understand each other, but in fact do not. While this problem can exist within a single culture, it is much more serious across cultures. Training in effective explicit communication is a component of Crew Resource Management training programs developed in the U.S. These programs are being adopted by airlines around the world, with varying degrees of success. The level of success in part depends on how similar the conversational and social styles of those cultures are to those of the U.S. A factor that influences conversational style is a culture's relative positioned on two major dimensions that distinguish national cultural groups: individualism vs. collectivism and degree of power distance. The chapter concludes with a discussion of techniques for overcoming the various classes of communication failures and for effectively adapting training programs to fit the values and norms of cultures around the globe.

Fischer, U.; Orasanu, J.; Davison, J.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

298

Effect of substrate and protective coating on the tribological characteristics of optical recording media  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a flying-type optical head mounted on a slider with flying height below 100nm for Near Field Recording (NFR) application where removability of the media is required, plastic media is preferred because of their manufacturing cost effectiveness. In this work the effects of substrate material, carbon protective coating, and lubricant on the tribological characteristics of the slider\\/media interface were

Koo-Hyun Chung; Jung-Kyu Lee; Dae-Eun Kim; Jin-Hong Kim

2003-01-01

299

Quantitative prediction of effective conductivity in anisotropic heterogeneous media using two-point correlation functions.  

SciTech Connect

Statistical continuum approach is used to predict effective conductivity of anisotropic random porous heterogeneous media using two-point correction functions. Probability functions play a critical role in describing the statistical distribution of different constituents in a heterogeneous media. In this study a three-dimensional two-point correlation function is utilized to characterize the anisotropic media without making any assumption on the microstructure. Examples in this study demonstrated how the model captured the anisotropy in effective conductivity of the randome heterogeneous media. Predicted results showed the influence of microstructure of the effective conductivity tensor.

Li, Dongsheng; Saheli, Ghazal; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Garmestani, Hamid

2006-11-01

300

School Library Media Specialists as Effective School Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (2006), "Accomplished library media specialists are instructional leaders who forge greater opportunities for learners" (55). As one of the few school personnel responsible for all students, the media specialist can serve as a coordinator and an advocate. They can ensure equitable…

Everhart, Nancy

2007-01-01

301

Otitis Media: Coping with the Effects in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum adaptation provides a methodology that enables the classroom teacher to recognize the needs of the otitis media-affected child in the classroom. It discusses areas of concern related to otitis media; suggests activities that can enhance these children's language skills; and shows ways to enhance the learning environment by…

Davis, Dorinne S.

302

‘Everything is always President Roh's fault?’: emotional reactions to politics and economy as sources of presidential evaluations and the role of media use and interpersonal communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to analyze the respective effects of cognitive and emotional elements on political judgments, and the effects of media use and political talk on those two elements. Along with the cognitive judgment about political and economic issues\\/policies, we explored the effect of emotional responses to political and economic situations. During this process, we also looked at the effect

Eun Kyung Na; Gang Heong Lee; Hyun Suk Kim

2010-01-01

303

Media violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the effects of media violence is not well understood by the general public. Despite this fact, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific literature about the unhealthy effects of media violence. Meta-analyses show that media-violence viewing consistently is associated with higher levels of antisocial behavior, ranging from the trivial (imitative violence directed against toys) to the serious

Joanne Cantor

2000-01-01

304

Is news media related to civic engagement? The effects of interest in and discussions about the news media on current and future civic engagement of adolescents.  

PubMed

This study explored whether discussions about the media, when positively linked to interest in the news media, were related to adolescents' current and future civic engagement. A sample of 2638 adolescents (age M = 17, SD = 1.2), who participated in a school-based study on positive socialization, completed self-report measures on interest in the news media and discussions about the media with parents and friends. Current civic engagement was measured by involvement in volunteering and civic commitments. Future civic engagement was measured by intentions to participate in civic activities in the future. The results showed that more interpersonal discussions about the media and higher interest in the news media both predicted higher civic engagement. Positive links between discussions about the media and current civic engagement were partly mediated by interest in the news media. In addition, interest in the news media together with current civic engagement fully mediated a positive link between discussions about the media and future civic engagement. Moderating effects of gender were observed, with discussions about the media a better predictor of boys' interest in the news media, and current civic engagement a better predictor of girls' future civic engagement. PMID:22264380

Erentait?, Rasa; Žukauskien?, Rita; Beyers, Wim; Pilkauskait?-Valickien?, Rasa

2012-06-01

305

Emerging Victorious Against an OutbreakIntegrated Communication Management of SARS in Singapore Media Coverage and Impact of the SARS Campaign in Moving a Nation to be Socially Responsible  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of new infectious diseases and the increased emphasis on prevention have expanded the role of communication as a vital component of public health practice. This study examines the integrated crisis management approach, the coverage given by the media, the models of health communication used in dealing with the health crisis as well as the control and preventive measures

Kavita Karan; Lee Aileen; Pong Yin Leng Elaine

2007-01-01

306

Effects of Implementing the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) with Adults with Developmental Disabilities and Severe Communication Deficits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of "Picture Exchange Communication System" (PECS) training, using a multiple baseline design on the independent initiations of three adults with developmental disabilities and severe communication deficits. All participants increased their independent initiations, although at different levels of…

Conklin, Carl G.; Mayer, G. Roy

2011-01-01

307

Tips for K-12 Educators for Helping Students Communicate and Create Using Visual Motion Media, Photography, and Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a particular lesson plan--the "Illustrating Project"--that has been successful for many classroom educators. The Illustrating Project calls for students, individually or in project groups, to illustrate some element of the curriculum via the media selected by the teacher. The selected media might be PowerPoint or some other…

TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 2009

2009-01-01

308

Dogmatism and the "Knowledge Gap" among Users of the Mass Media of Communication: A Study in Brasilia, Brasil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to discover whether (1) use of each of the print and broadcast media could be correlated with subjects' knowledge level, and (2) whether controlling for dogmatism would increase the proportion of media users, with higher levels of knowledge among those less dogmatic, and decrease the proportion among the more dogmatic.…

Simmons, Robert E.; Garda, Eduardo Carlos

309

Communicating Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are in an era of rapidly changing communication media, which is driving a major evolution in the modes of communicating science. In the past, a mainstay of scientific communication in popular media was through science “translators”; science journalists and presenters. These have now nearly disappeared and are being replaced by widespread dissemination through, e.g., the internet, blogs, YouTube and journalists who often have little scientific background and sharp deadlines. Thus, scientists are required to assume increasing responsibility for translating their scientific findings and calibrating their communications to non-technical audiences, a task for which they are often ill prepared, especially when it comes to controversial societal issues such as tobacco, evolution, and most recently climate change (Oreskes and Conway 2010). Such issues have been politicized and hi-jacked by ideological belief systems to such an extent that constructive dialogue is often impossible. Many scientists are excellent communicators, to their peers. But this requires careful attention to detail and logical explanation, open acknowledgement of uncertainties, and dispassionate delivery. These qualities become liabilities when communicating to a non-scientific audience where entertainment, attention grabbing, 15 second sound bites, and self assuredness reign (e.g. Olson 2009). Here we report on a program initiated by NCAR and UCAR to develop new approaches to science communication and to equip present and future scientists with the requisite skills. If we start from a sound scientific finding with general scientific consensus, such as the warming of the planet by greenhouse gases, then the primary emphasis moves from the “science” to the “art” of communication. The art cannot have free reign, however, as there remains a strong requirement for objectivity, honesty, consistency, and above all a resistance to advocating particular policy positions. Targeting audience attitudes and beliefs, which studies such as the Six Americas research help identify, is key to effective science communications (e.g. Leiserowitz, Maibach, et al, 2009). We argue that the impact of the scientific message can be substantially improved by targeting it to these additional factors. This does require an understanding of the audience and a repackaging of the message to different societal groups. Logical and dispassionate presentation of evidence works for a target scientific audience, but major decisions from the policy to the personal level are influenced by many factors including immediacy, economics, culture, community leaders, emotional framing, and ideological filters.

Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.

2010-12-01

310

Nurses and social media.  

PubMed

Nurses' use of social media and other electronic communications has increased significantly with growing numbers of social media opportunities, platforms and applications including blogs, social networking sites, video sites and online chat rooms and forums. PMID:24690934

Farrelly, Rory

311

Fractal scaling of effective diffusion coefficient of solute in porous media.  

PubMed

Fractal approach is used to derive a power law relation between effective diffusion coefficient of solute in porous media and the geometry parameter characterizing the media. The results are consistent with the empirical equations analogous to Archie's law and are expected to be applied to prediction of effective diffusion coefficient. PMID:11590736

Liu, J G; Nie, Y F

2001-04-01

312

Personal Influence and the Effects of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal Influence (Katz and Lazarsfeld 1955\\/2006) put forward and tested a variety of hypotheses about how social contexts constrain media effects. Five such hypotheses are described: three about interactions of media exposure with social context (Stability, Conformity, and Instrumental) and two about two-step flow effects (Relay and Message Interpretation). Each is tested here with data from the evaluation of the

Robert Hornik

2006-01-01

313

The effect of high deposition energy of carbon overcoats on perpendicular magnetic recording media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-energy carbon deposition techniques provide thin overcoats with high corrosion and wear protection for magnetic recording media applications. The effect of high-energy (0-300 V substrate bias) deposition on the implantation induced changes in magnetic and structural properties of granular perpendicular magnetic recording media is studied. To observe subtle changes in a thin region of recording media, antiferromagnetically coupled layer structure was used. Clear changes in the magnetic properties, observed as a function of the carbon deposition energy, correlate with other measurements such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, indicating the need to consider such effects when designing media and overcoat.

Shakerzadeh, M.; Piramanayagam, S. N.; Ji, R.; Varghese, B.; Tan, H. K.; Bosman, M.

2013-10-01

314

Hydrogen sulfide removal by compost biofiltration: effect of mixing the filter media on operational factors.  

PubMed

The overall goal of this work was to determine the effect of mixing the filter media of a compost biofilter on H(2)S removal efficiency. The behavior of important operational factors such as moisture of filter media, pressure drop and sulfate accumulation were evaluated, considering mixing the media. Additionally, tracer studies were performed in order to determine the effect of mixing the media on gas distribution. H(2)S removal capacity decreased over time, from 100% to 90%. When bed mixing was carried out, the removal capacity remained constant, close to 100%, and moisture content and sulfates accumulation were better controlled at 50% and at 12 mg S-SO(4)/g dry media respectively. In addition, under this operational pattern, an improvement in gas and particle size distribution was observed inside the filter media, fitting the axial dispersion model and the Ergun equation. PMID:16051484

Morgan-Sagastume, J M; Noyola, A

2006-09-01

315

Effects of ionizing radiation on cell-to-cell communication.  

PubMed

Cell-to-cell signaling has become a significant issue in radiation biology due to experimental evidence, accumulated primarily since the early 1990s, of radiation-induced bystander effects. Several candidate mediators involved in cell-to-cell communication have been investigated and proposed as being responsible for this phenomenon, but the current investigation techniques (both theoretical and experimental) of the mechanisms involved, due to the particular set-up of each experiment, result in experimental data that often are not directly comparable. In this study, a comprehensive approach was adopted to describe cell-to-cell communication (focusing on cytokine signaling) and its modulation by external agents such as ionizing radiation. The aim was also to provide integrated theoretical instruments and experimental data to help in understanding the peculiarities of in vitro experiments. Theoretical/modeling activities were integrated with experimental measurements by (1) redesigning a cybernetic model (proposed in its original form in the 1950s) to frame cell-to-cell communication processes, (2) implementing and developing a mathematical model, and (3) designing and carrying out experiments to quantify key parameters involved in intercellular signaling (focusing as a pilot study on the release and decay of IL-6 molecules and their modulation by radiation). This formalization provides an interpretative framework for understanding the intercellular signaling and in particular for focusing on the study of cell-to-cell communication in a "step-by-step" approach. Under this model, the complex phenomenon of signal transmission was reduced where possible into independent processes to investigate them separately, providing an evaluation of the role of cell communication to guarantee and maintain the robustness of the in vitro experimental systems against the effects of perturbations. PMID:20726722

Mariotti, Luca; Facoetti, Angelica; Alloni, Daniele; Bertolotti, Alessia; Ranza, Elena; Ottolenghi, Andrea

2010-09-01

316

Media Ecology and Symbolic Interactionism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines Mead's role in media ecological studies and will explore his relationship to media ecology from an interpersonal communication perspective. Included in this discussion are Mead's concepts of self, symbolic interactionism, and the relationship between symbolic interactionism and media ecology. Examples from Internet research are used to illustrate how media ecology can be applied to interpersonal mediated communication

Susan B. Barnes

317

On the Communicative Underpinnings of Campaign Effects: Presidential Debates, Citizen Communication, and Polarization in Evaluations of Candidates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on presidential debates has largely focused on direct effects of debates on viewers. By expanding the context of debate effects to post-debate citizen communication, this study moves beyond the direct and immediate impact of debate viewing and investigates indirect effects of debate viewing mediated by debate-induced citizen communication. Results from two-wave panel data collected before and after the

Jaeho Cho; Yerheen Ha

2012-01-01

318

Effective Communication and File-I/O Bandwidth Benchmarks  

SciTech Connect

We describe the design and MPI implementation of two benchmarks created to characterize the balanced system performance of high-performance clusters and supercomputers: b{_}eff, the communication-specific benchmark examines the parallel message passing performance of a system, and b{_}eff{_}io, which characterizes the effective 1/0 bandwidth. Both benchmarks have two goals: (a) to get a detailed insight into the Performance strengths and weaknesses of different parallel communication and I/O patterns, and based on this, (b) to obtain a single bandwidth number that characterizes the average performance of the system namely communication and 1/0 bandwidth. Both benchmarks use a time driven approach and loop over a variety of communication and access patterns to characterize a system in an automated fashion. Results of the two benchmarks are given for several systems including IBM SPs, Cray T3E, NEC SX-5, and Hitachi SR 8000. After a redesign of b{_}eff{_}io, I/O bandwidth results for several compute partition sizes are achieved in an appropriate time for rapid benchmarking.

Koniges, A E; Rabenseifner, R

2001-05-02

319

[MR effects of x-ray contrast media].  

PubMed

Although Pantopaque has now been widely replaced by water-soluble contrast media for intrathecal application, retained residuals of oily contrast media are still a very common finding. Whereas other contrast media, e.g. barium in the GI tract, are inert in magnetic resonance imaging, the signal behaviour of Pantopaque may lead to false interpretations. Similar to fat, the T1 and T2 relaxation times of Pantopaque are short. Conventional radiographs of the spine are recommended in patients with intradural MRI findings similar to fat in case of previous myelography. PMID:2827262

Wicke, L; Frühwald, F; Neuhold, A; Schwaighofer, B

1987-12-01

320

Evaluating the effectiveness of case method instruction in technical communication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effectiveness of the case method as an instructional technique in improving technical writing was evaluated. The development of a self-report instrument that attempts to measure changes in attitude toward technical communication and the presentation results change are the purpose of this paper. Standards for developing a case set forth by Goldstein and Couture, were used to design an evaluation instrument to measure the effect instruction on student attitude toward technical communication. This self-report instrument is based on model developed and tested by Daly and Miller who studied writer attitude and apprehension toward writing. It was the most important objective of any evaluation is to provide information for improving the program.

Feinberg, S. G.

1981-01-01

321

Effects of noise and workload on a communication task  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communication is of vital importance in the cockpit today. It is essential for pilots to be able to understand the messages sent to them. A major requirement of any aircraft voice communication system is the ability to deliver intelligible speech. In a loose sense, intelligibility may be defined as the understanding of spoken words (Webster, 1979). Several language factors affect intelligibility including vocabulary size, word frequency (familiarity) effects, number of response alternatives, number of syllables, phonetic elements and context (Webster, 1972). Other external considerations include equipment or design features and environment (Webster and Allen, 1972). With such a wide range of sources of influence, it is easy to understand the need for a reliable intelligibility test. One such test found to be particularly useful in studying the effects of aircraft noise has been the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT).

Orrell, D. H., II

1985-05-01

322

Assessment of earthquake effects - contribution from online communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid increase of social media and online newspapers in the last years have given the opportunity to make a national investigation on macroseismic effects on the Maltese Islands based on felt earthquake reports. A magnitude 4.1 earthquake struck close to Malta on Sunday 24th April 2011 at 13:02 GMT. The earthquake was preceded and followed by a series of smaller magnitude quakes throughout the day, most of which were felt by the locals on the island. The continuous news media coverage during the day and the extensive sharing of the news item on social media resulted in a strong public response to fill in the 'Did you feel it?' online form on the website of the Seismic Monitoring and Research Unit (SMRU) at the University of Malta (http://seismic.research.um.edu.mt/). The results yield interesting information about the demographics of the island, and the different felt experiences possibly relating to geological settings and diverse structural and age-classified buildings. Based on this case study, the SMRU is in the process of developing a mobile phone application dedicated to share earthquake information to the local community. The application will automatically prompt users to fill in a simplified 'Did you feel it?' report to potentially felt earthquakes. Automatic location using Global Positioning Systems can be incorporated to provide a 'real time' intensity map that can be used by the Civil Protection Department.

D'Amico, Sebastiano; Agius, Matthew; Galea, Pauline

2014-05-01

323

ESTIMATION OF EFFECTIVE SHEAR STRESS WORKING ON FLAT SHEET MEMBRANE USING FLUIDIZED MEDIA IN MBRs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was aimed at estimating effective shear stress working on flat sheet membrane by the addition of fluidized media in MBRs. In both of laboratory-scale aeration tanks with and without fluidized media, shear stress variations on membrane surface and water phase velocity variations were measured and MBR operation was conducted. For the evaluation of the effective shear stress working on membrane surface to mitigate membrane surface, simulation of trans-membrane pressure increase was conducted. It was shown that the time-averaged absolute value of shear stress was smaller in the reactor with fluidized media than without fluidized media. However, due to strong turbulence in the reactor with fluidized media caused by interaction between water-phase and media and also due to the direct interaction between membrane surface and fluidized media, standard deviation of shear stress on membrane surface was larger in the reactor with fluidized media than without media. Histograms of shear stress variation data were fitted well to normal distribution curves and mean plus three times of standard deviation was defined to be a maximum shear stress value. By applying the defined maximum shear stress to a membrane fouling model, trans-membrane pressure curve in the MBR experiment was simulated well by the fouling model indicting that the maximum shear stress, not time-averaged shear stress, can be regarded as an effective shear stress to prevent membrane fouling in submerged flat-sheet MBRs.

Zaw, Hlwan Moe; Li, Tairi; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Mishima, Iori

324

EFFECT OF ANAEROBIOSIS ON FILTER MEDIA POLLUTANT RETENTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents the results of experiments conducted to determine if four potential filter media (sand, activated carbon, peat moss, and compost) could retain previously-trapped pollutants even under anaerobic conditions. The results indicated that permanent retention of heav...

325

Media as Social Influence: Racial Differences in the Effects of Peers and Media on Adolescent Alcohol Cognitions and Consumption  

PubMed Central

Racial differences in the effects of peer and media influence on adolescents’ alcohol cognitions and consumption were examined in a large-scale panel study. With regard to peer influence, results from cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the relation between perceived peer drinking and own drinking was significant for both Black and White adolescents, but it was stronger for the White adolescents. With regard to media influence, structural modeling analyses indicated that exposure to drinking in movies was associated with more alcohol consumption 8 months and 16 months later. These effects were mediated by increases in: the favorability of the adolescents’ drinker prototypes, their willingness to drink, and their tendency to affiliate with friends who were drinking. Multiple group analyses indicated that, once again, the effects (both direct and indirect) were much stronger for White adolescents than for Black adolescents. The results suggest media influence works in a similar manner to social influence, and that Whites may be more susceptible to both types of influence.

Gibbons, Frederick X.; Pomery, Elizabeth A.; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D.; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Wills, Thomas A.; Kingsbury, John; Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E.; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen

2010-01-01

326

Study on the Effect of SO2 in Flue Gas on PPS Filter Media Used in the Baghouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

PPS filter media is one of the best available filter media for dust collection in the coal-fired power plant, but the performance of PPS filter media is influenced by SO2 in the flue gas. In this paper, effect of SO2 on PPS filter media was studied. Through the analysis of mechanical performance, microscopic characteristics and chemical structure of PPS filter

Deqiang Chang; Jingxian Liu; Ning Mao; Xi Sun; Yuling Zhuang; Baozhi Chen

2010-01-01

327

The effect of communication, writing, and technology apprehension on likelihood to use new communication technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the role of computer anxiety, communication apprehension, and writing apprehension in predicting future use of new communication technologies. Past research has rarely examined these constructs as predictors of future use and has not considered the impact of writing and communication apprehension on text?based and phone?based technologies, which are used primarily for interaction. Survey results from 178 undergraduate

Craig R. Scott; Steven C. Rockwell

1997-01-01

328

The Effect of Communication, Writing, and Technology Apprehension on Likelihood to Use New Communication Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the role of computer anxiety, communication apprehension and writing apprehension in predicting future use of new communication technologies. Supports hypotheses about the relevance of computer anxiety and communication apprehension in predicting future technology use, but not those with regard to writing apprehension. Notes that past…

Scott, Craig R.; Rockwell, Steven C.

1997-01-01

329

EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF REAL-TIME COMMUNICATION ON MEDIA CHOICE IN THE CONTEXT OF DISTRIBUTED WORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an exploratory study into the use of real-time communication (RTC) systems to support distributed work. Motivated by the authors' dissatisfaction with theories assuming individually rational actors, the paper suggests the idea of informated presence to capture phenomena emerging from employees' increasingly computer-mediated engagement with their work environment. Four case vignettes are presented to illustrate different communicative strategies

Aleksi Aaltonen

330

Protective Effects of Parental Monitoring of Children's Media Use: A Prospective Study.  

PubMed

IMPORTANCE Children spend more time with electronic media than they do in any other activity, aside from sleep. Many of the negative effects that stem from media exposure may be reduced by parental monitoring of children's media use; however, there lacks a clear understanding of the mechanisms and extent of these protective effects. OBJECTIVE To determine the prospective effects of parental monitoring of children's media on physical, social, and academic outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective cohort design. Data were collected by in-home and in-school surveys in 2 communities in Iowa and Minnesota, where 1323 third- (n?=?430), fourth- (n?=?446), and fifth- (n?=?423) grade students participated. A primary caregiver and teachers also provided data about the student. INTERVENTIONS Participants in the current study were recruited to participate in a social ecological model-based obesity prevention program. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Body mass index, average weekly sleep, school performance, prosocial behavior, and aggressive behavior. RESULTS Structural equation modeling revealed that parental monitoring of children's media influences children's sleep, school performance, and prosocial and aggressive behaviors and that these effects are mediated through total screen time and exposure to media violence. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Parental monitoring of media has protective effects on a wide variety of academic, social, and physical child outcomes. Pediatricians and physicians are uniquely positioned to provide scientifically based recommendations to families; encouraging parents to monitor children's media carefully can have a wide range of health benefits for children. PMID:24686493

Gentile, Douglas A; Reimer, Rachel A; Nathanson, Amy I; Walsh, David A; Eisenmann, Joey C

2014-05-01

331

Communicating geological hazards: assisting geoscientists in communication skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communication is important in all aspects of the geosciences but is more prominent in the area of geological hazards, as the main audience for scientific information often lacks a geoscience background; and because the implications of not communicating results effectively can be very serious. Geoscientists working in the hazards area face particular challenges in communicating the concepts of risk, probability and uncertainty. Barriers to effective communication of geoscience include the complex language used by geoscientists, restriction of dissemination of results to traditional scientific media, identification of the target audience, inability to tailor products to a variety of audiences, and lack of institutional support for communication efforts. Geoscientists who work in the area of natural hazards need training in risk communication, media relations, and communicating to non-technical audiences. Institutions need to support the efforts of geoscientists in communicating their results through providing communications training; ensuring access to communications professionals; rewarding efforts to engage the public; and devoting sufficient staff and budget to the effort of disseminating results. Geoscientists themselves have to make efforts to change attitudes towards social science, and to become involved in decision making at a community level. The International Union of Geological Sciences Commission for "Geoscience for Environmental Management" established a working group to deal with these issues. This group is holding workshops, publishing collections of papers, and is looking at other means to aid geoscientists in addressing these problems.

Liverman, D. G. E.

2009-04-01

332

Increasing Evidence for the Efficacy of Tobacco Control Mass Media Communication Programming in Low and Middle-Income Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antitobacco mass media campaigns have had good success at changing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with respect to smoking in high-income countries provided they are sustained. Mass media campaigns should be a critical component of tobacco control programs in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Mounting evidence shows that graphic campaigns and those that evoke negative emotions run over long periods of time

Sandra Mullin; Vinayak Prasad; Jagdish Kaur; Tahir Turk

2011-01-01

333

Comparison of the Effects of Music and Conversation on Hospice Patients' Predisposition to Communicate and Communication Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

While researchers acknowledge broad therapeutic effects of music for patients at the end of life, limited information is available regarding the specific effects of music therapy compared with conversation-based treatment on communication behaviors and predisposition to communicate in hospice patients. Using a pretest-posttest repeated measures design, this study compared the quantity and quality of narrative and conversational advice-giving behaviors as

Jessica Lee Brown

2006-01-01

334

Effect of contrast media on megavoltage photon beam dosimetry.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in photon beam dosimetry caused by using contrast media during computed tomography (CT) simulation and determine if the resulting changes are clinically significant. The effect of contrast on dosimetry was first examined for a single 6-MV photon beam incident on a plane phantom with a structure of varying electron densities (rho(e)) and thickness. Patient studies were then undertaken in which CT data sets were collected with and without contrast for 6 typical patients. Three patients received IV contrast (Optiray-240) only and 3 received IV plus oral (Gastrograffin) contrast. Each patient was planned using conformal multifield techniques in accordance with the department standards. Two methods were used to compare the effect of contrast on dosimetry for each patient. The phantom analysis showed that the change in dose at the isocenter for a single 10 x 10 cm2 6-MV photon beam traversing 10 cm of a contrast-enhanced structure with rho(e) 1.22 was 7.0% (1.22 was the highest average rho(e) observed in the patient data). As a result of using contrast, increases in rho(e) were observed in structures for the 6 patients studied. Consequently, when using contrast-enhanced CT data for multifield planning, increases in dose at the isocenter and in critical structures were observed up to 2.1% and 2.5%, respectively. Planning on contrast-enhanced CT images may result in an increase in dose of up to 2.1% at the isocenter, which would generally be regarded as clinically insignificant. If, however, a critical organ is in close proximity to the planning target volume (PTV) and is planned to receive its maximum allowable dose, planning on contrast-enhanced CT images may result in that organ receiving dose beyond the recommended tolerance. In these instances, pre-contrast CT data should be used for dosimetry. PMID:18674680

Rankine, Ashley W; Lanzon, Peter J; Spry, Nigel A

2008-01-01

335

Biochemical and morphological effects of contrast media on the kidney.  

PubMed

The intravenous use of roentgen contrast media (CM) is associated with a low incidence of renal impairment. This paper considers the intravascular handling and retention of CM in relation to effects on renal function - specifically the ability of the kidney to reabsorb and catabolise low molecular weight proteins. Renal morphology following experimental administration of a high dose of an isotonic dimeric CM (iodixanol at 3 g I/kg) in rats showed numerous, large, protein-containing vacuoles or droplets in the cells of the proximal convoluted tubule. These were fully formed within 3.5 hours. The process of vacuole-formation involving the uptake of CM appears to be analogous to dextran uptake that occurs via fluid phase endocytosis. These vacuoles or CM droplets are abundant for 7 days but then slowly decline over several weeks. The quantitative recovery of (14)C iodixanol (3g I/kg) from the kidneys between 3.5 hours to 7 days after administration was about 1% of the dose, with some 0.2% of the original dose still present at 28 days. Subcellular analysis to determine the site of the radiolabel showed that the (14)C was associated with lysosomal marker enzymes. The CM-induced vacuoles/droplets are most probably giant lysosomes, which contain the intracellularly retained CM. Co-administration of tracer doses of (125)I-labelled cytochrome C with iodixanol showed some impairment of low molecular weight protein reabsorption, but remarkably this process was not effected when the vacuoles were fully formed. The conspicuous morphology of the vacuoles, the CM retention and the transient proteinuria and enzymuria cannot presently be associated with any functionally significant impairment of tubular or cellular processes. PMID:8610515

Dobrota, M; Powell, C J; Holtz, E; Wallin, A; Vik, H

1995-01-01

336

Estimating Causal Effects from Family Planning Health Communication Campaigns Using Panel Data: The "Your Health, Your Wealth" Campaign in Egypt  

PubMed Central

Background Health communication campaigns – involving mass media and interpersonal communication - have long been utilized by national family planning programs to create awareness about contraceptive methods, to shift social norms related to fertility control, and to promote specific behaviors, such as the use of condoms, injectable methods or permanent sterilization. However, demonstrating the effectiveness of these campaigns is often complicated because the infeasibility of experimental designs generally yields statistically non-equivalent samples of campaign-exposed and unexposed individuals. Methods Using data from a panel survey of reproductive age women in Egypt, we estimate the effects of the multimedia health communication campaign “Your Health, Your Wealth” (“Sahatek Sarwetek”) on precursors to contraceptive use (e.g., spousal communication, birth spacing attitudes) and on modern contraceptive use. Difference-in-differences and fixed effects estimators that exploit the panel nature of the data are employed to control for both observed and unobserved heterogeneity in the sample of women who self-report recall of the messages, thereby potentially improving upon methods that make no such controls or that rely solely on cross-sectional data. Findings All of the estimators find positive effects of the “Your Health, Your Wealth” campaign on reproductive health outcomes, though the magnitudes of those effects diverge, often considerably. Difference-in-differences estimators find that exposure to the campaign increases the likelihood of spousal discussions by 14.4 percentage points (pp.) (SE?=?.039, p<0.001) but has no effect on contraceptive use. In contrast, the fixed effects, instrumental variables estimator, controlling for unobserved heterogeneity, finds a large, statistically significant effect on modern contraceptive use (27.4 pp., SE?=?0.135, p?=?0.043). Conclusions The difficulties of evaluating family planning communication programs may be surmountable using panel data and analytic methods that address both observed and unobserved heterogeneity in exposure. Not controlling for such effects may lead to substantial underestimates of the effectiveness of such campaigns.

Hutchinson, Paul L.; Meekers, Dominique

2012-01-01

337

Internationalisation and Globalisation: Rethinking a Curriculum of Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines changing aspects of communication due to globalization and internationalization: "genre" (social effects on production of text), national culture and literary canon, new communication modes and media, and impacts on communication curricula. Forecasts development of a new mode of thinking about meaning and semiotics in which individuals…

Kress, Gunther

1996-01-01

338

Effect of media use on HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and condom use in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

It is known that the level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and the degree of condom use varies by socioeconomic status (SES). However, there is limited research on the effect of mass media use on HIV/AIDS-related cognitive and behavioral outcomes in low-income countries and how it might influence the association between SES and HIV-related outcomes. We investigated the moderating effect of media use on the relationship between SES and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and condom use in sub-Saharan Africa in terms of communication inequalities. Cross-sectional data from the Demographic Health Surveys from 13 sub-Saharan countries (2004-10) were pooled. Gender-stratified multivariable poisson regression of 151,209 women and 68,890 men were used to calculate adjusted relative ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between SES, media use, HIV-related outcomes, and condom use. We found significant disparities in mass media use among people from different SES groups as well as among countries. Education and wealth are strongly and positively associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS and knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS and are significantly associated with condom use. These associations are attenuated when the use of various types of mass media is added to the models, with newspapers showing the strongest effect. The findings of this study suggest that media use has the potential to blunt the impact of socioeconomic status though not completely eliminate it. Thus, we need to pay attention to reducing communication inequalities among social groups and countries to moderate the effect of wealth and SES on HIV/AIDS. PMID:23874598

Jung, Minsoo; Arya, Monisha; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

2013-01-01

339

Foreword: Ionospheric effects on communication and related systems (IES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The special section contained in this issue of Radio Science is the second of two which have been developed from papers presented at the 1987 symposium on the Effect of the Ionosphere on Communication, Navigation, and Surveillance Systems (IES 1987). This technical conference was jointly sponsored by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), the Office of Naval Research (ONR), the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL), and the Army Communications-Electronics Command (USACECOM). The symposium was held in Springfield, Virginia on May 5-7, 1987 in cooperation with the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA), the Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC), the Institute for Telecommunication Sciences (ITS), and the Voice of America (VOA). See the May-June 1988 issue of Radio Science for a more complete foreword (Radio Sci., 23, 209, 1988).

Goodman, John M.; Klobuchar, John A.; Soicher, Haim

1988-07-01

340

Evaluating the Effect of Educational Media Exposure on Aggression in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschool-aged children (M = 42.44 months-old, SD = 8.02) participated in a short-term longitudinal study investigating the effect of educational media exposure on social development (i.e., aggression and prosocial behavior) using multiple informants and methods. As predicted, educational media exposure significantly predicted increases in both…

Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Mullins, Adam D.

2013-01-01

341

Candidate-Media Agenda Convergence and Its Effects on Voter Issue Salience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though research has shown that candidates and the media can influence the importance voters ascribe to political issues, little work has sought to test the interactive agenda-setting effects of each—in particular, to determine whether the ability of candidates to set the public's agenda depends on the media's willingness to reflect their issue emphases. Using an experiment conducted during the early

Danny Hayes

2008-01-01

342

Effects of a Brief Media Intervention on Expectations, Attitudes, and Intentions of Mental Health Help Seeking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of a mass-media video intervention on expectations, attitudes, and intentions to seek help from professional mental health care services. A public service announcement-style, mass-media video intervention was developed, with prior empirical research on help-seeking behaviors organized according to the theory of…

Demyan, Amy L.; Anderson, Timothy

2012-01-01

343

Mediated interpersonal communication: Toward a new typology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional conceptualizations of communication have excluded media or relegated them to a minor role as components of channel. Furthermore, the exclusive identification of media with “mass communication” has restricted understanding of the symbiotic relationship of media and interpersonal communication. This essay argues that media pervade all dimensions of human communication and must be considered in all research. It examines the

Robert Cathcart; Gary Gumpert

1983-01-01

344

Wireless communication with chaos.  

PubMed

The modern world fully relies on wireless communication. Because of intrinsic physical constraints of the wireless physical media (multipath, damping, and filtering), signals carrying information are strongly modified, preventing information from being transmitted with a high bit rate. We show that, though a chaotic signal is strongly modified by the wireless physical media, its Lyapunov exponents remain unaltered, suggesting that the information transmitted is not modified by the channel. For some particular chaotic signals, we have indeed proved that the dynamic description of both the transmitted and the received signals is identical and shown that the capacity of the chaos-based wireless channel is unaffected by the multipath propagation of the physical media. These physical properties of chaotic signals warrant an effective chaos-based wireless communication system. PMID:23683198

Ren, Hai-Peng; Baptista, Murilo S; Grebogi, Celso

2013-05-01

345

Large-scale effects on resistivity index of porous media.  

PubMed

The estimation of humidity in the unsaturated zone of soils and NAPL saturation in contaminated aquifers may be based on the interpretation of electrical resistivity index logs. In the present work, concepts of the theory of the two-phase flow in pore networks are employed to interpret the form of the equilibrium and dynamic resistivity index curves of large porous samples. A resistivity cell is constructed to measure the capillary and electrical properties of large samples of unconsolidated porous media. The drainage capillary pressure and resistivity index curves of a sand column are measured by using the micropore membrane (porous plate) method, where a 0.5% wt/vol NaCl aqueous solution is displaced by n-dodecane. The dynamic resistivity index curves are measured by using the continuous injection technique for various orientations of the sand column. Based on concepts of the two-phase flow theory, concerning the dominant displacement growth pattern in a pore network and arising from the cooperative effects of capillary, buoyancy, and viscous forces, approximate relationships are developed for the resistivity index and saturation exponent as functions of the water saturation. The saturation exponent decreases as the displacement advances and the fluid distribution across the sand column tends to be homogenized after oil breakthrough. Both the resistivity index and saturation exponent increase as the displacement pattern tends to become compact and stable. In the destabilized flow pattern, as the Bond number decreases, the resistivity index may increase respectably within a narrow range of values of the Bond number. This happens when the thickness of the unstable capillary finger exceeds the lateral dimension of the porous sample and becomes a fractal percolation cluster. The saturation exponent becomes almost constant and independent of water saturation only over the destabilized displacement pattern at high values of the Bond number. PMID:15854721

Aggelopoulos, C; Klepetsanis, P; Theodoropoulou, M A; Pomoni, K; Tsakiroglou, C D

2005-05-01

346

Applications of High Technology to Communication Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses classroom design and uses of interactive media. Covers the design of public speaking/interpersonal/small group communication classrooms, the simulation laboratory, the communication effectiveness trainer (ComET system), audience response systems, speech evaluation using computers, and system design considerations. (PD)

Behnke, Ralph R.; O'Hair, H. Dan

1984-01-01

347

Inclusion of Audiovisual Media in Information Services for the Special Subjects Journalism and Communication Science (Pilot Study).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Inclusion of tapes, records, films, sound and video-cassettes, and radio and TV manuscripts in information services for journalism/communication science is examined. Data format, specification of documentation languages, design of information services, an...

J. Hertwig B. Koeppel B. Meyer U. Neveling S. Plagemann

1983-01-01

348

Effective communication coalescing for data-parallel applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication coalescing is a static optimization that can reduce both communication frequency and redundant data transfer in compiler-generated code for regular, data parallel applications. We present an algorithm for coalescing communication that arises when generating code for regular, data-parallel applications written in High Performance Fortran (HPF). To handle sophisticated computation partitionings, our algorithm normalizes communication before attempting coalescing. We experimentally

Daniel G. Chavarría-Miranda; John M. Mellor-Crummey

2005-01-01

349

Quantifying Effective Flow and Transport Properties in Heterogeneous Porous Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial heterogeneity, the spatial variation in physical and chemical properties, exists at almost all scales and is an intrinsic property of natural porous media. It is important to understand and quantify how small-scale spatial variations determine large-scale "effective" properties in order to predict fluid flow and transport behavior in the natural subsurface. In this work, we aim to systematically understand and quantify the role of the spatial distribution of sand grains of different sizes in determining effective dispersivity and effective permeability using quasi-2D flow-cell experiments and numerical simulations. Two dimensional flow cells (20 cm by 20 cm) were packed with the same total amount of fine and coarse sands however with different spatial patterns. The homogeneous case has the completely mixed fine and coarse sands. The four zone case distributes the fine sand in four identical square zones within the coarse sand matrix. The one square case has all the fine sands in one square block. With the one square case pattern, two more experiments were designed in order to examine the effect of grain size contrast on effective permeability and dispersivity. Effective permeability was calculated based on both experimental and modeling results. Tracer tests were run for all cases. Advection dispersion equations were solved to match breakthrough data and to obtain average dispersivity. We also used Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) to quantify the non-Fickian transport behavior for each case. For the three cases with the same grain size contrast, the results show that the effective permeability does not differ significantly. The effective dispersion coefficient is the smallest for the homogeneous case (0.05 cm) and largest for the four zone case (0.27 cm). With the same pattern, the dispersivity value is the largest with the highest size contrast (0.28 cm), which is higher than the one with the lowest case by a factor of 2. The non-Fickian behavior was quantified by the ? value within the CTRW framework. Fickian transport will result in ? values larger than 2 while its deviation from 2 indicates the extent of non-Fickian behavior. Among the three cases with the same grain size contrast, the ? value is closest to 2 in the homogeneous case (1.95), while smallest in the four zone case (1.89). In the one square case, with the highest size contrast, the ? value was 1.57, indicating increasing extent of non-Fickian behavior with higher size contrast. This study is one step toward understanding how small-scale spatial variation in physical properties affect large-scale flow and transport behavior. This step is important in predicting subsurface transport processes that are relevant to earth sciences, environmental engineering, and petroleum engineering.

Heidari, P.; Li, L.

2012-12-01

350

Effects of Manual Signing on Communicative Verbalizations by Toddlers with and without Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation of effects of manual signing on toddlers' verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviors in an inclusive preschool found that teacher signing was accompanied by increases in communicative interactions by toddlers with and without disabilities. No reductive effects on communicative verbalizations were observed for either group. (Contains…

DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Stricklin, Sarintha; Banajee, Meher; Reid, Dennis H.

2001-01-01

351

75 FR 64691 - Information Collection; Land Between The Lakes (LBL) Communication Effectiveness Study  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and other information sources on...if LBL's communication efforts are...regional tourism industry...requested information from LBL...measuring the effectiveness of LBL's communication effort...information technology. All...

2010-10-20

352

Performance Evaluation and Analysis of Effective Range and Data Throughput for Unmodified Bluetooth Communication Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DoD and the Air Force continually seek to incorporate new technology in an effort to improve communication, work effectiveness, and efficiency. Office devices utilizing Bluetooth technology simplify device configuration and communication. They provide...

T. F. Kneeland

2003-01-01

353

Cost Effectiveness Program Plan for Joint Tactical Communications, Volume III. Life Cycle Costing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of Volume III is to provide the necessary guidelines and methodology for the preparation of Life Cycle Costs that are used in cost effectiveness analysis of tactical communication programs and in the optimization of communication system/equipm...

T. J. Bellanca

1974-01-01

354

Effect of liquid media on durability of oriented polymethyl methacrylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience in the use of polymeric materials in teclmology has shown that the strength characteristics and, in particular, the durability of polymers, deteriorate under the influence of liquid media. Methods of treatment (e.g., molecular orientation) which lead to an improvement in the strength characteristics of polymers are known [1-3]; the increase in strength has been explained mainly by an increase

A. N. Tynnyi; N. A. Ol'khovich-Novosadyuk; A. I. Soshko; N. G. Kalinin; B. V. Perov

1973-01-01

355

Media Convergence and the Chilling Effect of Broadcast Licensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many scholars have lamented the regulation of electronic media as an encroachment on the First Amendment guarantee of press freedom. They argue that the licensing process creates the possibility and means for politicians to meddle with broadcasters' content decisions, and they cite a long history of political interference to support their claims. From this literature, the authors define three specific

Christopher Weare; Titus Levi; Jordan Raphael

2001-01-01

356

Current Research on the Relative Effectiveness of Selected Media Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature of research and theory on media, the psychology of learning, and the technology of instruction is reviewed. The focus is on discovering what is currently known about the intersection of these fields. Current thoughts and discoveries about brain structure and processing are discussed. The management of learning as a system is another…

Gulliford, Nancy L.

357

Seeds of Success. An Idea Book of Public Relations Activities for the Library Media Specialist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By presentation of a variety of suggestions for public relations activities, this booklet provides the library media specialist with means for enhancing the effectiveness of the school and district library media program. The lists of ideas begin with general suggestions for library media center (LMC) facilities, services, and communications, and…

Wiget, Lawrence A., Ed.

358

Effects of two different growth media on the postantifungal effect induced by polyenes on Candida species.  

PubMed

There are no data on the effects of different growth media on polyene-induced postantifungal effect (PAFE) in Candida species. Hence, the nystatin- and amphotericin B-induced PAFEs in six Candida species (26 isolates) grown in Sabouraud's dextrose broth (SAB) and RPMI broth were evaluated, following limited exposure to the MICs of the two polyenes, using an automated turbidometric method. For nystatin, PAFE varied between 1.88 and 4.87 h in SAB and 0.66 and 6.89 h in RPMI, and for amphotericin B, the equivalent values were 3.13 to 10.98 h in SAB and 0.97 to 7.01 h in RPMI. These highly significant (P < 0.001) variations in the PAFE with both drugs, noted with most Candida strains grown in different media, call for standardization of intralaboratory methodology in measuring this parameter in order to obtain universally comparable data. PMID:11427609

Shu, M; Ellepola, A N; Samaranayake, L P

2001-07-01

359

Effects of Two Different Growth Media on the Postantifungal Effect Induced by Polyenes on Candida Species  

PubMed Central

There are no data on the effects of different growth media on polyene-induced postantifungal effect (PAFE) in Candida species. Hence, the nystatin- and amphotericin B-induced PAFEs in six Candida species (26 isolates) grown in Sabouraud's dextrose broth (SAB) and RPMI broth were evaluated, following limited exposure to the MICs of the two polyenes, using an automated turbidometric method. For nystatin, PAFE varied between 1.88 and 4.87 h in SAB and 0.66 and 6.89 h in RPMI, and for amphotericin B, the equivalent values were 3.13 to 10.98 h in SAB and 0.97 to 7.01 h in RPMI. These highly significant (P < 0.001) variations in the PAFE with both drugs, noted with most Candida strains grown in different media, call for standardization of intralaboratory methodology in measuring this parameter in order to obtain universally comparable data.

Shu, M.; Ellepola, A. N. B.; Samaranayake, L. P.

2001-01-01

360

Media and multimedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of new and advancing communication technologies and changing regulatory philosophies make this an opportune time to seriously examine once again the economics of media industries and the implications of a better understanding of media economics for communication policy. Many of the issues that will have to be addressed by economists and policymakers in the future relate to the

Steven S. Wildman

1998-01-01

361

Manufacturing consent?: Media messages in the mobilization against HIV/AIDS in India and lessons for health communication.  

PubMed

Despite repeated calls for a more critical and "culture-centered" approach to health communication, textual analysis of televised public service advertising (PSA) campaigns has been largely neglected, even by critical communication scholars. In the case of "developing" countries in particular, there is an acute shortage of such literature. On the other hand, following the outbreak of major public health diseases such as AIDS, most countries have adopted PSA campaigns as the most preferred means of communicating messages. Drawing on insights from cultural studies (especially Antonio Gramsci and Stuart Hall), this article engages in textual analysis of the televised PSA campaigns launched by the Indian state to prevent HIV/AIDS between 2002 and 2005. Through such analysis, it argues that although few diseases in Indian history have spurred such massive and creative efforts for mass mobilization as AIDS, these efforts, in terms of their ethical implications, have been far from emancipatory. In fact, they have constructed and perpetuated the logic of domination and control along class, gender, sexuality, and knowledge systems, often contradicting and potentially harming the very goal of HIV prevention and of health promotion and empowerment. This article also holds that assessing public health campaigns through textual analysis, a highly neglected tool in health communication, can shed important light on a far more complex and changing nature of the state and public policy, especially in the developing world, thereby opening up space for alternative theorizing for health communication and social change. PMID:23631645

Khan, Shamshad

2014-01-01

362

Effects of ion exchanges on the stability of argillaceous porous media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is concerned with the effect of cation exchange on the stability of argillaceous porous media, in the framework of enhancing oil recovery from petroleum deposits by the means of water injection. Experiments related the permeability reductions o...

E. Souto

1994-01-01

363

SURFACE CHEMICAL EFFECTS ON COLLOID STABILITY AND TRANSPORT THROUGH NATURAL POROUS MEDIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Surface chemical effects on colloidal stability and transport through porous media were investigated using laboratory column techniques. pproximately 100m diameter, spherical, iron oxide particles were synthesized as the mobile colloidal phase. he column Packing material was retr...

364

Finite element study of the effect of permeable media on longitudinal writer field calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of permeable media on writer field calculations was examined in this study via a finite element analysis in which the nonlinear characteristics of both the writer and the permeable media were represented. The applied field of the writer was calculated for the two cases: one without a permeable media and the other with a permeable media adjacent to the gap of the writer. No significant difference was found between the applied fields of the two cases, indicating that the demagnetizing fields present in typical longitudinal media are not large enough to perturb the writer pole magnetization, and thus the writer field during writing. The results validated the common practice of using applied fields directly from writer simulations for write process analysis in longitudinal recording.

Zhou, Yuming; Giusti, Jim; Fernandez-de-Castro, Juan

2003-05-01

365

Effective learner-centered strategies for teaching adults: using visual media to engage the adult learner.  

PubMed

This article offers practical guidance for educators as they prepare specialists to enhance the lives and communities of older persons through the strategic use of visual media in age-related courses. Advantages and disadvantages of this learning innovation are provided as well as seven approaches for enriching instruction. Resources are included for locating effective visual media, matching course content with video resources, determining fair use of copyrighted media, and inserting video clips into PowerPoint presentations. Strategies for accessing assistive services for implementing visual media in the classroom are also addressed. This article promotes the use of visual media for the purpose of enriching gerontological and geriatrics instruction for the adult learner. PMID:19042502

Myers, Dennis R; Sykes, Catherine; Myers, Scott

2008-01-01

366

Effect Size Measures for Mediation Models: Quantitative Strategies for Communicating Indirect Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistical analysis of mediation effects has become an indispensable tool for helping scientists investigate processes thought to be causal. Yet, in spite of many recent advances in the estimation and testing of mediation effects, little attention has been given to methods for communicating effect size and the practical importance of those effect sizes. Our goals in this article are

Kristopher J. Preacher; Ken Kelley

2011-01-01

367

Arachidonic acid metabolites in experimental otitis media and effects of anti-inflammatory drugs.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites are important in the pathogenesis of otitis media with effusion. The AA metabolites in 4 different experimental models for otitis media were analyzed, and the effect of anti-inflammatory drugs was studied. Purulent otitis media was induced in rats by inoculation of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the tympanic bulla, serous otitis media by blocking the tympanal orifice of the eustachian tube, and mucoid otitis media by combining the two procedures. Middle ear effusion was also induced by stimulating the external auditory canal with cold air. Indomethacin and hydrocortisone were used to inhibit AA metabolism in the latter model. Lipoxygenase products dominated in the purulent and cold air otitis media models. Cyclooxygenase products dominated in the mucoid and serous models. Indomethacin inhibited accumulation of middle ear effusion in the cold air otitis media model, whereas hydrocortisone did not. Apart from AA metabolites, other mechanisms and mediators appear to be responsible for the increased vessel permeability observed in the cold air otitis media model, such as interactions between mast cells and nerves in the middle ear mucosa. PMID:8285517

Goldie, P; Jung, T T; Hellström, S

1993-12-01

368

Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (77th, Atlanta, Georgia, August 10-13, 1994). Part IV: International Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The International Media section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 15 papers: "Testing the Interaction of the Third-Person Effect and Spiral of Silence in a Political Pressure Cooker: The Case of Hong Kong" (Lars Willnat); "The Use of Small State Variables in Research on Coverage of Foreign Policy: New Zealand…

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

369

Effects of negative media events on tourist’s decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the recent years, the role of mass media and its crucial position in the tourism information and decision-making process has increased. The decision to choose one holiday destination over a myriad of available choices is just one of many steps in the tourist’s decision-making process. The question rising from this is whether there is a relationship between what is

Margrete Lexow; Johan Richard Edelheim

2004-01-01

370

Online Media Convergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent convergence in the fields of computing and communication has driven a media conver- gence which promises to revolutionize the media industry. Traditional models of publishing and broadcasting will be insufficient to address the new business strategy issues that will arise from this convergence. Firms which had once been divided by media types like television or radio will find

Hany Saleeb

371

Mass Communication and Journalism Faculty's Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Email Communication with College Students: A Nationwide Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly 700 US journalism and mass communication faculty (all teaching personnel) reported their perceptions of student email use via a web-based survey. This nationwide study focused on the content of email sent by faculty to students, email's effectiveness, and email's effect on student learning. Comparisons were made based on faculty gender,…

Yates, Bradford L.; Adams, Jennifer Wood; Brunner, Brigitta R.

2009-01-01

372

Financial analysts’concerns, media exposure and corporate environmental communication. Accounting for simultaneous relationships in an international perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to provide an integrated analysis of corporate environmental communication strategies using stakeholder theory. More precisely, we argue that there is a symbiotic relationship between managerial decisions with respect to environmental disclosure and stakeholders. On the one hand, stakeholders’ claims determine managerial decisions with respect to corporate environmental disclosure. On the other hand, managerial decisions

Aerts W; Cormier D; Magnan M

2004-01-01

373

Communication and Political Mobilization: Digital Media and the Organization of Anti-Iraq War Demonstrations in the U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speed and scale of mobilization in many contemporary protest events may reflect a transformation of movement organizations toward looser ties with members, enabling broader mobilization through the mechanism of dense individual-level political networks. This analysis explores the dynamics of this communication process in the case of U.S. protests against the Iraq war in 2003. We hypothesize that individual activists

W. Lance Bennett; Christian Breunig; Terri Givens

2008-01-01

374

Communication Media in Education for Low-Income Countries: Implications for Planning. Fundamentals of Educational Planning--29.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet discusses, in the context of low-income countries, a series of planning issues bridging education and communication. The planning issues include the democratization of educational opportunity, the quality of instruction and learning, the impact of education through technology on rural areas, and the participation of people in their…

McAnany, Emile G.; Mayo, John K.

375

Out of sight but not out of mind?: Informal networks, communication and media use in global software teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to reduce costs and improve staffing options, companies are going offshore to staff software projects. Although advances in communication technologies make it easier to share information, a growing number of studies have highlighted the disadvantages and hidden costs of distributed teams. This paper reports the results of a study that used social network analysis to study the

Klarissa T. Chang; Kate Ehrlich

2007-01-01

376

Media Convergence, an Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media convergence is a theory in communications where every mass medium eventually merges to the point where they become one\\u000a medium due to the advent of new communication technologies. The Media Convergence research theme normally refers to entire\\u000a production, distribution, and use process of future digital media services from contents production to service delivery through\\u000a various channels such as mobile

Sepideh Chakaveh; Manfred Bogen

2007-01-01

377

Enhancing risk communication for more effective epidemic control in Taiwan.  

PubMed

This article investigates how to more effectively conduct risk communication to increase the probability of successful control of an epidemic in Taiwan. The epidemic control of H1N1 in Taiwan in 2010 was studied. We used factor analysis and Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) to obtain the total influence for each factor and to determine the critical factors among them. After being processed using proposed operational procedures, we obtained the critical factors and found that the government plays the key role in successful epidemic control. To reduce the resistance to efforts that seek to prevent pandemic crises, some necessary intervention activities, such as fairly and honorably exploring the complete relevant information and revealing the side effects of vaccines in a manner that is easily understood, were recommended. These could lead to an increase in immunizations among Taiwanese people by gaining their trust and commitment, thus achieving control of this epidemic. PMID:23239748

Ou, Shih-Ming; Liu, Li-Ling; Chin, Ko-Chien

2014-01-01

378

Coordination, overload and team performance: effects of team communication strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The god of this paper is to iden@ the communication tactics that tiow management teams to successtiy coordinate without becoming overloaded, and to see whether successti coordination and fidom from overload independently Muence team pefiormance. We found that how much teams comnumicatti, what they communicated abou~ and the technologies they used to communicate prdlcted coordination and overload. Team coordination but

Susan R. Fussell; Robert E. Kraut; F. Javier Lerch; William L. Scherlis; Matthew M. McNally; Jonathan J. Cadiz

1998-01-01

379

The Effects of Motor Skill Acquisition on the Development of Intentional Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the effects of a neurobehavioral motor intervention on intentional communication development of four children (ages 1 to 3) with neuromotor impairments. Related communication skills linked to motor targets were observed. All subjects increased the use of communication behaviors following implementation of the motor-skill…

Jones, Hazel A.; Horn, Eva M.; Warren, Steven F.

1999-01-01

380

Effective Communication Training Interventions for Paid Carers Supporting Adults with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Carer communication skills contribute to the well being of individuals with learning disabilities. Few studies have examined the effectiveness of communication training interventions, and there is a lack of robust measures of outcome. A communication self-efficacy measure relevant to carers supporting adults with learning disabilities was…

Kyle, Seonaid; Melville, Craig A.; Jones, Andrea

2010-01-01

381

The effects of communication skills training on patients’ participation during medical interviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent models of physician–patient communication emphasize information exchange in promoting partnership. Although considerable attention has been given to physicians’ information exchange, little research has examined patients’ communication contributions. The purpose of this research was to test the effectiveness of a training booklet designed to enhance patients’ communication skills in information exchange. A nested design was used, such that 25 physicians

Donald J. Cegala; Leola McClure; Terese M. Marinelli; Douglas M. Post

2000-01-01

382

The Effects of Social Interactive Training on Early Social Communicative Skills of Children with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing attention has been directed at the relation between early social communicative skills of children with autism and subsequent development of these children's social and communicative functioning. We reviewed 16 empirical studies that investigated the effects of social interactive interventions designed to increase early social communicative skills of young children with autism by increasing their role as initiator of social

Bogseon Hwang; Carolyn Hughes

2000-01-01

383

Effects of Gender on Computer-Mediated Communication: A Survey of University Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influence of gender on computer-mediated communication is a research area with tremendous growth. This study sought to determine what gender effects exist in email communication between professors and students. The study also explored the amount of lying and misinterpretation that occurs through online communication. The study results indicate…

Valenziano, Laura

2007-01-01

384

Systematic review of the effectiveness of mass communication programs to change HIV/AIDS-related behaviors in developing countries.  

PubMed

This review systematically examined the effectiveness of 24 mass media interventions on changing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. The intervention studies were published from 1990 through 2004, reported data from developing countries and compared outcomes using (i) pre- and post-intervention data, (ii) treatment versus control (comparison) groups or (iii) post-intervention data across levels of exposure. The most frequently reported outcomes were condom use (17 studies) and knowledge of modes of HIV transmission (15), followed by reduction in high-risk sexual behavior (eight), perceived risk of contracting HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (six), interpersonal communication about AIDS or condom use (six), self-efficacy to negotiate condom use (four) and abstaining from sexual relations (three). The results yielded mixed results, and where statistically significant, the effect size was small to moderate (in some cases as low as 1-2% point increase). On two of the seven outcomes, at least half of the studies did show a positive impact of the mass media: knowledge of HIV transmission and reduction in high-risk sexual behavior. Further rigorous evaluation on comprehensive programs is required to provide a more definitive answer to the question of media effects on HIV/AIDS-related behavior in developing countries. PMID:16847044

Bertrand, Jane T; O'Reilly, Kevin; Denison, Julie; Anhang, Rebecca; Sweat, Michael

2006-08-01

385

Size and scale effects as constraints in insect sound communication  

PubMed Central

For optimal transfer of power to the surrounding medium, a sound source should have a radius of 1/6 to 1/4 of the sound wavelength. Sound-waves propagate from the source as compressions and rarefactions of the fluid medium, which decay by spreading and viscous losses. Higher frequencies are more easily refracted and reflected by objects in the environment, causing degradation of signal structure. In open air or water, the sound spreads spherically and decays by the inverse square law. If the sound is restricted to two dimensions rather than three, it decays as the inverse of range, whereas waves within a rod decay largely due to viscous losses; such calls are usually rather simple pulses and rely on the initial time of arrival because of multiple pathlengths or different propagation velocities in the environment. Because of the relationship between calling success and reproductive success, singing insects are under selective pressure to optimize the range, and to maintain the specificity, of their calls. Smaller insects have less muscle power; because of their small sound sources, higher frequencies will be radiated more efficiently than lower frequencies, but in order to produce brief loud pulses from a long-duration muscle contraction they may use both a frequency multiplier mechanism and a mechanical power amplifier. Airborne insect sounds in the range from 1 to 5 kHz tend to have sustained puretone components and a specific pattern of pulses which propagate accurately. Where the song frequency is higher, the pulses tend to become briefer, with a rapid initial build-up that gives a reliable time of onset through obstructed transmission pathways. These scale effects may be related both to the sound-producing mechanism and the auditory system of the receiver. Tiny insects have the special acoustic problem of communicating with only a small amount of available power. Some, such as fruit flies, communicate at low frequencies, at close range, by generating air currents; these currents may also be used to waft specific pheromones. Other small insects, such as Hemiptera, beetles, etc., communicate using substrate vibration. This enables long-range communication, but signal structure degrades with distance from the source; vibration signals tend to be confined to certain types of linear substrate, such as vegetation.

Bennet-Clark, H. C.

1998-01-01

386

Cellular communication and “non-targeted effects”: Modelling approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade, a large number of experimental studies on the so-called "non-targeted effects", in particular bystander effects, outlined that cellular communication plays a significant role in the pathways leading to radiobiological damage. Although it is known that two main types of cellular communication (i.e. via gap junctions and/or molecular messengers diffusing in the extra-cellular environment, such as cytokines, NO etc.) play a major role, it is of utmost importance to better understand the underlying mechanisms, and how such mechanisms can be modulated by ionizing radiation. Though the "final" goal is of course to elucidate the in vivo scenario, in the meanwhile also in vitro studies can provide useful insights. In the present paper we will discuss key issues on the mechanisms underlying non-targeted effects and cell communication, for which theoretical models and simulation codes can be of great help. In this framework, we will present in detail three literature models, as well as an approach under development at the University of Pavia. More specifically, we will first focus on a version of the "State-Vector Model" including bystander-induced apoptosis of initiated cells, which was successfully fitted to in vitro data on neoplastic transformation supporting the hypothesis of a protective bystander effect mediated by apoptosis. The second analyzed model, focusing on the kinetics of bystander effects in 3D tissues, was successfully fitted to data on bystander damage in an artificial 3D skin system, indicating a signal range of the order of 0.7-1 mm. A third model for bystander effect, taking into account of spatial location, cell killing and repopulation, showed dose-response curves increasing approximately linearly at low dose rates but quickly flattening out for higher dose rates, also predicting an effect augmentation following dose fractionation. Concerning the Pavia approach, which can model the release, diffusion and depletion/degradation of candidate signals (e.g. cytokines) travelling in the extra-cellular environment, the good agreement with ad hoc experimental data obtained in our laboratory validated the adopted approach, which in the future can be applied also to other candidate signals. Although the available information is still not sufficient to decide whether the Linear No Threshold approach for low dose risk - including space radiation risk - has to be modified, these studies confirmed the need of a paradigm shift in (low-dose) radiobiology, where the DNA-centric vision needs to be integrated by a wider vision where cells constitute an organized population responding to external stimuli in a collective fashion, communicating by means of different molecular signals. Further studies, in particular in vivo (or at least in 3D tissues) and possibly combined with human epidemiological data, will be crucial to help solving such questions in the future.

Ballarini, Francesca; Facoetti, Angelica; Mariotti, Luca; Nano, Rosanna; Ottolenghi, Andrea

2009-10-01

387

Effect Size Measures for Mediation Models: Quantitative Strategies for Communicating Indirect Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The statistical analysis of mediation effects has become an indispensable tool for helping scientists investigate processes thought to be causal. Yet, in spite of many recent advances in the estimation and testing of mediation effects, little attention has been given to methods for communicating effect size and the practical importance of those…

Preacher, Kristopher J.; Kelley, Ken

2011-01-01

388

Time-frequency effects in wireless communication systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-frequency effects in wireless communication systems caused by narrowband resonances and coupled with device nonlinearities are revealed as new sources of co-site interference, exploited for the metrology of bandpass circuits, and employed to linearize amplitude-modulated transmissions. The transient properties of bandpass filters are found to last much longer than traditional time/bandwidth rules-of-thumb. The cause of this long-tail behavior is attributed to the coupled-resonator structure of the filter circuit. A solution method which uses lowpass prototyping is developed to reduce, by a factor of two, the complexity of the differential equation set describing a narrowband filter's transient response. Pulse overlap caused by the frequency dependence of long tails produced by filters is shown to cause intersymbol interference and intermodulation distortion in RF front-ends during frequency-hopped communications. The same properties which cause the ISI and IMD are used to develop three new transient methods for measuring resonant circuit parameters and a one-port method for extracting the operating band of a filter. A new signal-processing technique which combines time- and frequency-selectivity, Linear Amplification by Time-Multiplexed Spectrum, is developed to reduce IMD associated with amplitude modulation. Distortion reduction is demonstrated experimentally for multisines up to 20 tones.

Mazzaro, Gregory James

389

Diffusion Dominant Solute Transport Modelling In Deep Repository Under The Effect of Emplacement Media Degradation - 13285  

SciTech Connect

Deep geologic disposal of high activity and long-lived radioactive waste is being actively considered and pursued in many countries, where low permeability geological formations are used to provide long term waste contaminant with minimum impact to the environment and risk to the biosphere. A multi-barrier approach that makes use of both engineered and natural barriers (i.e. geological formations) is often used to further enhance the containment performance of the repository. As the deep repository system subjects to a variety of thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical (THCM) effects over its long 'operational' lifespan (e.g. 0.1 to 1.0 million years, the integrity of the barrier system will decrease over time (e.g. fracturing in rock or clay)). This is broadly referred as media degradation in the present study. This modelling study examines the effects of media degradation on diffusion dominant solute transport in fractured media that are typical of deep geological environment. In particular, reactive solute transport through fractured media is studied using a 2-D model, that considers advection and diffusion, to explore the coupled effects of kinetic and equilibrium chemical processes, while the effects of degradation is studied using a pore network model that considers the media diffusivity and network changes. Model results are presented to demonstrate the use of a 3D pore-network model, using a novel architecture, to calculate macroscopic properties of the medium such as diffusivity, subject to pore space changes as the media degrade. Results from a reactive transport model of a representative geological waste disposal package are also presented to demonstrate the effect of media property change on the solute migration behaviour, illustrating the complex interplay between kinetic biogeochemical processes and diffusion dominant transport. The initial modelling results demonstrate the feasibility of a coupled modelling approach (using pore-network model and reactive transport model) to examine the long term behaviour of deep geological repositories with media property change under complex geochemical conditions. (authors)

Kwong, S. [National Nuclear Laboratory (United Kingdom)] [National Nuclear Laboratory (United Kingdom); Jivkov, A.P. [Research Centre for Radwaste and Decommissioning and Modelling and Simulation Centre, University of Manchester (United Kingdom)] [Research Centre for Radwaste and Decommissioning and Modelling and Simulation Centre, University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

2013-07-01

390

Effects of Various Suspending Media on Plaque Formation by Rickettsiae in Tissue Culture  

PubMed Central

Effects of some media used for suspending rickettsiae during purification, for metabolic studies, and in titrations of infectious rickettsiae were examined with respect to the plaque-forming ability of Rickettsia rickettsi and R. typhi in primary chicken embryo tissue cultures and the infectivity of R. typhi in mice. Brain heart infusion broth (BHI) was found superior to all other media tested in preventing both a significant decrease in plaque-forming units (PFU) and a delay in plaque formation. Skim milk, egg yolk, and some metabolic media were effective in maintaining PFU at 0 C, but did not prevent a significant delay in plaque formation. However, infectivity of R. typhi for tissue culture and mice was markedly decreased when suspended in metabolic media at 26 C. Addition of BHI to the routine tissue culture overlay reversed the deleterious effects of sucrose-phosphate solutions. The effects of Mg2+, Mn2+, K+, Na+, sucrose, and glutamate were also examined. No significant differences were observed between R. rickettsi and R. typhi in their responses to different media. The results of this study suggest the necessity for a reappraisal of previous studies of metabolism and infectivity of rickettsiae in these media. Images

Wike, David A.; Ormsbee, Richard A.; Tallent, George; Peacock, Marius G.

1972-01-01

391

Effects of various suspending media on plaque formation by rickettsiae in tissue culture.  

PubMed

Effects of some media used for suspending rickettsiae during purification, for metabolic studies, and in titrations of infectious rickettsiae were examined with respect to the plaque-forming ability of Rickettsia rickettsi and R. typhi in primary chicken embryo tissue cultures and the infectivity of R. typhi in mice. Brain heart infusion broth (BHI) was found superior to all other media tested in preventing both a significant decrease in plaque-forming units (PFU) and a delay in plaque formation. Skim milk, egg yolk, and some metabolic media were effective in maintaining PFU at 0 C, but did not prevent a significant delay in plaque formation. However, infectivity of R. typhi for tissue culture and mice was markedly decreased when suspended in metabolic media at 26 C. Addition of BHI to the routine tissue culture overlay reversed the deleterious effects of sucrose-phosphate solutions. The effects of Mg(2+), Mn(2+), K(+), Na(+), sucrose, and glutamate were also examined. No significant differences were observed between R. rickettsi and R. typhi in their responses to different media. The results of this study suggest the necessity for a reappraisal of previous studies of metabolism and infectivity of rickettsiae in these media. PMID:4673757

Wike, D A; Ormsbee, R A; Tallent, G; Peacock, M G

1972-10-01

392

The role of attention problems and impulsiveness in media violence effects on aggression.  

PubMed

Previous research has established media violence as a causal risk factor for aggressive behavior. Several theoretical mechanisms have been identified to explain this effect. The present study assessed 422 undergraduate students to test the possibility that individual differences in attention problems and impulsiveness can help explain the link between violent media and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness proved to be a distinct construct from other processes believed to mediate aggression (aggressive beliefs, aggression related schemata, trait anger, and trait hostility). Attention problems and impulsiveness were uniquely related to both media exposure (total weekly hours and violent content) and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness were particularly related to impulsive (as opposed to premeditated) aggression. These results suggest that attention problems and impulsiveness may play an important role in violent media effects on aggression. PMID:24452487

Swing, Edward L; Anderson, Craig A

2014-01-01

393

The effects of violent media on adolescent inkblot responses: implications for clinical and forensic assessments.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to assess the degree to which violent media stimulate violent fantasy as depicted on inkblot responses. In Experiment I, 41 gifted high school students were exposed to a bucolic or violent film clip and then were asked to produce inkblot responses. In Experiment II, a second sample of 43 additional students were exposed to a verbal description of the bucolic or violent scene to assess whether the "hot" or "cooler" media (McLuhan, 1964) had different effects on the inkblot responses. In both experiments, the media exposure led to increased levels of violent responses, and in both cases males produced more violent responses. There was no sex by media interaction effect. Implications for clinical and forensic assessments are presented. PMID:10348406

Hess, T H; Hess, K D; Hess, A K

1999-04-01

394

Effective poroelastic model for one-dimensional wave propagation in periodically layered media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective poroelastic model is proposed that describes seismic attenuation and dispersion in periodically layered media. In this model, the layers represent mesoscopic-scale heterogeneities (larger than the grain and pore sizes but smaller than the wavelength) that can occur both in fluid and solid properties. The proposed effective medium is poroelastic, contrary to previously introduced models that lead to effective viscoelastic media. The novelty lies in the application of the pressure continuity boundary conditions instead of no-flow conditions at the outer edges of the elementary cell. The approach results in effective Biot elastic moduli and effective porosity that can be used to obtain responses of heterogeneous media in a computationally fast manner. The model is validated by the exact solution obtained with the use of Floquet's theory. Predictions of the new effective poroelastic model are more accurate than the predictions of the corresponding effective viscoelastic model when the Biot critical frequency is of the same order as the frequency of excitation, and for materials with weak frame. This is the case for media such as weak sandstones, weakly consolidated and unconsolidated sandy sediments. The reason for the improved accuracy for materials with low Biot critical frequency is the inclusion of the Biot global flow mechanism which is not accounted for in the effective viscoelastic media. At frequencies significantly below the Biot critical frequency and for well-consolidated porous rocks, the predictions of the new model are in agreement with previous solutions.

Kudarova, Asiya M.; van Dalen, Karel N.; Drijkoningen, Guy G.

2013-11-01

395

Technical editing and the effective communication of scientific results  

SciTech Connect

Communication of scientific results--whether for professional journals, poster sessions, oral presentations, or the popular press--is an essential part of any scientific investigation. The technical editor plays an important rolein ensuring that scientists express their results correctly and effectively. Technical editing comprises far more than simple proofreading. The editor`s tasks may range from restructuring whole parpagrphs and suggesting improved graphical aids to writing abstracts and preparing first drafts of proposals. The technical editor works closely with scientists to present complex ideas to differentaudiences, including fellow scentists, funding agencies, and the general public. New computer technologyhas also involved the technical editor not only with on-line editing but also with preparing CD ROMs and World Wide Web pages.

Pieper, G.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.; Picologlou, S.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Experimental Facilities Div.

1996-05-01

396

Photographic Framing in the Stem Cell Debate: Integrating Eye-Tracking Data for a New Dimension of Media Effects Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of research examines media framing of key scientific issues of our time, specifically, those issues that include political and moral components, such as global climate change and stem cell research. In regard to the mass media, framing refers to the process by which the media organize and make sense of the news, which has an effect on

Nicole S. Dahmen

2012-01-01

397

Does microwave sterilization of growth media involve any non-thermal effect?  

PubMed

Fast reactions mediated by microwaves are often attributed by many to non-thermal effect. We show here that rapid formation of Maillard reaction products during microwave sterilization of growth medium results from concentration effect and not any non-thermal effect. This leads to an improved method for microwave sterilization of growth media. PMID:24246231

Bhattacharjee, Mrinal K; Delsol, Jodie K

2014-01-01

398

OUTREACH AND USER LINKAGE:COMMUNICATING AN UNKNOWN SCIENTIFIC SUBJECT IN THE NEW MEDIA - SCIENCE 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geodesy is a branch of science that other scientific communities let alone the general public hardly know. It turns out that the new media, or web 2.0 as some call it, represent a new opportunity for outreach and of linking to user groups both inside and outside the scientific community. Through active participation in social media and contributing to science oriented websites and forums, the science of geodesy and its applications are being described on the premises of the scientists themselves rather than going via science journalists. I'll describe how I as a Research Director went from planning an outreach expedition in China and Tibet to become a reporter and producer of webTV for a former CNN director. And how this journey widened my network both within my own field as well as among the general public. A Green Space - A Green Earth has already led to better cooperation with other geodetic groups around the world. The science language is rather limited and often prevent us from hitting spot on when sharing our well meant educational information. By allowing ourselves to be more playful and less worried that our colleagues might arrest us for imprecise description of our field, we can reach even those who believe they couldn't care less about any scientific topic.

Bye, B. L.

2009-12-01

399

Modelling radiation-induced bystander effect and cellular communication.  

PubMed

In the last 10 years evidence has accumulated on the so-called radiation-induced 'non-targeted effects' and in particular on bystander effects, consisting of damage induction in non-irradiated cells most likely following the release of soluble factors by the irradiated ones. These phenomena were observed for different biological endpoints, both lethal and non-lethal for the cell. Although the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown, it is now widely recognised that two types of cellular communication (i.e. via gap junctions and/or release of molecular messengers into the extracellular environment) play a pivotal role. Furthermore, the effects can be significantly modulated by parameters such as cell type and cell-cycle stage, cell density, time after irradiation etc. Theoretical models and simulation codes can be of help to improve our knowledge of the mechanisms, as well as to investigate the possible role of these effects in determining deviations from the linear relationship between dose and risk which is generally applied in radiation protection. In this paper three models, including an approach under development at the University of Pavia, will be presented in detail. The focus will be on the various adopted assumptions, together with their implications in terms of non-targeted radiobiological damage and, more generally, low-dose radiation risk. Comparisons with experimental data will also be discussed. PMID:17142819

Ballarini, F; Alloni, D; Facoetti, A; Mairani, A; Nano, R; Ottolenghi, A

2006-01-01

400

The ACTS Flight System - Cost-Effective Advanced Communications Technology. [Advanced Communication Technology Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multibeam communications package (MCP) for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be STS-launched by NASA in 1988 for experimental demonstration of satellite-switched TDMA (at 220 Mbit/sec) and baseband-processor signal routing (at 110 or 27.5 Mbit/sec) is characterized. The developmental history of the ACTS, the program definition, and the spacecraft-bus and MCP parameters are reviewed and illustrated with drawings, block diagrams, and maps of the coverage plan. Advanced features of the MPC include 4.5-dB-noise-figure 30-GHz FET amplifiers and 20-GHz TWTA transmitters which provide either 40-W or 8-W RF output, depending on rain conditions. The technologies being tested in ACTS can give frequency-reuse factors as high as 20, thus greatly expanding the orbit/spectrum resources available for U.S. communications use.

Holmes, W. M., Jr.; Beck, G. A.

1984-01-01

401

Effect of pore structure on gas trapping in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capillary trapping of nonwetting phase in porous media plays an important role in many geological processes. For example, large portions of hydrocarbons cannot be extracted from reservoirs due to capillary forces, while in carbon sequestration processes; capillary trapping might improve the storage efficiency. An important case is when the wetting phase (mostly water) displaces a low-viscosity low-density fluid. In such cases, like water encroachment into gas reservoirs or rising of water table in soils, competition of gravity, viscous, and capillary forces determines the final configuration of the fluids in invaded zone. The trapped nonwetting phase and its distribution within the porous media will affect many other processes such as flow of the other fluids and mass transfer phenomena. Thus, investigating the parameters affecting phase trapping and distribution, especially their relation to pore structure, which controls the capillary action, is required. The aim is to predict gas trapping from structural properties of the material. We conducted a series of column experiments, in which water displaces air at a range of flow rates in different glass-bead packs. The final 3D configuration and morphology of fluids was observed using X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT). We extracted 3D structure of porous media as well as of the trapped gas phase, and quantified them in terms of volume ratios, interfacial area, and morphology. Then we investigated the relations of the trapped phase to capillary forces (pore structure) and viscous forces (front velocity). The results give us new insights to explore the flow and dissolution processes: We found no systematic dependency of the front velocity of the invading water phase in the velocity range from 0.1 to 0.6 cm/min what corresponds to capillary numbers from 2 to 12 ×10^-6. Our experimental results indicate that the capillary trapping mechanism is controlled by the local pore structure and local connectivity and not by thermodynamics, i.e. large pores are occupied first by the gas phase.

Mohammadian, Sadjad; Geistlinger, Helmut; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

2014-05-01

402

Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (82nd, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 3-8, 1999). Media Management and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Media Management and Education section of the Proceedings contains the following 9 papers: "Communication Technique: How Does a U.S. Record Company Identify, Target and Reach Its Audience in an Ever-Competitive Marketplace?" (Lisa L. Rollins); "Supplier-Buyer Relationship in the Global News Value-Chain in the Internet Age" (Yong-Chan Kim);…

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

403

The ACTS multibeam communications package - Cost-effective advanced communications technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A forerunner demonstration system of NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite program is described. The 30/20-GHz system features two large offset cassegrain satellite antennas; an S-band TTC antenna protrudes from the antenna tower, providing clear broad-angle coverage in both deployed and stowed configurations. Consideration is given to three onboard data routing techniques, namely FDMA channel interconnects, satellite-switched time-division multiple access, and baseband processing. Geographically, the system provides coverage for about 20 percent of the United States. Several block diagrams of the communication payload and customer premise service terminal are included.

Holmes, W. M., Jr.

404

Behavioural Intervention Effects in Dysarthria Following Stroke: Communication Effectiveness, Intelligibility and Dysarthria Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Dysarthria is a common post-stroke presentation. Its management falls within the remit of the speech and language therapy profession. Little controlled evaluation of the effects of intervention for dysarthria in stroke has been reported. Aims: The study aimed to determine the effects of a period of behavioural communication

Mackenzie, Catherine; Lowit, Anja

2007-01-01

405

Examining the effects of media on learners' mental representations and cognitive processes in science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the effects of television and video games as media on the science knowledge and understanding of middle school students in a Midwest, urban charter school. Twenty-five study participants were organized into eight focus groups. Each group, which comprised of three to four members, was introduced to one of two media types, a television show episode or video games, and then asked a series of questions prompting group dialogue. Results show that students were able to distinguish science ideas presented in the media and made science content connections from previous classroom learning. Implications suggest how teachers can utilize weapons of mass instruction, the tools of media technology, to fight against the challenges that plague our current system of education.

Carr, Adrienne L.

406

Effect of communications training on medical student performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONTEXT: Although physicians' communication skills have been found to be related to clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction, teaching of communication skills has not been fully integrated into many medical school curricula or adequately evaluated with large-scale controlled trials.\\u000aOBJECTIVE: To determine whether communications training for medical students improves specific competencies known to affect outcomes of care.\\u000aDESIGN AND SETTING: A

Michael J. Yedidia; Colleen C. Gillespie; Elizabeth Kachur; Mark D. Schwartz; Judith K. Ockene; Amy E. Chepaitis; Clint W. Snyder; Aaron Lazare; Lipkin Mack Jr

2003-01-01

407

Transport in fractal media: an effective scale-invariant approach.  

PubMed

In this paper an advective-dispersion equation with scale-dependent coefficients is proposed for describing transport through fractals. This equation is obtained by imposing scale invariance and assuming that the porosity, the dispersion coefficient, and the velocity follow fractional power laws on the scale. The model incorporates the empirically found trends in highly heterogeneous media, regarding the dependence of the dispersivity on the scale and the dispersion coefficient on the velocity. We conclude that the presence of nontrivial fractal parameters produces anomalous dispersion, as expected, and that the presence of convective processes induces a reescalation in the concentration and shifts the tracer velocity to different values with respect to the nonfractal case. PMID:23005215

Hernandez-Coronado, H; Coronado, M; Herrera-Hernandez, E C

2012-06-01

408

From consumer response to active consumer: Measuring the effectiveness of interactive media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional measures of the effectiveness of marketing communications suggest a specific process by which marketing actions\\u000a influence consumers. This article offers a broader philosophical perspective on measuring the effectiveness of marketing communications\\u000a that focuses on interaction as the unit of analysis, rather than the behavior of either the marketer or the consumer. Structuration\\u000a theory is discussed and offered as a

David W. Stewart; Paul A. Pavlou

2002-01-01

409

Students' Communication Apprehension and Its Effects on PBL Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between medical students' communication apprehension and their performance in problem-based learning sessions as assessed by a tutor and by their knowledge acquisition. (DDR)

Blue, Amy V.; Stratton, Terry D.; Donnelly, Michael B.; Nash, Phyllis P.; Schwartz, Richard W.

1998-01-01

410

Information Simulation Model: Effective Risk Communication and Disaster Management in a Mixed Cultural Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disaster management planning requires an understanding of the issues facing a mixed cultural society to ensure effective risk information\\/ communication. Irrespective of the length or status of abode in the migrant destination, international standards require timely and effective communication of emergency disaster information to all. Therefore, if disaster managers are to effectively meet this challenge, models and tools must be

Virginia Clerveaux; Toshitaka Katada; Kyohei Hosoi

2008-01-01

411

[Mass communication of dengue surveillance data: effect of an intervention in Guadalajara de Buga, Colombia].  

PubMed

Introduction: Maintaining communities abreast of their local dengue situation could help to keep them motivated to participate in dengue control and to decrease Aedes entomological indexes. Objectives: To evaluate the coverage and reach of an intervention based on mass-media communication of dengue surveillance reports and its effect on the presence of intra-domiciliary breeding sites for Aedes in Guadalajara de Buga, Colombia. Materials and methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,426 households to identify the intra-domiciliary breeding sites and to characterize the intervention exposure. To evaluate the effect of the intervention, a case-control study was performed. All households with positive breeding sites were considered as cases. Four controls per case were randomly selected among the non-positive breeding site households located on the same block of the case. Results: The positive house index was 2.5%; coverage was 59.4% and reach was 22.3%. There was no association between the intervention and the presence of intra-domiciliary breeding sites. The presence of water plants and flower pots were associated to positive breeding sites (p=0.01) and the use of screens was associated to the absence of breeding sites (p=0.02). Conclusions: Although intervention coverage was adequate, the lack of association between the intervention and the absence of positive breeding sites requires assessing its fidelity, factors related to the design, and the implementation process. PMID:24652257

Carabalí, Mabel; Ocampo, Clara Beatriz; Toledo, María Eugenia; Osorio, Lyda

2013-09-01

412

Effectively using communication to enhance the provision of pediatric palliative care in an acute care setting  

PubMed Central

The capability of effectively communicating is crucial when providing palliative care, especially when the patient is a child. Communication among healthcare professionals with the child and family members must be clear, concise, and consistent. Use of a communication tool provides documentation for conversations, treatment plans, and specific desires related to care. This paper describes communication theory, portrays the use of this theory to develop a communication tool, and illustrates the use of this tool by multidisciplinary members of a healthcare team to provide pediatric palliative care.

Hubble, Rosemary; Trowbridge, Kelly; Hubbard, Claudia; Ahsens, Leslie; Ward-Smith, Peggy

2008-01-01

413

Effects of Communication Environment, Immediacy, and Communication Apprehension on Cognitive and Affective Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the relationships among immediacy, communication apprehension, and learning outcomes between two class formats: mixed-size sections (i.e., large-lecture/break-out sections) versus self-contained sections. Indicates that students' cognitive learning outcomes were slightly greater in the mixed-size sections versus self-contained sections.…

Messman, Susan J.; Jones-Corley, Jennifer

2001-01-01

414

The Mass Media Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This anthology consists of two major sections, "The News Media" and "The Entertainment Media." Both feature essays by critics, working professionals, and professional observers of the media. One aim of the anthology is to show the pervasive effect of the media on us. The section on news media comments on such topics as credibility gap, Vice…

Holmgren, Rod, Ed.; Norton, William, Ed.

415

Children, Media, and Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media effect studies on children have focused on time spent with media relative to some outcome. We argue that researchers should examine quantity as the sole measure of media input only when it is of theoretical significance. In most circumstances media content and form are more important than time spent. A media diet metaphor is proposed as an alternative approach

Daniel R. Anderson; Katherine G. Hanson

2009-01-01

416

Globalization of the Mass Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Report examines U.S. communications policies in light of the increasingly global nature of the electronic mass media. Mass media firms -- which produce films, video and radio programming, and recorded music -- are dramatically expanding foreign direct...

1993-01-01

417

NCI Digital Media Guidelines  

Cancer.gov

NCI Digital Media Guidelines NCI Digital Media Guidelines The NCI Digital Media Guidelines provide developers and content managers guidance on the visual and content standards, as well as policies and procedures, in effect for National Cancer Institute

418

Communication training for health professionals who care for patients with cancer: a systematic review of effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEffective communication is increasingly recognised as a core clinical skill. However, there is evidence that health and social care professionals still lack basic communication skills.PurposeTo assess the effectiveness of different communication skills training courses for health professionals in cancer care.MethodsWe searched six computerised databases and augmented this with a follow-up of references and grey (unpublished) literature. We included all studies

Marjolein Gysels; Alison Richardson; Irene J. Higginson

2004-01-01

419

Radiation effects on communication performance of radio frequency identification tags.  

PubMed

Radioactive materials (sources) are managed by bookkeeping and stocktaking. The radiation protection section staffs should check the sources manually. Annual effective dose concerning stocktaking of them are estimated at some mSv concerning fingers. A radio frequency identification (RFID) tag's absorbed dose is estimated at some dozen Gy. RFID for stocktaking automatically was devised. Radiation effects on the communication performance of RFID tags were investigated by using response times and read ranges as indices. The RFID system was composed of a computer, a detector, and transponders (tag) consisting of an integrated circuit chip and an antenna. The tag is joined to the source for identification. The tags were irradiated at doses between 5 and 5,000 Gy by an x-ray irradiator. The response times and the read ranges were tracked from 40 to 23,200 min after irradiation. Relative read ranges fluctuated between 0.9 and 1.1 in the dose region less than 2,000 Gy, but fluctuated greatly in the dose region beyond 2,000 Gy. Malfunctioning tags appeared from 3,000 Gy, and all tags malfunctioned in the dose region over 4,500 Gy. The threshold dose leading to malfunction was determined to be 2,100 Gy. Time variation of relative read ranges was classified into four patterns. The pattern shifted from pattern 1 to 4 when the dose was increased. The relative read ranges lengthened in pattern 1. The relative read rages were approximately 1.0 in pattern 2. The read ranges tentatively shortened, then recovered in pattern 3. The tags malfunctioned in pattern 4. Once the tags malfunctioned, they never recovered their performance. Radiation enhances or deteriorates communication performance depending on dosage. Tags can spontaneously recover from radiation deterioration. The time variation of the read ranges can be illustrated by enhancement, deterioration, and recovery. The mechanism of four patterns is explained based on the variation of the frequency harmonization strength and activation voltage by irradiation. The annual effective dose of radiation protection section staffs can be reduced considerably. PMID:20938239

Mori, Kazuyuki; Meng, Zhaowu; Kikuchi, Hirosumi; Kataoka, Yasuhide; Nakazato, Kazuhisa; Deji, Shizuhiko; Ito, Shigeki; Saze, Takuya; Hirota, Masahiro; Nishizawa, Kunihide

2010-11-01

420

Getting the message across: opportunities and obstacles in effective communication in hypertension care.  

PubMed

Effective communication is a prerequisite for any successful encounter between patient and provider. Nevertheless, it is unclear how/where communication can impact/affect adherence to antihypertensive medication, and maintenance of lifestyle changes to control blood pressure targets. Poor physician communication is correlated with a higher risk of treatment nonadherence. Given the high rates of hypertension globally, this review serves to enlighten aspects of the communication exchange from a provider, context, and patient perspective. Relevant articles were analyzed to assess barriers, solutions, and optimizations for communication with hypertensive patients. To support the findings, a model of communication in the context of hypertension treatment is presented, which comprises three phases: comprehension and acceptance, translation into action, and long-term retention. Secondly, an analysis of care providers (bedside manner, verbal/nonverbal communication, empathy and sex, time, knowledge base), context (format and tailoring of the message, and physical environment), and patient-related factors (sex, socio-economic status, language and health literacy, culture, age, psychological factors) were assessed in relation to hypertension. Current literature is limited regarding reciprocal communication, adaptive packaging of messages, and active verification of effective communication. To improve communication, hypertension care programs could benefit from better communication training, more team-based approaches, and flexible tools based on information technology. PMID:22635137

Jolles, Emily P; Clark, Alexander M; Braam, Branko

2012-08-01

421

The Effects of Journaling on Oral Communication in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research project seeks to implement journaling as a means of improving oral communication in the classroom. The student population will consist of an elementary reading class, a junior high art class, and a high school math class. The probable cause literature gathered revealed a lack oral communication occurs in the classroom during…

Grbavac, Michele; Piggott, Christopher; Rougeux, Mark

422

Effective communication skills are the key to good cancer care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication within oncology is a core clinical skill but one in which few oncologists or specialist cancer nurses have received much formal training. Inadequate communication may cause much distress for patients and their families, who often want considerably more information than is usually provided. Many patients leave consultations unsure about the diagnosis and prognosis, confused about the meaning of—and need

L Fallowfield; V Jenkins

1999-01-01

423

Communicating Effectively with Parents and Families Who Are Homeless  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents and families who are homeless need positive communication experiences with early childhood programs. This article provides several examples of ways to connect with families who are homeless and to meet their needs through continuous communication. Staff development ideas, parent and family involvement, and school-community support strategies are especially noted.

Kevin J. Swick; Lora Battle Bailey

2004-01-01

424

Effects of noise and workload on a communication task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication is of vital importance in the cockpit today. It is essential for pilots to be able to understand the messages sent to them. A major requirement of any aircraft voice communication system is the ability to deliver intelligible speech. In a loose sense, intelligibility may be defined as the understanding of spoken words (Webster, 1979). Several language factors affect

D. H. Orrell II

1985-01-01

425

The Effects of Electronic Communication on American Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technological and language innovation often flow in concert with one another. Casual observation by researchers has shown that electronic communication memes, in the form of abbreviations, have found their way into spoken English. This study focuses on the current use of electronic modes of communication, such as cell smartphones, and e-mail, and…

Schneider, Erin; Kozak, L. Viola; Santiago, Roberto; Stephen, Anika

2012-01-01

426

Mass communication and journalism faculty’s perceptions of the effectiveness of email communication with college students: a nationwide study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly 700 US journalism and mass communication faculty (all teaching personnel) reported their perceptions of student email use via a web?based survey. This nationwide study focused on the content of email sent by faculty to students, email’s effectiveness, and email’s effect on student learning. Comparisons were made based on faculty gender, rank, age, and ethnicity. Findings suggest that despite statistical

Bradford L. Yates; Jennifer Wood Adams; Brigitta R. Brunner

2009-01-01

427

The Yin and Yang of Media Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I use the yin\\/yang metaphor from Chinese philosophy to contrast two intellectual traditions in the field of media ecology: the yang tradition of studying media as environments, focusing on mass communication and on intrapersonal communication; and the yin tradition of studying environments as media, emphasizing interpersonal communication. I argue that in recent years, an imbalance in the

Janet Sternberg

428

Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: Design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project  

PubMed Central

Background European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies") aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe. Methods/Design This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to communicating coherent messages to consumers in Europe. Discussion The FoodRisC project offers a unique approach to the investigation of food risk/benefit communication. The effective spread of food risk/benefit information will assist initiatives aimed at reducing the burden of food-related illness and disease, reducing the economic impact of food crises and ensuring that confidence in safe and nutritious food is fostered and maintained in Europe.

2011-01-01

429

Cost Effectiveness of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination against Acute Otitis Media in Children: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

While pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have shown to be highly effective against invasive pneumococcal disease, their potential effectiveness against acute otitis media (AOM) might become a major economic driver for implementing these vaccines in national immunization programmes. However, the relationship between the costs and benefits of available vaccines remains a controversial topic. Our objective is to systematically review the literature on

Chantal W. B. Boonacker; Pieter H. Broos; Elisabeth A. M. Sanders; Anne G. M. Schilder; Maroeska M. Rovers

2011-01-01

430

Effective Darcy-scale contact angles in porous media imbibing solutions of various surface tensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface tensions of high-salinity solutions are significantly different from those of pure water. Our objective was to develop and test a methodology to determine whether these surface tension effects predictably alter imbibition into dry and moist porous media. Static and dynamic experiments were performed using four grades of quartz sand to determine the effects of solution salinity on imbibition. Results

Noam Weisbrod; Thomas McGinnis; Mark L. Rockhold; Michael R. Niemet; John S. Selker

2009-01-01

431

Effective Darcy-Scale Contact Angles in Porous Media Imbibing Solutions of Various Surface Tensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface tensions of high-salinity solutions are significantly different from those of pure water. Our objective was to develop and test a methodology to determine whether these surface-tension effects predictably alter imbibition into dry and moist porous media. Static and dynamic experiments were performed using four grades of quartz sand to determine the effects of solution salinity on imbibition. Results were

Noam Weisbrod; Thomas McGinnis; Mark L. Rockhold; Michael R. Niemet; John S. Selker

2009-01-01

432

An iterative method for calculating the shielding effectiveness and light transmittance of multilayered media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, rapid, and accurate numerical method is presented for calculating the shielding effectiveness and the light transmittance of multilayered media. A uniform treatment is used to obtain the shielding effectiveness of the layers at microwave frequencies and their light transmittance at optical frequencies. The method is completely general and does not involve any approximation. It can be applied at

Haim Cory; Shabtay Shiran; Monica Heilper

1993-01-01

433

Effective ways to communicate family planning: cases and strategies.  

PubMed

Results of 2 workshops on the improvement of communication and motivational skills of outreach workers using research results and field experiences are presented. General strategies, illustrative cases, and specific IEC strategies geared to the solution of common problems are suggested. General strategies for identifying opportunities for introduction of population and family planning in the community include use of felt needs and problems of the community as vehicles for introduction, coordination with other agencies operating in the community, winning the support of influential and accepted leaders in the community, and establishing credibility with the people before launching population projects. Strategies for breaking through traditional values and beliefs include emphasizing aspects of the population program that do not run counter to religious beliefs, using messages which emphasize qualities highly valued by the people, being careful to respect persons the community looks up to regardless of their opposition, considering the cultural background and preparation of the audience before introducing sensitive subjects, and appealing to people's needs and interests to elicit participation. Rumors and misconceptions on family planning may be counteracted by directing motivational and informational efforts at persons likely to influence potential acceptors as well as the potential acceptors themselves, avoiding antagonizing religious leaders who preach against family planning, presenting only accurate family planning information, and establishing the source of rumors about side effects. Complaints about side effects should be attended promptly, clear and specific instructions on method use should be given, and the worker should present herself as a satisfied user. PMID:12233386

Alberto, C S; Villanueva, C L

1979-01-01

434

Media violence.  

PubMed

Research on the effects of media violence is not well understood by the general public. Despite this fact, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific literature about the unhealthy effects of media violence. Meta-analyses show that media-violence viewing consistently is associated with higher levels of antisocial behavior, ranging from the trivial (imitative violence directed against toys) to the serious (criminal violence), with many consequential outcomes in between (acceptance of violence as a solution to problems, increased feelings of hostility, and the apparent delivery of painful stimulation to another person). Desensitization is another well-documented effect of viewing violence, which is observable in reduced arousal and emotional disturbance while witnessing violence, the reduced tendency to intervene in a fight, and less sympathy for the victims of violence. Although there is evidence that youth who are already violent are more likely to seek out violent entertainment, there is strong evidence that the relationship between violence viewing and antisocial behavior is bidirectional. There is growing evidence that media violence also engenders intense fear in children which often lasts days, months, and even years. The media's potential role in solutions to these problems is only beginning to be explored, in investigations examining the uses and effects of movie ratings, television ratings, and the V-chip, and the effects of media literacy programs and public education efforts. Future research should explore important individual differences in responses to media violence and effective ways to intervene in the negative effects. PMID:10904203

Cantor, J

2000-08-01

435

Quantitative dosimetric assessment for effect of gold nanoparticles as contrast media on radiotherapy planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In CT planning for radiation therapy, patients may be asked to have a medical procedure of contrast agent (CA) administration as required by their physicians. CA media improve quality of CT images and assist radiation oncologists in delineation of the target or organs with accuracy. However, dosimetric discrepancy may occur between scenarios in which CA media are present in CT planning and absent in treatment delivery. In recent preclinical experiments of small animals, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been identified as an excellent contrast material of x-ray imaging. In this work, we quantitatively evaluate the effect of AuNPs to be used as a potential material of contrast enhancement in radiotherapy planning with an analytical phantom and clinical case. Conray 60, an iodine-based product for contrast enhancement in clinical uses, is included as a comparison. Other additional variables such as different concentrations of CA media, radiation delivery techniques and dose calculation algorithms are included. We consider 1-field AP, 4-field box, 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a recent technique of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). CA media of AuNPs (Conray 60) with concentrations of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% containing 28.2, 56.4, 84.6, 112.8 and 141.0 mg of gold (iodine) per mL were prepared prior to CT scanning. A virtual phantom with a target where nanoparticle media are loaded and clinical case of gastric lymphoma in which the Conray 60 media were given to the patient prior to the CT planning are included for the study. Compared to Conray 60 media with concentration of 10%/50%, Hounsfield units for AuNP media of 10%/50% are 322/1608 higher due to the fact that atomic number of Au (Z=79) is larger than I (Z=53). In consequence, dosimetric discrepancy of AuNPs is magnified between presence and absence of contrast media. It was found in the phantom study that percent dose differences between presence and absence of CA media may be reduced by delivery techniques of 7-field IMRT or VMAT. To manage less than 3% of percent dose difference, it was suggested an upper limit of 15% (or 42.3 mg Au/mL) of AuNP media in the phantom study; 8% (or 22.5 mg Au/mL) in the specific clinical case.

Tu, Shu-Ju; Yang, Pei-Ying; Hong, Ji-Hong; Lo, Ching-Jung

2013-07-01

436

Multi-level functionality of social media in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake.  

PubMed

This study examines the multi-level functionalities of social media in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011. Based on a conceptual model of multi-level story flows of social media (Jung and Moro, 2012), the study analyses the multiple functionalities that were ascribed to social media by individuals, organisations, and macro-level social systems (government and the mass media) after the earthquake. Based on survey data, a review of Twitter timelines and secondary sources, the authors derive five functionalities of social media: interpersonal communications with others (micro level); channels for local governments; organisations and local media (meso level); channels for mass media (macro level); information sharing and gathering (cross level); and direct channels between micro-/meso- and macro-level agents. The study sheds light on the future potential of social media in disaster situations and suggests how to design an effective communication network to prepare for emergency situations. PMID:24905811

Jung, Joo-Young; Moro, Munehito

2014-07-01

437

Effects of starvation on bacterial transport through porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major problem preventing widespread implementation of microbial injection strategies for bioremediation and/or microbially enhanced oil recovery is the tendency of bacteria to strongly adhere to surfaces in the immediate vicinity of the injection point. Long term (weeks to months) nutrient starvation of bacteria prior to injection can decrease attachment and enhance transport through porous media. This paper summarizes results of starvation-enhanced transport experiments in sand columns of 30 cm, 3 m, and 16 m in length. The 16 m column experiments compared transport, breakthrough and distribution of adhered cells for starved and vegetative cultures of Klebsiella oxytoca, a copious biofilm producer. Results from these experiments were subsequently used to design and construct a field-scale biofilm barrier using starved Pseudomonas fluorescens. The 30 cm and 3 m sand columns experiments investigated starvation-enhanced transport of Shewanella algae BrY, a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium. In both cases the vegetative cells adsorbed onto the sand in higher numbers than the starved cells, especially near the entrance of the column. These results, taken together with studies cited in the literature, indicate that starved cells penetrate farther (i.e. higher breakthrough concentration) and adsorb more uniformly along the flow path than vegetative cells.

Cunningham, Alfred B.; Sharp, Robert R.; Caccavo, Frank; Gerlach, Robin

2007-06-01

438

Effect of X-ray contrast media on blood flow properties after coronary angiography.  

PubMed

In vitro studies suggest that ionic and nonionic X-ray contrast media have different effects on rheological parameters. The risk of thrombotic complications in coronary interventions was reported to be lower using ionic contrast media. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different types of contrast media on rheological parameters after coronary angiography. Sixty patients were randomized to four groups: ioxaglate 320 (dimeric, ionic, n = 18), iomeprol 400 (monomeric, nonionic, n = 12), iobitridol 350 (monomeric, nonionic, n = 12), and iodixanol 320 (dimeric, nonionic, n = 18). Blood samples were collected via the side port of the arterial sheath immediately before and at the end of coronary angiography. In our study, all types of contrast media caused a significant decrease in haematocrit (Hct), plasma viscosity (PV), erythrocyte aggregation (EA), and in the platelet reactivity index (PRI). The most pronounced decrease in Hct was found using the ionic dimer ioxaglate. There were no significant differences between the contrast media with respect to their effects on PV, EA, and PRI. PMID:10593427

Scheller, B; Hennen, B; Thünenkötter, T; Mrowietz, C; Markwirth, T; Schieffer, H; Jung, F

1999-11-15

439

Optical memory effect from polarized Laguerre–Gaussian light beam in light-scattering turbid media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Propagation effects of polarized Laguerre–Gaussian light with different orbital angular momentum (L) in turbid media are described. The optical memory effect in scattering media consisting of small and large size (compared to the wavelength) scatterers is investigated for scattered polarized light. Imaging using polarized laser modes with a varying orbital strength L-parameter was performed. The backscattered image quality (contrast) was enhanced by more than an order of magnitude using circularly polarized light when the concentration of scatterers was close to invisibility of the object.

Shumyatsky, Pavel; Milione, Giovanni; Alfano, Robert R.

2014-06-01

440

Potential Threats to the Effective Communication of Genetic Risk Information: The Case of Cystic Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dramatic increase in genetic knowledge engendered by the mapping of the human genome brings with it a need for greater understanding of how to effectively communicate genetic risk information. Using a combination of observational and self-report data, this study examined potential threats to effective risk communication in 17 families whose infant received a positive newborn screening test for cystic

James Price Dillard; Lijiang Shen; Anita Laxova; Phillip Farrell

2008-01-01

441

Content vs. Product: The Effects of Single Sourcing on the Teaching of Technical Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies and discusses the effects of single sourcing on the writing process. Provides suggestions for incorporating the teaching of single sourcing into technical communication courses. Concludes that educating students about the process of single sourcing is important if they are to become effective technical communicators in the industry. (SG)

Eble, Michelle F.

2003-01-01

442

The Effects of Persuasive Communications on Attitudes. Annual Report Number Three.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research into the effects on attitudes of persuasive communications has continued to focus primarily on the empirical analysis of communication and source effects. While theory has been used to guide the work, it is less of the grand and overpowering variety, and more of the kind that employs assumptions about basic psychological processes that…

Weiss, Walter

443

Military Engagement with Social Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The military has a tremendous opportunity to strategically communicate with its members, allies, and even its enemies through a simple concept called 'social media.' There has never been a better opportunity for an organization to instantly communicate wi...

J. H. Lehman

2011-01-01

444

Preparing for effective communications during disasters: lessons from a World Health Organization quality improvement project  

PubMed Central

Background One hundred ninety-four member nations turn to the World Health Organization (WHO) for guidance and assistance during disasters. Purposes of disaster communication include preventing panic, promoting appropriate health behaviors, coordinating response among stakeholders, advocating for affected populations, and mobilizing resources. Methods A quality improvement project was undertaken to gather expert consensus on best practices that could be used to improve WHO protocols for disaster communication. Open-ended surveys of 26 WHO Communications Officers with disaster response experience were conducted. Responses were categorized to determine the common themes of disaster response communication and areas for practice improvement. Results Disasters where the participants had experience included 29 outbreaks of 13 different diseases in 16 countries, 18 natural disasters of 6 different types in 15 countries, 2 technical disasters in 2 countries, and ten conflicts in 10 countries. Conclusion Recommendations to build communications capacity prior to a disaster include pre-writing public service announcements in multiple languages on questions that frequently arise during disasters; maintaining a database of statistics for different regions and types of disaster; maintaining lists of the locally trusted sources of information for frequently affected countries and regions; maintaining email listservs of employees, international media outlet contacts, and government and non-governmental organization contacts that can be used to rapidly disseminate information; developing a global network with 24-h cross-coverage by participants from each time zone; and creating a central electronic sharepoint where all of these materials can be accessed by communications officers around the globe.

2014-01-01

445

Fluid effects on seismic waves in hard rocks with fractures and in soft granular media  

SciTech Connect

When fractures in otherwise hard rocks are filled with fluids (oil, gas, water, CO{sub 2}), the type and physical state of the fluid (liquid or gas) can make a large difference in the wave speeds and attenuation properties of seismic waves. The present work summarizes methods of deconstructing theses effects of fractures, together with any fluids contained within them, on wave propagation as observed in reflection seismic data. Additional studies of waves in fluid-saturated granular media show that the behavior can be quite different from that for fractured media, since these materials are typically much softer mechanically than are the fractured rocks (i.e., having a very small drained moduli). Important fluid effects in such media are often governed as much by fluid viscosity as by fluid bulk modulus.

Berryman, James G.

2009-03-01

446

Inequalities in non-communicable diseases and effective responses.  

PubMed

In most countries, people who have a low socioeconomic status and those who live in poor or marginalised communities have a higher risk of dying from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) than do more advantaged groups and communities. Smoking rates, blood pressure, and several other NCD risk factors are often higher in groups with low socioeconomic status than in those with high socioeconomic status; the social gradient also depends on the country's stage of economic development, cultural factors, and social and health policies. Social inequalities in risk factors account for more than half of inequalities in major NCDs, especially for cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. People in low-income countries and those with low socioeconomic status also have worse access to health care for timely diagnosis and treatment of NCDs than do those in high-income countries or those with higher socioeconomic status. Reduction of NCDs in disadvantaged groups is necessary to achieve substantial decreases in the total NCD burden, making them mutually reinforcing priorities. Effective actions to reduce NCD inequalities include equitable early childhood development programmes and education; removal of barriers to secure employment in disadvantaged groups; comprehensive strategies for tobacco and alcohol control and for dietary salt reduction that target low socioeconomic status groups; universal, financially and physically accessible, high-quality primary care for delivery of preventive interventions and for early detection and treatment of NCDs; and universal insurance and other mechanisms to remove financial barriers to health care. PMID:23410608

Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Khang, Young-Ho; Asaria, Perviz; Blakely, Tony; Cowan, Melanie J; Farzadfar, Farshad; Guerrero, Ramiro; Ikeda, Nayu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Msyamboza, Kelias P; Oum, Sophal; Lynch, John W; Marmot, Michael G; Ezzati, Majid

2013-02-16

447

Effects of checklist interface on non-verbal crew communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigation looked at the effects of the spatial layout and functionality of cockpit displays and controls on crew communication. Specifically, the study focused on the intra-cockpit crew interaction, and subsequent task performance, of airline pilots flying different configurations of a new electronic checklist, designed and tested in a high-fidelity simulator at NASA Ames Research Center. The first part of this proposal establishes the theoretical background for the assumptions underlying the research, suggesting that in the context of the interaction between a multi-operator crew and a machine, the design and configuration of the interface will affect interactions between individual operators and the machine, and subsequently, the interaction between operators. In view of the latest trends in cockpit interface design and flight-deck technology, in particular, the centralization of displays and controls, the introduction identifies certain problems associated with these modern designs and suggests specific design issues to which the expected results could be applied. A detailed research program and methodology is outlined and the results are described and discussed. Overall, differences in cockpit design were shown to impact the activity within the cockpit, including interactions between pilots and aircraft and the cooperative interactions between pilots.

Segal, Leon D.

1994-01-01

448

Mesoscopic predictions of the effective thermal conductivity for microscale random porous media.  

PubMed

A mesoscopic numerical tool has been developed in this study for predictions of the effective thermal conductivities for microscale random porous media. To solve the energy transport equation with complex multiphase porous geometries, a lattice Boltzmann algorithm has been introduced to tackle the conjugate heat transfer among different phases. With boundary conditions correctly chosen, the algorithm has been initially validated by comparison with theoretical solutions for simpler cases and with the existing experimental data. Furthermore, to reflect the stochastic phase distribution characteristics of most porous media, a random internal morphology and structure generation-growth method, termed the quartet structure generation set (QSGS), has been proposed based on the stochastic cluster growth theory for generating more realistic microstructures of porous media. Thus by using the present lattice Boltzmann algorithm along with the structure generating tool QSGS, we can predict the effective thermal conductivities of porous media with multiphase structure and stochastic complex geometries, without resorting to any empirical parameters determined case by case. The methodology has been applied in this contribution to several two- and three-phase systems, and the results agree well with published experimental data, thus demonstrating that the present method is rigorous, general, and robust. Besides conventional porous media, the present approach is applicable in dealing with other multiphase mixtures, alloys, and multicomponent composites as well. PMID:17500821

Wang, Moran; Wang, Jinku; Pan, Ning; Chen, Shiyi

2007-03-01

449

An Activity Report on Electromagnetic Wave Sensing in Random Media and High Data Rate Satellite Communications, Pursued in a Research Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following two kinds of researches are conducted in my laboratory: (A) electromagnetic (EM) wave theory with application to sensing, imaging and material estimate, and (B) high data rate satellite communications systems. Each research has five subjects and this paper addresses four subjects, which are (A-1) Effective parameters of a medium containing many particles, (A-2) Radar characteristics of a body surrounded by a random medium, (A-3) Statistical methods for measuring ocean waves in satellite altimetry, and (B-4) Atmospheric turbulence effects on high data rate satellite communications. Here A and B in parentheses indicate above two researches, respectively. To solve these subjects the author has proposed fundamental and original methods and thereby obtained many interesting results to scientists and engineers. General remarks are made on the results in this paper.

Tateiba, Mitsuo

450

The effects of physical environments in medical wards on medication communication processes affecting patient safety.  

PubMed

Physical environments of clinical settings play an important role in health communication processes. Effective medication management requires seamless communication among health professionals of different disciplines. This paper explores how physical environments affect communication processes for managing medications and patient safety in acute care hospital settings. Findings highlighted the impact of environmental interruptions on communication processes about medications. In response to frequent interruptions and limited space within working environments, nurses, doctors and pharmacists developed adaptive practices in the local clinical context. Communication difficulties were associated with the ward physical layout, the controlled drug key and the medication retrieving device. Health professionals should be provided with opportunities to discuss the effects of ward environments on medication communication processes and how this impacts medication safety. Hospital administrators and architects need to consider health professionals' views and experiences when designing hospital spaces. PMID:24486620

Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

2014-03-01

451

Achieving Effective Communication during Requirements Elicitation - A Conceptual Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Requirements elicitation is one of the most important and critical phase in software development. It is the moment in which\\u000a the users’ needs of a software system are captured, understood and validated. This is achieved through two-way communications\\u000a between users and requirement analysts. The process however is not so straightforward to accomplish. The problem of poor communication\\u000a among requirement analysts

Fares Anwar; Rozilawati Razali; Kamsuriah Ahmad

452

Vaccine Risk\\/Benefit Communication: Effect of an Educational Package for Public Health Nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether an in-service for public health nurses (PHNs) and accompanying educational materials could improve vaccine risk\\/benefit communication. The content and timing of vaccine communication were recorded during 246 pre-and 217 postintervention visits in two public health immunization clinics. Pre-\\/postintervention comparisons showed PHN communication of severe side effects (13% vs. 44%, p <

Terry C. Davis; Doren D. Fredrickson; Estela M. Kennen; Sharon G. Humiston; Connie L. Arnold; Mackey S. Quinlin; Joseph A. Bocchini

2006-01-01

453

A normative study of family media habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study documents family media habits in six areas: electronic and print Media Use, parental Monitoring of children's media, parental Consistency regarding rules for children's media use, parents' reports of observable Media Effects on their children, parents' Knowledge about media and media effects, and how much children participate in Alternative Activities to electronic media. A random national sample of

Douglas A. Gentile; David A. Walsh

2002-01-01

454

The foxconn suicides and their media prominence: is the werther effect applicable in china?  

PubMed Central

Background Media reporting of suicide and its relationship with actual suicide has rarely been investigated in Mainland China. The "Foxconn suicides" is a description referring to a string of suicides/attempts during 2010, all of which were related to a giant electrical manufacturing company, Foxconn. This study aimed to examine the clustering and copycat effects of the Foxconn suicides, and to investigate temporal patterns in how they were reported by the media in Mainland China, Hong Kong (HK), and Taiwan (TW). Methods Relevant articles were collected from representative newspapers published in three big cities in Mainland China (Beijing (BJ), Shenzhen (SZ), and Guangzhou (GZ)), HK, and TW, together with searching intensity data on the topic conducted using the Baidu search engine in Mainland China. The temporal clustering effects of the Foxconn suicides and their media prominence were assessed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The media reports of the Foxconn suicides' temporal patterns were explored using a nonparametric curve estimation method (that is, the local linear method). The potential mutual interactions between the Foxconn suicides and their media prominence were also examined, using logistic and Poisson regression methods. Results The results support a temporal clustering effect for the Foxconn suicides. The BJ-based newspapers' reporting and the occurrence of a Foxconn suicide/attempt are each found to be associated with an elevated chance of a further Foxconn suicide 3 days later. The occurrence of a Foxconn suicide also immediately influenced the intensity of both Baidu searching and newspaper reporting. Regional diversity in suicide reporting tempo-patterns within Mainland China, and similarities between HK and TW, are also demonstrated. Conclusions The Foxconn suicides were temporally clustered. Their occurrences were influenced by the reporting of BJ-based newspapers, and contagion within the company itself. Further suicide research and prevention work in China should consider its special media environment.

2011-01-01

455

Effective conductivity of periodic media with cuboid inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a numerical solution for the effective conductivity of a periodic binary medium with cuboid inclusions located on an octahedral lattice. The problem is defined by five dimensionless geometric parameters and one dimensionless conductivity contrast parameter. The effective conductivity is determined by considering the flow through the “elementary flow domain” (EFD), which is an octant of the unitary

Thomas Harter; Christen Knudby

2004-01-01

456

The development of pointing perception in infancy: effects of communicative signals on covert shifts of attention.  

PubMed

The present study aims to investigate the interplay of verbal and nonverbal communication with respect to infants' perception of pointing gestures. Infants were presented with still images of pointing hands (cue) in combination with an acoustic stimulus. The communicative content of this acoustic stimulus was varied from being human and communicative to artificial. Saccadic reaction times (SRTs) from the cue to a peripheral target were measured as an indicator of the modulation of covert attention. A significant cueing effect (facilitated SRTs for congruent compared with incongruent trials) was only present in a condition with additional communicative and referential speech. In addition, the size of the cueing effect increased the more human and communicative the acoustic stimulus was. This indicates a beneficial effect of verbal communication on the perception of nonverbal communicative pointing gestures, emphasizing the important role of verbal communication in facilitating social understanding across domains. These findings additionally suggest that human and communicative (ostensive) signals are not qualitatively different from other less social signals but just quantitatively the most attention grabbing among a number of other signals. PMID:23356522

Daum, Moritz M; Ulber, Julia; Gredebäck, Gustaf

2013-10-01

457

Source effects in communication and persuasion research: A meta-analysis of effect size  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a message source on the persuasion of a target audience has been a topic of interest to scholars in psychology,\\u000a consumer behavior, and communications for many years. Narrative reviews of this literature are available; the contribution\\u000a of this study is that we present a quantitative review of studies of source effects on persuasion. One of our research

Elizabeth J. Wilson; Daniel L. Sherrell

1993-01-01

458

Effect of Magnetic Recording Layer Thickness on Media Performance in CoCrPt-Oxide Perpendicular Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure, magnetic properties, and recording performance of CoCrPt-oxide perpendicular media were investigated at different magnetic layer film thicknesses (tMAG) from 2 to 27 nm. Media coercivity (Hc) reached a maximum value of 6.8 kOe at tMAG= 18 nm and then decreased to 5.3 kOe. Both crystallographic and magnetic c-axis orientations remained constant in the film thickness range of 12-27

U. Kwon; H. S. Jung; M. Kuo; E. M. T. Velu; S. S. Malhotra; W. Jiang; G. Bertero; R. Sinclair

2006-01-01

459

Effective Game Based Citizenship Education in the Age of New Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational systems worldwide are being challenged to respond effectively to the digital revolution and its implications for learning in the 21st century. In the present new media age, educational reforms are desperately needed to support more open and flexible structures of on-demand learning that equip students with competencies required in a…

Chee, Yam San; Mehrotra, Swati; Liu, Qiang

2013-01-01

460

An effective medium model for elastic waves in microcrack damaged media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct numerical simulations of waves traveling through microcrack-damaged media are conducted and the results are compared to effective medium calculations to determine the applicability of the latter for studying wave propagation. Both tensile and compressive waves and various angular distributions of randomly-located cracks are considered. The relationships between the input wavelength and the output wave speed and output signal strength

Dan Su; Michael H. Santare; George A. Gazonas

2008-01-01

461

An Experimental Investigation of News Source and the Hostile Media Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the interaction among different news sources, individual levels of partisanship, and the hostile media effect in sports news. Explains that university students read a balanced story about their home-town college football team in one of three newspapers: the home-town, the cross-state rival university's town, or a neutral town paper.…

Arpan, Laura M.; Raney, Arthur A.

2003-01-01

462

Effects of Guided Writing Strategies on Students' Writing Attitudes Based on Media Richness Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to develop different guided writing strategies based on media richness theory and further evaluate the effects of these writing strategies on younger students' writing attitudes in terms of motivation, enjoyment and anxiety. A total of 66 sixth-grade elementary students with an average age of twelve were invited to…

Lan, Yu-Feng; Hung, Chun-Ling; Hsu, Hung-Ju

2011-01-01

463

The Effect of Otitis Media on Articulation in Children with Cerebral Palsy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study involving 20 Afrikaans-speaking children with cerebral palsy found that recurrent otitis media in early childhood had a negative effect on articulation abilities of the 7 to 11-year-old children but that other factors such as intelligence also played a role. (JDD)

Van der Vyver, Marguerite; And Others

1988-01-01

464

The State of Knowledge Pertaining to Selection of Cost-Effective Training Methods and Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program was conducted to prepare a plan for research toward empirical determination of critical and procedures for optimal selection of cost-effective methods and media. The procedure followed was a review of pertinent literature, analysis of the findings, identification of problems for further research, and formulation of new approaches to…

Spangenberg, Ronald W.; And Others

465

News Media Exposure and Its Learning Effects during the Persian Gulf War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows significantly higher levels of news exposure across all media channels during the Persian Gulf War compared to a year-and-a-half earlier. Finds that both exposure to newspaper and to cable and PBS news programming were positively related to levels of knowledge about the war. Discusses the effectiveness of information dissemination by various…

Pan, Zhongdang; And Others

1994-01-01

466

Effect of absorption on the diffusion coefficient of classical waves in random media with microstructure resonances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of absorption on the diffusion constant of classical waves propagating in media with randomly positioned Mie scatterers is studied. Profound changes including a significant increase in the diffusion constant are found and attributed to the growth of the transport mean free path in the vicinity of Mie resonances. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America

Livdan, D.; Lisyansky, A. A.

1995-12-01

467

The Effects of an Early History of Otitis Media on Children's Language and Literacy Skill Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Otitis media (OM) or middle ear infection is a common childhood illness and is most frequent during the crucial first 3 years of life when speech and language categories are being established, which could potentially have a long-term effect on language and literacy skill development. Aims: The purpose of the current study was to…

Winskel, Heather

2006-01-01

468

A Whole Community Approach to Otitis Media--Reducing Its Incidence and Effects. Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Otitis media (OM) is an inflammation of the middle ear that is prevalent in childhood. OM can result in hearing loss, which interferes with learning. In Australia, indigenous children experience OM more often than other populations. Because teachers lack knowledge of OM and its effects on learning, affected children are often mislabeled as problem…

McSwan, David

469

Homeopathy in acute otitis media in children: treatment effect or spontaneous resolution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) faces a number of problems, including antibiotic resistance. Homeopathy has been shown to be capable of treating AOM successfully. As AOM has a high rate of spontaneous resolution, a trial to prove any treatment-effect has to demonstrate very fast resolution of symptoms. The purpose of this study was to find out

H Frei; A Thurneysen

2001-01-01

470

The Effect of Media on Charitable Giving and Volunteering: Evidence from the "Give Five" Campaign  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundraising campaigns advertised via mass media are common. To what extent such campaigns affect charitable behavior is mostly unknown, however. Using giving and volunteering surveys conducted biennially from 1988 to 1996, I investigate the effect of a national fundraising campaign, "Give Five," on charitable giving and volunteering patterns. The…

Yoruk, Baris K.

2012-01-01

471

Boundary and inertia effects on flow and heat transfer in porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work analyzes the effects of a solid boundary and the inertial forces on flow and heat transfer in porous media. Specific attention is given to flow through a porous medium in the vicinity of an impermeable boundary. The local volume-averaging technique has been utilized to establish the governing equations, along with an indication of physical limitations and assumptions

K. VAFAI; C. L. TIEN

1981-01-01

472

Effects of a Media Ethics Course on Student Values: A Replication and Expansion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study replicated and expanded a study by Stuart Surlin, reported in "Journalism Quarterly" in 1987, on the effects of a mass media ethics course upon students' value systems. Whereas Surlin did a simple pre- and posttest on 20 students from one class, using the Rokeach 36-item terminal and instrumental values inventory, the present study drew…

Black, Jay; And Others

473

A media information analysis for implementing effective countermeasure against harmful rumor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When large scale earthquake occurred, the word of "harmful rumor" came to be frequently heard. The harmful rumor means an economic damage which is caused by the action that people regard actually safe foods or areas as dangerous and then abort consumption or sightseeing. In the case of harmful rumor caused by earthquake, especially, tourism industry receives massive economic damage. Currently, harmful rumor which gives substantial economic damage have become serious social issue which must be solved. In this paper, we propose a countermeasure method for harmful rumor on the basis of media trend in order to implement speedy recovery from harmful rumor. Here, we investigate the amount and content of information which is transmitted to the general public by the media when an earthquake occurred. In addition, the media information in three earthquakes is treated as instance. Finally, we discuss an effective countermeasure method for dispeling harmful rumor through these analysis results.

Nagao, Mitsuyoshi; Suto, Kazuhiro; Ohuchi, Azuma

2010-04-01

474

Singular analysis to homogenize planar metamaterials as nonlocal effective media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homogenization of metamaterials based on the analysis of their reflection and transmission spectra often leads to nonphysical values of the effective permittivity and permeability. Here we address this challenge by analyzing the scattering spectra in terms of perfectly emitting and absorbing modes considering nonlocal constitutive relations. The decomposition of the scattering spectra into even and odd modes permits us to quantify the nonlocal contributions and provides explicit formulas for the effective permittivity and permeability which always satisfy the passivity and causality constraints.

Grigoriev, Victor; Demésy, Guillaume; Wenger, Jérôme; Bonod, Nicolas

2014-06-01

475

Communication Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high arithmetic rates of media processing applications require architectures with tens to hundreds of functional units, multiple register files, and explicit interconnect between functional units and register files. Communication scheduling enables scheduling to these emerging architectures, including those that use shared buses and register file ports. Scheduling to these shared interconnect architectures is difficult because it requires simultaneously allocating

Peter R. Mattson; William J. Dally; Scott Rixner; Ujval J. Kapasi; John D. Owens

2000-01-01

476

Measuring the Dynamics of Climate Change Communication in Mass Media and Social Networks with Computer-Assisted Content Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, multiple authors have examined media representations of and public attitudes towards climate change, as well as how these representations and attitudes differ from scientific knowledge on the issue of climate change. Content analysis of newspaper publications, TV news, and, recently, Internet blogs has allowed for identification of major discussion themes within the climate change domain (e.g., newspaper trends, comparison of climate change discourse in different countries, contrasting liberal vs. conservative press). The majority of these studies, however, have processed texts manually, limiting textual population size, restricting the analysis to a relatively small number of themes, and using time-expensive coding procedures. The use of computer-assisted text analysis (CATA) software is important because the difficulties with manual processing become more severe with an increased volume of data. We developed a CATA approach that allows a large body of text materials to be surveyed in a quantifiable, objective, transparent, and time-efficient manner. While staying within the quantitative tradition of content analysis, the approach allows for an interpretation of the public discourse closer to one of more qualitatively oriented methods. The methodology used in this study contains several steps: (1) sample selection; (2) data preparation for computer processing and obtaining a matrix of keyword frequencies; (3) identification of themes in the texts using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA); (4) combining identified themes into higher order themes using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA); (5) interpretation of obtained public discourse themes using factor scores; and (6) tracking the development of the main themes of the climate change discourse through time. In the report, we concentrate on two examples of CATA applied to study public perception of climate change. First example is an analysis of temporal change in public discourse on climate change. Applying CATA to a conservatively selected sample of 4043 articles published on climate change in The New York Times from 1995, we found a considerable change in major topics of discussion. One of the most significant tendencies is a gradual decline in the volume of material within the "Science" topic and an expansion of themes classified under the "Politics" topic. The second example is the analysis of public ability to detect climate change, in which we used a database of over 1 million Twitter messages on climate change that we have collected. We compared the intensity of tweeting on climate change with the "common-sense climate index" by Hansen et al (1999) and found that the weather extremes experienced at a certain location is immediately reflected in the number of tweets discussing climate change originating from that location. Although the CATA approach certainly has its limitations, we are convinced that it has a number of advantages over manual processing: it is able to analyze large textual bodies, is more time efficient, has a higher level of detail, enhances the richness of interpretation, and is able to reliably track discourse development through time.

Kirilenko, A.; Stepchenkova, S.

2012-12-01