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1

New Communication Media Technologies: Perceptual, Cognitive, and Aesthetic Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing visual communication media technologies, such as computerized television, three-dimensional video, digital video interactive (DVI), and high-definition television hinder rather than enhance viewers' perceptual processes, understanding, and aesthetic appreciation of visual messages. Visual communication media researchers should reach out…

Metallinos, Nikos

1994-01-01

2

International Summer School in Political Communication and Electoral Behaviour (New) Media Effects on Electoral Behaviour  

E-print Network

International Summer School in Political Communication and Electoral Behaviour (New) Media Effects (ICA) are pleased to announce the 4th edition of the International Summer School on (New) Media Effects of Milan (Italy) and the Political Communication Division of the International Communication Association

De Cindio, Fiorella

3

New Communication Media Technologies: Perceptual, Cognitive and Aesthetic Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual communication media technologies, particularly television, hinder rather than enhance viewer perceptual processes, understanding, and aesthetic appreciation of visual messages transmitted by means of such technologies. Emerging technologies, including high-definition, interactive, and holographic television, will not necessarily improve or…

Metallinos, Nikos

4

Effective Use of Social Media in Communicating Climate Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internet and social media have been a critical vector for misinformation on climate change. Scientists have not always been proactive or effective in utilizing the medium to bring attention to the best science, to correct misinformation and overcome urban myths. Similarly, mainstream journalists have been handicapped in dealing with the wide open nature of the medium, and often muted by editorial concerns or budget restrictions. Independent communicators who are highly motivated can make inroads in this area by using the internet's immediacy and connectivity to consistently connect viewers and readers to reliable information. Over the last 4 years, I have developed a series of you tube videos, made deliberately provocative to engage the internet's confrontational culture, but carefully crafted to bring the best science into the freewheeling community. In doing so, I have won the confidence of leading climate scientists, and in some cases assisted them in clarifying their message. This presentation will share simple tips, useful practices, and effective strategies for making complex material more clear and user friendly, and help scientists better convey the stories hidden in their data.

Sinclair, P. W.

2012-12-01

5

Media Effects and Communication Bias in Diverse Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends research on factors influencing effective communication in diverse groups. The effects of social group membership on attention and influence were examined using 17 groups of three men and three women. Each group discussed a controversial topic face-to-face or using either an anonymous or an identified group support system environment. Social group membership biased both attention and influence;

Anita D. Bhappu; Terri L. Griffith; Gregory B. Northcraft

1997-01-01

6

Communications and media services  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's internal and external communication methods are reviewed. NASA information services for the media, for the public, and for employees are discussed. Consideration is given to electron information distribution, the NASA TV-audio system, the NASA broadcast news service, astronaut appearances, technology and information exhibits, speaker services, and NASA news reports for internal communications. Also, the NASA worldwide electronic mail network is described and trends for future NASA communications and media services are outlined.

Mcculla, James W.; Kukowski, James F.

1990-01-01

7

Media and Communication Is Media and Communication right for me?  

E-print Network

the best out of this degree. The skills you can gain from a Media and Communication degree are wide self-management and organisational skills · coherent and concise written communication · communicationMedia and Communication Is Media and Communication right for me? If you have an interest in the way

Harman, Neal.A.

8

Conveying Cutting-Edge Discoveries to Nonscientists: Effective Communication with Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The benefits of using information and news media for disseminating cutting-edge scientific discoveries to the public are well known. Taxpayers and lawmakers need to be informed about the implications of public investments, young students' interest can be molded toward science- and technology-based careers, and public awareness of important issues can be raised by effectively using media. However, communication with news media is different from the means commonly used by scientists—journal publications and conference presentations. This article is intended to provide information on three basic aspects of media interactions—why, what, and how to communicate. The increasing importance of this mode of dissemination in this information age cannot be ignored; rather, it can be effectively utilized for educating a wider population base.

Gupta, Nikhil; Hamilton, Kathleen; Chamot, Joshua

2013-07-01

9

Communication Media in Ancient Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in early means of communication and in the uses and kinds of media that existed in ancient cultures is starting to grow among communication scholars. Conversation analysis of these cultures is obviously impossible, so that the emphasis must rest with material cultural artifacts. Many ancient cultures used non-verbal codes for dyadic…

Jabusch, David M.

10

Implementing social media in technical communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social media changes traditional technical communication by turning a passive, reading audience into active, contributing participants. Using social media channels, the technical communicators get closer to the users, breaching the gap between the creators and consumers of the support content. Currently, social media channels are an underutilised asset for the technical communicators and for the companies that employ them, because

Laura Katajisto

2010-01-01

11

Online Collaborative Learning and Communication Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the dynamics of online collaborative learning and communication media regarding team projects. Media richness and social presence theories are well-accepted rational theories that explain media choices and media behaviors, and serve as the theoretical framework. Quantitative and qualitative data collection…

Havard, Byron; Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong

2008-01-01

12

Environmental groups' communication strategies in multiple media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in political science and communication note that interest groups simplify and dramatise issues in order to gain public support. Through a focus on US environmental organisations, this negative assessment is re-evaluated by examining the influence of two sets of factors on groups’ communication styles: communication forum and group characteristics. Using content analysis of group communications across several media, criticisms

Melissa K. Merry

2012-01-01

13

Teens and alcohol: A consumer behavior analysis of interpersonal communication and mass media effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate a health and public policy issue in terms of consumer behavior and communication theories. The Health Belief Model (Rosenstock, 1974) provided the foundation for studying social marketing and liquor industry advertising with interpersonal communication between a teen and peers, a teen and parents and a teen and other adults with alcohol consumption

Tanuja R Sheth

2003-01-01

14

NEW MEDIA LITERACY communication for sustainability  

E-print Network

1 NEW MEDIA LITERACY communication for sustainability John Blewitt, Director of Lifelong Learning of sustainability literacy is connected with ongoing work on media literacy. Many individuals and virtually every persuasiveness. In this context, sustainability literacy, however defined, requires a sensitivity to virtual

Neirotti, Juan Pablo

15

OSU Communications, Media, and Marketing Services  

E-print Network

;Marketing, Media, and Communications Services Audit (5/2009) Project goals and methodology Goals per Provost Sabah Randhawa: Investigate and recommend changes for achieving savings while providing high levels practices conducted in Spring 2008 by University Advancement) · Email questionnaire re: pertinent resource

Escher, Christine

16

Communication Studies, Cultural Studies, and Media Studies Infobase  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mick Underwood's extensive infobase of communication, culture, and media studies introduces various models and theories of communication and explains their social and cultural implications. In addition, the infobase includes a detailed index of terms, a bibliography of references, a list of links, a message forum, a chat room, and a series of online quizzes. The great volume of information at this site is effectively managed via several navigation tools: a site map, an index, pull-down menus, and meaningful icons.

17

Social Media and the Evolution of Corporate Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social media has revolutionized corporate communications, rapidly changing the way that public relations campaigns or programs are distributed and measured. Rather than the traditional method of pure output, social media has forced corporate communications to shift to a dialogue in which the stakeholders, and not just the companies, have power over the message. Social media is a revolutionary communications tool

Laura Matthews

18

The Role of Mass Media in Health Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the research that has been done on mass media effects in health communication: breakthroughs in treatment, rising costs of medical care, innovations in the organization of health care, governmental involvement, the rise in malpractice litigation, and so on. The conceptual framework employed proposes a continuum of audience…

Brenner, Donald J.; Quesada, Gustavo M.

19

Communication and Media Studies Communicating is something we all do on a daily basis. An  

E-print Network

of communication in relationships, the workplace, the media, the political and legal spheres and organizationsCommunication and Media Studies Communicating is something we all do on a daily basis. An understanding of human communication, and the ability to communicate well, is key to a successful career

Miles, Will

20

Aesthetic Theories of the Visual Communication Media Arts: Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The scientific study of the visual communication media arts must be based on both general theories regarding these media and specific theories developed for each medium. Although it is possible that the delay in the development of vigorous scientific studies and empirical research findings in the visual communication media of television has caused…

Metallinos, Nikos

21

A Media Mosaic: Canadian Communications Through a Critical Eye.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 19 articles that comprise this book are concerned with the subject of communications and media in Canada. In Part One, "The Media: A Diagnosis," the articles are "The Power and Impotence of the Media" by Russell Elman, "The Myth of Objectivity" by Walt McDayter, "In the Shadow of Giants: Concentration and Monopolies in the Media" by Walt…

McDayter, Walt, Ed.

22

Mass Communication Functions in a Media-Rich Developing Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses media-centered communication research models and applies them to a field setting in Venezuela in an attempt to assess the extent to which social processes depend on mass communication. See CS 703 632 for subscription information. (MH)

Chaffee, Steven H.; Izcaray, Fausto

1975-01-01

23

Interactive Communication by Applying Contemporary Media in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today society has become a multimedia society, turned towards new forms of communication, ready for changes and the new communicational challenges. The students, surrounded by PCs, mobile phones and ever so sophisticated software, videos, wireless sets and TVs, DVDs, satellite transmissions and "the media above all other media"--the Internet.…

Tatkovic, Nevenka; Ruzic, Maja

2005-01-01

24

Media and Communication School of Language, Social and Political Sciences  

E-print Network

1 Media and Communication Handbook 2014 School of Language, Social and Political Sciences #12 BA Major in COMS 5 BA Minor in COMS 5 BA graduate profile, Media and Communication 5 Careers advice 5 courses allow you to change streams through UCStudentWeb (through the timetable tool). Otherwise you

Hickman, Mark

25

How scientists use social media to communicate their research  

PubMed Central

Millions of people all over the world are constantly sharing an extremely wide range of fascinating, quirky, funny, irrelevant and important content all at once. Even scientists are no strangers to this trend. Social media has enabled them to communicate their research quickly and efficiently throughout each corner of the world. But which social media platforms are they using to communicate this research and how are they using them? One thing is clear: the range of social media platforms that scientists are using is relatively vast and dependent on discipline and sentiment. While the future of social media is unknown, a combination of educated speculation and persuasive fact points to the industry's continual growth and influence. Thus, is that not only are scientists utilizing social media to communicate their research, they must. The ability to communicate to the masses via social media is critical to the distribution of scientific information amongst professionals in the field and to the general population. PMID:22085450

2011-01-01

26

Using social media to communicate during crises: an analytic methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Emerging Media Integration Team at the Department of the Navy Office of Information (CHINFO) has recently put together a Navy Command Social Media Handbook designed to provide information needed to safely and effectively use social media. While not intended to be a comprehensive guide on command use of social media or to take the place of official policy, the Handbook provides a useful guide for navigating a dynamic communications environment. Social media are changing the way information is diffused and decisions are made, especially for Humanitarian Assistance missions when there is increased emphasis on Navy commands to share critical information with other Navy command sites, government, and official NGO (nongovernmental organization) sites like the American Red Cross. In order to effectively use social media to support such missions, the Handbook suggests creating a centralized location to funnel information. This suggests that as the community of interest (COI) grows during a crisis, it will be important to ensure that information is shared with appropriate organizations for different aspects of the mission such as evacuation procedures, hospital sites, location of seaports and airports, and other topics relevant to the mission. For example, in the first 14 days of the U.S. Southern Command's Haiti HA/DR (Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief) mission, the COI grew to over 1,900 users. In addition, operational conditions vary considerably among incidents, and coordination between different groups is often set up in an ad hoc manner. What is needed is a methodology that will help to find appropriate people with whom to share information for particular aspects of a mission during a wide range of events related to the mission. CNA has developed such a methodology and we would like to test it in a small scale lab experiment.

Greene, Marjorie

2011-06-01

27

Communication and Media Studies Page 89Sonoma State University 2014-2015 Catalog COMMUNICATION AND MEDIA STUDIES  

E-print Network

Communication and Media Studies Page 89Sonoma State University 2014-2015 Catalog COMMUNICATION, communication skills, production design, organizational skills, and professional internship. Historical study school. Students are required to take a senior-year internship. The depart- ment emphasizes internships

Ravikumar, B.

28

Using social media to communicate during crises: an analytic methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Emerging Media Integration Team at the Department of the Navy Office of Information (CHINFO) has recently put together a Navy Command Social Media Handbook designed to provide information needed to safely and effectively use social media. While not intended to be a comprehensive guide on command use of social media or to take the place of official policy, the

Marjorie Greene

2011-01-01

29

Visualizing Communication on Social Media Making Big Data Accessible  

E-print Network

Visualizing Communication on Social Media Making Big Data Accessible Karissa McKelvey, Alex Rudnick. With social media networks such as Twitter, we can collect large data sets of online discourse. Social science or of the structure of large social networks. In this paper, we describe our recent extensions to Truthy, a system

Menczer, Filippo

30

Gap between science and media revisited: Scientists as public communicators  

PubMed Central

The present article presents an up-to-date account of the current media relations of scientists, based on a comprehensive analysis of relevant surveys. The evidence suggests that most scientists consider visibility in the media important and responding to journalists a professional duty—an attitude that is reinforced by universities and other science organizations. Scientific communities continue to regulate media contacts with their members by certain norms that compete with the motivating and regulating influences of public information departments. Most scientists assume a two-arena model with a gap between the arenas of internal scientific and public communication. They want to meet the public in the public arena, not in the arena of internal scientific communication. Despite obvious changes in science and in the media system, the orientations of scientists toward the media, as well as the patterns of interaction with journalists, have their roots in the early 1980s. Although there is more influence on public communication from the science organizations and more emphasis on strategic considerations today, the available data do not indicate abrupt changes in communication practices or in the relevant beliefs and attitudes of scientists in the past 30 y. Changes in the science–media interface may be expected from the ongoing structural transformation of the public communication system. However, as yet, there is little evidence of an erosion of the dominant orientation toward the public and public communication within the younger generation of scientists. PMID:23940312

Peters, Hans Peter

2013-01-01

31

India: Implications of Communication Infrastructure on the Production of Media in State Training Institutes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Description of training institutes developed by the government of India to improve the irrigation system focuses on the communication system infrastructure for the production and use of audiovisual materials for training. Highlights include local production of media; equipment and communication networks; cost effectiveness; and recommendations for…

Maughan, George R.

1989-01-01

32

Strategic Communication and Social Media: An MBA Course from a Business Communication Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social media offers an exciting new area for our discipline to produce research and pedagogy that is in high demand by students, industry constituents, and other disciplines. This article discusses why business communication scholars should focus on social media as an important stream of study and outlines an MBA course in social media strategy…

Meredith, Michael J.

2012-01-01

33

CHOIX DES MEDIAS ET EFFICACITE DE LA COMMUNICATION  

E-print Network

CHOIX DES MEDIAS ET EFFICACITE DE LA COMMUNICATION : LE CAS DE LA RELATION ENTRE L réflexion menée dans cet article constitue une exploration de la problématique relative à une communication « efficace » de l'information comptable par l'expert-comptable auprès de ses clients dirigeants de PE. L

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

34

Synchronous Communication Media in the Software Requirements Negotiation Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an empirical study in the requirements negotiation process. In particular, the study compares traditional face-to-face meeting and distributed communication by using two rich synchronous communication media (i.e., an enhanced chat, and a three-dimensional virtual environment). We have observed that there is a difference in the time taken to negotiate software requirements in favor of face-to-face meeting. As the only assessment of the time could not be meaningful, we have also analyzed the quality of the structured description of the negotiated software requirements. We observed that the quality of the structured descriptions is not influenced by the used communication media.

Erra, Ugo; Scanniello, Giuseppe

35

Visual Communication: Its Process and Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process and effects of visual communication are examined in this paper. The first section, "Visual Literacy," discusses the need for a visual literacy involving an understanding of the instruments, materials, and techniques of visual communication media; it then presents and discusses a model illustrating factors involved in the visual…

Metallinos, Nikos

36

Media and Control of Violence: Communication in School Shootings  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter examines school shootings to explore the role that communication processes play in the dynamics related to the\\u000a control of violence. We argue that much of what we observe in regard to school shootings is a mass-media phenomenon. Many\\u000a such acts of violence carry expressive, communicative connotations, and thus school shootings should be understood as discursive\\u000a processes. We present

Glenn W. Muschert; Massimo Ragnedda

37

Digital Media Tenure Track Position Georgia Tech's School of Literature, Media, and Communication (LMC), which provides diverse  

E-print Network

Digital Media Tenure Track Position Georgia Tech's School of Literature, Media, and Communication should send a cover letter (containing a description of the applicant's research and pedagogical approach be addressed to Chair, Search Committee, School of Literature, Media, and Communication and emailed as a single

Li, Mo

38

Media, Communication Technology, and Protest Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT When examining the role of networks in social protest, it is difficult to overstate the importance of communicationtechnology. Virtually all theoretical insights about networks and social ties must be understood within a specific technological framework. As communication technology changes over time, the reach and impact of interpersonaland organizational activist networks is modified in ways that can either extend, intensify,

Daniel J. Myers

39

Rhetorics and Communication Media across Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent developments in contrastive rhetoric have looked at a variety of cultural, linguistic, historical, and social factors that influence the complex acts of acquiring and demonstrating second language (L2) writing competencies. These developments, however, focus almost exclusively on writing. The present paper suggests that other communication

Thatcher, Barry

2004-01-01

40

Explaining and Communicating Science Using Student-Created Blended Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students engage with science content when they are asked to explain and communicate their knowledge to others. In particular, encouraging students to create various digital media forms such as videos, podcasts, vodcasts, screencasts, digital stories and animations to explain science is usually engaging, especially if they have ownership of the…

Hoban, Garry; Nielsen, Wendy; Shepherd, Alyce

2013-01-01

41

The Mass Media: Aspen Institute Guide to Communication Industry Trends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to provide a single reference source for the most significant statistics describing communication industry trends in the United States since 1900, this book is a collection and assessment of the currently available quantitative descriptive information on mass media industries. The core of the book is its more than 300 tables of data on…

Sterling, Christopher H.; Haight, Timothy R.

42

Prevocational Exploration Communications and Media. Competency-Based Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This competency-based communications and media-cluster curriculum is designed for use by teachers and students at the early high school level during the exploration of a variety of occupations. The purpose of the materials is to assist students in assessing whether or not they would like to prepare for these kinds of occupations. The curriculum…

Marshall Univ., Huntington, WV. Dept. of Occupational, Adult, and Safety Education.

43

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Media Use and Communication Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great deal of scholarly work has explored the motivations behind media consumption and other various communication traits. However, little research has investigated the sources of these motivations and virtually no research considers their potential genetic underpinnings. Drawing on the field of behavior genetics, we use a classical twin design…

Kirzinger, Ashley E.; Weber, Christopher; Johnson, Martin

2012-01-01

44

[Risks of risk communication - lessons we may learn from media communication].  

PubMed

The German media system produces an enormous diversity of media contents both in the audiovisual and the press areas. The increasing number of media products promotes keen competition between new and existing media companies. German citizens consume mass media products for about eight hours a day, which makes the media one of the key factors in social life. This has consequences for the type and process of risk communication. Increasing competition results in a biased coverage of events and issues in the world. Key words are sensation, negativity, emotion and personalization. This kind of coverage leads to a sometimes irrational risk dialogue between media, society, economy and administration. A possible misconception of risks and risk management may have undesirable consequences for the social development and benefits of new technologies. PMID:14770344

Brosius, H-B

2004-02-01

45

77 FR 36305 - Stream Communications Network & Media, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...Stream Communications Network & Media, Inc...It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission...information concerning the securities of Stream Communications Network & Media, Inc....

2012-06-18

46

Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

2007-01-01

47

The Influence of Media Communication on Risk Perception and Behavior Related to Mad Cow Disease in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to ascertain the influence of media communication on risk behavior related to mad cow disease (MCD). Methods Mothers of elementary school students in Seoul were recruited as the survey participants of this study. Results Media reports affected risk behavior related to MCD. Also, knowledge and attitude toward MCD affects risk behavior. Conclusion Risk-related information provided by the media should maintain consistency and objectivity. For effective risk communication, there should be an open communication between the government and public, experts, and related industries, who should all collaborate. PMID:24159557

Park, Jee-Eun; Sohn, Aeree

2013-01-01

48

Video Production for School Library Media Specialists: Communication and Production Techniques. Professional Growth Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book aims to help show school librarians how camcorders and other video production equipment can help them communicate more effectively with students, teachers, parents, and administrators. The book sees video production as an integral part of a library media center program because learning how to produce videos is an excellent way to learn…

McConnell, Terry; Sprouse, Harry W.

49

Impediments to media communication of social change in family planning and reproductive health: experiences from East Africa.  

PubMed

The media has been employed to increase uptake of Family Planning through behaviour change communication (BCC). Understanding the barriers encountered in effectively undertaking this function would increase the strategy's effectiveness. Sixty journalists from East Africa participated in trainings to enhance their BCC skills for Family Planning in which a qualitative study was nested to identify barriers to effective Family Planning BCC in the region's media. The barriers were observed to be insufficient BCC skills, journalists' conflict of interest, interests of media houses, inaccessible sources of family planning information, editorial ideologies and absence of commercially beneficial demand. Coupled with the historical ideologies of the media in the region, the observed barriers have precipitated ineffective family planning BCC in the regions media. Effective BCC for family planning in the regions media requires capacity building among practitioners and alignment of the concept to the media's and consumers' aspirations. PMID:24069769

Kagurusi, Patrick T

2013-09-01

50

Interactive real-time media streaming with reliable communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Streaming media is a recent technique for delivering multimedia information from a source provider to an end- user over the Internet. The major advantage of this technique is that the media player can start playing a multimedia file even before the entire file is transmitted. Most streaming media applications are currently implemented based on the client-server architecture, where a server system hosts the media file and a client system connects to this server system to download the file. Although the client-server architecture is successful in many situations, it may not be ideal to rely on such a system to provide the streaming service as users may be required to register an account using personal information in order to use the service. This is troublesome if a user wishes to watch a movie simultaneously while interacting with a friend in another part of the world over the Internet. In this paper, we describe a new real-time media streaming application implemented on a peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture in order to overcome these challenges within a mobile environment. When using the peer-to-peer architecture, streaming media is shared directly between end-users, called peers, with minimal or no reliance on a dedicated server. Based on the proposed software p?v?a (pronounced [revma]), named for the Greek word meaning stream, we can host a media file on any computer and directly stream it to a connected partner. To accomplish this, p?v?a utilizes the Microsoft .NET Framework and Windows Presentation Framework, which are widely available on various types of windows-compatible personal computers and mobile devices. With specially designed multi-threaded algorithms, the application can stream HD video at speeds upwards of 20 Mbps using the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Streaming and playback are handled using synchronized threads that communicate with one another once a connection is established. Alteration of playback, such as pausing playback or tracking to a different spot in the media file, will be reflected in all media streams. These techniques are designed to allow users at different locations to simultaneously view a full length HD video and interactively control the media streaming session. To create a sustainable media stream with high quality, our system supports UDP packet loss recovery at high transmission speed using custom File- Buffers. Traditional real-time streaming protocols such as Real-time Transport Protocol/RTP Control Protocol (RTP/RTCP) provide no such error recovery mechanism. Finally, the system also features an Instant Messenger that allows users to perform social interactions with one another while they enjoy a media file. The ultimate goal of the application is to offer users a hassle free way to watch a media file over long distances without having to upload any personal information into a third party database. Moreover, the users can communicate with each other and stream media directly from one mobile device to another while maintaining an independence from traditional sign up required by most streaming services.

Pan, Xunyu; Free, Kevin M.

2014-02-01

51

Explaining the use of text-based communication media: an examination of three theories of media use.  

PubMed

The present study examined the factors associated with individuals' use of three different text-based communication media: e-mail, cell-phone texting, and Facebook Wall postings. Three theoretical perspectives, including media richness theory, uses and gratifications, and perceived network effects, were examined. Using data from a survey of college students (N=280), the study found that the theoretical constructs from these theories play different roles when applied to different technologies. The results suggest that a simultaneous consideration of technological attributes, users' motivations, and social circumstances in which users select and use the technology is useful for fully understanding the dynamics of the selection and the use of a given technology. PMID:22780995

Park, Namkee; Chung, Jae Eun; Lee, Seungyoon

2012-07-01

52

Effective toughness of heterogeneous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a versatile approach to computing the effective toughness of heterogeneous media. This approach focusses on the material property independent of the details of the boundary condition. The key idea is what we call a surfing boundary condition, where a steadily propagating crack opening displacement is applied as a boundary condition to a large domain while the crack set is allowed to evolve as it chooses. The approach is verified and used to study examples in brittle fracture. We demonstrate that effective toughness is different from effective or weighted surface area of the crack set. Furthermore, we demonstrate that elastic heterogeneity can have a profound effect on fracture toughness: it can be a significant toughening mechanism and it can lead to toughness asymmetry wherein the toughness depends not only on the direction but also on the sense of propagation. The role of length-scale is also discussed.

Hossain, M. Z.; Hsueh, C.-J.; Bourdin, B.; Bhattacharya, K.

2014-11-01

53

Effect of electronic media on children.  

PubMed

Radio, television (TV), movies, video games, cell phones, and computer networks have assumed central roles in our children's daily lives. The media has demonstrated potentially profound effects, both positive and negative, on children's cognitive, social, and behavioral development. Considering the increasing exposure of children to newer forms of media, we decided to review the current literature on the effects of media on child health both in the Western countries and India. It is widely accepted that media has profound influence on child health, including violence, obesity, tobacco and alcohol use, and risky sexual behaviors. Simultaneously, media may have some positive effects on child health. We need to find ways to optimize the role of media in our society, taking advantage of their positive attributes and minimizing their negative ones. We need to understand better how to reverse the negative impact of media and make it more positive. PMID:20683108

Ray, Munni; Jat, Kana Ram

2010-07-01

54

Learning to Use the Internet and Online Social Media: What Is the Effectiveness of Home-Based Intervention for Youth with Complex Communication Needs?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth with complex communication needs (CCN) face increased barriers to their social participation due to limited communication abilities and opportunities. Youth today use the internet as a social tool and youth with CCN may also benefit from internet use to increase their social participation. Five youth between the ages of 10-18 with CCN who…

Grace, Emma; Raghavendra, Parimala; Newman, Lareen; Wood, Denise; Connell, Tim

2014-01-01

55

Media richness or media naturalness? The evolution of our biological communication apparatus and its influence on our behavior toward E-communication tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

E-communication in businesses has been the target of intense research. The theoretical hypotheses that have informed the media richness hypothesis have been influential in some circles and have also been strongly attacked by social theorists. It is argued in this paper that this theoretical polarization involving advocates of the media richness hypothesis and social theorists is due to two problems.

NED KOCK

2005-01-01

56

Mass Communication: An Introduction; Theory and Practice of Mass Media in Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the perspectives of historical, contemporary, and future interpretations of mass communication, this introduction to the theory and practice of mass media in society treats both the social context of mass communication and the hardware components that make it operable. The book discusses all mass media--newspapers, magazines, radio,…

Bittner, John R.

57

The Mediating Role of Identity Fit: Understanding the Relationship between Communication Media, Demographic Differences, and Creativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four recent trends (increased diversity, increased use of teams, increased use of a variety of communication media, and increased focus on creative output) have created a need for understanding how diversity and communication media influence individuals, their interactions within groups, and their influence on creativity. In previous work, the concept of identity fit was developed to explain how the psychological

Sherry M. B. Thatcher

2001-01-01

58

Visualizing Communication on Social Media: Making Big Data Accessible  

E-print Network

The broad adoption of the web as a communication medium has made it possible to study social behavior at a new scale. With social media networks such as Twitter, we can collect large data sets of online discourse. Social science researchers and journalists, however, may not have tools available to make sense of large amounts of data or of the structure of large social networks. In this paper, we describe our recent extensions to Truthy, a system for collecting and analyzing political discourse on Twitter. We introduce several new analytical perspectives on online discourse with the goal of facilitating collaboration between individuals in the computational and social sciences. The design decisions described in this article are motivated by real-world use cases developed in collaboration with colleagues at the Indiana University School of Journalism.

McKelvey, Karissa; Conover, Michael D; Menczer, Filippo

2012-01-01

59

The communication media in postliteracy education: New dimensions of literacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Postliteracy programs have been used to produce written materials for newly literate adults, but this narrow view falls short of preventing relapse into illiteracy. Furthermore, the gradual move away from mass educational programs and government financing of education has put postliteracy at greater risk. This study tests levels of retention of literacy among neo-literates in Tanzania who gained a literacy certificate five years ago. Some modest success is noted. The pattern of radio broadcasting, newspaper coverage and library provision in the country is summarized, and the influence of these media on literacy retention assessed. Investment in them is seen as crucial to the maintenance of literacy. However, it is also suggested that the cultural context cannot be overlooked, that the importance of oral communication does not swiftly diminish and that excessive emphasis on functional postliteracy texts does not coincide with the leisure-time interests of neo-literates.

Semali, Ladislaus M.

1993-05-01

60

Approaches to Visual Communication Media Criticism and Their Application to Television Genres.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several schools of thought regarding media criticism, derived from diverse disciplines and literary sources, have emerged during the last decade. To examine their application to the visual communication media arts such as film and television, this paper: (1) reviews the literature of media criticism; (2) discusses various approaches to visual…

Metallinos, Nikos

61

Journalism and Technical Communication presents the Fourth Biennial Colorado State University Media Festival  

E-print Network

Journalism and Technical Communication presents the Fourth Biennial Colorado State University Media Festival September 25--28, 2013 Share your creativity, your passion for producing media, and your secrets Colorado State University graduates are widely recognized for quality media efforts. On the heels

Stephens, Graeme L.

62

Module 7-AA: Communicating Effectively  

Cancer.gov

The seventh module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores communication issues pertinent to African Americans with cancer and their health care providers, discusses strategies for culturally sensitive communication, and presents the SPIKES protocol, a practical framework for effective communication.

63

AAAS Mass Media Science and Engineering Fellowship Program: Building Communication Skills in Young Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AAAS Mass Media Science &Engineering Fellowship program has succeeded in training scientists to become more effective communicators for more than 30 years. The program places advanced science, engineering and mathematics students at media sites to work as science reporters for ten weeks each summer. AAAS places between 15 to 20 students a year at newspapers, magazines and radio stations. Our goal is to create better science communicators who understand their role in fostering the public's understanding of science. Fellows leave the program with a greater awareness of how to communicate complex issues by making the connection as to why people should be interested in certain developments, and more specifically, how they will impact their communities. 2004 AGU Fellow Rei Ueyama put her lessons learned to good use during her Fellowship at the Sacramento Bee. "In a regional paper like The Bee, a (story) also had to have a local touch. I needed to show why people in Sacramento (or California) should bother to read the story. One example is the story I wrote about seeding the ocean with iron particles to fight global warming. Since ocean fertilization is a global issue, I had to clearly specify the reason why The Bee and not The New York Times was running the story. The local angle I chose was to point out that the core group of scientists involved in this study was from Monterey Bay, Calif." Many alumni tell us the program has been an integral force in shaping the course of their career. Similarly, sites often report that having a scientist on staff is an invaluable resource that allows them to cover additional science stories as well as report some technical stories in more depth. The American Geophysical Union has sponsored a Mass Media Fellow since 1997. Sponsorship allows affiliate program partners to establish connections with young professionals in their field. They are then also able to take advantage of the communication skills resident in their alumni base. The OS28 Communicating Broadly: Perspectives and Tools for Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Scientists Session would provide an ideal platform for Fellowship management to share lessons learned about science communication and to offer insight as to the challenges scientists face when communicating with the general public or media.

Pasco, S.

2006-12-01

64

The value and use of social media as communication tool in the plant sciences  

PubMed Central

Social media now complements many parts of our lives. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and many other social networking sites allow users to share and interact with online content and to connect with like-minded people. Its strengths – rapid dissemination and amplification of content and the ability to lead informal conversations – make it a powerful tool to use in a professional context. This commentary explains the overall concept of social media and offers suggestions on usage and possible types of scientific content. It advises researchers on the potential benefits and how to take a strategic approach towards building a social media presence. It also presents examples of effective social media use within the plant science community. Common reasons for scientists to not engage with social media include the fear of appearing unprofessional, posting something wrong or being misunderstood, or a lack of confidence in their computer skills. With the rapid changes in academic publishing, dissemination and science communication, as well as the rise of ‘altmetrics’ to track online engagement with scientific content, digital literacy will become an essential skill in a scientist’s tool kit. PMID:23845168

2013-01-01

65

Teenagers' Use of MSN Features, Discussion Topics, and Online Friendship Development: The Impact of Media Richness and Communication Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a sample of 248 Hong Kong adolescents, this study probed the impact of media richness and communication control on teenagers' use of MSN® for online friendship development. Both media richness and communication control contributed to MSN's overall functionality and teenagers' self-presentation and friendship development. Media richness positively influenced both social and task communications and shortened the time needed to

Vivian C. Sheer

2011-01-01

66

Media and Cost-Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional media systems might be of help in meeting the educational crisis of today, but it is difficult to find systems which reached the potential demonstrated in pilot efforts. Some of the more obvious reasons for the failures in educational technology are these: there is research but not development, equipment but no materials, a market…

Molnar, Andrew R.

1970-01-01

67

Effect of electronic media on children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio, television (TV), movies, video games, cell phones, and computer networks have assumed central roles in our children’s\\u000a daily lives. The media has demonstrated potentially profound effects, both positive and negative, on children’s cognitive,\\u000a social, and behavioral development. Considering the increasing exposure of children to newer forms of media, we decided to\\u000a review the current literature on the effects of

Munni Ray; Kana Ram Jat

2010-01-01

68

Historical Development of Media Systems. II. German Democratic Republic. Communication and Society 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes a study of the systems of mass communication in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) that concentrated on the ideological and political bases of mass media as they developed after the Second World War. Topics discussed include (1) the history of journalism in the GDR, (2) the roles of the various media in that country, (3)…

Dusiska, Emil

69

Traditional Forms of Communication and the Mass Media in India. Communication and Society, 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral folklore and folk drama are emphasized in this report, which focuses on the use of folk media to convey developmental messages through mass media agencies. Discussion covers the relationship between folk and mass media, experiments in India to integrate the two media, problems encountered in the integration process, and folk media's potential…

Malik, Madhu

70

Communication about scientific uncertainty in environmental nanoparticle research - a comparison of scientific literature and mass media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research about the fate and behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment is despite its wide applications still in the early stages. 'There is a high level of scientific uncertainty in nanoparticle research' is often stated in the scientific community. Knowledge about these uncertainties might be of interest to other scientists, experts and laymen. But how could these uncertainties be characterized and are they communicated within the scientific literature and the mass media? To answer these questions, the current state of scientific knowledge about scientific uncertainty through the example of environmental nanoparticle research was characterized and the communication of these uncertainties within the scientific literature is compared with its media coverage in the field of nanotechnologies. The scientific uncertainty within the field of environmental fate of nanoparticles is by method uncertainties and a general lack of data concerning the fate and effects of nanoparticles and their mechanisms in the environment, and by the uncertain transferability of results to the environmental system. In the scientific literature, scientific uncertainties, their sources, and consequences are mentioned with different foci and to a different extent. As expected, the authors in research papers focus on the certainty of specific results within their specific research question, whereas in review papers, the uncertainties due to a general lack of data are emphasized and the sources and consequences are discussed in a broader environmental context. In the mass media, nanotechnology is often framed as rather certain and positive aspects and benefits are emphasized. Although reporting about a new technology, only in one-third of the reports scientific uncertainties are mentioned. Scientific uncertainties are most often mentioned together with risk and they arise primarily from unknown harmful effects to human health. Environmental issues itself are seldom mentioned. Scientific uncertainties, sources, and consequences have been most widely discussed in the review papers. Research papers and mass media tend to emphasize more the certainty of their scientific results or the benefits of the nanotechnology applications. Neither the broad spectrum nor any specifications of uncertainties have been communicated. This indicates that there has been no effective dialogue over scientific uncertainty with the public so far.

Heidmann, Ilona; Milde, Jutta

2014-05-01

71

Health Communications: Nursing Education for Increased Visibility and Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To improve the visibility of nurses in mass media, health communications content should be integrated into nursing education. Nurses equipped with advanced communication skills, media expertise and teaching strategies can empower the profession to influence the health care environment. (SK)

Chaffee, Mary

2000-01-01

72

A New Dimension of Health Care: Systematic Review of the Uses, Benefits, and Limitations of Social Media for Health Communication  

PubMed Central

Background There is currently a lack of information about the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals from primary research. Objective To review the current published literature to identify the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals, and identify current gaps in the literature to provide recommendations for future health communication research. Methods This paper is a review using a systematic approach. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using nine electronic databases and manual searches to locate peer-reviewed studies published between January 2002 and February 2012. Results The search identified 98 original research studies that included the uses, benefits, and/or limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals. The methodological quality of the studies assessed using the Downs and Black instrument was low; this was mainly due to the fact that the vast majority of the studies in this review included limited methodologies and was mainly exploratory and descriptive in nature. Seven main uses of social media for health communication were identified, including focusing on increasing interactions with others, and facilitating, sharing, and obtaining health messages. The six key overarching benefits were identified as (1) increased interactions with others, (2) more available, shared, and tailored information, (3) increased accessibility and widening access to health information, (4) peer/social/emotional support, (5) public health surveillance, and (6) potential to influence health policy. Twelve limitations were identified, primarily consisting of quality concerns and lack of reliability, confidentiality, and privacy. Conclusions Social media brings a new dimension to health care as it offers a medium to be used by the public, patients, and health professionals to communicate about health issues with the possibility of potentially improving health outcomes. Social media is a powerful tool, which offers collaboration between users and is a social interaction mechanism for a range of individuals. Although there are several benefits to the use of social media for health communication, the information exchanged needs to be monitored for quality and reliability, and the users’ confidentiality and privacy need to be maintained. Eight gaps in the literature and key recommendations for future health communication research were provided. Examples of these recommendations include the need to determine the relative effectiveness of different types of social media for health communication using randomized control trials and to explore potential mechanisms for monitoring and enhancing the quality and reliability of health communication using social media. Further robust and comprehensive evaluation and review, using a range of methodologies, are required to establish whether social media improves health communication practice both in the short and long terms. PMID:23615206

Hazlett, Diane E; Harrison, Laura; Carroll, Jennifer K; Irwin, Anthea; Hoving, Ciska

2013-01-01

73

Fast, Broad, and Frequent: Campus Crisis Communications Today Demand Social Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of communication during a school crisis has not changed in the 21st century. What has changed--and quite dramatically since 1999--is the way people communicate. Social media tools are now used in some form by 100 percent of all four-year universities in the United States as a way to reach students, according to a 2011 University of…

Liggett, Billy

2012-01-01

74

Synergy Access: A Global Newsletter on Futuristic Communications, Media & Networking. Number 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A global newsletter on futuristic communications, media and networking is dedicated to creating open, humanistic environments for better interpersonal communication and to exploring the phenomenon of synergy, the coming together of people, ideas and environments for creation of something greater than the sum of the parts. Editorials, poetry, and…

Thomas, Wes, Ed.

75

Stepping up for democracy: using new communication media to revitalize citizen participation in climate change activism  

E-print Network

for participation in and communication about social movements. I used empirical qualitative and critical methods to analyze the communication of climate change activism in Texas, USA. I examined how Step It Up! 2007 (SIU) used new media to facilitate or constrain...

Minion, Jodi Michele

2009-05-15

76

The Communicative Arts: An Introduction to Mass Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All areas of mass communication are surveyed. Man's earliest efforts as a communicator are considered, and what is known about the development of speech and writing is explored. Various theories (including mathematical ones) are reviewed which attempt to explain the processes of both personal and mass communication. Separate chapters focus on the…

Steinberg, Charles S.

77

Effectively Executing a Comprehensive Marketing Communication Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marketers are under increasing scrutiny from their management to demonstrate accountability for the resources they receive. Three models are presented to help marketers execute their customer communication activities more effectively. Benefits of using the “Identification of Strategic Communication Elements,” “Business Communication” and “Communications Management Process” models include (1) more effective upfront strategic and tactical planning, (2) ensuring key communication principles

William R. Gombeski Jr; Jan Taylor; Ami Piccirilli; Lee Cundiff; Jason Britt

2008-01-01

78

Negotiated media effects. Peer feedback modifies effects of media's thin-body ideal on adolescent girls.  

PubMed

The present study introduces a theoretical framework on negotiated media effects. Specifically, we argue that feedback of peers on thin-body ideal media images and individual dispositions guide effects on adolescent girls' psychosocial responses to media exposure. Therefore, we examined the thin-body ideal as portrayed in media and peers' feedback on such thin-ideal images in their combined effects on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction, objectified body consciousness, and social comparison with media models. Hence, media models and peer comments were systematically combined as incorporated entities in YouTube-formats. Hypotheses were tested in a 3 (media models: extremely thin vs. thin vs. normal weight)×3 (peer comments: 6kg-underweight vs. 3kg-underweight vs. normal-weight)×2 (appearance schematicity: lower vs. higher) between-subjects design (N=216). Results showed that peer comments indicating that a media model was 'only 3kg-underweight' exerted most negative responses, particularly in girls who strongly process appearance relevant information. Peer feedback interacts with media models in guiding perceptions of what is considered an 'ideal' body shape. Results highlight the important role of peers as well as individual predispositions in view of understanding how thin-ideal media images may impact adolescent girls' body image concerns. PMID:24262144

Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Seidell, Jacob C

2014-02-01

79

Effective Organization and Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from The Mechatronics Education CenterâÂÂs Project SHINE develops studentsâ interpersonal, leadership and communication skills. The lesson asks students to take part in a local blood drive and make telephone calls to set up donor appointments. The entire process will teach students how such an event is planned, organized and executed. In particular, students will learn how to sound professional over the phone and in person. The activity requires about ten 50-minute class periods to organize and is intended for use as a long-term class project.

Guggenmos, Kelly

2010-12-24

80

Adaptation of fictional and online conversations to communication media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conversations allow the quick transfer of short bits of information and it is reasonable to expect that changes in communication medium affect how we converse. Using conversations in works of fiction and in an online social networking platform, we show that the utterance length of conversations is slowly shortening with time but adapts more strongly to the constraints of the communication medium. This indicates that the introduction of any new medium of communication can affect the way natural language evolves.

Alis, C. M.; Lim, M. T.

2012-12-01

81

Communication Concurrency and the New Media: A New Dimension for Media Richness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seeks to determine which aspects of managerial communication and decision-making are amenable to technological support. Finds groups using computer-mediated, electronic communication generated more unique and high-quality ideas (over a fixed time period) than groups using verbal communication. (NH)

Valacich, Joseph S.; And Others

1993-01-01

82

11.204 Planning, Communications, and Digital Media, Fall 2002  

E-print Network

Subject focuses on methods of digital visualization and communication and their application to planning issues. Lectures introduce methods for describing or representing a place and its residents, for simulating actions ...

Hoyt, Lorlene M.

83

Tenure-Track Assistant Professor of Digital Media (Games) School of Literature, Media, and Communication  

E-print Network

(feminism in particular). The potential to secure external research funding is strongly desirable as well, the Brittain Postdoctoral Fellowship Program, and Communication Across Tech and provides discipline

84

An Intra-media Multimode Wireless Communication Terminal for DSRC Service Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A future ITS info-communication systems using DSRC is discussed. As the first step of an inter-media multimode terminal in\\u000a the future, an intramedia multimode wireless communication terminal using software defined modem technology is developed in\\u000a order to adopt several DSRC service networks. The experimental software defined modem can work at a high data rate of 4 Mbps\\u000a in the p\\/4DQPSK.

Masuo Umemoto

2001-01-01

85

Communication as group process media of aircrew performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study of group process was motivated by a high-fidelity flight simulator project in which aircrew performance was found to be better when the crew had recently flown together. Considering recent operating experience as a group-level input factor, aspects of the communication process between crewmembers (Captain and First Officer), were explored as a possible mediator to performance. Communication patterns were defined by a speech act typology adapted for the flightdeck setting and distinguished crews that had previously flown together (FT) from those that had not flown together (NFT). A more open communication channel with respect to information exchange and validation and greater First Officer participation in task-related topics was shown by FT crews while NFT crews engaged in more non-task discourse, a speech mode less structured by roles and probably serving a more interpersonal function. Relationships between the speech categories themselves, representing linguistic, and role-related interdependencies provide guidelines for interpreting the primary findings.

Kanki, B. G.; Foushee, H. C.

1989-01-01

86

The Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut - A Communications and Media Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 18, 2012 the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) in collaboration with Puerto Rico Emergency Management Agency (PREMA) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will be conducting the first Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut. Adequate communications strategies and redundant dissemination methods are a key component for the success of this earthquake exercise. EAS and NOAA Radio messages, indicating the beginning of the earthquake drill, will help emergency managers and the general public better coordinate their practices. Dissemination tools routinely used as part of PRSN earthquake and tsunami protocols, such as PRSNDANIS Broadcast, Ring Down, Ham Radio, RSS, SMS, fax and email service lists, will also be tested. Emergency Management and First Response Agencies at local, regional and state level are being asked to report the times the messages are received, thus allowing us to better assess the effectiveness of our dissemination methods and to establish a baseline for next year ShakeOut. In addition, a partnership with the Puerto Rico Radiobroadcaster Association allows a direct access through this media, facilitating PRSN staff participation on radio programming targeting diverse audiences. Radio spots have been developed to inform the public about the exercise, how to participate, what to do to be safe during an earthquake and how to develop or improve their safety plans. A media approach is critical for the success of the 2012 Puerto Rico ShakeOut since our earthquake drill takes place 2 weeks prior to the Island general election and on the peak-period of the hurricane season.

Soto-Cordero, L.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.; Gómez, G.; Giménez-Porrata, A.; Ramos-Gómez, W.; Colón-Daleccio, N.

2012-12-01

87

MASTER OF ARTS IN COMMUNICATION & NEW MEDIA at McMASTER ADMISSIONS DEADLINE  

E-print Network

approximately 16 students into the program per year. We especially welcome applications that propose to combine/gender & sexuality/cultural appropriation) #12;Christine Quail, PhD (political economy/television studiesMaster University Refreshments will be served! PROGRAM FACT SHEET MASTER OF ARTS IN COMMUNICATION & NEW MEDIA

Haykin, Simon

88

Laboratory for emulation and study of integrated and coordinated media communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In future telecommunications networks, understanding the issues of user-network control, Customer Premise Equipment (CPE) technologies, services and user applications is as important as the classical network problems of channel structure, switching, and transmission. This paper discusses a Bell Communications Research facility, the Integrated Media Architecture Laboratory (IMAL), designed to flexibly emulate a wide range of current and future network and

L. F. Ludwig; Dennis F. Dunn

1987-01-01

89

School Communications 2.0: A Social Media Strategy for K-12 Principals and Superintendents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative, multiple-case study was two-fold: 1) to describe, analyze, and interpret the experiences of school principals and superintendents who use multiple social media tools such as blogs, microblogs, social networking sites, podcasts, and online videos with stakeholders as part of their comprehensive communications

Cox, Daniel Dean

2012-01-01

90

Social Media Use to Enhance Internal Communication: Course Design for Business Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organizations are increasingly using social media to improve their internal communication. When successfully implemented, such initiatives can have a dramatic impact on internal efficiency, team collaboration, innovation, organizational alignment, and cultural transformation. This article describes a course offered by the Ross School of Business,…

Young, Amy M.; Hinesly, Mary D.

2014-01-01

91

NEW MEDIA TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT TO ENHANCE AND IMPROVE COMMUNICATIONS AT USEPA'S NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY  

EPA Science Inventory

New media technology (NT) interactive applications are currently being developed in house at ORD/NRMRL to enhance and improve communication of NRMRL's 1) research projects, 2) workshops/conferences and 3) specialized training. NT is an exciting mix of cutting-edge information tec...

92

Disembodied conduct: communication through video in a multi-media office environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the following paper we disettss some findings of recent research concerning the organisation of video mediated communication in collaborative work in a dispersed, multi- media office environment. Based on the detailed, naturalistic analysis of video-recordings of individuals collaborating on various tasks through audio-visual links, we describe the ways in which the technology transforms nonverbal and verbal conduct, introducing certain

Christian Heath; Paul Luff

1991-01-01

93

Analysis about Efficiency of Indirect Media Communication on Multi-agent Cooperation Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reinforcement learning (RL) is an efficient learning method for Markov decision processes (MDPs); ant colony system (ACS) is an efficient method for solving combinatorial optimization problems. Based on the update policy of reinforcement values in RL and the cooperating method of the indirect media communication in ACS, this paper proposes the Q-ACS multi-agent cooperating learning method for the learning agents

Gang Zhao; Ruoying Sun

2006-01-01

94

Transmedia Storytelling in Science Communication: One Subject, Multiple Media, Multiple Stories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each communication medium has particular storytelling strengths. For example, video is particularly good at illustrating a progression of events, text at background and context, and games at describing systems. In what USC's Prof. Henry Jenkins described as "transmedia storytelling," multiple media are used simultaneously, in an expansive rather than repetitive way, to better tell a single, complex story. The audience is given multiple entry points to the story, and the story is exposed to diverse and dispersed audiences, ultimately engaging a broader public. We will examine the effectiveness of a transmedia approach to communicating scientific and other complex concepts to a broad and diverse audience. Using the recently developed Educational Visitor Center at the NCAR-Wyoming Supercomputing Center as a case study, we will evaluate the reach of various means of presenting information about the geosciences, climate change and computational science. These will include an assessment of video, mechanical and digital interactive elements, animated movie segments, web-based content, photography, scientific visualizations, printed material and docent-led activities.

Unger, M.; Moloney, K.

2012-12-01

95

Transmission media effects on precise Doppler tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of the transmission media - the earth's troposphere and ionosphere, and the solar wind - on precise Doppler tracking are discussed. The charged particle effects can be largely removed by dual frequency observations; however there are limitations to these corrections (besides system noise and/or finite integration times) including the effects of magnetic fields, diffraction, and differential refraction, all of which must be carefully evaluated. The earth's troposphere can contribute an error of delta f/f approximately 10 to the minus 14th power.

Callahan, P. S.

1978-01-01

96

Doing the Traditional Media Sidestep: Comparing the Effects of the Internet and Other Nontraditional Media with Traditional Media in the 1996 Presidential Campaign.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributes to scholarship on political communication by examining the extent to which heavy users of the Internet and other non-traditional media differ from heavy users of traditional media in their knowledge of issue stances of Bill Clinton and Bob Dole. Finds that non-traditional media had little influence on political knowledge; and few…

Johnson, Thomas J.; Braima, Mahmoud A. M.; Sothirajah, Jayanthi

1999-01-01

97

Communicate and Motivate: The School Leader's Guide to Effective Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Develop the skills you need to communicate effectively and in ways that motivate your faculty towards success. Written especially for principals and other administrators, this book will empower you to communicate well as you work to promote a student-centered environment best suited to schoolwide achievement. Learn to approach one-on-one…

Arneson, Shelly

2011-01-01

98

Effectively communicating with your clients.  

PubMed

The successful ability to efficiently collect diet histories, convey appropriate health messages, and discuss client concerns about the safe feeding of pets requires excellent communication skills. In addition to understanding what the client wants for their pet, thorough nutritional interviewers gather information pertaining to animal factors, dietary factors, and feeding management factors. With the expansion of the Internet, increasing advances in medical care, and the health concerns associated with pet food recalls, small animal clients are looking to veterinarians for guidance and information on dietary recommendations in ever increasing numbers. Evaluating current information on changes in the pet food industry should be a periodic learning objective for all members of the veterinary health care team. Consistent, effective communication between veterinarians, their staff, and their clients can improve compliance, increase satisfaction levels, and improve patient outcomes. PMID:18656842

Abood, Sarah K

2008-08-01

99

Tenure-Track Assistant Professor of Technical Communication School of Literature, Media, and Communication  

E-print Network

funding is strongly desirable. Teaching: The successful applicant should have experience in (and Postdoctoral Fellowship Program, and Communication Across Tech and provides discipline-specific courses

100

Bio-objects and the media: the role of communication in bio-objectification processes.  

PubMed

The representation of biological innovations in and through communication and media practices is vital for understanding the nature of "bio-objects" and the process we call "bio-objectification." This paper discusses two ideal-typical analytical approaches based on different underlying communication models, ie, the traditional (science- and media-centered) and media sociological (a multi-layered process involving various social actors in defining the meanings of scientific and technological developments) approach. In this analysis, the latter is not only found to be the most promising approach for understanding the circulation, (re)production, and (re)configuration of meanings of bio-objects, but also to interpret the relationship between media and science. On the basis of a few selected examples, this paper highlights how media function as a primary arena for the (re)production and (re)configuration of scientific and biomedical information with regards to bio-objects in the public sphere in general, and toward decision-makers, interest groups, and the public in specific. PMID:23771763

Maeseele, Pieter; Allgaier, Joachim; Martinelli, Lucia

2013-06-01

101

Bio-objects and the media: the role of communication in bio-objectification processes  

PubMed Central

The representation of biological innovations in and through communication and media practices is vital for understanding the nature of “bio-objects” and the process we call “bio-objectification.” This paper discusses two ideal-typical analytical approaches based on different underlying communication models, ie, the traditional (science- and media-centered) and media sociological (a multi-layered process involving various social actors in defining the meanings of scientific and technological developments) approach. In this analysis, the latter is not only found to be the most promising approach for understanding the circulation, (re)production, and (re)configuration of meanings of bio-objects, but also to interpret the relationship between media and science. On the basis of a few selected examples, this paper highlights how media function as a primary arena for the (re)production and (re)configuration of scientific and biomedical information with regards to bio-objects in the public sphere in general, and toward decision-makers, interest groups, and the public in specific. PMID:23771763

Maeseele, Pieter; Allgaier, Joachim; Martinelli, Lucia

2013-01-01

102

Using Theory to Design Evaluations of Communication Campaigns: The Case of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign  

PubMed Central

We present a general theory about how campaigns can have effects and suggest that the evaluation of communication campaigns must be driven by a theory of effects. The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign illustrates both the theory of campaign effects and implications that theory has for the evaluation design. Often models of effect assume that individual exposure affects cognitions that continue to affect behavior over a short term. Contrarily, effects may operate through social or institutional paths as well as through individual learning, require substantial levels of exposure achieved through multiple channels over time, take time to accumulate detectable change, and affect some members of the audience but not others. Responsive evaluations will choose appropriate units of analysis and comparison groups, data collection schedules sensitive to lagged effects, samples able to detect subgroup effects, and analytic strategies consistent with the theory of effects that guides the campaign.

Hornik, Robert C.; Yanovitzky, Itzhak

2014-01-01

103

Maintaining legitimacy using external communication strategies: An analysis of police-media relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Police organizations must strategically control their external environment in order to maintain organizational legitimacy. Exploiting their relationship with the news media is one way to accomplish this goal effectively. Despite the documented importance of crime, justice, and social control as a news topic, there is a limited understanding of the variables driving how police and media evaluate this relationship. This

Steven Chermak; Alexander Weiss

2005-01-01

104

Mobile Media Devices and Communication Applications as a Form of Augmentative and Alternative Communication: An Assessment of Family Wants, Needs, and Preferences  

E-print Network

This study assessed the wants, needs, and preferences of families at various stages of the decision-making process relative to mobile media technology as a form of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). A survey entitled "iDevices, AAC...

Meder, Allison

2012-05-31

105

Effectively communicating with the public  

SciTech Connect

Public participation before, during and after the permitting process is required by the US Environmental Protection Agency, and makes good business sense. This paper will identify the existing and proposed federal requirements for public participation, describe the essential elements of an effective community relations program, and explore the different communications tools available. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance to companies seeking to plan and implement a community relations program designed to satisfy the public participation requirements and maintain productive dialogue with their respective communities.

Greenspan, D.L.; Lusk, M.G. [Cement Kiln Recycling Coalition, Washington, DC (United States)

1998-12-31

106

Media Unit for Secondary English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a detailed description of a unit designed to explore the effectiveness of communication through the media that emphasizes all modes of communication--listening, speaking, reading, and writing. (AEA)

Dalzell, Pat

1983-01-01

107

A Scenario Approach to Assessment of New Communications Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study supported by the Charles F. Kettering Foundation, a research team developed a methodology for illustrating the effective and ineffective uses of audio, video, and computer teleconferencing by developing scenarios for eacb medium. The group first invented a general situation--a conference involving participants with global, regional, and…

Spangler, Kathleen; And Others

108

Resilience in an Age of Terrorism: Psychology, Media and Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, research about the psychological effects of terrorism seems to lack pre-trauma research assessing the resilience of the civil population in the face of a terrorist threat. We have developed and tested a conceptual model on the general population in Flanders, Belgium with psychological resilience as the underlying concept. It is vital to know perceptions and behaviors to the

Verleye Gino; Maeseele Pieter; Stevens Isabelle; Speckhard Anne

109

A surfeit of science: The "CSI effect" and the media appropriation of the public understanding of science.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, popular media has promulgated claims that the television program CSI and its spinoffs and imitators have had a pernicious effect on the public understanding of forensic science, the so-called "CSI effect." This paper analyzes those media claims by documenting the ways in which the media claims that CSI "distorts" an imagined "reality." It shows that the media appropriated the analytic stance usually adopted by science advocates, portraying the CSI effect as a social problem in science communication. This appropriation was idiosyncratic in that it posited, as a social problem, a "surfeit" of knowledge and positive imagery about science, rather than the more familiar "deficits." In addition, the media simultaneously appropriated both "traditional" and "critical" PUS discourses. Despite this apparent contradiction, the paper concludes that, in both discourses, the media and its expert informants insist upon their hegemony over "the public" to articulate the "reality" of forensic science. PMID:23825289

Cole, Simon A

2015-02-01

110

Intentional Modeling of Social Media Design Knowledge for Government-Citizen Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Social media can be employed as powerful tools for enabling broad participation in public policy making. However, variations\\u000a in the design of a social media technology system can lead to different levels or kinds of engagement, including low participation\\u000a or polarized interchanges. An effective means toward learning of and analyzing the complex motivations, expectations, and\\u000a actions among various actors in

Andrew Hilts; Eric Yu

111

Shared identity is key to effective communication.  

PubMed

The ability to communicate with others is one of the most important human social functions, yet communication is not always investigated from a social perspective. This research examined the role that shared social identity plays in communication effectiveness using a minimal group paradigm. In two experiments, participants constructed a model using instructions that were said to be created by an ingroup or an outgroup member. Participants made models of objectively better quality when working from communications ostensibly created by an ingroup member (Experiments 1 and 2). However, this effect was attenuated when participants were made aware of a shared superordinate identity that included both the ingroup and the outgroup (Experiment 2). These findings point to the importance of shared social identity for effective communication and provide novel insights into the social psychology of communication. PMID:25416042

Greenaway, Katharine H; Wright, Ruth G; Willingham, Joanne; Reynolds, Katherine J; Haslam, S Alexander

2015-02-01

112

Media Effects on Political and Social Trust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public opinion data from the last two decades document a crisis of confidence in America. Citizens are expressing lower levels of trust in government and in others. To what extent are variations in political and social trust a function of media use? Using data from the 1996 American National Election Study, we find that media use affects only social trust.

Patricia Moy; Dietram A. Scheufele

2000-01-01

113

Public and Media Communication of Volcanic Hazard Before and During the 2010 Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 39 day long explosive eruption in Eyjafjallajökull was the largest natural hazard event in Iceland for decades. It began with a small flank eruption in March, but the main event was the explosive summit eruption. The flooding that resulted from melting of ice at the eruption site posed considerable danger for the local population, fallout of ash made conditions south of the volcano difficult for several weeks, threatening the future of farming in this rural area, and lead to unprecedented disruption to air traffic in Europe and the North Atlantic. About 800 people were evacuated in a hurry three times during these events because of imminent flood hazard, but fortunately no dwellings were damaged and people could usually return to their homes the same day. These events called for extensive media coverage, both locally and internationally. Some staff at research institutes had for several days to devote their time exclusively to giving interviews to the international media. Scientific communication with the local population was mainly conducted through four channels: (1) the web pages of institutions, (2) the national media; (3) indirectly at meetings on the status of the eruption with local and national officials, and (4) public meetings in the affected areas. In addition the scientific community issued daily status reports to the Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management, these reports served both national and local Civil Protection officials when preparing their statements on the eruption and answer basic questions from the media. During media communication, it is important to stick to facts, avoid speculation and use plain language without scientific jargon. However, the most critical part of the communication occurred in the years before the eruption through meetings with the local inhabitants. At these meetings the results of a detailed hazard assessment on eruptions in Eyjafjallajökull and the neighboring ice-filled Katla caldera where presented to the communities around these volcanoes. The most dangerous hazard is large scale floods due to melting of glacier ice in eruptions. Further meetings took place where evacuation plans for areas potentially impacted by flooding were presented. These plans have been updated through dialogue with the inhabitants and a drill was held in 2006, where people evacuated their homes and moved to safer ground in nearby villages. This extensive preparation was possible not least because of very active leadership by the local chief of police, his staff and the national coordination body for Civil Protection i.e. the Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management. The preparatory meetings provided a very important background for officials, scientists and the local inhabitants. Where communities are small, trust is most easily established through face to face contact at local meetings.

Gylfason, A. G.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Reynisson, V.

2010-12-01

114

Cultural Effects and Uses of Communication Satellites.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The communication satellite already has developed a mature technology. It carries a substantial part of the world's long range communication, and is now useable for special cultural and educational purposes. Major cultural effects come from its contribution to increasing enormously the flow of information in the world. It will increase human…

Schramm, Wilbur

115

Making media work in space: an interdisciplinary perspective on media and communication requirements for current and future space communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As humans expand into space communities will form. These have already begun to form in small ways, such as long-duration missions on the International Space Station and the space shuttle, and small-scale tourist excursions into space. Social, behavioural and communications data emerging from such existing communities in space suggest that the physically-bounded, work-oriented and traditionally male-dominated nature of these extremely remote groups present specific problems for the resident astronauts, groups of them viewed as ‘communities’, and their associated groups who remain on Earth, including mission controllers, management and astronauts’ families. Notionally feminine group attributes such as adaptive competence, social adaptation skills and social sensitivity will be crucial to the viability of space communities and in the absence of gender equity, ‘staying in touch’ by means of ‘news from home’ becomes more important than ever. A template of news and media forms and technologies is suggested to service those needs and enhance the social viability of future terraforming activities.

Babidge, S.; Cokley, J.; Gordon, F.; Louw, E.

2005-10-01

116

Effective hydraulic conductivity of bounded, strongly heterogeneous porous media  

E-print Network

Effective hydraulic conductivity of bounded, strongly heterogeneous porous media Evangelos K of Arizona, Tucson Abstract. We develop analytical expressions for the effective hydraulic conductivity Ke boundaries. The log hydraulic conductivity Y forms a Gaussian, statistically homogeneous and anisotropic

Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

117

Social media and its dual use in biopreparedness: communication and visualization tools in an animal bioterrorism incident.  

PubMed

This article focuses on social media and interactive challenges for emergency organizations during a bioterrorism or agroterrorism incident, and it outlines the dual-use dilemma of social media. Attackers or terrorists can use social media as their modus operandi, and defenders, including emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty-six experts and crisis communicators from international and national organizations participated. As a result of the workshop, it was concluded that emergency organizations can collect valuable information and monitor social media before, during, and after an outbreak. In order to make use of interactive communication to obtain collective intelligence from the public, emergency organizations must adapt to social networking technologies, requiring multidisciplinary knowledge in the fields of information, communication, IT, and biopreparedness. Social network messaging during a disease outbreak can be visualized in stream graphs and networks showing clusters of Twitter and Facebook users. The visualization of social media can be an important preparedness tool in the response to bioterrorism and agroterrorism. PMID:23971817

Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C; Landgren, Jonas; Griberg, Isaac; Skiby, Jeffrey E; Tubbin, Anna; von Stapelmohr, Anne; Härenstam, Malin; Jansson, Mikael; Knutsson, Rickard

2013-09-01

118

Realism and Romance: The Study of Media Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares and contrasts two studies representing diametrical approaches (Romanticism versus Realism) toward the issue of agency and media effects: P. Willis's "Common Culture" and W. A. Gamson's "Talking Politics." Argues that both studies find that people make their own uses of media. (SR)

Tuchman, Gaye

1993-01-01

119

Effective Use of Audio Media in Multimedia Presentations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper emphasizes research-based reasons for adding audio to multimedia presentations. The first section summarizes suggestions from a review of research on the effectiveness of audio media when accompanied by other forms of media; types of research studies (e.g., evaluation, intra-medium, and aptitude treatment interaction studies) are also…

Kerr, Brenda

120

Communications Microcavity Effect from a Novel Terbium  

E-print Network

Communications Microcavity Effect from a Novel Terbium Complex Langmuir±Blodgett Film** By Yanyi, using pure terbium complex [tris (1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-hexa- decanoyl-5-pyrazolone)(ethanolyl)terbium, Tb

Huang, Yanyi

121

Mass Media in Society: The Need of Research. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication, Number 59.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More and better research should be undertaken, nationally and internationally, on the effect of mass media upon society. Prior to such research, there needs to be an awareness of the realities of society today and of broadcasting structure. There should also be an understanding of the research that has already been done and of the gaps in that…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

122

The use of social media to communicate child health information to low-income parents: A formative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet, and specifically web 2.0 social media applications, offers an innovative method for communicating child health information to low-income parents. The main objective of this study was to use qualitative data to determine the value of using social media to reach low-income parents with child health information. A qualitative formative evaluation employing focus groups was used to determine the

Stephanie Jean Stroever

2011-01-01

123

Influence of Mass Media on Body Image and Eating Disordered Attitudes and Behaviors in Females: A Review of Effects and Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews research on the effects of television and magazines on body image and on disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in females. Evidence from different types of studies in the fields of eating disorders, media psychology, health psychology, and mass communication indicates that mass media are an extremely important source of information and reinforcement in relation to the nature

Gemma López-Guimerà; Michael P. Levine; David Sánchez-carracedo; Jordi Fauquet

2010-01-01

124

Communication-oriented person-organization fit as a key factor of job-seeking behaviors: millennials' social media use and attitudes toward organizational social media policies.  

PubMed

The main goal of this study was to assess how the millennial generation perceives companies that have different social media policies and how such perception influences key variables for job-seeking behaviors, including perceived person-organization fit (POF), organizational attraction, and job pursuit intention. Results from a univariate general linear model and path analysis supported all of the established hypotheses. In particular, the results revealed that millennials perceived higher POF for a company with organizational policies supporting employees' social media use. Further, organizational attractiveness significantly mediated the relationship between communication-oriented POF and job pursuit intention. PMID:23848961

Cho, Jaehee; Park, Dong Jin; Ordonez, Zoa

2013-11-01

125

Finding a happy medium: explaining the negative effects of electronic communication on social life at work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sometimes observed negative social effects of electronic communication technology are often attributed to the characteristics of the technology itself. Electronic mail, for instance, filters out personal and social cues and provides new capabilities not found in traditional media, and it has been argued that these factors have consequences such as “flaming” and depersonalization. Alternative theoretical perspectives on the impacts

M. Lynne Markus

1994-01-01

126

Parallel domain decomposition method with non-blocking communication for flow through porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a domain decomposition method for numerically solving the Stokes equation for very large, complex geometries. Examples arise from realistic porous media. The computational method is based on the SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations) algorithm which uses a finite-differences approach for discretizing the underlying equations. It achieves comparable speed and efficiency as lattice Boltzmann methods. The domain decomposition method splits a large three-dimensional region into slices that can be processed in parallel on multi-processor computation environments with only minimal communication between the computation nodes. With this method, the flow through a porous medium with grid sizes up to 20483 voxel has been calculated.

Lemmer, Andreas; Hilfer, Rudolf

2015-01-01

127

Construction of a Communication Audit: An Examination of Communication Systems and Their Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abstracts of 12 papers concerning the effectiveness of various communication systems are printed here. Subjects of the papers are: the appraisal of organizational communication systems, and evaluation of ECCO analysis as a communication audit methodology, assessment of attitude and opinion change effects of the communication audit, organizational…

Peterson, Brent D., Ed.; Greenbaum, Howard H., Ed.

128

[Erespal effectiveness in exudative otitis media].  

PubMed

Standard conservative treatment of exudative otitis media (EOM) was performed in 82 patients, but 44 of them received adjuvant fenspiride (erespal) in a dose 80 mg per os 3 times a day for 10 days. Dynamic pure tone audiometry, tympanometry and subjective response demonstrated higher treatment efficiency in the erespal group. Therefore, it is recommended to include erespal in combined conventional therapy of EOM. PMID:13677026

Levina, Iu V; Luchikhin, L A; Krasiuk, A A

2003-01-01

129

The Effects of Instructional Media: Identifying the Task Demand/Media Match  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Task instruction may be presented in many forms. However, training system designers are often forced to depend on intuition when choosing a presentation medium. Though past research has investigated the effectiveness of instructional media types, results have been mixed with no clear recommendations of which medium to use for instruction. An…

McLaughlin, Anne Collins; Rogers, Wendy A.; Sierra, Edmundo A., Jr.; Fisk, Arthur D.

2007-01-01

130

Interface effects on dose distributions in irradiated media  

SciTech Connect

It has long been recognized that nonuniformities in dose distributions may occur in the immediate vicinity of a boundary between two different media. Considerable work has been done to determine interface effects in media irradiated by photons or in media containing ..beta..- or ..cap alpha..-particle emitters. More recently interface effects have become of interest in additional problems, including pion radiotherapy and radiation effects in electronic microcircuits in space vehicles. These problems arise when pion capture stars or proton-nucleus interactions produce a spectrum of charged nuclear fragments near an interface. The purpose of this paper is to examine interface effects in detail as to their specific origin. We have made Monte Carlo calculations of dose distributions near an interface in a systematic way for a number of idealized cases in order to indicate the separate influences of several factors including different stopping powers of the two media, nonconstancy (e.g., Bragg peak) in the energy loss curve for the particles, different particle spectra in the two media, and curvature of the boundary between the two media.

Wright, H.A.; Hamm, R.N.; Turner, J.E.

1980-01-01

131

Communicating more effectively with public audiences (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although nearly all domain experts agree that human greenhouse gas emissions are altering the world's climate, a segment of the public rejects the scientific evidence. How can this gap between scientific knowledge and public understanding be bridged? Improved communication requires a better understanding of the cultural factors (e.g., political worldviews) and cognitive factors (e.g., inability to appreciate the concept of accumulation) that contribute to the public's rejection of the science. We review those factors and then provide practical guidance on more effective ways of communicating to the public. We focus on (a) framing of climate change in ways that are less challenging to people's worldview; (b) the role of the perceived scientific consensus in communication; and (c) ways in which uncertainty can be communicated without creating further barriers to acceptance of the science.

Lewandowsky, S.; Cook, J.

2013-12-01

132

78 FR 1247 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tablet Computers, Media Players, and Televisions, and Components Thereof; Institution...tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and components thereof by reason of...tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and components thereof that...

2013-01-08

133

Effective thermal conductivity of nonlinear composite media with contact resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A perturbation expansion method is used to study the effective thermal conductivity of nonlinear composite media with contact resistance. We overcome difficulties caused by the temperature discontinuity and temperature gradient singularity on surfaces between different phases where thermal contact resistance exists. A general definition of the effective thermal conductivity is proposed. Using the definition, we derive formulae for the effective

G. Q. Gu; K. M. Chen

1997-01-01

134

[Social media and medical apps: how they can change health communication, education and care].  

PubMed

Social media and medical apps for smartphones and tablets are changing health communication, education and care. This change involves physicians and other health care professionals which for their education, training and updating have started to follow public pages and profiles opened by medical journals and professional societies on the online social networking sites (such as Facebook, Twitter and Google+), to access scientific content (videos, images, slides) available on user-generated contents sites (such as SlideShare, Pinterest and YouTube) or on health professional online communities such as Sermo, and to use medical and health apps on their smartphones and tablets. As shown by a number of experiences conducted in US by health institutions such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Atlanta and hospitals such a the Mayo Clinic, these tools are also transforming the way to make health promotion activities and communication, promote healthy habits and lifestyles, and prevent chronic diseases. Finally this change involves patients which are starting to use medical and health apps on their smartphones and tablets to monitor their diseases, and tools such as Patients Like Me (an online patients' community), Facebook and Twitter to share with others the same disease experience, to learn about the disease and treatments, and to find opinions on physicians, hospitals and medical centers. These new communication tools allow users to move to a kind of collaborative education and updating where news and contents (such as public health recommendations, results of the most recent clinical researches or medical guidelines) may be shared and discussed. PMID:23748682

Santoro, Eugenio

2013-05-01

135

Atmospheric propagation effects relevant to optical communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of atmospheric phenomena affect the propagation of light. The effects of clear air turbulence are reviewed as well as atmospheric turbidity on optical communications. Among the phenomena considered are astronomical and random refraction, scintillation, beam broadening, spatial coherence, angle of arrival, aperture averaging, absorption and scattering, and the effect of opaque clouds. An extensive reference list is also provided for further study. Useful information on the atmospheric propagation of light in relation to optical deep space communications to an earth based receiving station is available, however, further data must be generated before such a link can be designed with committed performance.

Shaik, K. S.

1988-01-01

136

Atmospheric Propagation Effects Relevant to Optical Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of atmospheric phenomena affect the propagation of light. This article reviews the effects of clear-air turbulence as well as atmospheric turbidity on optical communications. Among the phenomena considered are astronomical and random refraction, scintillation, beam broadening, spatial coherence, angle of arrival, aperture averaging, absorption and scattering, and the effect of opaque clouds. An extensive reference list is also provided for further study, Useful information on the atmospheric propagation of light in resolution to optical deep-space communications to an earth-based receiving station is available, however, further data must be generated before such a link can be designed with committed performance.

Shaik, K. S.

1988-01-01

137

Paradox of richness: a cognitive model of media choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have long studied the effects of social presence and media richness on media choice and the effects of media use. This focus on social presence and social psychological theories has led to valuable research on communication. However, little research (either empirical or theoretical) has been done to understand the ways in which media choices influence the cognitive processes that

L. P. Robert; ALAN R. DENNIS

2005-01-01

138

Media Literacy and the Challenge of New Information and Communication Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within both academic and policy discourses, the concept of media literacy is being extended from its traditional focus on print and audiovisual media to encompass the internet and other new media. The present article addresses three central questions currently facing the public, policy-makers and academy: What is media literacy? How is it changing? And what are the uses of literacy?

SONIA LIVINGSTONE

2004-01-01

139

Media communication strategies for climate-friendly lifestyles - Addressing middle and lower class consumers for social-cultural change via Entertainment-Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper argues that Entertainment-Education (E-E) is a striking communication strategy for reaching middle and lower socio-economic classes with climate-friendly lifestyle messages. On the international level (e.g. in the US and the Netherlands) E-E approaches are being theoretically grounded, whereas in Germany they are not yet. Therefore further theoretical discussion and mapping of E-E approaches is central for future research. As a first step towards providing further theoretical foundations for E-E in the field of sustainability, the authors suggest a threefold mapping of E-E approaches. The threefold mapping of E-E approaches for communicating climate-friendly lifestyles to middle and lower class consumers is based on recent results from academic research and practical developments on the media market. The commonalities among the three is that they all promote pro-sustainability messages in an affective-orientated rather than cognitive-orientated, factual manner. Differences can be found in: the sender of the sustainability message, the targeted consumer groups and the media approach in use. Based on this, the paper draws the conclusion that two new paths for further research activities in the field of Entertainment-Education can be proposed: (1) Improving the existing approaches in practice by using theoretical foundation from the E-E field. This comprises at its core (A) to do formative, process and summative effect research on the messages and (B) to use E-E theory from the field of social psychology, sociology and communication science for further improvement and (2) Generating new E-E theories by analyzing the existing practical approaches in the media to communicate climate change.

Lubjuhn, S.; Pratt, N.

2009-11-01

140

Effective Communication with Young People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Australian Government established the Office for Youth (the Office) in September 2008 in an effort to engage with the young people of Australia. The Office will work with other government agencies to help young people reach their full potential; make effective transitions to adulthood as they continue to learn, start work, make decisions that…

Shanahan, Patrick; Elliott, David

2009-01-01

141

Effect Size Reporting Practices in Communication Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, reporting estimates of effect size have become more important in social and behavioral science research. Four full volumes (2003–2006) of four influential communication journals were examined. The findings show that the rate of reporting effect size was very high for some types of statistical analyses (e.g., correlation, regression), and considerably lower for others (e.g., t-test, ? test).

Shaojing Sun; Xitao Fan

2010-01-01

142

The Geography of Political Communication: Effects of Regional Variations in Campaign Advertising on Citizen Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores whether and how campaign-induced changes in local information environments influence citizens' everyday communication activities. The empirical analysis in this study centers on a comparison of two New Jersey media markets that showed idiosyncratic differences in the amount of political advertising during the 2000 presidential…

Cho, Jaeho

2011-01-01

143

A Brief Survey of Media Access Control, Data Link Layer, and Protocol Technologies for Lunar Surface Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper surveys and describes some of the existing media access control and data link layer technologies for possible application in lunar surface communications and the advanced wideband Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DSCDMA) conceptual systems utilizing phased-array technology that will evolve in the next decade. Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are standard Media Access Control (MAC) techniques that can be incorporated into lunar surface communications architectures. Another novel hybrid technique that is recently being developed for use with smart antenna technology combines the advantages of CDMA with those of TDMA. The relatively new and sundry wireless LAN data link layer protocols that are continually under development offer distinct advantages for lunar surface applications over the legacy protocols which are not wireless. Also several communication transport and routing protocols can be chosen with characteristics commensurate with smart antenna systems to provide spacecraft communications for links exhibiting high capacity on the surface of the Moon. The proper choices depend on the specific communication requirements.

Wallett, Thomas M.

2009-01-01

144

BUILDING EFFECTIVENESS COMMUNICATION RATIOS FOR IMPROVED BUILDING LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

BUILDING EFFECTIVENESS COMMUNICATION RATIOS FOR IMPROVED BUILDING LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT Elmer a performance-based strategy utilising building effectiveness communication ratios stored in Building performance. Clients of new facilities are presented with energy certificates which act as benchmarks

145

Effective Communication for Academic Chairs. SUNY Series in Speech Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 11 contributed papers which examine communication aspects of the department chair position in academia. It is noted that most academic department chairs are not trained in management skills, including communication strategies. After an introductory chapter by Christopher H. Spicer and Ann Q. Staton, the following papers are…

Hickson, Mark, III, Ed.; Stacks, Don W.

146

Effective reflection coefficients for curved interfaces in transversely isotropic media  

E-print Network

Effective reflection coefficients for curved interfaces in transversely isotropic media Milana Ayzenberg1 , Ilya Tsvankin2 , Arkady Aizenberg3 , and Bjørn Ursin4 ABSTRACT Plane-wave reflection inade- quate in describing reflected wavefields at near- and postcritical incidence angles. Also, PWRCs

Tsvankin, Ilya

147

An effective media toolset for use in metamaterial design.  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces an effective-media toolset that can be used for the design of metamaterial structures based on metallic components such as split-ring resonators and dipoles, as well as dielectric spherical resonators. For demonstration purposes the toolset will be used to generate infrared metamaterial designs, and the predicted performances will be verified with full-wave numerical simulations.

Johnson, William Arthur; Sinclair, Michael B.; Warne, Larry Kevin; Langston, William L.; Basilio, Lorena I.

2010-06-01

148

Natural hazard communication : effectiveness and quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific, technological and methodological knowledge regarding the risks caused by natural events are in continuous evolution. A careful analysis of the communication and information, practiced by administrations and institutions involved in the decision-making processes, show a peculiar difference between the quality of the theoretical-operating level and the effectiveness of communication systems of the risk obtained. This is the level which involves directly citizens and institutions and needs, therefore, an efficacious and shared system whose aim is to inform the whole community, in a simple and clear way, during the different phases correlated to the environmental risk. The hypotesis is, in fact, to create a distinct typology of message, corresponding to each phase: • prevention of the risk > sensitization > information. If the potential risk is imminent or changes into real emergency, it is necessary to plan a communication aimed at supporting a very fast alarm to the community. • anticipation of the risk > pre-alert > information • imminence of the risk > alert > alarm • post-event /risk > information > precept and rules. The lack of a uniform and coerent planning process, both on the linguistic field (the typology of the message, iconic and verbal) and technical (the typology of supports) it is clear analysing the reference scenario in Italy. This involves the creation of deeply discordant systems which don't communicate the different typologies of risk efficaciously during distinct moments. To come to a systemic vision of the problem we proceed to collect and to obtain documentation about the "alarm" and communication systems existing in Italy nowadays. So we will have a classification of the different typologies about natural risk and communication systems related to them. The aim of this research is to propose a rationalization and a standard coding of signals. The logical conclusion of this course can be the creation of a national/international "catalogue system" which has the function of convalidating and guaranteeing the conformity of the communication in the ambit of the environmental risk. To continue the project, that has been proposed in the last year, is necessary to create a working group - with interdisciplinary expertise - to address the various issues related to the project and the definition of content spread: experts disciplinary course, but also the psychologists of perception , designers of communication, typedesigner, leading to the establishment of a system of signs (iconic and visual) that can carry useful and unambiguous messages.

Presta, A.; Sole, A.; de Luca, G.

2009-04-01

149

Effect of Media Use on HIV-Related Stigma in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

It is known that HIV-related stigma hinders prevention efforts. Previous studies have documented that HIV-related stigma may be associated with socioeconomic and socioecological factors. Mass media use may moderate this association, but there is limited research addressing that possibility. In this study, based on cross-sectional data pooled from the 2006–2011 Demographic and Health Surveys of 11 sub-Saharan African countries (N?=?204,343), we investigated the moderating effects of exposure to mass media on HIV-related stigma. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that HIV-related stigma tends to be higher among rural residents and individuals with low levels of education and HIV knowledge, as well as those who do not know people living with HIV. Media use was generally associated with low levels of HIV-related stigma, and attenuated the gap between individuals with high and low educational levels. However, the effect of mass media was found to be stronger among urbanites rather than among rural residents, which could lead to a widening gap between the two groups in endorsement of HIV-related stigma. The implication of this study regarding the effect of media use on HIV-related stigma in sub-Saharan Africa is twofold: 1) mass media may have the potential to minimize the gap in HIV-related stigma between individuals with high and low educational levels, and hence future efforts of reducing HIV-related stigma in the region may benefit from utilizing media; 2) due perhaps to low media penetration to rural sub-Saharan Africa, mass media could have the unintended effect of widening the urban-rural gap further unless other more customized and rural-focused communication interventions are put in place. PMID:24945251

Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven; Ramanadhan, Shoba; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

2014-01-01

150

Effect of Media Use on HIV-Related Stigma in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-Sectional Study.  

PubMed

It is known that HIV-related stigma hinders prevention efforts. Previous studies have documented that HIV-related stigma may be associated with socioeconomic and socioecological factors. Mass media use may moderate this association, but there is limited research addressing that possibility. In this study, based on cross-sectional data pooled from the 2006-2011 Demographic and Health Surveys of 11 sub-Saharan African countries (N?=?204,343), we investigated the moderating effects of exposure to mass media on HIV-related stigma. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that HIV-related stigma tends to be higher among rural residents and individuals with low levels of education and HIV knowledge, as well as those who do not know people living with HIV. Media use was generally associated with low levels of HIV-related stigma, and attenuated the gap between individuals with high and low educational levels. However, the effect of mass media was found to be stronger among urbanites rather than among rural residents, which could lead to a widening gap between the two groups in endorsement of HIV-related stigma. The implication of this study regarding the effect of media use on HIV-related stigma in sub-Saharan Africa is twofold: 1) mass media may have the potential to minimize the gap in HIV-related stigma between individuals with high and low educational levels, and hence future efforts of reducing HIV-related stigma in the region may benefit from utilizing media; 2) due perhaps to low media penetration to rural sub-Saharan Africa, mass media could have the unintended effect of widening the urban-rural gap further unless other more customized and rural-focused communication interventions are put in place. PMID:24945251

Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven; Ramanadhan, Shoba; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

2014-01-01

151

Geosciences in an Immersive Fulldome Environment: Developing Science and Communication Skills by Creating Digital Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ho Tung Visualization Laboratory and Planetarium at Colgate University provides an opportunity for students of diverse backgrounds to learn scientific concepts and communication techniques through the creation of fulldome digital animations. Students give presentations to classes, school groups, and the public in the planetarium setting, and enhance learning by creating digital content appropriate to these audiences. The immersive environment is well-suited for showing large-scale geologic processes that may not be easily seen in the field. Geoscience projects include fly-bys of the Hudson River Valley, Cascade Mountain Range, Grand Canyon, and Basin and Range province, animation of the advance of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, evolution of continental positions since the late Precambrian, and comparisons of volcanic eruption styles. In order to create a digital animation, students must have a detailed understanding of the subject matter as well as all aspects of presentation, ranging from intended audience to relevant production technologies. This encourages students to explore material at a depth beyond conventional learning methods while integrating the skills necessary to effectively communicate scientific concepts to varied audiences. Based on these explorations, it appears beneficial to promote scientific visualization creation as a tool in itself to help students develop both scientific knowledge and communication skills.

Alley, K. E.; Crawford, A.; Eakin, J.

2011-12-01

152

Improved Building Performance Through Effective Communication & Training  

E-print Network

IMPROVED BUILDING PERFORMANCE THROUGH EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION & TRAINING Rick Bates Project Manager Environmental Education Foundation Gilbert, AZ ABSTRACT This paper describes the procedures involved in the development of a... new, multi-level indoor air quality management program that utilizes human behavior science, economics, and conceptual learning techniques. This unique approach has allowed for a clear, concise, and consistent message to be delivered to a broad...

Bates, R.

2005-01-01

153

Dynamic effective mass of granular media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an experimental and theoretical investigation of the frequency-dependent effective mass, M(?), of loose granular particles which occupy a rigid cavity to a filling fraction of 48%, the remaining volume being air of differing humidities. We demonstrate that this is a sensitive and direct way to measure those properties of the granular medium that are the cause of the changes in acoustic properties of structures containing grain-filled cavities. Specifically, we apply this understanding to the case of the flexural resonances of a rectangular bar with a grain-filled cavity within it. The dominant features of M(?) are a sharp resonance and a broad background, which we analyze within the context of simple models. We find that: a) These systems may be understood in terms of a height-dependent and diameter-dependent effective sound speed (˜130 m/s) and an effective viscosity (˜2x10^4 Poise). b) There is a dynamic Janssen effect in the sense that, at any frequency, and depending on the method of sample preparation, approximately one-half of the effective mass is borne by the side walls of the cavity and one-half by the bottom. c) On a fundamental level, dissipation is dominated by adsorbed films of water at grain-grain contacts in our experiments.

Johnson, David; Ingale, Rohit; Valenza, John; Hsu, Chaur-Jian; Gland, Nicolas; Makse, Hernan

2009-03-01

154

Coherent quantum effects through dispersive bosonic media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coherent evolution of two qubits mediated by a set of bosonic field modes is investigated. By assuming a specific asymmetric encoding of the quantum states in the internal levels of the qubits, we show that entangling quantum gates can be realized, with high fidelity, even when a large number of mediating modes is involved. The effect of losses and

Ye Saiyun; Yang Zhenbiao; Zheng Shibiao; Alessio Serafini

2010-01-01

155

Shared language:Towards more effective communication.  

PubMed

The ability to communicate to others and express ourselves is a basic human need. As we develop our understanding of the world, based on our upbringing, education and so on, our perspective and the way we communicate can differ from those around us. Engaging and interacting with others is a critical part of healthy living. It is the responsibility of the individual to ensure that they are understood in the way they intended.Shared language refers to people developing understanding amongst themselves based on language (e.g. spoken, text) to help them communicate more effectively. The key to understanding language is to first notice and be mindful of your language. Developing a shared language is an ongoing process that requires intention and time, which results in better understanding.Shared language is critical to collaboration, and collaboration is critical to business and education. With whom and how many people do you connect? Your 'shared language' makes a difference in the world. So, how do we successfully do this? This paper shares several strategies.Your sphere of influence will carry forward what and how you are communicating. Developing and nurturing a shared language is an essential element to enhance communication and collaboration whether it is simply between partners or across the larger community of business and customers. Constant awareness and education is required to maintain the shared language. We are living in an increasingly smaller global community. Business is built on relationships. If you invest in developing shared language, your relationships and your business will thrive. PMID:23422948

Thomas, Joyce; McDonagh, Deana

2013-01-01

156

Effects of Exposure to Sexual Content in the Media on Adolescent Sexual Behaviors: The Moderating Role of Multitasking with Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young audiences frequently combine media use (e.g., television viewing) with other activities (e.g., homework); this is referred to as multitasking. This research uses longitudinal data to examine the moderating role of multitasking by examining the effects of exposure to sexual content in the media on adolescents' sexual behavior. Consistent with the predictions based on the limited capacity approach, there was

Se-Hoon Jeong; Yoori Hwang; Martin Fishbein

2010-01-01

157

Coherent quantum effects through dispersive bosonic media  

SciTech Connect

The coherent evolution of two qubits mediated by a set of bosonic field modes is investigated. By assuming a specific asymmetric encoding of the quantum states in the internal levels of the qubits, we show that entangling quantum gates can be realized, with high fidelity, even when a large number of mediating modes is involved. The effect of losses and imperfections on the gates' operation is also considered in detail.

Ye Saiyun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Yang Zhenbiao; Zheng Shibiao [Department of Physics, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Serafini, Alessio [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

2010-07-15

158

Media multitasking and the effectiveness of combining online and radio advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the effectiveness of cross-media campaigns has shown that combining online advertising with advertising in offline media can result in more positive consumer responses than using only one medium. However, when using computers, people increasingly engage in more than one media activity at a time (i.e. media multitasking), which might influence how consumers respond to advertisements they encounter in

Hilde A. M. Voorveld

2011-01-01

159

Inertial effects in dispersion in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we develop the macroscale transport equation for dispersion of a nonreactive chemical species, with a particular focus on the influence of inertial contributions at moderate Reynolds numbers. Our starting point is the continuum level description of transport written at the subpore scale. Volume averaging is used to upscale these equations to develop the macroscale solute balance that applies at the Darcy scale. We develop a fully transient version of the ancillary closure problem that predicts the total dispersion tensor, and we solve the closure using finite Fourier transforms. The result of this effort is a nonlocal macroscale transport equation, where the nonlocal dispersion depends upon the microscale geometry of the pore space and the physical characteristics of the fluid. Both the longitudinal and transverse components of the total dispersion tensor are computed for a simple three-dimensional unit cell. The computational results indicate that a simple three-dimensional periodic unit cell is able to capture the correct behavior for the longitudinal dispersion in the range 101 < Pep < 2.5 × 105, although the magnitude of the longitudinal dispersion coefficient is underpredicted by up to a factor of about 4. For the transverse dispersion coefficient, the simple unit cell provides much less satisfactory results when compared with experimental data. The inertial effects for the longitudinal dispersion coefficient were relatively small, but for the transverse dispersion coefficient, inertial effects were predicted to increase the transverse dispersion coefficient up to 40 times that which would be predicted for Stokes flow.

Wood, Brian D.

2007-12-01

160

The Psychology of Avatars: Real Life Effects of Virtual Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avatars have become the major forms of media access to virtual environments. The characteristics and perception of avatars are related to the sense of presence in virtual environments. Understanding the communication and social action between users and avatars, referred to as \\

Kristine L. Nowak; Igor S. Pand; Goranka Zori; Sophia Grundnig; Thomas Petri; Christin Polzer; Nicole Sträfling; Nicole Krämer; Sabine Trepte; Leonard Reinecke; Katharina-Maria Behr

2008-01-01

161

Breaking the Barrier: Effectively Communicating Nutrition and Health Messages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health professionals can work to correct common misconceptions through nutrition and fitness education and sharing information and resources to provide consistent public messages. The article discusses the impact of the media, food labels, and the Fuel for Fitness program, encouraging teamwork to ensure proper communication of diet and exercise…

Bouchoux, Ann

1994-01-01

162

Communication by Central Bank Committee Members: Different Strategies, Same Effectiveness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper assesses the communication strategies of the Federal Reserve, the Bank of England, and the European Central Bank and their effectiveness. We find that the effectiveness of communication is not independent from the decision-making process. The paper shows that the Federal Reserve has been pursuing a highly individualistic communication strategy amid a collegial approach to decision making, while the

MICHAEL EHRMANN; MARCEL FRATZSCHER

2007-01-01

163

Gender-Specific Nonverbal Communication: Impact for Speaker Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A literature review notes how gender expectations lead to nonverbal communication differences in such behaviors as smiling, eye contact, kinesics, proximics, and decoding. The importance of the effective use of nonverbal communication in human resource development is emphasized. (SK)

Spangler, Lori

1995-01-01

164

Millimeter wave propagation modeling of inhomogeneous rain media for satellite communications systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical propagation model that represents the scattering properties of an inhomogeneous rain often found on a satellite communications link is presented. The model includes the scattering effects of an arbitrary distribution of particle type (rain or ice), particle shape, particle size, and particle orientation within a given rain cell. An associated rain propagation prediction program predicts attenuation, isolation and phase shift as a function of ground rain rate. A frequency independent synthetic storm algorithm is presented that models nonuniform rain rates present on a satellite link. Antenna effects are included along with a discussion of rain reciprocity. The model is verified using the latest available multiple frequency data from the CTS and COMSTAR satellites. The data covers a wide range of frequencies, elevation angles, and ground site locations.

Persinger, R. R.; Stutzman, W. L.

1978-01-01

165

An approach to effective UHF (S/L band) data communications for satellite Personal Communication Service (PCS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reliable signaling information transfer is fundamental in supporting the needs of data communication PCS via LMS (Land Mobile Service) SSs (satellite systems). The needs of the system designer can be satisfied only through the collection of media information that can be brought to bear on the pertinent design issues. We at ISI hope to continue our dialogue with fading media experts to address the unique data communications needs of PCS via LMS SSs.

Hayase, Joshua Y.

1995-01-01

166

Technical Report 2007-08-01 Internetworking and Media Communications Research Laboratories  

E-print Network

and interplanetary communication within the solar system. In addition, China and India have recently launched wealthy nations. The scope of space communication was basically restricted on outer space discovery, earth

Khan, Javed I.

167

A Measured Approach to Adopting New Media in the Business Communication Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At each Association for Business Communication (ABC) conference the authors have attended in the past 2 to 3 years, the many presentations focusing on social networking, blogs, wikis, and various Web 2.0 technologies have captured their attention. They welcome the wonderful, new communication tools that increasingly allow people to communicate and…

Cardon, Peter W.; Okoro, Ephraim

2010-01-01

168

Global Communication, for the Powerful or the People? Media & Values 61.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Media & Values" explores the growing influence of mass media and how that influence is concentrated in the hands of a few powerful individuals or corporations. The essays present various interpretations of that influence and the implications for the world. Articles include: (1) "All Power to the Conglomerate" (Stewart Hoover); (2)…

Silver, Rosalind, Ed.

1993-01-01

169

The Communications Technology Explosion: Now That the School Media Specialist and Everyone Else is a Technologist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technological advances in microelectronics-photonics, brain research, and genetic manipulation are discussed, along with their implications for school media programs. Three possible futures for the year 2001 are proffered. Media specialists are urged to adopt only those technologies which truly contribute to efficient management, information…

Belland, John C.

1982-01-01

170

Repenning, A., Ioannidou, A. and Ambach, J. (1998). Learn to Communicate and Communicate to Learn. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 98 (7) [www-jime.open.ac.uk/98/7  

E-print Network

of Computer Science & Center for LifeLong Learning and Design University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309-0430 URepenning, A., Ioannidou, A. and Ambach, J. (1998). Learn to Communicate and Communicate to Learn. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 98 (7) [www-jime.open.ac.uk/98/7] Published 19 Oct., 1998 Learn

Repenning, Alexander

171

Career Connections Skills Lab Effective Communication for Career Success  

E-print Network

Career Connections Skills Lab Effective Communication for Career Success For International Master who want to advance their communication skills for job search, internship or career placement presentation and communication skills, and serve as an opportunity to practice in a safe and supportive

California at Davis, University of

172

Factors affecting effective communication between building clients and maintenance contractors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Studies on communication in the construction industry have generally concentrated on the briefing process and the construction process. However, studies on communication problems experienced by building clients' and maintenance contractors' representatives in the field of facilities management are less common. Thus, there is a need for studies of effective communication in facilities management, particularly between building clients' and

Goh Choon Hua; Willy Sher; Low Sui Pheng

2005-01-01

173

A Case Study of a Retracted Systematic Review on Interactive Health Communication Applications: Impact on Media, Scientists, and Patients  

PubMed Central

Background In October 2004, a flawed systematic review entitled “Interactive Health Communication Applications for People with Chronic Disease” was published in the Cochrane Library, accompanied by several press releases in which authors warned the public of the negative health consequences of interactive health communication applications, including the Internet. Within days of the review's publication, scientists identified major coding errors and other methodological problems that invalidated the principal conclusions of the study and led to a retraction. While the original study results and their negative conclusions were widely publicized in the media, the retraction seemed to go unnoticed. Objective This paper aims to document an unprecedented case of misinformation from a Cochrane review and its impact on media, scientists, and patients. As well, it aims to identify the generic factors leading to the incident and suggest remedies. Methods This was a qualitative study of the events leading to the retraction of the publication and of the reactions from media, scientists, and patients. This includes a review and content analysis of academic and mass media articles responding to the publication and retraction. Mass media articles were retrieved in May 2005 from LexisNexis Academic and Google and were classified and tallied. The extended case method is employed, and the analysis is also applied to comparable publishing events. Results A search on LexisNexis Academic database with the query “Elizabeth Murray AND health” for the period of June 2004 to May 2005 revealed a total of 15 press reports, of which only 1 addressed the retraction. Google was searched for references to the review, and the first 200 retrieved hits were analyzed. Of these, 170 pages were not related to the review. Of the remaining 30 pages, 23 (77%) were reports about the original publication that did not mention the retraction, 1 (3%) was a bibliography not mentioning the retraction, and 6 (20%) addressed the retraction, of which only 1 was a non-Cochrane–related source. Conclusions Analyzed retrievals showed that the mass media gave more coverage to the Cochrane review than to the retraction or to a related systematic review with a similar scope but a different conclusion. Questionable results were prematurely disseminated, oversimplified, and sensationalized, while the retraction was hardly noticed by the public. Open commentary by scientists and patients helped to rapidly identify the errors but did not prevent or correct the dissemination of misinformation. PMID:15998609

2005-01-01

174

Adult Willingness to Use Email and Social Media for Peer-to-Peer Cancer Screening Communication: Quantitative Interview Study  

PubMed Central

Background Adults over age 40 are increasing their use of email and social media, raising interest in use of peer-to-peer Internet-based messaging to promote cancer screening. Objective The objective of our study was to assess current practices and attitudes toward use of email and other e-communication for peer-to-peer dialogues on cancer screening. Methods We conducted in-person interviews with 438 insured adults ages 42-73 in Georgia, Hawaii, and Massachusetts. Participants reported on use of email and other e-communication including social media to discuss with peers routine health topics including breast and colorectal cancer (CRC). We ascertained willingness to share personal CRC screening experiences via conversation, postcard, email, or other e-communication. Health literacy scores were measured. Results Email had been used by one-third (33.8%, 148/438) to discuss routine health topics, by 14.6% (64/438) to discuss breast cancer screening, and by 12.6% (55/438) to discuss CRC screening. Other e-communication was used to discuss routine health topics (11.6%, 51/438), screening for breast cancer (3.9%, 17/438), and CRC (2.3%, 10/438). In the preceding week, 84.5% (370/438) of participants had used email, 55.9% (245/438) had used e-communication of some type; 44.3% (194/438) text, 32.9% (144/438) Facebook, 12.3% (54/438) instant message, 7.1% (31/438) video chat, and 4.8% (21/438) Twitter. Many participants were willing to share their CRC screening experiences via email (32.4%, 142/438 might be willing; 36.3%, 159/438 very willing) and via other e-communication (15.8%, 69/438 might be willing; 14.4%, 63/438 very willing). Individuals willing to send CRC screening emails scored significantly higher on tests of health literacy compared to those willing to send only postcards (P<.001). Conclusions Many adults are willing to use email and e-communication to promote cancer screening to peers. Optimal approaches for encouraging peer-to-peer transmission of accurate and appropriate cancer screening messages must be studied. PMID:24287495

Roblin, Douglas W; Wagner, Joann L; Gaglio, Bridget; Williams, Andrew E; Torres Stone, Rosalie; Field, Terry S; Mazor, Kathleen M

2013-01-01

175

Approaches to Human Communication Training: The Sociological Focus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since contemporary media have an undisputed effect on the shaping of the social values of society, careful training of communication media specialists is needed, as well as unified international policies for such training. In a rapidly advancing technological society, the media communicator's task is twofold: first, to firmly grasp and conquer…

Metallinos, Nikos

176

Changing Channels : a framework for communication planning in a media intensive society  

E-print Network

In today's media intensive society, where consumers are well equipped to resist advertisers' strategies, creative and messages, it is becoming increasingly more difficult for advertisers to break through the concofany of ...

Scott, Voloe Jefferson

2009-01-01

177

Nanoscale optimization of quantum dot media for effective photovoltaic conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoscale engineering of band profile and potential profile provide effective tools for the management of photoelectron processes in quantum dot (QD) photovoltaic devices. We investigate the QD devices with various 1-?m InAs /GaAs QD media placed in a 3-?m base GaAs p-n junction. We found that n-charging of quantum dots (QDs) create potential barriers around QDs. QD growth between ultrathin AlGaAs layers leads to the formation of AlGaAs "fence" barriers, and reduces the wetting layers (WLs). The barriers around QDs and reduction of the wetting layer substantially suppress recombination processes via QDs. The n-doping of interdot space in QD media enhances electron extraction from QDs. All of our QD devices show short-circuit current, JSC, higher than that of the reference cell, but smaller open-circuit voltage, VOC.. In the QD devices, the short circuit currents increase by ~0.1 mA/cm2 per dot layer. JSC reaches 28.4 mA/cm2 in the device with QD media that combines dot charging, fence barriers, and WL reduction.

Sablon, K. A.; Sergeev, A.; Little, J. W.; Vagidov, N.; Mitin, V.

2014-06-01

178

Communicating Genetics and Smoking Through Social Media: Are We There Yet?  

PubMed Central

Background Social media is a recent source of health information that could disseminate new scientific research, such as the genetics of smoking. Objective The objectives were (1) to evaluate the availability of genetic information about smoking on different social media platforms (ie, YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter) and (2) to assess the type and the content of the information displayed on the social media as well as the profile of people publishing this information. Methods We screened posts on YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter with the terms “smoking” and “genetic” at two time points (September 18, 2012, and May 7, 2013). The first 100 posts were reviewed for each media for the time points. Google was searched during Time 2 as an indicator of available information on the Web and the other social media that discussed genetics and smoking. The source of information, the country of the publisher, characteristics of the posts, and content of the posts were extracted. Results On YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter, 31, 0, and 84 posts, respectively, were included. Posts were mostly based on smoking-related diseases, referred to scientific publications, and were largely from the United States. From the Google search, most results were scientific databases. Six scientific publications referred to within the Google search were also retrieved on either YouTube or Twitter. Conclusions Despite the importance of public understanding of smoking and genetics, and the high use of social media, little information on this topic is actually present on social media. Therefore, there is a need to monitor the information that is there and to evaluate the population’s understanding of the information related to genetics and smoking that is displayed on social media. PMID:24018012

Suggs, L Suzanne; Brand, Angela; Van Oyen, Herman

2013-01-01

179

Revealing the Effectivenesses of Communication Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to report the history of communication strategy and highlight the importance of strategic competence. It provides the histories and characterizations of communication strategy. Besides, it presents from which perspectives these definitions of communication strategies were developed. Various earlier and latter…

Lin, Grace Hui Chin

2013-01-01

180

Face to Facebook: Social Media and the Learning and Teaching Potential of Symmetrical, Synchronous Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social networking offers teachers and learners exciting opportunities to communicate. Web 2.0 and its synchronous communications platforms provide new avenues for teachers to deliver curriculum and facilitate learning. Further, they provide new avenues for students to engage and intensify their own learning. Being able to chat in real-time with a…

VanDoorn, George; Eklund, Antoinette A.

2013-01-01

181

Graphic Design for the Computer Age; Visual Communication for all Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the rapid pace of today's world, graphic designs which communicate at a glance are needed in all information areas. The essays in this book deal with various aspects of graphic design. These brief essays, each illustrated with graphics, concern the following topics: a short history of visual communication, information design, the merits…

Hamilton, Edward A.

182

Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following essays on communication are presented: communication as a condition of survival, communication for special purposes, the means of transmission of communication, communication within social and economic structures, the teaching of communication through the press, the teaching of modern languages, communication as a point of departure,…

Strauss, Andre

183

Slip effects associated with Knudsen transport phenomena in porous media  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Porous media used in phase separators and thermomechanical pumps have been the subject of characterization efforts based on the Darcy permeability of laminar continuum flow. The latter is not always observed at low speed, in particular at permeabilities below 10 to the -9th/squared cm. The present experimental and theoretical studies address questions of slip effects associated with long mean free paths of gas flow at room temperature. Data obtained are in good agreement, within data uncertainty, with a simplified asymptotic Knudsen equation proposed for porous plugs on the basis of Knudsen's classical flow equation for long mean free paths.

Frederking, T. H. K.; Hepler, W. A.; Khandhar, P. K.

1988-01-01

184

Understanding Decision-Making, Communication Rules, and Communication Satisfaction as Culture: Implications for Organizational Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of decision making processes and communication rules, in a corporate setting undergoing change as a result of organizational ineffectiveness, examined whether (1) decisions about formal communication reporting systems were linked to management assumptions about technical creativity/effectiveness, (2) assumptions about…

Shockley-Zalabak, Pamela

185

Effective Protocols for Mobile Communications and Networking  

SciTech Connect

This report examines methods of mobile communications with an emphasis on mobile computing and wireless communications. Many of the advances in communications involve the use of Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ad hoc network protocols. However, many of the advances in these protocols have been focused on wired communications. Recently much focus has been directed at advancing communication technology in the area of mobile wireless networks. This report discusses various protocols used in mobile communications and proposes a number of extensions to existing protocols. A detailed discussion is also included on desirable protocol characteristics and evaluation criteria. In addition, the report includes a discussion on several network simulation tools that maybe used to evaluate network protocols.

Espinoza, J.; Sholander, P.; Van Leeuwen, B,

1998-12-01

186

Scale effects on dynamic wave propagation in heterogeneous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study scale-effects on wave propagation in 3-D heterogeneous media, we conducted dynamic and static laboratory experiments on seven samples of glass beads cast with epoxy. We measured P and S wave velocities and frequency dispersion by the pulse-transmission method, and static elastic Young's modulus by a uniaxial stress test. We changed the scale of the heterogeneity by varying the diameter of the glass beads in each sample, and obtained wavelength to scale ratios varying from 0.2 to 20. We observed about 22% P-wave velocity dispsersion and 15% S-wave velocity dispersion within this range of wavelength to scale ratios. We observed no scale effects on the static Young's modulus of the same seven samples. It is clear that strong wave velocity dispersion in the experiment is due to the dynamic wavelength-scale effects caused by scattering.

Yin, Hezhu; Mavko, Gary; Mukerji, Tapan; Nur, Amos

187

Media education.  

PubMed

The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents. PMID:20876180

Strasburger, Victor C

2010-11-01

188

Public Relations: The Route to Success and Influence. Public Relations for Your Library: A Tool for Effective Communications; Tooting Your Own Horn: Web-Based Public Relations for the School Media Specialist; Bookmarks as a Teaching Tool; Customers and Culture: The Who and What of Library Public Relations Efforts; Strategies for Successful Job Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special section includes five articles that discuss public relations strategies for school librarians. Highlights include effective communication, including measuring and evaluating the success of public relations efforts; Web-based public relations; giving bookmarks to students; customers and cultural contexts; and successful job…

Lyon, Linda; Silverstein, Roberta; Fisher, Julieta Dias; Hill, Ann; Hegel, Claudette; Miller, Donna; Moyer, Mary

2002-01-01

189

Effect of activated charcoal, autoclaving and culture media on sucrose hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of activated charcoal, autoclaving and culture media on sucrose hydrolysis in tissue culture media was investigated. Activated charcoal acidified an aqueous sucrose (5%) solution and culture media by about 1 to 2 units after autoclaving. Sucrose hydrolysis in tissue culture media and\\/or aqueous sucrose (5%) solutions containing activated charcoal (buffered to pH 5.8) was dependent on both the

M. J. Pan; J. van Staden

1999-01-01

190

Subliminal communication technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various types of subliminal communication devices presently in use, the psychological basis for subliminal technology, and the effectiveness of subliminal communication for therapy are examined as well as potentials for abuse. Social, legal, and ethical aspects are considered with respect to the privacy and autonomy of captive audiences. Implications for the regulation of subliminal techniques are reviewed with application to the various media.

191

Say What? Effective communication is safe business  

SciTech Connect

Ineffective safety communication can result in injury and even cost lives. With hazards surrounding workers, such as chemicals, electrical equipment and construction machinery, adequate safety messages and training are imperative for good business. Safety communication in the workplace is so important, it’s required in Washington State. WAC 296-800-130 requires employers to have a method of communicating and evaluating safety and health issues brought up by employers or employees in the workplace. Fortunately, there are lots of resources to help employers communicate with staff.

Schlender, Michael H.

2007-11-21

192

Communication Effectiveness of Individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among speech intelligibility and communication effectiveness as rated by speakers and their listeners. Participants completed procedures to measure (a) speech intelligibility, (b) self-perceptions of communication effectiveness, and (c) listener (spouse or family member) perceptions of…

Ball, Laura J.; Beukelman, David R.; Pattee, Gary L.

2004-01-01

193

Preferences in the Use of Social Media for Seeking and Communicating Health and Lifestyle Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The paper presents findings from a study investigating the health and lifestyle information behaviour of different groups of Icelanders. The paper focuses on the use of social media and its role in current information behaviour. Method: Quantitative methods were used. Two random samples were used in the study and the data were…

Pálsdóttir, Ágústa

2014-01-01

194

Children, Television and the New Media. Communication Research and Broadcasting No. 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a collection of selected articles (published in the 1990s) from "TelevIZIon," a specialized journal of the "Internationales Zentralinstitut fur das Jugend--und Bildungsfernsehen," that take up problems relating to media research and present national and international developments in the field of children's and young people's…

Lohr, Paul, Ed.; Meyer, Manfred, Ed.

195

Peace and the News Media: SANE'S Action Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to encourage public action in the media, this "action kit" consists of articles and reports dealing with the subjects of peace and the news media. Included are an article by Federal Communications Commissioner Nicholas Jackson which argues that the "law of effective reform" should be applied to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)…

SANE, Washington, DC.

196

Effectively Communicating Science to Extension Audiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the concept of "framing" within the context of relevant communication and psychological research and considers its potential applicability to Extension science communication. Examples of research-based support for the framing of scientific issues are presented, along with a literature-based discussion of the…

Robinson, Patrick

2013-01-01

197

Effective Managerial Communication through Employee Newsletters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the employee newsletter as a medium of managerial communication, and details the newsletter's usual contents and functions. Illustrates how managers can use newsletters to communicate information, as well as motivate employees and unify an organization. Describes the newsletter editor's role and typical problems editors encounter. (MM)

Waltman, John L.; Golen, Steven P.

1989-01-01

198

Capillary effect in salt-cemented media of particle sizes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural cementation such as salt cementation may significantly affect the geotechnical properties of soils at low confining pressures. Capillary force plays a key role in the distribution patterns of salt cementation resulting from dehydration. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of capillary force on salt cementation through cone penetration testing, electrical conductivity measurements, photographic imaging technique, and nondestructive elastic wave scanning. Granular media is modeled using glass beads which are saturated in salt water and cemented by oven drying. The cone tip resistance profiles, electrical conductivity profiles, and amplitudes of the scanned elastic waves are high at the top of the specimen with small-sized particles, in the middle of the specimen in medium-sized particles, and at the bottom of the specimen in the large-sized particles. Differences in the distribution of salt in the cemented specimens are confirmed from photographic images. The calculated capillary heights are associated with the areas of high salt concentration in the cemented specimens. The four investigation methods used in this study show that the behavior of salt-cemented granular media depends on capillary force in a shallow depth.

Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Hung Truong, Q.; Byun, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Sub

2015-01-01

199

Understanding Media Development: A Framework and Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ongoing evolution of communications technologies and systems creates significant challenges for any effort to understand the role of media in the lives of children and adolescents. The dominant paradigm in studying the relationship between children and media has been one of media effects. However, we propose a reciprocal relationship in which…

O'Keefe, B.J.; Zehnder, S.

2004-01-01

200

Virtual Teams and the Appropriation of Communication Technology: Exploring the Concept of Media Stickiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an exploratory study ofthe evolving use of communication tools by sixglobally distributed teams. The analysissuggest that although teams have similarstart-up conditions they evolve in differentways. We describe these differences as being aresult of the different routine patterns ofmedia use that the team members mutuallyenacted. Based on an analysis of six US-Dutchvirtual teams, we propose the notion

Marleen Huysman; Charles Steinfield; Chyng-yang Jang; Kenneth David; Mirjam Huis In 't Veld; Jan Poot; Ingrid Mulder

2003-01-01

201

2 Provisioning QoS controlled media access in vehicular to 3 infrastructure communications  

E-print Network

Environment (WAVE). 63This new flavor of wireless access is based on the 64802.11a radio technology on the dedicated short range 65communication (DSRC) frequency band (5.85­5.925 GHz), 66and adopts the 802.11e

Shen, Xuemin "Sherman"

202

Communicating and Interacting: An Exploration of the Changing Roles of Media in CALL/CMC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sites of learning and teaching using CALL are shifting from CD-based, LAN-based, or stand-alone programs to the Internet. As this change occurs, pedagogical approaches to using CALL are also shifting to forms which better exploit the communication, collaboration, and negotiation aspects of the Internet. Numerous teachers and designers have…

Hoven, Debra

2006-01-01

203

Transverse Fresnel-Fizeau drag effects in strongly dispersive media  

SciTech Connect

A light beam normally incident upon an uniformly moving dielectric medium is, in general, subject to bendings due to a transverse Fresnel-Fizeau light drag effect. In most familiar dielectrics, the magnitude of this bending effect is very small and hard to detect. Yet, the effect can be dramatically enhanced in strongly dispersive media where slow group velocities in the m/s range have been recently observed taking advantage of the electromagnetically induced transparency effect. In addition to the usual downstream drag that takes place for positive group velocities, we discuss a significant anomalous upstream drag which is expected to occur for negative group velocities. Furthermore, for sufficiently fast speeds of the medium, higher-order dispersion terms are found to play an important role and to be responsible for light propagation along curved paths or the restoration of the time and space coherence of an incident noisy beam. The physics underlying this class of slow-light effects is thoroughly discussed.

Carusotto, I. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Artoni, M. [INFM, Department of Chemistry and Physics of Materials, Via Valotti 9, 25133 Brescia (Italy); INFM, European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy, Via N. Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); La Rocca, G. C.; Bassani, F. [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFM, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

2003-12-01

204

'Write On': Teaching Effective Written Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes general suggestions and techniques used at Bay Path Junior College (Longmeadow, Massachusetts) to make the business communication course exciting and meaningful yet still capitalize on student involvement. (TA)

Lacombe, Joan M.; Kane, Joanne G.

1977-01-01

205

Amelia Bedelia in the Library or Effective Communication for Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses ways in which how both formal and informal library leaders can utilize communication principles to persuade, motivate, and build positive employee relations. Noting that effective communication takes time, it is suggested that administrators talk with, not to, individual staff members, and that they (1) use direct eye contact;…

Weinstein, Frances Ruth

206

Research on the electromagnetic environment effect on wireless communication systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increase in modern communication based on wireless technology, protection against electromagnetic environment effects (E3) on systems is becoming more important. This includes reducing the electromagnetic interference (EMI) and ensuring compatibility for communication systems within, and especially protecting data links and terminals against lightning and high-power electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) to achieve the normal operation of these systems. This paper

Zhou Changlin; Zhan Zhan; Qin Xuebing; Yang Hongtao; Zhu Weidong

2008-01-01

207

Quantitative prediction of effective conductivity in anisotropic heterogeneous media using two-point correlation functions.  

SciTech Connect

Statistical continuum approach is used to predict effective conductivity of anisotropic random porous heterogeneous media using two-point correction functions. Probability functions play a critical role in describing the statistical distribution of different constituents in a heterogeneous media. In this study a three-dimensional two-point correlation function is utilized to characterize the anisotropic media without making any assumption on the microstructure. Examples in this study demonstrated how the model captured the anisotropy in effective conductivity of the randome heterogeneous media. Predicted results showed the influence of microstructure of the effective conductivity tensor.

Li, Dongsheng; Saheli, Ghazal; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Garmestani, Hamid

2006-11-01

208

An Experimental Study Designed to Test the Relative Effectiveness of a Multi-Media Instructional System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summative evaluation of Cycles R-40 of the Listen Look Learn (LLL) Multi-Media Communication Skills System was conducted in 1967-68, using 28 experimental (LLL system) and 28 control (variety of basal reading programs) classes of first-grade children. Testing included the use of the Metropolitan Readiness Tests; the Pintner-Cunningham Primary…

Senter, Donald R.

209

The impact of mass media health communication on health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior of u.s. Hispanic population.  

PubMed

Mass media health communication has enormous potential to drastically alter how health-related information is disseminated and obtained by different populations. However, there is little evidence regarding the influence of media channels on health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behaviors among the Hispanic population. The Pew 2007 Hispanic Healthcare Survey was used to test the hypothesis that the amount of mass media health communication (i.e., quantity of media-based health information received) is more likely to influence Hispanic adults' health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior compared to health literacy and language proficiency variables. Results indicated that quantity of media-based health information is positively associated with health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior above and beyond the influence of health literacy and English and Spanish language proficiency. In a context where physician-patient dynamics are increasingly shifting from a passive patient role model to a more active patient role model, media-based health information can serve as an influential cue to action, prompting Hispanic individuals to make certain health-related decisions and to seek more health advice and information from a health provider. Study implications are discussed. PMID:22888787

De Jesus, Maria

2013-01-01

210

The Coming of Age of Media Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A decade into a new millennium marks a coming of age for media literacy education (MLE). Born from teaching the critical analysis of media texts, MLE has evolved into helping individuals of all ages "develop the habits of inquiry and skills of expression that they need to be critical thinkers, effective communicators and active citizens in today's…

Domine, Vanessa

2011-01-01

211

Brave New Media World: A Science Communications Voyage to the Great Pacific Garbage Patch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By leveraging online tools, such as blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Google Earth, flickr and web-based discussion boards, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography team recently took science communications out of the static webpage to create an interactive journey that sparked social dialogue and helped raise awareness of science-based research on global marine environmental problems. A crew of 16 researchers, volunteers and support staff, with assistance from the shore-based Scripps Oceanography communications team, took readers and viewers aboard Scripps’ research vessel New Horizon during the 20-day and more than 2,500-mile SEAPLEX expedition (Scripps Environmental Accumulation of Plastic Expedition). The journey to the North Pacific Ocean Gyre, aka “The Great Pacific Garbage Patch,” was chronicled through popular daily blogs and tweets as the researchers shared interesting scientific facts and unusual findings contained in the 100 oceanographic tow samples conducted in the water to collect data on the distribution of plastic near the gyre.

Reisewitz, A.; Clark, C. L.

2009-12-01

212

Tantalisingly Close: An Archaeology of Communication Desires in Discourses of Mobile Wireless Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many studies on mobile wireless communication devices predominantly take a micro-scale approach and concentrate their often ethnographically informed focus on use values, social implications, conversation strategies, changing norms and ethics, culture-dependent domestication, and so forth, with this Ph.D. dissertation I propose to venture into a more historical and comparative direction, mainly in order to shed light on and engage

I. O. de Vries

2008-01-01

213

Media Affordances of a Mobile Push-To-Talk Communication Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an exploratory study of college-age students using two- way, push-to-talk cellular radios. We describe the observed and reported use of cellular radio by the participants, the activities and purposes for which they adopted it, and their responses. We then examine these empirical results using mediated communication theory. Cellular radios have a unique combination of affordances relative to

Allison Woodruff; Paul M. Aoki

2003-01-01

214

Anthropomorphic Media Approach to Human-Computer Interactive Communication Using Face Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the realtime response face robot to demonstrate the integration of three functions of active human interface(AHI) that realizes interactive human-computer communication through an anthropomorphic modality of face robot. As the 1st function of AH, the face robot recognizes the existence of a human being in her view by using hi\\/her face image data and measures the

H. Kobayashi; F. Hara

1995-01-01

215

Communicating Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies: Opportunities and Constraints across Media  

E-print Network

to control industry emissions. Pressure for the implementation of these new technologies is also rising as the Obama Administration along with the House and Senate push for solutions to climate change. The communication of science and science- based... extent, terrestrial systems. Partnerships include the Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP), Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership (PCOR), Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC), Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration...

Feldpausch-Parker, Andrea Marie

2011-10-21

216

Next-generation media processors and their impact on medical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Media processors, with high-level programming languages, Application Programmer Interfaces (APIs) and rich media libraries, are capable of providing an effective solution for medical imaging products. Video, audio, 3D graphics, printing and communications functions become cost-effective by sharing one media processor. This paper includes an overview of media processors, their application including medical imaging uses, and projections for future media processors.

Gove, Robert J.; Lee, Woobin; Basoglu, Chris; Kim, Yongmin

1998-06-01

217

Older and Newer Media: Patterns of Use and Effects on Adolescents' Health and Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past decade's research on the use and effects of older (television, music, movies, magazines) and newer media (the Internet, cell phones, social networking) on adolescents' health and well-being is reviewed. A portrait of patterns of use of the media is provided and then the predictors and effects of those patterns on adolescents' mental…

Brown, Jane D.; Bobkowski, Piotr S.

2011-01-01

218

School Library Media Specialists as Effective School Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (2006), "Accomplished library media specialists are instructional leaders who forge greater opportunities for learners" (55). As one of the few school personnel responsible for all students, the media specialist can serve as a coordinator and an advocate. They can ensure equitable…

Everhart, Nancy

2007-01-01

219

Effects of media components on toxicity of Cd to rhizobia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have attempted to relate the ability of microorganisms to tolerate heavy metals added to artificial media to metal concentrations found in the environment from which the microbes were originally isolated. Organic and inorganic components of artificial media, however, may bind and chelate metals, thus reducing the biological activity\\/potency of these metals. We varied the concentration of various components

J. Scott Angle; Steve P. McGrath; Amar M. Chaudri

1992-01-01

220

Ethical media competence as a protective factor against cyberbullying and cybervictimization among german school students.  

PubMed

The use of digital information and communication technologies is an integral part of adolescents' everyday life. Besides various opportunities for information, entertainment, and communication, media use is associated with risks such as cyberbullying. Cyberbullying refers to aggressive behavior in the context of computer-mediated communication, characterized by repetition, an intention to harm, and power imbalance. Previous studies have shown that increased media use is a major risk factor for cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Given that restricting media use is not a practical way to reduce the negative effects inherent in media use, the present study examines the relevance of ethical media competence. We expected ethical media competence to buffer the effect of increased media use on cyberbullying and cybervictimization. A survey was conducted with 934 students (53% female) aged 10-17 years (M=13.26, SD=1.63). As expected, hierarchical regression analyses showed a positive main effect of media use, a negative main effect of ethical media competence, and a negative interaction effect of media use and media competence on cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Simple slope analyses revealed that at high levels of ethical media competence, media use has almost no effect on cybervictimization and a significant negative effect on cyberbullying. Consequently, promoting ethical media competence constitutes a potential measure to prevent the risks of increased media use for cyberbullying and cybervictimization. PMID:25272238

Müller, Christin R; Pfetsch, Jan; Ittel, Angela

2014-10-01

221

Brave New Media World: Science Communication Voyages through the Global Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By leveraging online tools, such as blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Google Earth, flickr, web-based discussion boards, and a bi-monthly electronic magazine for the non-scientist, Scripps Institution of Oceanography is taking science communications out of the static webpage to create interactive journeys that spark social dialogue and helped raise awareness of science-based research on global marine environmental issues. Several new initiatives are being chronicled through popular blogs and expedition web sites as researchers share interesting scientific facts and unusual findings in near real-time.

Clark, C. L.; Reisewitz, A.

2010-12-01

222

Effective Communication: Faculty and Students with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide offers guidance to college instructors about working with students who have communication-related disabilities including speech, language, hearing, emotional, or medical disorders. It offers some general accommodation strategies including a statement in the syllabus encouraging students to discuss any special needs with you, ask the…

Washington Univ., Seattle.

223

The Effectiveness of a Patient Communication Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports data from three consecutive classes of first- year optometry students at the Southern California College of Optometry, who were tested preceding and following completion of a patient communication course. Findings indicated that students improved their ability to respond to patients and were better able to discriminate among various levels…

Marsden, Harue J.

2000-01-01

224

Managerial Communication: Three Keys to Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managerial communications are in ill health because of the conflict between employees and management caused by collective bargaining, the growing alienation between building-level administrators and central office personnel, the change in the relationship between the school and community manifest in parent and community pressure groups, and the…

Redfern, George B.

225

The Media Workshop Hybrid in Media Education Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The media workshop and the media laboratory can fit meaningfully into the reforms of mass communication education, but there are distinct differences in their roles. The media workshop is a place where students can serve on-campus apprenticeships with a traditional media organization. The media laboratory is a futuristic media facility that…

McCall, Jeffrey M.

226

Passing crisis and emergency risk communications: The effects of communication channel, information type, and repetition.  

PubMed

Three experiments explore several factors which influence information transmission when warning messages are passed from person to person. In Experiment 1, messages were passed down chains of participants using five different modes of communication. Written communication channels resulted in more accurate message transmission than verbal. In addition, some elements of the message endured further down the chain than others. Experiment 2 largely replicated these effects and also demonstrated that simple repetition of a message eliminated differences between written and spoken communication. In a final field experiment, chains of participants passed information however they wanted to, with the proviso that half of the chains could not use telephones. Here, the lack of ability to use a telephone did not affect accuracy, but did slow down the speed of transmission from the recipient of the message to the last person in the chain. Implications of the findings for crisis and emergency risk communication are discussed. PMID:25683552

Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Newbold, Lex; Titchener, Kirsteen

2015-05-01

227

ESTIMATION OF EFFECTIVE SHEAR STRESS WORKING ON FLAT SHEET MEMBRANE USING FLUIDIZED MEDIA IN MBRs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was aimed at estimating effective shear stress working on flat sheet membrane by the addition of fluidized media in MBRs. In both of laboratory-scale aeration tanks with and without fluidized media, shear stress variations on membrane surface and water phase velocity variations were measured and MBR operation was conducted. For the evaluation of the effective shear stress working on membrane surface to mitigate membrane surface, simulation of trans-membrane pressure increase was conducted. It was shown that the time-averaged absolute value of shear stress was smaller in the reactor with fluidized media than without fluidized media. However, due to strong turbulence in the reactor with fluidized media caused by interaction between water-phase and media and also due to the direct interaction between membrane surface and fluidized media, standard deviation of shear stress on membrane surface was larger in the reactor with fluidized media than without media. Histograms of shear stress variation data were fitted well to normal distribution curves and mean plus three times of standard deviation was defined to be a maximum shear stress value. By applying the defined maximum shear stress to a membrane fouling model, trans-membrane pressure curve in the MBR experiment was simulated well by the fouling model indicting that the maximum shear stress, not time-averaged shear stress, can be regarded as an effective shear stress to prevent membrane fouling in submerged flat-sheet MBRs.

Zaw, Hlwan Moe; Li, Tairi; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Mishima, Iori

228

Aqueous and hydro-alcoholic media effects on polyols.  

PubMed

The ingestion of drug products with alcohol can have an adverse effect on drug levels in a patient's blood. The Food and Drug Agency (FDA) issued an alert in 2005 after hydromorphone was withdrawn from the market after clinical trials showed ingestion with alcohol to potentially result in lethal drug peak plasma concentrations. The potential impact of alcohol on extended release (ER) tablet matrices and the need to develop ER matrices robust to alcohol effects has then been of interest. This study investigated the compaction properties of polyols and their effect on drug release. Polyols (erythritol, xylitol, mannitol and maltitol) with increasing hydroxyl groups were used as diluents for HPMC matrices containing theophylline. Release profiles were determined in pH 1.2 and 6.8 dissolution media with hydro-alcoholic concentrations of 5-40%. Increases in the polyols' hydroxyl groups brought about an increase in tablet strength and a decrease in the drug release rates. This is likely due to stronger bond formation with increasing hydroxyls. The impact of alcohol on drug release was studied further for maltitol formulations. Maltitol was resilient to the presence of ethanol (5-40% v/v) at pH 1.2 (f2=57-74) but not at pH 6.8 (f2=36-48). Drug release was not different above 5% alcohol concentration at pH 6.8. The results of this in vitro study suggest that ethanol concentrations as high as 40% do not substantially alter the drug release properties of theophylline from maltitol matrix tablets. However, care and consideration should be given to the choice of polyol or mixture of polyols in obtaining a desired drug release profile. PMID:23777788

Asare-Addo, Kofi; Conway, Barbara R; Hajamohaideen, Mohamed J; Kaialy, Waseem; Nokhodchi, Ali; Larhrib, Hassan

2013-11-01

229

How effective is tailored print communication?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the “frist generation” of tailored print communications studies in the published literature, describing\\u000a the purpose, theoretical framework, sample, research design, message type and source, outcomes measured, and findings of each.\\u000a Eight studies compared tailored versus similar nontailored print; one compared tailored print versus an alternate intervention,\\u000a and three included tailored print as one of several intervention components.

Celette Sugg Skinner; Marci K. Campbell; Barbara K. Rimer; Susan Curry; James O. Prochaska

1999-01-01

230

Prediction of the effects of rain on satellite communication systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major propagation effects for satellite communication systems operating above 4 GHz are caused by rain. With the possible exceptions of depolarization and multiple scattering at frequencies above 20 GHz, these effects may be calculated if the distribution of rain intensity is known in both time and space. The major effects-attenuation and interference-require information about path and volume averaged rain

R. K. Crane

1977-01-01

231

EFFECT OF ANAEROBIOSIS ON FILTER MEDIA POLLUTANT RETENTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents the results of experiments conducted to determine if four potential filter media (sand, activated carbon, peat moss, and compost) could retain previously-trapped pollutants even under anaerobic conditions. The results indicated that permanent retention of heav...

232

A Test of Media Literacy Effects and Sexual Objectification in Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on past research, a media literacy video demonstrating how women are sexually objectified in the media was found to have significant effects on cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral responses to ads containing objectifying images of women. As expected, females had uniformly negative responses to the ads after watching the video compared to women who did not watch the video. Contrary

Tom Reichert; Michael S. Latour; Jacqueline J. Lambiase; Mark Adkins

2007-01-01

233

Effects of a Brief Media Intervention on Expectations, Attitudes, and Intentions of Mental Health Help Seeking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of a mass-media video intervention on expectations, attitudes, and intentions to seek help from professional mental health care services. A public service announcement-style, mass-media video intervention was developed, with prior empirical research on help-seeking behaviors organized according to the theory of…

Demyan, Amy L.; Anderson, Timothy

2012-01-01

234

The Effect of Media on Citizens' Fear of Crime in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted on-site in Istanbul, Turkey, to determine the effects that mass media has on citizens' perceptions about fear of crime, in particular, and fear, in general. Specifically, the study was designed to (1) determine the tendency of citizens' media consumption, (2) determine the level of fear of crime among Turkish citizens, (3)…

Erdonmez, Erhan

2009-01-01

235

Maintaining Ties on Social Media Sites: The Competing Effects of Balance, Exchange, and Betweenness  

E-print Network

Maintaining Ties on Social Media Sites: The Competing Effects of Balance, Exchange, and Betweenness with a common methodological problem in studying ties on social media sites: the tremendous volatil- ity of these ties over time makes it hard to compare one's results to simple baselines that assume static or stable

Kleinberg, Jon

236

Effective attenuation anisotropy of thin-layered media Yaping Zhu1  

E-print Network

the known equations for purely elastic media.Atten- uation analysis is more complicated because to both heterogeneity and intrinsic anisotropy. Interesting- ly, the effective attenuation for P- and SV-waves. Pointer et al. 2000 discuss three different mechanisms for wave-induced fluid flow in cracked porous media

Tsvankin, Ilya

237

Effects of porous media on thermal and salt diffusion of solar pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and field experiments were carried out along with numerical simulations in this paper to study the effects of porous media on thermal and salt diffusion of the solar ponds. From our laboratory experiments simulating heat transfer inside a solar pond, it is shown that the addition of porous media to the bottom of a solar pond could help enhance

Yufeng Shi; Fang Yin; Lihua Shi; Sun Wence; Nan Li; Hong Liu

2011-01-01

238

Evaluating the Effect of Educational Media Exposure on Aggression in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschool-aged children (M = 42.44 months-old, SD = 8.02) participated in a short-term longitudinal study investigating the effect of educational media exposure on social development (i.e., aggression and prosocial behavior) using multiple informants and methods. As predicted, educational media exposure significantly predicted increases in both…

Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Mullins, Adam D.

2013-01-01

239

Nurses and social media.  

PubMed

Nurses' use of social media and other electronic communications has increased significantly with growing numbers of social media opportunities, platforms and applications including blogs, social networking sites, video sites and online chat rooms and forums. PMID:24690934

Farrelly, Rory

240

Effects of Parent Instruction on the Symbolic Communication of Children Using Augmentative and Alternative Communication during Storybook Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigated the effects of a communication partner instruction strategy for parents of children using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on the communicative turn taking of their children. Instruction was provided within storybook-reading contexts. Method: Two single-subject multiple-probe-across-participants…

Kent-Walsh, Jennifer; Binger, Cathy; Hasham, Zishan

2010-01-01

241

Large-scale effects on resistivity index of porous media.  

PubMed

The estimation of humidity in the unsaturated zone of soils and NAPL saturation in contaminated aquifers may be based on the interpretation of electrical resistivity index logs. In the present work, concepts of the theory of the two-phase flow in pore networks are employed to interpret the form of the equilibrium and dynamic resistivity index curves of large porous samples. A resistivity cell is constructed to measure the capillary and electrical properties of large samples of unconsolidated porous media. The drainage capillary pressure and resistivity index curves of a sand column are measured by using the micropore membrane (porous plate) method, where a 0.5% wt/vol NaCl aqueous solution is displaced by n-dodecane. The dynamic resistivity index curves are measured by using the continuous injection technique for various orientations of the sand column. Based on concepts of the two-phase flow theory, concerning the dominant displacement growth pattern in a pore network and arising from the cooperative effects of capillary, buoyancy, and viscous forces, approximate relationships are developed for the resistivity index and saturation exponent as functions of the water saturation. The saturation exponent decreases as the displacement advances and the fluid distribution across the sand column tends to be homogenized after oil breakthrough. Both the resistivity index and saturation exponent increase as the displacement pattern tends to become compact and stable. In the destabilized flow pattern, as the Bond number decreases, the resistivity index may increase respectably within a narrow range of values of the Bond number. This happens when the thickness of the unstable capillary finger exceeds the lateral dimension of the porous sample and becomes a fractal percolation cluster. The saturation exponent becomes almost constant and independent of water saturation only over the destabilized displacement pattern at high values of the Bond number. PMID:15854721

Aggelopoulos, C; Klepetsanis, P; Theodoropoulou, M A; Pomoni, K; Tsakiroglou, C D

2005-05-01

242

Quantifying Effective Flow and Transport Properties in Heterogeneous Porous Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial heterogeneity, the spatial variation in physical and chemical properties, exists at almost all scales and is an intrinsic property of natural porous media. It is important to understand and quantify how small-scale spatial variations determine large-scale "effective" properties in order to predict fluid flow and transport behavior in the natural subsurface. In this work, we aim to systematically understand and quantify the role of the spatial distribution of sand grains of different sizes in determining effective dispersivity and effective permeability using quasi-2D flow-cell experiments and numerical simulations. Two dimensional flow cells (20 cm by 20 cm) were packed with the same total amount of fine and coarse sands however with different spatial patterns. The homogeneous case has the completely mixed fine and coarse sands. The four zone case distributes the fine sand in four identical square zones within the coarse sand matrix. The one square case has all the fine sands in one square block. With the one square case pattern, two more experiments were designed in order to examine the effect of grain size contrast on effective permeability and dispersivity. Effective permeability was calculated based on both experimental and modeling results. Tracer tests were run for all cases. Advection dispersion equations were solved to match breakthrough data and to obtain average dispersivity. We also used Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) to quantify the non-Fickian transport behavior for each case. For the three cases with the same grain size contrast, the results show that the effective permeability does not differ significantly. The effective dispersion coefficient is the smallest for the homogeneous case (0.05 cm) and largest for the four zone case (0.27 cm). With the same pattern, the dispersivity value is the largest with the highest size contrast (0.28 cm), which is higher than the one with the lowest case by a factor of 2. The non-Fickian behavior was quantified by the ? value within the CTRW framework. Fickian transport will result in ? values larger than 2 while its deviation from 2 indicates the extent of non-Fickian behavior. Among the three cases with the same grain size contrast, the ? value is closest to 2 in the homogeneous case (1.95), while smallest in the four zone case (1.89). In the one square case, with the highest size contrast, the ? value was 1.57, indicating increasing extent of non-Fickian behavior with higher size contrast. This study is one step toward understanding how small-scale spatial variation in physical properties affect large-scale flow and transport behavior. This step is important in predicting subsurface transport processes that are relevant to earth sciences, environmental engineering, and petroleum engineering.

Heidari, P.; Li, L.

2012-12-01

243

Communication Seebeck effect in steel fiber reinforced cement  

E-print Network

Communication Seebeck effect in steel fiber reinforced cement Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung* Composite cement, in addition to yielding more reversibility and linearity in the variation of the Seebeck voltage; Electrical properties; Silica fume; Thermoelectric 1. Introduction The Seebeck effect refers

Chung, Deborah D.L.

244

Keeping it Simple: Effective Communication Strategies in Online Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This session will encourage participants to consider how they communicate with their online students. Effective strategies for engaging students in learning, clarifying course policies, and providing constructive feedback are key to successful online learning. Participants will explore effective discussion strategies, evaluation processes, and scaffolded learning\\/mentoring activities in online courses. Examples and discussion among colleagues will be the focus of this

William Berry

2012-01-01

245

The "Mozart Effect II" and Other Communication/Learning Links  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While exploring the development of Communication and Learning Aids in all venues, particularly the effect of music on learning, several different tracks were followed. The therapeutic use of music is for relaxation and stress reduction, which apparently helps the body to access and discharge deeply locked-in material. The Mozart Effect track which…

Selman, Victor; Selman, Ruth Corey; Selman, Jerry; Selman, Elsie

2007-01-01

246

75 FR 64691 - Information Collection; Land Between The Lakes (LBL) Communication Effectiveness Study  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The Lakes (LBL) Communication Effectiveness Study...assess the impact of communication avenues such as...LBL's own Social Science and Market Research Specialists. The...determine if LBL's communication efforts are in...

2010-10-20

247

Effects of Two Different Growth Media on the Postantifungal Effect Induced by Polyenes on Candida Species  

PubMed Central

There are no data on the effects of different growth media on polyene-induced postantifungal effect (PAFE) in Candida species. Hence, the nystatin- and amphotericin B-induced PAFEs in six Candida species (26 isolates) grown in Sabouraud's dextrose broth (SAB) and RPMI broth were evaluated, following limited exposure to the MICs of the two polyenes, using an automated turbidometric method. For nystatin, PAFE varied between 1.88 and 4.87 h in SAB and 0.66 and 6.89 h in RPMI, and for amphotericin B, the equivalent values were 3.13 to 10.98 h in SAB and 0.97 to 7.01 h in RPMI. These highly significant (P < 0.001) variations in the PAFE with both drugs, noted with most Candida strains grown in different media, call for standardization of intralaboratory methodology in measuring this parameter in order to obtain universally comparable data. PMID:11427609

Shu, M.; Ellepola, A. N. B.; Samaranayake, L. P.

2001-01-01

248

Effect of Contrast Media on Megavoltage Photon Beam Dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in photon beam dosimetry caused by using contrast media during computed tomography (CT) simulation and determine if the resulting changes are clinically significant. The effect of contrast on dosimetry was first examined for a single 6-MV photon beam incident on a plane phantom with a structure of varying electron densities ({rho}{sub e}) and thickness. Patient studies were then undertaken in which CT data sets were collected with and without contrast for 6 typical patients. Three patients received IV contrast (Optiray-240{sup TM}) only and 3 received IV plus oral (Gastrograffin{sup TM}) contrast. Each patient was planned using conformal multifield techniques in accordance with the department standards. Two methods were used to compare the effect of contrast on dosimetry for each patient. The phantom analysis showed that the change in dose at the isocenter for a single 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} 6-MV photon beam traversing 10 cm of a contrast-enhanced structure with {rho}{sub e} 1.22 was 7.0% (1.22 was the highest average {rho}{sub e} observed in the patient data). As a result of using contrast, increases in {rho}{sub e} were observed in structures for the 6 patients studied. Consequently, when using contrast-enhanced CT data for multifield planning, increases in dose at the isocenter and in critical structures were observed up to 2.1% and 2.5%, respectively. Planning on contrast-enhanced CT images may result in an increase in dose of up to 2.1% at the isocenter, which would generally be regarded as clinically insignificant. If, however, a critical organ is in close proximity to the planning target volume (PTV) and is planned to receive its maximum allowable dose, planning on contrast-enhanced CT images may result in that organ receiving dose beyond the recommended tolerance. In these instances, pre-contrast CT data should be used for dosimetry.

Rankine, Ashley W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Verdun Street, Nedlands, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia)], E-mail: Ashley.Rankine@health.wa.gov.au; Lanzon, Peter J.; Spry, Nigel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Verdun Street, Nedlands, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia)

2008-10-01

249

Effects of temperature on bacterial transport and destruction in bioretention media: Field and laboratory evaluations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microbial activities (such as metabolism, predation, and proliferation) are significantly influenced by temperature. This study investigated the effects of temperature on the capture and destruction of bacteria from urban stormwater runoff in bioretention media using 2-yr field evaluations coupled ...

250

The Effect of the Media on Suicide: The Great Depression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests thesis that degree of media influence is contingent on audience receptivity. Audience receptivity to suicide stories assumed high during Great Depression. Developed taxonomy of stories using classic imitation, social learning, and differential identification theories. Analysis of monthly data on suicides and publicized stories revealed…

Stack, Steven

1992-01-01

251

The Knowledge Gap: An Analytical Review of Media Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-eight studies relating to the "knowledge gap" hypothesis (a theory that correlates public knowledge to educational level and mass media exposure) are examined in this report. In the opening sections, the theory is defined, and the early information diffusion studies and public opinion polls that led to its formulation in 1970 are described.…

Gaziano, Cecilie

252

Effect of pore geometry in porous media on the miscibility of crude oil and carbon dioxide  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF PORE GEOMETRY IN POROUS MEDIA ON THE MISCIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL AND CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by HAMED SARKHOSH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1977 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering EFFECT OF PORE GEOMETRY IN POROUS MEDIA ON THE MISCIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL AND CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by HAMED SARKHOSH Approved as to styie and content by Chai, an of Committee Head...

Sarkhosh, Hamed

1977-01-01

253

Media Presentation Mode, English Listening Comprehension and Cognitive Load in Ubiquitous Learning Environments: Modality Effect or Redundancy Effect?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although ubiquitous learning enhances students' access to learning materials, it is crucial to find out which media presentation modes produce the best results for English listening comprehension. The present study examined the effect of media presentation mode (sound and text versus sound) on English listening comprehension and cognitive load.…

Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lei, Hao; Tseng, Ju-Shih

2011-01-01

254

Monte Carlo Calculations of Single-Phase Effective Permeability in 2-D Anisotropic Porous Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective parameters determine the upscaled flow and transport properties in heterogeneous porous media under ergodic conditions. Explicit expressions have been proposed for the single phase effective fluid permeability of media with short-range correlations, based on a first-order perturbation expansion of the disorder and the Landau-Lifshitz conjecture (L. W. Gelhar and C. L. Axness, Water Resour. Res., 19(1), 161 (1983).). These estimates have been recently verified to higher orders in the isotropic case by means of a one-loop renormalization calculation (D. T. Hristopulos and G. Christakos, Stoch. Envir. Res. & Risk Asses., 13, 131 (1999).). However, most natural porous media are anisotropic. We investigate flow in 2-D anisotropic media using Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the effective permeability for strong heterogeneity deviates considerably from the perturbation-based conjecture. We discuss these results in connection with second order perturbation calculations.

Hristopulos, Dionissios; Christakos, George

1999-11-01

255

Data communications  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining computer communication systems used in nuclear power plants. The recommendations cover three areas important to these communications systems: system design, communication protocols, and communication media. The first area, system design, considers three aspects of system design--questions about architecture, specific risky design elements or omissions to look for in designs being reviewed, and recommendations for multiplexed data communication systems used in safety systems. The second area reviews pertinent aspects of communication protocol design and makes recommendations for newly designed protocols or the selection of existing protocols for safety system, information display, and non-safety control system use. The third area covers communication media selection, which differs significantly from traditional wire and cable. The recommendations for communication media extend or enhance the concerns of published IEEE standards about three subjects: data rate, imported hazards and maintainability.

Preckshot, G.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1993-08-01

256

Comfortably numb: desensitizing effects of violent media on helping others.  

PubMed

Two studies tested the hypothesis that exposure to violent media reduces aid offered to people in pain. In Study 1, participants played a violent or nonviolent video game for 20 min. After game play, while completing a lengthy questionnaire, they heard a loud fight, in which one person was injured, outside the lab. Participants who played violent games took longer to help the injured victim, rated the fight as less serious, and were less likely to "hear" the fight in comparison to participants who played nonviolent games. In Study 2, violent- and nonviolent-movie attendees witnessed a young woman with an injured ankle struggle to pick up her crutches outside the theater either before or after the movie. Participants who had just watched a violent movie took longer to help than participants in the other three conditions. The findings from both studies suggest that violent media make people numb to the pain and suffering of others. PMID:19207695

Bushman, Brad J; Anderson, Craig A

2009-03-01

257

Information Processes Mediate the Effect of a Health Communication Intervention on Fruit and Vegetable Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health communication interventions have been effective in promoting fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC). To explore mechanisms underlying health communication effectiveness, the authors investigated whether information processes mediated the relationship between health communication and FVC, using data from NC STRIDES. NC STRIDES tested the efficacy of two health communication strategies to promote FVC among a diverse population-based sample of older adults.

Linda K. Ko; Marci K. Campbell; Megan A. Lewis; Jo Anne Earp; Brenda DeVellis

2011-01-01

258

Communication Effect of stress on the electric polarization in cement  

E-print Network

Communication Effect of stress on the electric polarization in cement Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung the extent of electric polarization in the transverse direction in cement pastes with and without carbon smaller when carbon fibers were present. It was smaller for carbon fiber cement paste containing silica

Chung, Deborah D.L.

259

Effective integration of information and communications technology in teacher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective delivery of the new information technology (IT) curriculum for student teachers in the United Kingdom, which started in September 1998, is an important challenge for initial teacher training institutions. This article identifies three main obstacles that may limit its successful implementation – student access to computers, the communications and information technology (ICT) policy adopted by initial teacher training providers

Colette Murphy; Lillian Greenwood

1998-01-01

260

Evidence of Halo Effects in Student Evaluations of Communication Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that the halo effect is a construct reserved to explain individual rater's failure to discriminate among conceptually distinct aspects of a stimulus person's behavior. Examines instructor evaluations completed by 128 students from three communication courses. Finds significant inter-correlations among five measures indicating the presence of…

Feeley, Thomas Hugh

2002-01-01

261

Experimentally Evaluating Communicative Strategies: The Effect of the Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective problem solving among multiple agents requires a better understanding of the role of communication in collaboration. In this paper we show that there are commu- nicative strategies that greatly improve the performance of resource-bounded agents, but that these strategies are highly sensitive to the task requirements, situation parameters and agents' resource limitations. We base our ar- gument on two

Marilyn A. Walker

1994-01-01

262

Terminology Revisited: Effective Communications for the Agricultural Community  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA, particularly on small farms. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information as effectively as possible. Many...

263

The Communicative Effectiveness Survey: Preliminary Evidence of Construct Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To provide preliminary evidence of the construct validity of the Communicative Effectiveness Survey (CES) for individuals with dysarthria and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: In a prospective, quasi-experimental design, 25 participants each were assigned to 3 groups (N = 75): PD and dysarthria, non-PD and no dysarthria, and PD…

Donovan, Neila J.; Kendall, Diane L.; Young, Mary Ellen; Rosenbek, John C.

2008-01-01

264

Toward a Standard of Communication Training Effectiveness Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication training efforts in American business have increased steadily for the past several years. While this increase may be viewed as positive from several vantage points, it has not been matched by an increase in any systematic application of evaluation measures. Effective evaluation should take place at various levels. D. L. Kirkpatrick…

Stevens, Matthew D.; Hellweg, Susan A.

265

Communication imperialism and dependency: a conceptual clarification.  

PubMed

Communications imperialism has to do with the domination of a country's media activities by another. The ownership, structure, distribution or content of the media in 1 country are affected by pressures from media interests of another country or group out of proportion with those of that country. To determine if this is happening we should consider the country's policies, the private sector;s efforts to export communications elements, and actions of the dominant country against the dominated. The 4 aspects of international media in this situation are television program exportation, foreign ownership and control of media distribution, the infringement of capital opinions on other societies, and the transfer of commercialism and broadcasting norms. In addition to the software and hardware and the other forms of communication such as satellites, computers, and transportation of the mass media, there are the cultural effects on the developing countries. In the case of involuntary of voluntary dependency of the recipient country, the effect of the unbalanced international communication can be harmful or beneficial. Communication dependency may not be harmful to the culture of the recipient country. In determining the theory of unbalanced international communications 3 factors should be considered. There are: the role of the interacting countries, the nature of the dependency of the recipient country, and the beneficial or harmful effect of unbalanced communication pattern on that country. PMID:12283101

Lee, P S

1988-01-01

266

Relativistic Doppler effect in quantum communication  

E-print Network

When an electromagnetic signal propagates in vacuo, a polarization detector cannot be rigorously perpendicular to the wave vector because of diffraction effects. The vacuum behaves as a noisy channel, even if the detectors are perfect. The ``noise'' can however be reduced and nearly cancelled by a relative motion of the observer toward the source. The standard definition of a reduced density matrix fails for photon polarization, because the transversality condition behaves like a superselection rule. We can however define an effective reduced density matrix which corresponds to a restricted class of positive operator-valued measures. There are no pure photon qubits, and no exactly orthogonal qubit states.

Asher Peres; Daniel R. Terno

2003-04-06

267

Gun violence and media effects: challenges for science and public policy.  

PubMed

In response to the Sandy Hook shooting in December 2012, the White House published an action plan to reduce gun violence that, among other things, calls for research into the relationship with violence in digital games or other media images. We acknowledge the administration's efforts to reduce violent crime in society and their obligation to dedicate resources to matters of public interest, such as media effects. However, research projects launched in the midst of a moral panic bear the risk of introducing bias and distracting from more important issues. Ideological rigidity has repeatedly shaped past research on media violence. Current initiatives could be an opportunity to restore credibility to the field and to engage in a responsible dialogue on media effects. In order to inform public policy, we need to close gaps, both in empirical research and the academic debate, while being alert for potential political and social influences. PMID:24187065

Elson, Malte; Ferguson, Christopher J

2013-11-01

268

The role of attention problems and impulsiveness in media violence effects on aggression.  

PubMed

Previous research has established media violence as a causal risk factor for aggressive behavior. Several theoretical mechanisms have been identified to explain this effect. The present study assessed 422 undergraduate students to test the possibility that individual differences in attention problems and impulsiveness can help explain the link between violent media and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness proved to be a distinct construct from other processes believed to mediate aggression (aggressive beliefs, aggression related schemata, trait anger, and trait hostility). Attention problems and impulsiveness were uniquely related to both media exposure (total weekly hours and violent content) and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness were particularly related to impulsive (as opposed to premeditated) aggression. These results suggest that attention problems and impulsiveness may play an important role in violent media effects on aggression. PMID:24452487

Swing, Edward L; Anderson, Craig A

2014-01-01

269

Cross-Cultural Barriers to Effective Communication in Aviation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent research on communication and performance in airline flight crews has led to a concept of shared mental models that is associated with effective, efficient team coordination in problem solving and decision making situations. Elements that characterize efficient communication have been identified. This research, however, was based strictly on US crews. More recent studies supported by NASA have identified cultural factors that influence communication among team members who vary in their status and roles. Research is just beginning to identify commonalities and culturally distinct strategies for accomplishing joint tasks. ASRS incident reports have been analyzed to identify language barriers in flight that have safety consequences. Implications of these concepts and findings for multi-cultural command and control will be explored.

Orasanu, Judith; Davison, Jeannie; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

270

Spacetime effects on satellite-based quantum communications  

E-print Network

We investigate the effects of space-time curvature on space-based quantum communication protocols. We analyze tasks that require either the exchange of single photons in a certain entanglement distribution protocol or beams of light in a continuous-variable quantum key distribution scheme. We find that gravity affects the propagation of photons, therefore acting as a noisy channel for the transmission of information. The effects can be measured with current technology.

Bruschi, David Edward; Fuentes, Ivette; Jennewein, Thomas; Razavi, Mohsen

2013-01-01

271

Using Communication Strategies to Promote Sexual Health: Can Mass Media Get in Bed with the "Female" Condom?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many public health students receive little, if any, formal training in communicating health information to the public. Public health practitioners, however, are regularly asked to use communication strategies to convey health information. The lesson plan was designed to teach students mass communication strategies in the context of sexual health…

Levine, Sarah Mariel; Austin, S. Bryn

2010-01-01

272

Corporate Communications Media Relations  

E-print Network

A thermoelectric materials emulator Zurich, October 24, 2013. Converting heat directly into power could be a major materials. Discovered in the 19th century, thermoelectric materials have the remarkable property to better understand the fundamental phenomena ­ "a thermoelectric material emulator". It happened almost

Rochaix, Jean-David

273

Dogmatism and the "Knowledge Gap" among Users of the Mass Media of Communication: A Study in Brasilia, Brasil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to discover whether (1) use of each of the print and broadcast media could be correlated with subjects' knowledge level, and (2) whether controlling for dogmatism would increase the proportion of media users, with higher levels of knowledge among those less dogmatic, and decrease the proportion among the more dogmatic.…

Simmons, Robert E.; Garda, Eduardo Carlos

274

Tips for K-12 Educators for Helping Students Communicate and Create Using Visual Motion Media, Photography, and Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a particular lesson plan--the "Illustrating Project"--that has been successful for many classroom educators. The Illustrating Project calls for students, individually or in project groups, to illustrate some element of the curriculum via the media selected by the teacher. The selected media might be PowerPoint or some other…

TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 2009

2009-01-01

275

Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Communication impairment is a core deficit associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, it should not be surprising\\u000a that this topic has become a major thrust of assessment and treatment in applied behavior analysis (ABA). The types of communication\\u000a skills to target for intervention and the behavioral assessment methods that can be used to identify these target behaviors\\u000a are reviewed

Jeff Sigafoos; Mark F. O’Reilly; Giulio E. Lancioni

276

Laser satellite communication network-vibration effect and possible solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of serious consortiums develop satellite communication networks. The objective of these communication projects is to service personal communication users almost everywhere on Earth. The intersatellite links in those projects use microwave radiation as the carrier. Free-space optical communication between satellites networked together can make possible high-speed communication between different places on Earth. Some advantages of an optical communication

SHLOMI ARNON; N. S. Kopeika

1997-01-01

277

Estimating Causal Effects from Family Planning Health Communication Campaigns Using Panel Data: The “Your Health, Your Wealth” Campaign in Egypt  

PubMed Central

Background Health communication campaigns – involving mass media and interpersonal communication - have long been utilized by national family planning programs to create awareness about contraceptive methods, to shift social norms related to fertility control, and to promote specific behaviors, such as the use of condoms, injectable methods or permanent sterilization. However, demonstrating the effectiveness of these campaigns is often complicated because the infeasibility of experimental designs generally yields statistically non-equivalent samples of campaign-exposed and unexposed individuals. Methods Using data from a panel survey of reproductive age women in Egypt, we estimate the effects of the multimedia health communication campaign “Your Health, Your Wealth” (“Sahatek Sarwetek”) on precursors to contraceptive use (e.g., spousal communication, birth spacing attitudes) and on modern contraceptive use. Difference-in-differences and fixed effects estimators that exploit the panel nature of the data are employed to control for both observed and unobserved heterogeneity in the sample of women who self-report recall of the messages, thereby potentially improving upon methods that make no such controls or that rely solely on cross-sectional data. Findings All of the estimators find positive effects of the “Your Health, Your Wealth” campaign on reproductive health outcomes, though the magnitudes of those effects diverge, often considerably. Difference-in-differences estimators find that exposure to the campaign increases the likelihood of spousal discussions by 14.4 percentage points (pp.) (SE?=?.039, p<0.001) but has no effect on contraceptive use. In contrast, the fixed effects, instrumental variables estimator, controlling for unobserved heterogeneity, finds a large, statistically significant effect on modern contraceptive use (27.4 pp., SE?=?0.135, p?=?0.043). Conclusions The difficulties of evaluating family planning communication programs may be surmountable using panel data and analytic methods that address both observed and unobserved heterogeneity in exposure. Not controlling for such effects may lead to substantial underestimates of the effectiveness of such campaigns. PMID:23049961

Hutchinson, Paul L.; Meekers, Dominique

2012-01-01

278

Examining the effects of media on learners' mental representations and cognitive processes in science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the effects of television and video games as media on the science knowledge and understanding of middle school students in a Midwest, urban charter school. Twenty-five study participants were organized into eight focus groups. Each group, which comprised of three to four members, was introduced to one of two media types, a television show episode or video games, and then asked a series of questions prompting group dialogue. Results show that students were able to distinguish science ideas presented in the media and made science content connections from previous classroom learning. Implications suggest how teachers can utilize weapons of mass instruction, the tools of media technology, to fight against the challenges that plague our current system of education.

Carr, Adrienne L.

279

Foaming and media surfactant effects on the cultivation of animal cells in stirred and sparged bioreactors.  

PubMed

Foam formation and the subsequent cell damage/losses in the foam layer were found to be the major problems affecting cell growth and monoclonal antibody (MAb) production in stirred and sparged bioreactors for both serum-supplemented and serum-free media. Surfactants in the culture media had a profound effect on cell growth by changing both the properties of bubbles and the qualities of foam formed. Comparable cell growth and MAb production in sparged bioreactors and in stirred and surface-aerated control cultures were observed only in Pluronic F-68 containing culture media. In media devoid of Pluronic F-68, cells became more sensitive to direct bubble aeration in the presence of antifoam agent which was used to suppress foam formation. Compared with serum-supplemented medium, more severe cell damage effects were observed in serum-free medium. In addition, serum-free medium devoid of cells was partially degraded under continuous air sparging. The mechanism of this damage effect was not clear. Pluronic F-68 provided protective effect to cells but not to the medium. A theoretical model based on the surface active properties of Pluronic F-68 was proposed to account for its protective effect on cell growth. Optimum media surfactant composition in terms of maximum cell growth and minimum foam formation was proposed for stirred and sparged animal cell bioreactor. PMID:1368805

Zhang, S; Handa-Corrigan, A; Spier, R E

1992-09-01

280

Ionospheric effects on C3I satellite communications systems in Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of polar ionospheric scintillation fading on U.S. military satellite communications systems in Greenland are reviewed. The operational type of satellite communications testing, conducted for the past 10 years to evaluate the feasibility of replacing the traditional HF radio links with satellite communications links is described. Some future plans for the operational use of satellite communications in Greenland are identified.

Johnson, A.; Taagholt, J.

1985-06-01

281

Assessment of earthquake effects - contribution from online communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid increase of social media and online newspapers in the last years have given the opportunity to make a national investigation on macroseismic effects on the Maltese Islands based on felt earthquake reports. A magnitude 4.1 earthquake struck close to Malta on Sunday 24th April 2011 at 13:02 GMT. The earthquake was preceded and followed by a series of smaller magnitude quakes throughout the day, most of which were felt by the locals on the island. The continuous news media coverage during the day and the extensive sharing of the news item on social media resulted in a strong public response to fill in the 'Did you feel it?' online form on the website of the Seismic Monitoring and Research Unit (SMRU) at the University of Malta (http://seismic.research.um.edu.mt/). The results yield interesting information about the demographics of the island, and the different felt experiences possibly relating to geological settings and diverse structural and age-classified buildings. Based on this case study, the SMRU is in the process of developing a mobile phone application dedicated to share earthquake information to the local community. The application will automatically prompt users to fill in a simplified 'Did you feel it?' report to potentially felt earthquakes. Automatic location using Global Positioning Systems can be incorporated to provide a 'real time' intensity map that can be used by the Civil Protection Department.

D'Amico, Sebastiano; Agius, Matthew; Galea, Pauline

2014-05-01

282

Effects of atmospheric scintillation in Ka-band satellite communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is motivated by the need to characterize the effects of atmospheric scintillation on Ka-band satellite communications. The builders of satellite communications systems are planning to utilize Ka-band in more than a dozen systems that have been proposed for launch in the next decade. The NASA ACTS (Advanced Communication Technology Satellite) program has provided a means to investigate the problems associated with Ka-band satellite transmissions. Experimental measurements have been conducted using a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) to evaluate the effects of scintillation on narrowband and wideband signals. The theoretical background of scintillation theory is presented, noting especially the additional performance degradation predicted for wideband Ka-band systems using VSATs. Experimental measurements of the amplitude and phase variations in received narrowband carrier signals were performed, using beacon signals transmitted by ACTS and carrier signals which are relayed through the satellite. Measured amplitude and phase spectra have been compared with theoretical models to establish the presence of scintillation. Measurements have also been performed on wideband spread spectrum signals which are relayed through ACTS to determine the bit-error rate degradation of the digital signal resulting from scintillation effects. The theory and measurements presented for the geostationary ACTS have then been applied to a low-earth orbiting satellite system, by extrapolating the effects of the moving propagation path on scintillation.

Borgsmiller, Scott A.

283

Transport in fractal media: an effective scale-invariant approach.  

PubMed

In this paper an advective-dispersion equation with scale-dependent coefficients is proposed for describing transport through fractals. This equation is obtained by imposing scale invariance and assuming that the porosity, the dispersion coefficient, and the velocity follow fractional power laws on the scale. The model incorporates the empirically found trends in highly heterogeneous media, regarding the dependence of the dispersivity on the scale and the dispersion coefficient on the velocity. We conclude that the presence of nontrivial fractal parameters produces anomalous dispersion, as expected, and that the presence of convective processes induces a reescalation in the concentration and shifts the tracer velocity to different values with respect to the nonfractal case. PMID:23005215

Hernandez-Coronado, H; Coronado, M; Herrera-Hernandez, E C

2012-06-01

284

Optical Kerr effect in viscous media: I. The homologous series of polyoxyethylenediols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of temperature dependence of the optical Kerr effect in a series of homologous polyoxyethylenediols are presented. The molecular Kerr constant was found to increase with growing molecular weight of a polydiol. The temperature dependence ofthe optical Kerr effect clearly indicates the influence of viscosity in these media.

Zdzislaw Blaszczak; Marek Halas; Waleed el Shirbeeny; Ewa Andrzejewska; Maciej Andrzejewski

2000-01-01

285

Comparison of the effects of rolling resistance and angularity in sheared granular media  

E-print Network

Comparison of the effects of rolling resistance and angularity in sheared granular media Nicolas. In this paper, we compare the effect of rolling resistance at the contacts in granular systems composed of disks resistance can explicitly be identified with that of the number of sides in a regular polygonal particle

Boyer, Edmond

286

Spacetime effects on satellite-based quantum communications  

E-print Network

We investigate the consequences of space-time being curved on space-based quantum communication protocols. We analyze tasks that require either the exchange of single photons in a certain entanglement distribution protocol or beams of light in a continuous-variable quantum key distribution scheme. We find that gravity affects the propagation of photons, therefore adding additional noise to the channel for the transmission of information. The effects could be measured with current technology.

David Edward Bruschi; Tim Ralph; Ivette Fuentes; Thomas Jennewein; Mohsen Razavi

2013-09-12

287

Spacetime effects on satellite-based quantum communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the consequences of space-time being curved on space-based quantum communication protocols. We analyze tasks that require either the exchange of single photons in a certain entanglement distribution protocol or beams of light in a continuous-variable quantum key distribution scheme. We find that gravity affects the propagation of photons, therefore adding additional noise to the channel for the transmission of information. The effects could be measured with current technology.

Bruschi, David Edward; Ralph, Timothy C.; Fuentes, Ivette; Jennewein, Thomas; Razavi, Mohsen

2014-08-01

288

Ameliorative effect of melatonin against contrast media induced renal tubular cell injury  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a mediator of renal damage. Melatonin is a potent-free radical scavenger. Our objective was to test whether melatonin would protect against the nephrotoxicity of contrast media. Methods: In an experimental study 40 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four equal groups including: 1) Control group (No drug), 2) Contrast media group (10 ml/kg iodixanol i.v. single dose), 3) Contrast media and melatonin (first 10 ml/kg iodixanol then 10 ml/kg/day melatonin by i.p. injection on days 3, 4 and 5) and 4) Contrast media and melatonin pretreatment group (melatonin 10 ml/ kg/day by i.p. injection on 1, 2 and 3 days, then 10 ml/kg iodixanol by i.v. injection on third day. The blood creatinine and BUN as well as the histological changes were evaluated for severity of renal injury (degeneration, vacuolization of tubular renal cells, dilatation of tubular lumen and presence of debris in the lumens), by scoring from one to four. Results: Contrast media significantly increased the creatinine and BUN and renal injury (p<0.05). Melatonin prevented and reversed the injury induced by contrast media (P<0.05). Pretreatment with melatonin reduced the renal injury induced by contrast media (P<0.05). Conclusion: Melatonin is an effective drug to prevent contrast–induced renal injury. Therefore its usage (especially pretreatment) might be beneficial in patients who are planning to use contrast media agents. PMID:24772123

Nasri, Hamid; Tavakoli, Maryam; Ahmadi, Ali; Baradaran, Azar; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

2014-01-01

289

Quantitative dosimetric assessment for effect of gold nanoparticles as contrast media on radiotherapy planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In CT planning for radiation therapy, patients may be asked to have a medical procedure of contrast agent (CA) administration as required by their physicians. CA media improve quality of CT images and assist radiation oncologists in delineation of the target or organs with accuracy. However, dosimetric discrepancy may occur between scenarios in which CA media are present in CT planning and absent in treatment delivery. In recent preclinical experiments of small animals, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been identified as an excellent contrast material of x-ray imaging. In this work, we quantitatively evaluate the effect of AuNPs to be used as a potential material of contrast enhancement in radiotherapy planning with an analytical phantom and clinical case. Conray 60, an iodine-based product for contrast enhancement in clinical uses, is included as a comparison. Other additional variables such as different concentrations of CA media, radiation delivery techniques and dose calculation algorithms are included. We consider 1-field AP, 4-field box, 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a recent technique of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). CA media of AuNPs (Conray 60) with concentrations of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% containing 28.2, 56.4, 84.6, 112.8 and 141.0 mg of gold (iodine) per mL were prepared prior to CT scanning. A virtual phantom with a target where nanoparticle media are loaded and clinical case of gastric lymphoma in which the Conray 60 media were given to the patient prior to the CT planning are included for the study. Compared to Conray 60 media with concentration of 10%/50%, Hounsfield units for AuNP media of 10%/50% are 322/1608 higher due to the fact that atomic number of Au (Z=79) is larger than I (Z=53). In consequence, dosimetric discrepancy of AuNPs is magnified between presence and absence of contrast media. It was found in the phantom study that percent dose differences between presence and absence of CA media may be reduced by delivery techniques of 7-field IMRT or VMAT. To manage less than 3% of percent dose difference, it was suggested an upper limit of 15% (or 42.3 mg Au/mL) of AuNP media in the phantom study; 8% (or 22.5 mg Au/mL) in the specific clinical case.

Tu, Shu-Ju; Yang, Pei-Ying; Hong, Ji-Hong; Lo, Ching-Jung

2013-07-01

290

The Mass Media Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This anthology consists of two major sections, "The News Media" and "The Entertainment Media." Both feature essays by critics, working professionals, and professional observers of the media. One aim of the anthology is to show the pervasive effect of the media on us. The section on news media comments on such topics as credibility gap, Vice…

Holmgren, Rod, Ed.; Norton, William, Ed.

291

Optical memory effect from polarized Laguerre-Gaussian light beam in light-scattering turbid media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Propagation effects of polarized Laguerre-Gaussian light with different orbital angular momentum (L) in turbid media are described. The optical memory effect in scattering media consisting of small and large size (compared to the wavelength) scatterers is investigated for scattered polarized light. Imaging using polarized laser modes with a varying orbital strength L-parameter was performed. The backscattered image quality (contrast) was enhanced by more than an order of magnitude using circularly polarized light when the concentration of scatterers was close to invisibility of the object.

Shumyatsky, Pavel; Milione, Giovanni; Alfano, Robert R.

2014-06-01

292

Communications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholars representing the field of communications were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Jeremy Bailenson, Patrice Buzzanell, Stanley Deetz, David Tewksbury, Robert J. Thompson, and…

Bailenson, Jeremy; Buzzanell, Patrice; Deetz, Stanley; Tewksbury, David; Thompson, Robert J.; Turow, Joseph; Bichelmeyer, Barbara; Bishop, M. J.; Gayeski, Diane

2013-01-01

293

NCI Digital Media Guidelines  

Cancer.gov

NCI Digital Media Guidelines The NCI Digital Media Guidelines provide developers and content managers guidance on the visual and content standards, as well as policies and procedures, in effect for National Cancer Institute (NCI) digital media – including

294

Applications of High Technology to Communication Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses classroom design and uses of interactive media. Covers the design of public speaking/interpersonal/small group communication classrooms, the simulation laboratory, the communication effectiveness trainer (ComET system), audience response systems, speech evaluation using computers, and system design considerations. (PD)

Behnke, Ralph R.; O'Hair, H. Dan

1984-01-01

295

Over-the-Horizon Optoelectronic Communication Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some theoretical and experimental results related to atmospheric optoelectronic communication are considered. The experiments were carried out to evaluate the feasibility of text information transmission through bistatic communication channels based on the effects of scattering and reflection under conditions of a cloudless or cloudy atmosphere and through plumes of artificial aerosol-gaseous media.

Belov, V. V.; Tarasenkov, M. V.; Abramochkin, V. N.; Troitskii, V. O.

2014-11-01

296

New media, old media: The technologies of international development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research, theory and practice of educational technology over the past 75 years provide convincing evidence that this process offers a comprehensive and integrated approach to solving educational and social problems. The use of media and technology in development has shifted from an emphasis on mass media to personal media. A variety of electronic delivery systems are being used and are usually coordinated by centralized governmental agencies. There are no patterns of use since the problems vary and the medium used is responsive to the problem. Computers are used most frequently and satellite telecommunication networks follow. The effective use of these and other technologies requires a long-term commitment to financial support and training of personnel. The extension model of face-to-face contact still prevails in developing nations whether in agriculture, education or rural development. Low-cost technologies are being used in local projects while major regional and national companies use radio, film and related video technologies. The use of all available and cost-effective media and technologies make possible appropriate communications for specific goals with specific audiences. There appears to be no conflict among proponents of various media formats. Development in education and other sectors has much to gain from old and new communication technologies and has hardly been tapped. Several new educational technology developments are discussed as potential contributors to formal and nonformal education.

Ingle, Henry T.

1986-09-01

297

Declining Relational Trust between Government and Publics, and Potential Prospects of Social Media in the Government Public Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the emerging challenges and opportunities of social media in public sectors and argues the designing and implementing government public relations using social media involves more than merely having another communicational channel to publics. The direction and amount of information exchange and level of networking can serve as important factors of determining the effectiveness of social media. In

Jongsoo Park

298

Communicating Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are in an era of rapidly changing communication media, which is driving a major evolution in the modes of communicating science. In the past, a mainstay of scientific communication in popular media was through science “translators”; science journalists and presenters. These have now nearly disappeared and are being replaced by widespread dissemination through, e.g., the internet, blogs, YouTube and journalists who often have little scientific background and sharp deadlines. Thus, scientists are required to assume increasing responsibility for translating their scientific findings and calibrating their communications to non-technical audiences, a task for which they are often ill prepared, especially when it comes to controversial societal issues such as tobacco, evolution, and most recently climate change (Oreskes and Conway 2010). Such issues have been politicized and hi-jacked by ideological belief systems to such an extent that constructive dialogue is often impossible. Many scientists are excellent communicators, to their peers. But this requires careful attention to detail and logical explanation, open acknowledgement of uncertainties, and dispassionate delivery. These qualities become liabilities when communicating to a non-scientific audience where entertainment, attention grabbing, 15 second sound bites, and self assuredness reign (e.g. Olson 2009). Here we report on a program initiated by NCAR and UCAR to develop new approaches to science communication and to equip present and future scientists with the requisite skills. If we start from a sound scientific finding with general scientific consensus, such as the warming of the planet by greenhouse gases, then the primary emphasis moves from the “science” to the “art” of communication. The art cannot have free reign, however, as there remains a strong requirement for objectivity, honesty, consistency, and above all a resistance to advocating particular policy positions. Targeting audience attitudes and beliefs, which studies such as the Six Americas research help identify, is key to effective science communications (e.g. Leiserowitz, Maibach, et al, 2009). We argue that the impact of the scientific message can be substantially improved by targeting it to these additional factors. This does require an understanding of the audience and a repackaging of the message to different societal groups. Logical and dispassionate presentation of evidence works for a target scientific audience, but major decisions from the policy to the personal level are influenced by many factors including immediacy, economics, culture, community leaders, emotional framing, and ideological filters.

Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.

2010-12-01

299

SPACER: server for predicting allosteric communication and effects of regulation  

PubMed Central

The SPACER server provides an interactive framework for exploring allosteric communication in proteins with different sizes, degrees of oligomerization and function. SPACER uses recently developed theoretical concepts based on the thermodynamic view of allostery. It proposes easily tractable and meaningful measures that allow users to analyze the effect of ligand binding on the intrinsic protein dynamics. The server shows potential allosteric sites and allows users to explore communication between the regulatory and functional sites. It is possible to explore, for instance, potential effector binding sites in a given structure as targets for allosteric drugs. As input, the server only requires a single structure. The server is freely available at http://allostery.bii.a-star.edu.sg/. PMID:23737445

Goncearenco, Alexander; Mitternacht, Simon; Yong, Taipang; Eisenhaber, Birgit; Eisenhaber, Frank; Berezovsky, Igor N.

2013-01-01

300

SPACER: Server for predicting allosteric communication and effects of regulation.  

PubMed

The SPACER server provides an interactive framework for exploring allosteric communication in proteins with different sizes, degrees of oligomerization and function. SPACER uses recently developed theoretical concepts based on the thermodynamic view of allostery. It proposes easily tractable and meaningful measures that allow users to analyze the effect of ligand binding on the intrinsic protein dynamics. The server shows potential allosteric sites and allows users to explore communication between the regulatory and functional sites. It is possible to explore, for instance, potential effector binding sites in a given structure as targets for allosteric drugs. As input, the server only requires a single structure. The server is freely available at http://allostery.bii.a-star.edu.sg/. PMID:23737445

Goncearenco, Alexander; Mitternacht, Simon; Yong, Taipang; Eisenhaber, Birgit; Eisenhaber, Frank; Berezovsky, Igor N

2013-07-01

301

Effect Size Measures for Mediation Models: Quantitative Strategies for Communicating Indirect Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistical analysis of mediation effects has become an indispensable tool for helping scientists investigate processes thought to be causal. Yet, in spite of many recent advances in the estimation and testing of mediation effects, little attention has been given to methods for communicating effect size and the practical importance of those effect sizes. Our goals in this article are

Kristopher J. Preacher; Ken Kelley

2011-01-01

302

Antiobesity effect of Stellaria media against drug induced obesity in Swiss albino mice  

PubMed Central

The whole plant of Stellaria media (family: Caryophyllaceae) has been tested for its antiobesity activity by using progesterone-induced obesity model in female albino mice. The effect of S. media on food consumption pattern, change in body weight, thermogenesis, lipid metabolism, and histology of fat pad. were examined. Methanolic and alcoholic extracts of the S. media were used in the study. Methanolic extract of S. media (MESM) have prevented the increase in body weight, adipose tissue weight and size, and upturned obesity and associated complications. MESM has also shown promising effects compared with alcoholic extract of S. media may be because of its multiple mechanisms. These findings suggest that antiobesity activity produced by MESM is because of its anorexic property mediated by saponin and flavonoid and partly of by its ?-sitosterol content. ?-Sitosterol in the plant extract was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography study. ?-sitosterol is plant sterol having structural similarity with dietary fat which do the physical competition in the gastrointestinal tract and reduces fat absorption. Before carrying in vivo activity detail pharmacognostic and phytochemical analysis of the extracts was carried out. The plant has shown the presence of saponin, flavonoids, steroids and triterpenoids, glycosides, and anthocynidine. By this study, it can be concluded that, MESM is beneficial in suppression of obesity induced by progesterone. PMID:22661858

Chidrawar, Vijay R.; Patel, Krishnakant N.; Sheth, Navin R.; Shiromwar, Shruti S.; Trivedi, Piyush

2011-01-01

303

Antiobesity effect of Stellaria media against drug induced obesity in Swiss albino mice.  

PubMed

The whole plant of Stellaria media (family: Caryophyllaceae) has been tested for its antiobesity activity by using progesterone-induced obesity model in female albino mice. The effect of S. media on food consumption pattern, change in body weight, thermogenesis, lipid metabolism, and histology of fat pad. were examined. Methanolic and alcoholic extracts of the S. media were used in the study. Methanolic extract of S. media (MESM) have prevented the increase in body weight, adipose tissue weight and size, and upturned obesity and associated complications. MESM has also shown promising effects compared with alcoholic extract of S. media may be because of its multiple mechanisms. These findings suggest that antiobesity activity produced by MESM is because of its anorexic property mediated by saponin and flavonoid and partly of by its ?-sitosterol content. ?-Sitosterol in the plant extract was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography study. ?-sitosterol is plant sterol having structural similarity with dietary fat which do the physical competition in the gastrointestinal tract and reduces fat absorption. Before carrying in vivo activity detail pharmacognostic and phytochemical analysis of the extracts was carried out. The plant has shown the presence of saponin, flavonoids, steroids and triterpenoids, glycosides, and anthocynidine. By this study, it can be concluded that, MESM is beneficial in suppression of obesity induced by progesterone. PMID:22661858

Chidrawar, Vijay R; Patel, Krishnakant N; Sheth, Navin R; Shiromwar, Shruti S; Trivedi, Piyush

2011-10-01

304

The effect of priming materialism on women's responses to thin-ideal media.  

PubMed

Consumer culture is characterized by two prominent ideals: the 'body perfect' and the material 'good life'. Although the impact of these ideals has been investigated in separate research literatures, no previous research has examined whether materialism is linked to women's responses to thin-ideal media. Data from several studies confirm that the internalization of materialistic and body-ideal values is positively linked in women. After developing a prime for materialism (N = 50), we present an experimental examination (N = 155) of the effects of priming materialism on women's responses to thin-ideal media, using multiple outcome measures of state body dissatisfaction. Priming materialism affects women's body dissatisfaction after exposure to thin media models, but differently depending on the dimension of body image measured. The two main novel findings are that (1) priming materialism heightens the centrality of appearance to women's self-concept and (2) priming materialism influences the activation of body-related self-discrepancies (BRSDs), particularly for highly materialistic women. Exposure to materialistic media has a clear influence on women's body image, with trait materialism a further vulnerability factor for negative exposure effects in response to idealized, thin media models. PMID:21466563

Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga

2012-12-01

305

Nov. 28, 2011 Leading Australian climate change communicator to hold BC lecture  

E-print Network

MEDIA TIP Nov. 28, 2011 Leading Australian climate change communicator to hold BC lecture effective way to debunk myths, plus how to use social media to communicate science. Skeptical Science analyses climate change skeptics' arguments against actual peer-reviewed scientific findings -- has

Pedersen, Tom

306

Media Symbolism; Media Richness; and Media Choice in Organizations: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses symbolic interactionism to understand media choice processes during managerial communications--studying communication incidents involving face-to-face, telephone, electronic mail, and written media. Suggests that managers' choices are influenced by (1) ambiguity of the message content and richness of the communication medium, (2) symbolic…

Trevino, Linda Klebe; And Others

1987-01-01

307

Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (77th, Atlanta, Georgia, August 10-13, 1994). Part IV: International Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The International Media section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 15 papers: "Testing the Interaction of the Third-Person Effect and Spiral of Silence in a Political Pressure Cooker: The Case of Hong Kong" (Lars Willnat); "The Use of Small State Variables in Research on Coverage of Foreign Policy: New Zealand…

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

308

Multi-level functionality of social media in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake.  

PubMed

This study examines the multi-level functionalities of social media in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011. Based on a conceptual model of multi-level story flows of social media (Jung and Moro, 2012), the study analyses the multiple functionalities that were ascribed to social media by individuals, organisations, and macro-level social systems (government and the mass media) after the earthquake. Based on survey data, a review of Twitter timelines and secondary sources, the authors derive five functionalities of social media: interpersonal communications with others (micro level); channels for local governments; organisations and local media (meso level); channels for mass media (macro level); information sharing and gathering (cross level); and direct channels between micro-/meso- and macro-level agents. The study sheds light on the future potential of social media in disaster situations and suggests how to design an effective communication network to prepare for emergency situations. PMID:24905811

Jung, Joo-Young; Moro, Munehito

2014-07-01

309

Effective nurse parent communication: A study of parents’ perceptions in the NICU environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study examined mothers’ and fathers’ perceptions of effective and ineffective communication by nurses in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment, using communication accommodation theory (CAT) as the framework.

Liz Jones; Darlene Woodhouse; Jennifer Rowe

2007-01-01

310

The foxconn suicides and their media prominence: is the werther effect applicable in china?  

PubMed Central

Background Media reporting of suicide and its relationship with actual suicide has rarely been investigated in Mainland China. The "Foxconn suicides" is a description referring to a string of suicides/attempts during 2010, all of which were related to a giant electrical manufacturing company, Foxconn. This study aimed to examine the clustering and copycat effects of the Foxconn suicides, and to investigate temporal patterns in how they were reported by the media in Mainland China, Hong Kong (HK), and Taiwan (TW). Methods Relevant articles were collected from representative newspapers published in three big cities in Mainland China (Beijing (BJ), Shenzhen (SZ), and Guangzhou (GZ)), HK, and TW, together with searching intensity data on the topic conducted using the Baidu search engine in Mainland China. The temporal clustering effects of the Foxconn suicides and their media prominence were assessed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The media reports of the Foxconn suicides' temporal patterns were explored using a nonparametric curve estimation method (that is, the local linear method). The potential mutual interactions between the Foxconn suicides and their media prominence were also examined, using logistic and Poisson regression methods. Results The results support a temporal clustering effect for the Foxconn suicides. The BJ-based newspapers' reporting and the occurrence of a Foxconn suicide/attempt are each found to be associated with an elevated chance of a further Foxconn suicide 3 days later. The occurrence of a Foxconn suicide also immediately influenced the intensity of both Baidu searching and newspaper reporting. Regional diversity in suicide reporting tempo-patterns within Mainland China, and similarities between HK and TW, are also demonstrated. Conclusions The Foxconn suicides were temporally clustered. Their occurrences were influenced by the reporting of BJ-based newspapers, and contagion within the company itself. Further suicide research and prevention work in China should consider its special media environment. PMID:22044598

2011-01-01

311

Underlayer and substrate effects in RF-magnetron sputtered barium ferrite thin film media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of employing various sputtered underlayers and commercially available substrates in order to optimize the characteristics of barium ferrite (BaM) thin films for magnetic recording media have been studied. Our results show that the choice of underlayer or substrate controls the resultant surface morphology and magnetic properties of the BaM film. In particular, it was found that barium ferrite

A. T. A. Wee; J. P. Wang; A. C. H. Huan; L. P. Tan; R. Gopalakrishnan; K. L. Tan

1997-01-01

312

Effective Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity for Computing One-Dimensional Flow in Heterogeneous Porous Media  

E-print Network

Effective Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity for Computing One-Dimensional Flow in Heterogeneous-dimensional unsaturated flow in vertically stratified porous media are examined. Saturated hydraulic conductivity and the alpha parameter of the exponential hydraulic conductivity function were assumed to vary from soil layer

313

Effects of Media Reporting on Suicides on the Railroad Rights-of-Way  

E-print Network

Effects of Media Reporting on Suicides on the Railroad Rights-of-Way Scott H. Gabree, Ph Systems Center August 5, 2014 #12;2 Team Michael Coplen (sponsor) ­ Federal Railroad Administration ­ Association of American Railroads #12;3 Roadmap Overview of the issue Discussion of past research Review

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

314

Effectiveness of a Mass Media Campaign in Promoting HIV Testing Information Seeking Among African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Take Charge. Take the Test.” (TCTT), a media campaign promoting HIV testing among African American women, was piloted in Cleveland and Philadelphia from October 2006 to October 2007. This study assesses TCTT's effectiveness in promoting HIV testing information seeking among target audiences in each pilot city. The authors analyzed data on telephone hotlines promoted by the campaign and the www.hivtest.org

Kevin C. Davis; Jennifer Uhrig; Douglas Rupert; Jami Fraze; Joshua Goetz; Michael Slater

2011-01-01

315

Effective Game Based Citizenship Education in the Age of New Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational systems worldwide are being challenged to respond effectively to the digital revolution and its implications for learning in the 21st century. In the present new media age, educational reforms are desperately needed to support more open and flexible structures of on-demand learning that equip students with competencies required in a…

Chee, Yam San; Mehrotra, Swati; Liu, Qiang

2013-01-01

316

The effects of centrifugation, various synthetic media and temperature on the motility and vitality  

E-print Network

The effects of centrifugation, various synthetic media and temperature on the motility and vitality staining. Centrifugation of semen (diluted 1 : 1 with Tyrode) at forces of 500, 800, 1 800 and 2 500 x g (Al), dilution, centrifugation and influence of incubation temperature must also be evaluated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

317

Effect of the reservoir size on gas adsorption in inhomogeneous porous media E. Kierlik,1  

E-print Network

Effect of the reservoir size on gas adsorption in inhomogeneous porous media E. Kierlik,1 J: September 12, 2008) We study the influence of the relative size of the reservoir on the adsorption isotherms matter with a reservoir of gas that is at the same temperature and chemical potential and whose relative

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

318

Boundary and inertia effects on flow and heat transfer in porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work analyzes the effects of a solid boundary and the inertial forces on flow and heat transfer in porous media. Specific attention is given to flow through a porous medium in the vicinity of an impermeable boundary. The local volume-averaging technique has been utilized to establish the governing equations, along with an indication of physical limitations and assumptions

K. VAFAI; C. L. TIEN

1981-01-01

319

Effective thermal conductivity for anisotropic granular porous media using fractal concepts  

SciTech Connect

The use of granular porous media in chemical processes, thermal insulation, heat exchangers, and nuclear reactor fuel rods has led to the development of correlations for thermophysical properties, such as thermal conductivity. These correlations are essential in the prediction of heat and mass transfer involving porous media. Analytical correlations are derived for the effective thermal conductivity of anisotropic, Granular Porous Media (GPM). The correlations proposed, which can be apply in general to any porous media material, are used to determine the effective thermal conductivity of GPM that are formed by semi-cylindrical ice particles. Pictures of the cross-section of GPM provide digital data for measuring local fractal dimensions. Local fractal dimensions are used to determine an equivalent three-dimensional Representative Unit Cell (RUC) for the GPM considered. A simplified analysis of heat conduction at the RUC level provide an analytical expression for the effective heat transfer coefficient. Estimates for the effective thermal conductivity by the use of the models are discussed and compared with various models known in literature. Finally, results for anisotropic thermal conductivities, which are obtained by the use of fractal correlations, are discussed.

Sabau, A.S.; Tao, Y.X.; Liu, G.; Vidhuvalavan, G.

1997-07-01

320

Experimental and micromagnetic study of track edge noise reduction effect in multilayer thin film media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A time domain spin-stand tester noise measurement and a micromagnetic modeling study are conducted to investigate the track edge noise reduction effect in multilayer thin film media. Both experimental and modeling studies show that track edge noise is concentrated in the side written band of a reversed bit-cell, in which the magnetization is opposite to the previous dc erased state.

Xiao-Guang Ye; Terence T. Lam; Jian-Gang Zhu

1994-01-01

321

The Effect of Media on Charitable Giving and Volunteering: Evidence from the "Give Five" Campaign  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundraising campaigns advertised via mass media are common. To what extent such campaigns affect charitable behavior is mostly unknown, however. Using giving and volunteering surveys conducted biennially from 1988 to 1996, I investigate the effect of a national fundraising campaign, "Give Five," on charitable giving and volunteering patterns. The…

Yoruk, Baris K.

2012-01-01

322

A continuous media approach to modeling the stress saturation effect in granular silos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continuous media approach for the calculation of the stresses in an ensiled granular media which improves on the Janssen theory has been developed. This approach also allows us to represent qualitatively as well as quantitatively the stress saturation phenomenon in granular silos. It is based on three-dimensional equilibrium equations, coupled with a slip condition and a Mohr-Coulomb criterion at the silo walls. Predictions obtained using the proposed model are in close agreement with the classical approaches for non-cohesive materials. The effect of the cohesion and the friction walls on the stored materials was also investigated.

Rahmoun, Jamila; Millet, Olivier; de Saxcé, Géry

2008-06-01

323

A normative study of family media habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study documents family media habits in six areas: electronic and print Media Use, parental Monitoring of children's media, parental Consistency regarding rules for children's media use, parents' reports of observable Media Effects on their children, parents' Knowledge about media and media effects, and how much children participate in Alternative Activities to electronic media. A random national sample of

Douglas A. Gentile; David A. Walsh

2002-01-01

324

Attention to Language in Day Care Attending Children: A Mediating Factor in the Developmental Effects of Otitis Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three ways in which otitis media may affect development of hearing are explored. First, developmental effects may be due to illness in general; second, otitis media may cause fluctuating hearing loss which may lead to deficits in language in many areas; and, third, fluctuating hearing loss may have only a temporary effect on the acquisition of…

Feagans, Lynne V.; And Others

325

Grinding media oscillation: effect on torsional vibrations in tumble mills  

E-print Network

speeds using a gear reduction unit and often have vibration problems. These vibration problems result in increased gear wear and occasional catastrophic failures resulting in production loss. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect...

Toram, Kiran Kumar

2005-11-01

326

Visual Communication in Transition: Designing for New Media Literacies and Visual Culture Art Education across Activities and Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As an example of design-based research, this case study describes and analyses the enactment of a collaborative drawing and animation studio in a Singapore secondary school art classroom. The design embodies principles of visual culture art education and new media literacies in order to organize transitions in the settings of participation and…

Zuiker, Steven J.

2014-01-01

327

"Happy and Excited": Perceptions of Using Digital Technology and Social Media by Young People Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young people are using digital technology and online social media within their everyday lives to enrich their social relationships. The UK government believes that using digital technology can improve social inclusion. One well-recognized outcome measure for establishing social inclusion is to examine opportunities for self-determination.…

Hynan, Amanda; Murray, Janice; Goldbart, Juliet

2014-01-01

328

Local Appropriation of Global Communication Forms: A Micro Case Study of Teacher and Learners' Uses of Mass Media Genres  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conceptual Blending Theory (CBT) (Fauconnier & Turner, 2002), a cognitive theory of human processes of innovation, can be productively used alongside critical literacy approaches, for the analysis of how teachers and learners draw selectively, transformatively and purposively from aspects of the mass media. While numerous studies have pointed to…

Jackson, Fiona M.

2011-01-01

329

Career Tracks Job Family Descriptions FIELD: COMMUNICATIONS  

E-print Network

/ or analog editing, accounting, and organizing related events. Electronic Communications Involves developing, video, and other electronic media, which may involve writing, editing, designing, production and not otherwise covered in other communications job families. Media Communications Involves providing news

Westerling, Anthony L.

330

Early glomerular effects of contrast media in rats: evaluation with a simple method.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the early effects of high and low-osmolar contrast media on glomerular function in rats by using a new method based on the measurement of the urinary excretion of 99mTc-DTPA. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley male rats were examined: nine rats were injected with diatrizoate (ionic high-osmolar contrast medium), nine rats with iohexol (nonionic low-osmolar contrast medium), and nine rats with saline as controls. The urinary excretion of 99mTc-DTPA in the first minutes after i.v. injection was assumed as an index of glomerular filtration rate. A lower urinary excretion of 99mTc-DTPA was found in rats treated with contrast media in comparison with control rats. This effect was more evident after diatrizoate but was statistically significant also after iohexol. In conclusion, a reduction in the glomerular filtration rate probably occurs in the first few minutes after contrast media administration. The measurement of urinary excretion of 99mTc-DTPA could be a simple method to detect acute glomerular effects due to contrast media or to other drugs. PMID:9768438

Donadio, C; Tramonti, G; Lucchesi, A; Auner, I; Bianchi, C

1998-09-01

331

Dynamics of electrostatically-driven granular media. Effects of Humidity  

E-print Network

We performed experimental studies of the effect of humidity on the dynamics of electrostatically-driven granular materials. Both conducting and dielectric particles undergo a phase transition from an immobile state (granular solid) to a fluidized state (granular gas) with increasing applied field. Spontaneous precipitation of solid clusters from the gas phase occurs as the external driving is decreased. The clustering dynamics in conducting particles is primarily controlled by screening of the electric field but is aided by cohesion due to humidity. It is shown that humidity effects dominate the clustering process with dielectric particles.

D. W. Howell; I. S. Aranson; G. W. Crabtree

2000-11-03

332

Why Media Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether media affect learning has been debated for decades. The discussion of media's effectiveness has raised questions about the usefulness of comparison studies, not only in assessing applications of technology but in other areas as well. Arguments that media do not affect learning are re-examined and issues concerning media effects on expert…

Locatis, Craig

2007-01-01

333

A Trainer of Trainers Model to Effectively Disseminate Multi-Media Tutor Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1994-95, the firm Interactive Images developed an interactive laserdisc training program to train adult literacy tutors in four specific areas: interpersonal skills; communication skills; expectations of effective tutors; and incorporation of the skills of effective teaching into a tutoring session. In 1995-96, a trainer-of-trainers model was…

McElwee, John; And Others

334

The Delay Hypothesis: The Manifestation of Media Effects over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A between-participants experiment (N = 147) tested for the presence of a delayed effect following exposure to an episode of a legal drama that contained false information. Participants were more likely to endorse false beliefs if they were queried two weeks after watching the program rather than immediately following exposure. The relationship…

Jensen, Jakob D.; Bernat, Jennifer K.; Wilson, Kari M.; Goonewardene, Julie

2011-01-01

335

Effect of Ultrasound on Rate of Flow through Porous Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the results of laboratory tests conducted to investigate ultrasonically enhanced flow rate using specially designed and fabricated equipment. The influencing factors alphai are verified to investigate the effect of ultrasound on a soil matrix and a flowing liquid. The conditions tested were soil type, temperature and ultrasonic energy. The test results indicate that ultrasound enhances

Young U. Kim; Sung-Jae Yang; Jeehyeong Khim

2004-01-01

336

Effects of Media Images on Attitudes Toward Tanning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments evaluated the effects of exposure to pictures of suntanned and untanned fashion models on attitudes regarding the importance of having a tan. In Experiment 1, 128 women were randomly assigned to view images of photographer's models that had been digitally altered to make it appear that the model either did or did not have a tan. Participants who

Heike I. M. Mahler; Shiloh E. Beckerley; Michelle T. Vogel

2010-01-01

337

Changing the home nutrition environment: effects of a nutrition and media literacy pilot intervention. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

The specific aim for this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a nutrition and media literacy intervention targeting elementary students and their parents. The purpose of the intervention was to increase child fruit and vegetables (FV) consumption and change the home nutrition environment (measured with FV availability and accessibility and parental social support). During the intervention, students learned about nutrition, the role media plays in shaping values concerning nutrition, and developed a media campaign for their parents.

338

Deep space communications, weather effects, and error control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deep space telemetry is and will remain signal-to-noise limited and vulnerable to interference. A need exists to increase received signal power and decrease noise. This includes going to Ka-band in the mid-1990's to increase directivity. The effects of a wet atmosphere can increase the noise temperature by a factor of 5 or more, even at X-band, but the order of magnitude increase in average data rate obtainable at Ka-band relative to X-band makes the increased uncertainty a good trade. Lowbit error probabilities required by data compression are available both theoretically and practically with coding, at an infinitesimal power penalty rather than the 10 to 15 dB more power required to reduce error probabilities without coding. Advances are coming rapidly in coding, as with the new constraint-length 15 rate 1/4 convolutional code concatenated with the already existing Reed-Solomon code to be demonstrated on Galileo. In addition, high density spacecraft data storage will allow selective retransmissions, even from the edge of the Solar System, to overcome weather effects. In general, deep space communication was able to operate, and will continue to operate, closer to theoretical limits than any other form of communication. These include limits in antenna area and directivity, system noise temperature, coding efficiency, and everything else. The deep space communication links of the mid-90's and beyond will be compatible with new instruments and compression algorithms and represent a sensible investment in an overall end-to-end information system design.

Posner, Edward C.

1989-01-01

339

Manufacturing consent?: Media messages in the mobilization against HIV/AIDS in India and lessons for health communication.  

PubMed

Despite repeated calls for a more critical and "culture-centered" approach to health communication, textual analysis of televised public service advertising (PSA) campaigns has been largely neglected, even by critical communication scholars. In the case of "developing" countries in particular, there is an acute shortage of such literature. On the other hand, following the outbreak of major public health diseases such as AIDS, most countries have adopted PSA campaigns as the most preferred means of communicating messages. Drawing on insights from cultural studies (especially Antonio Gramsci and Stuart Hall), this article engages in textual analysis of the televised PSA campaigns launched by the Indian state to prevent HIV/AIDS between 2002 and 2005. Through such analysis, it argues that although few diseases in Indian history have spurred such massive and creative efforts for mass mobilization as AIDS, these efforts, in terms of their ethical implications, have been far from emancipatory. In fact, they have constructed and perpetuated the logic of domination and control along class, gender, sexuality, and knowledge systems, often contradicting and potentially harming the very goal of HIV prevention and of health promotion and empowerment. This article also holds that assessing public health campaigns through textual analysis, a highly neglected tool in health communication, can shed important light on a far more complex and changing nature of the state and public policy, especially in the developing world, thereby opening up space for alternative theorizing for health communication and social change. PMID:23631645

Khan, Shamshad

2014-01-01

340

Social communication intervention effects vary by dependent variable type in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have difficulty communicating in ways that are primarily for initiating and maintaining social relatedness (i.e., social communication). We hypothesized that the way researchers measured social communication would affect whether treatment effects were found. Using a best evidence review method, we found that treatments were shown to improve social communication outcomes approximately 54% of the time. The probability that a treatment affected social communication varied greatly depending on whether social communication was directly targeted (63%) or not (39%). Finally, the probability that a treatment affected social communication also varied greatly depending on whether social communication as measured in (a) contexts very similar to treatment sessions (82%) or (b) contexts that differed from treatment on at least setting, materials, and communication partner (33%). This paper also provides several methodological contributions. PMID:25346776

Yoder, Paul J.; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Sandbank, Michael

2014-01-01

341

Mechanics of layered anisotropic poroelastic media with applications to effective stress for fluid permeability  

SciTech Connect

The mechanics of vertically layered porous media has some similarities to and some differences from the more typical layered analysis for purely elastic media. Assuming welded solid contact at the solid-solid interfaces implies the usual continuity conditions, which are continuity of the vertical (layering direction) stress components and the horizontal strain components. These conditions are valid for both elastic and poroelastic media. Differences arise through the conditions for the pore pressure and the increment of fluid content in the context of fluid-saturated porous media. The two distinct conditions most often considered between any pair of contiguous layers are: (1) an undrained fluid condition at the interface, meaning that the increment of fluid content is zero (i.e., {delta}{zeta} = 0), or (2) fluid pressure continuity at the interface, implying that the change in fluid pressure is zero across the interface (i.e., {delta}p{sub f} = 0). Depending on the types of measurements being made on the system and the pertinent boundary conditions for these measurements, either (or neither) of these two conditions might be directly pertinent. But these conditions are sufficient nevertheless to be used as thought experiments to determine the expected values of all the poroelastic coefficients. For quasi-static mechanical changes over long time periods, we expect drained conditions to hold, so the pressure must then be continuous. For high frequency wave propagation, the pore-fluid typically acts as if it were undrained (or very nearly so), with vanishing of the fluid increment at the boundaries being appropriate. Poroelastic analysis of both these end-member cases is discussed, and the general equations for a variety of applications to heterogeneous porous media are developed. In particular, effective stress for the fluid permeability of such poroelastic systems is considered; fluid permeabilities characteristic of granular media or tubular pore shapes are treated in some detail, as are permeabilities of some of the simpler types of fractured materials.

Berryman, J.G.

2010-06-01

342

Effects of smokeless tobacco (Maras powder) use on carotid intima media thickness  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of smokeless tobacco (Maras powder, Nicotiana rustica Linn) on carotid intima media thickness. Material/Methods The study included 32 Maras powder users presenting to our Family Medicine outpatient clinic and 30 non-users of Maras powder as a control group. Carotid intima media thickness was measured by duplex ultrasonography. Results All the participants were male. The mean duration of Maras powder use was 27.3±11.6 years. Carotid intima media thickness was 0.73±0.20 mm in the Maras powder users and 0.49±0.14 mm in the controls. Blood pressure measured before Maras powder use in Maras powder users was similar to that measured in the control group (p>0.05). Systolic blood pressures were 136.6±12.4 mmHg and 109.7±9.7 mmHg after 30–60 minutes using Maras powder in the Maras powder users and in the controls, respectively. Diastolic blood pressures were 87.2±6.1 mmHg and 62.8±8.1 mmHg after 30–60 minutes using Maras powder in the Maras powder users and the controls, respectively. Carotid intima media thickness was significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure (r=0.613, p<0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (r=0.612, p<0.001). Conclusions Carotid intima media thickness was higher in Maras powder users than in nonusers of the powder. Increased carotid intima media thickness can be associated with an immediate increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Therefore, attempts to increase public awareness about smoking should also be directed towards prevention of Maras powder use. PMID:24129168

Sucakli, Mustafa Haki; Ozkan, Fuat; Inci, Mehmet Fatih; Celik, Mustafa; Keten, Hamit Sirri; Bozoglan, Orhan

2013-01-01

343

Protective Effects of Parent-College Student Communication during the First Semester of College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Recent studies suggest that parents maintain influence as their adolescents transition into college. Advances in communication technology make frequent communication between parents and college students easy and affordable. This study examines the protective effect of parent-college student communication on student drinking behaviors,…

Small, Meg L.; Morgan, Nicole; Abar, Caitlin; Maggs, Jennifer L.

2011-01-01

344

The Effect of a Therapy Dog on the Communication Skills of an Adult with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little evidence-based research has been published within the field of communication disorders on the role of dogs as catalysts for human communication. This single participant study, a point of entry into this realm of research, explores the effects of a therapy dog on the communication skills of a patient with aphasia receiving intensive speech…

LaFrance, Caroline; Garcia, Linda J.; Labreche, Julianne

2007-01-01

345

The Effects of Social Interactive Training on Early Social Communicative Skills of Children with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing attention has been directed at the relation between early social communicative skills of children with autism and subsequent development of these children's social and communicative functioning. We reviewed 16 empirical studies that investigated the effects of social interactive interventions designed to increase early social communicative skills of young children with autism by increasing their role as initiator of social

Bogseon Hwang; Carolyn Hughes

2000-01-01

346

Mechano-chemical effects in weakly charged porous media.  

PubMed

The paper is concerned with mechano-chemical effects, namely, osmosis and pressure-driven separation of ions that can be observed when a charged porous medium is placed between two electrolyte solutions. The study is focused on porous systems with low equilibrium interfacial potentials (about 30mV or lower). At such low potentials, osmosis and pressure-driven separation of ions noticeably manifest themselves provided that the ions in the electrolyte solutions have different diffusion coefficients. The analysis is conducted by combining the irreversible thermodynamic approach and the linearized (in terms of the normalized equilibrium interfacial potential) version of the Standard Electrokinetic Model. Osmosis and the pressure-driven separation of ions are considered for an arbitrary mixed electrolyte solution and various porous space geometries. It is shown that the effects under consideration are proportional to a geometrical factor which, for all the considered geometries of porous space, can be expressed as a function of porosity and the ?- parameter of porous medium normalized by the Debye length. For all the studied geometries, this function turns out to be weakly dependent on both the porosity and the geometry type. The latter allows for a rough evaluation of the geometrical factor from experimental data on electric conductivity and hydraulic permeability without previous knowledge of the porous space geometry. The obtained results are used to illustrate how the composition of electrolyte solution affects the mechano-chemical effects. For various examples of electrolyte solution compositions, the obtained results are capable of describing positive, negative and anomalous osmosis, positive and negative rejection of binary electrolytes, and pressure-driven separation of binary electrolyte mixtures. PMID:25438703

Zholkovskij, Emiliy K; Yaroshchuk, Andriy E; Koval'chuk, Volodymyr I; Bondarenko, Mykola P

2014-10-01

347

Cost-effectiveness of television, radio, and print media programs for public mental health education.  

PubMed

Mass media campaigns to influence public attitudes and behaviors in the area of mental health must consider cost-effectiveness, which is based on actual costs, the number of people reached (exposures), and the impact of the program on the individual. Cost per exposure is a critical factor. The authors review their experience in developing media programs in several broadcast formats and in print. Their experience suggests that an effective television production has a very high per-exposure cost and that radio is a more cost-effective way to present health messages. Radio programs also have the advantage of reaching people in their homes or cars or at work. Brief segments may be particularly cost-effective because they can be can be inserted between programs during prime-time hours. Print media--newspapers, magazines, and newsletters--can be cost-effective if magazine or newspaper space is free, but newsletters can be costly due to fixed postage costs. One advantage of print is that it can be reread, clipped out, copied, and passed on. PMID:9634162

Austin, L S; Husted, K

1998-06-01

348

Tailored copolymers structures: Effect on drag reduction in aqueous media  

SciTech Connect

Water soluble polyampholytes as well as hydrophobically associating copolymers based on acrylamide (AM), sodium 2-(acrylamido)-2-methylpropanesulfonate (NaAMPS), 2-(acrylamido)-2-methylpropanetrimethylammonium chloride (AMPTAC), sodium 3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate (NaAMB), 3-(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanedimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate (AMPDAPS), and N-isopropylacrylamide (IPAM) have been synthesized and thoroughly characterized. The drag reduction properties were measured on a rotating disk rheometer. The relative drag reduction efficiencies have been reported in terms of absolute drag reduction (DR) as well as parameter, {Delta}, that has been obtained through volume fraction normalization (from a plot of %DR/{eta}C vs {eta}C.). This {Delta} parameter has also been correlated with other parameters reported in literature which bring out the effect of polymer structure and composition on drag reduction.

McCormick, C.L.; Mumick, P.S. [Univ. of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MI (United States)

1993-12-31

349

Doppler Effect of Nonlinear Waves and Superspirals in Oscillatory Media  

E-print Network

Nonlinear waves emitted from a moving source are studied. A meandering spiral in a reaction-diffusion medium provides an example, where waves originate from a source exhibiting a back-and-forth movement in radial direction. The periodic motion of the source induces a Doppler effect that causes a modulation in wavelength and amplitude of the waves (``superspiral''). Using the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, we show that waves subject to a convective Eckhaus instability can exhibit monotonous growth or decay as well as saturation of these modulations away from the source depending on the perturbation frequency. Our findings allow a consistent interpretation of recent experimental observations concerning superspirals and their decay to spatio-temporal chaos.

Lutz Brusch; Alessandro Torcini; Markus Baer

2003-02-12

350

Social Media as a Practical Approach in Engaging Key Stakeholders in School Crisis Communication Plans: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined how public relations specialists within school systems are developing, implementing, and revising their communication crisis plans in an effort to fully engage all key stakeholders. Four research questions and two hypotheses were posed. Members from a state public relations association for schools were asked to…

Agozzino, Alisa; Kaiser, Candace

2014-01-01

351

Cellular communication and “non-targeted effects”: Modelling approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade, a large number of experimental studies on the so-called "non-targeted effects", in particular bystander effects, outlined that cellular communication plays a significant role in the pathways leading to radiobiological damage. Although it is known that two main types of cellular communication (i.e. via gap junctions and/or molecular messengers diffusing in the extra-cellular environment, such as cytokines, NO etc.) play a major role, it is of utmost importance to better understand the underlying mechanisms, and how such mechanisms can be modulated by ionizing radiation. Though the "final" goal is of course to elucidate the in vivo scenario, in the meanwhile also in vitro studies can provide useful insights. In the present paper we will discuss key issues on the mechanisms underlying non-targeted effects and cell communication, for which theoretical models and simulation codes can be of great help. In this framework, we will present in detail three literature models, as well as an approach under development at the University of Pavia. More specifically, we will first focus on a version of the "State-Vector Model" including bystander-induced apoptosis of initiated cells, which was successfully fitted to in vitro data on neoplastic transformation supporting the hypothesis of a protective bystander effect mediated by apoptosis. The second analyzed model, focusing on the kinetics of bystander effects in 3D tissues, was successfully fitted to data on bystander damage in an artificial 3D skin system, indicating a signal range of the order of 0.7-1 mm. A third model for bystander effect, taking into account of spatial location, cell killing and repopulation, showed dose-response curves increasing approximately linearly at low dose rates but quickly flattening out for higher dose rates, also predicting an effect augmentation following dose fractionation. Concerning the Pavia approach, which can model the release, diffusion and depletion/degradation of candidate signals (e.g. cytokines) travelling in the extra-cellular environment, the good agreement with ad hoc experimental data obtained in our laboratory validated the adopted approach, which in the future can be applied also to other candidate signals. Although the available information is still not sufficient to decide whether the Linear No Threshold approach for low dose risk - including space radiation risk - has to be modified, these studies confirmed the need of a paradigm shift in (low-dose) radiobiology, where the DNA-centric vision needs to be integrated by a wider vision where cells constitute an organized population responding to external stimuli in a collective fashion, communicating by means of different molecular signals. Further studies, in particular in vivo (or at least in 3D tissues) and possibly combined with human epidemiological data, will be crucial to help solving such questions in the future.

Ballarini, Francesca; Facoetti, Angelica; Mariotti, Luca; Nano, Rosanna; Ottolenghi, Andrea

2009-10-01

352

Nonlinear effects of particle shape angularity in sheared granular media.  

PubMed

We analyze the effects of particle shape angularity on the macroscopic shear behavior and texture of granular packings simulated by means of the contact dynamics method. The particles are regular polygons with an increasing number of sides ranging from 3 (triangles) to 60. The packings are analyzed in the steady shear state in terms of their shear strength, packing fraction, connectivity, and fabric and force anisotropies, as functions of the angularity. An interesting finding is that the shear strength increases with angularity up to a maximum value and saturates as the particles become more angular (below six sides). In contrast, the packing fraction declines towards a constant value, so that the packings of more angular particles are looser but have higher shear strength. We show that the increase of the shear strength at low angularity is due to an increase of both contact and force anisotropies and the saturation of the shear strength for higher angularities is a consequence of a rapid falloff of the contact and normal force anisotropies compensated for by an increase of the tangential force anisotropy. This transition reflects clearly the rather special geometrical properties of these highly angular shapes, implying that the stability of the packing relies strongly on the side-side contacts and the mobilization of friction forces. PMID:23214574

Azéma, Emilien; Estrada, Nicolas; Radjaï, Farhang

2012-10-01

353

Mobile phones and health: Media coverage study of German newspapers on possible adverse health effects of mobile phone use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific debate about potential risks from the radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) of mobile telecommunication is ongoing, accompanied by considerable media discussion about whether electromagnetic fields from mobile phones cause adverse health effects. Since most people do not make use of scientific databases, the print media are key actors in informing the public about scientific developments concerning potential health

Horst-Dietrich Elvers; Burkhard Jandrig; Kathrin Grummich; Christof Tannert

2009-01-01

354

The Effect of Cognitive Type and Communications Style on the Communication of Management Information System Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of exploratory investigation indicate that failures to communicate management information systems (MIS) concepts can result from the sender's communication style being inappropriate to the receiver's cognitive type. Details of the research methodology, analysis of variance, and summary of results are given, as well as recommendations for…

Davis, Donald L.

1983-01-01

355

Effects of urban information and communication technology on sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the urban information and communication technology and its impacts on sustainable development. The findings are based on the views represented in literature and the relationship between information and communication technology and sustainability in urban development. Therefore, information and communication technology as the main component of the information society should be taken into consideration in sustainable development. In

M. Navabakhsh; M. Motlaq

2009-01-01

356

Applying risk and resilience models to predicting the effects of media violence on development.  

PubMed

Although the effects of media violence on children and adolescents have been studied for over 50 years, they remain controversial. Much of this controversy is driven by a misunderstanding of causality that seeks the cause of atrocities such as school shootings. Luckily, several recent developments in risk and resilience theories offer a way out of this controversy. Four risk and resilience models are described, including the cascade model, dose-response gradients, pathway models, and turning-point models. Each is described and applied to the existing media effects literature. Recommendations for future research are discussed with regard to each model. In addition, we examine current developments in theorizing that stressors have sensitizing versus steeling effects and recent interest in biological and gene by environment interactions. We also discuss several of the cultural aspects that have supported the polarization and misunderstanding of the literature, and argue that applying risk and resilience models to the theories and data offers a more balanced way to understand the subtle effects of media violence on aggression within a multicausal perspective. PMID:24851351

Prot, Sara; Gentile, Douglas A

2014-01-01

357

Short Communication Effect of exogenous electron shuttles on growth and fermentative metabolism  

E-print Network

Short Communication Effect of exogenous electron shuttles on growth and fermentative metabolism) and hydrogen (Reimann et al., 1996). Anaerobic fermentative bacteria belonging to the genus Clos- tridia

Johnson, Peter D.

358

Effect of Some Auxins on Growth of Damask Rose Cuttings in Different Growing Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to determine the rose cuttings response to auxins i.e. indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg L -1 concentrations in three different growing media. Both had a significant effect on all sprouting and growth parameters. Maximum bud sprouting (78.76 %), bud spread (11.32 cm) and shoots

MUHAMMAD SOHAIL KHAN; RAHMAT ULLAH KHAN; KASHIF WASEEM

2006-01-01

359

On the effectiveness of Leverett approach for describing the water transport in fuel cell diffusion media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effectiveness of employing the traditional Leverett approach for describing the capillary-induced flow in thin-film fuel cell diffusion media (DM) with mixed wettability. A one-dimensional steady-state analytical model is developed to analyze the capillary transport of liquid water through the thin-film DM. A capillary pressure–liquid saturation relation is derived based on the experimental data reported by Gostick

E. C. Kumbur; K. V. Sharp; M. M. Mench

2007-01-01

360

Effects of different chelates and labeling media on platelet labeling with In111  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, many variations of In-111 platelet labeling have been introduced with no consistent method currently being used. In an effort to determine optimal In-111 labeling conditions. The authors have studied the effects of different chelates and labeling media on In-111 platelet labeling efficiency (LE). Labeling of human platelets in plasma with In-111-oxine, resulted in a mean LE of 27% at

R. L. Hill-Zobel; S. Gannon; B. McCandless; M. F. Tsan

1985-01-01

361

Effectiveness of Intratympanic Dexamethasone in Otitis Media with Effusion Resistant to Conventional Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of intratympanic dexamethasone (ITD) injections as a new treatment modality\\u000a in otitis media with effusion resistant to conventional therapy. We planned a nonrandomized prospective study to determine\\u000a the safety and effectiveness of the direct administration of dexamethasone into middle ear cavity with chronic eustachian\\u000a tube dysfunction. This study was applied

Mustafa Paksoy; Gokhan Altin; Mehmet Eken; Umit Hardal

362

Mass media and global warming: A public arenas model of the greenhouse effect's scientific roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the Public Arenas model, developed by Stephen Hilgartner and Charles Bosk, to examine the historical roots of the greenhouse effect issue as communicated in scientific literature from the early 1800s to modern times. Using a constructivist approach, possible explanations for the rise and fall of global warming as a social problem in the scientific arena are explored.

Mark Neuzil

1995-01-01

363

Effects of grain angularity on NaCl precipitation in porous media during evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

dimensional pore-scale analysis was carried out using X-ray microtomography to investigate the effects of grain angularity on NaCl precipitation dynamics and patterns during evaporation from saline porous media. To do so, quartz sand and glass beads with almost similar average particle size and porosity were used enabling us to constrain the effects of grain angularity on NaCl precipitation since the glass beads were spherical and smooth whereas the sand consisted of irregularly shaped grains. Presence of angularity resulted in different pore sizes and shapes influencing the dynamics of evaporation and NaCl precipitation. Our results demonstrate that the preferential evaporation exclusively in fine pores at the surface of porous media results in discrete efflorescence. We observed a higher cumulative NaCl precipitation in the case of glass beads at the early stages of precipitation due to the presence of a fewer number of evaporation sites at the surface. This phenomenon resulted in formation of a thicker and more discrete NaCl crust at the surface of glass beads compared to sand grains. Also, computed water saturation profiles reveals formation of a wider unsaturated zone above the receding drying front in the case of sand compared to glass beads due to the presence of finer pores affecting the capillary flow though the partially wet zone. Our results provide new insights regarding the effects of grain angularity on NaCl precipitation dynamics and patterns during evaporation from saline porous media.

Norouzi Rad, Mansoureh; Shokri, Nima

2014-11-01

364

Metrics and the effective computational scientist: process, quality and communication.  

PubMed

Recent treatments of computational knowledge worker productivity have focused upon the value the discipline brings to drug discovery using positive anecdotes. While this big picture approach provides important validation of the contributions of these knowledge workers, the impact accounts do not provide the granular detail that can help individuals and teams perform better. I suggest balancing the impact-focus with quantitative measures that can inform the development of scientists. Measuring the quality of work, analyzing and improving processes, and the critical evaluation of communication can provide immediate performance feedback. The introduction of quantitative measures can complement the longer term reporting of impacts on drug discovery. These metric data can document effectiveness trends and can provide a stronger foundation for the impact dialogue. PMID:22406695

Baldwin, Eric T

2012-09-01

365

Technical editing and the effective communication of scientific results  

SciTech Connect

Communication of scientific results--whether for professional journals, poster sessions, oral presentations, or the popular press--is an essential part of any scientific investigation. The technical editor plays an important rolein ensuring that scientists express their results correctly and effectively. Technical editing comprises far more than simple proofreading. The editor`s tasks may range from restructuring whole parpagrphs and suggesting improved graphical aids to writing abstracts and preparing first drafts of proposals. The technical editor works closely with scientists to present complex ideas to differentaudiences, including fellow scentists, funding agencies, and the general public. New computer technologyhas also involved the technical editor not only with on-line editing but also with preparing CD ROMs and World Wide Web pages.

Pieper, G.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.; Picologlou, S.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Experimental Facilities Div.

1996-05-01

366

News Releases Media Resources  

E-print Network

News Media Contacts News Releases Media Resources University Community Communications Help News Policies Submit News Submit Announcements To News Archive | « Previous by Date | Next by Date » Web Stories & Aid Administration & Services Campus Life Visiting Campus News@Princeton Friday, July 15, 2005 Other

Aksay, Ilhan A.

367

News Releases Media Resources  

E-print Network

News Media Contacts News Releases Media Resources University Community Communications Help News Policies Submit News Submit Announcements All Top Stories | « Previous Top Story | Next Top Story » Top Research Admission & Aid Administration & Services Campus Life Visiting Campus News@Princeton Friday

Aksay, Ilhan A.

368

Building Social Media Connections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Incorporating social media tools into your professional practices does not have to be intimidating as long as you are willing to tackle five action steps. It is far easier to articulate the strengths--and to imagine the possibilities--of social media spaces as tools for communication and professional development when you are actively using those…

Ferriter, William N.; Ramsden, Jason T.; Sheninger, Eric C.

2012-01-01

369

Literacy, Learning, and Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the expanding definition of literacy from traditional reading and writing skills to include technological, visual, information, and networking literacy. Discusses the impact of media on social interactions and intellectual development; linking technology to educational goals; influences of new media symbol systems on communication;…

Adams, Dennis; Hamm, Mary

2000-01-01

370

The Media Gospel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines four recent books on the religious media: Ben Armstrong's "The Electric Church," James F. Engel's "Contemporary Christian Communications: Its Theory and Practice," Malcolm Muggeridge's "Christ and the Media," and Virginia Stem Owens'"The Total Image: or Selling Jesus in the Modern Age." Evaluates the internal validity of each. (JMF)

Christians, Clifford G.; Fortner, Robert S.

1981-01-01

371

Digital Media and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

MacArthur launched the digital media and learning initiative in 2006 to explore how digital media are changing the way young people learn, socialize, communicate, and play. Since 2006, the Foundation has awarded grants totaling more than $100 million for research, development of innovative new technologies, new learning environments for youth,…

John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 2012

2012-01-01

372

Pore scale investigation of textural effects on salt precipitation dynamics and patterns in drying porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During stage-1 evaporation from saline porous media, the capillary-induced liquid flow from the interior to the surface of porous media supplies the evaporative demand and transfers the dissolved salt toward the surface where evaporation occurs. This mode of mass transfer is influenced by several factors such as properties of the evaporating fluid and transport properties of porous media. In this work, we carried out a comprehensive pore scale study using X-ray micro-tomography to understand the effects of the texture on the dynamics of salt precipitation and deposition patterns in drying saline porous media. To do so, four different samples of quartz sand with different particle size distributions were used enabling us to constrain the effects of particle size on the salt precipitation patterns and dynamics. The packed beds were saturated with NaCl solution of 3 Molal and the X-ray imaging was continued for 22 hours with temporal resolution of 30 min resulting in pore scale information about the evaporation and precipitation dynamics. During evaporation from saline porous media, salt concentration continuously increases in preferential evaporating sites at the surface until it reaches the solubility limit which is followed by salt precipitation. Thanking to the pore-scale information, the effects of pore size distribution on the dynamics and patterns of salt precipitation were delineated with high spatial and temporal resolutions. Our results show more precipitation at the early stage of the evaporation in the case of sand with the larger particle size due to the presence of a fewer evaporation sites at the surface. Having more preferential evaporation sites at the surface of sand with finer particle sizes affects the patterns and thickness of the salt crust deposited on the surface such that a thinner salt crust was formed in the case of sand with smaller particle size which covered a larger area at the surface as opposed to the thicker patchy crusts in samples with larger particle sizes. Our results provide new insights regarding the physics of salt precipitation and its complex dynamics in porous media during evaporation.

Norouzi Rad, Mansoureh; Shokri, Nima

2014-05-01

373

Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: Design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project  

PubMed Central

Background European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies") aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe. Methods/Design This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to communicating coherent messages to consumers in Europe. Discussion The FoodRisC project offers a unique approach to the investigation of food risk/benefit communication. The effective spread of food risk/benefit information will assist initiatives aimed at reducing the burden of food-related illness and disease, reducing the economic impact of food crises and ensuring that confidence in safe and nutritious food is fostered and maintained in Europe. PMID:21569458

2011-01-01

374

Communication training for health professionals who care for patients with cancer: a systematic review of effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEffective communication is increasingly recognised as a core clinical skill. However, there is evidence that health and social care professionals still lack basic communication skills.PurposeTo assess the effectiveness of different communication skills training courses for health professionals in cancer care.MethodsWe searched six computerised databases and augmented this with a follow-up of references and grey (unpublished) literature. We included all studies

Marjolein Gysels; Alison Richardson; Irene J. Higginson

2004-01-01

375

Use of Social Media During Public Emergencies by People with Disabilities  

PubMed Central

Introduction: People with disabilities are generally more vulnerable during disasters and public emergencies than the general population. Physical, sensory and cognitive impairments may result in greater difficulty in receiving and understanding emergency alert information, and greater difficulty in taking appropriate action. The use of social media in the United States has grown considerably in recent years. This has generated increasing interest on the part of national, state and local jurisdictions in leveraging these channels to communicate public health and safety information. How and to what extent people with disabilities use social and other communications media during public emergencies can help public safety organizations understand the communication needs of the citizens in their jurisdictions, and plan their social media and other communications strategies accordingly. Methods: This article presents data from a survey on the use of social media and other communications media during public emergencies by people with disabilities conducted from November 1, 2012 through March 30, 2013. Results: The data presented here show four key results. First, levels of use of social media in general are high for people with disabilities, as well as for the general population. Second, use of social media during emergencies is still low for both groups. Third, levels of use of social media are not associated with income levels, but are significantly and strongly associated with age: younger people use social media at higher rates than older people in both groups (p<0.001). Fourth, differences in the use of social media during emergencies across disability types are slight, with the exception of deaf and hard-of-hearing respondents, the former more likely to have used social media to receive (p=0.002), verify (p=0.092) and share (p=0.007) emergency information. Conclusion: These last two results suggest that effective emergency communications strategies need to rely on multiple media types and channels to reach the entire community. PMID:25157303

Morris, John T.; Mueller, James L.; Jones, Michael L.

2014-01-01

376

Truncated multiGaussian fields and effective conductance of binary media.  

SciTech Connect

Truncated Gaussian fields provide a flexible model for defining binary media with dispersed (as opposed to layered) inclusions. General properties of excursion sets on these truncated fields are coupled with a distance-based upscaling algorithm and approximations of point process theory to develop an estimation approach for effective conductivity in two-dimensions. Estimation of effective conductivity is derived directly from knowledge of the kernel size used to create the multiGaussian field, defined as the full-width at half maximum (FWHM), the truncation threshold and conductance values of the two modes. Therefore, instantiation of the multiGaussian field is not necessary for estimation of the effective conductance. The critical component of the effective medium approximation developed here is the mean distance between high conductivity inclusions. This mean distance is characterized as a function of the FWHM, the truncation threshold and the ratio of the two modal conductivities. Sensitivity of the resulting effective conductivity to this mean distance is examined for two levels of contrast in the two modal conductances and different FWHM sizes. Results demonstrate that the FWHM is a robust measure of mean travel distance in the background medium. The resulting effective conductivities are accurate when compared to numerical results and results obtained from effective media theory, distance-based upscaling and numerical simulation.

Marzouk, Youssef M. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Ray, Jaideep (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore CA); McKenna, Sean Andrew

2011-01-01

377

Oxidative effects of nanosecond pulsed electric field exposure in cells and cell-free media  

PubMed Central

Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a novel modality for permeabilization of membranous structures and intracellular delivery of xenobiotics. We hypothesized that oxidative effects of nsPEF could be a separate primary mechanism responsible for bioeffects. ROS production in cultured cells and media exposed to 300-ns PEF (1–13 kV/cm) was assessed by oxidation of 2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluoresein (H2DCF), dihidroethidium (DHE), or Amplex Red. When a suspension of H2DCF-loaded cells was subjected to nsPEF, the yield of fluorescent 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) increased proportionally to the pulse number and cell density. DCF emission increased with time after exposure in nsPEF-sensitive Jurkat cells, but remained stable in nsPEF-resistant U937 cells. In cell-free media, nsPEF facilitated the conversion of H2DCF into DCF. This effect was not related to heating and was reduced by catalase, but not by mannitol or superoxide dismutase. Formation of H2O2 in nsPEF-treated media was confirmed by increased oxidation of Amplex Red. ROS increase within individual cells exposed to nsPEF was visualized by oxidation of DHE. We conclude that nsPEF can generate both extracellular (electrochemical) and intracellular ROS, including H2O2 and possibly other species. Therefore, bioeffects of nsPEF are not limited to electropermeabilization; concurrent ROS formation may lead to cell stimulation and/or oxidative cell damage. PMID:22910297

Pakhomova, Olga N.; Khorokhorina, Vera A.; Bowman, Angela M.; Rodait?-Riševi?ien?, Raminta; Saulis, Gintautas; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomov, Andrei G.

2012-01-01

378

Polar and low polar solvents media effect on dipole moments of some diazo Sudan dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorption and fluorescence spectra of three Sudan dyes (SudanIII, SudanIV and Sudan black B) were recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 300-800 nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic method was used to investigate dipole moments of these dyes in ground and excited states, in different media. The solvatochromic behavior of these substances and their solvent-solute interactions were analyzed via solvent polarity parameters. Obtained results express the effects of solvation on tautomerism and molecular configuration (geometry) of Sudan dyes in solvent media with different polarity. Furthermore, analyze of solvent-solute interactions and value of ground and excited states dipole moments suggests different forms of resonance structures for Sudan dyes in polar and low-polar solvents.

Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Golghasemi Sorkhabi, Sh.; Shamkhali, A. N.

2014-06-01

379

Polar and low polar solvents media effect on dipole moments of some diazo Sudan dyes.  

PubMed

Absorption and fluorescence spectra of three Sudan dyes (SudanIII, SudanIV and Sudan black B) were recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 300-800nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic method was used to investigate dipole moments of these dyes in ground and excited states, in different media. The solvatochromic behavior of these substances and their solvent-solute interactions were analyzed via solvent polarity parameters. Obtained results express the effects of solvation on tautomerism and molecular configuration (geometry) of Sudan dyes in solvent media with different polarity. Furthermore, analyze of solvent-solute interactions and value of ground and excited states dipole moments suggests different forms of resonance structures for Sudan dyes in polar and low-polar solvents. PMID:24637272

Zakerhamidi, M S; Golghasemi Sorkhabi, Sh; Shamkhali, A N

2014-06-01

380

The effect of indoor air pollutants on otitis media and asthma in children  

SciTech Connect

This case-control study investigated the possible association between home environmental air pollutants and their effect on otitis media and asthma in children. Patients with physician-diagnosed otitis (n = 125, 74% response), with asthma (n = 137, 80% response), and controls (n = 237, 72% response) from a private pediatric practice seen between October 1986 and May 1987 were studied. A questionnaire inquired about housing characteristics (i.e., age, insulation, heating system) and sources of indoor air pollution such as cigarette smoking, use of woodburning stoves, household pets, etc. Analysis of the responses confirmed previous findings of significant relationships between maternal smoking (P = .021), and the presence of pets (P = .034) and the occurrence of asthma. A newly reported relationship between exposure to woodburning stoves and the occurrence of otitis (P less than .05) was reported. This implicates yet another risk factor (wood burning) in the etiology of otitis media.

Daigler, G.E.; Markello, S.J.; Cummings, K.M. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

1991-03-01

381

Effects of temperature on bacterial transport and destruction in bioretention media: field and laboratory evaluations.  

PubMed

Microbial activities are significantly influenced by temperature. This study investigated the effects of temperature on the capture and destruction of bacteria from urban stormwater runoff in bioretention media using 2-year field evaluations coupled with controlled laboratory column studies. Field data from two bioretention cells show that the concentration of indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli) was reduced during most storm events, and that the probability of meeting specific water quality criteria in the discharge was increased. Indicator bacteria concentration in the input flow typically increased with higher daily temperature. Although bacterial removal efficiency was independent of temperature in the field and laboratory, column tests showed that bacterial decay coefficients in conventional bioretention media (CBM) increase exponentially with elevated temperature. Increases in levels of protozoa and heterotrophic bacteria associated with increasing temperature appear to contribute to faster die-off of trapped E. coli in CBM via predation and competition. PMID:22866389

Zhang, Lan; Seagren, Eric A; Davis, Allen P; Karns, Jeffrey S

2012-06-01

382

Among health care professionals effective communication is vital to achieve the best patient outcomes possible. Improving communication and other teamwork skills will result in improved  

E-print Network

outcomes possible. Improving communication and other teamwork skills will result in improved performance by the faculty should result in improved communication skills of our trainees and ultimately improved patient Among health care professionals effective communication is vital to achieve the best patient

383

Teen use of messaging media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teenagers compromise a large proportion of our population, and their technology use is a bellwether of future trends. Today's teens are coming of age with the rapid development of advanced communication and media tools. This paper describes a study exploring teen communication media usage patterns and their design implications.

Diane J. Schiano; Coreena P. Chen; Ellen Isaacs; Jeremy Ginsberg; Unnur Gretarsdottir; Megan Huddleston

2002-01-01

384

Media Now: A Historical Review of a Media Literacy Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Elizabeth Thoman Archive at the Harrington School of Communication and Media, University of Rhode Island, has the last complete kit of one of the milestones in the early chronology of media literacy, the 1972 Media Now curriculum. This curriculum was the first of its kind, using self-contained lesson modules that were part of a larger series…

Friesem, Yonty; Quaglia, Diane; Crane, Ed

2014-01-01

385

Media, Media Technologies, and Language Learning: Some Applied Linguistic Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An applied linguistic framework is presented within which specific applications of media technologies may be applied to language learning. The first two parts of the paper focus on the impact of media on linguistic communication and the possibilities offered by media technologies such as newspapers, radio, television, telephone/telex, computer…

Little, David

386

Effects of Parent Instruction on Communicative Turns of Latino Children Using Augmentative and Alternative Communication during Storybook Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research indicates that children who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) often are not given opportunities to participate in supportive early storybook-reading experiences in home environments. This investigation employed a single-subject, multiple-baseline-across-subjects design to investigate the effects of a parent…

Rosa-Lugo, Linda Iris; Kent-Walsh, Jennifer

2008-01-01

387

Communicating Science to the Public.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The communication methods used by the mass media, museums, and schools and the features common to all three are described. Four themes that have arisen from a communication project are discussed. These include communication, context, construction, and constraint. (KR)

Silverstone, Roger

1991-01-01

388

The Whole World Could Be Watching: Human Rights and the Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the effect of access to media reporting and press freedom on the achievement of human rights. Past research on the role of the media on human rights has often been limited to anecdotal examples or limited case studies. There has been little comprehensive systematic investigation on the topic. Specifically, this article answers the questions: Do large communication

Clair Apodaca

2007-01-01

389

Renewing the Minds of the Media: An Interview with Cardinal William Keeler.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an interview with Cardinal William Keeler, Archbishop of Baltimore, on the exploitation of sex and violence in communications, and the Church's concern about contemporary media. Discusses specific topics such as violence on television, pornography, and what families and parishes can do to combat media's negative effects on society. (EMH)

Walsh, Mary Ann

1999-01-01

390

Effects of media viscosity and particle size on optical trapping of microspheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigated the effects of size and surrounding media viscosity on trapping of microspheres. A continuous wave ytterbium fiber laser with a 1064 nm wavelength was used to create an optical tweezers system for optical manipulation experiments. Briefly, the system consisted of an inverted microscope, and a 100X 1.4 NA oil immersion objective through which the laser beam converged to form the optical trap. The laser beam was collimated, steered, and coupled to the microscope through the epifluorescence microscope port. The laser power at the trap focal spot was determined by measuring the input power at the back aperture of the objective multiplied by the objective transmission factor at 1064 nm measured by a modified dual objective method. Polystyrene microspheres varying in diameter from 5 to 15 microns were suspended in liquid media in glass bottom petri dishes prior to trapping experiments. The microspheres were trapped at different trapping powers, and fluidic viscous drag forces where applied to the optically trapped microspheres by driving a computer controlled 2D motorized microscope stage at known velocities. The drag forces were calculated at the point that the microspheres fell out of the trap, based on the Stokes equation for flow around spheres. The data show a linear relationship between trapping force and trap power within the range of the microsphere diameters and media viscosity values used. The work includes calculation of the dimensionless trap efficiency coefficient (Q) at 1064 nm wavelength and the corresponding effects of media viscosity and microsphere size on (Q).

Khatibzadeh, Nima; Rocha, Yesenia; Shi, Linda Z.; Berns, Michael W.

2014-03-01

391

The Effects of Behavioral Skills Training on Implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of a behavioral skills training (BST) package to teach the implementation of the first three phases of the picture exchange communication system (PECS) was evaluated with 3 adults who had no history teaching any functional communication system. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effectiveness

Rosales, Rocio; Stone, Karen; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

2009-01-01

392

Development Communication in Action: Building Understanding and Creating Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addressing the use of communication (interpersonal, folk, traditional, group, organizational, and mass media) in the development process, this book discusses some of the conceptual and theoretical basis for integrating communication effectively into development plans and execution. It also examines the rationale and practical necessity for such…

Moemeka, Andrew A.

393

Modeling the effectiveness of U(VI) biomineralization in dual-porosity porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryUranium contamination is a serious environmental concern worldwide. Recent attention has focused on the in situ immobilization of uranium by stimulation of dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria (DMRB). The objective of this work was to investigate the effectiveness of this approach in heterogeneous and structured porous media, since such media may significantly affect the geochemical and microbial processes taking place in contaminated sites, impacting remediation efficiency during biostimulation. A biogeochemical reactive transport model was developed for uranium remediation by immobile-region-resident DMRB in two-region porous media. Simulations were used to investigate the parameter sensitivities of the system over wide-ranging geochemical, microbial and groundwater transport conditions. The results suggest that optimal biomineralization is generally likely to occur when the regional mass transfer timescale is less than one-thirtieth the value of the volumetric flux timescale, and/or the organic carbon fermentation timescale is less than one-thirtieth the value of the advective timescale, and/or the mobile region porosity ranges between equal to and four times the immobile region porosity. Simulations including U(VI) surface complexation to Fe oxides additionally suggest that, while systems exhibiting U(VI) surface complexation may be successfully remediated, they are likely to display different degrees of remediation efficiency over varying microbial efficiency, mobile-immobile mass transfer, and porosity ratios. Such information may aid experimental and field designs, allowing for optimized remediation in dual-porosity (two-region) biostimulated DMRB U(VI) remediation schemes.

Rotter, B. E.; Barry, D. A.; Gerhard, J. I.; Small, J. S.

2011-05-01

394

The Effectiveness of Communication Strategy Training with Adult Cochlear Implantees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated changes in repair strategy use by adult cochlear implantees following a communication training program that emphasized the use of communication repair strategies. Fifteen subjects, male and female, pre- and postlingually deafened adults, participated. The experimental group completed a four-session training program. The control group received no intervention. Evaluations were performed preintervention, postintervention, and at a 5- to

Karen M Sparrow; Kathryn Hird

2010-01-01

395

Crisis Communications Plan University of Washington  

E-print Network

's Emergency Management Plan (http://www.washington.edu/emergency/ep/).This Crisis Communications Plan Technology UW Emergency Management Web Communications Human Resources Student Life Environmental HealthCrisis Communications Plan University of Washington Office of Media Relations and Communications

Queitsch, Christine

396

Experimental Investigation of the Effective Foam Viscosity in Unsaturated Porous Media  

SciTech Connect

Foam has the potential to effectively carry and distribute either aqueous or gaseous amendments to the deep vadose zone for contaminant remediation. However, the transport of foam in porous media is complicated because flow characteristics such as the effective viscosity are affected not only by foam properties but also by the sediment properties and flow conditions. We determined the average effective foam viscosity via a series of laboratory experiments and found that the effective foam viscosity increased with the liquid fraction in foam, the injection rate, and sediment permeability. These impacts are quantified with an empirical expression, which is further demonstrated with data from literature. The results show that the liquid fraction in foam and sediment permeability are two primary factors affecting effective foam viscosity. These results suggest that, when foam is used in deep vadose zone remediation, foam flow will not suffer from gravitational drainage and can distribute amendments uniformly in heterogeneous sediments.

Zhang, Z. F.; Zhong, Lirong; White, Mark D.; Szecsody, James E.

2012-11-01

397

Effectiveness of a mass media campaign in promoting HIV testing information seeking among African American women.  

PubMed

"Take Charge. Take the Test." (TCTT), a media campaign promoting HIV testing among African American women, was piloted in Cleveland and Philadelphia from October 2006 to October 2007. This study assesses TCTT's effectiveness in promoting HIV testing information seeking among target audiences in each pilot city. The authors analyzed data on telephone hotlines promoted by the campaign and the www.hivtest.org Web site to examine trends in hotline calls and testing location searches before, during, and after the campaign. Cleveland hotline data were available from October 1, 2005, through February 28, 2008, for a total of 29 months (N = 126 weeks). Philadelphia hotline data were available from May 1, 2006, through February 28, 2008, for a total of 22 months (N = 96 weeks). The authors assessed the relation between market-level measures of the campaign's advertising activities and trends in hotline call volume and testing location searches. They found a significant relation between measures of TCTT advertising and hotline calls. Specifically, they found that increases in advertising gross ratings points were associated with increases in call volume, controlling for caller demographics and geographic location. The campaign had similar effects on HIV testing location searches. Overall, it appears the campaign generated significant increases in HIV information seeking. Results are consistent with other studies that have evaluated the effects of media campaigns on similar forms of information seeking. This study illustrates useful methods for evaluating campaign effects on information seeking with data on media implementation, hotline calls, and zip code-based searches for testing locations. PMID:21707409

Davis, Kevin C; Uhrig, Jennifer; Rupert, Douglas; Fraze, Jami; Goetz, Joshua; Slater, Michael

2011-10-01

398

Preparing for effective communications during disasters: lessons from a World Health Organization quality improvement project  

PubMed Central

Background One hundred ninety-four member nations turn to the World Health Organization (WHO) for guidance and assistance during disasters. Purposes of disaster communication include preventing panic, promoting appropriate health behaviors, coordinating response among stakeholders, advocating for affected populations, and mobilizing resources. Methods A quality improvement project was undertaken to gather expert consensus on best practices that could be used to improve WHO protocols for disaster communication. Open-ended surveys of 26 WHO Communications Officers with disaster response experience were conducted. Responses were categorized to determine the common themes of disaster response communication and areas for practice improvement. Results Disasters where the participants had experience included 29 outbreaks of 13 different diseases in 16 countries, 18 natural disasters of 6 different types in 15 countries, 2 technical disasters in 2 countries, and ten conflicts in 10 countries. Conclusion Recommendations to build communications capacity prior to a disaster include pre-writing public service announcements in multiple languages on questions that frequently arise during disasters; maintaining a database of statistics for different regions and types of disaster; maintaining lists of the locally trusted sources of information for frequently affected countries and regions; maintaining email listservs of employees, international media outlet contacts, and government and non-governmental organization contacts that can be used to rapidly disseminate information; developing a global network with 24-h cross-coverage by participants from each time zone; and creating a central electronic sharepoint where all of these materials can be accessed by communications officers around the globe. PMID:24646607

2014-01-01

399

The effects of physical environments in medical wards on medication communication processes affecting patient safety.  

PubMed

Physical environments of clinical settings play an important role in health communication processes. Effective medication management requires seamless communication among health professionals of different disciplines. This paper explores how physical environments affect communication processes for managing medications and patient safety in acute care hospital settings. Findings highlighted the impact of environmental interruptions on communication processes about medications. In response to frequent interruptions and limited space within working environments, nurses, doctors and pharmacists developed adaptive practices in the local clinical context. Communication difficulties were associated with the ward physical layout, the controlled drug key and the medication retrieving device. Health professionals should be provided with opportunities to discuss the effects of ward environments on medication communication processes and how this impacts medication safety. Hospital administrators and architects need to consider health professionals' views and experiences when designing hospital spaces. PMID:24486620

Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

2014-03-01

400

Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (76th, Kansas City, Missouri, August 11-14, l993). Part XII: Foreign and International Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Foreign and International Media section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 27 papers: "Cultural Orientation in Turkey: Are The Theorists Right about the Effects of Imported Cultural Products?" (Christine Ogan); "The Role of Mass Media in a Newly Emerging Democracy: The Latvian Case Study" (Bruce J. Evensen);…

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

401

Effects of checklist interface on non-verbal crew communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigation looked at the effects of the spatial layout and functionality of cockpit displays and controls on crew communication. Specifically, the study focused on the intra-cockpit crew interaction, and subsequent task performance, of airline pilots flying different configurations of a new electronic checklist, designed and tested in a high-fidelity simulator at NASA Ames Research Center. The first part of this proposal establishes the theoretical background for the assumptions underlying the research, suggesting that in the context of the interaction between a multi-operator crew and a machine, the design and configuration of the interface will affect interactions between individual operators and the machine, and subsequently, the interaction between operators. In view of the latest trends in cockpit interface design and flight-deck technology, in particular, the centralization of displays and controls, the introduction identifies certain problems associated with these modern designs and suggests specific design issues to which the expected results could be applied. A detailed research program and methodology is outlined and the results are described and discussed. Overall, differences in cockpit design were shown to impact the activity within the cockpit, including interactions between pilots and aircraft and the cooperative interactions between pilots.

Segal, Leon D.

1994-01-01

402

Innovating science communication  

E-print Network

The ATLAS Education & Outreach project has, over the years, developed a strong reputation for supporting innovation. Animated event displays, musical CDs, 3d movies, 3-storey murals, photo books, data sonifications, multi-media art installations, pub slams, masterclasses, documentaries, pop-up books, LEGO® models, and virtual visits are among the many diverse methods being exploited to communicate to the world the goals and accomplishments of the ATLAS Experiment at CERN. This variety of creativity and innovation does not pop out of a vacuum. It requires underlying motivation by the collaboration to communicate with the public; freedom and encouragement to do so in a creative manner; and a support structure for developing, implementing and promoting these activities. The ATLAS Outreach project has built this support structure on a well-defined communication plan, high-quality content, and effective delivery platforms. Most importantly, implementation of the program has been based on the effective engagem...

Goldfarb, Steven; The ATLAS collaboration; Shaw, Kate

2015-01-01

403

Effects of chelates and incubation media on platelet labeling with indium-111  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of various (¹¹¹In)chelates and incubation media on labeling efficiency (LE) and in vivo survival of platelets. High LE of human and rabbit platelets in plasma were obtained with (¹¹¹In)tropolone and (¹¹¹In)mercaptopyridine-N-oxide. Indium-¹¹¹ oxine in plasma resulted in a moderate LE and required a longer incubation time, while (¹¹¹In)oxine sulfate had low LE and inconsistent labeling. High

R. L. Hill-Zobel; S. Gannon; B. McCandless; M. F. Tsan

1987-01-01

404

Latinos and the Media in the United States: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication media are among the many "systems" Latinos confront in working to improve their lives in the United States. Latino encounters with media systems have generally taken place on three levels: Anglo media, Spanish language media, and bilingual/bicultural media. The English language or Anglo media have portrayed the Latino with negative…

Gutierrez, Felix F.

405

The Effects of Different Media on Shoot Proliferation From the Shoot Tip of Aloe vera L.  

PubMed Central

Background Aloe vera L. is an important pharmaceutical plant from which several medicinal and cosmetic compounds are extracted. Aloe is naturally propagated through offset, which is a slow and expensive labor cost method with low economical income. Objectives In this study, the effect of different media on shoot proliferation of the shoot tip of Aloe vera L. was investigated. Materials and Methods In vitro techniques are some of the suggested methods for rapid propagation of Aloe. In this experiment, the shoot tips of mother plants were grown in a greenhouse. After surface sterilization of the explants, they were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) (MS) medium containing different concentrations of kinetin and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The experiment was carried out in the form of a randomized complete design with three replications. Results The results showed that MS media containing 1.5 mg/L kinetin along with 0.15 or 0.3 mg/L NAA produced the highest percentage of proliferated shoots. In addition, the percentage of proliferated shoots in MS medium containing 2.0 or 2.5 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.15 mg/L NAA was significantly higher than the other treatments. Conclusions Analysis of the interactive effects of NAA, kinetin and BAP on shoot proliferation showed that most of the proliferated shoots produced in MS medium containing 1.0 mg/L BAP + 1.0 mg/L kinetin + 0.15 mg/L NAA were significantly different from other treatments. Rooting quality was greater in MS media containing 1.0 mg/L IBA than a 1.0 mg/L NAA treatment. PMID:24624195

Daneshvar, Mohammad Hosein; Moallemi, Noorolah; Abdolah Zadeh, Nazanin

2013-01-01

406

Coulombic effects and multicomponent ionic dispersion during transport of electrolytes in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the influence of Coulombic effects on transport of charged species in saturated porous media in advection-dominated flow regimes. We focus on transverse hydrodynamic dispersion and we performed quasi two-dimensional flow-through experiments in homogeneous and spatially variable flow fields to investigate transport of dilute electrolyte solutions. The experiments were conducted at flow velocities (1.0, 1.5 and 6 m/day) where advection is the dominant mass transfer process. High-resolution measurements at the outlet were performed to determine the concentration of different cations and anions. In order to interpret the laboratory experiments we develop a two-dimensional numerical model. The adopted modeling approach is based on a multicomponent formulation, charge conservation, and the accurate description of local transverse dispersion. The latter entails a non-linear dependence of the transverse dispersion coefficient on the flow velocity as well as a compound-specific dependence on the molecular diffusion of the transported solutes. The model was benchmarked by comparing the results of the 2D steady-state multicomponent simulations with 1D transient results of PHREEQC in homogeneous scenarios, and it was successively used to quantitatively evaluate the experimental results in both homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media. Our experimental and modeling results show that Coulombic cross-coupling of dispersive fluxes of charged species in porous media significantly affects the lateral displacement of charged ions in both homogeneous and heterogeneous flow-through systems. Such effects are remarkable not only in diffusion-dominated but also in advection-dominated flow regimes.

Muniruzzaman, Muhammad; Haberer, Christina; Grathwohl, Peter; Rolle, Massimo

2014-05-01

407

C. Ess and F. Sudweeks (eds). Proceedings Cultural Attitudes Towards Communication and Technology '98, University of Sydney, Australia, 321-326.  

E-print Network

in messages and media (Trevino et al., 1990). In the latter, we find reduced social cues (Sproull and Kiesler School The University of Salford, UK 1. Introduction As the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC with the issues of media choice and media effects. There are three theories in the mainstream of the former

Thomas, Richard C.

408

EFFECTS OF SPECIAL MEDIA INSTITUTE PROGRAMS UPON THE BEHAVIOR OF TITLE XI NDEA INSTITUTE DIRECTORS (ENGLISH, HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY, READING, MODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGES, AND SCHOOL LIBRARY PERSONNEL). FINAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TO MEASURE THE IMPACT OF THE INSTITUTES UPON THE PARTICIPANTS, 32 INSTITUTES WERE VISITED BY EXPERTS IN MEDIA USE. THE SPECIAL MEDIA INSTITUTES STRESSED APPLICATIONS OF EDUCATIONAL MEDIA TO VARIOUS FIELDS. THE EFFECT OF THE INSTITUTE EXPERIENCE UPON PARTICIPANT ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR WITH RESPECT TO NEW TEACHING MATERIALS WAS FOUND TO BE POSITIVE.…

BROWN, DONALD J.; BROWN, JAMES W.

409

A biochemical study on ameliorative effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract against contrast media induced acute kidney injury  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Reactive oxygen species have been shown to be mediators of kidney injury and green tea polyphenols are potent-free radical scavengers.Objectives: In this study we sought to examine whether green tea was able to protect renal toxicity induced by contrast media or not. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 rats were randomly divided into four groups including: 1) control group 2) contrast media group 3) contrast media plus green tea 4) Green tea pretreatment and contrast media group. Blood urea Nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine were assessed for severity of kidney injury. Results: Serum creatinine level was higher in group II than in other groups (p<0.001). Treatment (group 3) or pretreatment (group 4) with green tea significantly reduced blood creatinine level when compared with contrast media group (group 2). Conclusion: In this study, beneficial property of green tea, against renal toxicity of contrast media was observed. Green tea extract is an inexpensive, nontoxic, and effective treatment modality in individuals with a risk for acute kidney injury of contrast media. PMID:25340167

Nasri, Hamid; Ahmadi, Ali; Baradaran, Azar; Nasri, Parto; Hajian, Shabnam; Pour-Arian, Armita; Kohi, Golnoosh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

2014-01-01

410

The Role of Redundancy in the Assessment of the Effectiveness of Teacher Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent events in behavior modification stimulated application of communication theory to teacher behavior and classroom management. For the purposes of this present investigation, it was assumed that criteria of effective communication are highly dependent on the phenomena of redundancy and consistency, which are both of major importance in any…

Levine, Michael M.

411

Psychosocial Effects of a Parent-Child Communication Activity on Siblings of Children with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the project was to decrease the worries of siblings of children with autism through a parent-child communication activity. Other goals of the project were to increase the accuracy of the parent's perception of the child's worries and to increase the quality of parent-child autism specific communication. The perceived effectiveness of the intervention as well as general family

CarynTerril

2000-01-01

412

School Nurse Communication Effectiveness with Physicians and Satisfaction with School Health Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined school nurses' communication with community physicians and its relationship to school nurse satisfaction with school health services. A stratified random sample of school nurses in Pennsylvania (N = 615) were surveyed about communication effectiveness with community physicians, satisfaction with school health services for…

Volkman, Julie E.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.

2008-01-01

413

Effective Communication among Stakeholders: A Key Component for Successful Internship Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective communication among stakeholders in public administration internship programs (students, academic institutions, faculty supervisors, host institution supervisors, employers, professional and accrediting associations) increases the likelihood that all will emerge from the experience as winners. The core of this communication is the…

Hamilton, Diane; Pajari, Roger

1997-01-01

414

Effects of communication mode and polling on cooperation in a commons dilemma  

E-print Network

This study examined the effects of communication mode, both face-to-face (FTF) and computer-mediated communication (CMC), and polling on cooperation in a commons dilemma. Sixty-seven six-person groups used FISH, a computer program that uses a...

Watrous, Kristen Michelle

2004-11-15

415

The Effects of Communication Mode on Negotiation of Meaning and Its Noticing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of communication mode ("i.e.", face to face versus computer mediated communication) on the instances of negotiation of meaning (NofM) and its level of noticing by learners. Sixty-four participants (32 dyads) completed two jigsaw tasks in two different mediums (one in each) and four days after the tasks…

Yuksel, Dogan; Inan, Banu

2014-01-01

416

COMMUNICATING PUBLIC HEALTH INFORMATION EFFECTIVELY POP HEALTH SCIENCES 660 (1 credit)  

E-print Network

1 COMMUNICATING PUBLIC HEALTH INFORMATION EFFECTIVELY POP HEALTH SCIENCES 660 (1 credit) Summer based on scientific and practical recommendations. Students will learn how to communicate public health of public health. I. COURSE DESCRIPTION The format of this course will consist of brief lectures, small

Sheridan, Jennifer

417

The Effects of Harvesting Media on Biological Characteristics and Repair Potential of Neural Stem Cells after Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Various solutions are utilized widely for the isolation, harvesting, sorting, testing and transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs), whereas the effects of harvesting media on the biological characteristics and repair potential of NSCs remain unclear. To examine some of these effects, NSCs were isolated from cortex of E14.5 mice and exposed to the conventional harvesting media [0.9% saline (Saline), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF)] or the proliferation culture medium (PCM) for different durations at 4°C. Treated NSCs were grafted by in situ injection into the lesion sites of traumatic brain injury (TBI) mice. In vitro, harvesting media-exposed NSCs displayed time-dependent reduction of viability and proliferation. S phase entry decreased in harvesting media-exposed cells, which was associated with upregulation of p53 protein and downregulation of cyclin E1 protein. Moreover, harvesting media exposure induced the necrosis and apoptosis of NSCs. The levels of Fas-L, cleaved caspase 3 and 8 were increased, which suggests that the death receptor signaling pathway is involved in the apoptosis of NSCs. In addition, exposure to Saline did not facilitate the neuronal differentiation of NSCs, suggesting that Saline exposure may be disadvantageous for neurogenesis. In vivo, NSC-mediated functional recovery in harvesting media-exposed NSC groups was notably attenuated in comparison with the PCM-exposed NSC group. In conclusion, harvesting media exposure modulates the biological characteristics and repair potential of NSCs after TBI. Our results suggest that insight of the effects of harvesting media exposure on NSCs is critical for developing strategies to assure the successful long-term engraftment of NSCs. PMID:25247595

Sun, Liang; Xu, Fengyan; Harada, Toshihide; Lou, Yu; Chu, Ming; Sun, Qi; Xu, Kun; Zhang, Rui; Jin, Lianhong; Xiao, Hui; Wu, Shuliang

2014-01-01

418

Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels  

PubMed Central

Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies. PMID:24150186

Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

419

Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels.  

PubMed

Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies. PMID:24150186

Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

420

Streaming Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At a time when the evolutionary pace of new media resembles the real-time mutation of certain microorganisms, the age-old question of how best to connect with constituents can seem impossibly complex--even for an elite institution plugged into the motherboard of Silicon Valley. Identifying the most effective vehicle for reaching a particular…

Pulley, John

2009-01-01

421

Microstructural effects on the overall poroelastic properties of saturated porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the macroscopic scale, the quasi-static deformation of an elastic porous medium saturated by an incompressible Newtonian fluid is described by the well-known Biot's model, which involves four effective parameters. In this work, the three effective poroelastic properties and the permeability of two periodic microstructures of saturated cohesive granular media, i.e. simple cubic (SC) and body-centered cubic (BCC) arrays of overlapping spheres, are computed by solving, over the representative elementary volume, boundary-value problems arising from the homogenization process. The influence of microstructure properties, i.e. solid volume fraction, arrangement of spheres, number of contacts as well as the intrinsic properties of the solid phase on the overall properties, is highlighted. Numerical results are then compared with rigorous bounds, self-consistent estimations, exact expansions and experimental results on ceramics and metals available in the literature. Finally, the capability of the obtained results on such periodic microstructures to describe the poroelastic properties of real porous media is discussed.

Bouhlel, M.; Jamei, M.; Geindreau, C.

2010-06-01

422

Media multitasking: Issues posed in measuring the effects of television sexual content exposure  

PubMed Central

Adolescents who see more sexual content on television are more likely to initiate intercourse over the subsequent year. The present study hypothesized that use of the internet while watching television would moderate this relationship. Internet use might either strengthen or weaken the association between television-viewing and sex; various theories conflict in their predictions. A national sample of 1,762 12–17 year olds completed a telephone survey at baseline and one year later. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, baseline exposure to sexual content on television was used to predict intercourse initiation by follow-up among baseline virgins. The equation controlled for potentially confounding characteristics and tested for an interaction between sexual content exposure and self-reported multitasking. Half of youth reported using the internet while watching television. The interaction between multitasking and sexual content exposure was significant; exposure to sexual content on television was more strongly related to sexual initiation among multitaskers. Divided attention may allow television messages to “slip past the radar” of viewers who would reject these messages if they devoted cognitive resources to critically examining them. Media multitasking is likely to become more prevalent as new media continue to be introduced. Future studies of television-viewing effects may need to assess multitasking to avoid missing effects in this important subgroup of viewers. PMID:20390045

Collins, Rebecca L.

2008-01-01

423

Measuring the Dynamics of Climate Change Communication in Mass Media and Social Networks with Computer-Assisted Content Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, multiple authors have examined media representations of and public attitudes towards climate change, as well as how these representations and attitudes differ from scientific knowledge on the issue of climate change. Content analysis of newspaper publications, TV news, and, recently, Internet blogs has allowed for identification of major discussion themes within the climate change domain (e.g., newspaper trends, comparison of climate change discourse in different countries, contrasting liberal vs. conservative press). The majority of these studies, however, have processed texts manually, limiting textual population size, restricting the analysis to a relatively small number of themes, and using time-expensive coding procedures. The use of computer-assisted text analysis (CATA) software is important because the difficulties with manual processing become more severe with an increased volume of data. We developed a CATA approach that allows a large body of text materials to be surveyed in a quantifiable, objective, transparent, and time-efficient manner. While staying within the quantitative tradition of content analysis, the approach allows for an interpretation of the public discourse closer to one of more qualitatively oriented methods. The methodology used in this study contains several steps: (1) sample selection; (2) data preparation for computer processing and obtaining a matrix of keyword frequencies; (3) identification of themes in the texts using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA); (4) combining identified themes into higher order themes using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA); (5) interpretation of obtained public discourse themes using factor scores; and (6) tracking the development of the main themes of the climate change discourse through time. In the report, we concentrate on two examples of CATA applied to study public perception of climate change. First example is an analysis of temporal change in public discourse on climate change. Applying CATA to a conservatively selected sample of 4043 articles published on climate change in The New York Times from 1995, we found a considerable change in major topics of discussion. One of the most significant tendencies is a gradual decline in the volume of material within the "Science" topic and an expansion of themes classified under the "Politics" topic. The second example is the analysis of public ability to detect climate change, in which we used a database of over 1 million Twitter messages on climate change that we have collected. We compared the intensity of tweeting on climate change with the "common-sense climate index" by Hansen et al (1999) and found that the weather extremes experienced at a certain location is immediately reflected in the number of tweets discussing climate change originating from that location. Although the CATA approach certainly has its limitations, we are convinced that it has a number of advantages over manual processing: it is able to analyze large textual bodies, is more time efficient, has a higher level of detail, enhances the richness of interpretation, and is able to reliably track discourse development through time.

Kirilenko, A.; Stepchenkova, S.

2012-12-01

424

Effects of diffusion in magnetically inhomogeneous media on rotating frame spin-lattice relaxation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an aqueous medium containing magnetic inhomogeneities, diffusion amongst the intrinsic susceptibility gradients contributes to the relaxation rate R1? of water protons to a degree that depends on the magnitude of the local field variations ?Bz, the geometry of the perturbers inducing these fields, and the rate of diffusion of water, D. This contribution can be reduced by using stronger locking fields, leading to a dispersion in R1? that can be analyzed to derive quantitative characteristics of the material. A theoretical expression was recently derived to describe these effects for the case of sinusoidal local field variations of a well-defined spatial frequency q. To evaluate the degree to which this dispersion may be extended to more realistic field patterns, finite difference Bloch-McConnell simulations were performed with a variety of three-dimensional structures to reveal how simple geometries affect the dispersion of spin-locking measurements. Dispersions were fit to the recently derived expression to obtain an estimate of the correlation time of the field variations experienced by the spins, and from this the mean squared gradient and an effective spatial frequency were obtained to describe the fields. This effective spatial frequency was shown to vary directly with the second moment of the spatial frequency power spectrum of the ?Bz field, which is a measure of the average spatial dimension of the field variations. These results suggest the theory may be more generally applied to more complex media to derive useful descriptors of the nature of field inhomogeneities. The simulation results also confirm that such diffusion effects disperse over a range of locking fields of lower amplitude than typical chemical exchange effects, and should be detectable in a variety of magnetically inhomogeneous media including regions of dense microvasculature within biological tissues.

Spear, John T.; Gore, John C.

2014-12-01

425

Roadmap: Communication Studies Health Communication Bachelor of Arts  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Communication Studies ­ Health Communication ­ Bachelor of Arts [CI-BA-COMM-HCMM] College if COMM 26000 was chosen in semester 3 Semester Five: [15 Credit Hours] COMM 36501 Communication in Health Care or COMM 36505 Communication, Aging and Culture or COMM 46503 Health Communication and Media

Sheridan, Scott

426

Int. J. Advanced Media and Communication, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2010 1 Copyright 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.  

E-print Network

important aspects of the video quality perceived by users. Then, the authors propose a model to summarise on the hardness of optimally broadcasting multiple video streams won the Best Paper Award in the IEEE Innovations systems have the potential to scale to large user communities in a cost-effective manner. However, because

Hefeeda, Mohammed

427

Media Inquiries: Robin Lloyd, 212-496-3419; lloyd@amnh.org January 6, 2006 Department of Communications  

E-print Network

-eating parrotfish--this could have the unintended and unwanted consequence of damaging coral reefs by reducing-depth study of Bahamian coral reefs, showing that marine reserves, in addition to protecting key species, can lead to healthier coral reefs. Knowing that marine reserves can be highly effective in protecting

Miami, University of

428

Effects of peer review on communication skills and learning motivation among nursing students.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of video-based peer review on communication skills and learning motivation among nursing students. A non-equivalent control with pretest-posttest design was used. The participants were 47 sophomore nursing students taking a fundamentals of nursing course at a nursing college in Korea. Communication with a standardized patient was videotaped for evaluation. The intervention group used peer reviews to evaluate the videotaped performance; a small group of four students watched the videotape of each student and then provided feedback. The control group assessed themselves alone after watching their own videos. Communication skills and learning motivation were measured. The intervention group showed significantly higher communication skills and learning motivation after the intervention than did the control group. The findings suggest that peer review is an effective learning method for nursing students to improve their communication skills and increase their motivation to learn. PMID:21323255

Yoo, Moon Sook; Chae, Sun-Mi

2011-04-01

429

Showtime Science: Effective Use of Popular Media to Enhance Instruction of Simple Machines and Energy Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The messages students receive through popular media such as movies, television, the internet, and music videos have a powerful influence and can shape their thinking. A national survey of media use by 8- to 18-year-olds found the average adolescent spends over seven and a half hours daily with entertainment media (KFF 2010). Rather than viewing…

Bergman, Daniel

2011-01-01

430

Effects of Team-Based Computer Interaction: The Media Equation and Game Design Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current paper applies media equation research to video game de- sign. The paper presents a review of the existing media equation research, de- scribes a specific study conducted by the authors, discusses how the findings of the study can be used to inform future game design, and explores how other media equation findings might be incorporated into game design.

Daniel Johnson; John A. Gardner

2005-01-01

431

Media Use and Communication Inequalities in a Public Health Emergency: A Case Study of 2009–2010 Pandemic Influenza A Virus Subtype H1N1  

PubMed Central

Objectives Studies have shown that differences among individuals and social groups in accessing and using information on health and specific threats have an impact on their knowledge and behaviors. These differences, characterized as communication inequalities, may hamper the strength of a society's response to a public health emergency. Such inequalities not only make vulnerable populations subject to a disproportionate burden of adversity, but also compromise the public health system's efforts to prevent and respond to pandemic influenza outbreaks. We investigated the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) and health communication behaviors (including barriers) on people's knowledge and misconceptions about pandemic influenza A(H1N1) (pH1N1) and adoption of prevention behaviors. Methods The data for this study came from a survey of 1,569 respondents drawn from a nationally representative sample of American adults during pH1N1. We conducted logistic regression analyses when appropriate. Results We found that (1) SES has a significant association with barriers to information access and processing, levels of pH1N1-related knowledge, and misconceptions; (2) levels of pH1N1-related knowledge are associated positively with the adoption of recommended prevention measures and negatively with the adoption of incorrect protective behaviors; and (3) people with higher SES, higher news exposure, and higher levels of pH1N1-related knowledge, as well as those who actively seek information, are less likely than their counterparts to adopt incorrect prevention behaviors. Conclusion Strategic public health communication efforts in public health preparedness and during emergencies should take into account potential communication inequalities and develop campaigns that reach across different social groups. PMID:25355975

Jung, Minsoo; McCloud, Rachel F.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

2014-01-01

432

A kinetic method for the determination of thiourea by its catalytic effect in micellar media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A highly sensitive, selective and simple kinetic method was developed for the determination of trace levels of thiourea based on its catalytic effect on the oxidation of janus green in phosphoric acid media and presence of Triton X-100 surfactant without any separation and pre-concentration steps. The reaction was monitored spectrophotometrically by tracing the formation of the green-colored oxidized product of janus green at 617 nm within 15 min of mixing the reagents. The effect of some factors on the reaction speed was investigated. Following the recommended procedure, thiourea could be determined with linear calibration graph in 0.03-10.00 ?g/ml range. The detection limit of the proposed method is 0.02 ?g/ml. Most of foreign species do not interfere with the determination. The high sensitivity and selectivity of the proposed method allowed its successful application to fruit juice and industrial waste water.

Abbasi, Shahryar; Khani, Hossein; Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Naghipour, Ali; Farmany, Abbas; Abbasi, Freshteh

2009-03-01

433

Does war hurt? Effects of media exposure after missile attacks on chronic pain.  

PubMed

This study focused on the effects of exposure to terrorist missile attacks on the physical and mental well being of chronic pain patients. In this prospective and longitudinal design, 55 chronic pain patients treated at a specialty pain clinic completed self-report questionnaires regarding their pain, depression and anxiety pre- and post a three week missile attack on the southern region of Israel. In addition, levels of direct and indirect exposure to the attacks were measured. Results of regression analyses showed that exposure to the attacks through the media predicted an increase in pain intensity and in the sensory component of pain during the pre-post war period, but did not predict depression, anxiety or the affective component of pain. These findings contribute to the understanding of the effects of terrorism on physical and emotional distress and identify chronic pain patients as a vulnerable population requiring special attention during terrorism-related stress. PMID:22699798

Lerman, Sheera F; Rudich, Zvia; Shahar, Golan

2013-03-01

434

Effects of media composition on substrate removal by pure and mixed bacterial cultures.  

PubMed

Continuous culture experiments with identical experimental designs were run with a mixed microbial community of activated sludge origin and an axenic bacterial culture derived from it. Each culture received 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) at a concentration of 160 mg/L as COD and L-lysine at a concentration of 65 mg/L as COD. A factorial experimental design was employed with dilution rate and media composition as the two controlled variables. Three dilution rates were studied: 0.015, 0.0325, and 0.05 h-1. Media composition was changed by adding four biogenic compounds (butyric acid, thymine, glutamic acid and lactose) in equal COD proportions at total concentrations of 0, 34, 225, and 1462 mg/L as COD. The measured variables were the effluent concentrations of 2-CP as measured by the 4-aminoantipyrene test and lysine as measured by the o-diacetylbenzene procedure. The results suggest that community structure and substrate composition play important roles in the response of a microbial community to mixed substrates. The addition of more biogenic substrates to the axenic culture had a deleterious effect on the removal of both lysine and 2-CP, although the effect was much larger on lysine removal. In contrast, additional substrates had a positive effect on the removal of 2-CP by the mixed community and much less of a negative effect on the removal of lysine. The dilution rate at which the cultures were growing had relatively little impact on the responses to the additional substrates. PMID:7763851

Grady, C P; Cordone, L; Cusack, L

1993-01-01

435

Guidelines - A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders  

SciTech Connect

This version of the communication primer comprises two interlocking parts: Pat 1, a practical section, intended to prepare you for public interactions, and Part 2, a theoretical section that provides social and technical bases for the practices recommended in Part 1. The mutual support of practice and theory is very familiar in science and clearly requires a willingness to observe and revise our prior assumptions--in this document, we invoke both. We hope that is offering will represent a step both towards improving practice and maturing the theory of practical science communication.

Weber, James R.; Schell, Charlotte J.; Marino, T; Bilyard, Gordon R.

2004-02-10

436

Social Media and the Organization of Collective Action: Using Twitter to Explore the Ecologies of Two Climate Change Protests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Twitter Revolutions of 2009 reinvigorated the question of whether new social media have any real effect on contentious politics. In this article, the authors argue that evaluating the relation between transforming communication technologies and collective action demands recognizing how such technologies infuse specific protest ecologies. This includes looking beyond informational functions to the role of social media as organizing

Alexandra Segerberg; W. Lance Bennett

2011-01-01

437

Lack of effective communication between communities and hospitals in Uganda: a qualitative exploration of missing links  

PubMed Central

Background Community members are stakeholders in hospitals and have a right to participate in the improvement of quality of services rendered to them. Their views are important because they reflect the perspectives of the general public. This study explored how communities that live around hospitals pass on their views to and receive feedback from the hospitals' management and administration. Methods The study was conducted in eight hospitals and the communities around them. Four of the hospitals were from three districts from eastern Uganda and another four from two districts from western Uganda. Eight key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted with medical superintendents of the hospitals. A member from each of three hospital management boards was also interviewed. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with health workers from the hospitals. Another eight FGDs (four with men and four with women) were conducted with communities within a five km radius around the hospitals. Four of the FGDs (two with men and two with women) were done in western Uganda and the other four in eastern Uganda. The focus of the KIIs and FGDs was exploring how hospitals communicated with the communities around them. Analysis was by manifest content analysis. Results Whereas health unit management committees were supposed to have community representatives, the representatives never received views from the community nor gave them any feed back from the hospitals. Messages through the mass media like radio were seen to be non specific for action. Views sent through suggestion boxes were seen as individual needs rather than community concerns. Some community members perceived they would be harassed if they complained and had reached a state of resignation preferring instead to endure the problems quietly. Conclusion There is still lack of effective communication between the communities and the hospitals that serve them in Uganda. This deprives the communities of the right to participate in the improvement of the services they receive, to assume their position as stakeholders. Various avenues could be instituted including using associations in communities, rapid appraisal methods and community meetings. PMID:19671198

Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Okui, Olico; Walker, Damien; Mutebi, Aloysius; Pariyo, George

2009-01-01

438

Side Effects of Radiographic Contrast Media: Pathogenesis, Risk Factors, and Prevention  

PubMed Central

Radiocontrast media (RCM) are medical drugs used to improve the visibility of internal organs and structures in X-ray based imaging techniques. They may have side effects ranging from itching to a life-threatening emergency, known as contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). We define CIN as acute renal failure occurring within 24–72 hrs of exposure to RCM that cannot be attributed to other causes. It usually occurs in patients with preexisting renal impairment and diabetes. The mechanisms underlying CIN include reduction in medullary blood flow leading to hypoxia and direct tubule cell damage and the formation of reactive oxygen species. Identification of patients at high risk for CIN is important. We have reviewed the risk factors and procedures for prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers a deep evaluation of them both. The first rule to follow in patients at risk of CIN undergoing radiographic procedure is monitoring renal function by measuring serum creatinine and calculating the eGFR before and once daily for 5 days after the procedure. It is advised to discontinue potentially nephrotoxic medications, to choose radiocontrast media at lowest dosage, and to encourage oral or intravenous hydration. In high-risk patients N-acetylcysteine may also be given. PMID:24895606

Tasanarong, Adis

2014-01-01

439

The effect of clock, media, and station location errors on Doppler measurement accuracy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Doppler tracking by the Deep Space Network (DSN) is the primary radio metric data type used by navigation to determine the orbit of a spacecraft. The accuracy normally attributed to orbits determined exclusively with Doppler data is about 0.5 microradians in geocentric angle. Recently, the Doppler measurement system has evolved to a high degree of precision primarily because of tracking at X-band frequencies (7.2 to 8.5 GHz). However, the orbit determination system has not been able to fully utilize this improved measurement accuracy because of calibration errors associated with transmission media, the location of tracking stations on the Earth's surface, the orientation of the Earth as an observing platform, and timekeeping. With the introduction of Global Positioning System (GPS) data, it may be possible to remove a significant error associated with the troposphere. In this article, the effect of various calibration errors associated with transmission media, Earth platform parameters, and clocks are examined. With the introduction of GPS calibrations, it is predicted that a Doppler tracking accuracy of 0.05 microradians is achievable.

Miller, J. K.

1993-01-01

440

Montelukast is as effective as penicillin in treatment of acute otitis media: An experimental rat study  

PubMed Central

Background Leukotrienes are the major factors in the formation of edema and mucus, as well as development of tuba Eustachii dysfunction in acute otitis media. We developed an experimental acute suppurative otitis media model and compared the responses of rats to penicillin and combinations of leukotriene antagonist with respect to histopathological observations conducted in early and late phases. Material/Methods A total of 83 ears from 56 Wistar rats were used in this study. Pneumococcus suspension was injected trans-tympanically into all rats. Subjects were classified into 4 different groups with 14 rats in each. In Group A, intramuscular penicillin G was injected for a period of 5 days. In Group B, intraperitoneal montelukast was injected for 21 days in addition to penicillin. In Group C, intraperitoneal montelukast isotonic NaCl in Group D was injected into rats for 21 days. Results No significant difference was found between the groups, except for mucosal vascularization with respect to mucosal and TM parameters in early phases. Furthermore, considerable deviations were observed for the recuperation of TM and mucosal inflammation for groups in which subjects were injected with montelukast as compared to other groups of the study in the late phases. Conclusions When the parameters of inflammation in the rat middle ear were compared with each other, most of these parameters did not show any statistically significant beneficial effects in montelukast and penicillin groups. PMID:24048018

Uçar, Seçil; Huseynov, Tural; Çoban, Melahat; Sar?o?lu, Sülen; ?erbetçio?lu, Bülent; Yalcin, Arzu Didem

2013-01-01

441

The effect of fluid streams in porous media on acoustic compression wave propagation, transmission, and reflection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In geomechanics, a relevant role is played by coupling phenomena between compressible fluid seepage flow and deformation of the solid matrix. The behavior of complex porous materials can be greatly influenced by such coupling phenomena. A satisfactorily theoretical framework for their description is not yet completely attained. In this paper, we discuss how the model developed in dell'Isola et al. (Int J Solids Struct 46:3150-3164, 2009) can describe how underground flows or, more generally, confined streams of fluid in deformable porous matrices affect compression wave propagation and their reflection and transmission at a solid-material discontinuity surface. Further work will investigate the effect of stream flow in porous media on shear waves, generalizing what done in Djeran Maigre and Kuznetsov (Comptes Rendus Mécanique 336(1-2):102-107, 2008) for shear waves in one-constituent orthotropic two-layered plates. The presented treatment shows that the presence of fluid streams considerably affect reflection and transmission phenomena in porous media.

Madeo, A.; Djeran-Maigre, I.; Rosi, G.; Silvani, C.

2013-03-01

442

DETERMINING EFFECTIVE INTERFACIAL TENSION AND PREDICTING FINGER SPACING FOR DNAPL PENETRATION INTO WATER-SATURATED POROUS MEDIA. (R826157)  

EPA Science Inventory

The difficulty in determining the effective interfacial tension limits the prediction of the wavelength of fingering of immiscible fluids in porous media. A method to estimate the effective interfacial tension using fractal concepts was presented by Chang et al. [Water Resour. Re...

443

The effects of a systematically developed photo-novella on knowledge, attitudes, communication and behavioural intentions with respect to sexually transmitted infections among secondary school learners in South Africa.  

PubMed

A pre-post test follow-up design was used to test the effects of a systematically developed photo-novella (Laduma) on knowledge, attitudes, communication and behavioural intentions with respect to sexually transmitted infections, after a single reading by 1168 secondary school learners in South Africa. The reading resulted in an increase in knowledge on the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), change in attitude to condom use and towards people with STIs and/or HIV/AIDS, as well as increased intention to practice safe sex. Laduma did not influence communication about sexually transmitted infections and reported sexual behaviour and condom use. While print media proved to be an effective strategy to reach large numbers of youth and prepare them for adequate preventive behaviours, the study also identified the need to combine print media with other planned theory-based interventions that build confidence and skills to initiate the preventive behaviour. PMID:15764686

James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S; Ruiter, Robert A C; Taylor, Myra; Jinabhai, Champaklal C; Van Empelen, Pepijn; Van den Borne, Bart

2005-06-01

444

Developing effective communication strategies for the Spanish and Haitian-Creole-speaking workforce in hotel companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this study is to explore effective communication strategies for Spanish-speaking and Haitian-Creole-speaking employees in hotel companies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A case study approach was employed. Three employee, focus group interviews and semi-structured interviews with 12 managers were conducted in a resort hotel in Orlando to elicit critical factors related to effective communication strategies with Spanish-speaking and

Po-Ju Chen; Fevzi Okumus; Nan Hua

2011-01-01

445

Classroom Communication and Teaching Effectiveness: The Foreign-Born Instructor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a survey of 260 students to examine how they perceive foreign-born instructors (FBIs) revealed a marked preference for native-born instructors by respondents. Because the need to hire FBIs will continue, administrators must focus attention on improving the FBIs' communication and teaching skills. (JOW)

Neves, Joao S.; Sanyal, Rajib N.

1991-01-01

446

The Effect of Branch Network in Broadband Power Line Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a multi-branch Indoor Power Line Network for Broadband Communication is modeled on the basis of ABCD matrix of two port network which leads to the formation of a transfer matrix, the element of which are used to find the transfer function of the multi-branch transmission line network consisting of taps up to 10 number. From the calculation

Kalyan Mondal; Pabitra Kumar Ray

2011-01-01

447

Effects of Social Environment on Japanese and American Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The social backgrounds of Japanese and Americans differ in ways that impede complete communication. The Japanese people, historically controlled by the forces of nature, have formed groups as the minimum functioning social units. The individual is only part of the group, and individual rights and obligations have not been clearly developed.…

Kitao, Kenji; Kitao, S. Kathleen

448

Ionospheric scintillation effects on VHF-UHF communication systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periods of intense ionospheric scintillations were analyzed in order to provide information for the design and evaluation of the performance of satellite communication links. Scintillation data were available for the auroral and equatorial regions. The amplitude fluctuations are described by cumulative amplitude distributions and show good agreement with the Nakagami m-distribution. A Rayleigh distribution appears to describe the worst case

H. E. Whitney

1976-01-01

449

Effective Communication Is "Hitched to Everything in the (Business) Universe"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author of this article is an English teacher and a certified public accountant at the same time. When he was offered a position teaching business communication in an MBA program, he was delighted to know that he can actually dovetail his two contrasting careers. In this article, the author relates his experiences and the benefits of…

Krajicek, John

2008-01-01

450

The Role of Theory in Developing Effective Health Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to show the relevance of behavioral theory for developing commu- nications designed to promote healthy and\\/or to prevent or alter unhealthy behaviors. After describing an integrative model of behavioral prediction, the model's implications for designing persuasive communications are considered. Using data from a study on smoker's intentions to continue smoking and to quit, it is shown how

Martin Fishbein; Joseph N. Cappella

2006-01-01

451

The Effect of Communicative Impediments on Interpersonal Attachment and Deviance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces a theory describing the relationship between factors that increase social isolation and deviance. The theory is examined in the context of virtual visitation. We integrate social exchange, anomie, and strain theories to argue that as communication is impeded between two actors, the less satisfied either will be with the…

Richardson, Nick J.; Barnum, Christopher C.

2010-01-01

452

Effect of Antenna Placement and Diversity on Vehicular Network Communications  

E-print Network

radios operating in the 5GHz band, which is of interest for planned inter-vehicular communication standards. Our main findings are two-fold. First, we show that radio reception performance is sensitive diversity scheme using multiple antennas and radios, Multi-Radio Packet Selection (MRPS), improves

Gruteser, Marco

453

When Are High-Tech Communicators Effective in Parkinson's Disease?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a 63-year-old woman with Parkinson's disease showing loss of intelligibility of speech and severely impaired handwriting, despite undergoing physical and speech therapies. As the patient had sufficient residual motor abilities and adequate cognitive function and motivation, a computer-based communication aid with a software…

Ferriero, Giorgio; Caligari, Marco; Ronconi, Gianpaolo; Franchignoni, Franco

2012-01-01

454

Producing Effective Writing in the Managerial Communication Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a sequence of writing assignments that provide experience for managerial communication students who must learn to organize thoughts and data efficiently to present information in a professional manner. Focuses on understanding context, developing points, analyzing texts, and creating an authoritative, committed voice. (KEH)

Larsen, Elizabeth

1991-01-01

455

Effects of China's communication industry policy on domestic cellphone manufacturers  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's economy has matured so dramatically recently that it has become a major player as well a huge market, eyed eagerly by the rest of the world. In the communications industry, China is focused on extending the market share of domestic vendors by combining an overarching industrial policy with the supply and demand of the domestic market. The policy for

Jin-Li Hu; Yu-Hsueh Hsu

2007-01-01

456

Effects of Message Design Logic on the Communication of Intention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In producing and comprehending messages, a communicator relies on a "message design logic" embodying an individual's knowledge about how to relate message forms and functions. According to this model, there are three different message design logics: (1) expressive, in which self-expression is the chief function, and affective and idiosyncratic…

O'Keefe, Barbara J.; Lambert, Bruce L.

457

Alternative Media as Critical Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the category of alternative media from a theoretical perspective. It aims to develop a definition and to distinguish different dimensions of alternative media. The article is a contribution to theoretical foundations of alternative media studies. The notion of alternative media as critical media is introduced. Critical media product content shows the suppressed possibilities of existence, antagonisms

Christian Fuchs

2010-01-01

458

Interlayer exchange coupling effect of L1(0) CoPt based exchange coupled composite media.  

PubMed

In this work, effects of exchange coupling of soft magnetic layer on switching field and magnetization reversal behaviour of CoPt-SiO2(soft)/CoPt-SiO2(hard) exchange coupled media were investigated. With increasing the thickness of the soft layer, both the coercivity and magnetization squareness of composite media decreased. Soft layer thickness 4 nm and below was more effective to significantly reduce the switching field than that above 4 nm. More incoherent switching behavior was observed with increasing soft layer thickness. PMID:21449436

Yang, Yang; Pandey, K K M; Chen, J S; Chow, G M; Hu, J F

2011-03-01

459

Modular, Cost-Effective, Extensible Avionics Architecture for Secure, Mobile Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current onboard communication architectures are based upon an all-in-one communications management unit. This unit and associated radio systems has regularly been designed as a one-off, proprietary system. As such, it lacks flexibility and cannot adapt easily to new technology, new communication protocols, and new communication links. This paper describes the current avionics communication architecture and provides a historical perspective of the evolution of this system. A new onboard architecture is proposed that allows full use of commercial-off-the-shelf technologies to be integrated in a modular approach thereby enabling a flexible, cost-effective and fully deployable design that can take advantage of ongoing advances in the computer, cryptography, and telecommunications industries.

Ivancic, William D.

2007-01-01

460

Modular, Cost-Effective, Extensible Avionics Architecture for Secure, Mobile Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current onboard communication architectures are based upon an all-in-one communications management unit. This unit and associated radio systems has regularly been designed as a one-off, proprietary system. As such, it lacks flexibility and cannot adapt easily to new technology, new communication protocols, and new communication links. This paper describes the current avionics communication architecture and provides a historical perspective of the evolution of this system. A new onboard architecture is proposed that allows full use of commercial-off-the-shelf technologies to be integrated in a modular approach thereby enabling a flexible, cost-effective and fully deployable design that can take advantage of ongoing advances in the computer, cryptography, and telecommunications industries.

Ivancic, William D.

2006-01-01

461

Electronic collaboration: Some effects of telecommunication media and machine intelligence on team performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both NASA and DoD have had a long standing interest in teamwork, distributed decision making, and automation. While research on these topics has been pursued independently, it is becoming increasingly clear that the integration of social, cognitive, and human factors engineering principles will be necessary to meet the challenges of highly sophisticated scientific and military programs of the future. Images of human/intelligent-machine electronic collaboration were drawn from NASA and Air Force reports as well as from other sources. Here, areas of common concern are highlighted. A description of the author's research program testing a 'psychological distancing' model of electronic media effects and human/expert system collaboration is given.

Wellens, A. Rodney

1991-01-01

462

Long-term effects of otitis media with effusion on language, reading and spelling.  

PubMed

The long-term effects of early OME on language and educational attainment were studied in 47 children of 7-8 years of age who had participated in an earlier pre-school study on otitis media with effusion (OME) and language development. At pre-school age OME was diagnosed by quarterly tympanometric screens (maximum nine) and language was assessed by a standard Reynell test. At school age the ears of the children were assessed by otomicroscopy, tympanometry and audiometry, and the development status by several language, reading and spelling tests. The association between early OME and language development found at pre-school age was no longer present at school age. PMID:8365017

Schilder, A G; Van Manen, J G; Zielhuis, G A; Grievink, E H; Peters, S A; Van Den Broek, P

1993-06-01

463

[Effect of catholyte in culture media on cell growth at extreme temperatures].  

PubMed

The growth of Escherichia coli cells in media whose properties were changed by the action of direct current in the cathode compartment of a diaphragm electrolyzer was studied. For this purpose, the growth medium was preliminarily treated using different method of medium preparation under different treatment conditions. The biological activity of medium was estimated by measuring the effect of these solutions on cell growth. Cells were cultivated under extremal temperature conditions, 20 degrees C and 42 degrees C (optimal temperature 37 degrees C). It was shown that at low temperatures, the cell growth considerably increases as compared to control. At elevated temperatures, the acceleration of cell death occurred, whereas in the control the deceleration of cell growth and partial cell death were observed. PMID:10439865

Miroshnikov, A I

1999-01-01

464

Predicting the Effects of Test Media in Ground-Based Propulsion Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the progress of work which began in mid-2004 sponsored by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Test & Evaluation/Science & Technology (T&E/S&T) Program. The purpose of the work is to improve the state of the art of CFD capabilities for predicting the effects of the test media on the flameholding characteristics in scramjet engines. The program has several components including the development of advance algorithms and models for simulating engine flowpaths as well as a fundamental experimental and diagnostic development effort to support the formulation and validation of the mathematical models. The paper will provide details of current work involving the development of phenomenological models for Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes codes, large-eddy simulation techniques and reduced-kinetics models. Experiments that will provide data for the modeling efforts will also be described, along with with the associated nonintrusive diagnostics used to collect the data.

Drummond, J. Philip; Danehy, Paul M.; Bivolaru, Daniel; Gaffney, Richard L.; Parker, Peter A.; Chelliah, Harsha K.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Givi, Peyman; Hassan, Hassan, A.

2006-01-01

465

[Effect of culture media on surface and enzymatic activity in Klebsiella species].  

PubMed

The effect of three complex media (KM) [Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB), brain heart infusion (MSI) and proteose peptone (PP)] and one mineral medium (MM) on surface and enzyme activities of five strains Klebsiella species was studied. Klebsiella oxytoca and Klebsiella ornithinolytica had a marked hydrophobic character after growth in MHB, MSI and MM, Klebsiella terrigena only in PP. K. oxytoca and K. ornithinolytica had a higher motility after cultivation in KM compared with MM, the motility of K. terrigena was not affected. The lipolytic activity of all tested strains was highest after growth in MSI and PP. The composition of culture medium affected bacterial parameters tested to a different extent depending on the species. PMID:12184188

Hostacká, A

2002-08-01

466

DEPTH-AVERAGING EFFECTS ON HYDRAULIC HEAD FOR MEDIA WITH STOCHASTIC HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydraulic conductivity of a porous medium frequently is considered to be a single realization of a three-dimensional spatial stochastic process. The most common observation of flow in porous media are hydraulic-head measurements obtained from wells which are screened over extensive sections of the medium. These measurements represent, approximately, a one-dimensional spatial average of the actual three-dimensional head distribution, the actual head distribution being a stochastic process resulting from flow through a random hydraulic-conductivity field. This paper examines, via ensemble averages, the effect of such spatial averages of groundwater flow on the spatial autocovariance function for a simple, yet viable, stochastic model of a bounded medium. The model is taken to be three-dimensional flow in a medium that is bounded above and below and in which the hydraulic conductivity is a second-order stationary stochastic process.

Naff, R.L.; Vecchia, A.V.

1987-01-01

467

Lattice surface solitons in diffusive nonlinear media driven by the quadratic electro-optic effect.  

PubMed

We study theoretically surface lattice solitons driven by quadratic electro-optic effect at the interface between an optical lattice and diffusive nonlinear media with self-focusing and self-defocusing saturable nonlinearity. Surface solitons originating from self-focusing nonlinearity can be formed in the semi-infinite gap, and are stable in whole domain of their existence. In the case of self-defocusing nonlinearity, both surface gap and twisted solitons are predicted in first gap. We discover that surface gap solitons can propagate stably in whole existence domain except for an extremely narrow region close to the Bloch band, and twisted solitons are linearly unstable in the entire existence domain. PMID:24921286

Zhan, Kaiyun; Hou, Chunfeng

2014-05-19

468

Mass media and environmental issues: a theoretical analysis  

SciTech Connect

A critique of the weak empirical and theoretical foundations of commentaries on the mass media in the environmental literature argues that they stem from the incidental rather than fundamental concern for the social dimensions of environmental problems. The contributions of information theory, cybernetics, sociology, and political science to micro and macro theories of mass communications are reviewed. Information from empirical analyses of the mass media's portrayal of social issues, including the environment, is related to Hall's dominant ideology thesis of the mass media and the elitist-conflict model of society. It is argued that the media's portrayal of environmental issues is structured by dominant power-holding groups in society with the result that the media effectively function to maintain and reinforce the status quo to the advantage of these dominant groups. 78 references.

Parlour, J.W.

1980-01-01

469

Effect of compressibility on the rise velocity of an air bubble in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to develop a theoretical model to analyze the effect of air compressibility on air bubble migration in porous media. The model is obtained by combining the Newton's second law of motion and the ideal gas law assuming that the air phase in the bubble behaves as an ideal gas. Numerical and analytical solutions are presented for various cases of interest. The model results compare favorably with both experimental data and analytical solutions reported in the literature obtained for an incompressible air bubble migration. The results show that travel velocity of a compressible air bubble in porous media strongly depends on the depth of air phase injection. A bubble released from greater depths travels with a slower velocity than a bubble with an equal volume injected at shallower depths. As an air bubble rises up, it expands with decreasing bubble pressure with depth. The volume of a bubble injected at a 1-m depth increases 10% as the bubble reaches the water table. However, bubble volume increases almost twofold when it reaches to the surface from a depth of 10 m. The vertical rise velocity of a compressible bubble approaches that of an incompressible one regardless of the injection depth and volume as it reaches the water table. The compressible bubble velocity does not exceed 18.8 cm/s regardless of the injection depth and bubble volume. The results demonstrate that the effect of air compressibility on the motion of a bubble cannot be neglected except when the air is injected at very shallow depths.

Cihan, Abdullah; Corapcioglu, M. Yavuz

2008-04-01

470

Effects of Aging and Smoking on Carotid Intima Media Thickness in HIV-infection  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the effects of aging and smoking on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) among patients with and without HIV. Methods Data from a community sample of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants were analyzed. Carotid intima-media thickness was measured via carotid ultrasound and smoking history was obtained via patient interview. Results Data on 166male and female participants with stable HIV-infection and 152 healthy HIV-uninfected participants were analyzed. Among the HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants, a significant association was observed between age and cIMT [r=0.51, P<0.0001 (HIV), r=0.39, P<0.0001, (non-HIV)], and between smoking burden and cIMT [r=0.42, P<0.0001 (HIV), r=0.24, P=0.003 (non-HIV)]. In multivariate regression modeling among all participants (HIV and non-HIV), a significant three-way interaction was observed between age, smoking burden, and HIV status with respect to cIMT (P<0.010), controlling for gender, race and traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such that increased cIMT was associated with increased smoking burden and age to a greater degree among HIV-infected vs. HIV-uninfected participants. Among HIV-infected participants a significant interaction between smoking burden and age with respect to cIMT was seen (P=0.027), controlling for race, gender, CVD risk factors, immunological function and antiretroviral therapy use. Conclusion A significant interaction between HIV, age and smoking on cIMT was observed, suggesting that HIV-infection modifies the relationship of age and smoking on cIMT in this population. These findings emphasize the need to encourage smoking cessation in this population, due to its deleterious effect on subclinical atherosclerosis in older HIV-infected patients. PMID:22874518

FITCH, Kathleen V.; LOOBY, Sara E.; ROPE, Alison; ENEH, Peace; HEMPHILL, Linda; LEE, Hang; GRINSPOON, Steven K.

2013-01-01

471

Effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System as a Functional Communication Intervention for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Practice-Based Research Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research synthesis verifies the effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) for improving the functional communication skills of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The research synthesis was focused on the degree to which variations in PECS training are associated with variations in functional…

Tien, Kai-Chien

2008-01-01

472

The Effects of Mother-Implemented Picture Exchange Communication System Training on Spontaneous Communicative Behaviors of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined whether mothers could be taught to implement the picture exchange communication system (PECS) training with their child and investigated the effects of the mother-implemented PECS training on the spontaneous communication of young children with autism spectrum disorders. Three mothers were trained to teach their child…

Park, Ju Hee

2010-01-01

473

A Dyadic Analysis of the Effects of Setting and Communication Partner on Elicited and Spontaneous Communication of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the effects of condition and communication partner on spontaneous and elicited communication in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in comparison to age matched typically developing children. Eighteen children participated in the study (nine children diagnosed with ASD and nine typically developing children). Each…

Forde, Ita; Holloway, Jennifer; Healy, Olive; Brosnan, Julie

2011-01-01

474

Guidelines - A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders  

SciTech Connect

This primer is a tool to help prepare scientists for meetings with stakeholders. It was prepared for staff involved with the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. It discusses why some efforts in science communication may succeed while others fail, provides methods of approaching group interactions about science that may better orient expert participants, and summarizes experience drawn from observations of groups interacting about topics in bioremediation or the NABIR program. The primer also provides brief, useful models for interacting with either expert or non-expert groups. Finally, it identifies topical areas that may help scientists prepare for public meetings, based on the developers' ongoing research in science communication in public forums.

Bilyard, Gordon R.; Word, Charlotte J.; Weber, James R.; Harding, Anna K.

2000-09-27

475

Advantages of Parallel Processing and the Effects of Communications Time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many computing tasks involve heavy mathematical calculations, or analyzing large amounts of data. These operations can take a long time to complete using only one computer. Networks such as the Internet provide many computers with the ability to communicate with each other. Parallel or distributed computing takes advantage of these networked computers by arranging them to work together on a problem, thereby reducing the time needed to obtain the solution. The drawback to using a network of computers to solve a problem is the time wasted in communicating between the various hosts. The application of distributed computing techniques to a space environment or to use over a satellite network would therefore be limited by the amount of time needed to send data across the network, which would typically take much longer than on a terrestrial network. This experiment shows how much faster a large job can be performed by adding more computers to the task, what role communications time plays in the total execution time, and the impact a long-delay network has on a distributed computing system.

Eddy, Wesley M.; Allman, Mark

2000-01-01

476

Short communication Cost-effective abundance estimation of rare animals: Testing performance  

E-print Network

Short communication Cost-effective abundance estimation of rare animals: Testing performance of conservation concern, any cost-effective attempt to estimate absolute abundance will assist status assessments; Sinha, 2002; Rojas-Bracho et al., 2006). The difficulty of providing cost-effective estimates

477

Training Referential Communication Skills: The Relative Effects of Plans and Modeling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates both immediate and delayed effects of two different training procedures on children's listener behavior in a referential communication setting. Using a 2 x 2 design, the presence and absence of a plan for effective listening and modeling of appropriate listener behavior were varied, and the effects of these variations on 40…

Cosgrove, J. Michael; Patterson, Charlotte, J.

478

How publics respond to crisis communication strategies: The interplay of information form and source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through an experiment with 162 college students this study empirically evaluates an emerging communication model: the social-mediated crisis communication model (SMCC). As part of a series of studies testing the SMCC model, this study focuses on two of the SMCC model's components: the effects of crisis information form (traditional media, social media, and word-of-mouth) and source (third party and organization)

Brooke Fisher Liu; Lucinda Austin; Yan Jin

2011-01-01

479

The role of culture in effective HIV/AIDS communication by theatre in South Africa  

PubMed Central

The need to effectively communicate HIV/AIDS messages in South Africa, given the high prevalence of the pandemic, cannot be overemphasised. Communication scholars have long emphasised the need to recognise adherence to cultural norms of target communities as catalyst for effective HIV/AIDS communication. Unfortunately this call has not been totally heeded by the designers of HIV/AIDS communication instruments. In the case of theatre, research has shown that in South Africa, theatre groups have gone into communities with pre-packaged plays without due cognisance of the cultural norms and beliefs of the target population. This research was conducted in KwaZulu-Natal (the province with the highest prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa). Using a qualitative research methodology this paper investigated the inclusion/non-inclusion of the cultural norms of the target population in the design of the dramatic performance by the theatre group in its HIV/AIDS campaigns. The findings indicate that while the group did try to incorporate aspects of the cultural norms of the target population, it did so at a level that failed to effectively communicate the HIV/AIDS message to its audiences. This paper therefore seeks to show through empirical evidence that the non-inclusion of cultural norms and values of the target population has acted as a stumbling block in the effective communication of HIV/AIDS messages by theatre groups in the country. PMID:24697309

Uwah, Chijioke

2014-01-01

480

Effects of partitioning and scheduling sparse matrix factorization on communication and load balance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A block based, automatic partitioning and scheduling methodology is presented for sparse matrix factorization on distributed memory systems. Using experimental results, this technique is analyzed for communication and load imbalance overhead. To study the performance effects, these overheads were compared with those obtained from a straightforward 'wrap mapped' column assignment scheme. All experimental results were obtained using test sparse matrices from the Harwell-Boeing data set. The results show that there is a communication and load balance tradeoff. The block based method results in lower communication cost whereas the wrap mapped scheme gives better load balance.

Venugopal, Sesh; Naik, Vijay K.

1991-01-01

481

Media Literacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are the web links associated with my media literacy lessons based on \\"Media Madness - an insiders guide to Media\\" by Dominic Ali Part 1 : Media Literacy Take the Are you Literate Quiz Media Literacy Quiz Sitcom Clip Sitcom Clip Commercial Clip Commercial Clip CD Covers CD Cover: Abby RoadCD Cover: SGT PeppersDark side of the Moon ...

Morey, Mrs.

2008-04-13

482

Dynamic effective mass of granular media and the attenuation of structure-borne sound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a theoretical and experimental investigation into the fundamental physics of why loose granular media are effective deadeners of structure-borne sound. Here, we demonstrate that a measurement of the effective mass, M˜(?) , of the granular medium is a sensitive and direct way to answer the question: what is the specific mechanism whereby acoustic energy is transformed into heat? Specifically, we apply this understanding to the case of the flexural resonances of a rectangular bar with a grain-filled cavity within it. The pore space in the granular medium is air of varying humidity. The dominant features of M˜(?) are a sharp resonance and a broad background, which we analyze within the context of simple models. We find that: (a) on a fundamental level, dampening of acoustic modes is dominated by adsorbed films of water at grain-grain contacts, not by global viscous dampening or by attenuation within the grains. (b) These systems may be understood, qualitatively, in terms of a height-dependent and diameter-dependent effective sound speed [˜100-300(m?s-1)] and an effective viscosity [˜5×104Poise] . (c) There is an acoustic Janssen effect in the sense that, at any frequency, and depending on the method of sample preparation, approximately one-half of the effective mass is borne by the side walls of the cavity and one-half by the bottom. (d) There is a monotonically increasing effect of humidity on the dampening of the fundamental resonance within the granular medium which translates to a nonmonotonic, but predictable, variation in dampening within the grain-loaded bar.

Valenza, John; Hsu, Chaur-Jian; Ingale, Rohit; Gland, Nicolas; Makse, Hernán A.; Johnson, David Linton

2009-11-01

483

Communicating science in social settings  

PubMed Central

This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists—driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication—to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future. PMID:23940341

Scheufele, Dietram A.

2013-01-01

484

Communicating science in social settings.  

PubMed

This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists--driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication--to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future. PMID:23940341

Scheufele, Dietram A

2013-08-20

485

The Effect of Surface Treated Nanoparticles on Single and Multi-Phase Flow in Porous Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface treated nanoparticles have been suggested to be an additive to CO2 storage scenarios. This is because 1) the nanoparticles have been shown to freely transport through permeable media, and 2) the nanoparticles can stabilize a CO2 in water foam by adhering to the surface of CO2 bubbles/droplets preventing their coalescence. In terms of storage, The formation of CO2 foam will limit the CO2 mobility which can potentially help limit the CO2 leakage. Here, we will show how nanoparticles in porous media can have many interesting properties in single and multi-phase flow. For multi-phase CO2, we have performed experiments where high pressure liquid CO2 displaces brine and vice versa with and without nanoparticles in the brine. We measure the displacement pattern and in-situ CO2 saturation using CT scanning and measure the pressure drop using pressure transducers. We find that the flow is less preferential and the pressure drop is greater than when nanoparticles are present. This suggest the formation of in-situ foam/emulsion. We also show that on a brine chase, the residual saturation of CO2 is greater in the presence of nanoparticles. In terms of nanoparticle transport, it is observed that nanoparticles accumulate at the front of a brine/octane displacement. We hypothesize that this occurs due to the nanoparticles being size excluded from portions of the pore-space. To determine if this occurs in single phase flow, we have also performed experiments single-phase flow with the nanoparticles and tracer. We find that the nanoparticles arrive roughly 5% faster than the tracer. This also has implications for the positioning of nanoparticles in the pore space and how this can change the effective viscosity of the nanoparticle suspension.

DiCarlo, D. A.; Aminzadeh, B.; Chung, D.; Zhang, X.; Wung, R.; Huh, C.; Bryant, S. L.

2013-12-01

486

Advanced Management Communication: An Elective Course in Corporate Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a college-level elective course in advanced management communication that would teach future managers how to communicate with shareholders, the media, financial analysts, and the labor force. (SRT)

Argenti, Paul A.

1986-01-01

487

Dysphagia after head trauma: the effect of cognitive-communicative impairments on functional outcomes.  

PubMed

This article discusses the impact of cognitive-communicative and behavior problems on oral intake. Data on the swallowing outcomes of a group of patients in an acute rehabilitation facility are presented. These data illustrate the relationships among severity of dysphagia, admission and discharge Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores, admission and discharge cognitive FIM scores and length of stay. Two case studies that describe the effect of cognitive-communicative disorders on dysphagia are provided. PMID:10653944

Halper, A S; Cherney, L R; Cichowski, K; Zhang, M

1999-10-01

488

Evaluating the effect of inter-programmer communication: levels on productivity by varying programming team structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various methods exist for estimating the complexity of single modules and the complexity of interacting modules. We propose to demonstrate how the degree of programmer inter-communication in a multi-programmer project also has a significant effect on productivity. Specifically, projects which use programming team structures which require more inter-programmer communication will experience lower productivities than projects which use team structures which

John W. Bailey; Ken Christensen; Helmut Krcmar; Jean-Louis Lassez; Vincent Y. Shen; Scott N. Woodfield

1982-01-01

489

Extraction of effective parameters of turbid media utilizing the Mueller matrix approach: study of glucose sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical technique based on Stokes polarimetry and the Mueller matrix method is proposed for extracting the effective linear birefringence, linear dichroism, circular birefringence, circular dichroism, linear depolarization, and circular depolarization properties of turbid media. In contrast to existing analytical models, the model proposed extracts the effective parameters in a decoupled manner and considers not only the circular dichroism properties of the sample, but also the depolarization properties. The results show that the proposed method enables all of the effective parameters to be measured over the full range. Moreover, it is shown that the extracted value of the depolarization index is unaffected by the order in which the depolarizing Mueller matrix is decomposed during the extraction procedure. Finally, a method is proposed for calibrating the optical rotation angle of a polystyrene microsphere suspension containing dissolved D-glucose (C6H12O6) powder in accordance with the distance between the sample and the detector. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of the resulting D-glucose measurement is equal to approximately 1.73 deg/M.

Pham, Thi-Thu-Hien; Lo, Yu-Lung

2012-09-01

490

Theory-Based Approaches to Understanding Public Emergency Preparedness: Implications for Effective Health and Risk Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent natural and human-caused disasters have awakened public health officials to the importance of emergency preparedness. Guided by health behavior and media effects theories, the analysis of a statewide survey in Georgia reveals that self-efficacy, subjective norm, and emergency news exposure are positively associated with the respondents' possession of emergency items and their stages of emergency preparedness. Practical implications suggest

Hye-Jin Paek; Karen Hilyard; Vicki Freimuth; J. Kevin Barge; Michele Mindlin

2010-01-01

491

The effect of incubation media on the water exchange of snapping turtle ( Chelydra serpentina ) eggs and hatchlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of two different incubation media, sand and vermiculite, on the water exchange of eggs and the mass of hatchlings of snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) was assessed. The eggs were incubated fully buried in either sand or vermiculite at 30 °C and egg mass was measured periodically throughout incubation. The wet and dry masses of each hatchling and its

Yeong-Choy Kam; Ralph A. Ackerman

1990-01-01

492

Effect of time-gating and polarization-discrimination of propagating light in turbid media during Angular Domain Imaging (ADI)  

E-print Network

polarization to our ADI system resulted in improved image contrast. The use of ADI with time-gating (gate width filters, quasi-ballistic photons, polarization gating, Multimode optical imaging 1. Introduction OpticalEffect of time-gating and polarization-discrimination of propagating light in turbid media during

Chapman, Glenn H.

493

Effect of tibolone treatment on intima-media thickness and the resistive indices of the carotid arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo assess the effect of tibolone treatment on the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery (CCA) and the resistive indices (RIs) of the CCA and internal (ICA) and external (ECA) carotid and the vertebral arteries (VAs) in postmenopausal women as sonographic markers of atherosclerosis.

Mithat Erenus; A. Hakan Ilhan; Koray Elter

2003-01-01

494

Effect of Water Activities of Heating and Recovery Media on Apparent Heat Resistance of Bacillus cereus Spores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spores of Bacillus cereus were heated and recovered in order to investigate the effect of water activity of media on the estimated heat resistance (i.e., the D value) of spores. The water activity (ranging from 0.9 to 1) of the heating medium was first successively controlled with three solutes (glycerol, glucose, and sucrose), while the water activity of the recovery

LOUIS COROLLER; IVAN LEGUERINEL; PIERRE MAFART

2001-01-01

495

Provocative appeals in anti-smoking mass media campaigns targeting adolescents—the accumulated effect of multiple exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper reports findings from a longitudinal study that evaluated the accumulated effect of th