Science.gov

Sample records for effective media communication

  1. Effects of the Mass Media of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Walter

    The mass media are considered to be television, radio, movies, and newspapers. They may generate changes in cognition and comprehension. They do effect emotional arousal, sex and behavior identification, and changes in allocation of time, consumer purchase, and voting behavior. The only data which show a clear relationship between the mass media…

  2. Effective communications strategies: engaging the media, policymakers, and the public.

    PubMed

    Blake, Allison; Bonk, Kathy; Heimpel, Daniel; Wright, Cathy S

    2013-01-01

    Too often, strategic communication is too little, or comes too late, when involved with a child fatality or serious injury. This article explores the challenges arising from negative publicity around child safety issues and the opportunities for communications strategies that employ a proactive public health approach to engaging media, policymakers, and the public. The authors provide a case study and review methods by which child welfare agencies across the nation are building public engagement and support for improved outcomes in child safety while protecting legitimate confidentiality requirements. Finally, the piece articulates the rationale for agency investments in the resources necessary to develop and implement an effective communications plan. PMID:24199331

  3. New Communication Media Technologies: Perceptual, Cognitive and Aesthetic Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metallinos, Nikos

    Visual communication media technologies, particularly television, hinder rather than enhance viewer perceptual processes, understanding, and aesthetic appreciation of visual messages transmitted by means of such technologies. Emerging technologies, including high-definition, interactive, and holographic television, will not necessarily improve or…

  4. Effective Use of Social Media in Communicating Climate Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, P. W.

    2012-12-01

    The internet and social media have been a critical vector for misinformation on climate change. Scientists have not always been proactive or effective in utilizing the medium to bring attention to the best science, to correct misinformation and overcome urban myths. Similarly, mainstream journalists have been handicapped in dealing with the wide open nature of the medium, and often muted by editorial concerns or budget restrictions. Independent communicators who are highly motivated can make inroads in this area by using the internet's immediacy and connectivity to consistently connect viewers and readers to reliable information. Over the last 4 years, I have developed a series of you tube videos, made deliberately provocative to engage the internet's confrontational culture, but carefully crafted to bring the best science into the freewheeling community. In doing so, I have won the confidence of leading climate scientists, and in some cases assisted them in clarifying their message. This presentation will share simple tips, useful practices, and effective strategies for making complex material more clear and user friendly, and help scientists better convey the stories hidden in their data.

  5. Communication: Methods for All Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Hadley

    This practical volume is written for the non-communications major or graduate who needs skills in writing, speaking, or using visual media, but it will be valuable to anyone who would like to communicate more effectively. The following topics are covered: the audience and the message; communication within groups; communication and social action;…

  6. Communications and media services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcculla, James W.; Kukowski, James F.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's internal and external communication methods are reviewed. NASA information services for the media, for the public, and for employees are discussed. Consideration is given to electron information distribution, the NASA TV-audio system, the NASA broadcast news service, astronaut appearances, technology and information exhibits, speaker services, and NASA news reports for internal communications. Also, the NASA worldwide electronic mail network is described and trends for future NASA communications and media services are outlined.

  7. Scientific Story Telling & Social Media The role of social media in effectively communicating science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkhuis, D.; Peart, L.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific discourse generally takes place in appropriate journals, using the language and conventions of science. That's fine, as long as the discourse remains in scientific circles. It is only outside those circles that the rules and techniques of engaging social media tools gain importance. A young generation of scientists are eager to share their experiences by using social media, but is this effective? And how can we better integrate all outreach & media channels to engage general audiences? How can Facebook, Twitter, Skype and YouTube be used as synergy tools in scientific story telling? Case: during IODP Expedtion 342 (June-July 2012) onboard the scientific drillship JOIDES Resolution an onboard educator and videographer worked non-stop fort two months on an integrated outreach plan that tried and tested the limits of all social media tools available to interact with an international public while at sea. The results are spectacular!

  8. Communication Media in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Elizabeth

    1994-01-01

    Offers a broad overview of communication media in Latin America and of the relationship between the state, the media, and society. Introduces articles in this issue which focus on communication media in Latin America. (SR)

  9. Conveying Cutting-Edge Discoveries to Nonscientists: Effective Communication with Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Nikhil; Hamilton, Kathleen; Chamot, Joshua

    2013-07-01

    The benefits of using information and news media for disseminating cutting-edge scientific discoveries to the public are well known. Taxpayers and lawmakers need to be informed about the implications of public investments, young students' interest can be molded toward science- and technology-based careers, and public awareness of important issues can be raised by effectively using media. However, communication with news media is different from the means commonly used by scientists—journal publications and conference presentations. This article is intended to provide information on three basic aspects of media interactions—why, what, and how to communicate. The increasing importance of this mode of dissemination in this information age cannot be ignored; rather, it can be effectively utilized for educating a wider population base.

  10. [Communicating research with social media].

    PubMed

    Bennato, Davide

    2014-09-01

    Participation is the new keyword of communication. In the scientific field, communication is a very complex task that can't ignore the careful consideration of the target audience. To minimize the difficulties, it is useful to rely on storytelling: it can greatly benefit from the space offered by social media that can be used to raise awareness and to engage through the sharing of experiences. The marriage between scientific research and social media can take place, as long as you carefully reflect on the roles, strategies and appropriate tools. PMID:25229757

  11. Effects of communication media choice on the quality and efficacy of emergency calls assisted by a mobile nursing protocol tool.

    PubMed

    Castro, Luis A; Favela, Jesus; Garcia-Peña, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    The transition from paper to electronic-based records in the healthcare industry has posed several challenges to conventional medical practices. The introduction of technology in day-to-day medical and nursing practices deserves careful consideration. In this work, we report the results of a controlled experiment to compare nurses' consultation in emergency calls in six different conditions. We studied the effect that the type of communication media (face-to-face, telephone, videoconference) and type of nursing protocol media (paper-based, electronic-based) can have on consultation time, mistakes made, pauses during consultation, eye contact, and efficacy of the consultation. We found that the type of communication media has an effect on consultation time; on average, fewer mistakes were made during telephone-based consultations; for eye contact, there were significantly fewer eye contacts during face-to-face than during videoconference consultations; finally, the type of communication media or protocol media did not have any effect in the efficacy of the consultation. PMID:25251859

  12. A "Mix of Attributes" Approach to the Study of Media Effects and New Communication Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eveland, William P., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the media effects approach broadly, to point out limitations the traditional approach imposes on the field, and discusses a "mix of attributes" approach with a focus on the study of "new" technologies for the dissemination of news. Argues that the mix of attributes approach would better serve to advance both theory and empirical research…

  13. [Media for 21st century--towards human communication media].

    PubMed

    Harashima, H

    2000-05-01

    Today, with the approach of the 21st century, attention is focused on multi-media communications combining computer, visual and audio technologies. This article discusses the communication media target and the technological problems constituting the nucleus of multi-media. The communication media is becoming an environment from which no one can escape. Since the media has such a great power, what is needed now is not to predict the future technologies, but to estimate the future world and take to responsibility for future environments. PMID:10824570

  14. Interferon Scientific Memoranda: A Report on the Feasibility of Increasing the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Scientific Research Through the Use of New Communications Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aries Corp., McLean, VA.

    The desirability of increasing the speed of informal communications of information among investigators in well-defined areas of scientific discipline has been well established. The purpose of this study was to develop more advanced media for this type of communication and to determine the overall effect on cost and efficiency on a selected area of…

  15. Communicating Effectively

    Cancer.gov

    The seventh module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores communication issues pertinent to African Americans with cancer and their health care providers, discusses strategies for culturally sensitive communication, and presents the SPIKES protocol, a practical framework for effective communication.

  16. Media Attention, Media Exposure, and Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Dan; Weaver, David

    1990-01-01

    Studies the relationships between exposure and attention to three different media (newspapers, television news, and radio news). Finds that the two are separate dimensions. Analyzes the relationships between media exposure/attention and four different possible effects (knowledge gain, opinion direction, opinion strength, and behavior). (SR)

  17. Factors influencing public risk-benefit considerations of nanotechnology: Assessing the effects of mass media, interpersonal communication, and elaborative processing.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shirley S; Scheufele, Dietram A; Corley, Elizabeth A

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the influence of mass media, interpersonal communication, and elaborative processing on public perception of benefits and risks of nanotechnology, based on a large-scale nationally representative telephone survey of U.S. adult citizens. Results indicate that cognitive processes in the form of news elaboration had a significant positive main effect on benefits outweigh risks perception. The influences of attention to science in newspapers, attention to science news on television, and interpersonal communication about science on public perception of benefits outweigh risks were moderated by elaborative processing, after controlling for socio-demographic variables, religious beliefs, trust in scientists, and scientific knowledge. The findings highlight the importance of elaborative processing when it comes to understanding how the mass media differentially influence public benefits outweigh risks perception of emerging technologies. Specifically, high elaborative processing emphasizes higher levels of perceived benefits outweigh risks than low elaborative processing. This study explores explanations for this phenomenon and offers implications for future research and policy. PMID:23833174

  18. Media Effects: Theory and Research.

    PubMed

    Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Walther, Joseph B

    2016-01-01

    This review analyzes trends and commonalities among prominent theories of media effects. On the basis of exemplary meta-analyses of media effects and bibliometric studies of well-cited theories, we identify and discuss five features of media effects theories as well as their empirical support. Each of these features specifies the conditions under which media may produce effects on certain types of individuals. Our review ends with a discussion of media effects in newer media environments. This includes theories of computer-mediated communication, the development of which appears to share a similar pattern of reformulation from unidirectional, receiver-oriented views, to theories that recognize the transactional nature of communication. We conclude by outlining challenges and promising avenues for future research. PMID:26331344

  19. International Communication; Media, Channels, Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Heinz-Dietrich, Ed.; Merrill, John Calhoun, Ed.

    A total of 41 essays explore several major issues in international communication. The essays are grouped according to their topic, beginning with the broader topics of communication systems and concepts and the flow of world news and proceeding to considerations of national concerns such as freedom and restriction of communication, national…

  20. International Communication; Media, Channels, Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Heinz-Dietrich, Ed.; Merrill, John Calhoun, Ed.

    A total of 41 essays explore several major issues in international communication. The essays are grouped according to their topic, beginning with the broader topics of communication systems and concepts and the flow of world news and proceeding to considerations of national concerns such as freedom and restriction of communication, national…

  1. Need for Orientation, Media Uses and Gratifications, and Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, David

    In order to study the influence of need for orientation and media gratifications on media use and media effects in political communication, two previous surveys were studied to compare the causal modeling approach and the contingent conditions approach. In the first study, 339 personal interviews were conducted with registered voters during a…

  2. Political Communication via the Media. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that critics charge that news reporting focuses on the superficial, personal characteristics of candidates and ignores the issues underlying elections, this Digest examines the relationship between the political process and political communication through the media. It addresses the power of advertising, cyberspace political communication,…

  3. Communications and Media: Grade 7. Cluster II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 7, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Communications and Media." It is divided into six units: advertising, film and photography, radio and television, journalism and publishing, library and periodicals, and transocean communications. Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

  4. Marketing and Communications Media Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigrolio, Tom; Zahler, Jack

    The authors have compiled a dictionary of terms used in marketing, advertising, public relations, and radio/television, photography/filmmaking, and graphics. Included in the volume are articles of a general and historical interest regarding the various media covered in the definitions. A list of trade publications is appended. (JY)

  5. The Internet as a New Medium for the Sciences? The Effects of Internet Use on Traditional Scientific Communication Media among Social Scientists in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisend, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Discusses media of scientific communication used for research and publication, focusing on the Internet as medium. Describe a study of German social scientists that investigated the relationship between the Internet and other scientific communication media, including how scientists use the Internet for publication as well as for communication.…

  6. Effectiveness of a National Media Campaign to Promote Parent-Child Communication about Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kevin C.; Evans, W. Douglas; Kamyab, Kian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although there is debate on the effectiveness of youth-focused abstinence education programs, research confirms that parents can influence their children’s decisions about sexual behavior. To leverage parent-based approaches to adolescent sexual health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the "Parents Speak Up…

  7. Effectiveness of a National Media Campaign to Promote Parent-Child Communication about Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kevin C.; Evans, W. Douglas; Kamyab, Kian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although there is debate on the effectiveness of youth-focused abstinence education programs, research confirms that parents can influence their children’s decisions about sexual behavior. To leverage parent-based approaches to adolescent sexual health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the "Parents Speak Up…

  8. Dictating Modes of Communication: How Communication Media Usage Norms Limit Freedom of Expression in Virtual Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer-Guell, Ann M.

    A study examined communication selection within virtual organizations and the effects of these media. The subjects, who were 681 participants from 3 separate virtual organizations that used face-to-face communication, telephone, documents, voice mail, and electronic mail, completed a survey instrument. Follow-up interviews were conducted with key…

  9. Interpersonal communication outcomes of a media literacy alcohol prevention curriculum.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Elek, Elvira; Hecht, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    Media literacy intervention efficacy literature has focused on media-relevant (e.g., knowledge and realism) and behavior-relevant outcomes (e.g., attitudes and behaviors), without much attention paid to interpersonal communication outcomes. This project examined interpersonal communication after participation in two versions (analysis plus analysis and analysis plus planning) of the Youth Message Development (YMD) intervention, a brief media literacy curriculum targeted at preventing high school student alcohol use. Participants attended a 75-mins media literacy YMD workshop and completed a delayed posttest questionnaire 3 to 4 months later. Overall, 68 % participants replied affirmatively to interpersonal communication about the YMD intervention. Communication about the workshop moderated the effects of the type of workshop (analysis plus analysis or analysis plus planning) on self-efficacy to counter-argue (but not critical thinking). Interpersonal communication moderated the effects of the YMD intervention on self-efficacy to counter-argue, thereby signaling the importance of including interpersonal communication behaviors in intervention evaluation. PMID:26622915

  10. Who is my audience, what is my message, and know my reporters deadline: How to be more effective communicating with the media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. M.

    2006-12-01

    In the United States where most scientists receive their research support from federal funds, scientists need to expand their audience beyond their peers and consider the taxpayers, too. The media can play an important conduit for scientists and the lay public. However, many scientists do not do the best public relations jobs for their profession. We talk very well with each other and not very well with almost anyone else. We need to learn to avoid jargon, communicate our results more clearly, and examine the relationship between communication techniques and how to assess the outcomes. Scientists assess outcome based only on factual accuracy. Journalists assess their results based on accuracy and storycraft. In my experiences interacting with the media during various oil spills as well as training from the Aldo Leopold Leadership Program, I will discuss how scientists can be more effective when communicating with the media. First, scientists need to understand who their audience is and what their educational background is. In addition, it is important to stay on message and have only one message per interaction with a member of the media. That is, do not confuse a reporter with the results from one study when he or she is really interested in another story or just looking for background information. Last, scientists must understand that the media must often publish their stories with deadlines having timescales of hours and not months or years, hence it is important to be brief and to promptly return phone calls and emails. Hopefully, such efforts between scientists and the media will lead to a more scientifically informed public.

  11. Social Media and HIV: A Systematic Review of Uses of Social Media in HIV Communication

    PubMed Central

    Grewe, Mary Elisabeth; Conserve, Donaldson F; Gliwa, Catherine; Roman Isler, Malika

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media, including mobile technologies and social networking sites, are being used increasingly as part of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and treatment efforts. As an important avenue for communication about HIV, social media use may continue to increase and become more widespread. Objective The objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive systematic review of the current published literature on the design, users, benefits, and limitations of using social media to communicate about HIV prevention and treatment. Methods This review paper used a systematic approach to survey all literature published before February 2014 using 7 electronic databases and a manual search. The inclusion criteria were (1) primary focus on communication/interaction about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), (2) discusses the use of social media to facilitate communication, (3) communication on the social media platform is between individuals or a group of individuals rather than the use of preset, automated responses from a platform, (4) published before February 19, 2014, and (5) all study designs. Results The search identified 35 original research studies. Thirty studies had low or unclear risk of at least one of the bias items in the methodological quality assessment. Among the 8 social media platform types described, short message service text messaging was most commonly used. Platforms served multiple purposes including disseminating health information, conducting health promotion, sharing experiences, providing social support, and promoting medication adherence. Social media users were diverse in geographic location and race/ethnicity; studies commonly reported users aged 18-40 years and users with lower income. Although most studies did not specify whether use was anonymous, studies reported the importance of anonymity in social media use to communicate about HIV largely due to the stigma associated with HIV. The ability to share and receive information about HIV was the most commonly reported benefit of social media use and the most common challenges were related to technology. Measures of frequency of use, satisfaction, and effects of use varied across studies. Conclusions Using social media to bridge communication among a diverse range of users, in various geographic and social contexts, may be leveraged through pre-existing platforms and with attention to the roles of anonymity and confidentiality in communication about HIV prevention and treatment. More robust research is needed to determine the effects of social media use on various health and social outcomes related to HIV. PMID:26525289

  12. English 7-8: Modern Media of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Madelon

    This grade 7-8 level course guide covers aspects of media communication such as verbal and nonverbal communication theory, forms of modern media (newspapers, feature films, artistic films, music, advertising, etc.), and practice for the student in the various aspects of communication media. The guide is designed for a one-year course and enhances…

  13. The Role of Mass Media in Health Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Donald J.; Quesada, Gustavo M.

    This paper reviews the research that has been done on mass media effects in health communication: breakthroughs in treatment, rising costs of medical care, innovations in the organization of health care, governmental involvement, the rise in malpractice litigation, and so on. The conceptual framework employed proposes a continuum of audience…

  14. A Media Mosaic: Canadian Communications Through a Critical Eye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDayter, Walt, Ed.

    The 19 articles that comprise this book are concerned with the subject of communications and media in Canada. In Part One, "The Media: A Diagnosis," the articles are "The Power and Impotence of the Media" by Russell Elman, "The Myth of Objectivity" by Walt McDayter, "In the Shadow of Giants: Concentration and Monopolies in the Media" by Walt…

  15. A Media Mosaic: Canadian Communications Through a Critical Eye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDayter, Walt, Ed.

    The 19 articles that comprise this book are concerned with the subject of communications and media in Canada. In Part One, "The Media: A Diagnosis," the articles are "The Power and Impotence of the Media" by Russell Elman, "The Myth of Objectivity" by Walt McDayter, "In the Shadow of Giants: Concentration and Monopolies in the Media" by Walt…

  16. Uniform Media Effects and Uniform Audience Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, David K.

    The idea that mass communication effects may decrease diversity among people or societies exposed to it arises constantly. However, discussions of mass media effects do not highlight differences between mass communications that "affect" people uniformly and messages that members of audiences "respond to" in similar ways. A number of modern…

  17. Communicating Effectively PDF

    Cancer.gov

    Effective communication is essential for the delivery of quality cancer palliative care. And yet, healthcare providers often lack the skills to communicate effectively with their patients and families.

  18. Mass Communication Functions in a Media-Rich Developing Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Steven H.; Izcaray, Fausto

    1975-01-01

    Discusses media-centered communication research models and applies them to a field setting in Venezuela in an attempt to assess the extent to which social processes depend on mass communication. See CS 703 632 for subscription information. (MH)

  19. Medicine, Media Communication and Ethical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2010-01-01

    Summary On World Press Freedom Day (3rd of May 2009) details of the Frida Haus ranking list of press freedom in countries around the world were officially disclosed. Bosnia and Herzegovina is ranked at 98 place, and in the region better ranked is only Montenegro, which is located between 78 and 80 place along with Botswana and Eastern Timor. Top rated is Iceland with 9 points and on the last place is North Korea, with 98 points. Almost every profession has its deontology/ethical principles. However, medicine and the media are specifically targeted by public controversy with regard to the consequences of their responsibilities for the individual and the overall population. Until twenty years ago, the media were the main social system or a reflection of the social system and dominated the field of public communication, which implicitly reflected in the organization, operation and effects of companies, corporations, etc. as the overall social system, increasing the gross national product and its various categories enabled boom. Medicine and health represent to a wide range of people, perhaps, the most interesting source of information, and probably there isn’t a person that once was not interested in quality professional and verified information regarding some of their medical condition or overall health status. It is estimated that today there are more than a million Web sites on health and diseases, which means that the availability of health information for users is better today than ever before. However, it is important to patients and users of web sites with health information to learn how to properly use them, and learn to assess whether the information published on this site are of reliable quality, which depends on the authors who put the information on the web site, their topicality, simplicity in use and especially the diversity of the medical content of these web pages. It is the Internet that allows the revolution in relation patient-health care- health services provider. First look is at the symptoms and other health information on the Internet before patients actually go to the doctor. In response to this there is change in the relation patient- doctor, there are attempts to allow the patient to make a test, for example, cholesterol in the blood prior to scheduling the examination by the doctor. The vision of the future is Web-based and secure health record (Medical Record) that can be maintained in some kind of health plan or supervised by a physician. Such a site can be used when the patient is traveling or when he or she goes to the pharmacy or doctor of any specialty. Access to appropriate information may strengthen patients to express their demands and medical professionalism in order to improve clinical decision making. Information on support of patients and their involvement in prevention, alternative treatments and their care should be a central part of quality improvement strategies. Improving the quality of information and helping people use the most of what is offered have to be realized by implementing the strategies. Governments should invest in public education programs to encourage people to critically evaluate health information. For their share, they will have to be aware of the scope and quality of information sources that can be used by patients, so that they can get advice from them in an appropriate manner. PMID:24493979

  20. Communicating vaccine safety to the media and general public.

    PubMed

    Oubari, Hiba; Tuttle, Ryan; Rath, Barbara; Bravo, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are among the most effective measures to control and prevent infectious diseases. Yet, the topic of vaccination is difficult to communicate, as it bears upon individual versus common good. The efficacy and safety of vaccines can only be shown by the absence of undesired events, such as vaccine-preventable diseases or adverse events following immunization. The authors of this paper view accurate, transparent and timely vaccine-safety communication to the media and general public as a core responsibility of healthcare providers. The authors wish to explore potential difficulties faced by immunization specialists when talking to the media, and suggest how to successfully convey vaccination messages to the general public. PMID:25859680

  1. Interactive Communication by Applying Contemporary Media in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatkovic, Nevenka; Ruzic, Maja

    2005-01-01

    Today society has become a multimedia society, turned towards new forms of communication, ready for changes and the new communicational challenges. The students, surrounded by PCs, mobile phones and ever so sophisticated software, videos, wireless sets and TVs, DVDs, satellite transmissions and "the media above all other media"--the Internet.…

  2. Guidelines for Teaching Non-Verbal Communications Through Visual Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kundu, Mahima Ranjan

    1976-01-01

    There is a natural unique relationship between non-verbal communication and visual media such as television and film. Visual media will have to be used extensively--almost exclusively--in teaching non-verbal communications, as well as other methods requiring special teaching skills. (Author/ER)

  3. How scientists use social media to communicate their research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Millions of people all over the world are constantly sharing an extremely wide range of fascinating, quirky, funny, irrelevant and important content all at once. Even scientists are no strangers to this trend. Social media has enabled them to communicate their research quickly and efficiently throughout each corner of the world. But which social media platforms are they using to communicate this research and how are they using them? One thing is clear: the range of social media platforms that scientists are using is relatively vast and dependent on discipline and sentiment. While the future of social media is unknown, a combination of educated speculation and persuasive fact points to the industry's continual growth and influence. Thus, is that not only are scientists utilizing social media to communicate their research, they must. The ability to communicate to the masses via social media is critical to the distribution of scientific information amongst professionals in the field and to the general population. PMID:22085450

  4. How scientists use social media to communicate their research.

    PubMed

    Van Eperen, Laura; Marincola, Francesco M

    2011-01-01

    Millions of people all over the world are constantly sharing an extremely wide range of fascinating, quirky, funny, irrelevant and important content all at once. Even scientists are no strangers to this trend. Social media has enabled them to communicate their research quickly and efficiently throughout each corner of the world. But which social media platforms are they using to communicate this research and how are they using them? One thing is clear: the range of social media platforms that scientists are using is relatively vast and dependent on discipline and sentiment. While the future of social media is unknown, a combination of educated speculation and persuasive fact points to the industry's continual growth and influence. Thus, is that not only are scientists utilizing social media to communicate their research, they must. The ability to communicate to the masses via social media is critical to the distribution of scientific information amongst professionals in the field and to the general population. PMID:22085450

  5. A Study of Children's Preconceptions to Communication Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikuta, Takashi; Gotoh, Yasushi

    This paper outlines Japanese children's preconceptions to communication media. In a study, the function of media was divided into two categories--one is an "informational receiving" function and the other is an "informational sending" function. Preconception (consciousness about degree of liking and level of difficulty) of media was investigated…

  6. Bridging Service-Learning with Media Literacy: Creating Contexts for Communication Students to Educate Youth on Media Content, Consumption, and Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradise, Angela M.

    2011-01-01

    Within the last decade, service-learning has experienced impressive growth in higher education, particularly within communication departments. According to Jacoby (1996), service-learning is a "form of experiential education in which students engage in activities that address human and community needs together with structured opportunities…

  7. Bridging Service-Learning with Media Literacy: Creating Contexts for Communication Students to Educate Youth on Media Content, Consumption, and Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradise, Angela M.

    2011-01-01

    Within the last decade, service-learning has experienced impressive growth in higher education, particularly within communication departments. According to Jacoby (1996), service-learning is a "form of experiential education in which students engage in activities that address human and community needs together with structured opportunities…

  8. The Relationship between Adolescents' News Media Use and Civic Engagement: The Indirect Effect of Interpersonal Communication with Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Michelle J.; Zaff, Jonathan F.; Phelps, Erin; Weiner, Michelle B.; Lerner, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development, a longitudinal study involving U.S. adolescents, multi-group structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to evaluate whether news media use is predictive of a set of civic indicators (civic duty, civic efficacy, neighborhood social connection, and civic participation) for youth in Grades…

  9. The Relationship between Adolescents' News Media Use and Civic Engagement: The Indirect Effect of Interpersonal Communication with Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Michelle J.; Zaff, Jonathan F.; Phelps, Erin; Weiner, Michelle B.; Lerner, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development, a longitudinal study involving U.S. adolescents, multi-group structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to evaluate whether news media use is predictive of a set of civic indicators (civic duty, civic efficacy, neighborhood social connection, and civic participation) for youth in Grades…

  10. Using social media to communicate during crises: an analytic methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Marjorie

    2011-06-01

    The Emerging Media Integration Team at the Department of the Navy Office of Information (CHINFO) has recently put together a Navy Command Social Media Handbook designed to provide information needed to safely and effectively use social media. While not intended to be a comprehensive guide on command use of social media or to take the place of official policy, the Handbook provides a useful guide for navigating a dynamic communications environment. Social media are changing the way information is diffused and decisions are made, especially for Humanitarian Assistance missions when there is increased emphasis on Navy commands to share critical information with other Navy command sites, government, and official NGO (nongovernmental organization) sites like the American Red Cross. In order to effectively use social media to support such missions, the Handbook suggests creating a centralized location to funnel information. This suggests that as the community of interest (COI) grows during a crisis, it will be important to ensure that information is shared with appropriate organizations for different aspects of the mission such as evacuation procedures, hospital sites, location of seaports and airports, and other topics relevant to the mission. For example, in the first 14 days of the U.S. Southern Command's Haiti HA/DR (Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief) mission, the COI grew to over 1,900 users. In addition, operational conditions vary considerably among incidents, and coordination between different groups is often set up in an ad hoc manner. What is needed is a methodology that will help to find appropriate people with whom to share information for particular aspects of a mission during a wide range of events related to the mission. CNA has developed such a methodology and we would like to test it in a small scale lab experiment.

  11. Defining Visual Communication for a Multi-Media World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Explores the role of visual communication and discusses its placement within journalism education. States that educators would do well to dissolve the arbitrary divisions that continue to obstruct a more integrated understanding of visual mass media. (MG)

  12. Gap between science and media revisited: Scientists as public communicators

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Hans Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present article presents an up-to-date account of the current media relations of scientists, based on a comprehensive analysis of relevant surveys. The evidence suggests that most scientists consider visibility in the media important and responding to journalists a professional duty—an attitude that is reinforced by universities and other science organizations. Scientific communities continue to regulate media contacts with their members by certain norms that compete with the motivating and regulating influences of public information departments. Most scientists assume a two-arena model with a gap between the arenas of internal scientific and public communication. They want to meet the public in the public arena, not in the arena of internal scientific communication. Despite obvious changes in science and in the media system, the orientations of scientists toward the media, as well as the patterns of interaction with journalists, have their roots in the early 1980s. Although there is more influence on public communication from the science organizations and more emphasis on strategic considerations today, the available data do not indicate abrupt changes in communication practices or in the relevant beliefs and attitudes of scientists in the past 30 y. Changes in the science–media interface may be expected from the ongoing structural transformation of the public communication system. However, as yet, there is little evidence of an erosion of the dominant orientation toward the public and public communication within the younger generation of scientists. PMID:23940312

  13. APPLICATION OF NEWER COMMUNICATION MEDIA IN CORRESPONDENCE STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCDONALD, L.E.

    THIS PROJECT REPORTED THE PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE HELD (1) TO DEVELOP A GUIDE FOR THE USE OF AVAILABLE AUDIOVISUAL MEDIA IN CORRESPONDENCE STUDY AND (2) TO SET GUIDELINES AND SPECIFIC PROJECTS FOR FUTURE STUDY AND RESEARCH IN THE USE OF THE NEWER COMMUNICATION MEDIA IN CORRESPONDENCE STUDY. (GD)

  14. Strategic Communication and Social Media: An MBA Course from a Business Communication Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Social media offers an exciting new area for our discipline to produce research and pedagogy that is in high demand by students, industry constituents, and other disciplines. This article discusses why business communication scholars should focus on social media as an important stream of study and outlines an MBA course in social media strategy…

  15. Strategic Communication and Social Media: An MBA Course from a Business Communication Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Social media offers an exciting new area for our discipline to produce research and pedagogy that is in high demand by students, industry constituents, and other disciplines. This article discusses why business communication scholars should focus on social media as an important stream of study and outlines an MBA course in social media strategy…

  16. The Impact of Developing Technology on Media Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.

    1997-01-01

    Examines changes in media communications resulting from new information technologies: communications technologies (networks, World Wide Web, digital set-top box); graphic arts (digital photography, CD and digital archives, desktop design and publishing, printing technology); television and video (digital editing, interactive television, news and…

  17. Rethinking the Focus Group in Media and Communications Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunt, Peter; Livingstone, Sonia

    1996-01-01

    Relates the history of the focus group as a research tool, explores its recent revival, and reappraises the method and its appropriateness for media and communications research. Argues that the focus group discussion should be regarded as a socially situated communication. Discusses the various relations this may bear toward different approaches…

  18. The Impact of Developing Technology on Media Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.

    1997-01-01

    Examines changes in media communications resulting from new information technologies: communications technologies (networks, World Wide Web, digital set-top box); graphic arts (digital photography, CD and digital archives, desktop design and publishing, printing technology); television and video (digital editing, interactive television, news and…

  19. Synchronous Communication Media in the Software Requirements Negotiation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erra, Ugo; Scanniello, Giuseppe

    This paper presents an empirical study in the requirements negotiation process. In particular, the study compares traditional face-to-face meeting and distributed communication by using two rich synchronous communication media (i.e., an enhanced chat, and a three-dimensional virtual environment). We have observed that there is a difference in the time taken to negotiate software requirements in favor of face-to-face meeting. As the only assessment of the time could not be meaningful, we have also analyzed the quality of the structured description of the negotiated software requirements. We observed that the quality of the structured descriptions is not influenced by the used communication media.

  20. A Model of International Communication Media Appraisal and Exposure: A Comprehensive Test in Belize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, J. David; Oliveira, Omar Souki

    A study constituted the fifth phase of a programmatic research effort designed to develop and test a model of international communications media exposure and appraisal. The model posits that three variables--editorial tone, communication potential, and utility--have positive determinant effects on these dependent variables. Research was carried…

  1. India: Implications of Communication Infrastructure on the Production of Media in State Training Institutes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, George R.

    1989-01-01

    Description of training institutes developed by the government of India to improve the irrigation system focuses on the communication system infrastructure for the production and use of audiovisual materials for training. Highlights include local production of media; equipment and communication networks; cost effectiveness; and recommendations for…

  2. Visual Communication: Its Process and Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metallinos, Nikos

    The process and effects of visual communication are examined in this paper. The first section, "Visual Literacy," discusses the need for a visual literacy involving an understanding of the instruments, materials, and techniques of visual communication media; it then presents and discusses a model illustrating factors involved in the visual…

  3. [Social media and health communication: do we need rules?].

    PubMed

    Santoro, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Social media, online social networks and apps for smartphones and tablets are changing the way to communicate health and health issues to consumers and health professionals. Google, Facebook, Apple, and other companies have launched tools to make easier the doctor-patient communication, to group patients with similar diseases allowing them to share stories, experiences, and opinions, and to remotely track and monitor users health and wellbeing. However several concerns about patients' and consumers' privacy remain. Doctor-patient communication through e-mail and social media also introduces other ethical and privacy issues that were addressed only by few medical societies with appropriate guidelines and policies. In addition, pharmaceutical companies have started to use social media channels to communicate with doctors, patients and consumers. This type of communication has been only partially regulated by the Food and Drug Administration with the recently published guidelines for industries. Similar concerns exist for health and medical applications for smartphones and tablets for which only few agencies (including Food and Drug Administration) are requiring a formal (even if restricted in typology) validation. It's time for Europe and Italy to adopt appropriate guidelines for the use of the new media in health communication. PMID:25621774

  4. The Executive Briefing: A Management Tool for Improving Communication between School Library Media Specialists and Their Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Plummer Alston, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the lack of communication between school principals and school library media specialists, the lack of information principals have regarding media specialists' roles and responsibilities, and the use of the executive briefing to open up effective channels of communication. Explains correlations between "Information Power" principles and…

  5. Collaborating with Your Clients Using Social Media & Mobile Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Typhina, Eli; Bardon, Robert E.; Gharis, Laurie W.

    2015-01-01

    Many Extension educators are still learning how to effectively integrate social media into their programs. By using the right social media platforms and mobile applications to create engaged, online communities, Extension educators can collaborate with clients to produce and to share information expanding and enhancing their social media and…

  6. Collaborating with Your Clients Using Social Media & Mobile Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Typhina, Eli; Bardon, Robert E.; Gharis, Laurie W.

    2015-01-01

    Many Extension educators are still learning how to effectively integrate social media into their programs. By using the right social media platforms and mobile applications to create engaged, online communities, Extension educators can collaborate with clients to produce and to share information expanding and enhancing their social media and…

  7. Communicating through Vernacular Media: Scope and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sule, A.

    2015-03-01

    India is a country with a large number of languages which not only differ in scripts but are essentially part of different language families. ``Marathi`` is one such Indian regional language spoken by nearly 70 million people and is the native language of the author. Like all major regional languages, there is a strong and vibrant media in Marathi with 45 odd newspapers and 6 television news channels.

  8. The MAVEN mission to Mars: Communicating science through social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, T.; Renfrow, S.

    2012-12-01

    While science literacy rates in the U.S. have recently increased, overall levels remain remarkably low.There are opportunities for the public to learn about science and to engage directly with real-life practitioners. It is the responsibility of science education and communications professionals to provide these opportunities and to assess the effectiveness of each platform. At the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), we utilize a diverse, well-tested approach to introduce science to the public and to give scientists access to the broadest possible audience. This poster will focus on NASA's MAVEN mission to Mars and the social media outlets we have incorporated into our Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program in order to introduce rather complex science concepts to the public. We'll examine several evaluation tools that are used to provide ongoing, immediate feedback regarding our strategies and to guide long-term efforts. MAVEN educators and scientists are capitalizing on the recent excitement surrounding Mars science and the public's fascination with the search for life to bring the science of the mission directly to a variety of audiences. Our EPO professionals are using cross-platform, transportable content to maximize exposure and create pathways for two-way interactions between our audience and mission experts. We are using social media tools to build a community that will join us in the MAVEN journey and its important scientific discoveries.

  9. Communication Media and Educational Technology: An Overview and Assessment with Reference to Communication Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlman, Herbert

    In this survey and analysis of the present state and future trends of communication media and educational technology, particular emphasis is placed on the potential uses of communication satellites and the substitution of electronic transmission for physical distribution of educational materials. The author analyzes in detail the characteristics…

  10. Mass media entertainment for AIDS communication in Zaire.

    PubMed

    Convisser, J

    1992-01-01

    Health communicators use entertainment and mass media to prevent HIV transmission. Population Services International operates an AIDS Mass Media Project as an adjunct to its Condom Social Marketing Project. It collaborates with the Government of Zaire's National AIDS Program. Its 1st target is urban youth because most AIDS cases in Zaire were infected as teenagers, urban youth have access to television (TV), and they take part in high risk sexual behavior. The project uses various AIDS songs to reach this group. A 6-month posttest shows that the 1st song was so effective that 65% heard it and that 93% of them recalled the major AIDS messages and 85% said that they changed their behavior. The project distributes a video of the 1990 World AIDS Day concert. Research in Zaire and other African countries shows that the threat AIDS poses to children's health strongly motivates parents' behavior. Thus the 2nd target is the 20-30 year old group--young and prospective parents. The project boasts a 4-part TV series about a groom who does not reveal his AIDS status to his young bride until after their wedding night. 2 scenes stress the benefits of condoms. After its 1st airing, 66% of the 20-30 year old group in Kinshasa watched all 4 parts of the series. Of these, about 75% said they would change their behavior. Most people in Zaire change behavior by using condoms. Indeed, during the mass media campaign, condom sales grew 1000% which saved almost 7200 lives. The project also features comic strips informing working men and women and teenagers about AIDS and distributes an inexpensive notebook listening AIDS facts and myths for school children. The project uses regional radio stations to broadcast 28 AIDS feature programs, 22 radio spots, 8 AIDS radio dramas, and 2 songs to high priority rural areas. These AIDS radio efforts have indeed influenced AIDS knowledge and attitudes. PMID:12285440

  11. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Media Use and Communication Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirzinger, Ashley E.; Weber, Christopher; Johnson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of scholarly work has explored the motivations behind media consumption and other various communication traits. However, little research has investigated the sources of these motivations and virtually no research considers their potential genetic underpinnings. Drawing on the field of behavior genetics, we use a classical twin design…

  12. Creating Metaphors to Analyze Media and Apply Mass Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourland-Davis, Pamela G.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses having students in an undergraduate mass communication theory class create metaphors of their own relationships with mass media. Highlights literature in the field related to critical thinking and teaching methods. Describes application of the assignment. Notes that this assignment provides the professor with a means to evaluate…

  13. Explaining and Communicating Science Using Student-Created Blended Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoban, Garry; Nielsen, Wendy; Shepherd, Alyce

    2013-01-01

    Students engage with science content when they are asked to explain and communicate their knowledge to others. In particular, encouraging students to create various digital media forms such as videos, podcasts, vodcasts, screencasts, digital stories and animations to explain science is usually engaging, especially if they have ownership of the…

  14. Training Communication Graduates for Singapore's Media Research Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Billy; Ying, Angeling Sim Zhi

    2000-01-01

    Presents preliminary findings from a needs assessment study of undergraduate communication and media training in Singapore. Content analyzes 372 relevant employment ads for 1998 and 1999. Finds nearly 60% were for marketing research, public opinion polling or other kinds of applied research. Suggests an exploding demand for graduates with…

  15. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Media Use and Communication Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirzinger, Ashley E.; Weber, Christopher; Johnson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of scholarly work has explored the motivations behind media consumption and other various communication traits. However, little research has investigated the sources of these motivations and virtually no research considers their potential genetic underpinnings. Drawing on the field of behavior genetics, we use a classical twin design…

  16. Prevocational Exploration Communications and Media. Competency-Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall Univ., Huntington, WV. Dept. of Occupational, Adult, and Safety Education.

    This competency-based communications and media-cluster curriculum is designed for use by teachers and students at the early high school level during the exploration of a variety of occupations. The purpose of the materials is to assist students in assessing whether or not they would like to prepare for these kinds of occupations. The curriculum…

  17. Explaining and Communicating Science Using Student-Created Blended Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoban, Garry; Nielsen, Wendy; Shepherd, Alyce

    2013-01-01

    Students engage with science content when they are asked to explain and communicate their knowledge to others. In particular, encouraging students to create various digital media forms such as videos, podcasts, vodcasts, screencasts, digital stories and animations to explain science is usually engaging, especially if they have ownership of the…

  18. Careers in Communications Media. Instructor Guideline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Career and Vocational Education Section.

    The guideline, an indepth focus on one of the 15 U.S. Office of Education (USOE) career education clusters, provides instructors with information to support effective career decision making and occupational preparation. The first section provides a perspective of career education as applied to occupations in the guidelines (includes explanations…

  19. Working with Media Outlets To Communicate with the Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    Offers suggestions from a veteran public relations practitioner on how colleges can effectively use media resources to advertise academic programs, workforce training, and continuing education opportunities. Focuses on maximizing the benefits of using these five media outlets: newspapers, radio and TV, direct mail, the Internet, and cable…

  20. A Conceptual Framework for Evaluating the Function of the Mass Media within the Communication Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Lawrence D.

    Theories of mass communication have sought to explain how the media function internally and affect society. Rather than additional "response" studies, which investigate the impact of media on behavior or a society's impact on its media, more research should center on the functions of mass media within the overall framework of communication theory.…

  1. Group Communication Media Choice and the Use of Information and Communication Technology to Support Learning: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul Karim, Nor Shariza; Heckman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports a study conducted longitudinally to investigate group communication media choice and the use of a web-based learning tool, as well as other types of communication media, such as e-mail, telephone, and face-to-face, for communication and collaboration to complete given tasks. Design/methodology/approach: This study was…

  2. Communication technology and social media: opportunities and implications for healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Betsy; Lindsay, Bill; Gitelman, Betsy

    2012-09-01

    Electronic patient education and communications, such as email, text messaging, and social media, are on the rise in healthcare today. This article explores potential uses of technology to seek solutions in healthcare for such challenges as modifying behaviors related to chronic conditions, improving efficiency, and decreasing costs. A brief discussion highlights the role of technologies in healthcare informatics and considers two theoretical bases for technology implementation. Discussion focuses more extensively on the ability and advantages of electronic communication technology, such as e-mail, social media, text messaging, and electronic health records, to enhance patient-provider e-communications in nursing today. Effectiveness of e-communication in healthcare is explored, including recent and emerging applications designed to improve patient-provider connections and review of current evidence supporting positive outcomes. The conclusion addresses the vision of nurses' place in the vanguard of these developments. PMID:23036059

  3. 75 FR 25110 - Inmate Communication With News Media: Removal of Byline Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... rule published April 23, 2010, at 75 FR 21163, is effective May 7, 2010. Comments are due by June 22nd... publication on Friday, April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21163). The dates section of that document should read as follows... of Prisons 28 CFR Part 540 RIN 1120-AB49 Inmate Communication With News Media: Removal of...

  4. Video Production for School Library Media Specialists: Communication and Production Techniques. Professional Growth Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Terry; Sprouse, Harry W.

    This book aims to help show school librarians how camcorders and other video production equipment can help them communicate more effectively with students, teachers, parents, and administrators. The book sees video production as an integral part of a library media center program because learning how to produce videos is an excellent way to learn…

  5. Data communication through multiple physical media: applications to munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Rastegar, Jahangir; Feng, Dake; Kwok, Philip

    2015-05-01

    Electronic systems comprising of subassemblies, distributed across different physical media, require seamless communication between processors and sensors embedded in the disparate volumes. For example, smart munitions systems embed sensors and other key control electronics, throughout the structure, in vastly different physical media. In addition to the obvious space constraints, these structures are subjected to high G forces during launch. Thus, communications through wire harnesses becomes cumbersome, make assembly process and testing difficult, and challenging to make survive high G firing. Here we focus on an approach that takes advantage of the partial optical transparency of epoxy material commonly used in potting electronic components in munitions, as well as the wave guiding that is possible through the body of the munitions wall which is made from composite materials. Experimental results show that a wireless optical link, connecting various parts of the distributed system, is possible at near IR frequencies. Data can be rapidly parsed between a processor, sensors and actuators. We present experimental data for a commercial epoxy system, which is used to embed a number of IrDA devices inside the cone of 120 mm mortar shell. IrDA devices using the FIR data rates establish point-to-point communication through various media, representative of the environment inside the 120 mm mortar cone.

  6. Social media as a risk communication tool following Typhoon Haiyan

    PubMed Central

    Claravall, Marie Chantal; Hall, Julie Lyn; Taketani, Keisuke; Zepeda, John Paul; Gehner, Monika; Lawe-Davies, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Problem In the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan, the World Health Organization (WHO) Representative Office in the Philippines had no social media presence to share timely, relevant public health information. Context Risk communication is essential to emergency management for public health message dissemination. As social media sites, such as Facebook, are popular in the Philippines, these were adopted for risk communication during the response to Haiyan. Action and outcome The WHO Representative Office in the Philippines established Facebook, Twitter and Instagram accounts. Thirty days after these social medial channels were established, a gradual increase in followers was observed. Facebook saw the largest increase in followers which occurred as posted content gradually evolved from general public health information to more pro-active public health intervention and preparedness messaging. This included information on key health interventions encouraging followers to adopt protective behaviours to mitigate public health threats that frequently occur after a disaster. Lessons learnt During the response to Haiyan, creating a social media presence, raising a follower base and developing meaningful messages and content was possible. This event underscored the importance of building a social media strategy in non-emergency times and supported the value of developing public health messages and content that both educates and interests the general public. PMID:26767143

  7. The Influence of Media Communication on Risk Perception and Behavior Related to Mad Cow Disease in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jee-Eun; Sohn, Aeree

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to ascertain the influence of media communication on risk behavior related to mad cow disease (MCD). Methods Mothers of elementary school students in Seoul were recruited as the survey participants of this study. Results Media reports affected risk behavior related to MCD. Also, knowledge and attitude toward MCD affects risk behavior. Conclusion Risk-related information provided by the media should maintain consistency and objectivity. For effective risk communication, there should be an open communication between the government and public, experts, and related industries, who should all collaborate. PMID:24159557

  8. How to maximize science communication efficacy by combining old and new media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuccitelli, D. A.; Cook, J.

    2014-12-01

    Traditional science communication approaches (such as relying on university press releases about new scientific publications), and new communication approaches (such as utilizing infographics and social media), can each reach a wide audience when successful. However, probability of successful the science communication can be amplified by taking advantage of both traditional and new media, especially when 'sticky' messaging techniques are applied. The example of Cook et al., 2013 (C13), which found a 97% consensus in the peer-reviewed climate literature on human-caused global warming, is considered. C13 implemented this optimal combined communications approach strategy and became the most-downloaded study in all Institute of Physics journals, with over 200,000 downloads to date. Due to the effective 'sticky' messaging approaches implemented by the study authors, its results received broad coverage from international media and reached millions of people via social media. Strategies to avoid misrepresentations of one's work while maximizing the communications efficacy of its key points will also be discussed.

  9. Effective Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parratt, Smitty

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the importance of understanding nonverbal communication in enhancing the personal and work relationships of interpreters and increasing their effectiveness in meeting the needs of customers. Discusses the mystique of body language, cultural variation in the use of gestures, the stages of an encounter, interpreting gesture clusters, and…

  10. Interactive real-time media streaming with reliable communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xunyu; Free, Kevin M.

    2014-02-01

    Streaming media is a recent technique for delivering multimedia information from a source provider to an end- user over the Internet. The major advantage of this technique is that the media player can start playing a multimedia file even before the entire file is transmitted. Most streaming media applications are currently implemented based on the client-server architecture, where a server system hosts the media file and a client system connects to this server system to download the file. Although the client-server architecture is successful in many situations, it may not be ideal to rely on such a system to provide the streaming service as users may be required to register an account using personal information in order to use the service. This is troublesome if a user wishes to watch a movie simultaneously while interacting with a friend in another part of the world over the Internet. In this paper, we describe a new real-time media streaming application implemented on a peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture in order to overcome these challenges within a mobile environment. When using the peer-to-peer architecture, streaming media is shared directly between end-users, called peers, with minimal or no reliance on a dedicated server. Based on the proposed software pɛvμa (pronounced [revma]), named for the Greek word meaning stream, we can host a media file on any computer and directly stream it to a connected partner. To accomplish this, pɛvμa utilizes the Microsoft .NET Framework and Windows Presentation Framework, which are widely available on various types of windows-compatible personal computers and mobile devices. With specially designed multi-threaded algorithms, the application can stream HD video at speeds upwards of 20 Mbps using the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Streaming and playback are handled using synchronized threads that communicate with one another once a connection is established. Alteration of playback, such as pausing playback or tracking to a different spot in the media file, will be reflected in all media streams. These techniques are designed to allow users at different locations to simultaneously view a full length HD video and interactively control the media streaming session. To create a sustainable media stream with high quality, our system supports UDP packet loss recovery at high transmission speed using custom File- Buffers. Traditional real-time streaming protocols such as Real-time Transport Protocol/RTP Control Protocol (RTP/RTCP) provide no such error recovery mechanism. Finally, the system also features an Instant Messenger that allows users to perform social interactions with one another while they enjoy a media file. The ultimate goal of the application is to offer users a hassle free way to watch a media file over long distances without having to upload any personal information into a third party database. Moreover, the users can communicate with each other and stream media directly from one mobile device to another while maintaining an independence from traditional sign up required by most streaming services.

  11. Explaining the use of text-based communication media: an examination of three theories of media use.

    PubMed

    Park, Namkee; Chung, Jae Eun; Lee, Seungyoon

    2012-07-01

    The present study examined the factors associated with individuals' use of three different text-based communication media: e-mail, cell-phone texting, and Facebook Wall postings. Three theoretical perspectives, including media richness theory, uses and gratifications, and perceived network effects, were examined. Using data from a survey of college students (N=280), the study found that the theoretical constructs from these theories play different roles when applied to different technologies. The results suggest that a simultaneous consideration of technological attributes, users' motivations, and social circumstances in which users select and use the technology is useful for fully understanding the dynamics of the selection and the use of a given technology. PMID:22780995

  12. Learning to Use the Internet and Online Social Media: What Is the Effectiveness of Home-Based Intervention for Youth with Complex Communication Needs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Emma; Raghavendra, Parimala; Newman, Lareen; Wood, Denise; Connell, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Youth with complex communication needs (CCN) face increased barriers to their social participation due to limited communication abilities and opportunities. Youth today use the internet as a social tool and youth with CCN may also benefit from internet use to increase their social participation. Five youth between the ages of 10-18 with CCN who…

  13. Learning to Use the Internet and Online Social Media: What Is the Effectiveness of Home-Based Intervention for Youth with Complex Communication Needs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Emma; Raghavendra, Parimala; Newman, Lareen; Wood, Denise; Connell, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Youth with complex communication needs (CCN) face increased barriers to their social participation due to limited communication abilities and opportunities. Youth today use the internet as a social tool and youth with CCN may also benefit from internet use to increase their social participation. Five youth between the ages of 10-18 with CCN who…

  14. The communication media in postliteracy education: New dimensions of literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semali, Ladislaus M.

    1993-05-01

    Postliteracy programs have been used to produce written materials for newly literate adults, but this narrow view falls short of preventing relapse into illiteracy. Furthermore, the gradual move away from mass educational programs and government financing of education has put postliteracy at greater risk. This study tests levels of retention of literacy among neo-literates in Tanzania who gained a literacy certificate five years ago. Some modest success is noted. The pattern of radio broadcasting, newspaper coverage and library provision in the country is summarized, and the influence of these media on literacy retention assessed. Investment in them is seen as crucial to the maintenance of literacy. However, it is also suggested that the cultural context cannot be overlooked, that the importance of oral communication does not swiftly diminish and that excessive emphasis on functional postliteracy texts does not coincide with the leisure-time interests of neo-literates.

  15. Effective communication in the cyberage.

    PubMed

    Revankar, Ameet V; Gandedkar, Narayan H

    2010-05-01

    Gone are the days of physical data transmission with paper "hard" copies, floppy disks, compact disks, or any other storage media. Data transmission via the Internet, ranging from plain text to multi-media, is now routine. Contemporary orthodontic practice requirements integrate well with what technology has to offer. Whether it is interacting with a colleague through text, voice, or video; transferring patient records to distant locations; or submitting manuscripts to journals, the Internet is sculpting the contemporary orthodontic visage. This article describes various modalities of Internet communication, from the humble e-mail to real-time video interactions. PMID:20451793

  16. "Social Media has Opened a World of 'Open communication:'" experiences of Adults with Cerebral Palsy who use Augmentative and Alternative Communication and Social Media.

    PubMed

    Caron, Jessica; Light, Janice

    2016-03-01

    An online focus group was used to investigate the experiences of nine individuals with cerebral palsy who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) and social media. Information was gathered related to (a) advantages of social media, (b) disadvantages of social media, (c) barriers to successful use, (d) supports to successful use, and (e) recommendations for other individuals using AAC, support personnel, policy makers, and technology developers. Participants primarily chose to focus on social media as a beneficial tool and viewed it as an important form of communication. The participants did describe barriers to social media use (e.g., technology). Despite barriers, all the participants in this study took an active role in learning to use social media. The results are discussed as they relate to themes and with reference to published literature. PMID:26056722

  17. 77 FR 36305 - Stream Communications Network & Media, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Stream Communications Network & Media, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading June 14, 2012. It... concerning the securities of Stream Communications Network & Media, Inc. because it has not filed...

  18. EarthScope's Education, Outreach, and Communications: Using Social Media from Continental to Global Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohon, W.; Frus, R.; Arrowsmith, R.; Fouch, M. J.; Garnero, E. J.; Semken, S. C.; Taylor, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    Social media has emerged as a popular and effective form of communication among all age groups, with nearly half of Internet users belonging to a social network or using another form of social media on a regular basis. This phenomenon creates an excellent opportunity for earth science organizations to use the wide reach, functionality and informal environment of social media platforms to disseminate important scientific information, create brand recognition, and establish trust with users. Further, social media systems can be utilized for missions of education, outreach, and communicating important timely information (e.g., news agencies are common users). They are eminently scaleable (thus serving from a few to millions of users with no cost and no performance problem), searchable (people are turning to them more frequently as conduits for information), and user friendly (thanks to the massive resources poured into the underlying technology and design, these systems are easy to use and have been widely adopted). They can be used, therefore, to engage the public interactively with the EarthScope facilities, experiments, and discoveries, and continue the cycle of discussions, experiments, analysis and conclusions that typify scientific advancement. The EarthScope National Office (ESNO) is launching an effort to utilize social media to broaden its impact as a conduit between scientists, facilities, educators, and the public. The ESNO will use the opportunities that social media affords to offer high quality science content in a variety of formats that appeal to social media users of various age groups, including blogs (popular with users 18-29), Facebook and Twitter updates (popular with users ages 18-50), email updates (popular with older adults), and video clips (popular with all age groups). We will monitor the number of "fans" and "friends" on social media and networking pages in order to gauge the increase in the percentage of the user population visiting the site. We will also use existing tools available on social media sites to track the relationships between users who visit or "friend" the site to determine how knowledge of the site is transferred amongst various social, educational or geographic groups. Finally, we will use this information to iteratively improve the variety of content and media on the site to increase our user pool, improve EarthScope recognition, and provide appropriate and user-specific Earth science information, especially for time sensitive events of wide interest such as natural disasters.

  19. Approaches to Visual Communication Media Criticism and Their Application to Television Genres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metallinos, Nikos

    Several schools of thought regarding media criticism, derived from diverse disciplines and literary sources, have emerged during the last decade. To examine their application to the visual communication media arts such as film and television, this paper: (1) reviews the literature of media criticism; (2) discusses various approaches to visual…

  20. Effective communication of information about chemical hazards.

    PubMed

    Lee, T R

    1986-05-01

    Given that the best available means have been used to assess the risks arising from a chemical process or product, it is a crucial aspect of management to inform the employees and the public. This task of communicating may fall to industry, government, regulating authority, professional association or an environmental protection group. It requires some understanding of the public's perceptions of the risks involved and an ethical duty to try to modify attitudes judged to be either over-anxious or complacent. There is as yet no structured knowledge on communication about chemical hazards as such. Also, circumstances vary enormously. Hence, this paper deploys the general analytic framework constructed within social psychology and reviews the extensive experimental research (and some field studies) with the aim of providing understanding and some guidance. It considers the basic modelling of attitude change as induced by printed or verbal communications. The variables influencing the effectiveness of communications are divided into: the source (e.g. his/her credibility, power or attractiveness); the message (e.g. emotional versus logical; one-sided versus both-sided arguments); and modality or media effects (e.g. spoken versus written; the mass media; campaigns). PMID:3738489

  1. Space and terrestrial media for military communications - Technical pros and cons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharamsi, Manoj T.; Reilly, James F.; Hawrylko, Warren P.

    Technical pros and cons are presented for space and terrestrial media for defense-wide long-haul military communications. Defense-wide military space communications include use of leased commercial satellite capability in addition to the government-owned Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS). The terrestrial communications include use of troposcatter, HF radios, line-of-sight microwave, and metallic and fiber-optic cables. The current usage, capacity, cost, and other attributes of these media are examined. Current trends and future uses of the space and terrestrial media for military communications are discussed. It is concluded that military communications can continue best by using a mix of both space and terrestrial media.

  2. Media as System: A Revisionist Approach to Mass Communications History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Richard C.

    Media historians have been criticized for their inability to ask substantive questions, for ignoring underlying conditions in media's past, and for their failure to relate the narration of technological developments to existing social and cultural tensions. One problem media historians confront is the scope of their research--many media histories…

  3. Media as System: A Revisionist Approach to Mass Communications History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Richard C.

    Media historians have been criticized for their inability to ask substantive questions, for ignoring underlying conditions in media's past, and for their failure to relate the narration of technological developments to existing social and cultural tensions. One problem media historians confront is the scope of their research--many media histories…

  4. AAAS Mass Media Science and Engineering Fellowship Program: Building Communication Skills in Young Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasco, S.

    2006-12-01

    The AAAS Mass Media Science &Engineering Fellowship program has succeeded in training scientists to become more effective communicators for more than 30 years. The program places advanced science, engineering and mathematics students at media sites to work as science reporters for ten weeks each summer. AAAS places between 15 to 20 students a year at newspapers, magazines and radio stations. Our goal is to create better science communicators who understand their role in fostering the public's understanding of science. Fellows leave the program with a greater awareness of how to communicate complex issues by making the connection as to why people should be interested in certain developments, and more specifically, how they will impact their communities. 2004 AGU Fellow Rei Ueyama put her lessons learned to good use during her Fellowship at the Sacramento Bee. "In a regional paper like The Bee, a (story) also had to have a local touch. I needed to show why people in Sacramento (or California) should bother to read the story. One example is the story I wrote about seeding the ocean with iron particles to fight global warming. Since ocean fertilization is a global issue, I had to clearly specify the reason why The Bee and not The New York Times was running the story. The local angle I chose was to point out that the core group of scientists involved in this study was from Monterey Bay, Calif." Many alumni tell us the program has been an integral force in shaping the course of their career. Similarly, sites often report that having a scientist on staff is an invaluable resource that allows them to cover additional science stories as well as report some technical stories in more depth. The American Geophysical Union has sponsored a Mass Media Fellow since 1997. Sponsorship allows affiliate program partners to establish connections with young professionals in their field. They are then also able to take advantage of the communication skills resident in their alumni base. The OS28 Communicating Broadly: Perspectives and Tools for Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Scientists Session would provide an ideal platform for Fellowship management to share lessons learned about science communication and to offer insight as to the challenges scientists face when communicating with the general public or media.

  5. The value and use of social media as communication tool in the plant sciences.

    PubMed

    Osterrieder, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Social media now complements many parts of our lives. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and many other social networking sites allow users to share and interact with online content and to connect with like-minded people. Its strengths - rapid dissemination and amplification of content and the ability to lead informal conversations - make it a powerful tool to use in a professional context. This commentary explains the overall concept of social media and offers suggestions on usage and possible types of scientific content. It advises researchers on the potential benefits and how to take a strategic approach towards building a social media presence. It also presents examples of effective social media use within the plant science community. Common reasons for scientists to not engage with social media include the fear of appearing unprofessional, posting something wrong or being misunderstood, or a lack of confidence in their computer skills. With the rapid changes in academic publishing, dissemination and science communication, as well as the rise of 'altmetrics' to track online engagement with scientific content, digital literacy will become an essential skill in a scientist's tool kit. PMID:23845168

  6. The value and use of social media as communication tool in the plant sciences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Social media now complements many parts of our lives. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and many other social networking sites allow users to share and interact with online content and to connect with like-minded people. Its strengths – rapid dissemination and amplification of content and the ability to lead informal conversations – make it a powerful tool to use in a professional context. This commentary explains the overall concept of social media and offers suggestions on usage and possible types of scientific content. It advises researchers on the potential benefits and how to take a strategic approach towards building a social media presence. It also presents examples of effective social media use within the plant science community. Common reasons for scientists to not engage with social media include the fear of appearing unprofessional, posting something wrong or being misunderstood, or a lack of confidence in their computer skills. With the rapid changes in academic publishing, dissemination and science communication, as well as the rise of ‘altmetrics’ to track online engagement with scientific content, digital literacy will become an essential skill in a scientist’s tool kit. PMID:23845168

  7. "Always Use Protection": Communication Boys Receive about Sex from Parents, Peers, and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marina; Ward, L. Monique

    2008-01-01

    Although parents are often thought to be the primary communicators of sexual information, studies have found that many adolescent boys report receiving little or no parental communication about sex. Instead, boys report learning about sex mostly from their peers and the media. However, little is known about the content of these communications

  8. School Boards, Public Relations, and the Media: Your Practical Communications Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Diane

    The way that a school board responds to media attention can make or break a school district's image and its communication program. Since elected officials govern by public consent gained from trust, a responsible communications program is based on willingness to do business in the light of day. Schools must be able to communicate the difficult…

  9. "Always Use Protection": Communication Boys Receive about Sex from Parents, Peers, and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marina; Ward, L. Monique

    2008-01-01

    Although parents are often thought to be the primary communicators of sexual information, studies have found that many adolescent boys report receiving little or no parental communication about sex. Instead, boys report learning about sex mostly from their peers and the media. However, little is known about the content of these communications,…

  10. Communication: Key to Effective Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Betty S.

    1980-01-01

    Major factors associated with effective teaching are identified and communication concepts that are used are shown. An attempt is made to relate each of these to a communication ability. Components include the analytic/synthetic approach, organization/clarity, instructor group interaction, instructor individual student interaction, and enthusiasm.…

  11. Effect of electronic media on children.

    PubMed

    Ray, Munni; Jat, Kana Ram

    2010-07-01

    Radio, television (TV), movies, video games, cell phones, and computer networks have assumed central roles in our children's daily lives. The media has demonstrated potentially profound effects, both positive and negative, on children's cognitive, social, and behavioral development. Considering the increasing exposure of children to newer forms of media, we decided to review the current literature on the effects of media on child health both in the Western countries and India. It is widely accepted that media has profound influence on child health, including violence, obesity, tobacco and alcohol use, and risky sexual behaviors. Simultaneously, media may have some positive effects on child health. We need to find ways to optimize the role of media in our society, taking advantage of their positive attributes and minimizing their negative ones. We need to understand better how to reverse the negative impact of media and make it more positive. PMID:20683108

  12. Otitis Media, the Quality of Child Care, and the Social/Communicative Behavior of Toddlers: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Manlove, Elizabeth E.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of otitis media (OM) and the quality of child care on the social and communicative behaviors of toddlers, using a cumulative risk framework that included moderation. The study followed 72 children who began child care in infancy. Both process and structural aspects of the quality of 11 child…

  13. Charisma and Media Evangelists: An Explication and Model of Communication Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd V.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the emergence of media evangelists in times of situational crisis. Discusses the appeal such leaders have to listeners possessing a "crisis mentality." Offers a model to explain the communication influence process associated with these charismatic speakers. (SR)

  14. The Communicative Arts: An Introduction to Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Charles S.

    All areas of mass communication are surveyed. Man's earliest efforts as a communicator are considered, and what is known about the development of speech and writing is explored. Various theories (including mathematical ones) are reviewed which attempt to explain the processes of both personal and mass communication. Separate chapters focus on the…

  15. The Communicative Arts: An Introduction to Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Charles S.

    All areas of mass communication are surveyed. Man's earliest efforts as a communicator are considered, and what is known about the development of speech and writing is explored. Various theories (including mathematical ones) are reviewed which attempt to explain the processes of both personal and mass communication. Separate chapters focus on the…

  16. 75 FR 21163 - Inmate Communication With News Media: Removal of Byline Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... of Prisons 28 CFR Part 540 RIN 1120-AB49 Inmate Communication With News Media: Removal of Byline... value for correspondence with the news media. The inmate may not act as reporter or publish under a... certifies that it will not have a significant economic impact upon a substantial number of small...

  17. Historical Development of Media Systems. II. German Democratic Republic. Communication and Society 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusiska, Emil

    This report summarizes a study of the systems of mass communication in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) that concentrated on the ideological and political bases of mass media as they developed after the Second World War. Topics discussed include (1) the history of journalism in the GDR, (2) the roles of the various media in that country, (3)…

  18. Social Media for School Communication. Research into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    It's easy to dismiss social media as a fascination of young people but to do so minimizes one of the fastest growing trends in technology. The Pew Internet and American Life Project recently found that over 71% of teens have a Facebook profile and 75% of adults have one too. Social media tools have become the way for a school or business to…

  19. New Electronic Media, Popular Reading Materials, and Converging Communication Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Michael R.

    In all educational settings, electronic media are pervasive and increasing in popularity because of the speed of transmission and searching of information files. However, in the case of popular media--such as magazines, books, and newspapers--little importance is placed on the speed of transmission, and conversion to electronic books or magazines…

  20. Media Casebook; An Introductory Reader in American Mass Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Peter M., Ed.; And Others

    Each selection in this anthology offers a single example of a major problem or characteristic of the American mass media. The anthology has four sections: development, responsibility, media, and coverage. Development in journalism is shown by comparing accounts of Presidential conventions over a 125-year period. Articles about responsibility deal…

  1. Health Communications: Nursing Education for Increased Visibility and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Mary

    2000-01-01

    To improve the visibility of nurses in mass media, health communications content should be integrated into nursing education. Nurses equipped with advanced communication skills, media expertise and teaching strategies can empower the profession to influence the health care environment. (SK)

  2. Fast, Broad, and Frequent: Campus Crisis Communications Today Demand Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liggett, Billy

    2012-01-01

    The importance of communication during a school crisis has not changed in the 21st century. What has changed--and quite dramatically since 1999--is the way people communicate. Social media tools are now used in some form by 100 percent of all four-year universities in the United States as a way to reach students, according to a 2011 University of…

  3. Communication about scientific uncertainty in environmental nanoparticle research - a comparison of scientific literature and mass media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidmann, Ilona; Milde, Jutta

    2014-05-01

    The research about the fate and behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment is despite its wide applications still in the early stages. 'There is a high level of scientific uncertainty in nanoparticle research' is often stated in the scientific community. Knowledge about these uncertainties might be of interest to other scientists, experts and laymen. But how could these uncertainties be characterized and are they communicated within the scientific literature and the mass media? To answer these questions, the current state of scientific knowledge about scientific uncertainty through the example of environmental nanoparticle research was characterized and the communication of these uncertainties within the scientific literature is compared with its media coverage in the field of nanotechnologies. The scientific uncertainty within the field of environmental fate of nanoparticles is by method uncertainties and a general lack of data concerning the fate and effects of nanoparticles and their mechanisms in the environment, and by the uncertain transferability of results to the environmental system. In the scientific literature, scientific uncertainties, their sources, and consequences are mentioned with different foci and to a different extent. As expected, the authors in research papers focus on the certainty of specific results within their specific research question, whereas in review papers, the uncertainties due to a general lack of data are emphasized and the sources and consequences are discussed in a broader environmental context. In the mass media, nanotechnology is often framed as rather certain and positive aspects and benefits are emphasized. Although reporting about a new technology, only in one-third of the reports scientific uncertainties are mentioned. Scientific uncertainties are most often mentioned together with risk and they arise primarily from unknown harmful effects to human health. Environmental issues itself are seldom mentioned. Scientific uncertainties, sources, and consequences have been most widely discussed in the review papers. Research papers and mass media tend to emphasize more the certainty of their scientific results or the benefits of the nanotechnology applications. Neither the broad spectrum nor any specifications of uncertainties have been communicated. This indicates that there has been no effective dialogue over scientific uncertainty with the public so far.

  4. A New Dimension of Health Care: Systematic Review of the Uses, Benefits, and Limitations of Social Media for Health Communication

    PubMed Central

    Hazlett, Diane E; Harrison, Laura; Carroll, Jennifer K; Irwin, Anthea; Hoving, Ciska

    2013-01-01

    Background There is currently a lack of information about the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals from primary research. Objective To review the current published literature to identify the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals, and identify current gaps in the literature to provide recommendations for future health communication research. Methods This paper is a review using a systematic approach. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using nine electronic databases and manual searches to locate peer-reviewed studies published between January 2002 and February 2012. Results The search identified 98 original research studies that included the uses, benefits, and/or limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals. The methodological quality of the studies assessed using the Downs and Black instrument was low; this was mainly due to the fact that the vast majority of the studies in this review included limited methodologies and was mainly exploratory and descriptive in nature. Seven main uses of social media for health communication were identified, including focusing on increasing interactions with others, and facilitating, sharing, and obtaining health messages. The six key overarching benefits were identified as (1) increased interactions with others, (2) more available, shared, and tailored information, (3) increased accessibility and widening access to health information, (4) peer/social/emotional support, (5) public health surveillance, and (6) potential to influence health policy. Twelve limitations were identified, primarily consisting of quality concerns and lack of reliability, confidentiality, and privacy. Conclusions Social media brings a new dimension to health care as it offers a medium to be used by the public, patients, and health professionals to communicate about health issues with the possibility of potentially improving health outcomes. Social media is a powerful tool, which offers collaboration between users and is a social interaction mechanism for a range of individuals. Although there are several benefits to the use of social media for health communication, the information exchanged needs to be monitored for quality and reliability, and the users’ confidentiality and privacy need to be maintained. Eight gaps in the literature and key recommendations for future health communication research were provided. Examples of these recommendations include the need to determine the relative effectiveness of different types of social media for health communication using randomized control trials and to explore potential mechanisms for monitoring and enhancing the quality and reliability of health communication using social media. Further robust and comprehensive evaluation and review, using a range of methodologies, are required to establish whether social media improves health communication practice both in the short and long terms. PMID:23615206

  5. Communication and Social Change: A Summary of Theories, Policies and Experiences for Media Practitioners in the Third World. Communication Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunczik, Michael

    Intended for media practitioners in developing nations, this manual summarizes theories, policies, and experiences pertaining to the role of communication in Third World societies. The nine major headings of the manual are as follows: (1) Explanation of Terms: Theoretical Considerations; (2) Developing-Country Research: From Cultural Arrogance to…

  6. Media Effects on Ethnic Identity among Linguistic Majorities and Minorities: A Longitudinal Study of a Bilingual Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Richard; Baker, Susan C.; Josephson, Gordon; Noels, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    Research on media effects has documented the media's influence on beliefs and behavior while cross-cultural psychology has documented the effects of the language used in communication on identification with the ingroup and the outgroup. Media usage in the outgroup language should, therefore, affect identification patterns. This research…

  7. Media Effects on Ethnic Identity among Linguistic Majorities and Minorities: A Longitudinal Study of a Bilingual Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Richard; Baker, Susan C.; Josephson, Gordon; Noels, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    Research on media effects has documented the media's influence on beliefs and behavior while cross-cultural psychology has documented the effects of the language used in communication on identification with the ingroup and the outgroup. Media usage in the outgroup language should, therefore, affect identification patterns. This research…

  8. Communication Concurrency and the New Media: A New Dimension for Media Richness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valacich, Joseph S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Seeks to determine which aspects of managerial communication and decision-making are amenable to technological support. Finds groups using computer-mediated, electronic communication generated more unique and high-quality ideas (over a fixed time period) than groups using verbal communication. (NH)

  9. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (77th, Atlanta, Georgia, August 10-13, 1994). Part VI: Mass Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Mass Media Effects section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 13 papers: "The Nature of the Public's Objections to Television Programs: An Examination of Third-Person Effects" (Guy E. Lometti and others); "An Examination of the Relationship of Structural Pluralism, News Role and Source Use with Framing in the…

  10. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    PubMed

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior PMID:23833841

  11. Freedom to be...in Communication: Part 4, Mass Media in Human Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sharon

    This booklet, a discovery/work text, asks learners to take a careful look at the ways they participate in communication situations, at the form their participation in communication takes, and at the personal and societal consequences of communication. Laboratory activities focus on techniques of communication and on strategies for dealing with…

  12. French for Marketing. Using French in Media and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, R. E.; Chebli-Saadi, M.

    The textbook, entirely in French, is designed to help prepare anglophone students for French language usage in the media and telecommunications. It is organized according to two major themes. The first part addresses the French of advertising; chapter topics include the actors in advertising (agencies, announcers, supports), forms of advertising,…

  13. Educational Communications Media in the Illinois Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Ralph; Starkey, John

    This 9-item questionnaire surveyed past, present, and projected media use in the Illinois junior colleges. Data were provided by the audio-visual or learning resources director of each responding institution. Some of the more important findings follow. In the past, opaque projectors (58 per cent), silent filmstrip projectors (46 per cent),…

  14. Measuring engagement effectiveness in social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Sun, Tong; Peng, Wei; Li, Tao

    2012-03-01

    Social media is becoming increasingly prevalent with the advent of web 2.0 technologies. Popular social media websites, such as Twitter and Facebook, are attracting a gigantic number of online users to post and share information. An interesting phenomenon under this trend involves that more and more users share their experiences or issues with regard to a product, and then the product service agents use commercial social media listening and engagement tools (e.g. Radian6, Sysomos, etc.) to response to users' complaints or issues and help them tackle their problems. This is often called customer care in social media or social customer relationship management (CRM). However, all these existing commercial social media tools only provide an aggregated level of trends, patterns and sentiment analysis based on the keyword-centric brand relevant data, which have little insights for answering one of the key questions in social CRM system: how effective is our social customer care engagement? In this paper, we focus on addressing the problem of how to measure the effectiveness of engagement for service agents in customer care. Traditional CRM effectiveness measurements are defined under the scenario of the call center, where the effectiveness is mostly based on the duration time per call and/or number of answered calls per day. Different from customer care in a call center, we can obtain detailed conversations between agents and customers in social media, and therefore the effectiveness can be measured by analyzing the content of conversations and the sentiment of customers.

  15. Space weather effects on communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    In the 150 years since the advent of the first electrical communication system - the electrical telegraph - the diversity of communications technologies that are embedded within space-affected environments have vastly increased. The increasing sophistication of these communications technologies, and how their installation and operations may relate to the environments in which they are embedded, requires ever more sophisticated understanding of natural physical phenomena. At the same time, the business environment for most present-day communications technologies that are affected by space phenomena is very dynamic. The commercial and national security deployment and use of these technologies do not wait for optimum knowledge of possible environmental effects to be acquired before new technological embodiments are created, implemented, and marketed. Indeed, those companies that might foolishly seek perfectionist understanding of natural effects can be left behind by the marketplace. A well-considered balance is needed between seeking ever deeper understanding of physical phenomena and implementing `engineering' solutions to current crises. The research community must try to understand, and operate in, this dynamic environment.

  16. Climate Change Media Forum - for Enhanced Communication between Journalists and Climate Scientists in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto-Maeda, Y.; Emori, S.; Takahashi, K.; Aoyagi-Usui, M.; Fukushi, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Fukuda, H.; Matsumoto, Y.; Asakura, A.; Hiramatsu, A.; Sumi, A.

    2011-12-01

    For researchers, being reported by mass media is an effective way to share their studies with others, although some have concerns that scientific results are often exaggerated by highlighting sensational parts and ignoring essential results by the media. Obviously, journalists have their own criteria of effective science reporting for their newspapers or magazines which do not necessarily conform to how researchers report their results. Climate Change Media Forum was started in 2009 by researchers specializing in climate science and communication to fill such gaps and enhance communication between climate scientists and journalists as part of a climate change research project funded by the Ministry of Environment of Japan. Since its start, forum events have been held once a year to exchange ideas on reporting of climate change science through mass media. At the first event in March, 2009, we started with learning about what actually the journalists and researchers think about media reports on climate change sciences. Using onsite questionnaire surveys, the participants (39 journalists and 31 researchers) discussed their problems on reporting climate change and what they would like to tell to the public. Some of the survey results suggested that researchers are willing to emphasize more about the conditions and assumptions of studies, while journalists would like to know more about current and short-term impacts. From the second year, two journalists joined the committee to make the events more meaningful for journalists. For the event in March, 2010, three months after COP15 in Copenhagen, the 2 degrees temperature target, which was the only written number on the Copenhagen Accord, was selected as a timely topic. Although researchers understand that a specific target is necessary for setting a concrete pathway, many of them also feel uncomfortable about selecting one single value from the temperature range with uncertainty. After two lectures on the history of the target and possible impacts by the temperature rise, the participants discussed reporting of target selected from data with uncertainty. The third forum event was held in February, 2011, on climate change projections by numerical models. After the lecture on the ongoing projects of climate change prediction for AR5 in Japan, one of the presenters at the press conference on climate change projections for AR4 in 2007 shared his own thoughts on the media reports based on the press conference. In the following session, the researchers and journalists actively discussed how the climate change projection should be reported based on their own "mission" which is conducting reliable research for scientists and writing informative articles for journalists. Through the previous three events, we have obtained sincere comments and suggestions from the participants to improve the communication between journalists and researchers. In the presentation, more comments from the discussions and the survey results of the forum events will be shared.

  17. Communication as group process media of aircrew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, B. G.; Foushee, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    This study of group process was motivated by a high-fidelity flight simulator project in which aircrew performance was found to be better when the crew had recently flown together. Considering recent operating experience as a group-level input factor, aspects of the communication process between crewmembers (Captain and First Officer), were explored as a possible mediator to performance. Communication patterns were defined by a speech act typology adapted for the flightdeck setting and distinguished crews that had previously flown together (FT) from those that had not flown together (NFT). A more open communication channel with respect to information exchange and validation and greater First Officer participation in task-related topics was shown by FT crews while NFT crews engaged in more non-task discourse, a speech mode less structured by roles and probably serving a more interpersonal function. Relationships between the speech categories themselves, representing linguistic, and role-related interdependencies provide guidelines for interpreting the primary findings.

  18. Effects of Media on Female Body Image: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryla, Karen Y.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the media's influence on female body image. differentiating between the effects of print and electronic media. Results suggest that print media have a direct, immediate, and negative effect on female body image, while no such relationship exists for electronic media. Results also indicate that exploring only exposure to media images is…

  19. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). Part VIII: Mass Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Mass Media Effects section of the proceedings contains the following eight papers: "The Spiral of Static: A Multivariate Analysis of a Public Opinion Theory Applied to Perception of Radio Station Popularity" (Terry Wedel and Tony Rimmer); "More Than Just Talk: Uses, Gratifications and the Telephone" (Garrett J. O'Keefe and Barbara K.…

  20. Physics collaboration and communication through emerging media: *odcasts, blogs and wikis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Charles W.; Williams, Jamie

    2006-05-01

    The entertainment and news industries are being transformed by the emergence of innovative, internet-based media tools. Audio and video downloads are beginning to compete with traditional entertainment distribution channels, and the blogosphere has become an alternative press with demonstrated news-making power of its own. The scientific community, and physics in particular, is just beginning to experiment with these tools. We believe that they have great potential for enhancing the quality and effectiveness of collaboration and communication, and that the coming generation of physicists will expect them to be used creatively. We will report on our experience in producing seminar podcasts (google ``QIBEC'' or search ``quantum'' on Apple iTunes), and on operating a distributed research institute using a group-based blog.

  1. Negotiated media effects. Peer feedback modifies effects of media's thin-body ideal on adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Seidell, Jacob C

    2014-02-01

    The present study introduces a theoretical framework on negotiated media effects. Specifically, we argue that feedback of peers on thin-body ideal media images and individual dispositions guide effects on adolescent girls' psychosocial responses to media exposure. Therefore, we examined the thin-body ideal as portrayed in media and peers' feedback on such thin-ideal images in their combined effects on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction, objectified body consciousness, and social comparison with media models. Hence, media models and peer comments were systematically combined as incorporated entities in YouTube-formats. Hypotheses were tested in a 3 (media models: extremely thin vs. thin vs. normal weight)×3 (peer comments: 6kg-underweight vs. 3kg-underweight vs. normal-weight)×2 (appearance schematicity: lower vs. higher) between-subjects design (N=216). Results showed that peer comments indicating that a media model was 'only 3kg-underweight' exerted most negative responses, particularly in girls who strongly process appearance relevant information. Peer feedback interacts with media models in guiding perceptions of what is considered an 'ideal' body shape. Results highlight the important role of peers as well as individual predispositions in view of understanding how thin-ideal media images may impact adolescent girls' body image concerns. PMID:24262144

  2. Effectively executing a comprehensive marketing communication strategy.

    PubMed

    Gombeski, William R; Taylor, Jan; Piccirilli, Ami; Cundiff, Lee; Britt, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Marketers are under increasing scrutiny from their management to demonstrate accountability for the resources they receive. Three models are presented to help marketers execute their customer communication activities more effectively. Benefits of using the "Identification of Strategic Communication Elements," "Business Communication" and "Communications Management Process" models include (1) more effective upfront strategic and tactical planning, (2) ensuring key communication principles are addressed, (3) easier communication program communication, (4) provides a framework for program evaluation and market research and (5) increases the creative thinking marketers need when addressing the major marketing challenges. The ultimate benefit is the greater likelihood of more positive marketing results. PMID:19042530

  3. Communicate and Motivate: The School Leader's Guide to Effective Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneson, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    Develop the skills you need to communicate effectively and in ways that motivate your faculty towards success. Written especially for principals and other administrators, this book will empower you to communicate well as you work to promote a student-centered environment best suited to schoolwide achievement. Learn to approach one-on-one…

  4. Links between media communication and local perceptions of climate change in an indigenous society

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Méndez-López, María Elena; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; McBride, Marissa F.; Pyhälä, Aili; Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous societies hold a great deal of ethnoclimatological knowledge that could potentially be of key importance for both climate change science and local adaptation; yet, we lack studies examining how such knowledge might be shaped by media communication. This study systematically investigates the interplay between local observations of climate change and the reception of media information amongst the Tsimane’, an indigenous society of Bolivian Amazonia where the scientific discourse of anthropogenic climate change has barely reached. Specifically, we conducted a Randomized Evaluation with a sample of 424 household heads in 12 villages to test to what degree local accounts of climate change are influenced by externally influenced awareness. We randomly assigned villages to a treatment and control group, conducted workshops on climate change with villages in the treatment group, and evaluated the effects of information dissemination on individual climate change perceptions. Results of this work suggest that providing climate change information through participatory workshops does not noticeably influence individual perceptions of climate change. Such findings stress the challenges involved in translating between local and scientific framings of climate change, and gives cause for concern about how to integrate indigenous peoples and local knowledge with global climate change policy debates. PMID:26166919

  5. The Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut - A Communications and Media Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Cordero, L.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.; Gómez, G.; Giménez-Porrata, A.; Ramos-Gómez, W.; Colón-Daleccio, N.

    2012-12-01

    On October 18, 2012 the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) in collaboration with Puerto Rico Emergency Management Agency (PREMA) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will be conducting the first Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut. Adequate communications strategies and redundant dissemination methods are a key component for the success of this earthquake exercise. EAS and NOAA Radio messages, indicating the beginning of the earthquake drill, will help emergency managers and the general public better coordinate their practices. Dissemination tools routinely used as part of PRSN earthquake and tsunami protocols, such as PRSNDANIS Broadcast, Ring Down, Ham Radio, RSS, SMS, fax and email service lists, will also be tested. Emergency Management and First Response Agencies at local, regional and state level are being asked to report the times the messages are received, thus allowing us to better assess the effectiveness of our dissemination methods and to establish a baseline for next year ShakeOut. In addition, a partnership with the Puerto Rico Radiobroadcaster Association allows a direct access through this media, facilitating PRSN staff participation on radio programming targeting diverse audiences. Radio spots have been developed to inform the public about the exercise, how to participate, what to do to be safe during an earthquake and how to develop or improve their safety plans. A media approach is critical for the success of the 2012 Puerto Rico ShakeOut since our earthquake drill takes place 2 weeks prior to the Island general election and on the peak-period of the hurricane season.

  6. Effects of Media Attributes in Anchored Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shyu, Hsin-Yih

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the effects of computer-assisted video-based anchored instruction on promoting students' attitudes toward mathematical instruction and problem-solving skills. Examines the effects of different media attributes on students' mathematical achievement and attitudes in a situated learning environment. Findings suggest that anchored…

  7. Social Media in School Emergency Management: Using New Media Technology to Improve Emergency Management Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Social Media is the use of social networking sites, messaging sites, texting, and other web-based or mobile technologies to support social interaction. Facebook is by far the most widely used social networking site. Twitter is by far the most widely used messaging site. The goals of this presentation are: (1) To provide an understanding of the…

  8. NEW MEDIA TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT TO ENHANCE AND IMPROVE COMMUNICATIONS AT USEPA'S NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    New media technology (NT) interactive applications are currently being developed in house at ORD/NRMRL to enhance and improve communication of NRMRL's 1) research projects, 2) workshops/conferences and 3) specialized training. NT is an exciting mix of cutting-edge information tec...

  9. Social Media Use to Enhance Internal Communication: Course Design for Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Amy M.; Hinesly, Mary D.

    2014-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly using social media to improve their internal communication. When successfully implemented, such initiatives can have a dramatic impact on internal efficiency, team collaboration, innovation, organizational alignment, and cultural transformation. This article describes a course offered by the Ross School of Business,…

  10. Construction/Communication & Media. B5. CHOICE: Challenging Options in Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam and Northern Westchester Counties Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Yorktown Heights, NY.

    The documents aggregated here comprise the fourth grade unit of a career education curriculum for migrant students. The unit focuses on the tools and tasks of workers in 11 jobs in the construction, communication, and media occupational clusters: heavy equipment operator, architect, mason, carpenter, plumber, electrician, telephone line worker,…

  11. Social Media Use to Enhance Internal Communication: Course Design for Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Amy M.; Hinesly, Mary D.

    2014-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly using social media to improve their internal communication. When successfully implemented, such initiatives can have a dramatic impact on internal efficiency, team collaboration, innovation, organizational alignment, and cultural transformation. This article describes a course offered by the Ross School of Business,…

  12. Use and Perceptions of Second Life by Distance Learners: A Comparison with Other Communication Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Jo-Anne; Littleton, Fiona; Dozier, Marshall

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that the use of communication media in distance education can reduce feelings of distance and isolation from peers and tutors and provide opportunities for collaborative learning (Bates, 2005). The use of virtual worlds (VW) in education has increased in recent years, with Second Life (SL) being the most commonly used VW in…

  13. The New Media and Public Communication: Can We Survive the Electronic Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston Univ., MA. School of Public Communication.

    John Hancock Life Insurance Company and Boston University sponsored a symposium on the new media and public communication. The keynote address by Frank Shakespeare was on the unconscious bias of network news. Three speakers discussed citizen access to information and television channels with reference to First Amendment rights and FCC regulations.…

  14. Use and Perceptions of Second Life by Distance Learners: A Comparison with Other Communication Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Jo-Anne; Littleton, Fiona; Dozier, Marshall

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that the use of communication media in distance education can reduce feelings of distance and isolation from peers and tutors and provide opportunities for collaborative learning (Bates, 2005). The use of virtual worlds (VW) in education has increased in recent years, with Second Life (SL) being the most commonly used VW in…

  15. School Communications 2.0: A Social Media Strategy for K-12 Principals and Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Daniel Dean

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, multiple-case study was two-fold: 1) to describe, analyze, and interpret the experiences of school principals and superintendents who use multiple social media tools such as blogs, microblogs, social networking sites, podcasts, and online videos with stakeholders as part of their comprehensive communications…

  16. Transmedia Storytelling in Science Communication: One Subject, Multiple Media, Multiple Stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, M.; Moloney, K.

    2012-12-01

    Each communication medium has particular storytelling strengths. For example, video is particularly good at illustrating a progression of events, text at background and context, and games at describing systems. In what USC's Prof. Henry Jenkins described as "transmedia storytelling," multiple media are used simultaneously, in an expansive rather than repetitive way, to better tell a single, complex story. The audience is given multiple entry points to the story, and the story is exposed to diverse and dispersed audiences, ultimately engaging a broader public. We will examine the effectiveness of a transmedia approach to communicating scientific and other complex concepts to a broad and diverse audience. Using the recently developed Educational Visitor Center at the NCAR-Wyoming Supercomputing Center as a case study, we will evaluate the reach of various means of presenting information about the geosciences, climate change and computational science. These will include an assessment of video, mechanical and digital interactive elements, animated movie segments, web-based content, photography, scientific visualizations, printed material and docent-led activities.

  17. Introduction to social media.

    PubMed

    Meru, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This overview of social media categories some of the typical types and uses of this form of communication and suggests common courtesies and effective strategies for participation in the social media culture. PMID:23654162

  18. Building an Effective Social Media Strategy for Science Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohon, Wendy; Robinson, Sarah; Arrowsmith, Ramon; Semken, Steven

    2013-07-01

    Social media has emerged as a popular mode of communication, with more than 73% of the teenage and adult population in the United States using it on a regular basis [Lenhart et al., 2010]. Young people in particular (ages 12-29) are deeply involved in the rapidly evolving social media environment and have an expectation of communication through these media. This engagement creates a valuable opportunity for scientific organizations and programs to use the wide reach, functionality, and informal environment of social media to create brand recognition, establish trust with users, and disseminate scientific information.

  19. Geoethics in communication of science: the relationship between media and geoscientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foresta Martin, Franco; Peppoloni, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    In the urgency to reconsider the relationship between humankind and planet Earth, in the light of the issues of a sustainable economic and technological development, the defence against natural risks and climate change, the themes addressed by Geoethics are becoming central to the scientific debate. A growing number of scientists begins to consider this discipline as an effective tool to increase, in the scientific community and society as a whole, the awareness of local and global environmental problems that humanity is facing. Geoethics deals with the ethical, social and cultural aspects related to geosciences. It was born with the goal of orienting humankind toward a balanced relationship with the planet and providing references and guidelines to find socio-economic solutions compatible both with the respect for the environment and the protection of nature and land. Geoethics addresses fundamental issues such as the exploitation of geo-resources, the management of natural hazards, the defence of the geoheritage as a common value to be protected and enhanced. But above all geoethics aims at raising in the community of geoscientists the awareness of their responsibilities in conducting the scientific and professional activity. In order to extend this awareness to the whole civil society and also to foster the recognition of the usefulness of geosciences in daily life, it is important to develop a proper communication of the geological knowledge, that is capable to contribute substantially to the construction of the social knowledge of human communities. But nowadays what is the role played by geosciences in the scientific mass culture? Are geosciences part of the collective cultural heritage? Do the publishing world and media in general offer an adequate space to geosciences? Through the analysis of case studies, the authors will highlight the critical features of the relationship between geoscientists and the media system, their different languages, times and perspectives that characterize the geological community and the media world, as well as the most common mistakes made in the communication of geosciences. And as far as the authors are concerned, they will try to suggest some actions, useful to make more functional the relationship between these two separate fields, with the goal of bringing citizens closer to geosciences and increasing the awareness of the individual and collective responsibility towards the planet Earth.

  20. The Future of the New Media in the Communication of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    New media, that which is based around social networks, ubiquitous consumer technology, and today's near-universal access to information, has transformed the way that science is communicated to the scientist and non-scientist alike. We may be in the midst of mankind's greatest shift in information consumption and distribution since the invention of the printing press. Or maybe not. The problem with predicting the future is that it's very hard, and unless you're Isaac Asimov, it's very easy to be wrong. When one predicts the future regarding the internet, that risk becomes almost a certainty. Still, we can apply lessons learned from the near and distant history of science communication to put today's new media evolution into perspective, and to give us clues as to where social media, digital journalism, open access, and online education will lead science communication in years to come. Most importantly, it remains to be seen whether this new media evolution will translate into a shift in how science is viewed by citizens and their policymakers.

  1. Internet and Social Media For Health-Related Information and Communication in Health Care: Preferences of the Dutch General Population

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Berben, Sivera AA; Teerenstra, Steven; Samsom, Melvin; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care is increasingly featured by the use of Web 2.0 communication and collaborative technologies that are reshaping the way patients and professionals interact. These technologies or tools can be used for a variety of purposes: to instantly debate issues, discover news, analyze research, network with peers, crowd-source information, seek support, and provide advice. Not all tools are implemented successfully; in many cases, the nonusage attrition rates are high. Little is known about the preferences of the Dutch general population regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. Objective To determine the preferences of the general population in the Netherlands regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. Methods A cross-sectional survey was disseminated via a popular Dutch online social network. Respondents were asked where they searched for health-related information, how they qualified the value of different sources, and their preferences regarding online communication with health care providers. Results were weighed for the Dutch population based on gender, age, and level of education using official statistics. Numbers and percentages or means and standard deviations were presented for different subgroups. One-way ANOVA was used to test for statistical differences. Results The survey was completed by 635 respondents. The Internet was found to be the number one source for health-related information (82.7%), closely followed by information provided by health care professionals (71.1%). Approximately one-third (32.3%) of the Dutch population search for ratings of health care providers. The most popular information topics were side effects of medication (62.5%) and symptoms (59.7%). Approximately one-quarter of the Dutch population prefer to communicate with a health care provider via social media (25.4%), and 21.2% would like to communicate via a webcam. Conclusions The Internet is the main source of health-related information for the Dutch population. One in 4 persons wants to communicate with their physician via social media channels and it is expected that this number will further increase. Health care providers should explore new ways of communicating online and should facilitate ways for patients to connect with them. Future research should aim at comparing different patient groups and diseases, describing best practices, and determining cost-effectiveness. PMID:24088272

  2. A self-adaptive method for creating high efficiency communication channels through random scattering media.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiang; Martin-Rouault, Laure; Cui, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the propagation of electromagnetic waves is important to a broad range of applications. Recent advances in controlling wave propagation in random scattering media have enabled optical focusing and imaging inside random scattering media. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a new method to deliver optical power more efficiently through scattering media. Drastically different from the random matrix characterization approach, our method can rapidly establish high efficiency communication channels using just a few measurements, regardless of the number of optical modes, and provides a practical and robust solution to boost the signal levels in optical or short wave communications. We experimentally demonstrated analog and digital signal transmission through highly scattering media with greatly improved performance. Besides scattering, our method can also reduce the loss of signal due to absorption. Experimentally, we observed that our method forced light to go around absorbers, leading to even higher signal improvement than in the case of purely scattering media. Interestingly, the resulting signal improvement is highly directional, which provides a new means against eavesdropping. PMID:25070592

  3. Bio-objects and the media: the role of communication in bio-objectification processes

    PubMed Central

    Maeseele, Pieter; Allgaier, Joachim; Martinelli, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The representation of biological innovations in and through communication and media practices is vital for understanding the nature of “bio-objects” and the process we call “bio-objectification.” This paper discusses two ideal-typical analytical approaches based on different underlying communication models, ie, the traditional (science- and media-centered) and media sociological (a multi-layered process involving various social actors in defining the meanings of scientific and technological developments) approach. In this analysis, the latter is not only found to be the most promising approach for understanding the circulation, (re)production, and (re)configuration of meanings of bio-objects, but also to interpret the relationship between media and science. On the basis of a few selected examples, this paper highlights how media function as a primary arena for the (re)production and (re)configuration of scientific and biomedical information with regards to bio-objects in the public sphere in general, and toward decision-makers, interest groups, and the public in specific. PMID:23771763

  4. Linguistic Input, Electronic Media, and Communication Outcomes of Toddlers with Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Sophie E.; VanDam, Mark; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to examine the quantity of adult words, adult-child conversational turns, and electronic media in the auditory environments of toddlers who are hard of hearing (HH) and to examine whether these variables contributed to variability in children’s communication outcomes. Design Participants were 28 children with mild to severe hearing loss. Full-day recordings of children’s auditory environments were collected within 6 months of their 2nd birthdays by utilizing LENA (Language ENvironment Analysis) technology. The system analyzes full-day acoustic recordings, yielding estimates of the quantity of adult words, conversational turns, and electronic media exposure in the recordings. Children’s communication outcomes were assessed via the receptive and expressive scales of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning at 2 years of age and the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language at 3 years of age. Results On average, the HH toddlers were exposed to approximately 1400 adult words per hour and participated in approximately 60 conversational turns per hour. An average of 8% of each recording was classified as electronic media. However, there was considerable within-group variability on all three measures. Frequency of conversational turns, but not adult words, was positively associated with children’s communication outcomes at 2 and 3 years of age. Amount of electronic media exposure was negatively associated with 2-year-old receptive language abilities; however, regression results indicate that the relationship was fully mediated by the quantity of conversational turns. Conclusions HH toddlers who were engaged in more conversational turns demonstrated stronger linguistic outcomes than HH toddlers who were engaged in fewer conversational turns. The frequency of these interactions was found to be decreased in households with high rates of electronic media exposure. Optimal language-learning environments for HH toddlers include frequent linguistic interactions between parents and children. To support this goal, parents should be encouraged to reduce their children’s exposure to electronic media. PMID:24441740

  5. Nonverbal Expectancy Effects in the Political Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, Lloyd E.

    Expectancy effects--the unconscious shaping of receiver behavior by signalling sender expectations--while recognized in science, have not been documented extensively from a communication perspective, nor are nonverbal aspects of expectancy effects fully known. Expectancy is a function of three elements, the sender's predisposition (including…

  6. Developing Effective Interpersonal Communication and Discussion Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Karl L.; Featheringham, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Regardless of the content specialty--from accounting to information systems to finance--employers view effective communication as critical to an individual's success in today's competitive workplace. Most business degree programs require a business communication course to help students develop communication skills needed both in getting a job and…

  7. Developing Effective Interpersonal Communication and Discussion Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Karl L.; Featheringham, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Regardless of the content specialty--from accounting to information systems to finance--employers view effective communication as critical to an individual's success in today's competitive workplace. Most business degree programs require a business communication course to help students develop communication skills needed both in getting a job and…

  8. A Scenario Approach to Assessment of New Communications Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Kathleen; And Others

    In a study supported by the Charles F. Kettering Foundation, a research team developed a methodology for illustrating the effective and ineffective uses of audio, video, and computer teleconferencing by developing scenarios for eacb medium. The group first invented a general situation--a conference involving participants with global, regional, and…

  9. Effective communication and teamwork promotes patient safety.

    PubMed

    Gluyas, Heather

    2015-08-01

    Teamwork requires co-operation, co-ordination and communication between members of a team to achieve desired outcomes. In industries with a high degree of risk, such as health care, effective teamwork has been shown to achieve team goals successfully and efficiently, with fewer errors. This article introduces behaviours that support communication, co-operation and co-ordination in teams. The central role of communication in enabling co-operation and co-ordination is explored. A human factors perspective is used to examine tools to improve communication and identify barriers to effective team communication in health care. PMID:26243123

  10. Media use, face-to-face communication, media multitasking, and social well-being among 8- to 12-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Pea, Roy; Nass, Clifford; Meheula, Lyn; Rance, Marcus; Kumar, Aman; Bamford, Holden; Nass, Matthew; Simha, Aneesh; Stillerman, Benjamin; Yang, Steven; Zhou, Michael

    2012-03-01

    An online survey of 3,461 North American girls ages 8-12 conducted in the summer of 2010 through Discovery Girls magazine examined the relationships between social well-being and young girls' media use--including video, video games, music listening, reading/homework, e-mailing/posting on social media sites, texting/instant messaging, and talking on phones/video chatting--and face-to-face communication. This study introduced both a more granular measure of media multitasking and a new comparative measure of media use versus time spent in face-to-face communication. Regression analyses indicated that negative social well-being was positively associated with levels of uses of media that are centrally about interpersonal interaction (e.g., phone, online communication) as well as uses of media that are not (e.g., video, music, and reading). Video use was particularly strongly associated with negative social well-being indicators. Media multitasking was also associated with negative social indicators. Conversely, face-to-face communication was strongly associated with positive social well-being. Cell phone ownership and having a television or computer in one's room had little direct association with children's socioemotional well-being. We hypothesize possible causes for these relationships, call for research designs to address causality, and outline possible implications of such findings for the social well-being of younger adolescents. PMID:22268607

  11. BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Resonant parametric frequency conversion in active media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashlakova, N. P.; Krochik, G. M.; Khronopulo, Yu G.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation is made of the influence of saturation of the populations on the dynamics of the parametric four-wave interaction in an active medium which amplifies one of the interacting waves. Dependences of the conversion coefficient of long (?pggT1) and short (T2ll?pllT1) pulses on the length of the interaction zone are derived for the case of complete phase matching and in the absence of such matching. Equalization of the populations of the active levels results in breakdown of phase locking at the trailing edge of an output pulse and in saturation of the conversion coefficient. An estimate is obtained of the effectiveness of frequency addition in the case of the active medium of an HF laser. It is shown that the proposed method can be used for visualization and detection of weak laser radiation.

  12. Effective Usage of Social Media for Dark Skies Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, A. J.; Heenatigala, T.; Walker, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Social media has become a daily tool in our culture. Networks such as Facebook with 900 million active users and Twitter with 140 million active users make an ideal platform to create awareness. It helps to generate and share new content and enables multi-communication channels. This presentation will address how effectively social media can be used as an education tool to create awareness of light pollution. As a "green" focus becomes more important in our world the topic of light pollution is also rising as an important issue. Light Pollution affects many aspects of our world ranging from flora and fauna to the economic well-being of many industrialized countries. Mixed among the many important pollutants in our world light pollution can fall by the way-side, forgotten, but it is imperative to bring out awareness of this problem, especially since studies are beginning to show how by fighting light pollution we will also be fighting other pollution such as air pollutants. GLOBE at Night has combined social media tools such as Facebook and Twitter with its educational awareness campaign on light pollution to reach out to social media community. Currently our Facebook reaches citizens of twenty separate countries ranging from the Czech Republic and Peru to the United States and the United Kingdom. On Facebook our reach is estimated at over 800,000 friends of our fans. These networks help us to directly answer users' immediate questions and encourage participation in the GLOBE at Night campaigns. Important news on light pollution appearing in cyberspace is monitored regularly using Google Alerts and Twitter hash tags filters which gets posted regularly on our networks. Social media networking has become a tool for users not only for information about GLOBE at Night but also for information about the overall topic of light pollution itself. Many individuals and organizations struggle with the mass content shared in social networks. It is important to know where to look for the right content and what to share with whom. This presentation will highlight on; the importance of engaging in social media to gain and share new content, how to filter the right content, and best uses of social media to create an awareness of light pollution. We will discuss the proper ways to get the most use out of social media networking.

  13. Effective Communication in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The intent for this paper is to show that communication within the higher education field is a current problem. By looking first at the different styles, forms, and audiences for communication, the reader will hopefully gain perspective as to why this is such a problem in higher education today. Since the Millennial generation is the newest set of…

  14. Transmission media effects on precise Doppler tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, P. S.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of the transmission media - the earth's troposphere and ionosphere, and the solar wind - on precise Doppler tracking are discussed. The charged particle effects can be largely removed by dual frequency observations; however there are limitations to these corrections (besides system noise and/or finite integration times) including the effects of magnetic fields, diffraction, and differential refraction, all of which must be carefully evaluated. The earth's troposphere can contribute an error of delta f/f approximately 10 to the minus 14th power.

  15. Undergraduate Students As Effective Climate Change Communicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, H. O.; Joseph, J.; Mullendore, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), San Antonio College (SAC), and the University of North Dakota (UND) have partnered with NASA to provide underrepresented undergraduates from UTSA, SAC, and other community colleges climate-related research and education experiences through the Climate Change Communication: Engineer, Environmental science, and Education (C3E3) project. The program aims to develop a robust response to climate change by providing K-16 climate change education; enhance the effectiveness of K-16 education particularly in engineering and other STEM disciplines by use of new instructional technologies; increase the enrollment in engineering programs and the number of engineering degrees awarded by showing engineering's usefulness in relation to the much-discussed contemporary issue of climate change; increase persistence in STEM degrees by providing student research opportunities; and increase the ethnic diversity of those receiving engineering degrees and help ensure an ethnically diverse response to climate change. Students participated in the second summer internship funded by the project. The program is in its third year. More than 75 students participated in a guided research experiences aligned with NASA Science Plan objectives for climate and Earth system science and the educational objectives of the three institutions. The students went through training in modern media technology (webcasts), and in using this technology to communicate the information on climate change to others, especially high school students, culminating in production of webcasts on investigating the aspects of climate change using NASA data. Content developed is leveraged by NASA Earth observation data and NASA Earth system models and tools. Three Colleges were involved in the program: Engineering, Education, and Science.

  16. Communication media and the dead: from the Stone Age to Facebook

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article argues as follows: (i) The presence of the dead within a society depends in part on available communication technologies, specifically speech, stone, sculpture, writing, printing, photography and phonography (including the mass media), and most recently the internet. (ii) Each communication technology affords possibilities for the dead to construct and legitimate particular social groups and institutions – from the oral construction of kinship, to the megalithic legitimation of the territorial rights of chiefdoms, to the written word’s construction of world religions and nations, to the photographic and phonographic construction of celebrity-based neo-tribalism, and to the digital reconstruction of family and friendship. (iii) Historically, concerns about the dead have on a number of occasions aided the development of new communication technologies – the causal connection between the two can go both ways. The argument is based primarily on critical synthesis of existing research literature. PMID:26549977

  17. The Role of Communication in Effective Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolle, Joni R.

    Suggesting that the old saying "It's not what you say, it's how you say it" rings true for one educational leader, a Speech Pathologist, keenly aware of the necessity of effective communication and its impact on leadership. Possessing the quality of effective communication makes for a high quality leader because it enables one to express ideas…

  18. Using mass-media communications to increase population usage of Australia’s Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service®

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Global obesity prevalence is increasing and population health programs are required to support changes to modifiable lifestyle risk factors. Such interventions benefit from mass-communications to promote their use. The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service ® (GHS) utilised mass-reach media advertising to recruit participants to an Australian state-wide program. Methods A stand alone population survey collected awareness, knowledge and behavioural variables before the first advertising phase, (n?=?1,544; August -September 2010), during (n?=?1,500; February - March 2011) and after the advertising period (n?=?1,500; June-July 2011). GHS usage data (n?=?6,375) was collated during July 2010 – June 2011. Results The results showed that television-lead mass-media significantly increased unprompted awareness (0% to 31.8%, p?media (television, print and mail out information) was more often cited as the source of referral by males, those aged 18 – 49?years, employed, and from the lowest socio-economic groups. During the weeks when mass-media advertising was present, 4 and 2.5 times more information and coaching participants respectively registered than when there was no advertising present. Participants who cited television and print were less likely to enrol in GHS coaching, but this was not the case for mail out information and secondary referral sources. Conclusions GHS mass-communications campaigns are effective at increasing awareness and usage of the GHS, especially among hard-to-reach population groups. Television advertising provides universal reach, but should be supplemented by health professional referrals and targeted mail-out information to recruit participants to the intensive GHS coaching program. PMID:22967230

  19. Subjective Norms as a Driver of Mass Communication Students' Intentions to Adopt New Media Production Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Toby M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students' intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students…

  20. "Digitize Me": Generating E-Learning Profiles for Media and Communication Students in a Jamaican Tertiary-Level Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart-McKoy, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop an e-learning profile for a group of media and communication students enrolled in a Jamaican tertiary-level institution in order to make informed decisions most the appropriate [online] learning complement for these students. The objectives sought to determine the e-learning profile of media and…

  1. Subjective Norms as a Driver of Mass Communication Students' Intentions to Adopt New Media Production Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Toby M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students' intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students…

  2. A systematic review of the use and effectiveness of social media in child health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social media use is highly prevalent among children, youth, and their caregivers, and its use in healthcare is being explored. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine: 1) for what purposes social media is being used in child health and its effectiveness; and 2) the attributes of social media tools that may explain how they are or are not effective. Methods We searched Medline, CENTRAL, ERIC, PubMed, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Alt Health Watch, Health Source, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Web of Knowledge, and Proquest Dissertation and Theses Database from 2000–2013. We included primary research that evaluated the use of a social media tool, and targeted children, youth, or their families or caregivers. Quality assessment was conducted on all included analytic studies using tools specific to different quantitative designs. Results We identified 25 studies relevant to child health. The majority targeted adolescents (64%), evaluated social media for health promotion (52%), and used discussion forums (68%). Most often, social media was included as a component of a complex intervention (64%). Due to heterogeneity in conditions, tools, and outcomes, results were not pooled across studies. Attributes of social media perceived to be effective included its use as a distraction in younger children, and its ability to facilitate communication between peers among adolescents. While most authors presented positive conclusions about the social media tool being studied (80%), there is little high quality evidence of improved outcomes to support this claim. Conclusions This comprehensive review demonstrates that social media is being used for a variety of conditions and purposes in child health. The findings provide a foundation from which clinicians and researchers can build in the future by identifying tools that have been developed, describing how they have been used, and isolating components that have been effective. PMID:24886048

  3. Communication Satellite Technology and Multi-Media Demonstration on-Board ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anspach von Broecker, G. O.; Bank, C.; Kolloge, H.-G.; Brauer, U.; Canovai, G.; Keller, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents ongoing preparative activities and the opportunities for a utilization of the European ISS Module COLUMBUS as a testbed for communications and multimedia technology. This can provide a new service to the commercially oriented Space Communication Community and Parties interested in tests of space bound terrestrial applications (e.g. telematics). For this purpose, Astrium SI, Bremen, has studied several options how to test and verify advanced Multi-Media / Broadband Communications of Non-Geostationary Systemes. These activities have been conducted in cooperation with, and/or under contract of, DLR and ESA/ESTEC. With an accordingly equipped platform on-board the European ISS Module COLUMBUS a generic test-bed for Multi- Media-Services, inter-orbit link technology and other to be verified and demonstrated technology may be derived. The advantages of such an universal test service are obvious: - Crew accessibility / maintainability - Return of hardware after test to earth possible - Exposure of equipment to space environment - Fast to be installed experiments (compared to satellite missions) - Reasonable effort by shared installation costs (esp. compared to GEO missions) This may result in a new kind of technology demo missions (e.g. commercial parts applications, experiments of to-the-need scalable duration etc.).

  4. Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, Donald D.

    1990-01-01

    Communication in its many forms is a critical component for an effective Space Grant Program. Good communication is needed within individual Space Grant College/Consortia, for example between consortium affiliates and the consortium program office. Effective communication between the several programs, NASA Headquarters, and NASA field centers also is required. Further, communication among the above program elements, industry, local and state government, and the public also are necessary for meeting program objectives.

  5. The Use of Communications Media to Improve the Quality of Life in Technologically Developing Nations: A Strategic Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Dwight W.; Christensen, Philip R.

    Strategies are examined for utilizing the mass communications media to improve standards of living within developing nations. This report, addressed to decision-makers in developing nations and the Agency for International Development (AID), is designed to assist them in planning their improvement communications programs. A general introduction is…

  6. The New Guide to Effective Media Relations. The Best of "CASE Currents."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raley, Nancy, Ed.; Carter, Laura, Ed.

    Developing an effective communications program is crucial for the survival of colleges, universities, and independent schools because they must be well understood and have broad public support. This guide to media relations compiles articles from "CASE Currents" into five sections: "The Basics of a News Service" (17 papers); "So You Want National…

  7. The New Guide to Effective Media Relations. The Best of "CASE Currents."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raley, Nancy, Ed.; Carter, Laura, Ed.

    Developing an effective communications program is crucial for the survival of colleges, universities, and independent schools because they must be well understood and have broad public support. This guide to media relations compiles articles from "CASE Currents" into five sections: "The Basics of a News Service" (17 papers); "So You Want National…

  8. Undesirable Effects of Media on Children: Why Limitation is Necessary?

    PubMed

    Karaagac, Aysu Turkmen

    2015-06-01

    Pervasive media environment is a social problem shared by most of the countries around the world. Several studies have been performed to highlight the undesired effects of media on children. Some of these studies have focused on the time spent by children watching television, playing with computers or using mobile media devices while some others have tried to explain the associations between the obesity, postural abnormalities or psychological problems of children, and their media use. This article discusses the recent approaches to curb influence of media on children, and the importance of family media literacy education programs with particular relevance to developing countries. PMID:26121718

  9. Effective Advocacy and Communication with Legislators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Counseling Association, Office of Public Policy and Information, Alexandria, VA.

    This pamphlet attempts to make communicating with legislators easy. Each section includes a brief paragraph and several bullet points that present techniques or advice for simplifying communication. It begins with "Rules for Effective Advocacy," which presents a core set of basic advocacy principles, followed by "What Makes Politicians Tick?" and…

  10. Cultural Effects and Uses of Communication Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, Wilbur

    The communication satellite already has developed a mature technology. It carries a substantial part of the world's long range communication, and is now useable for special cultural and educational purposes. Major cultural effects come from its contribution to increasing enormously the flow of information in the world. It will increase human…

  11. EVALUATION AND EFFECTIVE RISK COMMUNICATION WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To explore a number of questions in the area of risk communications, the Interagency Task Force on Environmental Cancer and Heart and Lung Disease, held a Workshop on Evaluation and Effective Risk Communication which brought together experts from academia, government agencies, an...

  12. How Peer Communication and Engagement Motivations Influence Social Media Shopping Behavior: Evidence from China and the United States.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Sidharth; Men, Linjuan Rita

    2015-10-01

    Based on consumer socialization theory, this study proposes and tests a conceptual model of social media shopping behavior, which links the antecedents of user motivations of engagement and peer communication about products to shopping behavior through social media. A cross-cultural survey was conducted with social media users in two culturally distinct markets with the largest Internet population: China (n=304) and the United States (n=328). Findings showed that social interaction, information, and remuneration were positive antecedents of peer communication for users from both countries. Peer communication positively impacted social media shopping behavior, and cultural differences were observed, with social interaction being important to Chinese users' shopping behavior, while remuneration was more important to American users. Implications are discussed. PMID:26376370

  13. Effects of Instruction on Communication Apprehension and Communication Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Rebecca B.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Shows that, for students in a basic communication class, communication competence increased and communication apprehension decreased, and communication competence with strangers increased and communication apprehension in groups decreased. Shows that high apprehensive and low competence students experienced greater changes in their scores than did…

  14. Public and Media Communication of Volcanic Hazard Before and During the 2010 Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gylfason, A. G.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Reynisson, V.

    2010-12-01

    The 39 day long explosive eruption in Eyjafjallajökull was the largest natural hazard event in Iceland for decades. It began with a small flank eruption in March, but the main event was the explosive summit eruption. The flooding that resulted from melting of ice at the eruption site posed considerable danger for the local population, fallout of ash made conditions south of the volcano difficult for several weeks, threatening the future of farming in this rural area, and lead to unprecedented disruption to air traffic in Europe and the North Atlantic. About 800 people were evacuated in a hurry three times during these events because of imminent flood hazard, but fortunately no dwellings were damaged and people could usually return to their homes the same day. These events called for extensive media coverage, both locally and internationally. Some staff at research institutes had for several days to devote their time exclusively to giving interviews to the international media. Scientific communication with the local population was mainly conducted through four channels: (1) the web pages of institutions, (2) the national media; (3) indirectly at meetings on the status of the eruption with local and national officials, and (4) public meetings in the affected areas. In addition the scientific community issued daily status reports to the Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management, these reports served both national and local Civil Protection officials when preparing their statements on the eruption and answer basic questions from the media. During media communication, it is important to stick to facts, avoid speculation and use plain language without scientific jargon. However, the most critical part of the communication occurred in the years before the eruption through meetings with the local inhabitants. At these meetings the results of a detailed hazard assessment on eruptions in Eyjafjallajökull and the neighboring ice-filled Katla caldera where presented to the communities around these volcanoes. The most dangerous hazard is large scale floods due to melting of glacier ice in eruptions. Further meetings took place where evacuation plans for areas potentially impacted by flooding were presented. These plans have been updated through dialogue with the inhabitants and a drill was held in 2006, where people evacuated their homes and moved to safer ground in nearby villages. This extensive preparation was possible not least because of very active leadership by the local chief of police, his staff and the national coordination body for Civil Protection i.e. the Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management. The preparatory meetings provided a very important background for officials, scientists and the local inhabitants. Where communities are small, trust is most easily established through face to face contact at local meetings.

  15. Communication of climate projections in US media amid politicization of model science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerlof, Karen; Rowan, Katherine E.; Fitzgerald, Dennis; Cedeno, Andrew Y.

    2012-09-01

    Computer models generate projections of future climatic conditions that lie at the crux of climate change science and policy, and are increasingly used by decision-makers. Yet their complexity and politicization can hinder the communication of their science, uses and limitations. Little information on climate models has appeared in US newspapers over more than a decade. Indeed, we show it is declining relative to climate change. When models do appear, it is often within sceptic discourses. Using a media index from 2007, we find that model projections were frequently portrayed as likely to be inaccurate. Political opinion outlets provided more explanation than many news sources.

  16. Time Series Analysis of Alternative Media Effects Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; van den Berg, Sjef A.

    A study was conducted in the Washington, D.C., area to test mass media effects in a community controversy. Five possible theories were hypothesized to explain the effects media have on a community: indirect and direct effects, null effects, agenda setting, reverse effects, and reverse agenda setting. During the 16-month test period of the British…

  17. Time Series Analysis of Alternative Media Effects Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; van den Berg, Sjef A.

    A study was conducted in the Washington, D.C., area to test mass media effects in a community controversy. Five possible theories were hypothesized to explain the effects media have on a community: indirect and direct effects, null effects, agenda setting, reverse effects, and reverse agenda setting. During the 16-month test period of the British…

  18. Social media and organ donor registration: the Facebook effect.

    PubMed

    Cameron, A M; Massie, A B; Alexander, C E; Stewart, B; Montgomery, R A; Benavides, N R; Fleming, G D; Segev, D L

    2013-08-01

    Despite countless media campaigns, organ donation rates in the United States have remained static while need has risen dramatically. New efforts to increase organ donation through public education are necessary to address the waiting list of over 100,000 patients. On May 1, 2012, the online social network, Facebook, altered its platform to allow members to specify "Organ Donor" as part of their profile. Upon such choice, members were offered a link to their state registry to complete an official designation, and their "friends" in the network were made aware of the new status as a donor. Educational links regarding donation were offered to those considering the new organ donor status. On the first day of the Facebook organ donor initiative, there were 13 054 new online registrations, representing a 21.1-fold increase over the baseline average of 616 registrations. This first-day effect ranged from 6.9× (Michigan) to 108.9× (Georgia). Registration rates remained elevated in the following 12 days. During the same time period, no increase was seen in registrations from the DMV. Novel applications of social media may prove effective in increasing organ donation rates and likewise might be utilized in other refractory public health problems in which communication and education are essential. PMID:23777475

  19. The effects of media on sleep.

    PubMed

    Van den Bulck, Jan

    2010-12-01

    The media are an important part of young people's lives, but television, computer games, Internet use, cellular phone use, and even book reading threaten healthy sleep. Adults do not fully comprehend the ways in which young people use various media. Media use is a type of behavior that may displace sleep time or shorten it. Media content may lead to overexcitement or cause recurring nightmares. The cellular telephone is a particular threat. Parents may also use media excessively, establishing an unhealthy environment that may lead to sleep dysfunction in children and adolescents. Therefore, anticipatory guidance for healthy behavioral changes should be focused on the family. PMID:21302852

  20. Making media work in space: an interdisciplinary perspective on media and communication requirements for current and future space communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babidge, S.; Cokley, J.; Gordon, F.; Louw, E.

    2005-10-01

    As humans expand into space communities will form. These have already begun to form in small ways, such as long-duration missions on the International Space Station and the space shuttle, and small-scale tourist excursions into space. Social, behavioural and communications data emerging from such existing communities in space suggest that the physically-bounded, work-oriented and traditionally male-dominated nature of these extremely remote groups present specific problems for the resident astronauts, groups of them viewed as ‘communities’, and their associated groups who remain on Earth, including mission controllers, management and astronauts’ families. Notionally feminine group attributes such as adaptive competence, social adaptation skills and social sensitivity will be crucial to the viability of space communities and in the absence of gender equity, ‘staying in touch’ by means of ‘news from home’ becomes more important than ever. A template of news and media forms and technologies is suggested to service those needs and enhance the social viability of future terraforming activities.

  1. Public Opinion on Mass Media Effects: Perceived Societal Effects and Perceived Personal Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiedge, James T.

    The questionnaire in a study of perceived mass media effects included nine statements about the possible negative effects of the mass media, to which respondents could agree, disagree, or indicate "no opinion," and an open-ended question that asked the subjects what effects the mass media had on them personally. Most of the 340 respondents showed…

  2. Effect of (social) media on the political figure fever model: Jokowi-fever model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Benny; Samat, Nor Azah

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, political figures begin to utilize social media as one of alternative to engage in communication with their supporters. Publics referred to Jokowi, one of the candidates in Indonesia presidential election in 2014, as the first politician in Indonesia to truly understand the power of social media. Social media is very important in shaping public opinion. In this paper, effect of social media on the Jokowi-fever model in a closed population will be discussed. Supporter population is divided into three class sub-population, i.e susceptible supporters, Jokowi infected supporters, and recovered supporters. For case no positive media, there are two equilibrium points; the Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio less than one and the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio greater than one. For case no negative media, there is only the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if the condition is satisfied. Generally, for case positive media proportion is positive, there is no Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point. The numerical result shows that social media gives significantly effect on Jokowi-fever model, a sharp increase or a sharp decrease in the number of Jokowi infected supporters. It is also shown that the boredom rate is one of the sensitive parameters in the Jokowi-fever model; it affects the number of Jokowi infected supporters.

  3. The Effect of Health Information Technology on Health Care Provider Communication: A Mixed-Method Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; Harrod, Molly; Sales, Anne; Hofer, Timothy P; Saint, Sanjay; Krein, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Background Communication failures between physicians and nurses are one of the most common causes of adverse events for hospitalized patients, as well as a major root cause of all sentinel events. Communication technology (ie, the electronic medical record, computerized provider order entry, email, and pagers), which is a component of health information technology (HIT), may help reduce some communication failures but increase others because of an inadequate understanding of how communication technology is used. Increasing use of health information and communication technologies is likely to affect communication between nurses and physicians. Objective The purpose of this study is to describe, in detail, how health information and communication technologies facilitate or hinder communication between nurses and physicians with the ultimate goal of identifying how we can optimize the use of these technologies to support effective communication. Effective communication is the process of developing shared understanding between communicators by establishing, testing, and maintaining relationships. Our theoretical model, based in communication and sociology theories, describes how health information and communication technologies affect communication through communication practices (ie, use of rich media; the location and availability of computers) and work relationships (ie, hierarchies and team stability). Therefore we seek to (1) identify the range of health information and communication technologies used in a national sample of medical-surgical acute care units, (2) describe communication practices and work relationships that may be influenced by health information and communication technologies in these same settings, and (3) explore how differences in health information and communication technologies, communication practices, and work relationships between physicians and nurses influence communication. Methods This 4-year study uses a sequential mixed-methods design, beginning with a quantitative survey followed by a two-part qualitative phase. Survey results from aim 1 will provide a detailed assessment of health information and communication technologies in use and help identify sites with variation in health information and communication technologies for the qualitative phase of the study. In aim 2, we will conduct telephone interviews with hospital personnel in up to 8 hospitals to gather in-depth information about communication practices and work relationships on medical-surgical units. In aim 3, we will collect data in 4 hospitals (selected from telephone interview results) via observation, shadowing, focus groups, and artifacts to learn how health information and communication technologies, communication practices, and work relationships affect communication. Results Results from aim 1 will be published in 2016. Results from aims 2 and 3 will be published in subsequent years. Conclusions As the majority of US hospitals do not yet have HIT fully implemented, results from our study will inform future development and implementation of health information and communication technologies to support effective communication between nurses and physicians. PMID:26068442

  4. Social media and its dual use in biopreparedness: communication and visualization tools in an animal bioterrorism incident.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C; Landgren, Jonas; Griberg, Isaac; Skiby, Jeffrey E; Tubbin, Anna; von Stapelmohr, Anne; Härenstam, Malin; Jansson, Mikael; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-09-01

    This article focuses on social media and interactive challenges for emergency organizations during a bioterrorism or agroterrorism incident, and it outlines the dual-use dilemma of social media. Attackers or terrorists can use social media as their modus operandi, and defenders, including emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty-six experts and crisis communicators from international and national organizations participated. As a result of the workshop, it was concluded that emergency organizations can collect valuable information and monitor social media before, during, and after an outbreak. In order to make use of interactive communication to obtain collective intelligence from the public, emergency organizations must adapt to social networking technologies, requiring multidisciplinary knowledge in the fields of information, communication, IT, and biopreparedness. Social network messaging during a disease outbreak can be visualized in stream graphs and networks showing clusters of Twitter and Facebook users. The visualization of social media can be an important preparedness tool in the response to bioterrorism and agroterrorism. PMID:23971817

  5. Communicating Culture in the 21st Century: The Power of Media-Enhanced Immersive Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stogner, Maggie Burnette

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of digital media technologies and new storytelling techniques in giving objects an emotional dimension and thus encouraging affective learning. The use of new immersive and participatory techniques is a means of contextualizing real objects, and perhaps a more effective way to reach diverse audiences and create…

  6. A surfeit of science: The "CSI effect" and the media appropriation of the public understanding of science.

    PubMed

    Cole, Simon A

    2015-02-01

    Over the past decade, popular media has promulgated claims that the television program CSI and its spinoffs and imitators have had a pernicious effect on the public understanding of forensic science, the so-called "CSI effect." This paper analyzes those media claims by documenting the ways in which the media claims that CSI "distorts" an imagined "reality." It shows that the media appropriated the analytic stance usually adopted by science advocates, portraying the CSI effect as a social problem in science communication. This appropriation was idiosyncratic in that it posited, as a social problem, a "surfeit" of knowledge and positive imagery about science, rather than the more familiar "deficits." In addition, the media simultaneously appropriated both "traditional" and "critical" PUS discourses. Despite this apparent contradiction, the paper concludes that, in both discourses, the media and its expert informants insist upon their hegemony over "the public" to articulate the "reality" of forensic science. PMID:23825289

  7. Effectiveness of Multi-Media Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Charles W.

    Applied Business Technologies, Inc. is in the process of developing multi-media training CD's to support the implementation of its PowerCAMPUS student information system product. Multi-media training is a very powerful tool for achieving objectives. Trainees take the course at a time convenient for them and progress at a pace suited to their…

  8. Engaging media in communicating research on sexual and reproductive health and rights in sub-Saharan Africa: experiences and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The mass media have excellent potential to promote good sexual and reproductive health outcomes, but around the world, media often fail to prioritize sexual and reproductive health and rights issues or report them in an accurate manner. In sub-Saharan Africa media coverage of reproductive health issues is poor due to the weak capacity and motivation for reporting these issues by media practitioners. This paper describes the experiences of the African Population and Health Research Center and its partners in cultivating the interest and building the capacity of the media in evidence-based reporting of reproductive health issues in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods The paper utilizes a case study approach based primarily on the personal experiences and reflections of the authors (who played a central role in developing and implementing the Center’s communication and policy engagement strategies), a survey that the Center carried out with science journalists in Kenya, and literature review. Results The African Population and Health Research Center’s media strategy evolved over the years, moving beyond conventional ways of communicating research through the media via news releases and newspaper stories, to varying approaches that sought to inspire and build the capacity of journalists to do evidence-based reporting of reproductive health issues. Specifically, the approach included 1) enhancing journalists’ interest in and motivation for reporting on reproductive health issues through training and competitive grants for outstanding reporting ; 2) building the capacity of journalists to report reproductive health research and the capacity of reproductive health researchers to communicate their research to media through training for both parties and providing technical assistance to journalists in obtaining and interpreting evidence; and 3) establishing and maintaining trust and mutual relationships between journalists and researchers through regular informal meetings between journalists and researchers, organizing field visits for journalists, and building formal partnerships with professional media associations and individual journalists. Conclusion Our experiences and reflections, and the experiences of others reviewed in this paper, indicate that a sustained mix of strategies that motivate, strengthen capacity of, and build relationships between journalists and researchers can be effective in enhancing quality and quantity of media coverage of research. PMID:21679388

  9. Developing Effective Communications about Extreme Weather Risks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruine de Bruin, W.

    2014-12-01

    Members of the general public often face complex decisions about the risks that they face, including those associated with extreme weather and climate change adaptation. Scientific experts may be asked to develop communications with the goal of improving people's understanding of weather and climate risks, and informing people's decisions about how to protect against these risks. Unfortunately, scientific experts' communication efforts may fail if they lack information about what people need or want to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people prefer use to describe relevant concepts. This presentation provides general principles for developing effective risk communication materials that aim for widespread dissemination, such as brochures and websites. After a brief review of the social science evidence on how to design effective risk communication materials, examples will focus on communications about extreme weather events and climate change. Specifically, data will be presented from ongoing projects on flood risk perception, public preparedness for heat waves, and public perceptions of climate change. The presentation will end with specific recommendations about how to improve recipients' understanding about risks and inform decisions. These recommendations should be useful to scientific experts who aim to communicate about extreme weather, climate change, or other risks.

  10. Construction of a Communication Audit: An Examination of Communication Systems and Their Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Brent D., Ed.; Greenbaum, Howard H., Ed.

    Abstracts of 12 papers concerning the effectiveness of various communication systems are printed here. Subjects of the papers are: the appraisal of organizational communication systems, and evaluation of ECCO analysis as a communication audit methodology, assessment of attitude and opinion change effects of the communication audit, organizational…

  11. Media Coverage in a Community Controversy: Initial and Subsequent Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; van den Berg, Sjef

    The choice of time lag between variables can affect surveys of public opinion and audience behavior, according to this report on the effects of media coverage of the controversy surrounding the operation of the supersonic transport Concorde out of Dulles Airport, near Washington, D.C. Five theories of media effects are outlined, including direct…

  12. Media Coverage in a Community Controversy: Initial and Subsequent Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; van den Berg, Sjef

    The choice of time lag between variables can affect surveys of public opinion and audience behavior, according to this report on the effects of media coverage of the controversy surrounding the operation of the supersonic transport Concorde out of Dulles Airport, near Washington, D.C. Five theories of media effects are outlined, including direct…

  13. Counselor Effectiveness Through Radio Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tentoni, Stuart C.

    This study determined the effectiveness of the use of radio as a means of providing immediate feedback on student counselors in a practicum setting. Using a non-equivalent group experimental design, 10 experimental subjects were compared to 10 control subjects with respect to counselor effectiveness. The experimental subjects were given immediate…

  14. Social Media and Oncology: The Past, Present, and Future of Electronic Communication Between Physician and Patient.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Mark A; Dicker, Adam P

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between patient and physician is in flux with the advent of electronic media that are advancing and enhancing communication. We perform a retrospective, current, and forward-looking examination of the technologies by which information is exchanged within the healthcare community. The evolution from e-mail and listservs to blogs and the modern social networks is described, with emphasis on the advantages and pitfalls of each medium, especially in regard to maintaining the standards of privacy and professionalism to which doctors are held accountable. We support the use of contemporary platforms like Twitter and Facebook for physicians to establish themselves as trustworthy online sources of medical knowledge, and anticipate ongoing collaboration between researchers, patients, and their advocates in trial design and accrual. PMID:26433557

  15. Atmospheric Propagation Effects Relevant to Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaik, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    A number of atmospheric phenomena affect the propagation of light. This article reviews the effects of clear-air turbulence as well as atmospheric turbidity on optical communications. Among the phenomena considered are astronomical and random refraction, scintillation, beam broadening, spatial coherence, angle of arrival, aperture averaging, absorption and scattering, and the effect of opaque clouds. An extensive reference list is also provided for further study, Useful information on the atmospheric propagation of light in resolution to optical deep-space communications to an earth-based receiving station is available, however, further data must be generated before such a link can be designed with committed performance.

  16. Atmospheric propagation effects relevant to optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaik, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    A number of atmospheric phenomena affect the propagation of light. The effects of clear air turbulence are reviewed as well as atmospheric turbidity on optical communications. Among the phenomena considered are astronomical and random refraction, scintillation, beam broadening, spatial coherence, angle of arrival, aperture averaging, absorption and scattering, and the effect of opaque clouds. An extensive reference list is also provided for further study. Useful information on the atmospheric propagation of light in relation to optical deep space communications to an earth based receiving station is available, however, further data must be generated before such a link can be designed with committed performance.

  17. How to Communicate Your Sports Message to the Media, Gain Rapport, and Enhance Media Coverage of Your Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flarup, Tamara J.

    Suggestions are listed for athletic coaches to develop and use media contacts in television, radio, and newspapers to promote athletic programs. The main concepts are: (1) know your media contacts, and let them know that you are available for questioning; (2) know the kinds of information they want; (3) be aware of and observe deadlines; (4) show…

  18. Media Choice for Intra-School Communication: The Role of Environment, User, and Medium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspi, Avner; Blau, Ina

    2011-01-01

    The influence of media richness, media attentional load, social influence and users' prior experience with media on selection of media to transmit different messages to peers within an educational organization was tested. Media were discriminated by all potential variables. Support was found for the role of prior experience and social influence in…

  19. Media Choice for Intra-School Communication: The Role of Environment, User, and Medium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspi, Avner; Blau, Ina

    2011-01-01

    The influence of media richness, media attentional load, social influence and users' prior experience with media on selection of media to transmit different messages to peers within an educational organization was tested. Media were discriminated by all potential variables. Support was found for the role of prior experience and social influence in…

  20. Effective Communication with Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Patrick; Elliott, David

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Government established the Office for Youth (the Office) in September 2008 in an effort to engage with the young people of Australia. The Office will work with other government agencies to help young people reach their full potential; make effective transitions to adulthood as they continue to learn, start work, make decisions that…

  1. FIR: An Effective Scheme for Extracting Useful Metadata from Social Media.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long-Sheng; Lin, Zue-Cheng; Chang, Jing-Rong

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the use of social media for health information exchange is expanding among patients, physicians, and other health care professionals. In medical areas, social media allows non-experts to access, interpret, and generate medical information for their own care and the care of others. Researchers paid much attention on social media in medical educations, patient-pharmacist communications, adverse drug reactions detection, impacts of social media on medicine and healthcare, and so on. However, relatively few papers discuss how to extract useful knowledge from a huge amount of textual comments in social media effectively. Therefore, this study aims to propose a Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory network based Information Retrieval (FIR) scheme by combining Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART) network, Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), and association rules (AR) discovery to extract knowledge from social media. In our FIR scheme, Fuzzy ART network firstly has been employed to segment comments. Next, for each customer segment, we use LSI technique to retrieve important keywords. Then, in order to make the extracted keywords understandable, association rules mining is presented to organize these extracted keywords to build metadata. These extracted useful voices of customers will be transformed into design needs by using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) for further decision making. Unlike conventional information retrieval techniques which acquire too many keywords to get key points, our FIR scheme can extract understandable metadata from social media. PMID:26330225

  2. Replacing the Tin Can: Creating an Effective Electronic Communication Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Susan M.; Dutt-Doner, Karen M.

    Electronic communication tools may have more in common with the old communication game where tin cans were connected by a string than with traditional classroom communication. The charge is to find ways to make the communication more like, and possibly better, than effective classroom communication. Creating a firm foundation for successful…

  3. Virtual Team Leadership: The Effects of Leadership Style and Communication Medium on Team Interaction Styles and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambley, Laura A.; O'Neill, Thomas A.; Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of transformational and transactional leadership styles and communication media on team interaction styles and outcomes. Teams communicated through one of the following three ways: (a) face-to-face, (b) desktop videoconference, or (c) text-based chat. Results indicated that transformational and transactional…

  4. Virtual Team Leadership: The Effects of Leadership Style and Communication Medium on Team Interaction Styles and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambley, Laura A.; O'Neill, Thomas A.; Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of transformational and transactional leadership styles and communication media on team interaction styles and outcomes. Teams communicated through one of the following three ways: (a) face-to-face, (b) desktop videoconference, or (c) text-based chat. Results indicated that transformational and transactional…

  5. [Social media and medical apps: how they can change health communication, education and care].

    PubMed

    Santoro, Eugenio

    2013-05-01

    Social media and medical apps for smartphones and tablets are changing health communication, education and care. This change involves physicians and other health care professionals which for their education, training and updating have started to follow public pages and profiles opened by medical journals and professional societies on the online social networking sites (such as Facebook, Twitter and Google+), to access scientific content (videos, images, slides) available on user-generated contents sites (such as SlideShare, Pinterest and YouTube) or on health professional online communities such as Sermo, and to use medical and health apps on their smartphones and tablets. As shown by a number of experiences conducted in US by health institutions such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Atlanta and hospitals such a the Mayo Clinic, these tools are also transforming the way to make health promotion activities and communication, promote healthy habits and lifestyles, and prevent chronic diseases. Finally this change involves patients which are starting to use medical and health apps on their smartphones and tablets to monitor their diseases, and tools such as Patients Like Me (an online patients' community), Facebook and Twitter to share with others the same disease experience, to learn about the disease and treatments, and to find opinions on physicians, hospitals and medical centers. These new communication tools allow users to move to a kind of collaborative education and updating where news and contents (such as public health recommendations, results of the most recent clinical researches or medical guidelines) may be shared and discussed. PMID:23748682

  6. The Use of Traditional Media in Family Planning Programs in Rural Java. Cornell University, Current Papers in the Communication Arts #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Robert H.; Adhikarya, Ronny

    Java's present national family planning program is hampered not only by a serious lack of formal communication media, but also by cultural, social and economic barriers that impede the communication effort. To reach the predominantly rural population, family planning programs could utilize Java's traditional mass media: the folk operas, comedies,…

  7. The Effectiveness of Twitter as a Communication Tool in College Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Karen Jean

    2013-01-01

    Although some colleges are making progress in integrating new technology into their recruitment practices, many still lack an understanding of how to utilize modern communication tools, including social media sites such as Twitter, effectively. This study explored whether there is a relationship between Twitter usage and recruitment at U.S.…

  8. The Effectiveness of Twitter as a Communication Tool in College Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Karen Jean

    2013-01-01

    Although some colleges are making progress in integrating new technology into their recruitment practices, many still lack an understanding of how to utilize modern communication tools, including social media sites such as Twitter, effectively. This study explored whether there is a relationship between Twitter usage and recruitment at U.S.…

  9. Communication Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abkarian, G. G.

    1992-01-01

    This literature review addresses studies of speech, language, and communication skills evidenced by children diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects. Concomitant physical, behavioral, intellectual, and learning patterns are reviewed, and symptoms presented by alcohol-exposed children are compared to those seen in other…

  10. Determinants of Effective Communication among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anvari, Roya; Atiyaye, Dauda Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between effective communication and transferring information. In the present correlational study, a cross-sectional research design was employed, and data were collected using a questionnaire-based survey. 46 students were chosen based on random sampling and questionnaires were distributed among…

  11. Communicating Conservation Effects Assessment Project Results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a unique effort to quantify the environmental benefits of conservation practices at watershed scales and nationally. Such a large-scale project cannot be accomplished without the cooperation and communication of a wide range of experts and stakeh...

  12. Communication Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abkarian, G. G.

    1992-01-01

    This literature review addresses studies of speech, language, and communication skills evidenced by children diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects. Concomitant physical, behavioral, intellectual, and learning patterns are reviewed, and symptoms presented by alcohol-exposed children are compared to those seen in other…

  13. Effective Use of Audio Media in Multimedia Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Brenda

    This paper emphasizes research-based reasons for adding audio to multimedia presentations. The first section summarizes suggestions from a review of research on the effectiveness of audio media when accompanied by other forms of media; types of research studies (e.g., evaluation, intra-medium, and aptitude treatment interaction studies) are also…

  14. Effectiveness of Alcohol Media Literacy Programmes: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindmarsh, Chloe S.; Jones, Sandra C.; Kervin, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To…

  15. Social Effects of Mass Media Advertising on the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ruth B.; And Others

    A study examined the effects of media advertising on the elderly to determine whether they use the media to help combat social disengagement, whether they perceived the elderly as positively portrayed in advertising, whether they perceive their role as consumer as declining, whether television advertising reinforced sex roles, and whether the…

  16. Media Cartoons: Effects on Issue Resolution in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo, Michael A.; Yangco, Rosanelia; Espinosa, Allen A.

    2014-01-01

    The study focused on media cartoons as a teaching strategy in Environmental Education. Specifically, it sought to determine the effects of media cartoons on the issue resolution skills of first year high school students. The study was conducted in La Salle Green Hills that had eleven sections in the first year high school level for the School Year…

  17. Effectiveness of Alcohol Media Literacy Programmes: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindmarsh, Chloe S.; Jones, Sandra C.; Kervin, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To…

  18. The Effect of Instructional Media on Learner Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, David L.; Withrow-Thorton, Beverly J.

    2005-01-01

    Motivation is an important element required for learning. Educators have a variety of instructional media and teaching formats available to present information. Selecting a medium that motivates learners is an important consideration. This study compares the effect of different media on learners' motivation to learn. Through the use of a survey…

  19. The media effect in Axelrod's model explained

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, L. R.; Fontanari, J. F.

    2011-11-01

    We revisit the problem of introducing an external global field —the mass media— in Axelrod's model of social dynamics, where in addition to their nearest neighbors, the agents can interact with a virtual neighbor whose cultural features are fixed from the outset. The finding that this apparently homogenizing field actually increases the cultural diversity has been considered a puzzle since the phenomenon was first reported more than a decade ago. Here we offer a simple explanation for it, which is based on the pedestrian observation that Axelrod's model exhibits more cultural diversity, i.e., more distinct cultural domains, when the agents are allowed to interact solely with the media field than when they can interact with their neighbors as well. In this perspective, it is the local homogenizing interactions that work towards making the absorbing configurations less fragmented as compared with the extreme situation in which the agents interact with the media only.

  20. Patient loyalty and the social media effect.

    PubMed

    Verkamp, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    In a changing healthcare environment, patient loyalty has never been more important. However, creating patient loyalty can mean more than providing quality health services within the four walls of the medical office. With patients turning to online sources and social media in search of advice and a better patient experience, we must now ensure that patients have meaningful engagements with us across the continuum of care, from the phone, to the office, to social media tools like Facebook and YouTube as we look to build loyalty and grow our referral volumes. PMID:24228370

  1. Evaluating the effects of a youth health media campaign.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Christopher E; Thorson, Esther

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a socially oriented public health media campaign that aims to influence social indicators among adults as a means to advances in youth health outcomes. Hierarchical regression analyses are conducted on telephone survey data from 18 weekly telephone surveys of adults in Kansas. Media campaign exposure was positively associated with two outcome measures: beliefs about youth development and behaviors toward youth development. In addition, these two outcome measures increased significantly over time, with the dissemination of the campaign's television and newspaper advertisements. Furthermore, these over-time increases were present only among respondents who were exposed to the media campaign. These findings offer support for the campaign's influence on the two social indicators, which would, per other research, be expected to influence improvements in youth health. Findings are discussed in reference to previous research in the areas of public health and mass communication, with implications made for practitioners and researchers. PMID:17710595

  2. Foundations for Effective School Library Media Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Ken, Ed.

    This collection of 38 articles, reprinted from "Emergency Librarian," addresses critical elements of school library media program development and implementation, organized by seven areas: foundations; the school context; role clarification; information literacy; collaborative program planning and teaching; program development; and accountability.…

  3. Political Change in Eastern Europe and Conceptual Approaches to Media Communication: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John

    1994-01-01

    Discusses media-related changes in Russia, Poland, and Hungary since the 1980s. Reviews current media theories in the United States for their ability to guide research into media processes in these three countries. Finds that much media research has paid insufficient attention to economic forces, international relations, the state, political…

  4. Combining Social Media with Innovative Ways of Communicating about the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masetti, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the cutting-edge nature of the James Webb Space Telescope, NASA is using a variety of social and interactive media to engage the public. While we do have a regularly updated static website, we are now also using various interactives (like Flash games and a 3D Tour of the spacecraft) to better explain what the Webb telescope is and how it works. To encourage future generations, we are a partner in an educational engineering design challenge which makes use of a virtual Second Life-like world. Additionally, the public can now watch Webb come together before their eyes by accessing our live webcam, which shows telescope hardware being built in our cleanroom. We are working to make Webb as much of a part of pop culture as the Hubble Space Telescope is. We facilitated the filming of a "Late Night with Jimmy Fallon” segment (called "Hubble Gotchu") featuring Webb and Webb scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. A visit to the highly rated sitcom "The Big Bang Theory” resulted in Webb lithos, magnets, posters, a scale model, and more being regularly featured on the set of the show. The most important aspect to creating interesting ways to engage the public is having the ability to communicate and form relationships with as many people as possible. To that end, we are using tools like blogs (e.g., NASA Blueshift) and popular social media (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Flickr) to reach out to as many people as we can and to enable them to share and spread the content we provide.

  5. The Geography of Political Communication: Effects of Regional Variations in Campaign Advertising on Citizen Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jaeho

    2011-01-01

    This study explores whether and how campaign-induced changes in local information environments influence citizens' everyday communication activities. The empirical analysis in this study centers on a comparison of two New Jersey media markets that showed idiosyncratic differences in the amount of political advertising during the 2000 presidential…

  6. The Fukushima nuclear crisis reemphasizes the need for improved risk communication and better use of social media.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kwan-Hoong; Lean, Mei-Li

    2012-09-01

    The potential of social media has expanded far beyond the initial function of social communication among a network of friends. It has become an increasingly important tool in risk communication to allow the dissemination of timely and accurate information to global citizens to make more informed choices regarding a particular crisis. The Fukushima nuclear crisis is an example where the potential of social media was not fully tapped. This caused undue stress and distrust of authorities. While the use of social media in this crisis could have altered significantly the level of trust in authorities and others, two additional points should be considered. One point is the use of plain language versus scientific language in order to reach a wider audience. The other is an urgent need to improve public information especially in the event of a nuclear emergency and to enhance educational efforts and action by improving radiological protection communication from regulatory bodies and international agencies. These are points that also play a large role in the use of social media. PMID:22850236

  7. Natural hazard communication : effectiveness and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presta, A.; Sole, A.; de Luca, G.

    2009-04-01

    Scientific, technological and methodological knowledge regarding the risks caused by natural events are in continuous evolution. A careful analysis of the communication and information, practiced by administrations and institutions involved in the decision-making processes, show a peculiar difference between the quality of the theoretical-operating level and the effectiveness of communication systems of the risk obtained. This is the level which involves directly citizens and institutions and needs, therefore, an efficacious and shared system whose aim is to inform the whole community, in a simple and clear way, during the different phases correlated to the environmental risk. The hypotesis is, in fact, to create a distinct typology of message, corresponding to each phase: • prevention of the risk > sensitization > information. If the potential risk is imminent or changes into real emergency, it is necessary to plan a communication aimed at supporting a very fast alarm to the community. • anticipation of the risk > pre-alert > information • imminence of the risk > alert > alarm • post-event /risk > information > precept and rules. The lack of a uniform and coerent planning process, both on the linguistic field (the typology of the message, iconic and verbal) and technical (the typology of supports) it is clear analysing the reference scenario in Italy. This involves the creation of deeply discordant systems which don't communicate the different typologies of risk efficaciously during distinct moments. To come to a systemic vision of the problem we proceed to collect and to obtain documentation about the "alarm" and communication systems existing in Italy nowadays. So we will have a classification of the different typologies about natural risk and communication systems related to them. The aim of this research is to propose a rationalization and a standard coding of signals. The logical conclusion of this course can be the creation of a national/international "catalogue system" which has the function of convalidating and guaranteeing the conformity of the communication in the ambit of the environmental risk. To continue the project, that has been proposed in the last year, is necessary to create a working group - with interdisciplinary expertise - to address the various issues related to the project and the definition of content spread: experts disciplinary course, but also the psychologists of perception , designers of communication, typedesigner, leading to the establishment of a system of signs (iconic and visual) that can carry useful and unambiguous messages.

  8. Social Media: How to Use It Effectively.

    PubMed

    Gary, Joshua L

    2015-11-01

    The digital age has revolutionized how information is shared among human beings. The Internet initially provided a means for obtaining information and then evolved to allow the exchange of information between humans and Web sites. The enormous impact of these changes on health care has shifted the way physicians provide care and how patients elect for and receive care. Social media applications allow for immediate exchange of ideas between large populations, which presents many opportunities and challenges for practicing physicians. Providers must be cognizant of patient confidentiality, their own online reputation, and risk management when using social media. The future is widely unknown with opportunities for marketing, networking, and research to evolve in the coming decades. PMID:26458002

  9. Media formulation influences chemical effects on neuronal growth and morphology.

    PubMed

    Harrill, Joshua A; Robinette, Brian L; Freudenrich, Theresa M; Mundy, William R

    2015-06-01

    Screening for developmental neurotoxicity using in vitro, cell-based systems has been proposed as an efficient alternative to performing in vivo studies. One tool currently used for developmental neurotoxicity screening is automated high-content imaging of neuronal morphology. While high-content imaging (HCI) has been demonstrated to be useful in detection of potential developmental neurotoxicants, comparison of results between laboratories or assays can be complicated due to methodological differences. In order to determine whether high-content imaging-based developmental neurotoxicity assays can be affected by differences in media formulation, a systematic comparison of serum-supplemented (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's media (DMEM) + 10% serum) and serum-free (Neurobasal A + B27) culture media on neuronal morphology was performed using primary rat cortical neurons. Concentration-response assays for neuritogenesis, axon and dendrite outgrowth, and synaptogenesis were performed in each media type using chemicals with previously demonstrated effects. Marked qualitative and quantitative differences in the characteristics of neurons cultured in the two media types were observed, with increased neuronal growth and less basal cell death in Neurobasal A + B27. Media formulation also affected assay sensitivity and selectivity. Increases in assay sensitivity were observed in Neurobasal A + B27 media as compared to serum-supplemented DMEM. In some instances, a greater difference between effective concentrations for cell death and neurodevelopmental-specific endpoints was also observed in Neurobasal A + B27 media as compared to serum-supplemented DMEM. These data show that media formulation must be considered when comparing data for similar endpoints between studies. Neuronal culture maintained in Neurobasal A + B27 media had several features advantageous for HCI applications including less basal cell death, less cell clustering and neurite fasciculation, and a tendency towards increased sensitivity and selectivity in chemical concentration-response studies. PMID:25678462

  10. A quantative and qualitative analysis of science communication in the greek mass media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsopoulos, N.; Zoulias, M.

    During the last decade there has been increasing interest on how science is communicated by the mass media. Studies have been done in order to define the amount and the quality of science information passing from the experts to the public through newspapers, radio broadcasts and TV programs. In this study, we have tried to find the amount of science presented in 4 Greek newspapers and 4 major Greek TV channels. We've also done an initial evaluation on the quality of the newspaper science articles. The results show that the amount of scientific content in TV and newspapers in Greece, is comparable to those in larger and more scientifically advanced countries such as Canada, USA and Great Britain. The quality of the newspaper articles was studied under a simple but relevant coding scheme. The results demonstrate that scientists do not write popularizing articles but they play an important role as experts. The more serious newspapers provide more reliable information in the form of integrated articles and not as fragmentary science news. Furthermore, Greek newspapers avoid publishing articles on controversial scientific issues and they present science as abstract and authoritative.

  11. Using Personality Traits and Effective Communication to Improve Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddy, Juanita Warren

    2007-01-01

    Various research studies have shed evidence on the importance of collaboration between teachers and library media specialists. Nearly every aspect of business, management in particular, requires an ability to interact effectively with others. As such, it is advantageous for the library media specialist to view the library media program as a…

  12. Training Scientists to be Effective Communicators: AAAS Communicating Science Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cendes, L.; Lohwater, T.

    2012-12-01

    "Communicating Science: Tools for Scientists and Engineers" is a workshop program developed by AAAS to provide guidance and practice for scientists and engineers in communicating about science with public audiences. The program was launched at the 2008 AAAS Annual Meeting in Boston and has since provided 24 workshops for more than 1,500 scientist and engineer attendees at universities, science society meetings, and government agency labs around the United States. Each interactive workshop targets scientists and engineers specifically and has included content such as message development, defining audience, identifying opportunities for engaging the public, and practice with public presentations and cameras. The workshop format allows for collaborative learning through small-group discussion, resource sharing, and participation in critique of other participants' presentations. Continuous monitoring of the program includes on-site and online surveys and evaluation. On an assessment of workshops from 2008-2010, attendees reported that knowledge gained from the workshop helped in crafting messages about their scientific work for use in communicating with public audiences, and approximately 80 percent of respondents reported participation in communication with a public audience after attending the workshop. Through workshop content and feedback of participating scientists, this presentation will highlight some best practices and resources for scientists who want to take a proactive role in science communication.

  13. A Brief Survey of Media Access Control, Data Link Layer, and Protocol Technologies for Lunar Surface Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallett, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper surveys and describes some of the existing media access control and data link layer technologies for possible application in lunar surface communications and the advanced wideband Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DSCDMA) conceptual systems utilizing phased-array technology that will evolve in the next decade. Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are standard Media Access Control (MAC) techniques that can be incorporated into lunar surface communications architectures. Another novel hybrid technique that is recently being developed for use with smart antenna technology combines the advantages of CDMA with those of TDMA. The relatively new and sundry wireless LAN data link layer protocols that are continually under development offer distinct advantages for lunar surface applications over the legacy protocols which are not wireless. Also several communication transport and routing protocols can be chosen with characteristics commensurate with smart antenna systems to provide spacecraft communications for links exhibiting high capacity on the surface of the Moon. The proper choices depend on the specific communication requirements.

  14. The cost-effectiveness of health communication programs: what do we know?

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Paul; Wheeler, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    While a considerable body of evidence has emerged supporting the effectiveness of communication programs in augmenting health, only a very small subset of studies has examined also whether these programs are cost-effective, that is, whether they achieve greater health gains for available financial resources than alternative interventions. In this article, we examine the available literature on the cost-effectiveness of health behavior change communication programs, focusing on communication interventions involving mass media, and, to a lesser extent, community mobilization and interpersonal communication or counseling. Our objective is to identify the state of past and current research efforts of the cost-effectiveness of behavior change communication programs. This review makes three principal conclusions. First, the analysis of the cost-effectiveness of health communication programs commonly has not been performed. Second, the studies reviewed here have utilized a considerable diversity of methods and have reflected varying levels of quality and adherence to standard cost-effectiveness methodologies. This leads to problems of transparency, comparability, and generalizability. Third, while the available studies generally are indicative of the cost-effectiveness of communication interventions relative to alternatives, the evidence base clearly needs to be expanded by additional rigorous cost-effectiveness analyses. PMID:17148098

  15. Public media communications about H1N1, risk perceptions and immunization behaviours: A Quebec-France comparison.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Cécile; Moreau, Nicolas; Dumas, Marie-Pier; Bost, Ida; Lefebvre, Sylvie; Atlani-Duault, Laëtitia

    2015-02-01

    During the H1N1 pandemic, governments tailored their communications plans in order to influence risk perception and promote public compliance with the public health plan measures. Considering the volume and the content of calls to flu information centres as indicators of the public risk perception, this mixed method study compares the relation between public communications, risk perception and immunization behaviour in Quebec and France. Results suggest that advocating for clear information and coordination between health authorities and the media promotes adherence to preventive behaviour. However, over-exaggerating the risks and minimizing the population's agency may undermine health authority credibility. PMID:23942830

  16. Media communication strategies for climate-friendly lifestyles - Addressing middle and lower class consumers for social-cultural change via Entertainment-Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubjuhn, S.; Pratt, N.

    2009-11-01

    This paper argues that Entertainment-Education (E-E) is a striking communication strategy for reaching middle and lower socio-economic classes with climate-friendly lifestyle messages. On the international level (e.g. in the US and the Netherlands) E-E approaches are being theoretically grounded, whereas in Germany they are not yet. Therefore further theoretical discussion and mapping of E-E approaches is central for future research. As a first step towards providing further theoretical foundations for E-E in the field of sustainability, the authors suggest a threefold mapping of E-E approaches. The threefold mapping of E-E approaches for communicating climate-friendly lifestyles to middle and lower class consumers is based on recent results from academic research and practical developments on the media market. The commonalities among the three is that they all promote pro-sustainability messages in an affective-orientated rather than cognitive-orientated, factual manner. Differences can be found in: the sender of the sustainability message, the targeted consumer groups and the media approach in use. Based on this, the paper draws the conclusion that two new paths for further research activities in the field of Entertainment-Education can be proposed: (1) Improving the existing approaches in practice by using theoretical foundation from the E-E field. This comprises at its core (A) to do formative, process and summative effect research on the messages and (B) to use E-E theory from the field of social psychology, sociology and communication science for further improvement and (2) Generating new E-E theories by analyzing the existing practical approaches in the media to communicate climate change.

  17. Critical incidents: effective communication and documentation.

    PubMed

    Carelock, J; Innerarity, S

    2001-02-01

    Critical incidents can be defined at sentinel events, critical patient care issues, or any patient event outside the normal parameters of care. Nurses are central to maintaining the standard of care for patients in these situations. Miscommunication, including inadequate communication and illegible or incomplete documentation, forms a basis for many clinical and interpersonal problems in nursing practice. This practical article discusses expectations, both professional and legal, for avoiding and/or managing critical incidents. Suggestions for assessment parameters to report are included in table format, which the nurse can 'clip and use' as a reminder of data to have prepared before calling and/or presenting the problem. Steps are proposed for a logical, organized plan to help the nurse communicate more effectively. Recommendations for essentials of documentation regarding the verbal interaction and orders received are also presented. PMID:11852951

  18. Historical Background of the Mass Media Declaration. New Communication Order 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The Unesco Mass Media Declaration, which seeks to establish fundamental principles concerning the contribution of the mass media to strengthening peace and international understanding, is presented in the paper. Part one provides a brief history of the Mass Media Declaration, with annexed information on resolutions, meetings, and amendments…

  19. Exploring Perspectives of Communications Students toward Media Access and Use: A Q Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Angel Noel

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to help news industry professionals and educators tailor their services to a young audience that has grown up among a plethora of media options. To better reach and educate today's up-and-coming media professionals, those in the industry need a better understanding of modern media students' perspectives of news. This study used Q…

  20. Exploring Perspectives of Communications Students toward Media Access and Use: A Q Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Angel Noel

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to help news industry professionals and educators tailor their services to a young audience that has grown up among a plethora of media options. To better reach and educate today's up-and-coming media professionals, those in the industry need a better understanding of modern media students' perspectives of news. This study used Q…

  1. The Limited Informativeness of Meta-Analyses of Media Effects.

    PubMed

    Valkenburg, Patti M

    2015-09-01

    In this issue of Perspectives on Psychological Science, Christopher Ferguson reports on a meta-analysis examining the relationship between children's video game use and several outcome variables, including aggression and attention deficit symptoms (Ferguson, 2015, this issue). In this commentary, I compare Ferguson's nonsignificant effects sizes with earlier meta-analyses on the same topics that yielded larger, significant effect sizes. I argue that Ferguson's choice for partial effects sizes is unjustified on both methodological and theoretical grounds. I then plead for a more constructive debate on the effects of violent video games on children and adolescents. Until now, this debate has been dominated by two camps with diametrically opposed views on the effects of violent media on children. However, even the earliest media effects studies tell us that children can react quite differently to the same media content. Thus, if researchers truly want to understand how media affect children, rather than fight for the presence or absence of effects, they need to adopt a perspective that takes differential susceptibility to media effects more seriously. PMID:26386007

  2. The Interplay between Media Use and Interpersonal Communication in the Context of Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors: Reinforcing or Substituting?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chul-joo

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore how media use for health information and interpersonal health communication interact in the context of healthy lifestyle behaviors. This study hypothesizes that media use for health information and interpersonal health communication will serve as substitutes for one another. To test this hypothesis, this study uses a nationally representative survey of 2,107 civilian, noninstitutionalized adults in the United States. The results show that the associations between television use and Internet use and healthy lifestyle behaviors are enhanced among those who talk about health issues with their family and friends less frequently, which supports the substitution model. The implications that these findings have for future research are discussed. PMID:25598709

  3. Media Coverage of Pediatric Environmental Health Risks and its Effects on Mothers' Protective Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mello, Susan; Hornik, Robert C

    2016-03-01

    This study explores the relationship between exposure to U.S. media coverage of chemical threats to pediatric environmental health and mothers' behaviors to protect their children. Prior content analytic work revealed that media coverage volume from September 2012 to February 2013 differed significantly by type of chemical (i.e., pesticides = high coverage volume; bisphenol A [BPA] = moderate; and arsenic = low). Survey data collected from new and expecting mothers in March 2013 (n = 822) revealed mothers incidentally encountered-or scanned-this information in the media in the prior six months, and after adjusting for a series of potential confounders, such scanning was positively associated with mothers' self-reported behaviors to reduce chemical exposures. To test the hypothesis that coverage volume moderates the relationship between scanning and behavior, content analysis and survey data were combined in mixed effects regression analyses. Results showed significant differences between the effects of media scanning at different levels of coverage volume, but in a direction not entirely consistent with the study's hypothesis. The relationship between scanning and behavior was strongest for BPA, suggesting that a characteristic of media coverage other than volume may drive maternal responses to environmental health threats. Implications of these findings for risk communication research and practice are discussed. PMID:26268577

  4. Geosciences in an Immersive Fulldome Environment: Developing Science and Communication Skills by Creating Digital Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, K. E.; Crawford, A.; Eakin, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Ho Tung Visualization Laboratory and Planetarium at Colgate University provides an opportunity for students of diverse backgrounds to learn scientific concepts and communication techniques through the creation of fulldome digital animations. Students give presentations to classes, school groups, and the public in the planetarium setting, and enhance learning by creating digital content appropriate to these audiences. The immersive environment is well-suited for showing large-scale geologic processes that may not be easily seen in the field. Geoscience projects include fly-bys of the Hudson River Valley, Cascade Mountain Range, Grand Canyon, and Basin and Range province, animation of the advance of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, evolution of continental positions since the late Precambrian, and comparisons of volcanic eruption styles. In order to create a digital animation, students must have a detailed understanding of the subject matter as well as all aspects of presentation, ranging from intended audience to relevant production technologies. This encourages students to explore material at a depth beyond conventional learning methods while integrating the skills necessary to effectively communicate scientific concepts to varied audiences. Based on these explorations, it appears beneficial to promote scientific visualization creation as a tool in itself to help students develop both scientific knowledge and communication skills.

  5. The National Landslide Database of Great Britain: Acquisition, communication and the role of social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, Catherine; Freeborough, Katy; Dashwood, Claire; Dijkstra, Tom; Lawrie, Kenneth

    2015-11-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) is the national geological agency for Great Britain that provides geoscientific information to government, other institutions and the public. The National Landslide Database has been developed by the BGS and is the focus for national geohazard research for landslides in Great Britain. The history and structure of the geospatial database and associated Geographical Information System (GIS) are explained, along with the future developments of the database and its applications. The database is the most extensive source of information on landslides in Great Britain with over 17,000 records of landslide events to date, each documented as fully as possible for inland, coastal and artificial slopes. Data are gathered through a range of procedures, including: incorporation of other databases; automated trawling of current and historical scientific literature and media reports; new field- and desk-based mapping technologies with digital data capture, and using citizen science through social media and other online resources. This information is invaluable for directing the investigation, prevention and mitigation of areas of unstable ground in accordance with Government planning policy guidelines. The national landslide susceptibility map (GeoSure) and a national landslide domains map currently under development, as well as regional mapping campaigns, rely heavily on the information contained within the landslide database. Assessing susceptibility to landsliding requires knowledge of the distribution of failures, an understanding of causative factors, their spatial distribution and likely impacts, whilst understanding the frequency and types of landsliding present is integral to modelling how rainfall will influence the stability of a region. Communication of landslide data through the Natural Hazard Partnership (NHP) and Hazard Impact Model contributes to national hazard mitigation and disaster risk reduction with respect to weather and climate. Daily reports of landslide potential are published by BGS through the NHP partnership and data collected for the National Landslide Database are used widely for the creation of these assessments. The National Landslide Database is freely available via an online GIS and is used by a variety of stakeholders for research purposes.

  6. A Mass Media-Centered Approach to Teaching the Course in Family Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey-Kallis, Susan; Kirk-Elfenbein, Sharon

    Teaching family communication is unique. However, unlike courses in small group and interpersonal communication, which illustrates communication processes in experiential settings, family communication courses cannot create "families" in the classroom. As such, film and television depictions of the family become all the more important in their…

  7. The Effect of Covert Modeling on Communication Apprehension, Communication Confidence, and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimocks, Mittie J.; Bromley, Patricia L.; Parsons, Theron E.; Enright, Corinne S.; Gates, Elizabeth A.

    This study examined the effect of covert modeling on communication apprehension, public speaking anxiety, and communication competence. Students identified as highly communication apprehensive received covert modeling, a technique in which one first observes a model doing a behavior, then visualizes oneself performing the behavior and obtaining a…

  8. The Effect of Communication Apprehension and Situation on Communication Strategy Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Myron W.; King, Stephen W.

    1980-01-01

    Examines students' perceptions of the probable use of certain persuasive strategies in a given situation in relation to students' level of communication apprehension. Data confirms the impact of situation on strategy selection but fails to demonstrate the effect of communication apprehension or an interaction between communication apprehension and…

  9. Social-Communicative Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Russo, Luigi; Massagli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a common treatment choice for non-verbal children with autism. However, little empirical evidence is available on the usefulness of PECS in treating social-communication impairments in autism. Aims: To test the effects of PECS on social-communicative skills in children with autism,…

  10. Bit-array alignment effect of perpendicular SOMA media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Peiying; Yuan, Zhimin; Kuan Lee, Hwee; Guo, Guoxiao

    2006-08-01

    One effective way to overcome the superparamagnetic limit of magnetic recording system is to reduce the grain number per bit at given signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) level by using uniformed media grains. The self organized magnetic array (SOMA) is designed to have uniform grains with perfect grain array structure. It is believed that high enough SNR with small number of grains per bit can be acheived. But in the engineering application, the recorded bit on SOMA media may align with the regular array at different locations and angles due to non-grain synchronized writing, skew angle, and circular track. This induces the bit-array alignment effect and degrades system performance of SOMA media. In this paper, the micromagnetic simulation results show that the bit array alignment effect causes large level SNR fluctuation on the same media. The SOMA media is not preferred to be used in the conventional recording configuration. It is only suitable for the configuration of patterned media.

  11. Gender on the brain: a case study of science communication in the new media environment.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Cliodhna; Joffe, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience research on sex difference is currently a controversial field, frequently accused of purveying a 'neurosexism' that functions to naturalise gender inequalities. However, there has been little empirical investigation of how information about neurobiological sex difference is interpreted within wider society. This paper presents a case study that tracks the journey of one high-profile study of neurobiological sex differences from its scientific publication through various layers of the public domain. A content analysis was performed to ascertain how the study was represented in five domains of communication: the original scientific article, a press release, the traditional news media, online reader comments and blog entries. Analysis suggested that scientific research on sex difference offers an opportunity to rehearse abiding cultural understandings of gender. In both scientific and popular contexts, traditional gender stereotypes were projected onto the novel scientific information, which was harnessed to demonstrate the factual truth and normative legitimacy of these beliefs. Though strains of misogyny were evident within the readers' comments, most discussion of the study took pains to portray the sexes' unique abilities as equal and 'complementary'. However, this content often resembled a form of benevolent sexism, in which praise of women's social-emotional skills compensated for their relegation from more esteemed trait-domains, such as rationality and productivity. The paper suggests that embedding these stereotype patterns in neuroscience may intensify their rhetorical potency by lending them the epistemic authority of science. It argues that the neuroscience of sex difference does not merely reflect, but can actively shape the gender norms of contemporary society. PMID:25354280

  12. Gender on the Brain: A Case Study of Science Communication in the New Media Environment

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Cliodhna; Joffe, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience research on sex difference is currently a controversial field, frequently accused of purveying a ‘neurosexism’ that functions to naturalise gender inequalities. However, there has been little empirical investigation of how information about neurobiological sex difference is interpreted within wider society. This paper presents a case study that tracks the journey of one high-profile study of neurobiological sex differences from its scientific publication through various layers of the public domain. A content analysis was performed to ascertain how the study was represented in five domains of communication: the original scientific article, a press release, the traditional news media, online reader comments and blog entries. Analysis suggested that scientific research on sex difference offers an opportunity to rehearse abiding cultural understandings of gender. In both scientific and popular contexts, traditional gender stereotypes were projected onto the novel scientific information, which was harnessed to demonstrate the factual truth and normative legitimacy of these beliefs. Though strains of misogyny were evident within the readers’ comments, most discussion of the study took pains to portray the sexes’ unique abilities as equal and ‘complementary’. However, this content often resembled a form of benevolent sexism, in which praise of women’s social-emotional skills compensated for their relegation from more esteemed trait-domains, such as rationality and productivity. The paper suggests that embedding these stereotype patterns in neuroscience may intensify their rhetorical potency by lending them the epistemic authority of science. It argues that the neuroscience of sex difference does not merely reflect, but can actively shape the gender norms of contemporary society. PMID:25354280

  13. Breaking the Barrier: Effectively Communicating Nutrition and Health Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchoux, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Health professionals can work to correct common misconceptions through nutrition and fitness education and sharing information and resources to provide consistent public messages. The article discusses the impact of the media, food labels, and the Fuel for Fitness program, encouraging teamwork to ensure proper communication of diet and exercise…

  14. The Use of Social Media by State Health Departments in the US: Analyzing Health Communication Through Facebook.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ayan; Lin, Leesa; Savoia, Elena

    2016-02-01

    The use of social media as a powerful health communication tool is an area of current research interest. Our objective was to describe use of Facebook by State Health Departments (SHDs) in US, and their relationship with CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. Facebook pages of 34 SHDs were studied over a 200 day period, coding 2597 posts into 19 broad health communication categories. Mean number of Facebook posts per SHD was 76.4 (range 34-133); most frequent topic areas included healthy living (12 %), communicable diseases (9 %), vaccines and immunization (7 %), emergency preparedness and response (7 %), infant and child health (5 %), smoking and tobacco use (5 %), and miscellaneous (32 %). Through web-based interactive graphics (Google motion charts), we contrasted Facebook posts with CDC's BRFSS data on adult nutrition and physical activity, vaccination, smoking, adolescent health and road traffic accidents. Our research finds an apparent disconnect between content provided on Facebook by SHDs and the health conditions that affect their populations. Acknowledging the severe limitations in funding and human resources faced by the SHDs, our research attempts to present the factual situation in embracing a vastly popular social media platform for health communication. We believe there is a need for research exploring methods to balance the demands and resources. PMID:26318742

  15. Effectively Communicating the Uncertainties Surrounding Ebola Virus Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Kilianski, Andy; Evans, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    The current Ebola virus outbreak has highlighted the uncertainties surrounding many aspects of Ebola virus virology, including routes of transmission. The scientific community played a leading role during the outbreak—potentially, the largest of its kind—as many of the questions surrounding ebolaviruses have only been interrogated in the laboratory. Scientists provided an invaluable resource for clinicians, public health officials, policy makers, and the lay public in understanding the progress of Ebola virus disease and the continuing outbreak. Not all of the scientific communication, however, was accurate or effective. There were multiple instances of published articles during the height of the outbreak containing potentially misleading scientific language that spurred media overreaction and potentially jeopardized preparedness and policy decisions at critical points. Here, we use articles declaring the potential for airborne transmission of Ebola virus as a case study in the inaccurate reporting of basic science, and we provide recommendations for improving the communication about unknown aspects of disease during public health crises. PMID:26512988

  16. Review of the effectiveness of video media in instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, C. D.; Radtke, Paul H.; Stern, Hervey W.; Dickieson, Jan; McLachlan, J. C.

    1993-04-01

    Visual forms of instruction are increasingly used as a result of the widespread use of video technologies such as broadcasts, teleconferencing, tapes, videodiscs, and emerging multimedia combinations of computer and digital video technologies. The considerable amount of research that stretches back to early work with film, television, and static visual materials can be of benefit in developing these new forms of instruction. The objective is to present a review of the current research literature regarding the use of dynamic video media in instruction. Research on the following topics was reviewed: general reviews of the effectiveness, acceptance, and costs of several forms of educational television; teaching techniques used effectively with video media; combining visual and verbal information; the effects of motion, animation, and interactivity, the relationship between media perceptions and learning; the effect of various video production techniques on learning; and critical perspectives on learning from media. This review can be used as background material for future research or instructional development efforts concerned with learning from video-based media.

  17. Effects of media campaign messages targeting parents on adolescent sexual beliefs: a randomized controlled trial with a national sample.

    PubMed

    Palen, Lori-Ann; Ashley, Olivia Silber; Gard, Jennifer C; Kan, Marni L; Davis, Kevin C; Evans, W Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Using a randomized controlled trial, this study evaluated the effects of media messages targeting parents on the sexual beliefs of 404 adolescents. The messages aimed to increase parent-child communication about waiting to initiate sexual activity. Compared with children of unexposed parents, children of parents exposed to media messages were more likely to believe that teen sexual activity is psychologically harmful. However, effects varied by parent and adolescent gender; treatment effects were only significant among adolescents whose opposite-sex parent was exposed. Parent exposure strengthened beliefs that teen sexual activity is physically harmful only among adolescents with at least 1 sexually active friend. PMID:21135626

  18. Social media and communications: developing a policy to guide the flow of information.

    PubMed

    Midyette, J David; Youngkin, Andrew; Snow-Croft, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    The use of social media is ubiquitous in the daily lives of nearly three quarters of the population in the United States. This article addresses the process and results of a policy development project for a National Network of Libraries of Medicine Regional Medical Library. Content, scheduling, editing, and author responsibilities are addressed for each of the chosen media outlets, as well as the preparation of prefatory material using an online social media policy development tool. PMID:24528263

  19. Millimeter wave propagation modeling of inhomogeneous rain media for satellite communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persinger, R. R.; Stutzman, W. L.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical propagation model that represents the scattering properties of an inhomogeneous rain often found on a satellite communications link is presented. The model includes the scattering effects of an arbitrary distribution of particle type (rain or ice), particle shape, particle size, and particle orientation within a given rain cell. An associated rain propagation prediction program predicts attenuation, isolation and phase shift as a function of ground rain rate. A frequency independent synthetic storm algorithm is presented that models nonuniform rain rates present on a satellite link. Antenna effects are included along with a discussion of rain reciprocity. The model is verified using the latest available multiple frequency data from the CTS and COMSTAR satellites. The data covers a wide range of frequencies, elevation angles, and ground site locations.

  20. An approach to effective UHF (S/L band) data communications for satellite Personal Communication Service (PCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayase, Joshua Y.

    1995-01-01

    Reliable signaling information transfer is fundamental in supporting the needs of data communication PCS via LMS (Land Mobile Service) SSs (satellite systems). The needs of the system designer can be satisfied only through the collection of media information that can be brought to bear on the pertinent design issues. We at ISI hope to continue our dialogue with fading media experts to address the unique data communications needs of PCS via LMS SSs.

  1. Effect of media use on mothers' vaccination of their children in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Lin, Leesa; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2015-05-21

    While several studies have examined the crucial role that parents' vaccination behaviors play in reducing disease spread and severity among children, few have evaluated the connection between parents' media use and their decision on whether or not to vaccinate their child, specifically in relation to the BCG (Bacillus Calmetter Guerin), DPT (Diptheria, Pertussis, Tetanus) polio, and measles vaccines. Media channels are a critical source of health information for parents, which is especially true in Sub-Saharan Africa, as there is often a dearth of local healthcare providers. The aim of this paper is to investigate the role that media use plays in a mothers' choice to vaccinate their infant children in sub-Saharan Africa, specifically focusing on whether media use is associated with socioeconomic status (SES) and a mothers' vaccination of their children. Cross-sectional data from the Demographic Health Surveys of 13 sub-Saharan countries (2004-2010) were pooled. A multivariate Poisson regression of 151,209 women was used to calculate adjusted relative ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations among SES, media use, and immunization. Education and wealth were found to be strongly and positively associated with vaccine-uptake behaviors. The effects of media use (radio and television) were found to be associated with the relationships between SES and vaccine uptake. However, it did not reduce the impact of SES on vaccination. These findings indicate that mass media may be an important tool for future efforts to reduce the health discrepancies between children from high- and low-socioeconomic backgrounds. Going forward, immunization strategies should include communication plans that will address and mitigate potential immunization disparities among parents of different SES backgrounds. PMID:25896379

  2. A Measured Approach to Adopting New Media in the Business Communication Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Peter W.; Okoro, Ephraim

    2010-01-01

    At each Association for Business Communication (ABC) conference the authors have attended in the past 2 to 3 years, the many presentations focusing on social networking, blogs, wikis, and various Web 2.0 technologies have captured their attention. They welcome the wonderful, new communication tools that increasingly allow people to communicate and…

  3. A Measured Approach to Adopting New Media in the Business Communication Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Peter W.; Okoro, Ephraim

    2010-01-01

    At each Association for Business Communication (ABC) conference the authors have attended in the past 2 to 3 years, the many presentations focusing on social networking, blogs, wikis, and various Web 2.0 technologies have captured their attention. They welcome the wonderful, new communication tools that increasingly allow people to communicate and…

  4. A Taxonomy of Concepts in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Reed H.; Haroldsen, Edwin O.

    To provide a body of descriptive information in the communications field, simple explanations of 60 basic concepts are provided. Covered are basic elements of communication, forms of communication, what is communicated, process and effects, mass media functions, social environment for communication, and investigative approaches and tools. Concepts…

  5. Mass Communication as Political Rhetoric: A Critique of Representation and Commodity Theories of Mass Media Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that contemporary rhetorical theory and research can use important insights into the nature of mass media language that representation and commodity theories cannot incorporate. Suggests that, by recognizing the rhetorical aspects of media language, scholars can legitimize the research and the dialogue that are required for the…

  6. A Communication Model for Teaching a Course in Mass Media and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumley, Wilma; Stricklin, Michael

    Many professors of mass media and society courses have relied on a teaching model implying that students are sponges soaking up information. A more appropriate model invites concern with an active audience, transaction, the interpersonal mass media mix, a general systems approach, and process and change--in other words, utilization of current and…

  7. Global Communication, for the Powerful or the People? Media & Values 61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Rosalind, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of "Media & Values" explores the growing influence of mass media and how that influence is concentrated in the hands of a few powerful individuals or corporations. The essays present various interpretations of that influence and the implications for the world. Articles include: (1) "All Power to the Conglomerate" (Stewart Hoover); (2)…

  8. The Communications Technology Explosion: Now That the School Media Specialist and Everyone Else is a Technologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belland, John C.

    1982-01-01

    Technological advances in microelectronics-photonics, brain research, and genetic manipulation are discussed, along with their implications for school media programs. Three possible futures for the year 2001 are proffered. Media specialists are urged to adopt only those technologies which truly contribute to efficient management, information…

  9. Immersive Media Environments for Special Education: Developing Agency in Communication for Youth with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolentino, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes the development of a state-of-the-art immersive media environment and its potential to motivate high school youth with autism to vocally express themselves. Due to the limited availability of media environments in public education settings, studies on the use of such systems in special education contexts are rare. A…

  10. The Communications Technology Explosion: Now That the School Media Specialist and Everyone Else is a Technologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belland, John C.

    1982-01-01

    Technological advances in microelectronics-photonics, brain research, and genetic manipulation are discussed, along with their implications for school media programs. Three possible futures for the year 2001 are proffered. Media specialists are urged to adopt only those technologies which truly contribute to efficient management, information…

  11. Communicating on Different Non-Level Playing Fields: Mixing Journalism with Communication Studies and/or Electronic Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Norman J.

    Some college administrators have used the recession of the late 1980s and early 1990s to make program cuts that they have wanted to make all along for political or personal reasons. The mission statements of universities often are general enough to allow much interpretation and interpolation. If a statement calls for communication skills,…

  12. The Social Effects of Communication Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhamer, Herbert, Ed.; Westrum, Ronald

    The principal technological developments that underlie the communication revolution, especially the transistor and the computer, are reviewed in a nontechnical way. A number of devices and communication subsystems, such as cable television, ultramicrofiche, and communication satellites, that make use of these developments are then described,…

  13. Characteristics That Contribute to Effective Simultaneous Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallery-Ruganis, Dominique; Fischer, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Videotapes of simultaneous communication users were analyzed by three sign language professionals. Successful simultaneous communication was characterized by clear lip movement, fingerspelling of ambiguous signs, eye contact, communication of mood and attitude, modality match, and grammatical facial expression. Matching the semantically…

  14. Revealing the Effectivenesses of Communication Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the history of communication strategy and highlight the importance of strategic competence. It provides the histories and characterizations of communication strategy. Besides, it presents from which perspectives these definitions of communication strategies were developed. Various earlier and latter…

  15. The Social Effects of Communication Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhamer, Herbert, Ed.; Westrum, Ronald

    The principal technological developments that underlie the communication revolution, especially the transistor and the computer, are reviewed in a nontechnical way. A number of devices and communication subsystems, such as cable television, ultramicrofiche, and communication satellites, that make use of these developments are then described,…

  16. Effectiveness of alcohol media literacy programmes: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Chloe S; Hindmarsh, Chloe S; Jones, Sandra C; Kervin, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To provide insight into some of these questions, a systematic literature review of alcohol media literacy studies was conducted. The review was guided by the following research question: What considerations are needed to develop an effective school-based alcohol media literacy programme? On the basis of a critical synthesis of 10 interventions (published in the period 1997 to May 2014), our findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the descriptive, methodological and outcome characteristics of this small body of significant research. The review provides considerations for future alcohol media literacy programmes, including the need for an interactive pedagogical approach within the naturalistic school setting, implementation fidelity and a holistic approach to programme evaluation, a means for maintaining relevance, consideration of gender differences, relevance for an international audience and use of follow-up and longitudinal data. PMID:25840435

  17. How Effective Is Communication Training For Aircraft Crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, Charlotte; Goguen, Joseph; Devenish, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Report surveys communication training for aircraft crews. Intended to alleviate problems caused or worsened by poor communication and coordination among crewmembers. Focuses on two training methods: assertiveness training and grid-management training. Examines theoretical background of methods and attempts made to validate their effectiveness. Presents criteria for evaluating applicability to aviation environment. Concludes communication training appropriate for aircraft crews.

  18. The Teacher as Communicator: An Aspect of Teacher Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, David R.; And Others

    Experiments were devised to determine teacher effectiveness on the basis of ability to communicate, on the assumption that no relevant learning will occur if communication is faulty. A series of communication games involved an encoder (teacher) and decoder (student) to provide tentative answers to the questions: 1) Are there individual differences…

  19. The Variable Influence of Audience Activity on Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, JungKee; Rubin, Alan M.

    1997-01-01

    Hypothesizes that instrumental media motivation, selectivity, attention, and involvement are positive predictors of satisfaction, parasocial interaction, and cultivation effects from watching daytime television serials; avoidance, distraction, and skepticism were seen as negative predictors. Finds support for these expectations through three path…

  20. An effective media toolset for use in metamaterial design.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, William Arthur; Sinclair, Michael B.; Warne, Larry Kevin; Langston, William L.; Basilio, Lorena I.

    2010-06-01

    This paper introduces an effective-media toolset that can be used for the design of metamaterial structures based on metallic components such as split-ring resonators and dipoles, as well as dielectric spherical resonators. For demonstration purposes the toolset will be used to generate infrared metamaterial designs, and the predicted performances will be verified with full-wave numerical simulations.

  1. Promoting the Michigan organ donor registry: evaluating the impact of a multifaceted intervention utilizing media priming and communication design.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tyler R; Morgan, Susan E; King, Andy J; Di Corcia, Mark J; Williams, Elizabeth A; Ivic, Rebecca K; Hopeck, Paula

    2010-12-01

    There are currently more than 100,000 individuals waiting for an organ transplant. Organ donor registries represent the easiest and most concrete way for people to declare their intent to donate, but organ donor registries are vastly underutilized. This study reports a campaign intervention designed to increase the rate of joining the Michigan Organ Donor Registry. Grounding intervention development in the theoretical principles of media priming and communication design, the intervention took place in two waves in three counties in Michigan. Each intervention consisted of a media component, point-of-decision materials, and an interpersonal component. Increases in registration rates of 200 to 300% in each intervention county, compared to stable statewide trends in registry rates, provide evidence of highly successful intervention efforts. The rate of registry increase in intervention counties was approximately 1,900% higher than statewide on a per capita basis. PMID:21153986

  2. Science Express: Out-of-Home-Media to Communicate Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R.

    2013-12-01

    Science Express is an initiative to explore, develop, and test various approaches to using Out-of-Home-Media (OHM) to engage adults riding mass transit. To date, three projects represent this work: 1) Carbon Smarts Conference, 2) Cool Science, and 3) ScienceToGo.org. While the aim of each project is different, together they serve an immediate need to understand how OHM can be leveraged as an informal science learning medium. Using Climate Change as the content focus, each project is a variation on the theme of understanding mass transit as a form of mobile classroom for riders. The basic idea behind these initiatives is to engage individuals who do not necessarily read the science magazines, listen to science radio shows, or watch science programming on television. Science Express is about bringing the science learning opportunity to the audience during their daily routines. Mass Transit provides an ideal opportunity for engaging the disengaged in science learning since they represent a ';captive' audience while waiting at the bus stop, standing on the platform, riding inside the bus or train. These ';downtimes' present informal science educators with the opportunity to foster some science learning. With the advent of smartphone technology and its explosion in popularity among consumers, OHM is poised to offer riders a new kind of real time learning experience. The Science Express projects aim to understand the strengths and weaknesses of this new model for informal science learning so as to refine and improve its effectiveness at achieving desired goals. While the Science Express model for informal science learning could be used to foster understanding about any relevant scientific content, the research team chose to use Climate Change as the focus. Climate Change seemed like an obvious because of its timeliness, complexity, robust scientific foundation, and presence in popular media. Nearly all our riders have heard of 'Climate Change' or 'Global Warming', but a much smaller percentage actually understand the underlying science. In addition, riders appear to be very curious and want to know more about these issues.

  3. Coherent quantum effects through dispersive bosonic media

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Saiyun; Yang Zhenbiao; Zheng Shibiao; Serafini, Alessio

    2010-07-15

    The coherent evolution of two qubits mediated by a set of bosonic field modes is investigated. By assuming a specific asymmetric encoding of the quantum states in the internal levels of the qubits, we show that entangling quantum gates can be realized, with high fidelity, even when a large number of mediating modes is involved. The effect of losses and imperfections on the gates' operation is also considered in detail.

  4. Effective Protocols for Mobile Communications and Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, J.; Sholander, P.; Van Leeuwen, B,

    1998-12-01

    This report examines methods of mobile communications with an emphasis on mobile computing and wireless communications. Many of the advances in communications involve the use of Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ad hoc network protocols. However, many of the advances in these protocols have been focused on wired communications. Recently much focus has been directed at advancing communication technology in the area of mobile wireless networks. This report discusses various protocols used in mobile communications and proposes a number of extensions to existing protocols. A detailed discussion is also included on desirable protocol characteristics and evaluation criteria. In addition, the report includes a discussion on several network simulation tools that maybe used to evaluate network protocols.

  5. Adult Willingness to Use Email and Social Media for Peer-to-Peer Cancer Screening Communication: Quantitative Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    Roblin, Douglas W; Wagner, Joann L; Gaglio, Bridget; Williams, Andrew E; Torres Stone, Rosalie; Field, Terry S; Mazor, Kathleen M

    2013-01-01

    Background Adults over age 40 are increasing their use of email and social media, raising interest in use of peer-to-peer Internet-based messaging to promote cancer screening. Objective The objective of our study was to assess current practices and attitudes toward use of email and other e-communication for peer-to-peer dialogues on cancer screening. Methods We conducted in-person interviews with 438 insured adults ages 42-73 in Georgia, Hawaii, and Massachusetts. Participants reported on use of email and other e-communication including social media to discuss with peers routine health topics including breast and colorectal cancer (CRC). We ascertained willingness to share personal CRC screening experiences via conversation, postcard, email, or other e-communication. Health literacy scores were measured. Results Email had been used by one-third (33.8%, 148/438) to discuss routine health topics, by 14.6% (64/438) to discuss breast cancer screening, and by 12.6% (55/438) to discuss CRC screening. Other e-communication was used to discuss routine health topics (11.6%, 51/438), screening for breast cancer (3.9%, 17/438), and CRC (2.3%, 10/438). In the preceding week, 84.5% (370/438) of participants had used email, 55.9% (245/438) had used e-communication of some type; 44.3% (194/438) text, 32.9% (144/438) Facebook, 12.3% (54/438) instant message, 7.1% (31/438) video chat, and 4.8% (21/438) Twitter. Many participants were willing to share their CRC screening experiences via email (32.4%, 142/438 might be willing; 36.3%, 159/438 very willing) and via other e-communication (15.8%, 69/438 might be willing; 14.4%, 63/438 very willing). Individuals willing to send CRC screening emails scored significantly higher on tests of health literacy compared to those willing to send only postcards (P<.001). Conclusions Many adults are willing to use email and e-communication to promote cancer screening to peers. Optimal approaches for encouraging peer-to-peer transmission of accurate and appropriate cancer screening messages must be studied. PMID:24287495

  6. Graphic Design for the Computer Age; Visual Communication for all Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Edward A.

    Because of the rapid pace of today's world, graphic designs which communicate at a glance are needed in all information areas. The essays in this book deal with various aspects of graphic design. These brief essays, each illustrated with graphics, concern the following topics: a short history of visual communication, information design, the merits…

  7. Of Time and the Media: Issues of Temporality in Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, L. David

    The role of temporality as a cognitive and cultural factor in communication processes has been largely neglected in communication research. However, it is possible to examine the representation of time on three levels: allocation of events or actions to categories (as in sacred time versus profane time), temporal orientation, and the content of…

  8. COMMUNICATION IN THE SPACE AGE, THE USE OF SATELLITES BY THE MASS MEDIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    THE FULL IMPACT OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION WILL BE REALIZED ONLY WHEN IT BECOMES FEASIBLE TO SPACECAST DIRECTLY INTO HOMES, FACILITATING INEXPENSIVE LONG-DISTANCE CALLS AND ENABLING CONFERENCES TO BE HELD VIA TELEPHONE AND CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISION. BUSINESS TRAVEL WILL DIMINISH. SPACE COMMUNICATION, BY INCREASING THE FLOW OF INFORMATION AND ITS…

  9. Face to Facebook: Social Media and the Learning and Teaching Potential of Symmetrical, Synchronous Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDoorn, George; Eklund, Antoinette A.

    2013-01-01

    Social networking offers teachers and learners exciting opportunities to communicate. Web 2.0 and its synchronous communications platforms provide new avenues for teachers to deliver curriculum and facilitate learning. Further, they provide new avenues for students to engage and intensify their own learning. Being able to chat in real-time with a…

  10. Say What? Effective communication is safe business

    SciTech Connect

    Schlender, Michael H.

    2007-11-21

    Ineffective safety communication can result in injury and even cost lives. With hazards surrounding workers, such as chemicals, electrical equipment and construction machinery, adequate safety messages and training are imperative for good business. Safety communication in the workplace is so important, it’s required in Washington State. WAC 296-800-130 requires employers to have a method of communicating and evaluating safety and health issues brought up by employers or employees in the workplace. Fortunately, there are lots of resources to help employers communicate with staff.

  11. Effective Interaction: Communicating with and about People with Disabilities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the Workplace ODEP - Office of Disability Employment Policy Disability Employment Policy Resources by Topic Choose a Disability Employment Policy Resource by Topic Effective Interaction: Communicating With and ...

  12. Effect of media use on HIV-related stigma in Sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven; Ramanadhan, Shoba; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2014-01-01

    It is known that HIV-related stigma hinders prevention efforts. Previous studies have documented that HIV-related stigma may be associated with socioeconomic and socioecological factors. Mass media use may moderate this association, but there is limited research addressing that possibility. In this study, based on cross-sectional data pooled from the 2006-2011 Demographic and Health Surveys of 11 sub-Saharan African countries (N?=?204,343), we investigated the moderating effects of exposure to mass media on HIV-related stigma. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that HIV-related stigma tends to be higher among rural residents and individuals with low levels of education and HIV knowledge, as well as those who do not know people living with HIV. Media use was generally associated with low levels of HIV-related stigma, and attenuated the gap between individuals with high and low educational levels. However, the effect of mass media was found to be stronger among urbanites rather than among rural residents, which could lead to a widening gap between the two groups in endorsement of HIV-related stigma. The implication of this study regarding the effect of media use on HIV-related stigma in sub-Saharan Africa is twofold: 1) mass media may have the potential to minimize the gap in HIV-related stigma between individuals with high and low educational levels, and hence future efforts of reducing HIV-related stigma in the region may benefit from utilizing media; 2) due perhaps to low media penetration to rural sub-Saharan Africa, mass media could have the unintended effect of widening the urban-rural gap further unless other more customized and rural-focused communication interventions are put in place. PMID:24945251

  13. Effect of Media Use on HIV-Related Stigma in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven; Ramanadhan, Shoba; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2014-01-01

    It is known that HIV-related stigma hinders prevention efforts. Previous studies have documented that HIV-related stigma may be associated with socioeconomic and socioecological factors. Mass media use may moderate this association, but there is limited research addressing that possibility. In this study, based on cross-sectional data pooled from the 2006–2011 Demographic and Health Surveys of 11 sub-Saharan African countries (N = 204,343), we investigated the moderating effects of exposure to mass media on HIV-related stigma. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that HIV-related stigma tends to be higher among rural residents and individuals with low levels of education and HIV knowledge, as well as those who do not know people living with HIV. Media use was generally associated with low levels of HIV-related stigma, and attenuated the gap between individuals with high and low educational levels. However, the effect of mass media was found to be stronger among urbanites rather than among rural residents, which could lead to a widening gap between the two groups in endorsement of HIV-related stigma. The implication of this study regarding the effect of media use on HIV-related stigma in sub-Saharan Africa is twofold: 1) mass media may have the potential to minimize the gap in HIV-related stigma between individuals with high and low educational levels, and hence future efforts of reducing HIV-related stigma in the region may benefit from utilizing media; 2) due perhaps to low media penetration to rural sub-Saharan Africa, mass media could have the unintended effect of widening the urban-rural gap further unless other more customized and rural-focused communication interventions are put in place. PMID:24945251

  14. Effects of Prelinguistic Communication Levels on Initiation and Repair of Communication in Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Nancy C.; Steeples, Tammy; Fleming, Kandace

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of expressive and receptive language levels on initiated and repaired communication acts by prelinguistic children with developmental disabilities. Method: In this descriptive study, participants were 45 children between the ages of 3 and 6 years who had severe delays in expressive communication. Some…

  15. Effective Communication between Preservice and Cooperating Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawley, Ji Ji; Moore, Jenifer; Smajic, Almir

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews research on communication between preservice and cooperating teachers during a teacher internship. The research reveals that poor communication between preservice teachers and cooperating teachers can cause barriers to planning lessons, feedback, and teaching experiences. Additionally, research indicates that…

  16. Effectively Communicating Science to Extension Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of "framing" within the context of relevant communication and psychological research and considers its potential applicability to Extension science communication. Examples of research-based support for the framing of scientific issues are presented, along with a literature-based discussion of the…

  17. Effectively Communicating Science to Extension Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of "framing" within the context of relevant communication and psychological research and considers its potential applicability to Extension science communication. Examples of research-based support for the framing of scientific issues are presented, along with a literature-based discussion of the…

  18. Effective Communication between Preservice and Cooperating Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawley, Ji Ji; Moore, Jenifer; Smajic, Almir

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews research on communication between preservice and cooperating teachers during a teacher internship. The research reveals that poor communication between preservice teachers and cooperating teachers can cause barriers to planning lessons, feedback, and teaching experiences. Additionally, research indicates that…

  19. Scientists as communicators: A randomized experiment to assess public reactions to scientists' social media communication along the science-advocacy continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotcher, J.; Vraga, E.; Myers, T.; Stenhouse, N.; Roser-Renouf, C.; Maibach, E.

    2014-12-01

    The question of what type of role scientists, or experts more generally, should play in policy debates is a perennial point of discussion within the scientific community. It is often thought that communication containing some form of policy advocacy is likely to compromise the perceived credibility of the individual scientist engaged in such behavior, with the possibility that it may also harm the credibility of the scientific community more broadly. Rather than evaluating statements in a binary fashion as representing either pure objectivity or pure advocacy, one recent model proposes that public communication by scientists should instead be thought of as falling along a continuum based upon the extent of normative judgment implicit in a statement. This approach predicts that as the extent of normative judgment increases, it poses a relatively greater risk to a scientist's perceived credibility. Though such a model is conceptually useful, little empirical social science research has systematically explored how individuals form judgments about different types of advocacy to examine common assumptions about the relative risks associated with such behaviors. In this presentation, we will report results from a national online experiment (N=1200) that examines audience responses to fictional social media posts written by either a climate scientist or a television weathercaster. Following the above model, the posts represent differing degrees of advocacy defined by the extent of normative judgment implicit in each statement. In instances where a specific policy is advocated, we examine whether participants' reactions are shaped by the extent to which the policy mentioned is congruent with one's political ideology. We hope this study will serve as an exemplar of applied science communication research that can begin to help inform scientists and other experts about the potential implications of different communication options they may choose from in deciding how to engage with policy.

  20. Acute hypocalcemic effects of clinical contrast media injections.

    PubMed

    Berger, R E; Gomez, L S; Mallette, L E

    1982-02-01

    A decrease in free ionic calcium levels has been reported in the coronary sinus after coronary artery injections of small doses (9 ml) of radiographic contrast media, but there were no studies of the systemic effects of larger doses of medium. Therefore, the acute effects of two commonly used radiographic contrast media on calcium metabolism were studied in nine patients undergoing angiography and five patients undergoing computed tomography. Free ionic calcium (Ca++) in serum was measured by ion-specific electrode, and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone by a highly sensitive radioimmunoassay. Infusion of Renografin or Reno-M-DIP acutely lowered serum Ca++ and produced an immediate increase in parathyroid hormone in each patient studied. Serum Ca++ fell to or below the lower limit of normal in about half the patients. The changes in Ca++ and parathyroid hormone were 2.5- to 4.5-fold greater than those observed after rapid infusion of equal or larger volumes of normal saline. In vitro, the contrast media had no direct effect on the parathyroid hormone assay, but reduced the Ca++ concentration of aqueous calcium solutions by about the amount predicted from their content of disodium edetate and sodium citrate. Contrast agents that contain divalent cation chelators should be used with care in patients in whom a fall in free ionic calcium might have detrimental effects. PMID:6976732

  1. School Communications 2.0: A Social Media Strategy for K-12 Principals and Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Daniel Dean

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, multiple-case study was two-fold: 1) to describe, analyze, and interpret the experiences of school principals and superintendents who use multiple social media tools such as blogs, microblogs, social networking sites, podcasts, and online videos with stakeholders as part of their comprehensive communications…

  2. Science, Politics, and the Mass Media: On Biased Communication of Environmental Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll-Hansen, Nils

    1994-01-01

    Based on the study of two issues, forest death from acid rain and the size of whale stocks, this article shows how the constraints of commercial mass media can be contrary to the task of enlightenment. (42 references) (Author/MKR)

  3. Children, Television and the New Media. Communication Research and Broadcasting No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Paul, Ed.; Meyer, Manfred, Ed.

    This book is a collection of selected articles (published in the 1990s) from "TelevIZIon," a specialized journal of the "Internationales Zentralinstitut fur das Jugend--und Bildungsfernsehen," that take up problems relating to media research and present national and international developments in the field of children's and young people's…

  4. Preferences in the Use of Social Media for Seeking and Communicating Health and Lifestyle Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pálsdóttir, Ágústa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The paper presents findings from a study investigating the health and lifestyle information behaviour of different groups of Icelanders. The paper focuses on the use of social media and its role in current information behaviour. Method: Quantitative methods were used. Two random samples were used in the study and the data were…

  5. Communication Media and Perceptions of Undocumented Immigrants: The Case of San Diego.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, C. Richard; Loveman, Brian

    A telephone survey of 500 adults in the San Diego, California, area was conducted to examine the role of mass media in shaping views of the respondents toward undocumented immigrants from Mexico. The sample, designed to reflect all adults in the area, was distorted somewhat by a refusal rate of approximately 30%. The results showed that the most…

  6. Communication Media and Perceptions of Undocumented Immigrants: The Case of San Diego.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, C. Richard; Loveman, Brian

    A telephone survey of 500 adults in the San Diego, California, area was conducted to examine the role of mass media in shaping views of the respondents toward undocumented immigrants from Mexico. The sample, designed to reflect all adults in the area, was distorted somewhat by a refusal rate of approximately 30%. The results showed that the most…

  7. Medicine and the Media: A Course in Communication Skills for Clinician-Executives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan-Davidson, Dorothy J.; Kunz, Jeffrey

    The Administrative Medicine Program of the University of Wisconsin-Madison has developed a course entitled "Medicine and the Media" for clinician-executives and health care professionals who may assume administrative responsibilities. The course is designed to help students (1) understand the respective roles and demands of both the medical…

  8. The #EduElection: Owning the Debate through Communications and Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinocur, Julian

    2014-01-01

    For nearly a decade, New York City education groups organizing to improve education under Bloomberg could regularly be found protesting on the steps of City Hall. Before the 2013 mayoral race, a typical education protest would--at its best--earn media coverage from a couple of outlets. The fact that parents, students, and teachers rally for more…

  9. Children, Television and the New Media. Communication Research and Broadcasting No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Paul, Ed.; Meyer, Manfred, Ed.

    This book is a collection of selected articles (published in the 1990s) from "TelevIZIon," a specialized journal of the "Internationales Zentralinstitut fur das Jugend--und Bildungsfernsehen," that take up problems relating to media research and present national and international developments in the field of children's and young people's…

  10. The Effects of Frequency of Media Utilization on Decision Making of Media Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotoh, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use the Analytic Hierarchy Process in order to identify how frequency of media use in daily life affects decision-making in media choice. 276 university students took part in this research, They were asked to prioritize their ways of obtaining information about current affairs using sets of media such as TV, books,…

  11. Communication Effectiveness of Individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Laura J.; Beukelman, David R.; Pattee, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among speech intelligibility and communication effectiveness as rated by speakers and their listeners. Participants completed procedures to measure (a) speech intelligibility, (b) self-perceptions of communication effectiveness, and (c) listener (spouse or family member) perceptions of…

  12. Communication Effectiveness of Individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Laura J.; Beukelman, David R.; Pattee, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among speech intelligibility and communication effectiveness as rated by speakers and their listeners. Participants completed procedures to measure (a) speech intelligibility, (b) self-perceptions of communication effectiveness, and (c) listener (spouse or family member) perceptions of…

  13. Communication in Surveys: Examining Cognitive Effects in Survey Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Charles T.; And Others

    Panel studies have frequently been used by mass communication researchers. While these studies allow researchers to draw inferences about mass communication effects over time, they also tend to sensitize respondents to the issue under study. A study was undertaken to investigate panel effects by examining the survey interview as a medium of…

  14. Mass Media in Adult Education: Methodological Aspects of Media Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    Those involved in mass media and adult education in the Third World, including researchers in education, communication, and instructional technology, operators of mass media programs, and national policy makers, should regard themselves as change agents. In order to function effectively as such they must understand the methodological aspects of…

  15. Calculation of the effective permeability of saturated random porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostvar, S.; Wood, B. D.; Apte, S.; Liburdy, J.

    2014-12-01

    Estimation of the effective permeability tensor is an essential part of Darcy-scale representations of flow in porous media. The permeability tensor itself is a property of the medium, and depends only on the microscale geometry of the system. Determining the functional relationships between effective permeability (or conductivity in the general sense) and the structure of the medium is an old problem, with the earliest results for ordered porous media dating the 1920's. In this presentation, we report on the results of (1) detailed theory development, and (2) computations for the effective permeability tensor in fully-saturated random sphere packs, with a focus on the computational results. The theory is developed by volume averaging the Stokes equations, and using developing appropriate closures via potential theory, and has been reported on previously. For the computations, we have adopted an immersed boundary method to fully resolve the pore-scale velocity field. From our results, we compute the hydraulic permeability for both ordered and random media, and we compare these results with existing analytical solutions for the hydraulic conductivity in periodic arrays.

  16. Effective Interpersonal Communication: A Practical Guide to Improve Your Life.

    PubMed

    Vertino, Kathleen A

    2014-01-01

    Use of effective interpersonal communication strategies by nurses in both personal and professional settings, may reduce stress, promote wellness, and therefore, improve overall quality of life. This article briefly explores the concept of interpersonal communication as it relates to Maslow's hierarchy of human needs; describes personal variables and the interaction of internal and external variables that can impact communication; and discusses possible causes and consequences of ineffective communication. Drawing on both the literature and experiences as a longtime provider of care in the mental health field, the author offers multiple practical strategies, with specific examples of possible responses for effective communication. Recommendations in this article are intended for nurses to consider as they seek healthy communication strategies that may be useful in both their personal and professional lives. PMID:26824149

  17. Communicating Effectively About Clinical Trials With African American Communities: A Comparison of African American and White Information Sources and Needs.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Andrea; Bergeron, Caroline D; Zheng, Yue; Friedman, Daniela B; Kim, Sei-Hill; Foster, Caroline B

    2016-03-01

    Clinical trial (CT) participation is low among African Americans (AAs). To better communicate with AAs about the importance of CTs, the purpose of this study was to explore the communication sources and perceived effective communication channels and strategies through which the general public, AAs, and White individuals receive CT information. A quantitative telephone survey was conducted with AAs and Whites in one Southern state (N = 511). The measures assessed CT sources of information, perceived effectiveness of communication channels and strategies, CT understanding, and CT participation. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to compare responses overall and by race. AAs reported being exposed to more CT information than Whites. AAs received CT information most often through television, social media, and doctors compared to Whites. Perceived effectiveness of communication strategies and channels varied by race. AAs preferred simple and easy-to-understand CT information distributed through faith-based organizations. Whites preferred to receive CT information through a trustworthy source (e.g., doctor). There were no significant differences between AAs and Whites in their perceived effectiveness of media sources (e.g., Internet). Recommendations are provided to help health promotion practitioners and CT recruiters tailor information and communicate it effectively to potential AA and White CT participants. PMID:26715695

  18. Public Relations: The Route to Success and Influence. Public Relations for Your Library: A Tool for Effective Communications; Tooting Your Own Horn: Web-Based Public Relations for the School Media Specialist; Bookmarks as a Teaching Tool; Customers and Culture: The Who and What of Library Public Relations Efforts; Strategies for Successful Job Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Linda; Silverstein, Roberta; Fisher, Julieta Dias; Hill, Ann; Hegel, Claudette; Miller, Donna; Moyer, Mary

    2002-01-01

    This special section includes five articles that discuss public relations strategies for school librarians. Highlights include effective communication, including measuring and evaluating the success of public relations efforts; Web-based public relations; giving bookmarks to students; customers and cultural contexts; and successful job…

  19. Public Relations: The Route to Success and Influence. Public Relations for Your Library: A Tool for Effective Communications; Tooting Your Own Horn: Web-Based Public Relations for the School Media Specialist; Bookmarks as a Teaching Tool; Customers and Culture: The Who and What of Library Public Relations Efforts; Strategies for Successful Job Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Linda; Silverstein, Roberta; Fisher, Julieta Dias; Hill, Ann; Hegel, Claudette; Miller, Donna; Moyer, Mary

    2002-01-01

    This special section includes five articles that discuss public relations strategies for school librarians. Highlights include effective communication, including measuring and evaluating the success of public relations efforts; Web-based public relations; giving bookmarks to students; customers and cultural contexts; and successful job…

  20. Effects of Videotaped Role Playing on Nurses' Therapeutic Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Kay F.; Kroth, Jerome A.

    1976-01-01

    Research determining the effectiveness of videotape recorded (VTR) role playing as a teaching technique was conducted on nurses attending continuing education classes in verbal and nonverbal therapeutic communication skills. VTR appears to be an effective technique. (LH)

  1. The effect of thermal fluctuation on tilted perpendicular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, X. Z.; Jalil, M. B. A.

    2005-05-01

    We investigated via micromagnetic simulation the effect of thermal fluctuation on the stability and transition width of a tilted media with easy axis oriented at 45° and 135° with respect to the vertical along the down-track direction. A dynamic model of the recording process is presented which incorporates a Westmijze head field rotated by 90°. Thermal fluctuations are modeled via a stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation with a temperature-dependent white-noise field. The dependence of the transition parameter a between adjacent bits and signal-to-noise ratio on temperature is investigated, and comparison between these values of the perpendicular medium and those of the two types of tilted media is performed.

  2. Social Change and Mass Media: Towards a Cybernetic Communication Model for National Development in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Charles M.

    Noting that China has undergone tremendous social change in its three decades under the Marxist-Leninist-Maoist ideology, this paper contends that such change has triggered tension that upsets the equilibrium of the entire social system. The paper uses Talcott Parson's cybernetic communication model to explain the societal level changes that have…

  3. Social Media and Networking Technologies: An Analysis of Collaborative Work and Team Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoro, Ephraim A.; Hausman, Angela; Washington, Melvin C.

    2012-01-01

    Digital communication increases students' learning outcomes in higher education. Web 2.0 technologies encourages students' active engagement, collaboration, and participation in class activities, facilitates group work, and encourages information sharing among students. Familiarity with organizational use and sharing in social networks aids…

  4. An Experiential Approach to Teaching Communication Theory: Incorporating Contemporary Media To Clarify Theoretical Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamoureux, Elizabeth R.

    For professors who have been assigned the task of teaching communication theory, carefully chosen examples of films, videos, TV clips, or music can be productively used to support instruction. Both research and experience have shown that the visual and aural channels are excellent forms of amplifying, clarifying, and justifying theoretical…

  5. The Use of Social Media Tools by School Principals to Communicate between Home and School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, Joseph A., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Research has documented numerous benefits of parent involvement in children's education including increased attendance, increased test scores and better behavior. Access to increased and meaningful communication between home and school enhances parent involvement. The utilization of technology through the use of the Internet and e-mail for school…

  6. The Use of Social Media Tools by School Principals to Communicate between Home and School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, Joseph A., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Research has documented numerous benefits of parent involvement in children's education including increased attendance, increased test scores and better behavior. Access to increased and meaningful communication between home and school enhances parent involvement. The utilization of technology through the use of the Internet and e-mail for school…

  7. Approaches to Human Communication Training: The Sociological Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metallinos, Nikos

    Since contemporary media have an undisputed effect on the shaping of the social values of society, careful training of communication media specialists is needed, as well as unified international policies for such training. In a rapidly advancing technological society, the media communicator's task is twofold: first, to firmly grasp and conquer…

  8. Subliminal communication technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Various types of subliminal communication devices presently in use, the psychological basis for subliminal technology, and the effectiveness of subliminal communication for therapy are examined as well as potentials for abuse. Social, legal, and ethical aspects are considered with respect to the privacy and autonomy of captive audiences. Implications for the regulation of subliminal techniques are reviewed with application to the various media.

  9. Are pharmaceutical marketing decisions calibrated to communications effects?

    PubMed

    Cavusgil, Erin; Calantone, Roger

    2011-10-01

    Marketing managers continually struggle with how to maximize the effects of an integrated marketing communications strategy. The growing number of available communication outlets, as well as highly varying competitive landscapes, adds further complexity to this challenge. This empirical study examines the differential impact within a pharmaceutical market therapeutic category where both "push" and "pull" communication strategies operate on consumers and gatekeepers alike, in an atmosphere of unrelenting product innovation and broad competition. Furthermore, we explore how two contingency variables-(a) the competitive landscape, and (b) the product's length of time on the market-interact with these communication efforts and affect brand and category sales. PMID:22054028

  10. Shared Characteristics of College Faculty Who Are Effective Communicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsberg, Sarah M.

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to identify what characteristics faculty who are effective classroom communicators share. Qualitative methods of interviews and observations were used to collect data at two public, comprehensive universities. College faculty with good communication, particularly, immediacy and clarity, were all found to have humanistic views of…

  11. Amelia Bedelia in the Library or Effective Communication for Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Frances Ruth

    This paper discusses ways in which how both formal and informal library leaders can utilize communication principles to persuade, motivate, and build positive employee relations. Noting that effective communication takes time, it is suggested that administrators talk with, not to, individual staff members, and that they (1) use direct eye contact;…

  12. Amelia Bedelia in the Library or Effective Communication for Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Frances Ruth

    This paper discusses ways in which how both formal and informal library leaders can utilize communication principles to persuade, motivate, and build positive employee relations. Noting that effective communication takes time, it is suggested that administrators talk with, not to, individual staff members, and that they (1) use direct eye contact;…

  13. Creating the Conditions for Effective Communication and Learning in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Monica

    2008-01-01

    The author believes that effective communication is an essential factor in overcoming differences and creating an environment where people can come together to learn, work, or play. Communication on the surface seems a straightforward endeavour. In practice, it is fraught with a multitude of issues that are dependent on the parties involved, who…

  14. Focal Event, Contextualization, and Effective Communication in the Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Per; Ryve, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop analytical tools for studying mathematical communication in collaborative activities. The theoretical construct of contextualization is elaborated methodologically in order to study diversity in individual thinking in relation to effective communication. The construct of contextualization highlights issues of…

  15. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Developing Effective Communication in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cresencio; Katz, Judy H.

    Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) is a method that teachers can use to increase their communication effectiveness by matching their communication patterns with those of their students. The basic premise of NLP is that people operate and make sense of their experience through information received from the world around them. This information is…

  16. Neuro-Linguistics Programming: Developing Effective Communication in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cresencio; Katz, Judy H.

    1983-01-01

    Students and teachers experience the world primarily through visual, kinesthetic, or auditory representational systems. If teachers are aware of their own favored system and those of their students, classroom communication will improve. Neurolinguistic programing can help teachers become more effective communicators. (PP)

  17. Cue Effectiveness in Communicatively Efficient Discourse Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Ting; Jaeger, T. Florian

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge in accounts motivated by information theory that consider language production to be partially driven by a preference for communicative efficiency. Evidence from discourse production (i.e., production beyond the sentence level) has been argued to suggest that speakers distribute information across discourse so as to…

  18. Cue Effectiveness in Communicatively Efficient Discourse Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Ting; Jaeger, T. Florian

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge in accounts motivated by information theory that consider language production to be partially driven by a preference for communicative efficiency. Evidence from discourse production (i.e., production beyond the sentence level) has been argued to suggest that speakers distribute information across discourse so as to…

  19. Exploring Effective Communication for Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordin, Eric John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore experiences and perceptions of organizational leaders regarding organizational change communication to improve change results in an organizational setting. Building on a conceptual framework of organizational theory, 25 full-time online faculty at an institution of higher learning in the southwestern…

  20. Ocean environmental effects on walrus communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denes, Samuel L.

    This work aimed to develop source characteristics and transmission effects for the acoustic breeding displays of male Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). Pacific walrus breeding activities occur in late winter in the Bering Sea, an area renowned for extreme weather conditions and high biological productivity. During the breeding season, males perform acoustic displays while swimming in the vicinity of females hauled out on ice. Underwater vocalizations heard by individuals hauled out on ice may be important in the mate selection process. The extreme environment in which walrus breeding activities occur precludes direct observation of these animals during this important period and has resulted in a lack of data. A combination of remote-sensing data, captive animal research, controlled environment experiment, and computational modeling was used to increase our understanding of the acoustic displays of Pacific walrus. Analysis of recordings of captive and wild male Pacific walrus vocalizations during breeding season provided quantification of source characteristics. Working with a captive animal provided the ability to make direct observations of a male producing breeding vocalizations and the direct calculation of source level. The mean peak to peak source level of the impulsive knocks produced by the captive male was 183 dB (re: 1 microPa) with the middle 95% of the knocks between 168 dB and 195 dB. The broadband knock signals contained significant acoustic energy up to 13 kHz. To estimate source level from wild vocalizations, the location of the source walrus first needed to be determined. Using a method of relative multipath arrival time, more than 37,000 knocks were localized from six years of data from autonomous recorders deployed in the Bering Sea. The mean peak-peak source level from the wild recordings was 177 dB (re: 1 microPa) with 95% of the knocks between 163 dB and 189 dB. For both wild and captive vocalizations, a significant relationship between ambient noise level and source level was identified. The Lombard effect, the increase in source level in response to an increase in noise level has not previously been identified in any pinniped species. In both datasets, an increase of approximately 5 dB in source level was found for an increase in 10 dB of noise level. A propagation experiment was conducted to measure the transmission of an impulsive acoustic signal, similar to a walrus knock, from an underwater source through ice and into air. Peak to peak pressure measured in air was approximately 2,500 times lower than pressure measured in water separated by two meters of shorefast ice. The results from this experiment were used to verify the adequacy of a wavenumber integration acoustic propagation model for determining transmission loss in this multi-media environment. Propagation model environments were generated from historical ice thickness and oceanographic data. Modeled received signals were compared with walrus audiometric data to determine what factors impact signal detectability with source level, ice thickness, and range having the greatest impact. The findings of this work suggest that the underwater vocalizations of males making breeding vocalizations are received by females hauled out on ice at audible levels when the females are within a few hundred meters of the males. As the signals exceed the levels estimated to be perceived, these signals may play a role in mate selection by the females. If climate change affects the ice conditions, water depth, and bathymetry where walrus congregate for breeding, mate selection and therefore offspring fitness may be impacted.

  1. Nanoscale optimization of quantum dot media for effective photovoltaic conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sablon, K. A.; Sergeev, A.; Little, J. W.; Vagidov, N.; Mitin, V.

    2014-06-01

    Nanoscale engineering of band profile and potential profile provide effective tools for the management of photoelectron processes in quantum dot (QD) photovoltaic devices. We investigate the QD devices with various 1-?m InAs /GaAs QD media placed in a 3-?m base GaAs p-n junction. We found that n-charging of quantum dots (QDs) create potential barriers around QDs. QD growth between ultrathin AlGaAs layers leads to the formation of AlGaAs "fence" barriers, and reduces the wetting layers (WLs). The barriers around QDs and reduction of the wetting layer substantially suppress recombination processes via QDs. The n-doping of interdot space in QD media enhances electron extraction from QDs. All of our QD devices show short-circuit current, JSC, higher than that of the reference cell, but smaller open-circuit voltage, VOC.. In the QD devices, the short circuit currents increase by ~0.1 mA/cm2 per dot layer. JSC reaches 28.4 mA/cm2 in the device with QD media that combines dot charging, fence barriers, and WL reduction.

  2. Effectiveness factor in reactive transport in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, A. L.; Wood, B. D.

    2012-12-01

    Complex microscale processes significantly influence macroscale reactive transport in porous materials. In systems where there is a heterogenous reaction at the fluid-solid surface, large pore-scale concentration gradients can develop when the rate of reaction is significantly larger than the rate of diffusion. The result is that the concentration near the surface is much lower than the average concentration within the fluid phase. Because the rate of reaction is dependent on only the concentration near the solid phase, the actual reaction rate will be significantly lower than the rate that would be computed if one were to use the average concentration. The frequent experimental observation that reaction rates predicted from batch experiments are greater than those that are actually observed in porous media systems is often due, in part, to this phenomenon. In the chemical engineering literature, the discrepancy between the observed reaction rate versus that predicted from the average coccentration is accounted for using an effectiveness factor. For this work, we report on a method to predict the effectiveness factor for heterogeneous reactions in porous media. This is accomplished by upscaling the microscale transport and reaction phenomena to obtain a macroscale form for the mass balance equation. The effective parameters for this problem (which includes the effectiveness factor) are predicted from a closure problem. We will show that the effectiveness factor is inherently included in the physics the microscale processes, and offer insight into it's computation for a variety of cases.

  3. Brave New Media World: A Science Communications Voyage to the Great Pacific Garbage Patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisewitz, A.; Clark, C. L.

    2009-12-01

    By leveraging online tools, such as blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Google Earth, flickr and web-based discussion boards, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography team recently took science communications out of the static webpage to create an interactive journey that sparked social dialogue and helped raise awareness of science-based research on global marine environmental problems. A crew of 16 researchers, volunteers and support staff, with assistance from the shore-based Scripps Oceanography communications team, took readers and viewers aboard Scripps’ research vessel New Horizon during the 20-day and more than 2,500-mile SEAPLEX expedition (Scripps Environmental Accumulation of Plastic Expedition). The journey to the North Pacific Ocean Gyre, aka “The Great Pacific Garbage Patch,” was chronicled through popular daily blogs and tweets as the researchers shared interesting scientific facts and unusual findings contained in the 100 oceanographic tow samples conducted in the water to collect data on the distribution of plastic near the gyre.

  4. Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Alan

    An informal introduction to the study of communication deals with the major topics in the field. It presents basic theories of communication and language, reviews how language takes on meaning, explains the stimulus-response and Piaget theories of learning, and presents major theories dealing with communications and society. These theories include…

  5. Media Managing Mood: A Look at the Possible Effects of Violent Media on Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Alexandra; LaQuea, Rachel; Cromwell, Rachel; Ferguson, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The potential impact of violent media on children's emotional well-being has been a source of controversy for several decades. To date evidence for a negative impact of violent media on emotional well-being has been mixed and increasingly connected to a "replication crisis" throughout psychological science. Objective: The…

  6. Media Managing Mood: A Look at the Possible Effects of Violent Media on Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Alexandra; LaQuea, Rachel; Cromwell, Rachel; Ferguson, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The potential impact of violent media on children's emotional well-being has been a source of controversy for several decades. To date evidence for a negative impact of violent media on emotional well-being has been mixed and increasingly connected to a "replication crisis" throughout psychological science. Objective: The…

  7. Passing crisis and emergency risk communications: the effects of communication channel, information type, and repetition.

    PubMed

    Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Newbold, Lex; Titchener, Kirsteen

    2015-05-01

    Three experiments explore several factors which influence information transmission when warning messages are passed from person to person. In Experiment 1, messages were passed down chains of participants using five different modes of communication. Written communication channels resulted in more accurate message transmission than verbal. In addition, some elements of the message endured further down the chain than others. Experiment 2 largely replicated these effects and also demonstrated that simple repetition of a message eliminated differences between written and spoken communication. In a final field experiment, chains of participants passed information however they wanted to, with the proviso that half of the chains could not use telephones. Here, the lack of ability to use a telephone did not affect accuracy, but did slow down the speed of transmission from the recipient of the message to the last person in the chain. Implications of the findings for crisis and emergency risk communication are discussed. PMID:25683552

  8. Brave New Media World: Science Communication Voyages through the Global Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, C. L.; Reisewitz, A.

    2010-12-01

    By leveraging online tools, such as blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Google Earth, flickr, web-based discussion boards, and a bi-monthly electronic magazine for the non-scientist, Scripps Institution of Oceanography is taking science communications out of the static webpage to create interactive journeys that spark social dialogue and helped raise awareness of science-based research on global marine environmental issues. Several new initiatives are being chronicled through popular blogs and expedition web sites as researchers share interesting scientific facts and unusual findings in near real-time.

  9. Netiquette: The Rules of the Road for Effective Internet Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnaly, Gene

    1997-01-01

    Presents guidelines for effective Internet communication. Discusses rules for creating e-mail messages; posting messages to online discussion groups and newsgroups; and using initialism and "emoticons." Presents a glossary of common Internet terms. (AEF)

  10. Five Strategic Imperatives for Interdisciplinary Study in Mass Communications/Media Studies in the U.S. and U.K.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrausch, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Interdisciplinary study can allow students to share ideas with scholars in allied fields and broaden their knowledge of global issues. Mass communication/media studies programs in the U.S. and U.K. can serve as models to lead students into successful learning through interdisciplinary study. This paper outlines five strategic imperatives for the…

  11. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (84th, Washington, DC, August 5-8, 2001). Media Ethics Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Media Ethics section of the proceedings contains the following 7 selected papers: "The Ethics Agenda of the Mass Communication Professorate" (Jay Black, Bruce Garrison, Fred Fedler, and Doug White); "What Would the Editor Do? A Three-Year Study of Student-Journalists and the Naming of Rape Victims in the Press" (Kim E. Karloff); "The Role of…

  12. Construccion/Communicacion y Medios Publicitarios. Libro del Profesor (Construction/Communication & Media. Teacher's Guide). B5. CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Hudson Migrant Education Center, New Paltz, NY.

    The guide, written in Spanish, comprises the fourth grade unit of a career education curriculum for migrant students. Focus of the unit is on the tools and tasks of workers in 11 jobs in the construction, communication, and media occupational clusters: heavy equipment operator, architect, mason, carpenter, plumber, electrician, telephone line…

  13. Effective Confining Potential of Quantum States in Disordered Media.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Douglas N; David, Guy; Jerison, David; Mayboroda, Svitlana; Filoche, Marcel

    2016-02-01

    The amplitude of localized quantum states in random or disordered media may exhibit long-range exponential decay. We present here a theory that unveils the existence of an effective potential which finely governs the confinement of these states. In this picture, the boundaries of the localization subregions for low energy eigenfunctions correspond to the barriers of this effective potential, and the long-range exponential decay characteristic of Anderson localization is explained as the consequence of multiple tunneling in the dense network of barriers created by this effective potential. Finally, we show that Weyl's formula based on this potential turns out to be a remarkable approximation of the density of states for a large variety of one-dimensional systems, periodic or random. PMID:26894725

  14. Developing Tools and Techniques to Increase Communication Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Linda A.; Peterson, Doug

    1997-01-01

    The Public Affairs Office (PAO) of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for communicating current JSC Space Program activities as well as goals and objectives to the American Public. As part of the 1996 Strategic Communications Plan, a review of PAO' s current communication procedures was conducted. The 1996 Summer Faculty Fellow performed research activities to support this effort by reviewing current research concerning NASA/JSC's customers' perceptions and interests, developing communications tools which enable PAO to more effectively inform JSC customers about the Space Program, and proposing a process for developing and using consistent messages throughout PAO. Note that this research does not attempt to change or influence customer perceptions or interests but, instead, incorporates current customer interests into PAO's communication process.

  15. Exploring Spanish health social media for detecting drug effects

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) cause a high number of deaths among hospitalized patients in developed countries. Major drug agencies have devoted a great interest in the early detection of ADRs due to their high incidence and increasing health care costs. Reporting systems are available in order for both healthcare professionals and patients to alert about possible ADRs. However, several studies have shown that these adverse events are underestimated. Our hypothesis is that health social networks could be a significant information source for the early detection of ADRs as well as of new drug indications. Methods In this work we present a system for detecting drug effects (which include both adverse drug reactions as well as drug indications) from user posts extracted from a Spanish health forum. Texts were processed using MeaningCloud, a multilingual text analysis engine, to identify drugs and effects. In addition, we developed the first Spanish database storing drugs as well as their effects automatically built from drug package inserts gathered from online websites. We then applied a distant-supervision method using the database on a collection of 84,000 messages in order to extract the relations between drugs and their effects. To classify the relation instances, we used a kernel method based only on shallow linguistic information of the sentences. Results Regarding Relation Extraction of drugs and their effects, the distant supervision approach achieved a recall of 0.59 and a precision of 0.48. Conclusions The task of extracting relations between drugs and their effects from social media is a complex challenge due to the characteristics of social media texts. These texts, typically posts or tweets, usually contain many grammatical errors and spelling mistakes. Moreover, patients use lay terminology to refer to diseases, symptoms and indications that is not usually included in lexical resources in languages other than English. PMID:26100267

  16. Effective Communication in the Performance Appraisal Interview: Face-to-Face Communication for Public Managers in the Culturally Diverse Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikoski, John F.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses six microcommunication skills to help managers communicate effectively in performance-appraisal interviews. Reviews models that have conceptualized interpersonal communication and presents a theoretical model that may assist managers and stimulate scholarly research. (JOW)

  17. From Mars to Media: The Phoenix Mars Mission and the Challenges of Real-Time, Multimedia Science Communication and Public Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S.; Bitter, C.

    2008-12-01

    Although the Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Mars Odyssey Missions set the standard for science communication and public education about Mars, the Phoenix Mission was presented with robust new communication challenges and opportunities. The new frontier includes Web 2.0, international forums, internal and external blogs, social networking sites, as well as the traditional media and education outlets for communicating science and information. We will explore the highlights and difficulties of managing the 'message from Mars' in our current multimedia saturated world while balancing authentic science discoveries, public expectations, and communication demands. Our goal is to create a more science savvy public and a more communication oriented science community for the future. The key issues are helping the public and our scientists distinguish between information and knowledge and managing the content that connects the two.

  18. Tweeting About Testing: Do Low-Income, Parenting Adolescents and Young Adults Use New Media Technologies to Communicate About Sexual Health?

    PubMed Central

    Divecha, Zai; Divney, Anna; Ickovics, Jeannette; Kershaw, Trace

    2014-01-01

    Context Little research exists about adolescents' and young adults' use of new media technologies to communicate about sexual health. Understanding how young people at high risk for STDs use these technologies can inform media-based interventions. Methods Between October 2010 and March 2011, a sample of 94 low-income, parenting adolescents and young adults recruited at clinics in Connecticut completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview about their use of media technologies, communication with friends about sexual health and willingness to use media technologies for such communication. Descriptive statistics were calculated; characteristics of those willing and those unwilling to communicate were compared in chi-square, t and Mann-Whitney tests. Results Ninety-three percent of participants had mobile phones; 71% used Facebook regularly. Participants discussed sexual health more often with close friends than with casual friends, and preferred to have such conversations in person (71% with close friends and 68% with casual friends), over the phone (52% and 45%) or via text message (30% and 28%), rather than through social networking sites (0–9% and 2–7%). Fewer than one-third reported being willing to share sexual health information with friends through a specific new media technology. Those who were willing were predominantly black (59%); of those who were unwilling, 51% were Latino. Condom self-efficacy, STD knowledge and number of Facebook friends were greater among those who were willing than among those who were unwilling. Conclusions For conversations about sexual health, young urban parents prefer private forms of communication; thus, social networking sites may not aid STD interventions. PMID:22958662

  19. Use of New Media by Turkish Fans in Sport Communication: Facebook and Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Özsoy, Selami

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the use of Facebook and Twitter, two social networks, for sportive reasons in Turkey. To this end, the literature was surveyed and a 5 Likert type data collection tool consisting of 21 questions was developed by the researcher based on the expert views. The sample of the research included 460 sport fans who are college students at Abant ?zzet Baysal University and Sakarya University. It was found in the research that 91.7% of the participants had a profile on Facebook and 13.3% had a profile on Twitter. The rate of opening an account on Twitter, which still has no version in Turkish language, was low. It was found that the fans mostly followed the official site of their favorite team on Facebook, got informed about the sports activities through Facebook and learned news, which they did not hear from other sources. It was also ascertained that male fans used social networks for sportive reasons more than female fans did (p<.05). It is possible to state that social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have become a rapidly-developing alternative medium in sports against traditional media such as newspaper and television. PMID:23487565

  20. New Media in IYA2009: Communicating with the world via the web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Pamela L.; Koppelman, M.; IYA New Media Task Group

    2009-01-01

    In the 2009 International Year of Astronomy, new media will play a prominent role in engaging people in the universe that is theirs to discover. New online projects will take advantage of a diversity of technologies, allowing us to bring content to people through a variety of devices in places they work, play and learn. In this session we will give an overview of our programs, high-lighting: "AstroTwitter," an interface that asks 'What are you looking at?' and allows you to see how observers around the globe (professional and amateur) answer that same question; "Portal to the Universe," your one stop shop for all things new in astronomy; the "365 Days of Astronomy" podcast, which brings you an 8-minute podcast on the people, places, things, thoughts and discoveries in astronomy each day of 2009; new projects to extend Galaxy Zoo to new areas of science both in our solar system and at the edge of the cosmos; our social networking initiatives in Facebook, Flickr and YouTube; and the IYA Second Life® Island, which will be unveiled during this session. In addition to showing you how to access each of these new projects, we will also tell you how you can become a part of the projects in the coming months.

  1. Media education.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents. PMID:20876180

  2. The Use of Post-Purchase Communication to Reduce Dissonance and Improve Direct Marketing Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliman, Ronald E.; Decker, Phillip J.

    1990-01-01

    Demonstrates the use and potentially positive effects of postpurchase communication on order refund requests and reorder rates. Finds that dissonance was effectively reduced through postpurchase communication. (MG)

  3. Prediction of Effective Permeability in Porous Media Based on Spontaneous Imbibition Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jianchao; You, Lijun; Hu, Xiangyun; Wang, Jing; Peng, Ronghua

    2012-07-01

    Permeability is an important parameter for characterizing the transport properties (e.g. heat and mass transfer) of porous media. It is one of the crucial issues that the permeability of porous media is exactly and quickly decided in many fields such as reservoir engineering, groundwater engineering and composite material modeling. Spontaneous imbibition is a fundamental and ubiquitous natural phenomenon extensively existing in a variety of processes. In this paper, the relationships between the height and weight of imbibition versus the time are derived based on Darcy's law, and a simple method for predicting effective permeability of porous media using spontaneous imbibition effect is proposed, including expressions for permeabilities of artificial and natural porous media. The validity of the proposed models is analysed and tested by experimental data.

  4. Anomalous polarization effects during light scattering in random media

    SciTech Connect

    Kuz'min, V. L.; Meglinskii, I. V.

    2010-05-15

    The dependence of the intensity of light backscattered from a layer of a randomly inhomogeneous medium on the polarization of incident light and the size of scatterers has been investigated. The results of numerical simulation have demonstrated that the direction of rotation of the plane of polarization is different in systems with small- and large-scale inhomogeneities. It is shown for the first time that the dependence of the sign of the residual circular polarization on the size of scatterers can be observed in systems described by the Henyey-Greenstein phase function used in simulating biological tissues. A similar anomalous polarization effect, which consists in changing the direction of rotation of the plane of polarization of backscattered light with an increase in the scattering angle, is revealed in studying the coherent backscattering component. These polarization effects are observed in light backscattering from optically active media.

  5. Capillary effect in salt-cemented media of particle sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Hung Truong, Q.; Byun, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Sub

    2015-01-01

    Natural cementation such as salt cementation may significantly affect the geotechnical properties of soils at low confining pressures. Capillary force plays a key role in the distribution patterns of salt cementation resulting from dehydration. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of capillary force on salt cementation through cone penetration testing, electrical conductivity measurements, photographic imaging technique, and nondestructive elastic wave scanning. Granular media is modeled using glass beads which are saturated in salt water and cemented by oven drying. The cone tip resistance profiles, electrical conductivity profiles, and amplitudes of the scanned elastic waves are high at the top of the specimen with small-sized particles, in the middle of the specimen in medium-sized particles, and at the bottom of the specimen in the large-sized particles. Differences in the distribution of salt in the cemented specimens are confirmed from photographic images. The calculated capillary heights are associated with the areas of high salt concentration in the cemented specimens. The four investigation methods used in this study show that the behavior of salt-cemented granular media depends on capillary force in a shallow depth.

  6. Performance effects of irregular communications patterns on massively parallel multiprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltz, Joel; Petiton, Serge; Berryman, Harry; Rifkin, Adam

    1991-01-01

    A detailed study of the performance effects of irregular communications patterns on the CM-2 was conducted. The communications capabilities of the CM-2 were characterized under a variety of controlled conditions. In the process of carrying out the performance evaluation, extensive use was made of a parameterized synthetic mesh. In addition, timings with unstructured meshes generated for aerodynamic codes and a set of sparse matrices with banded patterns on non-zeroes were performed. This benchmarking suite stresses the communications capabilities of the CM-2 in a range of different ways. Benchmark results demonstrate that it is possible to make effective use of much of the massive concurrency available in the communications network.

  7. Exploring the Effect of Mass Media on Perceptions of Infant Feeding.

    PubMed

    Bylaska-Davies, Paula

    2015-09-01

    This qualitative study explored women's perceptions of mass media and infant feeding. Mass media is a universal means of communication with potential to impact social norms. Data obtained from interviews with women (n = 20) were compared with text and visual representation from Internet sites (n = 12) on parenting and infant feeding. Themes from interviews reflected information represented on Internet sites. Participants offered suggestions for future media messages, such as public service announcements of breastfeeding. Participants emphasized that public opinion needs to be altered, and breastfeeding in public would then be viewed as the norm. PMID:25611574

  8. Suicide Communication on Social Media and Its Psychological Mechanisms: An Examination of Chinese Microblog Users

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qijin; Kwok, Chi Leung; Zhu, Tingshao; Guan, Li; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aims to examine the characteristics of people who talk about suicide on Chinese microblogs (referred to as Weibo suicide communication (WSC)), and the psychological antecedents of such behaviors. Methods: An online survey was conducted on Weibo users. Differences in psychological and social demographic characteristics between those who exhibited WSC and those who did not were examined. Three theoretical models were proposed to explain the psychological mechanisms of WSC and their fitness was examined by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Results: 12.03% of our respondents exhibited WSC in the past 12 months. The WSC group was significantly younger and less educated, preferred using blogs and online forums for expressing themselves, and reported significantly greater suicide ideation, negative affectivity, and vulnerable personality compared to non-WSC users. SEM examinations found that Weibo users with higher negative affectivity or/and suicidal ideation, who were also using blogs and forums more, exhibited a significantly higher possibility of WSC. Conclusion: Weibo users who are at greater suicide risk are more likely to talk about suicide on Weibo. WSC is a sign of negative affectivity or suicide ideation, and should be responded to with emotional support and suicide prevention services. PMID:26378566

  9. Ideas for Effective Communication of Statistical Results

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2015-03-01

    Effective presentation of statistical results to those with less statistical training, including managers and decision-makers requires planning, anticipation and thoughtful delivery. Here are several recommendations for effectively presenting statistical results.

  10. Organizational Change: Motivation, Communication, and Leadership Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilley, Ann; Gilley, Jerry W.; McMillan, Heather S.

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates that numerous variables have an impact on a leader's effectiveness. This study explores the behaviors associated with leadership effectiveness in driving change. The findings confirm previous research that identifies change effectiveness skills, while isolating the specific leader behaviors deemed most valuable to implementing…

  11. Peace and the News Media: SANE'S Action Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SANE, Washington, DC.

    Designed to encourage public action in the media, this "action kit" consists of articles and reports dealing with the subjects of peace and the news media. Included are an article by Federal Communications Commissioner Nicholas Jackson which argues that the "law of effective reform" should be applied to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)…

  12. Stigma's Effect on Social Interaction and Social Media Activity.

    PubMed

    Boudewyns, Vanessa; Himelboim, Itai; Hansen, Derek L; Southwell, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatized topics, such as HIV/STD, likely constrain related information sharing in ways that should be apparent in social interactions both on and off the Internet. Specifically, the authors predicted that the more people perceive an issue as stigmatized, the less likely they are to talk about the issue both privately (with sexual partners and peers) and publicly (on Twitter). Study 1 tested the effect of stigma on conversations at the individual level: The authors asked a group of participants (N = 138) about perceived STD-testing stigma, interactions with a sexual partner, and conversations with peers about STD testing. Study 2 assessed whether health conditions, in the aggregate, were less likely to generate social media activity as a function of current stigmatization. Using 259,758 archived Twitter posts mentioning 13 medical conditions, the authors tested whether level of stigma predicted the volume of relevant social media conversation, controlling for each condition's amount of advocacy and Google search popularity from a user's perspective. Findings supported our hypotheses. Individuals who reported perceiving a given health conditions in more stigmatic ways also reported interacting less with others about that topic; Twitter results showed a similar pattern. Results also suggest a more complex story of influence, as funding from the National Institutes of Health (i.e., each conditions amount of advocacy) associated with the examined health conditions also predicted Twitter activity. Overall, these results indicated that stigma had a similar, dampening effect on face-to-face and Twitter interactions. Findings hold theoretical and practical implications, which are discussed. PMID:26087307

  13. Effective Health Risk Communication About Pandemic Influenza for Vulnerable Populations

    PubMed Central

    Tinker, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    The consequences of pandemic influenza for vulnerable populations will depend partly on the effectiveness of health risk communications. Strategic planning should fully consider how life circumstances, cultural values, and perspectives on risk influence behavior during a pandemic. We summarize recent scientific evidence on communication challenges and examine how sociocultural, economic, psychological, and health factors can jeopardize or facilitate public health interventions that require a cooperative public. If ignored, current communication gaps for vulnerable populations could result in unequal protection across society during an influenza pandemic. We offer insights on communication preparedness gleaned from scientific studies and the deliberations of public health experts at a meeting convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, May 1 and 2, 2008. PMID:19797744

  14. Effects of a brief media intervention on expectations, attitudes, and intentions of mental health help seeking.

    PubMed

    Demyan, Amy L; Anderson, Timothy

    2012-04-01

    This study examined the effects of a mass-media video intervention on expectations, attitudes, and intentions to seek help from professional mental health care services. A public service announcement-style, mass-media video intervention was developed, with prior empirical research on help-seeking behaviors organized according to the theory of reasoned action/planned behavior. In total, 228 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: (a) the media-exposed intervention group, who watched programming in which the media intervention was inserted, and (b) the control group, who watched the same programming without the media intervention. The media intervention was not influential on expectation and belief-based barrier variables. However, the media intervention was effective at increasing positive attitudes toward help seeking. Findings regarding the intervention's ability to increase help-seeking intentions for interpersonal problems were complex. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed. PMID:22352947

  15. How effective and cost-effective was the national mass media smoking cessation campaign ‘Stoptober’??

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jamie; Kotz, Daniel; Michie, Susan; Stapleton, John; Walmsley, Matthew; West, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background A national smoking cessation campaign based on behaviour change theory and operating through both traditional and new media was launched across England during late 2012 (‘Stoptober’). In addition to attempting to start a movement in which smokers would quit at the same time in response to a positive mass quitting trigger, the campaign set smokers the goal of being smoke-free for October and embodied other psychological principles in a range of tools and communications. Methods Data on quit attempts were obtained from 31,566 past-year smokers during nationally representative household surveys conducted monthly between 2007 and 2012. The effectiveness of the campaign was assessed by the increase in national quit attempt rate in October relative to other months in 2012 vs. 2007–2011. Results Relative to other months in the year, more people tried to quit in October in 2012 compared with 2007–2011 (OR = 1.79, 95%CI = 1.20–2.68). In 2012 there was an approximately 50% increase in quitting during October compared with other months of the same year (9.6% vs. 6.6%; OR = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.05–2.15), whereas in 2007–2011 the rate in October was non-significantly less than in other months of the same period (6.4% vs. 7.5%; OR = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.70–1.00). Stoptober is estimated to have generated an additional 350,000 quit attempts and saved 10,400 discounted life years (DLY) at less than £415 per DLY in the modal age group. Conclusions Designing a national public health campaign with a clear behavioural target (making a serious quit attempt) using key psychological principles can yield substantial behaviour change and public health impact. PMID:24322004

  16. Cognitive Complexity-Simplicity as a Determinant of Communication Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Claudia L.

    1980-01-01

    Hypothesized that cognitively complex individuals would be more effective than cognitively simple individuals at accomplishing a communication-dependent task. Analysis revealed that messages (generated by an exercise with tinker toy models and a password game) of complex individuals were more effective than the messages of comparatively simple…

  17. Organizational Communication Effectiveness: The View of Corporate Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Susan R.; Eblen, Anna

    1986-01-01

    Compares previous findings regarding dimensions of organizational communication effectiveness with the results of interviews with 48 northwest corporate administrators. Lists six major dimensions of effectiveness: (1) coaching and motivating employees, (2) encouraging worker involvement and participation, (3) self-motivation, (4) problem-solving…

  18. The "Mozart Effect II" and Other Communication/Learning Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Victor; Selman, Ruth Corey; Selman, Jerry; Selman, Elsie

    2007-01-01

    While exploring the development of Communication and Learning Aids in all venues, particularly the effect of music on learning, several different tracks were followed. The therapeutic use of music is for relaxation and stress reduction, which apparently helps the body to access and discharge deeply locked-in material. The Mozart Effect track which…

  19. The "Mozart Effect II" and Other Communication/Learning Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Victor; Selman, Ruth Corey; Selman, Jerry; Selman, Elsie

    2007-01-01

    While exploring the development of Communication and Learning Aids in all venues, particularly the effect of music on learning, several different tracks were followed. The therapeutic use of music is for relaxation and stress reduction, which apparently helps the body to access and discharge deeply locked-in material. The Mozart Effect track which…

  20. 77 FR 19932 - Inmate Communication With News Media: Removal of Byline Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... was published on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21163), and a technical correction (correcting the effective date of the interim rule to May 7, 2010) was published on May 7, 2010 (75 FR 25110). We received one... rule published on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21163), is hereby finalized without change. Executive...

  1. The mass media alone are not effective change agents.

    PubMed

    Ruijter, J M

    1991-01-01

    Social mobilization programs for immunization have been used by African leaders, however, coverage from 20% to 70% in capitals like Mogadishu, Maputo, and Dakar were the result of short campaigns rather than the consequence of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) improvement. One-party states relied on their network of cadres issuing decrees from the top down to enforce completion of these immunization campaigns. Sometimes resistance developed against these programs, as the military mobilized people (e.g., Somalia). These efforts became rather superficial once the temporary pressure evaporated. In Mogadishu coverage increased from 22% to 70% in 1985, and within a year it dropped back to 8% above the original level. Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo where they used regular mini campaigns had better results. Research data from Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia were analyzed. In 1983 in Kenya 73% of health workers never advised their clients, and 82% were incompetent to do so. Data also showed that clinics provided the bulk of information to women aged 15-45 in lower income groups, but they rarely consulted village health workers. Radio and TV programs were not reaching people because radio ownership was not universal (47% in Zambia and 30% in Zimbabwe), and batteries were often not available. In addition, most people turned to the radio for entertainment. In 1989, vaccination coverage was 19% in Luanda, Angola, but only 5% of 232 respondents to an evaluation could name the immunizable diseases. An identical percentage was familiar with these diseases in a Zambian study in 1986. Media experts proposed dramas to raise interest, but innovative mass media programs of dissemination of the message advocated in the 1960s did not prove effective to bring about KAP changes. Training of health and paramedical personnel by mass organizations as initiated in Ethiopia may prove to be worthwhile. PMID:12286484

  2. Understanding Media Development: A Framework and Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, B.J.; Zehnder, S.

    2004-01-01

    The ongoing evolution of communications technologies and systems creates significant challenges for any effort to understand the role of media in the lives of children and adolescents. The dominant paradigm in studying the relationship between children and media has been one of media effects. However, we propose a reciprocal relationship in which…

  3. Changing the home nutrition environment: effects of a nutrition and media literacy pilot intervention.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alexandra E; Dave, Jayna; Tanner, Andrea; Duhe, Sonya; Condrasky, Margaret; Wilson, Dawn; Griffin, Sarah; Palmer, Meredith; Evans, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The specific aim for this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a nutrition and media literacy intervention targeting elementary students and their parents. The purpose of the intervention was to increase child fruit and vegetables (FV) consumption and change the home nutrition environment (measured with FV availability and accessibility and parental social support). During the intervention, students learned about nutrition, the role media plays in shaping values concerning nutrition, and developed a media campaign for their parents. A quasi-experimental research design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. The media intervention was effective in changing the home environment. PMID:16340677

  4. Effects of a brief school-based media literacy intervention on digital media use in adolescents: cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Walther, Birte; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a four-session school-based media literacy curriculum on adolescent computer gaming and Internet use behavior. The study comprised a cluster randomized controlled trial with three assessments (baseline, posttest, and 12-month follow-up). At baseline, a total of 2,303 sixth and seventh grade adolescents from 27 secondary schools were assessed. Of these, 1,843 (80%) could be reached at all three assessments (Mage=12.0 years; SD=0.83). Students of the intervention group received the media literacy program Vernetzte www.Welten ("Connected www.Worlds ") implemented by trained teachers during class time. The control group attended regular class. Main outcome measures were adolescents' computer gaming and Internet use: days per month, hours per day, and addictive use patterns. Parental media monitoring and rules at home were assessed as secondary outcomes. Results of multilevel growth-curve models revealed a significant intervention effect in terms of a lower increase in self-reported gaming frequency (β = -1.10 [95% CI -2.06, -0.13]), gaming time (β = -0.27 [95% CI -0.40, -0.14]), and proportion of excessive gamers (AOR=0.21 [95% CI 0.08, 0.57]) in the intervention group. There were also significant group-time interactions for the addictive gaming scale (β=-0.08 [95% CI -0.12, -0.04]), and the Internet Addiction Scale (β = -0.06 [95% CI -0.10, -0.01]). No effect was found for days and hours of Internet use or parental media behavior. The study shows that the program Vernetzte www.Welten can influence adolescents' media use behavior. Future research should address mediating and moderating variables of program effects. PMID:25126888

  5. Effectiveness of interventions that apply new media to improve vaccine uptake and vaccine coverage

    PubMed Central

    Odone, Anna; Ferrari, Antonio; Spagnoli, Francesca; Visciarelli, Sara; Shefer, Abigail; Pasquarella, Cesira; Signorelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Background Vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) are still a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In high and middle-income settings, immunization coverage is relatively high. However, in many countries coverage rates of routinely recommended vaccines are still below the targets established by international and national advisory committees. Progress in the field of communication technology might provide useful tools to enhance immunization strategies. Objective To systematically collect and summarize the available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions that apply new media to promote vaccination uptake and increase vaccination coverage. Design We conducted a systematic literature review. Studies published from January 1999 to September 2013 were identified by searching electronic resources (Pubmed, Embase), manual searches of references and expert consultation. Study setting We focused on interventions that targeted recommended vaccinations for children, adolescents and adults and: (1) aimed at increasing community demand for immunizations, or (2) were provider-based interventions. We limited the study setting to countries that are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was a measure of vaccination (vaccine uptake or vaccine coverage). Considered secondary outcomes included willingness to receive immunization, attitudes and perceptions toward vaccination, and perceived helpfulness of the intervention. Results Nineteen studies were included in the systematic review. The majority of the studies were conducted in the US (74%, n = 14); 68% (n = 13) of the studies were experimental, the rest having an observational study design. Eleven (58%) reported results on the primary outcome. Retrieved studies explored the role of: text messaging (n.7, 37%), smartphone applications (n.1, 5%), Youtube videos (n.1, 5%), Facebook (n.1, 5%), targeted websites and portals (n.4, 21%), software for physicians and health professionals (n.4, 21%), and email communication (n.1, 5%). There is some evidence that text messaging, accessing immunization campaign websites, using patient-held web-based portals and computerized reminders increase immunization coverage rates. Insufficient evidence is available on the use of social networks, email communication and smartphone applications. Conclusion Although there is great potential for improving vaccine uptake and vaccine coverage by implementing programs and interventions that apply new media, scant data are available and further rigorous research - including cost-effectiveness assessments - is needed. PMID:25483518

  6. Harmful Effects of Media on Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Vivek; Dhanasekaran, Saranya

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents spent a considerable portion of their time watching television, movies, playing videogames and on the internet. Media has proved to be a very useful tool in the fields of education, arts, science, sports, and culture. Over the past few decades, there has been a surge in the use of media by the younger generations and…

  7. The effect on wireless sensor communication when deployed in biomass.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jakob Juul; Green, Ole; Nadimi, Esmaeil S; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been studied in a variety of scenarios over recent years, but work has almost exclusively been done using air as the transmission media. In this article some of the challenges of deploying a WSN in a heterogeneous biomass, in this case silage, is handled. The dielectric constant of silage is measured using an open-ended coaxial probe. Results were successfully obtained in the frequency range from 400 MHz to 4 GHz, but large variations suggested that a larger probe should be used for more stable results. Furthermore, the detuning of helix and loop antennas and the transmission loss of the two types of antennas embedded in silage was measured. It was found that the loop antenna suffered less from detuning but was worse when transmitting. Lastly, it is suggested that taking the dielectric properties of silage into account during hardware development could result in much better achievable communication range. PMID:22164076

  8. The Effect on Wireless Sensor Communication When Deployed in Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Jakob Juul; Green, Ole; Nadimi, Esmaeil S.; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been studied in a variety of scenarios over recent years, but work has almost exclusively been done using air as the transmission media. In this article some of the challenges of deploying a WSN in a heterogeneous biomass, in this case silage, is handled. The dielectric constant of silage is measured using an open-ended coaxial probe. Results were successfully obtained in the frequency range from 400 MHz to 4 GHz, but large variations suggested that a larger probe should be used for more stable results. Furthermore, the detuning of helix and loop antennas and the transmission loss of the two types of antennas embedded in silage was measured. It was found that the loop antenna suffered less from detuning but was worse when transmitting. Lastly, it is suggested that taking the dielectric properties of silage into account during hardware development could result in much better achievable communication range. PMID:22164076

  9. Some Communication Effects of Charity Advertising Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; And Others

    A study was conducted to examine the relationship of advertising exposure to a variety of cognitive and affective variables in a nonprofit charity campaign. The study also tested the transactional model of advertising effects, which combines exposure, motivations, and gratifications for viewing. A sample of 350 adults was randomly selected and…

  10. Determining the effectiveness of illustrated communication material for communication with intubated patients at an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Otuzoğlu, Münevver; Karahan, Azize

    2014-10-01

    Communication with non-speaking patients in intensive care unit is stress for both nurse and patients. Semi-experimental study that took place at a University Hospital was to develop illustrated material for patient communication and determine its effectiveness. The study sample consisted of 90 intubated patients at the Adult Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit who had undergone open heart surgery. The patients were divided into the intervention and control groups. Data analysis was with descriptive statistics and the χ(2) test. The illustrated communication material was stated to be helpful by 77.8% and partially helpful by 22.2% of the intervention group patients regarding the communication between the health-care staff and the patients. Control group patients had more difficulties communicating with the health-care staff. Illustrated communication material was an effective method in communicating with intubated patients. PMID:24118470

  11. Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailenson, Jeremy; Buzzanell, Patrice; Deetz, Stanley; Tewksbury, David; Thompson, Robert J.; Turow, Joseph; Bichelmeyer, Barbara; Bishop, M. J.; Gayeski, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of communications were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Jeremy Bailenson, Patrice Buzzanell, Stanley Deetz, David Tewksbury, Robert J. Thompson, and…

  12. Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailenson, Jeremy; Buzzanell, Patrice; Deetz, Stanley; Tewksbury, David; Thompson, Robert J.; Turow, Joseph; Bichelmeyer, Barbara; Bishop, M. J.; Gayeski, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of communications were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Jeremy Bailenson, Patrice Buzzanell, Stanley Deetz, David Tewksbury, Robert J. Thompson, and…

  13. Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathorn, S.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of NASA's Thin Route satellite telecommunication project is presented. Thin Route employs applications technology satellites (ATS) in place of more costly commercial multi- transponder telecommunications satellites. This system allows remote and underdeveloped areas to communicate with the outside world for purposes of obtaining medical assistance among other things. The system represents a substantial cost saving over commercial systems.

  14. The Coming of Age of Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domine, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    A decade into a new millennium marks a coming of age for media literacy education (MLE). Born from teaching the critical analysis of media texts, MLE has evolved into helping individuals of all ages "develop the habits of inquiry and skills of expression that they need to be critical thinkers, effective communicators and active citizens in today's…

  15. Effective Media Use: Using Film and Television to Instruct an Organizational Behavior Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernodle, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Media can be used to effectively teach Organizational Behavior (OB) concepts at the college level. University instructors have the option to employ several different methods of teaching in order to convey course concepts in the classroom. This article describes the effectiveness that five particular pieces of media can have on active learning in…

  16. Older and Newer Media: Patterns of Use and Effects on Adolescents' Health and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jane D.; Bobkowski, Piotr S.

    2011-01-01

    The past decade's research on the use and effects of older (television, music, movies, magazines) and newer media (the Internet, cell phones, social networking) on adolescents' health and well-being is reviewed. A portrait of patterns of use of the media is provided and then the predictors and effects of those patterns on adolescents' mental…

  17. Older and Newer Media: Patterns of Use and Effects on Adolescents' Health and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jane D.; Bobkowski, Piotr S.

    2011-01-01

    The past decade's research on the use and effects of older (television, music, movies, magazines) and newer media (the Internet, cell phones, social networking) on adolescents' health and well-being is reviewed. A portrait of patterns of use of the media is provided and then the predictors and effects of those patterns on adolescents' mental…

  18. Data communications

    SciTech Connect

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining computer communication systems used in nuclear power plants. The recommendations cover three areas important to these communications systems: system design, communication protocols, and communication media. The first area, system design, considers three aspects of system design--questions about architecture, specific risky design elements or omissions to look for in designs being reviewed, and recommendations for multiplexed data communication systems used in safety systems. The second area reviews pertinent aspects of communication protocol design and makes recommendations for newly designed protocols or the selection of existing protocols for safety system, information display, and non-safety control system use. The third area covers communication media selection, which differs significantly from traditional wire and cable. The recommendations for communication media extend or enhance the concerns of published IEEE standards about three subjects: data rate, imported hazards and maintainability.

  19. [MR effects of x-ray contrast media].

    PubMed

    Wicke, L; Frühwald, F; Neuhold, A; Schwaighofer, B

    1987-12-01

    Although Pantopaque has now been widely replaced by water-soluble contrast media for intrathecal application, retained residuals of oily contrast media are still a very common finding. Whereas other contrast media, e.g. barium in the GI tract, are inert in magnetic resonance imaging, the signal behaviour of Pantopaque may lead to false interpretations. Similar to fat, the T1 and T2 relaxation times of Pantopaque are short. Conventional radiographs of the spine are recommended in patients with intradural MRI findings similar to fat in case of previous myelography. PMID:2827262

  20. Communication: Memory effects and active Brownian diffusion.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pulak K; Li, Yunyun; Marchegiani, Giampiero; Marchesoni, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    A self-propelled artificial microswimmer is often modeled as a ballistic Brownian particle moving with constant speed aligned along one of its axis, but changing direction due to random collisions with the environment. Similarly to thermal noise, its angular randomization is described as a memoryless stochastic process. Here, we speculate that finite-time correlations in the orientational dynamics can affect the swimmer's diffusivity. To this purpose, we propose and solve two alternative models. In the first one, we simply assume that the environmental fluctuations governing the swimmer's propulsion are exponentially correlated in time, whereas in the second one, we account for possible damped fluctuations of the propulsion velocity around the swimmer's axis. The corresponding swimmer's diffusion constants are predicted to get, respectively, enhanced or suppressed upon increasing the model memory time. Possible consequences of this effect on the interpretation of the experimental data are discussed. PMID:26646861

  1. Communication: Memory effects and active Brownian diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Pulak K.; Li, Yunyun; Marchegiani, Giampiero; Marchesoni, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    A self-propelled artificial microswimmer is often modeled as a ballistic Brownian particle moving with constant speed aligned along one of its axis, but changing direction due to random collisions with the environment. Similarly to thermal noise, its angular randomization is described as a memoryless stochastic process. Here, we speculate that finite-time correlations in the orientational dynamics can affect the swimmer's diffusivity. To this purpose, we propose and solve two alternative models. In the first one, we simply assume that the environmental fluctuations governing the swimmer's propulsion are exponentially correlated in time, whereas in the second one, we account for possible damped fluctuations of the propulsion velocity around the swimmer's axis. The corresponding swimmer's diffusion constants are predicted to get, respectively, enhanced or suppressed upon increasing the model memory time. Possible consequences of this effect on the interpretation of the experimental data are discussed.

  2. Teaching Effective Communication Skills with ACE: Analyzing, Composing, & Evaluating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph; Shwom, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Most business communication classes teach students to use a writing process to compose effective documents. Students practice the process by applying it to various types of writing with various purposes-reports, presentations, bad news letters, persuasive memos, etc. However, unless students practice that process in other contexts outside of the…

  3. Toward a Standard of Communication Training Effectiveness Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Matthew D.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    Communication training efforts in American business have increased steadily for the past several years. While this increase may be viewed as positive from several vantage points, it has not been matched by an increase in any systematic application of evaluation measures. Effective evaluation should take place at various levels. D. L. Kirkpatrick…

  4. Evidence of Halo Effects in Student Evaluations of Communication Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2002-01-01

    Notes that the halo effect is a construct reserved to explain individual rater's failure to discriminate among conceptually distinct aspects of a stimulus person's behavior. Examines instructor evaluations completed by 128 students from three communication courses. Finds significant inter-correlations among five measures indicating the presence of…

  5. Terminology Revisited: Effective Communications for the Agricultural Community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA, particularly on small farms. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information as effectively as possible. Many...

  6. Social and Cognitive Effects of Professional Communication on Software Usability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirel, Barbara; Olsen, Leslie A.

    1998-01-01

    Designs a technical-communication course for software-engineering majors to take concurrently with their capstone project course in software design. Studies effects of writing on students' user-centered beliefs and design practices and on usability of their product. Suggests the synergy of this interdisciplinary approach sensitized students to…

  7. Learning the Intricacies of Effective Communication through Game Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    As many teachers of communication come to realize, students often operate under the misconception that the effective use of language consists primarily of memorizing and applying the rules and regulations of grammar. Even worse, some students believe that they must inherit a talent for language and that without a genetic predisposition, they can…

  8. Effective Communication in Legal and Public Policy Hearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Jim; Sonsteng, John; Thorstad, Linda

    2014-04-01

    Scientists play a special role in legal debates and public policy decisions. The challenge for scientists who serve as expert witnesses is to communicate effectively in various legal forums, including litigation and legislative hearings. Expert witnesses must not advocate for one side or the other but must be able to convey the meaning as well as the quality and accuracy of their work.

  9. The Communicative Effectiveness Survey: Preliminary Evidence of Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Neila J.; Kendall, Diane L.; Young, Mary Ellen; Rosenbek, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To provide preliminary evidence of the construct validity of the Communicative Effectiveness Survey (CES) for individuals with dysarthria and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: In a prospective, quasi-experimental design, 25 participants each were assigned to 3 groups (N = 75): PD and dysarthria, non-PD and no dysarthria, and PD…

  10. Home care agencies & the physician customer: effective communication.

    PubMed

    Sampson, E M

    1994-09-01

    As health care moves to the outpatient setting, home care providers are in a critical position to influence physician practice patterns. An effective communication plan that facilitates the exchange of information between the home care provider and its physician customers will bridge the customer service gap and strengthen the relationship between the physician and the provider. PMID:10136941

  11. Effective Communication with Cultural Heritage Using Virtual Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reffat, R. M.; Nofal, E. M.

    2013-07-01

    Cultural heritage is neither static nor stable. There is a need to explore ways for effectively communicating with cultural heritage to tourists and society at large, in an age of immediacy, a time of multiple realities and to multi-cultural tourists. It is vital to consider cultural heritage as a creative and relational process where places and communities are constantly remade through creative performance. The paper introduces virtual technologies as an approach to attain effective communication with cultural heritage. This approach emphasizes the importance of "user, content and context" in guiding the production of virtual heritage, as opposed to technology being the sole motivator. It addresses how these three issues in virtual heritage need to be transformed from merely representing quantitative data towards cultural information using the proposed effective communication triangle through representing meaningful relationships between cultural heritage elements, users and context. The paper offers a focused articulation of a proposed computational platform of "interactive, personalized and contextual-based navigation" with Egyptian heritage monuments as a one step forward towards achieving effective communication with Egyptian cultural heritage.

  12. Learning the Intricacies of Effective Communication through Game Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    As many teachers of communication come to realize, students often operate under the misconception that the effective use of language consists primarily of memorizing and applying the rules and regulations of grammar. Even worse, some students believe that they must inherit a talent for language and that without a genetic predisposition, they can…

  13. Teaching Effective Communication Skills with ACE: Analyzing, Composing, & Evaluating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph; Shwom, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Most business communication classes teach students to use a writing process to compose effective documents. Students practice the process by applying it to various types of writing with various purposes-reports, presentations, bad news letters, persuasive memos, etc. However, unless students practice that process in other contexts outside of the…

  14. Effect of Sign Task on Speech Timing in Simultaneous Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Robert L.; Schiavetti, Nicholas; Whitehead, Brenda H.; Metz, Dale Evan

    1997-01-01

    A study involving 12 hearing sign language users examined the effect of the signing task on temporal features of speech during simultaneous communication (SC). Results indicated longer sentence duration for SC than speech-only conditions, and longer anticipatory duration of the diphthong and interword interval preceding the experimental words.…

  15. Talking About Quitting: Interpersonal Communication as a Mediator of Campaign Effects on Smokers' Quit Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Michelle; Tan, Andy S L; Brennan, Emily; Gibson, Laura; Hornik, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of interpersonal communication in the context of a mass media anti-smoking campaign. Specifically, it explored whether conversations about campaign ads and/or about quitting mediated campaign exposure effects on 2 quitting behaviors (sought help to quit and tried to quit smoking completely), as well as the relation between ad-related and quitting-related conversations. Data were collected before the campaign and monthly for 16 months during the campaign through cross-sectional telephone surveys among a sample of 3,277 adult Philadelphia smokers. Follow-up interviews were conducted among 877 participants 3 months after their first survey. Cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models with bootstrap procedures assessed the indirect effects of campaign exposure on outcomes through conversations, and the indirect effects of conversations about ads on outcomes through conversations about quitting. In addition, lagged regression analyses tested the causal direction of associations between the variables of interest. The results partially support hypotheses that conversations about quitting mediate campaign effects on quitting-related behaviors and, in line with previous research, that conversations about the ads have indirect effects on quitting-related behaviors by triggering conversations about quitting. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering interpersonal communication as a route of campaign exposure effects when evaluating and designing future public health campaigns. PMID:26147367

  16. EFFECT OF ANAEROBIOSIS ON FILTER MEDIA POLLUTANT RETENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the results of experiments conducted to determine if four potential filter media (sand, activated carbon, peat moss, and compost) could retain previously-trapped pollutants even under anaerobic conditions. The results indicated that permanent retention of heav...

  17. The Media Workshop Hybrid in Media Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Jeffrey M.

    The media workshop and the media laboratory can fit meaningfully into the reforms of mass communication education, but there are distinct differences in their roles. The media workshop is a place where students can serve on-campus apprenticeships with a traditional media organization. The media laboratory is a futuristic media facility that…

  18. Cross-Cultural Barriers to Effective Communication in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Davison, Jeannie; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Recent research on communication and performance in airline flight crews has led to a concept of shared mental models that is associated with effective, efficient team coordination in problem solving and decision making situations. Elements that characterize efficient communication have been identified. This research, however, was based strictly on US crews. More recent studies supported by NASA have identified cultural factors that influence communication among team members who vary in their status and roles. Research is just beginning to identify commonalities and culturally distinct strategies for accomplishing joint tasks. ASRS incident reports have been analyzed to identify language barriers in flight that have safety consequences. Implications of these concepts and findings for multi-cultural command and control will be explored.

  19. Conceptualizing and communicating management effects on forest water quality.

    PubMed

    Futter, Martyn N; Högbom, Lars; Valinia, Salar; Sponseller, Ryan A; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2016-02-01

    We present a framework for evaluating and communicating effects of human activity on water quality in managed forests. The framework is based on the following processes: atmospheric deposition, weathering, accumulation, recirculation and flux. Impairments to water quality are characterized in terms of their extent, longevity and frequency. Impacts are communicated using a "traffic lights" metaphor for characterizing severity of water quality impairments arising from forestry and other anthropogenic pressures. The most serious impairments to water quality in managed boreal forests include (i) forestry activities causing excessive sediment mobilization and extirpation of aquatic species and (ii) other anthropogenic pressures caused by long-range transport of mercury and acidifying pollutants. The framework and tool presented here can help evaluate, summarize and communicate the most important issues in circumstances where land management and other anthropogenic pressures combine to impair water quality and may also assist in implementing the "polluter pays" principle. PMID:26744053

  20. Quantum communication complexity using the quantum Zeno effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Armin; Anwer, Hammad; Hameedi, Alley; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    The quantum Zeno effect (QZE) is the phenomenon in which the unitary evolution of a quantum state is suppressed, e.g., due to frequent measurements. Here, we investigate the use of the QZE in a class of communication complexity problems (CCPs). Quantum entanglement is known to solve certain CCPs beyond classical constraints. However, recent developments have yielded CCPs for which superclassical results can be obtained using only communication of a single d -level quantum state (qudit) as a resource. In the class of CCPs considered here, we show quantum reduction of complexity in three ways: using (i) entanglement and the QZE, (ii) a single qudit and the QZE, and (iii) a single qudit. We have performed a proof of concept experimental demonstrations of three party CCP protocol based on single-qubit communication with and without QZE.

  1. Assessing risk communication effectiveness: perspectives of agency practitioners.

    PubMed

    Tinker, T L; Collins, C M; King, H S; Hoover, M D

    2000-04-01

    A study conducted by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), a US public health agency, evaluated ATSDR's risk communication process, specifically the roles and responsibilities, planning, implementation, and coordination of activities in response to illegal indoor spraying of methyl parathion, a hazardous pesticide, in Pascagoula, MS. Interviews of staff members involved in the intervention were conducted and an analysis revealed strengths and areas in need of improvement in the design and implementation of risk communication strategies. Key recommendations included developing a clear strategy for planning and conducting communication activities; determining staff roles and responsibilities for coordination; and developing clear and consistent health messages, a dissemination strategy, and training in the delivery and evaluation of messages, effects, and outcomes. PMID:10708888

  2. Effective Strategies to Communicate Modeling with Project Regulators and Stakeholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arola, C.; Moser, K.; Bratton, W.

    2008-12-01

    Modeling is commonly used to support environmental project decision making. A notable example of the role of groundwater flow, fate, and transport modeling is to support the CERCLA remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) process. Modeling within an RI/FS is often used to evaluate new sampling locations, or to support evaluation of potential groundwater remedial technologies. Modeling used in these efforts ranges from simple to complex, and often must fit within a variety of state and federal regulations. Project stakeholder understanding and familiarity with model tools and application ranges broadly. Effective communication of the purpose, expected outcomes, strengths, limitations, and uncertainties of modeling efforts with regulators and project stakeholders is critical to successfully support project needs. Effective communication begins prior to the implementation of modeling efforts and should continue throughout the lifecycle of the modeling project. Communication efforts should include regular project workshops to keep stakeholders apprised of modeling progress. Regular communication throughout the modeling lifecycle provides a more technically and cost effective final product due to consideration of stakeholder concerns throughout the modeling effort through information exchange and negotiation, rather than at the end of the project, when it is often too late in the process or too expensive to change course and meet project milestones.

  3. [Political broadcasting, the media and citizens on the Internet: towards a new communication milestone for the day of reflection in Spain].

    PubMed

    Campos-Domínguez, Eva; Valera Ordaz, Lidia; López García, Guillermo

    2015-12-01

    Electoral campaigns in Spain are governed by Organic Law 5/1985 on the general election system, which does not include any specific measures on cybercampaigns. This legal vacuum has led the media to come up with their own interpretion of the regulations when engaging in Internet communications during this period. In order to explore whether the new speed and style of communicating by Internet is matched by a new communication space, this article analyzes the messages that politicians, journalists and citizens exchanged during the day of reflection in Spain's last general election (2011), showing how what has, until now, been seen as a day of silent reflection takes on a new meaning with the Internet. PMID:26785870

  4. ESTIMATION OF EFFECTIVE SHEAR STRESS WORKING ON FLAT SHEET MEMBRANE USING FLUIDIZED MEDIA IN MBRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaw, Hlwan Moe; Li, Tairi; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Mishima, Iori

    This study was aimed at estimating effective shear stress working on flat sheet membrane by the addition of fluidized media in MBRs. In both of laboratory-scale aeration tanks with and without fluidized media, shear stress variations on membrane surface and water phase velocity variations were measured and MBR operation was conducted. For the evaluation of the effective shear stress working on membrane surface to mitigate membrane surface, simulation of trans-membrane pressure increase was conducted. It was shown that the time-averaged absolute value of shear stress was smaller in the reactor with fluidized media than without fluidized media. However, due to strong turbulence in the reactor with fluidized media caused by interaction between water-phase and media and also due to the direct interaction between membrane surface and fluidized media, standard deviation of shear stress on membrane surface was larger in the reactor with fluidized media than without media. Histograms of shear stress variation data were fitted well to normal distribution curves and mean plus three times of standard deviation was defined to be a maximum shear stress value. By applying the defined maximum shear stress to a membrane fouling model, trans-membrane pressure curve in the MBR experiment was simulated well by the fouling model indicting that the maximum shear stress, not time-averaged shear stress, can be regarded as an effective shear stress to prevent membrane fouling in submerged flat-sheet MBRs.

  5. Cross-Cultural Barriers to Effective Communication in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, U.; Orasanu, J.; Davison, J.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Communication is essential to safe flight, as evidenced by several accidents in which crew communicates was found to have contributed to the accidents. This chapter documents the essential role of explicit efficient communication to flight safety with a global context. It addresses communication between flight crews and air traffic controllers in regions a the world where pilots and controllers speak different native languages, as well as cases in which crew members within the flight deck represent different native languages and cultures. It also addresses problems associated with "exporting" crew resource management training programs to parts of the world which values and norms differ from those of the United States, where these programs were initially developed. This chapter is organized around several central questions: (1) What are various kinds of communication failures and what are their consequences; (2) What are the causes of communication failure; (3) What are features of effective crew communication; (4) What can be done to enhance communication success? To explore a wider range of communication failures than available from accident reports, we examined a set of incident reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System. These could be classified into three major categories: those in which language actually interfered with transmission of a message; those in which transmission was adequate but the context was not expressed unambiguously and thus the message received was not the same as the message intended; and those in which the message was received as intended, but was not adequately understood or acted upon, mainly because of cultural factors. The consequences of failed communication can be flight errors (such as when a clearance is not received correctly), loss of situation awareness, or failure of crew members (or ATC and pilots) to build a shared understanding of a situation. Causes of misunderstanding can be traced to a number of sources, often grounded in faulty assumptions held by one or both parties to a conversation. Speakers and listeners often experience "illusionary understanding" in which they think they understand each other, but in fact do not. While this problem can exist within a single culture, it is much more serious across cultures. Training in effective explicit communication is a component of Crew Resource Management training programs developed in the U.S. These programs are being adopted by airlines around the world, with varying degrees of success. The level of success in part depends on how similar the conversational and social styles of those cultures are to those of the U.S. A factor that influences conversational style is a culture's relative positioned on two major dimensions that distinguish national cultural groups: individualism vs. collectivism and degree of power distance. The chapter concludes with a discussion of techniques for overcoming the various classes of communication failures and for effectively adapting training programs to fit the values and norms of cultures around the globe.

  6. Feasibility and induced effects of subsurface porous media hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmann Pfeiffer, Wolf; Li, Dedong; Wang, Bo; Bauer, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    Fluctuations in energy production from renewable sources like wind or solar power can lead to shortages in energy supply which can be mitigated using energy storage concepts. Underground storage of hydrogen in porous sandstone formations could be a storage option for large amounts of energy over long storage cycles. However, this use of the subsurface requires an analysis of possible interactions with other uses of the subsurface such as geothermal energy storage or groundwater abstraction. This study aims at quantifying the feasibility of porous media hydrogen storage to provide stored energy on a timescale of several days to weeks as well as possible impacts on the subsurface. The hypothetical storage site is based on an anticlinal structure located in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany. The storage is injected and extracted using five wells completed in a partially eroded, heterogeneous sandstone layer in the top of the structure at a depth of about 500 m. The storage formation was parameterized based on a local facies model with intrinsic permeabilities of 250-2500 mD and porosities of 35-40%. Storage initialization and subsequent storage cycles, each consisting of a hydrogen injection and extraction, were numerically simulated. The simulation results indicate the general feasibility of this hydrogen storage concept. The simulated sandstone formation is able to provide an average of around 1480 t of hydrogen per week (1830 TJ) which is about 5% of the total weekly energy production or about 10% of the weekly energy consumption of Schleswig-Holstein with the hydrogen production rate being the limiting factor of the overall performance. Induced hydraulic effects are a result of the induced overpressure within the storage formation. Propagation of the pressure signal does not strongly depend on the formation heterogeneity and thus shows approximately radial characteristics with one bar pressure change in distances of about 5 km from the injection wells. Thermal effects are mainly limited to the gas phase and the near vicinity of the injection wells. However, conductive heat transport into the overlying barrier formations can be observed, causing temperature changes of 1 K in distances less than 300 m in lateral and 30 m in vertical direction. The area of induced chemical effects is given by the distribution of the injected gas phase. The spatial distribution of the gas phase shows a strong dependence on formation heterogeneity, with a maximum reach of around 3 km from the injection wells and a covered area of around 4 km². The results indicate that it is possible to use porous media hydrogen storage to store and retrieve energy from the subsurface to mitigate shortages in energy production. The induced effects associated with such a storage operation range from the meter to the kilometer scale depending on the individual process.

  7. Media as social influence: racial differences in the effects of peers and media on adolescent alcohol cognitions and consumption.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Frederick X; Pomery, Elizabeth A; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Wills, Thomas A; Kingsbury, John; Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen

    2010-12-01

    Racial differences in the effects of peer and media influence on adolescents' alcohol cognitions and consumption were examined in a large-scale panel study. With regard to peer influence, results from cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the relation between perceived peer drinking and own drinking was significant for both Black and White adolescents, but it was stronger for the White adolescents. With regard to media influence, structural modeling analyses indicated that exposure to drinking in movies was associated with more alcohol consumption 8 months and 16 months later. These effects were mediated by increases in the favorability of the adolescents' drinker prototypes, their willingness to drink, and their tendency to affiliate with friends who were drinking. Multiple group analyses indicated that, once again, the effects (both direct and indirect) were much stronger for White adolescents than for Black adolescents. The results suggest media influence works in a similar manner to social influence and that Whites may be more susceptible to both types of influence. PMID:21198226

  8. Media as Social Influence: Racial Differences in the Effects of Peers and Media on Adolescent Alcohol Cognitions and Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Pomery, Elizabeth A.; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D.; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Wills, Thomas A.; Kingsbury, John; Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E.; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen

    2010-01-01

    Racial differences in the effects of peer and media influence on adolescents’ alcohol cognitions and consumption were examined in a large-scale panel study. With regard to peer influence, results from cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the relation between perceived peer drinking and own drinking was significant for both Black and White adolescents, but it was stronger for the White adolescents. With regard to media influence, structural modeling analyses indicated that exposure to drinking in movies was associated with more alcohol consumption 8 months and 16 months later. These effects were mediated by increases in: the favorability of the adolescents’ drinker prototypes, their willingness to drink, and their tendency to affiliate with friends who were drinking. Multiple group analyses indicated that, once again, the effects (both direct and indirect) were much stronger for White adolescents than for Black adolescents. The results suggest media influence works in a similar manner to social influence, and that Whites may be more susceptible to both types of influence. PMID:21198226

  9. Ethical media competence as a protective factor against cyberbullying and cybervictimization among german school students.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christin R; Pfetsch, Jan; Ittel, Angela

    2014-10-01

    The use of digital information and communication technologies is an integral part of adolescents' everyday life. Besides various opportunities for information, entertainment, and communication, media use is associated with risks such as cyberbullying. Cyberbullying refers to aggressive behavior in the context of computer-mediated communication, characterized by repetition, an intention to harm, and power imbalance. Previous studies have shown that increased media use is a major risk factor for cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Given that restricting media use is not a practical way to reduce the negative effects inherent in media use, the present study examines the relevance of ethical media competence. We expected ethical media competence to buffer the effect of increased media use on cyberbullying and cybervictimization. A survey was conducted with 934 students (53% female) aged 10-17 years (M=13.26, SD=1.63). As expected, hierarchical regression analyses showed a positive main effect of media use, a negative main effect of ethical media competence, and a negative interaction effect of media use and media competence on cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Simple slope analyses revealed that at high levels of ethical media competence, media use has almost no effect on cybervictimization and a significant negative effect on cyberbullying. Consequently, promoting ethical media competence constitutes a potential measure to prevent the risks of increased media use for cyberbullying and cybervictimization. PMID:25272238

  10. Using Communication Strategies to Promote Sexual Health: Can Mass Media Get in Bed with the "Female" Condom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Sarah Mariel; Austin, S. Bryn

    2010-01-01

    Many public health students receive little, if any, formal training in communicating health information to the public. Public health practitioners, however, are regularly asked to use communication strategies to convey health information. The lesson plan was designed to teach students mass communication strategies in the context of sexual health…

  11. Using Communication Strategies to Promote Sexual Health: Can Mass Media Get in Bed with the "Female" Condom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Sarah Mariel; Austin, S. Bryn

    2010-01-01

    Many public health students receive little, if any, formal training in communicating health information to the public. Public health practitioners, however, are regularly asked to use communication strategies to convey health information. The lesson plan was designed to teach students mass communication strategies in the context of sexual health…

  12. Basic Books in the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Eleanor

    References to information on the background, structure, function, contents, and effects of mass communications are provided in this annotated booklist. Material is included on theory, popular culture, the Black press, communications technology, the underground press and film, and mass media violence and the entries are arranged according to the…

  13. The Effect of Media on Citizens' Fear of Crime in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdonmez, Erhan

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted on-site in Istanbul, Turkey, to determine the effects that mass media has on citizens' perceptions about fear of crime, in particular, and fear, in general. Specifically, the study was designed to (1) determine the tendency of citizens' media consumption, (2) determine the level of fear of crime among Turkish citizens, (3)…

  14. Effect of X-ray Contrast Media, Chlorination, and Chloramination on Zebrafish Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effect of X-ray Contrast Media, Chlorination, and Chloramination on Zebrafish Development Little is known about the vertebrate developmental toxicity of chlorinated or chloraminated drinking water (DW), iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM, a common contaminate of DW) or how the c...

  15. Evaluating the Effect of Educational Media Exposure on Aggression in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Mullins, Adam D.

    2013-01-01

    Preschool-aged children (M = 42.44 months-old, SD = 8.02) participated in a short-term longitudinal study investigating the effect of educational media exposure on social development (i.e., aggression and prosocial behavior) using multiple informants and methods. As predicted, educational media exposure significantly predicted increases in both…

  16. Evaluating the Effect of Educational Media Exposure on Aggression in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Mullins, Adam D.

    2013-01-01

    Preschool-aged children (M = 42.44 months-old, SD = 8.02) participated in a short-term longitudinal study investigating the effect of educational media exposure on social development (i.e., aggression and prosocial behavior) using multiple informants and methods. As predicted, educational media exposure significantly predicted increases in both…

  17. The Effect of Media on Citizens' Fear of Crime in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdonmez, Erhan

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted on-site in Istanbul, Turkey, to determine the effects that mass media has on citizens' perceptions about fear of crime, in particular, and fear, in general. Specifically, the study was designed to (1) determine the tendency of citizens' media consumption, (2) determine the level of fear of crime among Turkish citizens, (3)…

  18. The Effects of Media Reports on Disease Spread and Important Public Health Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Collinson, Shannon; Khan, Kamran; Heffernan, Jane M.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the spread of influenza to reduce the effects of infection on a population is an important mandate of public health. Mass media reports on an epidemic or pandemic can provide important information to the public, and in turn, can induce positive healthy behaviour practices (i.e., handwashing, social distancing) in the individuals, that will reduce the probability of contracting the disease. Mass media fatigue, however, can dampen these effects. Mathematical models can be used to study the effects of mass media reports on epidemic/pandemic outcomes. In this study we employ a stochastic agent based model to provide a quantification of mass media reports on the variability in important public health measurements. We also include mass media report data compiled by the Global Public Health Intelligence Network, to study the effects of mass media reports in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We find that the report rate and the rate at which individuals relax their healthy behaviours (media fatigue) greatly affect the variability in important public health measurements. When the mass media reporting data is included in the model, two peaks of infection result. PMID:26528909

  19. Effects of a Brief Media Intervention on Expectations, Attitudes, and Intentions of Mental Health Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demyan, Amy L.; Anderson, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a mass-media video intervention on expectations, attitudes, and intentions to seek help from professional mental health care services. A public service announcement-style, mass-media video intervention was developed, with prior empirical research on help-seeking behaviors organized according to the theory of…

  20. Effects of a Brief Media Intervention on Expectations, Attitudes, and Intentions of Mental Health Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demyan, Amy L.; Anderson, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a mass-media video intervention on expectations, attitudes, and intentions to seek help from professional mental health care services. A public service announcement-style, mass-media video intervention was developed, with prior empirical research on help-seeking behaviors organized according to the theory of…

  1. Quantifying the Micromechanical Effects of Variable Cement in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutt, D. F.; Buchheit, T. E.; Cook, B. K.; Goodwin, L. B.

    2005-12-01

    Understanding the fundamental micromechanical processes that result in the macroscopic deformation of porous media is of paramount importance to geoscientists, as these processes control a variety of behaviors that impact fault zone development. It is generally known that the amount, type, and location of intergranular cements are a primary factor influencing the strength of porous sediments and sedimentary rock. Small amounts of intergranular cement can have profound effects on bulk mechanical such as rock strength, elasticity and permeability. However, the microscale interactions between individual constituents of the grain-cement network subjected to differential stress are poorly understood, inhibiting the development of a physically based link between microscopic phenomena and macroscopic behavior. Detailed experimental characterization of these systems would improve constitutive models for the predictive modeling of geomechanical phenomena. In this paper we report on our preliminary results and experimental techniques used to understand the micromechanical behavior of cemented granular systems. Our approach extends micro and nanomechanical experimental methods originally developed within the field of materials science for characterizing the properties of thin films and nanoscale materials. Nanoindentation will be used to probe the mechanical properties (such as elastic modulus, hardness and plasticity) of grains and cements in both synthetic and natural samples. Micromechanical measurement techniques will be developed from the nanoindentation method to conduct a detailed characterization of both elastic and inelastic behavior of grain-cement and grain-grain contacts and interfacial cohesion. The results of our microscopic experiments on natural and synthetic rock will produce an extremely detailed micromechanical dataset of grain-cement interaction. These data represent a first, important step in building a quantitative mechanical link between grain-scale and macroscopic behavior.

  2. Dogmatism and the "Knowledge Gap" among Users of the Mass Media of Communication: A Study in Brasilia, Brasil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert E.; Garda, Eduardo Carlos

    A study was conducted to discover whether (1) use of each of the print and broadcast media could be correlated with subjects' knowledge level, and (2) whether controlling for dogmatism would increase the proportion of media users, with higher levels of knowledge among those less dogmatic, and decrease the proportion among the more dogmatic.…

  3. Aged and Handicapped Seek Human Quality and Public Service in Media: Mass Communications Patterns of the New Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Gene

    A similarity exists in the way minority groups in the sixties and in the seventies used media coverage to achieve recognition. The poor and the blacks in the 1960s and the aged and the handicapped in the 1970s turned to the media as they sought freedom to move, rejected separation and isolation, and sought access and independence by breaking the…

  4. Dogmatism and the "Knowledge Gap" among Users of the Mass Media of Communication: A Study in Brasilia, Brasil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert E.; Garda, Eduardo Carlos

    A study was conducted to discover whether (1) use of each of the print and broadcast media could be correlated with subjects' knowledge level, and (2) whether controlling for dogmatism would increase the proportion of media users, with higher levels of knowledge among those less dogmatic, and decrease the proportion among the more dogmatic.…

  5. Tips for K-12 Educators for Helping Students Communicate and Create Using Visual Motion Media, Photography, and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a particular lesson plan--the "Illustrating Project"--that has been successful for many classroom educators. The Illustrating Project calls for students, individually or in project groups, to illustrate some element of the curriculum via the media selected by the teacher. The selected media might be PowerPoint or some other…

  6. Tips for K-12 Educators for Helping Students Communicate and Create Using Visual Motion Media, Photography, and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a particular lesson plan--the "Illustrating Project"--that has been successful for many classroom educators. The Illustrating Project calls for students, individually or in project groups, to illustrate some element of the curriculum via the media selected by the teacher. The selected media might be PowerPoint or some other…

  7. Assessment of earthquake effects - contribution from online communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano; Agius, Matthew; Galea, Pauline

    2014-05-01

    The rapid increase of social media and online newspapers in the last years have given the opportunity to make a national investigation on macroseismic effects on the Maltese Islands based on felt earthquake reports. A magnitude 4.1 earthquake struck close to Malta on Sunday 24th April 2011 at 13:02 GMT. The earthquake was preceded and followed by a series of smaller magnitude quakes throughout the day, most of which were felt by the locals on the island. The continuous news media coverage during the day and the extensive sharing of the news item on social media resulted in a strong public response to fill in the 'Did you feel it?' online form on the website of the Seismic Monitoring and Research Unit (SMRU) at the University of Malta (http://seismic.research.um.edu.mt/). The results yield interesting information about the demographics of the island, and the different felt experiences possibly relating to geological settings and diverse structural and age-classified buildings. Based on this case study, the SMRU is in the process of developing a mobile phone application dedicated to share earthquake information to the local community. The application will automatically prompt users to fill in a simplified 'Did you feel it?' report to potentially felt earthquakes. Automatic location using Global Positioning Systems can be incorporated to provide a 'real time' intensity map that can be used by the Civil Protection Department.

  8. Quantifying Effective Flow and Transport Properties in Heterogeneous Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, P.; Li, L.

    2012-12-01

    Spatial heterogeneity, the spatial variation in physical and chemical properties, exists at almost all scales and is an intrinsic property of natural porous media. It is important to understand and quantify how small-scale spatial variations determine large-scale "effective" properties in order to predict fluid flow and transport behavior in the natural subsurface. In this work, we aim to systematically understand and quantify the role of the spatial distribution of sand grains of different sizes in determining effective dispersivity and effective permeability using quasi-2D flow-cell experiments and numerical simulations. Two dimensional flow cells (20 cm by 20 cm) were packed with the same total amount of fine and coarse sands however with different spatial patterns. The homogeneous case has the completely mixed fine and coarse sands. The four zone case distributes the fine sand in four identical square zones within the coarse sand matrix. The one square case has all the fine sands in one square block. With the one square case pattern, two more experiments were designed in order to examine the effect of grain size contrast on effective permeability and dispersivity. Effective permeability was calculated based on both experimental and modeling results. Tracer tests were run for all cases. Advection dispersion equations were solved to match breakthrough data and to obtain average dispersivity. We also used Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) to quantify the non-Fickian transport behavior for each case. For the three cases with the same grain size contrast, the results show that the effective permeability does not differ significantly. The effective dispersion coefficient is the smallest for the homogeneous case (0.05 cm) and largest for the four zone case (0.27 cm). With the same pattern, the dispersivity value is the largest with the highest size contrast (0.28 cm), which is higher than the one with the lowest case by a factor of 2. The non-Fickian behavior was quantified by the ? value within the CTRW framework. Fickian transport will result in ? values larger than 2 while its deviation from 2 indicates the extent of non-Fickian behavior. Among the three cases with the same grain size contrast, the ? value is closest to 2 in the homogeneous case (1.95), while smallest in the four zone case (1.89). In the one square case, with the highest size contrast, the ? value was 1.57, indicating increasing extent of non-Fickian behavior with higher size contrast. This study is one step toward understanding how small-scale spatial variation in physical properties affect large-scale flow and transport behavior. This step is important in predicting subsurface transport processes that are relevant to earth sciences, environmental engineering, and petroleum engineering.

  9. Evaluating the effectiveness of case method instruction in technical communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, S. G.

    1981-01-01

    The effectiveness of the case method as an instructional technique in improving technical writing was evaluated. The development of a self-report instrument that attempts to measure changes in attitude toward technical communication and the presentation results change are the purpose of this paper. Standards for developing a case set forth by Goldstein and Couture, were used to design an evaluation instrument to measure the effect instruction on student attitude toward technical communication. This self-report instrument is based on model developed and tested by Daly and Miller who studied writer attitude and apprehension toward writing. It was the most important objective of any evaluation is to provide information for improving the program.

  10. Spacetime effects on satellite-based quantum communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Ralph, Timothy C.; Fuentes, Ivette; Jennewein, Thomas; Razavi, Mohsen

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the consequences of space-time being curved on space-based quantum communication protocols. We analyze tasks that require either the exchange of single photons in a certain entanglement distribution protocol or beams of light in a continuous-variable quantum key distribution scheme. We find that gravity affects the propagation of photons, therefore adding additional noise to the channel for the transmission of information. The effects could be measured with current technology.

  11. Methods of alleviation of ionospheric scintillation effects on digital communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    The degradation of the performance of digital communication systems because of ionospheric scintillation effects can be reduced either by diversity techniques or by coding. The effectiveness of traditional space-diversity, frequency-diversity and time-diversity techniques is reviewed and design considerations isolated. Time-diversity signaling is then treated as an extremely simple form of coding. More advanced coding methods, such as diffuse threshold decoding and burst-trapping decoding, which appear attractive in combatting scintillation effects are discussed and design considerations noted. Finally, adaptive coding techniques appropriate when the general state of the channel is known are discussed.

  12. How to predict the potential effectiveness of communication materials.

    PubMed

    Mercado, C M

    1979-01-01

    The Traveling Experiment (Travelex) is a new communications research method which enables researchers to predict relative effectiveness of communication materials in multilingual, agricultural, rural and personalistic societies. The measuring instrument used is the questionnaire, which can be converted into an interview if the subjects are nonliterate. Field researchers ask subjects either to evaluate instructional materials or to take brief tests in which the materials must be used to find the answers. Research findings indicate that the most effective publication format for attracting rural readers is the comic book with a brightly colored cover. Inside pages, however, have been shown to more effectively deliver instructional messages when they are in black and white. Realistic illustrations are preferred, as are opening sentences relating to the common experience of the target audience. The issues and implications for population control include the following: 1) a 2-sided presentation is most effective--a leaflet on the pill presenting both advantages and disadvantages of the contraceptive is most effective in correcting misconceptions among actual acceptors and, 2) the health appeal is more effective than the economic or status appeal, particularly for gaining acceptance of the IUD. When broadcast or film materials are used it is found that objective and interpretive reports are equally effective in increasing knowledge of family planning of various audiences. The broadcast version of the economic appeal seems to be effective in generating favorable attitudes toward the pill. PMID:12262256

  13. The Media and Its Effect on Black Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawles, Beth

    While the media is not directly responsible for establishing bigoted attitudes and prejudices, movies, television, radio, and print have reinforced racial prejudice and perpetuated the negative images and stereotypes of blacks in this country. Movies as early as 1902 reflect many of the early black stereotypes: the black male is stupid and lazy,…

  14. The Media and Its Effect on Black Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawles, Beth

    While the media is not directly responsible for establishing bigoted attitudes and prejudices, movies, television, radio, and print have reinforced racial prejudice and perpetuated the negative images and stereotypes of blacks in this country. Movies as early as 1902 reflect many of the early black stereotypes: the black male is stupid and lazy,…

  15. The Effect of the Media on Suicide: The Great Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1992-01-01

    Tests thesis that degree of media influence is contingent on audience receptivity. Audience receptivity to suicide stories assumed high during Great Depression. Developed taxonomy of stories using classic imitation, social learning, and differential identification theories. Analysis of monthly data on suicides and publicized stories revealed…

  16. Social Media Usage: Examination of Influencers and Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Stoney L.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with investigating topics surrounding the phenomenon of social media usage. Essay One draws from the technology acceptance literature by utilizing concepts from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), and the model of hedonic technology acceptance. The…

  17. Current Research on the Relative Effectiveness of Selected Media Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulliford, Nancy L.

    The literature of research and theory on media, the psychology of learning, and the technology of instruction is reviewed. The focus is on discovering what is currently known about the intersection of these fields. Current thoughts and discoveries about brain structure and processing are discussed. The management of learning as a system is another…

  18. Social Media Usage: Examination of Influencers and Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Stoney L.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with investigating topics surrounding the phenomenon of social media usage. Essay One draws from the technology acceptance literature by utilizing concepts from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), and the model of hedonic technology acceptance. The…

  19. An Effectiveness Index and Profile for Instructional Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Jack H.

    A scale was developed for judging the relative value of various media in teaching children. Posttest scores were partitioned into several components: error, prior knowledge, guessing, and gain from the learning exercise. By estimating the amounts of prior knowledge, guessing, and error, and then subtracting these from the total score, an index of…

  20. Sweet vs. Snap! Effective Dispositions in the Media Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standard, April

    2011-01-01

    In "What Defines an Exemplary School Librarian," Jami Jones and Gail Bush make a strong argument that professional disposition is the key to a successful library media program. The authors emphasize the relevance of INTASC standards which specify that teachers must promote "positive social interaction and (develop) healthy and helping…

  1. The Effect of the Media on Suicide: The Great Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1992-01-01

    Tests thesis that degree of media influence is contingent on audience receptivity. Audience receptivity to suicide stories assumed high during Great Depression. Developed taxonomy of stories using classic imitation, social learning, and differential identification theories. Analysis of monthly data on suicides and publicized stories revealed…

  2. The Knowledge Gap: An Analytical Review of Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaziano, Cecilie

    Fifty-eight studies relating to the "knowledge gap" hypothesis (a theory that correlates public knowledge to educational level and mass media exposure) are examined in this report. In the opening sections, the theory is defined, and the early information diffusion studies and public opinion polls that led to its formulation in 1970 are described.…

  3. Effect of Media Use on HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge and Condom Use in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Minsoo; Arya, Monisha; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and the degree of condom use varies by socioeconomic status (SES). However, there is limited research on the effect of mass media use on HIV/AIDS-related cognitive and behavioral outcomes in low-income countries and how it might influence the association between SES and HIV-related outcomes. We investigated the moderating effect of media use on the relationship between SES and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and condom use in sub-Saharan Africa in terms of communication inequalities. Cross-sectional data from the Demographic Health Surveys from 13 sub-Saharan countries (2004–10) were pooled. Gender-stratified multivariable poisson regression of 151,209 women and 68,890 men were used to calculate adjusted relative ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between SES, media use, HIV-related outcomes, and condom use. We found significant disparities in mass media use among people from different SES groups as well as among countries. Education and wealth are strongly and positively associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS and knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS and are significantly associated with condom use. These associations are attenuated when the use of various types of mass media is added to the models, with newspapers showing the strongest effect. The findings of this study suggest that media use has the potential to blunt the impact of socioeconomic status though not completely eliminate it. Thus, we need to pay attention to reducing communication inequalities among social groups and countries to moderate the effect of wealth and SES on HIV/AIDS. PMID:23874598

  4. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (76th, Kansas City, Missouri, August 11-14, 1993). Part V: Media and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Media and Technology section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 13 papers: "The 'Talking Newspaper': The Technical Virtuosity and Monologic Modality of Audiotex(t)" (George Albert Gladney); "An Historic Opportunity?: Communication Research in the Design of Communication Interfaces and Systems" (Frank Biocca);…

  5. The effectiveness of different approaches to media literacy in modifying adolescents' responses to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chun Yvonnes

    2013-01-01

    Fearing the negative effect that alcohol advertising might have on adolescents' receptiveness to the consumption of alcohol, health educators have used media literacy as an effective strategy to mitigate the effect of these messages in the media. The present study applied parental mediation to the design and evaluations of a media literacy curriculum that targets alcohol decision-making processes illustrated in the message interpretation process model. The authors conducted a pretest-posttest quasi-experiment of 171 adolescents to examine the effect of a negative evaluative approach and a balanced evaluative approach (a combination of negative and positive evaluative strategies) to media literacy on modifying adolescents' responses to alcohol messages. Results showed that different media literacy approaches had varying degrees of effectiveness on adolescent boys and girls. After receiving a negative media literacy lesson, adolescent boys regarded television characters as less realistic and believed that drinking alcohol had negative consequences. In contrast, adolescent girls benefited more from a balanced evaluative approach as their media skepticism attitude was enhanced. Results suggest that health educators should choose tailored pedagogical approaches that are based on gender to improve decision making regarding alcohol consumption. PMID:23496333

  6. The Effect of Communication, Writing, and Technology Apprehension on Likelihood to Use New Communication Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Craig R.; Rockwell, Steven C.

    1997-01-01

    Explores the role of computer anxiety, communication apprehension and writing apprehension in predicting future use of new communication technologies. Supports hypotheses about the relevance of computer anxiety and communication apprehension in predicting future technology use, but not those with regard to writing apprehension. Notes that past…

  7. Communication imperialism and dependency: a conceptual clarification.

    PubMed

    Lee, P S

    1988-01-01

    Communications imperialism has to do with the domination of a country's media activities by another. The ownership, structure, distribution or content of the media in 1 country are affected by pressures from media interests of another country or group out of proportion with those of that country. To determine if this is happening we should consider the country's policies, the private sector;s efforts to export communications elements, and actions of the dominant country against the dominated. The 4 aspects of international media in this situation are television program exportation, foreign ownership and control of media distribution, the infringement of capital opinions on other societies, and the transfer of commercialism and broadcasting norms. In addition to the software and hardware and the other forms of communication such as satellites, computers, and transportation of the mass media, there are the cultural effects on the developing countries. In the case of involuntary of voluntary dependency of the recipient country, the effect of the unbalanced international communication can be harmful or beneficial. Communication dependency may not be harmful to the culture of the recipient country. In determining the theory of unbalanced international communications 3 factors should be considered. There are: the role of the interacting countries, the nature of the dependency of the recipient country, and the beneficial or harmful effect of unbalanced communication pattern on that country. PMID:12283101

  8. Media Literacy and Attitude Change: Assessing the Effectiveness of Media Literacy Training on Children's Responses to Persuasive Messages within the ELM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Bradford L.

    This study adds to the small but growing body of literature that examines the effectiveness of media literacy training on children's responses to persuasive messages. Within the framework of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of persuasion, this research investigates whether media literacy training is a moderating variable in the persuasion…

  9. Foreword: Ionospheric effects on communication and related systems (IES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, John M.; Klobuchar, John A.; Soicher, Haim

    1988-07-01

    The special section contained in this issue of Radio Science is the second of two which have been developed from papers presented at the 1987 symposium on the Effect of the Ionosphere on Communication, Navigation, and Surveillance Systems (IES 1987). This technical conference was jointly sponsored by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), the Office of Naval Research (ONR), the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL), and the Army Communications-Electronics Command (USACECOM). The symposium was held in Springfield, Virginia on May 5-7, 1987 in cooperation with the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA), the Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC), the Institute for Telecommunication Sciences (ITS), and the Voice of America (VOA). See the May-June 1988 issue of Radio Science for a more complete foreword (Radio Sci., 23, 209, 1988).

  10. Investigating effects of communications modulation technique on targeting performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Eusebio, Gerald; Huling, Edward

    2006-05-01

    One of the key challenges facing the global war on terrorism (GWOT) and urban operations is the increased need for rapid and diverse information from distributed sources. For users to get adequate information on target types and movements, they would need reliable data. In order to facilitate reliable computational intelligence, we seek to explore the communication modulation tradeoffs affecting information distribution and accumulation. In this analysis, we explore the modulation techniques of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS), and statistical time-division multiple access (TDMA) as a function of the bit error rate and jitter that affect targeting performance. In the analysis, we simulate a Link 16 with a simple bandpass frequency shift keying (PSK) technique using different Signal-to-Noise ratios. The communications transfer delay and accuracy tradeoffs are assessed as to the effects incurred in targeting performance.

  11. Effect of Interstitial Media on Segregation in Vertically Vibrated Granular Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiao-Xian; Li, Liang-Sheng; Wen, Ping-Ping; Shi, Qing-Fan; Zheng, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Vertically vibrated segregation behaviors of binary granular mixtures with different interstitial media are experimentally investigated. To study the role of interstitial media on the segregation, two types of interstitial fluids are adopted and the resulting phase diagrams are compared. The water-immersed granular mixture exhibits two kinds of complete segregation behaviors: Brazil nut effect and sandwich patterns, at least the latter is absent in the same air-immersed mixture. Additionally, the segregation extent is improved remarkably for the water-immersed mixture. The experimental observation further confirms that the effect of interstitial media on the relative motion of grains is one of the predominant mechanisms for granular segregation.

  12. Effects of temperature on bacterial transport and destruction in bioretention media: Field and laboratory evaluations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial activities (such as metabolism, predation, and proliferation) are significantly influenced by temperature. This study investigated the effects of temperature on the capture and destruction of bacteria from urban stormwater runoff in bioretention media using 2-yr field evaluations coupled ...

  13. SURFACE CHEMICAL EFFECTS ON COLLOID STABILITY AND TRANSPORT THROUGH NATURAL POROUS MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface chemical effects on colloidal stability and transport through porous media were investigated using laboratory column techniques. Approximately 100 nm diameter, spherical, iron oxide particles were synthesized as the mobile colloidal phase. The column packing material was ...

  14. SURFACE CHEMICAL EFFECTS ON COLLOID STABILITY AND TRANSPORT THROUGH NATURAL POROUS MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface chemical effects on colloidal stability and transport through porous media were investigated using laboratory column techniques. pproximately 100m diameter, spherical, iron oxide particles were synthesized as the mobile colloidal phase. he column Packing material was retr...

  15. The effect of the media on suicide: the Great Depression.

    PubMed

    Stack, S

    1992-01-01

    Previous work on the media and suicide has neglected the mood of the audience in its models. The present study tests the thesis from symbolic interaction theory that the degree of media influence is contingent on audience receptivity. Audience receptivity to suicide stories is assumed to be high in the Great Depression given widespread unemployment, a condition thought to promote suicidogenic mood such as anomie. A taxonomy of stories is developed using classic imitation, social learning, and differential identification theories. Analysis of monthly data on suicide and publicized stories finds, however, little supporting evidence. Only stories concerning political leaders were associated with suicide. Stories concerning other categories of victims, such as villains, entertainers, and foreigners, were not associated with suicide. Possibly the potential impact was offset by other factors such as the absence of television to echo for the messages carried by the newspapers and radio and heightened political integration. PMID:1626336

  16. Comfortably numb: desensitizing effects of violent media on helping others.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Brad J; Anderson, Craig A

    2009-03-01

    Two studies tested the hypothesis that exposure to violent media reduces aid offered to people in pain. In Study 1, participants played a violent or nonviolent video game for 20 min. After game play, while completing a lengthy questionnaire, they heard a loud fight, in which one person was injured, outside the lab. Participants who played violent games took longer to help the injured victim, rated the fight as less serious, and were less likely to "hear" the fight in comparison to participants who played nonviolent games. In Study 2, violent- and nonviolent-movie attendees witnessed a young woman with an injured ankle struggle to pick up her crutches outside the theater either before or after the movie. Participants who had just watched a violent movie took longer to help than participants in the other three conditions. The findings from both studies suggest that violent media make people numb to the pain and suffering of others. PMID:19207695

  17. Communicating Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.

    2010-12-01

    We are in an era of rapidly changing communication media, which is driving a major evolution in the modes of communicating science. In the past, a mainstay of scientific communication in popular media was through science “translators”; science journalists and presenters. These have now nearly disappeared and are being replaced by widespread dissemination through, e.g., the internet, blogs, YouTube and journalists who often have little scientific background and sharp deadlines. Thus, scientists are required to assume increasing responsibility for translating their scientific findings and calibrating their communications to non-technical audiences, a task for which they are often ill prepared, especially when it comes to controversial societal issues such as tobacco, evolution, and most recently climate change (Oreskes and Conway 2010). Such issues have been politicized and hi-jacked by ideological belief systems to such an extent that constructive dialogue is often impossible. Many scientists are excellent communicators, to their peers. But this requires careful attention to detail and logical explanation, open acknowledgement of uncertainties, and dispassionate delivery. These qualities become liabilities when communicating to a non-scientific audience where entertainment, attention grabbing, 15 second sound bites, and self assuredness reign (e.g. Olson 2009). Here we report on a program initiated by NCAR and UCAR to develop new approaches to science communication and to equip present and future scientists with the requisite skills. If we start from a sound scientific finding with general scientific consensus, such as the warming of the planet by greenhouse gases, then the primary emphasis moves from the “science” to the “art” of communication. The art cannot have free reign, however, as there remains a strong requirement for objectivity, honesty, consistency, and above all a resistance to advocating particular policy positions. Targeting audience attitudes and beliefs, which studies such as the Six Americas research help identify, is key to effective science communications (e.g. Leiserowitz, Maibach, et al, 2009). We argue that the impact of the scientific message can be substantially improved by targeting it to these additional factors. This does require an understanding of the audience and a repackaging of the message to different societal groups. Logical and dispassionate presentation of evidence works for a target scientific audience, but major decisions from the policy to the personal level are influenced by many factors including immediacy, economics, culture, community leaders, emotional framing, and ideological filters.

  18. "Media Violence Is Made to Attract and Entertain People": Responses to Media Literacy Lessons on the Effects of and Institutional Motives behind Media Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekarasih, Laras; Walsh, Kimberly R.; Scharrer, Erica

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the following research question: How do sixth-graders respond to a media literacy lesson that was designed to, among other goals, introduce the concept of the presence of commercial interest in media production, particularly regarding the prevalence of media violence? Forty-seven responses were analyzed thematically using…

  19. "Media Violence Is Made to Attract and Entertain People": Responses to Media Literacy Lessons on the Effects of and Institutional Motives behind Media Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekarasih, Laras; Walsh, Kimberly R.; Scharrer, Erica

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the following research question: How do sixth-graders respond to a media literacy lesson that was designed to, among other goals, introduce the concept of the presence of commercial interest in media production, particularly regarding the prevalence of media violence? Forty-seven responses were analyzed thematically using…

  20. Deriving meaningful climate-effects data from social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuka, M. Z.; Fuka, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents our research on extracting meaningful climate indicator data from unsolicited observations ("tweets") made by Twitter users regarding their physical surroundings and events occurring around them. Our goal is to establish whether the existing understanding of climate indicator data collected by more traditional means could be usefully supplemented by information derived from the potentially rich but also statistically diffuse data resource represented by social media. To this end, we've initiated an ongoing effort to collect and analyze Twitter observations made on a wide variety of climate-related phenological, biological, epidemiological and meteorological phenomena. We report on our acquisition methodology and discuss in particular our rationale for selecting keywords, phrases and filters for our searches. The iterative process of assembling an inventory of hundreds of climate-related search terms has in and of itself yielded interesting and sometimes surprising insights on what is and isn't noticed and commented on via social media with respect to climate indicator phenomenology. We report some of the highlights of those analyses along with significant findings from the data acquisition to date. In conclusion, we discuss our preliminary assessment of the approach, how it can be generalized and extended for social media other than Twitter, and how the resulting data could be used to serve climate science objectives.