Science.gov

Sample records for effective media communication

  1. Effects of the Mass Media of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Walter

    The mass media are considered to be television, radio, movies, and newspapers. They may generate changes in cognition and comprehension. They do effect emotional arousal, sex and behavior identification, and changes in allocation of time, consumer purchase, and voting behavior. The only data which show a clear relationship between the mass media

  2. Effective media communication of disasters: Pressing problems and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Lowrey, Wilson; Evans, William; Gower, Karla K; Robinson, Jennifer A; Ginter, Peter M; McCormick, Lisa C; Abdolrasulnia, Maziar

    2007-01-01

    Background Public health officials and journalists play a crucial role in disseminating information regarding natural disasters, terrorism and other human-initiated disasters. However, research suggests that journalists are unprepared to cover terrorism and many types of natural disasters, in part because of lack sufficient expertise in science and medicine and training. The objective of this research was to identify solutions to problems facing journalists and public health public information officer (PIOs) of communicating with the public during natural and human-initiated disasters. Methods To assist in identifying the most pressing problems regarding media response to health-related risks such as terrorism and large-scale natural disasters, 26 expert advisors were convened, including leaders representing journalists and public information officers, state health officials, experts in terrorism and emergency preparedness, and experts in health, risk, and science communication. The advisory group participated in pre-arranged interviews and were asked to identify and review bioterrorism educational resources provided to journalist. All advisory group members were then invited to attend a day long meeting January 29, 2004 to review the findings and reach consensus. Results The most pressing problems were found to be a lack of coordination between PIO's and journalists, lack of resources for appropriately evaluating information and disseminating it efficiently, and a difference in perception of PIO's and journalist towards each others role during emergency situations. The advisory board developed a list of 15 recommendations that may enhance communication plans betweens PIO's, journalist and the public. The solutions were meant to be feasible in terms of costs and practical in terms of the professional and organizational realities in which journalists and PIO's work. Conclusion It is clear that PIO's and journalists play crucial roles in shaping public response to terrorism and other disasters. The findings from this formative research suggest that perspectives and organizational processes often limit effective communication between these groups; though practical solutions such as participation of journalists in drills, scenario exercises, sharing of informational resources, and raising awareness at professional trade meetings may enhance the timely dissemination of accurate and appropriate information. PMID:17553153

  3. Media and Communication Is Media and Communication right for me?

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Media and Communication Is Media and Communication right for me? If you have an interest in the way in which media affects business and society, globalisation and technology, Media and Communication can set the best out of this degree. The skills you can gain from a Media and Communication degree are wide

  4. Communications and media services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcculla, James W.; Kukowski, James F.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's internal and external communication methods are reviewed. NASA information services for the media, for the public, and for employees are discussed. Consideration is given to electron information distribution, the NASA TV-audio system, the NASA broadcast news service, astronaut appearances, technology and information exhibits, speaker services, and NASA news reports for internal communications. Also, the NASA worldwide electronic mail network is described and trends for future NASA communications and media services are outlined.

  5. Scientific Story Telling & Social Media The role of social media in effectively communicating science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkhuis, D.; Peart, L.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific discourse generally takes place in appropriate journals, using the language and conventions of science. That's fine, as long as the discourse remains in scientific circles. It is only outside those circles that the rules and techniques of engaging social media tools gain importance. A young generation of scientists are eager to share their experiences by using social media, but is this effective? And how can we better integrate all outreach & media channels to engage general audiences? How can Facebook, Twitter, Skype and YouTube be used as synergy tools in scientific story telling? Case: during IODP Expedtion 342 (June-July 2012) onboard the scientific drillship JOIDES Resolution an onboard educator and videographer worked non-stop fort two months on an integrated outreach plan that tried and tested the limits of all social media tools available to interact with an international public while at sea. The results are spectacular!

  6. Conveying Cutting-Edge Discoveries to Nonscientists: Effective Communication with Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Nikhil; Hamilton, Kathleen; Chamot, Joshua

    2013-07-01

    The benefits of using information and news media for disseminating cutting-edge scientific discoveries to the public are well known. Taxpayers and lawmakers need to be informed about the implications of public investments, young students' interest can be molded toward science- and technology-based careers, and public awareness of important issues can be raised by effectively using media. However, communication with news media is different from the means commonly used by scientists—journal publications and conference presentations. This article is intended to provide information on three basic aspects of media interactions—why, what, and how to communicate. The increasing importance of this mode of dissemination in this information age cannot be ignored; rather, it can be effectively utilized for educating a wider population base.

  7. Social Media QMUL Digital Communications Strategy Social Media

    E-print Network

    Chittka, Lars

    Social Media ­ QMUL Digital Communications Strategy 1 Social Media QMUL Social Media Strategy provides staff with a framework for using social media. The strategy will be reviewed in July 2013. Social media rationale QMUL

  8. Effects of communication media choice on the quality and efficacy of emergency calls assisted by a mobile nursing protocol tool.

    PubMed

    Castro, Luis A; Favela, Jesus; Garcia-Peńa, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    The transition from paper to electronic-based records in the healthcare industry has posed several challenges to conventional medical practices. The introduction of technology in day-to-day medical and nursing practices deserves careful consideration. In this work, we report the results of a controlled experiment to compare nurses' consultation in emergency calls in six different conditions. We studied the effect that the type of communication media (face-to-face, telephone, videoconference) and type of nursing protocol media (paper-based, electronic-based) can have on consultation time, mistakes made, pauses during consultation, eye contact, and efficacy of the consultation. We found that the type of communication media has an effect on consultation time; on average, fewer mistakes were made during telephone-based consultations; for eye contact, there were significantly fewer eye contacts during face-to-face than during videoconference consultations; finally, the type of communication media or protocol media did not have any effect in the efficacy of the consultation. PMID:25251859

  9. Communication Media in Ancient Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabusch, David M.

    Interest in early means of communication and in the uses and kinds of media that existed in ancient cultures is starting to grow among communication scholars. Conversation analysis of these cultures is obviously impossible, so that the emphasis must rest with material cultural artifacts. Many ancient cultures used non-verbal codes for dyadic…

  10. TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION BUILDING

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION BUILDING Emergency Action Plan June 2013 The purpose & Communication building to a safe location in the case of an emergency. This plan also serves to provide Facility Information Media & Communication Building: The Media & Communication Building is located

  11. Media Effects: Theory and Research.

    PubMed

    Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Walther, Joseph B

    2016-01-01

    This review analyzes trends and commonalities among prominent theories of media effects. On the basis of exemplary meta-analyses of media effects and bibliometric studies of well-cited theories, we identify and discuss five features of media effects theories as well as their empirical support. Each of these features specifies the conditions under which media may produce effects on certain types of individuals. Our review ends with a discussion of media effects in newer media environments. This includes theories of computer-mediated communication, the development of which appears to share a similar pattern of reformulation from unidirectional, receiver-oriented views, to theories that recognize the transactional nature of communication. We conclude by outlining challenges and promising avenues for future research. PMID:26331344

  12. Communicating Effectively

    Cancer.gov

    The seventh module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores communication issues pertinent to African Americans with cancer and their health care providers, discusses strategies for culturally sensitive communication, and presents the SPIKES protocol, a practical framework for effective communication.

  13. COMMUNICATION, B. A. MEDIA AND CULTURE (MDCL)

    E-print Network

    Hamburger, Peter

    COMMUNICATION, B. A. MEDIA AND CULTURE (MDCL) (Fall 2015-Summer 20116) IPFW Residency Requirements in Major/Gen Ed Communication BA Core Courses (15 credits) *Note: grades of C- or higher required in major/2.0 GPA ______ 1 COM 10100 Intro to Communication ______ 3 COM 12000 Communication Technology

  14. Social Media & Marketing Communications Monday through Thursday

    E-print Network

    Snider, Barry B.

    1 Bus 157a Social Media & Marketing Communications Monday through Thursday 12:40 ­ 2:00pm Justice & online marketing of political candidates Social Media Marketing: Integrating traditional and Internet: Selecting target markets, messages, creative and performance measures New Media Marketing: Listening

  15. Communications and Media: Grade 7. Cluster II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 7, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Communications and Media." It is divided into six units: advertising, film and photography, radio and television, journalism and publishing, library and periodicals, and transocean communications. Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

  16. International Communication; Media, Channels, Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Heinz-Dietrich, Ed.; Merrill, John Calhoun, Ed.

    A total of 41 essays explore several major issues in international communication. The essays are grouped according to their topic, beginning with the broader topics of communication systems and concepts and the flow of world news and proceeding to considerations of national concerns such as freedom and restriction of communication, national…

  17. Who is my audience, what is my message, and know my reporters deadline: How to be more effective communicating with the media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. M.

    2006-12-01

    In the United States where most scientists receive their research support from federal funds, scientists need to expand their audience beyond their peers and consider the taxpayers, too. The media can play an important conduit for scientists and the lay public. However, many scientists do not do the best public relations jobs for their profession. We talk very well with each other and not very well with almost anyone else. We need to learn to avoid jargon, communicate our results more clearly, and examine the relationship between communication techniques and how to assess the outcomes. Scientists assess outcome based only on factual accuracy. Journalists assess their results based on accuracy and storycraft. In my experiences interacting with the media during various oil spills as well as training from the Aldo Leopold Leadership Program, I will discuss how scientists can be more effective when communicating with the media. First, scientists need to understand who their audience is and what their educational background is. In addition, it is important to stay on message and have only one message per interaction with a member of the media. That is, do not confuse a reporter with the results from one study when he or she is really interested in another story or just looking for background information. Last, scientists must understand that the media must often publish their stories with deadlines having timescales of hours and not months or years, hence it is important to be brief and to promptly return phone calls and emails. Hopefully, such efforts between scientists and the media will lead to a more scientifically informed public.

  18. Effectiveness of a National Media Campaign to Promote Parent-Child Communication about Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kevin C.; Evans, W. Douglas; Kamyab, Kian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although there is debate on the effectiveness of youth-focused abstinence education programs, research confirms that parents can influence their children’s decisions about sexual behavior. To leverage parent-based approaches to adolescent sexual health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the "Parents Speak Up…

  19. Interpersonal communication outcomes of a media literacy alcohol prevention curriculum.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Elek, Elvira; Hecht, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    Media literacy intervention efficacy literature has focused on media-relevant (e.g., knowledge and realism) and behavior-relevant outcomes (e.g., attitudes and behaviors), without much attention paid to interpersonal communication outcomes. This project examined interpersonal communication after participation in two versions (analysis plus analysis and analysis plus planning) of the Youth Message Development (YMD) intervention, a brief media literacy curriculum targeted at preventing high school student alcohol use. Participants attended a 75-mins media literacy YMD workshop and completed a delayed posttest questionnaire 3 to 4 months later. Overall, 68 % participants replied affirmatively to interpersonal communication about the YMD intervention. Communication about the workshop moderated the effects of the type of workshop (analysis plus analysis or analysis plus planning) on self-efficacy to counter-argue (but not critical thinking). Interpersonal communication moderated the effects of the YMD intervention on self-efficacy to counter-argue, thereby signaling the importance of including interpersonal communication behaviors in intervention evaluation. PMID:26622915

  20. Uniform Media Effects and Uniform Audience Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, David K.

    The idea that mass communication effects may decrease diversity among people or societies exposed to it arises constantly. However, discussions of mass media effects do not highlight differences between mass communications that "affect" people uniformly and messages that members of audiences "respond to" in similar ways. A number of modern…

  1. CAPITAL REGION Communication, Media and the Arts -14%

    E-print Network

    Wenderholm, Elaine

    and Sciences - 7% CENTRAL NEW YORK Communication, Media and the Arts - 48% Business - 40% Education - 50% Liberal Arts and Sciences - 48% FINGER LAKES Communication, Media and the Arts - 14% Business - 4% Education - 9% Liberal Arts and Sciences - 5% HUDSON VALLEY Communication, Media and the Arts - 14% Business

  2. English 7-8: Modern Media of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Madelon

    This grade 7-8 level course guide covers aspects of media communication such as verbal and nonverbal communication theory, forms of modern media (newspapers, feature films, artistic films, music, advertising, etc.), and practice for the student in the various aspects of communication media. The guide is designed for a one-year course and enhances…

  3. Media communication center using brain computer interface.

    PubMed

    Teo, Eugene; Huang, Alvin; Lian, Yong; Guan, Cuntai; Li, Yuanqing; Zhang, Haihong

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to make use of brain computer interface (BCI) in implementing an application called the media communication center for the paralyzed people. The application is based on the event-related potential called P300 to perform button selections on media and communication programs such as the mp3 player, video player, photo gallery and e-book. One of the key issues in such system is the usability. We study how various tasks affect the application operation, in particular, how typical mental activities cause false trigger during the operation of the application. We study the false acceptance rate under the conditions of closing eyes, reading a book, listening to music and watching a video. Data from 5 subjects is used to obtain the false rejection rate and false acceptance rate of the BCI system. Our study shows that different mental activities show different impacts on the false acceptance performances. PMID:17946993

  4. Communicating Effectively PDF

    Cancer.gov

    Effective communication is essential for the delivery of quality cancer palliative care. And yet, healthcare providers often lack the skills to communicate effectively with their patients and families.

  5. A Media Mosaic: Canadian Communications Through a Critical Eye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDayter, Walt, Ed.

    The 19 articles that comprise this book are concerned with the subject of communications and media in Canada. In Part One, "The Media: A Diagnosis," the articles are "The Power and Impotence of the Media" by Russell Elman, "The Myth of Objectivity" by Walt McDayter, "In the Shadow of Giants: Concentration and Monopolies in the Media" by Walt…

  6. Mass Communication Functions in a Media-Rich Developing Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Steven H.; Izcaray, Fausto

    1975-01-01

    Discusses media-centered communication research models and applies them to a field setting in Venezuela in an attempt to assess the extent to which social processes depend on mass communication. See CS 703 632 for subscription information. (MH)

  7. Medicine, Media Communication and Ethical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2010-01-01

    Summary On World Press Freedom Day (3rd of May 2009) details of the Frida Haus ranking list of press freedom in countries around the world were officially disclosed. Bosnia and Herzegovina is ranked at 98 place, and in the region better ranked is only Montenegro, which is located between 78 and 80 place along with Botswana and Eastern Timor. Top rated is Iceland with 9 points and on the last place is North Korea, with 98 points. Almost every profession has its deontology/ethical principles. However, medicine and the media are specifically targeted by public controversy with regard to the consequences of their responsibilities for the individual and the overall population. Until twenty years ago, the media were the main social system or a reflection of the social system and dominated the field of public communication, which implicitly reflected in the organization, operation and effects of companies, corporations, etc. as the overall social system, increasing the gross national product and its various categories enabled boom. Medicine and health represent to a wide range of people, perhaps, the most interesting source of information, and probably there isn’t a person that once was not interested in quality professional and verified information regarding some of their medical condition or overall health status. It is estimated that today there are more than a million Web sites on health and diseases, which means that the availability of health information for users is better today than ever before. However, it is important to patients and users of web sites with health information to learn how to properly use them, and learn to assess whether the information published on this site are of reliable quality, which depends on the authors who put the information on the web site, their topicality, simplicity in use and especially the diversity of the medical content of these web pages. It is the Internet that allows the revolution in relation patient-health care- health services provider. First look is at the symptoms and other health information on the Internet before patients actually go to the doctor. In response to this there is change in the relation patient- doctor, there are attempts to allow the patient to make a test, for example, cholesterol in the blood prior to scheduling the examination by the doctor. The vision of the future is Web-based and secure health record (Medical Record) that can be maintained in some kind of health plan or supervised by a physician. Such a site can be used when the patient is traveling or when he or she goes to the pharmacy or doctor of any specialty. Access to appropriate information may strengthen patients to express their demands and medical professionalism in order to improve clinical decision making. Information on support of patients and their involvement in prevention, alternative treatments and their care should be a central part of quality improvement strategies. Improving the quality of information and helping people use the most of what is offered have to be realized by implementing the strategies. Governments should invest in public education programs to encourage people to critically evaluate health information. For their share, they will have to be aware of the scope and quality of information sources that can be used by patients, so that they can get advice from them in an appropriate manner. PMID:24493979

  8. Interactive Communication by Applying Contemporary Media in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatkovic, Nevenka; Ruzic, Maja

    2005-01-01

    Today society has become a multimedia society, turned towards new forms of communication, ready for changes and the new communicational challenges. The students, surrounded by PCs, mobile phones and ever so sophisticated software, videos, wireless sets and TVs, DVDs, satellite transmissions and "the media above all other media"--the Internet.…

  9. How scientists use social media to communicate their research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Millions of people all over the world are constantly sharing an extremely wide range of fascinating, quirky, funny, irrelevant and important content all at once. Even scientists are no strangers to this trend. Social media has enabled them to communicate their research quickly and efficiently throughout each corner of the world. But which social media platforms are they using to communicate this research and how are they using them? One thing is clear: the range of social media platforms that scientists are using is relatively vast and dependent on discipline and sentiment. While the future of social media is unknown, a combination of educated speculation and persuasive fact points to the industry's continual growth and influence. Thus, is that not only are scientists utilizing social media to communicate their research, they must. The ability to communicate to the masses via social media is critical to the distribution of scientific information amongst professionals in the field and to the general population. PMID:22085450

  10. Doug MacLellan 2014 Communication, Media and Film

    E-print Network

    the world, others and ourselves. www.uwindsor.ca/cmf Students in Communication, Media and Film are at the centre of exploring some of the most dynamic changes in the media environment and the cultural, social that combines a social sciences, theory based format with digital media production. This makes our program

  11. 78 FR 1247 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ...Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media Players, and Televisions, and Components...communication devices, tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and components...communication devices, tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and...

  12. Bridging Service-Learning with Media Literacy: Creating Contexts for Communication Students to Educate Youth on Media Content, Consumption, and Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradise, Angela M.

    2011-01-01

    Within the last decade, service-learning has experienced impressive growth in higher education, particularly within communication departments. According to Jacoby (1996), service-learning is a "form of experiential education in which students engage in activities that address human and community needs together with structured opportunities…

  13. GSM Technology as a Communication Media for an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle GSM Technology as a Communication Media for an

    E-print Network

    Doherty, Patrick

    GSM Technology as a Communication Media for an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle GSM Technology as a Communication Media for an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Mariusz Wzorek, David Land´en, Patrick Doherty,davla,patdo}@ida.liu.se ABSTRACT Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming more reliable, autonomous and easier to use

  14. The Relationship between Adolescents' News Media Use and Civic Engagement: The Indirect Effect of Interpersonal Communication with Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Michelle J.; Zaff, Jonathan F.; Phelps, Erin; Weiner, Michelle B.; Lerner, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development, a longitudinal study involving U.S. adolescents, multi-group structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to evaluate whether news media use is predictive of a set of civic indicators (civic duty, civic efficacy, neighborhood social connection, and civic participation) for youth in Grades…

  15. Transformation of Traditional Marketing Communications in to Paradigms of Social Media Networking

    E-print Network

    Nair, T R Gopalakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Effective Communication for marketing is a vital field in business organizations, which is used to convey the details about their products and services to the market segments and subsequently to build long lasting customer relationships. This paper focuses on an emerging component of the integrated marketing communication, ie. social media networking, as it is increasingly becoming the trend. In 21st century, the marketing communication platforms show a tendency to shift towards innovative technology bound people networking which is becoming an acceptable domain of interaction. Though the traditional channels like TV, print media etc. are still active and prominent in marketing communication, the presences of the Internet and more specifically the Social Media Networking, has started influencing the way individuals and business enterprises communicate. It has become evident that more individuals and business enterprises are engaging the social media networking sites either to accelerate the sales of their pro...

  16. India: Implications of Communication Infrastructure on the Production of Media in State Training Institutes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, George R.

    1989-01-01

    Description of training institutes developed by the government of India to improve the irrigation system focuses on the communication system infrastructure for the production and use of audiovisual materials for training. Highlights include local production of media; equipment and communication networks; cost effectiveness; and recommendations for…

  17. Recontextualizing Writing: Roles of Written Texts in Multiple Media Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Describes, in a study of an insurance company's communication department, how three written products served as parts of larger messages in multiple media campaigns; an attempt to combine composing processes for print and video failed; and conflicting generic and stylistic properties of other media caused an intermedial graft to fail. (SR)

  18. APPLICATION OF NEWER COMMUNICATION MEDIA IN CORRESPONDENCE STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCDONALD, L.E.

    THIS PROJECT REPORTED THE PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE HELD (1) TO DEVELOP A GUIDE FOR THE USE OF AVAILABLE AUDIOVISUAL MEDIA IN CORRESPONDENCE STUDY AND (2) TO SET GUIDELINES AND SPECIFIC PROJECTS FOR FUTURE STUDY AND RESEARCH IN THE USE OF THE NEWER COMMUNICATION MEDIA IN CORRESPONDENCE STUDY. (GD)

  19. Speaking their language: communicating research through new media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goruk, B.; Byrne, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The research community primarily communicates internally through papers, books and other forms of print publication. Researchers typically depend upon the media to pick up on research important to policymakers, planners, managers and society at large. However in recent decades, there has been a major failure in this communication process as the media has become much less objective and far more opinionated; often contributing more confusion than clarity. We argue that the research community should be much more active in communicating work to sectors of society most in need of the knowledge. Members of society do not read research publications - we essentially speak different languages. Researchers have to reach out to society in a communication form that works for the listeners. We put forward a range of examples using new media to communicate climate change research results to society.

  20. Gap between science and media revisited: scientists as public communicators.

    PubMed

    Peters, Hans Peter

    2013-08-20

    The present article presents an up-to-date account of the current media relations of scientists, based on a comprehensive analysis of relevant surveys. The evidence suggests that most scientists consider visibility in the media important and responding to journalists a professional duty--an attitude that is reinforced by universities and other science organizations. Scientific communities continue to regulate media contacts with their members by certain norms that compete with the motivating and regulating influences of public information departments. Most scientists assume a two-arena model with a gap between the arenas of internal scientific and public communication. They want to meet the public in the public arena, not in the arena of internal scientific communication. Despite obvious changes in science and in the media system, the orientations of scientists toward the media, as well as the patterns of interaction with journalists, have their roots in the early 1980s. Although there is more influence on public communication from the science organizations and more emphasis on strategic considerations today, the available data do not indicate abrupt changes in communication practices or in the relevant beliefs and attitudes of scientists in the past 30 y. Changes in the science-media interface may be expected from the ongoing structural transformation of the public communication system. However, as yet, there is little evidence of an erosion of the dominant orientation toward the public and public communication within the younger generation of scientists. PMID:23940312

  1. Gap between science and media revisited: Scientists as public communicators

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Hans Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present article presents an up-to-date account of the current media relations of scientists, based on a comprehensive analysis of relevant surveys. The evidence suggests that most scientists consider visibility in the media important and responding to journalists a professional duty—an attitude that is reinforced by universities and other science organizations. Scientific communities continue to regulate media contacts with their members by certain norms that compete with the motivating and regulating influences of public information departments. Most scientists assume a two-arena model with a gap between the arenas of internal scientific and public communication. They want to meet the public in the public arena, not in the arena of internal scientific communication. Despite obvious changes in science and in the media system, the orientations of scientists toward the media, as well as the patterns of interaction with journalists, have their roots in the early 1980s. Although there is more influence on public communication from the science organizations and more emphasis on strategic considerations today, the available data do not indicate abrupt changes in communication practices or in the relevant beliefs and attitudes of scientists in the past 30 y. Changes in the science–media interface may be expected from the ongoing structural transformation of the public communication system. However, as yet, there is little evidence of an erosion of the dominant orientation toward the public and public communication within the younger generation of scientists. PMID:23940312

  2. Strategic Communication and Social Media: An MBA Course from a Business Communication Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Social media offers an exciting new area for our discipline to produce research and pedagogy that is in high demand by students, industry constituents, and other disciplines. This article discusses why business communication scholars should focus on social media as an important stream of study and outlines an MBA course in social media strategy…

  3. The Impact of Developing Technology on Media Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.

    1997-01-01

    Examines changes in media communications resulting from new information technologies: communications technologies (networks, World Wide Web, digital set-top box); graphic arts (digital photography, CD and digital archives, desktop design and publishing, printing technology); television and video (digital editing, interactive television, news and…

  4. The Executive Briefing: A Management Tool for Improving Communication between School Library Media Specialists and Their Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Plummer Alston, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the lack of communication between school principals and school library media specialists, the lack of information principals have regarding media specialists' roles and responsibilities, and the use of the executive briefing to open up effective channels of communication. Explains correlations between "Information Power" principles and…

  5. Synchronous Communication Media in the Software Requirements Negotiation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erra, Ugo; Scanniello, Giuseppe

    This paper presents an empirical study in the requirements negotiation process. In particular, the study compares traditional face-to-face meeting and distributed communication by using two rich synchronous communication media (i.e., an enhanced chat, and a three-dimensional virtual environment). We have observed that there is a difference in the time taken to negotiate software requirements in favor of face-to-face meeting. As the only assessment of the time could not be meaningful, we have also analyzed the quality of the structured description of the negotiated software requirements. We observed that the quality of the structured descriptions is not influenced by the used communication media.

  6. Collaborating with Your Clients Using Social Media & Mobile Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Typhina, Eli; Bardon, Robert E.; Gharis, Laurie W.

    2015-01-01

    Many Extension educators are still learning how to effectively integrate social media into their programs. By using the right social media platforms and mobile applications to create engaged, online communities, Extension educators can collaborate with clients to produce and to share information expanding and enhancing their social media and…

  7. [Social media and health communication: do we need rules?].

    PubMed

    Santoro, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Social media, online social networks and apps for smartphones and tablets are changing the way to communicate health and health issues to consumers and health professionals. Google, Facebook, Apple, and other companies have launched tools to make easier the doctor-patient communication, to group patients with similar diseases allowing them to share stories, experiences, and opinions, and to remotely track and monitor users health and wellbeing. However several concerns about patients' and consumers' privacy remain. Doctor-patient communication through e-mail and social media also introduces other ethical and privacy issues that were addressed only by few medical societies with appropriate guidelines and policies. In addition, pharmaceutical companies have started to use social media channels to communicate with doctors, patients and consumers. This type of communication has been only partially regulated by the Food and Drug Administration with the recently published guidelines for industries. Similar concerns exist for health and medical applications for smartphones and tablets for which only few agencies (including Food and Drug Administration) are requiring a formal (even if restricted in typology) validation. It's time for Europe and Italy to adopt appropriate guidelines for the use of the new media in health communication. PMID:25621774

  8. The MAVEN mission to Mars: Communicating science through social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, T.; Renfrow, S.

    2012-12-01

    While science literacy rates in the U.S. have recently increased, overall levels remain remarkably low.There are opportunities for the public to learn about science and to engage directly with real-life practitioners. It is the responsibility of science education and communications professionals to provide these opportunities and to assess the effectiveness of each platform. At the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), we utilize a diverse, well-tested approach to introduce science to the public and to give scientists access to the broadest possible audience. This poster will focus on NASA's MAVEN mission to Mars and the social media outlets we have incorporated into our Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program in order to introduce rather complex science concepts to the public. We'll examine several evaluation tools that are used to provide ongoing, immediate feedback regarding our strategies and to guide long-term efforts. MAVEN educators and scientists are capitalizing on the recent excitement surrounding Mars science and the public's fascination with the search for life to bring the science of the mission directly to a variety of audiences. Our EPO professionals are using cross-platform, transportable content to maximize exposure and create pathways for two-way interactions between our audience and mission experts. We are using social media tools to build a community that will join us in the MAVEN journey and its important scientific discoveries.

  9. Communicating through Vernacular Media: Scope and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sule, A.

    2015-03-01

    India is a country with a large number of languages which not only differ in scripts but are essentially part of different language families. ``Marathi`` is one such Indian regional language spoken by nearly 70 million people and is the native language of the author. Like all major regional languages, there is a strong and vibrant media in Marathi with 45 odd newspapers and 6 television news channels.

  10. PARALANGUAGE IN COMPUTERMEDIATED COMMUNICATION Alternate Media Center

    E-print Network

    , not the individuals themselves. These elements within the frame may affect the style of interaction. One concern, and help to regulate interaction between speak- ers. Paralanguage becomes an issue in print communication of a vowel (drawl) or a final consonant (released or held consonant, with final stress). In addition

  11. Explaining and Communicating Science Using Student-Created Blended Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoban, Garry; Nielsen, Wendy; Shepherd, Alyce

    2013-01-01

    Students engage with science content when they are asked to explain and communicate their knowledge to others. In particular, encouraging students to create various digital media forms such as videos, podcasts, vodcasts, screencasts, digital stories and animations to explain science is usually engaging, especially if they have ownership of the…

  12. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Media Use and Communication Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirzinger, Ashley E.; Weber, Christopher; Johnson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of scholarly work has explored the motivations behind media consumption and other various communication traits. However, little research has investigated the sources of these motivations and virtually no research considers their potential genetic underpinnings. Drawing on the field of behavior genetics, we use a classical twin design…

  13. Interpersonal Communication as a Determinant of Mass Media Exposure Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Charles K.

    Evidence is presented that people select mass communication content on the basis of interpersonal contact they anticipate having. Examinations of the results from a variety of earlier field studies showed consistently positive relationships between amount of interpersonal discussion and exposure to relevant mass media messages. In a secondary…

  14. [Risks of risk communication - lessons we may learn from media communication].

    PubMed

    Brosius, H-B

    2004-02-01

    The German media system produces an enormous diversity of media contents both in the audiovisual and the press areas. The increasing number of media products promotes keen competition between new and existing media companies. German citizens consume mass media products for about eight hours a day, which makes the media one of the key factors in social life. This has consequences for the type and process of risk communication. Increasing competition results in a biased coverage of events and issues in the world. Key words are sensation, negativity, emotion and personalization. This kind of coverage leads to a sometimes irrational risk dialogue between media, society, economy and administration. A possible misconception of risks and risk management may have undesirable consequences for the social development and benefits of new technologies. PMID:14770344

  15. 77 FR 36305 - Stream Communications Network & Media, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Stream Communications Network & Media, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading...information concerning the securities of Stream Communications Network & Media, Inc. because it has not filed any...

  16. Social Media Start-Up Kit Office of Communications and Marketing

    E-print Network

    Kearfott, R. Baker

    Social Media Start-Up Kit Office of Communications and Marketing #12; Table of Contents How ...................................................................................................................................1 University of Louisiana at Lafayette Social Media Policy.............................................................................4 B. Guidelines for Faculty, Staff, and Students Representing UL Lafayette through Social Media

  17. Communication technology and social media: opportunities and implications for healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Betsy; Lindsay, Bill; Gitelman, Betsy

    2012-09-01

    Electronic patient education and communications, such as email, text messaging, and social media, are on the rise in healthcare today. This article explores potential uses of technology to seek solutions in healthcare for such challenges as modifying behaviors related to chronic conditions, improving efficiency, and decreasing costs. A brief discussion highlights the role of technologies in healthcare informatics and considers two theoretical bases for technology implementation. Discussion focuses more extensively on the ability and advantages of electronic communication technology, such as e-mail, social media, text messaging, and electronic health records, to enhance patient-provider e-communications in nursing today. Effectiveness of e-communication in healthcare is explored, including recent and emerging applications designed to improve patient-provider connections and review of current evidence supporting positive outcomes. The conclusion addresses the vision of nurses' place in the vanguard of these developments. PMID:23036059

  18. Working with Media Outlets To Communicate with the Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    Offers suggestions from a veteran public relations practitioner on how colleges can effectively use media resources to advertise academic programs, workforce training, and continuing education opportunities. Focuses on maximizing the benefits of using these five media outlets: newspapers, radio and TV, direct mail, the Internet, and cable…

  19. How to maximize science communication efficacy by combining old and new media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuccitelli, D. A.; Cook, J.

    2014-12-01

    Traditional science communication approaches (such as relying on university press releases about new scientific publications), and new communication approaches (such as utilizing infographics and social media), can each reach a wide audience when successful. However, probability of successful the science communication can be amplified by taking advantage of both traditional and new media, especially when 'sticky' messaging techniques are applied. The example of Cook et al., 2013 (C13), which found a 97% consensus in the peer-reviewed climate literature on human-caused global warming, is considered. C13 implemented this optimal combined communications approach strategy and became the most-downloaded study in all Institute of Physics journals, with over 200,000 downloads to date. Due to the effective 'sticky' messaging approaches implemented by the study authors, its results received broad coverage from international media and reached millions of people via social media. Strategies to avoid misrepresentations of one's work while maximizing the communications efficacy of its key points will also be discussed.

  20. Impediments to media communication of social change in family planning and reproductive health: experiences from East Africa.

    PubMed

    Kagurusi, Patrick T

    2013-09-01

    The media has been employed to increase uptake of Family Planning through behaviour change communication (BCC). Understanding the barriers encountered in effectively undertaking this function would increase the strategy's effectiveness. Sixty journalists from East Africa participated in trainings to enhance their BCC skills for Family Planning in which a qualitative study was nested to identify barriers to effective Family Planning BCC in the region's media. The barriers were observed to be insufficient BCC skills, journalists' conflict of interest, interests of media houses, inaccessible sources of family planning information, editorial ideologies and absence of commercially beneficial demand. Coupled with the historical ideologies of the media in the region, the observed barriers have precipitated ineffective family planning BCC in the regions media. Effective BCC for family planning in the regions media requires capacity building among practitioners and alignment of the concept to the media's and consumers' aspirations. PMID:24069769

  1. Size Effects in Granular Media Size Effect of Inclusions in Granular Media

    E-print Network

    Kuhn, Matthew R.

    Size Effects in Granular Media Size Effect of Inclusions in Granular Media S. Joseph Antony1 Conference 2005 #12;Size Effects in Granular Media Outline 1 Background Particle stress Simulations: Particle Questions about granular behavior Experiment results #12;Size Effects in Granular Media Background Particle

  2. Data communication through multiple physical media: applications to munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Rastegar, Jahangir; Feng, Dake; Kwok, Philip

    2015-05-01

    Electronic systems comprising of subassemblies, distributed across different physical media, require seamless communication between processors and sensors embedded in the disparate volumes. For example, smart munitions systems embed sensors and other key control electronics, throughout the structure, in vastly different physical media. In addition to the obvious space constraints, these structures are subjected to high G forces during launch. Thus, communications through wire harnesses becomes cumbersome, make assembly process and testing difficult, and challenging to make survive high G firing. Here we focus on an approach that takes advantage of the partial optical transparency of epoxy material commonly used in potting electronic components in munitions, as well as the wave guiding that is possible through the body of the munitions wall which is made from composite materials. Experimental results show that a wireless optical link, connecting various parts of the distributed system, is possible at near IR frequencies. Data can be rapidly parsed between a processor, sensors and actuators. We present experimental data for a commercial epoxy system, which is used to embed a number of IrDA devices inside the cone of 120 mm mortar shell. IrDA devices using the FIR data rates establish point-to-point communication through various media, representative of the environment inside the 120 mm mortar cone.

  3. Interactive real-time media streaming with reliable communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xunyu; Free, Kevin M.

    2014-02-01

    Streaming media is a recent technique for delivering multimedia information from a source provider to an end- user over the Internet. The major advantage of this technique is that the media player can start playing a multimedia file even before the entire file is transmitted. Most streaming media applications are currently implemented based on the client-server architecture, where a server system hosts the media file and a client system connects to this server system to download the file. Although the client-server architecture is successful in many situations, it may not be ideal to rely on such a system to provide the streaming service as users may be required to register an account using personal information in order to use the service. This is troublesome if a user wishes to watch a movie simultaneously while interacting with a friend in another part of the world over the Internet. In this paper, we describe a new real-time media streaming application implemented on a peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture in order to overcome these challenges within a mobile environment. When using the peer-to-peer architecture, streaming media is shared directly between end-users, called peers, with minimal or no reliance on a dedicated server. Based on the proposed software p?v?a (pronounced [revma]), named for the Greek word meaning stream, we can host a media file on any computer and directly stream it to a connected partner. To accomplish this, p?v?a utilizes the Microsoft .NET Framework and Windows Presentation Framework, which are widely available on various types of windows-compatible personal computers and mobile devices. With specially designed multi-threaded algorithms, the application can stream HD video at speeds upwards of 20 Mbps using the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Streaming and playback are handled using synchronized threads that communicate with one another once a connection is established. Alteration of playback, such as pausing playback or tracking to a different spot in the media file, will be reflected in all media streams. These techniques are designed to allow users at different locations to simultaneously view a full length HD video and interactively control the media streaming session. To create a sustainable media stream with high quality, our system supports UDP packet loss recovery at high transmission speed using custom File- Buffers. Traditional real-time streaming protocols such as Real-time Transport Protocol/RTP Control Protocol (RTP/RTCP) provide no such error recovery mechanism. Finally, the system also features an Instant Messenger that allows users to perform social interactions with one another while they enjoy a media file. The ultimate goal of the application is to offer users a hassle free way to watch a media file over long distances without having to upload any personal information into a third party database. Moreover, the users can communicate with each other and stream media directly from one mobile device to another while maintaining an independence from traditional sign up required by most streaming services.

  4. University Housing & Residence Life Social Media Coordinator This position serves Housing & Residential Life through creating communication opportunities utilizing

    E-print Network

    Elzanowski, Marek

    University Housing & Residence Life Social Media Coordinator This position serves Housing & Residential Life and experience in marketing. Must have experience utilizing social media platforms. Priority media commentary. Utilize program attendance to inform communication using social media. Posting

  5. Effect of electronic media on children.

    PubMed

    Ray, Munni; Jat, Kana Ram

    2010-07-01

    Radio, television (TV), movies, video games, cell phones, and computer networks have assumed central roles in our children's daily lives. The media has demonstrated potentially profound effects, both positive and negative, on children's cognitive, social, and behavioral development. Considering the increasing exposure of children to newer forms of media, we decided to review the current literature on the effects of media on child health both in the Western countries and India. It is widely accepted that media has profound influence on child health, including violence, obesity, tobacco and alcohol use, and risky sexual behaviors. Simultaneously, media may have some positive effects on child health. We need to find ways to optimize the role of media in our society, taking advantage of their positive attributes and minimizing their negative ones. We need to understand better how to reverse the negative impact of media and make it more positive. PMID:20683108

  6. Tools for effective science communication

    E-print Network

    Boynton, Walter R.

    Tools for effective science communication ian.umces.edu Bill Dennison and Tim Carruthers #12;Outline · Overview of science communication · Description of conceptual diagrams · Exploration of how of the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science #12;Science communication has a social context

  7. Learning to Use the Internet and Online Social Media: What Is the Effectiveness of Home-Based Intervention for Youth with Complex Communication Needs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Emma; Raghavendra, Parimala; Newman, Lareen; Wood, Denise; Connell, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Youth with complex communication needs (CCN) face increased barriers to their social participation due to limited communication abilities and opportunities. Youth today use the internet as a social tool and youth with CCN may also benefit from internet use to increase their social participation. Five youth between the ages of 10-18 with CCN who…

  8. Communication BA, Media Production Emphasis, 2015-2016 Name ID# Date

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    Communication BA, Media Production Emphasis, 2015-2016 Name ID# Date Course Number and Title Fundamentals of Communication 3 DLS Social Sciences course in a second field 3 Communication Arts - choose one Communication Contexts - choose one from the following: COMM 221, COMM 341, COMM 351, COMM 356, COMM 361, COMM

  9. Communication BA, Journalism and Media Studies Emphasis, 2015-2016 Name ID# Date

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    Communication BA, Journalism and Media Studies Emphasis, 2015-2016 Name ID# Date Course Number 101 Fundamentals of Communication 3 DLS Social Sciences course in a second field 3 Communication Arts Communication Contexts - choose one from the following: COMM 221, COMM 341, COMM 351, COMM 356, COMM 361, COMM

  10. EarthScope's Education, Outreach, and Communications: Using Social Media from Continental to Global Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohon, W.; Frus, R.; Arrowsmith, R.; Fouch, M. J.; Garnero, E. J.; Semken, S. C.; Taylor, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    Social media has emerged as a popular and effective form of communication among all age groups, with nearly half of Internet users belonging to a social network or using another form of social media on a regular basis. This phenomenon creates an excellent opportunity for earth science organizations to use the wide reach, functionality and informal environment of social media platforms to disseminate important scientific information, create brand recognition, and establish trust with users. Further, social media systems can be utilized for missions of education, outreach, and communicating important timely information (e.g., news agencies are common users). They are eminently scaleable (thus serving from a few to millions of users with no cost and no performance problem), searchable (people are turning to them more frequently as conduits for information), and user friendly (thanks to the massive resources poured into the underlying technology and design, these systems are easy to use and have been widely adopted). They can be used, therefore, to engage the public interactively with the EarthScope facilities, experiments, and discoveries, and continue the cycle of discussions, experiments, analysis and conclusions that typify scientific advancement. The EarthScope National Office (ESNO) is launching an effort to utilize social media to broaden its impact as a conduit between scientists, facilities, educators, and the public. The ESNO will use the opportunities that social media affords to offer high quality science content in a variety of formats that appeal to social media users of various age groups, including blogs (popular with users 18-29), Facebook and Twitter updates (popular with users ages 18-50), email updates (popular with older adults), and video clips (popular with all age groups). We will monitor the number of "fans" and "friends" on social media and networking pages in order to gauge the increase in the percentage of the user population visiting the site. We will also use existing tools available on social media sites to track the relationships between users who visit or "friend" the site to determine how knowledge of the site is transferred amongst various social, educational or geographic groups. Finally, we will use this information to iteratively improve the variety of content and media on the site to increase our user pool, improve EarthScope recognition, and provide appropriate and user-specific Earth science information, especially for time sensitive events of wide interest such as natural disasters.

  11. 77 FR 36305 - Stream Communications Network & Media, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Stream Communications Network & Media, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading June 14, 2012. It... concerning the securities of Stream Communications Network & Media, Inc. because it has not filed...

  12. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication Enterprise Social Media: Definition, History, and

    E-print Network

    Leonardi, Paul

    Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication Enterprise Social Media: Definition, History, East Lansing, MI 48824-1212 Social media are increasingly implemented in work organizations as tools and perpetuate organizations. We begin by offering a definition of enterprise social media and providing a rough

  13. Purposeful Social Media as Support Platform Communication Frameworks for Older Adults Requiring Care

    E-print Network

    Arnott, John

    . Keywords-Social networking sites; telecare; older adults; social media; privacy I. INTRODUCTION At the endPurposeful Social Media as Support Platform Communication Frameworks for Older Adults Requiring to develop social media that help carers stay in touch with patients and provide support when needed while

  14. Towards a Structure-Aware Failure Semantics for Streaming Media Communication Models

    E-print Network

    Kühnhauser, Winfried

    Towards a Structure-Aware Failure Semantics for Streaming Media Communication Models Martin for remote procedure call models they have significant weaknesses when applied to streaming media-dependency and granularity of failure treatment in media streams, resulting in awkward abstractions as well as inefficient

  15. Capacitance effects in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Jasti, J.K.; Valdya, R.N.; Fogler, H.S. )

    1988-11-01

    The velocity dependence of parameters in the Coats-Smith model for tracer dispersion and tailing in porous media was investigated. An axisymmetric pore with a step change in cross-sectional area was used as a model system to determine whether the stagnant zone resulting from variations in flow cross sections contributes to the observed capacitance (i.e., tailing) at the pore level. Numerical simulations show that eddies with circulation flow are formed in the pockets as a result of flow separation. The tracer transport between the eddies in the dead zones and the main channel was found to be diffusion-limited. The simulations reveal that in the Stokes flow regime, the mass-transfer coefficient between the two regions is independent of the interstitial velocity, in contradiction to earlier theories. Coreflood experiments were performed with radioactive tracers to verify the hypothesis that the capacitance effects are not the result of a change in flowing fraction. The experimental results confirm that tracer trailing is a function of the ratio of the molecular diffusivity to the flow rate. In light of these findings, the authors investigated the validity of the Coats-Smith model to predict dispersion and tailing in a porous medium. The authors' studies show that the Coats-Smith model may be used; however, certain restrictions, described in this paper, apply to the procedure for estimation of parameters.

  16. Mass Media's Effect upon Student Political Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellers, Robert W.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses a study which measured the effects of mass media-related instruction about political topics in elementary and secondary schools on students' political knowledge. Findings indicated that mass media, particularly television, does influence student political knowledge and that, consequently, educators should have an input into television…

  17. The value and use of social media as communication tool in the plant sciences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Social media now complements many parts of our lives. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and many other social networking sites allow users to share and interact with online content and to connect with like-minded people. Its strengths – rapid dissemination and amplification of content and the ability to lead informal conversations – make it a powerful tool to use in a professional context. This commentary explains the overall concept of social media and offers suggestions on usage and possible types of scientific content. It advises researchers on the potential benefits and how to take a strategic approach towards building a social media presence. It also presents examples of effective social media use within the plant science community. Common reasons for scientists to not engage with social media include the fear of appearing unprofessional, posting something wrong or being misunderstood, or a lack of confidence in their computer skills. With the rapid changes in academic publishing, dissemination and science communication, as well as the rise of ‘altmetrics’ to track online engagement with scientific content, digital literacy will become an essential skill in a scientist’s tool kit. PMID:23845168

  18. Otitis Media, the Quality of Child Care, and the Social/Communicative Behavior of Toddlers: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Manlove, Elizabeth E.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of otitis media (OM) and the quality of child care on the social and communicative behaviors of toddlers, using a cumulative risk framework that included moderation. The study followed 72 children who began child care in infancy. Both process and structural aspects of the quality of 11 child…

  19. "Always Use Protection": Communication Boys Receive about Sex from Parents, Peers, and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marina; Ward, L. Monique

    2008-01-01

    Although parents are often thought to be the primary communicators of sexual information, studies have found that many adolescent boys report receiving little or no parental communication about sex. Instead, boys report learning about sex mostly from their peers and the media. However, little is known about the content of these communications,…

  20. [The perils of risk communication and the role of the mass media].

    PubMed

    Rossmann, C; Brosius, H-B

    2013-01-01

    Based on theories and empirical results from communication science, the present paper provides an overview of the role of mass media in risk communication. It is guided by the following questions: How do risk issues find their way into the media and how does the media depict them? How do mass-mediated risk messages affect people's perception of risks, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior? What potential does the media have in disseminating health risk information in campaigns? Hence, the present paper aims to provide a basis for the appropriate use of mass media in health risk communication so as to make use of the potential of mass media without neglecting its limits. PMID:23275964

  1. Crowdsourcing affective responses for predicting media effectiveness

    E-print Network

    McDuff, Daniel Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Emotion is key to the effectiveness of media, whether it be in influencing memory, likability or persuasion. Stories and narratives, even if fictional, have the ability to induce a genuine emotional response. However, the ...

  2. Measuring engagement effectiveness in social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Sun, Tong; Peng, Wei; Li, Tao

    2012-03-01

    Social media is becoming increasingly prevalent with the advent of web 2.0 technologies. Popular social media websites, such as Twitter and Facebook, are attracting a gigantic number of online users to post and share information. An interesting phenomenon under this trend involves that more and more users share their experiences or issues with regard to a product, and then the product service agents use commercial social media listening and engagement tools (e.g. Radian6, Sysomos, etc.) to response to users' complaints or issues and help them tackle their problems. This is often called customer care in social media or social customer relationship management (CRM). However, all these existing commercial social media tools only provide an aggregated level of trends, patterns and sentiment analysis based on the keyword-centric brand relevant data, which have little insights for answering one of the key questions in social CRM system: how effective is our social customer care engagement? In this paper, we focus on addressing the problem of how to measure the effectiveness of engagement for service agents in customer care. Traditional CRM effectiveness measurements are defined under the scenario of the call center, where the effectiveness is mostly based on the duration time per call and/or number of answered calls per day. Different from customer care in a call center, we can obtain detailed conversations between agents and customers in social media, and therefore the effectiveness can be measured by analyzing the content of conversations and the sentiment of customers.

  3. Charisma and Media Evangelists: An Explication and Model of Communication Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd V.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the emergence of media evangelists in times of situational crisis. Discusses the appeal such leaders have to listeners possessing a "crisis mentality." Offers a model to explain the communication influence process associated with these charismatic speakers. (SR)

  4. Japanese Communication Research: The Emphasis on Macro Theories of Media in an "Information-Based" Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Most mass media research in Japan focuses on the influence of mass communication on society as a whole; these "macro" theories typically employ traditional social science techniques. Reasons for this situation are examined, as well as how media researchers outside of Japan might learn from the Japanese perspectives about the role and function of…

  5. Historical Development of Media Systems. II. German Democratic Republic. Communication and Society 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusiska, Emil

    This report summarizes a study of the systems of mass communication in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) that concentrated on the ideological and political bases of mass media as they developed after the Second World War. Topics discussed include (1) the history of journalism in the GDR, (2) the roles of the various media in that country, (3)…

  6. Policy on Media Relations Policy on Media Relations

    E-print Network

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Media Relations 7/14/2014 Policy on Media Relations I. Purpose and Scope This policy is intended to promote effective communication with the media about the university's mission and activities and Communications is responsible for initiating and responding to media contacts and requests, and for managing

  7. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (77th, Atlanta, Georgia, August 10-13, 1994). Part VI: Mass Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Mass Media Effects section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 13 papers: "The Nature of the Public's Objections to Television Programs: An Examination of Third-Person Effects" (Guy E. Lometti and others); "An Examination of the Relationship of Structural Pluralism, News Role and Source Use with Framing in the…

  8. Effects of Nonverbal Communication on Efficiency and Robustness in Human-Robot Teamwork

    E-print Network

    Breazeal, Cynthia

    Effects of Nonverbal Communication on Efficiency and Robustness in Human-Robot Teamwork Cynthia-449, Cambridge, MA 02139 cynthiab@media.mit.edu Abstract-- Nonverbal communication plays an important role hypothesis that implicit non-verbal communication positively impacts human- robot task performance

  9. A New Dimension of Health Care: Systematic Review of the Uses, Benefits, and Limitations of Social Media for Health Communication

    PubMed Central

    Hazlett, Diane E; Harrison, Laura; Carroll, Jennifer K; Irwin, Anthea; Hoving, Ciska

    2013-01-01

    Background There is currently a lack of information about the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals from primary research. Objective To review the current published literature to identify the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals, and identify current gaps in the literature to provide recommendations for future health communication research. Methods This paper is a review using a systematic approach. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using nine electronic databases and manual searches to locate peer-reviewed studies published between January 2002 and February 2012. Results The search identified 98 original research studies that included the uses, benefits, and/or limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals. The methodological quality of the studies assessed using the Downs and Black instrument was low; this was mainly due to the fact that the vast majority of the studies in this review included limited methodologies and was mainly exploratory and descriptive in nature. Seven main uses of social media for health communication were identified, including focusing on increasing interactions with others, and facilitating, sharing, and obtaining health messages. The six key overarching benefits were identified as (1) increased interactions with others, (2) more available, shared, and tailored information, (3) increased accessibility and widening access to health information, (4) peer/social/emotional support, (5) public health surveillance, and (6) potential to influence health policy. Twelve limitations were identified, primarily consisting of quality concerns and lack of reliability, confidentiality, and privacy. Conclusions Social media brings a new dimension to health care as it offers a medium to be used by the public, patients, and health professionals to communicate about health issues with the possibility of potentially improving health outcomes. Social media is a powerful tool, which offers collaboration between users and is a social interaction mechanism for a range of individuals. Although there are several benefits to the use of social media for health communication, the information exchanged needs to be monitored for quality and reliability, and the users’ confidentiality and privacy need to be maintained. Eight gaps in the literature and key recommendations for future health communication research were provided. Examples of these recommendations include the need to determine the relative effectiveness of different types of social media for health communication using randomized control trials and to explore potential mechanisms for monitoring and enhancing the quality and reliability of health communication using social media. Further robust and comprehensive evaluation and review, using a range of methodologies, are required to establish whether social media improves health communication practice both in the short and long terms. PMID:23615206

  10. Fast, Broad, and Frequent: Campus Crisis Communications Today Demand Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liggett, Billy

    2012-01-01

    The importance of communication during a school crisis has not changed in the 21st century. What has changed--and quite dramatically since 1999--is the way people communicate. Social media tools are now used in some form by 100 percent of all four-year universities in the United States as a way to reach students, according to a 2011 University of…

  11. Stepping up for democracy: using new communication media to revitalize citizen participation in climate change activism 

    E-print Network

    Minion, Jodi Michele

    2009-05-15

    for participation in and communication about social movements. I used empirical qualitative and critical methods to analyze the communication of climate change activism in Texas, USA. I examined how Step It Up! 2007 (SIU) used new media to facilitate or constrain...

  12. Introduction to social media.

    PubMed

    Meru, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This overview of social media categories some of the typical types and uses of this form of communication and suggests common courtesies and effective strategies for participation in the social media culture. PMID:23654162

  13. The Communicative Arts: An Introduction to Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Charles S.

    All areas of mass communication are surveyed. Man's earliest efforts as a communicator are considered, and what is known about the development of speech and writing is explored. Various theories (including mathematical ones) are reviewed which attempt to explain the processes of both personal and mass communication. Separate chapters focus on the…

  14. Social Media for School Communication. Research into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    It's easy to dismiss social media as a fascination of young people but to do so minimizes one of the fastest growing trends in technology. The Pew Internet and American Life Project recently found that over 71% of teens have a Facebook profile and 75% of adults have one too. Social media tools have become the way for a school or business to…

  15. Media Casebook; An Introductory Reader in American Mass Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Peter M., Ed.; And Others

    Each selection in this anthology offers a single example of a major problem or characteristic of the American mass media. The anthology has four sections: development, responsibility, media, and coverage. Development in journalism is shown by comparing accounts of Presidential conventions over a 125-year period. Articles about responsibility deal…

  16. Building an Effective Social Media Strategy for Science Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohon, Wendy; Robinson, Sarah; Arrowsmith, Ramon; Semken, Steven

    2013-07-01

    Social media has emerged as a popular mode of communication, with more than 73% of the teenage and adult population in the United States using it on a regular basis [Lenhart et al., 2010]. Young people in particular (ages 12-29) are deeply involved in the rapidly evolving social media environment and have an expectation of communication through these media. This engagement creates a valuable opportunity for scientific organizations and programs to use the wide reach, functionality, and informal environment of social media to create brand recognition, establish trust with users, and disseminate scientific information.

  17. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    PubMed

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior PMID:23833841

  18. Effective stress principle for partially saturated media

    SciTech Connect

    McTigue, D.F.; Wilson, R.K.; Nunziato, J.W.

    1984-04-01

    In support of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project, we have undertaken a fundamental study of water migration in partially saturated media. One aspect of that study, on which we report here, has been to use the continuum theory of mixtures to extend the classical notion of effective stress to partially saturated media. Our analysis recovers previously proposed phenomenological representations for the effective stress in terms of the capillary pressure. The theory is illustrated by specializing to the case of linear poroelasticity, for which we calculate the deformation due to the fluid pressure in a static capillary fringe. We then examine the transient consolidation associated with liquid flow induced by an applied surface load. Settlement accompanies this flow as the liquid is redistributed by a nonlinear diffusion process. For material properties characteristic of tuff from the Nevada Test Site, these effects are found to be vanishingly small. 14 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  19. TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF LAW MEDIA & COMMUNICATION GUIDELINES

    E-print Network

    Zhuang, Yu

    department and the Dean before it can be distributed. This includes advertisements, items posted on website presentations. This will secure permission to post the recorded speech or photographs on the law school website at www.law.ttu.edu. INTERNAL COMMUNICATION Communication intended for internal usage through My

  20. Physics collaboration and communication through emerging media: *odcasts, blogs and wikis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Charles W.; Williams, Jamie

    2006-05-01

    The entertainment and news industries are being transformed by the emergence of innovative, internet-based media tools. Audio and video downloads are beginning to compete with traditional entertainment distribution channels, and the blogosphere has become an alternative press with demonstrated news-making power of its own. The scientific community, and physics in particular, is just beginning to experiment with these tools. We believe that they have great potential for enhancing the quality and effectiveness of collaboration and communication, and that the coming generation of physicists will expect them to be used creatively. We will report on our experience in producing seminar podcasts (google ``QIBEC'' or search ``quantum'' on Apple iTunes), and on operating a distributed research institute using a group-based blog.

  1. Communicating Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies: Opportunities and Constraints across Media 

    E-print Network

    Feldpausch-Parker, Andrea Marie

    2011-10-21

    Luhmann?s social theory and the SPEED framework to determine how CCS has been framed by the media. Findings indicated that political, legal, economic and technical frames dominated, with emphasis on benefits, rather than risks of adoption. I also...-1 COMMUNICATING CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES: OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS ACROSS MEDIA A Dissertation by ANDREA MARIE FELDPAUSCH-PARKER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  2. Effective Usage of Social Media for Dark Skies Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, A. J.; Heenatigala, T.; Walker, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Social media has become a daily tool in our culture. Networks such as Facebook with 900 million active users and Twitter with 140 million active users make an ideal platform to create awareness. It helps to generate and share new content and enables multi-communication channels. This presentation will address how effectively social media can be used as an education tool to create awareness of light pollution. As a "green" focus becomes more important in our world the topic of light pollution is also rising as an important issue. Light Pollution affects many aspects of our world ranging from flora and fauna to the economic well-being of many industrialized countries. Mixed among the many important pollutants in our world light pollution can fall by the way-side, forgotten, but it is imperative to bring out awareness of this problem, especially since studies are beginning to show how by fighting light pollution we will also be fighting other pollution such as air pollutants. GLOBE at Night has combined social media tools such as Facebook and Twitter with its educational awareness campaign on light pollution to reach out to social media community. Currently our Facebook reaches citizens of twenty separate countries ranging from the Czech Republic and Peru to the United States and the United Kingdom. On Facebook our reach is estimated at over 800,000 friends of our fans. These networks help us to directly answer users' immediate questions and encourage participation in the GLOBE at Night campaigns. Important news on light pollution appearing in cyberspace is monitored regularly using Google Alerts and Twitter hash tags filters which gets posted regularly on our networks. Social media networking has become a tool for users not only for information about GLOBE at Night but also for information about the overall topic of light pollution itself. Many individuals and organizations struggle with the mass content shared in social networks. It is important to know where to look for the right content and what to share with whom. This presentation will highlight on; the importance of engaging in social media to gain and share new content, how to filter the right content, and best uses of social media to create an awareness of light pollution. We will discuss the proper ways to get the most use out of social media networking.

  3. Transmission media effects on precise Doppler tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, P. S.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of the transmission media - the earth's troposphere and ionosphere, and the solar wind - on precise Doppler tracking are discussed. The charged particle effects can be largely removed by dual frequency observations; however there are limitations to these corrections (besides system noise and/or finite integration times) including the effects of magnetic fields, diffraction, and differential refraction, all of which must be carefully evaluated. The earth's troposphere can contribute an error of delta f/f approximately 10 to the minus 14th power.

  4. 11.204 Planning, Communications, and Digital Media, Fall 2002

    E-print Network

    Hoyt, Lorlene M.

    Subject focuses on methods of digital visualization and communication and their application to planning issues. Lectures introduce methods for describing or representing a place and its residents, for simulating actions ...

  5. French for Marketing. Using French in Media and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, R. E.; Chebli-Saadi, M.

    The textbook, entirely in French, is designed to help prepare anglophone students for French language usage in the media and telecommunications. It is organized according to two major themes. The first part addresses the French of advertising; chapter topics include the actors in advertising (agencies, announcers, supports), forms of advertising,…

  6. Center on Media and Human Development School of Communication

    E-print Network

    Chen, Wei

    classes at school 27 Health topics that are most important to teens 30 Digital divide 31 Conclusion 33, using social media, surfing the web, watching YouTube videos, Tweeting, and using apps. The teenage-oriented efforts on topics such as pregnancy prevention, mental health education and treatment, drug and alcohol

  7. A systematic review of the use and effectiveness of social media in child health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social media use is highly prevalent among children, youth, and their caregivers, and its use in healthcare is being explored. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine: 1) for what purposes social media is being used in child health and its effectiveness; and 2) the attributes of social media tools that may explain how they are or are not effective. Methods We searched Medline, CENTRAL, ERIC, PubMed, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Alt Health Watch, Health Source, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Web of Knowledge, and Proquest Dissertation and Theses Database from 2000–2013. We included primary research that evaluated the use of a social media tool, and targeted children, youth, or their families or caregivers. Quality assessment was conducted on all included analytic studies using tools specific to different quantitative designs. Results We identified 25 studies relevant to child health. The majority targeted adolescents (64%), evaluated social media for health promotion (52%), and used discussion forums (68%). Most often, social media was included as a component of a complex intervention (64%). Due to heterogeneity in conditions, tools, and outcomes, results were not pooled across studies. Attributes of social media perceived to be effective included its use as a distraction in younger children, and its ability to facilitate communication between peers among adolescents. While most authors presented positive conclusions about the social media tool being studied (80%), there is little high quality evidence of improved outcomes to support this claim. Conclusions This comprehensive review demonstrates that social media is being used for a variety of conditions and purposes in child health. The findings provide a foundation from which clinicians and researchers can build in the future by identifying tools that have been developed, describing how they have been used, and isolating components that have been effective. PMID:24886048

  8. Communication as group process media of aircrew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, B. G.; Foushee, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    This study of group process was motivated by a high-fidelity flight simulator project in which aircrew performance was found to be better when the crew had recently flown together. Considering recent operating experience as a group-level input factor, aspects of the communication process between crewmembers (Captain and First Officer), were explored as a possible mediator to performance. Communication patterns were defined by a speech act typology adapted for the flightdeck setting and distinguished crews that had previously flown together (FT) from those that had not flown together (NFT). A more open communication channel with respect to information exchange and validation and greater First Officer participation in task-related topics was shown by FT crews while NFT crews engaged in more non-task discourse, a speech mode less structured by roles and probably serving a more interpersonal function. Relationships between the speech categories themselves, representing linguistic, and role-related interdependencies provide guidelines for interpreting the primary findings.

  9. Transmedia Storytelling in Science Communication: One Subject, Multiple Media, Multiple Stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, M.; Moloney, K.

    2012-12-01

    Each communication medium has particular storytelling strengths. For example, video is particularly good at illustrating a progression of events, text at background and context, and games at describing systems. In what USC's Prof. Henry Jenkins described as "transmedia storytelling," multiple media are used simultaneously, in an expansive rather than repetitive way, to better tell a single, complex story. The audience is given multiple entry points to the story, and the story is exposed to diverse and dispersed audiences, ultimately engaging a broader public. We will examine the effectiveness of a transmedia approach to communicating scientific and other complex concepts to a broad and diverse audience. Using the recently developed Educational Visitor Center at the NCAR-Wyoming Supercomputing Center as a case study, we will evaluate the reach of various means of presenting information about the geosciences, climate change and computational science. These will include an assessment of video, mechanical and digital interactive elements, animated movie segments, web-based content, photography, scientific visualizations, printed material and docent-led activities.

  10. Communication, Fine Arts, and Media. Occupational Analyses. Worker Task Lists and Supplementary Information for Selected Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.

    This publication contains worker task lists and supplementary information for four occupations in the communication, fine arts, and media cluster: (1) graphic designer; (2) newspaper reporter; (3) radio announcer; and (4) recording technologies occupations. The task lists were generated through the DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process and/or by…

  11. NEW MEDIA TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT TO ENHANCE AND IMPROVE COMMUNICATIONS AT USEPA'S NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    New media technology (NT) interactive applications are currently being developed in house at ORD/NRMRL to enhance and improve communication of NRMRL's 1) research projects, 2) workshops/conferences and 3) specialized training. NT is an exciting mix of cutting-edge information tec...

  12. School Communications 2.0: A Social Media Strategy for K-12 Principals and Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Daniel Dean

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, multiple-case study was two-fold: 1) to describe, analyze, and interpret the experiences of school principals and superintendents who use multiple social media tools such as blogs, microblogs, social networking sites, podcasts, and online videos with stakeholders as part of their comprehensive communications

  13. Social Media Use to Enhance Internal Communication: Course Design for Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Amy M.; Hinesly, Mary D.

    2014-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly using social media to improve their internal communication. When successfully implemented, such initiatives can have a dramatic impact on internal efficiency, team collaboration, innovation, organizational alignment, and cultural transformation. This article describes a course offered by the Ross School of Business,…

  14. Use and Perceptions of Second Life by Distance Learners: A Comparison with Other Communication Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Jo-Anne; Littleton, Fiona; Dozier, Marshall

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that the use of communication media in distance education can reduce feelings of distance and isolation from peers and tutors and provide opportunities for collaborative learning (Bates, 2005). The use of virtual worlds (VW) in education has increased in recent years, with Second Life (SL) being the most commonly used VW in…

  15. The New Guide to Effective Media Relations. The Best of "CASE Currents."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raley, Nancy, Ed.; Carter, Laura, Ed.

    Developing an effective communications program is crucial for the survival of colleges, universities, and independent schools because they must be well understood and have broad public support. This guide to media relations compiles articles from "CASE Currents" into five sections: "The Basics of a News Service" (17 papers); "So You Want National…

  16. Geoethics in communication of science: the relationship between media and geoscientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foresta Martin, Franco; Peppoloni, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    In the urgency to reconsider the relationship between humankind and planet Earth, in the light of the issues of a sustainable economic and technological development, the defence against natural risks and climate change, the themes addressed by Geoethics are becoming central to the scientific debate. A growing number of scientists begins to consider this discipline as an effective tool to increase, in the scientific community and society as a whole, the awareness of local and global environmental problems that humanity is facing. Geoethics deals with the ethical, social and cultural aspects related to geosciences. It was born with the goal of orienting humankind toward a balanced relationship with the planet and providing references and guidelines to find socio-economic solutions compatible both with the respect for the environment and the protection of nature and land. Geoethics addresses fundamental issues such as the exploitation of geo-resources, the management of natural hazards, the defence of the geoheritage as a common value to be protected and enhanced. But above all geoethics aims at raising in the community of geoscientists the awareness of their responsibilities in conducting the scientific and professional activity. In order to extend this awareness to the whole civil society and also to foster the recognition of the usefulness of geosciences in daily life, it is important to develop a proper communication of the geological knowledge, that is capable to contribute substantially to the construction of the social knowledge of human communities. But nowadays what is the role played by geosciences in the scientific mass culture? Are geosciences part of the collective cultural heritage? Do the publishing world and media in general offer an adequate space to geosciences? Through the analysis of case studies, the authors will highlight the critical features of the relationship between geoscientists and the media system, their different languages, times and perspectives that characterize the geological community and the media world, as well as the most common mistakes made in the communication of geosciences. And as far as the authors are concerned, they will try to suggest some actions, useful to make more functional the relationship between these two separate fields, with the goal of bringing citizens closer to geosciences and increasing the awareness of the individual and collective responsibility towards the planet Earth.

  17. Social Media in School Emergency Management: Using New Media Technology to Improve Emergency Management Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Social Media is the use of social networking sites, messaging sites, texting, and other web-based or mobile technologies to support social interaction. Facebook is by far the most widely used social networking site. Twitter is by far the most widely used messaging site. The goals of this presentation are: (1) To provide an understanding of the…

  18. Time Series Analysis of Alternative Media Effects Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; van den Berg, Sjef A.

    A study was conducted in the Washington, D.C., area to test mass media effects in a community controversy. Five possible theories were hypothesized to explain the effects media have on a community: indirect and direct effects, null effects, agenda setting, reverse effects, and reverse agenda setting. During the 16-month test period of the British…

  19. Internet and Social Media For Health-Related Information and Communication in Health Care: Preferences of the Dutch General Population

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Berben, Sivera AA; Teerenstra, Steven; Samsom, Melvin; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care is increasingly featured by the use of Web 2.0 communication and collaborative technologies that are reshaping the way patients and professionals interact. These technologies or tools can be used for a variety of purposes: to instantly debate issues, discover news, analyze research, network with peers, crowd-source information, seek support, and provide advice. Not all tools are implemented successfully; in many cases, the nonusage attrition rates are high. Little is known about the preferences of the Dutch general population regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. Objective To determine the preferences of the general population in the Netherlands regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. Methods A cross-sectional survey was disseminated via a popular Dutch online social network. Respondents were asked where they searched for health-related information, how they qualified the value of different sources, and their preferences regarding online communication with health care providers. Results were weighed for the Dutch population based on gender, age, and level of education using official statistics. Numbers and percentages or means and standard deviations were presented for different subgroups. One-way ANOVA was used to test for statistical differences. Results The survey was completed by 635 respondents. The Internet was found to be the number one source for health-related information (82.7%), closely followed by information provided by health care professionals (71.1%). Approximately one-third (32.3%) of the Dutch population search for ratings of health care providers. The most popular information topics were side effects of medication (62.5%) and symptoms (59.7%). Approximately one-quarter of the Dutch population prefer to communicate with a health care provider via social media (25.4%), and 21.2% would like to communicate via a webcam. Conclusions The Internet is the main source of health-related information for the Dutch population. One in 4 persons wants to communicate with their physician via social media channels and it is expected that this number will further increase. Health care providers should explore new ways of communicating online and should facilitate ways for patients to connect with them. Future research should aim at comparing different patient groups and diseases, describing best practices, and determining cost-effectiveness. PMID:24088272

  20. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION WITH ADOLESCENTS IN INSTITUTIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KONOPKA, GISELA

    THE DIFFICULTIES OF BEGINNING TREATMENT FOR EDUCATION WITH ADOLESCENTS BEFORE EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION CHANNELS ARE PREPARED ARE DISCUSSED. THREE PREREQUISITES TO COMMUNICATION--LISTENING, OBSERVING, EMPATHIZING--ARE PRESENTED. OBSTACLES TO COMMUNICATION IN THE HELPING ADULT INCLUDE PRE-OCCUPATION WITH ONE'S OWN WORLD, EGO INVOLVEMENT, FAILURE TO…

  1. Developing Effective Interpersonal Communication and Discussion Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Karl L.; Featheringham, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Regardless of the content specialty--from accounting to information systems to finance--employers view effective communication as critical to an individual's success in today's competitive workplace. Most business degree programs require a business communication course to help students develop communication skills needed both in getting a job and…

  2. The Future of the New Media in the Communication of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    New media, that which is based around social networks, ubiquitous consumer technology, and today's near-universal access to information, has transformed the way that science is communicated to the scientist and non-scientist alike. We may be in the midst of mankind's greatest shift in information consumption and distribution since the invention of the printing press. Or maybe not. The problem with predicting the future is that it's very hard, and unless you're Isaac Asimov, it's very easy to be wrong. When one predicts the future regarding the internet, that risk becomes almost a certainty. Still, we can apply lessons learned from the near and distant history of science communication to put today's new media evolution into perspective, and to give us clues as to where social media, digital journalism, open access, and online education will lead science communication in years to come. Most importantly, it remains to be seen whether this new media evolution will translate into a shift in how science is viewed by citizens and their policymakers.

  3. Bio-objects and the media: the role of communication in bio-objectification processes

    PubMed Central

    Maeseele, Pieter; Allgaier, Joachim; Martinelli, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The representation of biological innovations in and through communication and media practices is vital for understanding the nature of “bio-objects” and the process we call “bio-objectification.” This paper discusses two ideal-typical analytical approaches based on different underlying communication models, ie, the traditional (science- and media-centered) and media sociological (a multi-layered process involving various social actors in defining the meanings of scientific and technological developments) approach. In this analysis, the latter is not only found to be the most promising approach for understanding the circulation, (re)production, and (re)configuration of meanings of bio-objects, but also to interpret the relationship between media and science. On the basis of a few selected examples, this paper highlights how media function as a primary arena for the (re)production and (re)configuration of scientific and biomedical information with regards to bio-objects in the public sphere in general, and toward decision-makers, interest groups, and the public in specific. PMID:23771763

  4. Media use, face-to-face communication, media multitasking, and social well-being among 8- to 12-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Pea, Roy; Nass, Clifford; Meheula, Lyn; Rance, Marcus; Kumar, Aman; Bamford, Holden; Nass, Matthew; Simha, Aneesh; Stillerman, Benjamin; Yang, Steven; Zhou, Michael

    2012-03-01

    An online survey of 3,461 North American girls ages 8-12 conducted in the summer of 2010 through Discovery Girls magazine examined the relationships between social well-being and young girls' media use--including video, video games, music listening, reading/homework, e-mailing/posting on social media sites, texting/instant messaging, and talking on phones/video chatting--and face-to-face communication. This study introduced both a more granular measure of media multitasking and a new comparative measure of media use versus time spent in face-to-face communication. Regression analyses indicated that negative social well-being was positively associated with levels of uses of media that are centrally about interpersonal interaction (e.g., phone, online communication) as well as uses of media that are not (e.g., video, music, and reading). Video use was particularly strongly associated with negative social well-being indicators. Media multitasking was also associated with negative social indicators. Conversely, face-to-face communication was strongly associated with positive social well-being. Cell phone ownership and having a television or computer in one's room had little direct association with children's socioemotional well-being. We hypothesize possible causes for these relationships, call for research designs to address causality, and outline possible implications of such findings for the social well-being of younger adolescents. PMID:22268607

  5. Mobile Media Devices and Communication Applications as a Form of Augmentative and Alternative Communication: An Assessment of Family Wants, Needs, and Preferences

    E-print Network

    Meder, Allison

    2012-05-31

    This study assessed the wants, needs, and preferences of families at various stages of the decision-making process relative to mobile media technology as a form of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). A survey ...

  6. The effects of media on sleep.

    PubMed

    Van den Bulck, Jan

    2010-12-01

    The media are an important part of young people's lives, but television, computer games, Internet use, cellular phone use, and even book reading threaten healthy sleep. Adults do not fully comprehend the ways in which young people use various media. Media use is a type of behavior that may displace sleep time or shorten it. Media content may lead to overexcitement or cause recurring nightmares. The cellular telephone is a particular threat. Parents may also use media excessively, establishing an unhealthy environment that may lead to sleep dysfunction in children and adolescents. Therefore, anticipatory guidance for healthy behavioral changes should be focused on the family. PMID:21302852

  7. A surfeit of science: The "CSI effect" and the media appropriation of the public understanding of science.

    PubMed

    Cole, Simon A

    2015-02-01

    Over the past decade, popular media has promulgated claims that the television program CSI and its spinoffs and imitators have had a pernicious effect on the public understanding of forensic science, the so-called "CSI effect." This paper analyzes those media claims by documenting the ways in which the media claims that CSI "distorts" an imagined "reality." It shows that the media appropriated the analytic stance usually adopted by science advocates, portraying the CSI effect as a social problem in science communication. This appropriation was idiosyncratic in that it posited, as a social problem, a "surfeit" of knowledge and positive imagery about science, rather than the more familiar "deficits." In addition, the media simultaneously appropriated both "traditional" and "critical" PUS discourses. Despite this apparent contradiction, the paper concludes that, in both discourses, the media and its expert informants insist upon their hegemony over "the public" to articulate the "reality" of forensic science. PMID:23825289

  8. Undergraduate Students As Effective Climate Change Communicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, H. O.; Joseph, J.; Mullendore, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), San Antonio College (SAC), and the University of North Dakota (UND) have partnered with NASA to provide underrepresented undergraduates from UTSA, SAC, and other community colleges climate-related research and education experiences through the Climate Change Communication: Engineer, Environmental science, and Education (C3E3) project. The program aims to develop a robust response to climate change by providing K-16 climate change education; enhance the effectiveness of K-16 education particularly in engineering and other STEM disciplines by use of new instructional technologies; increase the enrollment in engineering programs and the number of engineering degrees awarded by showing engineering's usefulness in relation to the much-discussed contemporary issue of climate change; increase persistence in STEM degrees by providing student research opportunities; and increase the ethnic diversity of those receiving engineering degrees and help ensure an ethnically diverse response to climate change. Students participated in the second summer internship funded by the project. The program is in its third year. More than 75 students participated in a guided research experiences aligned with NASA Science Plan objectives for climate and Earth system science and the educational objectives of the three institutions. The students went through training in modern media technology (webcasts), and in using this technology to communicate the information on climate change to others, especially high school students, culminating in production of webcasts on investigating the aspects of climate change using NASA data. Content developed is leveraged by NASA Earth observation data and NASA Earth system models and tools. Three Colleges were involved in the program: Engineering, Education, and Science.

  9. Contrast media: Biologic effects and clinical application

    SciTech Connect

    Parvez, Z.; Moncada, R.; Sovak, M.

    1987-01-01

    An overview is presented of the recent developments in contrast media and their clinical applications, plus the current state-of-the-art in computerized tomography, digital subtraction angiography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Contents of these volumes include: an in-depth review of the historical development, modern perspectives in structure-function relationships, biologic effects on hemostats, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular systems and drug interactions. Critical and basic issues, including cellular toxicity, mutagenesis, synergism between radiation and contrast agents, mechanisms in contrast-induced reactions, and the management of such reactions in high-risk patients are also presented. Specific applications of paramagnetic compounds in MRI and the recent concept of liposome-encapsulated and particulate suspension of contrast materials in diagnostic imaging are thoroughly discussed.

  10. Effective Communication in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The intent for this paper is to show that communication within the higher education field is a current problem. By looking first at the different styles, forms, and audiences for communication, the reader will hopefully gain perspective as to why this is such a problem in higher education today. Since the Millennial generation is the newest set of…

  11. Using mass-media communications to increase population usage of Australia’s Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service®

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Global obesity prevalence is increasing and population health programs are required to support changes to modifiable lifestyle risk factors. Such interventions benefit from mass-communications to promote their use. The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service ® (GHS) utilised mass-reach media advertising to recruit participants to an Australian state-wide program. Methods A stand alone population survey collected awareness, knowledge and behavioural variables before the first advertising phase, (n?=?1,544; August -September 2010), during (n?=?1,500; February - March 2011) and after the advertising period (n?=?1,500; June-July 2011). GHS usage data (n?=?6,375) was collated during July 2010 – June 2011. Results The results showed that television-lead mass-media significantly increased unprompted awareness (0% to 31.8%, p?media (television, print and mail out information) was more often cited as the source of referral by males, those aged 18 – 49?years, employed, and from the lowest socio-economic groups. During the weeks when mass-media advertising was present, 4 and 2.5 times more information and coaching participants respectively registered than when there was no advertising present. Participants who cited television and print were less likely to enrol in GHS coaching, but this was not the case for mail out information and secondary referral sources. Conclusions GHS mass-communications campaigns are effective at increasing awareness and usage of the GHS, especially among hard-to-reach population groups. Television advertising provides universal reach, but should be supplemented by health professional referrals and targeted mail-out information to recruit participants to the intensive GHS coaching program. PMID:22967230

  12. Media Coverage in a Community Controversy: Initial and Subsequent Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; van den Berg, Sjef

    The choice of time lag between variables can affect surveys of public opinion and audience behavior, according to this report on the effects of media coverage of the controversy surrounding the operation of the supersonic transport Concorde out of Dulles Airport, near Washington, D.C. Five theories of media effects are outlined, including direct…

  13. Subjective Norms as a Driver of Mass Communication Students' Intentions to Adopt New Media Production Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Toby M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students' intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students…

  14. "Digitize Me": Generating E-Learning Profiles for Media and Communication Students in a Jamaican Tertiary-Level Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart-McKoy, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop an e-learning profile for a group of media and communication students enrolled in a Jamaican tertiary-level institution in order to make informed decisions most the appropriate [online] learning complement for these students. The objectives sought to determine the e-learning profile of media and…

  15. Effectiveness of Multi-Media Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Charles W.

    Applied Business Technologies, Inc. is in the process of developing multi-media training CD's to support the implementation of its PowerCAMPUS student information system product. Multi-media training is a very powerful tool for achieving objectives. Trainees take the course at a time convenient for them and progress at a pace suited to their…

  16. Communication media and the dead: from the Stone Age to Facebook

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article argues as follows: (i) The presence of the dead within a society depends in part on available communication technologies, specifically speech, stone, sculpture, writing, printing, photography and phonography (including the mass media), and most recently the internet. (ii) Each communication technology affords possibilities for the dead to construct and legitimate particular social groups and institutions – from the oral construction of kinship, to the megalithic legitimation of the territorial rights of chiefdoms, to the written word’s construction of world religions and nations, to the photographic and phonographic construction of celebrity-based neo-tribalism, and to the digital reconstruction of family and friendship. (iii) Historically, concerns about the dead have on a number of occasions aided the development of new communication technologies – the causal connection between the two can go both ways. The argument is based primarily on critical synthesis of existing research literature. PMID:26549977

  17. Health effects of media on children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C; Jordan, Amy B; Donnerstein, Ed

    2010-04-01

    Youth spend an average of >7 hours/day using media, and the vast majority of them have access to a bedroom television, computer, the Internet, a video-game console, and a cell phone. In this article we review the most recent research on the effects of media on the health and well-being of children and adolescents. Studies have shown that media can provide information about safe health practices and can foster social connectedness. However, recent evidence raises concerns about media's effects on aggression, sexual behavior, substance use, disordered eating, and academic difficulties. We provide recommendations for parents, practitioners, the media, and policy makers, among others, for ways to increase the benefits and reduce the harm that media can have for the developing child and for adolescents. PMID:20194281

  18. BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Resonant parametric frequency conversion in active media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashlakova, N. P.; Krochik, G. M.; Khronopulo, Yu G.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation is made of the influence of saturation of the populations on the dynamics of the parametric four-wave interaction in an active medium which amplifies one of the interacting waves. Dependences of the conversion coefficient of long (?pggT1) and short (T2ll?pllT1) pulses on the length of the interaction zone are derived for the case of complete phase matching and in the absence of such matching. Equalization of the populations of the active levels results in breakdown of phase locking at the trailing edge of an output pulse and in saturation of the conversion coefficient. An estimate is obtained of the effectiveness of frequency addition in the case of the active medium of an HF laser. It is shown that the proposed method can be used for visualization and detection of weak laser radiation.

  19. Effective hydraulic conductivity of bounded, strongly heterogeneous porous media

    E-print Network

    Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    Effective hydraulic conductivity of bounded, strongly heterogeneous porous media Evangelos K of Arizona, Tucson Abstract. We develop analytical expressions for the effective hydraulic conductivity Ke boundaries. The log hydraulic conductivity Y forms a Gaussian, statistically homogeneous and anisotropic

  20. Communication and Media Studies Communicating is something we all do on a daily basis. An

    E-print Network

    Miles, Will

    as in internships, field experiences and a capstone senior research project. A Distinctive Program Stetson apply for a Stetson Undergraduate Research Experience grant, a summer research program in which students, Florida Communication Association Convention, DePauw Undergraduate Honors Conference, Undergraduate

  1. Effective Advocacy and Communication with Legislators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Counseling Association, Office of Public Policy and Information, Alexandria, VA.

    This pamphlet attempts to make communicating with legislators easy. Each section includes a brief paragraph and several bullet points that present techniques or advice for simplifying communication. It begins with "Rules for Effective Advocacy," which presents a core set of basic advocacy principles, followed by "What Makes Politicians Tick?" and…

  2. Cultural Effects and Uses of Communication Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, Wilbur

    The communication satellite already has developed a mature technology. It carries a substantial part of the world's long range communication, and is now useable for special cultural and educational purposes. Major cultural effects come from its contribution to increasing enormously the flow of information in the world. It will increase human…

  3. FIR: An Effective Scheme for Extracting Useful Metadata from Social Media.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long-Sheng; Lin, Zue-Cheng; Chang, Jing-Rong

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the use of social media for health information exchange is expanding among patients, physicians, and other health care professionals. In medical areas, social media allows non-experts to access, interpret, and generate medical information for their own care and the care of others. Researchers paid much attention on social media in medical educations, patient-pharmacist communications, adverse drug reactions detection, impacts of social media on medicine and healthcare, and so on. However, relatively few papers discuss how to extract useful knowledge from a huge amount of textual comments in social media effectively. Therefore, this study aims to propose a Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory network based Information Retrieval (FIR) scheme by combining Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART) network, Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), and association rules (AR) discovery to extract knowledge from social media. In our FIR scheme, Fuzzy ART network firstly has been employed to segment comments. Next, for each customer segment, we use LSI technique to retrieve important keywords. Then, in order to make the extracted keywords understandable, association rules mining is presented to organize these extracted keywords to build metadata. These extracted useful voices of customers will be transformed into design needs by using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) for further decision making. Unlike conventional information retrieval techniques which acquire too many keywords to get key points, our FIR scheme can extract understandable metadata from social media. PMID:26330225

  4. The Effect of Health Information Technology on Health Care Provider Communication: A Mixed-Method Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; Harrod, Molly; Sales, Anne; Hofer, Timothy P; Saint, Sanjay; Krein, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Background Communication failures between physicians and nurses are one of the most common causes of adverse events for hospitalized patients, as well as a major root cause of all sentinel events. Communication technology (ie, the electronic medical record, computerized provider order entry, email, and pagers), which is a component of health information technology (HIT), may help reduce some communication failures but increase others because of an inadequate understanding of how communication technology is used. Increasing use of health information and communication technologies is likely to affect communication between nurses and physicians. Objective The purpose of this study is to describe, in detail, how health information and communication technologies facilitate or hinder communication between nurses and physicians with the ultimate goal of identifying how we can optimize the use of these technologies to support effective communication. Effective communication is the process of developing shared understanding between communicators by establishing, testing, and maintaining relationships. Our theoretical model, based in communication and sociology theories, describes how health information and communication technologies affect communication through communication practices (ie, use of rich media; the location and availability of computers) and work relationships (ie, hierarchies and team stability). Therefore we seek to (1) identify the range of health information and communication technologies used in a national sample of medical-surgical acute care units, (2) describe communication practices and work relationships that may be influenced by health information and communication technologies in these same settings, and (3) explore how differences in health information and communication technologies, communication practices, and work relationships between physicians and nurses influence communication. Methods This 4-year study uses a sequential mixed-methods design, beginning with a quantitative survey followed by a two-part qualitative phase. Survey results from aim 1 will provide a detailed assessment of health information and communication technologies in use and help identify sites with variation in health information and communication technologies for the qualitative phase of the study. In aim 2, we will conduct telephone interviews with hospital personnel in up to 8 hospitals to gather in-depth information about communication practices and work relationships on medical-surgical units. In aim 3, we will collect data in 4 hospitals (selected from telephone interview results) via observation, shadowing, focus groups, and artifacts to learn how health information and communication technologies, communication practices, and work relationships affect communication. Results Results from aim 1 will be published in 2016. Results from aims 2 and 3 will be published in subsequent years. Conclusions As the majority of US hospitals do not yet have HIT fully implemented, results from our study will inform future development and implementation of health information and communication technologies to support effective communication between nurses and physicians. PMID:26068442

  5. How Peer Communication and Engagement Motivations Influence Social Media Shopping Behavior: Evidence from China and the United States.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Sidharth; Men, Linjuan Rita

    2015-10-01

    Based on consumer socialization theory, this study proposes and tests a conceptual model of social media shopping behavior, which links the antecedents of user motivations of engagement and peer communication about products to shopping behavior through social media. A cross-cultural survey was conducted with social media users in two culturally distinct markets with the largest Internet population: China (n?=?304) and the United States (n?=?328). Findings showed that social interaction, information, and remuneration were positive antecedents of peer communication for users from both countries. Peer communication positively impacted social media shopping behavior, and cultural differences were observed, with social interaction being important to Chinese users' shopping behavior, while remuneration was more important to American users. Implications are discussed. PMID:26376370

  6. The Effect of Instructional Media on Learner Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, David L.; Withrow-Thorton, Beverly J.

    2005-01-01

    Motivation is an important element required for learning. Educators have a variety of instructional media and teaching formats available to present information. Selecting a medium that motivates learners is an important consideration. This study compares the effect of different media on learners' motivation to learn. Through the use of a survey…

  7. Media Cartoons: Effects on Issue Resolution in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo, Michael A.; Yangco, Rosanelia; Espinosa, Allen A.

    2014-01-01

    The study focused on media cartoons as a teaching strategy in Environmental Education. Specifically, it sought to determine the effects of media cartoons on the issue resolution skills of first year high school students. The study was conducted in La Salle Green Hills that had eleven sections in the first year high school level for the School Year…

  8. Effectiveness of Alcohol Media Literacy Programmes: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindmarsh, Chloe S.; Jones, Sandra C.; Kervin, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To…

  9. Effective Event Identification in Social Media Fotis Psallidas

    E-print Network

    Gravano, Luis

    Effective Event Identification in Social Media Fotis Psallidas fotis@cs.columbia.edu Columbia used by individuals to produce and distribute content re- lated to real-world events. Unfortunately, this social media content associated with an event is gen- erally not provided in any structured and readily

  10. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Mass Media Ethics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Byung; Padgett, George

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of an ethics education component in a media law and ethics course. Suggests that a short-term mass media ethics study could not develop values considered essential for ethical behavior. Argues that students developed more complexity in their reasoning not measurable by the scale. Suggests a course or module on ethics…

  11. Social Effects of Mass Media Advertising on the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ruth B.; And Others

    A study examined the effects of media advertising on the elderly to determine whether they use the media to help combat social disengagement, whether they perceived the elderly as positively portrayed in advertising, whether they perceive their role as consumer as declining, whether television advertising reinforced sex roles, and whether the…

  12. Communications Microcavity Effect from a Novel Terbium

    E-print Network

    Huang, Yanyi

    Communications Microcavity Effect from a Novel Terbium Complex Langmuir±Blodgett Film** By Yanyi, using pure terbium complex [tris (1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-hexa- decanoyl-5-pyrazolone)(ethanolyl)terbium, Tb

  13. Communication - An Effective Tool for Implementing ISO 14001/EMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman

    2004-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS activities through VPP geographic units. In summary, the ISMS and VPP process at the INEEL provided the basic framework of management support and worker involvement to implement our EMS. A cross-functional communication team was established to facilitate the implementation with great success. Communication has been an effective tool for implementing an ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL.

  14. Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Lee E., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    Intended for secondary English teachers, the materials and ideas presented here suggest ways to use media in the classroom in teaching visual and auditory discrimination while enlivening classes and motivating students. Contents include "Media Specialists Need Not Apply," which discusses the need for preparation of media educators with…

  15. Public and Media Communication of Volcanic Hazard Before and During the 2010 Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gylfason, A. G.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Reynisson, V.

    2010-12-01

    The 39 day long explosive eruption in Eyjafjallajökull was the largest natural hazard event in Iceland for decades. It began with a small flank eruption in March, but the main event was the explosive summit eruption. The flooding that resulted from melting of ice at the eruption site posed considerable danger for the local population, fallout of ash made conditions south of the volcano difficult for several weeks, threatening the future of farming in this rural area, and lead to unprecedented disruption to air traffic in Europe and the North Atlantic. About 800 people were evacuated in a hurry three times during these events because of imminent flood hazard, but fortunately no dwellings were damaged and people could usually return to their homes the same day. These events called for extensive media coverage, both locally and internationally. Some staff at research institutes had for several days to devote their time exclusively to giving interviews to the international media. Scientific communication with the local population was mainly conducted through four channels: (1) the web pages of institutions, (2) the national media; (3) indirectly at meetings on the status of the eruption with local and national officials, and (4) public meetings in the affected areas. In addition the scientific community issued daily status reports to the Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management, these reports served both national and local Civil Protection officials when preparing their statements on the eruption and answer basic questions from the media. During media communication, it is important to stick to facts, avoid speculation and use plain language without scientific jargon. However, the most critical part of the communication occurred in the years before the eruption through meetings with the local inhabitants. At these meetings the results of a detailed hazard assessment on eruptions in Eyjafjallajökull and the neighboring ice-filled Katla caldera where presented to the communities around these volcanoes. The most dangerous hazard is large scale floods due to melting of glacier ice in eruptions. Further meetings took place where evacuation plans for areas potentially impacted by flooding were presented. These plans have been updated through dialogue with the inhabitants and a drill was held in 2006, where people evacuated their homes and moved to safer ground in nearby villages. This extensive preparation was possible not least because of very active leadership by the local chief of police, his staff and the national coordination body for Civil Protection i.e. the Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management. The preparatory meetings provided a very important background for officials, scientists and the local inhabitants. Where communities are small, trust is most easily established through face to face contact at local meetings.

  16. [The pandemic of the experts in the mass media. How to create trust in public communication by acknowledging ignorance and uncertainty].

    PubMed

    Stollorz, V

    2013-01-01

    The first influenza pandemic in the twenty-first century is an example of how public trust in expert recommendations can erode if prognostic ability of these experts is suddenly doubted in the mass media. A highly consonant pandemic alarm communicated through the mass media can later cause heightened resonance concerning the appropriateness of the same alarm. In this case a paradoxical effect can develop, in which the same media outlet first paints an overly risky picture of an unfolding pandemic only to later condemn this assessment as alarmist. Can such behavior be considered a defect of journalism? In this article I describe the circumstances under which such media dynamics and "hypes" without trust in expertise are more likely to develop: when there is nontransparent decision making; when uncertainty and nescience of expert judgments are not communicated transparently; when warnings and measures taken are not readily adapted to the evolving risk situation in reality. If these basic principles are recognized in future pandemic risk communication, long-term public trust in scientific expertise can be secured. In this way, despite a public health crisis, a long-lasting break in the credibility of sound science can be avoided. PMID:23275963

  17. Patient loyalty and the social media effect.

    PubMed

    Verkamp, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    In a changing healthcare environment, patient loyalty has never been more important. However, creating patient loyalty can mean more than providing quality health services within the four walls of the medical office. With patients turning to online sources and social media in search of advice and a better patient experience, we must now ensure that patients have meaningful engagements with us across the continuum of care, from the phone, to the office, to social media tools like Facebook and YouTube as we look to build loyalty and grow our referral volumes. PMID:24228370

  18. Social media and its dual use in biopreparedness: communication and visualization tools in an animal bioterrorism incident.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C; Landgren, Jonas; Griberg, Isaac; Skiby, Jeffrey E; Tubbin, Anna; von Stapelmohr, Anne; Härenstam, Malin; Jansson, Mikael; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-09-01

    This article focuses on social media and interactive challenges for emergency organizations during a bioterrorism or agroterrorism incident, and it outlines the dual-use dilemma of social media. Attackers or terrorists can use social media as their modus operandi, and defenders, including emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty-six experts and crisis communicators from international and national organizations participated. As a result of the workshop, it was concluded that emergency organizations can collect valuable information and monitor social media before, during, and after an outbreak. In order to make use of interactive communication to obtain collective intelligence from the public, emergency organizations must adapt to social networking technologies, requiring multidisciplinary knowledge in the fields of information, communication, IT, and biopreparedness. Social network messaging during a disease outbreak can be visualized in stream graphs and networks showing clusters of Twitter and Facebook users. The visualization of social media can be an important preparedness tool in the response to bioterrorism and agroterrorism. PMID:23971817

  19. Virtual Team Leadership: The Effects of Leadership Style and Communication Medium on Team Interaction Styles and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambley, Laura A.; O'Neill, Thomas A.; Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of transformational and transactional leadership styles and communication media on team interaction styles and outcomes. Teams communicated through one of the following three ways: (a) face-to-face, (b) desktop videoconference, or (c) text-based chat. Results indicated that transformational and transactional…

  20. Media formulation influences chemical effects on neuronal growth and morphology.

    PubMed

    Harrill, Joshua A; Robinette, Brian L; Freudenrich, Theresa M; Mundy, William R

    2015-06-01

    Screening for developmental neurotoxicity using in vitro, cell-based systems has been proposed as an efficient alternative to performing in vivo studies. One tool currently used for developmental neurotoxicity screening is automated high-content imaging of neuronal morphology. While high-content imaging (HCI) has been demonstrated to be useful in detection of potential developmental neurotoxicants, comparison of results between laboratories or assays can be complicated due to methodological differences. In order to determine whether high-content imaging-based developmental neurotoxicity assays can be affected by differences in media formulation, a systematic comparison of serum-supplemented (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's media (DMEM) + 10% serum) and serum-free (Neurobasal A + B27) culture media on neuronal morphology was performed using primary rat cortical neurons. Concentration-response assays for neuritogenesis, axon and dendrite outgrowth, and synaptogenesis were performed in each media type using chemicals with previously demonstrated effects. Marked qualitative and quantitative differences in the characteristics of neurons cultured in the two media types were observed, with increased neuronal growth and less basal cell death in Neurobasal A + B27. Media formulation also affected assay sensitivity and selectivity. Increases in assay sensitivity were observed in Neurobasal A + B27 media as compared to serum-supplemented DMEM. In some instances, a greater difference between effective concentrations for cell death and neurodevelopmental-specific endpoints was also observed in Neurobasal A + B27 media as compared to serum-supplemented DMEM. These data show that media formulation must be considered when comparing data for similar endpoints between studies. Neuronal culture maintained in Neurobasal A + B27 media had several features advantageous for HCI applications including less basal cell death, less cell clustering and neurite fasciculation, and a tendency towards increased sensitivity and selectivity in chemical concentration-response studies. PMID:25678462

  1. AN EVALUATION OF COMMUNICATION MEDIA USED IN THE ADULT LIBERAL STUDIES PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAHLER, T.W.; MILLER, H. MAX

    AS PART OF AN ADULT LIBERAL STUDIES PROGRAM (BASIC ISSUES OF MAN), AN EVALUATION WAS MADE TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMBINATIONS OF TELEVISION, FILMS, WRITTEN MATERIALS, AND GROUP DISCUSSION IN EDUCATIONAL SITUATIONS INVOLVING EXPOSURE TO THE MEDIA ALONE OR IN GROUPS, THE AIM OF THE PROGRAM BEING TO BRING ABOUT ATTITUDINAL CHANGES. THE…

  2. Communicating Culture in the 21st Century: The Power of Media-Enhanced Immersive Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stogner, Maggie Burnette

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of digital media technologies and new storytelling techniques in giving objects an emotional dimension and thus encouraging affective learning. The use of new immersive and participatory techniques is a means of contextualizing real objects, and perhaps a more effective way to reach diverse audiences and create…

  3. Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, Donald D.

    1990-01-01

    Communication in its many forms is a critical component for an effective Space Grant Program. Good communication is needed within individual Space Grant College/Consortia, for example between consortium affiliates and the consortium program office. Effective communication between the several programs, NASA Headquarters, and NASA field centers also is required. Further, communication among the above program elements, industry, local and state government, and the public also are necessary for meeting program objectives.

  4. Social Media: How to Use It Effectively.

    PubMed

    Gary, Joshua L

    2015-11-01

    The digital age has revolutionized how information is shared among human beings. The Internet initially provided a means for obtaining information and then evolved to allow the exchange of information between humans and Web sites. The enormous impact of these changes on health care has shifted the way physicians provide care and how patients elect for and receive care. Social media applications allow for immediate exchange of ideas between large populations, which presents many opportunities and challenges for practicing physicians. Providers must be cognizant of patient confidentiality, their own online reputation, and risk management when using social media. The future is widely unknown with opportunities for marketing, networking, and research to evolve in the coming decades. PMID:26458002

  5. The Limited Informativeness of Meta-Analyses of Media Effects.

    PubMed

    Valkenburg, Patti M

    2015-09-01

    In this issue of Perspectives on Psychological Science, Christopher Ferguson reports on a meta-analysis examining the relationship between children's video game use and several outcome variables, including aggression and attention deficit symptoms (Ferguson, 2015, this issue). In this commentary, I compare Ferguson's nonsignificant effects sizes with earlier meta-analyses on the same topics that yielded larger, significant effect sizes. I argue that Ferguson's choice for partial effects sizes is unjustified on both methodological and theoretical grounds. I then plead for a more constructive debate on the effects of violent video games on children and adolescents. Until now, this debate has been dominated by two camps with diametrically opposed views on the effects of violent media on children. However, even the earliest media effects studies tell us that children can react quite differently to the same media content. Thus, if researchers truly want to understand how media affect children, rather than fight for the presence or absence of effects, they need to adopt a perspective that takes differential susceptibility to media effects more seriously. PMID:26386007

  6. Construction of a Communication Audit: An Examination of Communication Systems and Their Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Brent D., Ed.; Greenbaum, Howard H., Ed.

    Abstracts of 12 papers concerning the effectiveness of various communication systems are printed here. Subjects of the papers are: the appraisal of organizational communication systems, and evaluation of ECCO analysis as a communication audit methodology, assessment of attitude and opinion change effects of the communication audit, organizational…

  7. Developing Effective Communications about Extreme Weather Risks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruine de Bruin, W.

    2014-12-01

    Members of the general public often face complex decisions about the risks that they face, including those associated with extreme weather and climate change adaptation. Scientific experts may be asked to develop communications with the goal of improving people's understanding of weather and climate risks, and informing people's decisions about how to protect against these risks. Unfortunately, scientific experts' communication efforts may fail if they lack information about what people need or want to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people prefer use to describe relevant concepts. This presentation provides general principles for developing effective risk communication materials that aim for widespread dissemination, such as brochures and websites. After a brief review of the social science evidence on how to design effective risk communication materials, examples will focus on communications about extreme weather events and climate change. Specifically, data will be presented from ongoing projects on flood risk perception, public preparedness for heat waves, and public perceptions of climate change. The presentation will end with specific recommendations about how to improve recipients' understanding about risks and inform decisions. These recommendations should be useful to scientific experts who aim to communicate about extreme weather, climate change, or other risks.

  8. Communication-oriented person-organization fit as a key factor of job-seeking behaviors: millennials' social media use and attitudes toward organizational social media policies.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaehee; Park, Dong Jin; Ordonez, Zoa

    2013-11-01

    The main goal of this study was to assess how the millennial generation perceives companies that have different social media policies and how such perception influences key variables for job-seeking behaviors, including perceived person-organization fit (POF), organizational attraction, and job pursuit intention. Results from a univariate general linear model and path analysis supported all of the established hypotheses. In particular, the results revealed that millennials perceived higher POF for a company with organizational policies supporting employees' social media use. Further, organizational attractiveness significantly mediated the relationship between communication-oriented POF and job pursuit intention. PMID:23848961

  9. Atmospheric Propagation Effects Relevant to Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaik, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    A number of atmospheric phenomena affect the propagation of light. This article reviews the effects of clear-air turbulence as well as atmospheric turbidity on optical communications. Among the phenomena considered are astronomical and random refraction, scintillation, beam broadening, spatial coherence, angle of arrival, aperture averaging, absorption and scattering, and the effect of opaque clouds. An extensive reference list is also provided for further study, Useful information on the atmospheric propagation of light in resolution to optical deep-space communications to an earth-based receiving station is available, however, further data must be generated before such a link can be designed with committed performance.

  10. Atmospheric propagation effects relevant to optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaik, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    A number of atmospheric phenomena affect the propagation of light. The effects of clear air turbulence are reviewed as well as atmospheric turbidity on optical communications. Among the phenomena considered are astronomical and random refraction, scintillation, beam broadening, spatial coherence, angle of arrival, aperture averaging, absorption and scattering, and the effect of opaque clouds. An extensive reference list is also provided for further study. Useful information on the atmospheric propagation of light in relation to optical deep space communications to an earth based receiving station is available, however, further data must be generated before such a link can be designed with committed performance.

  11. Counselor Effectiveness Through Radio Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tentoni, Stuart C.

    This study determined the effectiveness of the use of radio as a means of providing immediate feedback on student counselors in a practicum setting. Using a non-equivalent group experimental design, 10 experimental subjects were compared to 10 control subjects with respect to counselor effectiveness. The experimental subjects were given immediate…

  12. The Use of Traditional Media in Family Planning Programs in Rural Java. Cornell University, Current Papers in the Communication Arts #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Robert H.; Adhikarya, Ronny

    Java's present national family planning program is hampered not only by a serious lack of formal communication media, but also by cultural, social and economic barriers that impede the communication effort. To reach the predominantly rural population, family planning programs could utilize Java's traditional mass media: the folk operas, comedies,…

  13. The effects of media violence on anxiety in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Wright, Rex A

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to media violence is related to anxiety in youth, but the causality of the effect has not been established. This experimental study examined the effects of media violence on anxiety, blood pressure, and heart rate in late adolescents. We also examined whether these responses varied by previous exposure to media and real-life violence. College students (N = 209; M age = 18.74; 75 % female; 50 % Caucasian, 34 % African American, 9 % Asian, 3 % Hispanic, and 3 % other racial minorities) were randomized to view either violent or nonviolent high-action movie clips. Participants reported on their anxiety before and after watching the clips, as well as their previous exposure to violence. Measures of blood pressure and heart rate were taken at baseline and during movie viewing. Participants watching violent movie clips showed a greater anxiety increase than those watching nonviolent clips. Both groups experienced increased blood pressure and reduced heart rate during movie watching compared to baseline. Prior exposure to media violence was associated with diminished heart rate response. Additionally, students previously exposed to high levels of real-life violence showed lower blood pressure increases when watching violent clips compared to nonviolent clips. Thus, relatively brief exposure to violent movie clips increased anxiety among late adolescents. Prior exposure to media and real-life violence were associated with lower physiological reactivity to high-action and violent movies, respectively, possibly indicating desensitization. Future studies should investigate long-term anxiety and physiological consequences of regular exposure to media violence in adolescence. PMID:24014349

  14. Social Media and Oncology: The Past, Present, and Future of Electronic Communication Between Physician and Patient.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Mark A; Dicker, Adam P

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between patient and physician is in flux with the advent of electronic media that are advancing and enhancing communication. We perform a retrospective, current, and forward-looking examination of the technologies by which information is exchanged within the healthcare community. The evolution from e-mail and listservs to blogs and the modern social networks is described, with emphasis on the advantages and pitfalls of each medium, especially in regard to maintaining the standards of privacy and professionalism to which doctors are held accountable. We support the use of contemporary platforms like Twitter and Facebook for physicians to establish themselves as trustworthy online sources of medical knowledge, and anticipate ongoing collaboration between researchers, patients, and their advocates in trial design and accrual. PMID:26433557

  15. Communication Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abkarian, G. G.

    1992-01-01

    This literature review addresses studies of speech, language, and communication skills evidenced by children diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects. Concomitant physical, behavioral, intellectual, and learning patterns are reviewed, and symptoms presented by alcohol-exposed children are compared to those seen in other…

  16. Communicating Conservation Effects Assessment Project Results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a unique effort to quantify the environmental benefits of conservation practices at watershed scales and nationally. Such a large-scale project cannot be accomplished without the cooperation and communication of a wide range of experts and stakeh...

  17. Determinants of Effective Communication among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anvari, Roya; Atiyaye, Dauda Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between effective communication and transferring information. In the present correlational study, a cross-sectional research design was employed, and data were collected using a questionnaire-based survey. 46 students were chosen based on random sampling and questionnaires were distributed among…

  18. Effective Communication with Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Patrick; Elliott, David

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Government established the Office for Youth (the Office) in September 2008 in an effort to engage with the young people of Australia. The Office will work with other government agencies to help young people reach their full potential; make effective transitions to adulthood as they continue to learn, start work, make decisions that…

  19. Media Choice for Intra-School Communication: The Role of Environment, User, and Medium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspi, Avner; Blau, Ina

    2011-01-01

    The influence of media richness, media attentional load, social influence and users' prior experience with media on selection of media to transmit different messages to peers within an educational organization was tested. Media were discriminated by all potential variables. Support was found for the role of prior experience and social influence in…

  20. Effect of media use on mothers' vaccination of their children in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Lin, Leesa; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2015-05-21

    While several studies have examined the crucial role that parents' vaccination behaviors play in reducing disease spread and severity among children, few have evaluated the connection between parents' media use and their decision on whether or not to vaccinate their child, specifically in relation to the BCG (Bacillus Calmetter Guerin), DPT (Diptheria, Pertussis, Tetanus) polio, and measles vaccines. Media channels are a critical source of health information for parents, which is especially true in Sub-Saharan Africa, as there is often a dearth of local healthcare providers. The aim of this paper is to investigate the role that media use plays in a mothers' choice to vaccinate their infant children in sub-Saharan Africa, specifically focusing on whether media use is associated with socioeconomic status (SES) and a mothers' vaccination of their children. Cross-sectional data from the Demographic Health Surveys of 13 sub-Saharan countries (2004-2010) were pooled. A multivariate Poisson regression of 151,209 women was used to calculate adjusted relative ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations among SES, media use, and immunization. Education and wealth were found to be strongly and positively associated with vaccine-uptake behaviors. The effects of media use (radio and television) were found to be associated with the relationships between SES and vaccine uptake. However, it did not reduce the impact of SES on vaccination. These findings indicate that mass media may be an important tool for future efforts to reduce the health discrepancies between children from high- and low-socioeconomic backgrounds. Going forward, immunization strategies should include communication plans that will address and mitigate potential immunization disparities among parents of different SES backgrounds. PMID:25896379

  1. Scholarly but Relevant: A Comparison of Topic Frequency between "Journalism Quarterly,""Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media," and RTNDA "Communicator."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmun, David

    A study compared the topics addressed in a professional trade publication, the RTNDA (Radio and Television News Directors Association) "Communicator," with topics specifically addressing broadcast news in the scholarly journals "Journalism Quarterly" and "Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media." The purpose of the research was to help…

  2. Mass Media and Developing Nations: A Global Perspective of the Present State of Mass Communication and Its Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordenstreng, Kaarle

    Four features characterize the current global scene in mass communications: (1) an imbalance of resources between industrialized and developing countries, (2) an imbalance of information flow between countries, (3) an irrelevance of media content to the social and cultural problems of the Third World, and (4) a considerable impact on the operation…

  3. Using Personality Traits and Effective Communication to Improve Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddy, Juanita Warren

    2007-01-01

    Various research studies have shed evidence on the importance of collaboration between teachers and library media specialists. Nearly every aspect of business, management in particular, requires an ability to interact effectively with others. As such, it is advantageous for the library media specialist to view the library media program as a…

  4. Telling our own story: Effective communication for ANS professionals

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom-Kulieke, B.

    1995-12-31

    Nuclear professionals often shy away from communicating as much or as well as we could, especially outside of our own work groups. Public speaking or media interviews may be especially uncomfortable or difficult. But as classic communication theory states, {open_quotes}It is impossible not to communicate.{close_quotes} Our silence speaks volumes. And if we do not tell our own story, someone else will. This paper outlines how nuclear professionals may develop themselves as excellent communicators to the benefit of our own work groups and the public.

  5. [Social media and medical apps: how they can change health communication, education and care].

    PubMed

    Santoro, Eugenio

    2013-05-01

    Social media and medical apps for smartphones and tablets are changing health communication, education and care. This change involves physicians and other health care professionals which for their education, training and updating have started to follow public pages and profiles opened by medical journals and professional societies on the online social networking sites (such as Facebook, Twitter and Google+), to access scientific content (videos, images, slides) available on user-generated contents sites (such as SlideShare, Pinterest and YouTube) or on health professional online communities such as Sermo, and to use medical and health apps on their smartphones and tablets. As shown by a number of experiences conducted in US by health institutions such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Atlanta and hospitals such a the Mayo Clinic, these tools are also transforming the way to make health promotion activities and communication, promote healthy habits and lifestyles, and prevent chronic diseases. Finally this change involves patients which are starting to use medical and health apps on their smartphones and tablets to monitor their diseases, and tools such as Patients Like Me (an online patients' community), Facebook and Twitter to share with others the same disease experience, to learn about the disease and treatments, and to find opinions on physicians, hospitals and medical centers. These new communication tools allow users to move to a kind of collaborative education and updating where news and contents (such as public health recommendations, results of the most recent clinical researches or medical guidelines) may be shared and discussed. PMID:23748682

  6. Effectiveness of alcohol media literacy programmes: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Chloe S; Hindmarsh, Chloe S; Jones, Sandra C; Kervin, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To provide insight into some of these questions, a systematic literature review of alcohol media literacy studies was conducted. The review was guided by the following research question: What considerations are needed to develop an effective school-based alcohol media literacy programme? On the basis of a critical synthesis of 10 interventions (published in the period 1997 to May 2014), our findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the descriptive, methodological and outcome characteristics of this small body of significant research. The review provides considerations for future alcohol media literacy programmes, including the need for an interactive pedagogical approach within the naturalistic school setting, implementation fidelity and a holistic approach to programme evaluation, a means for maintaining relevance, consideration of gender differences, relevance for an international audience and use of follow-up and longitudinal data. PMID:25840435

  7. The Geography of Political Communication: Effects of Regional Variations in Campaign Advertising on Citizen Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jaeho

    2011-01-01

    This study explores whether and how campaign-induced changes in local information environments influence citizens' everyday communication activities. The empirical analysis in this study centers on a comparison of two New Jersey media markets that showed idiosyncratic differences in the amount of political advertising during the 2000 presidential…

  8. Effective reflection coefficients for curved interfaces in transversely isotropic media

    E-print Network

    Tsvankin, Ilya

    Effective reflection coefficients for curved interfaces in transversely isotropic media Milana Ayzenberg1 , Ilya Tsvankin2 , Arkady Aizenberg3 , and Bjřrn Ursin4 ABSTRACT Plane-wave reflection inade- quate in describing reflected wavefields at near- and postcritical incidence angles. Also, PWRCs

  9. An effective media toolset for use in metamaterial design.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, William Arthur; Sinclair, Michael B.; Warne, Larry Kevin; Langston, William L.; Basilio, Lorena I.

    2010-06-01

    This paper introduces an effective-media toolset that can be used for the design of metamaterial structures based on metallic components such as split-ring resonators and dipoles, as well as dielectric spherical resonators. For demonstration purposes the toolset will be used to generate infrared metamaterial designs, and the predicted performances will be verified with full-wave numerical simulations.

  10. Political Change in Eastern Europe and Conceptual Approaches to Media Communication: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John

    1994-01-01

    Discusses media-related changes in Russia, Poland, and Hungary since the 1980s. Reviews current media theories in the United States for their ability to guide research into media processes in these three countries. Finds that much media research has paid insufficient attention to economic forces, international relations, the state, political…

  11. Effect of solute size on transport in structured porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Qinhong; Brusseau, M.L.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of solute size on transport in structured porous media. Miscible displacement experiments were performed with tracers of different sizes (i.e., tritiated water {sup 3}H{sub 2}O), pentafluorobenzoate (PFBA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) in aggregated, stratified, and macroporous media. The breakthrough curves exhibited both early breakthrough and tailing, indicative of nonideal transport in these structured media. Comparison of breakthrough curves revealed that the extent of nonideality (e.g., tailing) was HPCD > PFBA, 2,4-D > {sup 3}H{sub 2}O. This behavior is consistent with the impact of solute size on the relative degree of {open_quotes}nonequilibrium{close_quotes} experienced by solutes whose transport is constrained by diffusive mass transfer. The capability of the first-order, dual-porosity mobile-immobile model to represent solute transport in these structured systems was evaluated by comparing independently determined values of the input parameters to values obtained by curve fitting of the experimental measurements. The calculated and optimized values compared quite well for the aggregated and stratified media, but not for the macroporous media. Experiments performed with tracers of different size are useful for characterizing the nature of the porous medium through which transport is occurring. 25 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Effect of Media Use on HIV-Related Stigma in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven; Ramanadhan, Shoba; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2014-01-01

    It is known that HIV-related stigma hinders prevention efforts. Previous studies have documented that HIV-related stigma may be associated with socioeconomic and socioecological factors. Mass media use may moderate this association, but there is limited research addressing that possibility. In this study, based on cross-sectional data pooled from the 2006–2011 Demographic and Health Surveys of 11 sub-Saharan African countries (N?=?204,343), we investigated the moderating effects of exposure to mass media on HIV-related stigma. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that HIV-related stigma tends to be higher among rural residents and individuals with low levels of education and HIV knowledge, as well as those who do not know people living with HIV. Media use was generally associated with low levels of HIV-related stigma, and attenuated the gap between individuals with high and low educational levels. However, the effect of mass media was found to be stronger among urbanites rather than among rural residents, which could lead to a widening gap between the two groups in endorsement of HIV-related stigma. The implication of this study regarding the effect of media use on HIV-related stigma in sub-Saharan Africa is twofold: 1) mass media may have the potential to minimize the gap in HIV-related stigma between individuals with high and low educational levels, and hence future efforts of reducing HIV-related stigma in the region may benefit from utilizing media; 2) due perhaps to low media penetration to rural sub-Saharan Africa, mass media could have the unintended effect of widening the urban-rural gap further unless other more customized and rural-focused communication interventions are put in place. PMID:24945251

  13. Media communication strategies for climate-friendly lifestyles - Addressing middle and lower class consumers for social-cultural change via Entertainment-Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubjuhn, S.; Pratt, N.

    2009-11-01

    This paper argues that Entertainment-Education (E-E) is a striking communication strategy for reaching middle and lower socio-economic classes with climate-friendly lifestyle messages. On the international level (e.g. in the US and the Netherlands) E-E approaches are being theoretically grounded, whereas in Germany they are not yet. Therefore further theoretical discussion and mapping of E-E approaches is central for future research. As a first step towards providing further theoretical foundations for E-E in the field of sustainability, the authors suggest a threefold mapping of E-E approaches. The threefold mapping of E-E approaches for communicating climate-friendly lifestyles to middle and lower class consumers is based on recent results from academic research and practical developments on the media market. The commonalities among the three is that they all promote pro-sustainability messages in an affective-orientated rather than cognitive-orientated, factual manner. Differences can be found in: the sender of the sustainability message, the targeted consumer groups and the media approach in use. Based on this, the paper draws the conclusion that two new paths for further research activities in the field of Entertainment-Education can be proposed: (1) Improving the existing approaches in practice by using theoretical foundation from the E-E field. This comprises at its core (A) to do formative, process and summative effect research on the messages and (B) to use E-E theory from the field of social psychology, sociology and communication science for further improvement and (2) Generating new E-E theories by analyzing the existing practical approaches in the media to communicate climate change.

  14. Impact of mass media and interpersonal health communication on smoking cessation attempts: a study in North Karelia, 1989-1996.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, T; Uutela, A; Korhonen, H J; Puska, P

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes an impact evaluation of the North Karelia Project (Finnish CINDI program) on smoking cessation attempts. During the period 1989-1996, data were collected by annual surveys, with response rates varying from 66% to 76%. This study included 1,694 adult current smokers or persons who had quit smoking during the past year, out of a total of 6,011 respondents. Smoking cessation attempts during the past 12 months were examined as a dependent variable. Reported exposures to mass media and interpersonal health communication were examined as possible determinants of smoking cessation. Weekly exposure to mass media health messages was significantly associated with cessation attempts among men only. In contrast, interpersonal health communication, or social influence, was a significant determinant of cessation attempts among both sexes. Exposure to both mass media and interpersonal health communication had an even stronger impact on cessation attempts. Thus, interpersonal communication appears to be an important catalyst of community programs, and its inclusion should be emphasized to obtain a higher impact with community programs. PMID:10977248

  15. Combining Social Media with Innovative Ways of Communicating about the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masetti, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the cutting-edge nature of the James Webb Space Telescope, NASA is using a variety of social and interactive media to engage the public. While we do have a regularly updated static website, we are now also using various interactives (like Flash games and a 3D Tour of the spacecraft) to better explain what the Webb telescope is and how it works. To encourage future generations, we are a partner in an educational engineering design challenge which makes use of a virtual Second Life-like world. Additionally, the public can now watch Webb come together before their eyes by accessing our live webcam, which shows telescope hardware being built in our cleanroom. We are working to make Webb as much of a part of pop culture as the Hubble Space Telescope is. We facilitated the filming of a "Late Night with Jimmy Fallon” segment (called "Hubble Gotchu") featuring Webb and Webb scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. A visit to the highly rated sitcom "The Big Bang Theory” resulted in Webb lithos, magnets, posters, a scale model, and more being regularly featured on the set of the show. The most important aspect to creating interesting ways to engage the public is having the ability to communicate and form relationships with as many people as possible. To that end, we are using tools like blogs (e.g., NASA Blueshift) and popular social media (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Flickr) to reach out to as many people as we can and to enable them to share and spread the content we provide.

  16. Humidity Effects and Aging Behavior in Granular Media

    E-print Network

    F. Restagno; H. Gayvallet; L. Bocquet; E. Charlaix

    1999-08-10

    We present a study of humidity effects on the maximum stability angle in granular media. We show that a granular medium of small glass beads exhibits aging properties : the first avalanche angle increases logarithmically with the resting time of the pile. This aging behavior is found to depend on the relative humidity of the surrounding atmosphere. A short interpretation of this effect, based on a model of activated capillary condensation, is proposed.

  17. Coherent quantum effects through dispersive bosonic media

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Saiyun; Yang Zhenbiao; Zheng Shibiao; Serafini, Alessio

    2010-07-15

    The coherent evolution of two qubits mediated by a set of bosonic field modes is investigated. By assuming a specific asymmetric encoding of the quantum states in the internal levels of the qubits, we show that entangling quantum gates can be realized, with high fidelity, even when a large number of mediating modes is involved. The effect of losses and imperfections on the gates' operation is also considered in detail.

  18. Guidelines for Using Social Media Version 2.0

    E-print Network

    Mootha, Vamsi K.

    Guidelines for Using Social Media ­ Version 2.0 Effective 8/18/2014 Harvard University recognizes the importance and benefits of communicating through social media. Social media is a powerful vehicle through about Harvard, and connect with our audiences online. Harvard supports the use of social media to share

  19. A Brief Survey of Media Access Control, Data Link Layer, and Protocol Technologies for Lunar Surface Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallett, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper surveys and describes some of the existing media access control and data link layer technologies for possible application in lunar surface communications and the advanced wideband Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DSCDMA) conceptual systems utilizing phased-array technology that will evolve in the next decade. Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are standard Media Access Control (MAC) techniques that can be incorporated into lunar surface communications architectures. Another novel hybrid technique that is recently being developed for use with smart antenna technology combines the advantages of CDMA with those of TDMA. The relatively new and sundry wireless LAN data link layer protocols that are continually under development offer distinct advantages for lunar surface applications over the legacy protocols which are not wireless. Also several communication transport and routing protocols can be chosen with characteristics commensurate with smart antenna systems to provide spacecraft communications for links exhibiting high capacity on the surface of the Moon. The proper choices depend on the specific communication requirements.

  20. Effectively Communicating the Uncertainties Surrounding Ebola Virus Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Kilianski, Andy; Evans, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    The current Ebola virus outbreak has highlighted the uncertainties surrounding many aspects of Ebola virus virology, including routes of transmission. The scientific community played a leading role during the outbreak—potentially, the largest of its kind—as many of the questions surrounding ebolaviruses have only been interrogated in the laboratory. Scientists provided an invaluable resource for clinicians, public health officials, policy makers, and the lay public in understanding the progress of Ebola virus disease and the continuing outbreak. Not all of the scientific communication, however, was accurate or effective. There were multiple instances of published articles during the height of the outbreak containing potentially misleading scientific language that spurred media overreaction and potentially jeopardized preparedness and policy decisions at critical points. Here, we use articles declaring the potential for airborne transmission of Ebola virus as a case study in the inaccurate reporting of basic science, and we provide recommendations for improving the communication about unknown aspects of disease during public health crises. PMID:26512988

  1. Media-Cultivated Perceptions of Criminal Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogles, Robert M.

    Many television viewers construct their social reality from media content as well as from sensory and interpersonally communicated information. One aspect of this media-influenced social reality is television viewers' estimates of crime in society, or their fear of criminal victimization. Several media-effects studies have demonstrated the…

  2. Breaking the Barrier: Effectively Communicating Nutrition and Health Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchoux, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Health professionals can work to correct common misconceptions through nutrition and fitness education and sharing information and resources to provide consistent public messages. The article discusses the impact of the media, food labels, and the Fuel for Fitness program, encouraging teamwork to ensure proper communication of diet and exercise…

  3. Communication and Effectiveness in Primary Health Jean Carletta

    E-print Network

    Carletta, Jean

    Communication and Effectiveness in Primary Health Care Teams Jean Carletta Human Communication.Carletta@edinburgh.ac.uk ABSTRACT Primary health care team members need to communicate effectively with each other in order to provide integrated care. Using interviews with practice managers about team practice and observation

  4. Social-Communicative Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Russo, Luigi; Massagli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a common treatment choice for non-verbal children with autism. However, little empirical evidence is available on the usefulness of PECS in treating social-communication impairments in autism. Aims: To test the effects of PECS on social-communicative skills in children with autism,…

  5. Perspectives Nanotechnology and the public: Effectively communicating nanoscale science

    E-print Network

    Crone, Wendy C.

    Perspectives Nanotechnology and the public: Effectively communicating nanoscale science August 2006 Key words: nanotechnology, communication, public knowledge, public understanding the public on concepts and applications associated with nanotechnology. The goal of our work

  6. Training Scientists to be Effective Communicators: AAAS Communicating Science Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cendes, L.; Lohwater, T.

    2012-12-01

    "Communicating Science: Tools for Scientists and Engineers" is a workshop program developed by AAAS to provide guidance and practice for scientists and engineers in communicating about science with public audiences. The program was launched at the 2008 AAAS Annual Meeting in Boston and has since provided 24 workshops for more than 1,500 scientist and engineer attendees at universities, science society meetings, and government agency labs around the United States. Each interactive workshop targets scientists and engineers specifically and has included content such as message development, defining audience, identifying opportunities for engaging the public, and practice with public presentations and cameras. The workshop format allows for collaborative learning through small-group discussion, resource sharing, and participation in critique of other participants' presentations. Continuous monitoring of the program includes on-site and online surveys and evaluation. On an assessment of workshops from 2008-2010, attendees reported that knowledge gained from the workshop helped in crafting messages about their scientific work for use in communicating with public audiences, and approximately 80 percent of respondents reported participation in communication with a public audience after attending the workshop. Through workshop content and feedback of participating scientists, this presentation will highlight some best practices and resources for scientists who want to take a proactive role in science communication.

  7. Exploring Perspectives of Communications Students toward Media Access and Use: A Q Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Angel Noel

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to help news industry professionals and educators tailor their services to a young audience that has grown up among a plethora of media options. To better reach and educate today's up-and-coming media professionals, those in the industry need a better understanding of modern media students' perspectives of news. This study used Q…

  8. An approach to effective UHF (S/L band) data communications for satellite Personal Communication Service (PCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayase, Joshua Y.

    1995-01-01

    Reliable signaling information transfer is fundamental in supporting the needs of data communication PCS via LMS (Land Mobile Service) SSs (satellite systems). The needs of the system designer can be satisfied only through the collection of media information that can be brought to bear on the pertinent design issues. We at ISI hope to continue our dialogue with fading media experts to address the unique data communications needs of PCS via LMS SSs.

  9. The National Landslide Database of Great Britain: Acquisition, communication and the role of social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, Catherine; Freeborough, Katy; Dashwood, Claire; Dijkstra, Tom; Lawrie, Kenneth

    2015-11-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) is the national geological agency for Great Britain that provides geoscientific information to government, other institutions and the public. The National Landslide Database has been developed by the BGS and is the focus for national geohazard research for landslides in Great Britain. The history and structure of the geospatial database and associated Geographical Information System (GIS) are explained, along with the future developments of the database and its applications. The database is the most extensive source of information on landslides in Great Britain with over 17,000 records of landslide events to date, each documented as fully as possible for inland, coastal and artificial slopes. Data are gathered through a range of procedures, including: incorporation of other databases; automated trawling of current and historical scientific literature and media reports; new field- and desk-based mapping technologies with digital data capture, and using citizen science through social media and other online resources. This information is invaluable for directing the investigation, prevention and mitigation of areas of unstable ground in accordance with Government planning policy guidelines. The national landslide susceptibility map (GeoSure) and a national landslide domains map currently under development, as well as regional mapping campaigns, rely heavily on the information contained within the landslide database. Assessing susceptibility to landsliding requires knowledge of the distribution of failures, an understanding of causative factors, their spatial distribution and likely impacts, whilst understanding the frequency and types of landsliding present is integral to modelling how rainfall will influence the stability of a region. Communication of landslide data through the Natural Hazard Partnership (NHP) and Hazard Impact Model contributes to national hazard mitigation and disaster risk reduction with respect to weather and climate. Daily reports of landslide potential are published by BGS through the NHP partnership and data collected for the National Landslide Database are used widely for the creation of these assessments. The National Landslide Database is freely available via an online GIS and is used by a variety of stakeholders for research purposes.

  10. Impact of Mass Communication Media on Curriculum Development and Educational Methods. UNESCO European Workshop (Tutzing, West Germany, November 17-20, 1986). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterman, Len

    This paper attempts to distill and develop the findings of the UNESCO European Workshop on "The Impact on Curriculum Development and Educational Methods of the Information Conveyed by the Mass Communication Media," held in November 1986. The paper is organized around the five main areas of discussion at the conference: (1) the nature of media

  11. The Effects of Frequency of Media Utilization on Decision Making of Media Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotoh, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use the Analytic Hierarchy Process in order to identify how frequency of media use in daily life affects decision-making in media choice. 276 university students took part in this research, They were asked to prioritize their ways of obtaining information about current affairs using sets of media such as TV, books,…

  12. Gender on the Brain: A Case Study of Science Communication in the New Media Environment

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Cliodhna; Joffe, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience research on sex difference is currently a controversial field, frequently accused of purveying a ‘neurosexism’ that functions to naturalise gender inequalities. However, there has been little empirical investigation of how information about neurobiological sex difference is interpreted within wider society. This paper presents a case study that tracks the journey of one high-profile study of neurobiological sex differences from its scientific publication through various layers of the public domain. A content analysis was performed to ascertain how the study was represented in five domains of communication: the original scientific article, a press release, the traditional news media, online reader comments and blog entries. Analysis suggested that scientific research on sex difference offers an opportunity to rehearse abiding cultural understandings of gender. In both scientific and popular contexts, traditional gender stereotypes were projected onto the novel scientific information, which was harnessed to demonstrate the factual truth and normative legitimacy of these beliefs. Though strains of misogyny were evident within the readers’ comments, most discussion of the study took pains to portray the sexes’ unique abilities as equal and ‘complementary’. However, this content often resembled a form of benevolent sexism, in which praise of women’s social-emotional skills compensated for their relegation from more esteemed trait-domains, such as rationality and productivity. The paper suggests that embedding these stereotype patterns in neuroscience may intensify their rhetorical potency by lending them the epistemic authority of science. It argues that the neuroscience of sex difference does not merely reflect, but can actively shape the gender norms of contemporary society. PMID:25354280

  13. The effect of thermal fluctuation on tilted perpendicular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, X. Z.; Jalil, M. B. A.

    2005-05-01

    We investigated via micromagnetic simulation the effect of thermal fluctuation on the stability and transition width of a tilted media with easy axis oriented at 45° and 135° with respect to the vertical along the down-track direction. A dynamic model of the recording process is presented which incorporates a Westmijze head field rotated by 90°. Thermal fluctuations are modeled via a stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation with a temperature-dependent white-noise field. The dependence of the transition parameter a between adjacent bits and signal-to-noise ratio on temperature is investigated, and comparison between these values of the perpendicular medium and those of the two types of tilted media is performed.

  14. General Media Training Broadcast Media Training

    E-print Network

    Chandy, John A.

    General Media Training Broadcast Media Training In addition to the general training, University Communications provides individual broadcast media training in the on-campus television and radio studio. Those when a reporter calls. University Communications offers two types of media training for faculty

  15. Body image disturbances: the effects of media on self-appraisal and ideal mate selection 

    E-print Network

    Litzsinger, Sara Kay

    2013-02-22

    are highly related to body dissatisfaction and negative self-evaluation. Although some researchers have found that interventions regarding media images (i.e. education about the unrealistic nature of these images) negate the effect of media images on body...

  16. Millimeter wave propagation modeling of inhomogeneous rain media for satellite communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persinger, R. R.; Stutzman, W. L.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical propagation model that represents the scattering properties of an inhomogeneous rain often found on a satellite communications link is presented. The model includes the scattering effects of an arbitrary distribution of particle type (rain or ice), particle shape, particle size, and particle orientation within a given rain cell. An associated rain propagation prediction program predicts attenuation, isolation and phase shift as a function of ground rain rate. A frequency independent synthetic storm algorithm is presented that models nonuniform rain rates present on a satellite link. Antenna effects are included along with a discussion of rain reciprocity. The model is verified using the latest available multiple frequency data from the CTS and COMSTAR satellites. The data covers a wide range of frequencies, elevation angles, and ground site locations.

  17. Social media and communications: developing a policy to guide the flow of information.

    PubMed

    Midyette, J David; Youngkin, Andrew; Snow-Croft, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    The use of social media is ubiquitous in the daily lives of nearly three quarters of the population in the United States. This article addresses the process and results of a policy development project for a National Network of Libraries of Medicine Regional Medical Library. Content, scheduling, editing, and author responsibilities are addressed for each of the chosen media outlets, as well as the preparation of prefatory material using an online social media policy development tool. PMID:24528263

  18. Revealing the Effectivenesses of Communication Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the history of communication strategy and highlight the importance of strategic competence. It provides the histories and characterizations of communication strategy. Besides, it presents from which perspectives these definitions of communication strategies were developed. Various earlier and latter…

  19. The Social Effects of Communication Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhamer, Herbert, Ed.; Westrum, Ronald

    The principal technological developments that underlie the communication revolution, especially the transistor and the computer, are reviewed in a nontechnical way. A number of devices and communication subsystems, such as cable television, ultramicrofiche, and communication satellites, that make use of these developments are then described,…

  20. No News Isn't Good News: Effective Media Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, David

    1989-01-01

    By working with the media, educators can turn adverse situations to their advantage and create better school-media-community relations. Nine basic rules of thumb are presented for dealing with the media, and advice is provided for keeping the media informed and for crisis management. (Author/TE)

  1. A Measured Approach to Adopting New Media in the Business Communication Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Peter W.; Okoro, Ephraim

    2010-01-01

    At each Association for Business Communication (ABC) conference the authors have attended in the past 2 to 3 years, the many presentations focusing on social networking, blogs, wikis, and various Web 2.0 technologies have captured their attention. They welcome the wonderful, new communication tools that increasingly allow people to communicate and…

  2. A Communication Model for Teaching a Course in Mass Media and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumley, Wilma; Stricklin, Michael

    Many professors of mass media and society courses have relied on a teaching model implying that students are sponges soaking up information. A more appropriate model invites concern with an active audience, transaction, the interpersonal mass media mix, a general systems approach, and process and change--in other words, utilization of current and…

  3. Slip effects associated with Knudsen transport phenomena in porous media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederking, T. H. K.; Hepler, W. A.; Khandhar, P. K.

    1988-01-01

    Porous media used in phase separators and thermomechanical pumps have been the subject of characterization efforts based on the Darcy permeability of laminar continuum flow. The latter is not always observed at low speed, in particular at permeabilities below 10 to the -9th/squared cm. The present experimental and theoretical studies address questions of slip effects associated with long mean free paths of gas flow at room temperature. Data obtained are in good agreement, within data uncertainty, with a simplified asymptotic Knudsen equation proposed for porous plugs on the basis of Knudsen's classical flow equation for long mean free paths.

  4. Effective stress principle for partially saturated granular media

    SciTech Connect

    McTigue, D.F.; Wilson, R.K.; Nunziato, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    A granular or porous medium with any number of fluid phases in the pores is considered. The motivation stems primarily from concern for the fluid flow and matrix deformation in partially saturated media, a typical example being a soil or rock containing interstitial water and air. The heart of the following developments lies in the choice of constitutive equations for the forces of interaction between the various components of the mixture. Thermodynamic arguments are used to motivate the form of the interaction terms. As a result, a concept of effective stress emerges which agrees with previously proposed models and capillary effects are identified clearly in a thermodynamic context. The resulting theory is illustrated by examining some simple problems in partially saturated media. First, we specialize to the case of a linear elastic matrix, and show how capillary suction reduces the porosity. Second, we consider the problem of one-dimensional consolidation of a partially saturated half-space in which the air is free to escape. The problem for the fluid pressure reduces to a nonlinear diffusion problem, similar to that for horizontal infiltration, with a saturation front propagating downward into the medium. No water drains through the surface. The results for the fluid pressure also indicate that the granular medium undergoes larger elastic deformation than in the saturated case. We also comment briefly on the effects of porosity gradients on consolidation.

  5. Effective horizons for quantum communication in a Schwarzschild spacetime

    E-print Network

    Hosler, Dominic; Kok, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    Communication between a free-falling observer and an observer hovering above the Schwarzschild horizon of a black hole suffers from Unruh-Hawking noise, which degrades communication channel capacities. Ignoring time dilation, which affects all channels equally, we show that for bosonic communication using single and dual rail encoding the classical channel capacity reaches a finite value and the quantum channel capacity falls off exponentially. The latter defines an effective horizon, beyond which quantum communication becomes exponentially resource inefficient. The characteristic length scale associated with this quantum horizon depends on the mass of the black hole and the frequency of the communication channel.

  6. Measuring the Effects of Sexual Content in the Media: A Report to the Kaiser Family Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Aletha C.; Wartella, Ellen; Donnerstein, Edward

    This report was prepared at the request of the Kaiser Family Foundation to examine the methodological options for investigating the effects of sexual content in the media on children and adolescents. To discuss the issues and prepare the report, a forum of 20 scholars with expertise in sexuality, sexual development, media analysis, and media

  7. Effect of media-induced social distancing on disease transmission in a two patch setting

    E-print Network

    Arino, Julien

    Effect of media-induced social distancing on disease transmission in a two patch setting Chengjun 2011 Keywords: Media coverage Metapopulation Global dynamics Uniform persistence a b s t r a c t We formulate an SIS epidemic model on two patches. In each patch, media coverage about the cases pres- ent

  8. Effects of capillarity on microscopic flow in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The central theme of this proposal is to study the effects of capillarity on the motion of a fluid interface and to apply these results to flow in porous media. Here we report on several problems considered this year. In particular we have investigated a new similarity solution of a moving boundary problem driven only by surface tension, we have started an investigation on the effect of roughness on the motion of a contact line and we have started both a numerical and analytical investigation of the motion of fluid interfaces in a pore. In addition we report on a new method to derive macroscopic effective equation of motion of two-phase flows at low volume fraction.

  9. Effective Protocols for Mobile Communications and Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, J.; Sholander, P.; Van Leeuwen, B,

    1998-12-01

    This report examines methods of mobile communications with an emphasis on mobile computing and wireless communications. Many of the advances in communications involve the use of Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ad hoc network protocols. However, many of the advances in these protocols have been focused on wired communications. Recently much focus has been directed at advancing communication technology in the area of mobile wireless networks. This report discusses various protocols used in mobile communications and proposes a number of extensions to existing protocols. A detailed discussion is also included on desirable protocol characteristics and evaluation criteria. In addition, the report includes a discussion on several network simulation tools that maybe used to evaluate network protocols.

  10. Exploring Spanish health social media for detecting drug effects

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) cause a high number of deaths among hospitalized patients in developed countries. Major drug agencies have devoted a great interest in the early detection of ADRs due to their high incidence and increasing health care costs. Reporting systems are available in order for both healthcare professionals and patients to alert about possible ADRs. However, several studies have shown that these adverse events are underestimated. Our hypothesis is that health social networks could be a significant information source for the early detection of ADRs as well as of new drug indications. Methods In this work we present a system for detecting drug effects (which include both adverse drug reactions as well as drug indications) from user posts extracted from a Spanish health forum. Texts were processed using MeaningCloud, a multilingual text analysis engine, to identify drugs and effects. In addition, we developed the first Spanish database storing drugs as well as their effects automatically built from drug package inserts gathered from online websites. We then applied a distant-supervision method using the database on a collection of 84,000 messages in order to extract the relations between drugs and their effects. To classify the relation instances, we used a kernel method based only on shallow linguistic information of the sentences. Results Regarding Relation Extraction of drugs and their effects, the distant supervision approach achieved a recall of 0.59 and a precision of 0.48. Conclusions The task of extracting relations between drugs and their effects from social media is a complex challenge due to the characteristics of social media texts. These texts, typically posts or tweets, usually contain many grammatical errors and spelling mistakes. Moreover, patients use lay terminology to refer to diseases, symptoms and indications that is not usually included in lexical resources in languages other than English. PMID:26100267

  11. Say What? Effective communication is safe business

    SciTech Connect

    Schlender, Michael H.

    2007-11-21

    Ineffective safety communication can result in injury and even cost lives. With hazards surrounding workers, such as chemicals, electrical equipment and construction machinery, adequate safety messages and training are imperative for good business. Safety communication in the workplace is so important, it’s required in Washington State. WAC 296-800-130 requires employers to have a method of communicating and evaluating safety and health issues brought up by employers or employees in the workplace. Fortunately, there are lots of resources to help employers communicate with staff.

  12. Communication Effectiveness of Individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Laura J.; Beukelman, David R.; Pattee, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among speech intelligibility and communication effectiveness as rated by speakers and their listeners. Participants completed procedures to measure (a) speech intelligibility, (b) self-perceptions of communication effectiveness, and (c) listener (spouse or family member) perceptions of…

  13. Science Express: Out-of-Home-Media to Communicate Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R.

    2013-12-01

    Science Express is an initiative to explore, develop, and test various approaches to using Out-of-Home-Media (OHM) to engage adults riding mass transit. To date, three projects represent this work: 1) Carbon Smarts Conference, 2) Cool Science, and 3) ScienceToGo.org. While the aim of each project is different, together they serve an immediate need to understand how OHM can be leveraged as an informal science learning medium. Using Climate Change as the content focus, each project is a variation on the theme of understanding mass transit as a form of mobile classroom for riders. The basic idea behind these initiatives is to engage individuals who do not necessarily read the science magazines, listen to science radio shows, or watch science programming on television. Science Express is about bringing the science learning opportunity to the audience during their daily routines. Mass Transit provides an ideal opportunity for engaging the disengaged in science learning since they represent a ';captive' audience while waiting at the bus stop, standing on the platform, riding inside the bus or train. These ';downtimes' present informal science educators with the opportunity to foster some science learning. With the advent of smartphone technology and its explosion in popularity among consumers, OHM is poised to offer riders a new kind of real time learning experience. The Science Express projects aim to understand the strengths and weaknesses of this new model for informal science learning so as to refine and improve its effectiveness at achieving desired goals. While the Science Express model for informal science learning could be used to foster understanding about any relevant scientific content, the research team chose to use Climate Change as the focus. Climate Change seemed like an obvious because of its timeliness, complexity, robust scientific foundation, and presence in popular media. Nearly all our riders have heard of 'Climate Change' or 'Global Warming', but a much smaller percentage actually understand the underlying science. In addition, riders appear to be very curious and want to know more about these issues.

  14. Communicating on Different Non-Level Playing Fields: Mixing Journalism with Communication Studies and/or Electronic Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Norman J.

    Some college administrators have used the recession of the late 1980s and early 1990s to make program cuts that they have wanted to make all along for political or personal reasons. The mission statements of universities often are general enough to allow much interpretation and interpolation. If a statement calls for communication skills,…

  15. Changing Channels : a framework for communication planning in a media intensive society

    E-print Network

    Scott, Voloe Jefferson

    2009-01-01

    In today's media intensive society, where consumers are well equipped to resist advertisers' strategies, creative and messages, it is becoming increasingly more difficult for advertisers to break through the concofany of ...

  16. Social interactions across media: Interpersonal communication on the Internet, telephone and face-to-face

    E-print Network

    Baym, Nancy K.; Zhang, Yan Bing; Lin, Mei-Chen

    2004-06-01

    , a survey, compared participants’ reported use of the internet within their local and long distance social circles to the use of other media within those circles, and examined participants’ most recent significant social interactions conducted online...

  17. Effectively Communicating Science to Extension Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of "framing" within the context of relevant communication and psychological research and considers its potential applicability to Extension science communication. Examples of research-based support for the framing of scientific issues are presented, along with a literature-based discussion of the…

  18. Effective Communication between Preservice and Cooperating Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawley, Ji Ji; Moore, Jenifer; Smajic, Almir

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews research on communication between preservice and cooperating teachers during a teacher internship. The research reveals that poor communication between preservice teachers and cooperating teachers can cause barriers to planning lessons, feedback, and teaching experiences. Additionally, research indicates that…

  19. Anomalous polarization effects during light scattering in random media

    SciTech Connect

    Kuz'min, V. L.; Meglinskii, I. V.

    2010-05-15

    The dependence of the intensity of light backscattered from a layer of a randomly inhomogeneous medium on the polarization of incident light and the size of scatterers has been investigated. The results of numerical simulation have demonstrated that the direction of rotation of the plane of polarization is different in systems with small- and large-scale inhomogeneities. It is shown for the first time that the dependence of the sign of the residual circular polarization on the size of scatterers can be observed in systems described by the Henyey-Greenstein phase function used in simulating biological tissues. A similar anomalous polarization effect, which consists in changing the direction of rotation of the plane of polarization of backscattered light with an increase in the scattering angle, is revealed in studying the coherent backscattering component. These polarization effects are observed in light backscattering from optically active media.

  20. Public Relations: The Route to Success and Influence. Public Relations for Your Library: A Tool for Effective Communications; Tooting Your Own Horn: Web-Based Public Relations for the School Media Specialist; Bookmarks as a Teaching Tool; Customers and Culture: The Who and What of Library Public Relations Efforts; Strategies for Successful Job Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Linda; Silverstein, Roberta; Fisher, Julieta Dias; Hill, Ann; Hegel, Claudette; Miller, Donna; Moyer, Mary

    2002-01-01

    This special section includes five articles that discuss public relations strategies for school librarians. Highlights include effective communication, including measuring and evaluating the success of public relations efforts; Web-based public relations; giving bookmarks to students; customers and cultural contexts; and successful job…

  1. Media education.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents. PMID:20876180

  2. Graphic Design for the Computer Age; Visual Communication for all Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Edward A.

    Because of the rapid pace of today's world, graphic designs which communicate at a glance are needed in all information areas. The essays in this book deal with various aspects of graphic design. These brief essays, each illustrated with graphics, concern the following topics: a short history of visual communication, information design, the merits…

  3. Face to Facebook: Social Media and the Learning and Teaching Potential of Symmetrical, Synchronous Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDoorn, George; Eklund, Antoinette A.

    2013-01-01

    Social networking offers teachers and learners exciting opportunities to communicate. Web 2.0 and its synchronous communications platforms provide new avenues for teachers to deliver curriculum and facilitate learning. Further, they provide new avenues for students to engage and intensify their own learning. Being able to chat in real-time with a…

  4. COMMUNICATION IN THE SPACE AGE, THE USE OF SATELLITES BY THE MASS MEDIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    THE FULL IMPACT OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION WILL BE REALIZED ONLY WHEN IT BECOMES FEASIBLE TO SPACECAST DIRECTLY INTO HOMES, FACILITATING INEXPENSIVE LONG-DISTANCE CALLS AND ENABLING CONFERENCES TO BE HELD VIA TELEPHONE AND CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISION. BUSINESS TRAVEL WILL DIMINISH. SPACE COMMUNICATION, BY INCREASING THE FLOW OF INFORMATION AND ITS…

  5. Exploring the Effect of Mass Media on Perceptions of Infant Feeding.

    PubMed

    Bylaska-Davies, Paula

    2015-09-01

    This qualitative study explored women's perceptions of mass media and infant feeding. Mass media is a universal means of communication with potential to impact social norms. Data obtained from interviews with women (n = 20) were compared with text and visual representation from Internet sites (n = 12) on parenting and infant feeding. Themes from interviews reflected information represented on Internet sites. Participants offered suggestions for future media messages, such as public service announcements of breastfeeding. Participants emphasized that public opinion needs to be altered, and breastfeeding in public would then be viewed as the norm. PMID:25611574

  6. Subliminal communication technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Various types of subliminal communication devices presently in use, the psychological basis for subliminal technology, and the effectiveness of subliminal communication for therapy are examined as well as potentials for abuse. Social, legal, and ethical aspects are considered with respect to the privacy and autonomy of captive audiences. Implications for the regulation of subliminal techniques are reviewed with application to the various media.

  7. Effects of a brief media intervention on expectations, attitudes, and intentions of mental health help seeking.

    PubMed

    Demyan, Amy L; Anderson, Timothy

    2012-04-01

    This study examined the effects of a mass-media video intervention on expectations, attitudes, and intentions to seek help from professional mental health care services. A public service announcement-style, mass-media video intervention was developed, with prior empirical research on help-seeking behaviors organized according to the theory of reasoned action/planned behavior. In total, 228 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: (a) the media-exposed intervention group, who watched programming in which the media intervention was inserted, and (b) the control group, who watched the same programming without the media intervention. The media intervention was not influential on expectation and belief-based barrier variables. However, the media intervention was effective at increasing positive attitudes toward help seeking. Findings regarding the intervention's ability to increase help-seeking intentions for interpersonal problems were complex. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed. PMID:22352947

  8. Who Listens to Trash Talk?: Education and Public Media Effects on Recycling Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Michael D.; Scicchitano, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Observes that research has shown a curvilinear relationship between education and media effects, with media having the greatest effect on people with moderate levels of education. Examines the effects of public service messages about recycling, and finds that the messages actually have greater impact on people with higher levels of education. (DSK)

  9. How effective and cost-effective was the national mass media smoking cessation campaign ‘Stoptober’??

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jamie; Kotz, Daniel; Michie, Susan; Stapleton, John; Walmsley, Matthew; West, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background A national smoking cessation campaign based on behaviour change theory and operating through both traditional and new media was launched across England during late 2012 (‘Stoptober’). In addition to attempting to start a movement in which smokers would quit at the same time in response to a positive mass quitting trigger, the campaign set smokers the goal of being smoke-free for October and embodied other psychological principles in a range of tools and communications. Methods Data on quit attempts were obtained from 31,566 past-year smokers during nationally representative household surveys conducted monthly between 2007 and 2012. The effectiveness of the campaign was assessed by the increase in national quit attempt rate in October relative to other months in 2012 vs. 2007–2011. Results Relative to other months in the year, more people tried to quit in October in 2012 compared with 2007–2011 (OR = 1.79, 95%CI = 1.20–2.68). In 2012 there was an approximately 50% increase in quitting during October compared with other months of the same year (9.6% vs. 6.6%; OR = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.05–2.15), whereas in 2007–2011 the rate in October was non-significantly less than in other months of the same period (6.4% vs. 7.5%; OR = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.70–1.00). Stoptober is estimated to have generated an additional 350,000 quit attempts and saved 10,400 discounted life years (DLY) at less than Ł415 per DLY in the modal age group. Conclusions Designing a national public health campaign with a clear behavioural target (making a serious quit attempt) using key psychological principles can yield substantial behaviour change and public health impact. PMID:24322004

  10. Scientists as communicators: A randomized experiment to assess public reactions to scientists' social media communication along the science-advocacy continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotcher, J.; Vraga, E.; Myers, T.; Stenhouse, N.; Roser-Renouf, C.; Maibach, E.

    2014-12-01

    The question of what type of role scientists, or experts more generally, should play in policy debates is a perennial point of discussion within the scientific community. It is often thought that communication containing some form of policy advocacy is likely to compromise the perceived credibility of the individual scientist engaged in such behavior, with the possibility that it may also harm the credibility of the scientific community more broadly. Rather than evaluating statements in a binary fashion as representing either pure objectivity or pure advocacy, one recent model proposes that public communication by scientists should instead be thought of as falling along a continuum based upon the extent of normative judgment implicit in a statement. This approach predicts that as the extent of normative judgment increases, it poses a relatively greater risk to a scientist's perceived credibility. Though such a model is conceptually useful, little empirical social science research has systematically explored how individuals form judgments about different types of advocacy to examine common assumptions about the relative risks associated with such behaviors. In this presentation, we will report results from a national online experiment (N=1200) that examines audience responses to fictional social media posts written by either a climate scientist or a television weathercaster. Following the above model, the posts represent differing degrees of advocacy defined by the extent of normative judgment implicit in each statement. In instances where a specific policy is advocated, we examine whether participants' reactions are shaped by the extent to which the policy mentioned is congruent with one's political ideology. We hope this study will serve as an exemplar of applied science communication research that can begin to help inform scientists and other experts about the potential implications of different communication options they may choose from in deciding how to engage with policy.

  11. COLLEGE OF MEDIA CORE (12 hrs) Media & Society

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    COLLEGE OF MEDIA CORE (12 hrs) Intro to Media & Society JRL 101 (3 hrs) Media Writing JRL 215 (3 ADV 451 (3 hrs) REED COLLEGE OF MEDIA COLLEGE OF MEDIA CORE (12 hrs) Intro to Media & Society JRL 101 & Strategy ADV 403 (3 hrs) Interactive Marketing Communications ADV 451 (3 hrs) REED COLLEGE OF MEDIA COLLEGE

  12. COLLEGE OF MEDIA CORE (12 hrs) Media & Society

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    hrs) Visual Journalism/ New Media JRL 225 (3 hrs) Media Ethics & Law JRL 428 (3 hrs) STRATEGIC (3 hrs) Media Writing JRL 215 (3 hrs) Visual Journalism/ New Media JRL 225 (3 hrs) Media Ethics & Law Journalism/ New Media JRL 225 (3 hrs) Media Ethics & JRL 428 (3 hrs) STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS CORE (12 hrs

  13. Effects of capillarity on microscopic flow in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Miksis, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Central theme of this proposal is to study effects of capillarity on motion of a fluid interface and to apply these results to flow in porous media. Here we report on several problems considered this year, the second year of the grant. In particular we have developed a numerical code to study the dynamics of a gas bubble in a pore in order to examine the fundamental mechanism for the generation of a foam in a porous material, we have started an investigation of the stability of a foam lamella in order to understand the stability of foam flow in a porous material and we have derived systematically a slip coefficient for flow over a rough surface, e.g., as in a pore. In addition we report on work on several other problems.

  14. Stigma's Effect on Social Interaction and Social Media Activity.

    PubMed

    Boudewyns, Vanessa; Himelboim, Itai; Hansen, Derek L; Southwell, Brian G

    2015-11-01

    Stigmatized topics, such as HIV/STD, likely constrain related information sharing in ways that should be apparent in social interactions both on and off the Internet. Specifically, the authors predicted that the more people perceive an issue as stigmatized, the less likely they are to talk about the issue both privately (with sexual partners and peers) and publicly (on Twitter). Study 1 tested the effect of stigma on conversations at the individual level: The authors asked a group of participants (N = 138) about perceived STD-testing stigma, interactions with a sexual partner, and conversations with peers about STD testing. Study 2 assessed whether health conditions, in the aggregate, were less likely to generate social media activity as a function of current stigmatization. Using 259,758 archived Twitter posts mentioning 13 medical conditions, the authors tested whether level of stigma predicted the volume of relevant social media conversation, controlling for each condition's amount of advocacy and Google search popularity from a user's perspective. Findings supported our hypotheses. Individuals who reported perceiving a given health conditions in more stigmatic ways also reported interacting less with others about that topic; Twitter results showed a similar pattern. Results also suggest a more complex story of influence, as funding from the National Institutes of Health (i.e., each conditions amount of advocacy) associated with the examined health conditions also predicted Twitter activity. Overall, these results indicated that stigma had a similar, dampening effect on face-to-face and Twitter interactions. Findings hold theoretical and practical implications, which are discussed. PMID:26087307

  15. The effects of priming on frontal-temporal communication

    E-print Network

    The effects of priming on frontal-temporal communication Avniel S. Ghuman* , Moshe Bar*, Ian G Healthcare System and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02215 Edited by Leslie G. Ungerleider facilitation is a result of enhanced communication between distinct cortical regions, which reduces local

  16. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Developing Effective Communication in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cresencio; Katz, Judy H.

    Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) is a method that teachers can use to increase their communication effectiveness by matching their communication patterns with those of their students. The basic premise of NLP is that people operate and make sense of their experience through information received from the world around them. This information is…

  17. Neuro-Linguistics Programming: Developing Effective Communication in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cresencio; Katz, Judy H.

    1983-01-01

    Students and teachers experience the world primarily through visual, kinesthetic, or auditory representational systems. If teachers are aware of their own favored system and those of their students, classroom communication will improve. Neurolinguistic programing can help teachers become more effective communicators. (PP)

  18. Focal Event, Contextualization, and Effective Communication in the Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Per; Ryve, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop analytical tools for studying mathematical communication in collaborative activities. The theoretical construct of contextualization is elaborated methodologically in order to study diversity in individual thinking in relation to effective communication. The construct of contextualization highlights issues of…

  19. 2 Provisioning QoS controlled media access in vehicular to 3 infrastructure communications

    E-print Network

    Shen, Xuemin "Sherman"

    services than ever, like watching videos on 38 Youtube, talking face to face with friends on Skype and 39. 59To promote communications in the rapidly changing 60vehicular environment, the IEEE 802.11 standard

  20. FlickerThis : a mobile service to facilitate grounding in communication through viewable media content

    E-print Network

    Lin, Dori Tung-Yun

    2009-01-01

    Remote communication has become part of our daily lives. Technology plays a decisive role in filling the gap caused by discrepancies in time and space between us and the people we want to reach. However, the level of ...

  1. Science, Politics, and the Mass Media: On Biased Communication of Environmental Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll-Hansen, Nils

    1994-01-01

    Based on the study of two issues, forest death from acid rain and the size of whale stocks, this article shows how the constraints of commercial mass media can be contrary to the task of enlightenment. (42 references) (Author/MKR)

  2. Children, Television and the New Media. Communication Research and Broadcasting No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Paul, Ed.; Meyer, Manfred, Ed.

    This book is a collection of selected articles (published in the 1990s) from "TelevIZIon," a specialized journal of the "Internationales Zentralinstitut fur das Jugend--und Bildungsfernsehen," that take up problems relating to media research and present national and international developments in the field of children's and young people's…

  3. Medicine and the Media: A Course in Communication Skills for Clinician-Executives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan-Davidson, Dorothy J.; Kunz, Jeffrey

    The Administrative Medicine Program of the University of Wisconsin-Madison has developed a course entitled "Medicine and the Media" for clinician-executives and health care professionals who may assume administrative responsibilities. The course is designed to help students (1) understand the respective roles and demands of both the medical…

  4. Preferences in the Use of Social Media for Seeking and Communicating Health and Lifestyle Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pálsdóttir, Ágústa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The paper presents findings from a study investigating the health and lifestyle information behaviour of different groups of Icelanders. The paper focuses on the use of social media and its role in current information behaviour. Method: Quantitative methods were used. Two random samples were used in the study and the data were…

  5. Anthropology Colloquium, featuring faculty in CaMP (Communication, Media and Performance)

    E-print Network

    Schieber, Juergen

    Jane Goodman "Before the Ruins: Waiting for the Bulldozer in Algeria" Isthmus Zapotec artists media in creating and sustaining art. Before the Ruins: Waiting for the Bulldozer in Algeria Jane. It is located in the street of a Mediterranean town in Algeria in June 2009. A disparate group of people had

  6. Contingency theory of group communication effectiveness in Korean organizations: influence of fit between organizational structural variables and group relational climate on communication effectiveness 

    E-print Network

    Cho, WoonYoung

    2006-10-30

    This study developed and tested a contingency model of group communication in Korean workgroups that posited that the communication effectiveness and group performance of workgroups is determined by the �fit� of communication practices...

  7. Effectiveness of interventions that apply new media to improve vaccine uptake and vaccine coverage

    PubMed Central

    Odone, Anna; Ferrari, Antonio; Spagnoli, Francesca; Visciarelli, Sara; Shefer, Abigail; Pasquarella, Cesira; Signorelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Background Vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) are still a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In high and middle-income settings, immunization coverage is relatively high. However, in many countries coverage rates of routinely recommended vaccines are still below the targets established by international and national advisory committees. Progress in the field of communication technology might provide useful tools to enhance immunization strategies. Objective To systematically collect and summarize the available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions that apply new media to promote vaccination uptake and increase vaccination coverage. Design We conducted a systematic literature review. Studies published from January 1999 to September 2013 were identified by searching electronic resources (Pubmed, Embase), manual searches of references and expert consultation. Study setting We focused on interventions that targeted recommended vaccinations for children, adolescents and adults and: (1) aimed at increasing community demand for immunizations, or (2) were provider-based interventions. We limited the study setting to countries that are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was a measure of vaccination (vaccine uptake or vaccine coverage). Considered secondary outcomes included willingness to receive immunization, attitudes and perceptions toward vaccination, and perceived helpfulness of the intervention. Results Nineteen studies were included in the systematic review. The majority of the studies were conducted in the US (74%, n = 14); 68% (n = 13) of the studies were experimental, the rest having an observational study design. Eleven (58%) reported results on the primary outcome. Retrieved studies explored the role of: text messaging (n.7, 37%), smartphone applications (n.1, 5%), Youtube videos (n.1, 5%), Facebook (n.1, 5%), targeted websites and portals (n.4, 21%), software for physicians and health professionals (n.4, 21%), and email communication (n.1, 5%). There is some evidence that text messaging, accessing immunization campaign websites, using patient-held web-based portals and computerized reminders increase immunization coverage rates. Insufficient evidence is available on the use of social networks, email communication and smartphone applications. Conclusion Although there is great potential for improving vaccine uptake and vaccine coverage by implementing programs and interventions that apply new media, scant data are available and further rigorous research - including cost-effectiveness assessments - is needed. PMID:25483518

  8. Effective nonlinear optical properties of shape distributed composite media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Huang, Yanyan

    2003-05-01

    The effective linear and nonlinear optical properties of metal/dielectric composite media, in which ellipsoidal metal inclusions are distributed in shape, are investigated. The shape distribution function P(L_x,L_y) is assumed to be 2?^{-2}?(L_x-1/3+?/3)?(L_y-1/3+?/3)?(2/3+?/3-L_x-L_y), where ?(\\cdot\\cdot\\cdot) is the Heaviside function, ? is the shape variance and L_i are the depolarization factors of the ellipsoidal inclusions along i-symmetric axes (i=x,y). Within the spectral representation, we adopt Maxwell-Garnett type approximation to study the effect of shape variance ? on the effective nonlinear optical properties. Numerical results show that both the effective linear optical absorption ?sim? Im (sqrt{?_e^{(0)}}) and the modulus of the effective third-order optical nonlinearity enhancement |?_e^{(3)}|/?_1^{(3)} exhibit the nonmonotonic behavior with ?. Moreover, with increasing ?, the optical absorption and the nonlinearity enhancement bands become broad, accompanied with the decrease of their peaks. The adjustment of ? from 0 to 1 allows us to examine the crossover behavior from no separation to large separation between optical absorption and nonlinearity enhancement peaks. As ?rightarrow 0, i.e., the ellipsoidal shape deviates slightly from the spherical one, the dependence of |?_e^{(3)}|/?_1^{(3)} on ? becomes strong first and then weak with increasing the imaginary part of inclusions' dielectric constant. In the dilute limit, the exact formula for the effective optical nonlinearity is derived, and the present approximation characterizes the exact results better than old mean field one does.

  9. Ocean environmental effects on walrus communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denes, Samuel L.

    This work aimed to develop source characteristics and transmission effects for the acoustic breeding displays of male Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). Pacific walrus breeding activities occur in late winter in the Bering Sea, an area renowned for extreme weather conditions and high biological productivity. During the breeding season, males perform acoustic displays while swimming in the vicinity of females hauled out on ice. Underwater vocalizations heard by individuals hauled out on ice may be important in the mate selection process. The extreme environment in which walrus breeding activities occur precludes direct observation of these animals during this important period and has resulted in a lack of data. A combination of remote-sensing data, captive animal research, controlled environment experiment, and computational modeling was used to increase our understanding of the acoustic displays of Pacific walrus. Analysis of recordings of captive and wild male Pacific walrus vocalizations during breeding season provided quantification of source characteristics. Working with a captive animal provided the ability to make direct observations of a male producing breeding vocalizations and the direct calculation of source level. The mean peak to peak source level of the impulsive knocks produced by the captive male was 183 dB (re: 1 microPa) with the middle 95% of the knocks between 168 dB and 195 dB. The broadband knock signals contained significant acoustic energy up to 13 kHz. To estimate source level from wild vocalizations, the location of the source walrus first needed to be determined. Using a method of relative multipath arrival time, more than 37,000 knocks were localized from six years of data from autonomous recorders deployed in the Bering Sea. The mean peak-peak source level from the wild recordings was 177 dB (re: 1 microPa) with 95% of the knocks between 163 dB and 189 dB. For both wild and captive vocalizations, a significant relationship between ambient noise level and source level was identified. The Lombard effect, the increase in source level in response to an increase in noise level has not previously been identified in any pinniped species. In both datasets, an increase of approximately 5 dB in source level was found for an increase in 10 dB of noise level. A propagation experiment was conducted to measure the transmission of an impulsive acoustic signal, similar to a walrus knock, from an underwater source through ice and into air. Peak to peak pressure measured in air was approximately 2,500 times lower than pressure measured in water separated by two meters of shorefast ice. The results from this experiment were used to verify the adequacy of a wavenumber integration acoustic propagation model for determining transmission loss in this multi-media environment. Propagation model environments were generated from historical ice thickness and oceanographic data. Modeled received signals were compared with walrus audiometric data to determine what factors impact signal detectability with source level, ice thickness, and range having the greatest impact. The findings of this work suggest that the underwater vocalizations of males making breeding vocalizations are received by females hauled out on ice at audible levels when the females are within a few hundred meters of the males. As the signals exceed the levels estimated to be perceived, these signals may play a role in mate selection by the females. If climate change affects the ice conditions, water depth, and bathymetry where walrus congregate for breeding, mate selection and therefore offspring fitness may be impacted.

  10. Older and Newer Media: Patterns of Use and Effects on Adolescents' Health and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jane D.; Bobkowski, Piotr S.

    2011-01-01

    The past decade's research on the use and effects of older (television, music, movies, magazines) and newer media (the Internet, cell phones, social networking) on adolescents' health and well-being is reviewed. A portrait of patterns of use of the media is provided and then the predictors and effects of those patterns on adolescents' mental…

  11. Effects of a brief school-based media literacy intervention on digital media use in adolescents: cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Walther, Birte; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a four-session school-based media literacy curriculum on adolescent computer gaming and Internet use behavior. The study comprised a cluster randomized controlled trial with three assessments (baseline, posttest, and 12-month follow-up). At baseline, a total of 2,303 sixth and seventh grade adolescents from 27 secondary schools were assessed. Of these, 1,843 (80%) could be reached at all three assessments (Mage=12.0 years; SD=0.83). Students of the intervention group received the media literacy program Vernetzte www.Welten ("Connected www.Worlds ") implemented by trained teachers during class time. The control group attended regular class. Main outcome measures were adolescents' computer gaming and Internet use: days per month, hours per day, and addictive use patterns. Parental media monitoring and rules at home were assessed as secondary outcomes. Results of multilevel growth-curve models revealed a significant intervention effect in terms of a lower increase in self-reported gaming frequency (??= -1.10 [95% CI -2.06, -0.13]), gaming time (??= -0.27 [95% CI -0.40, -0.14]), and proportion of excessive gamers (AOR=0.21 [95% CI 0.08, 0.57]) in the intervention group. There were also significant group-time interactions for the addictive gaming scale (?=-0.08 [95% CI -0.12, -0.04]), and the Internet Addiction Scale (??= -0.06 [95% CI -0.10, -0.01]). No effect was found for days and hours of Internet use or parental media behavior. The study shows that the program Vernetzte www.Welten can influence adolescents' media use behavior. Future research should address mediating and moderating variables of program effects. PMID:25126888

  12. DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNICATION

    E-print Network

    Berenhaut, Kenneth S.

    DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNICATION The Communication Department studies the phenomenon of human communication in all its aspects. We support a liberal arts approach to communication through scholarship, creative production, and teaching in three concentra- tions: communication science, media studies

  13. COMMUNICATION A comprehensive

    E-print Network

    COMMUNICATION A comprehensive communication degree from the Elliott School of Communication relations, or applied communication. Our program is interdisciplinary in nature, reflecting the contemporary belief that all communication media are engaged in essentially the same functions--gathering information

  14. Harmful Effects of Media on Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Vivek; Dhanasekaran, Saranya

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents spent a considerable portion of their time watching television, movies, playing videogames and on the internet. Media has proved to be a very useful tool in the fields of education, arts, science, sports, and culture. Over the past few decades, there has been a surge in the use of media by the younger generations and…

  15. Exploring Effective Communication for Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordin, Eric John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore experiences and perceptions of organizational leaders regarding organizational change communication to improve change results in an organizational setting. Building on a conceptual framework of organizational theory, 25 full-time online faculty at an institution of higher learning in the southwestern…

  16. The Effectiveness of a Patient Communication Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Harue J.

    2000-01-01

    Reports data from three consecutive classes of first- year optometry students at the Southern California College of Optometry, who were tested preceding and following completion of a patient communication course. Findings indicated that students improved their ability to respond to patients and were better able to discriminate among various levels…

  17. Cue Effectiveness in Communicatively Efficient Discourse Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Ting; Jaeger, T. Florian

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge in accounts motivated by information theory that consider language production to be partially driven by a preference for communicative efficiency. Evidence from discourse production (i.e., production beyond the sentence level) has been argued to suggest that speakers distribute information across discourse so as to…

  18. The Coming of Age of Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domine, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    A decade into a new millennium marks a coming of age for media literacy education (MLE). Born from teaching the critical analysis of media texts, MLE has evolved into helping individuals of all ages "develop the habits of inquiry and skills of expression that they need to be critical thinkers, effective communicators and active citizens in today's…

  19. Next-generation media processors and their impact on medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gove, Robert J.; Lee, Woobin; Basoglu, Chris; Kim, Yongmin

    1998-06-01

    Media processors, with high-level programming languages, Application Programmer Interfaces (APIs) and rich media libraries, are capable of providing an effective solution for medical imaging products. Video, audio, 3D graphics, printing and communications functions become cost-effective by sharing one media processor. This paper includes an overview of media processors, their application including medical imaging uses, and projections for future media processors.

  20. Ethical media competence as a protective factor against cyberbullying and cybervictimization among german school students.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christin R; Pfetsch, Jan; Ittel, Angela

    2014-10-01

    The use of digital information and communication technologies is an integral part of adolescents' everyday life. Besides various opportunities for information, entertainment, and communication, media use is associated with risks such as cyberbullying. Cyberbullying refers to aggressive behavior in the context of computer-mediated communication, characterized by repetition, an intention to harm, and power imbalance. Previous studies have shown that increased media use is a major risk factor for cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Given that restricting media use is not a practical way to reduce the negative effects inherent in media use, the present study examines the relevance of ethical media competence. We expected ethical media competence to buffer the effect of increased media use on cyberbullying and cybervictimization. A survey was conducted with 934 students (53% female) aged 10-17 years (M=13.26, SD=1.63). As expected, hierarchical regression analyses showed a positive main effect of media use, a negative main effect of ethical media competence, and a negative interaction effect of media use and media competence on cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Simple slope analyses revealed that at high levels of ethical media competence, media use has almost no effect on cybervictimization and a significant negative effect on cyberbullying. Consequently, promoting ethical media competence constitutes a potential measure to prevent the risks of increased media use for cyberbullying and cybervictimization. PMID:25272238

  1. The Use of Social Media Tools by School Principals to Communicate between Home and School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, Joseph A., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Research has documented numerous benefits of parent involvement in children's education including increased attendance, increased test scores and better behavior. Access to increased and meaningful communication between home and school enhances parent involvement. The utilization of technology through the use of the Internet and e-mail for school…

  2. Law of Mass Communications: Freedom and Control of Print and Broadcast Media. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Harold L.; Teeter, Dwight L., Jr.

    This book is divided into three major sections: principles and development of freedom of expression, rights in conflict with free expression, and communications law and the public interest. Specific areas covered in the two chapters of the first section are freedom and control and a historical background of freedom of expression. The second…

  3. Persuasive Communication in the Mass Media: Implications for Preventing Drug-Related Behavior among Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Norris

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the efficacy of anti-drug public service announcements (PSAs) for preventing drug-related behavior (DRB) among youth. Focuses on persuasive communication and drug prevention and the factors associated with DRB. Claims that the success of any anti-drug PSA will be limited to that scope of behavior targeted for change. (RJM)

  4. Social Media and Networking Technologies: An Analysis of Collaborative Work and Team Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoro, Ephraim A.; Hausman, Angela; Washington, Melvin C.

    2012-01-01

    Digital communication increases students' learning outcomes in higher education. Web 2.0 technologies encourages students' active engagement, collaboration, and participation in class activities, facilitates group work, and encourages information sharing among students. Familiarity with organizational use and sharing in social networks aids…

  5. An Experiential Approach to Teaching Communication Theory: Incorporating Contemporary Media To Clarify Theoretical Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamoureux, Elizabeth R.

    For professors who have been assigned the task of teaching communication theory, carefully chosen examples of films, videos, TV clips, or music can be productively used to support instruction. Both research and experience have shown that the visual and aural channels are excellent forms of amplifying, clarifying, and justifying theoretical…

  6. Texas County Extension Agents Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Using Facebook to Communicate with Constituents 

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Lacey

    2014-01-08

    , and perceptions using social media, Facebook in particular, to communicate with constituents. The participants in the study were a randomly selected group of Texas extension agents. A web-based questionnaire was used to measure the perceived level of confidence...

  7. Developing Tools and Techniques to Increase Communication Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Linda A.; Peterson, Doug

    1997-01-01

    The Public Affairs Office (PAO) of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for communicating current JSC Space Program activities as well as goals and objectives to the American Public. As part of the 1996 Strategic Communications Plan, a review of PAO' s current communication procedures was conducted. The 1996 Summer Faculty Fellow performed research activities to support this effort by reviewing current research concerning NASA/JSC's customers' perceptions and interests, developing communications tools which enable PAO to more effectively inform JSC customers about the Space Program, and proposing a process for developing and using consistent messages throughout PAO. Note that this research does not attempt to change or influence customer perceptions or interests but, instead, incorporates current customer interests into PAO's communication process.

  8. Construccion/Communicacion y Medios Publicitarios. Libro del Profesor (Construction/Communication & Media. Teacher's Guide). B5. CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Hudson Migrant Education Center, New Paltz, NY.

    The guide, written in Spanish, comprises the fourth grade unit of a career education curriculum for migrant students. Focus of the unit is on the tools and tasks of workers in 11 jobs in the construction, communication, and media occupational clusters: heavy equipment operator, architect, mason, carpenter, plumber, electrician, telephone line…

  9. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (84th, Washington, DC, August 5-8, 2001). Media Ethics Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Media Ethics section of the proceedings contains the following 7 selected papers: "The Ethics Agenda of the Mass Communication Professorate" (Jay Black, Bruce Garrison, Fred Fedler, and Doug White); "What Would the Editor Do? A Three-Year Study of Student-Journalists and the Naming of Rape Victims in the Press" (Kim E. Karloff); "The Role of…

  10. Extending Coherent Effects from Atomic and Molecular Media to Plasmas and Nanostructures 

    E-print Network

    Sun, Dong

    2012-02-14

    Quantum coherence and interference(QCI) effects have been studied for decades and are widely exploited in many areas. For media with QCI effect, the optical properties can change drastically, which leads to many interesting ...

  11. Passing crisis and emergency risk communications: the effects of communication channel, information type, and repetition.

    PubMed

    Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Newbold, Lex; Titchener, Kirsteen

    2015-05-01

    Three experiments explore several factors which influence information transmission when warning messages are passed from person to person. In Experiment 1, messages were passed down chains of participants using five different modes of communication. Written communication channels resulted in more accurate message transmission than verbal. In addition, some elements of the message endured further down the chain than others. Experiment 2 largely replicated these effects and also demonstrated that simple repetition of a message eliminated differences between written and spoken communication. In a final field experiment, chains of participants passed information however they wanted to, with the proviso that half of the chains could not use telephones. Here, the lack of ability to use a telephone did not affect accuracy, but did slow down the speed of transmission from the recipient of the message to the last person in the chain. Implications of the findings for crisis and emergency risk communication are discussed. PMID:25683552

  12. ESTIMATION OF EFFECTIVE SHEAR STRESS WORKING ON FLAT SHEET MEMBRANE USING FLUIDIZED MEDIA IN MBRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaw, Hlwan Moe; Li, Tairi; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Mishima, Iori

    This study was aimed at estimating effective shear stress working on flat sheet membrane by the addition of fluidized media in MBRs. In both of laboratory-scale aeration tanks with and without fluidized media, shear stress variations on membrane surface and water phase velocity variations were measured and MBR operation was conducted. For the evaluation of the effective shear stress working on membrane surface to mitigate membrane surface, simulation of trans-membrane pressure increase was conducted. It was shown that the time-averaged absolute value of shear stress was smaller in the reactor with fluidized media than without fluidized media. However, due to strong turbulence in the reactor with fluidized media caused by interaction between water-phase and media and also due to the direct interaction between membrane surface and fluidized media, standard deviation of shear stress on membrane surface was larger in the reactor with fluidized media than without media. Histograms of shear stress variation data were fitted well to normal distribution curves and mean plus three times of standard deviation was defined to be a maximum shear stress value. By applying the defined maximum shear stress to a membrane fouling model, trans-membrane pressure curve in the MBR experiment was simulated well by the fouling model indicting that the maximum shear stress, not time-averaged shear stress, can be regarded as an effective shear stress to prevent membrane fouling in submerged flat-sheet MBRs.

  13. The impact of mass media health communication on health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior of u.s. Hispanic population.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Mass media health communication has enormous potential to drastically alter how health-related information is disseminated and obtained by different populations. However, there is little evidence regarding the influence of media channels on health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behaviors among the Hispanic population. The Pew 2007 Hispanic Healthcare Survey was used to test the hypothesis that the amount of mass media health communication (i.e., quantity of media-based health information received) is more likely to influence Hispanic adults' health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior compared to health literacy and language proficiency variables. Results indicated that quantity of media-based health information is positively associated with health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior above and beyond the influence of health literacy and English and Spanish language proficiency. In a context where physician-patient dynamics are increasingly shifting from a passive patient role model to a more active patient role model, media-based health information can serve as an influential cue to action, prompting Hispanic individuals to make certain health-related decisions and to seek more health advice and information from a health provider. Study implications are discussed. PMID:22888787

  14. [MR effects of x-ray contrast media].

    PubMed

    Wicke, L; Frühwald, F; Neuhold, A; Schwaighofer, B

    1987-12-01

    Although Pantopaque has now been widely replaced by water-soluble contrast media for intrathecal application, retained residuals of oily contrast media are still a very common finding. Whereas other contrast media, e.g. barium in the GI tract, are inert in magnetic resonance imaging, the signal behaviour of Pantopaque may lead to false interpretations. Similar to fat, the T1 and T2 relaxation times of Pantopaque are short. Conventional radiographs of the spine are recommended in patients with intradural MRI findings similar to fat in case of previous myelography. PMID:2827262

  15. Effective physician-patient communication and health outcomes: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, M A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether the quality of physician-patient communication makes a significant difference to patient health outcomes. DATA SOURCES: The MEDLINE database was searched for articles published from 1983 to 1993 using "physician-patient relations" as the primary medical subject heading. Several bibliographies and conference proceedings were also reviewed. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and analytic studies of physician-patient communication in which patient health was an outcome variable. DATA EXTRACTION: The following information was recorded about each study: sample size, patient characteristics, clinical setting, elements of communication assessed, patient outcomes measured, and direction and significance of any association found between aspects of communication and patient outcomes. DATA SYNTHESIS: Of the 21 studies that met the final criteria for review, 16 reported positive results, 4 reported negative (i.e., nonsignificant) results, and 1 was inconclusive. The quality of communication both in the history-taking segment of the visit and during discussion of the management plan was found to influence patient health outcomes. The outcomes affected were, in descending order of frequency, emotional health, symptom resolution, function, physiologic measures (i.e., blood pressure and blood sugar level) and pain control. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the studies reviewed demonstrated a correlation between effective physician-patient communication and improved patient health outcomes. The components of effective communication identified by these studies can be used as the basis both for curriculum development in medical education and for patient education programs. Future research should focus on evaluating such educational programs. PMID:7728691

  16. Physicians who use social media and other internet-based communication technologies

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Rim, Sun Hee; Hawkins, Nikki A; Rodriguez, Juan L; Polonec, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The demographic and practice-related characteristics of physicians who use social networking websites, portable devices to access the internet, email to communicate with patients, podcasts, widgets, RSS feeds, and blogging were investigated. Logistic regression was used to analyze a survey of US primary care physicians, pediatricians, obstetrician/gynecologists, and dermatologists (N=1750). Reported technology use during the last 6?months ranged from 80.6% using a portable device to access the internet to 12.9% writing a blog. The most consistent predictors of use were being male, being younger, and having teaching hospital privileges. Physician specialty, practice setting, years in practice, average number of patients treated per week, and number of physicians in practice were found to be inconsistently associated or unassociated with use of the technologies examined. Demographic characteristics, rather than practice-related characteristics, were more consistent predictors of physician use of seven internet-based communication technologies with varying levels of uptake. PMID:22634078

  17. Covering Congress: Media Effects on Evaluations of the Legislative Branch 

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Tyler

    2010-01-16

    ) assessment of the changing nature of how the mass media cover campaigning, splits reporting on Congress into governing coverage and game coverage. Governing coverage deals more with substantive issues, policy problems, and signals that business is taking...

  18. carleton.ca Communication Studies

    E-print Network

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    the past, present and future of communication; the uses and abuses of technology; the economics, politics exactly does this mean? What are the implications of living in a world saturated by media technologies and our ability to shape its future? Who owns and controls the media, and with what impacts and effects

  19. Effects of Communication Partner Instruction on the Communication of Individuals using AAC: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kent-Walsh, Jennifer; Murza, Kimberly A; Malani, Melissa D; Binger, Cathy

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) partner instruction intervention literature to determine (a) the overall effects of partner interventions on the communication of individuals using AAC, and (b) any possible moderating variables relating to participant, intervention, or outcome characteristics. Seventeen single-case experimental design studies (53 participants) met the inclusion criteria and were advanced to the full coding and analysis phase of the investigation. Descriptive analyses and effect size estimations using the Improvement Rate Difference (IRD) metric were conducted. Overall, communication partner interventions were found to be highly effective across a range of participants using AAC, intervention approaches, and outcome measure characteristics, with more evidence available for participants less than 12 years of age, most of whom had a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder or intellectual/developmental disability. Aided AAC modeling, expectant delay, and open-ended question asking were the most frequently targeted communication partner interaction skills. Providing a descriptive overview, instructor modeling, guided practice, and role plays were the most frequently incorporated communication partner intervention activities within the included studies. PMID:26059542

  20. Feasibility and induced effects of subsurface porous media hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmann Pfeiffer, Wolf; Li, Dedong; Wang, Bo; Bauer, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    Fluctuations in energy production from renewable sources like wind or solar power can lead to shortages in energy supply which can be mitigated using energy storage concepts. Underground storage of hydrogen in porous sandstone formations could be a storage option for large amounts of energy over long storage cycles. However, this use of the subsurface requires an analysis of possible interactions with other uses of the subsurface such as geothermal energy storage or groundwater abstraction. This study aims at quantifying the feasibility of porous media hydrogen storage to provide stored energy on a timescale of several days to weeks as well as possible impacts on the subsurface. The hypothetical storage site is based on an anticlinal structure located in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany. The storage is injected and extracted using five wells completed in a partially eroded, heterogeneous sandstone layer in the top of the structure at a depth of about 500 m. The storage formation was parameterized based on a local facies model with intrinsic permeabilities of 250-2500 mD and porosities of 35-40%. Storage initialization and subsequent storage cycles, each consisting of a hydrogen injection and extraction, were numerically simulated. The simulation results indicate the general feasibility of this hydrogen storage concept. The simulated sandstone formation is able to provide an average of around 1480 t of hydrogen per week (1830 TJ) which is about 5% of the total weekly energy production or about 10% of the weekly energy consumption of Schleswig-Holstein with the hydrogen production rate being the limiting factor of the overall performance. Induced hydraulic effects are a result of the induced overpressure within the storage formation. Propagation of the pressure signal does not strongly depend on the formation heterogeneity and thus shows approximately radial characteristics with one bar pressure change in distances of about 5 km from the injection wells. Thermal effects are mainly limited to the gas phase and the near vicinity of the injection wells. However, conductive heat transport into the overlying barrier formations can be observed, causing temperature changes of 1 K in distances less than 300 m in lateral and 30 m in vertical direction. The area of induced chemical effects is given by the distribution of the injected gas phase. The spatial distribution of the gas phase shows a strong dependence on formation heterogeneity, with a maximum reach of around 3 km from the injection wells and a covered area of around 4 km˛. The results indicate that it is possible to use porous media hydrogen storage to store and retrieve energy from the subsurface to mitigate shortages in energy production. The induced effects associated with such a storage operation range from the meter to the kilometer scale depending on the individual process.

  1. The Effects of Media Reports on Disease Spread and Important Public Health Measurements.

    PubMed

    Collinson, Shannon; Khan, Kamran; Heffernan, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the spread of influenza to reduce the effects of infection on a population is an important mandate of public health. Mass media reports on an epidemic or pandemic can provide important information to the public, and in turn, can induce positive healthy behaviour practices (i.e., handwashing, social distancing) in the individuals, that will reduce the probability of contracting the disease. Mass media fatigue, however, can dampen these effects. Mathematical models can be used to study the effects of mass media reports on epidemic/pandemic outcomes. In this study we employ a stochastic agent based model to provide a quantification of mass media reports on the variability in important public health measurements. We also include mass media report data compiled by the Global Public Health Intelligence Network, to study the effects of mass media reports in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We find that the report rate and the rate at which individuals relax their healthy behaviours (media fatigue) greatly affect the variability in important public health measurements. When the mass media reporting data is included in the model, two peaks of infection result. PMID:26528909

  2. The Effects of Media Reports on Disease Spread and Important Public Health Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Collinson, Shannon; Khan, Kamran; Heffernan, Jane M.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the spread of influenza to reduce the effects of infection on a population is an important mandate of public health. Mass media reports on an epidemic or pandemic can provide important information to the public, and in turn, can induce positive healthy behaviour practices (i.e., handwashing, social distancing) in the individuals, that will reduce the probability of contracting the disease. Mass media fatigue, however, can dampen these effects. Mathematical models can be used to study the effects of mass media reports on epidemic/pandemic outcomes. In this study we employ a stochastic agent based model to provide a quantification of mass media reports on the variability in important public health measurements. We also include mass media report data compiled by the Global Public Health Intelligence Network, to study the effects of mass media reports in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We find that the report rate and the rate at which individuals relax their healthy behaviours (media fatigue) greatly affect the variability in important public health measurements. When the mass media reporting data is included in the model, two peaks of infection result. PMID:26528909

  3. The Effect of Media on Citizens' Fear of Crime in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdonmez, Erhan

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted on-site in Istanbul, Turkey, to determine the effects that mass media has on citizens' perceptions about fear of crime, in particular, and fear, in general. Specifically, the study was designed to (1) determine the tendency of citizens' media consumption, (2) determine the level of fear of crime among Turkish citizens, (3)…

  4. Effects of a Brief Media Intervention on Expectations, Attitudes, and Intentions of Mental Health Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demyan, Amy L.; Anderson, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a mass-media video intervention on expectations, attitudes, and intentions to seek help from professional mental health care services. A public service announcement-style, mass-media video intervention was developed, with prior empirical research on help-seeking behaviors organized according to the theory of…

  5. Effect of X-ray Contrast Media, Chlorination, and Chloramination on Zebrafish Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effect of X-ray Contrast Media, Chlorination, and Chloramination on Zebrafish Development Little is known about the vertebrate developmental toxicity of chlorinated or chloraminated drinking water (DW), iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM, a common contaminate of DW) or how the c...

  6. Evaluating the Effect of Educational Media Exposure on Aggression in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Mullins, Adam D.

    2013-01-01

    Preschool-aged children (M = 42.44 months-old, SD = 8.02) participated in a short-term longitudinal study investigating the effect of educational media exposure on social development (i.e., aggression and prosocial behavior) using multiple informants and methods. As predicted, educational media exposure significantly predicted increases in both…

  7. Media as Social Influence: Racial Differences in the Effects of Peers and Media on Adolescent Alcohol Cognitions and Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Pomery, Elizabeth A.; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D.; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Wills, Thomas A.; Kingsbury, John; Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E.; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen

    2010-01-01

    Racial differences in the effects of peer and media influence on adolescents’ alcohol cognitions and consumption were examined in a large-scale panel study. With regard to peer influence, results from cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the relation between perceived peer drinking and own drinking was significant for both Black and White adolescents, but it was stronger for the White adolescents. With regard to media influence, structural modeling analyses indicated that exposure to drinking in movies was associated with more alcohol consumption 8 months and 16 months later. These effects were mediated by increases in: the favorability of the adolescents’ drinker prototypes, their willingness to drink, and their tendency to affiliate with friends who were drinking. Multiple group analyses indicated that, once again, the effects (both direct and indirect) were much stronger for White adolescents than for Black adolescents. The results suggest media influence works in a similar manner to social influence, and that Whites may be more susceptible to both types of influence. PMID:21198226

  8. Social Media and the Social Good: How Nonprofits Use Facebook to Communicate with the Public

    E-print Network

    Saxton, Gregory D; Chiu, I-Hsuan; Feng, Bo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine the social networking practices of the 100 largest nonprofit organizations in the United States. More specifically, we develop a comprehensive classification scheme to delineate these organizations' use of Facebook as a stakeholder engagement tool. We find that there are 5 primary categories of Facebook "statuses", which can be aggregated into three key dimensions - "information", "community", and "action". Our analysis reveals that, though the "informational" use of Facebook is still significant, nonprofit organizations are better at using Facebook to strategically engage their stakeholders via "dialogic" and "community-building" practices than they have been with traditional websites. The adoption of social media seems to have engendered new paradigms of public engagement.

  9. Antenna Array Mutual Coupling Effects on Cellular CDMA Communication Systems

    E-print Network

    Blostein, Steven D.

    Antenna Array Mutual Coupling Effects on Cellular CDMA Communication Systems Alexander M. Wyglinski of mutual coupling and thus potentially lead to less accurate system performance predictions. Further­ more, methods for computing beampatterns which con­ sider mutual coupling effects are computationally inten

  10. The "Mozart Effect II" and Other Communication/Learning Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Victor; Selman, Ruth Corey; Selman, Jerry; Selman, Elsie

    2007-01-01

    While exploring the development of Communication and Learning Aids in all venues, particularly the effect of music on learning, several different tracks were followed. The therapeutic use of music is for relaxation and stress reduction, which apparently helps the body to access and discharge deeply locked-in material. The Mozart Effect track which…

  11. SHORT COMMUNICATION Flow rate-modified streaming effects in heterogeneous

    E-print Network

    Xuan, Xiangchun "Schwann"

    SHORT COMMUNICATION Flow rate-modified streaming effects in heterogeneous microchannels Junjie Zhu relations is developed to study the streaming potential and streaming current in heterogeneous micro or perpendicular to the flow axis. Both streaming effects are modified by the flow rate through the heterogeneous

  12. Effects of Parent Instruction on the Symbolic Communication of Children Using Augmentative and Alternative Communication during Storybook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent-Walsh, Jennifer; Binger, Cathy; Hasham, Zishan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the effects of a communication partner instruction strategy for parents of children using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on the communicative turn taking of their children. Instruction was provided within storybook-reading contexts. Method: Two single-subject multiple-probe-across-participants…

  13. The effectiveness of different approaches to media literacy in modifying adolescents' responses to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chun Yvonnes

    2013-01-01

    Fearing the negative effect that alcohol advertising might have on adolescents' receptiveness to the consumption of alcohol, health educators have used media literacy as an effective strategy to mitigate the effect of these messages in the media. The present study applied parental mediation to the design and evaluations of a media literacy curriculum that targets alcohol decision-making processes illustrated in the message interpretation process model. The authors conducted a pretest-posttest quasi-experiment of 171 adolescents to examine the effect of a negative evaluative approach and a balanced evaluative approach (a combination of negative and positive evaluative strategies) to media literacy on modifying adolescents' responses to alcohol messages. Results showed that different media literacy approaches had varying degrees of effectiveness on adolescent boys and girls. After receiving a negative media literacy lesson, adolescent boys regarded television characters as less realistic and believed that drinking alcohol had negative consequences. In contrast, adolescent girls benefited more from a balanced evaluative approach as their media skepticism attitude was enhanced. Results suggest that health educators should choose tailored pedagogical approaches that are based on gender to improve decision making regarding alcohol consumption. PMID:23496333

  14. Lunar Surface Propagation Modeling and Effects on Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the lunar terrain effects on the signal propagation of the planned NASA lunar wireless communication and sensor systems. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate that the terrain geometry, antenna location, and lunar surface material are important factors determining the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless communication systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, operating frequency, and surface material. The analysis results from this paper are important for the lunar communication link margin analysis in determining the limits on the reliable communication range and radio frequency coverage performance at planned lunar base worksites. Key Words lunar, multipath, path loss, propagation, wireless.

  15. The communication triangle: elements of an effective warning message

    SciTech Connect

    Vaught, C.; Brnich, M.J. Jr.; Mallett, L.

    2007-01-15

    The lack of good communication is a very real problem in mine emergencies. To counter communication breakdowns, researchers at the NIOSH Pittsburgh Research Laboratory developed the Emergency Communication Triangle. It is a training intervention designed to help those giving a warning to provide the right sort of information and those receiving a warning to ask the right questions. The Triangle has six ordered components with the first three considered most important. The Emergency Communication is packaged as a short safety talk to be given by supervisors at the start of a shift. It was first tested in 1998 with a group of 236 workers at an underground mine in Colorado, and proved effective. It was followed up in 2003 and again in 2004. Now, more than half the miners would report who was affected by an event, 60% would report in its severity, and 70% would say what had been done so far. 3 figs.

  16. Organizational Change: Motivation, Communication, and Leadership Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilley, Ann; Gilley, Jerry W.; McMillan, Heather S.

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates that numerous variables have an impact on a leader's effectiveness. This study explores the behaviors associated with leadership effectiveness in driving change. The findings confirm previous research that identifies change effectiveness skills, while isolating the specific leader behaviors deemed most valuable to implementing…

  17. Talking About Quitting: Interpersonal Communication as a Mediator of Campaign Effects on Smokers' Quit Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Michelle; Tan, Andy S L; Brennan, Emily; Gibson, Laura; Hornik, Robert C

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the role of interpersonal communication in the context of a mass media anti-smoking campaign. Specifically, it explored whether conversations about campaign ads and/or about quitting mediated campaign exposure effects on 2 quitting behaviors (sought help to quit and tried to quit smoking completely), as well as the relation between ad-related and quitting-related conversations. Data were collected before the campaign and monthly for 16 months during the campaign through cross-sectional telephone surveys among a sample of 3,277 adult Philadelphia smokers. Follow-up interviews were conducted among 877 participants 3 months after their first survey. Cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models with bootstrap procedures assessed the indirect effects of campaign exposure on outcomes through conversations, and the indirect effects of conversations about ads on outcomes through conversations about quitting. In addition, lagged regression analyses tested the causal direction of associations between the variables of interest. The results partially support hypotheses that conversations about quitting mediate campaign effects on quitting-related behaviors and, in line with previous research, that conversations about the ads have indirect effects on quitting-related behaviors by triggering conversations about quitting. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering interpersonal communication as a route of campaign exposure effects when evaluating and designing future public health campaigns. PMID:26147367

  18. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SOCIAL MEDIA ACTIVITIES ON TAIWANESE UNDERGRADUATES' EFL GRAMMAR ACHIEVEMENT

    E-print Network

    Singman, Cooper

    2012-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of social media language learning activities with traditional language learning activities on the development of L2 grammatical competence in two English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classes at a...

  19. SURFACE CHEMICAL EFFECTS ON COLLOID STABILITY AND TRANSPORT THROUGH NATURAL POROUS MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface chemical effects on colloidal stability and transport through porous media were investigated using laboratory column techniques. Approximately 100 nm diameter, spherical, iron oxide particles were synthesized as the mobile colloidal phase. The column packing material was ...

  20. SURFACE CHEMICAL EFFECTS ON COLLOID STABILITY AND TRANSPORT THROUGH NATURAL POROUS MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface chemical effects on colloidal stability and transport through porous media were investigated using laboratory column techniques. pproximately 100m diameter, spherical, iron oxide particles were synthesized as the mobile colloidal phase. he column Packing material was retr...

  1. Effect of Interstitial Media on Segregation in Vertically Vibrated Granular Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiao-Xian; Li, Liang-Sheng; Wen, Ping-Ping; Shi, Qing-Fan; Zheng, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Vertically vibrated segregation behaviors of binary granular mixtures with different interstitial media are experimentally investigated. To study the role of interstitial media on the segregation, two types of interstitial fluids are adopted and the resulting phase diagrams are compared. The water-immersed granular mixture exhibits two kinds of complete segregation behaviors: Brazil nut effect and sandwich patterns, at least the latter is absent in the same air-immersed mixture. Additionally, the segregation extent is improved remarkably for the water-immersed mixture. The experimental observation further confirms that the effect of interstitial media on the relative motion of grains is one of the predominant mechanisms for granular segregation.

  2. Use of New Media by Turkish Fans in Sport Communication: Facebook and Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Özsoy, Selami

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the use of Facebook and Twitter, two social networks, for sportive reasons in Turkey. To this end, the literature was surveyed and a 5 Likert type data collection tool consisting of 21 questions was developed by the researcher based on the expert views. The sample of the research included 460 sport fans who are college students at Abant ?zzet Baysal University and Sakarya University. It was found in the research that 91.7% of the participants had a profile on Facebook and 13.3% had a profile on Twitter. The rate of opening an account on Twitter, which still has no version in Turkish language, was low. It was found that the fans mostly followed the official site of their favorite team on Facebook, got informed about the sports activities through Facebook and learned news, which they did not hear from other sources. It was also ascertained that male fans used social networks for sportive reasons more than female fans did (p<.05). It is possible to state that social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have become a rapidly-developing alternative medium in sports against traditional media such as newspaper and television. PMID:23487565

  3. New Media in IYA2009: Communicating with the world via the web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Pamela L.; Koppelman, M.; IYA New Media Task Group

    2009-01-01

    In the 2009 International Year of Astronomy, new media will play a prominent role in engaging people in the universe that is theirs to discover. New online projects will take advantage of a diversity of technologies, allowing us to bring content to people through a variety of devices in places they work, play and learn. In this session we will give an overview of our programs, high-lighting: "AstroTwitter," an interface that asks 'What are you looking at?' and allows you to see how observers around the globe (professional and amateur) answer that same question; "Portal to the Universe," your one stop shop for all things new in astronomy; the "365 Days of Astronomy" podcast, which brings you an 8-minute podcast on the people, places, things, thoughts and discoveries in astronomy each day of 2009; new projects to extend Galaxy Zoo to new areas of science both in our solar system and at the edge of the cosmos; our social networking initiatives in Facebook, Flickr and YouTube; and the IYA Second Life® Island, which will be unveiled during this session. In addition to showing you how to access each of these new projects, we will also tell you how you can become a part of the projects in the coming months.

  4. Media coverage of health issues and how to work more effectively with journalists: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The mass media has enormous potential to influence health-related behaviours and perceptions. Much research has focused on how the media frames health issues. This study sought to explore how journalists in Australia select and shape news on health issues. Methods The study involved semi-structured interviews with 16 journalists from major Australian print, radio and television media organisations reporting on avian influenza and pandemic planning. Journalists, including reporters, editors and producers, were interviewed between October 2006 and August 2007. Thematic analysis was used to draw out major lessons for health communicators. Results Journalists routinely attempted to balance different, sometimes competing, aims amidst significant operational constraints. They perceived the most trusted sources on health issues to be respected and independent doctors. Specialist health and medical reporters had a more sound technical knowledge, channels to appropriate sources, power within their organisations, and ability to advocate for better quality coverage. Conclusions An awareness of how to work with the media is essential for health communicators. This includes understanding journalists' daily routines, being available, providing resources, and building relationships with specialist health reporters. PMID:20822552

  5. Grinding media oscillation: effect on torsional vibrations in tumble mills 

    E-print Network

    Toram, Kiran Kumar

    2005-11-01

    Tumble mills are hollow cylindrical shells of large diameter carrying grinding media (a combination of rock/iron ore/chemical flakes and metal balls/rods), which, upon rotation of the mill, will be ground into fine powder. These mills rotate at low...

  6. Cognitive Effects of Media in Interaction with Learners' Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Gavriel

    This is an initial examination of findings from laboratory and field studies done in Israel on the cognition-cultivating functions of media. The studies reasoned that highly explicit presentations of film-mediated operations can be imitated by observers, and that once imitated, they are internalized and can serve as modified mental skills. Two…

  7. The Media and Their Effect on Black Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawles, Beth

    Certain myths, images and stereotypes of blacks have existed in American minds since the late 1800's. The movie industry has taught the public a great deal of what they know about blacks and reinforced the stereotypes. Blacks have also been stereotyped in radio and television and although the electronic media has helped many black actors to obtain…

  8. The Media and Its Effect on Black Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawles, Beth

    While the media is not directly responsible for establishing bigoted attitudes and prejudices, movies, television, radio, and print have reinforced racial prejudice and perpetuated the negative images and stereotypes of blacks in this country. Movies as early as 1902 reflect many of the early black stereotypes: the black male is stupid and lazy,…

  9. Sweet vs. Snap! Effective Dispositions in the Media Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standard, April

    2011-01-01

    In "What Defines an Exemplary School Librarian," Jami Jones and Gail Bush make a strong argument that professional disposition is the key to a successful library media program. The authors emphasize the relevance of INTASC standards which specify that teachers must promote "positive social interaction and (develop) healthy and helping…

  10. Media Literacy and Attitude Change: Assessing the Effectiveness of Media Literacy Training on Children's Responses to Persuasive Messages within the ELM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Bradford L.

    This study adds to the small but growing body of literature that examines the effectiveness of media literacy training on children's responses to persuasive messages. Within the framework of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of persuasion, this research investigates whether media literacy training is a moderating variable in the persuasion…

  11. Effects of mineral spatial distribution on reaction rates in porous media

    E-print Network

    Peters, Catherine A.

    Effects of mineral spatial distribution on reaction rates in porous media L. Li,1 C. A. Peters,2 January 2007. [1] This study examined the effects of variations in mineral spatial distributions concentrations. With small percentages of reactive minerals the scaling effects are large, and the effect

  12. ERSC 3502H: Environment & Communication: Writing and Reporting page 1/4 ENVIRONMENT & COMMUNICATION: WRITING

    E-print Network

    Fox, Michael

    ERSC 3502H: Environment & Communication: Writing and Reporting page 1/4 ENVIRONMENT & COMMUNICATION and Engineering Indicators"; a selection of scientific papers on environmental issues; a selection of media to communicate scientific information effectively to non- scientific audiences, including the general public

  13. Communications Counterion Effects in Liquid Crystal

    E-print Network

    Braun, Paul

    -based amphiphile were generated. In our present study we investigated the effect of different salt counterions amphiphile. Most importantly, as evidenced by trans- mission electron microscopy, the periodic nanostructure

  14. Suicide Communication on Social Media and Its Psychological Mechanisms: An Examination of Chinese Microblog Users

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qijin; Kwok, Chi Leung; Zhu, Tingshao; Guan, Li; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aims to examine the characteristics of people who talk about suicide on Chinese microblogs (referred to as Weibo suicide communication (WSC)), and the psychological antecedents of such behaviors. Methods: An online survey was conducted on Weibo users. Differences in psychological and social demographic characteristics between those who exhibited WSC and those who did not were examined. Three theoretical models were proposed to explain the psychological mechanisms of WSC and their fitness was examined by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Results: 12.03% of our respondents exhibited WSC in the past 12 months. The WSC group was significantly younger and less educated, preferred using blogs and online forums for expressing themselves, and reported significantly greater suicide ideation, negative affectivity, and vulnerable personality compared to non-WSC users. SEM examinations found that Weibo users with higher negative affectivity or/and suicidal ideation, who were also using blogs and forums more, exhibited a significantly higher possibility of WSC. Conclusion: Weibo users who are at greater suicide risk are more likely to talk about suicide on Weibo. WSC is a sign of negative affectivity or suicide ideation, and should be responded to with emotional support and suicide prevention services. PMID:26378566

  15. Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Alan

    An informal introduction to the study of communication deals with the major topics in the field. It presents basic theories of communication and language, reviews how language takes on meaning, explains the stimulus-response and Piaget theories of learning, and presents major theories dealing with communications and society. These theories include…

  16. Intercultural communication between patients and health care providers: an exploration of intercultural communication effectiveness, cultural sensitivity, stress, and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Ulrey, K L; Amason, P

    2001-01-01

    Cultural diversity is becoming increasingly more important in the workplace. This is particularly true in health care organizations facing demographic shifts in the patients served and their families. This study serves to aid the development of intercultural communication training programs for health care providers by examining how cultural sensitivity and effective intercultural communication, besides helping patients, personally benefit health care providers by reducing their stress. Effective intercultural communication and cultural sensitivity were found to be related. Health care providers' levels of intercultural anxiety also were found to correlate with effective intercultural communication. PMID:11771806

  17. Effective Communication with Cultural Heritage Using Virtual Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reffat, R. M.; Nofal, E. M.

    2013-07-01

    Cultural heritage is neither static nor stable. There is a need to explore ways for effectively communicating with cultural heritage to tourists and society at large, in an age of immediacy, a time of multiple realities and to multi-cultural tourists. It is vital to consider cultural heritage as a creative and relational process where places and communities are constantly remade through creative performance. The paper introduces virtual technologies as an approach to attain effective communication with cultural heritage. This approach emphasizes the importance of "user, content and context" in guiding the production of virtual heritage, as opposed to technology being the sole motivator. It addresses how these three issues in virtual heritage need to be transformed from merely representing quantitative data towards cultural information using the proposed effective communication triangle through representing meaningful relationships between cultural heritage elements, users and context. The paper offers a focused articulation of a proposed computational platform of "interactive, personalized and contextual-based navigation" with Egyptian heritage monuments as a one step forward towards achieving effective communication with Egyptian cultural heritage.

  18. Teaching Effective Communication Skills with ACE: Analyzing, Composing, & Evaluating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph; Shwom, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Most business communication classes teach students to use a writing process to compose effective documents. Students practice the process by applying it to various types of writing with various purposes-reports, presentations, bad news letters, persuasive memos, etc. However, unless students practice that process in other contexts outside of the…

  19. Effects of Systematic Desensitization in the Alleviation of Communication Apprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Arden K.

    A study examined stages and objectives of a systematic desensitization (SD) program and its effects on subject reported apprehension levels and perceived benefits and behavior changes toward public speaking. Subjects, 19 freshmen and sophomore university students, were administered the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension-24 (PRCA-24).…

  20. Communication Seebeck effect in steel fiber reinforced cement

    E-print Network

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Communication Seebeck effect in steel fiber reinforced cement Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung* Composite Abstract Cement pastes containing short steel fibers, which contribute to electron conduction, exhibit.0% by mass of cement gives a higher value of the absolute thermoelectric power than a content of 0.5% by mass

  1. Communication Effect of stress on the electric polarization in cement

    E-print Network

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Communication Effect of stress on the electric polarization in cement Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung the extent of electric polarization in the transverse direction in cement pastes with and without carbon smaller when carbon fibers were present. It was smaller for carbon fiber cement paste containing silica

  2. Social and Cognitive Effects of Professional Communication on Software Usability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirel, Barbara; Olsen, Leslie A.

    1998-01-01

    Designs a technical-communication course for software-engineering majors to take concurrently with their capstone project course in software design. Studies effects of writing on students' user-centered beliefs and design practices and on usability of their product. Suggests the synergy of this interdisciplinary approach sensitized students to…

  3. Effect of Guidance on Evacuation Behavior Simulations Using Agent Communication

    E-print Network

    Swarup, Samarth

    Effect of Guidance on Evacuation Behavior Simulations Using Agent Communication Masaru Okaya Meijo Minneapolis MN, United States marys@cs.umn.edu ABSTRACT The analysis of building evacuation has recently disasters indicate that hu- man behaviors characterize evacuation during emergencies. Understanding

  4. Toward a Standard of Communication Training Effectiveness Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Matthew D.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    Communication training efforts in American business have increased steadily for the past several years. While this increase may be viewed as positive from several vantage points, it has not been matched by an increase in any systematic application of evaluation measures. Effective evaluation should take place at various levels. D. L. Kirkpatrick…

  5. Terminology Revisited: Effective Communications for the Agricultural Community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA, particularly on small farms. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information as effectively as possible. Many...

  6. Relativistic Doppler effect in quantum communication

    E-print Network

    Asher Peres; Daniel R. Terno

    2003-04-06

    When an electromagnetic signal propagates in vacuo, a polarization detector cannot be rigorously perpendicular to the wave vector because of diffraction effects. The vacuum behaves as a noisy channel, even if the detectors are perfect. The ``noise'' can however be reduced and nearly cancelled by a relative motion of the observer toward the source. The standard definition of a reduced density matrix fails for photon polarization, because the transversality condition behaves like a superselection rule. We can however define an effective reduced density matrix which corresponds to a restricted class of positive operator-valued measures. There are no pure photon qubits, and no exactly orthogonal qubit states.

  7. Comfortably numb: desensitizing effects of violent media on helping others.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Brad J; Anderson, Craig A

    2009-03-01

    Two studies tested the hypothesis that exposure to violent media reduces aid offered to people in pain. In Study 1, participants played a violent or nonviolent video game for 20 min. After game play, while completing a lengthy questionnaire, they heard a loud fight, in which one person was injured, outside the lab. Participants who played violent games took longer to help the injured victim, rated the fight as less serious, and were less likely to "hear" the fight in comparison to participants who played nonviolent games. In Study 2, violent- and nonviolent-movie attendees witnessed a young woman with an injured ankle struggle to pick up her crutches outside the theater either before or after the movie. Participants who had just watched a violent movie took longer to help than participants in the other three conditions. The findings from both studies suggest that violent media make people numb to the pain and suffering of others. PMID:19207695

  8. Diffusion Dominant Solute Transport Modelling In Deep Repository Under The Effect of Emplacement Media Degradation - 13285

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong, S.; Jivkov, A.P.

    2013-07-01

    Deep geologic disposal of high activity and long-lived radioactive waste is being actively considered and pursued in many countries, where low permeability geological formations are used to provide long term waste contaminant with minimum impact to the environment and risk to the biosphere. A multi-barrier approach that makes use of both engineered and natural barriers (i.e. geological formations) is often used to further enhance the containment performance of the repository. As the deep repository system subjects to a variety of thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical (THCM) effects over its long 'operational' lifespan (e.g. 0.1 to 1.0 million years, the integrity of the barrier system will decrease over time (e.g. fracturing in rock or clay)). This is broadly referred as media degradation in the present study. This modelling study examines the effects of media degradation on diffusion dominant solute transport in fractured media that are typical of deep geological environment. In particular, reactive solute transport through fractured media is studied using a 2-D model, that considers advection and diffusion, to explore the coupled effects of kinetic and equilibrium chemical processes, while the effects of degradation is studied using a pore network model that considers the media diffusivity and network changes. Model results are presented to demonstrate the use of a 3D pore-network model, using a novel architecture, to calculate macroscopic properties of the medium such as diffusivity, subject to pore space changes as the media degrade. Results from a reactive transport model of a representative geological waste disposal package are also presented to demonstrate the effect of media property change on the solute migration behaviour, illustrating the complex interplay between kinetic biogeochemical processes and diffusion dominant transport. The initial modelling results demonstrate the feasibility of a coupled modelling approach (using pore-network model and reactive transport model) to examine the long term behaviour of deep geological repositories with media property change under complex geochemical conditions. (authors)

  9. A news media analysis of economic sanction effects on access to medicine in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Bigdeli, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In the past decades economic sanctions have been used by different countries or international organizations in order to deprive target countries of some transactions. While the sanctions do not target health care systems or public health structures, they may, in fact, affect the availability of health care in target countries. In this study, we used media analysis to assess the impacts of recent sanctions imposed by the Central Bank of Iran in 2012 on access to medicines in Iran. Methods: We searched different sources of written news media including a database of nonspecialized weeklies and magazines, online news sources, web pages of daily newspapers and healthcare oriented weeklies from 2011 to 2013. We searched the sources using the general term “medicine” to reduce the chances of missing relevant items. The identified news media were read, and categorized under three groups of items announcing “shortage of medicines,” “medicines related issues” and “no shortage.” We conducted trend analyzes to see whether the news media related to access to medicines were affected by the economic sanctions. Findings: A total number of 371 relevant news media were collected. The number of news media related to medicines substantially increased in the study period: 30 (8%), 161 (43%) and 180 (49%) were published in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. While 145 (39%) of media items referred to the shortage of medicines, 97 (26%) reported no shortage or alleviating of concerns. Conclusion: Media analysis suggests a clear increase in the number of news media reporting a shortage in Iran after the sanctions. In 2013, there were accompanying increases in the number of news media reporting alleviation of the shortages of medicines. Our analysis provides evidence of negative effects of the sanctions on access to medicines in Iran. PMID:26645026

  10. SpokenMedia project: Media-linked transcripts and rich media notebooks for learning and teaching

    E-print Network

    Muramatsu, Brandon

    The SpokenMedia project's goal is to increase the effectiveness of web-based lecture media by improving the search and discoverability of specific, relevant media segments. SpokenMedia creates media-linked transcripts that ...

  11. IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 19, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2001 2015 A Prefetching Protocol for Continuous Media

    E-print Network

    Reisslein, Martin

    Protocol for Continuous Media Streaming in Wireless Environments Frank H. P. Fitzek, Student Member, IEEE, and Martin Reisslein, Member, IEEE Abstract--Streaming of continuous media over wireless links of continuous media and the unreliability of wireless links. We develop a streaming protocol for the real

  12. Propagation effect in inhomogeneous media, including media with light-induced and fixed gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chang-Ching

    Optical waves propagation in various types of volume gratings, materials with constant impendence and optical fibers are studied. Instability of cross-phase modulation and of Energy transfer via GRON-type (Grating-type Orientational Nonlinearity in Liquid Crystal) Stimulated Scattering is numerically observed. Two diffractive optical elements made of volume gratings are suggested and analyzed. A transmission hologram based on the analogy with Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP) in nonlinear optics is proposed. This transmission hologram demonstrates high diffraction efficiency and low sensitivity to polarization and hologram strength. The other is a reflection hologram with two crossed-gratings. It features good angular selectivity in comparison with the poor angular selectivity of conventional Bragg grating mirror. This defense also contains the approximation of Maxwell equations for the description of depolarized light sources and polarization-insensitive detectors. A scalar wave equation, Z-Helmholtz equation, is proposed and discussed in the approximation of constant impedance media. As examples, this equation successfully describes (a) Fresnel transmission coefficient, and (b) Goose-Hanschen shift in total internal reflection, for depolarized incident light and, at the same time, polarization-insensitive detectors. Evolution of polarization during light propagation in an inhomogeneous locally isotropic medium, and also in a single-mode fiber is described by Rytov's non-rotation equation. With arbitrary chosen real unit vector, the complete description of polarization change can be described in a single rotation angle obtained from the integral of rotation rate. Based on introduction of this reference frame, a device is suggested as rigid body's rotation sensor due to polarization change in a twisted fiber.

  13. Gun violence and media effects: challenges for science and public policy.

    PubMed

    Elson, Malte; Ferguson, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    In response to the Sandy Hook shooting in December 2012, the White House published an action plan to reduce gun violence that, among other things, calls for research into the relationship with violence in digital games or other media images. We acknowledge the administration's efforts to reduce violent crime in society and their obligation to dedicate resources to matters of public interest, such as media effects. However, research projects launched in the midst of a moral panic bear the risk of introducing bias and distracting from more important issues. Ideological rigidity has repeatedly shaped past research on media violence. Current initiatives could be an opportunity to restore credibility to the field and to engage in a responsible dialogue on media effects. In order to inform public policy, we need to close gaps, both in empirical research and the academic debate, while being alert for potential political and social influences. PMID:24187065

  14. Spacetime effects on satellite-based quantum communications

    E-print Network

    Bruschi, David Edward; Fuentes, Ivette; Jennewein, Thomas; Razavi, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of space-time curvature on space-based quantum communication protocols. We analyze tasks that require either the exchange of single photons in a certain entanglement distribution protocol or beams of light in a continuous-variable quantum key distribution scheme. We find that gravity affects the propagation of photons, therefore acting as a noisy channel for the transmission of information. The effects can be measured with current technology.

  15. Conceptualizing and communicating management effects on forest water quality.

    PubMed

    Futter, Martyn N; Högbom, Lars; Valinia, Salar; Sponseller, Ryan A; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2016-02-01

    We present a framework for evaluating and communicating effects of human activity on water quality in managed forests. The framework is based on the following processes: atmospheric deposition, weathering, accumulation, recirculation and flux. Impairments to water quality are characterized in terms of their extent, longevity and frequency. Impacts are communicated using a "traffic lights" metaphor for characterizing severity of water quality impairments arising from forestry and other anthropogenic pressures. The most serious impairments to water quality in managed boreal forests include (i) forestry activities causing excessive sediment mobilization and extirpation of aquatic species and (ii) other anthropogenic pressures caused by long-range transport of mercury and acidifying pollutants. The framework and tool presented here can help evaluate, summarize and communicate the most important issues in circumstances where land management and other anthropogenic pressures combine to impair water quality and may also assist in implementing the "polluter pays" principle. PMID:26744053

  16. Cross-Cultural Barriers to Effective Communication in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Davison, Jeannie; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Recent research on communication and performance in airline flight crews has led to a concept of shared mental models that is associated with effective, efficient team coordination in problem solving and decision making situations. Elements that characterize efficient communication have been identified. This research, however, was based strictly on US crews. More recent studies supported by NASA have identified cultural factors that influence communication among team members who vary in their status and roles. Research is just beginning to identify commonalities and culturally distinct strategies for accomplishing joint tasks. ASRS incident reports have been analyzed to identify language barriers in flight that have safety consequences. Implications of these concepts and findings for multi-cultural command and control will be explored.

  17. Quantum communication complexity using the quantum Zeno effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Armin; Anwer, Hammad; Hameedi, Alley; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    The quantum Zeno effect (QZE) is the phenomenon in which the unitary evolution of a quantum state is suppressed, e.g., due to frequent measurements. Here, we investigate the use of the QZE in a class of communication complexity problems (CCPs). Quantum entanglement is known to solve certain CCPs beyond classical constraints. However, recent developments have yielded CCPs for which superclassical results can be obtained using only communication of a single d -level quantum state (qudit) as a resource. In the class of CCPs considered here, we show quantum reduction of complexity in three ways: using (i) entanglement and the QZE, (ii) a single qudit and the QZE, and (iii) a single qudit. We have performed a proof of concept experimental demonstrations of three party CCP protocol based on single-qubit communication with and without QZE.

  18. Effective-medium approximation for composite media: Realizable single-scale dispersions

    E-print Network

    Torquato, Salvatore

    Effective-medium approximation for composite media: Realizable single-scale dispersions S. Torquatoa) and S. Hyun Princeton Materials Institute and Department of Chemistry, Princeton University that the popular effective medium approximation EMA for the effective conductivity e of a composite is exactly

  19. On pore fluid pressure and effective solid stress in the mixture theory of porous media

    E-print Network

    Liu, I-Shih

    On pore fluid pressure and effective solid stress in the mixture theory of porous media I-Shih Liu, pore fluid pressure, effective solid stress and Darcy's law in this paper. Dedicated to Krzysztof Wilma fraction, pore fluid pressure, effective solid stress, etc., as reinterpretations of the results of mixture

  20. Relativistic Effects of Light in Moving Media with Extremely Low Group Velocity

    E-print Network

    U. Leonhardt; P. Piwnicki

    1999-12-13

    A moving dielectric medium acts as an effective gravitational field on light. One can use media with extremely low group velocities [Lene Vestergaard Hau et al., Nature 397, 594 (1999)] to create dielectric analogs of astronomical effects on Earth. In particular, a vortex flow imprints a long-ranging topological effect on incident light and can behave like an optical black hole.

  1. The Determination of the Effect of Announcement Media on CFSTI Sales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, Paul H.; And Others

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to experimentally determine the effect of each CFSTI announcement medium on the average demand per report; (2) to experimentally determine the effect of the selection process, isolated from the effect of the special announcement media, on the average demand per report, and (3) to use (1) and (2) to study how…

  2. "Media Violence Is Made to Attract and Entertain People": Responses to Media Literacy Lessons on the Effects of and Institutional Motives behind Media Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekarasih, Laras; Walsh, Kimberly R.; Scharrer, Erica

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the following research question: How do sixth-graders respond to a media literacy lesson that was designed to, among other goals, introduce the concept of the presence of commercial interest in media production, particularly regarding the prevalence of media violence? Forty-seven responses were analyzed thematically using…

  3. 77 FR 19932 - Inmate Communication With News Media: Removal of Byline Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... was published on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21163), and a technical correction (correcting the effective date of the interim rule to May 7, 2010) was published on May 7, 2010 (75 FR 25110). We received one... rule published on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21163), is hereby finalized without change. Executive...

  4. Effective wave numbers for thermo-viscoelastic media containing random configurations of spherical scatterers

    E-print Network

    Luppé, Francine; Norris, Andrew N

    2011-01-01

    The dispersion relation is derived for the coherent waves in fluid or elastic media supporting viscous and thermal effects and containing randomly distributed spherical scatterers. The formula obtained is the generalization of Lloyd and Berry's [Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 91, 678-688, 1067], the latter being limited to fluid host media, and it is the three-dimensional counterpart of that derived by Conoir and Norris [Wave Motion 47, 183-197, 2010] for cylindrical scatterers in an elastic host medium.

  5. Cross-Cultural Barriers to Effective Communication in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, U.; Orasanu, J.; Davison, J.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Communication is essential to safe flight, as evidenced by several accidents in which crew communicates was found to have contributed to the accidents. This chapter documents the essential role of explicit efficient communication to flight safety with a global context. It addresses communication between flight crews and air traffic controllers in regions a the world where pilots and controllers speak different native languages, as well as cases in which crew members within the flight deck represent different native languages and cultures. It also addresses problems associated with "exporting" crew resource management training programs to parts of the world which values and norms differ from those of the United States, where these programs were initially developed. This chapter is organized around several central questions: (1) What are various kinds of communication failures and what are their consequences; (2) What are the causes of communication failure; (3) What are features of effective crew communication; (4) What can be done to enhance communication success? To explore a wider range of communication failures than available from accident reports, we examined a set of incident reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System. These could be classified into three major categories: those in which language actually interfered with transmission of a message; those in which transmission was adequate but the context was not expressed unambiguously and thus the message received was not the same as the message intended; and those in which the message was received as intended, but was not adequately understood or acted upon, mainly because of cultural factors. The consequences of failed communication can be flight errors (such as when a clearance is not received correctly), loss of situation awareness, or failure of crew members (or ATC and pilots) to build a shared understanding of a situation. Causes of misunderstanding can be traced to a number of sources, often grounded in faulty assumptions held by one or both parties to a conversation. Speakers and listeners often experience "illusionary understanding" in which they think they understand each other, but in fact do not. While this problem can exist within a single culture, it is much more serious across cultures. Training in effective explicit communication is a component of Crew Resource Management training programs developed in the U.S. These programs are being adopted by airlines around the world, with varying degrees of success. The level of success in part depends on how similar the conversational and social styles of those cultures are to those of the U.S. A factor that influences conversational style is a culture's relative positioned on two major dimensions that distinguish national cultural groups: individualism vs. collectivism and degree of power distance. The chapter concludes with a discussion of techniques for overcoming the various classes of communication failures and for effectively adapting training programs to fit the values and norms of cultures around the globe.

  6. Communication: Memory effects and active Brownian diffusion.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pulak K; Li, Yunyun; Marchegiani, Giampiero; Marchesoni, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    A self-propelled artificial microswimmer is often modeled as a ballistic Brownian particle moving with constant speed aligned along one of its axis, but changing direction due to random collisions with the environment. Similarly to thermal noise, its angular randomization is described as a memoryless stochastic process. Here, we speculate that finite-time correlations in the orientational dynamics can affect the swimmer's diffusivity. To this purpose, we propose and solve two alternative models. In the first one, we simply assume that the environmental fluctuations governing the swimmer's propulsion are exponentially correlated in time, whereas in the second one, we account for possible damped fluctuations of the propulsion velocity around the swimmer's axis. The corresponding swimmer's diffusion constants are predicted to get, respectively, enhanced or suppressed upon increasing the model memory time. Possible consequences of this effect on the interpretation of the experimental data are discussed. PMID:26646861

  7. Cover Image: Photography, Creative Media Cover Design: Jane Parrott

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    #12;Cover Image: Photography, Creative Media Cover Design: Jane Parrott Graphics, Creative Media Communications & External Relations Oak Ridge National Laboratory Cover Image: Photography, Creative Media Cover

  8. Data communications

    SciTech Connect

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining computer communication systems used in nuclear power plants. The recommendations cover three areas important to these communications systems: system design, communication protocols, and communication media. The first area, system design, considers three aspects of system design--questions about architecture, specific risky design elements or omissions to look for in designs being reviewed, and recommendations for multiplexed data communication systems used in safety systems. The second area reviews pertinent aspects of communication protocol design and makes recommendations for newly designed protocols or the selection of existing protocols for safety system, information display, and non-safety control system use. The third area covers communication media selection, which differs significantly from traditional wire and cable. The recommendations for communication media extend or enhance the concerns of published IEEE standards about three subjects: data rate, imported hazards and maintainability.

  9. Study of the effects of stress sensitivity on the permeability and porosity of fractal porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xiao-Hua; Li, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Jian-Yi; Zhang, Lie-Hui; Fan, Zhou

    2015-10-01

    Flow in porous media under stress is very important in various scientific and engineering fields. It has been shown that stress plays an important role in effect of permeability and porosity of porous media. In this work, novel predictive models for permeability and porosity of porous media considering stress sensitivity are developed based on the fractal theory and mechanics of materials. Every parameter in the proposed models has clear physical meaning. The proposed models are evaluated using previously published data for permeability and porosity measured in various natural materials. The predictions of permeability and porosity show good agreement with those obtained by the available experimental data and illustrate that the proposed models can be used to characterize the flow in porous media under stress accurately.

  10. Examining the effects of media on learners' mental representations and cognitive processes in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Adrienne L.

    This study examined the effects of television and video games as media on the science knowledge and understanding of middle school students in a Midwest, urban charter school. Twenty-five study participants were organized into eight focus groups. Each group, which comprised of three to four members, was introduced to one of two media types, a television show episode or video games, and then asked a series of questions prompting group dialogue. Results show that students were able to distinguish science ideas presented in the media and made science content connections from previous classroom learning. Implications suggest how teachers can utilize weapons of mass instruction, the tools of media technology, to fight against the challenges that plague our current system of education.

  11. The Effects of Hands Free Communication Devices on Clinical Communication: Balancing Communication Access Needs with User Control

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Joshua E.; Ash, Joan S.

    2008-01-01

    Hands Free Communication Device (HFCD) systems are a relatively new information and communication technology. HFCD systems enable clinicians to directly contact and communicate with one another using wearable, voice-controlled badges that are VoIP-based (voice-over IP) and are linked to one another over a wireless local area network (WLAN). This qualitative study utilized a grounded theory, multiple perspectives approach to understand how the use of HFCDs affected communication in the hospitals that implemented them. The study generated five themes revolving around HFCDs’ impact on communication. This paper specifically focuses on two of those themes: Communication Access and Control. PMID:18999046

  12. Force and weight distributions in granular media: Effects of contact geometry Jacco H. Snoeijer,1

    E-print Network

    van Saarloos, Wim

    Force and weight distributions in granular media: Effects of contact geometry Jacco H. Snoeijer,1 of the local contact network on interparticle forces and effective particle weights is studied in simulations the interparticle force distribution P(f) is robust. We provide examples where P(w) at the boundary, which

  13. Annual Report of the First Year of Research on Cognitive Effects of Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Gavriel

    This paper discusses the rationale for a cross-cultural (Israeli-American) study of the cognitive effects of the television media on children. The overall purpose of the study are: (1) to examine the extent to which exposure to television has an effect on children's mastery of cognitive skills; and (2) to examine the extent to which activities of…

  14. Spacetime effects on satellite-based quantum communications

    E-print Network

    David Edward Bruschi; Tim Ralph; Ivette Fuentes; Thomas Jennewein; Mohsen Razavi

    2014-04-26

    We investigate the consequences of space-time being curved on space-based quantum communication protocols. We analyze tasks that require either the exchange of single photons in a certain entanglement distribution protocol or beams of light in a continuous-variable quantum key distribution scheme. We find that gravity affects the propagation of photons, therefore adding additional noise to the channel for the transmission of information. The effects could be measured with current technology.

  15. Effective Communication and File-I/O Bandwidth Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Koniges, A E; Rabenseifner, R

    2001-05-02

    We describe the design and MPI implementation of two benchmarks created to characterize the balanced system performance of high-performance clusters and supercomputers: b{_}eff, the communication-specific benchmark examines the parallel message passing performance of a system, and b{_}eff{_}io, which characterizes the effective 1/0 bandwidth. Both benchmarks have two goals: (a) to get a detailed insight into the Performance strengths and weaknesses of different parallel communication and I/O patterns, and based on this, (b) to obtain a single bandwidth number that characterizes the average performance of the system namely communication and 1/0 bandwidth. Both benchmarks use a time driven approach and loop over a variety of communication and access patterns to characterize a system in an automated fashion. Results of the two benchmarks are given for several systems including IBM SPs, Cray T3E, NEC SX-5, and Hitachi SR 8000. After a redesign of b{_}eff{_}io, I/O bandwidth results for several compute partition sizes are achieved in an appropriate time for rapid benchmarking.

  16. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (76th, Kansas City, Missouri, August 11-14, 1993). Part V: Media and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Media and Technology section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 13 papers: "The 'Talking Newspaper': The Technical Virtuosity and Monologic Modality of Audiotex(t)" (George Albert Gladney); "An Historic Opportunity?: Communication Research in the Design of Communication Interfaces and Systems" (Frank Biocca);…

  17. Keys to Effective FatherChild Communication What is communication, and why is it such an integral part of family life? Communication, in the context

    E-print Network

    Keys to Effective Father­Child Communication What is communication, and why is it such an integral processes that parents and children express their needs, wants, concerns, as well as their love of their children. Numerous factors contribute to a child's growth and development; however, among the most

  18. Quantifying the Persistence of Pro-Smoking Media Effects on College Students’ Smoking Risk

    PubMed Central

    Setodji, Claude M.; Martino, Steven C.; Scharf, Deborah M.; Shadel, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To quantify the persistence of pro-smoking media exposure effects on college students’ intentions to smoke and smoking refusal self-efficacy. Method A total of 134 college students (ages 18–24) were enrolled in an ecological momentary assessment study in which they carried handheld data collection devices for three weeks and reported their exposures to pro-smoking media as they occurred in the real world. Smoking intentions and smoking refusal self-efficacy were assessed after each exposure to pro-smoking media and at random prompts during each day of the three-week assessment period. A generalized additive model was used to determine how long the effect of an exposure to pro-smoking media persisted. Results The effect of pro-smoking media exposures persisted for 7 days. After exposure, smoking intentions immediately increased (0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.26, 0.87]) and then steadily decreased (?0.12; 95% CI: [?0.19, ?0.05]) each day for 7 days, while smoking refusal self-efficacy immediately decreased (?0.42; 95% CI: [?0.75, ?0.10]) and then steadily increased (0.09; 95% CI: [0.02, 0.16]) each day for 7 days. Daily changes occurring after 7 days were not statistically significant, suggesting that smoking intentions and refusal self-efficacy had stabilized and were no longer affected by pro-smoking media exposure. Conclusions Exposures to pro-smoking media may have strong implications for emerging young adults smoking risk as the impact of an individual exposure appears to persist for at least a week. PMID:24268361

  19. Social media.

    PubMed

    Foster, James

    2013-01-01

    There is an argument that with the common use of a variety of media the professional expectations on our everyday life are becoming increasingly important. A moan about a patient on a Monday night 20 years ago may have been harmless. The same comment made using today's communication methods could result in a regulatory challenge. PMID:23729056

  20. Quantitative dosimetric assessment for effect of gold nanoparticles as contrast media on radiotherapy planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Shu-Ju; Yang, Pei-Ying; Hong, Ji-Hong; Lo, Ching-Jung

    2013-07-01

    In CT planning for radiation therapy, patients may be asked to have a medical procedure of contrast agent (CA) administration as required by their physicians. CA media improve quality of CT images and assist radiation oncologists in delineation of the target or organs with accuracy. However, dosimetric discrepancy may occur between scenarios in which CA media are present in CT planning and absent in treatment delivery. In recent preclinical experiments of small animals, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been identified as an excellent contrast material of x-ray imaging. In this work, we quantitatively evaluate the effect of AuNPs to be used as a potential material of contrast enhancement in radiotherapy planning with an analytical phantom and clinical case. Conray 60, an iodine-based product for contrast enhancement in clinical uses, is included as a comparison. Other additional variables such as different concentrations of CA media, radiation delivery techniques and dose calculation algorithms are included. We consider 1-field AP, 4-field box, 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a recent technique of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). CA media of AuNPs (Conray 60) with concentrations of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% containing 28.2, 56.4, 84.6, 112.8 and 141.0 mg of gold (iodine) per mL were prepared prior to CT scanning. A virtual phantom with a target where nanoparticle media are loaded and clinical case of gastric lymphoma in which the Conray 60 media were given to the patient prior to the CT planning are included for the study. Compared to Conray 60 media with concentration of 10%/50%, Hounsfield units for AuNP media of 10%/50% are 322/1608 higher due to the fact that atomic number of Au (Z=79) is larger than I (Z=53). In consequence, dosimetric discrepancy of AuNPs is magnified between presence and absence of contrast media. It was found in the phantom study that percent dose differences between presence and absence of CA media may be reduced by delivery techniques of 7-field IMRT or VMAT. To manage less than 3% of percent dose difference, it was suggested an upper limit of 15% (or 42.3 mg Au/mL) of AuNP media in the phantom study; 8% (or 22.5 mg Au/mL) in the specific clinical case.

  1. Using Communication Strategies to Promote Sexual Health: Can Mass Media Get in Bed with the "Female" Condom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Sarah Mariel; Austin, S. Bryn

    2010-01-01

    Many public health students receive little, if any, formal training in communicating health information to the public. Public health practitioners, however, are regularly asked to use communication strategies to convey health information. The lesson plan was designed to teach students mass communication strategies in the context of sexual health…

  2. Melissa Waller Media Communications

    E-print Network

    Chen, Deming

    James Sports Equipment Supervisor Emmett Vaughn Sports Equipment Supervisor David Jones Equipment Assistant Marketing Jessica Gentry Associate Director Programs Diane Dean Associate Director Financial Director Marketing Amanda Egan Assistant Director Events & Facility Scheduling Nick Singer Assistant

  3. Dogmatism and the "Knowledge Gap" among Users of the Mass Media of Communication: A Study in Brasilia, Brasil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert E.; Garda, Eduardo Carlos

    A study was conducted to discover whether (1) use of each of the print and broadcast media could be correlated with subjects' knowledge level, and (2) whether controlling for dogmatism would increase the proportion of media users, with higher levels of knowledge among those less dogmatic, and decrease the proportion among the more dogmatic.…

  4. Tips for K-12 Educators for Helping Students Communicate and Create Using Visual Motion Media, Photography, and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a particular lesson plan--the "Illustrating Project"--that has been successful for many classroom educators. The Illustrating Project calls for students, individually or in project groups, to illustrate some element of the curriculum via the media selected by the teacher. The selected media might be PowerPoint or some other…

  5. THIS INFORMATION IS CURRENT AS AT October 2011 AND IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE Bachelor of Communication Media Studies Major (Revised)

    E-print Network

    Fleming, Andrew J.

    (directed) FMCS3201 Gender, Sex and Pop Culture (directed or 1 other option see back) TOTAL = 80 UNITS FMCS3201 Gender, Sex and Pop Culture (not offered in 2012) SOCA3081 New Media and Society (not offered FMCS1110 Film Media Culture (directed or 4 other choices see back) -------------------------- FMCS1100

  6. Your Media Speak So Loud I Can't Hear a Word You're Saying: Impact of Media and Media Selection on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassell, Martin

    2013-01-01

    With the proliferation of communication media and technologies available, it is important for teams to understand the influence of these media on the performance of their communications. Additionally, it is important for researchers to understand how teams choose and use media. Literature on communication media impacts and communication

  7. Effects of starvation on bacterial transport through porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Alfred B.; Sharp, Robert R.; Caccavo, Frank; Gerlach, Robin

    2007-06-01

    A major problem preventing widespread implementation of microbial injection strategies for bioremediation and/or microbially enhanced oil recovery is the tendency of bacteria to strongly adhere to surfaces in the immediate vicinity of the injection point. Long term (weeks to months) nutrient starvation of bacteria prior to injection can decrease attachment and enhance transport through porous media. This paper summarizes results of starvation-enhanced transport experiments in sand columns of 30 cm, 3 m, and 16 m in length. The 16 m column experiments compared transport, breakthrough and distribution of adhered cells for starved and vegetative cultures of Klebsiella oxytoca, a copious biofilm producer. Results from these experiments were subsequently used to design and construct a field-scale biofilm barrier using starved Pseudomonas fluorescens. The 30 cm and 3 m sand columns experiments investigated starvation-enhanced transport of Shewanella algae BrY, a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium. In both cases the vegetative cells adsorbed onto the sand in higher numbers than the starved cells, especially near the entrance of the column. These results, taken together with studies cited in the literature, indicate that starved cells penetrate farther (i.e. higher breakthrough concentration) and adsorb more uniformly along the flow path than vegetative cells.

  8. Fluid effects on seismic waves in hard rocks with fractures and in soft granular media

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, James G.

    2009-03-01

    When fractures in otherwise hard rocks are filled with fluids (oil, gas, water, CO{sub 2}), the type and physical state of the fluid (liquid or gas) can make a large difference in the wave speeds and attenuation properties of seismic waves. The present work summarizes methods of deconstructing theses effects of fractures, together with any fluids contained within them, on wave propagation as observed in reflection seismic data. Additional studies of waves in fluid-saturated granular media show that the behavior can be quite different from that for fractured media, since these materials are typically much softer mechanically than are the fractured rocks (i.e., having a very small drained moduli). Important fluid effects in such media are often governed as much by fluid viscosity as by fluid bulk modulus.

  9. [Prophylaxis and treatment of side effects due to iodinated contrast media relevant to radiological practice].

    PubMed

    Becker, C

    2007-09-01

    Increased utilization of iodinated contrast media may be associated with increased incidence of adverse events. The most important side effects include contrast-induced nephropathy, anaphylactoid reaction, thyrotoxicosis, and extravasation. In patients with moderate renal dysfunction, saline hydration and reduction of contrast media volume are recommended. No regime to prevent anaphylactoid reactions has yet proven to be efficient. If subclinical hyperthyroidism has been determined, prophylaxis with sodium perchlorate is advised. Contrast-induced nephropathy is commonly transient and needs to be followed over time. Mild general anaphylactoid reactions may be treated with antihistaminic drugs and corticosteroids. Furthermore the choice of the X-ray contrast media might influence the risk of any adverse effects. PMID:17768601

  10. Effects of chemical speciation in growth media on the toxicity of mercury(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, R.E.; Germida, J.J.; Huang, P.M. )

    1993-05-01

    The bioavailability and toxicity of trace metals to aquatic microbiota are influenced by the chemical form (aqueous species) of the metal. However, the interpretation of bioassay results, and the extrapolation of these results to in situ conditions, is often complicated by the inclusion of complex soluable organics in the bioassay media. This investigation (1) evaluates the effects of complex soluable organics on the acute toxicity of mercury (II) to a Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate in a chemically well-defined synthetic growth media, (2) computes the effects of these organics on the aqueous speciation of mercury (II) in the media, and (3) ascertains the dependence of toxicity on the chemical speciation of mercury (II). 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Of Mind and Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Gavriel

    1997-01-01

    Explores mind/media relationships and discusses how culture's symbolic forms affect learning and thinking. The socially held and communicated views of various media appear to affect the way children handle them, the depth of their information processing, and what they actually learn from them. Media's symbolic forms of representation have both…

  12. Investigating effects of communications modulation technique on targeting performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Eusebio, Gerald; Huling, Edward

    2006-05-01

    One of the key challenges facing the global war on terrorism (GWOT) and urban operations is the increased need for rapid and diverse information from distributed sources. For users to get adequate information on target types and movements, they would need reliable data. In order to facilitate reliable computational intelligence, we seek to explore the communication modulation tradeoffs affecting information distribution and accumulation. In this analysis, we explore the modulation techniques of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS), and statistical time-division multiple access (TDMA) as a function of the bit error rate and jitter that affect targeting performance. In the analysis, we simulate a Link 16 with a simple bandpass frequency shift keying (PSK) technique using different Signal-to-Noise ratios. The communications transfer delay and accuracy tradeoffs are assessed as to the effects incurred in targeting performance.

  13. Antiobesity effect of Stellaria media against drug induced obesity in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Chidrawar, Vijay R.; Patel, Krishnakant N.; Sheth, Navin R.; Shiromwar, Shruti S.; Trivedi, Piyush

    2011-01-01

    The whole plant of Stellaria media (family: Caryophyllaceae) has been tested for its antiobesity activity by using progesterone-induced obesity model in female albino mice. The effect of S. media on food consumption pattern, change in body weight, thermogenesis, lipid metabolism, and histology of fat pad. were examined. Methanolic and alcoholic extracts of the S. media were used in the study. Methanolic extract of S. media (MESM) have prevented the increase in body weight, adipose tissue weight and size, and upturned obesity and associated complications. MESM has also shown promising effects compared with alcoholic extract of S. media may be because of its multiple mechanisms. These findings suggest that antiobesity activity produced by MESM is because of its anorexic property mediated by saponin and flavonoid and partly of by its ?-sitosterol content. ?-Sitosterol in the plant extract was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography study. ?-sitosterol is plant sterol having structural similarity with dietary fat which do the physical competition in the gastrointestinal tract and reduces fat absorption. Before carrying in vivo activity detail pharmacognostic and phytochemical analysis of the extracts was carried out. The plant has shown the presence of saponin, flavonoids, steroids and triterpenoids, glycosides, and anthocynidine. By this study, it can be concluded that, MESM is beneficial in suppression of obesity induced by progesterone. PMID:22661858

  14. Fluid and porous media property effects on dense nonaqueous phase liquid migration and contaminant mass flux.

    PubMed

    Totten, C T; Annable, M D; Jawitz, J W; Delfinot, J J

    2007-03-01

    The effects of fluid and porous media properties on dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) migration and associated contaminant mass flux generation were evaluated. Relationships between DNAPL mass and solute mass flux were generated by measuring steady-state mass flux following stepwise injection of perchloroethylene (PCE) into flow chambers packed with homogeneous porous media. The effects of fluid properties including density and interfacial tension (IFT), and media properties including grain size and wettability were evaluated by varying the density contrast and interfacial tension properties between PCE and water, and by varying the porous media mean grain diameter and wettability characteristics. Contaminant mass flux was found to increase as grain size decreased, suggesting enhanced lateral and vertical DNAPL spreading with higher fluid entry pressure. Mass flux showed a slight increase as the DNAPL approached neutral buoyancy, likely due to enhanced vertical spreading above the injection point. DNAPL spatial distribution and contaminant mass flux were only minimally affected by IFT and by intermediate-level wettability changes, but were dramatically affected by wettability reversal. The relationship between DNAPL loading and flux generation became more linear as grain size decreased and density contrast between fluids decreased. These results imply that capillary flow characteristics of the porous media and fluid properties will control mass flux generation from source zones. PMID:17396651

  15. The effect of priming materialism on women's responses to thin-ideal media.

    PubMed

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga

    2012-12-01

    Consumer culture is characterized by two prominent ideals: the 'body perfect' and the material 'good life'. Although the impact of these ideals has been investigated in separate research literatures, no previous research has examined whether materialism is linked to women's responses to thin-ideal media. Data from several studies confirm that the internalization of materialistic and body-ideal values is positively linked in women. After developing a prime for materialism (N = 50), we present an experimental examination (N = 155) of the effects of priming materialism on women's responses to thin-ideal media, using multiple outcome measures of state body dissatisfaction. Priming materialism affects women's body dissatisfaction after exposure to thin media models, but differently depending on the dimension of body image measured. The two main novel findings are that (1) priming materialism heightens the centrality of appearance to women's self-concept and (2) priming materialism influences the activation of body-related self-discrepancies (BRSDs), particularly for highly materialistic women. Exposure to materialistic media has a clear influence on women's body image, with trait materialism a further vulnerability factor for negative exposure effects in response to idealized, thin media models. PMID:21466563

  16. The Interactive Media Package for Assessment of Communication and Critical Thinking (IMPACCT[c]): Testing a Programmatic Online Communication Competence Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzberg, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    IMPACCT is an online survey covering over 40 self-report types of student communication competency, as well as a test of critical thinking based on cognitive problem-solving. The student nominates two peers who rate the student's interpersonal, computer-mediated, group and leadership, and public speaking communication competence. The student takes…

  17. The student experience has been transformed due to the prevalence of social media, which can be defined as "websites

    E-print Network

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    #12; The student experience has been transformed due to the prevalence of social media effects on the student experience. On one hand, social media creates vibrant online communities and allows students with similar interests to communicate (Donaghy, 2011). Yet, social media can also be understood

  18. Effective Game Based Citizenship Education in the Age of New Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee, Yam San; Mehrotra, Swati; Liu, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems worldwide are being challenged to respond effectively to the digital revolution and its implications for learning in the 21st century. In the present new media age, educational reforms are desperately needed to support more open and flexible structures of on-demand learning that equip students with competencies required in a…

  19. The effect of water content on solute transport in unsaturated porous media

    E-print Network

    between the mobile and immobile regions. A power law relationship between dispersion and water contentThe effect of water content on solute transport in unsaturated porous media Ingrid Y. Padilla, T.-C. Jim Yeh, and Martha H. Conklin Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona

  20. The Effects of Otitis Media on the Attention Skills of Day-Care-Attending Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feagans, Lynne V.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated whether otitis media (OM), middle ear disease, affected toddlers' attention to language. Children were studied during a picture book-reading task at high- or low-quality day-care centers. Children with chronic OM in low-quality care showed the most negative effects on attention during episodes of OM; mothers rated children with…

  1. The Effects of an Early History of Otitis Media on Children's Language and Literacy Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winskel, Heather

    2006-01-01

    Background: Otitis media (OM) or middle ear infection is a common childhood illness and is most frequent during the crucial first 3 years of life when speech and language categories are being established, which could potentially have a long-term effect on language and literacy skill development. Aims: The purpose of the current study was to…

  2. Effective Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity for Computing One-Dimensional Flow in Heterogeneous Porous Media

    E-print Network

    Effective Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity for Computing One-Dimensional Flow in Heterogeneous-dimensional unsaturated flow in vertically stratified porous media are examined. Saturated hydraulic conductivity and the alpha parameter of the exponential hydraulic conductivity function were assumed to vary from soil layer

  3. The Effect of Media on Charitable Giving and Volunteering: Evidence from the "Give Five" Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoruk, Baris K.

    2012-01-01

    Fundraising campaigns advertised via mass media are common. To what extent such campaigns affect charitable behavior is mostly unknown, however. Using giving and volunteering surveys conducted biennially from 1988 to 1996, I investigate the effect of a national fundraising campaign, "Give Five," on charitable giving and volunteering patterns. The…

  4. Effects of a Media Ethics Course on Student Values: A Replication and Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Jay; And Others

    A study replicated and expanded a study by Stuart Surlin, reported in "Journalism Quarterly" in 1987, on the effects of a mass media ethics course upon students' value systems. Whereas Surlin did a simple pre- and posttest on 20 students from one class, using the Rokeach 36-item terminal and instrumental values inventory, the present study drew…

  5. News Media Exposure and Its Learning Effects during the Persian Gulf War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Zhongdang; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Shows significantly higher levels of news exposure across all media channels during the Persian Gulf War compared to a year-and-a-half earlier. Finds that both exposure to newspaper and to cable and PBS news programming were positively related to levels of knowledge about the war. Discusses the effectiveness of information dissemination by various…

  6. Effects of Guided Writing Strategies on Students' Writing Attitudes Based on Media Richness Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Yu-Feng; Hung, Chun-Ling; Hsu, Hung-Ju

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop different guided writing strategies based on media richness theory and further evaluate the effects of these writing strategies on younger students' writing attitudes in terms of motivation, enjoyment and anxiety. A total of 66 sixth-grade elementary students with an average age of twelve were invited to…

  7. The Effectiveness of Social Media Activities on Taiwanese Undergraduates' EFL Grammar Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singman, Cooper

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of social media language learning activities with traditional language learning activities on the development of L2 grammatical competence in two English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classes at a Taiwanese university. The study was grounded in four bodies of knowledge: (a) the…

  8. Effectively Responding to Public Scrutiny When Communicating Climate Science.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, A.; Halpern, M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate researchers face regular scrutiny of their work from groups outside academia. In recent years, interest groups that oppose climate policy have targeted scientists with hate-mail campaigns, invasive document requests, hostile questioning and legal threats. In their day-to-day work, scientists struggle to respond to heated discussions about their research, whether from online commentators, opinion columnists, or special interest groups. Based on decades of experience and interviews with scientists, the Union of Concerned Scientists has developed a guide for communicating science amid heightened scrutiny. Building on the information contained in the UCS guide, this presentation will discuss best practices for climate researchers, including suggestions for when scrutiny can be ignored or when it deserves a response and methods for responding that can uphold scientific integrity while also protecting an individual researcher's reputation and ability to publicly communicate. Examples include scientists who have responded to bloggers criticizing their research, advocacy groups demanding their personal emails and policymakers targeting them with personal attacks. In understanding how to respond to scrutiny, scientists can bolster their own ability to communicate and curtail the chilling effect that scrutiny can have on other scientists conducting public enegagement.

  9. The effects of a mass media HIV-risk reduction strategy on HIV-related stigma and knowledge among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jelani C; Valois, Robert F; DiClemente, Ralph J; Carey, Michael P; Stanton, Bonita; Romer, Daniel; Fletcher, Faith; Farber, Naomi; Brown, Larry K; Vanable, Peter A; Salazar, Laura F; Juzang, Ivan; Fortune, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    HIV-related stigma undermines HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. Multipronged risk-reduction strategies may reduce stigma among African American adolescents. To test the effectiveness of a risk-reduction strategy in addressing stigma, 1613 African American adolescents from four mid-sized cities participated in a randomized control trial. Participants received a sexual-risk reduction [Focus on Youth (FOY)] or general health curriculum [Promoting Health Among Teens (PHAT)]. Two cities received a culturally-tailored media intervention. Participants completed baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month surveys to measure HIV-related stigma and knowledge. Analysis of covariance tested for stigma and knowledge differences by media city status and curriculum/media city status (PHAT media vs. PHAT non-media, FOY media vs. FOY non-media; FOY media vs. PHAT media; FOY non-media vs. PHAT non-media) at each measurement. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) determined stigma and knowledge differences over time. Media participants demonstrated greater HIV-related knowledge (p<0.10) at 6 months and lower stigma at 3 months (p<0.10). FOY media participants had lower 3-month (p<0.05) and 12-month (p<0.10) stigma scores than non-media FOY participants. FOY media and non-media participants had greater knowledge than PHAT for all intervals after baseline. FOY media had lower stigma than PHAT media after baseline for all intervals after baseline. HLM indicated greater knowledge slopes for the media group (p<0.05). FOY media participants had greater knowledge slopes (p<0.05) relative to non-media FOY participants and media PHAT participants (p<0.01). A combination of a HIV risk-reduction curriculum and culturally-tailored media demonstrated some effectiveness in reducing stigma. Future use of media in HIV-prevention should include and evaluate effects on stigma. PMID:25738952

  10. Applications of High Technology to Communication Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behnke, Ralph R.; O'Hair, H. Dan

    1984-01-01

    Discusses classroom design and uses of interactive media. Covers the design of public speaking/interpersonal/small group communication classrooms, the simulation laboratory, the communication effectiveness trainer (ComET system), audience response systems, speech evaluation using computers, and system design considerations. (PD)

  11. The Effect of Bad News and CEO Apology of Corporate on User Responses in Social Media.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoh; Park, Jaram; Cha, Meeyoung; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2015-01-01

    While social media has become an important platform for social reputation, the emotional responses of users toward bad news have not been investigated thoroughly. We analyzed a total of 20,773 Twitter messages by 15,513 users to assess the influence of bad news and public apology in social media. Based on both computerized, quantitative sentiment analysis and in-depth qualitative analysis, we found that rapid public apology effectively and immediately reduced the level of negative sentiment, where the degree of change in sentiments differed by the type of interactions users engaged in. The majority of users who directly conversed with corporate representatives on the new media were not typical consumers, but experts and practitioners. We extend the existing cognitive model and suggest the audiences' psychological reaction model to describe the information processing process during and after an organizational crisis and response. We also discuss various measures through which companies can respond to a crisis properly in social media in a fashion that is different from conventional mass media. PMID:25951231

  12. The Effect of Bad News and CEO Apology of Corporate on User Responses in Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Meeyoung; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2015-01-01

    While social media has become an important platform for social reputation, the emotional responses of users toward bad news have not been investigated thoroughly. We analyzed a total of 20,773 Twitter messages by 15,513 users to assess the influence of bad news and public apology in social media. Based on both computerized, quantitative sentiment analysis and in-depth qualitative analysis, we found that rapid public apology effectively and immediately reduced the level of negative sentiment, where the degree of change in sentiments differed by the type of interactions users engaged in. The majority of users who directly conversed with corporate representatives on the new media were not typical consumers, but experts and practitioners. We extend the existing cognitive model and suggest the audiences’ psychological reaction model to describe the information processing process during and after an organizational crisis and response. We also discuss various measures through which companies can respond to a crisis properly in social media in a fashion that is different from conventional mass media. PMID:25951231

  13. The effect of limb kinematics on the speed of a legged robot on granular media

    E-print Network

    Chen Li; Paul B. Umbanhowar; Haldun Komsuoglu; Daniel I. Goldman

    2013-03-29

    Achieving effective locomotion on diverse terrestrial substrates can require subtle changes of limb kinematics. Biologically inspired legged robots (physical models of organisms) have shown impressive mobility on hard ground but suffer performance loss on unconsolidated granular materials like sand. Because comprehensive limb-ground interaction models are lacking, optimal gaits on complex yielding terrain have been determined empirically. To develop predictive models for legged devices and to provide hypotheses for biological locomotors, we systematically study the performance of SandBot, a small legged robot, on granular media as a function of gait parameters. High performance occurs only in a small region of parameter space. A previously introduced kinematic model of the robot combined with a new anisotropic granular penetration force law predicts the speed. Performance on granular media is maximized when gait parameters minimize body acceleration and limb interference, and utilize solidification features of granular media.

  14. The ICA Communication Audit and Perceived Communication Effectiveness Changes in 16 Audited Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Keith; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of the International Communication Association Communication Audit as a methodology for evaluation of organizational communication processes and outcomes. An "after" survey of 16 audited organizations confirmed the audit as a valid diagnostic methodology and organization development intervention technique which improved both…

  15. Health outcomes and related effects of using social media in chronic disease management: a literature review and analysis of affordances.

    PubMed

    Merolli, Mark; Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    Whilst the future for social media in chronic disease management appears to be optimistic, there is limited concrete evidence indicating whether and how social media use significantly improves patient outcomes. This review examines the health outcomes and related effects of using social media, while also exploring the unique affordances underpinning these effects. Few studies have investigated social media's potential in chronic disease, but those we found indicate impact on health status and other effects are positive, with none indicating adverse events. Benefits have been reported for psychosocial management via the ability to foster support and share information; however, there is less evidence of benefits for physical condition management. We found that studies covered a very limited range of social media platforms and that there is an ongoing propensity towards reporting investigations of earlier social platforms, such as online support groups (OSG), discussion forums and message boards. Finally, it is hypothesized that for social media to form a more meaningful part of effective chronic disease management, interventions need to be tailored to the individualized needs of sufferers. The particular affordances of social media that appear salient in this regard from analysis of the literature include: identity, flexibility, structure, narration and adaptation. This review suggests further research of high methodological quality is required to investigate the affordances of social media and how these can best serve chronic disease sufferers. Evidence-based practice (EBP) using social media may then be considered. PMID:23702104

  16. Policy on Media Contacts Regarding Athletes Policy on Media Contacts

    E-print Network

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Media Contacts Regarding Athletes 9/1/2013 Policy on Media Contacts Regarding Athletics I-athletes and the media and other contacts related to public relations matters. The Office of Athletic Communications-athletes, coaches, and administrators, and the media. The office provides coverage of athletic programs

  17. Multi-level functionality of social media in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Jung, Joo-Young; Moro, Munehito

    2014-07-01

    This study examines the multi-level functionalities of social media in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011. Based on a conceptual model of multi-level story flows of social media (Jung and Moro, 2012), the study analyses the multiple functionalities that were ascribed to social media by individuals, organisations, and macro-level social systems (government and the mass media) after the earthquake. Based on survey data, a review of Twitter timelines and secondary sources, the authors derive five functionalities of social media: interpersonal communications with others (micro level); channels for local governments; organisations and local media (meso level); channels for mass media (macro level); information sharing and gathering (cross level); and direct channels between micro-/meso- and macro-level agents. The study sheds light on the future potential of social media in disaster situations and suggests how to design an effective communication network to prepare for emergency situations. PMID:24905811

  18. Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailenson, Jeremy; Buzzanell, Patrice; Deetz, Stanley; Tewksbury, David; Thompson, Robert J.; Turow, Joseph; Bichelmeyer, Barbara; Bishop, M. J.; Gayeski, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of communications were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Jeremy Bailenson, Patrice Buzzanell, Stanley Deetz, David Tewksbury, Robert J. Thompson, and…

  19. Dynamics of electrostatically-driven granular media. Effects of Humidity

    E-print Network

    D. W. Howell; I. S. Aranson; G. W. Crabtree

    2000-11-03

    We performed experimental studies of the effect of humidity on the dynamics of electrostatically-driven granular materials. Both conducting and dielectric particles undergo a phase transition from an immobile state (granular solid) to a fluidized state (granular gas) with increasing applied field. Spontaneous precipitation of solid clusters from the gas phase occurs as the external driving is decreased. The clustering dynamics in conducting particles is primarily controlled by screening of the electric field but is aided by cohesion due to humidity. It is shown that humidity effects dominate the clustering process with dielectric particles.

  20. Dynamics of electrostatically driven granular media: Effects of humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, D. W.; Aronson, Igor S.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2001-05-01

    We performed experimental studies of the effect of humidity on the dynamics of electrostatically driven granular materials. Both conducting and dielectric particles undergo a phase transition from an immobile state (granular solid) to a fluidized state (granular gas) with increasing applied field. Spontaneous precipitation of solid clusters from the gas phase occurs as the external driving is decreased. The clustering dynamics in conducting particles is primarily controlled by screening of the electric field but is aided by cohesion due to humidity. It is shown that humidity effects dominate the clustering process with dielectric particles.

  1. Deep space communications, weather effects, and error control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Edward C.

    1989-01-01

    Deep space telemetry is and will remain signal-to-noise limited and vulnerable to interference. A need exists to increase received signal power and decrease noise. This includes going to Ka-band in the mid-1990's to increase directivity. The effects of a wet atmosphere can increase the noise temperature by a factor of 5 or more, even at X-band, but the order of magnitude increase in average data rate obtainable at Ka-band relative to X-band makes the increased uncertainty a good trade. Lowbit error probabilities required by data compression are available both theoretically and practically with coding, at an infinitesimal power penalty rather than the 10 to 15 dB more power required to reduce error probabilities without coding. Advances are coming rapidly in coding, as with the new constraint-length 15 rate 1/4 convolutional code concatenated with the already existing Reed-Solomon code to be demonstrated on Galileo. In addition, high density spacecraft data storage will allow selective retransmissions, even from the edge of the Solar System, to overcome weather effects. In general, deep space communication was able to operate, and will continue to operate, closer to theoretical limits than any other form of communication. These include limits in antenna area and directivity, system noise temperature, coding efficiency, and everything else. The deep space communication links of the mid-90's and beyond will be compatible with new instruments and compression algorithms and represent a sensible investment in an overall end-to-end information system design.

  2. Effective solute transport in temporally fluctuating flow through heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentz, Marco; Carrera, Jesus

    2005-08-01

    We investigate the effective spreading of a passive solute evolving from a finite source in temporally fluctuating flow through a heterogeneous porous medium. To this end, we distinguish between two stochastic processes: one to represent the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity (K) and one to model the temporal fluctuations of the hydraulic gradient (J). In a second-order perturbation approach we systematically investigate the time evolution of ``effective'' dispersion coefficients, which quantify solute spreading in response to longitudinal and transverse fluctuations of the hydraulic gradient, spatial heterogeneity, and local dispersion. The effective dispersion coefficients consist of three contributions that reflect (1) local dispersion, (2) the interaction between local dispersion and spatial heterogeneity, and (3) the interaction of local dispersion, spatial heterogeneity, and temporal fluctuations (i.e., time fluctuations enhance spreading only as a consequence of the interplay with spatial heterogeneity). Furthermore, longitudinal and transverse temporal fluctuations of the hydraulic gradient induce macroscopic contributions to the longitudinal as well as the transverse effective dispersion coefficients, which can both be comparable to the contributions to longitudinal dispersion due to steady flow, i.e., large. An application to a field-scale tracer experiment gives evidence that temporal fluctuations help in explaining observed macroscopic transverse solute spreading. Furthermore, aquifer remediation techniques that rely on the mixing of injected reactants with resident contaminants, or simply on dissolving these, can benefit from forcing velocity fluctuations. The presented results provide a quantitative basis for the design of such hydraulic manipulation techniques.

  3. Effective solute transport in temporally fluctuating flow through heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentz, Marco; Carrera, Jesus

    2005-08-01

    We investigate the effective spreading of a passive solute evolving from a finite source in temporally fluctuating flow through a heterogeneous porous medium. To this end, we distinguish between two stochastic processes: one to represent the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity (K) and one to model the temporal fluctuations of the hydraulic gradient (J). In a second-order perturbation approach we systematically investigate the time evolution of "effective" dispersion coefficients, which quantify solute spreading in response to longitudinal and transverse fluctuations of the hydraulic gradient, spatial heterogeneity, and local dispersion. The effective dispersion coefficients consist of three contributions that reflect (1) local dispersion, (2) the interaction between local dispersion and spatial heterogeneity, and (3) the interaction of local dispersion, spatial heterogeneity, and temporal fluctuations (i.e., time fluctuations enhance spreading only as a consequence of the interplay with spatial heterogeneity). Furthermore, longitudinal and transverse temporal fluctuations of the hydraulic gradient induce macroscopic contributions to the longitudinal as well as the transverse effective dispersion coefficients, which can both be comparable to the contributions to longitudinal dispersion due to steady flow, i.e., large. An application to a field-scale tracer experiment gives evidence that temporal fluctuations help in explaining observed macroscopic transverse solute spreading. Furthermore, aquifer remediation techniques that rely on the mixing of injected reactants with resident contaminants, or simply on dissolving these, can benefit from forcing velocity fluctuations. The presented results provide a quantitative basis for the design of such hydraulic manipulation techniques.

  4. Cooperative Effects in Quartz Media with Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pishenko, A. V.; Gladush, M. G.; Prokhorov, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    We theoretically consider a problem of generation of infrared pulses of superradiation (SR) in a dielectric medium hosting a dense ensemble of quantum dots produced using the narrow gap semiconductors. We have studied the influence of complex local-field corrections on cooperative optical processes in such a material due to essential modifications of the effective values of the spontaneous relaxation rates.

  5. Changing the home nutrition environment: effects of a nutrition and media literacy pilot intervention. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    The specific aim for this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a nutrition and media literacy intervention targeting elementary students and their parents. The purpose of the intervention was to increase child fruit and vegetables (FV) consumption and change the home nutrition environment (measured with FV availability and accessibility and parental social support). During the intervention, students learned about nutrition, the role media plays in shaping values concerning nutrition, and developed a media campaign for their parents.

  6. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (77th, Atlanta, Georgia, August 10-13, 1994). Part IV: International Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The International Media section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 15 papers: "Testing the Interaction of the Third-Person Effect and Spiral of Silence in a Political Pressure Cooker: The Case of Hong Kong" (Lars Willnat); "The Use of Small State Variables in Research on Coverage of Foreign Policy: New Zealand…

  7. Volcanic hazard communication using maps: an evaluation of their effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Katharine; Barclay, Jenni; Pidgeon, Nick

    2007-11-01

    Hazard maps are considered essential tools in the communication of volcanic risk between scientists, the local authorities and the public. This study investigates the efficacy of such maps for the volcanic island of Montserrat in the West Indies using both quantitative and qualitative research techniques. Normal plan view maps, which have been used on the island over the last 10 years of the crisis, are evaluated against specially produced three-dimensional (3D) maps and perspective photographs. Thirty-two demographically representative respondents of mixed backgrounds, sex, education and location were interviewed and asked to complete a range of tasks and identification on the maps and photographs. The overall results show that ordinary people have problems interpreting their environment as a mapped representation. We found respondents’ ability to locate and orientate themselves as well as convey information relating to volcanic hazards was improved when using aerial photographs rather than traditional plan view contour maps. There was a slight improvement in the use of the 3D maps, especially in terms of topographic recognition. However, the most striking increase in effectiveness was found with the perspective photographs, which enabled people to identify features and their orientation much more readily. For Montserrat it appears that well labelled aerial and perspective photographs are the most effective geo-spatial method of communicating volcanic risks.

  8. Using the Psychology of Language to Effectively Communicate Actionable Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The words used to articulate science can have as significant a psychological impact on public perception as the data itself. It is therefore essential to utilize language that not only accurately relates the scientific information, but also effectively conveys a message that is congruent with the presenter's motivation for expressing the data. This is especially relevant for environmental subjects that are surrounded by emotionally charged, political discourses. For example are terms like catastrophe and disaster; while these words may accurately illustrate impartial scientific data, they will likely trigger psychological responses in audiences such as fear or denial that have a detrimental impact on the human decision making process. I propose a set of 5 key principles to assist in communicating data to the general public that both support the transfer of ideas and the presenter's intended psychological impact. 1) Articulate the underlying intentions that motivate the communication of data in a transparent manner 2) Use language congruent with the presenter's stated intentions 3) Maintain a neutral, non-judgmental attitude towards the complex human psychological and emotional dynamics present in a target audience 4) Demonstrate acceptance and compassion when analyzing past and present human actions that adversely affect the environment 5) Develop a perspective of non-attachment when proposing future actions and/or consequences of current human behaviors. The application of these 5 principles provides a framework to move from our current understanding of problems and solutions to effective physical action that allows us to gracefully adapt with our ever changing planet.

  9. Evaluation of effective electromagnetic properties in heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottauscio, O.; Chiadň Piat, V.; Chiampi, M.; Codegone, M.; Manzin, A.

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents the application of a homogenisation technique, based on the multi-scale expansion theory, to the analysis of heterogeneous materials constituted of magnetic inclusions dispersed in a dielectric lattice. The role of the shape and dimensions of the inclusions is analysed with reference to the effective electromagnetic properties and energy losses. The investigation is extended to the influence of flux waveforms with harmonic distortion, focusing the attention on the energy loss dependency on the harmonic content.

  10. Effective Dispersion in Temporally Fluctuating Flow in Heterogeneous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, J.; Dentz, M.; Zavala, V.

    2005-12-01

    We report on the effective dispersion of a solute in the temporally fluctuating random flow through a heterogeneous medium. Flow in natural formations is subject to temporal fluctuations on a range of time scales, including hyperannual climatic fluctuations, seasonal and irrigation cycles, daily barometric variations and earth tides. The interaction of spatial heterogeneity with temporal fluctuations and local dispersion enhances both longitudinal and transverse solute dispersion. Within a stochastic modeling framework we systematically quantify the impact of spatio-temporal flow fluctuations on effective dispersion coefficients, which measure solute spreading in response to longitudinal and transverse fluctuations of the hydraulic gradient, spatial heterogeneity and local dispersion. One observes three contributions that originate from (i) local dispersion, (ii) the interaction between local dispersion and spatial heterogeneity, and (iii) the interaction of local dispersion, spatial heterogeneity and temporal fluctuations. Longitudinal and transverse temporal fluctuations of the hydraulic gradient cause macroscopic (i.e., independent of local dispersion) contributions to the longitudinal as well as the transverse effective dispersion coefficients. An application to a field scale tracer experiment indicates that temporal fluctuations are a possible cause of observed macroscopic transverse solute spreading. Furthermore, the enhancement of solute dispersion due to temporal fluctuations shows that aquifer remediation techniques that rely on the mixing of injected reactants with resident contaminants can benefit form forcing flow fluctuations. This study provides a quantitative basis for the design of such hydraulic manipulation techniques.

  11. Effects of Cell Type and Culture Media on Interleukin-6 Secretion in Response to Environmental Particles

    PubMed Central

    Veranth, John M.; Cutler, N. Shane; Kaser, Erin G.; Reilly, Christopher A.; Yost, Garold S.

    2008-01-01

    Cultured lung cells provide an alternative to animal exposures for comparing the effects of different types of air pollution particles. Studies of particulate matter in vitro have reported proinflammatory cytokine signaling in response to many types of environmental particles, but there have been few studies comparing identical treatments in multiple cell types or identical cells with alternative cell culture protocols. We compared soil-derived, diesel, coal fly ash, titanium dioxide, and kaolin particles along with soluble vanadium and lipopolysaccharide, applied to airway-derived cells grown in submerged culture. Cell types included A549, BEAS-2B, RAW 264.7, and primary macrophages. The cell culture models (specific combinations of cell types and culture conditions) were reproducibly different in the cytokine signaling responses to the suite of treatments. Further, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) response to the treatments changed when the same cells, BEAS-2B, were grown in KGM versus LHC-9 media or in media containing bovine serum. The effect of changing media composition was reversible over multiple changes of media type. Other variables tested included culture well size and degree of confluence. The observation that sensitivity of a cell type to environmental agonists can be manipulated by modifying culture conditions suggests a novel approach for studying biochemical mechanisms of particle toxicity. PMID:18178371

  12. Effects of texture on salt precipitation dynamics and deposition patterns in drying porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norouzi Rad, Mansoureh; Shokri, Nima

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the physics of water evaporation from saline porous media is important in many natural and engineering applications such as durability of building materials and preservation of monuments, CO2 sequestration and water quality. Also excess of salt accumulation in soil may result in soil salinization which is a global problem adversely affecting vegetation, plant growth and crop production. Thus it is important to understand the parameters affecting salt transport and precipitation in porous media. We applied X-ray micro-tomography to investigate the dynamics of salt precipitation during evaporation from porous media as influenced by the particle and pore sizes. The packed beds were saturated with NaCl solution of 3 Molal and the time-lapse X-ray imaging was continued for one day. The results show that the presence of preferential evaporation sites (associated with fine pores) on the surface of the sand columns influences significantly the patterns and dynamics of NaCl precipitation (Norouzi Rad et al., 2013; Norouzi Rad and Shokri, 2014). They confirm the formation of an increasingly thick and discrete salt crust with increasing grain size in the sand column due to the presence of fewer fine pores (preferential precipitation sites) at the surface compared to the sand packs with finer grains. Fewer fine pores on the surface also results in shorter stage-1 precipitation for the columns with larger grain sizes. A simple model for the evolution of salt crust thickness based on this principle shows a good agreement with our experiments. Our results provide new insights regarding the physics of salt precipitation and its complex dynamics in porous media during evaporation. References Norouzi Rad, M., Shokri, N., Sahimi, M. (2013), Pore-Scale Dynamics of Salt Precipitation in Drying Porous Media, Phys. Rev. E, 88, 032404. Norouzi Rad, M., Shokri, N. (2014), Effects of grain angularity on NaCl precipitation in porous media during evaporation, Water Resour. Res., 50, 9020-9030, doi:10.1002/2014WR016125.

  13. Mechanics of layered anisotropic poroelastic media with applications to effective stress for fluid permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J.G.

    2010-06-01

    The mechanics of vertically layered porous media has some similarities to and some differences from the more typical layered analysis for purely elastic media. Assuming welded solid contact at the solid-solid interfaces implies the usual continuity conditions, which are continuity of the vertical (layering direction) stress components and the horizontal strain components. These conditions are valid for both elastic and poroelastic media. Differences arise through the conditions for the pore pressure and the increment of fluid content in the context of fluid-saturated porous media. The two distinct conditions most often considered between any pair of contiguous layers are: (1) an undrained fluid condition at the interface, meaning that the increment of fluid content is zero (i.e., {delta}{zeta} = 0), or (2) fluid pressure continuity at the interface, implying that the change in fluid pressure is zero across the interface (i.e., {delta}p{sub f} = 0). Depending on the types of measurements being made on the system and the pertinent boundary conditions for these measurements, either (or neither) of these two conditions might be directly pertinent. But these conditions are sufficient nevertheless to be used as thought experiments to determine the expected values of all the poroelastic coefficients. For quasi-static mechanical changes over long time periods, we expect drained conditions to hold, so the pressure must then be continuous. For high frequency wave propagation, the pore-fluid typically acts as if it were undrained (or very nearly so), with vanishing of the fluid increment at the boundaries being appropriate. Poroelastic analysis of both these end-member cases is discussed, and the general equations for a variety of applications to heterogeneous porous media are developed. In particular, effective stress for the fluid permeability of such poroelastic systems is considered; fluid permeabilities characteristic of granular media or tubular pore shapes are treated in some detail, as are permeabilities of some of the simpler types of fractured materials.

  14. Social communication intervention effects vary by dependent variable type in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Paul J.; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Sandbank, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have difficulty communicating in ways that are primarily for initiating and maintaining social relatedness (i.e., social communication). We hypothesized that the way researchers measured social communication would affect whether treatment effects were found. Using a best evidence review method, we found that treatments were shown to improve social communication outcomes approximately 54% of the time. The probability that a treatment affected social communication varied greatly depending on whether social communication was directly targeted (63%) or not (39%). Finally, the probability that a treatment affected social communication also varied greatly depending on whether social communication as measured in (a) contexts very similar to treatment sessions (82%) or (b) contexts that differed from treatment on at least setting, materials, and communication partner (33%). This paper also provides several methodological contributions. PMID:25346776

  15. Media Educational Practices in Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This article described the methods of media education development of personality (including the audience's individual, "creative critical thinking" corresponding to "conceptual" (knowledge of media culture theory), "sensory" (intentional communication with mass media, orientational experience in genre and topical…

  16. Mechano-chemical effects in weakly charged porous media.

    PubMed

    Zholkovskij, Emiliy K; Yaroshchuk, Andriy E; Koval'chuk, Volodymyr I; Bondarenko, Mykola P

    2015-08-01

    The paper is concerned with mechano-chemical effects, namely, osmosis and pressure-driven separation of ions that can be observed when a charged porous medium is placed between two electrolyte solutions. The study is focused on porous systems with low equilibrium interfacial potentials (about 30 mV or lower). At such low potentials, osmosis and pressure-driven separation of ions noticeably manifest themselves provided that the ions in the electrolyte solutions have different diffusion coefficients. The analysis is conducted by combining the irreversible thermodynamic approach and the linearized (in terms of the normalized equilibrium interfacial potential) version of the Standard Electrokinetic Model. Osmosis and the pressure-driven separation of ions are considered for an arbitrary mixed electrolyte solution and various porous space geometries. It is shown that the effects under consideration are proportional to a geometrical factor which, for all the considered geometries of porous space, can be expressed as a function of porosity and the ?- parameter of porous medium normalized by the Debye length. For all the studied geometries, this function turns out to be weakly dependent on both the porosity and the geometry type. The latter allows for a rough evaluation of the geometrical factor from experimental data on electric conductivity and hydraulic permeability without previous knowledge of the porous space geometry. The obtained results are used to illustrate how the composition of electrolyte solution affects the mechano-chemical effects. For various examples of electrolyte solution compositions, the obtained results are capable of describing positive, negative and anomalous osmosis, positive and negative rejection of binary electrolytes, and pressure-driven separation of binary electrolyte mixtures. PMID:25438703

  17. Speckle instability: coherent effects in nonlinear disordered media

    E-print Network

    Benoit Gremaud; Thomas Wellens

    2008-09-26

    We numerically investigate the properties of speckle patterns formed by nonlinear point scatterers. We show that, in the weak localization regime, dynamical instability appears, eventually leading to chaotic behavior of the system. Analysing the statistical properties of the instability thresholds for different values of the system size and disorder strength, a scaling law is emphasized. The later is also found to govern the smallest decay rate of the linear system, putting thus forward the crucial importance of interference effects. This is also underlined by the fact that coherent backscattering is still observed even in the chaotic regime.

  18. Long-Term Effects of a Church-Based Sex Education Program on Adolescent Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Shelley K.; Sollie, Donna L.

    1989-01-01

    Examimed effects of a church-based sex education program on sexual communication between adolescents (N=26) and their parents and peers on such topics as values, sexual attraction, and sexual identity. Found increased communication with parents suggesting positive impact of such programs on parent-child communication. (Author/ABL)

  19. The Effect of a Therapy Dog on the Communication Skills of an Adult with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFrance, Caroline; Garcia, Linda J.; Labreche, Julianne

    2007-01-01

    Little evidence-based research has been published within the field of communication disorders on the role of dogs as catalysts for human communication. This single participant study, a point of entry into this realm of research, explores the effects of a therapy dog on the communication skills of a patient with aphasia receiving intensive speech…

  20. 'It's Like Chicken but Bigger': Effects of Communication Strategy in the ESL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Marian J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of communication strategy instruction on second language performance (communicative success, speech rate, message abandonment) and on the use of communication strategies (paraphrase). Two classes of adult immigrants, enrolled in a full-time intermediate proficiency ESL program at a post-secondary institution in…

  1. The Hawking effect in dielectric media and the Hopfield model

    E-print Network

    F. Belgiorno; S. L. Cacciatori; F. Dalla Piazza

    2014-11-28

    We consider the so-called Hopfield model for the electromagnetic field in a dielectric dispersive medium in a framework in which one allows a space-time dependence of microscopic parameters, aimed to a phenomenological description of a space-time varying dielectric perturbation induced by means of the Kerr effect. We discuss the analogue Hawking effect, by first analyzing the geometrical optics for the Hopfield model, and then by introducing a simplified model which has the bonus to avoid many difficulties which are involved in the full Hopfield model, still keeping the same dispersion relation. Amplitude calculations are indicated, and generalized Manley-Rowe identities are derived in a quantum scattering theory framework. Our main result is an analytical calculation of the spontaneous thermal emission in the single-branch case, which is provided non perturbatively for the first time in the framework of dielectric black holes. An universal mechanism for thermality between optical black holes and acoustic black holes is also pointed out.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of television, radio, and print media programs for public mental health education.

    PubMed

    Austin, L S; Husted, K

    1998-06-01

    Mass media campaigns to influence public attitudes and behaviors in the area of mental health must consider cost-effectiveness, which is based on actual costs, the number of people reached (exposures), and the impact of the program on the individual. Cost per exposure is a critical factor. The authors review their experience in developing media programs in several broadcast formats and in print. Their experience suggests that an effective television production has a very high per-exposure cost and that radio is a more cost-effective way to present health messages. Radio programs also have the advantage of reaching people in their homes or cars or at work. Brief segments may be particularly cost-effective because they can be can be inserted between programs during prime-time hours. Print media--newspapers, magazines, and newsletters--can be cost-effective if magazine or newspaper space is free, but newsletters can be costly due to fixed postage costs. One advantage of print is that it can be reread, clipped out, copied, and passed on. PMID:9634162

  3. Cellular communication and “non-targeted effects”: Modelling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, Francesca; Facoetti, Angelica; Mariotti, Luca; Nano, Rosanna; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    2009-10-01

    During the last decade, a large number of experimental studies on the so-called "non-targeted effects", in particular bystander effects, outlined that cellular communication plays a significant role in the pathways leading to radiobiological damage. Although it is known that two main types of cellular communication (i.e. via gap junctions and/or molecular messengers diffusing in the extra-cellular environment, such as cytokines, NO etc.) play a major role, it is of utmost importance to better understand the underlying mechanisms, and how such mechanisms can be modulated by ionizing radiation. Though the "final" goal is of course to elucidate the in vivo scenario, in the meanwhile also in vitro studies can provide useful insights. In the present paper we will discuss key issues on the mechanisms underlying non-targeted effects and cell communication, for which theoretical models and simulation codes can be of great help. In this framework, we will present in detail three literature models, as well as an approach under development at the University of Pavia. More specifically, we will first focus on a version of the "State-Vector Model" including bystander-induced apoptosis of initiated cells, which was successfully fitted to in vitro data on neoplastic transformation supporting the hypothesis of a protective bystander effect mediated by apoptosis. The second analyzed model, focusing on the kinetics of bystander effects in 3D tissues, was successfully fitted to data on bystander damage in an artificial 3D skin system, indicating a signal range of the order of 0.7-1 mm. A third model for bystander effect, taking into account of spatial location, cell killing and repopulation, showed dose-response curves increasing approximately linearly at low dose rates but quickly flattening out for higher dose rates, also predicting an effect augmentation following dose fractionation. Concerning the Pavia approach, which can model the release, diffusion and depletion/degradation of candidate signals (e.g. cytokines) travelling in the extra-cellular environment, the good agreement with ad hoc experimental data obtained in our laboratory validated the adopted approach, which in the future can be applied also to other candidate signals. Although the available information is still not sufficient to decide whether the Linear No Threshold approach for low dose risk - including space radiation risk - has to be modified, these studies confirmed the need of a paradigm shift in (low-dose) radiobiology, where the DNA-centric vision needs to be integrated by a wider vision where cells constitute an organized population responding to external stimuli in a collective fashion, communicating by means of different molecular signals. Further studies, in particular in vivo (or at least in 3D tissues) and possibly combined with human epidemiological data, will be crucial to help solving such questions in the future.

  4. Doppler Effect of Nonlinear Waves and Superspirals in Oscillatory Media

    E-print Network

    Lutz Brusch; Alessandro Torcini; Markus Baer

    2003-02-12

    Nonlinear waves emitted from a moving source are studied. A meandering spiral in a reaction-diffusion medium provides an example, where waves originate from a source exhibiting a back-and-forth movement in radial direction. The periodic motion of the source induces a Doppler effect that causes a modulation in wavelength and amplitude of the waves (``superspiral''). Using the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, we show that waves subject to a convective Eckhaus instability can exhibit monotonous growth or decay as well as saturation of these modulations away from the source depending on the perturbation frequency. Our findings allow a consistent interpretation of recent experimental observations concerning superspirals and their decay to spatio-temporal chaos.

  5. Tailored copolymers structures: Effect on drag reduction in aqueous media

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.L.; Mumick, P.S.

    1993-12-31

    Water soluble polyampholytes as well as hydrophobically associating copolymers based on acrylamide (AM), sodium 2-(acrylamido)-2-methylpropanesulfonate (NaAMPS), 2-(acrylamido)-2-methylpropanetrimethylammonium chloride (AMPTAC), sodium 3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate (NaAMB), 3-(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanedimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate (AMPDAPS), and N-isopropylacrylamide (IPAM) have been synthesized and thoroughly characterized. The drag reduction properties were measured on a rotating disk rheometer. The relative drag reduction efficiencies have been reported in terms of absolute drag reduction (DR) as well as parameter, {Delta}, that has been obtained through volume fraction normalization (from a plot of %DR/{eta}C vs {eta}C.). This {Delta} parameter has also been correlated with other parameters reported in literature which bring out the effect of polymer structure and composition on drag reduction.

  6. EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETICALLY SIGNALIZED MEDIA ON HOST-PATHOGEN INTERACTION.

    PubMed

    D'Hallewin, G; Venditti, T; Cubaiu, L; Ladu, G; Renati, P

    2014-01-01

    Up to date, limited data are available about electromagnetic phase signaling effects on host-pathogen interactions during the postharvest of horticultural commodities. Inspired by the last striking works on water physics, quantum signaling through phase transfer and its impact on biological and histological structures, we studied the effect of different electromagnetic signals on pome blue mold (Penicillium expansum) pathogenesis. Tags with different electromagnetic-signals (EmS) were used to generate 3 Coherent Electro Dynamic (CED) environments. Artificially wounded 'Coscia' pears, placed onto 3 EmS tags (QF, QA and QR), were employed for the in vivo experiment. Whereas, a set of wounded-fruit placed onto an un-electromagnetic-signalized tag (QN) or kept without tag were used as blank or control, respectively. Inoculation was performed 2 or 24 h post-wounding with P. expansum conidia. The same tags placed under Petri dishes containing dot-inoculated PDA served for the in vitro experiment. Both experiments performed at 25 degrees C endured 7 days. The percentage of infected wounds was calculated and the radial growth measured in vitro. Concerning the in vivo experiment, 100% of control and blank fruit inoculated 2 h post-wounding was infected after 5 days, while, 97% after 7 days, when inoculation occurred 24 h post-wounding. Compared to control and blank, the pathogenesis in fruit placed on the EmS tags resulted inhibited, and when fruit was inoculated 2 h post-wounding, the infection degree on QF, QA and QR tags resulted 19, 52 and 64%, respectively. The degree for the same EmS tags was significantly lower when fruit was inoculated 24 h post-wounding (9, 32 and 42%, respectively). The in vitro experiment evidenced a notable inhibition of the radial growth by all EmS tags in comparison to control and blank (51 mm), while the QF tag provided the greatest inhibition (12 mm). PMID:26080485

  7. The effect of water on enzyme action in organic media.

    PubMed

    Zaks, A; Klibanov, A M

    1988-06-15

    Three model, unrelated enzymes (yeast alcohol oxidase, mushroom polyphenol oxidase, and horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase) were found to be catalytically active in a variety of organic solvents. For all enzymes and solvents tested, the enzymatic activity greatly increased upon an increase in the water content in the solvents (which always remained below the solubility limit). Much less water was required to reach the maximal activity in hydrophobic solvents than in their hydrophilic counterparts. However, when the catalytic activity was plotted versus the amount of water bound to the enzymes, a common pattern emerged for different solvents. These data suggest that the effect of organic solvents on an enzyme is primarily due to interactions with the enzyme-bound, essential layer of water rather than with the enzyme itself. At optimal water contents, enzymatic activities in organic solvents were in the range from 20 to 40% of those in aqueous solutions. From experiments on (i) replacement of water with other hydrogen bond-forming additives and (ii) titration of enzyme amino groups in an organic medium, as well as the literature data on dehydrated enzymes, it is concluded that the water required by enzymes in nonaqueous solvents provides them with sufficient conformational flexibility needed for catalysis. PMID:3131337

  8. Interface effects on multiphase flows in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Duan Z

    2008-01-01

    Most models for multiphase flows in a porous medium are based on the straightforward extension of Darcy's law, in which each fluid phase is driven by its own pressure gradient. The pressure difference between the phases is thought to be an effect of surface tension and is called capillary pressure. Independent of Darcy's law, for liquid imbibition processes in a porous material, diffusion models are sometime used. In this paper, an ensemble phase averaging technique for continuous multi phase flows is applied to derive averaged equations and to examine the validity of the commonly used models. The closure for the averaged equations is quite complicated for general multiphase flows in a porous material. For flows with a small ratio of the characteristic length of the phase interfaces to the macroscopic length, the closure relations can be simplified significantly by an approximation with a second order error in the length ratio. The approximation reveals the information of the length scale separation obscured during the ensemble averaging process, and leads to an equation system similar to Darcy's law, but with additional terms. Based on interactions on phase interfaces, relations among closure quantities are studied.

  9. Effect of experimentally induced otitis media on cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Franz, B K; Clark, G M; Bloom, D M

    1987-01-01

    Cat cochleas implanted with scala tympani prostheses were investigated histologically after inoculating the bullae with a suspension of group A streptococci. The prosthesis was passed through the round window membrane in one ear. In the other the prosthesis bypassed the round window via an opening anteroinferior to the round window niche. Before death, horseradish peroxidase was administered as a tracer for possible pathways of infection. Results showed that group A streptococci were pathogenic to the cat and caused inflammation in the bulla. The unimplanted round window membrane and the seals around the electrode entry points prevented infection from entering the cochlea. The seals around electrodes inserted either through the round window membrane or an opening drilled anteroinferior to the niche were equally effective. The horseradish peroxidase tracer studies showed, however, that a gap existed between the electrode and membranous seal, and this could be a potentially vulnerable site under certain conditions. Drilling an anteroinferior opening into the cochlea resulted in bony sequestra entering the cochlea. This can be avoided by blue-lining the opening and removing bone with picks before making an opening through the endosteum. PMID:3551743

  10. Effective communication: perception of two anti-smoking advertisements.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, A; McEwen, J

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents part of a survey which investigated people's response to different approaches to health education campaigns. The main objective of the original study was to find out whether the respondents preferred a fear-inducing campaign or a positive image advertising. Two anti-smoking advertisement produced by the Health Education Board for Scotland (HEBS), one using a fear appeal and the other, using a positive image were examined. A sample of 394 subjects in three age groups took part in the study and they were interviewed by means of a questionnaire. A high proportion in each group, including smokers indicated that they preferred the fear-inducing campaign. To investigate why people prefer this type of image, respondents were asked to explain their reasons. It was found that effective communication requires: (1) reality, (2) clear cut message, (3) simplicity, and (4) thought provoking nature and impact of the message. In addition, with regard to the advertising appeals it was found that both positive image and negative image campaigns could be used to attract attention and consequently communicate with the target population. Finally, the findings of this study in the light of psychosocial theories are discussed, and the Preference Model is proposed as providing a better understanding of the process behind people's preferences. PMID:9110830

  11. Generalized lattice Boltzmann model for flow through tight porous media with Klinkenberg's effect.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Fang, Wenzhen; Kang, Qinjun; De'Haven Hyman, Jeffrey; Viswanathan, Hari S; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2015-03-01

    Gas slippage occurs when the mean free path of the gas molecules is in the order of the characteristic pore size of a porous medium. This phenomenon leads to Klinkenberg's effect where the measured permeability of a gas (apparent permeability) is higher than that of the liquid (intrinsic permeability). A generalized lattice Boltzmann model is proposed for flow through porous media that includes Klinkenberg's effect, which is based on the model of Guo et al. [Phys. Rev. E 65, 046308 (2002)]. The second-order Beskok and Karniadakis-Civan's correlation [A. Beskok and G. Karniadakis, Microscale Thermophys. Eng. 3, 43 (1999) and F. Civan, Transp. Porous Med. 82, 375 (2010)] is adopted to calculate the apparent permeability based on intrinsic permeability and the Knudsen number. Fluid flow between two parallel plates filled with porous media is simulated to validate the model. Simulations performed in a heterogeneous porous medium with components of different porosity and permeability indicate that Klinkenberg's effect plays a significant role on fluid flow in low-permeability porous media, and it is more pronounced as the Knudsen number increases. Fluid flow in a shale matrix with and without fractures is also studied, and it is found that the fractures greatly enhance the fluid flow and Klinkenberg's effect leads to higher global permeability of the shale matrix. PMID:25871199

  12. Applying risk and resilience models to predicting the effects of media violence on development.

    PubMed

    Prot, Sara; Gentile, Douglas A

    2014-01-01

    Although the effects of media violence on children and adolescents have been studied for over 50 years, they remain controversial. Much of this controversy is driven by a misunderstanding of causality that seeks the cause of atrocities such as school shootings. Luckily, several recent developments in risk and resilience theories offer a way out of this controversy. Four risk and resilience models are described, including the cascade model, dose-response gradients, pathway models, and turning-point models. Each is described and applied to the existing media effects literature. Recommendations for future research are discussed with regard to each model. In addition, we examine current developments in theorizing that stressors have sensitizing versus steeling effects and recent interest in biological and gene by environment interactions. We also discuss several of the cultural aspects that have supported the polarization and misunderstanding of the literature, and argue that applying risk and resilience models to the theories and data offers a more balanced way to understand the subtle effects of media violence on aggression within a multicausal perspective. PMID:24851351

  13. Generalized lattice Boltzmann model for flow through tight porous media with Klinkenberg's effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Fang, Wenzhen; Kang, Qinjun; De'Haven Hyman, Jeffrey; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2015-03-01

    Gas slippage occurs when the mean free path of the gas molecules is in the order of the characteristic pore size of a porous medium. This phenomenon leads to Klinkenberg's effect where the measured permeability of a gas (apparent permeability) is higher than that of the liquid (intrinsic permeability). A generalized lattice Boltzmann model is proposed for flow through porous media that includes Klinkenberg's effect, which is based on the model of Guo et al. [Phys. Rev. E 65, 046308 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.046308]. The second-order Beskok and Karniadakis-Civan's correlation [A. Beskok and G. Karniadakis, Microscale Thermophys. Eng. 3, 43 (1999), 10.1080/108939599199864 and F. Civan, Transp. Porous Med. 82, 375 (2010), 10.1007/s11242-009-9432-z] is adopted to calculate the apparent permeability based on intrinsic permeability and the Knudsen number. Fluid flow between two parallel plates filled with porous media is simulated to validate the model. Simulations performed in a heterogeneous porous medium with components of different porosity and permeability indicate that Klinkenberg's effect plays a significant role on fluid flow in low-permeability porous media, and it is more pronounced as the Knudsen number increases. Fluid flow in a shale matrix with and without fractures is also studied, and it is found that the fractures greatly enhance the fluid flow and Klinkenberg's effect leads to higher global permeability of the shale matrix.

  14. Optimization of human mesenchymal stem cell manufacturing: the effects of animal/xeno-free media

    PubMed Central

    Oikonomopoulos, Angelos; van Deen, Welmoed K.; Manansala, Aida-Rae; Lacey, Precious N.; Tomakili, Tamera A.; Ziman, Alyssa; Hommes, Daniel W.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their immunosuppressive properties, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been evaluated for the treatment of immunological diseases. However, the animal-derived growth supplements utilized for MSC manufacturing may lead to clinical complications. Characterization of alternative media formulations is imperative for MSC therapeutic application. Human BMMSC and AdMSC were expanded in media supplemented with either human platelet lysates (HPL), serum-free media/xeno-free FDA-approved culture medium (SFM/XF), or fetal bovine serum (FBS) and the effects on their properties were investigated. The immunophenotype of resting and IFN-? primed BMMSC and AdMSC remained unaltered in all media. Both HPL and SFM/XF increased the proliferation of BMMSC and AdMSC. Expansion of BMMSC and AdMSC in HPL increased their differentiation, compared to SFM/XF and FBS. Resting BMMSC and AdMSC, expanded in FBS or SFM/XF, demonstrated potent immunosuppressive properties in both non-primed and IFN-? primed conditions, whereas HPL-expanded MSC exhibited diminished immunosuppressive properties. Finally, IFN-? primed BMMSC and AdMSC expanded in SFM/XF and HPL expressed attenuated levels of IDO-1 compared to FBS. Herein, we provide strong evidence supporting the use of the FDA-approved SFM/XF medium, in contrast to the HPL medium, for the expansion of MSC towards therapeutic applications. PMID:26564250

  15. Getting the message: media images and stereotypes and their effect on Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Mok, T A

    1998-01-01

    Mass media sources such as television and movies arguably offer up little in the way of positive Asian/Asian American images or role models. This article contends that the media do not often portray the diversity that is inherent within the Asian American culture and that such a paucity of Asian images may greatly affect perceptions Asian Americans may hold both of their own racial group and of the larger society. This article examines both media images of Asians and Asian Americans and autobiographical information from Asian American literature to illustrate the potentially detrimental effects of being a person of color in a society that emphasizes a monoracial standard of beauty. Information gleaned from first-hand accounts from Asian Americans often points to the media as a potent source of information as to how attractiveness is defined and measured. This article concludes with a discussion of some brief case examples and ethical imperatives for mental health workers in terms of both self-awareness and education as well as considerations for culturally sensitive therapy. PMID:9713159

  16. Optimization of human mesenchymal stem cell manufacturing: the effects of animal/xeno-free media.

    PubMed

    Oikonomopoulos, Angelos; van Deen, Welmoed K; Manansala, Aida-Rae; Lacey, Precious N; Tomakili, Tamera A; Ziman, Alyssa; Hommes, Daniel W

    2015-01-01

    Due to their immunosuppressive properties, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been evaluated for the treatment of immunological diseases. However, the animal-derived growth supplements utilized for MSC manufacturing may lead to clinical complications. Characterization of alternative media formulations is imperative for MSC therapeutic application. Human BMMSC and AdMSC were expanded in media supplemented with either human platelet lysates (HPL), serum-free media/xeno-free FDA-approved culture medium (SFM/XF), or fetal bovine serum (FBS) and the effects on their properties were investigated. The immunophenotype of resting and IFN-? primed BMMSC and AdMSC remained unaltered in all media. Both HPL and SFM/XF increased the proliferation of BMMSC and AdMSC. Expansion of BMMSC and AdMSC in HPL increased their differentiation, compared to SFM/XF and FBS. Resting BMMSC and AdMSC, expanded in FBS or SFM/XF, demonstrated potent immunosuppressive properties in both non-primed and IFN-? primed conditions, whereas HPL-expanded MSC exhibited diminished immunosuppressive properties. Finally, IFN-? primed BMMSC and AdMSC expanded in SFM/XF and HPL expressed attenuated levels of IDO-1 compared to FBS. Herein, we provide strong evidence supporting the use of the FDA-approved SFM/XF medium, in contrast to the HPL medium, for the expansion of MSC towards therapeutic applications. PMID:26564250

  17. The Effect of Family Communication Patterns on Adopted Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueter, Martha A.; Koerner, Ascan F.

    2008-01-01

    Adoption and family communication both affect adolescent adjustment. We proposed that adoption status and family communication interact such that adopted adolescents in families with certain communication patterns are at greater risk for adjustment problems. We tested this hypothesis using a community-based sample of 384 adoptive and 208…

  18. Computing effective communication policies in multiagent Doran Chakraborty

    E-print Network

    Sen, Sandip

    for computing the optimal communication strategy in such domains is often formulated with the assumption. The communication strategy com- puted off-line is used in the more probable scenarios that the agent would face develop an algorithm that tries to generate partial communication strategies based on system

  19. "Happy and Excited": Perceptions of Using Digital Technology and Social Media by Young People Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynan, Amanda; Murray, Janice; Goldbart, Juliet

    2014-01-01

    Young people are using digital technology and online social media within their everyday lives to enrich their social relationships. The UK government believes that using digital technology can improve social inclusion. One well-recognized outcome measure for establishing social inclusion is to examine opportunities for self-determination.…

  20. Visual Communication in Transition: Designing for New Media Literacies and Visual Culture Art Education across Activities and Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuiker, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    As an example of design-based research, this case study describes and analyses the enactment of a collaborative drawing and animation studio in a Singapore secondary school art classroom. The design embodies principles of visual culture art education and new media literacies in order to organize transitions in the settings of participation and…

  1. Local Appropriation of Global Communication Forms: A Micro Case Study of Teacher and Learners' Uses of Mass Media Genres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Fiona M.

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual Blending Theory (CBT) (Fauconnier & Turner, 2002), a cognitive theory of human processes of innovation, can be productively used alongside critical literacy approaches, for the analysis of how teachers and learners draw selectively, transformatively and purposively from aspects of the mass media. While numerous studies have pointed to…

  2. Effects of mass media action on the Axelrod model with social influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Arezky H.; Moreno, Y.

    2010-07-01

    The use of dyadic interaction between agents, in combination with homophily (the principle that “likes attract”) in the Axelrod model for the study of cultural dissemination, has two important problems: the prediction of monoculture in large societies and an extremely narrow window of noise levels in which diversity with local convergence is obtained. Recently, the inclusion of social influence has proven to overcome them [A. Flache and M. W. Macy, e-print arXiv:0808.2710]. Here, we extend the Axelrod model with social influence interaction for the study of mass media effects through the inclusion of a superagent which acts over the whole system and has non-null overlap with each agent of the society. The dependence with different parameters as the initial social diversity, size effects, mass media strength, and noise is outlined. Our results might be relevant in several socioeconomic contexts and for the study of the emergence of collective behavior in complex social systems.

  3. Quantifying the Effect of Sentiment on Information Diffusion in Social Media

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Social media have become the main vehicle of information production and consumption online. Millions of users every day log on their Facebook or Twitter accounts to get updates and news, read about their topics of interest, and become exposed to new opportunities and interactions. Although recent studies suggest that the contents users produce will affect the emotions of their readers, we still lack a rigorous understanding of the role and effects of contents sentiment on the dynamics of information diffusion. This work aims at quantifying the effect of sentiment on information diffusion, to understand: (i) whether positive conversations spread faster and/or broader than negative ones (or vice-versa); (ii) what kind of emotions are more typical of popular conversations on social media; and, (iii) what type of sentiment is expressed in conversations characterized by different temporal dynamics. Our findings show that, at the level of contents, negative messages spread faster than positive ones, but positive on...

  4. Communications

    E-print Network

    Levine, Stuart

    1986-01-01

    to my opinion that I quote parts of it to suggest that my reaction is not isolated. Paul Boyer calls it "this flawed but interesting little book." He concludes: Unfortunately, Technological Utopianism in American Culture adds up to somewhat less than...>^ Communications To T H E E D I T O R S : Stuart Levine's review of my book, Technological Utopianism in American Culture (March 1986), so misrepresents and oversimpli­ fies its contents as, I believe, to warrant a reply. Contrary to Levine's summary, I discuss...

  5. Solitary Waves in the Model of Active Media, Taking into Account Effects of Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likus, W.; Vladimirov, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    We study a system of differential equations simulating transport phenomena in active structured media. The model is a generalization of McKean's modification of the celebrated FitzHugh-Nagumo system, describing the nerve impulse propagation in axon. It takes into account the effects of memory, connected with the presence of internal structure. We construct explicitly the localized traveling wave solutions and analyze their stability.

  6. Sterility testing of immunological products: comparative efficacy of media and effect of preservatives.

    PubMed

    Thornton, D H; Maley, A D; Frerichs, G N

    1987-04-01

    A comparison was made of the abilities of various culture media to support the growth of a range of micro-organisms commonly recommended as control strains in tests for the sterility of immunological products. The effects of phenol, cresol, formaldehyde and thiomersal on the growth of these organisms were studied. Attention is drawn to some limitations of the current pharmacopoeial test methods. PMID:3597447

  7. Technical editing and the effective communication of scientific results

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, G.W.; Picologlou, S.M.

    1996-05-01

    Communication of scientific results--whether for professional journals, poster sessions, oral presentations, or the popular press--is an essential part of any scientific investigation. The technical editor plays an important rolein ensuring that scientists express their results correctly and effectively. Technical editing comprises far more than simple proofreading. The editor`s tasks may range from restructuring whole parpagrphs and suggesting improved graphical aids to writing abstracts and preparing first drafts of proposals. The technical editor works closely with scientists to present complex ideas to differentaudiences, including fellow scentists, funding agencies, and the general public. New computer technologyhas also involved the technical editor not only with on-line editing but also with preparing CD ROMs and World Wide Web pages.

  8. Metrics and the effective computational scientist: process, quality and communication.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Eric T

    2012-09-01

    Recent treatments of computational knowledge worker productivity have focused upon the value the discipline brings to drug discovery using positive anecdotes. While this big picture approach provides important validation of the contributions of these knowledge workers, the impact accounts do not provide the granular detail that can help individuals and teams perform better. I suggest balancing the impact-focus with quantitative measures that can inform the development of scientists. Measuring the quality of work, analyzing and improving processes, and the critical evaluation of communication can provide immediate performance feedback. The introduction of quantitative measures can complement the longer term reporting of impacts on drug discovery. These metric data can document effectiveness trends and can provide a stronger foundation for the impact dialogue. PMID:22406695

  9. The Science of Effectively Communicating about Drought in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gann, T. M.; Conklin, M. H.; Gonzales, J. P.; Matlock, T.

    2014-12-01

    The ongoing drought in California is having a tremendous impact on the state economy and the daily lives of its citizens. The impact of the drought is also exacerbated by the complexity of water issues in California, and the lack of understanding in the general public about this complexity. Our project has two goals, both focused on the broader issue of increasing the public's understanding of water issues by helping scientists engage more effectively with the public. The first is to use a survey to assess the perceptions of California residents regarding the ongoing drought affecting the state. The first portion of our survey allows our participants to share, in a free response format, their understanding of the causes, consequences, and potential solutions to the problems caused by drought. This allowed us to get some insight into how people view the drought prior to being lead by our questions, and allows us to conduct a detailed linguistic analysis of the text they provide. Next we asked a battery of questions meant to assess our participants' views on issues such as their views of water rights, the commoditization of water, and what role the government (both state and local) should play in managing California's water. The second goal is to use this data to create profiles that can then be used to more effectively communicate with and educate the public. Together, the results will provide new and valuable insights into how views of drought vary across stakeholders, and could inform policies related to water use. The presentation will include discussion of these results, their implications for best practices by science communicators, and potential impact on policy.

  10. Communicating with Staff: Some Guidelines for Internal Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Service Bureau, Inc., Arlington, VA. Administrative Leadership Service.

    To improve communications within the school system, a set of guidelines explains the rationale and procedures for an effective internal information network. Such a network should provide (1) information that is forthright and correct, (2) a continuous flow of information, (3) feedback, and (4) the use of many media, using channels best suited to…

  11. Positive fantasies or negative contrasts: the effect of media body ideals on restrained eaters' mood, weight satisfaction, and food intake.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G; Gleaves, David H

    2013-09-01

    Although viewing media body ideals promotes body dissatisfaction and problematic eating among women (e.g., extreme restraint/overeating), some argue that women only report such negative effects because they think that they are meant to (i.e., demand characteristics). Because restrained eaters are trying to lose weight, they might be vulnerable to such media exposure. However, because of demand characteristics, evidence is mixed. Therefore, we minimized demand characteristics and explored whether media body ideals would trigger restrained eaters to report negative (negative mood, weight dissatisfaction) or positive (positive mood, weight satisfaction) effects. We also hypothesized that this change (negative or positive) would encourage food intake. Restrained and unrestrained eaters (n=107) memorized media or control images. Restrained eaters exposed to media images reported decreased weight satisfaction and increased negative mood, but their food intake was not significantly affected. Perhaps paying advertent attention to the images caused goal-related negative affect, which triggered restraint. PMID:23954195

  12. Mass Media and Global Warming: A Public Arenas Model of the Greenhouse Effect's Scientific Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuzil, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Uses the Public Arenas model to examine the historical roots of the greenhouse effect issue as communicated in scientific literature from the early 1800s to modern times. Utilizes a constructivist approach to discuss several possible explanations for the rise and fall of global warming as a social problem in the scientific arena. (PA)

  13. An Experimental Study Designed to Test the Relative Effectiveness of a Multi-Media Instructional System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheier, Elaine

    A study compared the effectiveness of Learning 100 (L-100), a multimedia, multimodal, multilevel communication skills system, with that of a more conventional reading program with functional illiterates in Bedford-Stuyvesant, a ghetto area in Brooklyn, New York. In January, 1968, under the Title III Adult Education Act of 1966, Adult Basic…

  14. Manufacturing consent?: Media messages in the mobilization against HIV/AIDS in India and lessons for health communication.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shamshad

    2014-01-01

    Despite repeated calls for a more critical and "culture-centered" approach to health communication, textual analysis of televised public service advertising (PSA) campaigns has been largely neglected, even by critical communication scholars. In the case of "developing" countries in particular, there is an acute shortage of such literature. On the other hand, following the outbreak of major public health diseases such as AIDS, most countries have adopted PSA campaigns as the most preferred means of communicating messages. Drawing on insights from cultural studies (especially Antonio Gramsci and Stuart Hall), this article engages in textual analysis of the televised PSA campaigns launched by the Indian state to prevent HIV/AIDS between 2002 and 2005. Through such analysis, it argues that although few diseases in Indian history have spurred such massive and creative efforts for mass mobilization as AIDS, these efforts, in terms of their ethical implications, have been far from emancipatory. In fact, they have constructed and perpetuated the logic of domination and control along class, gender, sexuality, and knowledge systems, often contradicting and potentially harming the very goal of HIV prevention and of health promotion and empowerment. This article also holds that assessing public health campaigns through textual analysis, a highly neglected tool in health communication, can shed important light on a far more complex and changing nature of the state and public policy, especially in the developing world, thereby opening up space for alternative theorizing for health communication and social change. PMID:23631645

  15. Communicating with Villagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colle, Royal D.

    Common problems and possible solutions in communication with rural villagers in developing countries are discussed in terms of communication extension strategies, mass communication media, the use of simple communication technology in place of the more sophisticated and expensive methods, a case study of a successful communication project in…

  16. Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: Design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies") aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe. Methods/Design This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to communicating coherent messages to consumers in Europe. Discussion The FoodRisC project offers a unique approach to the investigation of food risk/benefit communication. The effective spread of food risk/benefit information will assist initiatives aimed at reducing the burden of food-related illness and disease, reducing the economic impact of food crises and ensuring that confidence in safe and nutritious food is fostered and maintained in Europe. PMID:21569458

  17. Truncated multiGaussian fields and effective conductance of binary media.

    SciTech Connect

    Marzouk, Youssef M.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Ray, Jaideep; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Truncated Gaussian fields provide a flexible model for defining binary media with dispersed (as opposed to layered) inclusions. General properties of excursion sets on these truncated fields are coupled with a distance-based upscaling algorithm and approximations of point process theory to develop an estimation approach for effective conductivity in two-dimensions. Estimation of effective conductivity is derived directly from knowledge of the kernel size used to create the multiGaussian field, defined as the full-width at half maximum (FWHM), the truncation threshold and conductance values of the two modes. Therefore, instantiation of the multiGaussian field is not necessary for estimation of the effective conductance. The critical component of the effective medium approximation developed here is the mean distance between high conductivity inclusions. This mean distance is characterized as a function of the FWHM, the truncation threshold and the ratio of the two modal conductivities. Sensitivity of the resulting effective conductivity to this mean distance is examined for two levels of contrast in the two modal conductances and different FWHM sizes. Results demonstrate that the FWHM is a robust measure of mean travel distance in the background medium. The resulting effective conductivities are accurate when compared to numerical results and results obtained from effective media theory, distance-based upscaling and numerical simulation.

  18. Investigation of Media Effects on Removal of Heavy Metals in Bioretention Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülbaz, Sezar; Melek Kazezyilmaz-Alhan, Cevza; Copty, Nadim K.

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals are the most toxic elements at high concentrations, although some of them such as Cu and Zn are essential to plants, humans, and animals within a limited value. However, some heavy metals, such as Pb, have adverse effects even at low concentrations. Therefore, it is known that the toxic metals such as Zn, Cu and Pb in storm water runoff are serious threat for aquatic organisms. It is very important to control and reduce heavy metal concentration in urban storm water runoff. There are several methods to remove the aforementioned toxic metals such as electrolyte extraction, chemical precipitation, ion-exchange, reverse osmosis, membrane filtration, adsorption, cementation, and electrochemical treatment technologies. However, these methods are highly expensive and hard to implement for treatment of big volumes of water such as storm water. For this purpose, Low Impact Development (LID) Best Management Practices (BMPs) have become popular to collect, infiltrate, and treat toxic metals in storm water runoff in recent years. LID-BMP is a land planning method which is used to manage storm water runoff and improve water quality by reducing contaminant in storm water runoff. Bioretention is an example of LID-BMP application of which usage has recently been started in storm water treatment. Researchers have been investigating the advantages of bioretention systems and this study contributes to these research efforts by seeking for the media effects of bioretention on heavy metal removal. For this purpose, batch sorption experiments were performed to determine the distribution coefficients and retardation factor of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) for bioretention media such as mulch, turf, local or vegetative soil, sand and gravel. Furthermore, sorption reaction kinetics of Cu, Pb and Zn are tested in order to assess the sorption equilibrium time of these metals for 5 bioretention media. The results of sorption test show that turf has higher sorption capacity than mulch and local soil for heavy metals used in the experiment. On the other hand, sand and gravel have relatively lower sorption capacities. Linear equilibrium isotherm represents sorption of these metals for all bioretention media. The highest sorption is observed for Pb followed by Cu and Zn for all bioretention media. The time required for reaching equilibrium conditions for bioretention column media is ranged from 1 to 6 hours for each metal investigated.

  19. The effects of chemical kinetics and wall temperature on performance of porous media burners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    mohammadi, Iman; Hossainpour, Siamak

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports a two-dimensional numerical prediction of premixed methane-air combustion in inert porous media burner by using of four multi-step mechanisms: GRI-3.0 mechanism, GRI-2.11 mechanism and the skeletal and 17 Species mechanisms. The effects of these models on temperature, chemical species and pollutant emissions are studied. A two-dimensional axisymmetric model for premixed methane-air combustion in porous media burner has developed. The finite volume method has used to solve the governing equations of methane-air combustion in inert porous media burner. The results indicate that the present four models have the same accuracy in predicting temperature profiles and the difference between these profiles is not more than 2 %. In addition, the Gri-3.0 mechanism shows the best prediction of NO emission in comparison with experimental data. The 17 Species mechanism shows good agreement in prediction of temperature and pollutant emissions with GRI-3.0, GRI-2.11 and the skeletal mechanisms. Also the effects of wall temperature on the gas temperature and mass fraction of species such as NO and CH4 are studied.

  20. The Emerging Role of Social Media in Urology

    PubMed Central

    Leveridge, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Social media have become so integrated into modern communications as to be universal in our personal and, increasingly, professional lives. Recent examples of social media uptake in urology, and the emergence of data to quantify it, reveal the expansion of conventional communication routes beyond the in-person forum. In every domain of urologic practice, from patient interaction through research to continuing professional development, the move online has unlocked another layer of conversation, dissemination, and, indeed, caveats. Social media have a democratizing effect, placing patients, trainees, practitioners, and thought leaders in the same arena and on equal footing. If uptake of social media in medicine even remotely parallels its rise to ubiquity in other areas, it will only expand and evolve in the coming years. For these reasons, this article presents an overview of the most recent data on the impact and potential complications of social media usage in the urologic community. PMID:25337040

  1. Highlighting media modifications: can a television commercial mitigate the effects of music videos on female appearance satisfaction?

    PubMed

    Quigg, Stephanie L; Want, Stephen C

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to idealized media portrayals of women induces appearance dissatisfaction in females, in the short term. Interventions that highlight the artificial nature of media portrayals can mitigate this effect. The present research investigated whether a 75 second television commercial, that demonstrates behind-the-scenes techniques used to artificially enhance media models, could be similarly effective. Eighty-seven Caucasian female undergraduates were randomly assigned to one of three conditions. The first group viewed music videos and ordinary television commercials. A second group viewed the same music videos and the "intervention" commercial. A final, control, group viewed television and commercials featuring no people. Viewing music videos resulted in significantly lower levels of self-reported appearance satisfaction compared to viewing control television, p<.05, d=-.67. However, exposure to the intervention commercial counter-acted this effect. Demonstrating the extent to which media portrayals of women are artificially enhanced can mitigate detrimental effects on female appearance satisfaction. PMID:21353655

  2. 1 Media and Public Affairs MEDIA AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    . UNDERGRADUATE Bachelor's programs · Bachelor of Arts with a major in journalism and mass communication (http://bulletin.gwu.edu/arts-sciences communication (http://bulletin.gwu.edu/arts-sciences/media-public-affairs/ ba-political-communication-public-affairs/combined-ba-smpa-major-ma) Minor · Minor in journalism and mass communication (http:// bulletin.gwu.edu/arts-sciences

  3. Effects of temperature on bacterial transport and destruction in bioretention media: field and laboratory evaluations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan; Seagren, Eric A; Davis, Allen P; Karns, Jeffrey S

    2012-06-01

    Microbial activities are significantly influenced by temperature. This study investigated the effects of temperature on the capture and destruction of bacteria from urban stormwater runoff in bioretention media using 2-year field evaluations coupled with controlled laboratory column studies. Field data from two bioretention cells show that the concentration of indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli) was reduced during most storm events, and that the probability of meeting specific water quality criteria in the discharge was increased. Indicator bacteria concentration in the input flow typically increased with higher daily temperature. Although bacterial removal efficiency was independent of temperature in the field and laboratory, column tests showed that bacterial decay coefficients in conventional bioretention media (CBM) increase exponentially with elevated temperature. Increases in levels of protozoa and heterotrophic bacteria associated with increasing temperature appear to contribute to faster die-off of trapped E. coli in CBM via predation and competition. PMID:22866389

  4. Derivation of effective macroscopic Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard equations for periodic immiscible flows in porous media

    E-print Network

    Schmuck, Markus; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2012-01-01

    Using thermodynamic and variational principles we examine a basic phase field model for a mixture of two incompressible fluids in strongly perforated domains. With the help of the multiple scale method with drift and our recently introduced splitting strategy for Ginzburg-Landau/Cahn-Hilliard type equations [1], we rigorously derive an effective macroscopic phase field formulation under the assumption of periodic flow and a sufficiently large Peclet number. As for classical convection-diffusion problems, we obtain systematically diffusion-dispersion relations (including Taylor-Aris-dispersion). Our results also provide a convenient computational framework to macroscopically track interfaces in porous media. In view of the well-known versatility of phase field models, our study proposes a promising model for many engineering and scientific applications such as multiphase flows in porous media, microfluidics, and fuel cells.

  5. Derivation of effective macroscopic Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard equations for periodic immiscible flows in porous media

    E-print Network

    Markus Schmuck; Marc Pradas; Gregorios A. Pavliotis; Serafim Kalliadasis

    2013-10-19

    Using thermodynamic and variational principles we examine a basic phase field model for a mixture of two incompressible fluids in strongly perforated domains. With the help of the multiple scale method with drift and our recently introduced splitting strategy for Ginzburg-Landau/Cahn-Hilliard-type equations [Schmuck et al., Proc. R. Soc. A 468:3705-3724, 2012.], we rigorously derive an effective macroscopic phase field formulation under the assumption of periodic flow and a sufficiently large P\\'eclet number. As for classical convection-diffusion problems, we obtain systematically diffusion-dispersion relations (including Taylor-Aris-dispersion). Our results also provide a convenient analytical and computational framework to macroscopically track interfaces in porous media. In view of the well-known versatility of phase field models, our study proposes a promising model for many engineering and scientific applications such as multiphase flows in porous media, microfluidics, and fuel cells.

  6. The effect of indoor air pollutants on otitis media and asthma in children

    SciTech Connect

    Daigler, G.E.; Markello, S.J.; Cummings, K.M. )

    1991-03-01

    This case-control study investigated the possible association between home environmental air pollutants and their effect on otitis media and asthma in children. Patients with physician-diagnosed otitis (n = 125, 74% response), with asthma (n = 137, 80% response), and controls (n = 237, 72% response) from a private pediatric practice seen between October 1986 and May 1987 were studied. A questionnaire inquired about housing characteristics (i.e., age, insulation, heating system) and sources of indoor air pollution such as cigarette smoking, use of woodburning stoves, household pets, etc. Analysis of the responses confirmed previous findings of significant relationships between maternal smoking (P = .021), and the presence of pets (P = .034) and the occurrence of asthma. A newly reported relationship between exposure to woodburning stoves and the occurrence of otitis (P less than .05) was reported. This implicates yet another risk factor (wood burning) in the etiology of otitis media.

  7. Selecting Media for Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, L. J.

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of instruction on using a formal media selection procedure on the media selection choices made by novice instructional designers. Twenty-nine male and female graduate students enrolled in a media design course at Arizona State University participated in the study. Media design problems were used…

  8. Cherenkov and Fano effects at the origin of asymmetric vector mesons in nuclear media

    E-print Network

    I. M. Dremin

    2015-05-23

    It is argued that the experimentally observed phenomenon of asymmetric vector mesons produced in nuclear media during high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions can be explained as Cherenkov and Fano effects. The mass distributions of lepton pairs created at meson decays decline from the traditional Breit-Wigner shape in the low-mass wing of the resonance. That is explained by the positive real part of the amplitude in this wing for classic Cherenkov treatment and further detalized in quantum mechanics as the interference of direct and continuum states in Fano effect. The corresponding parameters are found from the comparison with rho-meson data and admit reasonable explanation.

  9. Long-term effects of ventilation tubes for persistent otitis media with effusion in children.

    PubMed

    Schilder, A G; Hak, E; Straatman, H; Zielhuis, G A; van Bon, W H; van den Broek, P

    1997-10-01

    The otological, auditory and developmental effects of treatment with ventilation tubes were studied in a sample of 7-8-year-old Dutch children screened for otitis media with effusion (OME) serially at preschool age. Children treated with ventilation tubes were matched retrospectively for OME history, sex, and age with children who were not treated surgically. At the age of 7-8, abnormalities of the tympanic membrane were more prevalent in treated than in untreated ears. No significant differences were found in middle ear function and hearing in both groups. Some positive effects of early surgical intervention on specific developmental measures were found. PMID:9372253

  10. Simulation of the effects of FCC grains on the remanence of thin film media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walmsley, N. S.; Chantrell, R. W.; O'Grady, K.

    1999-03-01

    The motivation for this work is to show the effects of non-perfect crystallinity in Co-alloy thin films and, more importantly, the presence of FCC grains on the remanence of thin film media. This is carried by simulating the DC demagnetisation (DCD) process using an energy gradient descent algorithm and by using a simulated annealing technique to perform AC erasure. We calculate switching field distributions (SFDs) from the remanence curves; the SFDs illustrate the dramatic effect of FCC grains on magnetisation reversal in thin films. Importantly, we show the magnitude of the magnetostatic interactions determine the sign of the ?I plots in non-exchange coupled systems.

  11. Communication Media in Education for Low-Income Countries: Implications for Planning. Fundamentals of Educational Planning--29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnany, Emile G.; Mayo, John K.

    This booklet discusses, in the context of low-income countries, a series of planning issues bridging education and communication. The planning issues include the democratization of educational opportunity, the quality of instruction and learning, the impact of education through technology on rural areas, and the participation of people in their…

  12. Social Media as a Practical Approach in Engaging Key Stakeholders in School Crisis Communication Plans: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agozzino, Alisa; Kaiser, Candace

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined how public relations specialists within school systems are developing, implementing, and revising their communication crisis plans in an effort to fully engage all key stakeholders. Four research questions and two hypotheses were posed. Members from a state public relations association for schools were asked to…

  13. Re-Examination of Mixed Media Communication: The Impact of Voice, Data Link, and Mixed Air Traffic Control Environments on the Flight Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Melisa; McGann, Alison; Mackintosh, Margaret-Anne; Lozito, Sandra; Ashford, Rose (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A simulation in the B747-400 was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center that compared how crews handled voice and data link air traffic control (ATC) messages in a single medium versus a mixed voice and data link ATC environment The interval between ATC messages was also varied to examine the influence of time pressure in voice, data link, and mixed ATC environments. For messages sent via voice, transaction times were lengthened in the mixed media environment for closely spaced messages. The type of environment did not affect data link times. However, messages times were lengthened in both single and mixed-modality environments under time pressure. Closely spaced messages also increased the number of requests for clarification for voice messages in the mixed environment and review menu use for data link messages. Results indicated that when time pressure is introduced, the mix of voice and data link does not necessarily capitalize on the advantages of both media. These findings emphasize the need to develop procedures for managing communication in mixed voice and data link environments.

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (82nd, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 3-8, 1999). Media Management and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Media Management and Education section of the Proceedings contains the following 9 papers: "Communication Technique: How Does a U.S. Record Company Identify, Target and Reach Its Audience in an Ever-Competitive Marketplace?" (Lisa L. Rollins); "Supplier-Buyer Relationship in the Global News Value-Chain in the Internet Age" (Yong-Chan Kim);…

  15. Communication about results of comparative effectiveness studies: a pharmaceutical industry view.

    PubMed

    Perfetto, Eleanor M; Bailey, John E; Gans-Brangs, Kathleen R; Romano, Steven J; Rosenthal, Norman R; Willke, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    This article provides a perspective from the pharmaceutical industry on a hypothetical comparative effectiveness research case, highlighting tension between the reality of conducting comparative effectiveness research and the regulation of biopharmaceutical industry communication. Specifically, under current law and regulations, Aesculapion, the hypothetical maker of the fictional migraine headache drug Hemikrane, would have limited ability to communicate findings or to respond to inaccurate "what-if" scenario communications. Principles for communicating drug information could increase decision makers' access to information while making it easier for them to assess the quality and potential biases of different information sources. The article proposes two complementary approaches: formal Food and Drug Administration guidance clarifying how industry can participate meaningfully and proactively in the comparative effectiveness research discourse, possibly based on 1997 legislation governing communication of "health care economic information"; and stakeholder collaboration on development and adoption of voluntary "good communication principles." PMID:23048099

  16. The Effectiveness of Using Social Communications Networks in Mathematics Teachers' Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Hisham Barakat

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to determine the effectiveness of using social communications networks in mathematics teachers' professional development. The main research questions was: what is the effectiveness of using social communications networks in mathematics teachers' professional development. The sub questions were: (1) what are the standards of…

  17. Analyzing Effective Communication in Mathematics Group Work: The Role of Visual Mediators and Technical Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryve, Andreas; Nilsson, Per; Pettersson, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing and designing productive group work and effective communication constitute ongoing research interests in mathematics education. In this article we contribute to this research by using and developing a newly introduced analytical approach for examining effective communication within group work in mathematics education. By using data from…

  18. Effects of Parent Instruction on Communicative Turns of Latino Children Using Augmentative and Alternative Communication during Storybook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa-Lugo, Linda Iris; Kent-Walsh, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Current research indicates that children who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) often are not given opportunities to participate in supportive early storybook-reading experiences in home environments. This investigation employed a single-subject, multiple-baseline-across-subjects design to investigate the effects of a parent…

  19. Cooperative Electronic Mail: Effective Communication Technology for Introductory Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pence, Laura E.

    1999-05-01

    One drawback to using cooperative learning in the classroom is that it takes up class time and reduces the amount of content that can be covered during a semester. Cooperative electronic mail is an excellent alternate method of using cooperative learning that shifts the medium of interaction to the computer and encourages students to learn to communicate effectively through technology. In this project, three types of exercises were assigned, one prior to each exam. These three assignments were (i) an open-ended question, (ii) a traditional cooperative activity done electronically, and (iii) an exercise to allow students to write exam questions for each other. The average participation rate in the exercises was 90% over four semesters, which indicated that the project was an effective incentive to get students to use email regularly. The evaluations of the project were also extremely positive. One surprising result of the assessment was that female students gave even more favorable responses than men, suggesting that this project was an excellent way to encourage women to use computer technology.

  20. Communication This sheet has sample occupations, work settings, employers, and career development activities associated with this major. Some of these

    E-print Network

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    Communication This sheet has sample occupations, work settings, employers, and career development Specialist Social Media Manager Special Events Coordinator Technical Director/Manager Media and Communication of Education Communications Agencies Communications Offices Consulting Firms Corporate Settings Digital Media