The mass media are considered to be television, radio, movies, and newspapers. They may generate changes in cognition and comprehension. They do effect emotional arousal, sex and behavior identification, and changes in allocation of time, consumer purchase, and voting behavior. The only data which show a clear relationship between the mass media…
Blake, Allison; Bonk, Kathy; Heimpel, Daniel; Wright, Cathy S
Too often, strategic communication is too little, or comes too late, when involved with a child fatality or serious injury. This article explores the challenges arising from negative publicity around child safety issues and the opportunities for communications strategies that employ a proactive public health approach to engaging media, policymakers, and the public. The authors provide a case study and review methods by which child welfare agencies across the nation are building public engagement and support for improved outcomes in child safety while protecting legitimate confidentiality requirements. Finally, the piece articulates the rationale for agency investments in the resources necessary to develop and implement an effective communications plan. PMID:24199331
Developing visual communication media technologies, such as computerized television, three-dimensional video, digital video interactive (DVI), and high-definition television hinder rather than enhance viewers' perceptual processes, understanding, and aesthetic appreciation of visual messages. Visual communication media researchers should reach out…
Visual communication media technologies, particularly television, hinder rather than enhance viewer perceptual processes, understanding, and aesthetic appreciation of visual messages transmitted by means of such technologies. Emerging technologies, including high-definition, interactive, and holographic television, will not necessarily improve or…
Lowrey, Wilson; Evans, William; Gower, Karla K; Robinson, Jennifer A; Ginter, Peter M; McCormick, Lisa C; Abdolrasulnia, Maziar
Background Public health officials and journalists play a crucial role in disseminating information regarding natural disasters, terrorism and other human-initiated disasters. However, research suggests that journalists are unprepared to cover terrorism and many types of natural disasters, in part because of lack sufficient expertise in science and medicine and training. The objective of this research was to identify solutions to problems facing journalists and public health public information officer (PIOs) of communicating with the public during natural and human-initiated disasters. Methods To assist in identifying the most pressing problems regarding media response to health-related risks such as terrorism and large-scale natural disasters, 26 expert advisors were convened, including leaders representing journalists and public information officers, state health officials, experts in terrorism and emergency preparedness, and experts in health, risk, and science communication. The advisory group participated in pre-arranged interviews and were asked to identify and review bioterrorism educational resources provided to journalist. All advisory group members were then invited to attend a day long meeting January 29, 2004 to review the findings and reach consensus. Results The most pressing problems were found to be a lack of coordination between PIO's and journalists, lack of resources for appropriately evaluating information and disseminating it efficiently, and a difference in perception of PIO's and journalist towards each others role during emergency situations. The advisory board developed a list of 15 recommendations that may enhance communication plans betweens PIO's, journalist and the public. The solutions were meant to be feasible in terms of costs and practical in terms of the professional and organizational realities in which journalists and PIO's work. Conclusion It is clear that PIO's and journalists play crucial roles in shaping public response to
Sinclair, P. W.
The internet and social media have been a critical vector for misinformation on climate change. Scientists have not always been proactive or effective in utilizing the medium to bring attention to the best science, to correct misinformation and overcome urban myths. Similarly, mainstream journalists have been handicapped in dealing with the wide open nature of the medium, and often muted by editorial concerns or budget restrictions. Independent communicators who are highly motivated can make inroads in this area by using the internet's immediacy and connectivity to consistently connect viewers and readers to reliable information. Over the last 4 years, I have developed a series of you tube videos, made deliberately provocative to engage the internet's confrontational culture, but carefully crafted to bring the best science into the freewheeling community. In doing so, I have won the confidence of leading climate scientists, and in some cases assisted them in clarifying their message. This presentation will share simple tips, useful practices, and effective strategies for making complex material more clear and user friendly, and help scientists better convey the stories hidden in their data.
This practical volume is written for the non-communications major or graduate who needs skills in writing, speaking, or using visual media, but it will be valuable to anyone who would like to communicate more effectively. The following topics are covered: the audience and the message; communication within groups; communication and social action;…
Mcculla, James W.; Kukowski, James F.
NASA's internal and external communication methods are reviewed. NASA information services for the media, for the public, and for employees are discussed. Consideration is given to electron information distribution, the NASA TV-audio system, the NASA broadcast news service, astronaut appearances, technology and information exhibits, speaker services, and NASA news reports for internal communications. Also, the NASA worldwide electronic mail network is described and trends for future NASA communications and media services are outlined.
Emmers-Sommer, Tara M.; Allen, Mike
Analyzes the media-effects research published in this journal during the last 25 years via meta-analysis. Finds that, as children age, they better understand media messages; mass media are a significant source of learning; and media can influence attitudes. Discusses political, social, and educational implications, as well as implications for…
Brinkhuis, D.; Peart, L.
Scientific discourse generally takes place in appropriate journals, using the language and conventions of science. That's fine, as long as the discourse remains in scientific circles. It is only outside those circles that the rules and techniques of engaging social media tools gain importance. A young generation of scientists are eager to share their experiences by using social media, but is this effective? And how can we better integrate all outreach & media channels to engage general audiences? How can Facebook, Twitter, Skype and YouTube be used as synergy tools in scientific story telling? Case: during IODP Expedtion 342 (June-July 2012) onboard the scientific drillship JOIDES Resolution an onboard educator and videographer worked non-stop fort two months on an integrated outreach plan that tried and tested the limits of all social media tools available to interact with an international public while at sea. The results are spectacular!
Boyd, Michelle J; Zaff, Jonathan F; Phelps, Erin; Weiner, Michelle B; Lerner, Richard M
Using data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development, a longitudinal study involving U.S. adolescents, multi-group structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to evaluate whether news media use is predictive of a set of civic indicators (civic duty, civic efficacy, neighborhood social connection, and civic participation) for youth in Grades 8, 9, and 10, via an indirect effect of interpersonal communication about politics with parents. The proposed model had a good fit within each grade. News media use was predictive of interpersonal communication with parents and in turn, interpersonal communication was predictive of civic duty, civic efficacy, neighborhood social connection, and civic participation. The cross-group comparison of the structural model suggests that the predictive qualities of news media use and interpersonal communication are comparable across grades. The role of media use and interpersonal communication in fostering civic development and socialization as well as implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22118509
van den Putte, Bas; Yzer, Marco; Southwell, Brian G; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Willemsen, Marc C
In the context of health campaigns, interpersonal communication can serve at least 2 functions: (a) to stimulate change through social interaction and (b) in a secondary diffusion process, to further disseminate message content. In a 3-wave prospective study of 1,079 smokers, the authors demonstrate that mass media messages (antismoking campaigns and news coverage relevant to smoking cessation) have an indirect effect on smoking cessation intention and behavior via interpersonal communication. Exposure to campaigns and news coverage prompts discussion about the campaigns, and, in turn, about smoking cessation. Interpersonal communication regarding smoking cessation then influences intention to quit smoking and attempts to quit smoking. The study finds evidence not only for the social interaction function of interpersonal communication, but also for the secondary diffusion function. A substantial number of smokers who are not directly exposed to the antismoking campaigns are nevertheless indirectly exposed via communication with people who have seen these campaigns. These results imply that encouragement of interpersonal communication can be an important campaign objective. PMID:21337250
Moya de Sifontes, M Z; Dehollain, P L
The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mass media advertisement of food products (TV, radio and the press), particularly in pre-school and school-age children, as well as the concomitant impact these age groups have on the family food buying patterns. To test the hypothesis that the impact of mass media advertising on foods varied in the different socioeconomic levels of a community, a stratified sample of all children below 13 years of age, who attended the Francisco Fajardo school in the central coast of Venezuela, was drawn. Mass media contact, food and nutrition knowledge and other socioeconomic characteristics were related to the family's food-buying patterns. More specifically, the age, working status and educational level of the mother in regard to beliefs concerning the nutritional value of advertized food products, were related. A semi-structured questionnaire was designed, tested and applied to the housewife or whoever performed this role within the family. Findings revealed that families of low socioeconomic status are prone to be most influenced by mass media food product advertising. This is reflected not only in food purchasing practices but also in food consumption patterns at the family level. Chocolate drinks, cereals, jello, sausages, and ice cream are the most popular products among pre-school and school-aged children, without social class distinction. Furthermore, results revealed that the degree of exposure to mass communication media--television, radio and newspapers--is a determining factor in children's food preferences at all socioeconomic levels, and that television is the media exerting the greatest influence. PMID:3632198
Jabusch, David M.
Interest in early means of communication and in the uses and kinds of media that existed in ancient cultures is starting to grow among communication scholars. Conversation analysis of these cultures is obviously impossible, so that the emphasis must rest with material cultural artifacts. Many ancient cultures used non-verbal codes for dyadic…
Castro, Luis A; Favela, Jesus; Garcia-Peña, Carmen
The transition from paper to electronic-based records in the healthcare industry has posed several challenges to conventional medical practices. The introduction of technology in day-to-day medical and nursing practices deserves careful consideration. In this work, we report the results of a controlled experiment to compare nurses' consultation in emergency calls in six different conditions. We studied the effect that the type of communication media (face-to-face, telephone, videoconference) and type of nursing protocol media (paper-based, electronic-based) can have on consultation time, mistakes made, pauses during consultation, eye contact, and efficacy of the consultation. We found that the type of communication media has an effect on consultation time; on average, fewer mistakes were made during telephone-based consultations; for eye contact, there were significantly fewer eye contacts during face-to-face than during videoconference consultations; finally, the type of communication media or protocol media did not have any effect in the efficacy of the consultation. PMID:25251859
Eveland, William P., Jr.
Discusses the media effects approach broadly, to point out limitations the traditional approach imposes on the field, and discusses a "mix of attributes" approach with a focus on the study of "new" technologies for the dissemination of news. Argues that the mix of attributes approach would better serve to advance both theory and empirical research…
Explores the role of memory in mediating mass communication effects. Examines (1) the nature of memory, (2) issues in retention and recall of media messages, (3) methods of promoting retention and recall of media messages, and (4) implications of memory processes for mass media effects. (PD)
Havard, Byron; Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong
The purpose of this study is to examine the dynamics of online collaborative learning and communication media regarding team projects. Media richness and social presence theories are well-accepted rational theories that explain media choices and media behaviors, and serve as the theoretical framework. Quantitative and qualitative data collection…
Aries Corp., McLean, VA.
The desirability of increasing the speed of informal communications of information among investigators in well-defined areas of scientific discipline has been well established. The purpose of this study was to develop more advanced media for this type of communication and to determine the overall effect on cost and efficiency on a selected area of…
The seventh module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores communication issues pertinent to African Americans with cancer and their health care providers, discusses strategies for culturally sensitive communication, and presents the SPIKES protocol, a practical framework for effective communication.
Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Walther, Joseph B
This review analyzes trends and commonalities among prominent theories of media effects. On the basis of exemplary meta-analyses of media effects and bibliometric studies of well-cited theories, we identify and discuss five features of media effects theories as well as their empirical support. Each of these features specifies the conditions under which media may produce effects on certain types of individuals. Our review ends with a discussion of media effects in newer media environments. This includes theories of computer-mediated communication, the development of which appears to share a similar pattern of reformulation from unidirectional, receiver-oriented views, to theories that recognize the transactional nature of communication. We conclude by outlining challenges and promising avenues for future research. PMID:26331344
Fisher, Heinz-Dietrich, Ed.; Merrill, John Calhoun, Ed.
A total of 41 essays explore several major issues in international communication. The essays are grouped according to their topic, beginning with the broader topics of communication systems and concepts and the flow of world news and proceeding to considerations of national concerns such as freedom and restriction of communication, national…
Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.
Noting that critics charge that news reporting focuses on the superficial, personal characteristics of candidates and ignores the issues underlying elections, this Digest examines the relationship between the political process and political communication through the media. It addresses the power of advertising, cyberspace political communication,…
Calhoun, Olivia H.
A curriculum guide for grade 7, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Communications and Media." It is divided into six units: advertising, film and photography, radio and television, journalism and publishing, library and periodicals, and transocean communications. Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…
Vigrolio, Tom; Zahler, Jack
The authors have compiled a dictionary of terms used in marketing, advertising, public relations, and radio/television, photography/filmmaking, and graphics. Included in the volume are articles of a general and historical interest regarding the various media covered in the definitions. A list of trade publications is appended. (JY)
Davis, Kevin C.; Evans, W. Douglas; Kamyab, Kian
Background: Although there is debate on the effectiveness of youth-focused abstinence education programs, research confirms that parents can influence their children’s decisions about sexual behavior. To leverage parent-based approaches to adolescent sexual health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the "Parents Speak Up…
Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Elek, Elvira; Hecht, Michael L
Media literacy intervention efficacy literature has focused on media-relevant (e.g., knowledge and realism) and behavior-relevant outcomes (e.g., attitudes and behaviors), without much attention paid to interpersonal communication outcomes. This project examined interpersonal communication after participation in two versions (analysis plus analysis and analysis plus planning) of the Youth Message Development (YMD) intervention, a brief media literacy curriculum targeted at preventing high school student alcohol use. Participants attended a 75-mins media literacy YMD workshop and completed a delayed posttest questionnaire 3 to 4 months later. Overall, 68 % participants replied affirmatively to interpersonal communication about the YMD intervention. Communication about the workshop moderated the effects of the type of workshop (analysis plus analysis or analysis plus planning) on self-efficacy to counter-argue (but not critical thinking). Interpersonal communication moderated the effects of the YMD intervention on self-efficacy to counter-argue, thereby signaling the importance of including interpersonal communication behaviors in intervention evaluation. PMID:26622915
Reddy, C. M.
In the United States where most scientists receive their research support from federal funds, scientists need to expand their audience beyond their peers and consider the taxpayers, too. The media can play an important conduit for scientists and the lay public. However, many scientists do not do the best public relations jobs for their profession. We talk very well with each other and not very well with almost anyone else. We need to learn to avoid jargon, communicate our results more clearly, and examine the relationship between communication techniques and how to assess the outcomes. Scientists assess outcome based only on factual accuracy. Journalists assess their results based on accuracy and storycraft. In my experiences interacting with the media during various oil spills as well as training from the Aldo Leopold Leadership Program, I will discuss how scientists can be more effective when communicating with the media. First, scientists need to understand who their audience is and what their educational background is. In addition, it is important to stay on message and have only one message per interaction with a member of the media. That is, do not confuse a reporter with the results from one study when he or she is really interested in another story or just looking for background information. Last, scientists must understand that the media must often publish their stories with deadlines having timescales of hours and not months or years, hence it is important to be brief and to promptly return phone calls and emails. Hopefully, such efforts between scientists and the media will lead to a more scientifically informed public.
Grewe, Mary Elisabeth; Conserve, Donaldson F; Gliwa, Catherine; Roman Isler, Malika
receive information about HIV was the most commonly reported benefit of social media use and the most common challenges were related to technology. Measures of frequency of use, satisfaction, and effects of use varied across studies. Conclusions Using social media to bridge communication among a diverse range of users, in various geographic and social contexts, may be leveraged through pre-existing platforms and with attention to the roles of anonymity and confidentiality in communication about HIV prevention and treatment. More robust research is needed to determine the effects of social media use on various health and social outcomes related to HIV. PMID:26525289
Teo, Eugene; Huang, Alvin; Lian, Yong; Guan, Cuntai; Li, Yuanqing; Zhang, Haihong
This paper attempts to make use of brain computer interface (BCI) in implementing an application called the media communication center for the paralyzed people. The application is based on the event-related potential called P300 to perform button selections on media and communication programs such as the mp3 player, video player, photo gallery and e-book. One of the key issues in such system is the usability. We study how various tasks affect the application operation, in particular, how typical mental activities cause false trigger during the operation of the application. We study the false acceptance rate under the conditions of closing eyes, reading a book, listening to music and watching a video. Data from 5 subjects is used to obtain the false rejection rate and false acceptance rate of the BCI system. Our study shows that different mental activities show different impacts on the false acceptance performances. PMID:17946993
Gives an overview of the Schools Council Communication and Social Skills Project at Brighton Polytechnic in which children ages 9-17 have developed and used audiovisual media such as films, tape-slides, or television programs in the classroom. The effects of audiovisual language on education are briefly discussed. (JJD)
The scientific study of the visual communication media arts must be based on both general theories regarding these media and specific theories developed for each medium. Although it is possible that the delay in the development of vigorous scientific studies and empirical research findings in the visual communication media of television has caused…
McDayter, Walt, Ed.
The 19 articles that comprise this book are concerned with the subject of communications and media in Canada. In Part One, "The Media: A Diagnosis," the articles are "The Power and Impotence of the Media" by Russell Elman, "The Myth of Objectivity" by Walt McDayter, "In the Shadow of Giants: Concentration and Monopolies in the Media" by Walt…
Perry, David K.
The idea that mass communication effects may decrease diversity among people or societies exposed to it arises constantly. However, discussions of mass media effects do not highlight differences between mass communications that "affect" people uniformly and messages that members of audiences "respond to" in similar ways. A number of modern…
Chaffee, Steven H.; Izcaray, Fausto
Discusses media-centered communication research models and applies them to a field setting in Venezuela in an attempt to assess the extent to which social processes depend on mass communication. See CS 703 632 for subscription information. (MH)
On World Press Freedom Day (3rd of May 2009) details of the Frida Haus ranking list of press freedom in countries around the world were officially disclosed. Bosnia and Herzegovina is ranked at 98 place, and in the region better ranked is only Montenegro, which is located between 78 and 80 place along with Botswana and Eastern Timor. Top rated is Iceland with 9 points and on the last place is North Korea, with 98 points. Almost every profession has its deontology/ethical principles. However, medicine and the media are specifically targeted by public controversy with regard to the consequences of their responsibilities for the individual and the overall population. Until twenty years ago, the media were the main social system or a reflection of the social system and dominated the field of public communication, which implicitly reflected in the organization, operation and effects of companies, corporations, etc. as the overall social system, increasing the gross national product and its various categories enabled boom. Medicine and health represent to a wide range of people, perhaps, the most interesting source of information, and probably there isn't a person that once was not interested in quality professional and verified information regarding some of their medical condition or overall health status. It is estimated that today there are more than a million Web sites on health and diseases, which means that the availability of health information for users is better today than ever before. However, it is important to patients and users of web sites with health information to learn how to properly use them, and learn to assess whether the information published on this site are of reliable quality, which depends on the authors who put the information on the web site, their topicality, simplicity in use and especially the diversity of the medical content of these web pages. It is the Internet that allows the revolution in relation patient-health care- health services
Summary On World Press Freedom Day (3rd of May 2009) details of the Frida Haus ranking list of press freedom in countries around the world were officially disclosed. Bosnia and Herzegovina is ranked at 98 place, and in the region better ranked is only Montenegro, which is located between 78 and 80 place along with Botswana and Eastern Timor. Top rated is Iceland with 9 points and on the last place is North Korea, with 98 points. Almost every profession has its deontology/ethical principles. However, medicine and the media are specifically targeted by public controversy with regard to the consequences of their responsibilities for the individual and the overall population. Until twenty years ago, the media were the main social system or a reflection of the social system and dominated the field of public communication, which implicitly reflected in the organization, operation and effects of companies, corporations, etc. as the overall social system, increasing the gross national product and its various categories enabled boom. Medicine and health represent to a wide range of people, perhaps, the most interesting source of information, and probably there isn’t a person that once was not interested in quality professional and verified information regarding some of their medical condition or overall health status. It is estimated that today there are more than a million Web sites on health and diseases, which means that the availability of health information for users is better today than ever before. However, it is important to patients and users of web sites with health information to learn how to properly use them, and learn to assess whether the information published on this site are of reliable quality, which depends on the authors who put the information on the web site, their topicality, simplicity in use and especially the diversity of the medical content of these web pages. It is the Internet that allows the revolution in relation patient-health care- health
Oubari, Hiba; Tuttle, Ryan; Rath, Barbara; Bravo, Lulu
Vaccines are among the most effective measures to control and prevent infectious diseases. Yet, the topic of vaccination is difficult to communicate, as it bears upon individual versus common good. The efficacy and safety of vaccines can only be shown by the absence of undesired events, such as vaccine-preventable diseases or adverse events following immunization. The authors of this paper view accurate, transparent and timely vaccine-safety communication to the media and general public as a core responsibility of healthcare providers. The authors wish to explore potential difficulties faced by immunization specialists when talking to the media, and suggest how to successfully convey vaccination messages to the general public. PMID:25859680
Tatkovic, Nevenka; Ruzic, Maja
Today society has become a multimedia society, turned towards new forms of communication, ready for changes and the new communicational challenges. The students, surrounded by PCs, mobile phones and ever so sophisticated software, videos, wireless sets and TVs, DVDs, satellite transmissions and "the media above all other media"--the Internet.…
Van Eperen, Laura; Marincola, Francesco M
Millions of people all over the world are constantly sharing an extremely wide range of fascinating, quirky, funny, irrelevant and important content all at once. Even scientists are no strangers to this trend. Social media has enabled them to communicate their research quickly and efficiently throughout each corner of the world. But which social media platforms are they using to communicate this research and how are they using them? One thing is clear: the range of social media platforms that scientists are using is relatively vast and dependent on discipline and sentiment. While the future of social media is unknown, a combination of educated speculation and persuasive fact points to the industry's continual growth and influence. Thus, is that not only are scientists utilizing social media to communicate their research, they must. The ability to communicate to the masses via social media is critical to the distribution of scientific information amongst professionals in the field and to the general population. PMID:22085450
Millions of people all over the world are constantly sharing an extremely wide range of fascinating, quirky, funny, irrelevant and important content all at once. Even scientists are no strangers to this trend. Social media has enabled them to communicate their research quickly and efficiently throughout each corner of the world. But which social media platforms are they using to communicate this research and how are they using them? One thing is clear: the range of social media platforms that scientists are using is relatively vast and dependent on discipline and sentiment. While the future of social media is unknown, a combination of educated speculation and persuasive fact points to the industry's continual growth and influence. Thus, is that not only are scientists utilizing social media to communicate their research, they must. The ability to communicate to the masses via social media is critical to the distribution of scientific information amongst professionals in the field and to the general population. PMID:22085450
Explores the use of the World Wide Web as an advertising medium--many companies are having difficulties seeing exactly how the Web will fit into their media strategies. Argues that media decision makers need to realize that interactive media are different from traditional media in terms of form and content. (PA)
Yavuz, D.; Eken, F.; Karavassilis, N.
The requirement for highly survivable communications (HSC) for essential command functions in military operations does not need any justification. The ability to communicate under extreme jamming levels and adverse propagation conditions, including high altitude nuclear events, is a very important requirement. There are also many natural disaster related requirements that also need such highly survivable communications. The prevalent and in a sense classical, approach to provide highly assured connectivity can be summarized as follows: Take a particular propagation medium and try to obtain the ultimate performance from it. There are many examples of this philosophy some successful, most not. Our approach, on the other hand, is to use complementary multi-media or mixed-media where communication links utilizing essentially commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment are integrated using packet radio (PR) techniques. There is also, in our view, an even more fundamental, recently discovered consideration why the expectation of continuous incremental refinement of a system using a given single media may be be achievable. This is derived from the theory of 'deterministic uncertainty' or more popularly known as 'theory of CHAOS', systems whose state space behavior has fractal characteristics. We will elaborate on this novel argument. Complementary multi-media approach has been the focus for all HSC communications activities at STC since 1982. The original STC studies and prototypes were in response to requirements of broadcasting (i.e., one-way transmission) information. A high frequency (HF)/meteorburst (MB) system was developed/prototyped/tested demonstrating the cost effectiveness of the approach. These results are reviewed. More recently, in 1992 STC has completed the development/test of an Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) HF packet radio protocol as no such open or non-proprietary protocol exists. This protocol has been fully tested, documented and made available to
Paradise, Angela M.
Within the last decade, service-learning has experienced impressive growth in higher education, particularly within communication departments. According to Jacoby (1996), service-learning is a "form of experiential education in which students engage in activities that address human and community needs together with structured opportunities…
Boyd, Michelle J.; Zaff, Jonathan F.; Phelps, Erin; Weiner, Michelle B.; Lerner, Richard M.
Using data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development, a longitudinal study involving U.S. adolescents, multi-group structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to evaluate whether news media use is predictive of a set of civic indicators (civic duty, civic efficacy, neighborhood social connection, and civic participation) for youth in Grades…
The Emerging Media Integration Team at the Department of the Navy Office of Information (CHINFO) has recently put together a Navy Command Social Media Handbook designed to provide information needed to safely and effectively use social media. While not intended to be a comprehensive guide on command use of social media or to take the place of official policy, the Handbook provides a useful guide for navigating a dynamic communications environment. Social media are changing the way information is diffused and decisions are made, especially for Humanitarian Assistance missions when there is increased emphasis on Navy commands to share critical information with other Navy command sites, government, and official NGO (nongovernmental organization) sites like the American Red Cross. In order to effectively use social media to support such missions, the Handbook suggests creating a centralized location to funnel information. This suggests that as the community of interest (COI) grows during a crisis, it will be important to ensure that information is shared with appropriate organizations for different aspects of the mission such as evacuation procedures, hospital sites, location of seaports and airports, and other topics relevant to the mission. For example, in the first 14 days of the U.S. Southern Command's Haiti HA/DR (Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief) mission, the COI grew to over 1,900 users. In addition, operational conditions vary considerably among incidents, and coordination between different groups is often set up in an ad hoc manner. What is needed is a methodology that will help to find appropriate people with whom to share information for particular aspects of a mission during a wide range of events related to the mission. CNA has developed such a methodology and we would like to test it in a small scale lab experiment.
Danzer, Gerald A.; Newman, Mark
Recommends that media presentations can be used effectively in the history classroom as images of reality. Suggests films and television programs and documentaries that can be utilized to show how movies play a role in shaping opinion and changing perceptions. (DK)
Leykin, Dmitry; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Lahad, Mooli
Introduction: The extensive use of social media in modern life redefines social interaction and communication. Communication plays an important role in mitigating, or exacerbating, the psychological and behavioral responses to critical incidents and disasters. As recent disasters demonstrated, people tend to converge to social media during and following emergencies. Authorities can then use this media and other computational methods to gain insights from the public, mainly to enhance situational awareness, but also to improve their communication with the public and public adherence to instructions. Methods: The current review presents a conceptual framework for studying psychological aspects of crisis and risk communication using the social media through social computing. Results: Advanced analytical tools can be integrated in the processes and objectives of crisis communication. The availability of the computational techniques can improve communication with the public by a process of Hyper-Targeted Crisis Communication. Discussion: The review suggests that using advanced computational tools for target-audience profiling and linguistic matching in social media, can facilitate more sensitive and personalized emergency communication. PMID:27092290
Explores the role of visual communication and discusses its placement within journalism education. States that educators would do well to dissolve the arbitrary divisions that continue to obstruct a more integrated understanding of visual mass media. (MG)
Stanley, Robert H.; Steinberg, Charles S.
The purpose of this book is to provide the reader with an informational frame of reference that will permit the formation of critical judgments concerning America's mass media institutions. The book covers the broad spectrum of the communications media in terms of their impact on American society. Such topics are discussed as social aspects of…
Herrin, Barbara; And Others
Derives a positive personality profile of model school media specialists through a modified case study approach and compares this profile with stereotypical views of librarians from previous research. Communication abilities of media specialists are examined, and recommendations for further use of the methodology are made. (CDD)
Cross, Geoffrey A.
Describes, in a study of an insurance company's communication department, how three written products served as parts of larger messages in multiple media campaigns; an attempt to combine composing processes for print and video failed; and conflicting generic and stylistic properties of other media caused an intermedial graft to fail. (SR)
Gascoigne, Toss; Metcalfe, Jenni
A survey of Australian scientists revealed that they felt media coverage of their research had significant benefits, but they received little support from their organizations. Examines factors that encourage or discourage scientists to communicate their work through the media. Discusses implications for managers of publicly funded institutions.…
Peters, Hans Peter
The present article presents an up-to-date account of the current media relations of scientists, based on a comprehensive analysis of relevant surveys. The evidence suggests that most scientists consider visibility in the media important and responding to journalists a professional duty--an attitude that is reinforced by universities and other science organizations. Scientific communities continue to regulate media contacts with their members by certain norms that compete with the motivating and regulating influences of public information departments. Most scientists assume a two-arena model with a gap between the arenas of internal scientific and public communication. They want to meet the public in the public arena, not in the arena of internal scientific communication. Despite obvious changes in science and in the media system, the orientations of scientists toward the media, as well as the patterns of interaction with journalists, have their roots in the early 1980s. Although there is more influence on public communication from the science organizations and more emphasis on strategic considerations today, the available data do not indicate abrupt changes in communication practices or in the relevant beliefs and attitudes of scientists in the past 30 y. Changes in the science-media interface may be expected from the ongoing structural transformation of the public communication system. However, as yet, there is little evidence of an erosion of the dominant orientation toward the public and public communication within the younger generation of scientists. PMID:23940312
Peters, Hans Peter
The present article presents an up-to-date account of the current media relations of scientists, based on a comprehensive analysis of relevant surveys. The evidence suggests that most scientists consider visibility in the media important and responding to journalists a professional duty—an attitude that is reinforced by universities and other science organizations. Scientific communities continue to regulate media contacts with their members by certain norms that compete with the motivating and regulating influences of public information departments. Most scientists assume a two-arena model with a gap between the arenas of internal scientific and public communication. They want to meet the public in the public arena, not in the arena of internal scientific communication. Despite obvious changes in science and in the media system, the orientations of scientists toward the media, as well as the patterns of interaction with journalists, have their roots in the early 1980s. Although there is more influence on public communication from the science organizations and more emphasis on strategic considerations today, the available data do not indicate abrupt changes in communication practices or in the relevant beliefs and attitudes of scientists in the past 30 y. Changes in the science–media interface may be expected from the ongoing structural transformation of the public communication system. However, as yet, there is little evidence of an erosion of the dominant orientation toward the public and public communication within the younger generation of scientists. PMID:23940312
Goruk, B.; Byrne, J. M.
The research community primarily communicates internally through papers, books and other forms of print publication. Researchers typically depend upon the media to pick up on research important to policymakers, planners, managers and society at large. However in recent decades, there has been a major failure in this communication process as the media has become much less objective and far more opinionated; often contributing more confusion than clarity. We argue that the research community should be much more active in communicating work to sectors of society most in need of the knowledge. Members of society do not read research publications - we essentially speak different languages. Researchers have to reach out to society in a communication form that works for the listeners. We put forward a range of examples using new media to communicate climate change research results to society.
Meredith, Michael J.
Social media offers an exciting new area for our discipline to produce research and pedagogy that is in high demand by students, industry constituents, and other disciplines. This article discusses why business communication scholars should focus on social media as an important stream of study and outlines an MBA course in social media strategy…
Johnson, J. David; Oliveira, Omar Souki
A study constituted the fifth phase of a programmatic research effort designed to develop and test a model of international communications media exposure and appraisal. The model posits that three variables--editorial tone, communication potential, and utility--have positive determinant effects on these dependent variables. Research was carried…
Maughan, George R.
Description of training institutes developed by the government of India to improve the irrigation system focuses on the communication system infrastructure for the production and use of audiovisual materials for training. Highlights include local production of media; equipment and communication networks; cost effectiveness; and recommendations for…
As droughts continue to impact businesses and communities throughout the United States, there needs to be a greater emphasis on drought communication through interdisciplinary approaches, risk communication, and digital platforms. The purpose of this research is to provide an overview of the current literature on communicating drought and suggests areas for further improvement. Specifically, this research focuses on communicating drought through social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. It also focuses on the conglomeration of theoretical frameworks within the realm of risk communication, to provide a strong foundation towards future drought communication. This research proposal provides a critical step to advocate for paradigmatic shifts within natural hazard communication.
Social media, online social networks and apps for smartphones and tablets are changing the way to communicate health and health issues to consumers and health professionals. Google, Facebook, Apple, and other companies have launched tools to make easier the doctor-patient communication, to group patients with similar diseases allowing them to share stories, experiences, and opinions, and to remotely track and monitor users health and wellbeing. However several concerns about patients' and consumers' privacy remain. Doctor-patient communication through e-mail and social media also introduces other ethical and privacy issues that were addressed only by few medical societies with appropriate guidelines and policies. In addition, pharmaceutical companies have started to use social media channels to communicate with doctors, patients and consumers. This type of communication has been only partially regulated by the Food and Drug Administration with the recently published guidelines for industries. Similar concerns exist for health and medical applications for smartphones and tablets for which only few agencies (including Food and Drug Administration) are requiring a formal (even if restricted in typology) validation. It's time for Europe and Italy to adopt appropriate guidelines for the use of the new media in health communication. PMID:25621774
Jones, Plummer Alston, Jr.
Discusses the lack of communication between school principals and school library media specialists, the lack of information principals have regarding media specialists' roles and responsibilities, and the use of the executive briefing to open up effective channels of communication. Explains correlations between "Information Power" principles and…
Typhina, Eli; Bardon, Robert E.; Gharis, Laurie W.
Many Extension educators are still learning how to effectively integrate social media into their programs. By using the right social media platforms and mobile applications to create engaged, online communities, Extension educators can collaborate with clients to produce and to share information expanding and enhancing their social media and…
Hogan, Marjorie J
Parents, teachers, health care providers, and other caring adults worry about the harmful influence of media messages and images on children and teens and wonder how to recognize and encourage positive and healthy use of media. For decades, experts have commented on the power of media. Media depictions can lead to negative attitudes and behavior in some young viewers. This article discusses whether prosocial, tolerant, and cooperative attitudes and behavior can be learned and imitated by children and adolescents and whether media can nurture or stimulate creativity or actively promote health and well-being in young consumers. PMID:22643170
India is a country with a large number of languages which not only differ in scripts but are essentially part of different language families. ``Marathi`` is one such Indian regional language spoken by nearly 70 million people and is the native language of the author. Like all major regional languages, there is a strong and vibrant media in Marathi with 45 odd newspapers and 6 television news channels.
Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana
Politicians and their public relations advisors depend on the mass communication media to transmit messages dailyand communicate effectively. The development of the mass media, from traditional to new, has changed the working conditions of these professions where one inevitably affects the other. Consequently, the way of formatting information in the newshas changed, along with the way of monitoring the political developments and informs the public on political activities. Amajor role in this process, over and above the political actors, has advisers for public relations, who choose moments andevents to publicise (PR-ization). With the increasing influence of public relations to media reports, politics also changes thepicture of the media and the impact on media coverage. Similarly, the impact on the manner in which the media reportprocess, what topics will be discussed topics and what tone the given information will have. We are living in a world characterized by mediation (Mazzoleni and Schulz, 1999) of the politics and the society as a whole, because politics and publicrelations necessarily need the media to communicate with their audiences. In this regard, we can talk about PR-izationmedia as the fundamental role of public relations practitioners affect attitudes, which skillfully make careful design ofmessages and events that are not included herein are the three professions each other should one without the other does notmake sense. This paper will focus on the influence of the media on politics and on influence of the public relations as profession in the content media perception. In view of the drawn by daily public appearances of Prime Minister, Zoran Milanovi6,and as says Lali63 few politics-related phenomena have over the past twenty years engaged so many reviews by experts andscholars as the Prime Minister's rhetoric. The particular form of the political communication will be reviewed in this paper.Through the interviews and the content analysis of key
Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid
This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…
Mason, T.; Renfrow, S.
While science literacy rates in the U.S. have recently increased, overall levels remain remarkably low.There are opportunities for the public to learn about science and to engage directly with real-life practitioners. It is the responsibility of science education and communications professionals to provide these opportunities and to assess the effectiveness of each platform. At the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), we utilize a diverse, well-tested approach to introduce science to the public and to give scientists access to the broadest possible audience. This poster will focus on NASA's MAVEN mission to Mars and the social media outlets we have incorporated into our Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program in order to introduce rather complex science concepts to the public. We'll examine several evaluation tools that are used to provide ongoing, immediate feedback regarding our strategies and to guide long-term efforts. MAVEN educators and scientists are capitalizing on the recent excitement surrounding Mars science and the public's fascination with the search for life to bring the science of the mission directly to a variety of audiences. Our EPO professionals are using cross-platform, transportable content to maximize exposure and create pathways for two-way interactions between our audience and mission experts. We are using social media tools to build a community that will join us in the MAVEN journey and its important scientific discoveries.
The German media system produces an enormous diversity of media contents both in the audiovisual and the press areas. The increasing number of media products promotes keen competition between new and existing media companies. German citizens consume mass media products for about eight hours a day, which makes the media one of the key factors in social life. This has consequences for the type and process of risk communication. Increasing competition results in a biased coverage of events and issues in the world. Key words are sensation, negativity, emotion and personalization. This kind of coverage leads to a sometimes irrational risk dialogue between media, society, economy and administration. A possible misconception of risks and risk management may have undesirable consequences for the social development and benefits of new technologies. PMID:14770344
McBride, S.; Herbulock, D.
Providing natural hazards scientists the opportunity to question and engage directly with journalists in a workshop setting proved effective at shifting scientists' attitudes on their role in media and public communication during natural disasters. Scientists surveyed after the encounter expressed a more responsive attitude to communicating during crises, increased willingness to support scientific peers' communication efforts and more realistic perspectives on journalists' needs and objectives. Geoscientists experienced unprecedented and intensive media and public scrutiny during the Canterbury, New Zealand earthquakes of 2010-2012. Following major quakes and aftershocks, there was a sustained high level of public demand for information and expert analysis of the underlying geological events and ongoing hazards and risks. Once the crisis ended, a period of reflection gave rise to understanding of the need for further media and communication training amongst natural hazards scientists. A workshop designed to explore scientists' attitudes to public communication during disasters and challenge their views on media, press offices and the expectations of the public was developed and implemented by the Science Media Centre, New Zealand and Massey University. This research was developed as an evaluation of this workshop. Quantitative analysis with some qualititive analysis were the methods used. Some findings include: a shift in how journalists were perceived by scientists after the workshop, largely influenced by perspectives shared during a panel where invited journalists reflected on their own experiences and answered questions from scientists. discussions on different spokespeople from different science institutions contributing to the public discussion showed a change in perception from a preference for one central spokesperson to increased support for a variety of perspectives from multiple scientists. This was influenced by insight provided by journalists during
In this survey and analysis of the present state and future trends of communication media and educational technology, particular emphasis is placed on the potential uses of communication satellites and the substitution of electronic transmission for physical distribution of educational materials. The author analyzes in detail the characteristics…
Health communicators use entertainment and mass media to prevent HIV transmission. Population Services International operates an AIDS Mass Media Project as an adjunct to its Condom Social Marketing Project. It collaborates with the Government of Zaire's National AIDS Program. Its 1st target is urban youth because most AIDS cases in Zaire were infected as teenagers, urban youth have access to television (TV), and they take part in high risk sexual behavior. The project uses various AIDS songs to reach this group. A 6-month posttest shows that the 1st song was so effective that 65% heard it and that 93% of them recalled the major AIDS messages and 85% said that they changed their behavior. The project distributes a video of the 1990 World AIDS Day concert. Research in Zaire and other African countries shows that the threat AIDS poses to children's health strongly motivates parents' behavior. Thus the 2nd target is the 20-30 year old group--young and prospective parents. The project boasts a 4-part TV series about a groom who does not reveal his AIDS status to his young bride until after their wedding night. 2 scenes stress the benefits of condoms. After its 1st airing, 66% of the 20-30 year old group in Kinshasa watched all 4 parts of the series. Of these, about 75% said they would change their behavior. Most people in Zaire change behavior by using condoms. Indeed, during the mass media campaign, condom sales grew 1000% which saved almost 7200 lives. The project also features comic strips informing working men and women and teenagers about AIDS and distributes an inexpensive notebook listening AIDS facts and myths for school children. The project uses regional radio stations to broadcast 28 AIDS feature programs, 22 radio spots, 8 AIDS radio dramas, and 2 songs to high priority rural areas. These AIDS radio efforts have indeed influenced AIDS knowledge and attitudes. PMID:12285440
Kirzinger, Ashley E.; Weber, Christopher; Johnson, Martin
A great deal of scholarly work has explored the motivations behind media consumption and other various communication traits. However, little research has investigated the sources of these motivations and virtually no research considers their potential genetic underpinnings. Drawing on the field of behavior genetics, we use a classical twin design…
Wolfe, Billy; Ying, Angeling Sim Zhi
Presents preliminary findings from a needs assessment study of undergraduate communication and media training in Singapore. Content analyzes 372 relevant employment ads for 1998 and 1999. Finds nearly 60% were for marketing research, public opinion polling or other kinds of applied research. Suggests an exploding demand for graduates with…
Marshall Univ., Huntington, WV. Dept. of Occupational, Adult, and Safety Education.
This competency-based communications and media-cluster curriculum is designed for use by teachers and students at the early high school level during the exploration of a variety of occupations. The purpose of the materials is to assist students in assessing whether or not they would like to prepare for these kinds of occupations. The curriculum…
Hoban, Garry; Nielsen, Wendy; Shepherd, Alyce
Students engage with science content when they are asked to explain and communicate their knowledge to others. In particular, encouraging students to create various digital media forms such as videos, podcasts, vodcasts, screencasts, digital stories and animations to explain science is usually engaging, especially if they have ownership of the…
Sterling, Christopher H.; Haight, Timothy R.
Intended to provide a single reference source for the most significant statistics describing communication industry trends in the United States since 1900, this book is a collection and assessment of the currently available quantitative descriptive information on mass media industries. The core of the book is its more than 300 tables of data on…
Social media and electronic news media activity are an important source of information for the general public. Yet, there is a dearth of research exploring the use of Twitter and electronic news outlets during significant worldly events such as the recent Ebola Virus scare. The purpose of this article is to investigate the use of Twitter and electronic news media outlets in communicating Ebola Virus information. A cross-sectional survey of Twitter data and Google News Trend data from 30 September till 29 October, 2014 was conducted. Between 30 September and 29 October, there were approximately 26 million tweets (25,925,152) that contained the word Ebola. The highest number of correlated activity for Twitter and electronic news outlets occurred on 16 October 2014. Other important peaks in Twitter data occurred on 1 October, 6 October, 8 October, and 12 October, 2014. The main influencers of the Twitter feeds were news media outlets. The study reveals a relationship between electronic news media publishing and Twitter activity around significant events such as Ebola. Healthcare organizations should take advantage of the relationship between electronic news media and trending events on social media sites such as Twitter and should work on developing social media campaigns in co-operation with leading electronic news media outlets (e.g. CNN, Yahoo, Reuters) that can have an influence on social media activity. PMID:25656678
Perry, David K.
Discusses implications of the contextualism of William McGuire for media-effects research and for the answers media-effects researchers give to questions of social concern. Argues that mass communication research long has contained latent contextualist orientations. (MS)
Nelson, Lawrence D.
Theories of mass communication have sought to explain how the media function internally and affect society. Rather than additional "response" studies, which investigate the impact of media on behavior or a society's impact on its media, more research should center on the functions of mass media within the overall framework of communication theory.…
Wallace, Mark L.
Offers suggestions from a veteran public relations practitioner on how colleges can effectively use media resources to advertise academic programs, workforce training, and continuing education opportunities. Focuses on maximizing the benefits of using these five media outlets: newspapers, radio and TV, direct mail, the Internet, and cable…
Abdul Karim, Nor Shariza; Heckman, Robert
Purpose: This paper reports a study conducted longitudinally to investigate group communication media choice and the use of a web-based learning tool, as well as other types of communication media, such as e-mail, telephone, and face-to-face, for communication and collaboration to complete given tasks. Design/methodology/approach: This study was…
Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Career and Vocational Education Section.
The guideline, an indepth focus on one of the 15 U.S. Office of Education (USOE) career education clusters, provides instructors with information to support effective career decision making and occupational preparation. The first section provides a perspective of career education as applied to occupations in the guidelines (includes explanations…
Austin, Erica Weintraub; Nelson, C. Leigh
Discussion of social cognitive theory and the role of television focuses on a study that investigated the influences of ethnic group membership and family communication environment variables on adolescents' knowledge, efficacy, and values related to politics. Highlights include the nature of family influences via the media and effects of media…
Weaver, Betsy; Lindsay, Bill; Gitelman, Betsy
Electronic patient education and communications, such as email, text messaging, and social media, are on the rise in healthcare today. This article explores potential uses of technology to seek solutions in healthcare for such challenges as modifying behaviors related to chronic conditions, improving efficiency, and decreasing costs. A brief discussion highlights the role of technologies in healthcare informatics and considers two theoretical bases for technology implementation. Discussion focuses more extensively on the ability and advantages of electronic communication technology, such as e-mail, social media, text messaging, and electronic health records, to enhance patient-provider e-communications in nursing today. Effectiveness of e-communication in healthcare is explored, including recent and emerging applications designed to improve patient-provider connections and review of current evidence supporting positive outcomes. The conclusion addresses the vision of nurses' place in the vanguard of these developments. PMID:23036059
Claravall, Marie Chantal; Hall, Julie Lyn; Taketani, Keisuke; Zepeda, John Paul; Gehner, Monika; Lawe-Davies, Olivia
Problem In the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan, the World Health Organization (WHO) Representative Office in the Philippines had no social media presence to share timely, relevant public health information. Context Risk communication is essential to emergency management for public health message dissemination. As social media sites, such as Facebook, are popular in the Philippines, these were adopted for risk communication during the response to Haiyan. Action and outcome The WHO Representative Office in the Philippines established Facebook, Twitter and Instagram accounts. Thirty days after these social medial channels were established, a gradual increase in followers was observed. Facebook saw the largest increase in followers which occurred as posted content gradually evolved from general public health information to more pro-active public health intervention and preparedness messaging. This included information on key health interventions encouraging followers to adopt protective behaviours to mitigate public health threats that frequently occur after a disaster. Lessons learnt During the response to Haiyan, creating a social media presence, raising a follower base and developing meaningful messages and content was possible. This event underscored the importance of building a social media strategy in non-emergency times and supported the value of developing public health messages and content that both educates and interests the general public. PMID:26767143
Park, Jee-Eun; Sohn, Aeree
Objectives The purpose of this study was to ascertain the influence of media communication on risk behavior related to mad cow disease (MCD). Methods Mothers of elementary school students in Seoul were recruited as the survey participants of this study. Results Media reports affected risk behavior related to MCD. Also, knowledge and attitude toward MCD affects risk behavior. Conclusion Risk-related information provided by the media should maintain consistency and objectivity. For effective risk communication, there should be an open communication between the government and public, experts, and related industries, who should all collaborate. PMID:24159557
Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Rastegar, Jahangir; Feng, Dake; Kwok, Philip
Electronic systems comprising of subassemblies, distributed across different physical media, require seamless communication between processors and sensors embedded in the disparate volumes. For example, smart munitions systems embed sensors and other key control electronics, throughout the structure, in vastly different physical media. In addition to the obvious space constraints, these structures are subjected to high G forces during launch. Thus, communications through wire harnesses becomes cumbersome, make assembly process and testing difficult, and challenging to make survive high G firing. Here we focus on an approach that takes advantage of the partial optical transparency of epoxy material commonly used in potting electronic components in munitions, as well as the wave guiding that is possible through the body of the munitions wall which is made from composite materials. Experimental results show that a wireless optical link, connecting various parts of the distributed system, is possible at near IR frequencies. Data can be rapidly parsed between a processor, sensors and actuators. We present experimental data for a commercial epoxy system, which is used to embed a number of IrDA devices inside the cone of 120 mm mortar shell. IrDA devices using the FIR data rates establish point-to-point communication through various media, representative of the environment inside the 120 mm mortar cone.
Nuccitelli, D. A.; Cook, J.
Traditional science communication approaches (such as relying on university press releases about new scientific publications), and new communication approaches (such as utilizing infographics and social media), can each reach a wide audience when successful. However, probability of successful the science communication can be amplified by taking advantage of both traditional and new media, especially when 'sticky' messaging techniques are applied. The example of Cook et al., 2013 (C13), which found a 97% consensus in the peer-reviewed climate literature on human-caused global warming, is considered. C13 implemented this optimal combined communications approach strategy and became the most-downloaded study in all Institute of Physics journals, with over 200,000 downloads to date. Due to the effective 'sticky' messaging approaches implemented by the study authors, its results received broad coverage from international media and reached millions of people via social media. Strategies to avoid misrepresentations of one's work while maximizing the communications efficacy of its key points will also be discussed.
... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media... United States after importation of certain electronic devices, including wireless communication devices... importation of certain electronic devices, including wireless communication devices, tablet computers,...
Pan, Xunyu; Free, Kevin M.
Streaming media is a recent technique for delivering multimedia information from a source provider to an end- user over the Internet. The major advantage of this technique is that the media player can start playing a multimedia file even before the entire file is transmitted. Most streaming media applications are currently implemented based on the client-server architecture, where a server system hosts the media file and a client system connects to this server system to download the file. Although the client-server architecture is successful in many situations, it may not be ideal to rely on such a system to provide the streaming service as users may be required to register an account using personal information in order to use the service. This is troublesome if a user wishes to watch a movie simultaneously while interacting with a friend in another part of the world over the Internet. In this paper, we describe a new real-time media streaming application implemented on a peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture in order to overcome these challenges within a mobile environment. When using the peer-to-peer architecture, streaming media is shared directly between end-users, called peers, with minimal or no reliance on a dedicated server. Based on the proposed software pɛvμa (pronounced [revma]), named for the Greek word meaning stream, we can host a media file on any computer and directly stream it to a connected partner. To accomplish this, pɛvμa utilizes the Microsoft .NET Framework and Windows Presentation Framework, which are widely available on various types of windows-compatible personal computers and mobile devices. With specially designed multi-threaded algorithms, the application can stream HD video at speeds upwards of 20 Mbps using the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Streaming and playback are handled using synchronized threads that communicate with one another once a connection is established. Alteration of playback, such as pausing playback or tracking to a
Discusses the importance of understanding nonverbal communication in enhancing the personal and work relationships of interpreters and increasing their effectiveness in meeting the needs of customers. Discusses the mystique of body language, cultural variation in the use of gestures, the stages of an encounter, interpreting gesture clusters, and…
Kagurusi, Patrick T
The media has been employed to increase uptake of Family Planning through behaviour change communication (BCC). Understanding the barriers encountered in effectively undertaking this function would increase the strategy's effectiveness. Sixty journalists from East Africa participated in trainings to enhance their BCC skills for Family Planning in which a qualitative study was nested to identify barriers to effective Family Planning BCC in the region's media. The barriers were observed to be insufficient BCC skills, journalists' conflict of interest, interests of media houses, inaccessible sources of family planning information, editorial ideologies and absence of commercially beneficial demand. Coupled with the historical ideologies of the media in the region, the observed barriers have precipitated ineffective family planning BCC in the regions media. Effective BCC for family planning in the regions media requires capacity building among practitioners and alignment of the concept to the media's and consumers' aspirations. PMID:24069769
Rosenthal, Robert A.
Essay which discusses the effects of media and the changes in people media may produce and which emphasizes that media should always be "the servant of change and the servant of our humanness rather than vice versa. (Author/LS)
A number of technologies in digital media and interactivity have rapidly advanced and are now converging to enable rich, multi-sensoral experiences which create opportunities for both digital art and science communication. Techniques used in full-dome film-making can now be deployed in virtual reality experiences; gaming technologies can be utilised to explore real data sets; and collaborative interactivity enable new forms of public artwork. This session will explore these converging trends through a number of emerging and forthcoming projects dealing with Earth science, climate change and planetary science.
Park, Namkee; Chung, Jae Eun; Lee, Seungyoon
The present study examined the factors associated with individuals' use of three different text-based communication media: e-mail, cell-phone texting, and Facebook Wall postings. Three theoretical perspectives, including media richness theory, uses and gratifications, and perceived network effects, were examined. Using data from a survey of college students (N=280), the study found that the theoretical constructs from these theories play different roles when applied to different technologies. The results suggest that a simultaneous consideration of technological attributes, users' motivations, and social circumstances in which users select and use the technology is useful for fully understanding the dynamics of the selection and the use of a given technology. PMID:22780995
Semali, Ladislaus M.
Postliteracy programs have been used to produce written materials for newly literate adults, but this narrow view falls short of preventing relapse into illiteracy. Furthermore, the gradual move away from mass educational programs and government financing of education has put postliteracy at greater risk. This study tests levels of retention of literacy among neo-literates in Tanzania who gained a literacy certificate five years ago. Some modest success is noted. The pattern of radio broadcasting, newspaper coverage and library provision in the country is summarized, and the influence of these media on literacy retention assessed. Investment in them is seen as crucial to the maintenance of literacy. However, it is also suggested that the cultural context cannot be overlooked, that the importance of oral communication does not swiftly diminish and that excessive emphasis on functional postliteracy texts does not coincide with the leisure-time interests of neo-literates.
Caron, Jessica; Light, Janice
An online focus group was used to investigate the experiences of nine individuals with cerebral palsy who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) and social media. Information was gathered related to (a) advantages of social media, (b) disadvantages of social media, (c) barriers to successful use, (d) supports to successful use, and (e) recommendations for other individuals using AAC, support personnel, policy makers, and technology developers. Participants primarily chose to focus on social media as a beneficial tool and viewed it as an important form of communication. The participants did describe barriers to social media use (e.g., technology). Despite barriers, all the participants in this study took an active role in learning to use social media. The results are discussed as they relate to themes and with reference to published literature. PMID:26056722
Grace, Emma; Raghavendra, Parimala; Newman, Lareen; Wood, Denise; Connell, Tim
Youth with complex communication needs (CCN) face increased barriers to their social participation due to limited communication abilities and opportunities. Youth today use the internet as a social tool and youth with CCN may also benefit from internet use to increase their social participation. Five youth between the ages of 10-18 with CCN who…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Stream Communications Network & Media, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading June 14, 2012. It... concerning the securities of Stream Communications Network & Media, Inc. because it has not filed...
Ehikhamenor, Fabian A.
Discusses information and communication technologies (ICT) in Nigerian print media and explores socioeconomic factors associated with the adoption and use of ICT by the media. Topics include ICT in the Third World; organizational goals; profitability; organizational communication; productivity; openness of workers to change; inflation; wages;…
Bohon, W.; Frus, R.; Arrowsmith, R.; Fouch, M. J.; Garnero, E. J.; Semken, S. C.; Taylor, W. L.
Social media has emerged as a popular and effective form of communication among all age groups, with nearly half of Internet users belonging to a social network or using another form of social media on a regular basis. This phenomenon creates an excellent opportunity for earth science organizations to use the wide reach, functionality and informal environment of social media platforms to disseminate important scientific information, create brand recognition, and establish trust with users. Further, social media systems can be utilized for missions of education, outreach, and communicating important timely information (e.g., news agencies are common users). They are eminently scaleable (thus serving from a few to millions of users with no cost and no performance problem), searchable (people are turning to them more frequently as conduits for information), and user friendly (thanks to the massive resources poured into the underlying technology and design, these systems are easy to use and have been widely adopted). They can be used, therefore, to engage the public interactively with the EarthScope facilities, experiments, and discoveries, and continue the cycle of discussions, experiments, analysis and conclusions that typify scientific advancement. The EarthScope National Office (ESNO) is launching an effort to utilize social media to broaden its impact as a conduit between scientists, facilities, educators, and the public. The ESNO will use the opportunities that social media affords to offer high quality science content in a variety of formats that appeal to social media users of various age groups, including blogs (popular with users 18-29), Facebook and Twitter updates (popular with users ages 18-50), email updates (popular with older adults), and video clips (popular with all age groups). We will monitor the number of "fans" and "friends" on social media and networking pages in order to gauge the increase in the percentage of the user population visiting the
Chesick, Curtis W.
The digital revolution has created a new ways for society to interact. As technology continues to evolve so does the way culture begins to use it as a channel for communication. Social media has developed as a two way communication tool used by both corporate America as well as individuals. This research begins to look at how Missouri school…
Geiger, Seth; Newhagen, John
Addresses some of the fundamental assumptions of an information processing approach to mass media effects and the contributions it brings to mass communication. Traces the conceptual and methodological innovations of an information processing perspective as they have been applied to the study of television since the 1980s. (SR)
Social media now complements many parts of our lives. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and many other social networking sites allow users to share and interact with online content and to connect with like-minded people. Its strengths – rapid dissemination and amplification of content and the ability to lead informal conversations – make it a powerful tool to use in a professional context. This commentary explains the overall concept of social media and offers suggestions on usage and possible types of scientific content. It advises researchers on the potential benefits and how to take a strategic approach towards building a social media presence. It also presents examples of effective social media use within the plant science community. Common reasons for scientists to not engage with social media include the fear of appearing unprofessional, posting something wrong or being misunderstood, or a lack of confidence in their computer skills. With the rapid changes in academic publishing, dissemination and science communication, as well as the rise of ‘altmetrics’ to track online engagement with scientific content, digital literacy will become an essential skill in a scientist’s tool kit. PMID:23845168
Social media now complements many parts of our lives. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and many other social networking sites allow users to share and interact with online content and to connect with like-minded people. Its strengths - rapid dissemination and amplification of content and the ability to lead informal conversations - make it a powerful tool to use in a professional context. This commentary explains the overall concept of social media and offers suggestions on usage and possible types of scientific content. It advises researchers on the potential benefits and how to take a strategic approach towards building a social media presence. It also presents examples of effective social media use within the plant science community. Common reasons for scientists to not engage with social media include the fear of appearing unprofessional, posting something wrong or being misunderstood, or a lack of confidence in their computer skills. With the rapid changes in academic publishing, dissemination and science communication, as well as the rise of 'altmetrics' to track online engagement with scientific content, digital literacy will become an essential skill in a scientist's tool kit. PMID:23845168
Climate communication is often fraught with ideological baggage ("noise") that makes it very difficult to connect to audiences. In these cases, it is helpful to use "best practices" known from other fields of communication. Engaging audiences with authenticity, using plain language, respecting cultural and political differences, and a sprinkling of humor can go a long way toward establishing a connection. It's important to avoid common but polarizing tropes from popular media, and often quite helpful to frame climate issues in novel or unexpected ways that cut across entrenched political discourse. Emerging social science research Beyond ideology, climate change is Simple, Serious, and Solvable. Effective communication of these three key ideas can succeed when the science argument is carefully framed to avoid attack of the audience's ethical identity. Simple arguments from common sense and everyday experience are more successful than data. Serious consequences to values that resonate with the audience can be avoided by solutions that don't threaten those values.
Epstein, Marina; Ward, L. Monique
Although parents are often thought to be the primary communicators of sexual information, studies have found that many adolescent boys report receiving little or no parental communication about sex. Instead, boys report learning about sex mostly from their peers and the media. However, little is known about the content of these communications,…
The way that a school board responds to media attention can make or break a school district's image and its communication program. Since elected officials govern by public consent gained from trust, a responsible communications program is based on willingness to do business in the light of day. Schools must be able to communicate the difficult…
Ray, Munni; Jat, Kana Ram
Radio, television (TV), movies, video games, cell phones, and computer networks have assumed central roles in our children's daily lives. The media has demonstrated potentially profound effects, both positive and negative, on children's cognitive, social, and behavioral development. Considering the increasing exposure of children to newer forms of media, we decided to review the current literature on the effects of media on child health both in the Western countries and India. It is widely accepted that media has profound influence on child health, including violence, obesity, tobacco and alcohol use, and risky sexual behaviors. Simultaneously, media may have some positive effects on child health. We need to find ways to optimize the role of media in our society, taking advantage of their positive attributes and minimizing their negative ones. We need to understand better how to reverse the negative impact of media and make it more positive. PMID:20683108
Lisiecka, Karolina; Rychwalska, Agnieszka; Samson, Katarzyna; Łucznik, Klara; Ziembowicz, Michał; Szóstek, Agnieszka; Nowak, Andrzej
Rapid development of information and communications technologies (ICT) has triggered profound changes in how people manage their social contacts in both informal and professional contexts. ICT mediated communication may seem limited in possibilities compared to face-to-face encounters, but research shows that puzzlingly often it can be just as effective and satisfactory. We posit that ICT users employ specific communication strategies adapted to particular communication channels, which results in a comparable effectiveness of communication. In order to maintain a satisfactory level of conversational intelligibility they calibrate the content of their messages to a given medium's richness and adjust the whole conversation trajectory so that every stage of the communication process runs fluently. In the current study, we compared complex task solving trajectories in chat, mobile phone and face-to-face dyadic conversations. Media conditions did not influence the quality of decision outcomes or users' perceptions of the interaction, but they had impact on the amount of time devoted to each of the identified phases of decision development. In face-to-face contacts the evaluation stage of the discussion dominated the conversation; in the texting condition the orientation-evaluation-control phases were evenly distributed; and the phone condition provided a midpoint between these two extremes. The results show that contemporary ICT users adjust their communication behavior to the limitations and opportunities of various media through the regulation of attention directed to each stage of the discussion so that as a whole the communication process remains effective. PMID:27337037
Rychwalska, Agnieszka; Samson, Katarzyna; Łucznik, Klara; Ziembowicz, Michał; Szóstek, Agnieszka; Nowak, Andrzej
Rapid development of information and communications technologies (ICT) has triggered profound changes in how people manage their social contacts in both informal and professional contexts. ICT mediated communication may seem limited in possibilities compared to face-to-face encounters, but research shows that puzzlingly often it can be just as effective and satisfactory. We posit that ICT users employ specific communication strategies adapted to particular communication channels, which results in a comparable effectiveness of communication. In order to maintain a satisfactory level of conversational intelligibility they calibrate the content of their messages to a given medium’s richness and adjust the whole conversation trajectory so that every stage of the communication process runs fluently. In the current study, we compared complex task solving trajectories in chat, mobile phone and face-to-face dyadic conversations. Media conditions did not influence the quality of decision outcomes or users’ perceptions of the interaction, but they had impact on the amount of time devoted to each of the identified phases of decision development. In face-to-face contacts the evaluation stage of the discussion dominated the conversation; in the texting condition the orientation-evaluation-control phases were evenly distributed; and the phone condition provided a midpoint between these two extremes. The results show that contemporary ICT users adjust their communication behavior to the limitations and opportunities of various media through the regulation of attention directed to each stage of the discussion so that as a whole the communication process remains effective. PMID:27337037
Pickett, Anna Lou; And Others
This conference presentation on promoting effective communications with paraeducators working in special education consists of 13 distinct text items. The items deal with: (1) definition of paraeducators and the roles of teachers in working with paraeducators in inclusive classrooms; (2) the importance of teacher-paraeducator communication; (3)…
Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Manlove, Elizabeth E.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of otitis media (OM) and the quality of child care on the social and communicative behaviors of toddlers, using a cumulative risk framework that included moderation. The study followed 72 children who began child care in infancy. Both process and structural aspects of the quality of 11 child…
Strasburger, Victor C; Jordan, Amy B; Donnerstein, Ed
The media can be a powerful teacher of children and adolescents and have a profound impact on their health. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem in the United States, but they do contribute to a variety of pediatric and adolescent health problems. Given that children and teens spend >7 hours a day with media, one would think that adult society would recognize its impact on young people's attitudes and behaviors. Too little has been done to protect children and adolescents from harmful media effects and to maximize the powerfully prosocial aspects of modern media. PMID:22643165
St. John, Walter D.
This pamphlet contains many guidelines and suggestions for increasing communication effectiveness. Some typical communication problems and several theories of communication are examined; suggestions for improving reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills are offered. Special clues for radio and television communication are also included.…
Freeman, Douglas N.
Contends that a comprehensive mass communication education program must include a consideration of theoretical issues such as the social influence of the media and offers a rationale for, and a description of instruction regarding such a theoretical issue. (MH)
Most mass media research in Japan focuses on the influence of mass communication on society as a whole; these "macro" theories typically employ traditional social science techniques. Reasons for this situation are examined, as well as how media researchers outside of Japan might learn from the Japanese perspectives about the role and function of…
This report summarizes a study of the systems of mass communication in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) that concentrated on the ideological and political bases of mass media as they developed after the Second World War. Topics discussed include (1) the history of journalism in the GDR, (2) the roles of the various media in that country, (3)…
Remmel-Gehm, Mary T.
This report discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated how visual media would affect the communication skills of a 13-year-old nonverbal girl with cerebral palsy and whether the use of visual media would provide documentation of higher cognitive functioning. For the study, the subject used three different tools to add visual information…
Reppert, James E.
An instructor uses a unique instructional paradigm in his MCOM 1003/Introduction to Mass Communication course at Southern Arkansas University (SAU) in a unit on media and politics. According to his students, one of the most popular learning strategies is the use of original edited videos that focus on dubious practices by some media professionals.…
Basil, Michael D.
Media effects should not be thought of as either isomorphic or fragmentary. Instead, the similarities and differences between them should be studied. This approach would offer the potential to determine not only what the media effects are, but how they occur. This is possible through the discovery of patterns in research theories and findings. To…
This discussion of the nature and role of communication skills in implementing job responsibilities of librarians and information specialists argues that the most important foundation of effective library leadership is communication. The paper begins by reviewing the literature on leadership and developing a set of leadership characteristics. It…
Coalition for America's Children, Washington, DC.
Maintaining that only by integrating communications into program planning and policy can Kids Count grantees and other child advocates achieve their goals, this document presents four studies examining the ways in which the media currently frame children's issues, the consequences of those frames, and possibilities for reframing media depictions…
Steinberg, Charles S.
All areas of mass communication are surveyed. Man's earliest efforts as a communicator are considered, and what is known about the development of speech and writing is explored. Various theories (including mathematical ones) are reviewed which attempt to explain the processes of both personal and mass communication. Separate chapters focus on the…
Sandman, Peter M., Ed.; And Others
Each selection in this anthology offers a single example of a major problem or characteristic of the American mass media. The anthology has four sections: development, responsibility, media, and coverage. Development in journalism is shown by comparing accounts of Presidential conventions over a 125-year period. Articles about responsibility deal…
It's easy to dismiss social media as a fascination of young people but to do so minimizes one of the fastest growing trends in technology. The Pew Internet and American Life Project recently found that over 71% of teens have a Facebook profile and 75% of adults have one too. Social media tools have become the way for a school or business to…
Lucas, Christopher J.; Schmitz, Charles D.
A sample of 863 college students in a large Midwestern university were polled to ascertain what media sources they might use most extensively for current events, to gauge their actual knowledge of current events, and to compare responses obtained with reported types of media exposure. (Author/MSE)
The importance of communication during a school crisis has not changed in the 21st century. What has changed--and quite dramatically since 1999--is the way people communicate. Social media tools are now used in some form by 100 percent of all four-year universities in the United States as a way to reach students, according to a 2011 University of…
Thomas, Wes, Ed.
A global newsletter on futuristic communications, media and networking is dedicated to creating open, humanistic environments for better interpersonal communication and to exploring the phenomenon of synergy, the coming together of people, ideas and environments for creation of something greater than the sum of the parts. Editorials, poetry, and…
Heidmann, Ilona; Milde, Jutta
The research about the fate and behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment is despite its wide applications still in the early stages. 'There is a high level of scientific uncertainty in nanoparticle research' is often stated in the scientific community. Knowledge about these uncertainties might be of interest to other scientists, experts and laymen. But how could these uncertainties be characterized and are they communicated within the scientific literature and the mass media? To answer these questions, the current state of scientific knowledge about scientific uncertainty through the example of environmental nanoparticle research was characterized and the communication of these uncertainties within the scientific literature is compared with its media coverage in the field of nanotechnologies. The scientific uncertainty within the field of environmental fate of nanoparticles is by method uncertainties and a general lack of data concerning the fate and effects of nanoparticles and their mechanisms in the environment, and by the uncertain transferability of results to the environmental system. In the scientific literature, scientific uncertainties, their sources, and consequences are mentioned with different foci and to a different extent. As expected, the authors in research papers focus on the certainty of specific results within their specific research question, whereas in review papers, the uncertainties due to a general lack of data are emphasized and the sources and consequences are discussed in a broader environmental context. In the mass media, nanotechnology is often framed as rather certain and positive aspects and benefits are emphasized. Although reporting about a new technology, only in one-third of the reports scientific uncertainties are mentioned. Scientific uncertainties are most often mentioned together with risk and they arise primarily from unknown harmful effects to human health. Environmental issues itself are seldom mentioned
Clement, Richard; Baker, Susan C.; Josephson, Gordon; Noels, Kimberly A.
Research on media effects has documented the media's influence on beliefs and behavior while cross-cultural psychology has documented the effects of the language used in communication on identification with the ingroup and the outgroup. Media usage in the outgroup language should, therefore, affect identification patterns. This research…
Hazlett, Diane E; Harrison, Laura; Carroll, Jennifer K; Irwin, Anthea; Hoving, Ciska
medium to be used by the public, patients, and health professionals to communicate about health issues with the possibility of potentially improving health outcomes. Social media is a powerful tool, which offers collaboration between users and is a social interaction mechanism for a range of individuals. Although there are several benefits to the use of social media for health communication, the information exchanged needs to be monitored for quality and reliability, and the users’ confidentiality and privacy need to be maintained. Eight gaps in the literature and key recommendations for future health communication research were provided. Examples of these recommendations include the need to determine the relative effectiveness of different types of social media for health communication using randomized control trials and to explore potential mechanisms for monitoring and enhancing the quality and reliability of health communication using social media. Further robust and comprehensive evaluation and review, using a range of methodologies, are required to establish whether social media improves health communication practice both in the short and long terms. PMID:23615206
Anderson, Brian E; Ulrich, Timothy J; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Ten Cate, James A
This letter presents a series of vibrational communication experiments, using time reversal, conducted on a set of cast iron pipes. Time reversal has been used to provide robust, private, and clean communications in many underwater acoustic applications. Here the use of time reversal to communicate along sections of pipes and through a wall is demonstrated to overcome the complications of dispersion and multiple scattering. These demonstrations utilize a single source transducer and a single sensor, a triaxial accelerometer, enabling multiple channels of simultaneous communication streams to a single location. PMID:26936580
Anderson, Brian E.; Ulrich, Timothy J.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Ten Cate, James A.
Our letter presents a series of vibrational communication experiments, using time reversal, conducted on a set of cast iron pipes. Time reversal has been used to provide robust, private, and clean communications in many underwater acoustic applications. Also, the use of time reversal to communicate along sections of pipes and through a wall is demonstrated here in order to overcome the complications of dispersion and multiple scattering. These demonstrations utilize a single source transducer and a single sensor, a triaxial accelerometer, enabling multiple channels of simultaneous communication streams to a single location.
Communication media are defined as systems that transmit messages for larger user systems which serve such purposes as instruction, information, entertainment, or propaganda dissemination. The report describes and discusses the uses of all types of communication media in instruction. Eleven uses for communication in instruction are described…
Outlines a program to develop general process skills in which students consider the level of public understanding of science, analyze the role of national daily newspapers in communicating news and information about science, and gain insight into the problems of popular scientific communication by writing pieces on scientific topics. (MDH)
Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.
The Mass Media Effects section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 13 papers: "The Nature of the Public's Objections to Television Programs: An Examination of Third-Person Effects" (Guy E. Lometti and others); "An Examination of the Relationship of Structural Pluralism, News Role and Source Use with Framing in the…
Polito, Jacquelyn M
A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior PMID:23833841
Rösel, Anja; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Gerland, Sebastian; Meyer, Amelie; Hudson, Stephen R.; King, Jennifer; Itkin, Polona; Cohen, Lana; Dodd, Paul; de Steur, Laura
The findings of climate science need to be communicated to the general public. Researchers are encouraged to do so by journalists, policy-makers and funding agencies and many of us want to become better science communicators. But how can we do this at the lab or small research group level without specifically allocated resources in terms of funds and communication officers? And how do we sustain communication on a regular basis and not just during the limited lifetime of a specific project? One of the solutions is to use the emerging platform of social media, which has become a powerful and inexpensive tool for communicating science to different target audiences. Many research institutions and individual researchers are already advanced users of social media, but small research groups and labs remain underrepresented. The group of oceanographers, sea ice and atmospheric scientists at the Norwegian Polar Institute (@OceanSeaIceNPI( will share our experiences developing and maintaining researcher-driven outreach for over a year through Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. We will present our solutions to some of the practical considerations such as identifying key target groups, defining the framework for sharing responsibilities and interactions within the research group, and choosing an up-to-date and appropriate social medium. By sharing this information, we aim to inspire and assist other research groups and labs in conducting their own effective science communication.
Batchelor, R. E.; Chebli-Saadi, M.
The textbook, entirely in French, is designed to help prepare anglophone students for French language usage in the media and telecommunications. It is organized according to two major themes. The first part addresses the French of advertising; chapter topics include the actors in advertising (agencies, announcers, supports), forms of advertising,…
Yeaman, Andrew R. J.
Just as Bob Heinich states that technology makes instruction visible (1970, 1971), putting the professional ethics into practice makes technology visible. The window for social insight into teachers' professional field is open to a particular view at the present. There are learner questions surrounding the use of media which need answering and…
Farace, Richard V.; And Others
Twenty-one criteria for assessing communication effectiveness in organizations provide the basis for discussion in this document. Grouped under the general heading of communication rules, the criteria are described according to five categories: structure, messages, media, communicator, and potpourri (factors that affect the decision making of…
Bryla, Karen Y.
Examines the media's influence on female body image. differentiating between the effects of print and electronic media. Results suggest that print media have a direct, immediate, and negative effect on female body image, while no such relationship exists for electronic media. Results also indicate that exploring only exposure to media images is…
Li, Lei; Sun, Tong; Peng, Wei; Li, Tao
Social media is becoming increasingly prevalent with the advent of web 2.0 technologies. Popular social media websites, such as Twitter and Facebook, are attracting a gigantic number of online users to post and share information. An interesting phenomenon under this trend involves that more and more users share their experiences or issues with regard to a product, and then the product service agents use commercial social media listening and engagement tools (e.g. Radian6, Sysomos, etc.) to response to users' complaints or issues and help them tackle their problems. This is often called customer care in social media or social customer relationship management (CRM). However, all these existing commercial social media tools only provide an aggregated level of trends, patterns and sentiment analysis based on the keyword-centric brand relevant data, which have little insights for answering one of the key questions in social CRM system: how effective is our social customer care engagement? In this paper, we focus on addressing the problem of how to measure the effectiveness of engagement for service agents in customer care. Traditional CRM effectiveness measurements are defined under the scenario of the call center, where the effectiveness is mostly based on the duration time per call and/or number of answered calls per day. Different from customer care in a call center, we can obtain detailed conversations between agents and customers in social media, and therefore the effectiveness can be measured by analyzing the content of conversations and the sentiment of customers.
Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.
The Mass Media Effects section of the proceedings contains the following eight papers: "The Spiral of Static: A Multivariate Analysis of a Public Opinion Theory Applied to Perception of Radio Station Popularity" (Terry Wedel and Tony Rimmer); "More Than Just Talk: Uses, Gratifications and the Telephone" (Garrett J. O'Keefe and Barbara K.…
Kanki, B. G.; Foushee, H. C.
This study of group process was motivated by a high-fidelity flight simulator project in which aircrew performance was found to be better when the crew had recently flown together. Considering recent operating experience as a group-level input factor, aspects of the communication process between crewmembers (Captain and First Officer), were explored as a possible mediator to performance. Communication patterns were defined by a speech act typology adapted for the flightdeck setting and distinguished crews that had previously flown together (FT) from those that had not flown together (NFT). A more open communication channel with respect to information exchange and validation and greater First Officer participation in task-related topics was shown by FT crews while NFT crews engaged in more non-task discourse, a speech mode less structured by roles and probably serving a more interpersonal function. Relationships between the speech categories themselves, representing linguistic, and role-related interdependencies provide guidelines for interpreting the primary findings.
Fernández-Celemín, Laura; Jung, Anna
The increasing availability of nutrition and health information has not always increased the knowledge of the general population, but presents them with the need to know and understand in order for choices to be made. While communicating science to the lay public, several challenges are encountered, ranging from the heterogeneity of the audience, the consumers, who demand certainty and a straightforward message, through the different aims and agendas of all the communicators, to the inherent complexity of the scientific message. Nowadays, the media is one major source of scientific information to the general public. The present article examines what the role of the media and scientists should be in bringing scientific communication to the public and how this communication could be improved. PMID:16923259
Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Seidell, Jacob C
The present study introduces a theoretical framework on negotiated media effects. Specifically, we argue that feedback of peers on thin-body ideal media images and individual dispositions guide effects on adolescent girls' psychosocial responses to media exposure. Therefore, we examined the thin-body ideal as portrayed in media and peers' feedback on such thin-ideal images in their combined effects on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction, objectified body consciousness, and social comparison with media models. Hence, media models and peer comments were systematically combined as incorporated entities in YouTube-formats. Hypotheses were tested in a 3 (media models: extremely thin vs. thin vs. normal weight)×3 (peer comments: 6kg-underweight vs. 3kg-underweight vs. normal-weight)×2 (appearance schematicity: lower vs. higher) between-subjects design (N=216). Results showed that peer comments indicating that a media model was 'only 3kg-underweight' exerted most negative responses, particularly in girls who strongly process appearance relevant information. Peer feedback interacts with media models in guiding perceptions of what is considered an 'ideal' body shape. Results highlight the important role of peers as well as individual predispositions in view of understanding how thin-ideal media images may impact adolescent girls' body image concerns. PMID:24262144
Gombeski, William R; Taylor, Jan; Piccirilli, Ami; Cundiff, Lee; Britt, Jason
Marketers are under increasing scrutiny from their management to demonstrate accountability for the resources they receive. Three models are presented to help marketers execute their customer communication activities more effectively. Benefits of using the "Identification of Strategic Communication Elements," "Business Communication" and "Communications Management Process" models include (1) more effective upfront strategic and tactical planning, (2) ensuring key communication principles are addressed, (3) easier communication program communication, (4) provides a framework for program evaluation and market research and (5) increases the creative thinking marketers need when addressing the major marketing challenges. The ultimate benefit is the greater likelihood of more positive marketing results. PMID:19042530
St. John, Walter
Improving communications between administration and staff members is an urgent, ongoing need. Schools should adopt a communications philosophy in conjunction with continuing communication effectiveness. These evaluations must have clear and understandable objectives, mainly to pinpoint communication strengths and weaknesses. All essential…
Soto-Cordero, L.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.; Gómez, G.; Giménez-Porrata, A.; Ramos-Gómez, W.; Colón-Daleccio, N.
On October 18, 2012 the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) in collaboration with Puerto Rico Emergency Management Agency (PREMA) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will be conducting the first Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut. Adequate communications strategies and redundant dissemination methods are a key component for the success of this earthquake exercise. EAS and NOAA Radio messages, indicating the beginning of the earthquake drill, will help emergency managers and the general public better coordinate their practices. Dissemination tools routinely used as part of PRSN earthquake and tsunami protocols, such as PRSNDANIS Broadcast, Ring Down, Ham Radio, RSS, SMS, fax and email service lists, will also be tested. Emergency Management and First Response Agencies at local, regional and state level are being asked to report the times the messages are received, thus allowing us to better assess the effectiveness of our dissemination methods and to establish a baseline for next year ShakeOut. In addition, a partnership with the Puerto Rico Radiobroadcaster Association allows a direct access through this media, facilitating PRSN staff participation on radio programming targeting diverse audiences. Radio spots have been developed to inform the public about the exercise, how to participate, what to do to be safe during an earthquake and how to develop or improve their safety plans. A media approach is critical for the success of the 2012 Puerto Rico ShakeOut since our earthquake drill takes place 2 weeks prior to the Island general election and on the peak-period of the hurricane season.
Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Méndez-López, María Elena; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; McBride, Marissa F.; Pyhälä, Aili; Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Reyes-García, Victoria
Indigenous societies hold a great deal of ethnoclimatological knowledge that could potentially be of key importance for both climate change science and local adaptation; yet, we lack studies examining how such knowledge might be shaped by media communication. This study systematically investigates the interplay between local observations of climate change and the reception of media information amongst the Tsimane’, an indigenous society of Bolivian Amazonia where the scientific discourse of anthropogenic climate change has barely reached. Specifically, we conducted a Randomized Evaluation with a sample of 424 household heads in 12 villages to test to what degree local accounts of climate change are influenced by externally influenced awareness. We randomly assigned villages to a treatment and control group, conducted workshops on climate change with villages in the treatment group, and evaluated the effects of information dissemination on individual climate change perceptions. Results of this work suggest that providing climate change information through participatory workshops does not noticeably influence individual perceptions of climate change. Such findings stress the challenges involved in translating between local and scientific framings of climate change, and gives cause for concern about how to integrate indigenous peoples and local knowledge with global climate change policy debates. PMID:26166919
Wu, S. C.
Different types of media effects on ARIES baseline determination are compared. The effectiveness of simple ionospheric calibration models are studied. To perform the covariance analysis, an ARIES observation sequence needs to be assumed. For the current purposes, the observation sequence is selected to be that of experiment 80D over the JPL/Goldstone baseline (approximately 180 km). This experiment consisted of 96 observations over a period of approximately 25 hours on March 25 to 26, 1980. It is found through covariance analyses that the component most sensitive to media depends heavily upon the correlation, between the two stations, of the media effects. It is also found that relying on the cancellation of ionospheric delays between the two ray paths of VLBI observations at S band results in a large error in baseline length determination. High degree removal of ionospheric effects is possible with a crude model, providing correct diurnal peak and minimum ionospheric levels are input.
Otevo, C.; Rusinek, I. ); Saez, A.E. )
This paper presents a technique to evaluate effective absolute permeabilities for heterogeneous porous media. The technique is based on a perturbation analysis of the equations of motion of a slightly compressible fluid in a homogeneous porous medium at low Reynolds numbers. The effective permeabilities can be calculated once the local geometry of the heterogeneous medium is specified. The technique is used to evaluate two- and three-dimensional effective vertical permeabilities in porous media with shale intercalations, including the case in which the porous matrix is anisotropic.
Westmyer, Stephanie A.; DiCioccio, Rachel L.; Rubin, Rebecca B.
Examines perceived appropriateness and effectiveness of six communication channels (face-to-face, telephone, voice mail, electronic mail, letter, and fax) used in relation to undergraduate students' interpersonal communication motives (inclusion, affection, control, relaxation, escape, and pleasure) in other-directed and self-directed…
Develop the skills you need to communicate effectively and in ways that motivate your faculty towards success. Written especially for principals and other administrators, this book will empower you to communicate well as you work to promote a student-centered environment best suited to schoolwide achievement. Learn to approach one-on-one…
Abood, Sarah K
The successful ability to efficiently collect diet histories, convey appropriate health messages, and discuss client concerns about the safe feeding of pets requires excellent communication skills. In addition to understanding what the client wants for their pet, thorough nutritional interviewers gather information pertaining to animal factors, dietary factors, and feeding management factors. With the expansion of the Internet, increasing advances in medical care, and the health concerns associated with pet food recalls, small animal clients are looking to veterinarians for guidance and information on dietary recommendations in ever increasing numbers. Evaluating current information on changes in the pet food industry should be a periodic learning objective for all members of the veterinary health care team. Consistent, effective communication between veterinarians, their staff, and their clients can improve compliance, increase satisfaction levels, and improve patient outcomes. PMID:18656842
Murray, Jo-Anne; Littleton, Fiona; Dozier, Marshall
Research has shown that the use of communication media in distance education can reduce feelings of distance and isolation from peers and tutors and provide opportunities for collaborative learning (Bates, 2005). The use of virtual worlds (VW) in education has increased in recent years, with Second Life (SL) being the most commonly used VW in…
New media technology (NT) interactive applications are currently being developed in house at ORD/NRMRL to enhance and improve communication of NRMRL's 1) research projects, 2) workshops/conferences and 3) specialized training. NT is an exciting mix of cutting-edge information tec...
Young, Amy M.; Hinesly, Mary D.
Organizations are increasingly using social media to improve their internal communication. When successfully implemented, such initiatives can have a dramatic impact on internal efficiency, team collaboration, innovation, organizational alignment, and cultural transformation. This article describes a course offered by the Ross School of Business,…
Yates, Bradford L.
A qualitative research approach was used to investigate the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) educational efforts in achieving scientific literacy through mass media and other communication technologies. Six in-depth telephone interviews were conducted with various NASA education and public affairs officers throughout the…
Social Media is the use of social networking sites, messaging sites, texting, and other web-based or mobile technologies to support social interaction. Facebook is by far the most widely used social networking site. Twitter is by far the most widely used messaging site. The goals of this presentation are: (1) To provide an understanding of the…
Unger, M.; Moloney, K.
Each communication medium has particular storytelling strengths. For example, video is particularly good at illustrating a progression of events, text at background and context, and games at describing systems. In what USC's Prof. Henry Jenkins described as "transmedia storytelling," multiple media are used simultaneously, in an expansive rather than repetitive way, to better tell a single, complex story. The audience is given multiple entry points to the story, and the story is exposed to diverse and dispersed audiences, ultimately engaging a broader public. We will examine the effectiveness of a transmedia approach to communicating scientific and other complex concepts to a broad and diverse audience. Using the recently developed Educational Visitor Center at the NCAR-Wyoming Supercomputing Center as a case study, we will evaluate the reach of various means of presenting information about the geosciences, climate change and computational science. These will include an assessment of video, mechanical and digital interactive elements, animated movie segments, web-based content, photography, scientific visualizations, printed material and docent-led activities.
Heijenk, G. J.; Hou, X.; Niemegeers, I. G.
The paper presents a service description of communication systems supporting multi-media multi-user applications. In particular, it focuses on service elements related to the call control. The service description specifies the functional behavior of the communication system as a whole. It can be used as a common reference in the next design stages, e.g., in the protocol design and implementation of both Customer Premises Networks and public telecommunication networks. After discussing the requirements of multi-media multi-user applications, a call model is presented. This model creates an abstract view of those aspects of the call relevant for the design and helps us in structuring the service. Only those service elements of a communication system that are related to the call establishment, modification and termination are fully specified by describing service primitives, their parameters and temporal ordering constraints.
Bohon, Wendy; Robinson, Sarah; Arrowsmith, Ramon; Semken, Steven
Social media has emerged as a popular mode of communication, with more than 73% of the teenage and adult population in the United States using it on a regular basis [Lenhart et al., 2010]. Young people in particular (ages 12-29) are deeply involved in the rapidly evolving social media environment and have an expectation of communication through these media. This engagement creates a valuable opportunity for scientific organizations and programs to use the wide reach, functionality, and informal environment of social media to create brand recognition, establish trust with users, and disseminate scientific information.
Foresta Martin, Franco; Peppoloni, Silvia
In the urgency to reconsider the relationship between humankind and planet Earth, in the light of the issues of a sustainable economic and technological development, the defence against natural risks and climate change, the themes addressed by Geoethics are becoming central to the scientific debate. A growing number of scientists begins to consider this discipline as an effective tool to increase, in the scientific community and society as a whole, the awareness of local and global environmental problems that humanity is facing. Geoethics deals with the ethical, social and cultural aspects related to geosciences. It was born with the goal of orienting humankind toward a balanced relationship with the planet and providing references and guidelines to find socio-economic solutions compatible both with the respect for the environment and the protection of nature and land. Geoethics addresses fundamental issues such as the exploitation of geo-resources, the management of natural hazards, the defence of the geoheritage as a common value to be protected and enhanced. But above all geoethics aims at raising in the community of geoscientists the awareness of their responsibilities in conducting the scientific and professional activity. In order to extend this awareness to the whole civil society and also to foster the recognition of the usefulness of geosciences in daily life, it is important to develop a proper communication of the geological knowledge, that is capable to contribute substantially to the construction of the social knowledge of human communities. But nowadays what is the role played by geosciences in the scientific mass culture? Are geosciences part of the collective cultural heritage? Do the publishing world and media in general offer an adequate space to geosciences? Through the analysis of case studies, the authors will highlight the critical features of the relationship between geoscientists and the media system, their different languages, times and
Jonas, Kai J; Boos, Margarete; Sassenberg, Kai
Lougeay-Mottinger, Janice; And Others
This study examined the effect of various intervention contexts on the ability of young children (ages 3 and 4 years) with language impairments to effectively direct communications to a partner and to vary communicative intentions. The six children in the study were either nonverbal or in the early stages of developing verbal communication and all…
Gordon, Thomas F.
In this theoretical working paper, an attempt is made to pull together the two areas of cognitive information processing and emotional arousal, in order to provide a fuller framework for examining media effects. The development of a cognitive-behavioral index is proposed as a research tool resulting from this merger of areas, as are a number of…
New media, that which is based around social networks, ubiquitous consumer technology, and today's near-universal access to information, has transformed the way that science is communicated to the scientist and non-scientist alike. We may be in the midst of mankind's greatest shift in information consumption and distribution since the invention of the printing press. Or maybe not. The problem with predicting the future is that it's very hard, and unless you're Isaac Asimov, it's very easy to be wrong. When one predicts the future regarding the internet, that risk becomes almost a certainty. Still, we can apply lessons learned from the near and distant history of science communication to put today's new media evolution into perspective, and to give us clues as to where social media, digital journalism, open access, and online education will lead science communication in years to come. Most importantly, it remains to be seen whether this new media evolution will translate into a shift in how science is viewed by citizens and their policymakers.
Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Berben, Sivera AA; Teerenstra, Steven; Samsom, Melvin; Schoonhoven, Lisette
Background Health care is increasingly featured by the use of Web 2.0 communication and collaborative technologies that are reshaping the way patients and professionals interact. These technologies or tools can be used for a variety of purposes: to instantly debate issues, discover news, analyze research, network with peers, crowd-source information, seek support, and provide advice. Not all tools are implemented successfully; in many cases, the nonusage attrition rates are high. Little is known about the preferences of the Dutch general population regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. Objective To determine the preferences of the general population in the Netherlands regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. Methods A cross-sectional survey was disseminated via a popular Dutch online social network. Respondents were asked where they searched for health-related information, how they qualified the value of different sources, and their preferences regarding online communication with health care providers. Results were weighed for the Dutch population based on gender, age, and level of education using official statistics. Numbers and percentages or means and standard deviations were presented for different subgroups. One-way ANOVA was used to test for statistical differences. Results The survey was completed by 635 respondents. The Internet was found to be the number one source for health-related information (82.7%), closely followed by information provided by health care professionals (71.1%). Approximately one-third (32.3%) of the Dutch population search for ratings of health care providers. The most popular information topics were side effects of medication (62.5%) and symptoms (59.7%). Approximately one-quarter of the Dutch population prefer to communicate with a health care provider via social media (25.4%), and 21.2% would like to communicate via a webcam. Conclusions The Internet is the main source of health
Maeseele, Pieter; Allgaier, Joachim; Martinelli, Lucia
The representation of biological innovations in and through communication and media practices is vital for understanding the nature of “bio-objects” and the process we call “bio-objectification.” This paper discusses two ideal-typical analytical approaches based on different underlying communication models, ie, the traditional (science- and media-centered) and media sociological (a multi-layered process involving various social actors in defining the meanings of scientific and technological developments) approach. In this analysis, the latter is not only found to be the most promising approach for understanding the circulation, (re)production, and (re)configuration of meanings of bio-objects, but also to interpret the relationship between media and science. On the basis of a few selected examples, this paper highlights how media function as a primary arena for the (re)production and (re)configuration of scientific and biomedical information with regards to bio-objects in the public sphere in general, and toward decision-makers, interest groups, and the public in specific. PMID:23771763
Ambrose, Sophie E.; VanDam, Mark; Moeller, Mary Pat
Objectives The objectives of this study were to examine the quantity of adult words, adult-child conversational turns, and electronic media in the auditory environments of toddlers who are hard of hearing (HH) and to examine whether these variables contributed to variability in children’s communication outcomes. Design Participants were 28 children with mild to severe hearing loss. Full-day recordings of children’s auditory environments were collected within 6 months of their 2nd birthdays by utilizing LENA (Language ENvironment Analysis) technology. The system analyzes full-day acoustic recordings, yielding estimates of the quantity of adult words, conversational turns, and electronic media exposure in the recordings. Children’s communication outcomes were assessed via the receptive and expressive scales of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning at 2 years of age and the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language at 3 years of age. Results On average, the HH toddlers were exposed to approximately 1400 adult words per hour and participated in approximately 60 conversational turns per hour. An average of 8% of each recording was classified as electronic media. However, there was considerable within-group variability on all three measures. Frequency of conversational turns, but not adult words, was positively associated with children’s communication outcomes at 2 and 3 years of age. Amount of electronic media exposure was negatively associated with 2-year-old receptive language abilities; however, regression results indicate that the relationship was fully mediated by the quantity of conversational turns. Conclusions HH toddlers who were engaged in more conversational turns demonstrated stronger linguistic outcomes than HH toddlers who were engaged in fewer conversational turns. The frequency of these interactions was found to be decreased in households with high rates of electronic media exposure. Optimal language-learning environments for HH toddlers include
This article highlights the importance of effective communication skills for nurses. It focuses on core communication skills, their definitions and the positive outcomes that result when applied to practice. Effective communication is central to the provision of compassionate, high-quality nursing care. The article aims to refresh and develop existing knowledge and understanding of effective communication skills. Nurses reading this article will be encouraged to develop a more conscious style of communicating with patients and carers, with the aim of improving health outcomes and patient satisfaction. PMID:25467362
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
This teacher's guide is designed for use in presenting a five-unit course in effective communication that is part of a life skills series intended to help students become more self-sufficient in their personal and professional lives. The course's five instructional units cover these topics: understanding communication, improving communication,…
Smart, Karl L.; Featheringham, Richard
Regardless of the content specialty--from accounting to information systems to finance--employers view effective communication as critical to an individual's success in today's competitive workplace. Most business degree programs require a business communication course to help students develop communication skills needed both in getting a job and…
Pea, Roy; Nass, Clifford; Meheula, Lyn; Rance, Marcus; Kumar, Aman; Bamford, Holden; Nass, Matthew; Simha, Aneesh; Stillerman, Benjamin; Yang, Steven; Zhou, Michael
An online survey of 3,461 North American girls ages 8-12 conducted in the summer of 2010 through Discovery Girls magazine examined the relationships between social well-being and young girls' media use--including video, video games, music listening, reading/homework, e-mailing/posting on social media sites, texting/instant messaging, and talking on phones/video chatting--and face-to-face communication. This study introduced both a more granular measure of media multitasking and a new comparative measure of media use versus time spent in face-to-face communication. Regression analyses indicated that negative social well-being was positively associated with levels of uses of media that are centrally about interpersonal interaction (e.g., phone, online communication) as well as uses of media that are not (e.g., video, music, and reading). Video use was particularly strongly associated with negative social well-being indicators. Media multitasking was also associated with negative social indicators. Conversely, face-to-face communication was strongly associated with positive social well-being. Cell phone ownership and having a television or computer in one's room had little direct association with children's socioemotional well-being. We hypothesize possible causes for these relationships, call for research designs to address causality, and outline possible implications of such findings for the social well-being of younger adolescents. PMID:22268607
De Pietro, R; Clark, N
This article is an exploratory study to identify discrete factors which predict the way in which adolescents are likely to communicate about birth control after receiving information from a mass medium is described. First, we discuss styles of interacting with others regarding information from mass media which have been described in previous research. Five styles are identified: media-oriented, peer-oriented, home-oriented, professionally-oriented, and multi-source oriented. Next, we discuss categories of factors which theoretically should distinguish among the five communication styles. These factors are drawn from theories and previous research in communication and social learning. Using data collected from a random sample of 100 adolescents, we then test the predictive ability of categories of factors. Discriminant analysis is used to determine which factors within categories are most predictive of style and which best discriminate between styles. Eight factors are identified which predict 75% of all communication styles. The factors are sex, race, giving advice about sex, seeking information about birth control, dating rules regarding where one can go, dating rules regarding behavior on dates, feelings of pride, and feelings of popularity. Finally, we discuss the significance for practitioners of study findings and of predicting adolescents' communication styles. PMID:6671899
Spangler, Kathleen; And Others
In a study supported by the Charles F. Kettering Foundation, a research team developed a methodology for illustrating the effective and ineffective uses of audio, video, and computer teleconferencing by developing scenarios for eacb medium. The group first invented a general situation--a conference involving participants with global, regional, and…
Young, Vivienne; And Others
Prompted by dissatisfaction with its information procedures the research department of the Board of Education for Toronto undertook a research project to find new and effective ways of disseminating information about their studies. It was felt that the research information was of little use if it did not reach the interested consumer. Five methods…
Teamwork requires co-operation, co-ordination and communication between members of a team to achieve desired outcomes. In industries with a high degree of risk, such as health care, effective teamwork has been shown to achieve team goals successfully and efficiently, with fewer errors. This article introduces behaviours that support communication, co-operation and co-ordination in teams. The central role of communication in enabling co-operation and co-ordination is explored. A human factors perspective is used to examine tools to improve communication and identify barriers to effective team communication in health care. PMID:26243123
Hennig, A. J.; Heenatigala, T.; Walker, C. E.
Social media has become a daily tool in our culture. Networks such as Facebook with 900 million active users and Twitter with 140 million active users make an ideal platform to create awareness. It helps to generate and share new content and enables multi-communication channels. This presentation will address how effectively social media can be used as an education tool to create awareness of light pollution. As a "green" focus becomes more important in our world the topic of light pollution is also rising as an important issue. Light Pollution affects many aspects of our world ranging from flora and fauna to the economic well-being of many industrialized countries. Mixed among the many important pollutants in our world light pollution can fall by the way-side, forgotten, but it is imperative to bring out awareness of this problem, especially since studies are beginning to show how by fighting light pollution we will also be fighting other pollution such as air pollutants. GLOBE at Night has combined social media tools such as Facebook and Twitter with its educational awareness campaign on light pollution to reach out to social media community. Currently our Facebook reaches citizens of twenty separate countries ranging from the Czech Republic and Peru to the United States and the United Kingdom. On Facebook our reach is estimated at over 800,000 friends of our fans. These networks help us to directly answer users' immediate questions and encourage participation in the GLOBE at Night campaigns. Important news on light pollution appearing in cyberspace is monitored regularly using Google Alerts and Twitter hash tags filters which gets posted regularly on our networks. Social media networking has become a tool for users not only for information about GLOBE at Night but also for information about the overall topic of light pollution itself. Many individuals and organizations struggle with the mass content shared in social networks. It is important to know where to
Mann, M. E.
I will share insights that I have accumulated in my own communications and outreach efforts using different types of internet-based communication including blogs (i.e. the 'RealClimate' blog that I co-founded with other climate scientists), and social media tools such as Facebook and Twitter. I will discuss the complementary strengths and weaknesses of the different communication tools, and possible ways of exploiting them collectively as part of a more coordinated communication strategy.
Sharif, H. O.; Joseph, J.; Mullendore, G. L.
The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), San Antonio College (SAC), and the University of North Dakota (UND) have partnered with NASA to provide underrepresented undergraduates from UTSA, SAC, and other community colleges climate-related research and education experiences through the Climate Change Communication: Engineer, Environmental science, and Education (C3E3) project. The program aims to develop a robust response to climate change by providing K-16 climate change education; enhance the effectiveness of K-16 education particularly in engineering and other STEM disciplines by use of new instructional technologies; increase the enrollment in engineering programs and the number of engineering degrees awarded by showing engineering's usefulness in relation to the much-discussed contemporary issue of climate change; increase persistence in STEM degrees by providing student research opportunities; and increase the ethnic diversity of those receiving engineering degrees and help ensure an ethnically diverse response to climate change. Students participated in the second summer internship funded by the project. The program is in its third year. More than 75 students participated in a guided research experiences aligned with NASA Science Plan objectives for climate and Earth system science and the educational objectives of the three institutions. The students went through training in modern media technology (webcasts), and in using this technology to communicate the information on climate change to others, especially high school students, culminating in production of webcasts on investigating the aspects of climate change using NASA data. Content developed is leveraged by NASA Earth observation data and NASA Earth system models and tools. Three Colleges were involved in the program: Engineering, Education, and Science.
The intent for this paper is to show that communication within the higher education field is a current problem. By looking first at the different styles, forms, and audiences for communication, the reader will hopefully gain perspective as to why this is such a problem in higher education today. Since the Millennial generation is the newest set of…
Feingold, Paul C.
This study attempts to determine if general principles of effective communication may be defined, if certain principles may be seen as central to the judgment of an individual's effectiveness, and if such principles of effective communication can affect perceptions of effective and ineffective communicators. Respondents to a 60-item questionnaire…
Callahan, P. S.
The effects of the transmission media - the earth's troposphere and ionosphere, and the solar wind - on precise Doppler tracking are discussed. The charged particle effects can be largely removed by dual frequency observations; however there are limitations to these corrections (besides system noise and/or finite integration times) including the effects of magnetic fields, diffraction, and differential refraction, all of which must be carefully evaluated. The earth's troposphere can contribute an error of delta f/f approximately 10 to the minus 14th power.
Johnson, Thomas J.; Braima, Mahmoud A. M.; Sothirajah, Jayanthi
Contributes to scholarship on political communication by examining the extent to which heavy users of the Internet and other non-traditional media differ from heavy users of traditional media in their knowledge of issue stances of Bill Clinton and Bob Dole. Finds that non-traditional media had little influence on political knowledge; and few…
Abstract This article argues as follows: (i) The presence of the dead within a society depends in part on available communication technologies, specifically speech, stone, sculpture, writing, printing, photography and phonography (including the mass media), and most recently the internet. (ii) Each communication technology affords possibilities for the dead to construct and legitimate particular social groups and institutions – from the oral construction of kinship, to the megalithic legitimation of the territorial rights of chiefdoms, to the written word’s construction of world religions and nations, to the photographic and phonographic construction of celebrity-based neo-tribalism, and to the digital reconstruction of family and friendship. (iii) Historically, concerns about the dead have on a number of occasions aided the development of new communication technologies – the causal connection between the two can go both ways. The argument is based primarily on critical synthesis of existing research literature. PMID:26549977
Hopp, Toby M.
In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students' intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students…
Stewart-McKoy, Michelle A.
The purpose of this project was to develop an e-learning profile for a group of media and communication students enrolled in a Jamaican tertiary-level institution in order to make informed decisions most the appropriate [online] learning complement for these students. The objectives sought to determine the e-learning profile of media and…
Rolle, Joni R.
Suggesting that the old saying "It's not what you say, it's how you say it" rings true for one educational leader, a Speech Pathologist, keenly aware of the necessity of effective communication and its impact on leadership. Possessing the quality of effective communication makes for a high quality leader because it enables one to express ideas…
Background Social media use is highly prevalent among children, youth, and their caregivers, and its use in healthcare is being explored. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine: 1) for what purposes social media is being used in child health and its effectiveness; and 2) the attributes of social media tools that may explain how they are or are not effective. Methods We searched Medline, CENTRAL, ERIC, PubMed, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Alt Health Watch, Health Source, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Web of Knowledge, and Proquest Dissertation and Theses Database from 2000–2013. We included primary research that evaluated the use of a social media tool, and targeted children, youth, or their families or caregivers. Quality assessment was conducted on all included analytic studies using tools specific to different quantitative designs. Results We identified 25 studies relevant to child health. The majority targeted adolescents (64%), evaluated social media for health promotion (52%), and used discussion forums (68%). Most often, social media was included as a component of a complex intervention (64%). Due to heterogeneity in conditions, tools, and outcomes, results were not pooled across studies. Attributes of social media perceived to be effective included its use as a distraction in younger children, and its ability to facilitate communication between peers among adolescents. While most authors presented positive conclusions about the social media tool being studied (80%), there is little high quality evidence of improved outcomes to support this claim. Conclusions This comprehensive review demonstrates that social media is being used for a variety of conditions and purposes in child health. The findings provide a foundation from which clinicians and researchers can build in the future by identifying tools that have been developed, describing how they have been used, and isolating components that have been
van Vliet, L M; van Dulmen, S; Mistiaen, P; Bensing, J M
- Good communication is important for patients and can elicit placebo effects: true psychobiological effects not attributable to the medical-technical intervention.- It is, however, often unclear which communication behaviours influence specific patient outcomes.- In this article we present insights into the potential effect of specific communication, via specific mechanisms, on specific patient outcomes, including patients' perception of pain.- A recent systematic review and additional literature demonstrate that (a) manipulating patients' expectations, (b) demonstrating empathy, and (c) providing procedural information, might influence patient outcomes.- These placebo effects probably occur via (a) neurobiological responses comparable to the effects of pain medication, (b) reduction of anxiety and stress, and PMID:27484421
Raley, Nancy, Ed.; Carter, Laura, Ed.
Developing an effective communications program is crucial for the survival of colleges, universities, and independent schools because they must be well understood and have broad public support. This guide to media relations compiles articles from "CASE Currents" into five sections: "The Basics of a News Service" (17 papers); "So You Want National…
Karaagac, Aysu Turkmen
Pervasive media environment is a social problem shared by most of the countries around the world. Several studies have been performed to highlight the undesired effects of media on children. Some of these studies have focused on the time spent by children watching television, playing with computers or using mobile media devices while some others have tried to explain the associations between the obesity, postural abnormalities or psychological problems of children, and their media use. This article discusses the recent approaches to curb influence of media on children, and the importance of family media literacy education programs with particular relevance to developing countries. PMID:26121718
Stouffer, Donald D.
Communication in its many forms is a critical component for an effective Space Grant Program. Good communication is needed within individual Space Grant College/Consortia, for example between consortium affiliates and the consortium program office. Effective communication between the several programs, NASA Headquarters, and NASA field centers also is required. Further, communication among the above program elements, industry, local and state government, and the public also are necessary for meeting program objectives.
Muralidharan, Sidharth; Men, Linjuan Rita
Based on consumer socialization theory, this study proposes and tests a conceptual model of social media shopping behavior, which links the antecedents of user motivations of engagement and peer communication about products to shopping behavior through social media. A cross-cultural survey was conducted with social media users in two culturally distinct markets with the largest Internet population: China (n=304) and the United States (n=328). Findings showed that social interaction, information, and remuneration were positive antecedents of peer communication for users from both countries. Peer communication positively impacted social media shopping behavior, and cultural differences were observed, with social interaction being important to Chinese users' shopping behavior, while remuneration was more important to American users. Implications are discussed. PMID:26376370
American Counseling Association, Office of Public Policy and Information, Alexandria, VA.
This pamphlet attempts to make communicating with legislators easy. Each section includes a brief paragraph and several bullet points that present techniques or advice for simplifying communication. It begins with "Rules for Effective Advocacy," which presents a core set of basic advocacy principles, followed by "What Makes Politicians Tick?" and…
The communication satellite already has developed a mature technology. It carries a substantial part of the world's long range communication, and is now useable for special cultural and educational purposes. Major cultural effects come from its contribution to increasing enormously the flow of information in the world. It will increase human…
To explore a number of questions in the area of risk communications, the Interagency Task Force on Environmental Cancer and Heart and Lung Disease, held a Workshop on Evaluation and Effective Risk Communication which brought together experts from academia, government agencies, an...
Hixson, Richard F., Ed.
Recognizing that mass media--now at a stage of viewing critically its effects and responsibilities--and society at large are interdependent, this casebook reviews the many facets of the media and mass communication as they relate to both producers and consumers of messages. The 23 chapters include discussions of the media's responsibility toward…
Akerlof, Karen; Rowan, Katherine E.; Fitzgerald, Dennis; Cedeno, Andrew Y.
Computer models generate projections of future climatic conditions that lie at the crux of climate change science and policy, and are increasingly used by decision-makers. Yet their complexity and politicization can hinder the communication of their science, uses and limitations. Little information on climate models has appeared in US newspapers over more than a decade. Indeed, we show it is declining relative to climate change. When models do appear, it is often within sceptic discourses. Using a media index from 2007, we find that model projections were frequently portrayed as likely to be inaccurate. Political opinion outlets provided more explanation than many news sources.
Watt, James H., Jr.; van den Berg, Sjef A.
A study was conducted in the Washington, D.C., area to test mass media effects in a community controversy. Five possible theories were hypothesized to explain the effects media have on a community: indirect and direct effects, null effects, agenda setting, reverse effects, and reverse agenda setting. During the 16-month test period of the British…
Cameron, A M; Massie, A B; Alexander, C E; Stewart, B; Montgomery, R A; Benavides, N R; Fleming, G D; Segev, D L
Despite countless media campaigns, organ donation rates in the United States have remained static while need has risen dramatically. New efforts to increase organ donation through public education are necessary to address the waiting list of over 100,000 patients. On May 1, 2012, the online social network, Facebook, altered its platform to allow members to specify "Organ Donor" as part of their profile. Upon such choice, members were offered a link to their state registry to complete an official designation, and their "friends" in the network were made aware of the new status as a donor. Educational links regarding donation were offered to those considering the new organ donor status. On the first day of the Facebook organ donor initiative, there were 13 054 new online registrations, representing a 21.1-fold increase over the baseline average of 616 registrations. This first-day effect ranged from 6.9× (Michigan) to 108.9× (Georgia). Registration rates remained elevated in the following 12 days. During the same time period, no increase was seen in registrations from the DMV. Novel applications of social media may prove effective in increasing organ donation rates and likewise might be utilized in other refractory public health problems in which communication and education are essential. PMID:23777475
Yong, Benny; Samat, Nor Azah
In recent years, political figures begin to utilize social media as one of alternative to engage in communication with their supporters. Publics referred to Jokowi, one of the candidates in Indonesia presidential election in 2014, as the first politician in Indonesia to truly understand the power of social media. Social media is very important in shaping public opinion. In this paper, effect of social media on the Jokowi-fever model in a closed population will be discussed. Supporter population is divided into three class sub-population, i.e susceptible supporters, Jokowi infected supporters, and recovered supporters. For case no positive media, there are two equilibrium points; the Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio less than one and the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio greater than one. For case no negative media, there is only the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if the condition is satisfied. Generally, for case positive media proportion is positive, there is no Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point. The numerical result shows that social media gives significantly effect on Jokowi-fever model, a sharp increase or a sharp decrease in the number of Jokowi infected supporters. It is also shown that the boredom rate is one of the sensitive parameters in the Jokowi-fever model; it affects the number of Jokowi infected supporters.
Babidge, S.; Cokley, J.; Gordon, F.; Louw, E.
As humans expand into space communities will form. These have already begun to form in small ways, such as long-duration missions on the International Space Station and the space shuttle, and small-scale tourist excursions into space. Social, behavioural and communications data emerging from such existing communities in space suggest that the physically-bounded, work-oriented and traditionally male-dominated nature of these extremely remote groups present specific problems for the resident astronauts, groups of them viewed as ‘communities’, and their associated groups who remain on Earth, including mission controllers, management and astronauts’ families. Notionally feminine group attributes such as adaptive competence, social adaptation skills and social sensitivity will be crucial to the viability of space communities and in the absence of gender equity, ‘staying in touch’ by means of ‘news from home’ becomes more important than ever. A template of news and media forms and technologies is suggested to service those needs and enhance the social viability of future terraforming activities.
Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C; Landgren, Jonas; Griberg, Isaac; Skiby, Jeffrey E; Tubbin, Anna; von Stapelmohr, Anne; Härenstam, Malin; Jansson, Mikael; Knutsson, Rickard
This article focuses on social media and interactive challenges for emergency organizations during a bioterrorism or agroterrorism incident, and it outlines the dual-use dilemma of social media. Attackers or terrorists can use social media as their modus operandi, and defenders, including emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty-six experts and crisis communicators from international and national organizations participated. As a result of the workshop, it was concluded that emergency organizations can collect valuable information and monitor social media before, during, and after an outbreak. In order to make use of interactive communication to obtain collective intelligence from the public, emergency organizations must adapt to social networking technologies, requiring multidisciplinary knowledge in the fields of information, communication, IT, and biopreparedness. Social network messaging during a disease outbreak can be visualized in stream graphs and networks showing clusters of Twitter and Facebook users. The visualization of social media can be an important preparedness tool in the response to bioterrorism and agroterrorism. PMID:23971817
Adler-Milstein, Julia; Harrod, Molly; Sales, Anne; Hofer, Timothy P; Saint, Sanjay; Krein, Sarah L
Background Communication failures between physicians and nurses are one of the most common causes of adverse events for hospitalized patients, as well as a major root cause of all sentinel events. Communication technology (ie, the electronic medical record, computerized provider order entry, email, and pagers), which is a component of health information technology (HIT), may help reduce some communication failures but increase others because of an inadequate understanding of how communication technology is used. Increasing use of health information and communication technologies is likely to affect communication between nurses and physicians. Objective The purpose of this study is to describe, in detail, how health information and communication technologies facilitate or hinder communication between nurses and physicians with the ultimate goal of identifying how we can optimize the use of these technologies to support effective communication. Effective communication is the process of developing shared understanding between communicators by establishing, testing, and maintaining relationships. Our theoretical model, based in communication and sociology theories, describes how health information and communication technologies affect communication through communication practices (ie, use of rich media; the location and availability of computers) and work relationships (ie, hierarchies and team stability). Therefore we seek to (1) identify the range of health information and communication technologies used in a national sample of medical-surgical acute care units, (2) describe communication practices and work relationships that may be influenced by health information and communication technologies in these same settings, and (3) explore how differences in health information and communication technologies, communication practices, and work relationships between physicians and nurses influence communication. Methods This 4-year study uses a sequential mixed
Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman
The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS
Garrett, J Hudson
Breakdowns in health care communication are a significant cause of sentinel events and associated patient morbidity and mortality. Effective communication is a necessary component of a patient safety program, which enables all members of the interdisciplinary health care team to effectively manage their individual roles and responsibilities in the perioperative setting; set expectations for safe, high-reliability care; and measure and assess outcomes. To sustain a culture of safety, effective communication should be standardized, complete, clear, brief, and timely. Executive leadership and support helps remove institutional barriers and address challenges to support the engagement of patients in health care communication, which has been shown to improve outcomes, reduce costs, and improve the patient experience. PMID:27472971
Cole, Simon A
Over the past decade, popular media has promulgated claims that the television program CSI and its spinoffs and imitators have had a pernicious effect on the public understanding of forensic science, the so-called "CSI effect." This paper analyzes those media claims by documenting the ways in which the media claims that CSI "distorts" an imagined "reality." It shows that the media appropriated the analytic stance usually adopted by science advocates, portraying the CSI effect as a social problem in science communication. This appropriation was idiosyncratic in that it posited, as a social problem, a "surfeit" of knowledge and positive imagery about science, rather than the more familiar "deficits." In addition, the media simultaneously appropriated both "traditional" and "critical" PUS discourses. Despite this apparent contradiction, the paper concludes that, in both discourses, the media and its expert informants insist upon their hegemony over "the public" to articulate the "reality" of forensic science. PMID:23825289
MAHLER, T.W.; MILLER, H. MAX
AS PART OF AN ADULT LIBERAL STUDIES PROGRAM (BASIC ISSUES OF MAN), AN EVALUATION WAS MADE TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMBINATIONS OF TELEVISION, FILMS, WRITTEN MATERIALS, AND GROUP DISCUSSION IN EDUCATIONAL SITUATIONS INVOLVING EXPOSURE TO THE MEDIA ALONE OR IN GROUPS, THE AIM OF THE PROGRAM BEING TO BRING ABOUT ATTITUDINAL CHANGES. THE…
Stogner, Maggie Burnette
This paper explores the potential of digital media technologies and new storytelling techniques in giving objects an emotional dimension and thus encouraging affective learning. The use of new immersive and participatory techniques is a means of contextualizing real objects, and perhaps a more effective way to reach diverse audiences and create…
Broniatowski, David A; Hilyard, Karen M; Dredze, Mark
Vaccine refusal rates have increased in recent years, highlighting the need for effective risk communication, especially over social media. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that individuals encode bottom-line meaning ("gist") and statistical information ("verbatim") in parallel and those articles expressing a clear gist will be most compelling. We coded news articles (n=4581) collected during the 2014-2015 Disneyland measles for content including statistics, stories, or bottom-line gists regarding vaccines and vaccine-preventable illnesses. We measured the extent to which articles were compelling by how frequently they were shared on Facebook. The most widely shared articles expressed bottom-line gists, although articles containing statistics were also more likely to be shared than articles lacking statistics. Stories had limited impact on Facebook shares. Results support Fuzzy Trace Theory's predictions regarding the distinct yet parallel impact of categorical gist and statistical verbatim information on public health communication. PMID:27179915
Rugh, K S; Hahn, A W
The written word is the biomedical scientist's most important and most enduring communication tool. Nevertheless, the development of writing skills receives little attention in most scientific disciplines and the ability to conduct research is often viewed as more important than the ability to communicate the results of that research. Consequently, many scientists lack the writing skills necessary to effectively convey essential aspects of their research. In this paper, we will discuss the importance of good writing skills, give examples of common mistakes that are made in biomedical science writing and offer suggestions on how to improve written communication. PMID:8672681
Background The mass media have excellent potential to promote good sexual and reproductive health outcomes, but around the world, media often fail to prioritize sexual and reproductive health and rights issues or report them in an accurate manner. In sub-Saharan Africa media coverage of reproductive health issues is poor due to the weak capacity and motivation for reporting these issues by media practitioners. This paper describes the experiences of the African Population and Health Research Center and its partners in cultivating the interest and building the capacity of the media in evidence-based reporting of reproductive health issues in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods The paper utilizes a case study approach based primarily on the personal experiences and reflections of the authors (who played a central role in developing and implementing the Center’s communication and policy engagement strategies), a survey that the Center carried out with science journalists in Kenya, and literature review. Results The African Population and Health Research Center’s media strategy evolved over the years, moving beyond conventional ways of communicating research through the media via news releases and newspaper stories, to varying approaches that sought to inspire and build the capacity of journalists to do evidence-based reporting of reproductive health issues. Specifically, the approach included 1) enhancing journalists’ interest in and motivation for reporting on reproductive health issues through training and competitive grants for outstanding reporting ; 2) building the capacity of journalists to report reproductive health research and the capacity of reproductive health researchers to communicate their research to media through training for both parties and providing technical assistance to journalists in obtaining and interpreting evidence; and 3) establishing and maintaining trust and mutual relationships between journalists and researchers through regular informal
Prezelj, Iztok; Perko, Tanja; Cantone, Marie C; Gallego, Eduardo; Tomkiv, Yevgeniya; Oughton, Deborah H
Coordination of public communication has become a key issue in management of complex emergencies, and is a matter of debate between nuclear emergency management professionals. A particular problem is when inconsistent information is sent to the media and public by official sources from different levels, which has led to calls for a more coordinated approach. The IAEA created guidelines recommending a one-voice communication approach that provides clear, consistent and coordinated information by relevant stakeholders. The reviewed theory on the emergency communication coordination and the empirical results in this paper demonstrate some challenges regarding the feasibility of the above stated goal. This paper explores the communication process in the two-month period of the Fukushima nuclear emergency by using a quantitative comparative content and discourse analysis of 1340 printed media articles on the Fukushima nuclear disaster from two major newspapers in Spain ('El País' and 'El Mundo'), Italy ('Corriere della Sera' and 'La Repubblica'), Norway ('Aftenposten' and 'Dagsavisen'), Slovenia ('Delo' and 'Večer'), Belgium ('Le Soir' and 'De Standaard') and Russia ('Komsomolskaya Pravda' and 'Izvestiya'). The results show that it will be difficult to achieve a truly coordinated approach and one-voice communication in severe nuclear and radiological emergency due to the communication difficulties created by the dispersion of information sources, a broad and dispersed focus of the reported information, partially subjective and conflicting media reporting. The paper suggests ways to improve public communication coordination in nuclear and radiological disasters. PMID:27270489
Allen, Lee E., Ed.
Intended for secondary English teachers, the materials and ideas presented here suggest ways to use media in the classroom in teaching visual and auditory discrimination while enlivening classes and motivating students. Contents include "Media Specialists Need Not Apply," which discusses the need for preparation of media educators with…
Stroman, Carolyn A.
Black Americans' use of and belief in the credibility of the mass media is no less extensive than that of the general population. In fact, television and radio use by blacks exceeds that of whites and research shows the broadcast media to be particularly important sources of information for blacks on consumer and political affairs. But many…
Cho, Jaehee; Park, Dong Jin; Ordonez, Zoa
The main goal of this study was to assess how the millennial generation perceives companies that have different social media policies and how such perception influences key variables for job-seeking behaviors, including perceived person-organization fit (POF), organizational attraction, and job pursuit intention. Results from a univariate general linear model and path analysis supported all of the established hypotheses. In particular, the results revealed that millennials perceived higher POF for a company with organizational policies supporting employees' social media use. Further, organizational attractiveness significantly mediated the relationship between communication-oriented POF and job pursuit intention. PMID:23848961
Watt, James H., Jr.; van den Berg, Sjef
The choice of time lag between variables can affect surveys of public opinion and audience behavior, according to this report on the effects of media coverage of the controversy surrounding the operation of the supersonic transport Concorde out of Dulles Airport, near Washington, D.C. Five theories of media effects are outlined, including direct…
Bruine de Bruin, W.
Members of the general public often face complex decisions about the risks that they face, including those associated with extreme weather and climate change adaptation. Scientific experts may be asked to develop communications with the goal of improving people's understanding of weather and climate risks, and informing people's decisions about how to protect against these risks. Unfortunately, scientific experts' communication efforts may fail if they lack information about what people need or want to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people prefer use to describe relevant concepts. This presentation provides general principles for developing effective risk communication materials that aim for widespread dissemination, such as brochures and websites. After a brief review of the social science evidence on how to design effective risk communication materials, examples will focus on communications about extreme weather events and climate change. Specifically, data will be presented from ongoing projects on flood risk perception, public preparedness for heat waves, and public perceptions of climate change. The presentation will end with specific recommendations about how to improve recipients' understanding about risks and inform decisions. These recommendations should be useful to scientific experts who aim to communicate about extreme weather, climate change, or other risks.
Strasburger, Victor C; Jordan, Amy B; Donnerstein, Ed
Youth spend an average of >7 hours/day using media, and the vast majority of them have access to a bedroom television, computer, the Internet, a video-game console, and a cell phone. In this article we review the most recent research on the effects of media on the health and well-being of children and adolescents. Studies have shown that media can provide information about safe health practices and can foster social connectedness. However, recent evidence raises concerns about media's effects on aggression, sexual behavior, substance use, disordered eating, and academic difficulties. We provide recommendations for parents, practitioners, the media, and policy makers, among others, for ways to increase the benefits and reduce the harm that media can have for the developing child and for adolescents. PMID:20194281
Lewis, Mark A; Dicker, Adam P
The relationship between patient and physician is in flux with the advent of electronic media that are advancing and enhancing communication. We perform a retrospective, current, and forward-looking examination of the technologies by which information is exchanged within the healthcare community. The evolution from e-mail and listservs to blogs and the modern social networks is described, with emphasis on the advantages and pitfalls of each medium, especially in regard to maintaining the standards of privacy and professionalism to which doctors are held accountable. We support the use of contemporary platforms like Twitter and Facebook for physicians to establish themselves as trustworthy online sources of medical knowledge, and anticipate ongoing collaboration between researchers, patients, and their advocates in trial design and accrual. PMID:26433557
Lemmer, Andreas; Hilfer, Rudolf
This paper introduces a domain decomposition method for numerically solving the Stokes equation for very large, complex geometries. Examples arise from realistic porous media. The computational method is based on the SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations) algorithm which uses a finite-differences approach for discretizing the underlying equations. It achieves comparable speed and efficiency as lattice Boltzmann methods. The domain decomposition method splits a large three-dimensional region into slices that can be processed in parallel on multi-processor computation environments with only minimal communication between the computation nodes. With this method, the flow through a porous medium with grid sizes up to 20483 voxel has been calculated.
Tentoni, Stuart C.
This study determined the effectiveness of the use of radio as a means of providing immediate feedback on student counselors in a practicum setting. Using a non-equivalent group experimental design, 10 experimental subjects were compared to 10 control subjects with respect to counselor effectiveness. The experimental subjects were given immediate…
In the worldwide proliferation of communication technology there has been little attention paid to the 1st contacts with it. The ceremonies, conferences, problems, responses of the receivers and carriers of the technology have gone unexamined. To find a theory of cultural transmission in relation to communication technology, there are problems identifying cultural patterns that give structure to its use and operation. In developing countries most persuasion campaigns, educational programmes and other development projects using communications technology have failed. At 1st it was thought that these failures were due to the peasants personalities or the conservative nature of their societies. Recent research suggests that economic and political constraints introduced from outside the community caused these failures. To gain knowledge in the diffusion of communication technology one must find the specific area of economic or social development in which local groups are involved. Then analysis is recommended of the nature of the structures in which these groups integrate their social activities, in relation to that area of development. It may then be possible to see the orders of action that change this activity to the traditional communications structures. By viewing the transfer of communications technology in this way, more emphasis will be placed on how technology is integrated into local activities, and how decisions and policies of other rural and local areas effects them. PMID:12282928
Caspi, Avner; Blau, Ina
The influence of media richness, media attentional load, social influence and users' prior experience with media on selection of media to transmit different messages to peers within an educational organization was tested. Media were discriminated by all potential variables. Support was found for the role of prior experience and social influence in…
Chen, Long-Sheng; Lin, Zue-Cheng; Chang, Jing-Rong
Recently, the use of social media for health information exchange is expanding among patients, physicians, and other health care professionals. In medical areas, social media allows non-experts to access, interpret, and generate medical information for their own care and the care of others. Researchers paid much attention on social media in medical educations, patient-pharmacist communications, adverse drug reactions detection, impacts of social media on medicine and healthcare, and so on. However, relatively few papers discuss how to extract useful knowledge from a huge amount of textual comments in social media effectively. Therefore, this study aims to propose a Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory network based Information Retrieval (FIR) scheme by combining Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART) network, Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), and association rules (AR) discovery to extract knowledge from social media. In our FIR scheme, Fuzzy ART network firstly has been employed to segment comments. Next, for each customer segment, we use LSI technique to retrieve important keywords. Then, in order to make the extracted keywords understandable, association rules mining is presented to organize these extracted keywords to build metadata. These extracted useful voices of customers will be transformed into design needs by using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) for further decision making. Unlike conventional information retrieval techniques which acquire too many keywords to get key points, our FIR scheme can extract understandable metadata from social media. PMID:26330225
Shaik, K. S.
A number of atmospheric phenomena affect the propagation of light. The effects of clear air turbulence are reviewed as well as atmospheric turbidity on optical communications. Among the phenomena considered are astronomical and random refraction, scintillation, beam broadening, spatial coherence, angle of arrival, aperture averaging, absorption and scattering, and the effect of opaque clouds. An extensive reference list is also provided for further study. Useful information on the atmospheric propagation of light in relation to optical deep space communications to an earth based receiving station is available, however, further data must be generated before such a link can be designed with committed performance.
Shaik, K. S.
A number of atmospheric phenomena affect the propagation of light. This article reviews the effects of clear-air turbulence as well as atmospheric turbidity on optical communications. Among the phenomena considered are astronomical and random refraction, scintillation, beam broadening, spatial coherence, angle of arrival, aperture averaging, absorption and scattering, and the effect of opaque clouds. An extensive reference list is also provided for further study, Useful information on the atmospheric propagation of light in resolution to optical deep-space communications to an earth-based receiving station is available, however, further data must be generated before such a link can be designed with committed performance.
Hambley, Laura A.; O'Neill, Thomas A.; Kline, Theresa J. B.
This study investigated the effects of transformational and transactional leadership styles and communication media on team interaction styles and outcomes. Teams communicated through one of the following three ways: (a) face-to-face, (b) desktop videoconference, or (c) text-based chat. Results indicated that transformational and transactional…
Tidwell, V.C.; VonDoemming, J.D.; Martinez, K.
For problems where media properties are measured at one scale and applied at another, scaling laws or models must be used in order to define effective properties at the scale of interest. The accuracy of such models will play a critical role in predicting flow and transport through the Yucca Mountain Test Site given the sensitivity of these calculations to the input property fields. Therefore, a research programhas been established to gain a fundamental understanding of how properties scale with the aim of developing and testing models that describe scaling behavior in a quantitative-manner. Scaling of constitutive rock properties is investigated through physical experimentation involving the collection of suites of gas permeability data measured over a range of discrete scales. Also, various physical characteristics of property heterogeneity and the means by which the heterogeneity is measured and described are systematically investigated to evaluate their influence on scaling behavior. This paper summarizes the approach that isbeing taken toward this goal and presents the results of a scoping study that was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed research.
Shanahan, Patrick; Elliott, David
The Australian Government established the Office for Youth (the Office) in September 2008 in an effort to engage with the young people of Australia. The Office will work with other government agencies to help young people reach their full potential; make effective transitions to adulthood as they continue to learn, start work, make decisions that…
Kelly, Karen Jean
Although some colleges are making progress in integrating new technology into their recruitment practices, many still lack an understanding of how to utilize modern communication tools, including social media sites such as Twitter, effectively. This study explored whether there is a relationship between Twitter usage and recruitment at U.S.…
A study compared the topics addressed in a professional trade publication, the RTNDA (Radio and Television News Directors Association) "Communicator," with topics specifically addressing broadcast news in the scholarly journals "Journalism Quarterly" and "Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media." The purpose of the research was to help…
Powers, Susan M.; Dutt-Doner, Karen M.
Electronic communication tools may have more in common with the old communication game where tin cans were connected by a string than with traditional classroom communication. The charge is to find ways to make the communication more like, and possibly better, than effective classroom communication. Creating a firm foundation for successful…
Social media and medical apps for smartphones and tablets are changing health communication, education and care. This change involves physicians and other health care professionals which for their education, training and updating have started to follow public pages and profiles opened by medical journals and professional societies on the online social networking sites (such as Facebook, Twitter and Google+), to access scientific content (videos, images, slides) available on user-generated contents sites (such as SlideShare, Pinterest and YouTube) or on health professional online communities such as Sermo, and to use medical and health apps on their smartphones and tablets. As shown by a number of experiences conducted in US by health institutions such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Atlanta and hospitals such a the Mayo Clinic, these tools are also transforming the way to make health promotion activities and communication, promote healthy habits and lifestyles, and prevent chronic diseases. Finally this change involves patients which are starting to use medical and health apps on their smartphones and tablets to monitor their diseases, and tools such as Patients Like Me (an online patients' community), Facebook and Twitter to share with others the same disease experience, to learn about the disease and treatments, and to find opinions on physicians, hospitals and medical centers. These new communication tools allow users to move to a kind of collaborative education and updating where news and contents (such as public health recommendations, results of the most recent clinical researches or medical guidelines) may be shared and discussed. PMID:23748682
Hindmarsh, Chloe S.; Jones, Sandra C.; Kervin, Lisa
Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To…
Lee, Byung; Padgett, George
Examines the effectiveness of an ethics education component in a media law and ethics course. Suggests that a short-term mass media ethics study could not develop values considered essential for ethical behavior. Argues that students developed more complexity in their reasoning not measurable by the scale. Suggests a course or module on ethics…
Toledo, Michael A.; Yangco, Rosanelia; Espinosa, Allen A.
The study focused on media cartoons as a teaching strategy in Environmental Education. Specifically, it sought to determine the effects of media cartoons on the issue resolution skills of first year high school students. The study was conducted in La Salle Green Hills that had eleven sections in the first year high school level for the School Year…
Smith, Ruth B.; And Others
A study examined the effects of media advertising on the elderly to determine whether they use the media to help combat social disengagement, whether they perceived the elderly as positively portrayed in advertising, whether they perceive their role as consumer as declining, whether television advertising reinforced sex roles, and whether the…
Compares and contrasts two studies representing diametrical approaches (Romanticism versus Realism) toward the issue of agency and media effects: P. Willis's "Common Culture" and W. A. Gamson's "Talking Politics." Argues that both studies find that people make their own uses of media. (SR)
This paper emphasizes research-based reasons for adding audio to multimedia presentations. The first section summarizes suggestions from a review of research on the effectiveness of audio media when accompanied by other forms of media; types of research studies (e.g., evaluation, intra-medium, and aptitude treatment interaction studies) are also…
An experiment investigated the effectiveness of communication games in monolingual classes in English as a second language (ESL). It studied the reactions of both teachers and students to the regular use of the games, and the ways in which the games fostered language learning. Four Hungarian teachers of English used the technique with seven groups…
The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a unique effort to quantify the environmental benefits of conservation practices at watershed scales and nationally. Such a large-scale project cannot be accomplished without the cooperation and communication of a wide range of experts and stakeh...
PACER Center, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.
The booklet is intended to help parents understand and acquire more assertive communication styles in matters of special education. Assertive behavior is introduced, distinguished from less productive behavior styles, and considered in terms of barriers to effectiveness. The booklet proceeds with a discussion of basic legal and human rights that…
Azima, Fern J.
This paper defines a useful strategy for therapists working with adolescents which includes: (1) a general model of the group leader's responsibilities and (2) a cataloguing of some of the specific impediments for both adolescent peers and the therapist that prevent effective communication. The goal of the group therapy is to identify the specific…