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Sample records for effective near-net shape

  1. Near-net-shape titanium alloy extrusions

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, R.R.; Barta, E.R.; Henderson, J.W.

    1989-03-01

    The Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al has been used in an experimental program involving the development of Ti-alloy extrusion processes capable of achieving surfaces that do not require 100-percent machining. Attention was given to the effects of extrusion temperature and heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the near-net-shape extrusions; in general, the properties of direct-aged materials are found to be sensitive to extrusion temperatures, with tensile strength increasing with extrusion temperature. The double open-hole fatigue strength of extrusion specimens was ascertained. Direct-aged specimens tested at 276 MPa are projected to fail at 100,000 cycles. 7 refs.

  2. Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) for Cost Effective Near-Net Shape Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M.; Hafley, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Manufacturing of structural metal parts directly from computer aided design (CAD) data has been investigated by numerous researchers over the past decade. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center are developing a new solid freeform fabrication process, electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3), as a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. EBF3 deposits of 2219 aluminium and Ti-6Al-4V have exhibited a range of grain morphologies depending upon the deposition parameters. These materials have exhibited excellent tensile properties comparable to typical handbook data for wrought plate product after post-processing heat treatments. The EBF3 process is capable of bulk metal deposition at deposition rates in excess of 2500 cubic centimeters per hour (150 in3/hr) or finer detail at lower deposition rates, depending upon the desired application. This process offers the potential for rapidly adding structural details to simpler cast or forged structures rather than the conventional approach of machining large volumes of chips to produce a monolithic metallic structure. Selective addition of metal onto simpler blanks of material can have a significant effect on lead time reduction and lower material and machining costs.

  3. Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication for Cost Effective Near-Net Shape Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M.; Hafley, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Manufacturing of structural metal parts directly from computer aided design (CAD) data has been investigated by numerous researchers over the past decade. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center are developing a new solid freeform fabrication process, electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3), as a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. EBF3 deposits of 2219 aluminium and Ti-6Al-4V have exhibited a range of grain morphologies depending upon the deposition parameters. These materials have exhibited excellent tensile properties comparable to typical handbook data for wrought plate product after post-processing heat treatments. The EBF3 process is capable of bulk metal deposition at deposition rates in excess of 2500 cm3/hr (150 in3/hr) or finer detail at lower deposition rates, depending upon the desired application. This process offers the potential for rapidly adding structural details to simpler cast or forged structures rather than the conventional approach of machining large volumes of chips to produce a monolithic metallic structure. Selective addition of metal onto simpler blanks of material can have a significant effect on lead time reduction and lower material and machining costs.

  4. Production of aluminum-lithium near net shape extruded cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Paula J.

    1995-01-01

    In the late 1980's, under funding from the Advanced Launch System Program, numerous near net shape technologies were investigated as a means for producing high quality, low cost Aluminum-Lithium (Al-Li) hardware. Once such option was to extrude near net shape barrel panels instead of producing panels by machining thick plate into a final tee-stiffened configuration (which produced up to 90% scrap). This method offers a reduction in the volume of scrap and consequently reduces the buy-to-fly cost. Investigation into this technology continued under Shuttle-C funding where four Al alloys 2219, 2195, 2096, and RX 818 were extruded. Presented herein are the results of that program. Each alloy was successfully extruded at Wyman Gordon, opened and flattened at Ticorm, and solution heat treated and stretched at Reynolds Metals Company. The first two processes were quite successful while the stretching process did offer some challenges. Due to the configuration of the panels and the stretch press set-up, it was difficult to induce a consistent percentage of cold work throughout the length and width of each panel. The effects of this variation will be assessed in the test program to be conducted at a future date.

  5. Near Net Shape Manufacturing of New Titanium Powders for Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a manufacturing technology to process new titanium powders into fully consolidated near net shape components for industrial applications. This will be achieved using various technologies, including press and sinter, pneumatic isostatic forging (PIF), hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and adiabatic compaction.

  6. Electrohydraulic Forming of Near Net Shape Automotive Panels

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop the electrohydraulic forming (EHF) process as a near net shape automotive panel manufacturing technology that simultaneously reduces the energy embedded in vehicles and the energy consumed while producing automotive structures.

  7. Near net shape processing: A necessity for advanced materials applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Howard A.

    1993-01-01

    High quality discrete parts are the backbones for successful operation of equipment used in transportation, communication, construction, manufacturing, and appliances. Traditional shapemaking for discrete parts is carried out predominantly by machining, or removing unwanted material to produce the desired shape. As the cost and complexity of modern materials escalates, coupled with the expense and environmental hazards associated with handling of scrap, it is increasingly important to develop near net shape processes for these materials. Such processes involve casting of liquid materials, consolidation of powder materials, or deformation processing of simple solid shapes into the desired shape. Frequently, several of these operations may be used in sequence to produce a finished part. The processes for near net shape forming may be applied to any type of material, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and their composites. The ability to produce shapes is the key to implementation of laboratory developments in materials science into real world applications. This seminar presents an overview of near net shapemaking processes, some application examples, current developments, and future research opportunities.

  8. Near-Net Shape Powder Metallurgy Rhenium Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonhardt, Todd; Hamister, Mark; Carlen, Jan C.; Biaglow, James; Reed, Brian

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a method to produce a near-net shape (NNS) powder metallurgy (PM) rhenium combustion chamber of the size 445 N (100 lbf) used in a high performance liquid apogee engine. These engines are used in low earth Orbit and geostationary orbit for satellite positioning systems. The developments in near-net shape powder metallurgy rhenium combustion chambers reported in this paper will reduce manufacturing cost of the rhenium chambers by 25 percent, and reduce the manufacturing time by 30 to 40 percent. The quantity of rhenium metal powder used to produce a rhenium chamber is reduced by approximately 70 percent and the subsequent reduction in machining schedule and costs is nearly 50 percent.

  9. Near Net Shape production of metal components using LENS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlienger, E.; Dimos, D.; Griffith, M.; Michael, J.; Oliver, M.; Romero, T.; Smugeresky, J.

    1998-03-01

    Rapid Prototyping and Near Net Shape manufacturing technologies are the subject of considerable attention and development efforts. At Sandia National Laboratories, one such effort is LENS (Laser Engineered Net Shaping). The LENS process utilizes a stream of powder and a focused Nd YAG laser to build near net shape fully dense metal parts. In this process, a 3-D solid model is sliced, then an X-Y table is rastered under the beam to build each slice. The laser 1 powder head is incremented upward with each slice and the deposition process is controlled via shuttering of the laser. At present, this process is capable of producing fully dense metal parts of iron, nickel and titanium alloys including tool steels and aluminides. Tungsten components have also been produced. A unique aspect of this process is the ability to produce components wherein the composition varies at differing locations in the part. Such compositional variations may be accomplished in either a stepped or graded fashion. In this paper, the details of the process will be described. The deposition mechanism will be characterized and microstructures and their associated properties will be discussed. Examples of parts which have been produced will be shown and issues regarding dimensional control and surface finish will be addressed.

  10. Electrohydraulic Forming of Near-Net Shape Automotive Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Golovaschenko, Sergey F.

    2013-09-26

    The objective of this project was to develop the electrohydraulic forming (EHF) process as a near-net shape automotive panel manufacturing technology that simultaneously reduces the energy embedded in vehicles and the energy consumed while producing automotive structures. Pulsed pressure is created via a shockwave generated by the discharge of high voltage capacitors through a pair of electrodes in a liquid-filled chamber. The shockwave in the liquid initiated by the expansion of the plasma channel formed between two electrodes propagates towards the blank and causes the blank to be deformed into a one-sided die cavity. The numerical model of the EHF process was validated experimentally and was successfully applied to the design of the electrode system and to a multi-electrode EHF chamber for full scale validation of the process. The numerical model was able to predict stresses in the dies during pulsed forming and was validated by the experimental study of the die insert failure mode for corner filling operations. The electrohydraulic forming process and its major subsystems, including durable electrodes, an EHF chamber, a water/air management system, a pulse generator and integrated process controls, were validated to be capable to operate in a fully automated, computer controlled mode for forming of a portion of a full-scale sheet metal component in laboratory conditions. Additionally, the novel processes of electrohydraulic trimming and electrohydraulic calibration were demonstrated at a reduced-scale component level. Furthermore, a hybrid process combining conventional stamping with EHF was demonstrated as a laboratory process for a full-scale automotive panel formed out of AHSS material. The economic feasibility of the developed EHF processes was defined by developing a cost model of the EHF process in comparison to the conventional stamping process.

  11. Near net shape processing for solar thermal propulsion hardware using directed light fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, J.O.; Fonseca, J.C.; Lewis, G.K.

    1998-12-01

    Directed light fabrication (DLF) is a direct metal deposition process that fuses gas delivered powder, in the focal zone of a high powered laser beam to form fully fused near net shaped components. The near net shape processing of rhenium, tungsten, iridium and other high temperature materials may offer significant cost savings compared with conventional processing. This paper describes a 3D parametric solid model, integrated with a manufacturing model, and creating a control field which runs on the DLF machine directly depositing a fully dense, solid metal, near net shaped, nozzle component. Examples of DLF deposited rhenium, iridium and tantalum, from previous work, show a continuously solidified microstructure in rod and tube shapes. Entrapped porosity indicates the required direction for continued process development. These combined results demonstrate the potential for a new method to fabricate complex near net shaped components using materials of interest to the space and aerospace industries.

  12. Near-Net-Shape Processing of Sintered Fibrous Ceramics Achieved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, Paul W.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of sintered fibrous ceramic (SFC) materials have been developed over the last 50 years as thermal barrier materials for reentry applications. SFC materials typically exhibit very low thermal conductivities combined with low densities and good thermal stability up to 2500 F. These materials have flown successfully on the space shuttle orbiters since the 1960's. More recently, the McDonnell Douglas Corporation successfully used SFC tiles as a heat shield on the underside of its DC X test vehicle. For both of these applications, tiles are machined from blocks of a specific type of SFC called an alumina-enhanced thermal barrier (AETB). The sizes of these blocks have been limited by the manufacturing process. In addition, as much as 80 to 90 percent of the material can be lost during the machining of tiles with significant amounts of curvature. To address these problems, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field entered a cooperative contract with the Boeing Company to develop a vacuum-assisted forming process that can produce large (approximately 4 square feet), severely contoured panels of AETB while saving costs in comparison to the conventional cast-and-machine billet process. For shuttle use, AETB is slurry cast, drained, and fired to form square billets conforming to the shape of the filtration box. The billets are then cut into tiles of the appropriate size for thermally protecting the space shuttle. Processing techniques have limited the maximum size of AETB billets to 21.5 square inches by 6.5-in. thick, but the space shuttles use discrete heat shield tiles no more than 8 to 12 square inches. However, in other applications, large, complex shapes are needed, and the tiling approach is undesirable. For such applications, vacuum-assisted forming can produce large parts with complex shapes while reducing machining waste and eliminating cemented joints between bonded billets. Because it allows contoured shapes to be formed, material utilization is

  13. The potential of centrifugal casting for the production of near net shape uranium parts

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, E.

    1993-09-01

    This report was written to provide a detailed summary of a literature survey on the near net shape casting process of centrifugal casting. Centrifugal casting is one potential casting method which could satisfy the requirements of the LANL program titled Near Net Shape Casting of Uranium for Reduced Environmental, Safety and Health Impact. In this report, centrifugal casting techniques are reviewed and an assessment of the ability to achieve the near net shape and waste minimization goals of the LANL program by using these techniques is made. Based upon the literature reviewed, it is concluded that if properly modified for operation within a vacuum, vertical or horizontal centrifugation could be used to safely cast uranium for the production of hollow, cylindrical parts. However, for the production of components of geometries other than hollow tubes, vertical centrifugation could be combined with other casting methods such as semi-permanent mold or investment casting.

  14. Near-net-shape fabrication of continuous Ag-Clad Bi-Based superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Lanagan, M. T. et al.

    1998-04-01

    We have developed a near-net-shape process for Ag-clad Bi-2212 superconductors as an alternative to the powder-in-tube process. This new process offers the advantages of nearly continuous processing, minimization of processing steps, reasonable ability to control the Bi-2212/Ag ratio, and early development of favorable texture of the Bi-2212 grains. Superconducting properties are discussed.

  15. Near net shape forming processes for chemically prepared zinc oxide varistors.

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, Steven John; Voigt, James A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2005-01-01

    Chemically prepared zinc oxide powders are fabricated for the production of high aspect ratio varistor components. Colloidal processing in water was performed to reduce agglomerates to primary particles, form a high solids loading slurry, and prevent dopant migration. The milled and dispersed powder exhibited a viscoelastic to elastic behavioral transition at a volume loading of 43-46%. The origin of this transition was studied using acoustic spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements and oscillatory rheology. The phenomenon occurs due to a volume fraction solids dependent reduction in the zeta potential of the solid phase. It is postulated to result from divalent ion binding within the polyelectrolyte dispersant chain, and was mitigated using a polyethylene glycol plasticizing additive. Chemically prepared zinc oxide powders were processed for the production of high aspect ratio varistor components. Near net shape casting methods including slip casting and agarose gelcasting were evaluated for effectiveness in achieving a uniform green microstructure achieving density values near the theoretical maximum during sintering. The structure of the green parts was examined by mercury porisimetry. Agarose gelcasting produced green parts with low solids loading values and did not achieve high fired density. Isopressing the agarose cast parts after drying raised the fired density to greater than 95%, but the parts exhibited catastrophic shorting during electrical testing. Slip casting produced high green density parts, which exhibited high fired density values. The electrical characteristics of slip cast parts are comparable with dry pressed powder compacts. Alternative methods for near net shape forming of ceramic dispersions were investigated for use with the chemically prepared ZnO material. Recommendations for further investigation to achieve a viable production process are presented.

  16. Mechanical Properties of Cold Gas Dynamic-Sprayed Near-Net-Shaped Fin Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Yannick; Dupuis, Philippe; Jodoin, Bertrand; Corbeil, Antoine

    2015-02-01

    This work focuses on the study of the adhesion and thermal performance of near-net-shaped pyramidal fin arrays manufactured by cold spray on aluminum alloy substrate coated with various bond coats: a cold-sprayed bond coat as well as nitrogen- and air-propelled arc-sprayed bond coats. Furthermore, the effects of the fin density, fin height, and substrate surface roughness on the adhesion strength of the fins deposited on Al6061 substrates were characterized. It was found that the fin density, the fin height, and the substrate roughness have little impact on the adhesion strength of this system. The adhesion strength was found to be inversely proportional to the surface hardness when investigating these parameters for the different thermal-spray bond coatings, with all the fin systems having a much greater strength than the theoretical application stresses. Finally, it was found that the increase in the fin's base layer's roughness increases the overall heat transfer, with the bond coat material having a negligible effect on the thermal resistance for this type of heat-exchanger configuration.

  17. Recent Advances in Near-Net-Shape Fabrication of Al-Li Alloy 2195 for Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, John; Domack, Marcia; Hoffman, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Recent applications in launch vehicles use 2195 processed to Super Lightweight Tank specifications. Potential benefits exist by tailoring heat treatment and other processing parameters to the application. Assess the potential benefits and advocate application of Al-Li near-net-shape technologies for other launch vehicle structural components. Work with manufacturing and material producers to optimize Al-Li ingot shape and size for enhanced near-net-shape processing. Examine time dependent properties of 2195 critical for reusable applications.

  18. Near-net-shape manufacturing: Spray-formed metal matrix composites and tooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchugh, Kevin M.

    1994-01-01

    Spray forming is a materials processing technology in which a bulk liquid metal is converted to a spray of fine droplets and deposited onto a substrate or pattern to form a near-net-shape solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing without sacrificing, and oftentimes substantially improving, product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offers property improvements resulting from rapid solidification (e.g. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is developing a unique spray-forming method, the Controlled Aspiration Process (CAP), to produce near-net-shape solids and coatings of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Results from two spray-accompanying technical and economic benefits. These programs involved spray forming aluminum strip reinforced with SiC particulate, and the production of tooling, such as injection molds and dies, using low-melting-point metals.

  19. Near-net-shape processing of metal-ceramic composites by reactive metal penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrenholtz, W.G.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Ellerby, D.T.; Loehman, R.E.

    1996-09-01

    Metal-ceramic composites were made to near-net shape by reacting phase-pure mullite and mullite-glass preforms with molten Al using a reactive metal penetration process. Conversion of the two ceramic preforms to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al composites was accompanied by a 0.32% volume expansion and a 1.42% volume shrinkage, respectively. Molar volume and density calculations made assuming a net-shape reaction estimate {approximately}17 and {approximately}27 vol% Al to be present in the two composites after reaction. Results from quantitative stereology measurements used to quantify the concentration of metal in the reactively formed composites validate the calculations.

  20. Powder-Coated Towpreg: Avenues to Near Net Shape Fabrication of High Performance Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, N. J.; Cano, R. J.; Marchello, J. M.; Sandusky, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Near net shape parts were fabricated from powder-coated preforms. Key issues including powder loss during weaving and tow/tow friction during braiding were addressed, respectively, by fusing the powder to the fiber prior to weaving and applying a water-based gel to the towpreg prior to braiding. A 4:1 debulking of a complex 3-D woven powder-coated preform was achieved in a single step utilizing expansion rubber molding. Also, a process was developed for using powder-coated towpreg to fabricate consolidated ribbon having good dimensional integrity and low voids. Such ribbon will be required for in situ fabrication of structural components via heated head advanced tow placement. To implement process control and ensure high quality ribbon, the ribbonizer heat transfer and pulling force were modeled from fundamental principles. Most of the new ribbons were fabricated from dry polyarylene ether and polymide powders.

  1. Near-Net Shape Fabrication Using Low-Cost Titanium Alloy Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. David M. Bowden; Dr. William H. Peter

    2012-03-31

    The use of titanium in commercial aircraft production has risen steadily over the last half century. The aerospace industry currently accounts for 58% of the domestic titanium market. The Kroll process, which has been used for over 50 years to produce titanium metal from its mineral form, consumes large quantities of energy. And, methods used to convert the titanium sponge output of the Kroll process into useful mill products also require significant energy resources. These traditional approaches result in product forms that are very expensive, have long lead times of up to a year or more, and require costly operations to fabricate finished parts. Given the increasing role of titanium in commercial aircraft, new titanium technologies are needed to create a more sustainable manufacturing strategy that consumes less energy, requires less material, and significantly reduces material and fabrication costs. A number of emerging processes are under development which could lead to a breakthrough in extraction technology. Several of these processes produce titanium alloy powder as a product. The availability of low-cost titanium powders may in turn enable a more efficient approach to the manufacture of titanium components using powder metallurgical processing. The objective of this project was to define energy-efficient strategies for manufacturing large-scale titanium structures using these low-cost powders as the starting material. Strategies include approaches to powder consolidation to achieve fully dense mill products, and joining technologies such as friction and laser welding to combine those mill products into near net shape (NNS) preforms for machining. The near net shape approach reduces material and machining requirements providing for improved affordability of titanium structures. Energy and cost modeling was used to define those approaches that offer the largest energy savings together with the economic benefits needed to drive implementation. Technical

  2. Characterization of Al-Cu-Li Alloy 2090 Near Net Shape Extrusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birt, M. J.; Domack, M. S.; Hafley, R. A.; Pollock, W. D.

    1998-01-01

    Aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys near net shape extrusions are being evaluated for potential application in launch vehicle structures. The objective of this study was to determine tensile and fracture properties, corrosion resistance, and weldability of integrally stiffened panels of Al-Cu-Li alloy 2090 in the T8 temper. The microstructure was pre-dominantly unrecrystallized. Texture analyses revealed the presence of fiber components in the stiffeners and a combination of fiber and rolling components in the skin. Variations in grain morphology and texture through the extruded cross section were correlated with the tensile, fracture, and corrosion behavior. Tensile strengths at room and cryogenic temperatures of the 2090 extrusions were similar to other 2090 product forms and were higher than 2219-T87, the primary structural material in the Space Shuttle external tank; however, ductilities were lower. The fracture resistance of the 2090 extrusion was lower than 2219-T87 plate at room temperature. At cryogenic temperatures, tensile ductility and fracture behavior of the 2090 extrusion were similar to other 2090 product forms but were lower than 2219-T87 plate. The exfoliation and stress corrosion resistance of the 2090 extrusion compared favorably with the characteristics of other 2090 product forms. The weldability and weldment properties of the extrusions were similar to 2090 and 2219 plates.

  3. Near-Net-Shape Production of Hollow Titanium Alloy Components via Electrochemical Reduction of Metal Oxide Precursors in Molten Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Di; Xiao, Wei; Chen, George Z.

    2013-04-01

    Metal oxide precursors (ca. 90 wt pct Ti, 6 wt pct Al, and 4 wt pct V) were prepared with a hollow structure in various shapes such as a sphere, miniature golf club head, and cup using a one-step solid slip-casting process. The precursors were then electro-deoxidized in molten calcium chloride [3.2 V, 1173 K (900 °C)] against a graphite anode. After 24 hours of electrolysis, the near-net-shape Ti-6Al-4V product maintained its original shape with controlled shrinkage. Oxygen contents in the Ti-6Al-4V components were typically below 2000 ppm. The maximum compressive stress and modulus of electrolytic products obtained in this work were approximately 243 MPa and 14 GPa, respectively, matching with the requirement for medical implants. Further research directions are discussed for mechanical improvement of the products via densification during or after electrolysis. This simple, fast, and energy-efficient near-net-shape manufacturing method could allow titanium alloy components with desired geometries to be prepared directly from a mixture of metal oxides, promising an innovative technology for the low-cost production of titanium alloy components.

  4. Catalogue of X-Ray Texture Data for Al-Cu-Li Alloy 1460, 2090, 2096 and 2195 Near-Net-Shape Extrusions, Sheet and Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J.; Hafley, Robert A.; Alexa, Joel A.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of crystallographic texture on the mechanical properties of near-net-shape extrusions is of major interest ff these products are to find application in launch vehicle or aircraft structures. The objective of this research was to produce a catalogue containing quantitative texture information for extruded product, sheet and plate. The material characterized was extracted from wide, integrally stiffened panels fabricated from the Al-Cu-Li alloys 1460, 2090, 2096 and 2195. The textural characteristics of sheet and plate products of the same alloys were determined for comparison purposes. The approach involved using X-ray diffraction to generate pole figures in combination with orientation distribution function analysis. The data were compiled as a function of location in the extruded cross-sections and the variation in the major deformation- and recrystallization-related texture components was identified.

  5. Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) Method for Fabricating Stiffened Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, Mary Cecilia; Hehir, Austin R.; Ivanco, Marie L.; Domack, Marcia S.

    2016-01-01

    This cost-benefit analysis assesses the benefits of the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) manufacturing process for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. These preliminary, rough order-of-magnitude results report a 46 to 58 percent reduction in production costs and a 7-percent reduction in weight over the conventional metallic manufacturing technique used in this study for comparison. Production cost savings of 35 to 58 percent were reported over the composite manufacturing technique used in this study for comparison; however, the ANNST concept was heavier. In this study, the predicted return on investment of equipment required for the ANNST method was ten cryogenic tank barrels when compared with conventional metallic manufacturing. The ANNST method was compared with the conventional multi-piece metallic construction and composite processes for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. A case study compared these three alternatives for manufacturing a cylinder of specified geometry, with particular focus placed on production costs and process complexity, with cost analyses performed by the analogy and parametric methods. Furthermore, a scalability study was conducted for three tank diameters to assess the highest potential payoff of the ANNST process for manufacture of large-diameter cryogenic tanks. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was subsequently used with a group of selected subject matter experts to assess the value of the various benefits achieved by the ANNST method for potential stakeholders. The AHP study results revealed that decreased final cylinder mass and quality assurance were the most valued benefits of cylinder manufacturing methods, therefore emphasizing the relevance of the benefits achieved with the ANNST process for future projects.

  6. Producing Zirconium Diboride Components with Complex, Near-Net Shape Geometries by Aqueous Room-Temperature Injection Molding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesner, Valerie L.; Youngblood, Jeffrey; Trice, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    Room-temperature injection molding is proposed as a novel, low-cost and more energy efficient manufacturing process capable of forming complex-shaped zirconium diboride (ZrB2) parts. This innovative processing method utilized aqueous suspensions with high powder loading and a minimal amount (5 vol.) of water-soluble polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was used as a viscosity modifier. Rheological characterization was performed to evaluate the room-temperature flow properties of ZrB2-PVP suspensions. ZrB2 specimens were fabricated with high green body strength and were machinable prior to binder removal despite their low polymer content. After binder burnout and pressureless sintering, the bulk density and microstructure of specimens were characterized using Archimedes technique and scanning electron microscopy. X-Ray Diffraction was used to determine the phase compositions present in sintered specimens. Ultimate strength of sintered specimens will be determined using ASTM C1323-10 compressive C-ring test.

  7. Final report to the strategic environmental research and development program on near-net shape casting of uranium-6% niobium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gourdin, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    Fabrication methods traditionally used in the fabrication of depleted uranium parts within the Department of Energy (DOE) are extremely wasteful, with only 3% of the starting material actually appearing as finished product. The current effort, funded by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), was conceived as a means to drastically reduce this inefficiency and the accompanying waste by demonstrating the technology to cast simple parts close to their final shape in molds made from a variety of materials. As a part of this coordinated study, LLNL was given, and has achieved, two primary objectives: (1) to demonstrate the feasibility of using refractory metal for reusable molds in the production of castings of uranium-6 wt% niobium alloy (U-6Nb); and (2) to demonstrate the utility of detailed simulations of thermal and fluid flow characteristics in the understanding and improvement of the near-net shape casting process. In both cases, our efforts were focused on a flat plate castings, which serve as simple prototypical parts. This report summarizes the results of LLNL work in each area.

  8. Near-Net Forging Technology Demonstration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, I. Keith

    1996-01-01

    Significant advantages in specific mechanical properties, when compared to conventional aluminum (Al) alloys, make aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys attractive candidate materials for use in cryogenic propellant tanks and dry bay structures. However, the cost of Al-Li alloys is typically five times that of 2219 aluminum. If conventional fabrication processes are employed to fabricate launch vehicle structure, the material costs will restrict their utilization. In order to fully exploit the potential cost and performance benefits of Al-Li alloys, it is necessary that near-net manufacturing methods be developed to off-set or reduce raw material costs. Near-net forging is an advanced manufacturing method that uses elevated temperature metal movement (forging) to fabricate a single piece, near-net shape, structure. This process is termed 'near-net' because only a minimal amount of post-forge machining is required. The near-net forging process was developed to reduce the material scrap rate (buy-to-fly ratio) and fabrication costs associated with conventional manufacturing methods. The goal for the near-net forging process, when mature, is to achieve an overall cost reduction of approximately 50 percent compared with conventional manufacturing options for producing structures fabricated from Al-Li alloys. This NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) sponsored program has been a part of a unique government / industry partnership, coordinated to develop and demonstrate near-net forging technology. The objective of this program was to demonstrate scale-up of the near-net forging process. This objective was successfully achieved by fabricating four integrally stiffened, 170- inch diameter by 20-inch tall, Al-Li alloy 2195, Y-ring adapters. Initially, two 2195 Al-Li ingots were converted and back extruded to produce four cylindrical blockers. Conventional ring rolling of the blockers was performed to produce ring preforms, which were then contour ring rolled to produce

  9. Near Net Manufacturing Using Thin Gage Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeshita, Jennifer; Potter, David; Holquin, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) and near net spin forming of FSW aluminumn blanks were investigated for large-scale pressure vessel applications. With a specific focus on very thin gage 2xxx and 7xxx aluminum alloys, the program concentrated on the following: the criteria used for material selection, a potential manufacturing flow, and the effectiveness and associated risks of near net spin forming. Discussion will include the mechanical properties of the friction stir welds and the parent material from before and after the spin forming process. This effort was performed under a NASA Space Exploration initiative focused on increasing the affordability, reliability and performance of pressure vessels larger than 10 ft. diameter.

  10. Near net shape processing of continuous lengths of superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Danyluk, Steven; McNallan, Michael; Troendly, Robert; Poeppel, Roger; Goretta, Kenneth; Lanagan, Michael

    1997-01-01

    A system and method for mechanically forming a ceramic superconductor product. A system for making the ceramic superconductor includes a metallic channel portion having a cross section for receiving a ceramic superconductor powder, a roll to mechanically reduce the channel cross section and included superconductor powder and a cap portion welded to the channel portion using a localized high energy source. The assembled bar is then mechanically reduced to form a tape or wire end product.

  11. Near net shape processing of continuous lengths of superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Danyluk, S.; McNallan, M.; Troendly, R.; Poeppel, R.; Goretta, K.; Lanagan, M.

    1997-08-26

    A system and method for mechanically forming a ceramic superconductor product are disclosed. A system for making the ceramic superconductor includes a metallic channel portion having a cross section for receiving a ceramic superconductor powder, a roll to mechanically reduce the channel cross section and included superconductor powder and a cap portion welded to the channel portion using a localized high energy source. The assembled bar is then mechanically reduced to form a tape or wire end product. 9 figs.

  12. Reaction-Forming Method for Producing Near Net-Shape Refractory Metal Carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Palmisiano, Marc N.; Jakubenas, Kevin J.; Baranwal, Rita

    2004-07-20

    A method for reaction forming refractory metal carbides. The method involves the fabrication of a glassy carbon preform by casting an organic, resin-based liquid mixture into a mold and subsequently heat treating it in two steps, which cures and pyrolizes the resin resulting in a porous carbon preform. By varying the amounts of the constituents in the organic, resin-based liquid mixture, control over the density of the carbon preform is obtained. Control of the density and microstructure of the carbon preform allows for determination of the microstructure and properties of the refractory metal carbide material produced. The glassy carbon preform is placed on a bed of refractory metal or refractory metal--silicon alloy. The pieces are heated above the melting point of the metal or alloy. The molten metal wicks inside the porous carbon preform and reacts, forming the refractory metal carbide or refractory metal carbide plus a minor secondary phase.

  13. Towards robust and effective shape modeling: sparse shape composition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaoting; Zhan, Yiqiang; Dewan, Maneesh; Huang, Junzhou; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Zhou, Xiang Sean

    2012-01-01

    Organ shape plays an important role in various clinical practices, e.g., diagnosis, surgical planning and treatment evaluation. It is usually derived from low level appearance cues in medical images. However, due to diseases and imaging artifacts, low level appearance cues might be weak or misleading. In this situation, shape priors become critical to infer and refine the shape derived by image appearances. Effective modeling of shape priors is challenging because: (1) shape variation is complex and cannot always be modeled by a parametric probability distribution; (2) a shape instance derived from image appearance cues (input shape) may have gross errors; and (3) local details of the input shape are difficult to preserve if they are not statistically significant in the training data. In this paper we propose a novel Sparse Shape Composition model (SSC) to deal with these three challenges in a unified framework. In our method, a sparse set of shapes in the shape repository is selected and composed together to infer/refine an input shape. The a priori information is thus implicitly incorporated on-the-fly. Our model leverages two sparsity observations of the input shape instance: (1) the input shape can be approximately represented by a sparse linear combination of shapes in the shape repository; (2) parts of the input shape may contain gross errors but such errors are sparse. Our model is formulated as a sparse learning problem. Using L1 norm relaxation, it can be solved by an efficient expectation-maximization (EM) type of framework. Our method is extensively validated on two medical applications, 2D lung localization in X-ray images and 3D liver segmentation in low-dose CT scans. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, our model exhibits better performance in both studies. PMID:21963296

  14. Triple shape memory effect of star-shaped polyurethane.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xifeng; Wang, Lin; Wang, Wenxi; Chen, Hongmei; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Shaobing

    2014-05-14

    In this study, we synthesized one type of star-shaped polyurethane (SPU) with star-shaped poly(ε-caprolactone) (SPCL) containing different arm numbers as soft segment and 4,4'-diphenyl methane diisocyanate (MDI) as well as chain extender 1,4-butylene glycol (BDO) as hard segment. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) confirmed the chemical structure of the material. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results indicated that both the melting temperature (Tm) and transition temperature (Ttrans) of SPU decreased with the hard segment composition increase. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results demonstrated that the increase of the crystallinity of SPU following the raised arm numbers endowed a high shape fixity of six-arm star-shaped polyurethane (6S-PU) and a wide melting temperature range, which resulted in an excellent triple-shape memory effect of 6S-PU. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay evaluated with osteoblasts through Alamar blue assay demonstrates that this copolymer possessed good cytocompatibility. This material can be potentially used as a new smart material in the field of biomaterials. PMID:24617646

  15. Substituent effects and local molecular shape correlations.

    PubMed

    Antal, Zoltan; Mezey, Paul G

    2014-04-14

    Using a detailed electron density shape analysis methodology, a new method is proposed for studying the main components of substituent effects in a series of disubstituted benzenes, in correlation with their activating and deactivating characteristics as observed by the induced shape changes of a local electron density cloud. The numerical measures obtained for the extent of shape changes can be correlated with known and with some unexpected effects of various substituents. The insight obtained from the shape analysis provides a theoretical, electron density based justification for some well-known trends, but it also provides new explanations for some of the unexpected features of these substituent effects. PMID:24584898

  16. Energy performance of net-zero and near net-zero energy homes in New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Walter D.

    Net-Zero Energy Homes (NZEHs) are homes that consume no more energy than they produce on site during the course of a year. They are well insulated and sealed, use energy efficient appliances, lighting, and mechanical equipment, are designed to maximize the benefits from day lighting, and most often use a combination of solar hot water, passive solar and photovoltaic (PV) panels to produce their on-site energy. To date, NZEHs make up a miniscule percentage of homes in the United States, and of those, few have had their actual performance measured and analyzed once built and occupied. This research focused on 19 NZEHs and near net-zero energy homes (NNZEHs) built in New England. This set of homes had varying designs, numbers of occupants, and installed technologies for energy production, space heating and cooling, and domestic hot water systems. The author worked with participating homeowners to collect construction and systems specifications, occupancy information, and twelve months of energy consumption, production and cost measurements, in order to determine whether the homes reached their respective energy performance design goals. The author found that six out of ten NZEHs achieved net-zero energy or better, while all nine of the NNZEHs achieved an energy density (kWh/ft 2/person) at least half as low as the control house, also built in New England. The median construction cost for the 19 homes was 155/ft 2 vs. 110/ft2 for the US average, their average monthly energy cost was 84% below the average for homes in New England, and their estimated CO2 emissions averaged 90% below estimated CO2 emissions from the control house. Measured energy consumption averaged 14% below predictions for the NZEHs and 38% above predictions for the NNZEHs, while generated energy was within +/- 10% of predicted for 17 out of 18 on-site PV systems. Based on these results, the author concludes that these types of homes can meet or exceed their designed energy performance (depending on

  17. Aging effects of epoxy shape memory polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasharathi, Kannan; Shaw, John A.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, experimental results are reported to study the influence of high-temperature aging on the thermo-mechanical behavior of a commercially-available, thermo-responsive shape memory polymer (SMP), Veri ex-E™ (glass transition temperature, Tg = 90-105 °C). To achieve a shape memory effect in high Tg SMPs such as this, high temperature cycles are required that can result in macromolecular scission and/or crosslinking, which we term thermo-mechanical aging (or chemo-rheological degradation). This process results in mechanical property changes and possible permanent set of the material that can limit the useful life of SMPs in practice. We compare experimental results of shape memory recovery with and without aging. Similar to the approach originated by Tobolsky in the 1950's, a combination of uniaxial constant stress and intermittent stretch experiments are also used in high temperature creep-recovery experiments to deduce the kinetics of scission of the original macromolecular network and the generation of newly formed networks having different reference configurations. The macroscopic effects of thermo-mechanical aging, in terms of the evolution of residual strains and change in elastic response, are quantified.

  18. Molecular Shape and the Hydrophobic Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillyer, Matthew B.; Gibb, Bruce C.

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on papers published since 2000 on the topic of the properties of solutes in water. More specifically, it evaluates the state of the art of our understanding of the complex relationship between the shape of a hydrophobe and the hydrophobic effect. To highlight this, we present a selection of references covering both empirical and molecular dynamics studies of small (molecular-scale) solutes. These include empirical studies of small molecules, synthetic hosts, crystalline monolayers, and proteins, as well as in silico investigations of entities such as idealized hard and soft spheres, small solutes, hydrophobic plates, artificial concavity, molecular hosts, carbon nanotubes and spheres, and proteins.

  19. Molecular Shape and the Hydrophobic Effect.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, Matthew B; Gibb, Bruce C

    2016-05-27

    This review focuses on papers published since 2000 on the topic of the properties of solutes in water. More specifically, it evaluates the state of the art of our understanding of the complex relationship between the shape of a hydrophobe and the hydrophobic effect. To highlight this, we present a selection of references covering both empirical and molecular dynamics studies of small (molecular-scale) solutes. These include empirical studies of small molecules, synthetic hosts, crystalline monolayers, and proteins, as well as in silico investigations of entities such as idealized hard and soft spheres, small solutes, hydrophobic plates, artificial concavity, molecular hosts, carbon nanotubes and spheres, and proteins. PMID:27215816

  20. Mechanocaloric effects in shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Mañosa, Lluís; Planes, Antoni

    2016-08-13

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) are a class of ferroic materials which undergo a structural (martensitic) transition where the associated ferroic property is a lattice distortion (strain). The sensitiveness of the transition to the conjugated external field (stress), together with the latent heat of the transition, gives rise to giant mechanocaloric effects. In non-magnetic SMA, the lattice distortion is mostly described by a pure shear and the martensitic transition in this family of alloys is strongly affected by uniaxial stress, whereas it is basically insensitive to hydrostatic pressure. As a result, non-magnetic alloys exhibit giant elastocaloric effects but negligible barocaloric effects. By contrast, in a number of magnetic SMA, the lattice distortion at the martensitic transition involves a volume change in addition to the shear strain. Those alloys are affected by both uniaxial stress and hydrostatic pressure and they exhibit giant elastocaloric and barocaloric effects. The paper aims at providing a critical survey of available experimental data on elastocaloric and barocaloric effects in magnetic and non-magnetic SMA.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'. PMID:27402931

  1. The Effect of Shape Memory on Red Blood Cell Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xiting; Shi, Lingling; Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Glowinski, Roland

    2013-11-01

    An elastic spring model is applied to study the effect of the shape memory on the motion of red blood cell in flows. In shear flow, shape memory also plays an important role to obtain all three motions: tumbling, swinging, and tank-treading. In Poiseuille flow, cell has an equilibrium shape as a slipper or parachute depending on capillary number. To ensure the tank-treading motion while in slippery shape, a modified model is proposed by introducing a shape memory coefficient which describes the degree of shape memory in cells. The effect of the coefficient on the cell motion of red blood cell will be presented.

  2. Solvent-driven temperature memory and multiple shape memory effects.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rui; Guo, Jingkai; Safranski, David L; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-05-28

    Thermally-activated temperature memory and multiple shape memory effects have been observed in amorphous polymers with a broad glass transition. In this work, we demonstrate that the same shape recovery behaviors can also be achieved through solvent absorption. We investigate the recovery behaviors of programmed Nafion membranes in various solvents and compare the solvent-driven and temperature-driven shape recovery response. The results show that the programming temperature and solvent type have a corresponding strong influence on the shape recovery behavior. Specifically, lower programming temperatures induce faster initial recovery rates and larger recovery, which is known as the temperature memory effect. The temperature memory effect can be used to achieve multi-staged and multiple shape recovery of specimens programmed at different temperatures. Different solvents can also induce different shape recovery, analogous to the temperature memory effect, and can also provide a mechanism for multi-staged and multiple shape memory recovery. PMID:25890998

  3. On quantitative effects of RNA shape abstraction.

    PubMed

    Nebel, Markus E; Scheid, Anika

    2009-11-01

    Over the last few decades, much effort has been taken to develop approaches for identifying good predictions of RNA secondary structure. This is due to the fact that most computational prediction methods based on free energy minimization compute a number of suboptimal foldings and we have to identify the native folding among all these possible secondary structures. Using the abstract shapes approach as introduced by Giegerich et al. (Nucleic Acids Res 32(16):4843-4851, 2004), each class of similar secondary structures is represented by one shape and the native structures can be found among the top shape representatives. In this article, we derive some interesting results answering enumeration problems for abstract shapes and secondary structures of RNA. We compute precise asymptotics for the number of different shape representations of size n and for the number of different shapes showing up when abstracting from secondary structures of size n under a combinatorial point of view. A more realistic model taking primary structures into account remains an open challenge. We give some arguments why the present techniques cannot be applied in this case. PMID:19756808

  4. Method for fabricating uranium alloy articles without shape memory effects

    DOEpatents

    Banker, John G.

    1985-01-01

    Uranium-rich niobium and niobium-zirconium alloys possess a characteristic known as shape memory effect wherein shaped articles of these alloys recover their original shape when heated. The present invention circumvents this memory behavior by forming the alloys into the desired configuration at elevated temperatures with "cold" matched dies and maintaining the shaped articles between the dies until the articles cool to ambient temperature.

  5. Method for fabricating uranium alloy articles without shape memory effects

    DOEpatents

    Banker, J.G.

    1980-05-21

    Uranium-rich niobium and niobium-zirconium alloys possess a characteristic known as shape memory effect wherein shaped articles of these alloys recover their original shape when heated. The present invention circumvents this memory behavior by forming the alloys into the desired configuration at elevated temperatures with cold matched dies and maintaining the shaped articles between the dies until the articles cool to ambient temperature.

  6. The shapes of fragments from catastrophic disruption events: Effects of target shape and impact speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durda, Daniel D.; Campo Bagatin, Adriano; Alemañ, Rafael A.; Flynn, George J.; Strait, Melissa M.; Clayton, Angela N.; Patmore, Emma B.

    2015-03-01

    We conducted impact experiments at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range in the context of an ongoing set of experiments to investigate both target shape and impact speed effects on fragment shapes and mass-frequency distributions in collisions on basalt targets. In this work we present the first part of that set, regarding mostly target shape effects. We impacted both irregularly-shaped and spherical basalt targets at speeds ranging from ~4-6 km/s. We obtained mass-frequency distributions from fragments recovered from the impact chamber and measured fragments shapes using a combination of image analysis and manual measurements with a caliper. We find that the characteristics of the mass-frequency distributions and the range of fragment shapes show no significant dependence on target shape (i.e., flat, 'shell-like' fragments are produced in impacts into irregularly-shaped targets as well as spherical ones). We note that many thin, plate-like impact fragments seem to originate from lower-speed impacts and can originate from the interior of the targets (in addition to the flattened fragments often seen to origin from the near-surface spall zone in cratering impacts). We measure the porosity of aggregates made by artificially (but randomly) reassembling fragments from each impact to be on the order of 50%, significantly larger than that for hexagonal lattice and random packing of equal sized spheres.

  7. Whole-Word Shape Effect in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavidor, Michal

    2011-01-01

    The research question here was whether whole-word shape cues might facilitate reading in dyslexia following reports of how normal-reading children benefit from using this cue when learning to read. We predicted that adults with dyslexia would tend to rely more on orthographic rather than other cues when reading, and therefore would be more…

  8. Shape Effects on Jamming of Granular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, Somayeh

    In this work, we have focused on the jamming properties of systems composed of semi-2D elliptical shaped particles. In order to study these systems, we have performed three types of experiments: Couette shear, biaxial isotropic compression, and biaxial pure shear. In each experimental scheme, we take data for both systems of ellipses an bi-disperse disks, in order to probe the effect of broken spherical symmetry at the particle scale, on the global behavior. We use two synchronized cameras to capture the flow of particles and the local stress at the same time. In Couette experiments, we study the rheological properties, as well as the stress fluctuations for very large strains (up to 20 revolutions of the inner wheel). The system is sheared for densities below the isotropic jamming point (point J). From these studies we learn that over a small range of packing fractions, (0.85 ≤ φ ≤ 0.86), systems of ellipses demonstrate exceptionally slow dynamical evolution when they are sheared. For fixed density, and starting from an essentially unstressed state, the application of shear strain leads to first a growth of average particle displacements in the system through a Reynolds dilatancy effect, and then for very large strains, a steady decrease in particle displacements. In an intermediate range of shear strains, the system exists in effectively meta-stable states for a very long time before relaxing to an unjammed state, in which the flow of particles stops completely, and the stress fluctuations drop to zero. The strain scale for this relaxation depends on the global packing fraction. We characterize this slow dynamics by measuring the evolution of mean velocity, density, and orientational order throughout the experiments. In a similar set of experiments performed on disks, slow relaxation was observed as well. However, the increasing average displacement build-up before relaxation, which was observed in ellipses, did not occur for disks. This suggests that the

  9. Shape memory effect of laser welded NiTi plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, J. P.; Fernandes, F. M. Braz; Schell, N.; Miranda, R. M.

    2015-07-01

    Laser welding is a suitable joining technique for shape memory alloys (SMAs). This paper reports the existence of shape memory effect (SME) on laser welded NiTi joints, subjected to bending tests, and correlates this effect with the microstructural analysis performed with X-ray diffraction (XRD). All welded samples were able to recover their initial shape after bending to 180°, which is a remarkable result for industrial applications of NiTi involving laser welding.

  10. New shape memory effects in semicrystalline polymeric networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Taekwoong

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) have attracted much research interest as a type of smart material that possesses the capacity to undergo rapid changes of their shape and size under a specific or tailored environment. Herein, we prepared semicrystalline polymers-based networks such as poly (cyclooctene) (PCO), poly (e-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) networks in order to explore their shape memory effects and thermomechanical properties as well as the possibilities for their applications. Interestingly, besides so-called one-shape memory effect that can be manipulated and fixed to a temporary shape under specific conditions of temperature and stress, and subsequently relax to the original shape on heating, the semicrystalline polymer networks exhibit a reversible two-way shape memory effect, revealing crystallization-induced elongation on cooling and melting-induced contraction on heating. These thermally induced reversible two-way shape memory effects were systematically explored with respect to the crosslinking density of networks and the applied stress. In order to develop a shape memory network with temperature sensing capability, we incorporated appropriately tailored chromogenic cyano-OPVs into cross-linked PCO via guest-diffusion to create phase-separated blends in which the dye's emission properties are dominated by excimer fluorescence. Heatng to the temperature above melting temperature and cooling below the crystallization temperature of PCO led to reversible optical changes through dissolution or agregation of the dye molecules. These optical changes happened in conjuction with shape changes of PCO networks. For an application of shape memory network in bone tissue engineering, we fabricated novel shape memory nanocomposite scaffolds base on PCL and nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HAP) using thiol-ene photopolymerization and salt leaching technique. The shape memory property, morphologies and biomineralization of the scaffolds were

  11. Effect of fibril shape on adhesive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Daniel; Hill, Ginel; Parness, Aaron; Esparza, Noé; Cutkosky, Mark; Kenny, Tom

    2010-08-01

    Research into the gecko's adhesive system revealed a unique architecture for adhesives using tiny hairs. By using a stiff material (β-keratin) to create a highly structured adhesive, the gecko's system demonstrates properties not seen in traditional pressure-sensitive adhesives which use a soft, unstructured planar layer. In contrast to pressure sensitive adhesives, the gecko adhesive displays frictional adhesion, in which increased shear force allows it to withstand higher normal loads. Synthetic fibrillar adhesives have been fabricated but not all demonstrate this frictional adhesion property. Here we report the dual-axis force testing of single silicone rubber pillars from synthetic adhesive arrays. We find that the shape of the adhesive pillar dictates whether frictional adhesion or pressure-sensitive behavior is observed. This work suggests that both types of behavior can be achieved with structures much larger than gecko terminal structures. It also indicates that subtle differences in the shape of these pillars can significantly influence their properties.

  12. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Different Shapes of Food Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Rebecca; Visschers, Vivianne H. M.; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the influence of a food guide's shape on its effectiveness and efficiency to convey nutritional information. Methods: A between-subjects experiment was conducted by manipulating the graph's shape (circle, pyramid, or rainbow). Nutrition tasks were used to assess the effectiveness and eye-movement data (number/duration of…

  13. Shape Memory Effect and Superelasticity in a Strain Glass Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Ren, Xiaobing; Otsuka, Kazuhiro

    2006-12-01

    The shape memory effect and superelasticity are usually found in alloys exhibiting spontaneous martensitic transformation. Thus it is hard to imagine that such interesting effects can appear in a system without a martensitic transformation. In this Letter we show shape memory and the superelasticity effect in a nonmartensitic Ti48.5Ni51.5 alloy, which has no martensitic transformation but undergoes a “strain glass” transition. In situ x-ray diffraction experiment showed that the shape memory and superelasticity in strain glass stem from a stress-induced strain glass to martensite transformation and its reverse transformation. The new shape memory and superelasticity in strain glass extends the regime of the shape memory effect and superelasticity and may lead to novel applications.

  14. Fiber shape effects on metal matrix composite behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, H. C.; Lee, H.-J.; Chamis, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of different fiber shapes on the behavior of a SiC/Ti-15 metal matrix composite is computationally simulated. A three-dimensional finite element model consisting of a group of nine unidirectional fibers is used in the analysis. The model is employed to represent five different fiber shapes: a circle, an ellipse, a kidney, and two different cross shapes. The distribution of microstresses and the composite material properties, such as moduli, coefficients of thermal expansion, and Poisson's ratios, are obtained from the finite element analysis for the various fiber shapes. Comparisons of these results are used to determine the sensitivity of the composite behavior to the different fiber shapes and assess their potential benefits. No clear benefits result from different fiber shapes though there are some increases/decreases in isolated properties.

  15. The quintuple-shape memory effect in electrospun nanofiber membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fenghua; Zhang, Zhichun; Liu, Yanju; Lu, Haibao; Leng, Jinsong

    2013-08-01

    Shape memory fibrous membranes (SMFMs) are an emerging class of active polymers, which are capable of switching from a temporary shape to their permanent shape upon appropriate stimulation. Quintuple-shape memory membranes based on the thermoplastic polymer Nafion, with a stable fibrous structure, are achieved via electrospinning technology, and possess a broad transition temperature. The recovery of multiple temporary shapes of electrospun membranes can be triggered by heat in a single triple-, quadruple-, quintuple-shape memory cycle, respectively. The fiber morphology and nanometer size provide unprecedented design flexibility for the adjustable morphing effect. SMFMs enable complex deformations at need, having a wide potential application field including smart textiles, artificial intelligence robots, bio-medical engineering, aerospace technologies, etc in the future.

  16. Effect of pinhole shape on projection resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, L. C.; Moore, S. C.; Metzler, S. D.

    2016-03-01

    We are designing a dual-resolution pre-clinical SPECT system based on square-pinhole apertures for use in applications with a small field-of-view (FOV), such as cardiac imaging of mice. Square pinholes allow for increased sensitivity due to more efficient projection tiling on the detector compared to circular pinholes. Aperture fabrication techniques cannot produce a perfect square, giving the square pinholes some amount of roundedness at the corners. This work investigates how this roundedness affects the physical properties of projection images in terms of spatial resolution. Different pinhole full-acceptance angles and roundedness values were simulated. To facilitate a fair comparison, properties of the non-square pinholes were manipulated to yield pinholes with approximately the same sensitivity (to within 0.1%) and FOV (to within 0.5%) as those of the square pinholes, subsequently referred to as matched apertures. The aperture size (flat-to-flat edge length) of each non-square aperture was increased until its sensitivity was approximately equal to that of the square pinhole. Next, the full acceptance angle was increased until the FOV of each non-square aperture was approximately equivalent to that of the square pinhole. Sensitivity was calculated to include both the geometric and penetrative sensitivity of a point source, as well as the packing faction of the multi-pinhole collimator. Using the sensitivity-matched and FOV-matched apertures, spatial resolution was estimated. For the 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm, and 1 mm edge-length square apertures studied, the full-width at half-maximum widened as pinhole shape changed from square to circle, while full-width tenth-maximum showed little change. These results indicate that a perfect square pinhole shape is more desirable than a rounded-square pinhole with regard to spatial resolution when sensitivity and FOV-matched pinholes are compared.

  17. Modelling Shape-Memory Effects in Ferromagnetic Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbia, Jonathan F.; Lloveras, Pol; Castán, Teresa; Saxena, Avadh; Planes, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    We develop a combined Ginzburg-Landau/micromagnetic model dealing with conventional and magnetic shape-memory properties in ferromagnetic shape-memory materials. The free energy of the system is written as the sum of structural, magnetic and magnetostructural contributions. We first analyse a mean field linearized version of the model that does not take into account long-range terms arising from elastic compatibility and demagnetization effects. This model can be solved analytically and in spite of its simplicity allows us to understand the role of the magnetostructural term in driving magnetic shape-memory effects. Numerical simulations of the full model have also been performed. They show that the model is able to reproduce magnetostructural microstructures reported in magnetic shape-memory materials such as Ni2MnGa as well as conventional and magnetic shape-memory behaviour.

  18. Effects of velocity averaging on the shapes of absorption lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    The velocity averaging of collision cross sections produces non-Lorentz line shapes, even at densities where Doppler broadening is not apparent. The magnitude of the effects will be described using a model in which the collision broadening depends on a simple velocity power law. The effect of the modified profile on experimental measures of linewidth, shift and amplitude will be examined and an improved approximate line shape will be derived.

  19. The effect of object shape and laser beam shape on lidar system resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hongchang; Wang, Jingyi; Ke, Jun

    2016-06-01

    In a LIDAR system, a pulsed laser beam is propagated to a scene, and then reflected back by objects. Ideally if the beam diameter and the pulse width are close to zero, then the reflected beam in time domain is similar to a delta function, which can accurately locate an object's position. However, in a practical system, the beam has finite size. Therefore, even if the pulse width is small, an object shape will make the reflected beam stretched along the time axis, then affect system resolution. In this paper, we assume the beam with Gaussian shape. The beam can be formulated as a delta function convolved with a shape function, such as a rectangular function, in time domain. Then the reflected beam can be defined as a system response function convolved with the shape function. We use symmetric objects to analyze the reflected beam. Corn, sphere, and cylinder objects are used to find a LIDAR system's response function. The case for large beam size is discussed. We assume the beam shape is similar to a plane wave. With this assumption, we get the simplified LIDAR system response functions for the three kinds of objects. Then we use tiny spheres to emulate an arbitrary object, and study its effect to the returned beam.

  20. Martensitic transformation, shape memory effects, and other curious mechanical effects

    SciTech Connect

    Vandermeer, R.A.

    1982-01-08

    The objective of this paper is to review tutorially the subject of martensitic transformations in uranium alloys emphasizing their role in the shape memory effect (SME). We examine first what a martensitic transformation is, illustrating some of its characteristics with specific examples. As well as being athermal in nature, as expected, data are presented indicating that martensitic transformations in some uranium alloys also have a strong isothermal component. In addition, a few alloys are known to exhibit thermoelastic martensitic reactions. The SME, which is associated with these, is defined and demonstrated graphically with data from a uranium-6 wt % niobium alloy. Some of the important variables influencing SME behavior are described. Specifically, these are reheat temperature, amount of deformation, crystal structure, and composition. A mechanism for SME is postulated and the association with martensitic transformation is detailed. A self-induced shape instability in the uranium-7.5 wt % niobium-2.5 wt % zirconium alloy with a rationalization of the behavior in terms of texture and lattice parameter change during aging is reviewed and discussed. 24 figures.

  1. Fiber shape effects on metal matrix composite behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, H. C.; Lee, H.-J.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of different fiber shapes on the behavior of metal matrix composites is computationally simulated. A three-dimensional finite element model consisting of a group of nine unidirectional fibers in a three by three unit cell array of a SiC/Ti-15-3 metal matrix composite is used in the analysis. The model is employed to represent five fiber shapes that include a circle, an ellipse, a kidney, and two different cross shapes. The distribution of stresses and the composite material properties, such as moduli, coefficients of thermal expansion, and Poisson's ratios, are obtained from the finite element analysis using the various fiber shapes. Comparisons of these results are used to determine the sensitivity of the composite behavior to the different fiber shapes. In general, fiber dominated properties are not affected by fiber geometry and matrix dominated properties are only moderately affected.

  2. Compressibility effects in shaped charge jet penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugstad, B. S.

    1981-03-01

    Among other hypotheses, the classical theory of high-speed penetration assumes the incompressibility of both the projectile and target. Employing a simple Murnaghan equation of state, we show here that direct compressibility effects (pv-work) on penetration depth are at most on the order of 10-15% for projectile speeds as high as 104 ms-1. Our results agree closely with similar results by Coombs (private communication, Royal Air Force Research Establishment, 1978), who used a more complex five-parameter equation of state. This indicates that rather simple equations of state may adequately represent essential thermodynamic features of high-speed penetration phenomena. The equation of state employed here furthermore allows approximate analytical results to be derived for both small and large projectile velocities.

  3. Effect of orbital debris shape on lightweight spacecraft shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, J.

    The risk posed by meteoroid and orbital debris (M/OD) impacts on low earth orbiting spacecraft is a critical design consideration. For years researchers have evaluated the M/OD environment and impact effects on spacecraft materials. Nearly all of these studies and risk assessment strategies have considered M/OD to have a spherical shape. Impact tests and hydrocode simulations have shown that impactors with length to diameter (L/D) ratios other than 1 can in fact affect more damage to spacecraft than equal mass spheres. With this concern in mind, the present work documents test results and simulations which demonstrate this shape effect. In particular, recent tests conducted at 3-7 km/s on representative spacecraft shields are reported. Furthermore, testing on these shields near 11 km/s are documented. These data are compared to existing ballistic limit equations which yield modified equations taking into account the shape effect. To demonstrate the significance of these analyses, risk assessments are modified to incorporate M/OD shape. The increased risk to spacecraft due to impactor shape is estimated based on assumptions in the M/OD population's shape.

  4. Growth of diamond film by CVD on near net shape fabricated {beta}-SiC/TiC composites synthesized using SHS

    SciTech Connect

    Raghunathan, R.; Chowdhury, R.; Jagannadham, K.; Narayan, J.

    1995-10-01

    {beta}-SiC/TiC composites were synthesized using the process of self propagating-high temperature combustion synthesis (SHS). The heat released during the exothermic reaction between Si and C powders (with a {Delta}H of {minus}14 kcal/mol) and that Ti and C powders (with a {Delta}H of {minus}44.1 kcal/mole) is sufficient to cause the melting of the powders into which the carbon diffuses and from which {beta}-SiC and TiC precipitate out of the supersaturated solution. The composite was characterized using X-ray diffraction techniques, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. An attempt was made to understand the mechanism of formation of the composite. The authors have proposed a mechanism to understand the formation of the SHS compounds based on dissolution, diffusion and precipitation from the supersaturated solution. There is no evidence for the presence of TiSi{sub 2} and an attempt was made to explain this observation based on three energy considerations. Diamond film was then grown on the pellet by hot filament CVD technique using methane and hydrogen gas as the reactants. The deposition was conducted for a period of four hours. A continuous film of diamond was found to grow on {beta}-SiC/TiC composite using this technique. The diamond film was characterized by using Raman spectroscopy and SEM. The diamond film showed both (001) and (111) facets with average grain size of 5 {micro}m.

  5. Microscopic mechanisms of the shape memory effect in crosslinked polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Jacob D.; Goulbourne, N. C.

    2015-05-01

    In this work we perform coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the molecular origins of the thermal shape memory effect in crosslinked polymer materials. Thermal shape memory polymers (SMPs) are materials able to hold a deformed shape when cooled below the glass transition temperature, and subsequently recover the initial shape when heated. To use SMPs in various applications requires materials which reliably hold and recover their shapes; this has sparked recent synthesis work to create new SMP materials with optimized properties. Here we use coarse-grained MD simulations with different polymer chain models to determine which parameters affect relevant SMP behavior and to investigate the molecular mechanisms at the level of individual chains during temperature cycling. The simulations show how temperature-dependent chain mobility leads to shape memory polymer behavior. In particular, we demonstrate the importance of attractive monomer interactions in leading to ‘good’ SMP behavior. The results suggest promising routes for material development. Additionally, the mechanisms identified with the simple simulation model can be used to inform multi-scale models of SMP material behavior.

  6. Swimming motion of rod-shaped magnetotactic bacteria: the effects of shape and growing magnetic moment

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Dali; Lin, Wei; Pan, Yongxin; Zhang, Keke

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the swimming motion of rod-shaped magnetotactic bacteria affiliated with the Nitrospirae phylum in a viscous liquid under the influence of an externally imposed, time-dependent magnetic field. By assuming that fluid motion driven by the translation and rotation of a swimming bacterium is of the Stokes type and that inertial effects of the motion are negligible, we derive a new system of the twelve coupled equations that govern both the motion and orientation of a swimming rod-shaped magnetotactic bacterium with a growing magnetic moment in the laboratory frame of reference. It is revealed that the initial pattern of swimming motion can be strongly affected by the rate of the growing magnetic moment. It is also revealed, through comparing mathematical solutions of the twelve coupled equations to the swimming motion observed in our laboratory experiments with rod-shaped magnetotactic bacteria, that the laboratory trajectories of the swimming motion can be approximately reproduced using an appropriate set of the parameters in our theoretical model. PMID:24523716

  7. Swimming motion of rod-shaped magnetotactic bacteria: the effects of shape and growing magnetic moment.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dali; Lin, Wei; Pan, Yongxin; Zhang, Keke

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the swimming motion of rod-shaped magnetotactic bacteria affiliated with the Nitrospirae phylum in a viscous liquid under the influence of an externally imposed, time-dependent magnetic field. By assuming that fluid motion driven by the translation and rotation of a swimming bacterium is of the Stokes type and that inertial effects of the motion are negligible, we derive a new system of the twelve coupled equations that govern both the motion and orientation of a swimming rod-shaped magnetotactic bacterium with a growing magnetic moment in the laboratory frame of reference. It is revealed that the initial pattern of swimming motion can be strongly affected by the rate of the growing magnetic moment. It is also revealed, through comparing mathematical solutions of the twelve coupled equations to the swimming motion observed in our laboratory experiments with rod-shaped magnetotactic bacteria, that the laboratory trajectories of the swimming motion can be approximately reproduced using an appropriate set of the parameters in our theoretical model. PMID:24523716

  8. Blocked Shape Memory Effect in Negative Poisson's Ratio Polymer Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Boba, Katarzyna; Bianchi, Matteo; McCombe, Greg; Gatt, Ruben; Griffin, Anselm C; Richardson, Robert M; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Hamerton, Ian; Grima, Joseph N

    2016-08-10

    We describe a new class of negative Poisson's ratio (NPR) open cell PU-PE foams produced by blocking the shape memory effect in the polymer. Contrary to classical NPR open cell thermoset and thermoplastic foams that return to their auxetic phase after reheating (and therefore limit their use in technological applications), this new class of cellular solids has a permanent negative Poisson's ratio behavior, generated through multiple shape memory (mSM) treatments that lead to a fixity of the topology of the cell foam. The mSM-NPR foams have Poisson's ratio values similar to the auxetic foams prior their return to the conventional phase, but compressive stress-strain curves similar to the ones of conventional foams. The results show that by manipulating the shape memory effect in polymer microstructures it is possible to obtain new classes of materials with unusual deformation mechanisms. PMID:27377708

  9. Brain potentials associated with the shape Stroop effect.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Xie, Peng; Zhang, Qinglin

    2016-03-23

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to explore, for the first time, the electrophysiological correlates of the shape Stroop effect. Fifteen healthy individuals were presented with a frame and a name of an object with a typical shape in life and asked to categorize the object's typical shape in life as a 'circle', a 'square,' or a 'triangle' by pressing the relevant button as quickly as possible. Accurate categorization of the name of an object was faster when it was presented with a congruent shape frame (e.g. name of a tyre/circle frame) than with an incongruent one (e.g. name of a tyre/square frame). Scalp ERPs analysis showed that the incongruent condition elicited a more negative component N430 and a more late positive component LPC than the congruent condition. N430 is a critical sign of conflict detection in the early stage, whereas late positive component reflects the response conflict in the late stage. The results provided evidence for the dissociation between conflict detection and conflict resolution in the shape Stroop effect. PMID:26862935

  10. Microthermodynamics analysis of the shape memory effect in composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, J.G.; Lagoudas, D.C.

    1994-12-31

    The shape memory effect and pseudoelasticity due to phase transformation in shape memory alloy (SMA) composites is modeled using a two part procedure. First, phenomenological constitutive equations are proposed for the monolithic polycrystalline SMA material. The equations are of the generalized standard material type, in which the response is given by a convex free energy function and a dissipation potential. Second, a micromechanics analysis of a SMA composite material is performed to derive its free energy, transformation strain rate, and Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Specific results are given for a Nitinol SMA fiber/elastomer matrix composite.

  11. Shape effects on nanoparticle engulfment for metal matrix nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozsoy, Istemi Baris; Li, Gang; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Huijuan

    2015-07-01

    Obtaining a uniform dispersion of the nanoparticles and their structural integrity in metal matrix is a prominent obstacle to use the intrinsic properties of metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs) to the full extent. In this study, a potential way to overcome the scientific and technical barrier of nanoparticle dispersion in high performance lightweight MMNCs is presented. The goal is to identify the shape and size of Al2O3 nanoparticle for its optimal dispersion in Al matrix. Critical velocity of solidification is calculated numerically for spherical, cylindrical and disk-shaped nanoparticles using an analytical model which incorporates drag force, intermolecular force and inertia effect. The results show that it is possible to reduce the critical solidification velocity for nanoparticle capture by 6 times with proper shape modification.

  12. Effects of Plasma Shaping on Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    E. A. Belli; Hammett, G. W.; Dorland, W.

    2008-08-01

    The effects of flux surface shape on the gyrokinetic stability and transport of tokamak plasmas are studied using the GS2 code [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W.M. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995); W. Dorland, F. Jenko, M. Kotschenreuther, and B.N. Rogers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)]. Studies of the scaling of nonlinear turbulence with shaping parameters are performed using analytic equilibria based on interpolations of representative shapes of the Joint European Torus (JET) [P.H. Rebut and B.E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)]. High shaping is found to be a stabilizing influence on both the linear ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instability and the nonlinear ITG turbulence. For the parameter regime studied here, a scaling of the heat flux with elongation of χ ~ κ-1.5 or κ-2.0, depending on the triangularity, is observed at fixed average temperature gradient. While this is not as strong as empirical elongation scalings, it is also found that high shaping results in a larger Dimits upshift of the nonlinear critical temperature gradient due to an enhancement of the Rosenbluth-Hinton residual zonal flows.

  13. Particle shape effects on thermophysical properties of alumina nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeeva, Elena V.; Routbort, Jules L.; Singh, Dileep

    2009-07-01

    The thermal conductivity and viscosity of various shapes of alumina nanoparticles in a fluid consisting of equal volumes of ethylene glycol and water were investigated. Experimental data were analyzed and accompanied by theoretical modeling. Enhancements in the effective thermal conductivities due to particle shape effects expected from Hamilton-Crosser equation are strongly diminished by interfacial effects proportional to the total surface area of nanoparticles. On the other hand, the presence of nanoparticles and small volume fractions of agglomerates with high aspect ratios strongly increases viscosity of suspensions due to structural constrains. Nanoparticle surface charge also plays an important role in viscosity. It is demonstrated that by adjusting pH of nanofluid, it is possible to reduce viscosity of alumina nanofluid without significantly affecting thermal conductivity. Efficiency of nanofluids (ratio of thermal conductivity and viscosity increase) for real-life cooling applications is evaluated in both the laminar and turbulent flow regimes using the experimental values of thermal conductivity and viscosity.

  14. Effects of memory on the shapes of simple outbreak trees

    PubMed Central

    Plazzotta, Giacomo; Kwan, Christopher; Boyd, Michael; Colijn, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Genomic tools, including phylogenetic trees derived from sequence data, are increasingly used to understand outbreaks of infectious diseases. One challenge is to link phylogenetic trees to patterns of transmission. Particularly in bacteria that cause chronic infections, this inference is affected by variable infectious periods and infectivity over time. It is known that non-exponential infectious periods can have substantial effects on pathogens’ transmission dynamics. Here we ask how this non-Markovian nature of an outbreak process affects the branching trees describing that process, with particular focus on tree shapes. We simulate Crump-Mode-Jagers branching processes and compare different patterns of infectivity over time. We find that memory (non-Markovian-ness) in the process can have a pronounced effect on the shapes of the outbreak’s branching pattern. However, memory also has a pronounced effect on the sizes of the trees, even when the duration of the simulation is fixed. When the sizes of the trees are constrained to a constant value, memory in our processes has little direct effect on tree shapes, but can bias inference of the birth rate from trees. We compare simulated branching trees to phylogenetic trees from an outbreak of tuberculosis in Canada, and discuss the relevance of memory to this dataset. PMID:26888437

  15. Effects of memory on the shapes of simple outbreak trees.

    PubMed

    Plazzotta, Giacomo; Kwan, Christopher; Boyd, Michael; Colijn, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Genomic tools, including phylogenetic trees derived from sequence data, are increasingly used to understand outbreaks of infectious diseases. One challenge is to link phylogenetic trees to patterns of transmission. Particularly in bacteria that cause chronic infections, this inference is affected by variable infectious periods and infectivity over time. It is known that non-exponential infectious periods can have substantial effects on pathogens' transmission dynamics. Here we ask how this non-Markovian nature of an outbreak process affects the branching trees describing that process, with particular focus on tree shapes. We simulate Crump-Mode-Jagers branching processes and compare different patterns of infectivity over time. We find that memory (non-Markovian-ness) in the process can have a pronounced effect on the shapes of the outbreak's branching pattern. However, memory also has a pronounced effect on the sizes of the trees, even when the duration of the simulation is fixed. When the sizes of the trees are constrained to a constant value, memory in our processes has little direct effect on tree shapes, but can bias inference of the birth rate from trees. We compare simulated branching trees to phylogenetic trees from an outbreak of tuberculosis in Canada, and discuss the relevance of memory to this dataset. PMID:26888437

  16. Orbital Debris Shape and Orientation Effects on Ballistic Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Steven W.; Williamsen, Joel E.

    2005-01-01

    The SPHC hydrodynamic code was used to evaluate the effects of orbital debris particle shape and orientation on penetration of a typical spacecraft dual-wall shield. Impacts were simulated at near-normal obliquity at 12 km/sec. Debris cloud characteristics and damage potential are compared with those from impacts by spherical projectiles. Results of these simulations indicate the uncertainties in the predicted ballistic limits due to modeling uncertainty and to uncertainty in the impactor orientation.

  17. A molecular dynamics investigation of the deformation mechanism and shape memory effect of epoxy shape memory polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hua; Wang, ZhengDao; Guo, YaFang; Shi, XingHua

    2016-03-01

    Following deformation, thermally induced shape memory polymers (SMPs) have the ability to recover their original shape with a change in temperature. In this work, the thermomechanical properties and shape memory behaviors of three types of epoxy SMPs with varying curing agent contents were investigated using a molecular dynamics (MD) method. The mechanical properties under uniaxial tension at different temperatures were obtained, and the simulation results compared reasonably with experimental data. In addition, in a thermomechanical cycle, ideal shape memory effects for the three types of SMPs were revealed through the shape frozen and shape recovery responses at low and high temperatures, respectively, indicating that the recovery time is strongly influenced by the ratio of E-51 to 4,4'-Methylenedianiline.

  18. Grain Constraint and Size Effects in Shape Memory Alloy Microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueland, Stian Melhus

    Shape memory alloys exhibit interesting and useful properties, such as the shape memory effect and superelasticity. Among the many alloy families that have been shown to exhibit shape memory properties the ones based on copper are interesting because they are relatively inexpensive and show excellent properties when made as single crystals. However, the performance ofthese alloys is severely compromised by the introduction of grain boundaries, to the point where they are too poor for commercial applications. This thesis studies the mechanical properties of fine Cobased wires with a bamboo microstructure, i.e., where triple junctions are absent and grain boundaries run perpendicular to the wire axis. These microwires are not single crystals, but their microstructure is not as complex as that of polycrystals either: we call this new class of shape memory alloys oligocrystals. This thesis seeks to better understand the relationship between microstructure and properties in these alloys through a combination of mechanical testing, in situ experiments and modeling. First, in situ scanning electron microscopy, together with finite element modeling, is used to understand the role of grain constraint on the martensitic transformation. Grain constraints are observed to be much less severe in oligocrystalline wires as compared to polycrystals. Oligocrystalline microwires are then thermomechanically tested and shown to exhibit excellent properties that approach those of single crystals. Next, property evolution during cycling is investigated, revealing training effects as well as fatigue life and fracture. Finally, size effects in damping and transformation morphology are studied and it is shown that a transition from a many-domain to a single domain martensite morphology takes place when the wire diameter is decreased. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs@mit.edu)

  19. Plot shape effects on plant species diversity measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Question: Do rectangular sample plots record more plant species than square plots as suggested by both empirical and theoretical studies? Location: Grasslands, shrublands and forests in the Mediterranean-climate region of California, USA. Methods: We compared three 0.1-ha sampling designs that differed in the shape and dispersion of 1-m2 and 100-m2 nested subplots. We duplicated an earlier study that compared the Whittaker sample design, which had square clustered subplots, with the modified Whittaker design, which had dispersed rectangular subplots. To sort out effects of dispersion from shape we used a third design that overlaid square subplots on the modified Whittaker design. Also, using data from published studies we extracted species richness values for 400-m2 subplots that were either square or 1:4 rectangles partially overlaid on each other from desert scrub in high and low rainfall years, chaparral, sage scrub, oak savanna and coniferous forests with and without fire. Results: We found that earlier empirical reports of more than 30% greater richness with rectangles were due to the confusion of shape effects with spatial effects, coupled with the use of cumulative number of species as the metric for comparison. Average species richness was not significantly different between square and 1:4 rectangular sample plots at either 1-or 100-m2. Pairwise comparisons showed no significant difference between square and rectangular samples in all but one vegetation type, and that one exhibited significantly greater richness with squares. Our three intensive study sites appear to exhibit some level of self-similarity at the scale of 400 m2, but, contrary to theoretical expectations, we could not detect plot shape effects on species richness at this scale. Conclusions: At the 0.1-ha scale or lower there is no evidence that plot shape has predictable effects on number of species recorded from sample plots. We hypothesize that for the mediterranean-climate vegetation types

  20. Pulsed laser interactions with space debris: Target shape effects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liedahl, D. A.; Rubenchik, A.; Libby, S. B.; Nikolaev, S.; Phipps, C. R.

    2013-05-24

    Among the approaches to the proposed mitigation and remediation of the space debris problem is the de-orbiting of objects in low Earth orbit through irradiation by ground-based high-intensity pulsed lasers. Laser ablation of a thin surface layer causes target recoil, resulting in the depletion of orbital angular momentum and accelerated atmospheric re-entry. However, both the magnitude and direction of the recoil are shape dependent, a feature of the laser-based remediation concept that has received little attention. Since the development of a predictive capability is desirable, we have investigated the dynamical response to ablation of objects comprising a variety of shapes.more » We derive and demonstrate a simple analytical technique for calculating the ablation-driven transfer of linear momentum, emphasizing cases for which the recoil is not exclusively parallel to the incident beam. For the purposes of comparison and contrast, we examine one case of momentum transfer in the low-intensity regime, where photon pressure is the dominant momentum transfer mechanism, showing that shape and orientation effects influence the target response in a similar, but not identical, manner. As a result, we address the related problem of target spin and, by way of a few simple examples, show how ablation can alter the spin state of a target, which often has a pronounced effect on the recoil dynamics.« less

  1. Pulsed laser interactions with space debris: Target shape effects

    SciTech Connect

    Liedahl, D. A.; Rubenchik, A.; Libby, S. B.; Nikolaev, S.; Phipps, C. R.

    2013-05-24

    Among the approaches to the proposed mitigation and remediation of the space debris problem is the de-orbiting of objects in low Earth orbit through irradiation by ground-based high-intensity pulsed lasers. Laser ablation of a thin surface layer causes target recoil, resulting in the depletion of orbital angular momentum and accelerated atmospheric re-entry. However, both the magnitude and direction of the recoil are shape dependent, a feature of the laser-based remediation concept that has received little attention. Since the development of a predictive capability is desirable, we have investigated the dynamical response to ablation of objects comprising a variety of shapes. We derive and demonstrate a simple analytical technique for calculating the ablation-driven transfer of linear momentum, emphasizing cases for which the recoil is not exclusively parallel to the incident beam. For the purposes of comparison and contrast, we examine one case of momentum transfer in the low-intensity regime, where photon pressure is the dominant momentum transfer mechanism, showing that shape and orientation effects influence the target response in a similar, but not identical, manner. As a result, we address the related problem of target spin and, by way of a few simple examples, show how ablation can alter the spin state of a target, which often has a pronounced effect on the recoil dynamics.

  2. Effect of geometric shape on two-dimensional finite elements

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Three quadrilateral elements are defined. These are an eight-nodal-point serendipity element (QUAD8s), a nine-nodal-point serendipity element (QUAD9s), and a nine-nodal-point quadrilateral element composed of two six-nodal-point triangular elements (QUAD9t). The effect that the geometric shape of the element has on the approximation function of each element is discussed. Two beam problems demonstrate that when the shape of the elements becomes skewed, the QUAD9t element significantly improves the calculated results. Finally, a recommendation is made for the QUAD8s and QUAD9t to be used together for the most efficient and accurate results.

  3. Wind interference effect on an octagonal plan shaped tall building due to square plan shaped tall buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Rony; Dalui, Sujit Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The variation of pressure at the faces of the octagonal plan shaped tall building due to interference of three square plan shaped tall building of same height is analysed by computational fluid dynamics module, namely ANSYS CFX for 0° wind incidence angle only. All the buildings are closely spaced (distance between two buildings varies from 0.4 h to 2 h, where h is the height of the building). Different cases depending upon the various positions of the square plan shaped buildings are analysed and compared with the octagonal plan shaped building in isolated condition. The comparison is presented in the form of interference factors (IF) and IF contours. Abnormal pressure distribution is observed in some cases. Shielding and channelling effect on the octagonal plan shaped building due to the presence of the interfering buildings are also noted. In the interfering condition the pressure distribution at the faces of the octagonal plan shaped building is not predictable. As the distance between the principal octagonal plan shaped building and the third square plan shaped interfering building increases the behaviour of faces becomes more systematic. The coefficient of pressure (C p) for each face of the octagonal plan shaped building in each interfering case can be easily found if we multiply the IF with the C p in the isolated case.

  4. Shape Effect in Aggregation and Thermal Evolution of Comet Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Coradini, A.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Botet, R.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Capria, M. T.; Magni, G.; Turrini, D.

    2007-10-01

    Comet nuclei are considered as the most pristine bodies of the Solar System. Their study consequently sheds an important light on the processes occurring during the initial stages of the solar system formation. Simulations have been developed in our teams to describe new aspects of comet formation and evolution. Particle aggregation simulations taking into account age-related cohesive energy of cometesimals during accretions in the Kuiper belt can be used to interpret the layered structure and surface features observed for comet 9P/Tempel 1 [1] and quantify the tensile strengths of these objects. Thermal evolution models of comet nuclei have been rather successful in explaining global aspects of comet observations [2]. A new quasi-3D approach for non-spherically shaped comet nuclei has been developed to analyse the effect of the irregular shapes (non-spherical shapes, mountain-like and crater-like features) of comet nuclei on their thermal evolution, on the local crust formation and the onset of their activity. Our simulations suggest that depressions on the surface play a role in the internal stratification of the nucleus and can disappear in a comet's lifetime [3]. New simulations specifically designed for the orbital history and irregular shape of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko will be presented. These tensile strength indications and activity predictions will provide vital clues for the international Rosetta mission rendezvous that will provide further constraints on the formation and evolution processes of comets. [1] Belton et al., Icarus 187, 332 (2007) [2] DeSanctis et al., Astron. Astrophys. 444, 605 (2005) [3] Lasue et al., in preparation This research has been funded by the French Space Agency (CNES)

  5. HYDROGEN EFFECTS ON LASER ENGINEERED NET SHAPE (LENS) REPAIRED WELDMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P; Thad Adams, T

    2006-10-06

    New methods of repairing mis-machined components are always of interest. In this study, an innovative method using Laser Engineered Net Shape{trademark} (LENS{reg_sign}) forming was used to repair intentionally mis-machined test articles. The components were repaired and subsequently hydrogen charged and burst tested. The LENS repair did not have an adverse effect on the solid state weld process that was used to repair the components. Hydrogen charged samples failed in a similar manner to the uncharged samples. Overall, the prospects for LENS repairing similar products are favorable and further work is encouraged.

  6. Effects of Setup Errors and Shape Changes on Breast Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mourik, Anke van; Kranen, Simon van; Hollander, Suzanne den; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Herk, Marcel van; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to quantify the robustness of the dose distributions from three whole-breast radiotherapy (RT) techniques involving different levels of intensity modulation against whole patient setup inaccuracies and breast shape changes. Methods and Materials: For 19 patients (one computed tomography scan and five cone beam computed tomography scans each), three treatment plans were made (wedge, simple intensity-modulated RT [IMRT], and full IMRT). For each treatment plan, four dose distributions were calculated. The first dose distribution was the original plan. The other three included the effects of patient setup errors (rigid displacement of the bony anatomy) or breast errors (e.g., rotations and shape changes of the breast with respect to the bony anatomy), or both, and were obtained through deformable image registration and dose accumulation. Subsequently, the effects of the plan type and error sources on target volume coverage, mean lung dose, and excess dose were determined. Results: Systematic errors of 1-2 mm and random errors of 2-3 mm (standard deviation) were observed for both patient- and breast-related errors. Planning techniques involving glancing fields (wedge and simple IMRT) were primarily affected by patient errors ({approx}6% loss of coverage near the dorsal field edge and {approx}2% near the skin). In contrast, plan deterioration due to breast errors was primarily observed in planning techniques without glancing fields (full IMRT, {approx}2% loss of coverage near the dorsal field edge and {approx}4% near the skin). Conclusion: The influences of patient and breast errors on the dose distributions are comparable in magnitude for whole breast RT plans, including glancing open fields, rendering simple IMRT the preferred technique. Dose distributions from planning techniques without glancing open fields were more seriously affected by shape changes of the breast, demanding specific attention in partial breast

  7. Thermal energy conversion by coupled shape memory and piezoelectric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Dmitry; Lebedev, Gor; Cugat, Orphee; Delamare, Jerome; Viala, Bernard; Lafont, Thomas; Gimeno, Leticia; Shelyakov, Alexander

    2012-09-01

    This work gives experimental evidence of a promising method of thermal-to-electric energy conversion by coupling shape memory effect (SME) and direct piezoelectric effect (DPE) for harvesting quasi-static ambient temperature variations. Two original prototypes of thermal energy harvesters have been fabricated and tested experimentally. The first is a hybrid laminated composite consisting of TiNiCu shape memory alloy (SMA) and macro fiber composite piezoelectric. This composite comprises 0.1 cm3 of active materials and harvests 75 µJ of energy for each temperature variation of 60 °C. The second prototype is a SME/DPE ‘machine’ which uses the thermally induced linear strains of the SMA to bend a bulk PZT ceramic plate through a specially designed mechanical structure. The SME/DPE ‘machine’ with 0.2 cm3 of active material harvests 90 µJ over a temperature increase of 35 °C (60 µJ when cooling). In contrast to pyroelectric materials, such harvesters are also compatible with both small and slow temperature variations.

  8. Leidenfrost effect: Accurate drop shape modeling and refined scaling laws.

    PubMed

    Sobac, B; Rednikov, A; Dorbolo, S; Colinet, P

    2014-11-01

    We here present a simple fitting-parameter-free theory of the Leidenfrost effect (droplet levitation above a superheated plate) covering the full range of stable shapes, i.e., from small quasispherical droplets to larger puddles floating on a pocketlike vapor film. The geometry of this film is found to be in excellent quantitative agreement with the interferometric measurements of Burton et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 074301 (2012)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.109.074301]. We also obtain new scalings generalizing classical ones derived by Biance et al. [Phys. Fluids 15, 1632 (2003)PHFLE61070-663110.1063/1.1572161] as far as the effect of plate superheat is concerned and highlight the relative role of evaporation, gravity, and capillarity in the vapor film. To further substantiate these findings, a treatment of the problem by matched asymptotic expansions is also presented. PMID:25493885

  9. Leidenfrost effect: Accurate drop shape modeling and refined scaling laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobac, B.; Rednikov, A.; Dorbolo, S.; Colinet, P.

    2014-11-01

    We here present a simple fitting-parameter-free theory of the Leidenfrost effect (droplet levitation above a superheated plate) covering the full range of stable shapes, i.e., from small quasispherical droplets to larger puddles floating on a pocketlike vapor film. The geometry of this film is found to be in excellent quantitative agreement with the interferometric measurements of Burton et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 074301 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.074301]. We also obtain new scalings generalizing classical ones derived by Biance et al. [Phys. Fluids 15, 1632 (2003), 10.1063/1.1572161] as far as the effect of plate superheat is concerned and highlight the relative role of evaporation, gravity, and capillarity in the vapor film. To further substantiate these findings, a treatment of the problem by matched asymptotic expansions is also presented.

  10. Shaping cancer nanomedicine: The effect of particle shape on the in vivo journey of nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Toy, Randall; Peiris, Pubudu M.; Ghaghada, Ketan B.; Karathanasis, Efstathios

    2014-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in nanoparticle technology have enabled the fabrication of nanoparticle classes with unique size, shape, and materials, which in turn has facilitated major advancements in the field of nanomedicine. More specifically, in the last decade, nanoscientists have recognized that nanomedicine exhibits a highly engineerable nature that makes it a mainstream scientific discipline, which is governed by its own distinctive principles in terms of interactions with cells and intravascular, transvascular and interstitial transport. This review focuses on recent developments and understanding of the relation between the shape of a nanoparticle and its navigation through different biological processes. Importantly, we seek to illustrate that the shape of a nanoparticle can govern its in vivo journey and destination dictating its biodistribution, intravascular and transvascular transport, and ultimately targeting of difficult-to-reach cancer sites. PMID:24354814

  11. Fast-Response-Time Shape-Memory-Effect Foam Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jardine, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Bulk shape memory alloys, such as Nitinol or CuAlZn, display strong recovery forces undergoing a phase transformation after being strained in their martensitic state. These recovery forces are used for actuation. As the phase transformation is thermally driven, the response time of the actuation can be slow, as the heat must be passively inserted or removed from the alloy. Shape memory alloy TiNi torque tubes have been investigated for at least 20 years and have demonstrated high actuation forces [3,000 in.-lb (approximately equal to 340 N-m) torques] and are very lightweight. However, they are not easy to attach to existing structures. Adhesives will fail in shear at low-torque loads and the TiNi is not weldable, so that mechanical crimp fits have been generally used. These are not reliable, especially in vibratory environments. The TiNi is also slow to heat up, as it can only be heated indirectly using heater and cooling must be done passively. This has restricted their use to on-off actuators where cycle times of approximately one minute is acceptable. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) has been used in the past to make porous TiNi metal foams. Shape Change Technologies has been able to train SHS derived TiNi to exhibit the shape memory effect. As it is an open-celled material, fast response times were observed when the material was heated using hot and cold fluids. A methodology was developed to make the open-celled porous TiNi foams as a tube with integrated hexagonal ends, which then becomes a torsional actuator with fast response times. Under processing developed independently, researchers were able to verify torques of 84 in.-lb (approximately equal to 9.5 Nm) using an actuator weighing 1.3 oz (approximately equal to 37 g) with very fast (less than 1/16th of a second) initial response times when hot and cold fluids were used to facilitate heat transfer. Integrated structural connections were added as part of the net shape process, eliminating

  12. The Effect of Pulse Shaping QPSK on Bandwidth Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purba, Josua Bisuk Mubyarto; Horan, Shelia

    1997-01-01

    This research investigates the effect of pulse shaping QPSK on bandwidth efficiency over a non-linear channel. This investigation will include software simulations and the hardware implementation. Three kinds of filters: the 5th order Butterworth filter, the 3rd order Bessel filter and the Square Root Raised Cosine filter with a roll off factor (alpha) of 0.25,0.5 and 1, have been investigated as pulse shaping filters. Two different high power amplifiers, one a Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier (TWTA) and the other a Solid State Power Amplifier (SSPA) have been investigated in the hardware implementation. A significant improvement in the bandwidth utilization (rho) for the filtered data compared to unfiltered data through the non-linear channel is shown in the results. This method promises strong performance gains in a bandlimited channel when compared to unfiltered systems. This work was conducted at NMSU in the Center for Space Telemetering, and Telecommunications Systems in the Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and is supported by a grant from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) NAG5-1491.

  13. Simulation of grain size effects in nanocrystalline shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajeev; Quek, Siu Sin; Wu, David T.

    2015-06-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that martensitic transformation in nanocrystalline shape memory alloys can be suppressed for small grain sizes. Motivated by these results, we study the grain size dependence of martensitic transformations and stress-strain response of nanocrystalline shape memory alloys within the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory. A GL model for a square to rectangle transformation in polycrystals is extended to account for grain boundary effects. We propose that an inhibition of the transformation in grain boundary regions can occur, if the grain boundary energy of the martensite is higher than that of the austenite phase. We show that this inhibition of transformation in grain boundary regions has a strong influence on domain patterns inside grains. Although the transformation is inhibited only at the grain boundaries, it leads to a suppression of the transformation even inside the grains as grain size is decreased. In fact, below a critical grain size, the transformation can be completely suppressed. We explain these results in terms of the extra strain gradient cost associated with grain boundaries, when the transformation is inhibited at grain boundaries. On the other hand, no significant size effects are observed when transformation is not inhibited at grain boundaries. We also study the grain size dependence of the stress strain curve. It is found that when the transformation is inhibited at grain boundaries, a significant reduction in the hysteresis associated with stress-strain curves during the loading-unloading cycles is observed. The hysteresis for this situation reduces even further as the grain size is reduced, which is consistent with recent experiments. The simulations also demonstrate that the mechanical behavior is influenced by inter-granular interactions and the local microstructural neighbourhood of a grain has a stronger influence than the orientation of the grain itself.

  14. Microscopic Shape Memory and Superelastic Effects in Shape Memory Alloys and Thin Films Studied by Indentation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Wangyang; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Grummon, David S.

    2003-03-01

    Although shape memory alloys were discovered more than 50 years ago, there is a growing interest in shape memory thin films and coatings for applications ranging from MEMs to tribology. While the macroscopic shape memory (SM) and superelastic (SE) behavior of NiTi alloys are well known, very few studies have been conducted to investigate the SM and SE effects at the micro- and nano-meter length scales. In this presentation, instrumented indentation experiments with spherical, Vickers, and Berkovich indenters were used to study the mechanical behavior of NiTi alloys and thin films at the micro- and nano- meter scales. The indentation load-displacement curves for the shape memory and superelastic NiTi were obtained under a range of indentation conditions. The SM effect was quantified by the depth recovery ratio of the indents measured by a surface profilometer and atomic force microscope; the SE effect was determined by the ratio of reversible work to total work. We show that SM and SE effects exist under both spherical and pyramidal indenters for a wide range of indentation loads and depths. However, the magnitude of these effects depends strongly on indenter geometry. These observations were rationalized using the concept of representative strain and maximum strain under the spherical and pyramidal indenters. These studies provide new insights into the mechanisms of SM and SE effects at multiple length scales.

  15. Temporal laser-pulse-shape effects in nonlinear Thomson scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharin, V. Yu.; Seipt, D.; Rykovanov, S. G.

    2016-06-01

    The influence of the laser-pulse temporal shape on the nonlinear Thomson scattering on-axis photon spectrum is analyzed in detail. Using the classical description, analytical expressions for the temporal and spectral structure of the scattered radiation are obtained for the case of symmetric laser-pulse shapes. The possibility of reconstructing the incident laser pulse from the scattered spectrum averaged over interference fringes in the case of high peak intensity and symmetric laser-pulse shape is discussed.

  16. The shape memory effect in crosslinked polymers: effects of polymer chemistry and network architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Jacob D.; Li, Yali; Goulbourne, N. C.

    2013-04-01

    The thermal shape memory effect in polymeric materials refers to the ability of a sample to retain a deformed shape when cooled below Tg, and then recover its initial shape when subsequently heated. Although these properties are thought to be related to temperature-dependent changes in network structure and polymer chain mobility, a consistent picture of the molecular mechanisms which determine shape memory behavior does not exist. This, along with large differences in the shape memory cycling response for different materials, has made model development and specific property optimization difficult. In this work we use coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the thermal shape memory effect to inform micro-macro relationships and systematically identify the salient features leading to desirable shape behavior. We consider a simulation test set including chains with increasing levels of the microscopic restrictions on chain motion (the freely-jointed, freely-rotating, and rotational isomeric state chain models), each simulated with both the NPT and NVT ensembles. It is found that the NPT ensemble with attractive interactions between monomers enabled is the most appropriate for simulating the temperature-dependent mechanical behavior of a polymer using coarse-grained MD. Of the different models, the freely-jointed chain system shows the most desirable shape memory characteristics; this behavior is attributed to the ability of the particles in this system to pack closely together in an energetically favorable configuration. A comparison with experimental data demonstrates that the coarse-grained simulations display all of the relevant trends in mechanical behavior during constant strain shape memory cycling. We conclude that atomistic detail is not needed to represent a shape memory polymer, and that multi-scale modeling techniques may build on the mechanisms embodied in the simple coarse-grained model.

  17. Effect of shaping sensor data on pilot response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Roger M.

    1990-01-01

    The pilot of a modern jet aircraft is subjected to varying workloads while being responsible for multiple, ongoing tasks. The ability to associate the pilot's responses with the task/situation, by modifying the way information is presented relative to the task, could provide a means of reducing workload. To examine the feasibility of this concept, a real time simulation study was undertaken to determine whether preprocessing of sensor data would affect pilot response. Results indicated that preprocessing could be an effective way to tailor the pilot's response to displayed data. The effects of three transformations or shaping functions were evaluated with respect to the pilot's ability to predict and detect out-of-tolerance conditions while monitoring an electronic engine display. Two nonlinear transformations, on being the inverse of the other, were compared to a linear transformation. Results indicate that a nonlinear transformation that increases the rate-or-change of output relative to input tends to advance the prediction response and improve the detection response, while a nonlinear transformation that decreases the rate-of-change of output relative to input tends to lengthen the prediction response and make detection more difficult.

  18. New decade of shaped beryllium blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiguchi, Don H.; Heberling, Jody; Campbell, Jeffrey; Morales, Amanda; Sayer, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    Near-net-shape powder consolidation technology has been developing over the past 30+ years. One relatively recent example is production of hexagonal shaped beryllium mirror blanks made for the James Webb Space Telescope. More cost saving examples, specifically from the past decade, utilizing growing experience and lesson's learned whether from a mirror substrate or structure will be discussed to show the latitude of production technology. Powder consolidation techniques include Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) for either round or shaped blanks and Vacuum Hot Pressing (VHP) consolidation for round blanks. The range of sizes will be presented to further illustrate the latitude of current production capability.

  19. How effective delays shape oscillatory dynamics in neuronal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roxin, Alex; Montbrió, Ernest

    2011-02-01

    Synaptic, dendritic and single-cell kinetics generate significant time delays that shape the dynamics of large networks of spiking neurons. Previous work has shown that such effective delays can be taken into account with a rate model through the addition of an explicit, fixed delay (Roxin et al. (2005,2006) [29,30]). Here we extend this work to account for arbitrary symmetric patterns of synaptic connectivity and generic nonlinear transfer functions. Specifically, we conduct a weakly nonlinear analysis of the dynamical states arising via primary instabilities of the asynchronous state. In this way we determine analytically how the nature and stability of these states depend on the choice of transfer function and connectivity. We arrive at two general observations of physiological relevance that could not be explained in previous work. These are: 1 - fast oscillations are always supercritical for realistic transfer functions and 2 - traveling waves are preferred over standing waves given plausible patterns of local connectivity. We finally demonstrate that these results show good agreement with those obtained performing numerical simulations of a network of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons.

  20. Effects of contact shape on the scaling of biological attachments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spolenak, Ralph; Gorb, Stanislav; Gao, Huajian; Arzt, Eduard

    2005-02-01

    Adhesion of biological systems has recently received much research attention: the survival of organisms ranging from single cells and mussels to insects, spiders and geckos relies crucially on their mechanical interaction with their environments. For spiders, lizards and possible other 'dry' adhesive systems, explanations for adhesion are based on van der Waals interaction, and the adhesion of single-contact elements has been described by the classical Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model derived for spherical contacts. However, real biological contacts display a variety of shapes and only rarely resemble a hemisphere. Here, we theoretically assess the influence of various contact shapes on the pull-off force for single contacts as well as their scaling potential in contact arrays. It is concluded that other shapes, such as a toroidal contact geometry, should lead to better attachment; such geometries are observed in our microscopic investigations of hair-tip shapes in beetles and flies.

  1. Effect of droplet shape on ring stains from dried liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, Melvin; Brown, Katherine; Mathur, Harsh

    A landmark experimental paper on coffee stains by Deegan et al included a simple theoretical analysis of circular droplets. The analysis was based on a model informally called the Maxwell House equations. It describes the evolving height profile of the droplet, the evaporation of the solvent and the outflow of solute to the rim of the droplet. Since typical droplets are not circles, here we extend the analysis to more general shapes. We find that for thin droplets the height profile may be determined by solving Poisson's equation in a domain corresponding to the footprint of the droplet. Evaporation is treated in a simple approximation via an electrostatic analogy and is dominated by the sharp edges of the droplet. Assuming zero vorticity allows us to analyze the solvent flow in droplets of arbitrary shape. We compare circular droplets to other shapes including long linear droplets, ring shaped droplets and droplets with an elliptical footprint

  2. Re-shaping graphene hydrogels for effectively enhancing actuation responses.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jiangli; Hu, Chuangang; Lv, Lingxiao; Dai, Liming; Qu, Liangti

    2015-08-01

    The development of actuation-enabled materials is important for smart devices and systems. Among them, graphene with outstanding electric, thermal, and mechanical properties holds great promise as a new type of stimuli-responsive material. In this study, we developed a re-shaping strategy to construct structure-controlled graphene hydrogels for highly enhanced actuation responses. Actuators based on the re-shaped graphene hydrogel showed a much higher actuation response than that of the common graphene counterparts. On the other hand, once composited with a conducting polymer (e.g., polypyrrole), the re-shaped hybrid actuator exhibits excellent actuation behavior in response to electrochemical potential variation. Even under stimulation at a voltage as low as 0.8 V, actuators based on the re-shaped graphene-polypyrrole composite hydrogel exhibit a maximum strain response of up to 13.5%, which is the highest value reported to date for graphene-based materials. PMID:26130158

  3. Effects of Forsterite Grain Shape on Infrared Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, C.; Imai, Y.; Chihara, H.; Suto, H.; Murata, K.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Tachibana, S.; Ohara, S.

    2010-02-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) detected several sharp infrared features around young stars, comets, and evolved stars. These sharp features were identified as Mg-rich crystalline silicates of forsterite and enstatite by comparison with spectra from laboratory data. However, certain infrared emission bands in the observed spectra cannot be identified because they appear at slightly shorter wavelengths than the peaks in forsterite laboratory spectra, where the shapes of forsterite particles are irregular. To solve this problem, we measured infrared spectra of forsterite grains of various shapes (irregular, plate-like with no sharp edges, elliptical, cauliflower, and spherical) in the infrared spectral region between 5 and 100 μm. The spectra depend on particle shape. The spectra of the 11, 19, 23, and 33 μm bands, in particular, are extremely sensitive to particle shape, whereas some peaks such as the 11.9, 49, and 69 μm bands remained almost unchanged despite different particle shapes. This becomes most evident from the spectra of near-spherical particles produced by annealing an originally amorphous silicate sample at temperature from 600 to 1150°C. The spectra of these samples differ strongly from those of other ones, showing peaks at much shorter wavelengths. At a higher annealing temperature of 1200°C, the particle shapes changed drastically from spherical to irregular and the spectra became similar to those of forsterite particles with irregular shapes. Based on ISO data and other observational data, the spectra of outflow sources and disk sources may correspond to differences in forsterite shape, and further some unidentified peaks, such as those at 32.8 or 32.5 μm, may be due to spherical or spherical-like forsterite.

  4. EFFECTS OF FORSTERITE GRAIN SHAPE ON INFRARED SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, C.; Imai, Y.; Chihara, H.; Murata, K.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Suto, H.; Tachibana, S.; Ohara, S.

    2010-02-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) detected several sharp infrared features around young stars, comets, and evolved stars. These sharp features were identified as Mg-rich crystalline silicates of forsterite and enstatite by comparison with spectra from laboratory data. However, certain infrared emission bands in the observed spectra cannot be identified because they appear at slightly shorter wavelengths than the peaks in forsterite laboratory spectra, where the shapes of forsterite particles are irregular. To solve this problem, we measured infrared spectra of forsterite grains of various shapes (irregular, plate-like with no sharp edges, elliptical, cauliflower, and spherical) in the infrared spectral region between 5 and 100 mum. The spectra depend on particle shape. The spectra of the 11, 19, 23, and 33 mum bands, in particular, are extremely sensitive to particle shape, whereas some peaks such as the 11.9, 49, and 69 mum bands remained almost unchanged despite different particle shapes. This becomes most evident from the spectra of near-spherical particles produced by annealing an originally amorphous silicate sample at temperature from 600 to 1150 deg. C. The spectra of these samples differ strongly from those of other ones, showing peaks at much shorter wavelengths. At a higher annealing temperature of 1200 deg. C, the particle shapes changed drastically from spherical to irregular and the spectra became similar to those of forsterite particles with irregular shapes. Based on ISO data and other observational data, the spectra of outflow sources and disk sources may correspond to differences in forsterite shape, and further some unidentified peaks, such as those at 32.8 or 32.5 mum, may be due to spherical or spherical-like forsterite.

  5. Effect of enclosure shape on natural convection velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, S. J.; Nicholson, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    A numerical analysis was performed to compare natural convection velocities in two dimensional enclosures of various shape. The following shapes were investigated: circle, square, horizontal and upright 2 x 1 aspect ratio rectangles, horizontal and upright half circles, diamond. In all cases, the length scale in the various dimensionless parameters, such as Rayleigh number, is defined as the diameter of the equal area circle. Natural convection velocities were calculated for Rayleigh numbers of 1000 and 5000 with the temperature difference taken to be across (1) the maximum horizontal dimension, (2) the median horizontal line (line through centroid) and (3) the horizontal distance such that the temperature gradient is the same for shapes of equal area. For the class of shapes including the square, upright half circle and upright rectangle, the computed velocities were found to agree very closely with that of the equal area circle when the temperature difference is taken to be across the maximum horizontal dimension (condition (a)). The velocities for the horizontal rectangle and half circle were found to be approximately one half that of the equal area circle for the same condition. Better overall agreement among all shapes was obtained by setting the temperature difference across a distance such that the temperature gradients were equal for shapes of equal area.

  6. Relationship among grain size, annealing twins and shape memory effect in Fe–Mn–Si based shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaixia; Peng, Huabei; Zhang, Chengyan; Wang, Shanling; Wen, Yuhua

    2016-07-01

    In order to clarify the relationship among grain size, annealing twins and the shape memory effect in Fe–Mn–Si based shape memory alloys, the Fe–21.63Mn–5.60Si–9.32Cr–5.38Ni (weight %) alloy with a grain size ranging from 48.9 μm–253.6 μm was obtained by adjusting the heating temperature or heating time after 20% cold-rolling. The densities of grain boundaries and annealing twins increase with a decrease in grain size, whereas the volume fraction and width of stress-induced ε martensite after 9% deformation at Ms + 10 K decrease. This result indicates that grain refinement raises the constraint effects of grain boundaries and annealing twins upon martensitic transformation. In this case, the ability to suppress the plastic deformation and facilitate the stress-induced ε martensite transformation deteriorates after grain refinement owing to the enhancement of the constraint effects. It is demonstrated by the result that the difference at Ms + 10 K between the critical stress for plastic yielding and that for inducing martensitic transformation is smaller for the specimen with a grain size of 48.9 μm than for the specimen with a grain size of 253.6 μm. Therefore, the shape memory effect declined by decreasing the grain size.

  7. The effect of source's shape for seismic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, S.; Mikada, H.; Goto, T.; Takekawa, J.; Onishi, K.; Kasahara, J.; Kuroda, T.

    2009-12-01

    In conventional simulation of seismic wave propagation, the source which generates signals is usually given by a point force or by a particle velocity at a point. In practice, seismic wave is generated by signal generators with finite volume and width. Since seismic lines span a distance up to hundreds meter to several kilometers, many people conducted seismic survey and data processing with the assumption that the size of signal generator is negligible compared with survey scale. However, there are no studies that tells how the size of baseplate influences generated seismic waves. Such estimations, therefore, are meaningful to consider the scale of generator. In this sense, current seismic processing might require a theoretical background about the seismic source for further detailed analysis. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of seismic source’s shape to resultant wave properties, and then estimate how effective the consideration about the scale of signal generator is for analyzing the seismic data. To evaluate source’s scale effect, we performed finite element analysis with the 3D model including the baseplate of source and the heterogeneous ground medium. We adopted a finite element method (FEM) and chose the code named “MD Nastran” (MSC Software Ver.2008) to calculate seismic wave propagation. To verify the reliability of calculation, we compared the result of FEM and that of finite-difference method (FDM) with wave propagating simulation of isotropic and homogeneous model with a point source. The amplitude and phase of those two were nearly equal each other. We considered the calculation of FEM is accurate enough and can be performed in the following calculations. As the first step, we developed a simple point source model and a baseplate model. The point source model contains only the ground represented by an elastic medium. The force generating the signal is given at the nodal point of the surface in this case. On the other

  8. Dome-shaped PDC cutters drill harder rock effectively

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, D.P. )

    1992-12-14

    This paper reports that rock mechanics and sonic travel time log data indicate that bits with convex-shaped polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutters can drill harder rock formations than comparable bits with flat PDC cutters. The Dome-shaped cutters have drilled carbonate formations with sonic travel times as small as 50 [mu]sec/ft, compared to the standard cutoff of 75 [mu]sec/ft for flat PCD cutters. Recent field data from slim hole wells drilled in the Permian basin have shown successful applications of the 3/8-in. Dome cutter in the Grayburg dolomite with its sonic travel times as low as 50-55 [mu]sec/ft and compressive strengths significantly greater than the standard operating range for PDC bit applications. These field data indicate that the Dome cutters can successfully drill hard rock. The convex cutter shape as good impact resistance, cuttings removal, heat dissipation, and wear resistance.

  9. Word Superiority and Word Shape Effects in Beginning Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feitelson, Dina; Razel, Micha

    1984-01-01

    Examines the notion that words are sometimes perceived with greater ease than letters and that word shape sometimes plays a role in the perception of words. The data collected from 40 Israeli kindergarteners revealed that beginning readers found it easier to identify single letters than whole words, thus refuting the above notion. (Author/AS)

  10. Effects of nacelle shape on drag and weight of a supersonic cruising aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, E.; Mairs, R. Y.; Tyson, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The quantitive relationship of cruise drag and nacelle shape was investigated for a representative advanced supersonic transport configuration. Nacelle shape parameters were systematically varied, and the effects of these variations on wave and friction drag were determined. The effects of changes in vehicle drag, propulsion weight, and specific fuel consumption on vehicle takeoff gross weight were computed. Generally, it was found that nacelle shapes such that the maximum cross-sectional area occurred at or near the nozzle exit resulted in the lowest wave drag. In fact, nacelle shapes were found that produce favorable interference effects (drag reduction) of such magnitude as to nearly offset the friction drag of the nacelle.

  11. Analysis of intelligent hinged shell structures: deployable deformation and shape memory effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guang-Hui; Yang, Qing-Sheng; He, X. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a class of intelligent materials with the ability to recover their initial shape from a temporarily fixable state when subjected to external stimuli. In this work, the thermo-mechanical behavior of a deployable SMP-based hinged structure is modeled by the finite element method using a 3D constitutive model with shape memory effect. The influences of hinge structure parameters on the nonlinear loading process are investigated. The total shape memory of the processes the hinged structure goes through, including loading at high temperature, decreasing temperature with load carrying, unloading at low temperature and recovering the initial shape with increasing temperature, are illustrated. Numerical results show that the present constitutive theory and the finite element method can effectively predict the complicated thermo-mechanical deformation behavior and shape memory effect of SMP-based hinged shell structures.

  12. Ion shape effect on dynamics of ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongjun; Maginn, Edward

    2012-02-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are a group of salts composing of an organic cation and organic or inorganic anion with melting points below 100 ^oC and have many suitable properties, such as negligible vapor pressure, low flammability, high ionic conductivity and high thermal stability for various applications. Moreover, a great number of ILs with a variety of physical and chemical properties can be synthesized from a combination of different cations (most differently substituted imidazolium, pyridinium, and quaternary ammonium or phosphonium ions) and anions. One can judiciously select from a multitude of ILs to suit a specific application, where the concept of designer solvent comes from. To expedite the development process of target ILs, it is crucial to understand the relationship between ion shape and dynamics of ILs. We studied a wide range of ILs with different ion shape pairings and found the planar-planar paired ILs have a better dynamics as a whole.

  13. Unambiguous observation of shape effects on cellular fate of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Zhang, Silu; Zhang, Bokai; Zhang, Chunyuan; Fang, Chia-Yi; Rehor, Ivan; Cigler, Petr; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Liu, Renbao; Li, Quan

    2014-03-01

    Cellular fate of nanoparticles is vital to application of nanoparticles to cell imaging, bio-sensing, drug delivery, suppression of drug resistance, gene delivery, and cytotoxicity analysis. However, the current studies on cellular fate of nanoparticles have been controversial due to complications of interplay between many possible factors. By well-controlled experiments, we demonstrated unambiguously that the morphology of nanoparticles independently determined their cellular fate. We found that nanoparticles with sharp shapes, regardless of their surface chemistry, size, or composition, could pierce the membranes of endosomes that carried them into the cells and escape to the cytoplasm, which in turn significantly reduced the cellular excretion rate of the nanoparticles. Such features of sharp-shaped nanoparticles are essential for drug delivery, gene delivery, subcellular targeting, and long-term tracking. This work opens up a controllable, purely geometrical and hence safe, degree of freedom for manipulating nanoparticle-cell interaction, with numerous applications in medicine, bio-imaging, and bio-sensing.

  14. Effect of illite particle shape on cesium sorption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rajec, P.; Sucha, V.; Eberl, D.D.; Srodon, J.; Elsass, F.

    1999-01-01

    Samples containing illite and illite-smectite, having different crystal shapes (plates, "barrels", and filaments), were selected for sorption experiments with cesium. There is a positive correlation between total surface area and Cs-sorption capacity, but no correlation between total surface area and the distribution coefficient, Kd. Generally Kd increases with the edge surface area, although "hairy" (filamentous) illite does not fit this pattern, possibly because elongation of crystals along one axis reduces the number of specific sorption sites.

  15. Shape and area fluctuation effects on nucleation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestipino, Santi; Laio, Alessandro; Tosatti, Erio

    2014-03-01

    In standard nucleation theory, the nucleation process is characterized by computing ΔΩ(V), the reversible work required to form a cluster of volume V of the stable phase inside the metastable mother phase. However, other quantities besides the volume could play a role in the free energy of cluster formation, and this will in turn affect the nucleation barrier and the shape of the nucleus. Here we exploit our recently introduced mesoscopic theory of nucleation to compute the free energy cost of a nearly spherical cluster of volume V and a fluctuating surface area A, whereby the maximum of ΔΩ(V) is replaced by a saddle point in ΔΩ(V, A). Compared to the simpler theory based on volume only, the barrier height of ΔΩ(V, A) at the transition state is systematically larger by a few kBT. More importantly, we show that, depending on the physical situation, the most probable shape of the nucleus may be highly non-spherical, even when the surface tension and stiffness of the model are isotropic. Interestingly, these shape fluctuations do not influence or modify the standard Classical Nucleation Theory manner of extracting the interface tension from the logarithm of the nucleation rate near coexistence.

  16. The effects of aging on haptic 2D shape recognition.

    PubMed

    Overvliet, Krista E; Wagemans, J; Krampe, Ralf T

    2013-12-01

    We use the image-mediation model (Klatzky & Lederman, 1987) as a framework to investigate potential sources of adult age differences in the haptic recognition of two-dimensional (2D) shapes. This model states that the low-resolution, temporally sequential, haptic input is translated into a visual image, which is then reperceived through the visual processors, before it is matched against a long-term memory representation and named. In three experiments we tested groups of 12 older (mean age 73.11) and three groups of 12 young adults (mean age 22.80) each. In Experiment 1 we confirm age-related differences in haptic 2D shape recognition, and we show the typical age × complexity interaction. In Experiment 2 we show that if we facilitate the visual translation process, age differences become smaller, but only with simple shapes and not with the more complex everyday objects. In Experiment 3 we target the last step in the model (matching and naming) for complex stimuli. We found that age differences in exploration time were considerably reduced when this component process was facilitated by providing a category name. We conclude that the image-mediation model can explain adult-age differences in haptic recognition, particularly if the role of working memory in forming the transient visual image is considered. Our findings suggest that sensorimotor skills thought to rely on peripheral processes for the most part are critically constrained by age-related changes in central processing capacity in later adulthood. PMID:23978010

  17. Effect of Pre-straining on the Shape Recovery of Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Bikas C.; Krishnan, Madangopal; Verma, Amit; Basu, R.; Samajdar, I.; Ray, Ranjit K.

    2015-02-01

    The effect of pre-straining on the shape recovery behavior of Fe-14Mn-6Si-9Cr-5Ni (wt pct) shape memory alloy (SMA) has been studied. The shape recovery associated with the reverse ɛ martensitic transformation, i.e., ɛ → γ, was characterized by dilatometry using specimens which were pre-strained to different extent (0 to 14 pct). Dilatometric studies revealed that in Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni SMA, the shape recovery takes place in two stages: (i) in the first stage, the unpinned fraction of stress-induced ɛ martensite reverts back to parent phase γ in the temperature regime of 353 K to 653 K (80 °C to 380 °C) and (ii) in the second stage the remaining "pinned" ɛ martensite is unpinned by the decomposition of deformation-induced α' martensite in the temperature range of 743 K to 893 K (470 °C to 620 °C). The amount of recovery in the first stage decreases with pre-strain, whereas it increases in the second stage. The ɛ → γ transformation finish temperature, A f, increases with increase in pre-strain amount, though the reverse transformation start temperature, A S, remains unaffected. Microstructural characterization revealed that the amount of deformation-induced α' martensite depends on the mode of straining and the crystallographic texture of the starting material. The reversion of α' martensite is seen to occur by the precipitation of Fe5Ni3Si2-type intermetallic π-phase within these plates.

  18. Effect of quench on alpha/beta pulse shape discrimination of liquid scintillation cocktails.

    PubMed

    DeVol, Timothy A; Theisen, Christopher D; DiPrete, David P

    2007-05-01

    The objectives of this paper are (1) to illustrate that knowledge of the external quench parameter is insufficient to properly setup a pulse shape discriminating liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for quantitative measurement, (2) to illustrate dependence on pulse shape discrimination on the radionuclide (more than just radiation and energy), and (3) to compare the pulse shape discrimination (PSD) of two commercial instruments. The effects various quenching agents, liquid scintillation cocktails, radionuclides, and LSCs have on alpha/beta pulse shape discriminating liquid scintillation counting were quantified. Alpha emitting radionuclides (239)Pu and (241)Am and beta emitter (90)Sr/(90)Y were investigated to quantify the nuclide dependence on alpha/beta pulse shape discrimination. Also, chemical and color quenching agents, nitromethane, nitric acid, and yellow dye impact on alpha/beta pulse shape discrimination using PerkinElmer Optiphase "HiSafe" 2 and 3, and Ultima Gold AB liquid scintillation cocktails were determined. The prepared samples were counted on the PerkinElmer Wallac WinSpectral 1414 alpha/beta pulse shape discriminating LSC. It was found that for the same level of quench, as measured by the external quench parameter, different quench agents influenced the pulse shape discrimination and the pulse shape discrimination parameters differently. The radionuclide also affects alpha/beta pulse shape discrimination. By comparison with the PerkinElmer Tri-carb 3150 TR/AB, the Wallac 1414 exhibited better pulse shape discrimination capability under the same experimental conditions. PMID:17440321

  19. Carrier-wave shape effects in optical filamentation.

    PubMed

    Brown, J M; Shanor, C; Wright, E M; Kolesik, M

    2016-03-01

    Strong-field ionization in optical filaments created by ultrashort pulses with sub-cycle engineered waveforms is studied theoretically. To elucidate the physics of the recently demonstrated enhanced ionization yield and spatial control of the optical filament core in two color pulses, we employ two types of quantum models integrated into spatially resolved pulse-propagation simulations. We show that the dependence of the ionization on the shape of the excitation carrier is adiabatic in nature, and is driven by local temporal peaks of the electric field. Implications for the modeling of light-matter interactions in multicolor optical fields are also discussed. PMID:26974064

  20. Size effects on pull-out of bone shaped fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Tippetts, T. B.; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Zhu, Y. T.

    2001-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that ductile bone shaped short (BSS) fibers, i.e. fibers with enlarged ends, can significantly increase toughness of brittle materials over that of conventional short fibers (CSS) [1]. In this work, we apply a recently developed micromechanical model for the pull-out force vs. displacement response of a ductile BSS fiber as it pulls completely out of a brittle matrix material. The pull-out process of BSS fibers absorbs more energy than that of CSS fibers, largely due to nonlinear deformation of the fiber end and surrounding matrix.

  1. Prediction of ice shapes and their effect on airfoil performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jaiwon; Berkowitz, Brian; Chen, Hsun; Cebeci, Tuncer

    1991-01-01

    Calculations of ice shapes and the resulting drag increases are presented for experimental data on a NACA 0012 airfoil. They were made with a combination of LEWICE and interactive boundary-layer codes for a wide range of conditions which include air speed and temperature, the droplet size and liquid water content of the cloud, and the angle of attack of the airfoil. In all cases, the calculated results account for the drag increase due to ice accretion and, in general, show good agreement.

  2. [Effects of canopy shapes of grape on canopy microenvironment, leaf and fruit quality in greenhouse].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiang-bin; Liu, Feng-zhi; Cheng, Cun-gang; Wang, Xiao-di; Wang, Bao-liang; Zheng, Xiao-cui; Wang, Hai-bo

    2015-12-01

    The effects of three canopy shapes, i.e., vertical canopy, V-shaped canopy and horizontal canopy, on canopy microenvironment, quality of leaves and fruits were studied in the 3-year-old grape 'Jingmi' grafted on ' Beta' in greenhouse. The results showed that gap fraction and openness of vertical canopy were significantly higher than that of V-shaped canopy and horizontal canopy, and leaf area index, light interception rate and canopy temperature difference between day and night were significantly lower than those of V-shaped canopy and horizontal canopy. There was no significant difference between the latter two treatments. The palisade thickness of V-shaped canopy was significantly greater than that of vertical canopy, and horizontal canopy was in the middle. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of V-shaped canopy were significantly higher than those of vertical canopy and horizontal canopy, and those in the latter two treatments had no significant difference. The fruit quality of V-shaped canopy was the best, and that of horizontal canopy was the worst. The results of GC-MS analysis showed that 29 types of volatile aroma compounds were detected in V-shaped canopy, but just 17 and 16 in vertical canopy and horizontal canopy, respectively. In V-shaped canopy, the characteristic aroma in grape 'Jingmi' was higher, except ethanol, trans-2- hexene-1-alcohol, 2-octyl ketone and formic acid ester. The linalool content in vertical canopy and V-shaped canopy was higher than that in horizontal canopy. The nerol content in V-shaped canopy was higher than that in vertical canopy and horizontal canopy, and the leaf alcohol content in V-shaped canopy and horizontal canopy was higher than that in vertical canopy. The citronellol was de-tected only in V-shaped canopy. In greenhouse, the fruit aroma of V-shaped canopy grape was stronger, and well reflected the variety characteristics. PMID:27112012

  3. Development of Superelastic Effect in Ferrous Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Scott

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) with high levels of superelasticity are used where there is a need for the application of large levels of force, or high damping. Current commercially available SMAs require expensive fabrication and lack sufficient ductility for many applications. There is a need for a superelastic material with better properties and easier processing. Y. Tanaka et al. have developed a novel iron based shape memory alloy, NCATB. This alloy still requires complex thermomechanical processing, and does not utilize lessons learned in optimizing Nitinol. To develop the properties of this alloy, it was synthesized in lab from its constituent elements, and thermomechanically processed. Samples were prepared for analysis using conventional metallographic techniques, and investigated with light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mechanical testing. The recrystallization following cold rolling, as well as aging heat treatments, were determined to be critical to increasing the hardness of the NCATB. Overall, smaller grains and longer aging times increased the hardness. The as-cast microstructure exhibits significant tantalum segregation along the dendrite boundaries. Incomplete homogenization of the as-cast microstructure leads to a propensity for a Tarich phase to form along subsequent recrystallized grain boundaries. This phase lead to alloy embrittlement, preventing the NCATB as processed from having the desired superelasticity. An additional high temperature thermomechanical treatment following casting solutionized the tantalum from the dendrite boundaries, and further improved the NCATB hardenability.

  4. Effect of silver on the shape of palladium nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Dikshita; Barman, P. B.; Hazra, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    We report a facile route to prepare palladium-silver nanoparticles at considerably low temperature. First the controlled synthesis of palladium nanoparticles was performed via reduction of sodium tetrachloropalladate (II) in ethylene glycol in the presence of PVP(polyvinylpyrrolidone) as capping agent. The reaction was carried out at three different temperatures-80°C, 100°C and 120°C for one hour. Short reaction time and low synthesis temperature adds advantage to this method over others. Formed palladium nanoparticles were nearly spherical with the average particle size of 7.5±0.5 nm, 9.5±0.5 nm and 10.5±0.5 nm at 80°C, 100°C and 120°C respectively. Secondly, the palladium-silver nanoparticles were prepared by the simultaneous reduction of palladium and silver from their respective precursors in ethylene glycol at 100°C (optimized temperature). The shape and size distribution was studied by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy). The role of silver in transforming the shape of palladium nanoparticles from spherical to triangular has been discussed. Spherical symmetry of palladium nanoparticles is disturbed by the interaction of silver ions on the crystal facets of palladium nanoparticles. From UV-vis spectra, the absorption maxima of palladium nanoparticles at 205 nm and absorption maxima of palladium-silver nanoparticles at 272 nm revealed the partial evidence of their formation.

  5. Leidenfrost effect: accurate drop shape modeling and new scaling laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobac, Benjamin; Rednikov, Alexey; Dorbolo, Stéphane; Colinet, Pierre

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we theoretically investigate the shape of a drop in a Leidenfrost state, focusing on the geometry of the vapor layer. The drop geometry is modeled by numerically matching the solution of the hydrostatic shape of a superhydrophobic drop (for the upper part) with the solution of the lubrication equation of the vapor flow underlying the drop (for the bottom part). The results highlight that the vapor layer, fed by evaporation, forms a concave depression in the drop interface that becomes increasingly marked with the drop size. The vapor layer then consists of a gas pocket in the center and a thin annular neck surrounding it. The film thickness increases with the size of the drop, and the thickness at the neck appears to be of the order of 10--100 μm in the case of water. The model is compared to recent experimental results [Burton et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 074301 (2012)] and shows an excellent agreement, without any fitting parameter. New scaling laws also emerge from this model. The geometry of the vapor pocket is only weakly dependent on the superheat (and thus on the evaporation rate), this weak dependence being more pronounced in the neck region. In turn, the vapor layer characteristics strongly depend on the drop size.

  6. Cruising the rain forest floor: butterfly wing shape evolution and gliding in ground effect.

    PubMed

    Cespedes, Ann; Penz, Carla M; DeVries, Philip J

    2015-05-01

    Flight is a key innovation in the evolutionary success of insects and essential to dispersal, territoriality, courtship and oviposition. Wing shape influences flight performance and selection likely acts to maximize performance for conducting essential behaviours that in turn results in the evolution of wing shape. As wing shape also contributes to fitness, optimal shapes for particular flight behaviours can be assessed with aerodynamic predictions and placed in an ecomorphological context. Butterflies in the tribe Haeterini (Nymphalidae) are conspicuous members of understorey faunas in lowland Neotropical forests. Field observations indicate that the five genera in this clade differ in flight height and behaviour: four use gliding flight at the forest floor level, and one utilizes flapping flight above the forest floor. Nonetheless, the association of ground level gliding flight behaviour and wing shape has never been investigated in this or any other butterfly group. We used landmark-based geometric morphometrics to test whether wing shapes in Haeterini and their close relatives reflected observed flight behaviours. Four genera of Haeterini and some distantly related Satyrinae showed significant correspondence between wing shape and theoretical expectations in performance trade-offs that we attribute to selection for gliding in ground effect. Forewing shape differed between sexes for all taxa, and male wing shapes were aerodynamically more efficient for gliding flight than corresponding females. This suggests selection acts differentially on male and female wing shapes, reinforcing the idea that sex-specific flight behaviours contribute to the evolution of sexual dimorphism. Our study indicates that wing shapes in Haeterini butterflies evolved in response to habitat-specific flight behaviours, namely gliding in ground effect along the forest floor, resulting in ecomorphological partitions of taxa in morphospace. The convergent flight behaviour and wing morphology

  7. Shape memory effect and superelasticity of titanium nickelide alloys implanted with high ion doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrebnjak, A. D.; Bratushka, S. N.; Beresnev, V. M.; Levintant-Zayonts, N.

    2013-12-01

    The state of the art in ion implantation of superelastic NiTi shape memory alloys is analyzed. Various technological applications of the shape memory effect are outlined. The principles and techiques of ion implantation are described. Specific features of its application for modification of surface layers in surface engineering are considered. Key properties of shape memory alloys and problems in utilization of ion implantation to improve the surface properties of shape memory alloys, such as corrosion resistance, friction coefficient, wear resistance, etc. are discussed. The bibliography includes 162 references.

  8. Shape-memory effect in amorphous potato starch: The influence of local orders and paracrystallinity.

    PubMed

    Chevigny, Chloé; Foucat, Loïc; Rolland-Sabaté, Agnès; Buléon, Alain; Lourdin, Denis

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a detailed characterization of the mechanisms at the origin of the shape-memory effect in amorphous potato starch is presented. Using different treatments (annealing) and preparation methods (hot casting and extrusion), the local structures responsible for the shape-memory were disrupted, as evidenced in the first part of the article detailing the macroscopic properties: mechanical, calorimetric and shape-memory. In the second part the macromolecular scale is investigated using X-rays diffraction and CP-MAS NMR, and thus allows making the link between the structural differences and the macroscopic properties. Finally we discuss the origin of shape-memory in amorphous starch. PMID:27112891

  9. Fast Response, Open-Celled Porous, Shape Memory Effect Actuators with Integrated Attachments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jardine, Andrew Peter (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    This invention relates to the exploitation of porous foam articles exhibiting the Shape Memory Effect as actuators. Each foam article is composed of a plurality of geometric shapes, such that some geometric shapes can fit snugly into or around rigid mating connectors that attach the Shape Memory foam article intimately into the load path between a static structure and a moveable structure. The foam is open-celled, composed of a plurality of interconnected struts whose mean diameter can vary from approximately 50 to 500 microns. Gases and fluids flowing through the foam transfer heat rapidly with the struts, providing rapid Shape Memory Effect transformations. Embodiments of porous foam articles as torsional actuators and approximately planar structures are disposed. Simple, integral connection systems exploiting the ability to supply large loads to a structure, and that can also supply hot and cold gases and fluids to effect rapid actuation are also disposed.

  10. Investigation of the effects of inlet shapes on fan noise radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, T. L.; Slotboom, D. R.; Vaidya, P. G.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of inlet shape on forward radiated fan tone noise directivities was investigated under experimentally simplified zero flow conditions. Simulated fan tone noise was radiated to the far field through various shaped zero flow inlets. Baseline data were collected for the simplest baffled and unbaffled straight pipe inlets. These data compared well with prediction. The more general inlet shapes tested were the conical, circular, and exponential surfaces of revolution and an asymmetric inlet achieved by cutting a straight pipe inlet at an acute angle. Approximate theories were developed for these general shapes and some comparisons with data are presented. The conical and exponential shapes produced directivities that differed considerably from the baseline data while the circular shape produced directivities similar to the baseline data. The asymmetric inlet produced asymmetric directivities with significant reductions over the straight pipe data for some angles.

  11. Investigation of the effects of inlet shapes on fan noise radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, T. L.; Slotboom, D. R.; Vaidya, P. G.

    1981-04-01

    The effect of inlet shape on forward radiated fan tone noise directivities was investigated under experimentally simplified zero flow conditions. Simulated fan tone noise was radiated to the far field through various shaped zero flow inlets. Baseline data were collected for the simplest baffled and unbaffled straight pipe inlets. These data compared well with prediction. The more general inlet shapes tested were the conical, circular, and exponential surfaces of revolution and an asymmetric inlet achieved by cutting a straight pipe inlet at an acute angle. Approximate theories were developed for these general shapes and some comparisons with data are presented. The conical and exponential shapes produced directivities that differed considerably from the baseline data while the circular shape produced directivities similar to the baseline data. The asymmetric inlet produced asymmetric directivities with significant reductions over the straight pipe data for some angles.

  12. Dynamic shape effect in {sup 126}Ba at low spin

    SciTech Connect

    Dewald, A.; Weil, D.; Kruecken, R.; Kuehn, R.; Peusquens, R.; Tiesler, H.; Vogel, O.; Zell, K.O.; von Brentano, P.; Bazzacco, D.; Rossi-Alvarez, C.; Pavan, P.; DeAcuna, D.; De Angelis, G.; De Poli, M. ||

    1996-11-01

    Lifetimes of excited states in {sup 126}Ba have been measured with high precision by means of the GASP spectrometer using the coincidence recoil distance technique. The reaction {sup 100}Mo({sup 30}Si,4{ital n}) {sup 126}Ba at a beam energy of 130 MeV was used. The data were analyzed with the differential decay-curve method (DDCM). The obtained transition quadrupole moments disagree with the predictions of the asymmetric rotor model (ARM), the interacting boson model (IBM), and the general collective model (GCM). They give evidence for a sudden dynamic shape change in {sup 126}Ba between the 4{sup +} and 10{sup +} levels of the ground-state band. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. Shape and Effective Spring Constant of Liquid Interfaces Probed at the Nanometer Scale: Finite Size Effects.

    PubMed

    Dupré de Baubigny, Julien; Benzaquen, Michael; Fabié, Laure; Delmas, Mathieu; Aimé, Jean-Pierre; Legros, Marc; Ondarçuhu, Thierry

    2015-09-15

    We investigate the shape and mechanical properties of liquid interfaces down to nanometer scale by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with in situ micromanipulation techniques. In both cases, the interface is probed with a cylindrical nanofiber with radius R of the order of 25-100 nm. The effective spring constant of the nanomeniscus oscillated around its equilibrium position is determined by static and frequency-modulation (FM) AFM modes. In the case of an unbounded meniscus, we find that the effective spring constant k is proportional to the surface tension γ of the liquid through k = (0.51 ± 0.06)γ, regardless of the excitation frequency from quasi-static up to 450 kHz. A model based on the equilibrium shape of the meniscus reproduces well the experimental data. Electron microscopy allowed to visualize the meniscus profile around the fiber with a lateral resolution of the order of 10 nm and confirmed its catenary shape. The influence of a lateral confinement of the interface is also investigated. We showed that the lateral extension L of the meniscus influences the effective spring constant following a logarithmic evolution k ∼ 2πγ/ln(L/R) deduced from the model. This comprehensive study of liquid interface properties over more than 4 orders of magnitude in meniscus size shows that advanced FM-AFM and SEM techniques are promising tools for the investigation of mechanical properties of liquids down to nanometer scale. PMID:26295187

  14. Light-, pH- and thermal-responsive hydrogels with the triple-shape memory effect.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yao-Yu; Gong, Xiao-Lei; Kang, Yang; Jiang, Zhi-Chao; Zhang, Sheng; Li, Bang-Jing

    2016-08-23

    Light-, pH- and thermal-responsive hydrogels were prepared by introducing dansyl-aggregations and azo-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes as switches. The resulting material showed dual shape memory behavior in response to light, pH or temperature, respectively, and exhibits the triple-shape memory effect in response to light and pH sequentially. PMID:27366796

  15. Effects of Caricaturing in Shape or Color on Familiarity Decisions for Familiar and Unfamiliar Faces

    PubMed Central

    Itz, Marlena L.; Schweinberger, Stefan R.; Kaufmann, Jürgen M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that while reflectance information (including color) may be more diagnostic for familiar face recognition, shape may be more diagnostic for unfamiliar face identity processing. Moreover, event-related potential (ERP) findings suggest an earlier onset for neural processing of facial shape compared to reflectance. In the current study, we aimed to explore specifically the roles of facial shape and color in a familiarity decision task using pre-experimentally familiar (famous) and unfamiliar faces that were caricatured either in shape-only, color-only, or both (full; shape + color) by 15%, 30%, or 45%. We recorded accuracies, mean reaction times, and face-sensitive ERPs. Performance data revealed that shape caricaturing facilitated identity processing for unfamiliar faces only. In the ERP data, such effects of shape caricaturing emerged earlier than those of color caricaturing. Unsurprisingly, ERP effects were accentuated for larger levels of caricaturing. Overall, our findings corroborate the importance of shape for identity processing of unfamiliar faces and demonstrate an earlier onset of neural processing for facial shape compared to color. PMID:26900690

  16. Effects of Microstimulation in the Anterior Intraparietal Area during Three-Dimensional Shape Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Vogels, Rufin; Janssen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The anterior intraparietal area (AIP) of rhesus monkeys is part of the dorsal visual stream and contains neurons whose visual response properties are commensurate with a role in three-dimensional (3D) shape perception. Neuronal responses in AIP signal the depth structure of disparity-defined 3D shapes, reflect the choices of monkeys while they categorize 3D shapes, and mirror the behavioral variability across different stimulus conditions during 3D-shape categorization. However, direct evidence for a role of AIP in 3D-shape perception has been lacking. We trained rhesus monkeys to categorize disparity-defined 3D shapes and examined AIP's contribution to 3D-shape categorization by microstimulating in clusters of 3D-shape selective AIP neurons during task performance. We find that microstimulation effects on choices (monkey M1) and reaction times (monkey M1 and M2) depend on the 3D-shape preference of the stimulated site. Moreover, electrical stimulation of the same cells, during either the 3D-shape-categorization task or a saccade task, could affect behavior differently. Interestingly, in one monkey we observed a strong correlation between the strength of choice-related AIP activity (choice probabilities) and the influence of microstimulation on 3D-shape-categorization behavior (choices and reaction time). These findings propose AIP as part of the network responsible for 3D-shape perception. The results also show that the anterior intraparietal cortex contains cells with different tuning properties, i.e. 3D-shape- or saccade-related, that can be dynamically read out depending on the requirements of the task at hand. PMID:26295941

  17. Facile and Sustainable Synthesis of Shaped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Effect of Iron Precursor Salts on the Shapes of Iron Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Farheen N.; Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    A facile and sustainable protocol for synthesis of six different shaped iron oxides is developed. Notably, all the six shapes of iron oxides can be synthesised using exactly same synthetic protocol, by simply changing the precursor iron salts. Several of the synthesised shapes are not reported before. This novel protocol is relatively easy to implement and could contribute to overcome the challenge of obtaining various shaped iron oxides in economical and sustainable manner. PMID:25939969

  18. Effect of carrier particle shape on dry powder inhaler performance.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Alhalaweh, Amjad; Velaga, Sitaram P; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2011-12-12

    The aim of this study was to characterise the aerosolisation properties of salbutamol sulphate (SS) from dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations containing different carrier products. The difference in the elongation ratio (ER) of the different carriers was highlighted. Different set of carriers, namely commercial mannitol (CM), commercial lactose (CL), cooling crystallised mannitol (CCM), acetone crystallised mannitol (ACM) and ethanol crystallised mannitol (ECM) were used and inspected in terms of size, shape, density, crystal form, flowability, and in vitro aerosolisation performance using Multi Stage Liquid Impinger (MSLI) and Aerolizer inhaler device. Solid-state and morphological characterization showed that CM product was in pure β-form having particles with smaller ER (CM: ER=1.62 ± 0.04) whereas ACM and ECM mannitol particles were in pure α form with higher ER (ACM: ER=4.83 ± 0.18, ECM: ER=5.89 ± 0.19). CCM product crystallised as mixtures of β-form and δ-form and showed the largest variability in terms of particle shape, size, and DPI performance. Linear relationships were established showing that carrier products with higher ER have smaller bulk density (D(b)), smaller tap density (D(t)), higher porosity (P), and poorer flow properties. In vitro aerosolisation assessments showed that the higher the ER of the carrier particles the greater the amounts of SS delivered to lower airway regions indicating enhanced DPI performance. Yet, DPI performance enhancement by increasing carrier ER reached a "limit" as increasing carrier ER from 4.83±0.18 (ACM) to 5.89±0.19 (ECM) did not significantly alter fine particle fraction (FPF) of SS. Also, carrier particles with higher ER were disadvantageous in terms of higher amounts of SS remained in inhaler device (drug loss) and deposited on throat. Linear relationship was established (r(2)=0.87) showing that the higher the carrier ER the lower the drug emission (EM) upon inhalation. Moreover, poorer flowability for

  19. Joint effects of illumination geometry and object shape in the perception of surface reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Olkkonen, Maria; Brainard, David H

    2011-01-01

    Surface properties provide useful information for identifying objects and interacting with them. Effective utilization of this information, however, requires that the perception of object surface properties be relatively constant across changes in illumination and changes in object shape. Such constancy has been studied separately for changes in these factors. Here we ask whether the separate study of the illumination and shape effects is sufficient, by testing whether joint effects of illumination and shape changes can be predicted from the individual effects in a straightforward manner. We found large interactions between illumination and object shape in their effects on perceived glossiness. In addition, analysis of luminance histogram statistics could not account for the interactions. PMID:23145259

  20. Effect of nitrocarburizing on shape of titanium alloy parts

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1993-09-27

    Components are being developed for plutonium casting in support of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A vendor used a proprietary process to grow a nitrocarburized surface layer on a titanium alloy shot sleeve to be used in a prototype die casting machine. The shot sleeve was significantly out-of-round upon return from the vendor and could not be used. Purpose of this study was to determine whether the shape change could have been caused by this surface treatment. Visual observation of disk and ring samples exposed first to surface treatment alone temperature and then the actual nitrocarburizing environment revealed no gross warping in either case. Dimension measurements of each sample before and after both the thermal treatment and the nitrocarburizing revealed no significant changes. Visual examination of the shot sleeve revealed a surface flaw likely made during handling after machining at SRS and before the part was nitrocarburized. The out-of-roundness of the shot sleeve could be related to the damage observed on the surface, but the possibility of warping during the nitrocarburizing cannot be excluded. Nitrocarburization should remain a candidate method to protect titanium alloys from molten metals.

  1. Effect of diffuser vane shape on the performance of a centrifugal compressor stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, T. Ch Siva; Ramana Murty, G. V.; Prasad, M. V. S. S. S. M.

    2014-04-01

    The present paper reports the results of experimental investigations on the effect of diffuser vane shape on the performance of a centrifugal compressor stage. These studies were conducted on the chosen stage having a backward curved impeller of 500 mm tip diameter and 24.5 mm width and its design flow coefficient is ϕd=0.0535. Three different low solidity diffuser vane shapes namely uncambered aerofoil, constant thickness flat plate and circular arc cambered constant thickness plate were chosen as the variants for diffuser vane shape and all the three shapes have the same thickness to chord ratio (t/c=0.1). Flow coefficient, polytropic efficiency, total head coefficient, power coefficient and static pressure recovery coefficient were chosen as the parameters for evaluating the effect of diffuser vane shape on the stage performance. The results show that there is reasonable improvement in stage efficiency and total head coefficient with the use of the chosen diffuser vane shapes as compared to conventional vaneless diffuser. It is also noticed that the aero foil shaped LSD has shown better performance when compared to flat plate and circular arc profiles. The aerofoil vane shape of the diffuser blade is seen to be tolerant over a considerable range of incidence.

  2. Initiation of shape-memory effect by inductive heating of magnetic nanoparticles in thermoplastic polymers.

    PubMed

    Mohr, R; Kratz, K; Weigel, T; Lucka-Gabor, M; Moneke, M; Lendlein, A

    2006-03-01

    In shape-memory polymers, changes in shape are mostly induced by heating, and exceeding a specific switching temperature, T(switch). If polymers cannot be warmed up by heat transfer using a hot liquid or gaseous medium, noncontact triggering will be required. In this article, the magnetically induced shape-memory effect of composites from magnetic nanoparticles and thermoplastic shape-memory polymers is introduced. A polyetherurethane (TFX) and a biodegradable multiblock copolymer (PDC) with poly(p-dioxanone) as hard segment and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) as soft segment were investigated as matrix component. Nanoparticles consisting of an iron(III)oxide core in a silica matrix could be processed into both polymers. A homogeneous particle distribution in TFX could be shown. Compounds have suitable elastic and thermal properties for the shape-memory functionalization. Temporary shapes of TFX compounds were obtained by elongating at increased temperature and subsequent cooling under constant stress. Cold-drawing of PDC compounds at 25 degrees C resulted in temporary fixation of the mechanical deformation by 50-60%. The shape-memory effect of both composite systems could be induced by inductive heating in an alternating magnetic field (f = 258 kHz; H = 30 kA x m(-1)). The maximum temperatures achievable by inductive heating in a specific magnetic field depend on sample geometry and nanoparticle content. Shape recovery rates of composites resulting from magnetic triggering are comparable to those obtained by increasing the environmental temperature. PMID:16537442

  3. Tubular Scaffold with Shape Recovery Effect for Cell Guide Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Kazi M. Zakir; Zhu, Chenkai; Felfel, Reda M.; Sharmin, Nusrat; Ahmed, Ifty

    2015-01-01

    Tubular scaffolds with aligned polylactic acid (PLA) fibres were fabricated for cell guide applications by immersing rolled PLA fibre mats into a polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) solution to bind the mats. The PVAc solution was also mixed with up to 30 wt % β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) content. Cross-sectional images of the scaffold materials obtained via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the aligned fibre morphology along with a significant number of voids in between the bundles of fibres. The addition of β-TCP into the scaffolds played an important role in increasing the void content from 17.1% to 25.3% for the 30 wt % β-TCP loading, which was measured via micro-CT (µCT) analysis. Furthermore, µCT analyses revealed the distribution of aggregated β-TCP particles in between the various PLA fibre layers of the scaffold. The compressive modulus properties of the scaffolds increased from 66 MPa to 83 MPa and the compressive strength properties decreased from 67 MPa to 41 MPa for the 30 wt % β-TCP content scaffold. The scaffolds produced were observed to change into a soft and flexible form which demonstrated shape recovery properties after immersion in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) media at 37 °C for 24 h. The cytocompatibility studies (using MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line) revealed preferential cell proliferation along the longitudinal direction of the fibres as compared to the control tissue culture plastic. The manufacturing process highlighted above reveals a simple process for inducing controlled cell alignment and varying porosity features within tubular scaffolds for potential tissue engineering applications. PMID:26184328

  4. Genetic architecture of mandible shape in mice: effects of quantitative trait loci analyzed by geometric morphometrics.

    PubMed Central

    Klingenberg, C P; Leamy, L J; Routman, E J; Cheverud, J M

    2001-01-01

    This study introduces a new multivariate approach for analyzing the effects of quantitative trait loci (QTL) on shape and demonstrates this method for the mouse mandible. We quantified size and shape with the methods of geometric morphometrics, based on Procrustes superimposition of five morphological landmarks recorded on each mandible. Interval mapping for F(2) mice originating from an intercross of the LG/J and SM/J inbred strains revealed 12 QTL for size, 25 QTL for shape, and 5 QTL for left-right asymmetry. Multivariate ordination of QTL effects by principal component analysis identified two recurrent features of shape variation, which involved the positions of the coronoid and angular processes relative to each other and to the rest of the mandible. These patterns are reminiscent of the knockout phenotypes of a number of genes involved in mandible development, although only a few of these are possible candidates for QTL in our study. The variation of shape effects among the QTL showed no evidence of clustering into distinct groups, as would be expected from theories of morphological integration. Further, for most QTL, additive and dominance effects on shape were markedly different, implying overdominance for specific features of shape. We conclude that geometric morphometrics offers a promising new approach to address problems at the interface of evolutionary and developmental genetics. PMID:11156997

  5. Competing Classical and Quantum Effects in Shape Relaxation of a Metallic Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okamoto, Rowland H.; Chen, D.; Yamada, T.

    2002-01-01

    Pb islands grown on a silicon substrate transform at room temperature from the initially flattop facet geometry into an unusual ring, shape with a volume-preserving mass transport process catalysed by the tip electrical field of a scanning tunnelling microscope. The formation of such ring shape morphology results from the competing classical and quantum effects in the shape relaxation. The latter also leads to a sequential regrowth on alternating, strips of the same facet defined by the underlying substrate steps, showing for the first time the dynamical impact of the quantum size effect on the stability of a nanostructure.

  6. Effect of axial load on mode shapes and frequencies of beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaker, F. J.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation of the effect of axial load on the natural frequencies and mode shapes of uniform beams and of a cantilevered beam with a concentrated mass at the tip is presented. Characteristic equations which yield the frequencies and mode shape functions for the various cases are given. The solutions to these equations are presented by a series of graphs so that frequency as a function of axial load can readily be determined. The effect of axial load on the mode shapes are also depicted by another series of graphs.

  7. Projectile Shape Effects Analysis for Space Debris Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraki, Kuniaki; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Kamiya, Takeshi

    2002-01-01

    (JEM IST), has a manned pressurized module used as a research laboratory on orbit and planned to be attached to the International Space Station (ISS). Protection system from Micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MM/OD) is very important for crew safety aboard the ISS. We have to design a module with shields attached to the outside of the pressurized wall so that JEM can be protected when debris of diameter less than 20mm impact on the JEM wall. In this case, the ISS design requirement for space debris protection system is specified as the Probability of No Penetration (PNP). The PNP allocation for the JEM is 0.9738 for ten years, which is reallocated as 0.9814 for the Pressurized Module (PM) and 0.9922 for the Experiment Logistics Module-Pressurized Section (ELM-PS). The PNP is calculated with Bumper code provided by NASA with the following data inputs to the calculation. (1) JEM structural model (2) Ballistic Limit Curve (BLC) of shields pressure wall (3) Environmental conditions: Analysis type, debris distribution, debris model, debris density, Solar single aluminum plate bumper (1.27mm thickness). The other is a Stuffed Whipple shield with its second bumper composed of an aluminum mesh, three layers of Nextel AF62 ceramic fabric, and four layers of Kevlar 710 fabric with thermal isolation material Multilayer Insulation (MLI) in the bottom. The second bumper of Stuffed Whipple shields is located at the middle between the first bumper and the 4.8 mm-thick pressurized wall. with Two-Stage Light Gas Gun (TSLGG) tests and hydro code simulation already. The remaining subject is the verification of JEM debris protection shields for velocities ranging from 7 to 15 km/sec. We conducted Conical Shaped Charge (CSC) tests that enable hypervelocity impact tests for the debris velocity range above 10 km/sec as well as hydro code simulation. because of the jet generation mechanism. It is therefore necessary to analyze and compensate the results for a solid aluminum sphere, which

  8. Surface effects on shape and topology optimization of nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanthakumar, S. S.; Valizadeh, Navid; Park, Harold S.; Rabczuk, Timon

    2015-07-01

    We present a computational method for the optimization of nanostructures, where our specific interest is in capturing and elucidating surface stress and surface elastic effects on the optimal nanodesign. XFEM is used to solve the nanomechanical boundary value problem, which involves a discontinuity in the strain field and the presence of surface effects along the interface. The boundary of the nano-structure is implicitly represented by a level set function, which is considered as the design variable in the optimization process. Two objective functions, minimizing the total potential energy of a nanostructure subjected to a material volume constraint and minimizing the least square error compared to a target displacement, are chosen for the numerical examples. We present results of optimal topologies of a nanobeam subject to cantilever and fixed boundary conditions. The numerical examples demonstrate the importance of size and aspect ratio in determining how surface effects impact the optimized topology of nanobeams.

  9. Shape effect in cellular uptake of PEGylated nanoparticles: comparison between sphere, rod, cube and disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Kröger, Martin; Liu, Wing Kam

    2015-10-01

    The size, shape, surface property and material composition of polymer-coated nanoparticles (NPs) are four important parameters in designing efficient NP-based carriers for targeted drug delivery. However, due to the complex interplay between size, shape and surface property, most studies lead to ambiguous descriptions of the relevance of shape. To clarify its influence on the cellular uptake of PEGylated NPs, large scale molecular simulations have been performed to study differently shaped convex NPs, such as sphere, rod, cube and disk. Comparing systems with identical NP surface area, ligand-receptor interaction strength, and grafting density of the polyethylene glycol, we find that the spherical NPs exhibit the fastest internalization rate, followed by the cubic NPs, then rod- and disk-like NPs. The spherical NPs thus demonstrate the highest uptake among these differently shaped NPs. Based on a detailed free energy analysis, the NP shape effect is found to be mainly induced by the different membrane bending energies during endocytosis. The spherical NPs need to overcome a minimal membrane bending energy barrier, compared with the non-spherical counterparts, while the internalization of disk-like NPs involves a strong membrane deformation, responsible for a large free energy barrier. Besides, the free energy change per tethered chain is about a single kBT regardless of NP shape, as revealed by our self-consistent field theory calculations, where kB and T denote Boltzmann constant and temperature, respectively. Thus, the NP shape only plays the secondary role in the free energy change of grafted PEG polymers during internalization. We also find that star-shaped NPs can be quickly wrapped by the cell membrane, similar to their spherical counterparts, indicating star-shaped NPs can be used for drug delivery with high efficacy. Our findings seem to provide useful guidance in the molecular design of PEGylated NPs for controllable cellular uptake and help establish

  10. Effect of shape and size of lung and chest wall on stresses in the lung

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vawter, D. L.; Matthews, F. L.; West, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    To understand better the effect of shape and size of lung and chest wall on the distribution of stresses, strains, and surface pressures, we analyzed a theoretical model using the technique of finite elements. First we investigated the effects of changing the chest wall shape during expansion, and second we studied lungs of a variety of inherent shapes and sizes. We found that, in general, the distributions of alveolar size, mechanical stresses, and surface pressures in the lungs were dominated by the weight of the lung and that changing the shape of the lung or chest wall had relatively little effect. Only at high states of expansion where the lung was very stiff did changing the shape of the chest wall cause substantial changes. Altering the inherent shape of the lung generally had little effect but the topographical differences in stresses and surface pressures were approximately proportional to lung height. The results are generally consistent with those found in the dog by Hoppin et al (1969).

  11. Fast Response Shape Memory Effect Titanium Nickel (TiNi) Foam Torque Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jardine, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Shape Change Technologies has developed a process to manufacture net-shaped TiNi foam torque tubes that demonstrate the shape memory effect. The torque tubes dramatically reduce response time by a factor of 10. This Phase II project matured the actuator technology by rigorously characterizing the process to optimize the quality of the TiNi and developing a set of metrics to provide ISO 9002 quality assurance. A laboratory virtual instrument engineering workbench (LabVIEW'TM')-based, real-time control of the torsional actuators was developed. These actuators were developed with The Boeing Company for aerospace applications.

  12. Effects of damping on mode shapes, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Displacement, velocity, and acceleration admittances were calculated for a realistic NASTRAN structural model of space shuttle for three conditions: liftoff, maximum dynamic pressure and end of solid rocket booster burn. The realistic model of the orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket motors included the representation of structural joint transmissibilities by finite stiffness and damping elements. Methods developed to incorporate structural joints and their damping characteristics into a finite element model of the space shuttle, to determine the point damping parameters required to produce realistic damping in the primary modes, and to calculate the effect of distributed damping on structural resonances through the calculation of admittances.

  13. Shaping risky choices: Ethics and the effects of organizational decisions.

    PubMed

    Warren, Marika

    2016-07-01

    Choices to live "at risk" are complex and challenging and can be structured by organizational policy. Some individuals genuinely wish to live in situations that are, or are perceived to be, high risk because this affords them an important benefit. However, it is likely that these choices are significantly affected by context and might not be made under different circumstances. The following argues for a responsibility to be attentive to the effects of organizational decisions on choices to live at risk and the overall distribution of risk. PMID:27261453

  14. Shape effects on reflexive spatial selective attention and a plausible neurophysiological model.

    PubMed

    Patel, Saumil S; Peng, Xinmiao; Sereno, Anne B

    2010-06-18

    If a peripheral, behaviorally irrelevant cue is followed by a target at the same position, response time for the target is either facilitated or inhibited relative to the response at an uncued position, depending on the delay between target and cue (Posner, 1980; Posner & Cohen, 1984). A few studies have suggested that this spatial cueing effect (termed reflexive spatial attention) is affected by non-spatial cue and target attributes such as orientation or shape. We measured the dependence of the spatial cueing effect on the shapes of the cue and the target for a range of cue onset to target onset asynchronies (CTOAs). When cue and target shapes were different, the spatial cueing effect was facilitatory for short CTOAs and inhibitory for longer CTOAs. The facilitatory spatial effect at short CTOAs was substantially reduced when cue and target shapes were the same. We present a simple neural network to explain our data, providing a unified explanation for the spatial cueing effect and its dependence on shape similarities between the cue and the target. Our modeling suggests that one does not need independent mechanisms to explain both facilitatory and inhibitory spatial cueing effects. Because the neuronal properties (repetition suppression) and the network connectivity (mutual inhibition) of the model are present throughout many visual brain regions, it is possible that reflexive attentional effects may be distributed throughout the brain with different regions expressing different types of reflexive attention depending on their sensitivities to various aspects of visual stimuli. PMID:20399801

  15. Effects of probe shape change on flow phenomena during Jovian entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Subramanian, S. V.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of probe shape change on the flow phenomena around a Jovian entry body is investigated. The initial body shapes considered are: 45-degree sphere cone, 35-degree hyperboloid, and 45-degree ellipsoid. The radiating shock-layer flow is assumed to be axisymmetric, inviscid, and in chemical and local thermodynamic equilibrium. The radiative transfer is calculated with an existing nongray radiation model that accounts for molecular band, atomic line, and continuum transitions. The results indicate that the shock-standoff distance, shock temperature and density, wall pressure distribution and radiative heating to the body are influenced significantly because of the probe shape change. The effect of shape change on radiative heating of the afterbody was considerably larger for the sphere cone and ellipsoid than for the hyperboloid. For the peak heating conditions, the net radiative heating to the body was found to be highest for the ellipsoid

  16. Poly(glycerol sebacate urethane)-cellulose nanocomposites with water-active shape-memory effects.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tongfei; Frydrych, Martin; O'Kelly, Kevin; Chen, Biqiong

    2014-07-14

    Biodegradable and biocompatible materials with shape-memory effects (SMEs) are attractive for use as minimally invasive medical devices. Nanocomposites with SMEs were prepared from biodegradable poly(glycerol sebacate urethane) (PGSU) and renewable cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). The effects of CNC content on the structure, water absorption, and mechanical properties of the PGSU were studied. The water-responsive mechanically adaptive properties and shape-memory performance of PGSU-CNC nanocomposites were observed, which are dependent on the content of CNCs. The PGSU-CNC nanocomposite containing 23.2 vol % CNCs exhibited the best SMEs among the nanocomposites investigated, with the stable shape fixing and shape recovery ratios being 98 and 99%, respectively, attributable to the formation of a hydrophilic, yet strong, CNC network in the elastomeric matrix. In vitro degradation profiles of the nanocomposites were assessed with and without the presence of an enzyme. PMID:24877559

  17. Effect of surface charge convection and shape deformation on the dielectrophoretic motion of a liquid drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Shubhadeep; Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Chakraborty, Suman

    2016-04-01

    The dielectrophoretic motion and shape deformation of a Newtonian liquid drop in an otherwise quiescent Newtonian liquid medium in the presence of an axisymmetric nonuniform dc electric field consisting of uniform and quadrupole components is investigated. The theory put forward by Feng [J. Q. Feng, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4438 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevE.54.4438] is generalized by incorporating the following two nonlinear effects—surface charge convection and shape deformation—towards determining the drop velocity. This two-way coupled moving boundary problem is solved analytically by considering small values of electric Reynolds number (ratio of charge relaxation time scale to the convection time scale) and electric capillary number (ratio of electrical stress to the surface tension) under the framework of the leaky dielectric model. We focus on investigating the effects of charge convection and shape deformation for different drop-medium combinations. A perfectly conducting drop suspended in a leaky (or perfectly) dielectric medium always deforms to a prolate shape and this kind of shape deformation always augments the dielectrophoretic drop velocity. For a perfectly dielectric drop suspended in a perfectly dielectric medium, the shape deformation leads to either increase (for prolate shape) or decrease (for oblate shape) in the dielectrophoretic drop velocity. Both surface charge convection and shape deformation affect the drop motion for leaky dielectric drops. The combined effect of these can significantly increase or decrease the dielectrophoretic drop velocity depending on the electrohydrodynamic properties of both the liquids and the relative strength of the electric Reynolds number and electric capillary number. Finally, comparison with the existing experiments reveals better agreement with the present theory.

  18. Initiation of shape-memory effect by inductive heating of magnetic nanoparticles in thermoplastic polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, R.; Kratz, K.; Weigel, T.; Lucka-Gabor, M.; Moneke, M.; Lendlein, A.

    2006-03-01

    In shape-memory polymers, changes in shape are mostly induced by heating, and exceeding a specific switching temperature, Tswitch. If polymers cannot be warmed up by heat transfer using a hot liquid or gaseous medium, noncontact triggering will be required. In this article, the magnetically induced shape-memory effect of composites from magnetic nanoparticles and thermoplastic shape-memory polymers is introduced. A polyetherurethane (TFX) and a biodegradable multiblock copolymer (PDC) with poly(p-dioxanone) as hard segment and poly(-caprolactone) as soft segment were investigated as matrix component. Nanoparticles consisting of an iron(III)oxide core in a silica matrix could be processed into both polymers. A homogeneous particle distribution in TFX could be shown. Compounds have suitable elastic and thermal properties for the shape-memory functionalization. Temporary shapes of TFX compounds were obtained by elongating at increased temperature and subsequent cooling under constant stress. Cold-drawing of PDC compounds at 25°C resulted in temporary fixation of the mechanical deformation by 50-60%. The shape-memory effect of both composite systems could be induced by inductive heating in an alternating magnetic field (f = 258 kHz; H = 30 kA·m-1). The maximum temperatures achievable by inductive heating in a specific magnetic field depend on sample geometry and nanoparticle content. Shape recovery rates of composites resulting from magnetic triggering are comparable to those obtained by increasing the environmental temperature. nanocomposite | shape-memory polymer | stimuli-sensitive polymer


  19. Aerodynamic effects of simulated ice shapes on two-dimensional airfoils and a swept finite tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alansatan, Sait

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of simulated glaze ice shapes on the aerodynamic performance characteristics of two-dimensional airfoils and a swept finite tail. The two dimensional tests involved two NACA 0011 airfoils with chords of 24 and 12 inches. Glaze ice shapes computed with the LEWICE code that were representative of 22.5-min and 45-min ice accretions were simulated with spoilers, which were sized to approximate the horn heights of the LEWICE ice shapes. Lift, drag, pitching moment, and surface pressure coefficients were obtained for a range of test conditions. Test variables included Reynolds number, geometric scaling, control deflection and the key glaze ice features, which were horn height, horn angle, and horn location. For the three-dimensional tests, a 25%-scale business jet empennage (BJE) with a T-tail configuration was used to study the effect of ice shapes on the aerodynamic performance of a swept horizontal tail. Simulated glaze ice shapes included the LEWICE and spoiler ice shapes to represent 9-min and 22.5-min ice accretions. Additional test variables included Reynolds number and elevator deflection. Lift, drag, hinge moment coefficients as well as boundary layer velocity profiles were obtained. The experimental results showed substantial degradation in aerodynamic performance of the airfoils and the swept horizontal tail due to the simulated ice shapes. For the two-dimensional airfoils, the largest aerodynamic penalties were obtained when the 3-in spoiler-ice, which was representative of 45-min glaze ice accretions, was set normal to the chord. Scale and Reynolds effects were not significant for lift and drag. However, pitching moments and pressure distributions showed great sensitivity to Reynolds number and geometric scaling. For the threedimensional study with the swept finite tail, the 22.5-min ice shapes resulted in greater aerodynamic performance degradation than the 9-min ice shapes. The addition of 24

  20. Angle-resolved effective potentials for disk-shaped molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemann, Thomas Klapp, Sabine H. L.; Palczynski, Karol Dzubiella, Joachim

    2014-12-07

    We present an approach for calculating coarse-grained angle-resolved effective pair potentials for uniaxial molecules. For integrating out the intramolecular degrees of freedom we apply umbrella sampling and steered dynamics techniques in atomistically-resolved molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. Throughout this study we focus on disk-like molecules such as coronene. To develop the methods we focus on integrating out the van der Waals and intramolecular interactions, while electrostatic charge contributions are neglected. The resulting coarse-grained pair potential reveals a strong temperature and angle dependence. In the next step we fit the numerical data with various Gay-Berne-like potentials to be used in more efficient simulations on larger scales. The quality of the resulting coarse-grained results is evaluated by comparing their pair and many-body structure as well as some thermodynamic quantities self-consistently to the outcome of atomistic MD simulations of many-particle systems. We find that angle-resolved potentials are essential not only to accurately describe crystal structures but also for fluid systems where simple isotropic potentials start to fail already for low to moderate packing fractions. Further, in describing these states it is crucial to take into account the pronounced temperature dependence arising in selected pair configurations due to bending fluctuations.

  1. Angle-resolved effective potentials for disk-shaped molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, Thomas; Palczynski, Karol; Dzubiella, Joachim; Klapp, Sabine H. L.

    2014-12-01

    We present an approach for calculating coarse-grained angle-resolved effective pair potentials for uniaxial molecules. For integrating out the intramolecular degrees of freedom we apply umbrella sampling and steered dynamics techniques in atomistically-resolved molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. Throughout this study we focus on disk-like molecules such as coronene. To develop the methods we focus on integrating out the van der Waals and intramolecular interactions, while electrostatic charge contributions are neglected. The resulting coarse-grained pair potential reveals a strong temperature and angle dependence. In the next step we fit the numerical data with various Gay-Berne-like potentials to be used in more efficient simulations on larger scales. The quality of the resulting coarse-grained results is evaluated by comparing their pair and many-body structure as well as some thermodynamic quantities self-consistently to the outcome of atomistic MD simulations of many-particle systems. We find that angle-resolved potentials are essential not only to accurately describe crystal structures but also for fluid systems where simple isotropic potentials start to fail already for low to moderate packing fractions. Further, in describing these states it is crucial to take into account the pronounced temperature dependence arising in selected pair configurations due to bending fluctuations.

  2. Angle-resolved effective potentials for disk-shaped molecules.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Thomas; Palczynski, Karol; Dzubiella, Joachim; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2014-12-01

    We present an approach for calculating coarse-grained angle-resolved effective pair potentials for uniaxial molecules. For integrating out the intramolecular degrees of freedom we apply umbrella sampling and steered dynamics techniques in atomistically-resolved molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. Throughout this study we focus on disk-like molecules such as coronene. To develop the methods we focus on integrating out the van der Waals and intramolecular interactions, while electrostatic charge contributions are neglected. The resulting coarse-grained pair potential reveals a strong temperature and angle dependence. In the next step we fit the numerical data with various Gay-Berne-like potentials to be used in more efficient simulations on larger scales. The quality of the resulting coarse-grained results is evaluated by comparing their pair and many-body structure as well as some thermodynamic quantities self-consistently to the outcome of atomistic MD simulations of many-particle systems. We find that angle-resolved potentials are essential not only to accurately describe crystal structures but also for fluid systems where simple isotropic potentials start to fail already for low to moderate packing fractions. Further, in describing these states it is crucial to take into account the pronounced temperature dependence arising in selected pair configurations due to bending fluctuations. PMID:25481132

  3. Beam-shape effects in nonlinear Compton and Thomson scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Heinzl, T.; Seipt, D.; Kaempfer, B.

    2010-02-15

    We discuss intensity effects in collisions between beams of optical photons from a high-power laser and relativistic electrons. Our main focus is on the modifications of the emission spectra due to realistic finite-beam geometries. By carefully analyzing the classical limit we precisely quantify the distinction between strong-field QED Compton scattering and classical Thomson scattering. A purely classical, but fully covariant, calculation of the bremsstrahlung emitted by an electron in a plane-wave laser field yields radiation into harmonics, as expected. This result is generalized to pulses of finite duration and explains the appearance of line broadening and harmonic substructure as an interference phenomenon. The ensuing numerical treatment confirms that strong focusing of the laser leads to a broad continuum while higher harmonics become visible only at moderate focusing, and hence lower intensity. We present a scaling law for the backscattered photon spectral density which facilitates averaging over electron beam phase space. Finally, we propose a set of realistic parameters such that the observation of intensity-induced spectral red shift, higher harmonics, and their substructure becomes feasible.

  4. Effect of Graphene Addition on Shape Memory Behavior of Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Tiffany; Meador, Michael; Miller, Sandi; Scheiman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) and composites are a special class of smart materials known for their ability to change size and shape upon exposure to an external stimulus (e.g. light, heat, pH, or magnetic field). These materials are commonly used for biomedical applications; however, recent attempts have been made towards developing SMPs and composites for use in aircraft and space applications. Implementing SMPs and composites to create a shape change effect in some aircraft structures could potentially reduce drag, decrease fuel consumption, and improve engine performance. This paper discusses the development of suitable materials to use in morphing aircraft structures. Thermally responsive epoxy SMPs and nanocomposites were developed and the shape memory behavior and thermo-mechanical properties were studied. Overall, preliminary results from dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed that thermally actuated shape memory epoxies and nanocomposites possessed Tgs near approximately 168 C. When graphene nanofiller was added, the storage modulus and crosslinking density decreased. On the other hand, the addition of graphene enhanced the recovery behavior of the shape memory nanocomposites. It was assumed that the addition of graphene improved shape memory recovery by reducing the crosslinking density and increasing the elasticity of the nanocomposites.

  5. Micrometer-scale 3-D shape characterization of eight cements: Particle shape and cement chemistry, and the effect of particle shape on laser diffraction particle size measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Erdogan, S.T.; Nie, X.; Stutzman, P.E.; Garboczi, E.J.

    2010-05-15

    Eight different portland cements were imaged on a synchrotron beam line at Brookhaven National Laboratory using X-ray microcomputed tomography at a voxel size of about 1 mum per cubic voxel edge. The particles ranged in size roughly between 10 mum and 100 mum. The shape and size of individual particles were computationally analyzed using spherical harmonic analysis. The particle shape difference between cements was small but significant, as judged by several different quantitative shape measures, including the particle length, width, and thickness distributions. It was found that the average shape of cement particles was closely correlated with the volume fraction of C{sub 3}S (alite) and C{sub 2}S (belite) making up the cement powder. It is shown that the non-spherical particle shape of the cements strongly influence laser diffraction results, at least in the sieve size range of 20 mum to 38 mum. Since laser diffraction particle size measurement is being increasingly used by the cement industry, while cement chemistry is always a main factor in cement production, these results could have important implications for how this kind of particle size measurement should be understood and used in the cement industry.

  6. Comparison of the effectiveness of alternative feature sets in shape retrieval of multicomponent images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakins, John P.; Edwards, Jonathan D.; Riley, K. Jonathan; Rosin, Paul L.

    2001-01-01

    Many different kinds of features have been used as the basis for shape retrieval from image databases. This paper investigates the relative effectiveness of several types of global shape feature, both singly and in combination. The features compared include well-established descriptors such as Fourier coefficients and moment invariants, as well as recently-proposed measures of triangularity and ellipticity. Experiments were conducted within the framework of the ARTISAN shape retrieval system, and retrieval effectiveness assessed on a database of over 10,000 images, using 24 queries and associated ground truth supplied by the UK Patent Office . Our experiments revealed only minor differences in retrieval effectiveness between different measures, suggesting that a wide variety of shape feature combinations can provide adequate discriminating power for effective shape retrieval in multi-component image collections such as trademark registries. Marked differences between measures were observed for some individual queries, suggesting that there could be considerable scope for improving retrieval effectiveness by providing users with an improved framework for searching multi-dimensional feature space.

  7. Comparison of the effectiveness of alternative feature sets in shape retrieval of multicomponent images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakins, John P.; Edwards, Jonathan D.; Riley, K. Jonathan; Rosin, Paul L.

    2000-12-01

    Many different kinds of features have been used as the basis for shape retrieval from image databases. This paper investigates the relative effectiveness of several types of global shape feature, both singly and in combination. The features compared include well-established descriptors such as Fourier coefficients and moment invariants, as well as recently-proposed measures of triangularity and ellipticity. Experiments were conducted within the framework of the ARTISAN shape retrieval system, and retrieval effectiveness assessed on a database of over 10,000 images, using 24 queries and associated ground truth supplied by the UK Patent Office . Our experiments revealed only minor differences in retrieval effectiveness between different measures, suggesting that a wide variety of shape feature combinations can provide adequate discriminating power for effective shape retrieval in multi-component image collections such as trademark registries. Marked differences between measures were observed for some individual queries, suggesting that there could be considerable scope for improving retrieval effectiveness by providing users with an improved framework for searching multi-dimensional feature space.

  8. Micromagnetic simulations on the grain shape effect in Nd-Fe-B magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Min; Gutfleisch, Oliver; Xu, Bai-Xiang

    2016-07-01

    Micromagnetic simulations were performed to study the effect of grain shape and defect layer in Nd-Fe-B magnets. It was found that the coercivity can be increased by a factor of ˜2 by changing the grain shape from the triangular prism to the spheroid. Both the anisotropy field contribution and the shape contribution to the coercivity, and thus also the final coercivity, were found to decrease in the order: spheroid > circular prism > hexagonal prism > square prism > triangular prism. Sputtered columnar grains and hot-deformed platelet grains with a constant volume were also considered. Results show that the coercivity initially increases with the aspect ratio and then nearly saturates above the ratio of ˜4. Simulations of multigrain ensembles showed that depending on the grain shape, compared to the case of single grain, a further decrease of ˜10%-45% in the coercivity is induced by magnetostatic coupling.

  9. High performance shape memory effect in nitinol wire for actuators with increased operating temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, Riccardo; Biffi, Carlo Alberto; Vedani, Maurizio; Tuissi, Ausonio

    2014-07-01

    In this research, the high performance shape memory effect (HP-SME) is experimented on a shape memory NiTi wire, with austenite finish temperature higher than room temperature. The HP-SME consists in the thermal cycling of stress induced martensite and it allows achieving mechanical work higher than that produced by conventional shape memory actuators based on the heating/cooling of detwinned martensite. The Nitinol wire was able to recover about 5.5% of deformation under a stress of 600 MPa and to withstand about 5000 cycles before failure. HP-SME path increased the operating temperature of the shape memory actuator wire. Functioning temperatures higher than 100°C was reached.

  10. Thermoresponsive fibers containing n-stearyl acrylate groups for shape memory effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Yu, X.; Feng, X.; Han, Y. L.; Liu, M.; Lin, T. X.

    2007-07-01

    A novel kind of thermoresponsive shape memory fiber was prepared by mixing the P(SA-co-AA) copolymers of stearyl acrylate (SA), and acrylic acid (AA), with PVA polyvinyl alcohol through chemically crosslinking after spinning. The molecular structure, thermomechanical properties and shape memory behaviors were investigated. It was found that the mixed P(SA-co-AA)/PVA fibers had crystalline structures and showed a dramatic change in Young's modulus at melting temperature (Tm) due to the reversible order-disorder transition. The mixed P(SA-co-AA)/PVA fibers also showed a good shape memory effect, through which the deformed fibers could recover to their original shapes and sizes within 40 seconds after they were heated above their Tm again.

  11. Additional Study of Water Droplet Median Volume Diameter (MVD) Effects on Ice Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching; Anderson, David N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the result of an experimental study in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the MVD-independent effect identified previously might apply to SLD conditions in rime icing situations. Models were NACA 0012 wing sections with chords of 53.3 and 91.4 cm. Tests were conducted with a nominal airspeed of 77 m/s (150 kt) and a number of MVD's ranging from 15 to 100 m with LWC of 0.5 to 1 g/cu m. In the present study, ice shapes recorded from past studies and recent results at SLD and Appendix-C conditions are reviewed to show that droplet diameter is not important to rime ice shape for MVD of 30 microns or larger, but for less than 30 m drop sizes a rime ice shape transition from convex to wedge to spearhead type ice shape is observed.

  12. Coupling effect of spiral-shaped terahertz metamaterials for tunable electromagnetic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dacheng; Qiu, Chengwei; Hong, Minghui

    2014-04-01

    Coupling effect in spiral-shaped metamaterials composed of four half rings at different sizes is investigated to achieve tunability in THz range. This novel spiral-shaped structure was fabricated on flexible substrate with laser micro-lens array (MLA) lithography and measured by THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The experimental results suggest that mutual capacitance and inductance coupling in the spiral-shaped structure would result in frequency shifts of the four resonances. The observed shifting trends of the four resonant frequencies are in good agreement with simulation and are further explained by the electric field distribution. By varying the gap sizes among the half rings, four resonant frequencies can be tuned flexibly. Such a spiral-shaped design has potential applications in multi-band tunable THz MEMS devices.

  13. Coherent Backscattering Effect in Saturnian vs. Uranian Satellites: Effects on Band Depths and Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitman, Karly M.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Verbiscer, Anne J.; Gulotta, Charles; Joseph, Emily C. S.; Mackowski, Daniel W.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Momary, Thomas W.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we examine the changes in depth and shape of individual absorption bands as a function of solar phase angle that are caused by the coherent backscattering effect (CBE) in near-IR spectra of saturnian and uranian satellites. We have quantified band depths and shapes for real-world data (from Cassini Visual & Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) and TripleSpec at Apache Point Observatory) and also modeled spectra of densely packed icy particulate surfaces with the MSTM (multisphere T-matrix) version 4.0 code specifically developed to model light scattering in regolith layers. MSTM4 allows us to calculate the brightness for thick fluffy layers on order of 20,000 particles (compared to 1000 with previous code versions). We have now obtained good matches between model and real-world data at specific bands for several higher albedo moons. We are finding that the normalized depth of the absorption band can increase or decrease with solar phase angle depending on the albedo at the wavelength of normalization; this is seen in all the data (VIMS, ground-based, and model spectra). We model the change in the phase-angle-dependent band depth in response to varying the size and packing of the constituent icy particles. Indeed, the coherent backscattering effect can be observed at some wavelengths and entirely disappear at others because CBE requires a specific range of size and packing (cf. Muinonen et al. 2014); we see this effect as well.This work is supported by NASA’s Outer Planets Research program (NNX12AM76G; PI Pitman), Planetary Astronomy program (NNX09AD06G; PI Verbiscer), and NASA’s Advanced Supercomputing Division. Calibrated Cassini VIMS data cubes appear courtesy of the Cassini VIMS team and the PDS.

  14. Large-scale experimental landscapes reveal distinctive effects of patch shape and connectivity on arthropod communities.

    SciTech Connect

    Orrock, John, L.; Curler, Gregory, R.; Danielson, Brent, J.; Coyle, David. R.

    2011-09-14

    The size, shape, and isolation of habitat patches can affect organism behavior and population dynamics, but little is known about the relative role of shape and connectivity in affecting ecological communities at large spatial scales. Using six sampling sessions from July 2001 until August 2002, we collected 33,685 arthropods throughout seven 12-ha experimental landscapes consisting of clear-cut patches surrounded by a matrix of mature pine forest. Patches were explicitly designed to manipulate connectivity (via habitat corridors) independently of area and edge effects. We found that patch shape, rather than connectivity, affected ground-dwelling arthropod richness and beta diversity (i.e. turnover of genera among patches). Arthropod communities contained fewer genera and exhibited less turnover in high-edge connected and high-edge unconnected patches relative to low-edge unconnected patches of similar area. Connectivity, rather than patch shape, affected the evenness of ground-dwelling arthropod communities; regardless of patch shape, high-edge connected patches had lower evenness than low- or high-edge unconnected patches. Among the most abundant arthropod orders, increased richness in low-edge unconnected patches was largely due to increased richness of Coleoptera, whereas Hymenoptera played an important role in the lower evenness in connected patches and patterns of turnover. These findings suggest that anthropogenic habitat alteration can have distinct effects on ground-dwelling arthropod communities that arise due to changes in shape and connectivity. Moreover, this work suggests that corridors, which are common conservation tools that change both patch shape and connectivity, can have multiple effects on arthropod communities via different mechanisms, and each effect may alter components of community structure.

  15. A Shape-Hessian based analysis of roughness effects on turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shan; Stadler, Georg; Moser, Robert; Ghattas, Omar

    2009-11-01

    One of the difficulties with evaluating the effects of roughness on wall-bounded flows is that the commonly used metric for roughness effects, the equivalent sand-grain roughness height, is determined not from the topography of the roughness, but from the measured effect of the roughness on the flow. It would be much more useful if the effects of roughness could be predicted directly from the roughness topography. To do this, we characterize the mapping from roughness topography to fluid dynamics impact (in this case the drag) by examining its shape gradient and shape Hessian. The eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the shape Hessian are studied as they describe how the fluid dynamics impact changes with the roughness. For flat boundaries, the Fourier modes can be proven to be the eigenfunctions of the shape Hessian. Further, the flat boundary is a stationary point (a minimum) of this mapping and the eigenvalues depend on the wavenumber and the Reynolds number. A priori knowledge of the eigenfunctions allows the entire shape Hessian operator to be determined from a single solution of state, incremental state, adjoint and incremental adjoint equations, making determination of the adjoint feasible, even for turbulent flows. For transient Navier Stokes flow (i.e. turbulence), DNS will be used to find the Hessian in this way. The adjoint equations are solved backwards in time, requiring the complete time history of the state solution. The algorithmic and computational challenges of these calculations are discussed.

  16. Thermal analysis and evolution of shape loss phenomena during polymer burnout in powder metal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enneti, Ravi Kumar

    2005-07-01

    Powder metallurgy technology involves manufacturing of net shape or near net shape components starting from metal powders. Polymers are used to provide lubrication during shaping and handling strength to the shaped component. After shaping, the polymers are removed from the shaped components by providing thermal energy to burnout the polymers. Polymer burnout is one of the most critical step in powder metal processing. Improper design of the polymer burnout cycle will result in formation of defects, shape loss, or carbon contamination of the components. The effect of metal particles on polymer burnout and shape loss were addressed in the present research. The study addressing the effect of metal powders on polymer burnout was based on the hypothesis that metal powders act to catalyze polymer burnout. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) on pure polymer, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), and on admixed powders of 316L stainless steel and 1 wt. % EVA were carried out to verify the hypothesis. The effect of metal powders additions was studied by monitoring the onset temperature for polymer degradation and the temperature at which maximum rate of weight loss occurred from the TGA data. The catalytic behavior of the powders was verified by varying the particle size and shape of the 316L stainless powder. The addition of metal particles lowered the polymer burnout temperatures. The onset temperature for burnout was found to be sensitive to the surface area of the metal particle as well as the polymer distribution. Powders with low surface area and uniform distribution of polymer showed a lower burnout temperature. The evolution of shape loss during polymer burnout was based on the hypothesis that shape loss occurs during the softening of the polymer and depends on the sequence of chemical bonding in the polymer during burnout. In situ observation of shape loss was carried out on thin beams compacted from admixed powders of 316L stainless steel and 1 wt. % ethylene vinyl acetate

  17. Numerical study of spin relaxation by thermal fluctuation: Effect of shape anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K. J.; Park, N. Y.; Lee, T. D.

    2001-06-01

    Effects of the shape anisotropy on the thermally activated spin relaxation have been investigated using the stochastic Landau{endash}Lifshitz{endash}Gilbert equation. The relaxation times of a noninteracting particle and a thin film were compared with each other. In a noninteracting particle, the relaxation time largely increased with the shape anisotropy when the damping constant was smaller than a certain critical value. In this study, the critical damping constant was 0.02. However, the effect of the shape anisotropy on the energy barrier was negligible in a thin film. All of these results can be explained from the effect of magnetostatic interaction that is enhanced by precession motion at low damping constant. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  18. Understanding the shape effect on the plasmonic response of small ligand coated nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xing; Jensen, Lasse

    2016-07-01

    The plasmonic properties of metallic nanoparticles typically depend strongly on their shapes and local environment. However, not much is known about the shape effects on the plasmonic response in small metallic nanoparticles when quantum size effects become important. In this work, we use atomistic electrodynamics models incorporated with quantum size effects to study the optical properties of both bare and ligand coated Ag nanoparticles in different shapes. Using classical electrodynamics, we find that the plasmonic response of bare metallic nanoparticles depends strongly on the morphology of the nanoparticles due to the presence of higher-order plasmon modes. By including quantum size effects in the simulations, we find a significant blue-shift of the dipole plasmon as well as the smearing-out of the multipole plasmon modes, and both lead to a weak shape dependence. The ligand effects on the nanoparticles cause a significant red-shift of the plasmon resonance arising from the reduction of the conductivity of the Ag atoms where the ligands bind. In contrast to the bare nanoparticles, we find several higher-order plasmon modes in the ligand coated nanoparticles, that are likely caused by the weak electron spill-out effect and the symmetry breaking at the surface in the presence of the ligands. Furthermore, we show that the ligand layer strongly modify the near-field distribution due to the screening of the ligands. This work highlights the importance of quantum size and ligand effects on the optical properties of small metallic nanoparticles.

  19. The Effect of Shape Model Uncertainty on the Geophysical Predictions of Binary Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Jay W.; Scheeres, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Recent work by Jacobson and Scheeres (ApJ Vol. 736, L19) have shown that for a binary asteroid system in and equilibrium between tides and the binary YORP effect, the ratio Q/k can be determined, where Q is the tidal dissipation number and k is the tidal Love number. In their work, the value for B (the binary YORP coefficient) was that computed by McMahon and Scheeres (Icarus Vol. 209, pp 494-509, 2010) for binary asteroid 1999 KW4. Using this value, it was shown that the geophysical parameters Q/k can be estimated. Furthermore, we can similarly compute μQ based on the relationship between μ and k (where μ is the rigidity parameter), as discussed by Scheirich et al (ACM, Niigata, Japan, 2012, No. 1667, id.6123). These geophysical predictions, however, depend directly on the value of the binary YORP coefficient used, which is uncertain due to the limited shape model accuracy.In this study, we analyze the effect of shape model uncertainty on the predictions of Q/k and μQ. The 1999 KW4 secondary shape model is stochastically perturbed based on the radar observation accuracy (Ostro et al, Science Vol. 314, pp 1276-1280, 2006). Furthermore the detail of the topography is varied by adding more vertices to create a higher resolution shape model. For each newly perturbed shape model, the binary YORP coefficient is computed using our most advanced modeling software, and is used to derive new values for the geophysical parameter relationships. Furthermore we compute the B for a variety of known asteroid shape models as investigated by McMahon and Scheeres (44th AAS DPS, Reno, NV, 2012. Abstract No. 105.08). The results give effective error bounds on the Q/k (and derived μQ) predictions based on the shape model uncertainties.

  20. Effects of electrode bevel angle on argon arc properties and weld shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, W. C.; Lu, S. P.; Li, D. Z.; Y Li, Y.

    2012-07-01

    A numerical modeling of coupled welding arc with weld pool is established using FLUENT software for moving shielded GTA welding to systematically investigate the effects of electrode bevel angle on the argon arc properties as well as the weld shape on SUS304 stainless steel. The calculated results show that the argon arc is constricted and the peak values of heat flux and shear stress on the weld pool decrease with increasing electrode bevel angle, while the radial distribution of heat flux and shear stress varying slightly. The weld shape is controlled by the pool flow patterns driving by the surface tension, gas shear stress, electromagnetic force and buoyancy. The Marangoni convection induced by surface tension plays an important role on weld shapes. All the weld shapes are wide and shallow with low weld metal oxygen content, while the narrow and deep weld shapes form under high weld metal oxygen content, which is related with the oxygen concentration in the shielding gas. The weld depth/width (D/W) ratio increases with increasing electrode bevel angle for high weld metal oxygen content and is not sensitive to the electrode bevel angle under low weld metal oxygen content. The calculated results for the weld shape, weld size and weld D/W ratio agree well with the experimental ones.

  1. Effect of plasma shaping on performance in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D. A.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Kaye, S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Bernabei, S.; Bialek, J.; Biewer, T.; Blanchard, W.; Boedo, J.; Bush, C.; Carter, M. D.; Choe, W.; Crocker, N.; Darrow, D. S.; Davis, W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diem, S.; Ferron, J.; Field, A.; Foley, J.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Harvey, R.; Hatcher, R. E.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.; Hosea, J. C.; Jarboe, T. R.; Johnson, D. W.; Kaita, R.; Kessel, C.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H. W.; Lawson, J.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lee, K. C.; Levinton, F.; Manickam, J.; Maqueda, R.; Marsala, R.; Mastrovito, D.; Mau, T. K.; Medley, S. S.; Meyer, H.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mueller, D.; Munsat, T.; Nelson, B. A.; Neumeyer, C.; Nishino, N.; Ono, M.; Park, H.; Park, W.; Paul, S.; Peebles, W.; Peng, M.; Phillips, C.; Pigarov, A.; Pinsker, R.; Ram, A.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Redi, M.; Rensink, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Robinson, J.; Roney, P.; Roquemore, L.; Ruskov, E.; Ryan, P.; Schneider, H.; Skinner, C. H.; Smith, D. R.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stevenson, T.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Tritz, K.; Halle, A. von; Wade, M.; White, R.; Wilgen, J.; Williams, M.; Zhu, W.; Zweben, S. J.; Akers, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Betti, R.; Bigelow, T.

    2006-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has explored the effects of shaping on plasma performance as determined by many diverse topics including the stability of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes (e.g., ideal external kinks and resistive wall modes), edge localized modes (ELMs), bootstrap current drive, divertor flux expansion, and heat transport. Improved shaping capability has been crucial to achieving βt ~ 40%. Precise plasma shape control has been achieved on NSTX using real-time equilibrium reconstruction. NSTX has simultaneously achieved elongation κ ~ 2.8 and triangularity delta ~ 0.8. Ideal MHD theory predicts increased stability at high values of shaping factor S equivalent to q95Ip/(aBt), which has been observed at large values of the S ~ 37[MA/(m • T)] on NSTX. The behavior of ELMs is observed to depend on plasma shape. A description of the ELM regimes attained as shape is varied will be presented. Increased shaping is predicted to increase the bootstrap fraction at fixed Ip. The achievement of strong shaping has enabled operation with 1 s pulses with Ip=1 MA, and for 1.6 s for Ip=700 kA. Analysis of the noninductive current fraction as well as empirical analysis of the achievable plasma pulse length as elongation is varied will be presented. Data are presented showing a reduction in peak divertor heat load due to increasing in flux expansion.

  2. Effect of plasma shaping on performance in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D.A.; Menard, J.; Kaye, S.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J.R.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bernabei, S.; Biewer, T.; Blanchard, W.; Darrow, D.S.; Davis, W.; Diem, S.; Foley, J.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Hatcher, R.E.; Hill, K.; Hosea, J.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaita, R.

    2006-05-15

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has explored the effects of shaping on plasma performance as determined by many diverse topics including the stability of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes (e.g., ideal external kinks and resistive wall modes), edge localized modes (ELMs), bootstrap current drive, divertor flux expansion, and heat transport. Improved shaping capability has been crucial to achieving {beta}{sub t}{approx}40%. Precise plasma shape control has been achieved on NSTX using real-time equilibrium reconstruction. NSTX has simultaneously achieved elongation {kappa}{approx}2.8 and triangularity {delta}{approx}0.8. Ideal MHD theory predicts increased stability at high values of shaping factor S{identical_to}q{sub 95}I{sub p}/(aB{sub t}), which has been observed at large values of the S{approx}37[MA/(m{center_dot}T)] on NSTX. The behavior of ELMs is observed to depend on plasma shape. A description of the ELM regimes attained as shape is varied will be presented. Increased shaping is predicted to increase the bootstrap fraction at fixed I{sub p}. The achievement of strong shaping has enabled operation with 1 s pulses with I{sub p}=1 MA, and for 1.6 s for I{sub p}=700 kA. Analysis of the noninductive current fraction as well as empirical analysis of the achievable plasma pulse length as elongation is varied will be presented. Data are presented showing a reduction in peak divertor heat load due to increasing in flux expansion.

  3. Effects of window size and shape on accuracy of subpixel centroid estimation of target images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Sharon S.

    1993-01-01

    A new algorithm is presented for increasing the accuracy of subpixel centroid estimation of (nearly) point target images in cases where the signal-to-noise ratio is low and the signal amplitude and shape vary from frame to frame. In the algorithm, the centroid is calculated over a data window that is matched in width to the image distribution. Fourier analysis is used to explain the dependency of the centroid estimate on the size of the data window, and simulation and experimental results are presented which demonstrate the effects of window size for two different noise models. The effects of window shape were also investigated for uniform and Gaussian-shaped windows. The new algorithm was developed to improve the dynamic range of a close-range photogrammetric tracking system that provides feedback for control of a large gap magnetic suspension system (LGMSS).

  4. Shape-memory effect of nanocomposites based on liquid-crystalline elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marotta, A.; Lama, G. C.; Gentile, G.; Cerruti, P.; Carfagna, C.; Ambrogi, V.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, nanocomposites based on liquid crystalline (LC) elastomers were prepared and characterized in their shape memory properties. For the synthesis of materials, p-bis(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-α-methylstilbene (DOMS) was used as mesogenic epoxy monomer, sebacic acid (SA) as curing agent and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and graphene oxide (GO) as fillers. First, an effective compatibilization methodology was set up to improve the interfacial adhesion between the matrix and the carbonaceous nanofillers, thus obtaining homogeneous distribution and dispersion of the nanofillers within the polymer phase. Then, the obtained nanocomposite films were characterized in their morphological and thermal properties. In particular, the effect of the addition of the nanofillers on liquid crystalline behavior, as well as on shape-memory properties of the realized materials was investigated. It was found that both fillers were able to enhance the thermomechanical response of the LC elastomers, making them good candidates as shape memory materials.

  5. Activity and effective connectivity of parietal and occipital cortical regions during haptic shape perception.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Scott; Stilla, Randall; Mariola, Erica; LaConte, Stephen; Hu, Xiaoping; Sathian, K

    2007-02-01

    It is now widely accepted that visual cortical areas are active during normal tactile perception, but the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. The goal of the present study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the activity and effective connectivity of parietal and occipital cortical areas during haptic shape perception, with a view to potentially clarifying the role of top-down and bottom-up inputs into visual areas. Subjects underwent fMRI scanning while engaging in discrimination of haptic shape or texture, and in separate runs, visual shape or texture. Accuracy did not differ significantly between tasks. Haptic shape-selective regions, identified on a contrast between the haptic shape and texture conditions in individual subjects, were found bilaterally in the postcentral sulcus (PCS), multiple parts of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the lateral occipital complex (LOC). The IPS and LOC foci tended to be shape-selective in the visual modality as well. Structural equation modelling was used to study the effective connectivity among the haptic shape-selective regions in the left hemisphere, contralateral to the stimulated hand. All possible models were tested for their fit to the correlations among the observed time-courses of activity. Two equivalent models emerged as the winners. These models, which were quite similar, were characterized by both bottom-up paths from the PCS to parts of the IPS, and top-down paths from the LOC and parts of the IPS to the PCS. We conclude that interactions between unisensory and multisensory cortical areas involve bidirectional information flow. PMID:16616940

  6. Tumbling in Turbulence: How much does particle shape effect particle motion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variano, E. A.; Andersson, H. I.; Zhao, L.; Byron, M.

    2014-12-01

    Natural particles suspended in surface water are often non-spherical. We explore the ways in which particle shape effects particle motion, focusing specifically on how particle rotation is divided into spinning and tumbling components. This, in turn, will effect particle collision, clustering, and settling rates. We focus on idealized axisymmetric particles shaped as rods, discs, and spheroids. They are chosen so as to explain the physics of aspherical-particle motion that will be relevant for natural particles such as plankton, sediment, or aggregates (e.g. oil-mineral aggregates, clay flocs, or bio-sediment aggregates held together by TEP). Our work begins with laboratory measurements of particle motion in a turbulence tank built to mimic the flow found in rivers, estuaries, and the ocean surface mixed layer. We then proceed to direct numerical simulation of particle-flow interactions in sheared turbulence similar to that which is found in the surface water of creeks and rivers. We find that shape has only a very weak effect on particle angular velocity, which is a quantity calculated with respect the global reference frame (i.e. east/north/up). If we analyze rotation in a particle's local frame (i.e. the particle's principle axes of rotation), then particle shape has a strong effect on rotation. In the local frame, rotation is described by two components: tumbling and spinning. We find that rod-shaped particles spin more than they tumble, and we find that disc-shaped particles tumble more than they spin. Such behavior is indicative of how particles respond the the directional influence of vortex tubes in turbulence, and such response has implications for particle motion other than rotation. Understanding particle alignment is relevant for predicting particle-particle collision rates, particle-wall collision rates, and the shear-driven breakup of aggregates. We discuss these briefly in the context of what can be concluded from the rotation data discussed above.

  7. Effect of cathode shape on vertical buffered electropolishing for niobium SRF cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, S.; Wu, A. T.; Lu, X. Y.; Rimmer, R. A.; Lin, L.; Zhao, K.; Mammosser, J.; Gao, J.

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports the research results of the effect of cathode shape during vertical buffered electropolishing (BEP) by employing a demountable single cell niobium (Nb) superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity. Several different cathode shapes such as, for instance, bar, ball, ellipsoid, and wheels of different diameters have been tested. Detailed electropolishing parameters including I-V characteristic, removal rate, surface roughness, and polishing uniformity at different locations inside the demountable cavity are measured. Similar studies are also done on conventional electropolishing (EP) for comparison. It is revealed that cathode shape has dominant effects for BEP especially on the obtaining of a suitable polishing condition and a uniform polishing rate in an Nb SRF single cell cavity. EP appears to have the same tendency. This paper demonstrates that a more homogeneous polishing result can be obtained by optimizing the electric field distribution inside the cavity through the modification of the cathode shape given the conditions that temperature and electrolyte flow are kept constant. Electric field distribution and electrolyte flow patterns inside the cavity are simulated via Poisson-Superfish and Solidworks respectively. With the optimal cathode shape, BEP shows a much faster polishing rate of ∼2.5 μm/min and is able to produce a smoother surface finish in the treatments of single cell cavities in comparison with EP.

  8. Effect of cathode shape on vertical buffered electropolishing for niobium SRF cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Song; Wu, Andy T.; Lu, Xiangyang; Rimmer, Robert A.; Lin, Lin; Zhao, K.; Mammosser, John D.; Gao, Jie

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports the research results of the effect of cathode shape during vertical buffered electropolishing (BEP) by employing a demountable single cell niobium (Nb) superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity. Several different cathode shapes such as, for instance, bar, ball, ellipsoid, and wheels of different diameters have been tested. Detailed electropolishing parameters including I–V characteristic, removal rate, surface roughness, and polishing uniformity at different locations inside the demountable cavity are measured. Similar studies are also done on conventional electropolishing (EP) for comparison. It is revealed that cathode shape has dominant effects for BEP especially on the obtaining of a suitable polishing condition and a uniform polishing rate in an Nb SRF single cell cavity. EP appears to have the same tendency. This paper demonstrates that a more homogeneous polishing result can be obtained by optimizing the electric field distribution inside the cavity through the modification of the cathode shape given the conditions that temperature and electrolyte flow are kept constant. Electric field distribution and electrolyte flow patterns inside the cavity are simulated via Poisson–Superfish and Solidworks respectively. With the optimal cathode shape, BEP shows a much faster polishing rate of ∼2.5 μm/min and is able to produce a smoother surface finish in the treatments of single cell cavities in comparison with EP.

  9. Effect of shape on the self-assembly of faceted patchy nanoplates with irregular shape into tiling patterns.

    PubMed

    Millan, Jaime A; Ortiz, Daniel; Glotzer, Sharon C

    2015-02-01

    Recent reports of the synthesis and assembly of faceted nanoplates with a wide range of shapes and composition motivates the possibility of a new class of two-dimensional materials with specific patterns targeted for a host of exciting properties. Yet, studies of how nanoplate shape controls their assembly - knowledge necessary for their inverse design from target structures - has been performed for only a handful of systems. By constructing a general framework in which many known faceted nanoplates may be described in terms of four anisotropy dimensions, we discover design rules to guide future synthesis and assembly. We study via Monte Carlo simulations attractive polygons whose shape is altered systematically under the following four transformations: faceting, pinching, elongation and truncation. We report that (i) faceting leads to regular porous structures (ii) pinching stabilizes complex structures such as dodecagonal quasicrystals (iii) elongation leads to asymmetric phase behavior, where low and high aspect ratio nanoplates self-assemble completely different structures and (iv) low and high degrees of truncation transform a complex self-assembler into a disk-like assembler, providing design ideas that could lead to switchable structures. We provide important insight into how the shape and attractive interactions of a nanoplate can be exploited or designed to target specific classes of structures, including space-filling, porous, and complex tilings. PMID:25579173

  10. Effects of grain size and shape in modeling reflectance spectra of mineral mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiroi, T.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of grain size and shape on the reflectance spectra of mineral mixtures are investigated to improve a reflectance model called the isograin model, whose prototype was proposed by M. Kinoshita in 1985. The sample powder was assumed to consist of an infinite number of layers, each of which has the same thickness with the grain size d.

  11. The effect of fragment shape and species' sensitivity to habitat edges on animal population size.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Robert M; Didham, Raphael K

    2007-08-01

    Habitat fragmentation causes extinction of local animal populations by decreasing the amount of viable "core" habitat area and increasing edge effects. It is widely accepted that larger fragments make better nature reserves because core-dwelling species have a larger amount of suitable habitat. Nevertheless, fragments in real landscapes have complex, irregular shapes. We modeled the population sizes of species that have a representative range of preferences for or aversions to habitat edges at five spatial scales (within 10, 32, 100, 320, and 1000 m of an edge) in a nation-wide analysis of forest remnants in New Zealand. We hypothesized that the irregular shapes of fragments in real landscapes should generate statistically significant correlations between population density and fragment area, purely as a "geometric" effect of varying species responses to the distribution of edge habitat. Irregularly shaped fragments consistently reduced the population size of core-dwelling species by 10-100%, depending on the scale over which species responded to habitat edges. Moreover, core populations within individual fragments were spatially discontinuous, containing multiple, disjunct populations that inhabited small spatial areas and had reduced population size. The geometric effect was highly nonlinear and depended on the range of fragment sizes sampled and the scale at which species responded to habitat edges. Fragment shape played a strong role in determining population size in fragmented landscapes; thus, habitat restoration efforts may be more effective if they focus on connecting disjunct cores rather than isolated fragments. PMID:17650243

  12. Effect of display polarity and luminance contrast on visual lobe shape characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Steve N H; Chan, Alan H S; Yu, R F

    2012-01-01

    The effect of display polarity and luminance contrast on visual lobe (effective visual field) shape characteristics was studied using three levels of luminance contrast with combinations of positive and negative polarities. The binocular effective visual field for a detection task, with a peripherally presented target (V) embedded in a homogeneous competing background (Xs), was mapped on 24 imaginary axes passing through the fixation point. The results showed that visual lobes mapped using positive polarity were statistically larger in area, rounder and more regular in shape than those for negative polarity. The medium contrast condition lobes were more symmetric and regular than low contrast condition lobes, and lobe area and perimeter increased with increasing luminance contrast ratio. Under the interaction of positive polarity and high luminance contrast, visual lobes were found to be larger, smoother and rounder. The high level of luminance and contrast however resulted in a higher degree of visual discomfort. The results indicated that positive polarity and contrast of medium (26:1) to high (41:1) levels are possible display settings for better visual lobe characteristics and better anticipated search performance. Practitioner Summary: The effect of display polarity and luminance contrast on visual lobe shape characteristics was examined with uniform stimulus materials in this study. The results help to identify the optimum display settings for luminance contrast and display polarity to enhance lobe shape characteristics and hence search performance in industrial inspection tasks. PMID:22676836

  13. Effect of Using Logo on Pupils' Learning in Two-Dimensional Shapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Boo Jia; Eu, Leong Kwan

    2016-01-01

    The integration of technology in mathematics instruction is an important step in the 21st century learning style. At the primary level, some studies have explored how technology could help in mathematics learning. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of using Logo on pupils' learning of the properties of two-dimensional shapes. A…

  14. Effect of various shapes and materials on the generated power for piezoelectric energy harvesting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Sarabjeet; Graak, Pinki; Gupta, Ankita; Chhabra, Priya; Kumar, Dinesh; Shetty, Arjun

    2016-04-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting systems are used to convert vicinity vibrations into useful electrical energy. Effect of various shapes and materials open the gateway towards the choice of maximum power generation for the micro and nano world. Comsol Multiphysics was used to simulate the four designed shapes named as Pi, E, Rectangular and T in the size range of less than 1mm but greater than 1 micron. Designed shapes worked under the impact of ambient vibrations using few piezoelectric materials for the maximum power generation so that traditional power sources can be replaced with such piezoelectric energy harvester. A layer of piezoelectric material (PZT-5H, AlN, BaTiO3) of thickness 0.5 µm is added to the cantilever and the base material is silicon of thickness 1.5 µm. Simulations were performed using the piezoelectric device module of Comsol Multiphysics. All three materials were studied for the all four cantilever geometries. The generated power was observed maximum as 382.5 µW in case of the barium titanate material with rectangular shape geometry but the displacement is 0.132 µm which is very less whereas E shape cantilever shows the maximum displacement of 0.6078 µm in case of PZT-5H, Hence rectangular shape with barium titanate material is concluded to be good for maximum power generation but the displacement factor cannot be neglected, hence the cantilever with E shape geometry is considered as the best with a generated power of 49.005 µW and a displacement of 0.6078 µm.

  15. Effects of buffer size and shape on associations between the built environment and energy balance.

    PubMed

    James, Peter; Berrigan, David; Hart, Jaime E; Hipp, J Aaron; Hoehner, Christine M; Kerr, Jacqueline; Major, Jacqueline M; Oka, Masayoshi; Laden, Francine

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainty in the relevant spatial context may drive heterogeneity in findings on the built environment and energy balance. To estimate the effect of this uncertainty, we conducted a sensitivity analysis defining intersection and business densities and counts within different buffer sizes and shapes on associations with self-reported walking and body mass index. Linear regression results indicated that the scale and shape of buffers influenced study results and may partly explain the inconsistent findings in the built environment and energy balance literature. PMID:24607875

  16. Effects of Buffer Size and Shape on Associations between the Built Environment and Energy Balance

    PubMed Central

    Berrigan, David; Hart, Jaime E.; Hipp, J. Aaron; Hoehner, Christine M.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Major, Jacqueline M.; Oka, Masayoshi; Laden, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty in the relevant spatial context may drive heterogeneity in findings on the built environment and energy balance. To estimate the effect of this uncertainty, we conducted a sensitivity analysis defining intersection and business densities and counts within different buffer sizes and shapes on associations with self-reported walking and body mass index. Linear regression results indicated that the scale and shape of buffers influenced study results and may partly explain the inconsistent findings in the built environment and energy balance literature. PMID:24607875

  17. Stress-strain behavior and shape memory effect in powder metallurgy TiNi alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, H.; Koyari, T.; Miura, S. . Dept. of Engineering Science); Tokizane, M. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    The shape memory properties of the TiNi alloy produced by a powder metallurgical method have been evaluated from tensile stress-strain curves. The contamination of the powders during atomization can be suppressed by applying the Plasma Rotating Electrode Process (P-REP), so that the compact made by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) is expected to exhibit the shape memory effect identical to the typical alloy grown from melt. The fracture behavior of the P/M alloy is also studied, and the improvement of fracture strength of the P/M alloy is attempted.

  18. Effect of fiber shape on mechanical behavior of composite with elastoplastic matrix and SMA reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuping; Dui, Guansuo

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, an equivalent three-phase micromechanical model of composite with an elasto- plastic matrix and shape memory alloy (SMA) reinforcement is developed. Compared with the traditional two-phase method, the interaction among the austenitic phase, the martensite phase and the matrix phase is considered. During applications of the model, the predicted curve shows good agreement with the experimental result. Most attention is given to the effect of fiber shape on the overall response of the composite and the residual stress. It is helpful to design an intelligent composite. PMID:19627851

  19. Aerodynamic characteristics, including effect of body shape, of a Mach 6 aircraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riebe, G. D.

    1983-01-01

    Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics for a hydrogen-fueled hypersonic transport concept at Mach 6 are presented. The model components consist of four bodies with identical longitudinal area distributions but different cross-sectional shapes and widths, a wing, horizontal and vertical tails, and a set of wing-mounted nacelles simulated by slid bodies on the wing upper surface. Lift-drag ratios were found to be only sightly affected by fuselage planform width or cross sectional shape. Relative distribution of fuselage volume above and below the wing was found to have an effect on the lift-drag ratio, with a higher lift drag ratio produced by the higher wing position.

  20. Process Design by FEM Simulation for Shape Ring Rolling of Large-Sized Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. S.; Lee, M. W.; Park, S. S.; Lee, I.; Moon, Y. H.

    2010-06-01

    Ring rolling process is usually used to fabricate large-sized ring, such as, tower flange for wind power electric generator. Many kinds of seamless ring are used in wind power electric generator and manufactured by ring rolling process. In general, final part is machined after forming with shape of plain square section. Since interests for near net shaping of seamless ring have been increased gradually because of green energy, it is necessary to develop the technology for shape ring rolling with respect to the market demands and cost. Therefore, we studied the process and die design for shape ring rolling of large sized ring over 3,500 mm out diameter by experiment and FEM simulation. Ring rolling process is very difficult to solve by FEM method because of equilibrium state and size effect, etc. Moreover, shape ring rolling is more difficult to solve the problem that two plastic deformation zones are different each other, that is main roll and conical roll. Also since conical roll has a shape, deformation velocity field is very much complex and the deformed section passed axial roll is different section and velocity field. The FE simulations are performed to analyze process variables affected in forming of profiled ring. Therefore, the main features of used FE model are: (1) it adopts a transient or unsteady state full ring mesh to model the deformation processes and shape development; (2) the mandrel and conical rolls are modeled using coupled heat-transfer elements; (3) the model involves the full process from blank through perform to final profiled ring. From these calculated results, we have proposed the mechanisms of various tools, such as mandrel and conical roll. The calculated results are compared experimental results. Calculated results can predict the tilting of profiled ring and then process variables to form large sized ring.

  1. Process Design by FEM Simulation for Shape Ring Rolling of Large-Sized Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y. S.; Lee, M. W.; Park, S. S.; Lee, I.; Moon, Y. H.

    2010-06-15

    Ring rolling process is usually used to fabricate large-sized ring, such as, tower flange for wind power electric generator. Many kinds of seamless ring are used in wind power electric generator and manufactured by ring rolling process. In general, final part is machined after forming with shape of plain square section. Since interests for near net shaping of seamless ring have been increased gradually because of green energy, it is necessary to develop the technology for shape ring rolling with respect to the market demands and cost. Therefore, we studied the process and die design for shape ring rolling of large sized ring over 3,500 mm out diameter by experiment and FEM simulation. Ring rolling process is very difficult to solve by FEM method because of equilibrium state and size effect, etc. Moreover, shape ring rolling is more difficult to solve the problem that two plastic deformation zones are different each other, that is main roll and conical roll. Also since conical roll has a shape, deformation velocity field is very much complex and the deformed section passed axial roll is different section and velocity field. The FE simulations are performed to analyze process variables affected in forming of profiled ring. Therefore, the main features of used FE model are: (1) it adopts a transient or unsteady state full ring mesh to model the deformation processes and shape development; (2) the mandrel and conical rolls are modeled using coupled heat-transfer elements; (3) the model involves the full process from blank through perform to final profiled ring. From these calculated results, we have proposed the mechanisms of various tools, such as mandrel and conical roll. The calculated results are compared experimental results. Calculated results can predict the tilting of profiled ring and then process variables to form large sized ring.

  2. Effect of crash pulse shape on seat stroke requirements for limiting loads on occupants of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical study was made to provide comparative information on various crash pulse shapes that potentially could be used to test seats under conditions included in Federal Regulations Part 23 Paragraph 23.562(b)(1) for dynamic testing of general aviation seats, show the effects that crash pulse shape can have on the seat stroke requirements necessary to maintain a specified limit loading on the seat/occupant during crash pulse loadings, compare results from certain analytical model pulses with approximations of actual crash pulses, and compare analytical seat results with experimental airplace crash data. Structural and seat/occupant displacement equations in terms of the maximum deceleration, velocity change, limit seat pan load, and pulse time for five potentially useful pulse shapes were derived; from these, analytical seat stroke data were obtained for conditions as specified in Federal Regulations Part 23 Paragraph 23.562(b)(1) for dynamic testing of general aviation seats.

  3. Effects of energy distribution of interface traps on recombination dc current-voltage line shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zuhui; Jie, Bin B.; Sah, Chih-Tang

    2006-12-01

    The effects of energy distributions of Si /SiO2 interface traps in the energy gap of oxidized silicon on the current versus voltage line shape of the electron-hole recombination current are analyzed using the steady-state Shockley-Read-Hall kinetics. Slater's [Insulators, Semiconductors and Metals; Quantum Theory of Molecules and Solids (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1967)] localized bulk perturbation theory applied by us to the interface anticipates U-shaped energy distributions of the density of neutral electron and hole interface traps from random variations of the Si:Si and Si:O bond angles and lengths. Conservation in dissipative transition energy anticipates the rate of electron capture into neutral electron trap to be faster for electron trap energy levels nearer the conduction band edge, and similarly, the rate of hole capture into neutral hole trap to be faster for hole trap energy levels nearer the valence band edge. Line shape broadening is analyzed for discrete and U-shaped energy distributions of interface trap energy levels. The broadened line shapes observed in past experiments, previously attributed to spatial variations of surface dopant impurity concentrations, could also arise from energy distributions of interface trap energy levels.

  4. A biarc-based shape optimization approach to reduce stress concentration effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Liang; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Zhu, Ji-Hong; Xia, Liang

    2014-06-01

    In order to avoid stress concentration, the shape boundary must be properly designed via shape optimization. Traditional shape optimization approach eliminates the stress concentration effect by using free-form curve to present the design boundaries without taking the machinability into consideration. In most numerical control (NC) machines, linear as well as circular interpolations are used to generate the tool path. Non-circular curves, such as nonuniform rotational B-spline (NURBS), need other more advanced interpolation functions to formulate the tool path. Forming the circular tool path by approximating the optimal free curve boundary with arcs or biarcs is another option. However, these two approaches are both at a cost of sharp expansion of program code and long machining time consequently. Motivated by the success of recent researches on biarcs, a reliable shape optimization approach is proposed in this work to directly optimize the shape boundaries with biarcs while the efficiency and precision of traditional method are preserved. Finally, the approach is validated by several illustrative examples.

  5. The effect of particle shape on mixing in a high shear mixer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnott, Matthew D.; Cleary, Paul W.

    2015-09-01

    Discrete element method modelling is used to study the effect of particle shape on the flow dynamics and mixing in a high shear mixer. The blade generates strong flow over its top surface while compacting and pushing forward particles that are directly in front of the blade. A complex three dimensional flow is established with vertical and radial flow components that are shape dependent and which control the nature of the mixing. Mixing was found to be fast in the azimuthal direction, of intermediate speed in the vertical direction and comparatively slow in the radial mixing. Diffusive mixing is characterised using the granular temperature which shows that the regions of higher granular temperature are larger for round particles than non-round ones leading to stronger diffusive mixing. The spatial distribution of the convective component of mixing is identified using novel calculation of shear strain rate. This size and shape of the high shear region is found to be only slightly sensitive to the particle shape indicating that the convective mixing is relatively independent of shape, except in the middle of the mixer. The blockiness of the particles has the strongest impact on flow and mixing while the mixing has only a weak dependence on the particle aspect ratio.

  6. Competing Classical and Quantum Effects in Shape Relaxation of a Metallic Nanostructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Dongmin; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Yamada, Toshishi; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that the quantum size effect (QSE) plays a competing role along side the classical thermodynamic effect in the shape relaxation of a small metallic island. Together, these effects transforms a lead(Pb) island grown on Si(111) substrate from its initially flattop faceted morphology to a peculiar ring-shape island, a process catalysed by the tip electric field of a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM). We shall show for the first time how QSE affects the relaxation process dynamically. In particular, it leads to a novel strip-flow growth and double-step growth on selective strips of a plateau inside the ring, defined by the substrate steps more than 60?0?3 below. It appears that atoms diffusing on the plateau can clearly (sub i)(deg)sense(sub i)+/- the quantized energy states inside the island and have preferentially attached to regions that further reduces the surface energy as a result of the QSE, limiting its own growth and stabilizing the ring shape. The mechanism proposed here offers a sound explanation for ring shape metal and semiconductor islands observed in other systems as well.

  7. Performance of AlGaN/GaN Nanowire Omega-Shaped-Gate Fin-Shaped Field-Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Gi; Sindhuri, V; Jo, Young-Woo; Son, Dong-Hyeok; Kang, Hee-Sung; Lee, Jae-Hong; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Cristoloveanu, Sorin; Im, Ki-Sik; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2016-05-01

    The AlGaN/GaN nanowire omega-shaped-gate FinFET have been successfully fabricated demonstrating much improved performance compared to conventional AlGaN/GaN MISHFET. The AlGaN/GaN omega-shaped-gate FinFET exhibited the remarkable on-state performances, such as maximum drain current of 1.1 A/mm, low on-resistance, and low current collapse compared to that of the conventional device structure. In addition, the excellent off-state performances were measured: low off-state leakage current as low as -10(-10) mA, the theoretical SS value of -62 mV/dec, and high I(ON)/I(OFF) ratio (-10(9)). Improved dc performances were obtained for omega-shaped-gate structure due to the fully depletion of the active fin body and perfectly separation of the depleted fin from the underlying thick GaN buffer layer. Furthermore, the additional reason for the enhanced device performance of the proposed device is the improved gate controllability compared to the conventional MISHFET. The proposed nano-structure device is very promising candidate for the steep switching device applications. PMID:27483869

  8. Ferromagnetic effects for peristaltic flow of Cu-water nanofluid for different shapes of nanosize particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Butt, Adil Wahid

    2016-03-01

    In this study, tube flow of Cu-water nanofluid is considered with effect of different shaped nanoparticles. Hamilton-Crosser model is used for the effective thermal conductivity of the nanofluids. In addition, heat transfer through the tube is also studied for this problem. Exact solutions are obtained for governing modified equations with long wavelength and low Reynold number approximation case, and are discussed graphically.

  9. Clarification of effects of DDE on shell thickness, size, mass, and shape of avian eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Bunck, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Moriarty et al. (1986) used field data to conclude that DDE decreased the size or altered the shape of avian eggs; therefore, they postulated that decreased eggshell thickness was a secondary effect because, as a general rule, thickness and egg size are positively correlated. To further test this relationship, the present authors analyzed data from eggs of captive American kestrels. Falco sparverius given DDT- or DDE-contaminated or clean diets and from wild brown pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis collected both before (pre-1946) and after (post-1945) DDT was introduced into the environment. Pertinent data from other field and laboratory studies were also summarized. DDE was not related to and did not affect size, mass, or shape of eggs of the brown pelican or American kestrel; but the relationship of DDE to eggshell thinning held true. Size and shape of eggs of brown pelicans from the post-1945 era and those of kestrels, on DDT-contaminated diets showed some significant, but inconsistent, changes compared to brown pelican data from the pre-1946 era or kestrels on clean diets. In contrast, nearly all samples of eggs of experimental kestrels given DDT-contaminated diets and those of wild brown pelicans from the post-1945 era exhibited significant eggshell thinning. Pertinent experimental studies with other sensitive avian species indicated no effects of DDE on the size or shape of eggs, even though the high dietary concentrations caused extreme eggshell thinning and mortality of some adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in one study. These findings essentially controvert the argument that decreased eggshell thickness is a secondary effect resulting from the primary effect of DDE-induced changes in the size or shape of eggs.

  10. Shape effect in cellular uptake of PEGylated nanoparticles: comparison between sphere, rod, cube and disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Kröger, Martin; Liu, Wing Kam

    2015-10-01

    The size, shape, surface property and material composition of polymer-coated nanoparticles (NPs) are four important parameters in designing efficient NP-based carriers for targeted drug delivery. However, due to the complex interplay between size, shape and surface property, most studies lead to ambiguous descriptions of the relevance of shape. To clarify its influence on the cellular uptake of PEGylated NPs, large scale molecular simulations have been performed to study differently shaped convex NPs, such as sphere, rod, cube and disk. Comparing systems with identical NP surface area, ligand-receptor interaction strength, and grafting density of the polyethylene glycol, we find that the spherical NPs exhibit the fastest internalization rate, followed by the cubic NPs, then rod- and disk-like NPs. The spherical NPs thus demonstrate the highest uptake among these differently shaped NPs. Based on a detailed free energy analysis, the NP shape effect is found to be mainly induced by the different membrane bending energies during endocytosis. The spherical NPs need to overcome a minimal membrane bending energy barrier, compared with the non-spherical counterparts, while the internalization of disk-like NPs involves a strong membrane deformation, responsible for a large free energy barrier. Besides, the free energy change per tethered chain is about a single kBT regardless of NP shape, as revealed by our self-consistent field theory calculations, where kB and T denote Boltzmann constant and temperature, respectively. Thus, the NP shape only plays the secondary role in the free energy change of grafted PEG polymers during internalization. We also find that star-shaped NPs can be quickly wrapped by the cell membrane, similar to their spherical counterparts, indicating star-shaped NPs can be used for drug delivery with high efficacy. Our findings seem to provide useful guidance in the molecular design of PEGylated NPs for controllable cellular uptake and help establish

  11. Electric Field Induced Reversible Phase Transition in Li Doped Phosphorene: Shape Memory Effect and Superelasticity.

    PubMed

    Deng, Junkai; Chang, Zhenyue; Zhao, Tong; Ding, Xiangdong; Sun, Jun; Liu, Jefferson Zhe

    2016-04-13

    Phosphorene, the single-layer form of black phosphorus, as a new member of atomically thin material family, has unique puckered atomistic structure and remarkable physical and chemical properties. In this paper, we report a discovery of an unexpected electromechanical energy conversion phenomenon-shape memory effect-in Li doped phosphorene P4Li2, using ab initio density functional theory simulations. Two stable phases are found for the two-dimensional (2D) P4Li2 crystal. Applying an external electric field can turn on or off the unique adatom switches in P4Li2 crystals, leading to a reversible structural phase transition and thereby the shape memory effect with an tunable strain output as high as 2.06%. Our results demonstrate that multiple temporary shapes are attainable in one piece of P4Li2 material, offering programmability that is particularly useful for device designs. Additionally, the P4Li2 displays superelasticity that can generate a pseudoelastic tensile strain up to 6.2%. The atomic thickness, superior flexibility, excellent electromechanical strain output, the special shape memory phenomenon, and the programmability feature endow P4Li2 with great application potential in high-efficient energy conversion at nanoscale and flexible nanoelectromechanical systems. PMID:27043220

  12. Effects of star-shape poly(alkyl methacrylate) arm uniformity on lubricant properties

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Robinson, Joshua W.; Qu, Jun; Erck, Robert; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Zhou, Yan

    2016-03-29

    Star-shaped poly(alkyl methacrylate)s (PAMAs) were prepared and blended into an additive-free engine oil to assess the structure property relationship between macromolecular structure and lubricant performance. These additives were designed with a comparable number of repeating units per arm and the number of arms was varied between 3 and 6. Well-defined star-shaped PAMAs were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) via a core-first strategy from multi-functional headgroups. Observations of the polymer-oil blends suggest that stars with less than four arms are favorable as a viscosity index improver (VII), and molecular weight dominates viscosity-related effects over other structural features. Star-shaped PAMAs,more » as oil additives, effectively reduce the friction coefficient in both mixed and boundary lubrication regime. Several analogs outperformed commercial VIIs in both viscosity and friction performance. Furthermore, increased wear rates were observed for these star-shaped PAMAs in the boundary lubrication regime suggesting pressure-sensitive conformations may exist.« less

  13. Buckling in 2D periodic, soft and porous structures: effect of pore shape and lattice pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Sicong; Bertoldi, Katia; Shim, Jongmin; Overvelde, Johannes T. B.; Kang, Sung Hoon

    2013-03-01

    Adaptive structures allowing dramatic shape changes offer unique opportunities for the design of responsive and reconfigurable devices. Traditional morphing and foldable structures with stiff structural members and mechanical joints remains a challenge in manufacturing at small length scales. Soft structures where the folding mechanisms are induced by a mechanical instability represent a new class of novel adaptive materials which can be easily manufactured over a wide range of length scales. More specifically, soft porous structures with deliberately designed patterns can significantly change their architecture in response to diverse stimuli, opening avenues for reconfigurable devices that change their shapes to respond to their environment. While so far only two-dimensional periodic porous structures with circular holes arranged on a square or triangular lattice have been investigated, here we investigate both numerically and experimentally the effects of pore shape and lattice pattern on the macroscopic properties of the structures. Our results show that both the pore shape and lattice pattern can be used to effectively design desired materials and pave the way for the development of a new class of soft, active and reconfigurable devices over a wide range of length scales.

  14. Shape effects of filaments versus spherical particles in flow and drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Yan; Dalhaimer, Paul; Cai, Shenshen; Tsai, Richard; Tewari, Manorama; Minko, Tamara; Discher, Dennis E.

    2007-04-01

    Interaction of spherical particles with cells and within animals has been studied extensively, but the effects of shape have received little attention. Here we use highly stable, polymer micelle assemblies known as filomicelles to compare the transport and trafficking of flexible filaments with spheres of similar chemistry. In rodents, filomicelles persisted in the circulation up to one week after intravenous injection. This is about ten times longer than their spherical counterparts and is more persistent than any known synthetic nanoparticle. Under fluid flow conditions, spheres and short filomicelles are taken up by cells more readily than longer filaments because the latter are extended by the flow. Preliminary results further demonstrate that filomicelles can effectively deliver the anticancer drug paclitaxel and shrink human-derived tumours in mice. Although these findings show that long-circulating vehicles need not be nanospheres, they also lend insight into possible shape effects of natural filamentous viruses.

  15. Size and shape effects on receptor-mediated endocytosis of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinlei

    2012-01-01

    We present a thermodynamic approach to elucidate the effects of the size and shape of nanoparticles (NPs) on endocytosis. It is found that endocytosis needs to surmount a thermodynamic energy barrier and has a minimum radius of NPs for endocytosis. Through referring to the concept of "diffusion length of receptors," we obtain a simple and analytical expression for the optimal size of NPs. Furthermore, a phase diagram has been constructed, which can clarify the interrelated effects of the radius and the aspect ratio of NPs. We can identify from the phase the relation between the geometry of NP and its endocytosis rate. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental observations and reveal physical mechanisms involved in the effects of the size and shape of NPs on endocytosis, which implies that these studies may provide useful guidance to the conscious design of NPs for diagnostic agents and drug delivery applications.

  16. Effect of liquid bridge shape on the oscillatory thermal Marangoni convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, T.; Nishino, K.

    2015-03-01

    The effect of liquid bridge shape on the instability and associated oscillation mode of Marangoni convection due to the temperature gradient along the free surface is experimentally studied. Although the onset condition of oscillatory state is known to depend on the liquid bridge shape, this effect is not completely understood yet. Onset conditions are measured for various combinations of the aspect ratio ( AR) and the volume ratio ( VR) of liquid bridges. It is found that the convection becomes most stabilized at a certain combination of AR and VR and also that the oscillation mode changes at this most stabilized condition. To account for the effects of AR and VR in a simple way, a new dimensionless parameter SDR (i.e., the ratio of the surface length to the neck diameter) is proposed. It is shown that all the onset conditions measured presently are well correlated with SDR.

  17. Particle shape effects on thermo-physical properties of alumina nanofluids.

    SciTech Connect

    Timofeeva, E.; Routbort, J.; Singh, D.

    2009-07-06

    The thermal conductivity and viscosity of various shapes of alumina nanoparticles in a fluid consisting of equal volumes of ethylene glycol and water were investigated. Experimental data were analyzed and accompanied by theoretical modeling. Enhancements in the effective thermal conductivities due to particle shape effects expected from Hamilton-Crosser equation are strongly diminished by interfacial effects proportional to the total surface area of nanoparticles. On the other hand, the presence of nanoparticles and small volume fractions of agglomerates with high aspect ratios strongly increases viscosity of suspensions due to structural constrains. Nanoparticle surface charge also plays an important role in viscosity. It is demonstrated that by adjusting pH of nanofluid, it is possible to reduce viscosity of alumina nanofluid without significantly affecting thermal conductivity. Efficiency of nanofluids (ratio of thermal conductivity and viscosity increase) for real-life cooling applications is evaluated in both the laminar and turbulent flow regimes using the experimental values of thermal conductivity and viscosity.

  18. Effects of additions of small amounts of fourth elements on structure, crystal structure and shape recovery of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.R. |; Yang, D.Z.; Tadaki, T.; Hirotsu, Y.

    1997-01-15

    Cu-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) are particularly interesting, compared to Ni-Ti SMAs because of their low cost and relatively ease process. However, there are important problems to be solved, such as intergranular fracture due to large grain size, stabilization of martensite, etc. In the present work, the influences of additions only less than 1 mass% of several fourth elements, such as Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Y, to two kinds of Cu-Zn-Al SMAs, i.e., Cu-30Zn-4Al and Cu-25Zn-7Al on their structure, crystal structure and shape recovery have been examined in order to know what elements are the most effective for the thermal stability of the parent and martensite phases and the shape memory capacity.

  19. Effects of X-shaped reduction-sensitive amphiphilic block copolymer on drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Haijun; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of X-shaped amphiphilic block copolymers on delivery of docetaxel (DTX) and the reduction-sensitive property on drug release, a novel reduction-sensitive amphiphilic copolymer, (PLGA)2-SS-4-arm-PEG2000 with a Gemini-like X-shape, was successfully synthesized. The formation of nanomicelles was proved with respect to the blue shift of the emission fluorescence as well as the fluorescent intensity increase of coumarin 6-loaded particles. The X-shaped polymers exhibited a smaller critical micelle concentration value and possessed higher micellar stability in comparison with those of linear ones. The size of X-shaped (PLGA)2-SS-4-arm-PEG2000 polymer nanomicelles (XNMs) was much smaller than that of nanomicelles prepared with linear polymers. The reduction sensitivity of polymers was confirmed by the increase of micellar sizes as well as the in vitro drug release profile of DTX-loaded XNMs (DTX/XNMs). Cytotoxicity assays in vitro revealed that the blank XNMs were nontoxic against A2780 cells up to a concentration of 50 µg/mL, displaying good biocompatibility. DTX/XNMs were more toxic against A2780 cells than other formulations in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Cellular uptake assay displayed a higher intracellular drug delivery efficiency of XNMs than that of nanomicelles prepared with linear polymers. Besides, the promotion of tubulin polymerization induced by DTX was visualized by immunofluorescence analysis, and the acceleration of apoptotic process against A2780 cells was also imaged using a fluorescent staining method. Therefore, this X-shaped reduction-sensitive (PLGA)2-SS-4-arm-PEG2000 copolymer could effectively improve the micellar stability and significantly enhance the therapeutic efficacy of DTX by increasing the cellular uptake and selectively accelerating the drug release inside cancer cells. PMID:26346880

  20. Effects of X-shaped reduction-sensitive amphiphilic block copolymer on drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Haijun; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of X-shaped amphiphilic block copolymers on delivery of docetaxel (DTX) and the reduction-sensitive property on drug release, a novel reduction-sensitive amphiphilic copolymer, (PLGA)2-SS-4-arm-PEG2000 with a Gemini-like X-shape, was successfully synthesized. The formation of nanomicelles was proved with respect to the blue shift of the emission fluorescence as well as the fluorescent intensity increase of coumarin 6-loaded particles. The X-shaped polymers exhibited a smaller critical micelle concentration value and possessed higher micellar stability in comparison with those of linear ones. The size of X-shaped (PLGA)2-SS-4-arm-PEG2000 polymer nanomicelles (XNMs) was much smaller than that of nanomicelles prepared with linear polymers. The reduction sensitivity of polymers was confirmed by the increase of micellar sizes as well as the in vitro drug release profile of DTX-loaded XNMs (DTX/XNMs). Cytotoxicity assays in vitro revealed that the blank XNMs were nontoxic against A2780 cells up to a concentration of 50 µg/mL, displaying good biocompatibility. DTX/XNMs were more toxic against A2780 cells than other formulations in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Cellular uptake assay displayed a higher intracellular drug delivery efficiency of XNMs than that of nanomicelles prepared with linear polymers. Besides, the promotion of tubulin polymerization induced by DTX was visualized by immunofluorescence analysis, and the acceleration of apoptotic process against A2780 cells was also imaged using a fluorescent staining method. Therefore, this X-shaped reduction-sensitive (PLGA)2-SS-4-arm-PEG2000 copolymer could effectively improve the micellar stability and significantly enhance the therapeutic efficacy of DTX by increasing the cellular uptake and selectively accelerating the drug release inside cancer cells. PMID:26346880

  1. Hydrodynamic drag of diving birds: effects of body size, body shape and feathers at steady speeds.

    PubMed

    Lovvorn, J; Liggins, G A; Borstad, M H; Calisal, S M; Mikkelsen, J

    2001-05-01

    For birds diving to depths where pressure has mostly reduced the buoyancy of air spaces, hydrodynamic drag is the main mechanical cost of steady swimming. Drag is strongly affected by body size and shape, so such differences among species should affect energy costs. Because flow around the body is complicated by the roughness and vibration of feathers, feathers must be considered in evaluating the effects of size and shape on drag. We investigated the effects of size, shape and feathers on the drag of avian divers ranging from wing-propelled auklets weighing 75 g to foot-propelled eiders weighing up to 2060 g. Laser scanning of body surfaces yielded digitized shapes that were averaged over several specimens per species and then used by a milling machine to cut foam models. These models were fitted with casts of the bill area, and their drag was compared with that of frozen specimens. Because of the roughness and vibration of the feathers, the drag of the frozen birds was 2-6 times that of the models. Plots of drag coefficient (C(D)) versus Reynolds number (Re) differed between the model and the frozen birds, with the pattern of difference varying with body shape. Thus, the drag of cast models or similar featherless shapes can differ both quantitatively and qualitatively from that of real birds. On the basis of a new towing method with no posts or stings that alter flow or angles of attack, the dimensionless C(D)/Re curves differed among a size gradient of five auklet species (75-100g) with similar shapes. Thus, extrapolation of C(D)/Re curves among related species must be performed with caution. At lower speeds, the C(D) at a given Re was generally higher for long-necked birds that swim with their neck extended (cormorants, grebes, some ducks) than for birds that swim with their head retracted (penguins, alcids), but this trend was reversed at high speeds. Because swimming birds actually travel at a range of instantaneous speeds during oscillatory strokes, species

  2. Coupling catchment hydrology and landscape evolution: Interactive effects on hydrograph and basin shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivoni, E. R.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Bras, R. L.

    2003-12-01

    The catchment hydrologic response to rainfall and the evolution of the river basin network and landscape morphology are closely linked phenomena, albeit active over different temporal scales. While the relation between hydrograph shape and catchment form has long been hypothesized, little is yet understood about the evolution of the basin hydrologic response with catchment age or geomorphic condition. Similarly, the long-term morphologic changes and feedbacks associated with a spatially-variable, evolving runoff response are still unknown. Understanding the complex interaction between basin hydrology and geomorphology was an important pursuit during Michael J. Kirkby's scientific career. In this study, we describe the interactive effects and feedbacks between the basin hydrograph (hydrologic response) and shape (geomorphic response) utilizing two state-of-the-art models: the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) and the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS). We first illustrate the changes occurring in the basin hydrograph, variable source area and channel network as the catchment evolves. We then describe how the spatially-explicit hydrologic response from various mechanisms and its associated moisture field directly impacts the erosion and subsequently the basin shape. Quantitative comparisons are then made between a set of interactive and non-interactive simulations for idealized conditions. Our ultimate goal is to highlight the need for coupling distributed simulations of catchment hydrology and geomorphology for investigating the interaction between basin and hydrograph shape.

  3. Effect of Marangoni Flows on the Shape of Thin Sessile Droplets Evaporating into Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoumpas, Yannis; Dehaeck, Sam; Rednikov, Alexey; Colinet, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    With the help of Mach-Zehnder interferometry, we study the (largely) axisymmetric shapes of freely receding evaporating sessile droplets of various HFE liquids. The droplets evaporate into ambient air and, although the liquids are perfectly wetting, possess small finite contact angles reckoned to be evaporation-induced. The experimentally determined droplet profiles are shown here to deviate, under some conditions, from the classical macroscopic static profile of a sessile droplet, as this is determined by gravity and capillarity. These deviations are attributed to a Marangoni flow, due to evaporation-induced thermal gradients along the liquid-air interface, and are mostly observed in conditions of high evaporation. Unlike the classical static shapes, the distorted experimental profiles exhibit an inflection point at the contact line area. When a poorly volatile liquid is considered, however, the temperature differences and the Marangoni stresses are weak, and the measurements are found to be in a good agreement with the classical static shape. Overall, the experimental findings are quantitatively confirmed by the predictions of a lubrication model accounting for the impact of the Marangoni effect on the droplet shape. Financial support of FP7 Marie Curie MULTIFLOW Network (PITNGA-2008-214919), ESA/BELSPO-PRODEX, BELSPO- μMAST (IAP 7/38) & FRS-FNRS is gratefully acknowledged.

  4. The Effect of Caudal Fin Shape on the Hydrodynamics of Swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daghooghi, Mohsen; Borazjani, Iman

    2011-11-01

    The caudal fin is thought to be the main thrust generator in body/caudal fin swimmers because the largest undulations occur at the caudal fin. The shape of the fin could possibly be one of the most important factors in thrust generation for such swimmers. However, investigating this experimentally is quite challenging due to the issues in controlling and measuring forces on different appendages of live fish. We can investigate the effect of caudal fin shape through controlled numerical simulations. We construct virtual swimmers with different caudal fin shapes but with the same projected area. We attach trapezoidal and heterocercal shapes of caudal fins (e.g. observed in trouts and sharks, respectively) to a mackerel body and test these swimmers beside the original mackerel with a hemocercal tail. We prescribe the same carangiform kinematics to all virtual swimmers and carry out self-propelled simulations under similar conditions, i.e., the undulations are prescribed while motion of the center of mass is calculated. The simulations are continued until the quasi-steady state is reached, in which the swimmers are compared in terms of different performance measures. This work was partly supported by the Center for Computational Research at the University at Buffalo.

  5. Mechanical properties and shape memory effect of 3D-printed PLA-based porous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Senatov, F S; Niaza, K V; Zadorozhnyy, M Yu; Maksimkin, A V; Kaloshkin, S D; Estrin, Y Z

    2016-04-01

    In the present work polylactide (PLA)/15wt% hydroxyapatite (HA) porous scaffolds with pre-modeled structure were obtained by 3D-printing by fused filament fabrication. Composite filament was obtained by extrusion. Mechanical properties, structural characteristics and shape memory effect (SME) were studied. Direct heating was used for activation of SME. The average pore size and porosity of the scaffolds were 700μm and 30vol%, respectively. Dispersed particles of HA acted as nucleation centers during the ordering of PLA molecular chains and formed an additional rigid fixed phase that reduced molecular mobility, which led to a shift of the onset of recovery stress growth from 53 to 57°C. A more rapid development of stresses was observed for PLA/HA composites with the maximum recovery stress of 3.0MPa at 70°C. Ceramic particles inhibited the growth of cracks during compression-heating-compression cycles when porous PLA/HA 3D-scaffolds recovered their initial shape. Shape recovery at the last cycle was about 96%. SME during heating may have resulted in "self-healing" of scaffold by narrowing the cracks. PLA/HA 3D-scaffolds were found to withstand up to three compression-heating-compression cycles without delamination. It was shown that PLA/15%HA porous scaffolds obtained by 3D-printing with shape recovery of 98% may be used as self-fitting implant for small bone defect replacement owing to SME. PMID:26710259

  6. Effect of angular spread on the intensity distribution of arbitrarily shaped electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, R.; Chui, C.S.; Fontenla, D.; Han, K.; Ballon, D.

    1988-03-01

    Knowledge of the relative intensity distribution at the patient's surface is essential for pencil beam calculations of three-dimensional dose distributions for arbitrarily shaped electron beams. To calculate the relative intensity distribution, the spatial spread resulting from angular spread is convolved with a two-dimensional step function whose shape corresponds to the applicator aperture. Two different approaches to obtain angular spread or the equivalent spatial spread are investigated. In the first method, the pencil beam angular spread is assumed to be Gaussian in shape. The angular spread constants (sigma theta) are then obtained from the slopes of measured intensity profiles. In the second method, the angular spread, in the form of an array of numerical values, is obtained by the deconvolution of measured intensity profiles. After obtaining the angular spread, the calculation for convolution is done in a number of parallel planes normal to the central axis at various distances from the electron collimator. Intensity at any arbitrary point in space is computed by interpolating between intensity distributions in adjacent planes on either side of the point. The effects of variations in angular spread as a function of field size for two treatment machines, one with a scanned electron beam and the other with a scattering foil, have been studied. The consequences of assuming angular spread to be of Gaussian shape are also examined. The electron intensity calculation techniques described in this paper apply primarily to methods of dose calculations that employ pencil beams generated using Monte Carlo simulations.

  7. Suppressive and enhancing effects in early visual cortex during illusory shape perception: A comment on.

    PubMed

    Moors, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    In a recent functional magnetic resonance imaging study, Kok and de Lange (2014) observed that BOLD activity for a Kanizsa illusory shape stimulus, in which pacmen-like inducers elicit an illusory shape percept, was either enhanced or suppressed relative to a nonillusory control configuration depending on whether the spatial profile of BOLD activity in early visual cortex was related to the illusory shape or the inducers, respectively. The authors argued that these findings fit well with the predictive coding framework, because top-down predictions related to the illusory shape are not met with bottom-up sensory input and hence the feedforward error signal is enhanced. Conversely, for the inducing elements, there is a match between top-down predictions and input, leading to a decrease in error. Rather than invoking predictive coding as the explanatory framework, the suppressive effect related to the inducers might be caused by neural adaptation to perceptually stable input due to the trial sequence used in the experiment. PMID:26034571

  8. The effect of sensor and actuator errors on static shape control for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, R. T.; Adelman, H. M.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical study was performed to predict and assess the effect of actuator and sensor errors on the performance of a shape control procedure for flexible space structures using applied temperatures. Approximate formulas were derived for the expected value and variance of the rms distortion ratio (ratio of rms distortions with and without corrections) based on the assumption of zero-mean normally distributed random errors in measured distortions and actuator output temperatures. Studies were carried out for a 55-meter radiometer antenna reflector distorted from its ideal parabolic shape by nonuniform orbital heating. The first study consisted of varying the sensor and actuator errors for the case of 12 actuators and computing the distortion ratio. In the second study, sensor and actuator errors were prescribed and the effect of increasing the number of actuators was evaluated.

  9. Effect of sensor and actuator errors on static shape control for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, Raphael T.; Adelman, Howard M.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical study was performed to predict and assess the effect of actuator and sensor errors on the performance of a shape control procedure for flexible space structures using applied temperatures. Approximate formulas were derived for the expected value and variance of the rms distortion ratio (ratio of rms distortions with and without corrections) based on the assumption of zero-mean normally distributed random errors in measured distortions and actuator output temperatures. Studies were carried out for a 55-meter radiometer antenna reflector distorted from its ideal parabolic shape by nonuniform orbital heating. The first study consisted of varying the sensor and actuator errors for the case of 12 actuators and computing the distortion ratio. In the second study, sensor and actuator errors were prescribed and the effect of increasing the number of actuators was evaluated.

  10. Surface-active element effects on the shape of GTA, laser, and electron-beam welds

    SciTech Connect

    Heiple, C.R.; Roper, J.R.; Stagner, R.T.; Aden, R.J.

    1983-03-01

    Laser and electron-beam welds were passed across selenium-doped zones in 21-6-9 stainless steel. The depth/width (d/w) ratio of a defocused laser weld with a weld pool shape similar to a GTA weld increased by over 200% in a zone where 66 ppm selenium had been added. Smaller increases were observed in selenium-doped zones for a moderately defocused electron beam weld with a higher d/w ratio in undoped base metal. When laser or electron beam weld penetration was by a keyhole mechanism, no change in d/w ratio occurred in selenium-doped zones. The results confirm the surface-tension-driven fluid-flow model for the effect of minor elements on GTA weld pool shape. Other experimental evidence bearing on the effect of minor elements on GTA weld penetration is summarized.

  11. Singular observation of the polarization-conversion effect for a gammadion-shaped metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chu-En; Yen, Ta-Jen; Yu, Chih-Jen; Hsieh, Cheng-Min; Lee, Min-Han; Chen, Chii-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Wei

    2016-02-01

    In this article, the polarization-conversion effects of a gammadion-shaped metasurface in transmission and reflection modes are discussed. In our experiment, the polarization-conversion effect of a gammadion-shaped metasurface is investigated because of the contribution of the phase and amplitude anisotropies. According to our experimental and simulated results, the polarization property of the first-order transmitted diffraction is dominated by linear anisotropy and has weak depolarization; the first-order reflected diffraction exhibits both linear and circular anisotropies and has stronger depolarization than the transmission mode. These results are different from previously published research. The Mueller matrix ellipsometer and polar decomposition method will aid in the investigation of the polarization properties of other nanostructures.

  12. Singular observation of the polarization-conversion effect for a gammadion-shaped metasurface.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chu-En; Yen, Ta-Jen; Yu, Chih-Jen; Hsieh, Cheng-Min; Lee, Min-Han; Chen, Chii-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the polarization-conversion effects of a gammadion-shaped metasurface in transmission and reflection modes are discussed. In our experiment, the polarization-conversion effect of a gammadion-shaped metasurface is investigated because of the contribution of the phase and amplitude anisotropies. According to our experimental and simulated results, the polarization property of the first-order transmitted diffraction is dominated by linear anisotropy and has weak depolarization; the first-order reflected diffraction exhibits both linear and circular anisotropies and has stronger depolarization than the transmission mode. These results are different from previously published research. The Mueller matrix ellipsometer and polar decomposition method will aid in the investigation of the polarization properties of other nanostructures. PMID:26915332

  13. Precipitation-hardening stainless steels with a shape-memory effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagaradze, V. V.; Afanasiev, S. V.; Volkova, E. G.; Zavalishin, V. A.

    2016-02-01

    The possibility of obtaining the shape-memory effect as a result of the γ → ɛ → γ transformations in aging stainless steels strengthened by VC carbides has been investigated. Regimes are given for strengthening aging (at 650 and 720°C) for stainless steels that predominantly contain (in wt %) 0.06-0.45C, 1-2V, 2-5Si, 9 and 13-14Cr. The values of reversible deformation e (amount of shape-memory effect) determined after heating to 400°C in samples preliminarily deformed to 3.5-4% vary from 0.15 to 2.7%, depending on the composition of the steels and regimes of stabilizing and destabilizing aging.

  14. Singular observation of the polarization-conversion effect for a gammadion-shaped metasurface

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chu-En; Yen, Ta-Jen; Yu, Chih-Jen; Hsieh, Cheng-Min; Lee, Min-Han; Chen, Chii-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the polarization-conversion effects of a gammadion-shaped metasurface in transmission and reflection modes are discussed. In our experiment, the polarization-conversion effect of a gammadion-shaped metasurface is investigated because of the contribution of the phase and amplitude anisotropies. According to our experimental and simulated results, the polarization property of the first-order transmitted diffraction is dominated by linear anisotropy and has weak depolarization; the first-order reflected diffraction exhibits both linear and circular anisotropies and has stronger depolarization than the transmission mode. These results are different from previously published research. The Mueller matrix ellipsometer and polar decomposition method will aid in the investigation of the polarization properties of other nanostructures. PMID:26915332

  15. Effect of interdiffusion on nonlinear intraband light absorption in Gaussian-shaped double quantum rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz-Aghchegala, V. L.; Mughnetsyan, V. N.; Kirakosyan, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of interdiffusion on electronic states and nonlinear light absorption in Gaussian-shaped double quantum rings is studied. The confining potential, electron energy spectrum, wave functions and absorption coefficient are obtained for different values of diffusion parameter. The effect of the variation of Gaussian parameters is considered as well. The selection rules for the intraband transitions in the cases of the light polarization parallel and perpendicular to the quantum rings' axis are obtained. It is shown that the interdiffusion can be used as an effective tool for the purposeful manipulation of the electric and optical properties of the considered structure.

  16. Shape and Composition Effects on Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production for Pt-Pd Alloy Cocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Luo, Muhua; Lu, Pan; Yao, Weifeng; Huang, Cunping; Xu, Qunjie; Wu, Qiang; Kuwahara, Yasutaka; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-08-17

    The shape and composition effects of platinum-palladium (Pt-Pd) alloy nanoparticle cocatalysts on visible-light photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from an aqueous ammonium sulphite solution have been reported and discussed. The activity of Pt-Pd nanoparticles loaded Pt-Pd/CdS photocatalysts are affected based on both the Pt-Pd alloy nanoparticles' shape and their compositions. In this research, two shapes of Pt-Pd nanoparticles have been studied. One is Pt-Pd nanocubes enclosed by {100} crystal planes and the other is nano-octahedra covered with {111} crystal facets. Results show that the photocatalytic turnover frequency (TOF), defined as moles of hydrogen produced per surface mole of Pt-Pd metal atom per second, for Pt-Pd nanocubes/CdS (Pt-Pd NCs/CdS) photocatalyst can be 3.4 times more effective than Pt-Pd nano-octahedra/CdS (Pt-Pd NOTa/CdS) nanocomposite photocatalyst. Along with the shape effect, the atomic ratio of Pt to Pd can also impact the efficiency of Pt-Pd/CdS photocatalysts. When the Pt to Pd atomic ratio changes from 1:0 to about 2:1, the rate of hydrogen production increases from 900 μmol/h for Pt NCs/CdS catalyst to 1837 μmol/h for Pt-Pd (2:1) NCs/CdS photocatalyst-a 104% rate increase. This result suggests that the 33 mol % of more expensive Pt can be replaced with less costly Pd, resulting in a more than 100% hydrogen production rate increase. The finding of this research will lead to the research and development of highly effective catalysts for photocatalytic hydrogen production using solar photonic energy. PMID:27439590

  17. Periodic Cellular Structure Technology for Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Edward Y.

    2015-01-01

    Shape memory alloys are being considered for a wide variety of adaptive components for engine and airframe applications because they can undergo large amounts of strain and then revert to their original shape upon heating or unloading. Transition45 Technologies, Inc., has developed an innovative periodic cellular structure (PCS) technology for shape memory alloys that enables fabrication of complex bulk configurations, such as lattice block structures. These innovative structures are manufactured using an advanced reactive metal casting technology that offers a relatively low cost and established approach for constructing near-net shape aerospace components. Transition45 is continuing to characterize these structures to determine how best to design a PCS to better exploit the use of shape memory alloys in aerospace applications.

  18. Measured Effects of Turbulence on the Loudness and Waveforms of Conventional and Shaped Minimized Sonic Booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Maglieri, Domenic J.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2005-01-01

    Turbulence has two distinctive effects on sonic booms: there is distortion in the form of random perturbations that appear behind the shock waves, and shock rise times are increased randomly. A first scattering theory by S.C. Crow in the late 1960s quantified the random distortions, and Crow's theory was shown to agree with available flight test data. A variety of theories for the shock thickness have been presented, all supporting the role of turbulence in increasing rise time above that of a basic molecular-relaxation structure. The net effect of these phenomena on the loudness of shaped minimized booms is of significant interest. Initial analysis suggests that there would be no change to average loudness, but this had not been experimentally investigated. The January 2004 flight test of the Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstrator (SSBD), together with a reference unmodified F-5E, included a 12500- foot linear ground sensor array with 28 digitally recorded sensor sites. This data set provides an opportunity to re-test Crow's theory for the post-shock perturbations, and to examine the net effect of turbulence on the loudness of shaped sonic booms.

  19. Precipitation Effects on the Martensitic Transformation in a Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suru, Marius-Gabriel; Lohan, Nicoleta-Monica; Pricop, Bogdan; Mihalache, Elena; Mocanu, Mihai; Bujoreanu, Leandru-Gheorghe

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the effects of precipitation of α-phase on a Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy (SMA) with chemical composition bordering on β region. By differential scanning calorimetry, a series of reproducible heat flow fluctuations was determined on heating a hot-rolled martensitic Cu-Al-Ni SMA, which was associated with the precipitation of α-phase. Two heat treatments were given to the SMA so as to "freeze" its states before and after the thermal range for precipitation, respectively. The corresponding microstructures of the two heat-treated states were observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy and were compared with the initial martensitic state. Energy dispersive spectroscopy experiments were carried out to determine the chemical compositions of the different phases formed in heat-treated specimens. The initial as well as the heat-treated specimens with a lamellar shape were further comparatively investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis and two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) tests comprising heating-cooling cycles under a bending load. Temperature scans were applied to the three types of specimens (initial and heat-treated states), so as to bring out the effects of heat treatment. The storage modulus increased, corresponding to the reversion of thermoelastic martensite and disappeared with the formation of precipitates. These features are finally discussed in association with TWSME under bending.

  20. Effect of Combustion-chamber Shape on the Performance of a Prechamber Compression-ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, C S; Collins, J H , Jr

    1934-01-01

    The effect on engine performance of variations in the shape of the prechamber, the shape and direction of the connecting passage, the chamber volume using a tangential passage, the injection system, and the direction od the fuel spray in the chamber was investigated using a 5 by 7 inch single-cylinder compression-ignition engine. The results show that the performance of this engine can be considerably improved by selecting the best combination of variables and incorporating them in a single design. The best combination as determined from these tests consisted of a disk-shaped chamber connected to the cylinder by means of a flared tangential passage. The fuel was injected through a single-orifice nozzle directed normal to the air swirl and in the same plane. At an engine speed of 1,500 r.p.m. and with the theoretical fuel quantity for no excess air, the engine developed a brake mean effective pressure of 115 pounds per square inch with a fuel consumption of 0.49 pound per brake horsepower-hour and an explosion pressure of 820 pounds per square inch. A brake mean effective pressure of 100 pounds per square inch with a brake-fuel consumption of 0.44 pound per horsepower-hour at 1,500 r.p.m. was obtained.

  1. Effect of Protuberance Shape and Orientation on Space Shuttle Orbiter Boundary-Layer Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, RUdolph A.; Berry, Scott A.; Kegerise, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This document describes an experimental study conducted to examine the effects of protuberances on hypersonic boundary-layer transition. The experiment was conducted in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel on a series of 0.9%-scale Shuttle Orbiter models. The data were acquired to complement the existing ground-based boundary-layer transition database that was used to develop Version 1.0 of the boundary-layer transition RTF (return-to-flight) tool. The existing ground-based data were all acquired on 0.75%-scale Orbiter models using diamond-shaped ( pizza-box ) trips. The larger model scale facilitated in manufacturing higher fidelity protuberances. The end use of this experimental database will be to develop a technical basis (in the form of a boundary-layer transition correlation) to assess representative protrusion shapes, e.g., gap fillers and protrusions resulting from possible tile repair concepts. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effects of protuberance-trip location and geometry on Shuttle Orbiter boundary-layer transition. Secondary goals are to assess the effects of gap-filler orientation and other protrusion shapes on boundary-layer transition. Global heat-transfer images using phosphor thermography of the Orbiter windward surface and the corresponding streamwise and spanwise heating distributions were used to infer the state of the boundary layer, i.e., laminar, transitional, or turbulent.

  2. Entropic effects, shape, and size of mixed micelles formed by copolymers with complex architectures.

    PubMed

    Kalogirou, Andreas; Gergidis, Leonidas N; Moultos, Othonas; Vlahos, Costas

    2015-11-01

    The entropic effects in the comicellization behavior of amphiphilic AB copolymers differing in the chain size of solvophilic A parts were studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, mixtures of miktoarm star copolymers differing in the molecular weight of solvophilic arms were investigated. We found that the critical micelle concentration values show a positive deviation from the analytical predictions of the molecular theory of comicellization for chemically identical copolymers. This can be attributed to the effective interactions between copolymers originated from the arm size asymmetry. The effective interactions induce a very small decrease in the aggregation number of preferential micelles triggering the nonrandom mixing between the solvophilic moieties in the corona. Additionally, in order to specify how the chain architecture affects the size distribution and the shape of mixed micelles we studied star-shaped, H-shaped, and homo-linked-rings-linear mixtures. In the first case the individual constituents form micelles with preferential and wide aggregation numbers and in the latter case the individual constituents form wormlike and spherical micelles. PMID:26651715

  3. Effect of Micro Porous Shape on Mechanical Properties in Polypropylene Syntactic Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mae, Hiroyuki; Omiya, Masaki; Kishimoto, Kikuo

    The objective is to characterize the effect of the microstructure of the micro pores inside the matrix on the mechanical properties of the thermoplastic syntactic polypropylene (PP) foams at the intermediate and high strain rates. Tensile tests are conducted at the nominal strain rates from 3 x 10-1 to 102 s-1. In addition, the dart impact tests are conducted at the impact velocities of 0.1, 1 and 10 m/s. Then, the constitutive law with craze evolution is modified by introducing the relative density, the stress concentration coefficient and the volume fraction of cell edge, and then applied to the dart impact test mode for simulating the macroscopic load displacement history of the dart impact process. Moreover, the microstructural finite element analysis is conducted to characterize the local stress states in the microstructure. In the tensile loading, the elastic modulus is not influenced by the shape of the micro pores in the PP matrix while the yield stress and the strain energy up to failure are relatively influenced by the shape of micro pores. The microstructural finite element analysis shows that the magnitudes of the localized stresses at the edges and the ligaments of the elliptical-shape micro pores are larger than those at the spherical micro pores, leading to the early yielding and the small material ductility. In the case of the dart impact loading, the microstructure of pores has strong effect on the absorbed energy. This is because the elliptical-shape micro pores are very sensitive to the shear deformation, which is revealed by the microstructural finite element analysis. The modified constitutive law with the stress concentration coefficient and the volume fraction of the cell edges successfully predicts the load-displacement curve of the dart impact loading in the spherical micro-porous PP foam. It is concluded that the micro porous shape has strong effect on the material ductility especially in the dart impact test, leading to the possibility to

  4. The effects of charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) on galaxy shape measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, Jason; Leauthaud, Alexie; Stoughton, Chris; Massey, Richard; Dawson, Kyle; Kolbe, William; Roe, Natalie; /LBL, Berkeley

    2010-02-01

    We examine the effects of charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) during CCD readout on the demanding galaxy shape measurements required by studies of weak gravitational lensing. We simulate a CCD readout with CTI such as that caused by charged particle radiation damage in space-based detectors. We verify our simulations on real data from fully depleted p-channel CCDs that have been deliberately irradiated in a laboratory. We show that only charge traps with time constants of the same order as the time between row transfers during readout affect galaxy shape measurements. We simulate deep astronomical images and the process of CCD readout, characterizing the effects of CTI on various galaxy populations. Our code and methods are general and can be applied to any CCDs, once the density and characteristic release times of their charge trap species are known. We baseline our study around p-channel CCDs that have been shown to have charge transfer efficiency up to an order of magnitude better than several models of n-channel CCDs designed for space applications. We predict that for galaxies furthest from the readout registers, bias in the measurement of galaxy shapes, {Delta}e, will increase at a rate of (2.65 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup -4} yr{sup -1} at L2 for accumulated radiation exposure averaged over the solar cycle. If uncorrected, this will consume the entire shape measurement error budget of a dark energy mission surveying the entire extragalactic sky within about 4 yr of accumulated radiation damage. However, software mitigation techniques demonstrated elsewhere can reduce this by a factor of {approx}10, bringing the effect well below mission requirements. This conclusion is valid only for the p-channel CCDs we have modeled; CCDs with higher CTI will fare worse and may not meet the requirements of future dark energy missions. We also discuss additional ways in which hardware could be designed to further minimize the impact of CTI.

  5. Marangoni Effect on the Shape of Freely Receding Evaporating Sessile Droplets of Perfectly Wetting Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoumpas, Yannis; Dehaeck, Sam; Rednikov, Alexey; Colinet, Pierre

    2014-11-01

    Freely receding evaporating sessile droplets of perfectly wetting liquids (HFE-7100, 7200 and 7500), with small finite contact angles induced by evaporation, are studied with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Surprisingly, the experimentally obtained profiles turn out to deviate from the classical macroscopic static shape of a sessile droplet (as determined by gravity and capillarity), often used when modeling evaporating droplets. These deviations can be seen in two ways. Namely, either the droplet appears to be inflated as compared to the classical static shape assuming the same contact angle and contact radius, or the apparent contact angle appears lower than the classical static one assuming the same volume and contact radius. In reality, the experimental profiles exhibit a local decrease of the slope near the contact line, which we attribute to the Marangoni effect in an evaporating sessile droplet. In this case, the radially inward (along the liquid-air interface) direction of the flow delivers more liquid to the center of the droplet making it appear inflated. When the Marangoni effect is weak, as in the case of the poorly volatile HFE-7500, no significant influence is noticed on the drop shape. The experimental results are compared with the predictions of a lubrication-type theoretical model that incorporates the evaporation-induced Marangoni flow. Financial support of FP7 Marie Curie MULTIFLOW Network (PITN-GA-2008-214919), ESA/BELSPO-PRODEX, BELSPO- μMAST (IAP 7/38) & FRS-FNRS is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Effect of intrinsic damping on vibration transmissibility of nickel-titanium shape memory alloy springs

    SciTech Connect

    Graesser, E.J.

    1995-11-01

    A research study was undertaken to measure the transmissibility of nickel-titanium (NI-Ti) shape memory alloy (SMA) springs and to compare the results to corresponding data on steel and IN-CONEL springs. It was motivated by interest in an effective metal alternative to rubber-based machinery isolation mounts, with possible active control features. Ni-Ti was used due to its well-known properties of shape memory and high intrinsic damping. Acceleration transmissibility was measured on a spring-mass system. Due to the distributed mass in the spring oils, standing waves occurred at high frequencies. However, due to the high intrinsic damping in Ni-Ti, the standing wave resonance peaks were as much as 20 dB lower than corresponding peaks in steel and INCONEL springs. Thus, the capability of Ni-Ti springs for high frequency acoustic isolation is significantly better than that of steel or INCONEL. Also, it is judged that the Ni-Ti material could be used in a variety of other isolation mount designs with a high likelihood for further improvement in passive isolation properties. In addition, it may be possible to use the shape memory effect (SME) in active control concepts.

  7. Interstellar cloud shapes - A minimum-hypothesis account involving a purely gravitational effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleck, Robert C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The effect produced by the anisotropic gravitational field on the shape of a nonspherical, self-gravitating interstellar cloud is examined. The projected axial ratios observed for molecular clouds can be accounted for if clouds are not generally in a state of strict dynamical equilibrium. For clouds having spectral line widths dominated by supersonic turbulent motions, this purely gravitational effect predicts a mean true axial ratio q about 0.3 for both oblate and prolate cloud geometries. Clouds having p less than about 0.3 are likely to be prolate and quite elongated. The observational data on molecular cloud cores, which have essentially thermal line widths, can be fitted equally well to either oblate or prolate spheroids having q between 0.1 and 0.4 with q about 0.2 providing the best match: highly elongated cores are again more likely to be prolate. While other processes certainly operate throughout the Galaxy to influence cloud shape, it appears plausible that at least some clouds may be shaped principally by their anisotropic gravitational field.

  8. Inlet Shape Effects on the Far-Field Sound of a Model Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, L. R.; Thomas, R. H.; Dougherty, R. P.; Farassat, F.; Gerhold, C. H.

    1997-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted to determine the effects of inlet shape on fan radiated noise. Four inlet geometries, which included a long standard flight type inlet, a short, aggressive flight inlet a scarf inlet, and an elliptical inlet were investigated in the study. The fan model used in the study was a 0.1 scale of the Pratt and Whitney Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP), an ultra high bypass ratio turbofan engine. Acoustic data are presented for a fan speed of 70% (12,000 rpm) and a tunnel speed of 0.10 Mach number, The fan was configured with a 16-bladed rotor and a 40 stator vane set that were separated by 2.0 chord lengths. The radiated noise was measured with 15 microphones on a boom that traversed the length of the tunnel test section. Data from these microphones are presented in the form of sideline angle directivity plots. Noise associated with the test inlets was also predicted using a ray acoustics code. Inlet shape has been found to have a significant effect on both tone and broadband noise, and the non-axisymmetric inlet shape can be used for a noise reduction method.

  9. Effects of implant stiffness, shape, and medialization depth on the acoustic outcomes of medialization laryngoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaoyan; Chhetri, Dinesh K.; Bergeron, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Medialization laryngoplasty is commonly used to treat glottic insufficiency. In this study, we investigated the effects of implant stiffness (Young’s modulus), medialization depth, and implant medial surface shape on acoustic outcomes. Study Design Basic science study using ex vivo laryngeal phonation model. Methods In an ex vivo human larynx phonation model, bilateral medialization laryngoplasties were performed with implants of varying stiffness, medial surface shape (rectangular, divergent and convergent), and varying depths of medialization. The subglottal pressure, the flow rate, and the outside sound were measured as the implant parameters were varied. Results Medialization through the use of implants generally improved the harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR) and the number of harmonics excited in the outside sound spectra. The degree of acoustic improvement depended on the implant insertion depth, stiffness, and to a lesser degree implant shape. Varying implant insertion depth led to large variations in phonation for stiff implants, but had much smaller effects for soft implants. Conclusions Implants with stiffness comparable to vocal folds provided more consistent improvement in acoustic outcomes across different implant conditions. Further investigations are required to better understand the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25499519

  10. The shape and size effects of polycation functionalized silica nanoparticles on gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xinyi; Zhao, Nana; Yan, Peng; Hu, Hao; Xu, Fu-Jian

    2015-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles are attractive candidates for the development of safe and efficient non-viral gene carriers, owing to their controlled morphologies, potential of facile surface modification and excellent biocompatibility as well as in vivo biodegradability. Conversely, the size and shape of nanoparticles are considered to have an intense influence on their interaction with cells and biological systems, but the effects of particle size and shape on gene transfection are poorly understood. In this work, a series of novel gene carriers were designed employing polycation modified silica nanoparticles with five different morphologies, while keeping uniform zeta potential and surface functionality. Then the effects of particle size and shape of these five different carriers on gene transfection were investigated. The morphology of silica nanoparticles is demonstrated to play an important role in gene transfection, especially when the amount of polycation is low. Chiral nanorods with larger aspect ratio were found to fabricate the most efficient gene carriers with compromised cytotoxicity. It was also noted that hollow nanosphere-based carriers exhibited better gene transfection performance than did solid counterparts. These results may provide new strategies to develop promising gene carriers and useful information for the application of nanoparticles in biomedical areas. PMID:25219349

  11. The Effect of Discoid Shape on Platelet Margination in a Microvessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabadi, Marmar; Reasor, Daniel; Ku, David; Aidun, Cyrus

    2011-11-01

    Margination of platelets to the skimming layer only occurs above a threshold hematocrit (Ht.). Platelet size and concentration in blood is much smaller compared to red blood cells (RBCs). We study the hypothesis that platelets are passively convected to vessel walls and that their morphology can effect margination rate and dynamics. To examine this, we study the influence of particle shape on margination rate through changing the aspect ratio (AR) of rigid particles at fixed volume. We use a coarse-grained spectrin-link method for RBC membranes and Newtonian dynamics for rigid particles coupled with a 3D lattice-Boltzmann fluid solver using standard bounce-back boundary conditions. Simulations are performed at Ht.=20% in a 41. 3 μm vessel. Our results show that AR has a significant effect on margination rate: Lower AR particles marginate more rapidly. We also show that the higher AR particles ``flip'' and ``slide'' between RBCs as they migrate to the skimming layer. The final location of particles in the skimming layer is also influenced by their shape. Thin disk-shaped particles interact with the RBCs at the edge of the skimming layer more frequently than with the vessel wall while spherical particles interact with both simultaneously. NSF TeraGrid Grant: TG-CTS100012.

  12. Effects of laser beam shapes on depths of penetration in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghafi, S.; Withford, M.; Farhadi, M.; Ghaderi, R.; Granmayeh, A.; Ghoranneviss, Z.; Moravej, F.

    2006-04-01

    For many medical laser applications, a particular beam shape is required. The output beam of a laser can be approximated by a Gaussian, higher-order Gaussian, annular or a flat-top (uniform) distribution. Here, we investigate, analytically and experimentally, the effects of laser beam shapes on the depths of penetration in treatments of any types of vascular malformation. In order to do this, the physical and optical parameters of the skin must be known and measured correctly. Using the Monte-Carlo method for seven layers of skin, a software predicting the beam propagation and intensity distribution inside of tissue has been developed in our centre. In this paper, a 15 watts copper vapour laser producing (511nm and 578 nm) for treatments of patients having PWS (Port Wine Stains) of different sizes is employed. The output beam of this laser was Gaussian. We have designed a beam homogenizer converting a Gaussian beam into flat-top distribution. Therefore, the effects of the laser irradiance beam shape (before and after beam shaping) on the depth of penetration have been investigated before people's treatments. Initially, two laser beams having Gaussian output distribution of the same power are considered. The diameter of one beam is 5mm and the other one is 10 mm. The intensity distribution of these beam inside of similar tissues are predicted and it is concluded that for deep but small size PWS the Gaussian beam having smaller beam diameter is more suitable than the larger spot size. Then, the beam intensity distribution inside of the same tissue (similar parameters) for two flat-top beams of the same power but different diameters (one is 5mm and the other is 10 mm) is calculated. It can be seen that the flat top beam of bigger spot-size has smaller penetration depth but it illuminates a larger area uniformly (suitable for large but not deep area). The depth of penetration of flat-top beam with smaller spot size is deeper but it illuminates a smaller area uniformly

  13. Effects of contact cap dimension on dry adhesion of bioinspired mushroom-shaped surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng; Li, Xiangming; Tian, Hongmiao; Hu, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Dry adhesion observed in small creatures, such as spiders, insects, and geckos, has many great advantages such as repeatability and strong adhesiveness. In order to mimic these unique performances, fibrillar surface with a mushroom shaped end has drawn lots of attentions because of its advantage in efficiently enhancing adhesion compared with other sphere or simple flat ends. Here, in order to study the effects of contact cap dimension on adhesion strength, patterned surfaces of mushroom-shaped micropillars with differing cap diameters are fabricated based on the conventional photolithography and molding. The normal adhesion strength of these dry adhesives with varying cap diameters is measured with home-built equipment. The strength increases with the rise of cap diameter, and interestingly it becomes strongest when the mushroom caps join together.

  14. Effect of Local Junction Losses in the Optimization of T-shaped Flow Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaraju, Srinivas

    2015-11-01

    T-shaped channels are extensively used in flow distribution applications such as irrigation, chemical dispersion, gas pipelines and space heating and cooling. The geometry of T-shaped channels can be optimized to reduce the overall pressure drop in stem and branch sections. Results of such optimizations are in the form of geometric parameters such as the length and diameter ratios of the stem and branch sections. The traditional approach of this optimization accounts for the pressure drop across the stem and branch sections, however, ignores the pressure drop in the T-junction. In this paper, we conduct geometry optimization while including the effect of local junction losses in laminar flows. From the results, we are able to identify a non-dimensional parameter that can be used to predict the optimal geometric configurations. This parameter can also be used to identify the conditions in which the local junction losses can be ignored during the optimization.

  15. Effect of canopy shape on physical load when holding an umbrella.

    PubMed

    Kuijt-Evers, Lottie F M; Könemann, Reinier; Hallbeck, M Susan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of the canopy shape of an umbrella on physical load when holding the umbrella in different circumstances. For this purpose, thirteen subjects participated in this study and muscle activity of seven muscles of the upper limb (including the forearm) was measured for 5 wind speeds (4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Bft) and two wind directions (front and side). From the results, it was seen that for the p50 value of the muscle activity, the umbrella with the asymmetric canopy required 62% and for the p90 value of the muscle activity 74% of the muscle activity, on average, over all wind speeds - compared to the traditional umbrella. Based on these results, we can conclude that the physical load of holding the traditional umbrella is significantly higher than holding the umbrella with the asymmetric canopy shape in windy conditions. PMID:22877700

  16. Pulse shape effect on rotational excitation and 2-D alignment alternation by elliptic laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maan, Anjali; Ahlawat, Dharamvir Singh; Prasad, Vinod

    2016-04-01

    We examine theoretically the time-evolution of NAREX (non-adiabatic rotational excitation) and molecular 2-D alignment (2DA) interacting with a pair of elliptically polarized laser pulses. The pulse shapes taken are half-cycle pulse (HCP) and square pulse (SQP). By choosing the proper value of elliptically polarized field parameters, we demonstrate that efficient field-free 2DA alignment can be achieved. It is also shown that NAREX can be controlled by various laser parameters, out of which pulse shape plays the most significant role. The effect of pulse width along with elliptic parameter on probabilities of rotational states is also under concern. The delay time between the two pulses decides the maximum in 2DAs.

  17. Particle shape effect on heat transfer performance in an oscillating heat pipe

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The effect of alumina nanoparticles on the heat transfer performance of an oscillating heat pipe (OHP) was investigated experimentally. A binary mixture of ethylene glycol (EG) and deionized water (50/50 by volume) was used as the base fluid for the OHP. Four types of nanoparticles with shapes of platelet, blade, cylinder, and brick were studied, respectively. Experimental results show that the alumina nanoparticles added in the OHP significantly affect the heat transfer performance and it depends on the particle shape and volume fraction. When the OHP was charged with EG and cylinder-like alumina nanoparticles, the OHP can achieve the best heat transfer performance among four types of particles investigated herein. In addition, even though previous research found that these alumina nanofluids were not beneficial in laminar or turbulent flow mode, they can enhance the heat transfer performance of an OHP. PMID:21711830

  18. Effect of counterface roughness on adhesion of mushroom-shaped microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Kasem, Haytam; Varenberg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of the substrate roughness on adhesion of mushroom-shaped microstructure was experimentally investigated. To do so, 12 substrates having different isotropic roughness were prepared from the same material by replicating topography of different surfaces. The pull-off forces generated by mushroom-shaped microstructure in contact with the tested substrates were measured and compared with the pull-off forces generated by a smooth reference. It was found that classical roughness parameters, such as average roughness (Ra) and others, cannot be used to explain topography-related variation in pull-off force. This has led us to the development of an integrated roughness parameter capable of explaining results of pull-off measurements. Using this parameter, we have also found that there is a critical roughness, above which neither smooth nor microstructured surface could generate any attachment force, which may have important implications on design of both adhesive and anti-adhesive surfaces. PMID:23925984

  19. Effects of laser beam propagation and saturation on the spatial shape of sodium laser guide stars.

    PubMed

    Marc, Fabien; Guillet de Chatellus, Hugues; Pique, Jean-Paul

    2009-03-30

    The possibility to produce diffraction-limited images by large telescopes through Adaptive Optics is closely linked to the precision of measurement of the position of the guide star on the wavefront sensor. In the case of laser guide stars, many parameters can lead to a strong distortion on the shape of the LGS spot. Here we study the influence of both the saturation of the sodium layer excited by different types of lasers, the spatial quality of the laser mode at the ground and the influence of the atmospheric turbulence on the upward propagation of the laser beam. Both shape and intensity of the LGS spot are found to depend strongly on these three effects with important consequences on the precision on the wavefront analysis. PMID:19333251

  20. An improved quasistatic line-shape theory: The effects of molecular motion on the line wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    A theory is presented for the modification of the line-shape functions and absorption coefficient due to the breakdown of the quasistatic approximation. This breakdown arises from the effects of molecular motion and increases the absorption in the near wings. Numerical calculations for the high-frequency wing of the nu(sub 3) band of CO2 broadened by Ar are reported and it is shown that these effects are significant near the bandhead. The importance of such corrections in other spectral regions and for other systems is discussed briefly.

  1. Galilean symmetry in the effective theory of inflation: new shapes of non-Gaussianity

    SciTech Connect

    Creminelli, Paolo; Musso, Marcello; D'Amico, Guido; Noreña, Jorge; Trincherini, Enrico E-mail: gda2@nyu.edu E-mail: jorge.norena@gmail.com

    2011-02-01

    We study the consequences of imposing an approximate Galilean symmetry on the Effective Theory of Inflation, the theory of small perturbations around the inflationary background. This approach allows us to study the effect of operators with two derivatives on each field, which can be the leading interactions due to non-renormalization properties of the Galilean Lagrangian. In this case cubic non-Gaussianities are given by three independent operators, containing up to six derivatives, two with a shape close to equilateral and one peaking on flattened isosceles triangles. The four-point function is larger than in models with small speed of sound and potentially observable with the Planck satellite.

  2. Shape effect on the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized via a microwave-assisted method.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xuesen; Wen, Junjie; Xiong, Xuhua; Hu, Yongyou

    2016-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used as sustained-release bactericidal agents for water treatment. Among the physicochemical characteristics of AgNPs, shape is an important parameter relevant to the antibacterial activity. Three typically shaped AgNPs, nanocubes, nanospheres, and nanowires, were prepared via a microwave-assisted method and characterized by TEM, UV-vis, and XRD. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs was determined by OD growth curves tests, MIC tests, and cell viability assay against Escherichia coli. The interaction between AgNPs and bacterial cells was observed by TEM. The results showed that the three differently shaped AgNPs were nanoscale, 55 ± 10 nm in edge length for nanocubes, 60 ± 15 nm in diameter for nanospheres, 60 ± 10 nm in diameter and 2-4 μm in length for nanowires. At the bacterial concentration of 10(4) CFU/mL, the MIC of nanocubes, nanospheres, and nanowires were 37.5, 75, and 100 μg/mL, respectively. Due to the worst contact with bacteria, silver nanowires exhibited the weakest antibacterial activity compared with silver nanocubes and silver nanospheres. Besides, silver nanocubes mainly covered by {100} facets showed stronger antibacterial activity than silver nanospheres covered by {111} facets. It suggests that the shape effect on the antibacterial activity of AgNPs is attributed to the specific surface areas and facets reactivity; AgNPs with larger effective contact areas and higher reactive facets exhibit stronger antibacterial activity. PMID:26511259

  3. The effect of glass shape on alcohol consumption in a naturalistic setting: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Troy, David M.; Maynard, Olivia M.; Hickman, Matthew; Attwood, Angela S.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol-related harms are a major public health concern, and population-level interventions are needed to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. Glass shape is an easily modifiable target for public health intervention. Laboratory findings show beer is consumed slower from a straight glass compared to a curved glass, but these findings have not been replicated in a naturalistic setting. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of glass shape on alcohol consumption in public houses. Methods Straight and curved half-pint and pint glasses were delivered to three public houses over two weekends. Glass type was counterbalanced over the two weekends and between the public houses. Monetary takings were recorded as an indirect measure of consumption. Results Replacing stocks of glassware in public houses was feasible and can be enacted in a short space of time. One landlord found the study too disruptive, possibly due to a laborious exchange of glassware and complaints about the new glassware from some customers. One public house’s dishwasher could not accommodate the supplied curved full-pint glasses. Obtaining monetary takings from public house staff was a feasible and efficient way of measuring consumption, although reporting absolute amounts may be commercially sensitive. Monetary takings were reduced by 24 % (95 % confidence interval 77 % reduction to 29 % increase) when straight glasses were used compared to curved glasses. Conclusions This study shows that it is feasible to carry out a trial investigating glass shape in a naturalistic environment, although a number of challenges were encountered. Brewery owners and landlords are willing to engage with public health research in settings where alcohol is consumed, such as public houses. Good communication with stakeholders was vital to acquire good data, and highlighting the potential commercial benefits of

  4. Combined Pyroelectric, Piezoelectric and Shape Memory Effects for Thermal Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, D.; Gusarov, B.; Gusarova, E.; Viala, B.; Cugat, O.; Delamare, J.; Gimeno, L.

    2013-12-01

    This work proposes an enhanced method for thermal energy harvesting exploiting combined pyroelectric, piezoelectric and shape memory (SME) effects, and presents its experimental validation. A material which is pyroelectric is also piezoelectric. If it is combined with a material with SME, which generates large strain and stress in a rather narrow temperature range, the resulting composite material would generate voltage from temperature variations using two different energy conversion principles at once: (1) pyroelectric effect, (2) piezoelectric effect driven by SME. A Macro Fiber Composite piezoelectric was shown here to exhibit significant pyroelectric effect (~4 V/°C). When combining it with a SME Ti-Ni-Cu alloy into a laminated structure, this effect increased by 50%. This increase may be an order of magnitude higher for an optimized system. Such composites open an opportunity to harvest thermal energy from natural sources, since this method can increase the rather low efficiency of current pyroelectric materials especially for small temperature variations.

  5. Thermodynamics of multicaloric effects in multiferroic materials: application to metamagnetic shape-memory alloys and ferrotoroidics.

    PubMed

    Planes, Antoni; Castán, Teresa; Saxena, Avadh

    2016-08-13

    We develop a general thermodynamic framework to investigate multicaloric effects in multiferroic materials. This is applied to the study of both magnetostructural and magnetoelectric multiferroics. Landau models with appropriate interplay between the corresponding ferroic properties (order parameters) are proposed for metamagnetic shape-memory and ferrotoroidic materials, which, respectively, belong to the two classes of multiferroics. For each ferroic property, caloric effects are quantified by the isothermal entropy change induced by the application of the corresponding thermodynamically conjugated field. The multicaloric effect is obtained as a function of the two relevant applied fields in each class of multiferroics. It is further shown that multicaloric effects comprise the corresponding contributions from caloric effects associated with each ferroic property and the cross-contribution arising from the interplay between these ferroic properties.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'. PMID:27402925

  6. Effects of d-band shape on the surface reactivity of transition-metal alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Hongliang; Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Voss, Johannes; Nørskov, Jens K.; Abild-Pedersen, Frank

    2014-03-01

    The d-band shape of a metal site, governed by the local geometry and composition of materials, plays an important role in determining trends of the surface reactivity of transition-metal alloys. We discuss this phenomenon using the chemisorption of various adsorbates such as C, N, O, and their hydrogenated species on Pd bimetallic alloys as an example. For many alloys, the d-band center, even with consideration of the d-band width and sp electrons, can not describe variations in reactivity from one surface to another. We investigate the effect of the d-band shape, represented by higher moments of the d band, on the local electronic structure of adsorbates, e.g., energy and filling of adsorbate-metal antibonding states. The upper d-band edge ɛu, defined as the highest peak position of the Hilbert transform of the density of states projected onto d orbitals of an active metal site, is identified as an electronic descriptor for the surface reactivity of transition metals and their alloys, regardless of variations in the d-band shape. The utilization of the upper d-band edge with scaling relations enables a considerable reduction of the parameter space in search of improved alloy catalysts and further extends our understanding of the relationship between the electronic structure and chemical reactivity of metal surfaces.

  7. Effect of Particle Shape on Mechanical Behaviors of Rocks: A Numerical Study Using Clumped Particle Model

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Guan; Liu, Guang; Zhou, Chuang-bing

    2013-01-01

    Since rocks are aggregates of mineral particles, the effect of mineral microstructure on macroscopic mechanical behaviors of rocks is inneglectable. Rock samples of four different particle shapes are established in this study based on clumped particle model, and a sphericity index is used to quantify particle shape. Model parameters for simulation in PFC are obtained by triaxial compression test of quartz sandstone, and simulation of triaxial compression test is then conducted on four rock samples with different particle shapes. It is seen from the results that stress thresholds of rock samples such as crack initiation stress, crack damage stress, and peak stress decrease with the increasing of the sphericity index. The increase of sphericity leads to a drop of elastic modulus and a rise in Poisson ratio, while the decreasing sphericity usually results in the increase of cohesion and internal friction angle. Based on volume change of rock samples during simulation of triaxial compression test, variation of dilation angle with plastic strain is also studied. PMID:23997677

  8. Laboratory study of effects of sonic boom shaping on subjective loudness and acceptability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, Jack D.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to determine the effects of sonic boom signature shaping on subjective loudness and acceptability. The study utilized the sonic boom simulator at the Langley Research Center. A wide range of symmetrical, front-shock-minimized signature shapes were investigated together with a limited number of asymmetrical signatures. Subjective loudness judgments were obtained from 60 test subjects by using an 11-point numerical category scale. Acceptability judgments were obtained using the method of constant stimuli. Results were used to assess the relative predictive ability of several noise metrics, determine the loudness benefits of detailed boom shaping, and derive laboratory sonic boom acceptability criteria. These results indicated that the A-weighted sound exposure level, the Stevens Mark 7 Perceived Level, and the Zwicker Loudness Level metrics all performed well. Significant reductions in loudness were obtained by increasing front-shock rise time and/or decreasing front-shock overpressure of the front-shock minimized signatures. In addition, the asymmetrical signatures were rated to be slightly quieter than the symmetrical front-shock-minimized signatures of equal A-weighted sound exposure level. However, this result was based on a limited number of asymmetric signatures. The comparison of laboratory acceptability results with acceptability data obtained in more realistic situations also indicated good agreement.

  9. Effect of Gravity Level on the Particle Shape and Size During Zeolite Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Hong-Wei; Ilebusi, Olusegun J.; Sacco, Albert, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A microscopic diffusion model is developed to represent solute transport in the boundary layer of a growing zeolite crystal. This model is used to describe the effect of gravity on particle shape and solute distribution. Particle dynamics and crystal growth kinetics serve as the boundary conditions of flow and convection-diffusion equations. A statistical rate theory is used to obtain the rate of solute transport across the growing interface, which is expressed in terms of concentration and velocity of solute species. Microgravity can significantly decrease the solute velocity across the growing interface compared to its earth-based counterpart. The extent of this reduction highly depends on solute diffusion constant in solution. Under gravity, the flow towards the crystal enhances solute transport rate across the growing interface while the flow away from crystals reduces this rate, suggesting a non-uniform growth rate and thus an elliptic final shape. However, microgravity can significantly reduce the influence of flow and obtain a final product with perfect spherical shape. The model predictions compare favorably with the data of space experiment of zeolites grown in space.

  10. The effect of the modulation shape in the ballistic thermal conductance of modulated nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Zianni, Xanthippi

    2012-09-15

    We report on calculations of the ballistic thermal conductance of nanowires with modulated width along their length. We discuss the effect of the shape of the modulation in the thermal conductance of the nanowires. The ballistic thermal conductance is determined by the phonon transmission coefficient. It is shown that the thermal conductance of the modulated wires is lower than that of the corresponding straight wires. The phonon conductance decreases with increasing number of modulating periods and saturates to the infinite superlattice value. It decreases below this value when the modulation profile is non-periodic. It is shown that the thermal conductance can be tuned by changing the shape of the modulation profile. This behavior could lead to structures of nanowires with enhanced thermoelectric efficiency. - Graphical abstract: The thermal conductance versus temperature for straight nanowires and for wires modulated periodically by arrays of identical dots and non-periodically by arrays of non-identical dots. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal conductance of modulated nanowires can be tuned by changing the shape of the modulation profile. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A dramatic decrease of the thermal conductance of modulated nanowires is found when the modulation profile is non-periodic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very low thermal conductance can be achieved in modulated wires that have shown efficient electron thermoelectric behavior.

  11. Appearance of the two-way shape-memory effect in a nitinol spring subjected to temperature and deformation cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjavidze, A. G.; Barnov, V. A.; Jorjishvili, L. I.; Sobolevskaya, S. V.

    2008-03-01

    The properties of a cylindrical spiral spring of nitinol (shape-memory alloy) are studied. When this spring is used as a working element in a rotary martensitic engine, the appearance of the two-way shape-memory effect in it is shown to decrease the engine operation efficiency.

  12. Mitigation of Adverse Effects Caused by Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interactions Through Optimal Wall Shaping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, May-Fun; Lee, Byung Joon

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the adverse effects of shock wave boundary layer interactions in high speed inlets include reduced total pressure recovery and highly distorted flow at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP). This paper presents a design method for flow control which creates perturbations in geometry. These perturbations are tailored to change the flow structures in order to minimize shock wave boundary layer interactions (SWBLI) inside supersonic inlets. Optimizing the shape of two dimensional micro-size bumps is shown to be a very effective flow control method for two-dimensional SWBLI. In investigating the three dimensional SWBLI, a square duct is employed as a baseline. To investigate the mechanism whereby the geometric elements of the baseline, i.e. the bottom wall, the sidewall and the corner, exert influence on the flow's aerodynamic characteristics, each element is studied and optimized separately. It is found that arrays of micro-size bumps on the bottom wall of the duct have little effect in improving total pressure recovery though they are useful in suppressing the incipient separation in three-dimensional problems. Shaping sidewall geometry is effective in re-distributing flow on the side wall and results in a less distorted flow at the exit. Subsequently, a near 50% reduction in distortion is achieved. A simple change in corner geometry resulted in a 2.4% improvement in total pressure recovery.

  13. Effects of Form Deprivation on Peripheral Refractions and Ocular Shape in Infant Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Hung, Li-Fang; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Blasdel, Terry L.; Humbird, Tammy L.; Bockhorst, Kurt H.; Smith, Earl L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether visual experience can alter ocular shape and peripheral refractive error pattern, the authors investigated the effects of form deprivation on refractive development in infant rhesus monkeys. Methods Monocular form deprivation was imposed in 10 rhesus monkeys by securing diffuser lenses in front of their treated eyes between 22 ± 2 and 163 ± 17 days of age. Each eye's refractive status was measured longitudinally by retinoscopy along the pupillary axis and at 15° intervals along the horizontal meridian to eccentricities of 45°. Control data for peripheral refraction were obtained from the nontreated fellow eyes and six untreated monkeys. Near the end of the diffuser-rearing period, the shape of the posterior globe was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Central axial dimensions were also determined by A-scan ultrasonography. Results Form deprivation produced interocular differences in central refractive errors that varied between +2.69 and –10.31 D (treated eye–fellow eye). All seven diffuser-reared monkeys that developed at least 2.00 D of relative central axial myopia also showed relative hyperopia in the periphery that increased in magnitude with eccentricity. Alterations in peripheral refraction were highly correlated with eccentricity-dependent changes in vitreous chamber depth and the shape of the posterior globe. Conclusions Like humans with myopia, monkeys with form-deprivation myopia exhibit relative peripheral hyperopia and eyes that are less oblate and more prolate. Thus, in addition to producing central refractive errors, abnormal visual experience can alter the shape of the posterior globe and the pattern of peripheral refractive errors in infant primates. PMID:19420338

  14. Development of a polymer stent with shape memory effect as a drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Wache, H M; Tartakowska, D J; Hentrich, A; Wagner, M H

    2003-02-01

    The article presents a new concept for vascular endoprothesis (stent). Almost all commercially available stents are made of metallic materials. A common after effect of stent implantation is restenosis. Several studies on metal stents coated with drug show, that the use of a drug delivery system may reduce restenosis. The purpose of this work is to develop a new stent for the drug delivery application. The shape memory properties of thermoplastic polyurethane allow to design a new fully polymeric self-expandable stent. The possibility to use the stent as a drug delivery system is described. PMID:15348481

  15. Effect of tip shape and dihedral on lateral-stability characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortal, Joseph A

    1937-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests to determine the effect of wing-tip shape and dihedral on some of the aerodynamic characteristics of Clark Y wings that affect the performance and lateral stability of airplanes. Force tests at several angles of yaw and rotation tests at zero yaw were made. From these tests the rates of change of rolling moment, yawing moment, and cross-wind force coefficients with angle of yaw and the rate of change of rolling moment coefficient with rolling were determined.

  16. Simulation studies of ion dynamic effects on dense plasma line shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, E.L.

    1986-12-01

    Computer simulations have been widely used in studying dense plasma properties including the local field properties important in spectral line broadening calculations. We will review here a more recent use of simulation, possibly less familiar to this audience, where the time dependent ionic microfield generated by computer simulation of a plasma is used directly as a time dependent external potential for the evolution of the electronic structure of an ion. This permits calculation of the dipole correlation function and thus line shapes with the inclusion of ion dynamic effects. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Effect of free surface shape on combined thermocapillary and natural convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamotani, Yasuhiro; Platt, Jonathan

    1992-01-01

    Combined thermocapillary and natural convection in an open square cavity with differentially-heated side walls is studied numerically as well as experimentally. The test fluid is silicone oil with Prandtl number of 105. The shape of fluid-free surface is made either flat or curved to study its effect on the flow. A finite difference scheme to deal with a curved free surface is developed. The experimental results shown agree with the numerical results. With the curved-free surface, the flow and local heat transfer rate are reduced in the corner regions, and a sharp peak in heat transfer rate at the top edge of the cold wall disappears.

  18. Effect of the signal measured from the glottis on determination of the vocal tract shape.

    PubMed

    Gülmezoğlu, M B; Barkana, A

    1998-01-01

    All-pole and pole-zero models for the vocal tract are developed. First an impulse train, then the pressure signal measured from the glottis, is used as the input in the models. The models for eight Turkish vowels produced by one male subject are studied to determine the effects of the presumed impulse train and the pressure signal measured from the glottis on the estimation of the vocal tract shape. The motion of the tongue is also examined for a whole word. PMID:9846946

  19. The effect of particle aggregate shape on ultrasonic anisotropy in concentrated magnetic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornowski, T.; Józefczak, A.; Kołodziejczyk, B.; Timko, M.; Skumiel, A.; Rajnak, M.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of aggregate shape on the ultrasonic anisotropy in magnetic fluid was studied. Experimental results were compared with the theory of Ahuja and Hendee. Analysis of experimental results in terms of the theoretical model show the formation of ellipsoidal aggregates composed of several particles. The chain-like aggregates (h = b/a >> 1 a and b being minor and major axis lengths, respectively) are most conspicuous in diluted ferrofluids while dense ferrofluids are characterized by a more homogeneous drop-like (h = b/a > 1) structure. This finding is supported by some theoretical simulations.

  20. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea).

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Willian Rogers Ferreira; de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). PMID:26206895

  1. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea)

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J. Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). PMID:26206895

  2. Shape and solar phase angle effects on the taxonomic classification of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvano, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Asteroid taxonomy groups asteroids into classes based on similarities of their observational properties, of which the most commonly used are measurments of spectral reflectance in the visible and geometric albedo. It is a commonly used proxy for asteroid composition, since it can be derived from observations that are available for a large number of objects. However, the correspondence between asteroid taxonomy and asteroid composition is not univocal, for two main reasons: 1) not all compositions produce spectra with diagnostic features in the range used to derive the taxonomy; and 2) both the spectra and albedos of asteroids are also affected by other factors that are not directly related to composition. The main effect of the first reason is that asteroids with very different compositions may end up in a same taxonomic class, while the second reason may produce situations where asteroids of a given composition are classified into several different taxonomic groups. The physical causes for this later effect include the properties of the top regolith layer that cover the asteroid surface ( grain size distribution, porosity and rugosity) and processes that operate in this layer (space wethering by solar wind implatation and micro-meteorite bombardment). These are intrinsic properties of each body. Other causes however are linked to the particular geometry at the time of the observations, like solar phase angle, aspect angle and shape. In this work I review how solar phase angle and shape effects may affect the taxonomic classification of asteroids.

  3. Shape matters: effects of silver nanospheres and wires on human alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In nanotoxicology, the exact role of particle shape, in relation to the composition, on the capacity to induce toxicity is largely unknown. We investigated the toxic and immunotoxic effects of silver wires (length: 1.5 - 25 μm; diameter 100 - 160 nm), spherical silver nanoparticles (30 nm) and silver microparticles (<45 μm) on alveolar epithelial cells (A549). Methods Wires and nanoparticles were synthesized by wet-chemistry methods and extensively characterized. Cell viability and cytotoxicity were assessed and potential immunotoxic effects were investigated. To compare the effects on an activated and a resting immune system, cells were stimulated with rhTNF-α or left untreated. Changes in intracellular free calcium levels were determined using calcium imaging. Finally, ion release from the particles was assessed by ICP-MS and the effects of released ions on cell viability and cytotoxicity were tested. Results No effects were observed for the spherical particles, whereas the silver wires significantly reduced cell viability and increased LDH release from A549 cells. Cytokine promoter induction and NF-κB activation decreased in a concentration dependent manner similar to the decrease seen in cell viability. In addition, a strong increase of intracellular calcium levels within minutes after addition of wires was observed. This toxicity was not due to free silver ions, since the samples with the highest ion release did not induce toxicity and ion release control experiments with cells treated with pre-incubated medium did not show any effects either. Conclusions These data showed that silver wires strongly affect the alveolar epithelial cells, whereas spherical silver particles had no effect. This supports the hypothesis that shape is one of the important factors that determine particle toxicity. PMID:22208550

  4. U-shaped, double-tapered, fiber-optic sensor for effective biofilm growth monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Nianbing; Zhao, Mingfu; Li, Yishan

    2016-01-01

    To monitor biofilm growth on polydimethylsiloxane in a photobioreactor effectively, the biofilm cells and liquids were separated and measured using a sensor with two U-shaped, double-tapered, fiber-optic probes (Sen. and Ref. probes). The probes’ Au-coated hemispherical tips enabled double-pass evanescent field absorption. The Sen. probe sensed the cells and liquids inside the biofilm. The polyimide–silica hybrid-film-coated Ref. probe separated the liquids from the biofilm cells and analyzed the liquid concentration. The biofilm structure and active biomass were also examined to confirm the effectiveness of the measurement using a simulation model. The sensor was found to effectively respond to the biofilm growth in the adsorption through exponential phases at thicknesses of 0–536 μm. PMID:26977344

  5. Shape distortions induced by convective effect on hot object in visible, near infrared and infrared bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmas, Anthony; Maoult, Yannick Le; Buchlin, Jean-Marie; Sentenac, Thierry; Orteu, Jean-José

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the perturbation induced by the convective effect (or mirage effect) on shape measurement and to give an estimation of the error induced. This work explores the mirage effect in different spectral bands and single wavelengths. A numerical approach is adopted and an original setup has been developed in order to investigate easily all the spectral bands of interest with the help of a CCD camera (Si, 0.35-1.1 μm), a near infrared camera (VisGaAs, 0.8-1.7 μm) or infrared cameras (8-12 μm). Displacements due to the perturbation for each spectral band are measured and finally some hints about how to correct them are given.

  6. U-shaped, double-tapered, fiber-optic sensor for effective biofilm growth monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Nianbing; Zhao, Mingfu; Li, Yishan

    2016-02-01

    To monitor biofilm growth on polydimethylsiloxane in a photobioreactor effectively, the biofilm cells and liquids were separated and measured using a sensor with two U-shaped, double-tapered, fiber-optic probes (Sen. and Ref. probes). The probes' Au-coated hemispherical tips enabled double-pass evanescent field absorption. The Sen. probe sensed the cells and liquids inside the biofilm. The polyimide-silica hybrid-film-coated Ref. probe separated the liquids from the biofilm cells and analyzed the liquid concentration. The biofilm structure and active biomass were also examined to confirm the effectiveness of the measurement using a simulation model. The sensor was found to effectively respond to the biofilm growth in the adsorption through exponential phases at thicknesses of 0-536 μm. PMID:26977344

  7. Magnetoelectric effect in layered disk-shaped magnetostrictive-piezoelectric structures: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, D. A.; Radchenko, G. S.; Laletin, V. M.

    2016-03-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of the magnetoelectric effect in a disk-shaped magnetostrictive-piezoelectric structure in the electromechanical resonance region are presented. An expression for the magnetoelectric voltage coefficient is derived based on the simultaneous solution of elastodynamic and electrostatic equations separately for magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers. The conditions at the interface were taken into account based on the premise that the interaction between layers is implemented by shear. It is shown that the inhomogeneity of the voltage and strain distribution over the sample thickness, caused by the interface, leads to a significant contribution to the effect in the case of thick layers. The theoretical and experimental dependences of the frequency characteristic of the effect are presented for the permendur-lead zirconate-titanate-permendur structure. The theoretical calculations are in good agreement with experimental data.

  8. Alpha-particles as probes of nuclear shape and structure effects in proton evaporation spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantites, D.G.; Nicolis, N.G.; Abenante, V.; Majka, Z.; Semkow, T.M. ); Baktash, C.; Beene, J.R.; Garcia-Bermudez, G.; Halbert, M.L.; Hensley, D.C.; Johnson, N.R.; Lee, I.Y.; McGowan, F.K.; Riley, M.A.; Virtanen, A. ); Griffin, H.C. )

    1990-01-01

    The emission barriers and subbarrier anisotropies in the alpha-particle decay with respect to the spin direction on Sn and rare earth compound nuclei are examined in the light of recent calculations incorporating deformation effects in the decay process. For the Sn systems the spectral shapes and anisotropies can be examined without involving deformation. For the rare earth systems deformation which increases with spin is necessary to explain the data. Energy spectra and angular correlations of evaporated protons from the {sup 52}Cr ({sup 34}S, 2p2n){sup 82}Sr reaction were measured in coincidence with discrete transitions. Large shifts in proton spectra were observed when high spin states in different rotational bands are populated. These effects cannot be explained by statistical model calculations that do not include explicitly nuclear structure effects in the deexcitation process. They are interpreted as due to near-yrast stretched proton emission, which preferentially populates the yrast band by subbarrier protons.

  9. Effects of surface reflectance on local second order shape estimation in dynamic scenes.

    PubMed

    Dövencioğlu, Dicle N; Wijntjes, Maarten W A; Ben-Shahar, Ohad; Doerschner, Katja

    2015-10-01

    In dynamic scenes, relative motion between the object, the observer, and/or the environment projects as dynamic visual information onto the retina (optic flow) that facilitates 3D shape perception. When the object is diffusely reflective, e.g. a matte painted surface, this optic flow is directly linked to object shape, a property found at the foundations of most traditional shape-from-motion (SfM) schemes. When the object is specular, the corresponding specular flow is related to shape curvature, a regime change that challenges the visual system to determine concurrently both the shape and the distortions of the (sometimes unknown) environment reflected from its surface. While human observers are able to judge the global 3D shape of most specular objects, shape-from-specular-flow (SFSF) is not veridical. In fact, recent studies have also shown systematic biases in the perceived motion of such objects. Here we focus on the perception of local shape from specular flow and compare it to that of matte-textured rotating objects. Observers judged local surface shape by adjusting a rotation and scale invariant shape index probe. Compared to shape judgments of static objects we find that object motion decreases intra-observer variability in local shape estimation. Moreover, object motion introduces systematic changes in perceived shape between matte-textured and specular conditions. Taken together, this study provides a new insight toward the contribution of motion and surface material to local shape perception. PMID:25645965

  10. Effects of Elevator Nose Shape, Gap, Balance, and Tabs on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Horizontal Tail Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goett, Harry J; Reeder, J P

    1939-01-01

    Results are presented showing the effects of gap, elevator, nose shape, balance, cut-out, and tabs on the aerodynamic characteristics of a horizontal tail surface tested in the NACA full-scale tunnel.

  11. Effects of Inflow Distortion due to Hub Cap's Shape on the Performance of Axial Flow Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Choon-Man; Choi, Seung-Man; Kim, Kwang-Yong

    Performance characteristics of an axial flow fan having distorted inlet flow have been investigated using numerical analysis. Two kinds of hub-cap, rounded and right-angled front shape, are tested to investigate the effect of inlet flow distortion on the fan performance. In case of right-angled front shape, axisymmetric distorted inflow is induced by flow separation at the sharp edge of hub-cap, and the characteristics of the inflow depend on the distance between hub-cap and blade leading edge. Three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are introduced to analyze the flow characteristics inside the blade passage. Numerical solutions are validated in comparison with experimental data measured by a five-hole probe downstream of the fan rotor. It is found from the numerical results that non-uniform axial inlet velocity profile near the hub results in the change of inlet flow angle. Large recirculation flow upstream the fan rotor for the right-angled hub-cap induces separated flow on the blade surfaces near the hub region, and thus deteriorates the performance of fan rotor. The effect of the distance between hub-cap and blade leading edge on the efficiency is also discussed.

  12. Subsonic Maneuvering Effectiveness of High Performance Aircraft Which Employ Quasi-Static Shape Change Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Scott, Michael A.; Weston, Robert P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper represents an initial study on the use of quasi-static shape change devices in aircraft maneuvering. The macroscopic effects and requirements for these devices in flight control are the focus of this study. Groups of devices are postulated to replace the conventional leading-edge flap (LEF) and the all-moving wing tip (AMT) on the tailless LMTAS-ICE (Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems - Innovative Control Effectors) configuration. The maximum quasi-static shape changes are 13.8% and 7.7% of the wing section thickness for the LEF and AMT replacement devices, respectively. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) panel code is used to determine the control effectiveness of groups of these devices. A preliminary design of a wings-leveler autopilot is presented. Initial evaluation at 0.6 Mach at 15,000 ft. altitude is made through batch simulation. Results show small disturbance stability is achieved, however, an increase in maximum distortion is needed to statically offset five degrees of sideslip. This only applies to the specific device groups studied, encouraging future research on optimal device placement.

  13. Effect of diffuse layer and pore shapes in mesoporous carbon supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent; Qiao, Rui

    2010-01-01

    In the spirit of the theoretical evolution from the Helmholtz model to the Gouy Chapman Stern model for electric double-layer capacitors, we explored the effect of a diffuse layer on the capacitance of mesoporous carbon supercapacitors by solving the Poisson Boltzmann (PB) equation in mesopores of diameters from 2 to 20 nm. To evaluate the effect of pore shape, both slit and cylindrical pores were considered. We found that the diffuse layer does not affect the capacitance significantly. For slit pores, the area-normalized capacitance is nearly independent of pore size, which is not experimentally observed for template carbons. In comparison, for cylindrical pores, PB simulations produce a trend of slightly increasing area-normalized capacitance with pore size, similar to that depicted by the electric double-cylinder capacitor model proposed earlier. These results indicate that it is appropriate to approximate the pore shape of mesoporous carbons as being cylindrical and the electric double-cylinder capacitor model should be used for mesoporous carbons as a replacement of the traditional Helmholtz model.

  14. Numerical Analysis on the Head-Shape Effect for Long-Rod Normally Penetrating Concrete Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Zhong-Cheng; Zhang, Wei; Cao, Zong-Sheng

    2009-06-01

    The deep penetration of long rods into thick target has been the focus for many decades in the terminal ballistic. Especially the study on long rods penetrating concrete targets arouses more and more attention. But the investigations of the head-shape effect to the high velocity penetration of long rod are few. In this paper, the penetration process of long rod with different head-shapes is analyzed through a series of numerical simulations. The impact velocity from subsonic velocity on the order of 10^2 m/s to hypervelocity on the order of 10^3 m/s is used. The penetration target is high strength concrete. Numerical model of concrete target adopts typical dynamic concrete damage model-RHT. The model has shown promising results for prediction of penetration depth. The projectile material is 4340 steel, Johnson-Cook model is chosen. In all the simulations presented here the material properties of projectiles and targets doesn't change. The flat-head and the ogive-head projectile are chosen. The effect of the CRH of ogive-head projectile on penetration depth is analyzed. Difference and similarity are described by the time history of penetrating velocity, acceleration and the head deformation.

  15. Trapezoidal-shaped detector to reduce edge effects in small gamma camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Yong Hyun; Hwang, Ji Yeon; Baek, Cheol-Ha; An, Su Jung; Kim, Hyun-Il; Kim, Kwang Hyun

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in compact and high resolution small gamma cameras for the early detection of breast cancer and thyroid diseases. We proposed a new detector consisting of a trapezoidal-shaped crystal and a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) to reduce the edge effect. In this study, the imaging performance of the proposed detector was evaluated by DETECT2000 simulation. Trapezoidal-shaped NaI(Tl) and CsI(Tl) crystals were modeled and the 2-dimensional event positions were calculated using Anger-logic. 99mTc (140 keV) and 131I (364 keV) gamma rays were generated on evenly spaced points with 3.0 mm spacing in the X-Y plane starting 1.0 mm away from the corner surface and 10,000 gamma events were simulated at each location. The simulated results demonstrated that all the 99mTc and 131I point sources were clearly identified in the NaI(Tl) crystal. CsI(Tl) crystal could image 131I sources without edge effect but did not distinguish 99mTc points at the periphery region due to low light yield. In conclusion, our new detector with an enlarged FOV without increasing crystal size could be a useful tool in breast as well as thyroid imaging.

  16. Effect of Interface Shape and Magnetic Field on the Microstructure of Bulk Ge:Ga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.; Volz, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal and compositional gradients induced during the growth process contribute significantly to the development of defects in the solidified boule. Thermal gradients and the solid-liquid interface shape can be greatly effected by ampoule material. Compositional gradients are strongly influenced by interface curvature and convective flow in the liquid. Results of this investigation illustrate the combined influences of interface shape and convective fluid flow. An applied magnetic field was used to reduce the effects of convective fluid flow in the electrically conductive melt during directional solidification. Several 8 mm diameter boules of Ga-doped Ge were grown at different field strengths, up to 5 Tesla, in four different ampoule materials. Compositional profiles indicate mass transfer conditions ranged from completely mixed to diffusion controlled. The influence of convection in the melt on the developing crystal microstructure and defect density was investigated as a function of field strength and ampoule material. Chemical etching and electron backscattered electron diffraction were used to map the crystal structure of each boule along the center plane. Dislocation etch pit densities were measured for each boule. Results show the influence of magnetic field strength and ampoule material on overall crystal quality.

  17. Chemo-responsive shape memory effect in shape memory polyurethane triggered by inductive release of mechanical energy storage undergoing copper (II) chloride migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haibao; Lu, Chunrui; Huang, Wei Min; Leng, Jinsong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, 10% weight fraction of copper (II) chloride (CuCl2) was embedded into shape memory polyurethane (SMPU) by dissolving it in a solvent mixture of tetrahydrofuran and N,N-dimethyl formamide. It is found that CuCl2 particles migrate; they are released from the polymer in the water-driven shape recovery process of SMPU composites. SMPU composites, after various immersion times in water, were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. Experimental results support that hydrogen bonding between polyurethane macromolecules and water molecules is the driving force, resulting from the inductive decrease in the glass transition temperature. Furthermore, the release of the stored mechanical energy in SMPU is demonstrated by means of tracking the migration of CuCl2 particles via x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy tests. This study focuses on the mechanism of release of the stored mechanical energy of a polymer, which is identified as the driving force for the chemo-responsive shape memory effect and inductive decrease in glass transition temperature of SMPU in response to the water.

  18. The effects of syllabic compression and frequency shaping on speech intelligibility in hearing impaired people.

    PubMed

    Verschuure, H; Prinsen, T T; Dreschler, W A

    1994-02-01

    The effect of syllabic compression on speech intelligibility is rarely positive and in those cases that positive effects have been found, the same positive results could in general be obtained by frequency shaping of the frequency response curve. We programmed a syllabic compressor on a digital processor; the compressor differed from a conventional syllabic compressor by incorporating a delay in the signal path to suppress overshoots and thus minimize transient distortion. Furthermore, the time constants were short: attack time of 5 msec and release time of 15 msec. The compressor was only active in the high-frequency band. An essentially linear signal was added to deliver the low-frequency speech components. The processing resulted in a frequency response that mirrored the hearing loss near threshold and became much flatter for higher level input signals. Speech intelligibility scores for nonsense consonant-vowel-consonant words embedded in carrier phrases were determined for hearing-impaired persons with sloping audiograms and discrimination losses for speech. Results showed little additional effect of frequency shaping to the existing improved speech score for compressed speech. Optimum results were found for a compression ratio 2 with lower speech scores for linear amplification and for compression ratio 8. We next determined the effect of providing high-frequency emphasis to the speech signal and/or to the compression control signal to compensate for the upward spread of masking. The frequency response at the root-mean-square level was adjusted according to the half-gain rule. The positive effects of moderate compression could be found again; the high-frequency emphasis, however, was positive for the vowels but made consonant recognition poorer.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8194675

  19. Shape-controlled synthesis of ZnO microstructures: the effects of inorganic shape directing and pH altering agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lipeng; Xu, Shihua; Yu, Xianjin; Tan, Lixia; Wang, Qiannan; Yang, Lina

    2014-07-01

    In this work, shape-controlled synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) microstructures were demonstrated using liquid-phase route utilizing zinc acetate hydrate as zinc ion precursor and ammonia as pH buffering agent and source for zinc-ammonia complexes. Glass substrate coated with indium tin oxide layer was used as the growth substrate. Zinc-ammonia complex was thought of as the component of growth for ZnO crystals. Inorganic shape-directing agents, instead of organic ones were used in this study e.g., trisodium citrate or aluminum nitrate hexahydrate. The effect of pH altering agent e.g., sodium hydroxide towards the crystal structure was also probed. Without shape-directing agents, the resultant ZnO crystals exhibited multilayer petals flower shape with uniform size (e.g., diameter of -2.5 microm). Adding trisodium citrate, led to the formation of burger crystals with uniform size (e.g., height of -200 nm and diameter of -800 nm). Adding aluminum nitrate hexahydrate resulted in the formation of hexagonal disk with wide variation in size (diameter varied between -0.8 to 4 microm). The addition of sodium hydroxide, strong base, altered the pH into high value very rapidly in the beginning of the synthesis and caused faster nucleation rate in a NaOH containing solution with respect to that in a NH3 solution. In this case, crystals with different morphology are obtained, e.g., dot like, monopetal-flower like and octahedron like. The detailed processes pertaining for each case were explained in this work. PMID:24758041

  20. Dilution dependent magnetorheological effect of flake-shaped particle suspensions—destructive friction effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, Erik; Laherisheth, Zarana; Upadhyay, Ramesh V.

    2015-07-01

    The increase in viscosity as well as yield stress induced by an applied magnetic field were measured in dependence on the particle volume fraction of a magnetorheological fluid with flake-shaped particles. Five suspensions were synthesized, with particle volume concentrations varying from 7.45 vol.% to 17.74 vol.%. A drastic change in the behaviour of the relative viscosities was observed, which was related to a critical volume fraction. The yield stress showed similar characteristics and its origins were studied in more detail using a special analysis method which allows one to distinguish between the magnetic and friction components of yield stress. The hypothesis of ‘destructive friction’ is presented, which describes damped structure formation due to the dissipation of energy through multibody interactions.

  1. Hydrodynamic interactions between two forced objects of arbitrary shape. I. Effect on alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfriend, Tomer; Diamant, Haim; Witten, Thomas A.

    2015-12-01

    We study the properties and symmetries governing the hydrodynamic interaction between two identical, arbitrarily shaped objects, driven through a viscous fluid. We treat analytically the leading (dipolar) terms of the pair-mobility matrix, affecting the instantaneous relative linear and angular velocities of the two objects at large separation. We prove that the instantaneous hydrodynamic interaction linearly degrades the alignment of asymmetric objects by an external time-dependent drive [B. Moths and T. A. Witten, "Full alignment of colloidal objects by programed forcing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 028301 (2013)]. The time-dependent effects of hydrodynamic interactions are explicitly demonstrated through numerically calculated trajectories of model alignable objects composed of four stokeslets. In addition to the orientational effect, we find that the two objects usually repel each other. In this case, the mutual degradation weakens as the two objects move away from each other, and full alignment is restored at long times.

  2. Pulse shape dependence in the dynamically assisted Sauter-Schwinger effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Malte F.; Schneider, Christian; Sicking, Joachim; Szpak, Nikodem; Schützhold, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    While the Sauter-Schwinger effect describes nonperturbative electron-positron pair creation from vacuum by a strong and slowly varying electric field Estrong via tunneling, the dynamically assisted Sauter-Schwinger effect corresponds to a strong (exponential) enhancement of the pair-creation probability by an additional weak and fast electric or electromagnetic pulse Eweak. Using the WKB and worldline instanton method, we find that this enhancement mechanism strongly depends on the shape of the fast pulse. For the Sauter profile 1 /cosh2(ω t ) considered previously, the threshold frequency ωcrit (where the enhancement mechanism sets in) is basically independent of the magnitude Eweak of the weak pulse—whereas for a Gaussian pulse exp (-ω2t2), an oscillating profile cos (ω t ) or a standing wave cos (ω t )cos (k x ) , the value of ωcrit does depend (logarithmically) on Eweak/Estrong.

  3. Doping liquid crystals with nanoparticles. A computer simulation of the effects of nanoparticle shape.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Silvia; Benini, Erika; Miglioli, Isabella; Evans, Dean R; Reshetnyak, Victor; Zannoni, Claudio

    2016-01-28

    We have studied, using Monte Carlo computer simulations, the effects that nanoparticles of similar size and three different shapes (spherical, elongated and discotic) dispersed at different concentrations in a liquid crystal (LC), have on the transition temperature, order parameter and mobility of the suspension. We have modelled the nanoparticles as berry-like clusters of spherical Lennard-Jones sites and the NP with a Gay-Berne model. We find that the overall phase behaviour is not affected by the addition of small amounts (xN = 0.1-0.5%) of nanoparticles, with the lowest perturbation obtained with disc-like nanoparticles at the lowest concentration. We observe a general decrease of the clearing temperature and a reduction in the orientational order with a change in its temperature variation, particularly in the case of the xN = 0.5% dispersions and with a more pronounced effect when the nanoparticles are spherical. PMID:26700502

  4. Effects of erodant particle shape and various heat treatments on erosion resistance of plain carbon steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, J.; Buckley, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Erosion tests were conducted on 1045 steel samples which had been subjected to different heat treatments. The weight of material removed upon erosion with glass beads and crushed glass was measured. The data show that there is no correlation between hardness and erosion resistance. The erosion rate was strongly dependent on the shape of erodant particles, being an order of magnitude higher for erosion with crushed glass than with glass beads. Heat treatment had a profound effect on the erosion resistance when the erodant particles were glass beads but little or no effect when the particles were crushed glass. It is thus concluded that different mechanisms of material removal are involved with these two erodants. This conclusion is supported by the surface morphology of annealed 1045 steel samples which had been eroded by these two types of erodant particles. SEM micrographs of the eroded surfaces show that for erosion with glass beads it is deformation induced fracture of surface layers.

  5. Design of Pt-Pd Binary Superlattices Exploiting Shape Effects and Synergistic Effects for Oxygen Reduction Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, YJ; Ye, XC; Chen, J; Cai, Y; Diaz, RE; Adzic, RR; Stach, EA; Murray, CB

    2013-01-09

    Large-area icosahedral-AB(13)-type Pt-Pd binary superlattices (BNSLs) are fabricated through self-assembly of 6 nm Pd nanocrystals (NCs) and 13 nm Pt octahedra at a liquid air interface. The Pt-Pd BNSLs enable a high activity toward electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) by successfully exploiting the shape effects of Pt-NCs and synergistic effects of Pt-Pd into a single crystalline nanostructure. The Pt-Pd BNSLs are promising catalysts for the oxygen electrode of fuel cells.

  6. Matching and Naming Objects by Shape or Function: Age and Context Effects in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deak, Gedeon O.; Ray, Shanna D.; Pick, Anne D.

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments tested 3- and 4-year-olds' use of abstract principles to classify and label objects by shape or function. Findings indicated that 4-year-olds readily adopted either rule when instructed to match objects by shape or function, but 3-year-olds followed only the shape rule. Without a rule, 4-year-olds tended to match by shape unless…

  7. An investigation into particle shape effects on the light scattering properties of mineral dust aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meland, Brian Steven

    Mineral dust aerosol plays an important role in determining the physical and chemical equilibrium of the atmosphere. The radiative balance of the Earth's atmosphere can be affected by mineral dust through both direct and indirect means. Mineral dust can directly scatter or absorb incoming visible solar radiation and outgoing terrestrial IR radiation. Dust particles can also serve as cloud condensation nuclei, thereby increasing albedo, or provide sites for heterogeneous reactions with trace gas species, which are indirect effects. Unfortunately, many of these processes are poorly understood due to incomplete knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of the particles including dust concentration and global distribution, as well as aerosol composition, mixing state, and size and shape distributions. Much of the information about mineral dust aerosol loading and spatial distribution is obtained from remote sensing measurements which often rely on measuring the scattering or absorption of light from these particles and are thus subject to errors arising from an incomplete understanding of the scattering processes. The light scattering properties of several key mineral components of atmospheric dust have been measured at three different wavelengths in the visible. In addition, measurements of the scattering were performed for several authentic mineral dust aerosols, including Saharan sand, diatomaceous earth, Iowa loess soil, and palagonite. These samples include particles that are highly irregular in shape. Using known optical constants along with measured size distributions, simulations of the light scattering process were performed using both Mie and T-Matrix theories. Particle shapes were approximated as a distribution of spheroids for the T-Matrix calculations. It was found that the theoretical model simulations differed markedly from experimental measurements of the light scattering, particularly near the mid-range and near backscattering angles. In

  8. Numerical Study of the Effect of the Leading Edge Shape on Cavitation Around Inducer Blade Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutier-Delgosha, Olivier; Reboud, Jean-Luc; Fortes-Patella, Regiane

    A numerical study of the cavitation behaviour of two-dimensional hydrofoils simulating a section of an inducer blade is presented. Two leading edge shapes were chosen to approach rocket engine inducer designs. They were tested with respect to the development of sheet cavitation. The numerical model of cavitating flows is based on the 3D code FINE/TURBOTM, developed by NUMECA International. The cavitation process is taken into account by using a single fluid model, which considers the liquid vapour mixture as a homogeneous fluid whose density varies with respect to the static pressure. Numerical results are compared with experimental ones, obtained in the CREMHyG large cavitation tunnel(1). Pressure distributions along the foil suction side and the tunnel walls were measured for different cavity lengths. Total pressure measurements along the foil suction side allow characterizing the effects of cavitation on the liquid flow. Influence of the leading edge shape on the cavitation behaviour and comparison between experiments and numerical predictions are discussed.

  9. The effects of patch shape on indigo buntings. Evidence for an ecological trap

    SciTech Connect

    Weldon, Aimee J.; Haddad, Nick M.

    2005-01-01

    Weldon, Aimee, J., and Nick M. Haddad. 2005. The effect of patch shape on indigo buntings: Evidence for an ecological trap. Ecology 86(6):1422-1431. Abstract. Habitat loss and fragmentation have led to a widespread increase in the proportion of edge habitat in the landscape. Disturbance-dependent bird species are widely assumed to benefit from these edges. However, anthropogenic edges may concentrate nest predators while retaining habitat cues that birds use to select breeding habitat. This may lead birds to mistakenly select dangerous habitat a phenomenon known as an ecological trap. We experimentally demonstrated how habitat shape, and thus amount of edge, can adversely affect nest site selection and reproductive success of a disturbance-dependent bird species, the Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea). We did so within a landscape-scale experiment composed of equal-area habitat patches that differed in their amount of edge. Indigo Buntings preferentially selected edgy patches, which contained 50% more edge than more compact rectangular patches. Further, buntings fledged significantly fewer young per pair in edgy patches than in rectangular patches. These results provide the first experimental evidence that edges can function as ecological traps.

  10. Final-state effects on photoemission line shapes at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    S {o}ndergaard, Ch.; Hofmann, Ph.; Schultz, Ch.; Moreno, M. S.; Gayone, J. E.; Vicente Alvarez, M. A.; Zampieri, G.; Lizzit, S.; Baraldi, A.

    2001-06-15

    We have measured angle-resolved photoemission spectra from Al(001) over a large range of temperatures and photon energies. These data were analyzed using a model that allows one to calculate the photoemission intensity for transitions with the simultaneous excitation/absorption of 0, 1, 2, etc., phonons. By making a simple simulation of the line shape, we show that the so-called direct transition (or quasiparticle) peaks always contain a significant contribution from photoemission events with a simultaneous excitation and/or absorption of 1 and 2 phonons, i.e., from transitions that are actually indirect. At low photon energies and/or low temperatures these contributions are small; but as the photon energy or the temperature is raised they increase relative to the elastic or zero-phonon contribution and eventually become the dominant contribution to the so-called direct transition peak. The effect of these phonon-assisted transitions is a significant change of the photoemission line shape. Our model gives a good description of the temperature dependence in the experimental data but only if the phonon-assisted contributions to the photoemission peak are taken into account.

  11. Effect of power arrangement on the crystal shape during the Kyropoulos sapphire crystal growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Hung; Chen, Jyh-Chen; Lu, Chung-Wei; Liu, Che-Ming

    2012-08-01

    The Kyropoulos (KY) method is commonly used to grow large sized sapphire single crystals. The shape of the sapphire crystal thus grown is determined by the heater arrangement and the power reduction history in the Kyropoulos furnace. In order to grow high-quality sapphire single crystal, the heater arrangement should allow different power inputs in different sections in order to control the thermal field in the melt during the growth process. In this study, a numerical computation is performed to investigate the effects of the heater arrangement on the thermal and flow transport, the shape of the crystal-melt interface, and the power requirements during the Kyropoulos sapphire crystal growth process in a resistance heated furnace. Four different power ratio arrangements in a three-zone heater are considered. The results show that for the power arrangements considered herein, the temperature gradients along the crystallization front do not exceed 0.05 K/mm, and that, after the growth of the crown, the crystal maintains an almost constant diameter. The remelting phenomenon may occur during growth when the input power of the upper side of the heater is higher than that of the lower side of the heater.

  12. Effects of Adhesion Dynamics and Substrate Compliance on the Shape and Motility of Crawling Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ziebert, Falko; Aranson, Igor S.

    2013-01-01

    Computational modeling of eukaryotic cells moving on substrates is an extraordinarily complex task: many physical processes, such as actin polymerization, action of motors, formation of adhesive contacts concomitant with both substrate deformation and recruitment of actin etc., as well as regulatory pathways are intertwined. Moreover, highly nontrivial cell responses emerge when the substrate becomes deformable and/or heterogeneous. Here we extended a computational model for motile cell fragments, based on an earlier developed phase field approach, to account for explicit dynamics of adhesion site formation, as well as for substrate compliance via an effective elastic spring. Our model displays steady motion vs. stick-slip transitions with concomitant shape oscillations as a function of the actin protrusion rate, the substrate stiffness, and the rates of adhesion. Implementing a step in the substrate’s elastic modulus, as well as periodic patterned surfaces exemplified by alternating stripes of high and low adhesiveness, we were able to reproduce the correct motility modes and shape phenomenology found experimentally. We also predict the following nontrivial behavior: the direction of motion of cells can switch from parallel to perpendicular to the stripes as a function of both the adhesion strength and the width ratio of adhesive to non-adhesive stripes. PMID:23741334

  13. Biomedical engineering in design and application of nitinol stents with shape memory effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryklina, E. P.; Khmelevskaya, I. Y.; Morozova, Tamara V.; Prokoshkin, S. D.

    1996-04-01

    Our studies in the field of endosurgery in collaboration with the physicians of the National Research Center of Surgery of the Academy of Medical Sciences are carried out beginning in 1983. These studies laid the foundation for the new direction of X-ray surgery--X-ray Nitinol stenting of vessels and tubular structures. X-ray nitinol stents are unique self-fixing shells based on the shape memory effect and superelasticity of nickel-titanium alloys self- reconstructed under human body temperature. Applied for stenting of arteries in cases of stenosis etc., bile ducts in cases of benign and malignant stenoses, digestive tract in cases of oesophageal cancer and cervical canal uterus in cases of postsurgical atresiss and strictures of uterine. The purpose of stenting is restoration of the shape of artery or tubular structure by a cylinder frame formation. The especially elaborated original method of stenting allows to avoid the traditional surgical operation, i.e. the stenting is performed without blood, narcosis and surgical knife. The stent to be implanted is transported into the affected zone through the puncture under the X-ray control. Clinical applications of X-ray endovascular stenting has been started in March 1984. During this period nearly 400 operations on stenting have been performed on femoral, iliac, brachio-cephalic, subclavian arteries, bile ducts, tracheas, digestive tract and cervical canal uterus.

  14. Effect of mitral orifice shape on intra-ventricular filling fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okafor, Ikechukwu; Angirish, Yagna; Yoganathan, Ajit; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2013-11-01

    The natural geometry of the mitral orifice is D-shaped. However, most current designs of prosthetic valves employ O-shaped orifice geometry. The goal of this study was to compare the effect of geometrical modification between the D and O orifice on the intra-ventricular fluid dynamics during diastolic filling. The different mitral orifice geometries were incorporated into an in vitro left heart simulator consisting of a flexible-walled anatomical left ventricle (LV) physical model enclosed in an acrylic housing. Physiological flow rates and pressures were obtained via tuning systemic resistance and compliance elements in the flow loop. A programmable piston pump was used to generate the LV model wall motion. 2D Particle image velocimetry measurements were conducted along multiple longitudinal planes perpendicular to the annulus plane. During peak diastole, the incoming jet width at the LV central plane was smaller for the D-orifice than that of the O-orifice. Further, the core of the vortex ring in the D-orifice was reduced in size compared to that of the O-orifice. The spatiotemporal spreading of the inflow jet as well as the propagation of the vortex ring will be discussed. This study was funded by a grant from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (RO1HL70262).

  15. Effect of thread shape on screw stress concentration by photoelastic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Dragoni, E. . Dept. of Mechanics)

    1994-11-01

    The screw stress concentration for six nut-bolt connections embodying three different thread profiles and two nut shapes is measured photoelastically. Buttress (nearly zero flank angle), trapezoidal (15-deg flank angle), and triangular (30-deg flank angle) thread forms are examined in combination with standard and lip-type nuts. The effect of the thread profile on the screw stress concentration appears to be dependent upon the kind of nut considered. If the fastening incorporates a standard nut, the buttress thread is stronger than the triangular one, which, in turn, behaves better than the trapezoidal contour. The improvement is roughly a 20% reduction in the stress concentration factor from the trapezoidal to the buttress thread. In the case of lip nut, conversely, this tendency is somewhat reversed, with the trapezoidal thread performing slightly (but not decidedly) better than the other two shapes. Finally, averaged over all three thread forms, the lip nut exhibits a stress concentration factor which is about 50% lower than that of the standard nut.

  16. ac Stark shifts for cesium and their effect on ionization line shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Pindzola, M.S.; Glasser, A.H.; Payne, M.G.

    1984-10-01

    The influence of ac Stark shifts on the three-photon ionization of cesium in a moderate-intensity laser beam is investigated. The ionization process involves a two-photon resonance with the 8d fine-structure levels. The work consists of two related parts. In the first part, atomic parameters, such as the two-photon Rabi rate and the ac Stark shift, are calculated in the nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock approximation. In the second part, the atomic parameters thus obtained are used as coefficients in a system of coupled differential equations representing the time evolution of the density matrix. Ionization line shapes are generated for a transform-limited pulsed laser of moderate intensity with a single-mode transverse structure. As the time history of the intensity profile is varied from square to smooth, the ionization line shape becomes asymmetric due to the time dependence of the ac Stark shift. The effects of varying the spatial intensity distribution of the laser light to

  17. Effect of temper rolling on final shape defects in a V-section roll forming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abvabi, Akbar; Rolfe, Bernard; Hodgson, Peter D.; Weiss, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Roll forming is a continuous process in which a flat strip is shaped to the desired profile by sequential bending in a series of roll stands. Because of the large variety of applications of roll forming in the industry, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is increasingly utilized for roll forming process design. Bending is the dominant deformation mode in roll forming. Sheet materials used in this process are generally temper rolled, roller- or tension- leveled. These processes introduce residual stresses into the material, and recent studies have shown that those affect the material behavior in bending. In this study a numerical model of the temper rolling (skin passing) process was used to determine a residual stress distribution in a dual phase, DP780, steel strip. A 5-stand roll forming process for the forming of a V-section was modeled, and the effect of various thickness reduction levels in the temper rolling process on the final shape defects was analyzed. The results show that a small thickness reduction in the temper rolling process decreases the maximum bow height but the final springback angle increases. It is also shown that reasonable model accuracy can be achieved by including the residual stress information due to temper rolling as initial condition in the numerical modeling of a roll forming process.

  18. Surface preparation effects on GTA weld shape in JBK-75 stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.D.; Robertson, A.M. ); Heiple, C.R. ); Sturgill, P.L.; Jamsay, R.

    1993-02-01

    The results of a study are reported here on the effects of surface preparation on the shape of autogenous gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds in JBK-75, an austenitic precipitation hardenable stainless steel similar to A286. Minor changes in surface preparation produced substantial changes in the fusion zone shape and welding behavior of this alloy. Increased and more consistent depth of fusion (higher d/w ratios) along with improved arc stability and less arc wander resulted from wire brushing and other abrasive surface preparations, although chemical and machining methods did not produce any increase in depth of fusion. Abrasive treatments roughen the surface, increase the surface area, increase the surface oxide thickness, and entrap oxide. The increased weld d/w ratio is attributed to oxygen added to the weld pool from the surface oxide on the base metal. The added oxygen alters the surface-tension-driven fluid flow pattern in the weld pool. Increased depth of fusion in wire-fed U-groove weld joints also resulted when welding wire with a greater surface oxide thickness was used. Increasing the amount of wire brushing produced even deeper welds. However, a maximum in depth of fusion was observed with further wire brushing, beyond which weld fusion depth decreased.

  19. Hydrodynamics of diamond-shaped gradient nanopillar arrays for effective DNA translocation into nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Bruce, Robert L; Duch, Elizabeth A; Patel, Jyotica V; Smith, Joshua T; Astier, Yann; Wunsch, Benjamin H; Meshram, Siddharth; Galan, Armand; Scerbo, Chris; Pereira, Michael A; Wang, Deqiang; Colgan, Evan G; Lin, Qinghuang; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2015-02-24

    Effective DNA translocation into nanochannels is critical for advancing genome mapping and future single-molecule DNA sequencing technologies. We present the design and hydrodynamic study of a diamond-shaped gradient pillar array connected to nanochannels for enhancing the success of DNA translocation events. Single-molecule fluorescence imaging is utilized to interrogate the hydrodynamic interactions of the DNA with this unique structure, evaluate key DNA translocation parameters, including speed, extension, and translocation time, and provide a detailed mapping of the translocation events in nanopillar arrays coupled with 10 and 50 μm long channels. Our analysis reveals the important roles of diamond-shaped nanopillars in guiding DNA into as small as 30 nm channels with minimized clogging, stretching DNA to nearly 100% of their dyed contour length, inducing location-specific straddling of DNA at nanopillar interfaces, and modulating DNA speeds by pillar geometries. Importantly, all critical features down to 30 nm wide nanochannels are defined using standard photolithography and fabrication processes, a feat aligned with the requirement of high-volume, low-cost production. PMID:25626162

  20. Nanoparticle shape evolution and proximity effects during tip-induced electrochemical processes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Sangmo; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Noh, Tae Won; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Strelcov, Evgheni

    2016-01-08

    The voltage spectroscopies in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques are widely used to investigate the electrochemical processes in nanoscale volumes, which are important for current key applications, such as batteries, fuel cells, catalysts, and memristors. The spectroscopic measurements are commonly performed on a grid of multiple points to yield spatially resolved maps of reversible and irreversible electrochemical functionalities. Hence, the spacing between measurement points is an important parameter to be considered, especially for irreversible electrochemical processes. Here, we report nonlocal electrochemical dynamics in chains of Ag particles fabricated by the SPM tip on a silver ion solid electrolyte. When themore » grid spacing is small compared with the size of the formed Ag particles, anomalous chains of unequally sized particles with double periodicity evolve. This behavior is ascribed to a proximity effect during the tip-induced electrochemical process, specifically, size-dependent silver particle growth following the contact between the particles. In addition, fractal shape evolution of the formed Ag structures indicates that the growth-limiting process changes from Ag+/Ag redox reaction to Ag+-ion diffusion with the increase in the applied voltage and pulse duration. Our study shows that characteristic shapes of the electrochemical products are good indicators for determining the underlying growth-limiting process, and emergence of complex phenomena during spectroscopic mapping of electrochemical functionalities.« less

  1. How to best smash a snail: the effect of tooth shape on crushing load

    PubMed Central

    Crofts, S. B.; Summers, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Organisms that are durophagous, hard prey consumers, have a diversity of tooth forms. To determine why we see this variation, we tested whether some tooth forms break shells better than others. We measured the force needed with three series of aluminium tooth models, which varied in concavity and the morphology of a stress concentrating cusp, to break a shell. We created functionally identical copies of two intertidal snail shells: the thicker shelled Nucella ostrina and the more ornamented Nucella lamellosa using a three-dimensional printer. In this way, we reduced variation in material properties between test shells, allowing us to test only the interaction of the experimental teeth with the two shell morphologies. We found that for all tooth shapes, thicker shells are harder to break than the thinner shells and that increased ornamentation has no discernible effect. Our results show that for both shell morphologies, domed and flat teeth break shells better than cupped teeth, and teeth with tall or skinny cusps break shells best. While our results indicate that there is an ideal tooth form for shell breaking, we do not see this shape in nature. This suggests a probable trade-off between tooth function and the structural integrity of the tooth. PMID:24430124

  2. The Impact of Martensite Deformation on Shape Memory Effect Recovery Strain Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanba, Asheesh; Hamilton, Reginald F.

    2015-08-01

    The one-way shape memory effect of polycrystalline NiTi is investigated after differential levels of martensite deformation. Martensite naturally forms an energy-minimizing configuration, referred to as self-accommodated, of differently oriented martensite variants, which are internally twinned. Stress preferentially orients a select variant that eventually detwins and plastically deforms at the highest stress levels. In this work, the underlying morphology is ascertained based on the evolution of micro-scale deformation measurements using digital image correlation analysis of three characteristic material responses. An initial martensitic structure is deformed at constant temperature. The forward austenite-to-martensite and reverse martensite-to-austenite phase transformations take place during temperature cycling under a constant stress. The austenite-to-martensite transformation is tensile stress induced at a constant temperature and initiates via a localized strain band. For the conversion of self-accommodated martensite to orientated morphology and further deformation, spatially heterogeneous strains accrue over the entire specimen surface. Shape memory recovery during heating, on the other hand, culminates with a centralized strain localization that persists as recovery approaches completion. The recovery temperature differential ( A f - A s) depends on the extent of deformation. This work characterizes the influence of stress on phase transformation and martensite deformation morphology for deformation in the martensitic state compared to the stress-induced phase transformation.

  3. Shape Memory Effect in Cast Versus Deformation-Processed NiTiNb Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Reginald F.; Lanba, Asheesh; Ozbulut, Osman E.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2015-06-01

    The shape memory effect (SME) response of a deformation-processed NiTiNb shape memory alloy is benchmarked against the response of a cast alloy. The insoluble Nb element ternary addition is known to widen the hysteresis with respect to the binary NiTi alloy. Cast microstructures naturally consist of a cellular arrangement of characteristic eutectic microconstituents surrounding primary matrix regions. Deformation processing typically aligns the microconstituents such that the microstructure resembles discontinuous fiber-reinforced composites. Processed alloys are typically characterized for heat-to-recover applications and thus deformed at constant temperature and subsequently heated for SME recovery, and the critical stress levels are expected to facilitate plastic deformation of the microconstituents. The current work employs thermal cycling under constant bias stresses below those critical levels. This comparative study of cast versus deformation-processed NiTiNb alloys contrasts the strain-temperature responses in terms of forward Δ T F = M s - M f and reverse Δ T R = A f - A s temperature intervals, the thermal hysteresis, and the recovery ratio. The results underscore that the deformation-processed microstructure inherently promotes irreversibility and differential forward and reverse transformation pathways.

  4. Nanoparticle Shape Evolution and Proximity Effects During Tip-Induced Electrochemical Processes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sang Mo; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Noh, Tae Won; Kalinin, Sergei V; Strelcov, Evgheni

    2016-01-26

    Voltage spectroscopies in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques are widely used to investigate the electrochemical processes in nanoscale volumes, which are important for current key applications, such as batteries, fuel cells, catalysts, and memristors. The spectroscopic measurements are commonly performed on a grid of multiple points to yield spatially resolved maps of reversible and irreversible electrochemical functionalities. Hence, the spacing between measurement points is an important parameter to be considered, especially for irreversible electrochemical processes. Here, we report nonlocal electrochemical dynamics in chains of Ag particles fabricated by the SPM tip on a silver ion solid electrolyte. When the grid spacing is small compared with the size of the formed Ag particles, anomalous chains of unequally sized particles with double periodicity evolve. This behavior is ascribed to a proximity effect during the tip-induced electrochemical process, specifically, size-dependent silver particle growth following the contact between the particles. In addition, fractal shape evolution of the formed Ag structures indicates that the growth-limiting process changes from Ag(+)/Ag redox reaction to Ag(+)-ion diffusion with the increase in the applied voltage and pulse duration. This study shows that characteristic shapes of the electrochemical products are good indicators for determining the underlying growth-limiting process, and emergence of complex phenomena during spectroscopic mapping of electrochemical functionalities. PMID:26743324

  5. Triple shape memory effects of cross-linked polyethylene/polypropylene blends with cocontinuous architecture.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Chen, Min; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Xiaodong; Wang, Zhenwen; Dang, Zhi-Min; Ma, Lan; Hu, Guo-Hua; Chen, Fenghua

    2013-06-26

    In this paper, the triple shape memory effects (SMEs) observed in chemically cross-linked polyethylene (PE)/polypropylene (PP) blends with cocontinuous architecture are systematically investigated. The cocontinuous window of typical immiscible PE/PP blends is the volume fraction of PE (v(PE)) of ca. 30-70 vol %. This architecture can be stabilized by chemical cross-linking. Different initiators, 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-di(tert-butylperoxy)-hexane (DHBP), dicumylperoxide (DCP) coupled with divinylbenzene (DVB) (DCP-DVB), and their mixture (DHBP/DCP-DVB), are used for the cross-linking. According to the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements and gel fraction calculations, DHBP produces the best cross-linking and DCP-DVB the worst, and the mixture, DHBP/DCP-DVB, is in between. The chemical cross-linking causes lower melting temperature (Tm) and smaller melting enthalpy (ΔHm). The prepared triple shape memory polymers (SMPs) by cocontinuous immiscible PE/PP blends with v(PE) of 50 vol % show pronounced triple SMEs in the dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and visual observation. This new strategy of chemically cross-linked immiscible blends with cocontinuous architecture can be used to design and prepare new SMPs with triple SMEs. PMID:23713446

  6. Phase effects in masking by harmonic complexes: detection of bands of speech-shaped noise.

    PubMed

    Deroche, Mickael L D; Culling, John F; Chatterjee, Monita

    2014-11-01

    When phase relationships between partials of a complex masker produce highly modulated temporal envelopes on the basilar membrane, listeners may detect speech information from temporal dips in the within-channel masker envelopes. This source of masking release (MR) is however located in regions of unresolved masker partials and it is unclear how much of the speech information in these regions is really needed for intelligibility. Also, other sources of MR such as glimpsing in between resolved masker partials may provide sufficient information from regions that disregard phase relationships. This study simplified the problem of speech recognition to a masked detection task. Target bands of speech-shaped noise were restricted to frequency regions containing either only resolved or only unresolved masker partials, as a function of masker phase relationships (sine or random), masker fundamental frequency (F0) (50, 100, or 200 Hz), and masker spectral profile (flat-spectrum or speech-shaped). Although masker phase effects could be observed in unresolved regions at F0s of 50 and 100 Hz, it was only at 50-Hz F0 that detection thresholds were ever lower in unresolved than in resolved regions, suggesting little role of envelope modulations for harmonic complexes with F0s in the human voice range and at moderate level. PMID:25373972

  7. Density and Shape Effects in the Acoustic Propulsion of Bimetallic Nanorod Motors.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Suzanne; Wang, Wei; Bai, Lanjun; Gentekos, Dillon T; Hoyos, Mauricio; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2016-04-26

    Bimetallic nanorods are propelled without chemical fuels in megahertz (MHz) acoustic fields, and exhibit similar behaviors to single-metal rods, including autonomous axial propulsion and organization into spinning chains. Shape asymmetry determines the direction of axial movement of bimetallic rods when there is a small difference in density between the two metals. Movement toward the concave end of these rods is inconsistent with a scattering mechanism that we proposed earlier for acoustic propulsion, but is consistent with an acoustic streaming model developed more recently by Nadal and Lauga ( Phys. Fluids 2014 , 26 , 082001 ). Longer rods were slower at constant power, and their speed was proportional to the square of the power density, in agreement with the acoustic streaming model. The streaming model was further supported by a correlation between the disassembly of spinning chains of rods and a sharp decrease in the axial speed of autonomously moving motors within the levitation plane of the cylindrical acoustic cell. However, with bimetallic rods containing metals of different densities, a consistent polarity of motion was observed with the lighter metal end leading. Speed comparisons between single-metal rods of different densities showed that those of lower density are propelled faster. So far, these density effects are not explained in the streaming model. The directionality of bimetallic rods in acoustic fields is intriguing and offers some new possibilities for designing motors in which shape, material, and chemical asymmetry might be combined for enhanced functionality. PMID:26991933

  8. Shape resonances and shell effects in thin-film multiband superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Bermúdez, Aurelio; García-García, Antonio M.

    2014-01-01

    We study analytically the evolution of superconductivity in clean quasi-two-dimensional multiband superconductors as the film thickness enters the nanoscale region by mean-field and semiclassical techniques. Tunneling into the substrate and finite lateral size effects, which are important in experiments, are also considered in our model. As a result, it is possible to investigate the interplay between quantum coherence effects, such as shape resonances and shell effects, with the potential to enhance superconductivity, and the multiband structure and the coupling to the substrate that tend to suppress it. The case of magnesium diboride, which is the conventional superconductor with the highest critical temperature, is discussed in detail. Once the effect of the substrate is considered, we still observe quantum size effects such as the oscillation of the critical temperature with the thickness but without a significant enhancement of superconductivity. In thin films with a sufficiently longer superconducting coherence length, it is, however, possible to increase the critical temperature above the bulk limit by tuning the film thickness or lateral size.

  9. Strong neutral spatial effects shape tree species distributions across life stages at multiple scales.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-Hua; Lan, Guo-Yu; Sha, Li-Qing; Cao, Min; Tang, Yong; Li, Yi-De; Xu, Da-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, ecologists use lattice (regional summary) count data to simulate tree species distributions to explore species coexistence. However, no previous study has explicitly compared the difference between using lattice count and basal area data and analyzed species distributions at both individual species and community levels while simultaneously considering the combined scenarios of life stage and scale. In this study, we hypothesized that basal area data are more closely related to environmental variables than are count data because of strong environmental filtering effects. We also address the contribution of niche and the neutral (i.e., solely dependent on distance) factors to species distributions. Specifically, we separately modeled count data and basal area data while considering life stage and scale effects at the two levels with simultaneous autoregressive models and variation partitioning. A principal coordinates of neighbor matrix (PCNM) was used to model neutral spatial effects at the community level. The explained variations of species distribution data did not differ significantly between the two types of data at either the individual species level or the community level, indicating that the two types of data can be used nearly identically to model species distributions. Neutral spatial effects represented by spatial autoregressive parameters and the PCNM eigenfunctions drove species distributions on multiple scales, different life stages and individual species and community levels in this plot. We concluded that strong neutral spatial effects are the principal mechanisms underlying the species distributions and thus shape biodiversity spatial patterns. PMID:22666497

  10. Strong Neutral Spatial Effects Shape Tree Species Distributions across Life Stages at Multiple Scales

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yue-Hua; Lan, Guo-Yu; Sha, Li-Qing; Cao, Min; Tang, Yong; Li, Yi-De; Xu, Da-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, ecologists use lattice (regional summary) count data to simulate tree species distributions to explore species coexistence. However, no previous study has explicitly compared the difference between using lattice count and basal area data and analyzed species distributions at both individual species and community levels while simultaneously considering the combined scenarios of life stage and scale. In this study, we hypothesized that basal area data are more closely related to environmental variables than are count data because of strong environmental filtering effects. We also address the contribution of niche and the neutral (i.e., solely dependent on distance) factors to species distributions. Specifically, we separately modeled count data and basal area data while considering life stage and scale effects at the two levels with simultaneous autoregressive models and variation partitioning. A principal coordinates of neighbor matrix (PCNM) was used to model neutral spatial effects at the community level. The explained variations of species distribution data did not differ significantly between the two types of data at either the individual species level or the community level, indicating that the two types of data can be used nearly identically to model species distributions. Neutral spatial effects represented by spatial autoregressive parameters and the PCNM eigenfunctions drove species distributions on multiple scales, different life stages and individual species and community levels in this plot. We concluded that strong neutral spatial effects are the principal mechanisms underlying the species distributions and thus shape biodiversity spatial patterns. PMID:22666497

  11. Substrate Shape Effect on the Sn Whisker Growth in the Electroplating Matte Sn System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Yee-Wen; Li, Chao-Kang; Tsou, Meng-Yu; Shao, Pei-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the substrate shape effect on the Cu substrates for Sn whisker growth has been investigated. A Cu foil, as a substrate, was bent to 90° by a universal testing machine. The matte Sn layers were electroplated on the Cu substrate under various current densities. Then, the samples were given heat treatment under various temperatures for 250 h. The results indicate that Sn whisker growth was promoted by the compression stress on the concave side and was restrained by the tension stress on the convex side. The increase of plating thickness in electroplating process offered the extensive residual stress to mitigate the Sn whisker growth. Increasing the aging temperatures also enhanced the thickness of the oxide layer. Thick oxide layers can prevent Sn whisker growth.

  12. Effective dynamics of cold atoms flowing in two ring-shaped optical potentials with tunable tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghamalyan, Davit; Amico, Luigi; Kwek, L. C.

    2013-12-01

    We study the current dynamics of coupled atomic condensates flowing in two ring-shaped optical potentials. We provide a specific setup where the ring-ring coupling can be tuned in an experimentally feasible way. It is demonstrated that the imaginary time effective action of the system in a weak coupling regime provides a two-level-system dynamics for the phase slip across the two rings. Through two-mode Gross- Pitaevskii mean-field equations, the real-time dynamics of the population imbalance and the phase difference between the two condensates is thoroughly analyzed analytically, as a function of the relevant physical parameters of the system. In particular, we find that the macroscopic quantum self-trapping phenomenon is induced in the system if the flowing currents assume a nonvanishing difference.

  13. Effects of finite poloidal gyroradius, shaping, and collisions on the zonal flow residual

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Yong; Catto, Peter J.; Dorland, William

    2007-05-15

    Zonal flow helps reduce and regulate the turbulent transport level in tokamaks. Rosenbluth and Hinton have shown that zonal flow damps to a nonvanishing residual level in collisionless [M. Rosenbluth and F. Hinton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 724 (1998)] and collisional [F. Hinton and M. Rosenbluth, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 41, A653 (1999)] banana regime plasmas. Recent zonal flow advances are summarized including the evaluation of the effects on the zonal flow residual by plasma cross-section shaping, shorter wavelengths including those less than an electron gyroradius, and arbitrary ion collisionality relative to the zonal low frequency. In addition to giving a brief summary of these new developments, the analytic results are compared with GS2 numerical simulations [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1991)] to demonstrate their value as benchmarks for turbulence codes.

  14. Effect of Nozzle Lip Shape on Screech Tone in a Supersonic Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongseok; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    The effect of nozzle lip shape on screech tone is investigated by a computational aeroacoustic approach. First, the scattered patterns of screech tone are examined without a jet mean flow, where plane waves interact with a nozzle lip wall. Then, an axisymmetric jet screech is simulated in the Mach number range from 1.07 to 1.2, where the axisymmetric mode is a dominant screech mode. The conservative form of the axisymmetric Euler equations written in generalized coordinates are used to treat the complex nozzle lip geometry for the scattering problem as well as the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the modified Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The computed shock-cell structure, screech tone frequency, and sound pressure levels in the near field are in good agreement with existing experimental data.

  15. Methadone effects on brain functioning and type A and B CNV shapes.

    PubMed

    Tecce, J J; Cole, J O; Mayer, J; Lewis, D C

    1979-09-01

    Twelve male outpatients participating in a methadone maintenance treatment program were evaluated for the effects of acute administration of methadone on brain functioning (contingent negative variation or CNV), attention performance (reaction time and continuous performance test), and psychophysiological activity (heart rate and eye blink rate). Individual differences in response to methadone were assessed by classifying patients into two groups on the basis of basal CNV shapes: Type A (quick rise time) and type B (slow rise time). Methadone produced a pattern of increased electrical brain activity (CNV) and enhanced attention performance in type B patients and elevated heart rate and lowered eye blink rate in type A subjects. Results are interpreted in terms of the distraction-arousal and the eye blink-hedonia hypotheses. PMID:116287

  16. Effect of chain architecture on the size, shape, and intrinsic viscosity of chains in polymer solutions: A molecular simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabaz, Fardin; Khare, Rajesh

    2014-12-01

    Effect of chain architecture on the chain size, shape, and intrinsic viscosity was investigated by performing molecular dynamics simulations of polymer solutions in a good solvent. Four types of chains - linear, comb shaped, H-shaped, and star - were studied for this purpose using a model in which the solvent particles were considered explicitly. Results indicated that the chain length (N) dependence of the mean squared radius of gyration of the chains followed a power-law behavior < {R_g^2 } rangle ^{1/2} ˜ N^\\upsilon with scaling exponents of υ = 0.605, 0.642, 0.602, and 0.608, for the linear, comb shaped, H-shaped, and star shaped chains, respectively. The simulation results for the geometrical shrinking factor were higher than the prior theoretical predictions for comb shaped chains. Analysis of chain shape demonstrated that the star chains were significantly smaller and more spherical than the others, while the comb and H-shaped polymer chains showed a more cylindrical shape. It is shown that the intrinsic viscosity of the chains can be calculated by plotting the specific viscosity determined from simulations against the solution concentration. The intrinsic viscosity exhibited linear behavior with the reciprocal of the overlap concentration for all chain architectures studied. The molecular weight dependence of the intrinsic viscosity followed the Mark-Houwink relation, [η] = KMa, for all chain architectures. When comparing the calculated values of exponent a with the literature experimental values, agreement was found only for the H and star chains, and a disagreement for the linear and comb chains. The viscosity shrinking factor of the branched chains was compared with the available experimental data and the theoretical predictions and a general agreement was found.

  17. Biophysical feedback mediates effects of invasive grasses on coastal dune shape.

    PubMed

    Zarnetske, Phoebe L; Hacker, Sally D; Seabloom, Eric W; Ruggiero, Peter; Killian, Jason R; Maddux, Timothy B; Cox, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Vegetation at the aquatic-terrestrial interface can alter landscape features through its growth and interactions with sediment and fluids. Even similar species may impart different effects due to variation in their interactions and feedbacks with the environment. Consequently, replacement of one engineering species by another can cause significant change in the physical environment. Here we investigate the species-specific ecological mechanisms influencing the geomorphology of U.S. Pacific Northwest coastal dunes. Over the last century, this system changed from open, shifting sand dunes with sparse vegetation (including native beach grass, Elymus mollis), to densely vegetated continuous foredune ridges resulting from the introduction and subsequent invasions of two nonnative grass species (Ammophila arenaria and Ammophila breviligulata), each of which is associated with different dune shapes and sediment supply rates along the coast. Here we propose a biophysical feedback responsible for differences in dune shape, and we investigate two, non-mutually exclusive ecological mechanisms for these differences: (1) species differ in their ability to capture sand and (2) species differ in their growth habit in response to sand deposition. To investigate sand capture, we used a moveable bed wind tunnel experiment and found that increasing tiller density increased sand capture efficiency and that, under different experimental densities, the native grass had higher sand capture efficiency compared to the Ammophila congeners. However, the greater densities of nonnative grasses under field conditions suggest that they have greater potential to capture more sand overall. We used a mesocosm experiment to look at plant growth responses to sand deposition and found that, in response to increasing sand supply rates, A. arenaria produced higher-density vertical tillers (characteristic of higher sand capture efficiency), while A. breviligulata and E. mollis responded with lower

  18. Effect of irregularity in shape and boundary of a macro-texture region in titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jeong K.; Blackshire, James L.; Freed, Shaun L.

    2016-02-01

    Peak amplitudes of mode converted shear wave signals back scattered from macro-texture regions (MTRs) in an aerospace grade titanium alloy material are measured to be about the same level as corner trapped shear wave signals. In addition to the abnormally high shear wave responses, the time of flight data indicates that the MTR signals are back scattered from a location deep in the sample so that the round trip travel time is close to that of corner trapped signals. In this work, these two ultrasonic properties of an MTR in a test specimen cut from a titanium jet engine disk are closely studied to understand the root cause of abnormally high shear wave responses. Based on the amplitude and time of flight data collected in a laboratory condition, a decision has been made to investigate further experimentally and computationally how surface irregularity of an acoustically reflective surface affects incoming shear waves upon reflection. Attempts are made to correlate the localized back scattered signal response of the MTR in the test specimen to the beam focusing effect of a non-planar surface of an acoustically impedance mismatched boundary layer such as a fatigue crack face. From the current experimental and computational results on the reflection of corner trapped shear waves from a concave shaped section of a non-planar crack face and the time of flight data, it is speculated that the root cause of the abnormally high peak amplitude MTR signal is possibly due to the beam focusing effect caused by the shape of the MTR.

  19. The effect of moisture absorption on the physical properties of polyurethane shape memory polymer foams

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ya-Jen; Hearon, Keith; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of moisture absorption on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and stress/strain behavior of network polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) foams has been investigated. With our ultimate goal of engineering polyurethane SMP foams for use in blood contacting environments, we have investigated the effects of moisture exposure on the physical properties of polyurethane foams. To our best knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the effects of moisture absorption at varying humidity levels (non-immersion and immersion) on the physical properties of polyurethane SMP foams. The SMP foams were exposed to differing humidity levels for varying lengths of time, and they exhibited a maximum water uptake of 8.0% (by mass) after exposure to 100% relative humidity for 96 h. Differential scanning calorimetry results demonstrated that water absorption significantly decreased the Tg of the foam, with a maximum water uptake shifting the Tg from 67 °C to 5 °C. Samples that were immersed in water for 96 h and immediately subjected to tensile testing exhibited 100% increases in failure strains and 500% decreases in failure stresses; however, in all cases of time and humidity exposure, the plasticization effect was reversible upon placing moisture-saturated samples in 40% humidity environments for 24 h. PMID:21949469

  20. The effect of moisture absorption on the physical properties of polyurethane shape memory polymer foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ya-Jen; Hearon, Keith; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2011-08-01

    The effect of moisture absorption on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the stress/strain behavior of network polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) foams has been investigated. With our ultimate goal of engineering polyurethane SMP foams for use in blood-contacting environments, we have investigated the effects of moisture exposure on the physical properties of polyurethane foams. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the effects of moisture absorption at varying humidity levels (non-immersion and immersion) on the physical properties of polyurethane SMP foams. The SMP foams were exposed to differing humidity levels for varying lengths of time, and they exhibited a maximum water uptake of 8.0% (by mass) after exposure to 100% relative humidity for 96 h. Differential scanning calorimetry results demonstrated that water absorption significantly decreased the Tg of the foam, with a maximum water uptake shifting the Tg from 67 to 5 °C. Samples that were immersed in water for 96 h and immediately subjected to tensile testing exhibited 100% increases in failure strains and 500% decreases in failure stresses; however, in all cases of time and humidity exposure, the plasticization effect was reversible upon placing moisture-saturated samples in 40% humidity environments for 24 h.

  1. Large reversible magnetocaloric effect in a Ni-Co-Mn-In magnetic shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, L.; Cong, D. Y.; Ma, L.; Nie, Z. H.; Wang, Z. L.; Suo, H. L.; Ren, Y.; Wang, Y. D.

    2016-01-01

    Reversibility of the magnetocaloric effect in materials with first-order magnetostructural transformation is of vital significance for practical magnetic refrigeration applications. Here, we report a large reversible magnetocaloric effect in a Ni49.8Co1.2Mn33.5In15.5 magnetic shape memory alloy. A large reversible magnetic entropy change of 14.6 J/(kg K) and a broad operating temperature window of 18 K under 5 T were simultaneously achieved, correlated with the low thermal hysteresis (˜8 K) and large magnetic-field-induced shift of transformation temperatures (4.9 K/T) that lead to a narrow magnetic hysteresis (1.1 T) and small average magnetic hysteresis loss (48.4 J/kg under 5 T) as well. Furthermore, a large reversible effective refrigeration capacity (76.6 J/kg under 5 T) was obtained, as a result of the large reversible magnetic entropy change, broad operating temperature window, and small magnetic hysteresis loss. The large reversible magnetic entropy change and large reversible effective refrigeration capacity are important for improving the magnetocaloric performance, and the small magnetic hysteresis loss is beneficial to reducing energy dissipation during magnetic field cycle in potential applications.

  2. Two component tungsten powder injection molding - An effective mass production process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antusch, Steffen; Commin, Lorelei; Mueller, Marcus; Piotter, Volker; Weingaertner, Tobias

    2014-04-01

    Tungsten and tungsten-alloys are presently considered to be the most promising materials for plasma facing components for future fusion power plants. The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) divertor design concept for the future DEMO power plant is based on modular He-cooled finger units and the development of suitable mass production methods for such parts was needed. A time and cost effective near-net-shape forming process with the advantage of shape complexity, material utilization and high final density is Powder Injection Molding (PIM). This process allows also the joining of two different materials e.g. tungsten with a doped tungsten alloy, without brazing. The complete technological process of 2-Component powder injection molding for tungsten materials and its application on producing real DEMO divertor parts, characterization results of the finished parts e.g. microstructure, hardness, density and joining zone quality are discussed in this contribution.

  3. Effects of nozzle exit geometry and pressure ratio on plume shape for nozzles exhausting into quiescent air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scallion, William I.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of varying the exit geometry on the plume shapes of supersonic nozzles exhausting into quiescent air at several exit-to-ambient pressure ratios are given. Four nozzles having circular throat sections and circular, elliptical and oval exit cross sections were tested and the exit plume shapes are compared at the same exit-to-ambient pressure ratios. The resulting mass flows were calculated and are also presented.

  4. Effects of twin boundary mobility on domain microstructure evolution in magnetic shape memory alloys: Phase field simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Yongmei M.

    2009-02-09

    Effects of twin boundary mobility on domain microstructure evolution during magnetic field-induced deformation in magnetic shape memory alloys are studied by phase field micromagnetic microelastic modeling. The simulations show that different twin boundary mobilities lead to drastically different domain microstructures and evolution pathways, yielding very different magnetization and strain responses, even with opposite signs. The study also reveals complex domain phenomena in magnetic shape memory alloys.

  5. Effect of Inductive Coil Shape on Sensing Performance of Linear Displacement Sensor Using Thin Inductive Coil and Pattern Guide

    PubMed Central

    Misron, Norhisam; Ying, Loo Qian; Firdaus, Raja Nor; Abdullah, Norrimah; Mailah, Nashiren Farzilah; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of inductive coil shape on the sensing performance of a linear displacement sensor. The linear displacement sensor consists of a thin type inductive coil with a thin pattern guide, thus being suitable for tiny space applications. The position can be detected by measuring the inductance of the inductive coil. At each position due to the change in inductive coil area facing the pattern guide the value of inductance is different. Therefore, the objective of this research is to study various inductive coil pattern shapes and to propose the pattern that can achieve good sensing performance. Various shapes of meander, triangular type meander, square and circle shape with different turn number of inductive coils are examined in this study. The inductance is measured with the sensor sensitivity and linearity as a performance evaluation parameter of the sensor. In conclusion, each inductive coil shape has its own advantages and disadvantages. For instance, the circle shape inductive coil produces high sensitivity with a low linearity response. Meanwhile, the square shape inductive coil has a medium sensitivity with higher linearity. PMID:22346656

  6. Effects of annealing temperature on shape transformation and optical properties of germanium quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alireza, Samavati; Othaman, Z.; K. Ghoshal, S.; K. Mustafa, M.

    2015-02-01

    The influences of thermal annealing on the structural and optical features of radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtered self-assembled Ge quantum dots (QDs) on Si (100) are investigated. Preferentially oriented structures of Ge along the (220) and (111) directions together with peak shift and reduced strain (4.9% to 2.7%) due to post-annealing at 650 °C are discerned from x-ray differaction (XRD) measurement. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images for both pre-annealed and post-annealed (650 °C) samples reveal pyramidal-shaped QDs (density ˜ 0.26× 1011 cm-2) and dome-shape morphologies with relatively high density ˜ 0.92 × 1011 cm-2, respectively. This shape transformation is attributed to the mechanism of inter-diffusion of Si in Ge interfacial intermixing and strain non-uniformity. The annealing temperature assisted QDs structural evolution is explained using the theory of nucleation and growth kinetics where free energy minimization plays a pivotal role. The observed red-shift ˜ 0.05 eV in addition to the narrowing of the photoluminescence peaks results from thermal annealing, and is related to the effect of quantum confinement. Furthermore, the appearance of a blue-violet emission peak is ascribed to the recombination of the localized electrons in the Ge-QDs/SiO2 or GeOx and holes in the ground state of Ge dots. Raman spectra of both samples exhibit an intense Ge-Ge optical phonon mode which shifts towards higher frequency compared with those of the bulk counterpart. An experimental Raman profile is fitted to the models of phonon confinement and size distribution combined with phonon confinement to estimate the mean dot sizes. A correlation between thermal annealing and modifications of the structural and optical behavior of Ge QDs is established. Tunable growth of Ge QDs with superior properties suitable for optoelectronic applications is demonstrated. Project supported by Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Study, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

  7. Algebraic solutions of shape-invariant position-dependent effective mass systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Naila; Iqbal, Shahid

    2016-06-01

    Keeping in view the ordering ambiguity that arises due to the presence of position-dependent effective mass in the kinetic energy term of the Hamiltonian, a general scheme for obtaining algebraic solutions of quantum mechanical systems with position-dependent effective mass is discussed. We quantize the Hamiltonian of the pertaining system by using symmetric ordering of the operators concerning momentum and the spatially varying mass, initially proposed by von Roos and Lévy-Leblond. The algebraic method, used to obtain the solutions, is based on the concepts of supersymmetric quantum mechanics and shape invariance. In order to exemplify the general formalism a class of non-linear oscillators has been considered. This class includes the particular example of a one-dimensional oscillator with different position-dependent effective mass profiles. Explicit expressions for the eigenenergies and eigenfunctions in terms of generalized Hermite polynomials are presented. Moreover, properties of these modified Hermite polynomials, like existence of generating function and recurrence relations among the polynomials have also been studied. Furthermore, it has been shown that in the harmonic limit, all the results for the linear harmonic oscillator are recovered.

  8. Effect of piano-key shape inlet on critical submergence at a vertical pipe intake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemshi, R.; Kabiri-Samani, A.

    2012-11-01

    Intake vortices are the result of angular momentum conservation at the flow constriction, where angular velocity increases with a decrease in the cross sectional area. The common solution for avoiding air-entrainment and swirl is to provide sufficient submergence to the intake. If the required approach flow conditions can not be met to avoid swirl and air entrainment, other approaches for preventing vortices at water intakes are considered. There are several means of avoiding air-entrainment, where the most cost-effective option is often determined by a physical model study. Among the most economical and common measures of reducing the effect of air-entrainment and swirl strength, is the optimized shape of inlet for instance by installing a Piano-Key inlet over the pipe intake. If Piano-Key inlet is used, then, its' optimum geometry should be studied experimentally. Since there is not any realized guidance for the use of Piano-Key inlets in pipe intakes, hence, a comprehensive set of model experiments have been carried out using Piano-Key inlets with different dimensions, with respect to the vertical pipe intakes, and four different pipe diameters of (D=) 75, 100, 125 and 150 mm. Results showed that by employing a Piano-Key inlet over the vertical pipe intake, the critical submergence reduces significantly. Fianally, according to the results, the effect of Piano-Key inlet geometry on critical submergence were evaluated in the form of realized relationships which would be of practical interest for design engineers.

  9. Correction of resist heating effect on variable shaped beam mask writer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayamada, Noriaki; Suganuma, Mizuna; Nomura, Haruyuki; Kato, Yasuo; Kamikubo, Takashi; Ogasawara, Munehiro; Zable, Harold; Masuda, Yukihiro; Fujimura, Aki

    2016-04-01

    The specifications for critical dimension (CD) accuracy and line edge roughness are getting tighter to promote every photomask manufacturer to choose electron beam resists of lower sensitivity. When the resist is exposed by too many electrons, it is excessively heated up to have higher sensitivity at a higher temperature, which results in degraded CD uniformity. This effect is called "resist heating effect" and is now the most critical error source in CD control on a variable shaped beam (VSB) mask writer. We have developed an on-tool, real-time correction system for the resist heating effect. The system is composed of correction software based on a simple thermal diffusion model and computational hardware equipped with more than 100 graphical processing unit chips. We have demonstrated that the designed correction accuracy was obtained and the runtime of correction was sufficiently shorter than the writing time. The system is ready to be deployed for our VSB mask writers to retain the writing time as short as possible for lower sensitivity resists by removing the need for increased pass count.

  10. Martensitic phase transformation and ferromagnetic shape memory effect in iron palladium single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jun

    In this thesis the ferromagnetic shape memory effect in Fe70Pd 30 alloys is studied in three stages. The first stage is to grow a single crystal of Fe70Pd30 using Bridgman method; the second stage focuses on the characterization of material properties. Both x-ray analysis and DSC measurements show that the FCC-FCT transformation is a weak first order thermoelastic transition. The average lattice parameters are a = 3.822 A and c = 3.6298 A for the FCT martensite, and a0 = 3.7557 A for the cubic austenite. The latent heat is 10.79 +/- 11 J/cm3. The Curie temperature is 300°C. The saturation magnetization is ms = 1217 emu/cm3 for the martensite and ms = 1081 emu/cm 3 for the austenite in Fe70Pd30 alloy; the easy axis is in the [100] or [010] direction (the long axis of the FCT lattice). The magnetic anisotropy is -4.8 x 103 erg/cm 3 for the austenite at 60°C, and it is 3.46 x 10 5 erg/cm3 for the martensite at -20°C. In addition, the effect of heat treatment on the materials properties is investigated. The third stage is to characterize the ferromagnetic shape memory effect of this alloy using magnetomechanical tests and the results are compared with micromagnetic theory. The sign of the field-induced strain agrees with the constrained theory. The maximum ferromagnetic strain in this material is about 0.9%, which is 1/4 of the theoretical prediction. The blocking stress is about -4 MPa, and the work output is about 20 x 103 J/m 3 per cycle at -12 MPa and 10°C. Furthermore, stress has large effect on the phase transformation temperature, for the compressive stress, it is 0.7°C/MPa. The phase transformation temperature can also be changed by applying a magnetic field during cooling or heating. The direction and the degree of changes depends on the direction of the field. The most significant change happens at a [001] field less than 1700 G, where [001] refers to the short axis of the FCT lattice.

  11. The shape effects of nanoparticles suspended in HFE-7100 over wedge with entropy generation and mixed convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellahi, R.; Hassan, M.; Zeeshan, A.; Khan, Ambreen A.

    2015-07-01

    The flow of mixed convection nanofluid over wedge under the effects of porous medium is investigated. The HFE-7100 Engineered Fluid having Nimonic 80a metal nanoparticles of spherical and non-spherical shapes with different sizes is used. The particle shape effects on Bejan number and entropy generation are taken into account. The system of partial differential equations is first written in terms of ordinary differential equations using adequate similarity transformations and then solved analytically. Analytical solutions of the resulting equations are obtained for the velocity and temperature profiles. Simultaneous effects of porous medium, particle volume friction, mixed convection parameter, and angle of wedge in the presence of different shapes nanoparticles are demonstrated graphically. Effects of particle concentrations, sizes on wall stress, heat transfer coefficient of Skin friction, and Nusselt are discussed in the form of tables.

  12. The shape effects of nanoparticles suspended in HFE-7100 over wedge with entropy generation and mixed convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellahi, R.; Hassan, M.; Zeeshan, A.; Khan, Ambreen A.

    2016-06-01

    The flow of mixed convection nanofluid over wedge under the effects of porous medium is investigated. The HFE-7100 Engineered Fluid having Nimonic 80a metal nanoparticles of spherical and non-spherical shapes with different sizes is used. The particle shape effects on Bejan number and entropy generation are taken into account. The system of partial differential equations is first written in terms of ordinary differential equations using adequate similarity transformations and then solved analytically. Analytical solutions of the resulting equations are obtained for the velocity and temperature profiles. Simultaneous effects of porous medium, particle volume friction, mixed convection parameter, and angle of wedge in the presence of different shapes nanoparticles are demonstrated graphically. Effects of particle concentrations, sizes on wall stress, heat transfer coefficient of Skin friction, and Nusselt are discussed in the form of tables.

  13. TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF ABLATING AXISYMMETRIC BODIES INCLUDING THE EFFECTS OF SHAPE CHANGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howser, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    A computer program has been developed to analyze the transient response of an ablating axisymmetric body, including the effect of shape change. The governing differential equation, the boundary conditions for the analysis on which the computer program is based, and the method of solution of the resulting finite-difference equations are discussed in the documentation. Some of the features of the analysis and the associated program are (1) the ablation material is considered to be orthotropic with temperature-dependent thermal properties; (2) the thermal response of the entire body is considered simultaneously; (3) the heat transfer and pressure distribution over the body are adjusted to the new geometry as ablation occurs; (4) the governing equations and several boundary-condition options are formulated in terms of generalized orthogonal coordinates for fixed points in a moving coordinate system; (5) the finite-difference equations are solved implicitly; and (6) other instantaneous body shapes can be displayed with a user-supplied plotting routine. The physical problem to be modeled with the analysis is described by FORTRAN input variables. For example, the external body geometry is described in the W, Z coordinates; material density is given; and the stagnation cold-wall heating rate is given in a time-dependent array. Other input variables are required which control the solution, specify boundary conditions, and determine output from the program. The equations have been programmed so that either the International System of Units or the U. S. Customary Units may be used. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 Series computer. This program was developed in 1972.

  14. Simultaneity in the millisecond range as a requirement for effective shape recognition

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Ernest

    2006-01-01

    Neurons of the visual system are capable of firing with millisecond precision, and synchrony of firing may provide a mechanism for "binding" stimulus elements in the image for purposes of recognition. While the neurophysiology is suggestive, there has been relatively little behavioral work to support the proposition that synchrony contributes to object recognition. The present experiments examined this issue by briefly flashing dots that were positioned at the outer boundary of namable objects, similar to silhouettes. Display of a given dot lasted only 0.1 ms, and temporal proximity of dot pairs, and among dot pairs, was varied as subjects were asked to name each object. In Exp 1, where the display of dots pairs was essentially simultaneous (0.2 ms to show both), there was a linear decline in recognition of the shapes as the interval between pairs increased from 0 ms to 6 ms. Compared with performance at 0 ms of delay, even the 2 ms interval between pairs produced a significant decrease in recognition. In Exp 2 the interval between pairs was constant at 3 ms, and the interval between pair members was varied. Here also a linear decline was observed as the interval between pair members increased from 0 ms to 1.5 ms, with the difference between 0 ms and 0.5 ms being significant. Thus minimal transient discrete cues can be integrated for purposes of shape recognition to the extent that they are synchronously displayed, and coincidence in the millisecond and even submillisecond range is needed for effective encoding of image data. PMID:17134493

  15. Quantifying the effects of hydrograph shape and flow transience on coarse sediment bed load transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Colin; Hill, Kimberly; Paola, Chris

    2016-04-01

    The rate of bed load transport under steady flow is known to vary both spatially and temporally due to various hydrologic and granular phenomena. Grain size distributions and riverbed properties (packing, armoring, imbrication, etc.) have been observed to affect flux for a particular value of applied flow stress while hydrology is mainly assumed to control the magnitude of the applied bed stress above the threshold for bed material entrainment. The prediction and measurement of bed load sediment transport in field settings are further complicated by the inherent transience in the flood hydrograph, but relatively little is known about how flood transience differs from a steady flow. Here we investigate the role of flood transience for gravel bed load transport through controlled laboratory experiments in a 28 m long 0.5-meter wide flume. We explore transient flow through the use of short duration hydrographs as the combination of unsteady and intermittent flow, where unsteady flow varies in magnitude over a given duration, and intermittent flow is characterized by turning the flow on and off. Experimental runs consist of sequences of steady and unsteady flood hydrographs of various shapes, but equivalent integrated excess transport capacity. These flood sequences are run for a variety of competent flow durations and peak stress magnitudes. We find that even for a narrow unimodal grain size distribution and constant sediment supply we observe clockwise hysteresis in bed load flux, different thresholds for entrainment and distrainment for the rising and falling limbs of a flood, and a threshold of entrainment that can vary from one flood hydrograph to the next. Despite complex transport phenomena at the particle scale, we find that the total bed load transported for each flood plots along a linear trend with the integrated excess transport capacity, in agreement with prior field results. These experiments indicate that while the effects of transient flow and

  16. The effect of the shape parameters of a sample on the hydraulic conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucza, Jarosław; Ilek, Anna

    2016-03-01

    The present study is a complement to the research investigating a laboratory method for measuring the saturated hydraulic conductivity of mountain forest soils, the results of which were presented in a paper by Ilek and Kucza (2014). The aim of the study is to analyse the influence of variation of particular cross-sections of samples and their enlarged side surface on the hydraulic conductivity measurement. The results show that a narrowing in the upper section of the sample results in an approximately twice lower disturbance of the laminar water flow than the narrowing occurring inside the sample. For that reason, the extent of the effect of the cross-section narrowing on the hydraulic conductivity measurement error is dependent on the location of the narrowing. An enlarged side surface of a sample, as described by the coefficient of side surface development, is on average 30% larger than the surface of a sample having the same volume and the same average cross-sectional area but a regular shape. The values of the coefficient of side surface development for a given sample were adopted in the range of 1.10-1.56. Among the shape parameters of the analysed irregular soil samples, the greatest impact on the measurement error is exerted by their enlarged lateral surface, which almost entirely explains the whole error of hydraulic conductivity measurement. The variability of successive cross-sectional areas of samples appears to be of marginal importance for the occurrence of this error, whose mean value was 1.15%.

  17. Shape and surface effects on the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles: Gold nanospheres versus gold nanostars.

    PubMed

    Favi, Pelagie Marlene; Gao, Ming; Johana Sepúlveda Arango, Liuda; Ospina, Sandra Patricia; Morales, Mariana; Pavon, Juan Jose; Webster, Thomas Jay

    2015-11-01

    Gold nanoparticles are materials with unique optical properties that have made them very attractive for numerous biomedical applications. With the increasing discovery of techniques to synthesize novel nanoparticles such as star-shaped gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications, the safety and performance of these new nanomaterials must be systematically assessed before use. In this study, gold nanostars (AuNSTs) with multibranched surface structures were synthesized, and their influence on the cytotoxicity of human skin fibroblasts and rat fat pad endothelial cells (RFPECs) were assessed and compared with that of gold nanospheres (AuNSPs) with unbranched surfaces. Results showed that the AuNSPs with diameters of approximately 61.46 nm showed greater toxicity with fibroblast cells and RFPECs compared with the synthesized AuNSTs with diameters of approximately 33.69 nm. The AuNSPs were lethal at concentrations of 40 μg/mL for both cell lines, whereas the AuNSTs were less toxic at higher concentrations (400 μg/mL). The calculated IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values of the AuNSPs exposed to fibroblast cells were greater at 1 and 4 days of culture (26.4 and 27.7 μg/mL, respectively) compared with the RFPECs (13.6 and 13.8 μg/mL, respectively), indicating that the AuNSPs have a greater toxicity to endothelial cells. It was proposed that possible factors that could be promoting the reduced toxicity effects of the AuNSTs to fibroblast cells and RFPECs, compared with the AuNSPs may be size, surface chemistry, and shape of the gold nanoparticles. The reduced cell toxicity observed with the AuNSTs suggests that AuNSTs may be a promising material for use in biomedical applications. PMID:25904210

  18. The leaf-shape effect on electromagnetic scattering from vegetated media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karam, M. A.; Fung, A. K.; Blanchard, A. J.; Shen, G. X.

    1988-01-01

    Using the generalized Rayleigh Gans approximation along with the radiative transfer method, a bistatic backscattering model for a layer of randomly oriented, elliptic-shaped leaves is formulated. Following a similar procedure the bistatic scattering model for a layer of needle-shaped leaves is also developed to simulate coniferous vegetation. The differences between the scattering characteristics of the deciduous and coniferous leaves are illustrated numerically for different orientation and incidence angles. It is found that both like and cross polarizations are needed to differentiate the difference in scattering due to the shapes of the scatterers. The calculated backscattering coefficients are compared with measured values from artificial canopies with circular-shaped leaves.

  19. Control of gas phase nanoparticle shape and its effect on MRI relaxivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktaş, Sıtkı; Thornton, Stuart C.; Binns, Chris; Lari, Leonardo; Pratt, Andrew; Kröger, Roland; Horsfield, Mark A.

    2015-03-01

    We have used a sputtering gas aggregation source to produce Fe@FeO nanoparticles with different shapes, by annealing them at different temperatures in the gas phase. Without annealing, the most common shape found for the nanoparticles is cubic but annealing the nanoparticles at 1129 °C transforms the cubes into cuboctahedra. Measurements of the MRI relaxivity show that the cubic nanoparticles have a higher performance by a factor of two, which is attributed to a higher saturation magnetization for this shape. This indicates that the shape-control enabled by gas-phase synthesis is important for obtaining optimal performance in applications.

  20. Masking Jupiter's Ammonia-Ice Spectral Signatures - The Effects of Size, Shape, and Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, M. H.; Kalogerakis, K. S.; Marschall, J.; Oza, A. U.; Engel, P. A.; Meharchand, R. T.

    Infrared spectral signatures of NH3 ice have been reported only twice for the absorption feature near 3 micron [1,2] and once for the feature near 9 micron [3]. Photochemical residue may fall from above to coat the ice particles, masking these spectral signatures [4,5]. We present laboratory measurements of hydrocarbon coatings on NH3 ice films, validating this coating hypothesis. The masking effect is largely due to optical interference and works for a number of different coating compositions. To extend these thin-film results to Jupiter's atmosphere, we calculate scattering properties of aerosols and compare the relative importance of size, shape, and coatings. For small particles, these three effects have a comparable influence on the 9-micron NH3 ice feature. All three effects are significant for small particles at 3 micron, but particle size exerts the dominant influence at this wavelength. For larger particles (~10 micron), the masking effect of coatings is weak. Coating of NH3 ice may explain the weak and spatially inhomogeneous 9-micron detection by Cassini CIRS [3], while the infrequent occurrence of 3-micron NH3 ice signatures in Galileo NIMS data [2] may instead be due to size effects. [1] Brooke T.Y. et al. (1998) Icarus 136, 1-13. [2] Baines K.H. et al. (2002) Icarus 59, 74-94. [3] Wong M.H. et al. (2004) Planet. Space Sci. 52, 385-395. [4] Smith P.H. and Tomasko M.G. (1984) Icarus 58, 35-73. [5] Atreya S.K. et al. (2005) Planet. Space Sci. 53, 498-507.Infrared spectral signatures of NH3 ice have been reported only twice for the absorption feature near 3 micron [1,2] and once for the feature near 9 micron [3]. Photochemical residue may fall from above to coat the ice particles, masking these spectral signatures [4,5]. We present laboratory measurements of hydrocarbon coatings on NH3 ice films, validating this coating hypothesis. The masking effect is largely due to optical interference and works for a number of different coating compositions. To extend

  1. The effect of terminal substituents on the electronic properties of rod-shaped [HGaNH]n oligomers.

    PubMed

    Pomogaeva, A V; Timoshkin, A Y

    2016-07-20

    The effect of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing terminal groups on the electronic structure of the rod-shaped X3[HGaNH]nY3 or needle-shaped XGa[HGaNH]nNY oligomers (X, Y = H, CH3, F, CF3; n = 9, 30 and 114) was computationally studied at the B3LYP/SVP level of density functional theory. While the needle-shaped oligomers exhibit moderate variability in the electronic structure upon changing the terminal substituents X and Y, the energy gap of long rod-shaped oligomers varies within 2 eV. For oligomers with n = 114, F3[HGaNH]n(CH3)3 exhibits the largest HOMO-LUMO gap of 2.91 eV, while (CH3)3[HGaNH]nF3 has the smallest gap of 0.94 eV. PMID:27389813

  2. Effect of clay modification on the morphological, mechanical, and thermal properties of epoxy/polypropylene/montmorillonite shape memory materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Huifeng; Sun, He; Liu, Yuyan; Tong, Linbao; Du, Xingwen

    2012-04-01

    A series of montmorillonite (DK2) modified shape memory polyurethane-epoxy (UEP) composites had been prepared. The effect of DK2 modification on the morphological, mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy/polypropylene/Montmorillonite nano-composites were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tensile test, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The shape memory performance was investigated by fold-deploy shape memory tests. The XRD and TEM results indicated the formation of exfoliated structure for epoxy/polypropylene nano-composites had been prepared using 2~ 3wt.% DK2. On the other hand, a mixture of intercalated and exfoliated structure was found in 4~5wt.% DK2/ epoxy/polypropylene polymers. Further more, the toughness, tensile strength, enlongation at break had been improved by adding DK2, while glass transition temperature, storage modulus and shape recovery ratio was unaffected. The composite materials possessed excellent shape memory properties, they could fully recover their original shapes within 3 min under the maximum bending angle of 180°, and there were little effect by fold-deploy ten times.

  3. Effect of clay modification on the morphological, mechanical, and thermal properties of epoxy/polypropylene/montmorillonite shape memory materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Huifeng; Sun, He; Liu, Yuyan; Tong, Linbao; Du, Xingwen

    2011-11-01

    A series of montmorillonite (DK2) modified shape memory polyurethane-epoxy (UEP) composites had been prepared. The effect of DK2 modification on the morphological, mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy/polypropylene/Montmorillonite nano-composites were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tensile test, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The shape memory performance was investigated by fold-deploy shape memory tests. The XRD and TEM results indicated the formation of exfoliated structure for epoxy/polypropylene nano-composites had been prepared using 2~ 3wt.% DK2. On the other hand, a mixture of intercalated and exfoliated structure was found in 4~5wt.% DK2/ epoxy/polypropylene polymers. Further more, the toughness, tensile strength, enlongation at break had been improved by adding DK2, while glass transition temperature, storage modulus and shape recovery ratio was unaffected. The composite materials possessed excellent shape memory properties, they could fully recover their original shapes within 3 min under the maximum bending angle of 180°, and there were little effect by fold-deploy ten times.

  4. Effect of Individual Layer Shape on the Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar Al Alloys Laminated Metal Composite Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zejun; Wu, Xia; Hu, Hongbo; Chen, Quanzhong; Liu, Qing

    2014-03-01

    For the dissimilar laminated metal composite sheets (LMCS) fabricated by roll bonding technology, the great differences of mechanical properties between the constituent metals lead to the non-uniform deformation and individual layer necking. The individual layer shape affects the mechanical properties and microstructure of dissimilar LMCS. The Al/Al alloy (1100/7075) LMCS with the same thickness and ratio of dissimilar metals, but different individual layer shapes, have been successfully fabricated by hot accumulative roll bonding in conjunction with cold rolling technology. Some effective methods (such as sheet crown, warp degree, and slant angle) were presented to quantitatively evaluate the individual layer shape and necking of constituent metals. The microstructure and mechanical properties of 1100/7075 LMCS with different individual layer shapes were investigated. The effects of bonding interface on the mechanical properties were obtained based on the assessment of individual layer shapes and necking. The strength and elongation of LMCS decrease with the increase of variation of individual layer shapes and necking when the number of layers keeps constant. The research results offer some theoretical guides and references for adjusting the control measures of compatibility deformation, optimizing the hot roll bonding technologies, and designing the novel high-performance dissimilar LMCS.

  5. Effect of Deformation Mode on the Wear Behavior of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lina; Liu, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Owing to good biocompatibility, good fatigue resistance, and excellent superelasticity, various types of bio-medical devices based on NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) have been developed. Due to the complexity in deformation mode in service, for example NiTi implants, accurate assessment/prediction of the surface wear process is difficult. This study aims at providing a further insight into the effect of deformation mode on the wear behavior of NiTi SMA. In the present study, two types of wear testing modes were used, namely sliding wear mode and reciprocating wear mode, to investigate the effect of deformation mode on the wear behavior of NiTi SMA in both martensitic and austenitic states. It was found that, when in martensitic state and under high applied loads, sliding wear mode resulted in more surface damage as compared to that under reciprocating wear mode. When in austenitic state, although similar trends in the coefficient of friction were observed, the coefficient of friction and surface damage in general is less under reciprocating mode than under sliding mode. These observations were further discussed in terms of different deformation mechanisms involved in the wear tests, in particular, the reversibility of martensite variant reorientation and stress-induced phase transformation, respectively.

  6. Cluster Plasmonics: Dielectric and Shape Effects on DNA-Stabilized Silver Clusters.

    PubMed

    Copp, Stacy M; Schultz, Danielle; Swasey, Steven M; Faris, Alexis; Gwinn, Elisabeth G

    2016-06-01

    This work investigates the effects of dielectric environment and cluster shape on electronic excitations of fluorescent DNA-stabilized silver clusters, AgN-DNA. We first establish that the longitudinal plasmon wavelengths predicted by classical Mie-Gans (MG) theory agree with previous quantum calculations for excitation wavelengths of linear silver atom chains, even for clusters of just a few atoms. Application of MG theory to AgN-DNA with 400-850 nm cluster excitation wavelengths indicates that these clusters are characterized by a collective excitation process and suggests effective cluster thicknesses of ∼2 silver atoms and aspect ratios of 1.5 to 5. To investigate sensitivity to the surrounding medium, we measure the wavelength shifts produced by addition of glycerol. These are smaller than reported for much larger gold nanoparticles but easily detectable due to narrower line widths, suggesting that AgN-DNA may have potential for fluorescence-reported changes in dielectric environment at length scales of ∼1 nm. PMID:27187492

  7. Thermal emission spectroscopy of microcrystalline sedimentary phases: Effects of natural surface roughness on spectral feature shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardgrove, C. J.; Rogers, A. D.; Glotch, T. D.; Arnold, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Distinguishing between microcrystalline and macrocrystalline mineral phases can help constrain the conditions under which those minerals formed or the degree of postdepositional alteration. This study demonstrates the effects of crystal size and surface roughness on thermal infrared emission spectra of micro and macrocrystalline phases of the two most common minerals on Earth, quartz and calcite. Given the characteristic depositional and environmental conditions under which microcrystalline minerals form, and the recent observations of high-silica deposits on Mars, it is important to understand how these unique materials can be identified using remote infrared spectroscopy techniques. We find that (a) microcrystalline minerals exhibit naturally rough surfaces compared to their macrocrystalline counterparts at the 10 µm scale; and that (b) this roughness causes distinct spectral differences within the Reststrahlen bands of each mineral. These spectral differences occur for surfaces that are rough on the wavelength scale, where the absorption coefficient (k) is large. Specifically, the wavelength positions of the Reststrahlen features for microcrystalline phases are narrowed and shifted compared to macrocrystalline counterparts. The spectral shape differences are small enough that the composition of the material is still recognizable, but large enough such that a roughness effect could be detected. Petrographic and topographic analyses of microcrystalline samples suggest a relationship between crystal size and surface roughness. Together, these observations suggest it may be possible to make general inferences about microcrystallinity from the thermal infrared spectral character of samples, which could aid in reconstructions of sedimentary rock diagenesis where corresponding petrographic or microimaging is not available.

  8. Orbital Debris Shape and Orientation Effects on Impact Damage to Shuttle Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Steven W.; Williamsen, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Taking the damage results from a previous paper as a guide, and using a tile model created for the STS-107 accident investigation, we used the SPHC hydrodynamic code to evaluate the probable worst-case impact effects of flat, rectangular, "flake-shaped," orbital debris particles on Space Shuttle thermal tiles. We compared the damage from flakes with that produced by spheres. The flakes and spheres were sized according to a "characteristic length" (Lc) derived from radar cross-section measurements, and embodied in the NASA Standard Breakup Model (SBM). Impacts were simulated at near-normal obliquity, at 12 km/sec. We modeled the worst-case flake orientation: a corner-on impact, an orientation we term a "Face A-B" impact. Results of our simulations indicate that flake impactors are less damaging than spheres of the same Lc. Since spherical impactors have been assumed in analyses of shuttle orbital debris impact risk, we find that these risks may have been overestimated. This work represents a preliminary second step, i.e., a follow-on to [1], in developing a sensitivity analysis for the expected range of effects on damage considering spherical vs. non-spherical impactors, as recommended by the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) report to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board.

  9. Effects of substrate preheating on the thin-wall part built by laser metal deposition shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Shijie; Liu, Weijun; Long, Risheng

    2014-10-01

    Laser metal deposition shaping (LMDS) is a state-of-the-art technology that combines rapid prototyping and laser processing. There are many factors affecting the quality, precision, microstructure and performance of the LMDS-deposited parts. Among these factors, substrate preheating is a significant one because it can change the heat history of the LMDS process. Preheating is generally adopted to reduce the residual stresses and the risk of thermal distortion and cracking. However, it changes the heat transfer conditions and affects the final microstructure and properties. In this work a numerical simulation model was established to analyze the heat transfer characteristics between deposited material and substrate, the influence rules of substrate preheating on the thermal behavior during LMDS, and the distribution characters of temperature and stress field. And then, the experimental methods were used to evaluate the effects of substrate preheating on the surface quality, microstructure, composition, hardness distribution, and mechanical properties of as-built thin-wall parts. The experimental results primarily agree with the theoretical analysis and numerical model, which indicates that in terms of the varied thermo-mechanical coupled field, the investigated microstructure and properties of formed components depend considerably on the initial temperature of the substrate, so the LMDS process can be effectively adjusted and controlled by means of substrate preheating.

  10. Building academic health centers' capacity to shape and respond to comparative effectiveness research policy.

    PubMed

    VanLare, Jordan M; Conway, Patrick H; Rowe, John W

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, the focus on comparative effectiveness research (CER), the funding available to support it, and the range of possible effects of CER policy on academic health centers (AHCs) have increased substantially. CER has implications for the research, education, and clinical care components of AHCs' missions. The current funding and policy environment have created specific opportunities for AHCs to shape and respond to CER policies across the four dimensions of the CER enterprise: research, human and scientific capital, data infrastructure, and translation and dissemination. Characteristics such as the degree of physician-hospital integration, the status of a health information technology infrastructure, and the presence of a well-developed cross-functional health services research capacity linked to the care delivery enterprise could help AHCs respond to these opportunities and influence future policies. AHCs are also essential to the development of methodologies and the training of the next cadre of researchers. Further, a focus on understanding what works in health care and increasing adoption of evidence-based practice must become embedded in the fabric of AHCs. Those AHCs most successful in responding to the CER challenge may leverage it as a point of differentiation in the marketplace for health care and lead transformational improvements in health. PMID:21512371

  11. The effects of rotational flow, viscosity, thickness, and shape on transonic flutter dip phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, Rakesh; Kaza, Krishna Rao V.

    1988-01-01

    The transonic flutter dip phenomena on thin airfoils, which are employed for propfan blades, is investigated using an integrated Euler/Navier-Stokes code and a two degrees of freedom typical section structural model. As a part of the code validation, the flutter characteristics of the NACA 64A010 airfoil are also investigated. In addition, the effects of artificial dissipation models, rotational flow, initial conditions, mean angle of attack, viscosity, airfoil thickness and shape on flutter are investigated. The results obtained with a Euler code for the NACA 64A010 airfoil are in reasonable agreement with published results obtained by using transonic small disturbance and Euler codes. The two artificial dissipation models, one based on the local pressure gradient scaled by a common factor and the other based on the local pressure gradient scaled by a spectral radius, predicted the same flutter speeds except in the recovery region for the case studied. The effects of rotational flow, initial conditions, mean angle of attack, and viscosity for the Reynold's number studied seem to be negligible or small on the minima of the flutter dip.

  12. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Gyral Shape and Cortical Surface Asymmetries in Schizophrenia: Gender Effects

    PubMed Central

    Narr, Katherine L.; Thompson, Paul M.; Sharma, Tonmoy; Moussai, Jacob; Zoumalan, Chris; Rayman, Janice; Toga, Arthur W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective People with schizophrenia exhibit abnormalities in brain structure, often in the left hemisphere. Disturbed structural lateralization is controversial, however, and effects appear mediated by gender. The authors mapped differences between schizophrenic and normal subjects in gyral asymmetries, complexity, and variability across the entire cortex. Method Asymmetry and shape profiles for 25 schizophrenic patients (15 men) and 28 demographically similar normal subjects (15 men) were obtained for 38 gyral regions, including the sylvian fissure and temporal and postcentral gyri, by using magnetic resonance data and a novel surface-based mesh-modeling approach. Cortical complexity was examined for sex and diagnosis effects in lobar regions. Intragroup variability was quantified and visualized to assess regional group abnormalities at the cortical surface. Results The patients showed greater variability in frontal areas than the comparison subjects. They also had significant deviations in gyral complexity asymmetry in the superior frontal cortex. In temporoparietal regions, significant gyral asymmetries were present in both groups. Sex differences were apparent in superior temporal gyral measures, and cortical complexity in inferior frontal regions was significantly greater in men. Conclusions Cortical variability and complexity show regional abnormalities in the frontal cortex potentially specific to schizophrenia. The results indicate highly significant temporoparietal gyral asymmetries in both diagnostic groups, contrary to reports of less lateralization in schizophrenia. Substantially larger study groups are necessary to isolate smaller deviations in surface asymmetries, if present in schizophrenia, suggesting their diagnostic value is minimal. PMID:11156807

  13. Effect of Film-Hole Shape on Turbine Blade Film Cooling Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, J. C.; Teng, S.

    2000-01-01

    The detailed heat transfer coefficient and film cooling effectiveness distributions as well as tile detailed coolant jet temperature profiles on the suction side of a gas turbine blade A,ere measured using a transient liquid crystal image method and a traversing cold wire and a traversing thermocouple probe, respectively. The blade has only one row of film holes near the gill hole portion on the suction side of the blade. The hole geometries studied include standard cylindrical holes and holes with diffuser shaped exit portion (i.e. fanshaped holes and laidback fanshaped holes). Tests were performed on a five-blade linear cascade in a low-speed wind tunnel. The mainstream Reynolds number based on cascade exit velocity was 5.3 x 10(exp 5). Upstream unsteady wakes were simulated using a spoke-wheel type wake generator. The wake Strouhal number was kept at 0 or 0.1. Coolant blowing ratio was varied from 0.4 to 1.2. Results show that both expanded holes have significantly improved thermal protection over the surface downstream of the ejection location, particularly at high blowing ratios. However, the expanded hole injections induce earlier boundary layer transition to turbulence and enhance heat transfer coefficients at the latter part of the blade suction surface. In general, the unsteady wake tends to reduce film cooling effectiveness.

  14. Effect of Electrode Shape on Impedance of Single HeLa Cell: A COMSOL Simulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min-Haw; Chang, Wen-Hao

    2015-01-01

    In disease prophylaxis, single cell inspection provides more detailed data compared to conventional examinations. At the individual cell level, the electrical properties of the cell are helpful for understanding the effects of cellular behavior. The electric field distribution affects the results of single cell impedance measurements whereas the electrode geometry affects the electric field distributions. Therefore, this study obtained numerical solutions by using the COMSOL multiphysics package to perform FEM simulations of the effects of electrode geometry on microfluidic devices. An equivalent circuit model incorporating the PBS solution, a pair of electrodes, and a cell is used to obtain the impedance of a single HeLa cell. Simulations indicated that the circle and parallel electrodes provide higher electric field strength compared to cross and standard electrodes at the same operating voltage. Additionally, increasing the operating voltage reduces the impedance magnitude of a single HeLa cell in all electrode shapes. Decreasing impedance magnitude of the single HeLa cell increases measurement sensitivity, but higher operational voltage will damage single HeLa cell. PMID:25961043

  15. Effect of Deformation Mode on the Wear Behavior of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lina; Liu, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Owing to good biocompatibility, good fatigue resistance, and excellent superelasticity, various types of bio-medical devices based on NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) have been developed. Due to the complexity in deformation mode in service, for example NiTi implants, accurate assessment/prediction of the surface wear process is difficult. This study aims at providing a further insight into the effect of deformation mode on the wear behavior of NiTi SMA. In the present study, two types of wear testing modes were used, namely sliding wear mode and reciprocating wear mode, to investigate the effect of deformation mode on the wear behavior of NiTi SMA in both martensitic and austenitic states. It was found that, when in martensitic state and under high applied loads, sliding wear mode resulted in more surface damage as compared to that under reciprocating wear mode. When in austenitic state, although similar trends in the coefficient of friction were observed, the coefficient of friction and surface damage in general is less under reciprocating mode than under sliding mode. These observations were further discussed in terms of different deformation mechanisms involved in the wear tests, in particular, the reversibility of martensite variant reorientation and stress-induced phase transformation, respectively.

  16. Effects of Annealing Temperature on Thermomechanical Properties of Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canbay, C. Aksu; Karagoz, Z.

    2013-07-01

    The effects of the annealing temperature on structural properties and the phase transformation of a Cu-14.1Al-3.9Ni (mass %) shape memory alloy (SMA) have been investigated. The annealing process was carried out at temperatures in the range of to . The structural changes of the as-quenched and annealed samples were studied by optical microscope and X-ray diffraction measurements. The evolution of the transformation temperatures was studied by differential scanning calorimetry with different heating and cooling rates. The activation energy and thermodynamic parameters of the samples were determined. It was found that the heat treatment has an effect on the characteristic transformation temperatures and on thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, entropy, and activation energy. The crystallite size of the as-quenched and annealed samples were determined. Vickers hardness measurements of the as-quenched and annealed samples were also carried out. It is evaluated that the transformation parameters of a CuAlNi SMA can be controlled by heat treatment.

  17. Study of the Lasting Effects of Attending: A LeaderShape Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoker, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the long-term learning resulting from participation in a LeaderShape program. The research examined LeaderShape graduates' current practices and definitions of leadership to see if they remain consistent with the program's learning goals. Graduates with five or more years since attendance were studied to provide…

  18. The Effects of Verbal Instruction and Shaping to Improve Tackling by High School Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Antonio M.; Pyles, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated verbal instruction and shaping using TAG (teaching with acoustical guidance) to improve tackling by 3 high school football players. Verbal instruction and shaping improved tackling for all 3 participants. In addition, performance was maintained as participants moved more quickly through the tackling procedure.

  19. Early discrimination of Atlantic salmon smolt age: Time course of the relative effectiveness of body size and shape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearlstein, J.H.; Letcher, B.H.; Obedzinski, M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the relative effectiveness of morphological measurements and body size in predicting the smolt age of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and to determine the time course of body size and shape differences between smolt ages. Analyses were conducted on age-0 to age-2 fish that were stocked as fry in the West Brook, Massachusetts and on laboratory-raised age-0 to age-1 fish. Using both body size and shape, we could partition the age-0 fish collected during fall into future early or late smolts, although the predictive ability of body shape was somewhat weaker than that of body size, especially in the laboratory. Classification success averaged 81% (size) and 79% (shape) in the field and 85% (size) and 73% (shape) in the laboratory. Despite differences in smolt age between the field and the laboratory, the relative timing of growth rate differences between future early and late smolts was similar in the field and the laboratory and peaked at 50-60% of development from fry to smolt. While body shape differed between early and late smolts well before smoltification, it did not improve classification based on size alone.

  20. Modeling size effects on the transformation behavior of shape memory alloy micropillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peraza Hernandez, Edwin A.; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2015-07-01

    The size dependence of the thermomechanical response of shape memory alloys (SMAs) at the micro and nano-scales has gained increasing attention in the engineering community due to existing and potential uses of SMAs as solid-state actuators and components for energy dissipation in small scale devices. Particularly, their recent uses in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have made SMAs attractive options as active materials in small scale devices. One factor limiting further application, however, is the inability to effectively and efficiently model the observed size dependence of the SMA behavior for engineering applications. Therefore, in this work, a constitutive model for the size-dependent behavior of SMAs is proposed. Experimental observations are used to motivate the extension of an existing thermomechanical constitutive model for SMAs to account for the scale effects. It is proposed that such effects can be captured via characteristic length dependent material parameters in a power-law manner. The size dependence of the transformation behavior of NiFeGa micropillars is investigated in detail and used as model prediction cases. The constitutive model is implemented in a finite element framework and used to simulate and predict the response of SMA micropillars with different sizes. The results show a good agreement with experimental data. A parametric study performed using the calibrated model shows that the influence of micropillar aspect ratio and taper angle on the compression response is significantly smaller than that of the micropillar average diameter. It is concluded that the model is able to capture the size dependent transformation response of the SMA micropillars. In addition, the simplicity of the calibration and implementation of the proposed model make it practical for the design and numerical analysis of small scale SMA components that exhibit size dependent responses.

  1. Effect of blade configuration, knife action, and intraocular pressure on keratotomy incision depth and shape.

    PubMed

    Melles, G R; Wijdh, R H; Cost, B; Beekhuis, W H; Binder, P S; van Rij, G; Groot, K

    1993-07-01

    For the same diamond blade extension, uphill (centripetal) radial keratotomy incision direction achieves greater depth and consequently greater refractive effect than downhill (centrifugal) incisions. To determine which factors may account for this difference, two uphill and two downhill incisions were made with a double-edged diamond blade set to 90% central pachometry in 26 human donor eyes at 15 or 60 mm Hg. Uphill incisions made with the perpendicular blade had greater mean incision depth than downhill incisions made with the oblique blade at 15 mm Hg (83.6 +/- 3.9% and 68.2 +/- 5.2%) (p < 0.0005) and at 60 mm Hg (86.3 +/- 3.1% and 79.7 +/- 1.7%) (p < 0.0005). Uphill and downhill incisions both made with the perpendicular blade had equal depth (85.4 +/- 4.9% and 83.7 +/- 3.5%) (p > 0.1). The perpendicular blade edge created a straight, and the oblique edge an S- or J-shaped, histological incision configuration. Corneal profile pictures taken during each incision showed the knife to tilt opposite of the incision direction and to move at a constant angle to the limbal plane, producing a smaller optical clear zone (OCZ) in the posterior stroma than intended with uphill incisions. Greater refractive effect with uphill incisions may be explained by the perpendicular blade being more effective in incising corneal lamellae, and the creation of a smaller posterior OCZ. Intraocular pressure variations during surgery may affect achieved incision depth of downhill, but not of uphill, incisions. PMID:8339558

  2. Classification of particle effective shape ratios in cirrus clouds based on the lidar depolarization ratio.

    PubMed

    Noel, Vincent; Chepfer, Helene; Ledanois, Guy; Delaval, Arnaud; Flamant, Pierre H

    2002-07-20

    A shape classification technique for cirrus clouds that could be applied to future spaceborne lidars is presented. A ray-tracing code has been developed to simulate backscattered and depolarized lidar signals from cirrus clouds made of hexagonal-based crystals with various compositions and optical depth, taking into account multiple scattering. This code was used first to study the sensitivity of the linear depolarization rate to cloud optical and microphysical properties, then to classify particle shapes in cirrus clouds based on depolarization ratio measurements. As an example this technique has been applied to lidar measurements from 15 mid-latitude cirrus cloud cases taken in Palaiseau, France. Results show a majority of near-unity shape ratios as well as a strong correlation between shape ratios and temperature: The lowest temperatures lead to high shape ratios. The application of this technique to space-borne measurements would allow a large-scale classification of shape ratios in cirrus clouds, leading to better knowledge of the vertical variability of shapes, their dependence on temperature, and the formation processes of clouds. PMID:12148751

  3. Effects of laser parameters on the geometrical characteristics of peg-shaped bionic coupling unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baoyu; Zhang, Zhihui; Liang, Yunhong; Yan, Qiongqiong; Ren, Luquan

    2014-12-01

    Peg-shaped bionic coupling unit (PBCU) processed by pulse laser is effective in anti-adhesion, anti-drag, anti-wear and anti-fatigue application. To obtain desired structural and morphological characteristics of the PBCU for industrial manufacturing, selection of proper processing parameters gradually becomes a growing important problem. Traditionally, the procedure of parameter selecting is often cost-plus and time-consuming. In this work, a statistical analysis of fabricating PBCU on the surface of medium carbon steel was conducted. The laser processing parameters utilized in the experiment and analysis are peak power 4-8 kW, pulse duration 6-16 ms and defocusing amount 6-10 mm. A series of mathematical models regarding the relationship between geometrical characteristics of PBCU and laser processing parameters were developed and checked. The results indicate that the developed models can be adequately used to control the structural and morphological characteristics of PBCU within the scope of analysis. Based on the models, the formation mechanism of the structural and morphological characteristics under different laser parameters were analyzed and discussed.

  4. Hearing mouth shapes: Sound symbolism and the reverse McGurk effect

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Charles; Deroy, Ophelia

    2012-01-01

    In their recent article, Sweeny, Guzman-Martinez, Ortega, Grabowecky, and Suzuki (2012) demonstrate that heard speech sounds modulate the perceived shape of briefly presented visual stimuli. Ovals, whose aspect ratio (relating width to height) varied on a trial-by-trial basis, were rated as looking wider when a /woo/ sound was presented, and as taller when a /wee/ sound was presented instead. On the one hand, these findings add to a growing body of evidence demonstrating that audiovisual correspondences can have perceptual (as well as decisional) effects. On the other hand, they prompt a question concerning their origin. Although the currently popular view is that crossmodal correspondences are based on the internalization of the natural multisensory statistics of the environment (see Spence, 2011), these new results suggest instead that certain correspondences may actually be based on the sensorimotor responses associated with human vocalizations. As such, the findings of Sweeny et al. help to breathe new life into Sapir's (1929) once-popular “embodied” explanation of sound symbolism. Furthermore, they pose a challenge for those psychologists wanting to determine which among a number of plausible accounts best explains the available data on crossmodal correspondences. PMID:23145309

  5. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  6. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  7. The effects of window shape and reticle presence on performance in a vertical alignment task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Erika L.; Haines, Richard F.; Jordan, Kevin

    1989-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of selected interior work-station orientational cuing upon the ability to align a target image with local vertical in the frontal plane. Angular error from gravitational vertical in an alignment task was measured for 20 observers viewing through two window shapes (square, round), two initial orientations of a computer-generated space shuttle image, and the presence or absence of a stabilized optical alignment reticle. In terms of overall accuracy, it was found that observer error was significantly smaller for the square window and reticle-present conditions than for the round window and reticle-absent conditions. Response bias data reflected an overall tendency to undershoot and greater variability of response in the round window/no reticle condition. These results suggest that environmental cuing information, such as that provided by square window frames and alignment reticles, may aid in subjective orientation and increase accuracy of response in a Space Station proximity operations alignment task.

  8. The role of experience during childhood in shaping the other-race effect.

    PubMed

    de Heering, Adélaïde; de Liedekerke, Claire; Deboni, Malorie; Rossion, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that adults' face recognition is characterized by an 'other-race effect' (ORE; see Meissner & Brigham, 2001), but few studies have investigated this ORE during the development of the face processing system. Here we examined the role of experience with other-race faces during childhood by testing a group of 6- to 14-year-old Asian children adopted between 2 and 26 months in Caucasian families living in Western Europe, as well as a group of age-matched Caucasian children. The latter group showed a strong ORE in favour of own-race faces that was stable from 6 to 14 years of age. The adopted participants did not show a significant reversal of the ORE, unlike a recently reported study (Sangrigoli et al., 2005), but rather comparable results with Asian and Caucasian faces. Their pattern of performance was neither influenced by their age of adoption, nor by the amount of experience they accumulated during childhood with other-race faces. These results indicate that the balance of performance with Asian and Caucasian faces can be modulated, but not completely reversed, in children whose exposure to own- and other-race faces changes drastically during the period of maturation of the face recognition system, depending on the length of exposure to the new face race. Overall, experience appears to be crucial during childhood to shape the face recognition system towards the most predominant morphologies of faces present in the environment. PMID:20121874

  9. Effects of nacelle position and shape on performance of subsonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangert, L. H.; Krivec, D. K.; Segall, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    The reduction of installed-propulsion-system drag by installing circular and D-shaped-cross-section nacelles in an underwing-aft position is investigated experimentally in the NASA-Langley 16-foot transonic wind tunnel. Measurements were made at Mach 0.70 to 0.85, -2.5 to 4.1-deg angle of attack, and 3.4 to 4.0 million/ft Reynolds numbers using the NASA USB full-span transonic transport model; and results were compared with those for the wing-body and underwing-forward/pylon-mounted-nacelle (UTW) configurations. While all nacelle configurations are found to have interference drag, which can probably be reduced by eliminating supersonic flows, both aft configurations are shown to reduce drag relative to UTW and increase lift coefficients. The aft D-nacelle had the lowest drag, 6.8 percent of airplane drag lower than UTW at Mach 8.0 and lift coefficient 0.45. Wing pressure distributions and the effects of deflectors are discussed.

  10. Recent Evolution in Rattus norvegicus Is Shaped by Declining Effective Population Size

    PubMed Central

    Deinum, Eva E.; Halligan, Daniel L.; Ness, Rob W.; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Cong, Lin; Zhang, Jian-Xu; Keightley, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    The brown rat, Rattus norvegicus, is both a notorious pest and a frequently used model in biomedical research. By analyzing genome sequences of 12 wild-caught brown rats from their presumed ancestral range in NE China, along with the sequence of a black rat, Rattus rattus, we investigate the selective and demographic forces shaping variation in the genome. We estimate that the recent effective population size (Ne) of this species = 1.24×105, based on silent site diversity. We compare patterns of diversity in these genomes with patterns in multiple genome sequences of the house mouse (Mus musculus castaneus), which has a much larger Ne. This reveals an important role for variation in the strength of genetic drift in mammalian genome evolution. By a Pairwise Sequentially Markovian Coalescent analysis of demographic history, we infer that there has been a recent population size bottleneck in wild rats, which we date to approximately 20,000 years ago. Consistent with this, wild rat populations have experienced an increased flux of mildly deleterious mutations, which segregate at higher frequencies in protein-coding genes and conserved noncoding elements. This leads to negative estimates of the rate of adaptive evolution (α) in proteins and conserved noncoding elements, a result which we discuss in relation to the strongly positive estimates observed in wild house mice. As a consequence of the population bottleneck, wild rats also show a markedly slower decay of linkage disequilibrium with physical distance than wild house mice. PMID:26037536

  11. Molecular Orientation in Two Component Vapor-Deposited Glasses: Effect of Substrate Temperature and Molecular Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Charles; Jiang, Jing; Walters, Diane; Ediger, Mark

    Vapor-deposited glasses are widely investigated for use in organic electronics including the emitting layers of OLED devices. These materials, while macroscopically homogenous, have anisotropic packing and molecular orientation. By controlling this orientation, outcoupling efficiency can be increased by aligning the transition dipole moment of the light-emitting molecules parallel to the substrate. Light-emitting molecules are typically dispersed in a host matrix, as such, it is imperative to understand molecular orientation in two-component systems. In this study we examine two-component vapor-deposited films and the orientations of the constituent molecules using spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV-vis and IR spectroscopy. The role of temperature, composition and molecular shape as it effects molecular orientation is examined for mixtures of DSA-Ph in Alq3 and in TPD. Deposition temperature relative to the glass transition temperature of the two-component mixture is the primary controlling factor for molecular orientation. In mixtures of DSA-Ph in Alq3, the linear DSA-Ph has a horizontal orientation at low temperatures and slight vertical orientation maximized at 0.96Tg,mixture, analogous to one-component films.

  12. Molecular-dynamics of a 2D Model of the Shape Memory Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, Oliver

    2006-08-01

    This work investigates the thermodynamic properties of a qualitative atomistic model for austenite martensite transitions. The model, still in 2D, employs Lennard-Jones potentials for the determination of the atomic interactions. By use of two atom species it is possible to identify three stable lattice structures in 2D, interpreted as austenite and two variants of martensite. The model is described in the first part of the work [6] in detail. The present work studies the thermodynamic properties of the model concerning a small, 2-dimensional test assembly consisting of 41 atoms. The phase stability is investigated by exploitation of the condition of minimal free energy. The free energy is calculated from the thermal equation of state, which is measured in numerical tensile tests. In the second part of this work a chain of eleven 41-atom assemblies is investigated. The chain is interpreted as an idealized larger body, where the individual crystallites represent crystallographic layers allowing for the creation of micro structure. By use of tensile tests at various temperature conditions we sketch how such chain may exhibit quasi-plasticity, pseudo-elasticity and the shape memory effect.

  13. Numerical study of mixing viscous fluids in T-shaped micro-channels with compressibility effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Junfeng; Matar, Omar; Harrison, Christopher; Sullivan, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    We study numerically the mixing processes of two miscible fluids in T-shaped micro-channels in the presence of compressibility effects. Three mixing modes are considered: `passive' mixing, which relies on the molecular diffusion and chaotic advection; `active' mixing relies on external disturbances, e.g. due to periodic compression; and a combination of these modes. In all cases considered, one of the fluids, fluid `A', is initially present in the dead-end region of the micro-channel. In the `passive' mixing case, the other fluid, fluid `B', flows through the open part of the channel at a constant flow rate. In the `active' case, this fluid is initially at rest but is then set in motion through pressure cycling. The combined case, involves the flow of fluid `B' in the presence of compression-decompression cycles. Numerical simulations are carried out for three different fluids, accounting for their compressibility, and their pressure-dependent e.g. density, viscosity, and diffusivity; a simple mixing rule is used to model the properties of the mixed fluids. Our results indicate that the vortices in the dead-end zone, engendered by the relative motion of the fluids leads to their mixing; the combination of mixing modes is shown to promote mixing efficiency significantly. Schlumberger-Doll Research.

  14. Effects of pitch and shape for diffraction grating in LED fog lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Lin, Jun-Yu; Wu, Jih-Huah; Ma, Shih-Hsin; Yang, Chi-Hao

    2011-10-01

    The characteristics of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that make them energy-efficient and long-lasting light source for general illumination have attracted a great attention from the lighting industry and commercial market. As everyone know LEDs have the advantages of environmental protection, long lifetime, fast response time (μs), low voltage and good mechanical properties. Their high luminance and the wide region of the dominant wavelengths within the entire visible spectrum mean that people have high anticipations for the applications of LEDs. The output lighting from reflector in the traditional fog lamp was required to fit the standard of the ECE R19 F3 regulation. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of pitch and angle for a diffraction grating in LED fog lamp. The light pattern of fog lamp must be satisfied ECE regulations, so a design of diffraction grating to shift down the lighting was required. There are three LEDs (Cree XLamp XPE LEDs) as the light source in the fog lamp for the illumination efficiency. Then, an optimal simulation of diffraction grating was done for the pitch and angle of the diffraction grating at the test distance of 25 meters. The best pitch and angle was 2mm and 60 degree for the grating shape of wedge type.

  15. Effect of cargo size and shape on the transport efficiency of the bacterial Tat translocase.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Neal; Bageshwar, Umesh; Musser, Siegfried M

    2013-04-01

    The Tat machinery translocates fully-folded and oligomeric substrates. The passage of large, bulky cargos across an ion-tight membrane suggests the need to match pore and cargo size, and therefore that Tat transport efficiency may depend on both cargo size and shape. A series of cargos of different sizes and shapes were generated using the natural Tat substrate pre-SufI as a base. Four (of 17) cargos transported with significant (>20% of wild-type) efficiencies. These results indicate that cargo size and shape significantly influence Tat transportability. PMID:23422074

  16. Investigation of screening effects on the shape resonances in the electron-hydrogen system using the complex-scaling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Li-Guang; Ho, Y. K.

    2013-05-01

    In the present work we study the effects of screened Coulomb potentials on shape resonances in the electron-hydrogen system. Here we concentrate on the 1Se and 1Po shape resonances associated with and lying above, respectively, the H (N = 2), (N =3), (N =4), and (N = 5) thresholds. The complex-scaling method is used to extract resonance poles, together with employing correlated Hylleraas-type wave functions up to 1078 and 1771 terms for the S- and P-wave states, respectively, to represent the two-electron system. To model the screening effect we replace the pure Coulomb interaction term for any pair of charged particles by a screened Coulomb (or Yukawa-type) interaction term. Our un-screened shape resonances agree well with those in the literature. We will present our latest results for the screened cases at the meeting. Supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan.

  17. Calculated Effects of Body Shape on the Bow-Shock Overpressures in the Far Field of Bodies in Supersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, Donald L.

    1960-01-01

    A theory for the supersonic flow about bodies in uniform flight in a homogeneous medium is reviewed and an integral which expresses the effect of body shape upon the flow parameters in the far field is reduced to a form which may be readily evaluated for arbitrary body shapes. This expression is then used to investigate the effect of nose angle, fineness ratio, and location of maximum body cross section upon the far-field pressure jump across the bow-shock of slender bodies. Curves are presented showing the variation of the shock strength with each of these parameters. It is found that, for a wide variety of shapes having equal fineness ratios, the integral has nearly a constant value.

  18. The effect of stent porosity and strut shape on saccular aneurysm and its numerical analysis with lattice Boltzmann method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Hyun; Xu, Xiaofeng; Lee, Joon Sang

    2010-07-01

    The analysis of a flow pattern in cerebral aneurysms and the effect of stent strut shapes are presented in this article. The treatment of cerebral aneurisms with a porous stent has recently been proposed as a minimally invasive way to prevent rupture and favor coagulation mechanism inside the aneurism. The efficiency of stent is related to several parameters, including porosity and stent strut shapes. The goal of this article is to study the effect of the stent strut shape and porosity on the hemodynamic properties of the flow inside an aneurysm using a numerical analysis. In this study, we use the concept of flow reduction to characterize the stent efficiency. Also, we use the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) of a non-Newtonian blood flow. To resolve the characteristics of a highly complex flow, we use an extrapolation method for the wall and stent boundary. To ease the code development and facilitate the incorporation of new physics, a scientific programming strategy based on object-oriented concepts is developed. Reduced velocity, smaller average vorticity magnitude, smaller average shear rate, and increased viscosity are observed when the proposed stent shapes and porosities are used. The rectangular stent is observed to be optimal and to decrease the magnitude of the velocity by 89.25% in the 2D model and 53.92% in the 3D model in the aneurysm sac. Our results show the role of the porosity and stent strut shape and help us to understand the characteristics of stent strut design. PMID:20300847

  19. Sexual dimorphism in the size and shape of the os coxae and the effects of microevolutionary processes.

    PubMed

    Betti, Lia

    2014-02-01

    Sexual dimorphism in the human pelvis has been studied widely for forensic purposes, but it is still unclear to what extent it varies among human populations. There is evidence that microevolutionary processes, both neutral (i.e., population history) and selective (e.g., thermoregulatory adaptation and size-related obstetrical constraints) contribute to explain pelvic variation among populations, but the extent to which these factors affect pelvic sexual dimorphism is unknown. In this study, I analyze sexual dimorphism of the os coxae in 20 globally distributed human populations, using 3D morphometric data to separate the size and shape components of sexual differences. After evaluating population differences in the degree and pattern of sexual dimorphism, I test for the effect of population history, climate, and body size in shaping global diversity. The results show that size and shape dimorphism follow different patterns. Coxal size dimorphism is generally quite consistent through populations, with males bigger than females, but it appears to be reduced in small-bodied populations, possibly in relation to obstetrically-related selective pressures for a spacious birth canal. Beyond a general species-wide pattern of shape dimorphism, commonly used for forensic sex determination, other aspects of sexual differences in coxal shape vary among human populations, reflecting the effects of neutral demographic processes and climatic adaptation. PMID:24222471

  20. Origin of shape anisotropy effects in solution-phase synthesized FePt nanomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, D. A.; Guchhait, S.; Liu, H.; Ferdousi, F.; Corbet, C.; Xu, H.; Doczy, M.; Bourianoff, G.; Mathew, L.; Rao, R.; Saha, S.; Ramon, M.; Ganguly, S.; Markert, J. T.; Banerjee, S. K.

    2011-07-01

    Controlling the morphology of inorganic nanocrystals is important because many of their electronic attributes are highly sensitive to shape and aspect ratio. FePt nanocrystals have potential as advanced magnetic materials for ultrahigh-density memory. This is due to their high shape and/or magnetocrystalline anisotropy, which allows bits as small as 3 nm to be thermally stable over typical data storage periods of 10 years. Herein, nanocrystals were simply fabricated by simultaneous reduction of platinum acetylacetonate and thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl in properly chosen conditions of solvent/surfactant proportions and temperature for rational design of their shape and magnetic properties. This work has combined magnetometry measurements and micromagnetic simulations to illustrate the role of the external shape on the rotation of the magnetization vector for colloidal assemblies.

  1. Influences of Substrate Adhesion and Particle Size on the Shape Memory Effect of Polystyrene Particles.

    PubMed

    Cox, Lewis M; Killgore, Jason P; Li, Zhengwei; Long, Rong; Sanders, Aric W; Xiao, Jianliang; Ding, Yifu

    2016-04-19

    Formulations and applications of micro- and nanoscale polymer particles have proliferated rapidly in recent years, yet knowledge of their mechanical behavior has not grown accordingly. In this study, we examine the ways that compressive strain, substrate surface energy, and particle size influence the shape memory cycle of polystyrene particles. Using nanoimprint lithography, differently sized particles are programmed into highly deformed, temporary shapes in contact with substrates of differing surface energies. Atomic force microscopy is used to obtain in situ measurements of particle shape recovery kinetics, and scanning electron microscopy is employed to assess differences in the profiles of particles at the conclusion of the shape memory cycle. Finally, finite element models are used to investigate the growing impact of surface energies at smaller length scales. Results reveal that the influence of substrate adhesion on particle recovery is size-dependent and can become dominating at submicron length scales. PMID:27023181

  2. Effects of shielding coatings on the anode shaping process during counter-rotating electrochemical machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dengyong; Zhu, Zengwei; Wang, Ningfeng; Zhu, Di

    2016-06-01

    Electrochemical machining (ECM) has been widely used in the aerospace, automotive, defense and medical industries for its many advantages over traditional machining methods. However, the machining accuracy in ECM is to a great extent limited by the stray corrosion of the unwanted material removal. Many attempts have been made to improve the ECM accuracy, such as the use of a pulse power, passivating electrolytes and auxiliary electrodes. However, they are sometimes insufficient for the reduction of the stray removal and have their limitations in many cases. To solve the stray corrosion problem in CRECM, insulating and conductive coatings are respectively used. The different implement processes of the two kinds of coatings are introduced. The effects of the two kinds of shielding coatings on the anode shaping process are investigated. Numerical simulations and experiments are conducted for the comparison of the two coatings. The simulation and experimental results show that both the two kinds of coatings are valid for the reduction of stray corrosion on the top surface of the convex structure. However, for insulating coating, the convex sidewall becomes concave when the height of the convex structure is over 1.26 mm. In addition, it is easy to peel off by the high-speed electrolyte. In contrast, the conductive coating has a strong adhesion, and can be well reserved during the whole machining process. The convex structure fabricated by using a conductive iron coating layer presents a favorable sidewall profile. It is concluded that the conductive coating is more effective for the improvement of the machining quality in CRECM. The proposed shielding coatings can also be employed to reduce the stray corrosion in other schemes of ECM.

  3. Vibration shape effects on the power output in piezoelectric vibro-impact energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twiefel, Jens

    2013-04-01

    Vibro-Impcact harvesting devices are one concept to increase the bandwidth of resonant operated piezoelectric vibration generators. The fundamental setup is a piezoelectric bending element, where the deflection is limited by two stoppers. After starting the system in resonance operation the bandwidth increases towards higher frequencies as soon the deflection reach the stopper. If the stoppers are rigid, the frequency response gives constant amplitude for increasing frequencies, as long the system is treated as ideal one-DOF system with symmetric stoppers. In consequence, the bandwidth is theoretically unlimited large. However, such a system also has two major drawbacks, firstly the complicated startup mechanism and secondly the tendency to drop from the high constant branch in the frequency response on the much smaller linear branch if the system is disturbed. Nevertheless, the system has its application wherever the startup problem can be solved. Most modeling approaches utilize modal one-DOF models to describe the systems behavior and do not tread the higher harmonics of the beam. This work investigates the effects of the stoppers on the vibration shape of the piezoelectric beam, wherefore a finite element model is used. The used elements are one-dimensional two node elements based on the Timoshenko-beam theory. The finite element code is implemented in Matlab. The model is calculated utilizing time step integration for simulation, to reduce the computation time an auto-resonant calculation method is implemented. A control loop including positive feedback and saturation is used to create a self-excited system. Therefore, the system is always operated in resonance (on the backbone curve) and the frequency is a direct result of the computation. In this case tip velocity is used as feedback. This technique allows effective parametric studies. Investigated parameters include gap, excitation amplitude, tip mass as well as the stiffness of the stopper. The stress and

  4. Passive mechanical models of fish caudal fins: effects of shape and stiffness on self-propulsion.

    PubMed

    Feilich, Kara L; Lauder, George V

    2015-06-01

    Fishes are found in a great variety of body forms with tail shapes that vary from forked tuna-like tails to the square-shaped tails found in some deep-bodied species. Hydrodynamic theory suggests that a fish's body and tail shape affects undulatory swimming performance. For example, a narrow caudal peduncle is believed to reduce drag, and a tuna-like tail to increase thrust. Despite the prevalence of these assertions, there is no experimental verification of the hydrodynamic mechanisms that may confer advantages on specific forms. Here, we use a mechanically-actuated flapping foil model to study how two aspects of shape, caudal peduncle depth and presence or absence of a forked caudal fin, may affect different aspects of swimming performance. Four different foil shapes were each made of plastics of three different flexural stiffnesses, permitting us to study how shape might interact with stiffness to produce swimming performance. For each foil, we measured the self-propelling swimming speed. In addition, we measured the forces, torques, cost of transport and power coefficient of each foil swimming at its self-propelling speed. There was no single 'optimal' foil exhibiting the highest performance in all metrics, and for almost all measures of swimming performance, foil shape and flexural stiffness interacted in complicated ways. Particle image velocimetry of several foils suggested that stiffness might affect the relative phasing of the body trailing edge and the caudal fin leading edge, changing the flow incident to the tail, and affecting hydrodynamics of the entire foil. The results of this study of a simplified model of fish body and tail morphology suggest that considerable caution should be used when inferring a swimming performance advantage from body and tail shape alone. PMID:25879846

  5. Elastic poly(ε-caprolactone)-polydimethylsiloxane copolymer fibers with shape memory effect for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kai, Dan; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Yu Chan, Benjamin Qi; Liow, Sing Shy; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Xu, Fujian; Loh, Xian Jun

    2016-02-01

    A porous shape memory scaffold with biomimetic architecture is highly promising for bone tissue engineering applications. In this study, a series of new shape memory polyurethanes consisting of organic poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) segments and inorganic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) segments in different ratios (9 : 1, 8 : 2 and 7 : 3) was synthesised. These PCL-PDMS copolymers were further engineered into porous fibrous scaffolds by electrospinning. With different ratios of PCL: PDMS, the fibers showed various fiber diameters, thermal behaviour and mechanical properties. Even after being processed into fibrous structures, these PCL-PDMS copolymers maintained their shape memory properties, and all the fibers exhibited excellent shape recovery ratios of  >90% and shape fixity ratios of  >92% after 7 thermo-mechanical cycles. Biological assay results corroborated that the fibrous PCL-PDMS scaffolds were biocompatible by promoting osteoblast proliferation, functionally enhanced biomineralization-relevant alkaline phosphatase expression and mineral deposition. Our study demonstrated that the PCL-PDMS fibers with excellent shape memory properties are promising substrates as bioengineered grafts for bone regeneration. PMID:26836757

  6. Shape Beyond Recognition: Form-derived Directionality and its Effects on Visual Attention and Motion Perception

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdardottir, Heida M.; Michalak, Suzanne M.; Sheinberg, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The shape of an object restricts its movements and therefore its future location. The rules governing selective sampling of the environment likely incorporate any available data, including shape, that provide information about where important things are going to be in the near future so that the object can be located, tracked, and sampled for information. We asked people to assess in which direction several novel objects pointed or directed them. With independent groups of people, we investigated whether their attention and sense of motion were systematically biased in this direction. Our work shows that nearly any novel object has intrinsic directionality derived from its shape. This shape information is swiftly and automatically incorporated into the allocation of overt and covert visual orienting and the detection of motion, processes which themselves are inherently directional. The observed connection between form and space suggests that shape processing goes beyond recognition alone and may help explain why shape is a relevant dimension throughout the visual brain. PMID:23565670

  7. NEUTRON-PROTON EFFECTIVE RANGE PARAMETERS AND ZERO-ENERGY SHAPE DEPENDENCE.

    SciTech Connect

    HACKENBURG, R.W.

    2005-06-01

    A completely model-independent effective range theory fit to available, unpolarized, np scattering data below 3 MeV determines the zero-energy free proton cross section {sigma}{sub 0} = 20.4287 {+-} 0.0078 b, the singlet apparent effective range r{sub s} = 2.754 {+-} 0.018{sub stat} {+-} 0.056{sub syst} fm, and improves the error slightly on the parahydrogen coherent scattering length, a{sub c} = -3.7406 {+-} 0.0010 fm. The triplet and singlet scattering lengths and the triplet mixed effective range are calculated to be a{sub t} = 5.4114 {+-} 0.0015 fm, a{sub s} = -23.7153 {+-} 0.0043 fm, and {rho}{sub t}(0,-{epsilon}{sub t}) = 1.7468 {+-} 0.0019 fm. The model-independent analysis also determines the zero-energy effective ranges by treating them as separate fit parameters without the constraint from the deuteron binding energy {epsilon}{sub t}. These are determined to be {rho}{sub t}(0,0) = 1.705 {+-} 0.023 fm and {rho}{sub s}(0,0) = 2.665 {+-} 0.056 fm. This determination of {rho}{sub t}(0,0) and {rho}{sub s}(0,0) is most sensitive to the sparse data between about 20 and 600 keV, where the correlation between the determined values of {rho}{sub t}(0,0) and {rho}{sub s}(0,0) is at a minimum. This correlation is responsible for the large systematic error in r{sub s}. More precise data in this range are needed. The present data do not event determine (with confidence) that {rho}{sub t}(0,0) {ne} {rho}{sub t}(0, -{epsilon}{sub t}), referred to here as ''zero-energy shape dependence''. The widely used measurement of {sigma}{sub 0} = 20.491 {+-} 0.014 b from W. Dilg, Phys. Rev. C 11, 103 (1975), is argued to be in error.

  8. Effects of Anticaricaturing vs. Caricaturing and Their Neural Correlates Elucidate a Role of Shape for Face Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Claudia; Kaufmann, Jurgen M.; Walther, Lydia; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2012-01-01

    To assess the role of shape information for unfamiliar face learning, we investigated effects of photorealistic spatial anticaricaturing and caricaturing on later face recognition. We assessed behavioural performance and event-related brain potential (ERP) correlates of recognition, using different images of anticaricatures, veridical faces, or…

  9. Effects of heat treatment on shape-setting and non-linearmechanical properties of Nitinol stent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaopeng; Wang, Yinong; Qi, Min; Yang, Dazhi

    2007-07-01

    NiTi shape memory alloy is a temperature sensitive material with non-linear mechanical properties and good biocompatibility, which can be used for medical devices such as stent, catheter guide wire and orthodontic wire. The majority of nitinol stents are of the self-expanding type basing on the superelasticity. Nitinol stents are shape set into the open condition and compressed and inserted into the delivery catheter. Additional the shape-setting treatment can be used as a tool to accurately tune the transformation temperatures and mechanical properties. In this study, different heat treatments have been performed on the Ti-50.7at%Ni alloy wires. And results of shape-setting, austenite transformation finish temperature and non-linear mechanical property of NiTi shape memory alloy at body temperature have been investigated. The experimental results show that the proper shape-setting temperature should be chosen between 450-550 °C. And the shape-setting results were stabilization when the NiTi wires were constrain-treated at 500 and 550°C and ageing time longer than 10 minutes. The austenite finish temperatures increased with ageing time and increased first and then decreased with ageing temperature. The peak values were obtained at 400°C. When the heat treatments was performed at the same temperature, both the upper plateau stresses and lower plateau stresses decreased with the ageing time. Most of treated nitinol wires owned good recovery ability at body temperature and the permanent sets were less than 0.05% when short time ageing treatment was performed at 500°C.

  10. An effective interaction potential model for the shape memory alloy AuCd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthikonda, Venkata Suresh; Elliott, Ryan S.

    2009-09-01

    The unusual properties of shape memory alloys (SMAs) result from a lattice level martensitic transformation (MT) corresponding to an instability of the SMAs crystal structure. Currently, there exists a shortage of material models that can capture the details of lattice level MTs occurring in SMAs and that can be used for efficient computational investigations of the interaction between MTs and larger-scale features found in typical materials. These larger-scale features could include precipitates, dislocation networks, voids, and even cracks. In this article, one such model is developed for the SMA AuCd. The model is based on effective interaction potentials (EIPs). These are atomic interaction potentials that are explicit functions of temperature. In particular, the Morse pair potential is used and its adjustable coefficients are taken to be temperature dependent. An extensive exploration of the Morse pair potential is performed to identify an appropriate functional form for the temperature dependence of the potential parameters. A fitting procedure is developed for the EIPs that matches, at suitable temperatures, the stress-free equilibrium lattice parameters, instantaneous bulk moduli, cohesive energies, thermal expansion coefficients, and heat capacities of FCC Au, HCP Cd, and the B2 cubic austenite phase of the Au-47.5at%Cd alloy. The resulting model is explored using branch-following and bifurcation techniques. A hysteretic temperature-induced MT between the B2 cubic and B19 orthorhombic crystal structures is predicted. This is the behavior that is observed in the real material. In addition to reproducing the important properties mentioned above, the model predicts, to reasonable accuracy, the transformation strain tensor and captures the latent heat and thermal hysteresis to within an order of magnitude.

  11. Effect of 6H-SiC crystal growth shapes on thermo-elastic stress in the growing crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yong-gui; Dai, Pei-yun; Yang, Jian-feng; Jin, Zhi-hao; Liu, Hu-lin

    2012-07-01

    The effect of 6H-SiC crystal growth shapes on the thermo-elastic stress distribution in the growing crystal was systematically investigated by using a finite element method. The thermo-elastic stress distribution in the crystal with a flat growth shape was more homogeneous than that in the crystals with concave and convex growth shapes, and the value of thermo-elasticity in the crystal with a flat growth shape was also smaller than that in the two other types of crystals. The maximum values of thermo-elastic stress appeared at interfaces between the crystal and the graphite lid. If the lid was of the same properties as 6H-SiC, the thermo-elastic stress would decrease in two orders of magnitude. Thus, to grow 6H-SiC single crystals of high quality, a transition layer of SiC formed by deposition or reaction is suggested; meanwhile the thermal field in the growth chamber should be adjusted to maintain the crystals with flat growth shapes.

  12. Effects of crystal shape- and size-modality on magma rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moitra, P.; Gonnermann, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    magma often contains crystals over a wide range of sizes and shapes, potentially affecting magma viscosity over many orders of magnitude. A robust relation between viscosity and the modality of crystal sizes and shapes remains lacking, principally because of the dimensional complexity and size of the governing parameter space. We have performed a suite of shear viscosity measurements on liquid-particle suspensions of dynamical similarity to crystal-bearing magma. Our experiments encompass five suspension types, each consisting of unique mixtures of two different particle sizes and shapes. The experiments span two orthogonal subspaces of particle concentration, as well as particle size and shape for each suspension type, thereby providing insight into the topology of parameter space. For each suspension type, we determined the dry maximum packing fraction and measured shear rates across a range of applied shear stresses. The results were fitted using a Herschel-Bulkley model and augment existing predictive capabilities. We demonstrate that our results are consistent with previous work, including friction-based constitutive laws for granular materials. We conclude that predictions for ascent rates of crystal-rich magmas must take the shear-rate dependence of viscosity into account. Shear-rate dependence depends first and foremost on the volume fraction of crystals, relative to the maximum packing fraction, which in turn depends on crystal size and shape distribution.

  13. Forces and shapes as determinants of micro-swimming: effect on synchronisation and the utilisation of drag.

    PubMed

    Pande, Jayant; Smith, Ana-Sunčana

    2015-03-28

    In this analytical study we demonstrate the richness of behaviour exhibited by bead-spring micro-swimmers, both in terms of known yet not fully explained effects such as synchronisation, and hitherto undiscovered phenomena such as the existence of two transport regimes where the swimmer shape has fundamentally different effects on the velocity. For this purpose we employ a micro-swimmer model composed of three arbitrarily-shaped rigid beads connected linearly by two springs. By analysing this swimmer in terms of the forces on the different beads, we determine the optimal kinematic parameters for sinusoidal driving, and also explain the pusher/puller nature of the swimmer. Moreover, we show that the phase difference between the swimmer's arms automatically attains values which maximise the swimming speed for a large region of the parameter space. Apart from this, we determine precisely the optimal bead shapes that maximise the velocity when the beads are constrained to be ellipsoids of a constant volume or surface area. On doing so, we discover the surprising existence of the aforementioned transport regimes in micro-swimming, where the motion is dominated by either a reduction of the drag force opposing the beads, or by the hydrodynamic interaction amongst them. Under some conditions, these regimes lead to counter-intuitive effects such as the most streamlined shapes forming locally the slowest swimmers. PMID:25675985

  14. Effects of test sample shape and surface production method on the fatigue behaviour of PMMA bone cement.

    PubMed

    Sheafi, E M; Tanner, K E

    2014-01-01

    There is no consensus over the optimal criterion to define the fatigue life of bone cement in vitro. Fatigue testing samples have been made into various shapes using different surface preparation techniques with little attention being paid to the importance of these variations on the fatigue results. The present study focuses on the effect of test sample shape and surface production method on the fatigue results. The samples were manufactured with two cross sectional shapes: rectangular according to ISO 527 and circular according to ASTM F2118. Each shape was produced using two methods: direct moulding of the cement dough and machining from oversized rods. Testing was performed using two different bone cements: SmartSet GHV and DePuy CMW1. At least 10 samples of each category were tested, under fully reversed tension-compression fatigue stress at ±20MPa, to allow for Weibull analysis to compare results. The growth of fatigue cracks was observed by means of the changes in the absorbed energy and apparent modulus. It was found that fatigue crack growth can be altered by the sample shape and production method; however it is also dependent on the chemical composition of the cement. The results revealed that moulded samples, particularly those based on the ASTM F2118 standard, can lead to up to 5.5 times greater fatigue lives compared to the machined samples of the same cement. It is thus essential, when comparing the fatigue results of bone cement, to consider the effect of production method along with the shape of the test sample. PMID:24070780

  15. Strain characterization of fin-shaped field effect transistors with SiGe stressors using nanobeam electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun-Wook; Byeon, Dae-Seop; Jang, Hyunchul; Koo, Sang-Mo; Ko, Dae-Hong; Lee, Hoo-Jeong

    2014-08-25

    This study undertook strain analysis on fin-shaped field effect transistor structures with epitaxial Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} stressors, using nano-beam electron diffraction and finite elements method. Combining the two methods disclosed dynamic strain distribution in the source/drain and channel region of the fin structure, and the effects of dimensional factors such as the stressor thickness and fin width, offering valuable information for device design.

  16. A Numerical Method for Modeling the Effects of Irregular Shape on Interconnect Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bao-Jun; Tang, Zhen-An; Ju, Yan-Jie

    2014-05-01

    When clock frequencies exceed gigahertz, the skin depth in analog and digital circuits greatly decreases. The irregular shape of the cross section of the interconnect plays an increasingly important role in interconnect parasitic extraction. However, existing methods only focus on the rough surface of the interconnect, while ignoring other irregular shapes, such as the trapezoidal cross section. In this work, a new simulation method is proposed for irregular interconnects, which is applicable to arbitrary irregular shapes and to a wide range of frequencies. The method involves generating a mesh information file firstly and then extracting the frequency-dependent resistance based on a numerical solution of scalar wave modeling by using the method of moments. The singularity extraction method is used to calculate the self-inductors. The data from experiments verify the accuracy of our proposed method.

  17. Effect of panel shape of soccer ball on its flight characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungchan; Asai, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Soccer balls are typically constructed from 32 pentagonal and hexagonal panels. Recently, however, newer balls named Cafusa, Teamgeist 2, and Jabulani were respectively produced from 32, 14, and 8 panels with shapes and designs dramatically different from those of conventional balls. The newest type of ball, named Brazuca, was produced from six panels and will be used in the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil. There have, however, been few studies on the aerodynamic properties of balls constructed from different numbers and shapes of panels. Hence, we used wind tunnel tests and a kick-robot to examine the relationship between the panel shape and orientation of modern soccer balls and their aerodynamic and flight characteristics. We observed a correlation between the wind tunnel test results and the actual ball trajectories, and also clarified how the panel characteristics affected the flight of the ball, which enabled prediction of the trajectory. PMID:24875291

  18. Effect of panel shape of soccer ball on its flight characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sungchan; Asai, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    Soccer balls are typically constructed from 32 pentagonal and hexagonal panels. Recently, however, newer balls named Cafusa, Teamgeist 2, and Jabulani were respectively produced from 32, 14, and 8 panels with shapes and designs dramatically different from those of conventional balls. The newest type of ball, named Brazuca, was produced from six panels and will be used in the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil. There have, however, been few studies on the aerodynamic properties of balls constructed from different numbers and shapes of panels. Hence, we used wind tunnel tests and a kick-robot to examine the relationship between the panel shape and orientation of modern soccer balls and their aerodynamic and flight characteristics. We observed a correlation between the wind tunnel test results and the actual ball trajectories, and also clarified how the panel characteristics affected the flight of the ball, which enabled prediction of the trajectory.

  19. The terminal effects of chisel-shape projectile penetrating into metallic target plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xu; Yao, Xiaohu; Ma, Wei

    2015-09-01

    This work performs the analysis and simulation investigations of penetration behaviors of chisel-shape projectile. In analysis, the projectile is assumed to be a rigid body and the target plate is elastic-plastic material. By introducing the velocity potential function, the velocity field in target is first obtained. Then, the momentum equation is solved for determining the pressure and stress fields in the elastic and plastic regions in target. The variation of the resultant force subjected by the projectiles with the penetration depth is studied. The approximate expressions of penetration depth and the residual velocity with the initial impacting velocity are obtained for the exploration of the penetration mechanisms of the chisel-shape projectile. In numerical simulation, the main attention focuses on the dissipation mechanisms of the kinetic energy of the chisel-shape projectile in penetration process.

  20. Self-assembly of trimer colloids: effect of shape and interaction range.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Harold W; Yang, Seung-Yeob; Mittal, Jeetain; Shen, Vincent K

    2016-05-14

    Trimers with one attractive bead and two repulsive beads, similar to recently synthesized trimer patchy colloids, were simulated with flat-histogram Monte Carlo methods to obtain the stable self-assembled structures for different shapes and interaction potentials. Extended corresponding states principle was successfully applied to self-assembling systems in order to approximately collapse the results for models with the same shape, but different interaction range. This helps us directly compare simulation results with previous experiment, and good agreement was found between the two. In addition, a variety of self-assembled structures were observed by varying the trimer geometry, including spherical clusters, elongated clusters, monolayers, and spherical shells. In conclusion, our results help to compare simulations and experiments, via extended corresponding states, and we predict the formation of self-assembled structures for trimer shapes that have not been experimentally synthesized. PMID:27087490

  1. Study of temporal pulse shape effects on W using simulations and laser heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J. H.; De Temmerman, G.; Doerner, R. P.; van den Berg, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    Transient heat pulses with triangular, square, and ELM-like temporal shapes are investigated in order to further understand how transient plasma instabilities will affect plasma facing components in tokamaks. A solution to the 1D heat equation for triangular pulses allows the peak surface temperature to be written analytically for arbitrary rise times. The solution as well as ANSYS simulations reveal that a positive ramp (maximum rise time) triangular pulse has a higher peak surface temperature by a factor of \\sqrt{2} compared to that from a negative ramp (rise time = 0) pulse shape with equal energy density, peak power, and pulse width. Translating the results to ITER, an ELM or disruption pulse with the shortest rise time is the most benign compared to other pulse shapes with the same peak heat flux and same energy density.

  2. Infrared light actuated shape memory effects in crystalline polyurethane/graphene chemical hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Kim, B. K.

    2014-02-01

    A series of crystalline shape memory polyurethanes (SMPUs) were synthesized from polycaprolactone diols and 4,4‧-methylenedicyclohexyl diisocyanate (H12MDI) with chemical incorporation of allyl isocyanate modified graphene oxide (iGO) into the PU. Actuation of hybrid SMPUs by infrared (IR) absorption of iGO as well as the direct heat actuated SMPUs has been studied in terms of the isothermal crystallization rate, near-IR absorption, and thermal, mechanical, and shape memory properties. It was found that iGO functions as a multifunctional cross-linker at low contents and a nucleating agent at high contents, and as a reinforcing filler, while light absorption by the iGO induced melting of the PU soft segment, giving rise to a shape recovery of over 90% at 1% iGO (G10).

  3. Endwall shape modification using vortex generators and fences to improve gas turbine cooling and effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokce, Zeki Ozgur

    The gas turbine is one of the most important parts of the air-breathing jet engine. Hence, improving its efficiency and rendering it operable under high temperatures are constant goals for the aerospace industry. Two types of flow within the gas turbine are of critical relevance: The flow around the first row of stator blades (also known as the nozzle guide vane blade - NGV) and the cooling flow inside the turbine blade cooling channel. The subject of this thesis work was to search for methods that could improve the characteristics of these two types of flows, thus enabling superior engine performance. The innovative aspect of our work was to apply an endwall shape modification previously employed by non-aerospace industries for cooling applications, to the gas turbine cooling flow which is vital to aerospace propulsion. Since the costs of investigating the possible benefits of any idea via extensive experiments could be quite high, we decided to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) followed by experimentation as our methodology. We decided to analyze the potential benefits of using vortex generators (VGs) as well as the rectangular endwall fence. Since the pin-fins used in cooling flow are circular cylinders, and since the boundary layer flow is mainly characterized by the leading edge diameter of the NGV blade, we modeled both the pin-fins and the NGV blade as vertical circular cylinders. The baseline case consisted of the cylinder(s) being subjected to cross flow and a certain amount of freestream turbulence. The modifications we made on the endwall consisted of rectangular fences. In the case of the cooling flow, we used triangular shaped, common flow up oriented, delta winglet type vortex generators as well as rectangular endwall fences. The channel contained singular cylinders as well as staggered rows of multiple cylinders. For the NGV flow, a rectangular endwall fence and a singular cylinder were utilized. Using extensive CFD modeling and analysis, we

  4. Effect of higher-order multipole moments on the Stark line shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, T. A.; Nagayama, T.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.

    2016-08-01

    Spectral line shapes are sensitive to plasma conditions and are often used to diagnose electron density of laboratory plasmas as well as astrophysical plasmas. Stark line-shape models take into account the perturbation of the radiator's energy structure due to the Coulomb interaction with the surrounding charged particles. Solving this Coulomb interaction is challenging and is commonly approximated via a multipole expansion. However, most models include only up to the second term of the expansion (the dipole term). While there have been studies on the higher-order terms due to one of the species (i.e., either ions or electrons), there is no model that includes the terms beyond dipole from both species. Here, we investigate the importance of the higher-order multipole terms from both species on the Hβ line shape. First, we find that it is important to include higher-order terms consistently from both ions and electrons to reproduce measured line-shape asymmetry. Next, we find that the line shape calculated with the dipole-only approximation becomes inaccurate as density increases. It is necessary to include up to the third (quadrupole) term to compute the line shape accurately within 2%. Since most existing models include only up to the dipole terms, the densities inferred with such models are in question. We find that the model without the quadrupole term slightly underestimates the density, and the discrepancy becomes as large as 12% at high densities. While the case of study is limited to Hβ, we expect similar impact on other lines.

  5. Effect of higher-order multipole moments on the Stark line shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, T. A.; Nagayama, T.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.

    2016-08-01

    Spectral line shapes are sensitive to plasma conditions and are often used to diagnose electron density of laboratory plasmas as well as astrophysical plasmas. Stark line-shape models take into account the perturbation of the radiator's energy structure due to the Coulomb interaction with the surrounding charged particles. Solving this Coulomb interaction is challenging and is commonly approximated via a multipole expansion. However, most models include only up to the second term of the expansion (the dipole term). While there have been studies on the higher-order terms due to one of the species (i.e., either ions or electrons), there is no model that includes the terms beyond dipole from both species. Here, we investigate the importance of the higher-order multipole terms from both species on the H β line shape. First, we find that it is important to include higher-order terms consistently from both ions and electrons to reproduce measured line-shape asymmetry. Next, we find that the line shape calculated with the dipole-only approximation becomes inaccurate as density increases. It is necessary to include up to the third (quadrupole) term to compute the line shape accurately within 2%. Since most existing models include only up to the dipole terms, the densities inferred with such models are in question. We find that the model without the quadrupole term slightly underestimates the density, and the discrepancy becomes as large as 12% at high densities. While the case of study is limited to H β , we expect similar impact on other lines.

  6. Effect of ocular shape and vascular geometry on retinal hemodynamics: a computational model.

    PubMed

    Dziubek, Andrea; Guidoboni, Giovanna; Harris, Alon; Hirani, Anil N; Rusjan, Edmond; Thistleton, William

    2016-08-01

    A computational model for retinal hemodynamics accounting for ocular curvature is presented. The model combines (i) a hierarchical Darcy model for the flow through small arterioles, capillaries and small venules in the retinal tissue, where blood vessels of different size are comprised in different hierarchical levels of a porous medium; and (ii) a one-dimensional network model for the blood flow through retinal arterioles and venules of larger size. The non-planar ocular shape is included by (i) defining the hierarchical Darcy flow model on a two-dimensional curved surface embedded in the three-dimensional space; and (ii) mapping the simplified one-dimensional network model onto the curved surface. The model is solved numerically using a finite element method in which spatial domain and hierarchical levels are discretized separately. For the finite element method, we use an exterior calculus-based implementation which permits an easier treatment of non-planar domains. Numerical solutions are verified against suitably constructed analytical solutions. Numerical experiments are performed to investigate how retinal hemodynamics is influenced by the ocular shape (sphere, oblate spheroid, prolate spheroid and barrel are compared) and vascular architecture (four vascular arcs and a branching vascular tree are compared). The model predictions show that changes in ocular shape induce non-uniform alterations of blood pressure and velocity in the retina. In particular, we found that (i) the temporal region is affected the least by changes in ocular shape, and (ii) the barrel shape departs the most from the hemispherical reference geometry in terms of associated pressure and velocity distributions in the retinal microvasculature. These results support the clinical hypothesis that alterations in ocular shape, such as those occurring in myopic eyes, might be associated with pathological alterations in retinal hemodynamics. PMID:26445874

  7. Effect of the domain shape on noncollinear second-harmonic emission in disordered quadratic media.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Mousa; Passlick, Markus; Koynov, Kaloian; Imbrock, Jörg; Denz, Cornelia

    2013-12-16

    We study the role of the individual ferroelectric domain shape on the second-harmonic emission in strontium barium niobate featuring a random quadratic nonlinearity. The noncollinearly emitted second-harmonic signal is scanned in the far-field at different incident angles for different domain size distributions. This offers the possibility to retrieve the Fourier spectrum, corresponding to the spatial domain distribution and domain shape. Based on images of the domain structures retrieved by Čerenkov-type second-harmonic microscopy, domain patterns are simulated, the second-harmonic intensities are calculated, and finally compared with the measurements. PMID:24514720

  8. Salting-out in the aqueous single-protein solution: the effect of shape factor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bong Ho; Bae, Young Chan

    2003-06-01

    A molecular-thermodynamic model is developed to describe salt-induced protein precipitation. The protein-protein interaction goes through the potential of mean force. An equation of state is derived based on the generalized van der Waals partition function. The attractive term including the potential of mean force is perturbed by the statistical mechanical perturbation theory. The precipitation behaviors are studied by calculating the partition coefficient with various conditions such as the ionic strength and the shape of protein. Our results show that the protein shape plays a significant role in the protein precipitation behavior. PMID:12878319

  9. Effect of the defect initial shape on the fatigue lifetime of a continuous casting machine roll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasniy, Oleh P.; Lapusta, Yuri

    2016-08-01

    The article deals with the influence of the defect initial shape on the residual lifetime of a continuous casting machine roll made of 25Cr1MoV steel. Based on this approach, previously proposed by some authors, the growth of the surface fatigue crack was modeled in a roll under loading and temperature conditions that are close to operational ones, taking into account the statistical distribution of the C parameter of Paris' equation. Dependencies of the continuous casting machines roll fatigue lifetime on the initial defect shape and critical defect sizes are obtained.

  10. Effect of the focal shaping generated from different double-mode cylindrical vector beams.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wenjing; Song, Feng; Ju, Dandan; Chen, Gui-Yang; Song, Feifei

    2015-08-01

    We investigate three-dimensional focus shaping generated from double-mode cylindrical vector beams with the Gaussian and Bessel-Gaussian pupil apodization functions by choosing the suitable polarization states of beams. Further, we compare them with that generated from the Laguerre-Gaussian pupil apodization function in the same situation. We find that the focus shaping generated from the Gaussian beam has the smallest zero intensity spot size. However, the situation of the Bessel-Gaussian beam not only possesses stability, which makes it suitable when applied in optical trapping, but also shows the best uniformity, which indicates its excellent performance in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. PMID:26367303

  11. Effect of liquid medium on size and shape of nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser ablation of tin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajaj, Geetika; Soni, R. K.

    2009-11-01

    The effect of the surrounding liquid medium on the size, shape and optical absorption of synthesized nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation of pure tin in different liquids is investigated. The liquid not only confines the ablated species at the liquid-solid interface, but also it acts as a mediator for chemical reaction at the liquid-solid interface. The liquid media surrounding the target is thus an important factor affecting the shape, mean size, size distribution and composition of the particles. The ablation of tin target was carried out in deionized water, ethanol and acetone medium, leading to formation of tin and tin oxide nanoparticles of various sizes and shapes. Electron microscopy and optical absorption were employed for characterization of the particle size, shape and optical properties, respectively. The effect of surfactant was also studied by carrying out ablation in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) solution. It was observed that the average particle size and size distribution are considerably reduced by using surfactant.

  12. Effect of shape and thickness of asbestos bundles and fibres on EDS microanalysis: A Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro, D.; Valdre, G.

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative microanalysis of tiny asbestos mineral fibres by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) still represents a complex analytical issue. This complexity arises from the variable fibre shape and small thickness (< 5 μm) compared with the penetration of the incident electron beam. Here, we present the results of Monte Carlo simulations of chrysotile, crocidolite and amosite fibres (and bundles of fibres) of circular and square section and thicknesses from 0.1 μm to 10 μm, to investigate the effect of shape and thickness on SEM-EDS microanalysis. The influence of shape and thickness on the simulated spectrum was investigated for electron beam energies of 5, 15 and 25 keV, respectively. A strong influence of the asbestos bundles and fibres shape and thickness on the detected EDS X-ray intensity was observed. The X-ray intensity trends as a function of fibre thickness showed a non-linear dependence for all the elements and minerals. In general, the X-ray intensities showed a considerable reduction for thicknesses below about 5 μm at 5 keV, 2 μm at 15 keV, and 5 μm at 25 keV. Correction parameters, k-ratios, for the asbestos fibre thickness effect, are reported.

  13. Midpoint Shapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welchman, Rosamond; Urso, Josephine

    2000-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of children exploring hands-on and minds-on mathematics. Presents a midpoint shape activity for students to explore the midpoint shape of familiar quadrilaterals, such as squares and rectangles. (KHR)

  14. Texture evolution in Al-Li 2195 alloy during net shape roll forging

    SciTech Connect

    Kalu, P.N.; Zhang, Lan

    1998-06-12

    The quest to manufacture low-cost, large complex structures with minimum material wastage has instigated research into near-net shape (NNS) technologies. In this paper, the microstructural and texture evolution in Al-Li 2195 alloy resulting from a specific NNS processing called roll forging was evaluated. The processing consists of five stages and combines conventional ingot conversion (stages I and II), back extrusion (stage III) and ring rolling to produce hollow cylinder (stage IV). Considerable potential exists for the property enhancement of the components produced by this processing method if a better understanding of the evolution of microstructure and texture is developed.

  15. Effects of dipole-dipole interaction between cigar-shaped BECs of cold alkali atoms: towards inverse-squared interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yue; Luo, Zhuxi; Wang, Ziqiang

    2014-07-01

    We show that the dipole-dipole coupling between Wannier modes in cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) is significantly enhanced while the short-range coupling is strongly suppressed. As a result, the dipole-dipole interaction can become the dominant interaction between ultracold alkali Bose atoms. In the long length limit of a cigar-shaped BEC, the resulting effective one-dimensional models possess an effective inverse squared interacting potential, the Calogero-Sutherland potential, which plays a fundamental role in many fields of contemporary physics; but its direct experimental realization has been a challenge for a long time. We propose to realize the Calogero-Sutherland model in ultracold alkali Bose atoms and study the effects of the dipole-dipole interaction.

  16. Effect of interior surface finish on the break-up of commercial shaped charge liners

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E L; Schwartz, A J

    1999-08-11

    A series of experiments aimed at understanding the influence of the liner interior surface finish on the break-up of shaped charge jets has been completed. The experiments used a standard 81-mm shaped charge design, loaded with LX-14 high explosive; incorporating high-precision copper shaped charged liners. The results indicate that a significant reduction of jet break-up time occurs between a surface finish of 99.30 microinches and 375.65 microinches. Surface finishes of 4.78, 44.54 and 99.30 microinches produced significantly better ductility and associated break-up times than the 375.65-microinch finish. The baseline production process high-precision liners were measured to have an average surface finish of 44.54 microinches. The results show that for the shaped charge warhead geometry and explosive combination investigated, some care must be taken in respect to surface finish, but that very fine surface finishes do not significantly improve the jet ductility and associated break-up times.

  17. Temporal Intraspeech Masking of Plosive Bursts: Effects of Hearing Loss and Frequency Shaping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackersie, Carol L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes were (a) to compare masking of consonant bursts by adjacent vowels for listeners with and without hearing loss and (b) to determine the extent to which the temporal intraspeech masking can be reduced by a simulated hearing-aid frequency-response shaping. Method: Fourteen adults with sensorineural hearing loss and 10 with…

  18. The Effect of Aerodynamic Heating on Air Penetration by Shaped Charge Jets and Their Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backofen, Joseph

    2009-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to present recent work modeling thermal coupling between shaped charge jets and their particles with air while it is being penetrated to form a crater that subsequently collapses back onto the jet. This work complements research published at International Symposia on Ballistics: 1) 1987 - Shaped Charge Jet Aerodynamics, Particulation and Blast Field Modeling; and 2) 2007 - Air Cratering by Eroding Shaped Charge Jets. The current work shows how and when a shaped charge jet's tip and jet particles are softened enough that they can erode in a hydrodynamic manner as modeled in these papers. This paper and its presentation includes models for heat transfer from shocked air as a function of jet velocity as well as heat flow within the jet or particle. The work is supported by an extensive bibliographic search including publications on meteors and ballistic missile re-entry vehicles. The modeling shows that a jet loses its strength to the depth required to justify hydrodynamic erosion when its velocity is above a specific velocity related to the shock properties of air and the jet material's properties. As a result, the portion of a jet's kinetic energy converted at the aerodynamic shock into heating transferred back onto the jet affects the energy deposited into the air through drag and ablation which in turn affect air crater expansion and subsequent collapse back onto the jet and its particles as shown in high-speed photography.

  19. The effect of transient temporal pulse shape on surface temperature and tungsten damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J. H.; De Temmerman, G.; Doerner, R. P.; Pitts, R. A.; van den Berg, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    The plasma-facing components (PFCs) in future fusion devices such as ITER will receive intense transient heat fluxes from plasma instabilities, such as edge localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions, which will limit material lifetime. The energy density and transient pulse duration are typically used to characterize the PFC damage threshold. However, these parameters are not sufficient to define a damage threshold, because different transient pulse shapes with the same energy density and same pulse duration produce different peak surface temperatures (and thus stresses, which ultimately determine material damage). The surface temperature and damage of tungsten (the material to be used for the ITER divertor target armor) in the form of surface roughening and melting are investigated using various temporal pulse shapes from an Nd:YAG laser in the PISCES-B facility. The heat flux factor is examined and shown to be an inadequate parameter to characterize the temperature rise except for square temporal pulse shapes. For ELM-like heat pulses, the long tail in the temporal shape results in a lower peak surface temperature and less damage compared to a symmetric triangle pulse with equal energy density.

  20. Effects of sensitizer length on radiation crosslinked shape-memory polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, Taylor; Voit, Walter; Gall, Ken

    2010-04-01

    Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are smart materials that can be designed to retain a metastable state and upon activation, recover a preprogrammed shape. In this study, poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA) is blended with poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) of various molecular weights in various concentrations and subsequently exposed to ionizing radiation. PEGDA sensitizes the radiation crosslinking of PMA, lowering the minimum absorbed dose for gelation and increasing the rubbery modulus, after crosslinking. Minimum dose for gelation, as determined by the Charlesby-Pinner equation, decreases from 25.57 kGy for unblended PMA to 2.06 kGy for PMA blended with 10.00 mole% PEGDA. Moreover, increase in the blend concentration of PEGDA increases the crosslinking density of the resulting networks. Sensitizer length, namely Mn of PEGDA, also affects crosslinking and final mechanical properties. Increase in the length of the PEGDA molecule at a constant molar ratio increases the efficacy of the molecule as a radiation sensitizer as determined by the increase in gel fraction and rubbery modulus across doses. However, at a constant weight ratio of PEGDA to PMA, shorter PEGDA chains sensitize more crosslinking because they have more reactive ends per weight fraction. Sensitized samples of PMA with PEGDA were tested for shape-memory properties and showed shape fixity of greater than 99%. Samples had a glass transition temperature near 28 °C and recovered between 97% and 99% of the induced strain when strained to 50%.

  1. EFFECT OF SPECIMEN SIZE, SHAPE, AND ORIENTATION ON THE DRY DEPOSITION TO GALVANIZED STEEL SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analysis is presented of the variability in chemical composition of soluble corrosion products on galvanized steel specimens exposed at Research Triangle Park, NC, in the absence of natural precipitation. he specimens varied in size, shape, orientation angle, and previous expo...

  2. Shaping wavelet effects in scattered wave imaging of P to S conversion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, Gary L.; Wang, Yinzhi

    2015-10-01

    The Gaussian wavelet is widely used as a shaping wavelet for scattered wave imaging with P receiver functions due to widespread use of the iterative deconvolution method. We show the Gaussian wavelet degrades the resolution of plane wave migration by comparing results from the latest USArray data shaped with Gaussian and Ricker wavelets. We use simulations of primary conversions from the 410 and 660 km discontinuity to show this is a property of the algorithm and not the data. Simulations also show the more conventional common conversion point (CCP) method is not subject to this behaviour for flat horizons, but the CCP method penalizes dipping horizons focusing only nearly horizontal features for any choice of shaping wavelet. We explain these results using the concept of migration impulse response for an individual data sample. Applications to data from USArray show dramatic improvements in the resolution of plane wave migration images produced using Ricker wavelet in comparison to a comparable resolution a Gaussian shaping wavelet. The 410 and 660 discontinuities are resolved to higher precision, and we find the upper mantle and transition zone are full of previously unresolved dipping horizons that remain to be interpreted.

  3. A Study of the Effects of Blade Shape on Rotor Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Henry E.; Burley, Casey L.

    1997-01-01

    A new rotor noise prediction system called the Tiltrotor Aeroacoustic Code (TRAC) has been developed under the Short Haul (Civil Tiltrotor) program between NASA, the Army, and the U.S. helicopter industry. This system couples the comprehensive rotorcraft code CAMRAD.Mod1 with either the high resolution sectional loads code HIRES or the full potential CFD code FPRBVI to predict unsteady blade loads, which are then input to the noise prediction program WOPWOP. In this paper, HIRES will be used to predict the blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise trends associated with blade shape. The baseline shape selected was a 17% scale model of a contemporary design 4 bladed rotor. Measurements for this rotor were acquired in the Duits-Nederslandse Windtunnel (DNW). The code is used to predict noise for the base configuration and the results are compared to the measured data. This provides a firm foundation for investigating the BVI noise trends associated with blade shape. The shapes selected for study are based on variation of sweep and taper which reflect plausible "passive" design concepts. Comparisons of power required, integrated noise, and aerodynamics are made and important trends are noted.

  4. Ultrafast transient absorption studies of hematite nanoparticles: the effect of particle shape on exciton dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fitzmorris, Bob C; Patete, Jonathan M; Smith, Jacqueline; Mascorro, Xiomara; Adams, Staci; Wong, Stanislaus S; Zhang, Jin Z

    2013-10-01

    Much progress has been made in using hematite (α-Fe2 O3 ) as a potentially practical and sustainable material for applications such as solar-energy conversion and photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting; however, recent studies have shown that the performance can be limited by a very short charge-carrier diffusion length or exciton lifetime. In this study, we performed ultrafast studies on hematite nanoparticles of different shapes to determine the possible influence of particle shape on the exciton dynamics. Nanorice, multifaceted spheroidal nanoparticles, faceted nanocubes, and faceted nanorhombohedra were synthesized and characterized by using SEM and XRD techniques. Their exciton dynamics were investigated by using femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. Although the TA spectral features differ for the four samples studied, their decay profiles are similar, which can be fitted with time constants of 1-3 ps, approximately 25 ps, and a slow nanosecond component extending beyond the experimental time window that was measured (2 ns). The results indicate that the overall exciton lifetime is weakly dependent on the shape of the hematite nanoparticles, even though the overall optical absorption and scattering are influenced by the particle shape. This study suggests that other strategies need to be developed to increase the exciton lifetime or to lengthen the exciton diffusion length in hematite nanostructures. PMID:24058060

  5. Integration of tomato reproductive developmental landmarks and expression profiles, and the effect of SUN on fruit shape

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Han; Radovich, Cheryll; Welty, Nicholas; Hsu, Jason; Li, Dongmei; Meulia, Tea; van der Knaap, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Background Universally accepted landmark stages are necessary to highlight key events in plant reproductive development and to facilitate comparisons among species. Domestication and selection of tomato resulted in many varieties that differ in fruit shape and size. This diversity is useful to unravel underlying molecular and developmental mechanisms that control organ morphology and patterning. The tomato fruit shape gene SUN controls fruit elongation. The most dramatic effect of SUN on fruit shape occurs after pollination and fertilization although a detailed investigation into the timing of the fruit shape change as well as gene expression profiles during critical developmental stages has not been conducted. Results We provide a description of floral and fruit development in a red-fruited closely related wild relative of tomato, Solanum pimpinellifolium accession LA1589. We use established and propose new floral and fruit landmarks to present a framework for tomato developmental studies. In addition, gene expression profiles of three key stages in floral and fruit development are presented, namely floral buds 10 days before anthesis (floral landmark 7), anthesis-stage flowers (floral landmark 10 and fruit landmark 1), and 5 days post anthesis fruit (fruit landmark 3). To demonstrate the utility of the landmarks, we characterize the tomato shape gene SUN in fruit development. SUN controls fruit shape predominantly after fertilization and its effect reaches a maximum at 8 days post-anthesis coinciding with fruit landmark 4 representing the globular embryo stage of seed development. The expression profiles of the NILs that differ at sun show that only 34 genes were differentially expressed and most of them at a less than 2-fold difference. Conclusion The landmarks for flower and fruit development in tomato were outlined and integrated with the effect of SUN on fruit shape. Although we did not identify many genes differentially expressed in the NILs that differ at

  6. Synergistic effect of Ag nanoparticle-decorated graphene oxide and carbon fiber on electrical actuation of polymeric shape memory nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haibao; Liang, Fei; Gou, Jihua; Leng, Jinsong; Du, Shanyi

    2014-08-01

    This study reports an effective approach of significantly improving electrical properties and recovery performance of shape memory polymer (SMP) nanocomposite, of which its shape recovery was triggered by electrically resistive Joule heating. Reduced graphene oxide (GOs) self-assembled and grafted onto carbon fiber, were used to enhance the interfacial bonding with the SMP matrix via van der Waals force and covalent bond, respectively. A layer of Ag nanoparticles was synthesized from Ag+ solution and chemically deposited onto GO assemblies. These Ag nanoparticles were expected to bridge the gap between GO and improve the electrical conductivity. The experimental results reveal that the electrical conductivity of the SMP nanocomposite was significantly improved via the synergistic effect between Ag nanoparticle-decorated GO and carbon fiber. Finally, the electrically induced shape memory effect of the SMP nanocomposite was achieved, and the temperature distribution in the SMP nanocomposites was recorded and monitored. An effective approach was demonstrated to produce the electro-activated SMP nanocomposites and the resistive Joule heating was viable at a low electrical voltage below 10 V.

  7. Do studies reporting 'U'-shaped serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D-health outcome relationships reflect adverse effects?

    PubMed

    Grant, William B; Karras, Spyridon N; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A; Annweiler, Cedric; Boucher, Barbara J; Juzeniene, Asta; Garland, Cedric F; Holick, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Several reports describe U-shaped 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration-health outcomes, including musculo-skeletal disorders such as falls and fractures, several cancers, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cognitive function, all-cause mortality rates, birth outcomes, allergic reactions, frailty, and some other disorders. This paper reviews reports of U-shaped outcome associations with vitamin D status for evidence of underlying pathophysiological processes, or of confounding, finding that some U-shaped associations appear to be biologically meaningful, but that many could well reflect confounding by factors such as lifestyle, or hypovitaminosis D-related disease onset being masked by self-supplementation that was begun too late to correct developing health problems but before baseline vitamin D status assessment. However, the various U-shaped associations for allergic reactions may be due to vitamin D modulation of the phenotype of the immune response, shifting the Th1-Th2 balance toward Th2 formation. For prostate cancer, there seems to be little effect of 25(OH)D concentration on incidence; however, there is an inverse correlation between 25(OH)D concentration and mortality rates. Future observational studies, and randomized controlled trial data analyses, should include adjustment for data collected on prior long-term vitamin D supplementation and solar UVB exposure, as well as other potential confounders. PMID:27489574

  8. Environmental effects on the shape variation of male ultraviolet patterns in the Brimstone butterfly (Gonepteryx rhamni, Pieridae, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Pecháček, Pavel; Stella, David; Keil, Petr; Kleisner, Karel

    2014-12-01

    The males of the Brimstone butterfly (Gonepteryx rhamni) have ultraviolet pattern on the dorsal surfaces of their wings. Using geometric morphometrics, we have analysed correlations between environmental variables (climate, productivity) and shape variability of the ultraviolet pattern and the forewing in 110 male specimens of G. rhamni collected in the Palaearctic zone. To start with, we subjected the environmental variables to principal component analysis (PCA). The first PCA axis (precipitation, temperature, latitude) significantly correlated with shape variation of the ultraviolet patterns across the Palaearctic. Additionally, we have performed two-block partial least squares (PLS) analysis to assess co-variation between intraspecific shape variation and the variation of 11 environmental variables. The first PLS axis explained 93% of variability and represented the effect of precipitation, temperature and latitude. Along this axis, we observed a systematic increase in the relative area of ultraviolet colouration with increasing temperature and precipitation and decreasing latitude. We conclude that the shape variation of ultraviolet patterns on the forewings of male Brimstones is correlated with large-scale environmental factors. PMID:25280559

  9. Do studies reporting ‘U’-shaped serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D–health outcome relationships reflect adverse effects?

    PubMed Central

    Grant, William B.; Karras, Spyridon N.; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A.; Annweiler, Cedric; Boucher, Barbara J.; Juzeniene, Asta; Garland, Cedric F.; Holick, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several reports describe U-shaped 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration–health outcomes, including musculo-skeletal disorders such as falls and fractures, several cancers, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cognitive function, all-cause mortality rates, birth outcomes, allergic reactions, frailty, and some other disorders. This paper reviews reports of U-shaped outcome associations with vitamin D status for evidence of underlying pathophysiological processes, or of confounding, finding that some U-shaped associations appear to be biologically meaningful, but that many could well reflect confounding by factors such as lifestyle, or hypovitaminosis D-related disease onset being masked by self-supplementation that was begun too late to correct developing health problems but before baseline vitamin D status assessment. However, the various U-shaped associations for allergic reactions may be due to vitamin D modulation of the phenotype of the immune response, shifting the Th1-Th2 balance toward Th2 formation. For prostate cancer, there seems to be little effect of 25(OH)D concentration on incidence; however, there is an inverse correlation between 25(OH)D concentration and mortality rates. Future observational studies, and randomized controlled trial data analyses, should include adjustment for data collected on prior long-term vitamin D supplementation and solar UVB exposure, as well as other potential confounders. PMID:27489574

  10. Towards the understanding of jet shapes and cross sections in heavy ion collisions using soft-collinear effective theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Yang-Ting; Vitev, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    We calculate the jet shape and the jet cross section in heavy ion collisions using soft-collinear effective theory (SCET) and its extension with Glauber gluon interactions in the medium (SCETG). We use the previously developed framework to systematically resum the jet shape at next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, and we consistently include the medium modification by incorporating the leading order medium-induced splitting functions. The calculation provides, for the first time, a quantitative understanding of the jet shape modification measurement in lead-lead collisions at √{s_{NN}} = 2.76 TeV at the LHC. The inclusive jet suppression is also calculated within the same framework beyond the traditional concept of parton energy loss, and the dependence on the centrality, the jet radius and the jet kinematics is examined. In the end we present predictions for the anticipated jet shape and cross section measurements in lead-lead collisions at √{s_{NN}} ≈ 5.1 TeV at the LHC.

  11. A parametric study of effect of forebody shape on flow angularity at Mach 8. [for hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. B.; Marcum, D. C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Flow angularity and static pressure measurements have been made on the lower surface of nine forebody models that simulate the bottom forward surface of a hypersonic aircraft. Measurements were made in an area of the forebody that represents the location of an inlet of a scramjet engine. A parametric variation of the forebody surface investigated the effect of: (1) spanwise curvature; (2) longitudinal curvature; and (3) planform shape on both flow angularity and static pressure distribution. Results of each of the three parametric variations of geometry were compared to those for the same flat delta forebody. Spanwise curvature results showed that a concave shape and the flat delta had the lowest flow angularity and lowest rate of increase in flow angularity with angle of attack. Longitudinal curvature results showed a convex surface to give the better flow at the higher angles of attack. The better of the two planform shapes tested was a convex elliptical shape. Limited flow field calculations were made at angles of attack using a three dimensional, method-of-characteristics program. In general, at all angles of attack there was agreement between data and theory.

  12. Bioaccumulation and effects of different-shaped copper oxide nanoparticles in the deposit-feeding snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum.

    PubMed

    Ramskov, Tina; Selck, Henriette; Banta, Gary; Misra, Superb K; Berhanu, Deborah; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Forbes, Valery E

    2014-09-01

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) are among the most widely used engineered NPs and are thus likely to end up in the environment, predominantly in sediments. Copper oxide NPs have been found to be toxic to a variety of (mainly pelagic) organisms, but to differing degrees. In the present study, the influence of CuO NP shape on bioavailability and toxicity in the sediment-dwelling freshwater gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum was examined. In 2 separate studies, snails were exposed to either clean sediment or sediment spiked with either aqueous Cu or CuO NPs of different shapes (rods, spheres, or platelets) at 240 µg Cu/g dry weight of sediment (nominal). In neither of the studies was survival found to be related to Cu form (i.e., free ion vs particle) or shape, whereas snail growth was severely influenced by both form and shape. Reproduction was affected (by CuO NP spheres and aqueous Cu) only when estimated as the total number (live plus dead) of juveniles produced per snail per week. Both the aqueous and particulate forms of Cu were available for uptake by snails when mixed into sediment. However, Cu body burden was not directly related to observed effects. The present study stresses the need for both a better understanding of uptake mechanisms and internal distribution pathways of NPs and an assessment of long-term consequences of NP exposure. PMID:24862446

  13. Infrared thermography videos of the elastocaloric effect for shape memory alloys NiTi and Ni2FeGa

    PubMed Central

    Pataky, Garrett J.; Ertekin, Elif; Sehitoglu, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    Infrared thermogrpahy was utilized to record the temperature change during tensile loading cycles of two shape memory alloy single crystals with pseudoelastic behavior. During unloading, a giant temperature drop was measured in the gage section due to the elastocaloric effect. This data article provides a video of a [001] oriented Ni2FeGa single crystal, including the corresponding stress–strain curve, shows the temperature drop over one cycle. The second video of a [148] oriented NiTi single crystal depicts the repeatability of the elastocaloric effect by showing two consecutive cycles. The videos are supplied in this paper. For further analysis and enhanced discussion of large temperature change in shape memory alloys, see Pataky et al. [1] PMID:26380838

  14. Enhanced magnetic hysteresis in Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal and its influence on magnetic shape memory effect

    SciTech Connect

    Heczko, O. Drahokoupil, J.; Straka, L.

    2015-05-07

    Enhanced magnetic hysteresis due to boron doping in combination with magnetic shape memory effect in Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal results in new interesting functionality of magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys such as mechanical demagnetization. In Ni{sub 50.0}Mn{sub 28.5}Ga{sub 21.5} single crystal, the boron doping increased magnetic coercivity from few Oe to 270 Oe while not affecting the transformation behavior and 10 M martensite structure. However, the magnetic field needed for MSM effect also increased in doped sample. The magnetic behavior is compared to undoped single crystal of similar composition. The evidence from the X-ray diffraction, magnetic domain structure, magnetization loops, and temperature evolution of the magnetic coercivity points out that the enhanced hysteresis is caused by stress-induced anisotropy.

  15. Effect of the surface texturing shapes fabricated using dry etching on the extraction efficiency of vertical light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. C.; Park, J. B.; Bae, J. W.; Thuy, Pham Thi Thu; Yoo, M. C.; Yeom, G. Y.

    2008-08-01

    On the surfaces of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) having an n-side-up vertical electrode structure formed by the laser lift-off, various shapes of photoresist-patterned surface textures were formed by inductively coupled plasma etching and their effect on the light emission efficiencies was investigated. By the formation of various shapes of surface textures, the light output efficiency was increased from 37% to 45% compared to that without surface textures. The increase of light output efficiency was related to the increase of sidewall scattering, the decrease of reflected loss, and the decrease of cavity wall effect that occurs for the vertical LEDs by the increase of sidewall surface area.

  16. Enhanced magnetic hysteresis in Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal and its influence on magnetic shape memory effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heczko, O.; Drahokoupil, J.; Straka, L.

    2015-05-01

    Enhanced magnetic hysteresis due to boron doping in combination with magnetic shape memory effect in Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal results in new interesting functionality of magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys such as mechanical demagnetization. In Ni50.0Mn28.5Ga21.5 single crystal, the boron doping increased magnetic coercivity from few Oe to 270 Oe while not affecting the transformation behavior and 10 M martensite structure. However, the magnetic field needed for MSM effect also increased in doped sample. The magnetic behavior is compared to undoped single crystal of similar composition. The evidence from the X-ray diffraction, magnetic domain structure, magnetization loops, and temperature evolution of the magnetic coercivity points out that the enhanced hysteresis is caused by stress-induced anisotropy.

  17. Infrared thermography videos of the elastocaloric effect for shape memory alloys NiTi and Ni2FeGa.

    PubMed

    Pataky, Garrett J; Ertekin, Elif; Sehitoglu, Huseyin

    2015-12-01

    Infrared thermogrpahy was utilized to record the temperature change during tensile loading cycles of two shape memory alloy single crystals with pseudoelastic behavior. During unloading, a giant temperature drop was measured in the gage section due to the elastocaloric effect. This data article provides a video of a [001] oriented Ni2FeGa single crystal, including the corresponding stress-strain curve, shows the temperature drop over one cycle. The second video of a [148] oriented NiTi single crystal depicts the repeatability of the elastocaloric effect by showing two consecutive cycles. The videos are supplied in this paper. For further analysis and enhanced discussion of large temperature change in shape memory alloys, see Pataky et al. [1]. PMID:26380838

  18. The effect of cross linker concentration in the physical properties of shape memory gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, M. Hasnat; Ahmed, Kumkum; Gong, Jin; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2015-04-01

    The shape memory hydrogels were synthesized and studied the physical properties. The gels were made by a hydrophilic monomer named N, N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMAAm) and a hydrophobic monomer named stearyl acrylate (SA). The water-swollen hydrogels show well transparency and shape memory property while gels absorb large water content. The properties were characterized by varying the cross-link concentration, whereas the concentration of other chemical components was remained constant. In this study, the DMAAm and the SA ratio was 3:1 to make one mole solution. It is observed that the swelling ratio slightly depends on the cross-link concentration at certain amount. However, mechanical properties strongly depend on the cross-link concentration. Thermal properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). DSC spactra of dried samples exhibits complex crystalline nature, while swollen samples show homogeneous crystallinity. A well thermal stability is observed regard less of cross-link concentration.

  19. Symptoms Moderating the Association Between Recent Suicide Attempts and Trauma Levels: Fan-Shaped Effects.

    PubMed

    Afzali, Mohammad H; Birmes, Philippe; Vautier, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    The present study focuses on variables moderating the incidence of recent suicide attempt in a large community sample (n = 39,617) of French citizens with various levels of trauma. Five trauma levels were established based on posttraumatic stress disorder items of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Twenty-three symptoms were examined as potential moderating variables with a fan-shaped pattern. Seven symptoms regarding desire for death, self-harm intention, suicidal ideation, lifetime suicide attempt, depressed mood, loss of interest, and panic attack exhibited the fan-shaped pattern. The absence of these moderating symptoms decreases the incidence of suicide attempt and their presence leads to a gradual increase. PMID:26068533

  20. Theoretical study on third-order nonlinear optical properties in hexagonal graphene nanoflakes: Edge shape effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Hiroshi; Nakano, Masayoshi; Yoneda, Kyohei; Fukui, Hitoshi; Minami, Takuya; Bonness, Sean; Kishi, Ryohei; Takahashi, Hideaki; Kubo, Takashi; Kamada, Kenji; Ohta, Koji; Champagne, Benoît; Botek, Edith

    2009-08-01

    Using hybrid density functional theory methods, we investigate the second hyperpolarizabilities ( γ) of hexagonal shaped finite graphene fragments, which are referred to as hexagonal graphene nanoflakes (HGNFs), with two types of edge shapes: zigzag (Z) and armchair (A) edges. It is found that Z-HGNF, which gives intermediate diradical characters ( y), exhibits about 3.3 times larger orthogonal components of γ ( γ xxxx = γ yyyy in this case) than A-HGNF, which gives zero y value (closed-shell system). The γ density analysis reveals that this enhancement originates in the significant contribution of γ densities on edge regions in Z-HGNF. These observations strongly indicate that Z-HGNF is a promising candidate of open-shell singlet NLO systems.

  1. Local stress-induced effects on AlGaAs/AlOx oxidation front shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouchane, F.; Almuneau, G.; Cherkashin, N.; Arnoult, A.; Lacoste, G.; Fontaine, C.

    2014-07-01

    The lateral oxidation of thick AlGaAs layers (>500 nm) is studied. An uncommon shape of the oxide tip is evidenced and attributed to the embedded stress distribution, inherent to the oxidation reaction. Experimental and numerical studies of the internal strain in oxidized AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs structures were carried out by dark-field electron holography and finite element methods. A mapping of the strain distribution around the AlGaAs/oxide interface demonstrates the main role of internal stress on the shaping of the oxide front. These results demonstrate the high relevance of strain in oxide-confined III-V devices, in particular, with over-500-nm thick AlOx confinement layers.

  2. Effects of molecular noise on bistable protein distributions in rod-shaped bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wettmann, L.; Bonny, M.; Kruse, K.

    2014-01-01

    The distributions of many proteins in rod-shaped bacteria are far from homogeneous. Often they accumulate at the cell poles or in the cell centre. At the same time, the copy number of proteins in a single cell is relatively small making the patterns noisy. To explore limits to protein patterns due to molecular noise, we studied a generic mechanism for spontaneous polar protein assemblies in rod-shaped bacteria, which are based on cooperative binding of proteins to the cytoplasmic membrane. For mono-polar assemblies, we find that the switching time between the two poles increases exponentially with the cell length and with the protein number. This feature could be beneficial to organelle maintenance in ageing bacteria. PMID:25485085

  3. Effect of porcelain shape for strain behavior of strengthened porcelain in impact test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Akemi; Kurachi, Kazumasa; Mizuno, Masatoshi; Ota, Toshitaka

    2011-10-01

    Four types of strengthened porcelains were evaluated by an impact examination machine based on ASTM C368-88. The waveform of strain developed on impact was measured by a strain gauge pasted on the inside surface and the outside surface, vertical and horizontal direction of porcelain. In minute scales, procelain deformed into an oval shape as a whole by an impact onto the rim, where the higher tensile strain occurred in the horizontal direction on the inside surface of porcelain. The maximum tensile strain occurred at the impact point. The waveform of strain, that showed two remarkable peaks, was greatly affected by porcelain shape. In addition it was more or less affected by measurement conditions such as impact energy, weight or speed of hammer, weight for holding, and position of backstops.

  4. Local stress-induced effects on AlGaAs/AlOx oxidation front shape

    SciTech Connect

    Chouchane, F.; Almuneau, G. Arnoult, A.; Lacoste, G.; Fontaine, C.; Cherkashin, N.

    2014-07-28

    The lateral oxidation of thick AlGaAs layers (>500 nm) is studied. An uncommon shape of the oxide tip is evidenced and attributed to the embedded stress distribution, inherent to the oxidation reaction. Experimental and numerical studies of the internal strain in oxidized Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As/GaAs structures were carried out by dark-field electron holography and finite element methods. A mapping of the strain distribution around the AlGaAs/oxide interface demonstrates the main role of internal stress on the shaping of the oxide front. These results demonstrate the high relevance of strain in oxide-confined III-V devices, in particular, with over-500-nm thick AlOx confinement layers.

  5. Size effects in the magnetic anisotropy of embedded cobalt nanoparticles: from shape to surface

    PubMed Central

    Oyarzún, Simón; Tamion, Alexandre; Tournus, Florent; Dupuis, Véronique; Hillenkamp, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Strong size-dependent variations of the magnetic anisotropy of embedded cobalt clusters are evidenced quantitatively by combining magnetic experiments and advanced data treatment. The obtained values are discussed in the frame of two theoretical models that demonstrate the decisive role of the shape in larger nanoparticles and the predominant role of the surface anisotropy in clusters below 3 nm diameter. PMID:26439626

  6. DDA Computations of Porous Aggregates with Forsterite Crystals: Effects of Crystal Shape and Crystal Mass Fraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Lindsay, Sean S.; Harker, David; Woodward, Charles; Kelley, Michael S.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla

    2015-01-01

    Porous aggregate grains are commonly found in cometary dust samples and are needed to model cometary IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Models for thermal emissions from comets require two forms of silicates: amorphous and crystalline. The dominant crystal resonances observed in comet SEDs are from Forsterite (Mg2SiO4). The mass fractions that are crystalline span a large range from 0.0 < or = fcrystal < or = 0.74. Radial transport models that predict the enrichment of the outer disk (>25 AU at 1E6 yr) by inner disk materials (crystals) are challenged to yield the highend-range of cometary crystal mass fractions. However, in current thermal models, Forsterite crystals are not incorporated into larger aggregate grains but instead only are considered as discrete crystals. A complicating factor is that Forsterite crystals with rectangular shapes better fit the observed spectral resonances in wavelength (11.0-11.15 microns, 16, 19, 23.5, 27, and 33 microns), feature asymmetry and relative height (Lindley et al. 2013) than spherically or elliptically shaped crystals. We present DDA-DDSCAT computations of IR absorptivities (Qabs) of 3 micron-radii porous aggregates with 0.13 < or = fcrystal < or = 0.35 and with polyhedral-shaped Forsterite crystals. We can produce crystal resonances with similar appearance to the observed resonances of comet Hale- Bopp. Also, a lower mass fraction of crystals in aggregates can produce the same spectral contrast as a higher mass fraction of discrete crystals; the 11micron and 23 micron crystalline resonances appear amplified when crystals are incorporated into aggregates composed otherwise of spherically shaped amorphous Fe-Mg olivines and pyroxenes. We show that the optical properties of a porous aggregate is not linear combination of its monomers, so aggregates need to be computed. We discuss the consequence of lowering comet crystal mass fractions by modeling IR SEDs with aggregates with crystals, and the implications for radial

  7. The hydrodynamic effects of shape and size change during reconfiguration of a flexible macroalga.

    PubMed

    Boller, Michael L; Carrington, Emily

    2006-05-01

    Rocky intertidal organisms experience large hydrodynamic forces due to high water velocities created by breaking waves. Flexible organisms, like macroalgae, often experience lower drag than rigid organisms because their shape and size change as velocity increases. This phenomenon, known as reconfiguration, has been previously quantified as Vogel's E, a measure of the relationship between velocity and drag. While this method is very useful for comparing reconfiguration among organisms it does not address the mechanisms of reconfiguration, and its application to predicting drag is problematic. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the mechanisms of reconfiguration by quantifying the change in shape and size of a macroalga in flow and (2) to build a mechanistic model of drag for reconfiguring organisms. Drag, frontal area and shape of the intertidal alga Chondrus crispus were measured simultaneously in a recirculating flume at water velocities from 0 to approximately 2 m s(-1). Reconfiguration was due to two separate mechanisms: whole-alga realignment (deflection of the stipe) at low velocities (<0.2 m s(-1)) and compaction of the crown (reduction in frontal area and change in shape) at higher velocities. Change in frontal area contributed more to drag reduction than change in drag coefficient. Drag coefficient and frontal area both decrease exponentially with increasing water velocity, and a mechanistic model of drag was developed with explicit functions to describe these changes. The model not only provides mechanistic parameters with which to compare reconfiguration among individuals and species, but also allows for more reliable predictions of drag at high, ecologically relevant water velocities. PMID:16651555

  8. Study of one-dimensional electron hopping and its effects on ESR line shape

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jau; Dikshit, S.N.; Norris, J.R. |

    1997-08-01

    Random hopping processes between discrete sites along a finite open chain or around a closed finite loop are examined. Closed form formulae are prescribed for the dependence of the ESR (electron spin resonance) line shape on the chain length and hopping rate. Significant differences between the closed loop and open chain are demonstrated. Deviation at short time from the results of diffusion in a continuum is presented.

  9. Effects of chitosan on the alignment, morphology and shape of calcite crystals nucleating under Langmuir monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyungil; Uysal, Ahmet; Kewalramani, Sumit; Stripe, Benjamin; Dutta, Pulak

    2009-04-22

    The growth of calcium carbonate crystals under Langmuir monolayers was investigated in the presence of chitosan, a soluble derivative of chitin added to the subphase to better simulate the polyelectrolyte-containing in vivo environment. Chitosan causes distinct concentration-dependent changes in the orientation, shape and morphology of the calcite crystals nucleating under acid and sulfate monolayers. Our results suggest that polyelectrolytes may play essential roles in controlling the growth of biogenic calcite crystals.

  10. Effects of Pencil Shape and Size on Motor Accuracy and Pencil Posture of 8 Year Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziviani, Jenny

    To determine the effects of pencil shape and size on motor accuracy and pencil posture of eight-year-old children, a study randomly assigned 54 third grade school children to one of three experimental conditions: (1) using a standard 2B pencil, (2) using a 1.5 cm thick 2B pencil, and (3) using the standard 2B pencil with the attachment of an…

  11. Triple-shape effect in polymer-based composites by cleverly matching geometry of active component with heating method.

    PubMed

    Razzaq, M Y; Behl, M; Kratz, K; Lendlein, A

    2013-10-11

    A triple-shape effect is created for a segmented device consisting of an active component encapsulated in a highly flexible polymer network. Segments with the same composition but different interface areas can be recovered independently either at specific field strengths (Hsw ) during inductive heating, at a specific time during environmentally heating, or at different airflow during inductive heating at constant H. Herein the type of heating method regulates the sequence order. PMID:23893389

  12. Growth of Au nanoparticle films and the effect of nanoparticle shape on plasmon peak wavelength

    SciTech Connect

    Horikoshi, S. Matsumoto, N.; Kato, T.; Omata, Y.

    2014-05-21

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and thus have potential for use in a wide range of applications. A facile technique for the preparation of NP films using an electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma sputtering method without a dewetting process is described. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) observations revealed that the Au NPs grew independently as island-like particles during the first stage of sputtering and then coalesced with one another as sputtering time increased to ultimately form a continuous film. A plasmon absorption peak was observed via optical measurement of absorption efficiency. The LSPR peak shifted toward longer wavelengths (red shift) with an increase in sputtering time. The cause of this plasmon peak shift was theoretically investigated using the finite-difference time-domain calculation method. A realistic statistical distribution of the particle shapes based on FE-SEM observations was applied for the analysis, which has not been previously reported. It was determined that the change in the shape of the NPs from spheroidal to oval or slender due to coalescence with neighbouring NPs caused the LSPR peak shift. These results may enable the design of LSPR devices by controlling the characteristics of the nanoparticles, such as their size, shape, number density, and coverage.

  13. Study of the Effect of Ellipsoidal Shape on the Kern and Frenkel Patch Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thienbao; Gunton, James; Rickman, Jeffrey

    In their work on the self-assembly of complex structures, Glotzer and Solomon (Nature Materials 6, 557 - 562 (2007)) identified both interaction and shape anisotropy as two of several means to build complex structures. Advances in fabricating materials and new insights into protein biology have revealed the importance of these types of interactions. The Kern and Frenkel (J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9882 (2003) model of hard spheres carrying interaction patches of various sizes has been used extensively to describe interaction anisotropies important in protein phase transitions. However their model did not also account for shape anisotropy. We studied the role of both shape and interaction anisotropy by applying N=2 and N=4 attractive Kern and Frenkel patches with an interaction range to hard ellipsoids with various aspect ratios and patch coverages. Following Kern and Frenkel, we studied the liquid-liquid phase separation of our particles using a Monte Carlo simulation. We found the critical temperatures for our model using the approximate law of rectilinear diameter and compared them with the original results of Kern and Frenkel. We found that the critical temperatures increased both with aspect ratio and percent coverage. G Harold and Leila Y Mathers Foundation.

  14. Effects of preparation techniques on root canal shaping assessed by micro-computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Stavileci, Miranda; Hoxha, Veton; Görduysus, Ömer; Tatar, Ilkan; Laperre, Kjell; Hostens, Jeroen; Küçükkaya, Selen; Berisha, Merita

    2013-01-01

    Background Root canal shaping without any procedural error is of the utmost preference. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use micro-computed tomography to evaluate and compare the root canal shaping efficacy of ProTaper rotary files and standard stainless steel K-files. Material/Methods Sixty extracted upper second premolars were selected and were divided into 2 groups of 30. Before preparation, all samples were scanned by micro-CT. Then, 30 teeth were prepared with stainless steel files and the remaining 30 with ProTaper rotary files. Canal transportation and centering ability before and after root canal shaping were assessed using micro-CT. The amount and direction of canal transportation and the centering ratio of each instrument were determined in the coronal, middle, and apical parts of the canal. The 2 groups were statistically compared using one-way ANOVA. Results ProTaper rotary files gave less transportation (p<0.001) and better centering ability (p<0.00001) compared with stainless steel files. Conclusions The manual technique for preparation of root canals with stainless steel files produces more canal transportation, whereas rotary files remain more centered in the canal. PMID:23760162

  15. Controlling the Microstructure of Reverse Micelles and Their Templating Effect on Shaping Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Soma; Yadav, Nitin; Chowdhury, Pramit K; Ganguli, Ashok K

    2015-08-27

    Reverse micelles as nanoreactors have been most successful in designing nanostructures of different sizes and shapes. Nevertheless, important questions regarding the explicit roles of intrinsic parameters in modifying soft colloid templates which eventually give rise to variety of nanostructures are still unresolved. In this paper, we have focused on this challenging aspect of microemulsion based synthesis of nanostructures, i.e., how the tunable parameters like water to surfactant molar ratio, solvent properties, and surfactant structure modify the microstructure (size/shape) of reverse micelles (surfactant/cosurfactant/oil/water). Further, we have elucidated the correlation between these nanoreactors with the size and morphology of the evolving nanostructures within the aqueous core (using in situ studies) as well as the finally obtained nanostructures. We have employed fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to obtain details on the microstructural transformation of reverse micelles and their templating behavior on designing nanostructures, at (near) single droplet level and in an ensemble. The structure (size/shape) of nanoreactors, i.e., reverse micelles, finally guides the size and shape of nanostructures. As the water content increases, it induces the micellar growth and subsequently the growth of nanostructures develops linearly up to a critical value beyond which the finite bending modulus of surfactant film triggers the structural rearrangement of microemulsion droplets (MEDs) and the linear plot shows deviation. Bulkiness of the solvent molecules modulates the ME droplets, and MEDs encapsulates nanostructures by influencing the curvature and rigidity of the surfactant film and results in smaller dimensions of the micellar core, which leads to nanostructures with large aspect ratio. The origin of this structural evolution may be explained

  16. The effect of inlet boundary layer thickness on the flow within an annular S-shaped duct

    SciTech Connect

    Sonoda, T.; Arima, T.; Oana, M.

    1999-07-01

    Experimental and numerical investigations were carried out to gain a better understanding of the flow characteristics within an annular S-shaped duct, including the effect of the inlet boundary layer (IBL) on the flow. A duct with six struts and the geometry as that used to connect compressor spools on the experimental small two-spool turbofan engine was investigated. A curved downstream annular passage with similar meridional flow path geometry to that of the centrifugal compressor has been fitted at the exit of S-shaped duct. Two types of the IBL (i.e., thin and thick IBL) were used. Results showed that large differences of flow patterns were observed at the S-shaped duct exit between two types of IBL, though the value of net total pressure loss has not been remarkably changed. According to overall total pressure loss, which includes the IBL loss, the total pressure loss was greatly increased near the hub as compared to that for a thin one. For the thick IBL, a vortex pair related to the hub-side horseshoe vortex and the separated flow found at the strut trailing edge has been clearly captured in the form of the total pressure loss contours and secondary flow vectors, experimentally and numerically. The high-pressure loss regions on either side of the strut wake near the hub may act on a downstream compressor performance. There is a much-distorted three-dimensional flow patterns at the exit of S-shaped duct. This means that the aerodynamic sensitivity of S-shaped duct to the IBL thickness is very high. Therefore, sufficient care is needed to design not only downstream aerodynamic components (for example, centrifugal impeller) but also upstream aerodynamic components (LPC OGV).

  17. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Environmental effects shaping the galaxy stellar mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidzon, I.; Cucciati, O.; Bolzonella, M.; De Lucia, G.; Zamorani, G.; Arnouts, S.; Moutard, T.; Ilbert, O.; Garilli, B.; Scodeggio, M.; Guzzo, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bel, J.; Bottini, D.; Branchini, E.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; de la Torre, S.; Di Porto, C.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Granett, B. R.; Guennou, L.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.

    2016-02-01

    We exploit the first public data release of VIPERS to investigate environmental effects in the evolution of galaxies between z ~ 0.5 and 0.9. The large number of spectroscopic redshifts (more than 50 000) over an area of about 10 deg2 provides a galaxy sample with high statistical power. The accurate redshift measurements (σz = 0.00047(1 + zspec)) allow us to robustly isolate galaxies living in the lowest and highest density environments (δ< 0.7 and δ> 4, respectively) as defined in terms of spatial 3D density contrast δ. We estimate the stellar mass function of galaxies residing in these two environments and constrain the high-mass end (ℳ ≳ 1011 ℳ⊙) with unprecedented precision. We find that the galaxy stellar mass function in the densest regions has a different shape than was measured at low densities, with an enhancement of massive galaxies and a hint of a flatter (less negative) slope at z< 0.8. We normalise each mass function to the comoving volume occupied by the corresponding environment and relate estimates from different redshift bins. We observe an evolution of the stellar mass function of VIPERS galaxies in high densities, while the low-density one is nearly constant. We compare these results to semi-analytical models and find consistent environmental signatures in the simulated stellar mass functions. We discuss how the halo mass function and fraction of central/satellite galaxies depend on the environments considered, making intrinsic and environmental properties of galaxies physically coupled, hence difficult to disentangle. The evolution of our low-density regions is described well by the formalism introduced by Peng et al. (2010, ApJ, 721, 193), and is consistent with the idea that galaxies become progressively passive because of internal physical processes. The same formalism could also describe the evolution of the mass function in the high density regions, but only if a significant contribution from dry mergers is considered. Based on

  18. The effects of ice crystal shape on the evolution of optically thin cirrus clouds in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russotto, Rick

    Thin cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) play potentially important roles in Earth's radiation budget and in the transport of water into the stratosphere. Radiative heating of these clouds results in mesoscale circulations that maintain them against sedimentation and redistribute water vapor. In this study, the System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM) cloud-resolving model is modified in order to calculate the fall speeds, growth rates, and radiative absorption coefficients of non-spherical ice crystals. This extended model is used in simulations that aim to constrain the effects of ice crystal shape on the time evolution of thin cirrus clouds and to identify the physical processes responsible. Model runs assuming spheroidal crystals result in a higher center of cloud ice mass than in the control, spherical case, which is roughly 60% due to a reduction in fall speeds and 40% due to stronger updrafts caused by stronger radiative heating. Other effects of ice crystal shape on the cloud evolution include faster growth and sublimation in supersaturated and subsaturated environments, respectively, and local temperature increases caused by diabatic heating. Effects of ice crystal shape on the total and mean ice crystal masses are within about 10% but do not appear to be entirely negligible. Comparisons of modeled ice crystal size distributions with recent airborne observations of TTL cirrus show that incorporating non-spherical shape has the potential to bring the model closer to observations. It is hoped that this work will eventually lead towards a more realistic physical representation of thin tropical cirrus in global climate models.

  19. The sex-limited effects of mutations in the EGFR and TGF-β signaling pathways on shape and size sexual dimorphism and allometry in the Drosophila wing.

    PubMed

    Testa, Nicholas D; Dworkin, Ian

    2016-06-01

    Much of the morphological diversity in nature-including among sexes within a species-is a direct consequence of variation in size and shape. However, disentangling variation in sexual dimorphism for both shape (SShD), size (SSD), and their relationship with one another remains complex. Understanding how genetic variation influences both size and shape together, and how this in turn influences SSD and SShD, is challenging. In this study, we utilize Drosophila wing size and shape as a model system to investigate how mutations influence size and shape as modulated by sex. Previous work has demonstrated that mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling components can influence both wing size and shape. In this study, we re-analyze this data to specifically address how they impact the relationship between size and shape in a sex-specific manner, in turn altering the pattern of sexual dimorphism. While most mutations influence shape overall, only a subset have a genotypic specific effect that influences SShD. Furthermore, while we observe sex-specific patterns of allometric shape variation, the effects of most mutations on allometry tend to be small. We discuss this within the context of using mutational analysis to understand sexual size and shape dimorphism. PMID:27038022

  20. Shape and surface chemistry effects on the cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of metallic nanorods and nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Favi, Pelagie Marlene; Valencia, Mariana Morales; Elliott, Paul Robert; Restrepo, Alejandro; Gao, Ming; Huang, Hanchen; Pavon, Juan Jose; Webster, Thomas Jay

    2015-12-01

    Metallic nanoparticles (such as gold and silver) have been intensely studied for wound healing applications due to their ability to be easily functionalized, possess antibacterial properties, and their strong potential for targeted drug release. In this study, rod-shaped silver nanorods (AgNRs) and gold nanorods (AuNRs) were fabricated by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD), and their cytotoxicity toward human skin fibroblasts were assessed and compared to sphere-shaped silver nanospheres (AgNSs) and gold nanospheres (AuNSs). Results showed that the 39.94 nm AgNSs showed the greatest toxicity with fibroblast cells followed by the 61.06 nm AuNSs, ∼556 nm × 47 nm (11.8:1 aspect ratio) AgNRs, and the ∼534 nm × 65 nm (8.2:1 aspect ratio) AuNRs demonstrated the least amount of toxicity. The calculated IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) value for the AgNRs exposed to fibroblasts was greater after 4 days of exposure (387.3 μg mL(-1)) compared to the AgNSs and AuNSs (4.3 and 23.4 μg mL(-1), respectively), indicating that these spherical metallic nanoparticles displayed a greater toxicity to fibroblast cells. The IC50 value could not be measured for the AuNRs due to an incomplete dose response curve. The reduced cell toxicity with the presently developed rod-shaped nanoparticles suggests that they may be promising materials for use in numerous biomedical applications. PMID:26053238

  1. The relevance of molecular weight in the design of amorphous biodegradable polymers with optimized shape memory effect.

    PubMed

    Petisco-Ferrero, S; Fernández, J; Fernández San Martín, M M; Santamaría Ibarburu, P A; Sarasua Oiz, J R

    2016-08-01

    The shape memory effect (SME) has long been the focus of interest of many research groups that have studied many facets of it, yet to the authors' knowledge some molecular parameters, such as the molecular weight, have been skipped. Thus, the aim of this work is to offer further insight into the shape memory effect, by disclosing the importance of the molecular weight as the relevant parameter dictating the extension of the rubbery plateau, which is the scenario where the entropic network of entanglements manifests. For this, a set of biodegradable amorphous poly(rac-d,l)lactides have been synthesised by ring opening copolymerization of a racemic mixture of L-and D-lactide. The analysis performed on the synthesised enantiomeric copolylactides includes the determination of molecular weights by means of Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), thermal properties by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and rheological tests using small amplitude oscillatory flow analysis. Shape memory properties have been determined by means of specific cyclic thermo-mechanic test protocol. It has been shown that the recovery capacity of amorphous PDLLA is linked to the disentanglement time through an exponential law. PMID:27136090

  2. Benzotrithiophene versus Benzo/Naphthodithiophene Building Blocks: The Effect of Star-Shaped versus Linear Conjugation on Their Electronic Structures.

    PubMed

    Riaño, Alberto; Arrechea-Marcos, Iratxe; Mancheño, María J; Mayorga Burrezo, Paula; de la Peña, Alejandro; Loser, Stephen; Timalsina, Amod; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J; Casado, Juan; López Navarrete, J Teodomiro; Ponce Ortiz, Rocío; Segura, José L

    2016-04-25

    The synthesis, characterization, and optical properties of a novel star-shaped oligothiophene with a central rigid trithienobenzene (BTT) core and diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) units are reported and compared with homologous linear systems based on the benzodithiophene (BDT) and the naphthodithiophene (NDT) units end capped with DPPs. This comparison is aimed at elucidating the effect of the star-shaped configuration versus linear conformation on the optical and electrical properties. Electronic and vibrational spectroscopies, together with transient absorption spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, and DFT calculations are used to understand not only the molecular properties of these semiconductors, but also to analyze the supramolecular aggregation in these derivatives. We conclude that although the subject star-shaped derivative is not optimal in terms of π-conjugation, its extended BTT unit significantly favors intermolecular π-stacking interactions, which is interesting for their applications in devices. Field-effect transistors and solar cells were fabricated with these new molecular semiconductors and the performance difference discussed. PMID:26999589

  3. Experimental and theoretical study of dielectrophoretic particle trapping in arrays of insulating structures: Effect of particle size and shape.

    PubMed

    Saucedo-Espinosa, Mario A; Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca H

    2015-05-01

    Insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) employs insulating structures embedded in a microchannel to produce electric field gradients. This contribution presents a detailed analysis of the regions within an iDEP system where particles are likely to be retained due to dielectrophoretic trapping in a microchannel with an array of cylindrical insulating structures. The effects of particle size and shape on dielectrophoretic trapping were analyzed by employing 1 and 2 μm polystyrene particles and Escherichia coli cells. This research aims to study the mechanism behind dielectrophoretic trapping and develop a deeper understanding of iDEP systems. Mathematical modeling with COMSOL Multiphysics was employed to assess electrokinetic and dielectrophoretic particle velocities. Experiments were carried out to determine the location of dielectrophoretic barriers that block particle motion within an iDEP microchannel; this supported the estimation of a correction factor to match experiments and simulations. Particle velocities were predicted with the model, demonstrating how the different forces acting on the particles are in equilibrium when particle trapping occurs. The results showed that particle size and shape have a significant effect on the magnitude, location, and shape of the regions of dielectrophoretic trapping of particles, which are defined by DEP isovelocity lines and EK isovelocity lines. PMID:25487065

  4. Shape effects on dynamics of inertia-free spheroids in wall turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Challabotla, Niranjan Reddy; Zhao, Lihao; Andersson, Helge I.

    2015-06-15

    The rotational motion of inertia-free spheroids has been studied in a numerically simulated turbulent channel flow. Although inertia-free spheroids were translated as tracers with the flow, neither the disk-like nor the rod-like particles adapted to the fluid rotation. The flattest disks preferentially aligned their symmetry axes normal to the wall, whereas the longest rods were parallel with the wall. The shape-dependence of the particle orientations carried over to the particle rotation such that the mean spin was reduced with increasing departure from sphericity. The streamwise spin fluctuations were enhanced due to asphericity, but substantially more for prolate than for oblate spheroids.

  5. DDA Computations of Porous Aggregates with Forsterite Crystals: Effects of Crystal Shape and Crystal Mass Fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Lindsay, Sean S.; Harker, David; Woodward, Charles; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla

    2015-08-01

    Porous aggregate grains are commonly found in cometary dust samples and are needed to model cometary IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Models for thermal emissions from comets require two forms of silicates: amorphous and crystalline. The dominant crystal resonances observed in comet SEDs are from Forsterite (Mg2SiO4). The mass fractions that are crystalline span a large range from 0.0 ≤ fcrystal ≤ 0.74. Radial transport models that predict the enrichment of the outer disk (>25 AU at 1E6 yr) by inner disk materials (crystals) are challenged to yield the highend-range of cometary crystal mass fractions. However, in current thermal models, Forsterite crystals are not incorporated into larger aggregate grains but instead only are considered as discrete crystals. A complicating factor is that Forsterite crystals with rectangular shapes better fit the observed spectral resonances in wavelength (11.0-11.15 μm, 16, 19, 23.5, 27, and 33 μm), feature asymmetry and relative height (Lindley et al. 2013) than spherically or elliptically shaped crystals. We present DDA-DDSCAT computations of IR absorptivities (Qabs) of 3 μm-radii porous aggregates with 0.13 ≤ fcrystal ≤ 0.35 and with polyhedral-shaped Forsterite crystals. We can produce crystal resonances with similar appearance to the observed resonances of comet Hale-Bopp. Also, a lower mass fraction of crystals in aggregates can produce the same spectral contrast as a higher mass fraction of discrete crystals; the 11µm and 23 µm crystalline resonances appear amplified when crystals are incorporated into aggregates composed otherwise of spherically shaped amorphous Fe-Mg olivines and pyroxenes. We show that the optical properties of a porous aggregate is not linear combination of its monomers, so aggregates need to be computed. We discuss the consequence of lowering comet crystal mass fractions by modeling IR SEDs with aggregates with crystals, and the implications for radial transport models of our

  6. Effects of actuation waveform shape on the performance of pitching and heaving panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floryan, Daniel; van Buren, Tyler; Rowley, Clarence W.; Smits, Alexander J.

    2015-11-01

    Experiments on panels pitching and heaving in a water channel are reported. The panels are rigid, of rectangular planform shape, and the flow is nominally two-dimensional. Through the use of Jacobi elliptic functions, we are able to actuate the panels in non-sinusoidal and asymmetric motions; we investigate how such motions affect the propulsive performance of the panels. Direct force measurements are taken using a six component force/torque sensor, and certain cases are supplemented with two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV) taken at the mid-span of the panel; efficiency measurements are also reported. Supported under ONR MURI Grant N00014-14-1-0533.

  7. Numerical study of the effect of the shape of the phase diagram on the eutectic freezing temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ode, M.; Shimono, M.; Sasajima, N.; Yamada, Y.; Bloembergen, P.

    2013-09-11

    To evaluate the reliability of metal-carbon eutectic systems as fixed points for the next generation of high-temperature standards the effect of thermodynamic properties related to the shape of eutectic phase diagram on the freezing temperature is investigated within the context of the numerical multi-phase-field model. The partition coefficient and liquidus slopes of the two solids involved in the eutectic reaction are varied deliberately and independently. The difference between the eutectic temperature and the freezing temperature is determined in dependence of the solid/liquid (s/l) interface shape and concentration. Where appropriate reference is made to the Jackson-Hunt analytical theory. It is shown that there are mainly two typical conditions to decrease the undercooling: 1) a small liquidus slope and 2) the associated difference between the eutectic composition and the liquid composition during solidification.

  8. Inversion-mode GaAs wave-shaped field-effect transistor on GaAs (100) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingyun; Lou, Xiabing; Si, Mengwei; Wu, Heng; Shao, Jiayi; Manfra, Michael J.; Gordon, Roy G.; Ye, Peide D.

    2015-02-01

    Inversion-mode GaAs wave-shaped metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (WaveFETs) are demonstrated using atomic-layer epitaxy of La2O3 as gate dielectric on (111)A nano-facets formed on a GaAs (100) substrate. The wave-shaped nano-facets, which are desirable for the device on-state and off-state performance, are realized by lithographic patterning and anisotropic wet etching with optimized geometry. A well-behaved 1 μm gate length GaAs WaveFET shows a maximum drain current of 64 mA/mm, a subthreshold swing of 135 mV/dec, and an ION/IOFF ratio of greater than 107.

  9. Vibrational effects in the shape resonant photoionization leading to the A2T1u state of SF6+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, J.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2015-02-01

    The Chase's adiabatic approximation and Schwinger variational technique in static-exchange approximation are applied to investigate the effect of vibrational averaging on the shape resonant photoionization leading to the A2T1u state of SF6+. For this study, two of the S-F stretching vibrations are considered: the ν1 symmetric stretching mode and the two degenerate ν2 asymmetric stretching modes. Present work concludes that averaging over the asymmetric stretching mode of vibration reduces the peak eg resonant cross section by 45% relative to the results obtained at the equilibrium nuclear configuration, which agrees with experimental observation. However, the eg shape resonance is not affected significantly by averaging over the ν1 symmetric stretching mode of vibration.

  10. Inversion-mode GaAs wave-shaped field-effect transistor on GaAs (100) substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jingyun; Si, Mengwei; Wu, Heng; Ye, Peide D.; Lou, Xiabing; Gordon, Roy G.; Shao, Jiayi; Manfra, Michael J.

    2015-02-16

    Inversion-mode GaAs wave-shaped metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (WaveFETs) are demonstrated using atomic-layer epitaxy of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} as gate dielectric on (111)A nano-facets formed on a GaAs (100) substrate. The wave-shaped nano-facets, which are desirable for the device on-state and off-state performance, are realized by lithographic patterning and anisotropic wet etching with optimized geometry. A well-behaved 1 μm gate length GaAs WaveFET shows a maximum drain current of 64 mA/mm, a subthreshold swing of 135 mV/dec, and an I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF} ratio of greater than 10{sup 7}.

  11. Collision-induced line-shape effects limiting the accuracy in Doppler-limited spectroscopy of H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wcisło, P.; Gordon, I. E.; Cheng, C.-F.; Hu, S.-M.; Ciuryło, R.

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in theoretical calculations of H2 dissociation energies and ultra-accurate measurements of H2 transition frequencies give possibilities not only for testing QED and relativistic effects, but also for searching for physics beyond the standard model. In this paper we show that at the level of 10-4cm-1 the uncertainty of the Doppler-limited H2 line position determination is dominated by collisional line-shape effects. We question the paradigm that the unperturbed transition energy can be determined from linear extrapolation of the line shift to zero pressure.

  12. Effect of duct shape, Mach number, and lining construction on measured suppressor attenuation and comparison with theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, W. A.; Krejsa, E. A.; Coats, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Noise attenuation was measured for several types of cylindrical suppressors that use a duct lining composed of honeycomb cells covered with a perforated plate. The experimental technique used gave attenuation data that were repeatable and free of noise floors and other sources of error. The suppressor length, the effective acoustic diameter, suppressor shape and flow velocity were varied. The agreement among the attenuation data and two widely used analytical models was generally satisfactory. Changes were also made in the construction of the acoustic lining to measure their effect on attenuation. One of these produced a very broadband muffler.

  13. Effective pairing interaction in semi-infinite nuclear matter in the Brueckner approach: Model {delta}-shaped NN interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Baldo, M.; Lombardo, U.; Saperstein, E.E.; Zverev, M.V.

    1995-09-01

    The problem of pairing in semi-infinite nuclear matter is considered in the Brueckner approach. Equations for effective pairing interaction in semi-infinite matter are derived for the case of the separable representation of realistic NN interaction. The propagator of two noninteracting particles in a semi-infinite potential well is calculated numerically. The equation for effective interaction is solved for a model 8-shaped NN interaction, which correctly reproduces NN scattering in the low-energy limit. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Microstructure and Shape Memory Characteristics of Powder-Metallurgical-Processed Ti-Ni-Cu Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon-Wook; Chung, Young-Soo; Choi, Eunsoo; Nam, Tae-Hyun

    2012-08-01

    Even though Ti-Ni-Cu alloys have attracted a lot of attention because of their high performance in shape memory effect and decrease in thermal and stress hysteresis compared with Ti-Ni binary alloys, their poor workability restrains the practical applications of Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloys. Consolidation of Ti-Ni-Cu alloy powders is useful for the fabrication of bulk near-net-shape shape memory alloy. Ti50Ni30Cu20 shape memory alloy powders were prepared by gas atomization, and the sieved powders with the specific size range of 25 to 150 μm were chosen for this study. The evaluation of powder microstructures was based on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination of the surface and the polished and etched powder cross sections. The typical images showed cellular/dendrite morphology and high population of small shrinkage cavities at intercellular regions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that a B2-B19 one-step martensitic transformation occurred in the as-atomized powders. The martensitic transformation start temperature (Ms) of powders ranging between 25 and 50 μm was 304.5 K (31.5 °C). The Ms increased with increasing powder size. However, the difference of Ms in the as-atomized powders ranging between 25 and 150 μm was only 274 K (1 °C). A dense cylindrical specimen of 10 mm diameter and 15 mm length were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1073 K (800 °C) and 10 MPa for 20 minutes. Then, this bulk specimen was heat treated for 60 minutes at 1123 K (850 °C) and quenched in ice water. The Ms of the SPS specimen was 310.5 K (37.5 °C) whereas the Ms of conventionally cast ingot is found to be as high as 352.7 K (79.7 °C). It is considered that the depression of the Ms in rapidly solidified powders is ascribed to the density of dislocations and the stored energy produced by rapid solidification.

  15. Orientational ordering of confined hard rods: The effect of shape anisotropy on surface ordering and capillary nematization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliabadi, R.; Moradi, M.; Varga, S.

    2015-09-01

    We examine the ordering properties of rectangular hard rods with length L and diameter D at a single planar wall and between two parallel hard walls using the second virial density-functional theory. The theory is implemented in the three-state Zwanzig approximation, where only three mutually perpendicular directions are allowed for the orientations of hard rods. The effect of varying shape anisotropy is examined at L /D =10 ,15 ,and 20 . In contact with a single hard wall, the density profiles show planar ordering, damped oscillatory behavior, and a wall-induced surface ordering transition below the coexisting isotropic density of a bulk isotropic-nematic (I -N ) phase transition. Upon approaching the coexisting isotropic density, the thickness of the nematic film diverges logarithmically, i.e., the nematic wetting is complete for any shape anisotropy. In the case of confinement between two parallel hard walls, it is found that the continuous surface ordering transition depends strongly on the distance between confining walls H for H L . The minimal density at which a surface ordering transition can be realized is located at around H ˜2 D for all studied shape anisotropies due to the strong interference effect between the two hard walls. The first-order I -N phase transition of the bulk system becomes a surface ordered isotropic IB to capillary nematic NB phase transition in the slit pore. This first-order IB-NB transition weakens with decreasing pore width and terminates in a critical point for all studied shape anisotropies.

  16. Effects of porosity on shock-induced melting of honeycomb-shaped Cu nanofoams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fengpeng

    Metallic foams are of fundamental and applied interests in various areas, including structure engineering (e.g., lightweight structural members and energy absorbers), and shock physics (e.g., as laser ablators involving shock-induced melting and vaporization).Honeycomb-shaped metallic foams consist of regular array of hexagonal cells in two dimensions and have extensive applications and represent a unique, simple yet useful model structure for exploring mechanisms and making quantitative assessment. We investigate shock-induced melting in honeycomb-shaped Cu nanofoams with extensive molecular dynamics simulations. A total of ten porosities (phi) are explored, ranging from 0 to 0.9 at an increment of 0.1. Upon shock compression, void collapse induces local melting followed by supercooling for sufficiently high porosity at low shock strengths. While superheating of solid remnants occurs for sufficiently strong shocks at phi<0.1. Both supercooling of melts and superheating of solid remnants are transient, and the equilibrated shock states eventually fall on the equilibrium melting curve for partial melting. However, phase equilibrium has not been achieved on the time scale of simulations in supercooled Cu liquid (from completely melted nanofoams). The temperatures for incipient and complete melting are related to porosity via a power law and approach the melting temperature at zero pressure as phi tends to 1.

  17. Memory updating in sub-clinical eating disorder: differential effects with food and body shape words.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Olivia; Ecker, Ullrich K H

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated how eating disorder (ED) relevant information is updated in working memory in people with high vs. low scores on a measure of eating disorder pathology (the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, EDE-Q). Participants performed two memory updating tasks. One was a neutral control task using digits; the other task involved food words and words relating to body-shape, and provided measures of updating speed and post-updating recall. We found that high EDE-Q participants (1) showed no sign of general memory updating impairment as indicated by performance in the control task; (2) showed a general recall deficit in the task involving ED-relevant stimuli, suggesting a general distraction of cognitive resources in the presence of ED-related items; (3) showed a relative facilitation in the recall of food words; and (4) showed quicker updating toward food words and relatively slower updating toward body-shape-related words. Results are discussed in the context of cognitive theories of eating disorders. PMID:25682363

  18. Thermodynamics and thermal decomposition for shape memory effects with crystallization based on dissipation and logarithmic strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, R. B.; Rao, I. J.; Qi, H. J.

    2014-05-01

    The present effort provides a 3-D thermodynamic framework generalizing the 1-D modeling of 2-way shape memory materials described by Westbrook et al. (J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 312:041010, 2010) and Chung et al. (Macromolecules 41:184-192, 2008), while extending the strain-induced crystallization and shape memory approaches of Rao and Rajagopal (Interfaces Free Bound. 2:73-94, 2000; Int. J. Solids Struct. 38:1149-1167, 2001), Barot and Rao (Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 57:652-681, 2006), and Barot et al. (Int. J. Eng. Sci. 46:325-351, 2008) to include finite thermal expansion within a logarithmic strain basis. The free energy of newly-formed orthotropic crystallites is assumed additive, with no strains in their respective configurations of formation. A multiplicative decomposition is assumed for the assumed thermoelastic orthotropic expansional strains of the respective crystallites. The properties of the crystallites are allowed to depend both on current temperature and their respective temperatures of formation. The entropy production rate relation is written in the frame rotating with the logarithmic spin and produces stress and entropy relations incorporating the integrated configurational free energies, and a driving term for the crystallization analogous to that obtained by the previous studies of Rao et al. The salient attributes of the 1-D modeling of Westbrook et al. are recovered, and applications are discussed.

  19. Disentangling effects of structure and knowledge in perceiving partly occluded shapes: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Hazenberg, Simon J; van Lier, Rob

    2016-09-01

    Using event-related potentials (ERPs) we investigated the influence of object knowledge on perceiving partly occluded shapes. We created stimuli based on well-known objects of which the middle part was occluded. Object completions that were compatible with structure consisted of the connection of the visible fragments by smoothly extending their contours. In contrast, object completions that were incompatible with structure consisted of separate disconnected completions of the fragments. Furthermore, object completions could be in line with, or conflict with expectations based on knowledge. We measured ERPs when hidden parts were revealed by removing the occluder, and observed an early positive ERP peaking around 115-140ms at occipital sites, presumably triggered by physical differences. Most importantly, we observed a positive ERP peaking around 300-400ms at parieto-occipital sites that could be related to influences of both structure and knowledge. An additional analysis controlling for differential stimulus characteristics revealed similar conclusions. All in all, we demonstrate that the interpretation of partly occluded shapes is not solely driven by stimulus structure, but that it can also be influenced by knowledge of objects. PMID:26475087

  20. Thermal conductivity measurements of particulate materials: 5. Effect of bulk density and particle shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presley, Marsha A.; Christensen, Philip R.

    2010-07-01

    Thermal conductivities were measured with a line-heat source for three particulate materials with different particle shapes under low pressures of a carbon dioxide atmosphere and various bulk densities. Less than 2 μm kaolinite exhibited a general decrease in thermal conductivity with increasing bulk density. For the range of atmospheric pressures appropriate for Mars, a reduction in porosity of 24% decreased the thermal conductivity by 24%. Kaolinite manifests considerable anisotropy with respect to thermal conductivity. As the particles align the bulk thermal conductivity measured increasingly reflects the thermal conductivity of the short axis. When kyanite is crushed, it forms blady particles that will also tend to align with increasing bulk density. Without any intrinsic anisotropy, however, kyanite particles, like other particulates exhibit an increase in thermal conductivity with increasing bulk density. Under Martian atmospheric pressures, a reduction in porosity of 30% produces a 30% increase in thermal conductivity. Diatomaceous earth maintains a very low bulk density due to the highly irregular shape of the individual particles. A decrease in porosity of 17% produces an increase in thermal conductivity of 27%. The trends in thermal conductivity with bulk density, whether increasing or decreasing, are often not smooth. Whether oscillations in the trends presented in this paper and elsewhere have any physical significance or whether they are merely artifacts of the precision error is unclear. Clarification of this question may not be possible without higher-precision measurements from future laboratories and further development of theoretical modeling.