Examines the effectiveness of a training program designed for physical therapists (N=19) to aid them in the enhancement of patient education. Five therapist-skills were tested. After the training only a minority of the trained skills appeared to have improved. Results show that the training program was not very effective. (Author/MKA)
Kerssens, Jan J.; Sluijs, Emmy M.; Verhaak, Peter F. M.; Knibbe, Hanneke J.; Hermans, Irma M. J.
In a nonrandomized prospective study, significant decreases in patient anxiety with home urinary catheter management and in length of stay were reported when patients attended the preoperative prostatectomy class with standard postoperative education versus standard postoperative education. PMID:24592522
Inman, Diane M; Jacobson, Therese M; Maxson, Pamela M; Wang, Huey; Lohse, Christine M
Study aims to assess the need for a thyrotoxicosis patient education programs and evaluates a group education session. Patients with thyrotoxicosis were surveyed to assess their needs. Determined that people with thyrotoxicosis had limited knowledge about their condition. The offer of a group education program has little effect on that knowledge…
Lincoln, N. B.; Sturrock, N. D. C.; Sowter, H.; Abbott-Harland, S.; Nichols, E.; Jeffcoate, W. J.
This study was designed to compare the effect of structured education on self-efficacy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The study was carried out with an experimental group on which a structured education was provided, and a control group on which only educational advice was provided. There were 30 patients in both groups. Control and experimental group measurements
Ma?firet Kara; Türkinaz A?TI
Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is the main prognostic factor associated with HIV disease progression and death. The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psycho-educational program to promote adherence to HAART in HIV patients. A longitudinal study (n?=?102) over 9?months in an Infectious Diseases Hospital was carried out. Adherence to HAART was measured with standardized scales and values of viral load. Two groups were defined: adherents and non-adherents. In the latter, a psycho-educational program was implemented and 6?months later measured adherence to HAART. Knowledge about the infection, CD4 T lymphocytes and HIV-ribonucleic acid values were measured before and after this program. The sample was predominantly male (70%), heterosexual (78%), with a mean age of 49 (SD?=?12.7) years, and 48% of participants were not adhering to HAART. After the program, non-adherence decreased to 21.6%. Knowledge about the infection increased from 79 to 97%. A significant increase in CD4 T lymphocytes (mean 540–580) and a decrease in viral load (mean 5411–3052) were observed, the latter of statistical significance. This program seems to be feasible and efficient, improving adherence to HAART. PMID:25642197
Ribeiro, Clarisse; Sarmento e Castro, Rui; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Fernandes, Lia
Patient education is an integral component of effective asthma management that is necessary for all age groups. It can be\\u000a viewed as a two-staged process, which involves not only the acquisition of knowledge, but also the integration of skills and\\u000a attitudes that leads to a change in behaviour. Effectively this is asthma self management education (SME). People with asthma\\u000a often
Vanessa M. McDonald; Peter G. Gibson
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review educational or psychoeducational interventions for patients with rheumatoid arthritis focusing on long-term effects, especially health status. METHODS: Two independent reviewers appraised the methodologic quality of the included randomized controlled trials, published between 1980 and July 2002. RESULTS: Validity scores of studies ranged from 3 to 9 (of 11). The 7 educational programs mainly improved knowledge and
Karin Niedermann; Jaap Fransen; Ruud Knols; Daniel Uebelhart
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Most fibromyalgia patients are seen in primary care (PC). However, the effectiveness of the treatments prescribed by general practitioners is usually minimal. The main objective of the present research is to assess the efficacy of structured psycho-educational intervention, combined with relaxation, developed to improve the quality of life of patients suffering fibromyalgia (FM). The second objective is to
Rita Fernández; Maria T Peñarubia; Juan V Luciano; Maria E Blanco; Mónica Jiménez; Adrián Montesano; Camino Verduras; José M Ruiz; Antoni Serrano-Blanco
Objective To assess the effect of patient completed agenda forms for the consultation and doctors' education on identifying patients' agendas on the outcome of consultations. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting General practices in Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom. Participants 46 general practitioners and 976 patients. Interventions Education for general practitioners, with an embedded clustered randomised controlled trial of a patient
J F Middleton; R K McKinley; C L Gillies
Background: Hypertension is a dangerous risk factor for public health. It profoundly affects the patients’ quality of life. However, there is lack of agreement on the best method for self-care management in patients with hypertension. Objectives: This study was conducted to compare the effect of lecture and educational pamphlets on quality of life (QOL) in patients with primary hypertension. Patients and Methods: A quasi-experimental study was performed on 90 patients with chronic primary hypertension referred to two outpatient clinics in Kashan city. Patients were randomly divided into three groups including lecture group, educational package group, and control group. The participants’ quality of life was measured using the SF-36 questionnaire at the beginning of the study, and two months later. Data was analyzed using ANOVA and Chi-Square tests. Results: No significant differences were observed between the three groups for demographics characteristics and QOL before the intervention except for marital status. Mean scores of QOL dimensions of the intervention groups were increased at the end of the study, except for the dimension of bodily pain. Tukey post-Hoc test showed that except for general health, the two intervention groups were not significantly different in other dimensions, and significant differences were observed between the control group and the two intervention groups (P < 0.05). At start and the end of the study, the mean differences in the general health dimension in three groups were 2.25 ± 0.1, 0.07 ± 0.01, and -1.70 ± 0.01 respectively. There were significant differences among groups (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Lecture and educational package can both improve some dimensions of the QOL in patients with hypertension. However, as pamphlets are cheap and easy to use, this method may be used as an effective method for self-care education in health care settings in Iran, where the system is faced with nursing shortage. PMID:25414882
Aghajani, Mohamad; Mirbagher Ajorpaz, Neda; Kafaei Atrian, Mahbube; Raofi, Zahra; Abedi, Fatemeh; Naeimi Vartoni, Sajad; Soleimani, Akbar
Background Medical residents are key figures in delivering health care and an important target group for patient safety education. Reporting incidents is an important patient safety domain, as awareness of vulnerabilities could be a starting point for improvements. This study examined effects of patient safety education for residents on knowledge, skills, attitudes, intentions and behavior concerning incident reporting. Methods A controlled study with follow-up measurements was conducted. In 2007 and 2008 two patient safety courses for residents were organized. Residents from a comparable hospital acted as external controls. Data were collected in three ways: 1] questionnaires distributed before, immediately after and three months after the course, 2] incident reporting cards filled out by course participants during the course, and 3] residents' reporting data gathered from hospital incident reporting systems. Results Forty-four residents attended the course and 32 were external controls. Positive changes in knowledge, skills and attitudes were found after the course. Residents' intentions to report incidents were positive at all measurements. Participants filled out 165 incident reporting cards, demonstrating the skills to notice incidents. Residents who had reported incidents before, reported more incidents after the course. However, the number of residents reporting incidents did not increase. An increase in reported incidents was registered by the reporting system of the intervention hospital. Conclusions Patient safety education can have immediate and long-term positive effects on knowledge, skills and attitudes, and modestly influence the reporting behavior of residents. PMID:22151773
Introduction: We assess the effect of video-based education on patient anxiety during transrectal prostate biopsy. Methods: A total of 246 patients who underwent transrectal prostate biopsy were prospectively enrolled in the study. Group 1 included 123 patients who received both written and video-based education, while Group 2 included 123 patients who received only written instructions regarding prostate biopsies. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to assess state and trait anxiety (STAI-S/T) After completing the STAI-S and STAI-T questionnaires, all patients in Group 1 received written information and video-based education and they again completed STAI-S before the biopsy. On the contrary, after completing the STAI-S and STAI-T questionnaires, the patients in Group 2 received only written information and then they completed the STAI-S before the biopsy. Moreover, a visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess pain scores during digital rectal examination, probe insertion, periprostatic local anesthesic infiltration, and biopsy. Results: No difference was noted between 2 groups regarding VAS scores. Comparing the 2 groups on baseline anxiety, we found that trait anxiety scores (STAI-T) were similar (p = 0.238). Pre-information STAI-S scores were similar in both groups (p = 0.889) and they both indicated high anxiety levels (score ?42). While post-information STAI-S scores remained high in Group 2, post-information STAI-S scores significantly decreased in Group 1 (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Undergoing a prostate biopsy is stressful and may cause anxiety for patients. Video-based education about the procedure can diminish patient anxiety. PMID:25553162
Tarhan, Huseyin; Cakmak, Ozgur; Unal, Elif; Akarken, Ilker; Un, Sitki; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Konyalioglu, Ersin; Isoglu, Cemal Selcuk; Zorlu, Ferruh
Anxiety is one of the most common symptoms experienced by patients receiving their first chemotherapy treatment. Improper prevention and management of anxiety can lead to poor psychosocial outcomes, dissatisfaction with care, and decreased adherence to treatment. A review of the literature was conducted to analyze the effectiveness of patient education at decreasing anxiety. Consistencies were found throughout the literature regarding patient education for this population. Information regarding side effects of treatment, side-effect management strategies, and orientation to the infusion center are the most important topics of education that reduce anxiety. In addition, education performed by nurses before the first chemotherapy infusion in a quiet environment is most effective. Integration of effective patient education programs improves holistic care by increasing emphasis on psychosocial aspects of oncology. PMID:25164233
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of an exercise education intervention on exercise behavior, depression and fatigue status of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Design/methodology/approach: This was a pilot study using an exercise education program as an intervention for CKD patients. The authors used the…
Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Huang, Yi-Ching; Chen, Pei-Ying; Wang, Kuo-Ming
Systematic depression screening is feasible, efficient, and well accepted; however the lack of consistent assessment in heart failure inpatients suggests barriers preventing its effective diagnosis and treatment. This pilot study assessed the impact of an educational intervention on nurses' beliefs about depression and their likelihood of routinely screening heart failure patients. Registered nurses (n = 35) from adult medical-surgical units were surveyed before and after an educational intervention to assess their beliefs about depression prevalence and screening in heart failure patients. There was no significant influence on nurses' beliefs about depression, but the results suggested an increased likelihood that nurses would routinely screen for depression. The moderately significant correlation between beliefs and intent to screen for depression indicates that educational intervention could ultimately have a positive influence on patient outcomes through early detection and treatment of depression in patients with cardiovascular disease; however the observed increase in the intent to screen without a corresponding change in beliefs indicates other influences affecting nurses' intent to screen heart failure patients for depression.
The present study aims to determine the effects of individual education and counselling given to first-time myocardial infarction patients, including its effect on compliance with treatment. The sample comprised 90 patients, 45 in the intervention and 45 in the control group, selected by sequential sampling from first-time myocardial infarction patients. Data were collected between April and November 2008 by means of patient information form, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, 6?min walk test, Modified Borg Scale, Morisky Medication Adherence Scale and Canadian Cardiovascular Society Angina Grade Classification. In the intervention group more improvement was observed in comparison with the control group in terms of frequency of physical activity, body mass index and waist circumference. It was observed that the intervention group's metabolic equivalent of task values and 6?min walk test distance increased more in comparison with the control group 3 months after baseline, and there was a statistically significant difference. The results indicated that individual education and counselling provided to patients having experienced acute myocardial infarction increased functional capacity by providing patients with advice on how to lose weight and by improving compliance with treatment through physical activity behaviours (frequency and duration). PMID:24237752
Uysal, Hilal; Ozcan, ?eyda
The effectiveness of methods to prevent stroke recurrence and of education focusing on learners' needs has not been fully explored. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of such interventions among stroke patients and their primary caregivers and to evaluate the feasibility of a web-based stroke education program. The participants were…
Kim, Jae-Il; Lee, Sook; Kim, Jung-Hee
Objective: This study collected on from all research relating to health education and hypertension in China and, with the aid of meta-analysis tools, assessed the outcomes of such health education. The analysis provides a basis for the further development of health-education programmes for patients with hypertension. Methods: Literature searches…
Xu, L. J.; Meng, Q.; He, S. W.; Yin, X. L.; Tang, Z. L.; Bo, H. Y.; Lan, X. Y.
Background and objective: The problems caused by diabetes have direct and indirect impacts on the quality of life of diabetic patients. An increase of these problems means a decrease in a patient's quality of life. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the educational programme based on the precede model in promoting quality of life of…
Taghdisi, M. H.; Borhani, M.; Solhi, M.; Afkari, M. E.; Hosseini, F.
As patients prepare for total-knee arthroplasty surgery, they have numerous expectations related to their long-term recovery and function. This research discerned whether the use of a pre-surgical patient education class with an additional long-term expectation module addressing recovery during the first 12 months after surgery was more effective…
Montez-Ray, Natasha Dawn
A study compared 48 cardiac patients who used an interactive multimedia computer-assisted patient education program and 48 taught by tutorial. The computer-assisted instructional method resulted in significantly better knowledge about exercise and self-management of chronic diseases. (Contains 29 references.) (JOW)
Jenny, Ng Yuen Yee; Fai, Tam Sing
A patient education workgroup was developed on a progressive care medical/vascular surgical unit. The workgroup identified patient education needs regarding discharge education for postsurgical patients and those discharging with oral anticoagulants (OAC). Staff surveys aided the workgroup in identifying a need for additional discharge education for patients and families. After various methods of patient education were explored, it was determined the workgroup could best meet the needs of the patient population through a class format providing group discussion and interaction. Logistical details and class formatting were configured to meet both the needs of the patients and the nursing staff. Current institutional patient education pamphlets were used to develop the content for the class. Physician review and input were obtained during the development of the content. A patient education specialist was also consulted to ensure proper literacy levels were used. To meet the Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal regarding anticoagulant safety, the content focused on home management, which included the following: knowledge of INR goal range, dietary factors, when to call the provider and safety precautions. Other topics to promote self-efficacy in anticoagulation therapy were also included in the content. Postclass evaluations completed by patients and families provided useful feedback for continuous improvement and patient satisfaction. Preliminary survey results indicate high patient satisfaction with the class. Plans include a quality improvement project to evaluate the effectiveness of the patient education class on OAC. PMID:21074115
Eickhoff, Jennifer S; Wangen, Tina M; Notch, Katie B; Ferguson, Tanya J; Nickel, Travis W; Schafer, Amy R; Bush, Diana L
Objective To determine if an educational program designed for community pharmacists to help patients self manage their asthma could\\u000a improve pharmacists abilities to facilitate asthma treatment plans. Setting Hamilton and Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Method A randomized controlled trial involving volunteer community pharmacists who received either an asthma education program (AEP;\\u000a intervention group) or a delayed AEP (control group). The AEP
Lisa Dolovich; Mona Sabharwal; Karen Agro; Gary Foster; Annie Lee; Lisa McCarthy; Andrew R. Willan
Background: Family psycho-education is one of the most effective interventions for preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. We evaluated the efficacy of a needs-assessment–based educational program in comparison with a current program (textbook based) in the treatment of schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: Patients with schizophrenia and their families (N = 60) were allocated to needs-assessment–based education (treatment) and textbook-based (control) programs; both included 10 sessions of education within about 6 months. Symptoms were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) prior to intervention and every 3 months for a total of 18 months. A 25% decrease or increase in total PANSS score was considered as response or relapse, respectively. Results: Forty-two cases completed the study. The total PANSS score was significantly decreased in both groups with more reduction in the treatment group. Positive and negative scale scores were reduced in the treatment group, but not significantly in the control group. Response rate was higher in the treatment group and relapse rate was lower (15% vs. 27.2%, P = 0.279). In logistic regression analysis, needs-assessment–based psycho-education was associated with more treatment response. Conclusions: Needs-assessment–based psycho-education is more effective than textbook-based education for treating schizophrenia. We recommend psychiatric care centers to conduct needs-assessment and develop their own program for family psycho-education.
Kheirabadi, Gholam Reza; Rafizadeh, Mahnaz; Omranifard, Victoria; Yari, Azam; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Mehrabi, Tayebe; Sadri, Sima
In view of growing incidences of schizophrenia, a common mental disorder, present study enrolled 60 such patients (30 each in experimental and control groups) to evaluate pre- and post-intervention knowledge of schizophrenic patients and their self-care performance among in-patients of LGB Regional Institute of Mental Health in Tejpur (Assam). An association between knowledge and self-care performance was also studied. The findings revealed deficiencies in self-care performance and areas of knowledge among schizophrenic patients. However, the psycho-education intervention was effective on both the counts. PMID:23534179
Baruah, Arunjyoti; Bhaduri, Aparna; Deuri, S K
Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of vocal hygiene education (VHE) and voice production therapy (VP) in altering patient perception of vocal handicap in adult women with benign, bilateral phonotraumatic vocal fold lesions and the role of adherence in that perception. Method: Sixty-two women were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of VP (n = 31) or…
Behrman, Alison; Rutledge, John; Hembree, Amanda; Sheridan, Sarah
Background The purpose of the treatment and management of chronic renal failure during the predialysis period is mainly to retard the\\u000a progression of the deterioration of renal function. Optimal dialysis initiation is important to improve the patient's outcome\\u000a after therapy. We investigated whether providing information through an original educational program could facilitate dialysis\\u000a initiation, with the patient in a better condition,
Daijo Inaguma; Miho Tatematsu; Hibiki Shinjo; Sachiyo Suzuki; Tomoko Mishima; Shinichiro Inaba; Kei Kurata
This study was designed as a longitudinal study with the purpose of investigating the effects of providing mouth care education to pediatric oncology patients on the degree of oral mucositis. The study sample included 16 children aged 8 to 18 years who were hospitalized in the pediatric oncology and hematology clinics at a university hospital. The results revealed a statistically significant difference between the degree of mucositis before and after the education given to children undergoing chemotherapy (P < .05). The median pain values were significantly different before and after the education (P < .05) as well. It was also found that there was a strong positive statistically significant correlation between the degree of mucositis and mean pain score both before and after the education (P < .001). Consequently, it is reported that both the degree of mucositis and pain levels decreased when children were given planned mouth care education before chemotherapy and when they regularly performed mouth care. PMID:25416516
Yavuz, Betül; Bal Y?lmaz, Hatice
Study Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of a structured preoperative education program in patients receiving patient-controlled analgesia (PCA).Design: Randomized controlled trial.Setting: University-affiliated hospital.Patients: 60 ASA physical status I and II women undergoing major gynecologic surgery.Interventions: Patients were randomly allocated to receive either standard information given during routine preanesthetic assessment (n = 30) or additional structured preoperative education on the use
Kwok Key Lam; Matthew T. V Chan; Phoon Ping Chen; Warwick D. Ngan Kee
The current study surveyed test-usage practices of clinical neuropsychologists to determine whether respondents varied their assessment batteries based on specific patient demographic characteristics. Respondents were 747 doctorate-level psychologists (40% usable response rate) affiliated with Division 40 of the American Psychological Association, National Academy of Neuropsychology, or the International Neuropsychological Society. Respondents read a vignette about a traumatic brain injury patient and subsequently reported the instruments they would utilize to assess this patient's memory, attention, executive functioning, and ability to return to work. There were three versions of the case study, which varied according to the patient's occupation and level of education. Results revealed that the reported proportion of only 9 of 516 instruments (1.7%) varied across classifications, indicating that some neuropsychologists slightly modified their test batteries based on patients' demographic characteristics. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to enhancing predictions of real-world outcomes based on neuropsychological test data. PMID:18067420
Rabin, Laura A; Barr, William B; Burton, Leslie A
... Health 06. Safe Use of Over-the-Counter Medicine 07. What Does "Safe and Effective" Mean? 08. Medications - Aspirin 09. Medications - Acetaminophen 10. Medications - NSAIDS 11. Medications - Opioids 12. Side Effects of Opioids 13. Topical Anesthetics 14. Physician-Patient ...
Background and aim: Nutrition is a key factor in the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease because kidney burden decrease causes uremic reduction and its side effects. The aim of this research is to examine the effect of diet education on blood pressure changes and interdialytic weight in Hemodialysis patients admitted to Hemodialysis ward of Hajar hospital in Shahrekord. Methods: This quasi-experimental and interventional study of 100 dialysis patients referred to Hemodialysis ward of Hajar hospital was performed in a pre-test and post-test in 2011. Diet education, including face to face training with instruction booklets, were conducted in the two sessions. Having carried out the educational program, blood pressure and interdialytic weight gain were measured and recorded one month before and during three stages and after the educational program by researcher-designed checklists. The data were analyzed through Spss16 software by Paired t-test and ANOVA. Results: The results showed that mean of primary weight of the patients increase from 66.15±15.10 to 64.43±14.67. Mean of Systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients in three stages were reduced to 6.65±1.51 mmg 2.24±1.82 mmg respectively. There was a significant difference between the creatinine amount in patients before and after of training (p?0.01) but no meaningful difference was observed between the BUN amount before and after of training (p?0.031). Conclusion: Training to patients underwent hemodialysis in order to observe diet and its effects on improvement in treatment are of significant importance.
Jafari, Fatemeh; Mobasheri, Mahmoud; Mirzaeian, Razieh
The worldwide epidemic of Type 2 diabetes necessitates evidence-based self-management education programmes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and costs of an empowerment-based structured diabetes self-management education programme in an unselected group of patients with Type 2 diabetes. Seven hundred and two patients…
Molsted, Stig; Tribler, Jane; Poulsen, Peter B.; Snorgaard, Ole
The virtual patient is a case-based computer program that combines textual information with multimedia elements such as audio, graphics, and animation. It is increasingly being utilized as a teaching modality by medical educators in various fields of instruction. The inherent complexity of older patients and the shortage of geriatrics educators…
Tan, Zaldy S.; Mulhausen, Paul L.; Smith, Stephen R.; Ruiz, Jorge G.
We investigated whether printed or videotaped information is more effective in enhancing colon cancer knowledge. Subjects (n = 1100) were randomized into three groups: to receive a booklet, view a videotape, or receive no intervention. Subjects receiving the intervention showed increased knowledge compared with control subjects (booklet = 23% and videotape = 26% vs no intervention = 3%). Findings suggest that personalized educational materials are effective in enhancing colon cancer knowledge. PMID:8279598
Meade, C D; McKinney, W P; Barnas, G P
The interdependent relationship between the clinical teacher, the learner and the patient is a vital part of clinical education. Changing health services and patient expectations have stimulated the need for teachers to consider patients' rights and needs as active participants and partners in clinical teaching. PMID:20852549
Background Accidental falls by older patients in hospital are one of the most commonly reported adverse events. Falls after discharge are also common. These falls have enormous physical, psychological and social consequences for older patients, including serious physical injury and reduced quality of life, and are also a source of substantial cost to health systems worldwide. There have been a limited number of randomised controlled trials, mainly using multifactorial interventions, aiming to prevent older people falling whilst inpatients. Trials to date have produced conflicting results and recent meta-analyses highlight that there is still insufficient evidence to clearly identify which interventions may reduce the rate of falls, and falls related injuries, in this population. Methods and design A prospective randomised controlled trial (n = 1206) is being conducted at two hospitals in Australia. Patients are eligible to be included in the trial if they are over 60 years of age and they, or their family or guardian, give written consent. Participants are randomised into three groups. The control group continues to receive usual care. Both intervention groups receive a specifically designed patient education intervention on minimising falls in addition to usual care. The education is delivered by Digital Video Disc (DVD) and written workbook and aims to promote falls prevention activities by participants. One of the intervention groups also receives follow up education training visits by a health professional. Blinded assessors conduct baseline and discharge assessments and follow up participants for 6 months after discharge. The primary outcome measure is falls by participants in hospital. Secondary outcome measures include falls at home after discharge, knowledge of falls prevention strategies and motivation to engage in falls prevention activities after discharge. All analyses will be based on intention to treat principle. Discussion This trial will examine the effect of a single intervention (specifically designed patient education) on rates of falls in older patients in hospital and after discharge. The results will provide robust recommendations for clinicians and researchers about the role of patient education in this population. The study has the potential to identify a new intervention that may reduce rates of falls in older hospital patients and could be readily duplicated and applied in a wide range of clinical settings. Trial Registration ACTRN12608000015347 PMID:19393046
Hill, Anne-Marie; Hill, Keith; Brauer, Sandra; Oliver, David; Hoffmann, Tammy; Beer, Christopher; McPhail, Steven; Haines, Terry P
Effective management of chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes) can depend on the extent to which patients can learn and remember disease-relevant information. In two experiments, we explored a technique motivated by theories of self-regulated learning for improving people's learning of information relevant to managing a chronic disease. Materials were…
Rawson, Katherine A.; O'Neil, Rochelle; Dunlosky, John
The aim of this community-based pre-post interventional study was to investigate the effectiveness of a comprehensive educational program reinforced by an individualized component (CEPRIC) on problems likely to be experienced by caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease, as defined by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA). The Beck Depression Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Duke scales were used to measure depression, anxiety, and quality of life, respectively. Sixty-four participants (32 caregiver-patient pairs) took part in the program. This study suggests that caregiver problems (disturbed sleep and eating patterns, trauma risk, anxiety) were reduced and caregiver depression and anxiety scores were diminished; quality of life of caregivers was increased by the intervention. In conclusion, the CEPRIC is a viable option for Alzheimer's caregivers' education programs, particularly in an environment with limited respite care options. PMID:16373183
Kuzu, Nevin; Be?er, Nalan; Zencir, Mehmet; Sahiner, Türker; Nesrin, Ergin; Ahmet, Ergin; Binali, Catak; Cagda?, Erdogan
Background: Providing patients with disease- and treatment-related information is an important role of medical staff and is now reimbursed in Japan by the national health insurance system under the rubric ‘patient education’. Evaluation of the effectiveness of patient education programs is necessary to ensure that limited health care resources are used efficiently. Objective: The objective is to determine whether educating
T. Shimbo; M. Goto; T. Morimoto; K. Hira; M. Takemura; K. Matsui; A. Yoshida; T. Fukui
Background Diabetes is a chronic disease and its control requires essential change in patients' life style. The aim of this study was survey of effects of educational intervention based on PRECEDE Model on self care behaviors and control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods This was a quasi-experimental study carried out in 78 patients with type 2 diabetes who have referred to Minoodasht clinic of diabetes. The educational program has been designed according to the PRECEDE Model. Prior to perform the educational intervention, the patients filled a questionnaire which was designed according to the structure of PRECEDE Model for type 2 diabetes patients. The diabetes education program was performed on three target groups (patients, their families and Health care personnel). After four weeks, the effects of the educational program have been evaluated through the same questionnaire. The findings were analyzed by SPSS version 16 and p-value less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results The mean age of participants was 49 years, 87.2% were married and 19.2% was illiterate. The rate of income of 44.9% was low. 66% had a family history of diabetes and 64% had been afflicted with diabetes more than 5 years. The Chi-square test showed a significant relationship between formation of a file in diabetes clinic and on-time presence to receive services and participation in the educational classes with the marital status variable. The results also showed that there is a significant relationship between observing food diet and job. The mean scores of knowledge, attitude, practice, reinforcing factors and enabling factors has increased after educational intervention. The Chi-square test shows a significant difference before and after of education intervention in stages of the model. Conclusion The obtained results based on PRECEDE Model would support the positive effect of the educational intervention and its major elements (predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors) on diabetes self-care behaviors. PMID:25075380
educational materials EXCLUSION--No exclusion Informed Consent: Study shows better informed consent following recall of complications, risks and other components of informed consent. Greater recall was equated to a more "informed' informed consent. Improved Outcomes: Informed patients are more likely to be compliant
Of 124 acute care nurses, 97% felt that patient education was a priority. Inhibiting factors were time, staffing, and patient receptiveness. Enhancers included having time to teach, receiving effective teaching guidance materials, and having access to teaching resources. (SK)
Marcum, Julie; Ridenour, Maureen; Shaff, Gaye; Hammons, Mary; Taylor, Monica
A longitudinal study of 133 medical students at the University of Illinois used multiple clinical encounters with standardized patients to test student interpersonal and communication skills after the second and during the fourth year. Mean patient satisfaction improved from first to second encounter, and female students performed better than…
Klamen, Debra L.; Williams, Reed G.
A significant number of patients with irritable bowel syndrome hold misconceptions about their disease and experience more impaired quality of life compared with the general population and people suffering from other chronic diseases. This study was designed to explore the effectiveness of a structured educational intervention on disease-related misconceptions and quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome in Wuhan, China. A convenience sample of 23 patients with irritable bowel syndrome participated in an educational program that consisted of 4 weekly sessions in a group setting. Instruments, including an irritable bowel syndrome-related misconception scale and irritable bowel syndrome quality-of-life scale, were used for evaluation at baseline and 3 months after the sessions. Three months after the structured educational intervention, the score for irritable bowel syndrome-related misconception was significantly decreased (p < .001), and the score for irritable bowel syndrome quality of life was significantly improved (p < .001). We conclude that the structured educational intervention seems to be a proper method to reduce the disease-related misconceptions and improve the quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Planning and implementing such clinical education programs will be helpful in decreasing disease-related misconceptions and promoting quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:25078043
Yu, Wen-Zhen; Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Zhang, Qian; Li, Kong-Ling; Chen, Ji-Hong
The aim of the study was to discuss the effect of intensive nursing education on the prevention of diabetic foot ulceration among patients at high risk for diabetic foot. One hundred eighty-five diabetes patients at high risk for foot diseases were enrolled in this study and provided with intensive nursing education, including individualized education about diabetes mellitus and diabetic foot diseases, instruction in podiatric care (the right way of washing the foot, the care of foot skin, appropriate choice of shoes and socks, intense examinations and records of feet by patients themselves every day, and the assistant management of calluses). Study subjects were followed up for 2 years. Once the foot ulceration developed, the inducing factors of foot ulceration were inquired about, the ulcers were evaluated, and the incidence of foot ulceration was analyzed before and after the intensive nursing education according to self-paired data. Results showed there were highly statistically significant improvements in the intensive treatment group compared with the control group in plasma glucose, blood pressure, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. More important is that intensive nursing education helps to prevent diabetic foot ulceration and to decrease the rate of amputation among patients at high risk for diabetic foot. PMID:25004241
Ren, Meng; Yang, Chuan; Lin, Diao Zhu; Xiao, Hui Sheng; Mai, Li Fang; Guo, Yi Chen; Yan, Li
Assessed the effectiveness of an Arthritis Self Management course for people aged 55-95 (N=200). Results indicated significant gains in knowledge and pain reduction. Trends toward less disability were observed for participants under age 74. (JAC)
Lorig, Kate; And Others
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis must learn to adjust their exercise, rest and medication to the varying activity of the disease. Patient education can help patients in making the right decisions about adjustments in their treatment regimen and in attaining ¿self-management¿ behaviors. We developed a group education program based on social learning theory and the `Arthritis Self Management Course¿ developed in
Erik Taal; Rob P. Riemsma; Herman L. M. Brus; Erwin R. Seydel; Johannes J. Rasker; Oene Wiegman
Adult education in healthcare comes in several forms: degree and certificate programs aimed at preparing better academic and clinical educators; and community education programs aimed at wellness, rehabilitation, or learning to live with chronic diseases. Patient-centered healthcare, however, is part of something new: coordinated and transitional…
Fleming, Jean E.
The purpose of the study was to assess patients' acceptability of the substitution of brand-name drugs for generic drugs in the primary health care prescribing practices for chronic conditions. A prospective randomised multicentre study was conducted over a 12-month period in which patients taking medications for chronic disorders received an educational intervention on generic drugs at the time they attended different general practices in the city of Barcelona (Spain) for repeat prescribing. Twenty-seven public primary care centres were randomised to the intervention group (eight centres) or the control group (19 centres). Of 4620 patients in the intervention group that received verbal information and handout materials on advantages and disadvantages of generic equivalents and brand-name drugs, 98.9% of them agreed to receive a generic formulation. The primary care centre and the class of drug were associated with statistically significant differences in the percentage of acceptance of generic drugs. In the overall population, generic prescribing in the intervention practices increased to 5.9 as compared with 2.8% in controls. In summary, individual educational intervention in patients with repeat prescribing resulted in a high rate of generic acceptability. The intervention might stimulate the practitioner's motivation, behaviour and knowledge of generic forms. PMID:12941494
Vallès, Joan Antoni; Barreiro, Maica; Cereza, Glòria; Ferro, Juan José; Martínez, María José; Escribà, Josep Maria; Iglesias, Begoña; Cucurull, Esther; Barceló, Estrella
This course text outlines the objectives and content for a professional continuing education course on patient education for the hospital librarian. Topics covered include: (1) definition of terms; (2) national studies and surveys; (3) compliance issues; (4) patient/learner motivation; (5) elements of a successful program; (6) role definition; (7)…
Patient education is promoted as an integral part of effective kidney disease management. Programs and tools are available for providers and patients to support patient CKD education in primary care and nephrology. Challenges to providing patient education across practice settings include patients' lack of awareness of CKD as a medical entity, physician perceptions of their own lack of skill and ability to educate patients, differences in how primary care and nephrology physicians perceive collaborative care, and shortage of staff and time to support educational efforts. In addition, there is little research available to guide evidence-based practices for implementing early patient CKD education interventions across medical disciplines. Development and testing of patient education programs using early CKD multidisciplinary care, educational websites, and phone-based applications are all areas of growing research. More work is needed to provide evidence and support that physicians and other health professionals need to ensure a seamless patient education experience across the continuum of care. PMID:23809290
Wright Nunes, Julie A
Objective: We evaluated the effectiveness of a continuing medical education program, Physician Asthma Care Education, in improving pediatricians' asthma therapeutic and communication skills and patients' health care utilization for asthma. Methods: We conducted a randomized trial in 10 regions in the United States. Primary care providers…
Cabana, Michael D.; Slish, Kathryn K.; Evans, David; Mellins, Robert B.; Brown, Randall W.; Lin, Xihong; Kaciroti, Niko; Clark, Noreen M.
Computer-based virtual patients (VPs) are an emerging medium for medical education that addresses barriers faced by geriatrics educators. Research has shown VPs to be as effective in changing knowledge and behavior as more traditional forms of teaching. This paper presents a descriptive study of the development of the University of Iowa's…
Orton, Eric; Mulhausen, Paul
The important of patient education program in the management of diabetes has been widely recognized. We studied to find out\\u000a in general what the patients and their parents know about diabetes and their self-care by using a questionnaire. Then, the\\u000a diabetic education was given by one-to-one basis to every patient. Thirty four insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus attended\\u000a the diabetic the clinic
Chanika Tuchinda; Nirun Vanaprapa; Suthida Nirapik; Ranoo Wongarn; Sathit Vannasaeng
Researchers lack the rich evidence base and benchmark patient outcomes needed to evaluate the effectiveness of medical education practice and guide policy. The authors offer a framework for medical education research that focuses on physician-influenced patient outcomes that are potentially sensitive to medical education. Adapting the concept of ambulatory care sensitive conditions, which provided traction to health services research by defining benchmark patient outcomes to measure health system performance, the authors introduce the concept and propose the adoption of educationally sensitive patient outcomes and suggest two measures: patient activation and clinical microsystem activation. They assert that the ultimate goal of medical education is to ensure that measurement of future physicians' competence and skills is based not only on biomedical knowledge and critical clinical skills but also on the ability to translate these competencies into effective patient- and systems-level outcomes. The authors consider methodological approaches and challenges to measuring such outcomes and argue for large, multiinstitutional, prospective cohort studies and the development of a national Database for Research in Education in Academic Medicine to provide the needed infrastructure. They advocate taking the next steps to establish an educational evidence base to guide the academic medical centers of the 21st century in aligning medical education practice with health care delivery that meets the needs of individuals and populations. PMID:20520038
Kalet, Adina L; Gillespie, Colleen C; Schwartz, Mark D; Holmboe, Eric S; Ark, Tavinder K; Jay, Melanie; Paik, Steve; Truncali, Andrea; Hyland Bruno, Julia; Zabar, Sondra R; Gourevitch, Marc N
Background: Diabetes as the most common diseases caused by metabolic disorders is an important global challenge. This is a disease that requires lifelong self-care because self-care and improved quality of life is cost effective. This study is aimed to determine the impact of self-care education program on reducing HbA1c, type 2 diabetic patients and was conducted in Zahedan. Materials and Methods: This is an experimental study done on 138 diabetic female patients in Zahedan city, in 2011 (1390). This sampling method of patients was based on inclusion and exclusion criteria of the Diabetes Center, at Hazrat Ali Asghar Hospital (AS) in Zahedan. Samples were divided randomly in to two groups: 69 cases and 69 controls. Data collected included validity and reliability confirmed questionnaire. Checklist was based on patients ‘performance of reporting and (HbA1c) testing. Before the educational intervention, the checklist of questions for recording the (HbA1c) test for both the groups were completed, and study samples received 5 sessions of education (with the group discussion and film show) for a month. However, the control group received only routine training. Three months after the educational intervention, both groups completed the questionnaire and the check list and data using SPSS software and the appropriate tests were analyzed. Results: Findings showed that the mean domain scores of area of knowledge, attitude and practice educational groups, were recorded as (46.6 ± 8.57, 46.5 ± 0.86 and 29.06 ± 10.02), respectively. And after education scores of knowledge, attitude and practice were recorded as (52.80 ± 2.20, 12.98 ± 1.02 and 39.69 ± 4.74), respectively, and in study group significant difference (P < 0/001) was seen. Conclusion: Self-care training in striation leads to improve knowledge, attitude and self-care performance of the study samples and also improves the average (HbA1c). Because it seems to increase the active participation of learners in their care that they have experienced with this training method and their motivation enhanced them to learn better self-care. So this type of care education should be given to the attention of nurses and healthcare's staff. PMID:25540796
Zareban, Iraj; Karimy, Mahmood; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Haidarnia, Alireza; Rakhshani, Fatemeh
NCI Cancer Patient Educators Listserv Unsubscribe Form Name: * Email: Reason for leaving listserv: (please select one option below or describe your reason in the comments field if none of the options are appropriate) No longer involved in cancer
At Nice university hospital, an educational board game has been designed by the kidney transplant team for patients suffering from kidney failure. Hilarein is a tool to support therapeutic education which demonstrates that it is possible to learn while having fun. PMID:23593797
Césarini, Carole; Callens, Cécile
Goals and implementation of the Minnesota Educational Effectiveness Program (MEEP), a school-based improvement program, are presented in this document. The program's mission is to enhance learning and instruction through planned change based upon research facilitated by staff development. The first section examines program components, specifically…
Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Instructional Design Section.
Background The learning preferences of ophthalmology patients were examined. Methods Results from a voluntary survey of ophthalmology patients were analyzed for education preferences and for correlation with race, age, and ophthalmic topic. Results To learn about eye disease, patients preferred one-on-one sessions with providers as well as printed materials and websites recommended by providers. Patients currently learning from the provider were older (average age 59 years), and patients learning from the Internet (average age 49 years) and family and friends (average age 51 years) were younger. Patients interested in cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration, and dry eye were older; patients interested in double vision and glasses were younger. There were racial differences regarding topic preferences, with Black patients most interested in glaucoma (46%), diabetic retinopathy (31%), and cataracts (28%) and White patients most interested in cataracts (22%), glaucoma (22%), and macular degeneration (19%). Conclusion Most ophthalmology patients preferred personalized education: one-on-one with their provider or a health educator and materials (printed and electronic) recommended by their provider. Age-related topics were more popular with older patients, and diseases with racial risk factors were more popular with high risk racial groups. PMID:24812493
Rosdahl, Jullia A; Swamy, Lakshmi; Stinnett, Sandra; Muir, Kelly W
Patients with end-stage renal disease who receive a kidney through transplantation enter a new phase in their illness trajectory. The question emerged which knowledge and skills are essential for a safe self-management immediately after the transplantation. The aim of this project was to develop an evidence-based in-patient education programme for renal transplant recipients. A participative action research approach was chosen. An interprofessional group, led by an advanced practice nurse, initiated the project. Based on a systematic literature review and on qualitative interviews with both patients and experts, an in-patient educational programme was developed and implemented. The main elements of the programme focused on taking medications appropriately and on the observation and interpretation of symptoms. The content of the programme was documented in a brochure for patients. The structure of the programme was documented in a guideline with a standardised procedure. The procedure was based on patients' needs and preferences, and therefore provides tailored education. Besides the support received in gaining relevant knowledge, patients are supported in developing practical skills, problem solving, and decision making. An initial evaluation revealed that patients with cognitive impairment have special needs for education that exceeds what exists in the developed programme. As the programme is revised, additional contents on psychosocial issues will be included and the programme will be planned along the clinical pathway. Furthermore, it should begin during the pre-transplant period and continue in a longterm follow-up. PMID:21964935
Schmid-Mohler, Gabriela; Albiez, Thomas; Schäfer-Keller, Petra; Fehr, Thomas; Biotti, Beatrice; Spirig, Rebecca
The staff of a heart and circulatory disease program of a State department of health conducted a special project at a city hospital which showed that a well-organized treatment and education program for patients with congestive heart failure increased the patient's knowledge of his disease, medication, and diet as well as his adherence to a…
Rosenberg, Stanley G.
Background Poor glaucoma education is thought to be a causative factor of non-adherence to glaucoma therapy. However, the multi-factorial nature of non-adherent behaviour may explain the failure of purely educational interventions to achieve significant improvement in adherence. Behaviour Change Counselling (BCC) allows both the imparting of information and assessment of patient ambivalence to medication use and may elicit behaviour change in order to achieve better adherence. The chronic and complex nature of glaucoma means that patient non-adherence to glaucoma therapy does not easily correlate with measureable objective clinical endpoints. However, electronic medication monitoring offers an objective method of measuring adherence without reliance on clinical endpoints. Methods/design The study is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) with glaucoma (open angle) or ocular hypertension patients attending a glaucoma clinic and prescribed travoprost. The study will determine whether additional glaucoma education using BCC is beneficial and cost effective in improving adherence with glaucoma therapy. An 8-month follow-up period, using an electronic adherence monitoring device (Travalert® dosing aid, TDA), will indicate if the intervention is likely to be sustained in the longer term. Additionally, a cost-effectiveness framework will be used to estimate the cost benefit of improving adherence. The development of a novel intervention to deliver glaucoma education using BCC required practitioner training and fidelity testing. Five practitioners were successfully trained to become Glaucoma Support Assistants able to deliver the BCC intervention. The research group had prior clinical and investigative experience in this setting, and used multiple strategies to design a method to address the study objectives. Discussion This RCT, using BCC to improve adherence to ocular hypotensive therapy, to our knowledge is the first within this disease area. Using a variety of adherence measures allows examination of the known inaccuracies of patient self-report with respect to glaucoma medication. The novel BCC component has undergone fidelity testing using BECCI and the BCC template will ensure conformity to a standardised intervention. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN89683704 PMID:23171166
Patients' concerns about reporting pain and using analgesics have been cited as major contributors to the problem of inadequate pain management. The purpose of this paper is to describe a program of research in which we have focused on these patient concerns, or as we refer to them, \\
S. Ward; S. Hughes; H. Donovan; R. Serlin
Background: The related literatures revealed that there is a lack of effective patient/family education in the health care centers. Several studies indicate that patients, while getting discharged from hospitals, receive insufficient information about their illness and self-care. The purpose of the study was to explore the factors influencing patient education from the perspectives of nurses in Iran. Materials and Methods: We conducted a qualitative study using a content analysis approach. We used a purposive sampling technique to recruit and interview 18 nurses with at least 2 years of working experience in the cardiac care unit (CCU) and post-CCU ward of two educational hospitals in Tehran related to Tehran University. Data were collected through face-to-face audio-taped interviews and field observations. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed concurrently with data collection. Results: The major theme extracted in this study was the inappropriate organizational culture which includes eight categories listed as follows: Not putting value on education, non-professional activities, physician-oriented atmosphere, conflict and lack of coherence in education, inappropriate communication skills, ignoring patient's right in education, lack of motivation, rewarding system in the organization, and poor supervision and control. Conclusions: The results of this study show that according to the participants’ perspective, organizational culture is in a poor level. So, to improve the performance of nurses, it is necessary to increase their motivation through optimization of organizational culture. PMID:23983743
Farahani, Mansoureh A.; Mohammadi, Eesa; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Mohammadi, Nooredin
Objective. To determine whether human patient simulation (HPS) is superior to case-based learning (CBL) in teaching diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and thyroid storm (TS) to pharmacy students. Design. In this cross-over, open-label, single center, randomized control trial, final-year undergraduate pharmacy students enrolled in an applied therapeutics course were randomized to HPS or CBL groups. Pretest, posttest, knowledge retention tests, and satisfaction survey were administered to students. Assessment. One hundred seventy-four students participated in this study. The effect sizes attributable to HPS were larger than CBL in both cases. HPS groups performed significantly better in posttest and knowledge retention test compared to CBL groups pertaining to TS case (p<0.05). Students expressed high levels of satisfaction with HPS sessions. Conclusion. HPS was superior to CBL in teaching DKA and TS to final-year undergraduate pharmacy students. PMID:25386018
Ling Yap, Yen; Leng Lee, Wee; Chang Soh, Yee
The purpose of the patient education system described here was to distribute patient education material to and within medical practices managed by a small medical practice management company. The belief was that patient education opportunities improved health care outcomes and increased patient participation in health care decisions and compliance…
Bell, Edith E.
Patients' beliefs about their health (and illness), medications and healthcare they receive are important determinants of whether or not they accept recommended treatments; influence their coping responses in relation to their illness; make them adhere to recommended therapy and ultimately affect health outcomes. Incorporation of patients' preferences for therapy should now be considered an integral part of the decision-making process. This gradual shift in health-care practice from paternalistic to shared-decision making, whereby there is a two-way exchange of information between the patient and healthcare provider and both are involved in the treatment decision, requires a reasonable level of understanding and knowledge of the condition and its treatment by the patient. However, patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) often have poor knowledge about their condition and the benefits and risks of AF and AF treatments. Physicians and other healthcare providers may have doubts over a patient's ability to adhere to certain treatment regimens, particularly oral anticoagulation, due in part to the lack of patient knowledge, and this may be an important determinant of whether such treatments are even considered as therapeutic options. Further, patients often hold misconceptions about AF and treatment options, which may act as barriers to their acceptance of the condition and adherence to therapy. This review will summarise the literature on the knowledge of patients about AF and its management, how patients' values and preferences can impact on their treatment choices, the ideal components of patient education, the impact of educational interventions on patients' knowledge and perceptions of AF, and where appropriate highlight specific issues facing lone AF patients. PMID:25175094
Lane, Deirdre A; Barker, Rachel V; Lip, Gregory Y H
Anaphylaxis is an increasingly prevalent problem in westernized countries. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that the increasing numbers of patients at risk for anaphylaxis receive proper education on the etiology and risk factors as well as appropriate treatment of anaphylaxis with epinephrine. The physician’s role is crucial in order to educate the patients and care takers on effective measures to prevent anaphylaxis and empower them to take charge of early recognition and proper management of an anaphylactic reaction to prevent poor outcomes. This review summarizes the clinical presentation, triggers, avoidance, and management of anaphylaxis. PMID:25031541
Järvinen, Kirsi M; Celestin, Jocelyn
This study investigated patients' expectations prior to participation in an education program about coping with schizophrenia, and their evaluations of the program upon its completion. Adult inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenic disorders (N = 123) responded anonymously to a preintervention expectation measured and a postintervention evaluation questionnaire. Results point to high expectations of this illness self-management education program, and a high level of satisfaction upon its completion, with a self-fulfilling prophecy effect, in which those with high expectations later reported greater satisfaction. Patients perceived, however, a differential level of helpfulness of the program's nine content areas, and rated learning about diagnosis and medication management as most helpful. Content areas that were rated less helpful included prevalence of schizophrenia, its psychosocial rehabilitation, and use of community resources. Implications for clinical practice in patient education are identified and discussed. PMID:11885215
Ascher-Svanum, H; Rochford, S; Cisco, D; Claveaux, A
Discusses the rationale for nurse involvement in the development of patient education materials. Presents guidelines for evaluating existing material, including print and web resources, for credibility and readability. Makes recommendations for rewriting material at an easier-to-read level. (SK)
Monsivais, Diane; Reynolds, Audree
Background Skin problems caused by neuropathy and antipathy are common manifestations of diabetes. The most serious about such problem is the diabetic foot, which may lead to eventual ulceration and amputation, and will decrease a patient’s quality of life dramatically. Objectives The aim of this study is to assess the level of foot self-care and foot conditions in diabetic patients, and to demonstrate the role of self-care education in diabetic foot care. Patients and Methods A total of 80 diabetic patients were included in the study, all of whom had referred to "Yazd Diabetic Research Center." The levels of their foot self-care were recorded in pre-test questionnaires, and then all of the patients were visited and educated by a Dermatologist for their foot self-care on a monthly basis, after which their post-test results were recorded through a second administration of the same questionnaire. Eventually, data from the pre and post-test questionnaires were analyzed to identify the possible effects of education. Results A total of 80 diabetic patients (34 males, 46 females) with a mean average age of 53.53 ± 10.19 and mean average duration of diabetes 12.42 ± 6.73 years were assessed. A significant increase in foot self-care through education was observed (baseline 27.06 ± 8.77, vs. post education 43.12 ± 8.77; P = 0.0001). After education, foot and nail lesions improved completely in 84% and 62.8%. Moreover, 77.8% of patients had suitable shoes and 79.6% had suitable socks. Conclusions Our findings showed that foot self-care education could improve knowledge and performance of patients about various foot problems, and was significantly important in preventing ulcers. PMID:23482390
Kafaie, Parichehr; Noorbala, Mohamad Taghi; Soheilikhah, Sedigheh; Rashidi, Maryam
Health-education materials often require reading levels higher than that of many patients. Nurses need awareness of the prevalence of low literacy and the ability to assess reading levels so they can develop appropriate patient-education materials. (SK)
Context: Written patient education materials frequently exceed the reading ability of the general public. Patients are often intimidated by the task of reading patient education materials, perceiving the materials’ difficulty levels as prohibitive, even when they do not exceed the patients’ reading abilities. It is unclear how the delivery mechanism—print or a computer screen—affects a patient’s reading experience through his/her perception of its difficulty. Objective: To determine whether first-year college students perceived online or print-based patient education materials as more difficult to read. Design: Convenience sampling of first-year college students. Results: Some first-year college students perceived online patient education materials to be more difficult to read than print-based ones—even when the reading level of the patient education materials was similar. Demographic information about this sample’s high levels of digital literacy suggests that other populations might also perceive online patient education materials as more difficult to read than print-based equivalents. Patients’ perceptions of the difficulty of patient education materials influenced their ability to effectively learn from those materials. Conclusion: This article concludes with a call for more research into patients’ perceptions of difficulty of patient education materials in print vs on a screen.
helped us make progress toward our goals. We have crafted our Educational Effectiveness ReportWASC EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW INTEGRATIVE ESSAY Research, graduate education, and undergraduate education "are intertwined. Vigorous research activities are integral to developing a quality
California at Santa Cruz, University of
IntroductionVocabulary and writing style have been shown to affect the readability of patient-education materials. Readability is generally defined as the ease of understanding or comprehension because of the style of writing. Microsoft Word software (Microsoft Corporation, Bellevue, WA) can quantify and report readability statistics, providing both the Flesch Reading Ease score and the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level score of selected documents.
Patient-focused educational interventions are usually designed to support patients in seeking and obtaining appropriate, effective, safe, and efficient health care and to involve patients and families in clinical care and optimal management of chronic diseases (1). Such interventions can achieve posi- tive effects in many chronic diseases although with the actual results may differ in terms of efficacy and effectiveness
BACKGROUND: Accidental falls by older patients in hospital are one of the most commonly reported adverse events. Falls after discharge are also common. These falls have enormous physical, psychological and social consequences for older patients, including serious physical injury and reduced quality of life, and are also a source of substantial cost to health systems worldwide. There have been a
Anne-Marie Hill; Keith Hill; Sandra Brauer; David Oliver; Tammy Hoffmann; Christopher Beer; Steven McPhail; Terry P Haines
Background Providing an educational program as part of a health care program for the management of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients has rapidly become popular. AD educational programs can be of benefit in measured outcomes for both dermatology specialists and patients. Objective To determine the effects of programmed education delivered by dermatology specialists on the management and knowledge of AD, we assessed the effectiveness of patient/parental education at improving AD knowledge, and determined the usefulness of the education. Methods The program consisted of five, 20-minutes sessions which were prepared, discussed, reviewed, and delivered by professors of dermatology. At the end of the program, AD knowledge was assessed using a standardized questionnaire. A total of 148 people were included. Fifty-eight patients/parents received the programmed education and the remaining 90 did not receive the programmed education. Results The mean questionnaire scores from both groups were compared. Mean knowledge scores were significantly higher for those who received the education (p=0.00). We analyzed the knowledge score according to factors such as gender, education level, marital status, and occupation. The data indicated that education level influences the subjects' knowledge level of AD, but gender, occupation, and marital status do not. Conclusion An educational program can be an effective tool to improve patient quality of life and treatment compliance by providing psychological support to the patients and their parents. PMID:24648688
Shin, Ji Yeon; Kim, Do Won; Park, Chun Wook; Seo, Seong Jun; Park, Young Lip; Lee, Jong Rok; Kim, Moon Bum; Kim, Kyu Han; Ro, Young Suck
Background Individual health education is considered to be essential in the overall care of patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2), although there is some uncertainty regarding its metabolic control benefits. There have been very few randomized studies on the effects of individual education on normal care in DM2 patients with a control group, and none of these have assessed the long-term results. Therefore, this study aims to use this design to assess the effectiveness of the PRECEDE (Predisposing, Reinforcing, Enabling, Causes in Educational Diagnosis, and Evaluation) education model in the metabolic control and the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods An open community effectiveness study was carried out in 8 urban community health centers in the North-East Madrid Urban Area (Spain). Six hundred patients with DM2 were randomized in two groups: PRECEDE or conventional model for health promotion education. The main outcome measures were glycated hemoglobin A1c, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, lipids and control criteria during the 2-year follow-up period. Results Glycated hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels decreased significantly in the PRECEDE group (multivariate analysis of covariance, with baseline glycated hemoglobin A1c, SBP, and variables showing statistically significant differences between groups at baseline visits). The decrease levels in diastolic blood pressure (DBP), triglycerides and LDL cholesterol were nonsignificant. PRECEDE increased compliance in all control criteria, except for LDL cholesterol. BMI did not change during the study in either of the two models analyzed. Conclusions PRECEDE health education model is a useful method in the overall treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes, which contributes to decrease glycated hemoglobin A1c and SBP levels and increase the compliance in all the control criteria, except for LDL cholesterol. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01316367 PMID:21524316
A central plank of health care reform is an expanded role for educated consumers interacting with responsive health care teams. However, for individuals to realize the benefits of health education also requires a high level of engagement. Population studies have documented a gap between expectations and the actual performance of behaviours related to participation in health care and prevention. Interventions to improve self-care have shown improvements in self-efficacy, patient satisfaction, coping skills, and perceptions of social support. Significant clinical benefits have been seen from trials of self-management or lifestyle interventions across conditions such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the focus of many studies has been on short-term outcomes rather that long term effects. There is also some evidence that participation in patient education programs is not spread evenly across socio economic groups. This review considers three other issues that may be important in increasing the public health impact of patient education. The first is health literacy, which is the capacity to seek, understand and act on health information. Although health literacy involves an individual’s competencies, the health system has a primary responsibility in setting the parameters of the health interaction and the style, content and mode of information. Secondly, much patient education work has focused on factors such as attitudes and beliefs. That small changes in physical environments can have large effects on behavior and can be utilized in self-management and chronic disease research. Choice architecture involves reconfiguring the context or physical environment in a way that makes it more likely that people will choose certain behaviours. Thirdly, better means of evaluating the impact of programs on public health is needed. The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework has been promoted as one such potential approach. PMID:22312219
Adams, Robert John
Patients (n=672) were screened and instructed about osteoporosis; 53 of their physicians attended lectures, a control group did not. A survey of 258 patients showed doctor-ordered screening tests increased regardless of lecture attendance. Increased patient-initiated discussions about osteoporosis suggest that patient education is effective.…
Although fear of death is recorded in the writings of the oldest major religions, the study of death and the fear of death have only occurred for the last few decades. Death education courses have grown in number since the early 1970's. College students participated in an investigation of the effects of death education on death anxiety by…
Freitag, Carl B.; Hassler, Shawn David
Purpose To investigate the effect of socioeconomic status, as measured by education, on the survival of 1,577 lung cancer patients treated on 11 studies conducted by the Cancer and Leukemia Group B. Patients and Methods Sociodemographic data, including education, was reported by the patient at the time of clinical trial accrual. Cox proportional hazards model stratified by treatment arm/study was used to examine the effect of education on survival after adjustment for known prognostic factors. Results The patient population included 1,177 patients diagnosed with non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC; stage III or IV) and 400 patients diagnosed with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC; extensive or limited). Patients with less than an eighth grade education (13% of patients) were significantly more likely to be male, nonwhite, and older; have a performance status (PS) of 1 or 2; and have chest pain. Significant predictors of poor survival in the final model included male sex, PS of 1 or 2, dyspnea, weight loss, liver or bone metastases, unmarried, presence of adrenal metastases and high alkaline phosphatase levels among patients with NSCLC, and high WBC levels among patients with advanced disease. Education was not predictive of survival. Conclusion The physical condition of patients with low education who enroll onto clinical trials is worse than patients with higher education. Once enrolled onto a clinical trial, education does not affect the survival of patients with SCLC or stage III or IV NSCLC. The standardization of treatment and follow-up within a clinical trial, regardless of education, is one possible explanation for this lack of effect. PMID:18757325
Herndon, James E.; Kornblith, Alice B.; Holland, Jimmie C.; Paskett, Electra D.
Responding to competitive pressure to enhance services and patient satisfaction while reducing cost, many healthcare organizations are turning to interactive health communication to enhance their practices. This article reviews computer-based patient education by focusing on a product, X-Plain, and describing how it is used in medical practices. The following benefits of computer-based patient education are discussed: risk management, time saving, enhanced patient satisfactions, and meeting regulatory requirements. Two classes of computer-based patient education systems are distinguished: documentation systems used in the back office to inform patients about their diagnoses and treatments and to document patient education; and public kiosks used in the reception area to provide general information, promote the practice's services, and collect survey data. The advantages of delivering patient education through the Web such as global networking and presentation of customized health information are discussed. PMID:11497310
Ajam, M A
Being diagnosed with Parkinson's disease can come as a great shock to patients, and that is sometimes underestimated by health professionals. This literature review highlights the value of educating patients about the condition and its implications. It considers research focusing on Parkinson's disease, chronic illness in general, and wider patient education issues. PMID:14515819
Background Even though there is convincing evidence that self-care, such as regular exercise and/or stopping smoking, alters the outcomes after an event of coronary heart disease (CHD), risk factors remain. Outcomes can improve if core components of secondary prevention programmes are structurally and pedagogically applied using adult learning principles e.g. problem-based learning (PBL). Until now, most education programs for patients with CHD have not been based on such principles. The basic aim is to discover whether PBL provided in primary health care (PHC) has long-term effects on empowerment and self-care after an event of CHD. Methods/Design A randomised controlled study is planned for patients with CHD. The primary outcome is empowerment to reach self-care goals. Data collection will be performed at baseline at hospital and after one, three and five years in PHC using quantitative and qualitative methodologies involving questionnaires, medical assessments, interviews, diaries and observations. Randomisation of 165 patients will take place when they are stable in their cardiac condition and have optimised cardiac medication that has not substantially changed during the last month. All patients will receive conventional care from their general practitioner and other care providers. The intervention consists of a patient education program in PHC by trained district nurses (tutors) who will apply PBL to groups of 6–9 patients meeting on 13 occasions for two hours over one year. Patients in the control group will not attend a PBL group but will receive home-sent patient information on 11 occasions during the year. Discussion We expect that the 1-year PBL-patient education will improve patients’ beliefs, self-efficacy and empowerment to achieve self-care goals significantly more than one year of standardised home-sent patient information. The assumption is that PBL will reduce cardiovascular events in the long-term and will also be cost-effective compared to controls. Further, the knowledge obtained from this study may contribute to improving patients’ ability to handle self-care, and furthermore, may reduce the number of patients having subsequent CHD events in Sweden. Trial registration NCT01462799 PMID:23164044
addresses our strategy for achieving the goals of growing graduate education while preservingWASC EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW EXECUTIVE SUMMARY "The institution evidences clear and appropriate educational objectives and design at the institutional and program level. The institution employs
California at Santa Cruz, University of
The Indian Education Programs supplement state, local, and tribal education efforts to improve the quality of Indian education and assure parental and community participation. Each year, the Office of Indian Education, assisted by the six regional Indian Education Technical Assistance Centers, selects effective projects to be showcased at the…
Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC. Indian Education Programs.
Medical students must be prepared for working in inter-professional and multi-disciplinary clinical teams centred on a patient's care pathway. While there has been a good deal of rhetoric surrounding patient-centred medical education, there has been little attempt to conceptualise such a practice beyond the level of describing education of…
Bleakley, Alan; Bligh, John
In recent years, the need for person-centered patient education has become evident. To translate this approach into practice, new theoretically and empirically sound methods and models are required. This brief communication introduces a newly developed toolkit that has shown promise in facilitating person-centered education and active involvement of patients. Two health education models constituting the underlying basis for the toolkit are also presented.
Jensen, Natasja K.; Pals, Regitze Anne Saurbrey
Introduction Inadequate health literacy is a pervasive problem with major implications for reduced health status and health disparities. Despite the role of focused education in both primary and secondary prevention of stroke, the effect of health literacy on stroke education retention has not been reported. We examined the relationship of health literacy to the retention of knowledge after recommended stroke education. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at an urban safety-net hospital. Study subjects were patients older than 18 admitted to the hospital stroke unit with a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke who were able to provide informed consent to participate (N = 100). Health literacy levels were measured by using the short form of Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Patient education was provided to patients at an inpatient stroke unit by using standardized protocols, in compliance with Joint Commission specifications. The education outcomes for poststroke care education, knowledge retention, was assessed for each subject. The effect of health literacy on the Stroke Patient Education Retention scores was assessed by using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of the 100 participating patients, 59% had inadequate to marginal health literacy. Stroke patients who had marginal health literacy (mean score, 7.45; standard deviation [SD], 1.9) or adequate health literacy (mean score, 7.31; SD, 1.76) had statistically higher education outcome scores than those identified as having inadequate health literacy (mean score, 5.58; SD, 2.06). Results from multivariate analysis indicated that adequate health literacy was most predictive of education outcome retention. Conclusions This study demonstrated a clear relationship between health literacy and stroke education outcomes. Studies are needed to better understand the relationship of health literacy to key educational outcomes for primary or secondary prevention of stroke and to refine stroke education for literacy levels of high-risk populations. PMID:24721215
Schnepel, Loretta; Smotherman, Carmen; Livingood, William; Dodani, Sunita; Antonios, Nader; Lukens-Bull, Katryne; Balls-Berry, Joyce; Johnson, Yvonne; Miller, Terri; Hodges, Wayne; Falk, Diane; Wood, David; Silliman, Scott
Background Although there are screening tools to aid clinicians in assessing the risk of opioid misuse, an instrument to assess opioid-related knowledge is not currently available. The purpose of this study was to develop a content-valid, understandable, readable, and reliable Patient Opioid Education Measure (POEM). Methods Using concept mapping, clinicians caring for patients with chronic pain participated in brainstorming, sorting, and rating need-to-know information for patients prescribed opioids. Concept mapping analyses identified seven clusters addressing knowledge and expectations associated with opioid use, including medicolegal issues, prescribing policies, safe use and handling, expected outcomes, side effects, pharmacology, and warnings. Results The 49-item POEM was verbally administered to 83 patients (average age 51.3 ± 9.8 years, 77.1% female, 47.1% African American) taking opioids for chronic nonmalignant pain. Patients averaged in total 63.9% ± 14.3% (range 23%–91%) correct responses on the POEM. The POEM demonstrated substantial test-retest reliability (interclass correlation coefficient 0.87). The POEM had a mean readability Lexile (L) score of 805.9 ± 257.3 L (equivalent to approximately a US fifth grade reading level), with individual items ranging from 280 L to 1370 L. Conclusion The POEM shows promise for rapidly identifying patients’ opioid-related knowledge gaps and expectations. Correcting misunderstandings and gaps could result in safer use of opioids in a clinical care setting. PMID:24049456
Wallace, Lorraine S; Wexler, Randell K; Miser, W Frederick; McDougle, Leon; Haddox, J David
Background Nurses have a crucial role in patient education of children with type 1 diabetes, but they often exhibit lack of knowledge of the patient education process. This study aimed to describe an educational program to enhance empowering patient education process for the blood glucose monitoring education of school-age children and nurses’ perceptions of using empowering techniques. Methods An empowering patient education process for the diabetes education of school-age children was developed. The researcher collected nurse’s perceptions of managing the educational program by semi-structured interviews. Ten nurses carried out the diabetes education, and 8 of them participated in the interview. Three nurses implemented the diabetes education twice and were interviewed twice. The data consisted of 11 descriptions of the blood glucose monitoring education. The interviewer analyzed the data deductively and inductively by content analysis. Results Nurses described successful managing of the empowering patient education process. The need assessment consisted of using multiple methods and clarifying the capabilities and challenges of children and their parents. Planning manifested itself in adequate preparation and multiple objectives stated together with the family. Implementation comprised the relevant content, and the use of suitable teaching materials and methods. Evaluation was performed with various methods and documented accurately. Nurses also faced some challenges related to management and leadership, ambivalence with traditional and empowering patient education, and families’ overall situation. Conclusion An example of developing evidence-based patient education program is presented, but besides education other factors supporting changes in work practices should be considered in further development. PMID:23641969
Cancer education is a constantly evolving field, as science continues to advance both our understanding of cancer and its\\u000a effects on patients, families, and communities. Moving discoveries to practice expeditiously is paramount to impacting cancer\\u000a outcomes. The continuing education of cancer care professionals throughout their practice life is vital to facilitating the\\u000a adoption of therapeutic innovations. Meanwhile, more general educational
Lenora Johnson; Anita Ousley; Jeffrey Swarz; Raymond J. Bingham; J. Bianca Erickson; Steven Ellis; Terra Moody
Objective. To describe the planning, implementation, and outcomes of an interprofessional education clinical laboratory facilitated through human patient simulation. Design. An interprofessional education clinical laboratory was developed with a patient-care scenario of acute exacerbation of heart failure that incorporated the use of a high-fidelity patient simulator. Pharmacy and nursing students assumed clinical roles in this realistic scenario and collaborated to diagnose and treat the patient. Assessment. Student attitudes toward and readiness to participate in interprofessional education improved following participation in the laboratory. Students reported that the greatest benefit of the experience was in their communication skills. Conclusion. Students’ ability to participate in interprofessional education experiences and their attitudes toward them improved following participation in this curricular initiative. Further evaluation of the impact of interprofessional education on student learning outcomes and changes in practice is warranted. PMID:24954934
Chmil, Joyce V.
The development of therapeutic patient education for dialysis patients is recent and concerns mainly out-center patients. To our knowledge, only two papers centred on therapeutic education with out-center patients have been published. The particularities of this dialysis modality (unit close to the home, more autonomy, a nurse for six patients, organisation of unit, better quality of life and psychological status) highlight the interest to develop specific educational programs for patients treated in out-center sitting. The example of a program in Aquitaine (France) composed of mainly collective sessions (representations of the disease, dietetic recommendations, hygiene and protection of the vascular access, drugs compliance…) allows to propose several practical implications to initiate the development of specific programs in therapeutic education for out-center dialysis: educative sessions during the sessions of dialysis, group patients, multidisciplinary team, evaluation of the program from a medical and psychosocial point of view… PMID:21962639
Idier, Laëtitia; Larroumet, Nicole; Trolonge, Stanislas; Untas, Aurélie; Bildet, Jacques; Lespinasse, Lucile; Rascle, Nicole; Combe, Christian; Chauveau, Philippe
This study aimed to explore the conditions for nurses' daily patient education work by focusing on managers' way of speaking about the patient education provided by nurses in hospital care. An explorative, qualitative design with a social constructionist perspective was used. Data were collected from three focus group interviews and analysed by means of critical discourse analysis. Discursive practice can be explained by the ideology of hegemony. Due to a heavy workload and lack of time, managers could 'see' neither their role as a supporter of the patient education provided by nurses, nor their role in the development of nurses' pedagogical competence. They used organisational, financial, medical and legal reasons for explaining their failure to support nurses' provision of patient education. The organisational discourse was an umbrella term for 'things' such as cost-effectiveness, which were prioritised over patient education. There is a need to remove managerial barriers to the professional development of nurses' patient education. Managers should be responsible for ensuring and overseeing that nurses have the prerequisites necessary for providing patient education as well as for enabling continuous reflective dialogue and opportunities for learning in practice. PMID:25327764
Bergh, Anne-Louise; Friberg, Febe; Persson, Eva; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth
Patients with Type-2 diabetes present with a range of psychosocial symptoms that, in combination with social and organizational pressures, often serve to exacerbate the stress of diabetes educators and contribute to burnout. Some of the more salient sources of both patient and educator stress are elaborated upon, and the nature of parallel processes between these two groups is noted. A case illustration with a burned-out diabetes educator demonstrates how enhancing self-understanding and achieving a greater sense of balance can reduce symptoms of burnout, depression, and anxiety. This article highlights the need for educators, and more broadly all health professionals, to develop self-management skills. PMID:10852148
Spillover effects of exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of cancer treatments on patients' general inquiry about their treatments and managing their illness are not well understood. This study examines the effects of cancer patients' exposure to cancer-related DTCA on subsequent health information seeking behaviors from clinician and non-clinician sources (lay media and interpersonal contacts). Using a longitudinal survey design over 3 years, data was collected from cancer survivors diagnosed with colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer who were randomly sampled from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry. Study outcome measures include patients' information engagement with their clinicians and information seeking from non-medical sources about cancer treatment and quality of life issues, measured in the second survey. The predictor variable is the frequency of exposure to cancer-related DTCA since diagnosis, measured at the round 1 survey. The analyses utilized lagged-weighted multivariate regressions and adjusted for round 1 levels of patient-clinician engagement, information seeking from nonmedical sources, and confounders. Exposure to cancer-related DTCA is associated with increased levels of subsequent patient-clinician information engagement (B?=?.023, 95% CI?=?.005-.040, p?=?.012), controlling for confounders. In comparison, exposure to DTCA is marginally significant in predicting health information seeking from non-clinician sources (B?=?.009, 95% CI?=?-.001-.018, p?=?.067). Cancer-related DTCA has potentially beneficial spillover effects on health information seeking behaviors among cancer patients. Exposure to DTCA predicts (a little) more patient engagement with their physicians. PMID:24254248
Tan, Andy S L
Surveys 85 health care professionals on the learning difficulties of diabetic patients. Results show that educators find it easy to teach techniques: patients master procedures well and make few mistakes. In contrast, diabetic patients seem to have problems learning skills, such as insulin dose adjustment, that require complex problem-solving.…
Bonnet, Caroline; Gagnayre, Remi; d'Ivernois, Jean-Francois
The Norwegian driver education programme is extensive, systematic and comprehensive. The syllabus intentions have high expectations for pupil learning, and in the learning situation the ability of teachers to utilise dialogue as an effective learning tool is put to the test. Over a 5-year period we have studied learning situations in all areas of the Norwegian driver education programme. In this article we present findings based on observations of teacher-pupil interaction during on-road practice and discuss how teachers may form the dialogue into an effective learning tool in order to tap the learning potential that is embedded in driver education programmes. The education of responsible drivers requires that teacher-pupil dialogues bring about a shared understanding of a full traffic context during on-road practice. It becomes evident that different teacher supportive approaches pave the way to 'intersubjectivity' of occurring traffic contexts in qualitatively different ways. Teachers use both 'clarifying' and 'elaborative' processes to prepare the learner for responsible driving. The establishment of a mutual understanding is a continuous dialogical process in which concepts become mediating tools. How the two conceptual worlds of teacher and learner merge makes a basic level for subsequent scaffolding processes during on-road practice. PMID:17098203
Rismark, Marit; Sølvberg, Astrid M
Diabetes is a chronic, progressive disease that affects millions worldwide. The paradigm of diabetes management has shifted to focus on empowering the person with diabetes to manage the disease successfully and to improve their quality of life. Diabetes self-management education is a collaborative process through which people with diabetes gain the knowledge and skills needed to modify their behavior and to self-manage successfully the disease and its related conditions. Diabetes educators are health care professionals who apply in-depth knowledge and skills in the biological and social sciences, communication, counseling, and pedagogy to enable patients to manage daily and future challenges. Diabetes educators are integral in providing individualized education and promoting behavior change, using a framework of seven self-care behaviors known as the AADE7 Self-Care Behaviors™, developed by the American Association of Diabetes Educators. The iterative process of promoting behavior change includes assessment, goal setting, planning, implementation, evaluation, and documentation. Diabetes educators work as part of the patient’s health care team to engage with the patient in informed, shared decision making. The increasing prevalence of diabetes and the growing focus on its prevention require strategies for providing people with knowledge, skills, and strategies they need and can use. The diabetes educator is the logical facilitator of change. Access to diabetes education is critically important; incorporating diabetes educators into more and varied practice settings will serve to improve clinical and quality of life outcomes for persons with diabetes. PMID:24550679
Burke, Sandra D; Sherr, Dawn; Lipman, Ruth D
Cancer education is a constantly evolving field, as science continues to advance both our understanding of cancer and its effects on patients, families, and communities. Moving discoveries to practice expeditiously is paramount to impacting cancer outcomes. The continuing education of cancer care professionals throughout their practice life is vital to facilitating the adoption of therapeutic innovations. Meanwhile, more general educational programs serve to keep cancer patients, their families, and the public informed of the latest findings in cancer research. The National Cancer Institute conducted an assessment of the current knowledge base for cancer education which involved two literature reviews, one of the general literature of the evaluation of medical and health education efforts, and the other of the preceding 5 years of the Journal of Cancer Education (JCE). These reviews explored a wide range of educational models and methodologies. In general, those that were most effective used multiple methodologies, interactive techniques, and multiple exposures over time. Less than one third of the articles in the JCE reported on a cancer education or communication product, and of these, only 70% had been evaluated for effectiveness. Recommendations to improve the evaluation of cancer education and the educational focus of the JCE are provided. PMID:20953858
Johnson, Lenora; Ousley, Anita; Swarz, Jeffrey; Bingham, Raymond J; Erickson, J Bianca; Ellis, Steven; Moody, Terra
Alcohol-related problems are especially common among opioid treatment program (OTP) patients, suggesting that educating OTP patients about alcohol and its harmful effects needs to be a priority in OTPs. Using data collected in interviews with a nationwide U.S. sample of OTP directors (N = 200) in 25 states, we identified factors that differentiate…
Strauss, Shiela M.; Harris, Gavin; Katigbak, Carina; Rindskopf, David M.; Singh, Sheena; Greenblum, Ilana; Brown, Lawrence S.; Kipnis, Steven; Kritz, Steven A.; Parrino, Mark W.
Randomized clinical trials support the efficacy of a wide range of psycho-educational interventions. However, the mechanisms through which these interventions improve outcomes are not always clear. At times, the theoretically specified factors within interventions have been shown to have specific effects on patient outcomes. But it has also been argued that other factors not identified in the intervention theory (e.g. “non-specific” factors such as patient expectations and therapeutic patient-clinician alliances) have powerful “non-specific” effects that account for most, if not all, of the observed efficacy of psycho-educational interventions. This paper describes important concepts in this debate and discusses key issues in distinguishing between specific and non-specific effects of psycho-educational nursing interventions. Four examples are used to illustrate potential methods of identifying and controlling for non-specific effects in clinical intervention trials. PMID:19617580
Donovan, Heidi S.; Kwekkeboom, Kristine L.; Rosenzweig, Margaret Q.; Ward, Sandra E.
The development of patient education in hospitals received its first impetus in the U.S. For this reason, countries like the Netherlands where these developments tend to lag behind a bit, look to U.S. hospitals and literature for guidance on how to proceed in this matter. Although patient education in the U.S. has been steadily (and sometimes stealthily) creeping forward there
(Purpose) This article describes the basis for effective educational technology leadership and a few of the current initiatives and impacts that are a result of the aforementioned effective leadership. (Findings) Topics addressed in this paper include: (1) the role of the educational technology leader in an educational setting; (2) an examination…
Objectives: This review explores the challenges and solutions in educating patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to lower serum phosphorus while avoiding protein insufficiency and hypercalcemia. Methods: A literature search including terms “hyperphosphatemia,” “patient education,” “food fatigue,” “hypercalcemia,” and “phosphorus–protein ratio” was undertaken using PubMed. Results: Hyperphosphatemia is a strong predictor of mortality in advanced CKD and is remediated via diet, phosphorus binders, and dialysis. Dietary counseling should encourage the consumption of foods with the least amount of inorganic or absorbable phosphorus, low phosphorus-to-protein ratios, and adequate protein content, and discourage excessive calcium intake in high-risk patients. Emerging educational initiatives include food labeling using a “traffic light” scheme, motivational interviewing techniques, and the Phosphate Education Program – whereby patients no longer have to memorize the phosphorus content of each individual food component, but only a “phosphorus unit” value for a limited number of food groups. Phosphorus binders are associated with a clear survival advantage in CKD patients, overcome the limitations associated with dietary phosphorus restriction, and permit a more flexible approach to achieving normalization of phosphorus levels. Conclusion: Patient education on phosphorus and calcium management can improve concordance and adherence and empower patients to collaborate actively for optimal control of mineral metabolism. PMID:23667310
Objective To describe a process for developing low-literacy health education materials that increase knowledge and activate patients toward healthier behaviors. Methods We developed a theoretically informed process for developing educational materials. This process included convening a multidisciplinary creative team, soliciting stakeholder input, identifying key concepts to be communicated, mapping concepts to a behavioral theory, creating a supporting behavioral intervention, designing and refining materials, and assessing efficacy. Results We describe the use of this process to develop a diabetes self-management guide. Conclusions Developing low-literacy health education materials that will activate patients toward healthier behaviors requires attention to factors beyond reading level. PMID:17931139
Seligman, Hilary K.; Wallace, Andrea S.; DeWalt, Darren A.; Schillinger, Dean; Arnold, Connie L.; Shilliday, Betsy Bryant; Delgadillo, Adriana; Bengal, Nikki; Davis, Terry C.
This session will be based on three presentations that focus on the relationship between liberal education, effective practice and diversity from different perspectives. George Kuh will present data indicating that the educational benefits of \\
Armando Bengochea; George Kuh; Steve Stemler
Patient education is important for the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs). The usefulness of available patient education materials is unclear. Using a validated evaluation tool, the Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool, we systematically assessed patient education materials for SSI. We found that available materials performed poorly, and further research is needed in this area. PMID:25541334
Zellmer, Caroline; Zimdars, Peggy; Parker, Sarah; Safdar, Nasia
Computer-based patient information systems are introduced to replace traditional forms of patient education like brochures, leaflets, videotapes and, to a certain extent, face-to-face communication. In this paper, we claim that though computer-based patient information systems potentially have many advantages compared to traditional means, the surplus value of these systems is much harder to realize than often expected. By reporting on
Arjen P. Stoop; Annemarie van’t Riet; Marc Berg
Assesses whether concept maps used with diabetic patients could describe their cognitive structure, before and after having followed an educational program. Involves 10 diabetic patients and shows that concept maps can be a suitable technique to explore the type and organization of the patients' prior knowledge and to visualize what they have…
Marchand, C.; d'Ivernois, J. F.; Assal, J. P.; Slama, G.; Hivon, R.
Managers trained in executive education programs (n=203) identified ways in which management education can increase an organization's competitive advantage: exposure to new ideas and practices, skill development, and motivation. Characteristics of effective management education included experience-based learning orientation, credible instructors,…
Longenecker, Clinton O.; Ariss, Sonny S.
The leadership organization focuses on education, teamwork, customer relationship and developing strategy which help in building added value, in managing activities, time and quality. Everyday orthopedic experience shows that medical education is a mixture of: specific knowledge, skills and attitudes of people working together, and that creates effective teamwork in a hospital environment. Apart from the main reason of medical education, teaching about disease treatment and health problem solving, medical education should also concentrate on human factors and behavioral aspects of patient treatment in hospital.Assessment of an organization and medical education process by cultural and teamwork criteria, offers a powerful new way to think about performance at the frontlines of healthcare and in the future it could be gold standard for assessing the success of an organization, and standards in medical education, not only in orthopedics.
Rosiek, Anna; Leksowski, Krzysztof
Many studies have tested clinical and behavioral approaches for improving glycemic control in people with diabetes. We review research to identify how blood glucose (BG) values have been used in patient-focused clinical research and interventions. We sought to describe the frequency that BG values have been the focus of patient education research and to characterize the different methods to integrate BG into an intervention, the approaches implemented to support patient education and behavior change, and the nature of communication about BG values. Thirty-four eligible studies were identified that included patient education using BG values. Information regarding the study and intervention characteristics include: 1) Characteristics of the study sample, 2) How BG values were obtained, 3) Use of a graphical interface for BG values, 4) Use of a BG log, 5) BG interpretation and regimen adjustments, 6) Recommended actions to patient, 7) Modality of intervention, and 8) Intervention communication schedule. The review demonstrated that new BG technologies provide outstanding opportunities for greater access to BG data, and for patient support and intervention. However, it also indicated a need to improve and expand support for people with diabetes in their daily use of BG values to maintain and improve glycemic control. In order to make the most sustainable impact on behavior, generalizable skills such as problem solving need to be integrated into BG education. PMID:24057927
Kumah-Crystal, Yaa; Mulvaney, Shelagh
There is increasing evidence that physical exercise leads to numerous positive effects in PwMS. However, long-term effects of exercise may only be achievable if training is implemented in daily routine. Enabling patients to exercise regularly, we developed a patient education program focused on evidence-based information of training. PwMS were educated in neurophysiological effects of physical exercise, exercise-induced benefits for PwMS, and risk factors (e.g., weather). Fifteen PwMS were analyzed before (T0) and after (T1) a 12-week patient education. Afterwards, participants performed their exercises autonomously for 32 weeks and were tested in sustainability tests (T2). Guided interviews were carried out, additionally. Significant improvements from T0 to T1 were found in 6MWT, gait velocity, TUG, fatigue, and quality of life. Significant results of TUG and gait velocity from T1 to T2 demonstrated that participants kept few effects after the 32-week training phase. Qualitative analyses showed improved self-confidence and identified training strategies and barriers. This pilot study provides evidence that PwMS are able to acquire good knowledge about physical exercise and apply this knowledge successfully in training management. One might conclude that this exercise-based patient education seems to be a feasible option to maintain or improve patients' integral constitution concerning physical and mental health. PMID:25587449
Mahli, Mohammed; Drosselmeyer, Julia; Lutz, Christina; Liebherr, Magnus; Schubert, Patric; Haas, Christian T.
Epilepsy is a costly diagnosis, with emergency room (ER) visits and hospital admissions comprising a large portion of total direct cost. An educational intervention to decrease the number of ER visits was implemented on outpatients with epilepsy, using educational handouts and DVD. The number of ER visits declined significantly in the four months following intervention compared with the preceding four months. This finding supports patient education as a valuable tool to reduce ER use, which may, in turn, cut down on health-care cost. PMID:25499153
Pascual, Franchette T; Hoang, Kathy; Hollen, Christopher; Swearingen, Richard; Hakimi, Andrea S; King, Jeanne Ann; Thompson, David
Introduction: A search of the literature on the cost of patient education found that provider education time per patient per day was rarely reported and usually not derivable from published reports. Costs of continuing education needed by health professionals to support patient education also were not given. Without this information, it is…
Williams, Arthur R.; McDougall, John C.; Bruggeman, Sandra K.; Erwin, Patricia J.; Kroshus, Margo E.; Naessens, James M.
Over the past 2 decades, e-learning has evolved as a new pedagogy within pharmacy education. As learners and teachers increasingly seek e-learning opportunities for an array of educational and individual benefits, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. This systematic review of the literature examines the quality of e-learning effectiveness studies in pharmacy, describes effectiveness measures, and synthesizes the evidence for each measure. E-learning in pharmacy education effectively increases knowledge and is a highly acceptable instructional format for pharmacists and pharmacy students. However, there is limited evidence that e-learning effectively improves skills or professional practice. There is also no evidence that e-learning is effective at increasing knowledge long term; thus, long-term follow-up studies are required. Translational research is also needed to evaluate the benefits of e-learning at patient and organizational levels. PMID:24850945
Karia, Ajay; Sanfilippo, Frank M.; Clifford, Rhonda M.
Purpose The aim of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of patient education methods on quality of life and functional impairment\\u000a of patients with schizophrenia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A multicentre, randomized controlled trial was carried out in two psychiatric hospitals in Finland from March 2005 to October\\u000a 2007. A total of 311 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder or delusional disorder
Anneli PitkanenMaritta; Maritta Välimäki; Lauri Kuosmanen; Jouko Katajisto; Marita Koivunen; Heli Hätönen; Anita Patel; Martin Knapp
Results of a joint meeting between national advisory councils in medicine and nursing on physician-nurse collaboration to enhance patient safety are reported. Recommendations on which participants reached consensus are organized by these Institute of Medicine (IOM) themes: establish a national focus to create leadership through research and…
National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice, Rockville, MD.
Online education has emerged as an effective and increasingly common alternative to face-to-face instruction in postsecondary education. This article is a summary of effective practices in online instructional methods, including course design, interaction among course participants, and instructor preparation and support.
Crawford-Ferre, Heather Glynn; Wiest, Lynda R.
Findings of a study that evaluated the effectiveness of the Minnesota Education Effectiveness Program (MEEP) are presented in this report. MEEP is a school-based program designed to improve the Minnesota educational system and is facilitated through ongoing staff development processes. The participating schools are supported by a statewide network…
Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement.
Background: Falls are a common adverse event during hospitalization of older adults, and few interventions have been shown to prevent hem.\\u000aMethods: This study was a 3-group randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of 2 forms of multimedia patient education compared with usual care for the prevention of in-hospital falls. Older hospital patients (n = 1206) admitted to a mixture
Terry P Haines; Anne-Marie Hill; Keith D Hill; Steven McPhail; David Oliver; Sandra Brauer; Tammy Hoffmann; Christopher Beer
Prognosis for heart failure is linked to patient's compliance. Compliance is also dependent from patient education about his disease and treatment. Therapeutic education could be done in a community hospital but needs a lot of time. However, therapeutic education for heart failure patients becomes more and more essential in clinical practice and improves patient knowledge and implication and hospitalization duration. PMID:14714349
Jourdain, P; Funck, F; Bellorini, M; Neau, S; Mat, H; Abdelmoumene, N; Pege, C; Piccini, A; Astred, A; Thebault, B; Loiret, J; Guillard, N; Desnos, M
The design of current educational initiatives for heart surgery patients is based on feedback from individuals of Western European origin. The relevance of these initiatives is unknown when provided to individuals from non-Western European cultures. This study examined the cultural relevance of heart surgery patient educational initiatives delivered to individuals of diverse backgrounds. It used a non-experimental descriptive design involving 252 participants. Cultural relevance was assessed through self-care behaviours performed as recommended in the educational initiative. The participants of non-Western European origin were found to engage in more work-related activities and fewer self-care behaviours than their Western European counterparts in the first week following hospital discharge, indicating lack of adherence to educational recommendations. The study provides preliminary evidence suggesting that current self-care educational initiatives may not be culturally relevant. Continued evaluation to determine reasons why specific cultural groups engage in specific types of behaviour is needed. PMID:22679846
Fredericks, Suzanne; Sidani, Souraya; Vahabi, Mandana; Micevski, Vaska
A study was conducted to determine the SMOG readability formula scores of currently available patient education materials. It was hypothesized that the reading level of the materials would be higher than 7.5, the reading level of the average American citizen; and that there would be a significant reduction in the measured document reading levels…
Mathews, Paul J.; And Others
Adaptive Patient Education Framework Featuring Personalized Cardiovascular Risk Management Interventions Selena Davis and Syed Sibte Raza Abidi Health Informatics Laboratory, Faculty of Computer Science of cardiovascular risk. We present a web-based adaptive hypermedia system to create and deliver the personalized
Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza
Eye Problems Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Reviewed 10/09/2013 Page 1 of 2 Most people take their eyes and eyesight for granted--that is, until they encounter eye problems. Whether it is an eye infection, accidental injury, allergic reaction, or a small blood vessel breaking, it is important
Eye Problems Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Reviewed 09/14/2011 Page 1 of 2 Most people take their eyes and eyesight for granted--that is, until they encounter eye problems. Whether it is an eye infection, accidental injury, allergic reaction, or a small blood vessel breaking, it is important
Simulation is used widely in medical and health professions educational programs. Standardized patients (SPs) are individuals who are trained to simulate specific symptoms or conditions as part of a structured learning experience with students. In this qualitative, phenomenological study the researcher interviewed 8 first-year graduate art therapy…
Johnson, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Helen; Deaver, Sarah; Johansson, Mark; Calisch, Abby
Currently patient education programs and urology practices provide individuals with "lists of foods to avoid" for dietary management of kidney stones. However, "planned diets" that include daily meal plans and recipes provide structure and specificity for diet management and are preferred by many individuals. This article describes the development…
Dennison, Darwin; Mayo, M. Leah; Abraham, Victor E.
The purpose of this study was to understand and compare patient and staff perceptions of a video-based preparatory education tool for head and neck radiotherapy. Patients and staff completed a questionnaire assessing their perceptions of whether the education tool was relevant, clear, complete and reassuring. Staff rated the video's accuracy and anticipated impact on future patient information needs. Demographic information was collected. Open-ended questions were used to elicit additional feedback. Quantitative responses from 50 patients and 48 staff were very positive and not significantly different between the two groups. Content analysis of the qualitative data provided insight into the information and approaches valued by patients and staff and how these differed. Staff members were more critical of the production quality and completeness of information related to procedures and treatment side effects. Patients valued seeing procedures acted out and desired more information about what these experiences would feel like and how to engage in self-care. Although staff-driven development may be an effective method of designing the content and approach of a preparatory education video, care should be taken to consider differences between patient and staff perceptions of information needs. PMID:23784367
Morley, Lyndon; McAndrew, Alison; Tse, Karen; Rakaric, Peter; Cummings, Bernard; Cashell, Angela
In my commentary in response to the 3 articles (McKenzie & Lounsbery, 2013; Rink, 2013; Ward, 2013), I focus on 3 areas: (a) content knowledge, (b) a holistic approach to physical education, and (c) policy impact. I use the term quality teaching rather than "teacher effectiveness." Quality teaching is a term with the potential to move our attention beyond a focus merely on issues of effectiveness relating to the achievement of prespecified objectives. I agree with Ward that teacher content knowledge is limited in physical education, and I argue that if the student does not have a connection to or relationship with the content, this will diminish their learning gains. I also argue for a more holistic approach to physical education coming from a broader conception. Physical educators who teach the whole child advocate for a plethora of physical activity, skills, knowledge, and positive attitudes that foster healthy and active playful lifestyles. Play is a valuable educational experience. I also endorse viewing assessment from different perspectives and discuss assessment through a social-critical political lens. The 3 articles also have implications for policy. Physical education is much broader than just physical activity, and we harm the future potential of our field if we adopt a narrow agenda. Looking to the future, I propose that we broaden the kinds of research that we value, support, and appreciate in our field. PMID:25098010
‘Changing Minds’: determining the effectiveness and key ingredients of an educational intervention to enhance healthcare professionals’ intentions to prescribe physical activity to patients with physical disabilities
Background Healthcare professionals (HCPs) are vital conduits of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) information; however, few discuss LTPA with their patients with disabilities. ‘Changing Minds, Changing Lives’ (CMCL) is a nationwide, theory- and evidence-based seminar aimed at increasing LTPA-discussion among HCPs by enhancing their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control (PBC), and intentions. The purposes of the current study were to: examine the effectiveness and short- and long-term maintenance of a CMCL seminar on HCPs’ social cognitions to discuss LTPA; and explore key implementation variables that predict changes in HCPs’ social cognitions. Methods Prior-to, as well as immediately, one, and six months following a CMCL seminar, 97 HCPs (Mage ± SD = 36.23 ± 10.42; 69.0% female; 97.9% Caucasian; 38.1% rehabilitation therapists; years in profession = 11.56 ± 9.94) from five Canadian provinces completed questionnaires that assessed the Theory of Planned Behaviour constructs with regard to discussing LTPA with their patients with a physical disability. Key presenter characteristics and intervention delivery components were extracted from presenter demographic questionnaires and seminar checklists, respectively. Separate repeated-measures ANOVAs and post-hoc t-tests evaluated changes in HCPs’ social cognitions. Hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to predict intentions and to understand which implementation variables may help explain significant changes in social cognitions. Results Significant increases in HCPs’ social cognitions for discussing LTPA were reported from pre- to post-seminar (ps <0.002); however, increases were not maintained at follow-up. PBC emerged as the strongest predictor of participants’ post-CMCL intentions (? = 0.45, p <0.001). Although several implementation characteristics were related to changes in perceptions, the number of seminars the presenter delivered was the only significant negative predictor of post-seminar PBC (? = -0.18, p <0.05). Conclusions Future iterations of the CMCL intervention should include additional strategies to sustain improvements in HCPs’ social cognitions over time. Future CMCL evaluations should measure additional implementation variables so that the key ingredients for ‘Changing Minds’ can continue to be investigated. PMID:24581329
Objective: The current research was designed to develop a health education programme for type 2 diabetes mellitus based on the Taba-Tyler model and to evaluate its effect. Design: The study was quasi-experimental in design. Setting: Fifty-five patients from the Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit, University Hospital of Ankara. Method: An education…
Atak, Nazli; Arslan, Umit
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer among women is a relatively common with a more favorable expected survival rates than other forms of cancers. This study aimed to determine the improved quality of life for post-mastectomy women through peer education. METHODS: Using pre and post test follow up and control design approach, 99 women with stage I and II of breast cancer diagnosis
Farkhondeh Sharif; Narjes Abshorshori; Sedigheh Tahmasebi; Maryam Hazrati; Najaf Zare; Sarah Masoumi
Background Breast cancer among women is a relatively common with a more favorable expected survival rates than other forms of cancers. This study aimed to determine the improved quality of life for post-mastectomy women through peer education. Methods Using pre and post test follow up and control design approach, 99 women with stage I and II of breast cancer diagnosis were followed one year after modified radical mastectomy. To measure the quality of life an instrument designed by the European organization for research and treatment of cancer, known as the Quality of Life Question (QLQ-30) and it's breast cancer supplementary measure (QLQ-BR23) at three points in time (before, immediately and two months after intervention) for both groups were used. The participant selection was a convenient sampling method and women were randomly assigned into two experimental and control groups. The experimental group was randomly assigned to five groups and peer educators conducted weekly educational programs for one month. Tabulated data were analyzed using chi square, t test, and repeated measurement multivariate to compare the quality of life differences over time. Results For the experimental group, the results showed statistically significant improvement in all performance aspects of life quality and symptom reduction (P < 0.001), while the control group had no significant differences in all aspects of life quality. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that peer led education is a useful intervention for post-mastectomy women to improves their quality of life. PMID:20653966
This paper reviewed 33 empirical studies which assessed the effectiveness of sex education. Methodological issues were considered within six sections: (a) populations, (b) instructors, (c) program formats, (d) time format, (e) program goals, and (f) outcome measures. College students were the most frequently assessed population, followed by educators and counselors, and then medical-school populations. Most investigators did not include control
Peter R. Kilmann; Richard L. Wanlass; Robert F. Sabalis; Bernard Sullivan
This article synthesizes the series of manuscripts on teacher effectiveness in physical education recently published by the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport and highlights both the consensus and points of disagreement. Although there is much agreement as to the mission to develop a physically active lifestyle, there is a great deal of disagreement on how to get there, which makes the task of measuring effectiveness difficult. The current reform effort in education to measure teacher effectiveness makes it essential that professionals in physical education at all levels be participants in this process. PMID:25141080
Purpose The aims of this study were to investigate the efficacy of combining the systematized behavioral modification program (SBMP) with desmopressin therapy and to compare this with desmopressin monotherapy in the treatment of nocturnal polyuria (NPU). Methods Patients were randomized at 8 centers to receive desmopressin monotherapy (group A) or combination therapy, comprising desmopressin and the SBMP (group B). Nocturia was defined as an average of 2 or more nightly voids. The primary endpoint was a change in the mean number of nocturnal voids from baseline during the 3-month treatment period. The secondary endpoints were changes in the bladder diary parameters and questionnaires scores, and improvements in self-perception for nocturia. Results A total of 200 patients were screened and 76 were excluded from the study, because they failed the screening process. A total of 124 patients were randomized to receive treatment, with group A comprising 68 patients and group B comprising 56 patients. The patients' characteristics were similar between the groups. Nocturnal voids showed a greater decline in group B (-1.5) compared with group A (-1.2), a difference that was not statistically significant. Significant differences were observed between groups A and B with respect to the NPU index (0.37 vs. 0.29, P=0.028), the change in the maximal bladder capacity (-41.3 mL vs. 13.3 mL, P<0.001), and the rate of patients lost to follow up (10.3% [7/68] vs. 0% [0/56], P=0.016). Self-perception for nocturia significantly improved in both groups. Conclusions Combination treatment did not have any additional benefits in relation to reducing nocturnal voids in patients with NPU; however, combination therapy is helpful because it increases the maximal bladder capacity and decreases the NPI. Furthermore, combination therapy increased the persistence of desmopressin in patients with NPU. PMID:25558419
Cho, Sung Yong; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Kim, Jang Hwan; Seo, Ju Tae; Choo, Myung-Soo; Kim, Joon Chul; Choi, Jong Bo; Song, Miho; Chun, Ji-Youn
Only 3% of women with breast cancer participate in cancer clinical trials nationwide. The lack of awareness about clinical trials is a significant barrier towards clinical trials participation. A study was conducted at a large urban Comprehensive Cancer Center to test (1) the effectiveness of an 18-min educational video on improving attitudes toward clinical trials and trials enrollment among new breast cancer patients seen at the Karmanos Cancer Institute, and (2) to assess racial differences in attitudes regarding clinical trials. Participants were randomized to either the educational intervention prior to their first oncology clinic appointment or to standard care. A baseline and 2-week post-intervention survey to assess attitudes toward clinical trials participation was completed by participants. Of 218 subjects recruited, 196 (55% white vs. 45% African American (AA)) eligible patients were included in the analysis. A small increase in therapeutic clinical trial enrollment was observed in the intervention arm but was not statistically significant (10.4% vs. 6.1%; P = 0.277). The intervention also did not result in a clear improvement in patients' attitudes toward clinical trials at posttest. However, a lower enrollment rate for the AA women was noted after adjusting for stage (OR = 0.282, P = 0.049). Significantly more negative scores were noted in 3 out of the 5 baseline attitudinal scales for AA women. The educational video did not significantly increase enrollment in breast cancer clinical trials. The findings that AA women had significantly more negative attitudes toward clinical trials than white women may partially explain the racial disparity in enrollment. An educational video remains a simple and cost-effective way to educate patients. Future studies should focus on designing a new educational video to specifically target cultural and attitudinal barriers in the AA population to more effectively change attitudes and increase trial enrollment. PMID:19152024
Du, Wei; Mood, Darlene; Gadgeel, Shirish; Simon, Michael S
The Enhancing Patient Prenatal Education study tested the feasibility and educational impact of an interactive program for patient prenatal genetic screening and testing education. Patients at two private practices and one public health clinic participated (N = 207). The program collected knowledge and measures of anxiety before and after use of…
Griffith, Jennifer M.; Sorenson, James R.; Bowling, J. Michael; Jennings-Grant, Tracey
The purpose of this paper is to help public health actors with an interest in health promotion and health care professionals involved in therapeutic education to develop and implement an educational strategy consistent with their vision of health and health care. First, we show that the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the French Charter for Popular Education share common values. Second, an examination of the career and work of Paulo Freire, of Ira Shor's pedagogical model and of the person-centered approach of Carl Rogers shows how the work of educational practitioners, researchers and theorists can help health professionals to implement a truly "health-promoting" or "therapeutic" educational strategy. The paper identifies a number of problems facing health care professionals who become involved in education without reflecting on the values underlying the pedagogical models they use. PMID:24313072
The patient therapeutic education (PTE) was given a definition by the WHO in 1998. PTE aims to enable the patient suffering from a chronic disease, to acquire skills to manage his illness and treatment, and prevent avoidable complications, while keeping or improving his quality of life. The various programs which were developped, mainly at hospital, were uncoordinated, heterogeneous, and with variable quality. In this context, during the year 2007, the High Authority for Health (HAS) issued five documents which gave a methodological framework for development of PTE and provided tools for those who want to develop and implement such programs. Development prospects, opened by the HAS will be enriched by the recommendations of health professionals including pharmacists, and also of patients through their associations, particularly in terms of organization, quality, training, so that PTE will become an integral part of the hospital or ambulatory care of patients suffering from chronic illness. PMID:19061731
Background Health literacy is the single best predictor of an individual’s health status. It is important to customize health-related\\u000a education material to the individual patient’s level of reading skills. Readability of a given text is the objective measurement\\u000a of the reading skills one should possess to understand the written material.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes In this article, some of the commonly used readability assessment tools
Sameer Badarudeen; Sanjeev Sabharwal
Study Design. Analysis of spinal cord injury patient education resources.Objective. To assess the quality of online patient education materials written about spinal cord injury.Summary of Background Data. The use of online materials by healthcare consumers to access medical information presents unique challenges. Most Americans have access to the Internet and frequently turn to it as a first-line resource.Methods. The quality of online patient education materials was evaluated via a readability analysis. Materials provided by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS); Centers for Disease Control (CDC); American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS); National Spinal Cord Injury Association (NSCIA); Mayo Clinic (Mayo); Department of Veterans Affairs (VA); Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation (Kessler); American Academy of Neurology (AAN); Paralyzed Veterans of America (PVA); and the Shepherd Center (SC) were assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level evaluations with Microsoft Office Word software. Unnecessary formatting was removed and the readability was evaluated with the Spelling and Grammar function.Results. A total of 104 sections from 10 different websites were analyzed. Overall, the average values of the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (11.9) and Flesch Reading Ease (40.2) indicated that most Americans would not be able to fully comprehend this material.Conclusion. Results indicate that the language used on materials provided by the aforementioned sites is perhaps too advanced for the average American to fully comprehend. The quality of these education resources may be improved via website revisions, which might be beneficial for improved patient utilization. PMID:24718059
Agarwal, Nitin; Hansberry, David R; Singh, Priyanka L; Heary, Robert F; Goldstein, Ira M
We assessed the effect of a kiosk educational module on HIV screening rates and patient knowledge about HIV testing. The evaluation was performed in a walk-in clinic offering routine HIV screening. During alternating two-week periods, patients were referred either to view a kiosk-based, educational module prior to receiving usual care, or the kiosk module was turned off and no alterations to care processes were made. The primary outcome was HIV testing rate. The secondary outcome was knowledge about HIV rapid screening, as measured with a questionnaire. There were 71 patients in the kiosk periods and 79 patients in the usual-care periods. The overall HIV testing rate was 41%. The kiosk period was not associated with greater odds of HIV testing (OR 0.7; 95% CI: 0.4-1.4). In 44 patients who completed the knowledge survey, the kiosk group was strongly associated with increased knowledge (predicted increase in knowledge score: 1.3; 95% CI: 036-2.1). The brief kiosk educational module did not improve HIV screening rates, but it increased overall patient knowledge about HIV testing. PMID:21967998
Saifu, Hemen N; Shamouelian, Albert; Davis, Lisa G; Santana-Rios, Elizabeth; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Asch, Steven M; Sun, Benjamin C
The development of online virtual patients has proved to be an effective vehicle for pedagogical and technological skills transfer and capacity building for medical and healthcare educators in Malawi. A project between the University of Edinburgh and the University of Malawi has delivered more than 20 collaboratively developed, virtual patients, contextualised for in-country medical and healthcare education and, more significantly, a cadre of healthcare professionals skilled in developing digital resources and integrating these into their emerging curricula. The process of engaging with new approaches to teaching and delivering personalised, context sensitive content via a game-informed, technology-supported process has contributed to the ability of healthcare educators in Malawi to drive pedagogical change, meet the substantial challenges of delivering new curricula, cope with increasing student numbers and promote teacher professional development. This initial phase of the project has laid the foundation for a broader second phase that focuses on promoting curriculum change, developing educational infrastructure and in-country capacity to create, and integrate digital resources into education and training across multi-professional groups and across educational levels. PMID:19811208
Dewhurst, David; Borgstein, Eric; Grant, Mary E; Begg, Michael
The Law to Improve the Rights of Patients came into force with the promulgation in the German Federal Law Gazette on February 25, 2013. Thus administrations of medical institutions and doctors of all disciplines should acquaint themselves with the statutory regulations and their impact on the daily practice. The present article describes and explains the statutory regulations concerning patient education and treatment documentation. PMID:23888409
Meltendorf, Gerhard; Meltendorf, Christian
Background Chronic heart failure requires a complex treatment regimen on a life-long basis. Therefore, self-care/self-management is an essential part of successful treatment and comprehensive patient education is warranted. However, specific information on program features and educational strategies enhancing treatment success is lacking. This trial aims to evaluate a patient-oriented and theory-based self-management educational group program as compared to usual care education during inpatient cardiac rehabilitation in Germany. Methods/Design The study is a multicenter cluster randomized controlled trial in four cardiac rehabilitation clinics. Clusters are patient education groups that comprise HF patients recruited within 2 weeks after commencement of inpatient cardiac rehabilitation. Cluster randomization was chosen for pragmatic reasons, i.e. to ensure a sufficient number of eligible patients to build large-enough educational groups and to prevent contamination by interaction of patients from different treatment allocations during rehabilitation. Rehabilitants with chronic systolic heart failure (n?=?540) will be consecutively recruited for the study at the beginning of inpatient rehabilitation. Data will be assessed at admission, at discharge and after 6 and 12 months using patient questionnaires. In the intervention condition, patients receive the new patient-oriented self-management educational program, whereas in the control condition, patients receive a short lecture-based educational program (usual care). The primary outcome is patients’ self-reported self-management competence. Secondary outcomes include behavioral determinants and self-management health behavior (symptom monitoring, physical activity, medication adherence), health-related quality of life, and treatment satisfaction. Treatment effects will be evaluated separately for each follow-up time point using multilevel regression analysis, and adjusting for baseline values. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a comprehensive self-management educational program by a cluster randomized trial within inpatient cardiac rehabilitation in Germany. Furthermore, subgroup-related treatment effects will be explored. Study results will contribute to a better understanding of both the effectiveness and mechanisms of a self-management group program as part of cardiac rehabilitation. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00004841; WHO International Clinical Trials: = DRKS00004841 PMID:23968340
While student-run clinics are often important healthcare safety nets for underserved populations, their efficacy for improving patient health knowledge has not been thoroughly explored. From September 2011 to April 2012, we assessed patients' retention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) knowledge after receiving student-led education at two student-run HBV screening and vaccination clinics. Patient education was provided by trained first and second-year medical, nursing, and pharmacy students, aided by a script and interpreters. Patient knowledge of HBV was evaluated at three points: before education, after the initial visit, and at one-month follow-up. Student-led education produced improved knowledge of HBV transmission, prevention, and management, which was retained 1 month after education for 52 patients tracked through time. Mean scores on an HBV knowledge survey improved from 56.4 % (SD = 15.2 %) at baseline to 66.6 % (SD = 15.1 %) after education, and 68.3 % (SD = 15.2 %) after one month. There was a statistically significant difference between the first and second (paired T test, p < 0.001) and the first and third tests (paired T test, p < 0.001), but no difference between the second and third tests (paired T test, p = 0.45). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that retention was correlated with patient educational background but independent of patient age, gender, income, primary language and number of years lived in the United States. Our study suggests that trained health professional students can effectively impart health knowledge that is retained by patients for at least 1 month. These results warrant consideration of student-led educational sessions at SRCs as a promising community health education model. PMID:23161212
Ouyang, David; Yuan, Neal; Sheu, Leslie; Lau, Gary; Chen, Cheng; Lai, Cindy J
Patient education is a crucial aspect of nursing practice, but much of the research about it is quantitative and has been conducted in urban medical centers. These urban-based studies have limited utility for nurses working in rural hospitals where the populations they serve often have unique and challenging health contexts and cultures. Since…
Scheckel, Martha; Hedrick-Erickson, Jennifer; Teunis, Jamie; Deutsch, Ashley; Roers, Anna; Willging, Anne; Pittman, Kelly
Introduction: Despite an explosion of interest in improving safety and reducing error in health care, one important aspect of patient safety that has received little attention is a systematic approach to education and training for the whole health care workforce. This article describes an evaluation of an innovative multiprofessional, team-based…
Slater, Beverley L.; Lawton, Rebecca; Armitage, Gerry; Bibby, John; Wright, John
Written information, as well as movie and video film, and computer programs have been used for information and education of patients. CD-ROM is now about to be used for the same purpose. The CD has several advantages over computer programs, such as high capacity and low production, duplication and distribution costs. It is unerasable and insensitive to electromagnetic forces. Heart failure (HF) is a common disease with poor prognosis. Due to diagnostic and treatment improvements new guidelines on evaluation and care of patients with HF have been published. Some advocate educational programs as a routine part of the care. Patients with HF (mostly elderly persons) use many drugs and need considerable education for effective self-care. To improve HF patients' knowledge of the disease and the drug treatment of the disease we have made an interactive, computer generated education program which is presented on a Kodak Photo CD Portfolio disc. The major steps and efforts in the development of the program, which uses a new principle, are explained, including some hardware and software issues. The program can be viewed on an ordinary TV set and run by the patients themselves. Unlike many educational products for health care professionals and patients, this product has now been included in a randomised patient education trial. PMID:9006236
Liedholm, H; Linné, A B; Agélii, L
ISIS is a patient education computer program about hypertension. It aims to be complementary to the habitual educational techniques by bringing into patient education the facility of multimedia features. Its efficiency in improving the knowledge about hypertension was tested among 158 hypertensive patients. Their prior knowledge was evaluated using a questionnaire. They were then randomly separated in a control group (CG) which had the regular education program and ISIS group or (IG) which, in addition, had an interactive session using ISIS. Two months after discharge, all the patients were asked the same questions over the telephone. A total of 138 observations (69 CG, 69 IG) were reported in the final analysis. The initial scores were significantly improved for both groups. The improvement is more evident in the IG, particularly among patients whose initial score was low and patients whose hypertension was discovered for more than 6 months. ISIS is actually used by hospitalized patients and by nurse students. PMID:7949841
Ben Said, M.; Consoli, S.; Jean, J.
The goal of this study was to explore the educational experiences of adolescent cancer patients in treatment for cancer and enrolled in hospital, homebound, or community schools. The incidence of students who have or had cancer is becoming more prevalent in schools today because of increases in the population, the incidence rate of cancer, and the survival rate of cancer. The number of students surviving cancer has increased over 41% in the past ten years and underscores the importance of assuring an excellent education to children and adolescents with cancer so that they may enjoy a good quality of life as long-term survivors. This study explored the educational experiences of students who were adolescent cancer patients and identified educational and psychosocial issues important to their success. The goal of this research effort was to provide educators and medical staff with a deeper understanding of the unique psychoeducational needs of this population and to provide a foundation for developing ideas for improving the educational programs and support available to students who continue their middle and high school education while undergoing treatment for cancer. Participants included ten cancer patient whose mean age at onset of disease was 13.8 +/- 1.7 years, and mean age at interview was 15.2 +/- 1.8 years. The researcher conducted individual, in-depth, ethnographic interviews of students, and one parent and one teacher of each student. Case studies of the students included extensive dialogue of each of the contributing participants. An analysis of the case studies was conducted by coding emerging themes so that topics could be fully explored and compared between individuals, groups of individuals, and educational settings to identify the meaning that these students placed on the educational and psychosocial issues that they voiced as important. Advantages and disadvantages of each educational situation, homebound, hospital school, and community school, were compared. Psychosocial issues related to education were discussed. Additional findings included information about student computer use and information gathering, and the effects of cancer treatment on student interest in science and future occupational plans.
Searle, Nancy Smith
This pilot study assessed the impact of an intensive carbohydrate counting educational intervention on diabetes control in type 2 diabetic patients. An experimental, prospective study design was used to assess the effect of nutritional education on diabetes control. The impact and efficacy of the education were measured over a 1-year period through changes in diabetes clinical markers, including hemoglobin A1c, lipid profiles, glucose levels, patients’ energy levels, and sense of well-being. Six patients were initially enrolled in the pilot study, with only three patients completing the intervention phase and the 3-month follow-up. Two patients were followed-up at the 1-year mark for their diabetes, although neither continued participation in the study beyond the 3-month mark. Marginal improvements in clinical markers at 3 months were found. However, due to the small sample size, changes in the clinical profiles may have occurred because of variables unrelated to the nutritional intervention. Further research is indicated for the control of these variables. PMID:21311697
Zipp, Christopher; Roehr, Jessica Terrone; Weiss, Lucia Beck; Filipetto, Frank
Conceived by the Minnesota State Legislature, the Minnesota Educational Effectiveness Program is a school improvement and staff development program. Its participants perceive the program as a method for identifying areas of concern and for providing staff with the processes to effect change. As of September 1987, 328 Minnesota schools are in…
Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.
Regular quality physical education (PE) contributes to the harmonized biopsychosocial development of a young person--to relaxation, neutralization of negative effects of sedentary hours, and other unhealthy habits/behaviors. The evaluation approach to PE effectiveness provides important information to PE teachers and also to students. However,…
Pišot, Rado; Plevnik, Matej; Štemberger, Vesna
Context-Despite numerous benefits of live donor kidney transplant (LDKT), patient-level barriers often prevent African Americans from considering LDKT. Educational interventions designed to address patient-level barriers may increase willingness among African American patients with end-stage renal disease to explore LDKT as a treatment option.Objective-To assess the effectiveness of a culturally sensitive educational intervention called Living ACTS (About Choices in Transplantation and Sharing) that was designed to address patient-level barriers to LDKT among African American patients with end-stage renal disease.Design/Participants-Patients were randomized to intervention (n = 136) or control (n = 132) groups. They completed baseline measures and then viewed either the Living ACTS or control video. Both groups then completed an immediate follow-up measure and a 6-month assessment administered via telephone.Main Outcome Measures-Self-reported knowledge about LDKT, willingness to talk to the patient's family about LDKT, and perceived benefits of LDKT were measured at 3 time points.Results-At 6-month follow-up, intervention participants demonstrated a significantly greater increase in knowledge of LDKT than control participants (F2,229=3.08, P= .05). Intervention participants expressed greater willingness to talk to patients' families about LDKT than did control participants from baseline through 6-month follow-up (F1,230 = 7.11, P= .008). Finally, at immediate follow-up, intervention participants reported greater endorsement of the benefits of LDKT than did control participants (F2,223 = 14.27, P< .001); however, this effect had disappeared by the 6-month follow-up.Conclusions-Living ACTS is effective at increasing and maintaining knowledge about LDKT among African American patients with end-stage renal disease who are considering transplant. PMID:25488560
Arriola, Kimberly R Jacob; Powell, C Lamonte; Thompson, Nancy J; Perryman, Jennie P; Basu, Mohua
tool. Methods: Using principles of community-based participatory research, the team developed a prototype of a low-literacy hospital discharge medication education tool, customizable for each patient, featuring instruction-specific icons and pictures of pills. In 2007, a random- ized controlled clinical trial was performed, testing the tool's effect on posthospitalization self-reported medication adherence and knowledge, 2 weeks postdischarge in English- and Spanish-speaking
Kristina M. Cordasco; Steven M. Asch; Doug S. Bell; Jeffrey J. Guterman; Sandra Gross-Schulman; Lois Ramer; Uri Elkayam; Idalid Franco; Cianna L. Leatherwood; Carol M. Mangione
The effect of motivational interviewing on glycaemic control and perceived competence of diabetes self-management in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus after attending a group education programme: a randomised controlled trial
Aims\\/hypothesis The aim of this study was to measure the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) compared with usual care on changes in\\u000a glycaemic control and competence of diabetes self-management in patients with diabetes mellitus.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Patients were eligible if they had type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus, were over 18 years of age and had participated in a 4 day\\u000a group education programme offered
L. K. Rosenbek Minet; L. Wagner; E. M. Lønvig; J. Hjelmborg; J. E. Henriksen
Sickle cell disease is a genetic blood disorder primarily affecting individuals of African descent. Studies of healthcare providers suggest there is inadequate knowledge about the pathophysiology and clinical presentations of the disease, and misperceptions of patients' behaviors and communication during crisis that have led to inappropriate staff attitudes and thus become major barriers to the delivery of optimal care. In this article, the authors describe the effect of an educational module on improving healthcare staffs' attitudes toward patients with sickle cell disease. PMID:25237914
Hanik, Maria; Sackett, Kay M; Hartman, Lisa L
An educational video increased patients’ self-assessed likelihood to enroll in a clinical trial. This format of patient education has potential for universal applicability because of its low cost of administration and the low demands on patient and staff time.
There is an extensive literature on how physicians can best educate their patients about living healthier-one might call it a "pedagogy of living." In this essay, I suggests that physicians develop a "pedagogy of dying" for their adult patients: educating them about how they can approach death with some measure of grace and dignity, as consistent with their wants as possible, and cognizant of the final reality we all face. This process happens in the ambulatory settings as part of ongoing care and precedes any serious illness or the crisis of hospitalization. I draws on known models for communicating effectively, my own practice experience, and the disciplines of palliative care and bioethics in asking physicians to consider developing such a "pedagogy of dying," a kind of anticipatory guidance toward aging, infirmity, and, ultimately, death. PMID:25201942
The purpose of this study was to understand the effectiveness of sexuality education training on the parents in the group regarding their sex knowledge, awareness of sexuality education, attitude towards sexuality education, self-efficacy in sexuality education, communication effectiveness and communication behavior in the hope that they would be…
Lin, Yen-Chin; Chu, Yuan-Hsiang; Lin, Helene H.
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic condition. Work-related asthma (WRA) has a large socioeconomic impact and is increasing in prevalence but remains under-recognized. Although international guidelines recommend patient education, no widely available educational tool exists. OBJECTIVE: To develop a WRA educational website for adults with asthma. METHODS: An evidence-based database for website content was developed, which applied evidence-based website design principles to create a website prototype. This was subsequently tested and serially revised according to patient feedback in three moderated phases (one focus group and two interview phases), followed by face validation by asthma educators. RESULTS: Patients (n=10) were 20 to 28 years of age; seven (70%) were female, three (30%) were in university, two (20%) were in college and five (50%) were currently employed. Key format preferences included: well-spaced, bulleted text; movies (as opposed to animations); photos (as opposed to cartoons); an explicit listing of website aims on the home page; and an exploding tab structure. Participants disliked integrated games and knowledge quizzes. Desired informational content included a list of triggers, prevention/control methods, currently available tools and resources, a self-test for WRA, real-life scenario presentations, compensation information, information for colleagues on how to react during an asthma attack and a WRA discussion forum. CONCLUSIONS: The website met the perceived needs of young asthmatic patients. This resource could be disseminated widely and should be tested for its effects on patient behaviour, including job choice, workplace irritant/allergen avoidance and/or protective equipment, asthma medication use and physician prompting for management of WRA symptoms. PMID:24137573
Ghajar-Khosravi, Shadi; Tarlo, Susan M; Liss, Gary M; Chignell, Mark; Ribeiro, Marcos; Levinson, Anthony J; Gupta, Samir
OBJECTIVE. Given the increasing accessibility of material on the Internet and the use of these materials by patients as a source of health care information, the purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the level of readability of resources made available on the European Society of Radiology website to determine whether these materials meet the health literacy needs of the general public as set forth by guidelines of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the American Medical Association (AMA). MATERIALS AND METHODS. All 41 patient education articles created by the European Society of Radiology (ESR) were downloaded and analyzed with the following 10 quantitative readability scales: the Coleman-Liau Index, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease, FORCAST Formula, Fry Graph, Gunning Fog Index, New Dale-Chall, New Fog Count, Raygor Reading Estimate, and the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook. RESULTS. The 41 articles were written collectively at a mean grade level of 13.0 ± 1.6 with a range from 10.8 to 17.2. For full understanding of the material, 73.2% of the articles required the reading comprehension level of, at minimum, a high school graduate (12th grade). CONCLUSION. The patient education resources on the ESR website are written at a comprehension level well above that of the average Internet viewer. The resources fail to meet the NIH and AMA guidelines that patient education material be written between the third and seventh grade levels. Recasting these resources in a simpler format would probably lead to greater comprehension by ESR website viewers. PMID:25539245
Hansberry, David R; Agarwal, Nitin; Baker, Stephen R
In an evaluation of the effectiveness of broadcasting media in education the control class achieved higher posttest scores than the experimental classes. These results suggest that when experimental and control classes are housed at the same location, teachers of control classes may and can motivate their students so that their classes no longer…
Zdep, Stanley M.; Irvine, Sidney H.
Designing Educationally Effective Algorithm Visualizations Steven Hansen Department of Modeling@eng.auburn.edu To appear in Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, Academic Press, 2002. #12;Hansen Narayanan & Hegarty evidence for the instructional superiority of algorithm animations failing to emerge. It is in this context
Narayanan, N. Hari
In educational effectiveness research, multilevel data analyses are often used because research units (most frequently, pupils or teachers) are studied that are nested in groups (schools and classes). This hierarchical data structure complicates designing the study because the structure has to be taken into account when approximating the accuracy…
Cools, Wilfried; De Fraine, Bieke; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Onghena, Patrick
Fiedler's theory of leadership effectiveness was tested in the setting of a school practice period in a specialist college of physical education. Leader?member relations, task structure, and position power, the three elements in Fiedler's model, were respectively operationalized as student teacher?pupil relationships, games skills or movement and dance, and overall favourableness of the school situation. Although the correct prediction of
Louis Cohen; Derek Cherrington
Background In Sub Saharan Africa, the incidence of hypertension and other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors is growing rapidly.\\u000a Poor adherence to prescribed prevention and treatment regimens by patients can compromise treatment outcomes. Patient-centered\\u000a cardiovascular health education is likely to improve shortcomings in adherence. This paper describes a study that aims to\\u000a develop a cardiovascular health education program for patients participating in
Aina Olufemi Odusola; Marleen Hendriks; Constance Schultsz; Karien Stronks; Joep Lange; Akin Osibogun; Tanimola Akande; Shade Alli; Peju Adenusi; Kayode Agbede; Joke Haafkens
Objectioe The current research was designed to develop a health education programme for type 2 diabetes mellitus based on the Taba- Tyler model and to evaluate its effect.Design The study was quasi-experimental in design.Setting Fifty-five patients from the Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit, University Hospital of Ankara.Method An education programme was developed on the basis of the Taba-Tyler model. Subjects received
Nazli Atak; Umit Arslan
Quality of life (QOL) is increasingly recognized as an important clinical outcome of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but patient education is often overlooked. The goal of the current qualitative study was to examine education regarding post-HCT QOL from the patient’s perspective. Allogeneic HCT recipients participated in one of four focus groups. Participants were asked to recall what they had been told about post-HCT QOL as they were preparing for transplant, how their QOL differed from what they expected, and how to educate future patients about post-HCT QOL. Verbatim transcripts were coded for both a priori and emergent themes using content analysis. A total of 24 patients participated (54% female, mean age 51, range 23-73). Participants frequently expressed the desire for additional education regarding post-HCT QOL, particularly late complications. They noted that late complications were often unexpected, had a profound impact on their QOL, and threatened their ongoing sense of recovery. They emphasized that the timing, content, and format of education regarding QOL should be flexible to meet their diverse needs. Findings from the current study draw attention to the importance of patient education regarding post-HCT QOL as well as additional QOL research designed with patient education in mind. PMID:24121210
Jim, Heather S.L.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Gwede, Clement K.; Cases, Mallory G.; Barata, Anna; Cessna, Julie; Christie, Juliette; Gonzalez, Luis; Koskan, Alexis; Pidala, Joseph
This study provides the first estimates of the causal impact of education on hospitalization. It improves upon existing studies on health and education by using a larger data set and more efficient estimation methods. Using a Danish school reform to identify a causal effect of education on hospitalization, we find that education has a substantial…
Arendt, Jacob Nielsen
The report summarizes findings and recommendations of a California Task Force on Program Effectiveness in Special Education. The 30 Task Force members ("stakeholders" in special education) were divided into committees to address four goals: (1) identify the mission of special education and describe the context in which special education programs…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Div. of Special Education.
Abstract Aims: This study examined changes in the perceptions and attitudes as well as the sense of individual and collective responsibility in medical students after they received patient safety education. Method: A three-day patient safety curriculum was implemented for third-year medical students shortly before entering their clerkship. Before and after training, we administered a questionnaire, which was analysed quantitatively. Additionally, we asked students to answer questions about their expected behaviours in response to two case vignettes. Their answers were analysed qualitatively. Results: There was improvement in students' concepts of patient safety after training. Before training, they showed good comprehension of the inevitability of error, but most students blamed individuals for errors and expressed a strong sense of individual responsibility. After training, students increasingly attributed errors to system dysfunction and reported more self-confidence in speaking up about colleagues' errors. However, due to the hierarchical culture, students still described difficulties communicating with senior doctors. Conclusions: Patient safety education effectively shifted students' attitudes towards systems-based thinking and increased their sense of collective responsibility. Strategies for improving superior-subordinate communication within a hierarchical culture should be added to the patient safety curriculum. PMID:25336257
Roh, Hyerin; Park, Seok Ju; Kim, Taekjoong
Background/objectives To develop an online patient education resource for use in spinal cord injury rehabilitation. Participants The development process involved more than 100 subject-matter experts (SMEs) (rehabilitation professionals and consumers) from across Canada. Preliminary evaluation was conducted with 25 end-users. Methods An iterative development process was coordinated by a project team; SMEs (including patients) developed the content in working groups using wiki-based tools. Multiple rounds of feedback based on early prototypes helped improve the courses during development. Results Five courses were created, each featuring more than 45 minutes of video content and hundreds of media assets. Preliminary evaluation results indicate that users were satisfied by the courses and perceived them to be effective. Conclusions This is an effective process for developing multimedia patient education resources; the involvement of patients in all parts of the process was particularly helpful. Future work will focus on implementation, integration into clinical practice and other delivery formats (smart phones, tablets). PMID:23031169
Shepherd, John D.; Badger-Brown, Karla M.; Legassic, Matthew S.; Walia, Saagar; Wolfe, Dalton L.
This paper reviewed 33 empirical studies which assessed the effectiveness of sex education. Methodological issues were considered within six sections: (a) populations, (b) instructors, (c) program formats, (d) time format, (e) program goals, and (f) outcome measures. College students were the most frequently assessed population, followed by educators and counselors, and then medical-school populations. Most investigators did not include control subjects. In the studies which included them, they were usually nonequivalent to the experimental subjects. The results were almost exclusively dependent upon questionnaire data. Only a few studies included a follow-up. In general, the subjects reported gains in sexual knowledge and shifts toward more tolerant and liberal sexual attitudes. However, it was not clear whether or to what extent these changes affected the subjects' behavior. The surprising lack of studies evaluating the effects of sex education on elementary, junior high, and high school students was noted in light of the controversy surrounding the presentation of sex-related information to these populations. In addition to the recommendation that sex education presented to "normal" students who are below the college level should be evaluated, suggestions for future research included the use of equivalent experimental and control subjects, the reporting of instructor characteristics, the specification of program goals, and the inclusion of follow-up evaluations. PMID:7018463
Kilmann, P R; Wanlass, R L; Sabalis, R F; Sullivan, B
Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) and Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) are recognized examples of standardized nursing languages used to describe the contribution nursing makes to patient care. Columbus Regional Hospital nursing leadership recognized the need to use standardized nursing interventions and nursing-sensitive patient outcomes to describe the unique contribution nursing makes to patient education. In collaboration with the University of Iowa, NIC/NOC languages were implemented in the development of a patient education plan for a clinical pathway population. PMID:9610012
Hajewski, C; Maupin, J M; Rapp, D A; Sitterding, M; Pappas, J
Audiovisual tapes for patient education are now available in Canada. This paper summarizes the utilization of 12 tapes in an urban solo family practice over one year. Evaluation of this learning experience by both the physician and the patient showed positive results, in some cases affecting the outcome of the patient's condition. This patient education aid is intended to provide information only and is not subject to learning analysis.
Bryant, William H.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and the efficacy of regional special education programs. Focus groups were conducted in an independent school district and two special education cooperatives. Focus groups were conducted with general education teachers, special education teachers, principals, paraprofessionals,…
Haar, Jean M.; Robicheau, Jerry W.; Palladino, John
The cognitive reserve hypothesis proposes that a high educational level could delay the clinical expression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) although neuropathologic changes develop in the brain. Therefore, some studies have reported that when the clinical signs of the disease emerge, high-educated patients may decline more rapidly than low-educated…
Carret, N.L.; Auriacombe, S.; Letenneur, L.; Bergua, V.; Dartigues, J.F.; Fabrigoule, C.
The use of meta-analysis of patient education research as reported by Steven A. Mazzuca in a 1981 conference paper is critiqued. The way that Mazucca's meta-analysis conforms to the criteria for effective conduct of the six methodological tasks of integrative reviews as specified by Jackson (1980) is assessed. The extent to which meta-analysis…
Harris, Ilene B.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines and recommendations on patient education programmes of any type, targeted specially to individuals with OA and which were designed to improve the clinical effectiveness of managing OA. Methods: The Ottawa Methods Group contacted specialized organizations that focus on management for…
Health Education Journal, 2011
Identifies barriers and facilitators to the implementation of patient education in community pharmacies and classifies these barriers and facilitators into the diffusion stages of Rogers'"Innovations in Organizations" model. Discusses the implementation of patient education activities that require individual and organizational change in…
Pronk, M. C. M.; Blom, A. Th. G.; Van Burg, A.; Jonkers, R.
The Early Patient-Oriented Care Program provides early clinical education for pharmacy students and clinical services for patients. Six students were assigned to visit 12-15 hemodialysis patients monthly under preceptor supervision. Topics covered include approach to patient, medical information retrieval, pharmaceutical care philosophy,…
Grabe, Darren W.; Bailie, George R.; Manley, Harold J.; Yeaw, Barbara F.
The need for and challenges of educating and informing patients are well known and these are even greater for patients with low levels of literacy. Furthermore, as the population ages and with the increase in prevalence of chronic diseases where patient self-management is essential to holding disease in abeyance, patient education becomes increasingly important. With the advent of electronic medical records, there is an opportunity for automated tools to assist in addressing these challenges. In this paper we report on one approach to recommending relevant educational articles to patients. We attempt to infer the patient’s information needs from his/her electronic medical records and use topic modeling to identify and match topics. A manual evaluation of the articles recommended by the proposed method showed that these articles are significantly more relevant (p < 0.01) to the patient’s disease state than articles selected at random from within the same disease domain. PMID:22195123
Kandula, Sasikiran; Curtis, Dorothy; Hill, Brent; Zeng-Treitler, Qing
Background: Risky sexual behavior among adolescents is one of the leading health behaviors most associated with mortality, morbidity, and social problems. Adolescents need reliable sources of information to help them promote healthy sexual behaviors. Physicians in the United States are often seen by adolescents as a reliable and trustworthy source of accurate sexual information. However, many physicians feel uncomfortable or ill-prepared to deal with sexuality issues among their adolescent patients. Purpose: This study examined the impact of family resident physicians’ sexual attitudes, knowledge, and comfort, on the delivery of sexuality-related patient education to their adolescent patients. Materials and Methods: Pre-post-test scales were administered to 21 physicians. Data were also collected for patient (n=644) charts. Factors that determined the delivery of sexuality-related patient education were analyzed. Results: Results indicate that sexuality-related patient education was rarely provided to adolescent patients. Conclusions: Adolescent sexuality education is not a high priority for physicians. Professional medical organizations should play a leadership role in training physicians on delivering sexuality education to adolescent patients. PMID:24478998
Clark, Jeffrey K.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Banter, Amy E.; Khubchandani, Jagdish
We estimate causal effects of breast and colorectal cancer on labour market outcomes 1-3 years after the diagnosis. Based on Danish administrative data we estimate average treatment effects on the treated by propensity score weighting methods using persons with no cancer diagnosis as control group. We conduct robustness checks using matching, difference-in-differences methods and an alternative control group of later cancer patients. The different methods give approximately the same results. Cancer increases the risks of leaving the labour force and receiving disability pension, and the effects are larger for the less educated. Effects on income are small and mostly insignificant. We investigate some of the mechanisms which may be important in explaining the educational gradient in effects of cancer on labour market attachment. PMID:24096321
Heinesen, Eskil; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe
The purpose of the present study was to explore the self-learning experiences of depression patients on interactive multimedia education program. Qualitative in-depth interviews were employed. Fourteen patients with a first episode of major depression were recruited from a psychiatric outpatient department. Explanations of the purposes of the exercise and on-the-spot teaching were provided by the researcher before the study began. A tape-recorded, semi-structured interview format was employed after two weeks. Data analysis was performed in the framework of line-by-line content, contextual and thematic analysis. Eight subjects successfully completed the entire learning activities. Content analysis revealed 4 main aspects of successful self-learning experiences: the triggering of learning motivation, the enjoyment of self-paced learning, support for the effects of learning materials, and the gaining of self- awareness and changes. The factors influencing learning performance were related to: environmental impact, the degree of familiarity with traditional learning, possession or non-possession of the necessary computer operation skills, and good computer support. However, the findings provide a preliminary understanding of the application of interactive multimedia education programs in terms of self-learning outcomes and recognizing key elements of learning impediments among the study sample. A larger sample size with different clinical contexts is recommended to determine the effect and generalizability for future research. Furthermore, the creation of a computerized learning environment with different educational styles is crucial to patients' success in obtaining depression-related information and understanding effective adaptive skills. PMID:15619180
Chou, Mei-Hsien; Lin, Mei-Feng; Hsu, Mei-Chi; Wang, Yao-Hua; Hu, Huei-Fan
The research objective was to study 1) the situation and readiness of the Thai education for the integration of nanotechnology and 2) to propose the plans, the strategies and guidelines for educational reform to adapt nanotechnology to the system. The data collection was done by 4 methods: 1) documentary study, 2) observation, 3) informal interviews, and 4) group discussion. The findings revealed that: 1. William Wresch's Theory (1997) was used in this research to study of the situation and readiness of the Thai education for the integration of nanotechnology. 1) Getting connected to nanotechnology by search engine websites, libraries, magazines, books, and discussions with experts. 2) Curriculum integration: nanotechnology should be integrated in many branches of engineering, such as industrial, computer, civil, chemical, electrical, mechanical, etc. 3) Resources for educators: nanotechnology knowledge should be spread in academic circles by publications and the Internet websites. 4) Training and professional resources for teachers: Teachers should be trained by experts in nanotechnology and researchers from the National Nanotechnology Center. This will help trainees get correct knowledge, comprehension, and awareness in order to apply to their professions and businesses in the future. 2. As for the plans, the strategies, and guidelines for educational reform to adapt nanotechnology to the present system, I analyzed the world nanotechnology situation that might have an effect on Thai society. The study is based on the National Plan to Develop Nanotechnology. The goal of this plan is to develop nanotechnology to be the national strategy within 10 years (2004-2013) and have it integrated into the Thai system. There are 4 parts in this plan: 1) nanomaterials, 2) nanoelectronics, 3) nanobiotechnology, and 4) human resources development. Data for human resource development should be worked with the present technology and use the country's resources to produce many products of nanotechnology, such as 1) handicrafts, decorations, and gifts, 2) agricultural products and food, 3) beverages, such as alcoholic and non- alcoholic drinks, and 5) textiles.
Background. Falls in older adults are a major public health concern and education has been proposed as a means of reducing falls in older adults. While falls education is commonly utilized in clinical practice, little research is available on its effectiveness as a falls prevention measure or addressing details of the education that contribute to its effectiveness. This study's purpose
Stacey L Schepens
Educational webcasts are nowadays widely used by many organizations and institutions all over the world. However, the educational effectiveness of webcasts when used as an autonomous method is yet to be explored. In this paper, the clarification of certain issues concerning their educational effectiveness is attempted. Following specific…
Giannakos, Michail N.; Vlamos, Panayiotis
The aim of the research is to examine the effectiveness of Civics and Human Rights Education courses taught in primary schools in Turkey. The criteria for the effectiveness of the courses are determined as "content", "educational activities", "teaching methods", "educational materials", and "evaluation of students". A total of 71 teachers teaching…
Kepenekci, Yasemin Karaman
...435-7937. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The CFPB's OFE seeks...identified by the Financial Literacy and Education Commission in...savings and borrowing? What information on these and other topics...effectively disseminate financial literacy and education resources...
Background Patient education is undergoing a paradigm shift in which the perspectives of patients are increasingly being incorporated into learning programs. Access to the users’ experience is now considered a prerequisite for the development of quality health services, but how this user experience is incorporated is somewhat unclear. The inclusion of experiential knowledge and user involvement can challenge professional authority, roles, and working methods because knowledge sharing is different from persuasion, professional explanation, and consent. Dialogue and collaboration between professionals and users are essential to effective user involvement; however, little is understood about the characteristics of their collaboration. Objective To describe characteristics of the collaboration between users and health professionals in developing, implementing, and evaluating patient education courses in hospitals. Design, setting, and methods A field study was conducted in three different hospitals. Data collection comprised open observations in meetings of 17 different collaboration groups with a total of 100 participants, and 24 interviews with users and professionals. The data analyses included both thematic and the Systematic Data Integration approach. Results Two contrasting types of collaboration emerged from the analyses; knowledge sharing and information exchange. The first was characterized by mutual knowledge sharing, involvement, and reciprocal decision making. Characteristics of the second were the absence of dialogue, meagre exploration of the users’ knowledge, and decisions usually made by the professionals. Conclusion Collaboration between users and health personnel takes place in an asymmetric relationship. Mutual knowledge sharing was found to be more than the exchange of information and consultation and also to be a prerequisite for shared decision making. In developing patient education when users are involved the health professionals have the power and responsibility to ensure that knowledge sharing with users takes place. PMID:25489248
Strøm, Anita; Fagermoen, May Solveig
No systematic work has been completed to assess whether or not educational programming might exert lifestyle improvements among alcoholic liver disease (ALD) inpatients. The present pilot study sought to answer this question through the use of a small-scale two-group experiment (five-session education program versus standard care) at a state-of-the art Liver Unit that provided tertiary care of indigent patients with advanced ALD. A total of 44 patients were initially randomly assigned to program conditions, and 25 provided 3-month follow-up data (13 in the program condition, 12 in the control condition). Patients who received the program reported high receptivity to it, and showed greater learning of program material and reported greater lifestyle changes than the control patients. For those ALD inpatients that are able and willing to participate, the program shows promising effects on self-reported lifestyle change. PMID:15718064
Sussman, Steve; Runyon, Bruce A; Hernandez, Rosendo; Magallanes, Maria; Mendler, Michel; Yuan, Jian-Min; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu
An 8-Week Knee Osteoarthritis Treatment Program of Hyaluronic Acid Injection, Deliberate Physical Rehabilitation, and Patient Education is Cost Effective at 2 Years Follow-up: The OsteoArthritis Centers of AmericaSM Experience
Numerous nonsurgical interventions have been reported to improve symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA) over the short term. However, longer follow-up is required to accurately characterize outcomes such as cost effectiveness and delayed arthroplasty. A total of 553 patients with symptomatic knee OA who previously underwent a single 8-week multimodal treatment program were contacted at 1 year (n = 336) or 2 years (n = 217) follow-up. The percentage of patients who underwent knee arthroplasty was 10% at 1 year and 18% at 2 years following program completion. The treatment program was highly cost effective at $12,800 per quality-adjusted life year at 2 years. Cost effectiveness was maintained under a variety of plausible assumptions and regardless of gender, age, body mass index, disease severity, or knee pain severity. In summary, a single 8-week multimodal knee OA treatment program is cost effective and may lower knee arthroplasty utilization through 2 years follow-up. PMID:25574144
Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E
An 8-Week Knee Osteoarthritis Treatment Program of Hyaluronic Acid Injection, Deliberate Physical Rehabilitation, and Patient Education is Cost Effective at 2 Years Follow-up: The OsteoArthritis Centers of America(SM) Experience.
Numerous nonsurgical interventions have been reported to improve symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA) over the short term. However, longer follow-up is required to accurately characterize outcomes such as cost effectiveness and delayed arthroplasty. A total of 553 patients with symptomatic knee OA who previously underwent a single 8-week multimodal treatment program were contacted at 1 year (n = 336) or 2 years (n = 217) follow-up. The percentage of patients who underwent knee arthroplasty was 10% at 1 year and 18% at 2 years following program completion. The treatment program was highly cost effective at $12,800 per quality-adjusted life year at 2 years. Cost effectiveness was maintained under a variety of plausible assumptions and regardless of gender, age, body mass index, disease severity, or knee pain severity. In summary, a single 8-week multimodal knee OA treatment program is cost effective and may lower knee arthroplasty utilization through 2 years follow-up. PMID:25574144
Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E
This yearbook addresses the nation's need to train and retain good teachers, exploring exemplary practices in teacher education. There are four sections divided into 12 chapters. The book begins with a forward, "Research on Effective Models for Teacher Education: Powerful Teacher Education Programs" (E.M. Guyton). Section 1, "Models for Enhancing…
McIntyre, D. John, Ed.; Byrd, David M., Ed.
BACKGROUND: Asthma and COPD are major health problems and an extensive burden for the patient and the health care system. Patient education has been recommended, but the influence on knowledge and health outcomes is not fully examined. Our aims were to compare patient characteristics, education and knowledge in patients who had an emergency room (ER) visit, to explore factors related
Margareta Emtner; Anna Hedin; Mikael Andersson; Christer Janson
Patient education in asthma management is im- portant; however, there is little known about the characteristics of patients receiving asthma education or how often primary care physicians provide it. The objective of the study was to identify the characteristics of patients receiving asthma education. It was a cross-sectional study using 2001 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data. The study included
Shaival S. Shah; May Nawal Lutfiyya; Joel Emery McCullough; Eric Henley; Howard Jerome Zeitz; Martin S. Lipsky
Patient education in asthma management is important; however, there is little known about the characteristics of patients receiving asthma education or how often primary care physicians provide it. The objective of the study was to identify the characteristics of patients receiving asthma education. It was a cross-sectional study using 2001…
Shah, Shaival S.; Lutfiyya, May Nawal; McCullough, Joel Emery; Henley, Eric; Zeitz, Howard Jerome; Lipsky, Martin S.
Purpose Systematic educational programs and genetic counseling certification courses for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) have not yet been introduced in Korea. We provided and evaluated the effects of genetic counseling education on Korean healthcare providers' knowledge, awareness, and counseling skills for patients at high risk of HBOC. Methods A 3-day educational program was conducted for healthcare providers who were interested in genetic counseling for patients at high risk of HBOC. Participants who completed a knowledge test and satisfaction questionnaire were included in the present sample. Pre-post comparisons were conducted to determine the effects of the intervention. Results Significant differences between preprogram and postprogram knowledge scores were observed (p=0.002). Awareness (p<0.001) and confidence (p<0.001) regarding genetic counseling significantly increased after the training. Doctors and participants with fewer years of work experience performed well on the knowledge test. Previous educational experience was correlated with increased confidence in knowledge and counseling skills. Conclusion Genetic counseling education regarding HBOC improved knowledge and awareness of HBOC and enhanced confidence in the counseling process. The effects varied according to occupation and participants' previous education. The implementation of systematic educational programs that consider participant characteristics may improve the effects of such interventions. PMID:24155764
Lee, Jihyoun; Cho, Hyung Jung; Yoo, Han-Wook; Park, Sue K.; Yang, Jae Jeong; Kim, Sung-Won; Kang, Eunyoung; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Lee, Soo-Jung; Suh, Young Jin; Kim, Sung Yong; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Moon, Nan Mo
Learning to counsel patients in a teaching clinic or hospital occurs in the presence of the competing agendas of patient care and student education. We wondered about the challenges that these tensions create for clinical novices learning to deliver bad news to patients. In this preliminary study, we audio-taped and transcribed the interviews of…
Spafford, Marlee M.; Schryer, Catherine F.; Creutz, Stefan
Musculoskeletal injuries caused by patient lifting and transfers are a concern to health care workers. The Safe Patient Handling Act calls for all health care organizations to move to mechanical assistance from previous manual methods of transfers. This research analyzed two different educational programs that addressed safe patient handling for…
Background Weight loss in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common clinical manifestation that may have clinical significance. Objectives To evaluate if there is a difference between nutrition education and oral nutritional supplementation on nutritional status in patients with AD. Methods A randomized, prospective 6-month study which enrolled 90 subjects with probable AD aged 65 years or older divided into 3 groups: Control Group (CG) [n = 27], Education Group (EG) [n = 25], which participated in an education program and Supplementation Group (SG) [n = 26], which received two daily servings of oral nutritional supplementation. Subjects were assessed for anthropometric data (weight, height, BMI, TSF, AC and AMC), biochemical data (total protein, albumin, and total lymphocyte count), CDR (Clinical Dementia Rating), MMSE (Mini-mental state examination), as well as dependence during meals. Results The SG showed a significant improvement in the following anthropometric measurements: weight (H calc = 22.12, p =< 0.001), BMI (H calc = 22.12, p =< 0.001), AC (H calc = 12.99, p =< 0.002), and AMC (H calc = 8.67, p =< 0.013) compared to the CG and EG. BMI of the EG was significantly greater compared to the CG. There were significant changes in total protein (H calc = 6.17, p =< 0.046), and total lymphocyte count in the SG compared to the other groups (H cal = 7.94, p = 0.019). Conclusion Oral nutritional supplementation is more effective compared to nutrition education in improving nutritional status. PMID:21943331
The immediate and long-term effects of exercise and patient education on physical, functional, and quality-of-life outcome measures after single-level lumbar microdiscectomy: a randomized controlled trial protocol
Background Low back pain remains a costly quality-of-life-related health problem. Microdiscectomy is often the surgical procedure of choice for a symptomatic, single-level, lumbar disc herniation in younger and middle-aged adults. The question of whether a post-microdiscectomy exercise program enhances function, quality of life, and disability status has not been systematically explored. Thus, the overall purpose of this study is to assess immediate and long-term outcomes of an exercise program, developed at University of Southern California (USC), targeting the trunk and lower extremities (USC Spine Exercise Program) for persons who have undergone a single-level microdiscectomy for the first time. Methods/design One hundred individuals between the ages of 18 and 60 who consent to undergo lumbar microdiscectomy will be recruited to participate in this study. Subjects will be randomly assigned to one of two groups: 1) one session of back care education, or 2) a back care education session followed by the 12-week USC Spine Exercise Program. The outcome examiners (evaluators), as well as the data managers, will be blinded to group allocation. Education will consist of a one-hour "one-on-one" session with the intervention therapist, guided by an educational booklet specifically designed for post-microdiscectomy care. This session will occur four to six weeks after surgery. The USC Spine Exercise Program consists of two parts: back extensor strength and endurance, and mat and upright therapeutic exercises. This exercise program is goal-oriented, performance-based, and periodized. It will begin two to three days after the education session, and will occur three times a week for 12 weeks. Primary outcome measures include the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, SF-36® quality of life assessment, Subjective Quality of Life Scale, 50-foot Walk, Repeated Sit-to-Stand, and a modified Sorensen test. The outcome measures in the study will be assessed before and after the 12-week post-surgical intervention program. Long-term follow up assessments will occur every six months beginning one year after surgery and ending five years after surgery. Immediate and long-term effects will be assessed using repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). If significant interactions are found, one-way ANOVAs will be performed followed by post-hoc testing to determine statistically significant pairwise comparisons. Discussion We have presented the rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a treatment regimen for people who have undergone a single-level lumbar microdiscectomy. PMID:16934143
Selkowitz, David M; Kulig, Kornelia; Poppert, Elizabeth M; Flanagan, Sean P; Matthews, Ndidiamaka D; Beneck, George J; Popovich, John M; Lona, Jose R; Yamada, Kimiko A; Burke, Wendy S; Ervin, Carolyn; Powers, Christopher M
This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…
Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te
THE EFFECT OF FERTILITY LEVELS ON THE EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT OF CHILDREN IN UGANDA Tara Roach fertility levels and the educational attainment of children in Uganda. It seeks to address whether or not lower fertility rates increase the amount of education a child receives, while controlling for other
The education literature provides numerous estimates of community college diversion and democratization effects measured in terms of educational attainment. Kane and Rouse [J Econ Pers 13 (1999) 64] suggest testing for diversion by comparing the impacts of two-year and four-year colleges on the changes in educational aspirations that underlie…
Leigh, Duane E.; Gill, Andrew M.
Metabolic bone disease (MBD) is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The currently accepted international guidelines for treatment of CKD-MBD has been published, unfortunately adequate control of serum markers of disorder, especially hyperphosphatemia, is poorly achieved. Whether educational intervention is an effective way for improving CKD-MBD remains controversial. A systematic review of educational intervention versus routine care to improve patients with CKD-MBD was conducted. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs examining the efficacy of educational intervention to improve patients with CKD-MBD were included. We performed a comprehensive search of several databases and sources to identify eligible trials. In addition, we searched unpublished studies by tracking the SIGLE (System for Information on Grey Literature) database. Finally, 8 RCTs and 2 quasi-RCTs containing 775 participants were included in our systematic review. The result of our study revealed that the educational intervention to patients with CKD-MBD led to an improvement of the serum phosphorus and calcium by phosphate product. Educational intervention is a beneficial supplement method in improving CKD-MBD and putting off deterioration of the disease. PMID:25193107
Shi, Yuexian; Zhao, Yinning; Liu, Junduo; Hou, Yahong; Zhao, Yue
Introduction Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently associated with community-acquired acute kidney injury (AKI), a strong risk factor for development and progression of chronic kidney disease. Using access to prescription medication profiles, pharmacists can identify patients at high risk for NSAID-induced AKI. The primary objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of a community pharmacy–based patient education program on patient knowledge of NSAID-associated renal safety concerns. Methods Patients receiving prescription medications for hypertension or diabetes mellitus were invited to participate in an educational program on the risks of NSAID use. A patient knowledge questionnaire (PKQ) consisting of 5 questions scored from 1 to 5 was completed before and after the intervention. Information was collected on age, race, sex, and frequency of NSAID use. Results A total of 152 participants (60% women) completed both the pre- and post-intervention questionnaire; average age was 54.6 (standard deviation [SD], 17.5). Mean pre-intervention PKQ score was 3.3 (SD, 1.4), and post-intervention score was 4.6 (SD, 0.9) (P = .002). Participants rated program usefulness (1 = not useful to 5 = extremely useful) as 4.2 (SD, 1.0). In addition, 48% reported current NSAID use and 67% reported that the program encouraged them to limit their use. Conclusion NSAID use was common among patients at high risk for AKI. A brief educational intervention in a community pharmacy improved patient knowledge on NSAID-associated risks. Pharmacists practicing in the community can partner with primary care providers in the medical home model to educate patients at risk for AKI. PMID:25523351
Jang, Soo Min; Cerulli, Jennifer; Grabe, Darren W.; Fox, Chester; Vassalotti, Joseph A.; Prokopienko, Alexander J.
RESEARCH (1) ANALYZED SPECIFIC OUTCOMES OF COUNSELING, INSTRUCTION, AND DENTAL THERAPY, AND (2) DETERMINED THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF PATIENT EDUCATION FOR RELIEF OF TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT (TMJ) DYSFUNCTION. SIXTY ADULT PATIENTS ATTENDING THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS TMJ RESEARCH CENTER WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO ONE OF THREE PROGRAMS--DENTISTRY,…
LUPTON, DANIEL E.
Three health education interventions for urban poor hypertensive patients were introduced in a randomized factorial design. Two-year data on compliance with therapy and five-year mortality data indicate the success of such educational programs in the long-term management and control of high blood pressure. (Author/GC)
Morisky, Donald E.; And Others
The American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC) appointed a task force in November 1999 to examine how AAMC member institutions and others were developing, and could develop, new ways to integrate education and patient care. Mechanisms were identified that would aid in reorienting residency programs to education, rather than services. These…
Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.
This article describes a quality improvement initiative, implemented by a patient education workgroup within a tertiary Magnet® facility. The project focused on the association between inadequate care transitions in patients with heart failure and subsequent costly readmissions. The teach-back initiative was piloted with patients hospitalized with heart failure, because of this population's high risk of readmission. Learning outcomes included documented improvements in patients' understanding of their disease and reduced readmission rates. PMID:25479173
Peter, Debra; Robinson, Paula; Jordan, Marie; Lawrence, Susan; Casey, Krista; Salas-Lopez, Debbie
Although recent trials have raised concerns about the toxicity of raltitrexed monotherapy in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (aCRC), similar concerns have also been raised with other chemotherapy regimens in aCRC. The lessons learnt form our previous experiences with raltitrexed are, therefore, still important as they offer practical guidances to optimise tolerability of chemotherapy for CRC in general. The aims of the study were to report the low-toxicity profile in 58 patients receiving raltitrexed when a rigorous patient information and education strategy was implemented together with an intensive supportive adjuvant drugs regimen from the start. After a discussion with the consultant, all patients received a further consultation with a specialist nurse, a series of bespoke information tools, including an information video and written guidelines on how to avoid, prevent and deal promptly with the side-effects of raltitrexed. They all received intravenous adjuvant ondansetron and dexamethasone, then oral domperidone, ranitidine and nystatin from cycle one. The dose intensity was 98% over 307 cycles. Toxicity associated with raltitrexed comprised grade 1/2 diarrhoea (31.6% of treatment cycles), nausea (12.4%) and vomiting (8.4%), with no grade 3/4 events; grade 1/2 alopecia (17.9%); grade 1 (only) stomatitis (2.3%) and grade 1/2/3 lethargy (70.3%, only 2.3% grade 3), anaemia (14.3%, only 0.3% grade 3) and neutropenia (3.3%, only 0.3% grade 3). There were no treatment-related deaths. The low toxicity, despite high-dose intensity, suggests that intensive supportive education and drugs should have a role in the future design of regimens containing raltitrexed and other chemotherapy regimens for colorectal carcinoma. PMID:12924450
Thomas, R J; Williams, M; Garcia-Vargas, J
Aims A discussion on the reasons educational interventions about eczema, by nurses, are successful, with the subsequent development of a theoretical framework to guide nurses to become effective patient educators. Background Effective child and parent education is the key to successful self-management of eczema. When diagnosed, children and parents should learn to understand the condition through clear explanations, seeing treatment demonstrations and have ongoing support to learn practical skills to control eczema. Dermatology nurses provide these services, but no one has proposed a framework of the concepts underpinning their successful eczema educational interventions. Design A discussion paper. Data Sources A literature search of online databases was undertaken utilizing terms ‘eczema OR atopic dermatitis’, ‘education’, ‘parent’, ‘nurs*’, ‘framework’, ‘knowledge’, motivation’, in Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, Medline and Pubmed. Limits were English language and 2003–2013. Implications for Nursing The framework can inform discussion on child and parent education, provide a scaffold for future research and guide non-specialist nurses, internationally, in providing consistent patient education about eczema. Conclusion Founded on an understanding of knowledge, the framework utilizes essential elements of cognitive psychology and social cognitive theory leading to successful self-management of eczema. This framework may prove useful as a basis for future research in child and parent education, globally, in the healthcare community. A framework has been created to help nurses understand the essential elements of the learning processes at the foundation of effective child and parent education. The framework serves to explain the improved outcomes reported in previous nurse-led eczema educational interventions. PMID:25312442
Thompson, Deryn Lee; Thompson, Murray John
Introduction Radioguided parathyroidectomy (RGP) has been shown to be effective in adult patients with hyperparathyroidism (HPT), but the utility of RGP in pediatric patients has not been systematically examined. It is not known if adult criteria for radioactive counts can accurately detect hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands in pediatric patients. The purpose of our study was to determine the utility of RGP in children with primary hyperparathyroidism. Materials and Methods A retrospective review of our prospectively maintained single-institution database for patients who underwent a RGP for primary HPT identified 1694 adult and 19 pediatric patients age 19 years or younger. From the adult population, we selected a control group matched 3 to 1 for gland weight and gender, and compared pre- and post-operative lab values, surgical findings, pathology, and radioguidance values between this and the pediatric group. Results Excised glands from pediatric patients were smaller than those in the total adult population (437 ± 60 mg vs. 718 ± 31 mg, p=0.0004). When controlled for gland weight, ex vivo counts as a percentage of background were lower in the pediatric group (51 ± 5% vs. 91 ± 11%, p=0.04). However, ex vivo radionuclide counts >20% of the background were found in 100% of pediatric patients and 95% of the adult matched control group. Conclusions All pediatric patients met the adult detection criteria for parathyroid tissue removal when a RGP was performed, and 100% cure was achieved. We conclude RGP is a useful treatment option for pediatric patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:23827790
Burke, Jocelyn F.; Jacobson, Kaitlin; Gosain, Ankush; Sippel, Rebecca S.; Chen, Herbert
A system of education is a unique social institution, the purpose of which is to develop and multiply human capital. Based on the education system it is possible to judge the situation in the country and society not only at the present time but also in the future. A system of education also should be seen as an ideological institution: it produces…
Ovsiannikov, A. A.; Monakhov, S. V.
School of Education What we accomplished (continued) Administered online SDEP Follow-up Graduate and Employer survey Administered online Validation Survey to PSU Supervisors #12;Graduate School of Education able to have access to documents online. #12;Graduate School of Education Supervisor Survey Things you
Advancing scientific literacy and strengthening the Nation’s future workforce through stimulating, informative, and effective learning experiences are core principles of the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) education and public outreach (E/PO) program. To support and coordinate its E/PO community in offering a coherent suite of activities and experiences that effectively meet the needs of the education community, NASA SMD has created four Science Education and Public Outreach Forums (Astrophysics, Planetary Science, Heliophysics, Earth Science). Forum activities include: professional development to raise awareness of the existing body of best practices and educational research; analysis and cataloging of SMD-funded education materials with respect to AAAS Benchmarks for Science Literacy; Working Groups that assemble needs assessment and best practices data relevant to Higher Education, K-12 Formal Education, and Informal Science Education audiences; and community collaborations that enable SMD E/PO community members to develop new partnerships and to learn and share successful strategies and techniques. This presentation will highlight examples of Forum and community-based activities related to astronomy education and teacher professional development, within the context of the principles articulated within the NRC Framework for K-12 Science Education and the Next Generation Science Standards. Among these are an emerging community of practice for K-12 educators and online teacher professional development and resources that incorporate misconception research and authentic experiences with NASA Astrophysics data.
Smith, Denise A.; Bartolone, L.; Eisenhamer, B.; Lawton, B. L.; Schultz, G. R.; Peticolas, L.; Schwerin, T.; Shipp, S.; Astrophysics E/PO Community, NASA; NASA Astrophysics Forum Team
Public and professional concern about health care quality, safety and efficiency is growing. Continuing education, knowledge translation, patient safety and quality improvement have made concerted efforts to address these issues. However, a coordinated and integrated effort across these domains is lacking. This article explores and discusses the…
Kitto, Simon; Bell, Mary; Peller, Jennifer; Sargeant, Joan; Etchells, Edward; Reeves, Scott; Silver, Ivan
Objective: This study aimed to explore the effect of medical education on students' attitudes toward psychiatry and psychiatric patients, and examined the usefulness of a new evaluation tool: the 6-item Psychiatric Experience, Attitudes, and Knowledge (PEAK-6). Method: Authors studied the attitudes of 116 medical students toward psychiatry…
Hofmann, Marzellus; Harendza, Sigrid; Meyer, Jelka; Drabik, Anna; Reimer, Jens; Kuhnigk, Olaf
A study was undertaken to determine the effect of educational intervention on parents' knowledge and performance of the social needs of the healthy siblings of the pediatric leukemia patients. Inadequate care and attention to siblings of pediatric leukemia patients might result in psychosomatic disorders. Parents' knowledge on prevention of such disorders is of great importance. The study proposed to determine the effects of educational intervention concerning parents. Sixty parents of pediatric leukemia patients entered this study. The subjects were selected using convenient sampling method and were randomly categorized into 2 groups: experimental and control. Data were collected before, 1 hour after, and 2 months after the intervention, using a questionnaire. The educational program was arranged in 3 sessions, each lasting 45 to 60 minutes using group discussion and lectures for the parents of the experimental group. Then, the parents were instructed individually, if necessary. The mean scores of the parents' knowledge in the experimental and control groups before the intervention were 5.8 and 6.2, respectively. One hour after instruction, the mean rose to 12.8 and 6.4, and 2 months later to 13.3 and 6.5 (p < .00l). The family performance of 87.2% of the parents in the experimental group and 36.4% of the control group toward the siblings of the sick child was appropriate 2 months after the intervention. Therefore, educational intervention increased the knowledge of the parents of pediatric leukemia patients about the needs of the healthy siblings and how to meet them. It is recommended that educational programs be arranged for parents so that the quality of life in the healthy children can be improved. PMID:20145471
Hashemi, Fatemeh; Shokrpour, Nasrin
Diabetes is a very common chronic disease which produces compli-cations in almost all body organs and consumes a huge amount of the health budget. Although education has proved to be useful in diabetes management, there is a great need to improve the availability of these courses for the increasing number of diabetic patients. E-learning can facilitate this service, but the current education system should be tailored towards e-learning standards. Amongst diabetic patients, adolescents as computer natives are suggested as the best target to e-learning diabetes education. With regards to its features, Web 2.0 can be a very good technology to build a framework for diabetes education and consequent evaluation of this education.
Shabestari, Omid; Roudsari, Abdul
The issue of teacher effectiveness has risen rapidly to the top of the education policy agenda, and the federal government and states are considering bold steps to improve teacher and leader effectiveness. One place to look for ideas is the experiences of high-performing education systems around the world. Finland, Ontario, and Singapore all have…
Darling-Hammond, Linda, Ed.; Rothman, Robert, Ed.
As adult learners and educators pioneer the use of technology in the new century, attention has been focused on developing strategic approaches to effectively integrate adult learning and technology in different learning environments. "Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches" provides innovative…
Wang, Victor C. X.
The purpose of this paper was to identify the characteristics and history of online education, to examine research on the effectiveness of online learning, and to note the principles and practices indicated for maximizing the effectiveness of online learning. Leading articles and studies on online education were identified and examined for this…
#12;#12;1 REPORT OF THE WASC VISITING TEAM EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW To the University and therefore submits this Report to the Accrediting Commission for Senior Colleges and Universities Review Team visited the campus and issued a report in February of 2004. The Educational Effectiveness
California at Santa Cruz, University of
An important role of the paediatrician is that of a teacher - every clinician is an educator to patients and their families. This education, however, often occurs under difficult or time-pressured learning conditions. The authors present principles derived from three basic theories of human cognition that may help to guide clinicians' instruction of parents and patients. Cognitive load theory holds that an individual's capacity to process information is finite. By controlling information flow rate, decreasing reliance on working memory and removing extraneous cognitive load, learning is improved. Dual code theory suggests that humans have separate cognitive 'channels' for text/audio information versus visual information. By constructing educational messages that take advantage of both channels simultaneously, information uptake may be improved. Multimedia theory is based on the notion that there is an optimal blend of media to accomplish a given learning objective. The authors suggest seven practical strategies that clinicians may use to improve patient education. PMID:24665218
Pusic, Martin V; Ching, Kevin; Yin, Hsiang Shonna; Kessler, David
This article presents the experience of a psychologist in the development of a multidisciplinary and collective Therapeutic Patient Education program for dialysis patients in out-center (self-dialysis). The role of the psychologist is situated at different levels: construction of the program, animation and co-animation of interventions and evaluation of the program. PMID:23332506
Idier, Laëtitia; Untas, Aurélie; Aguirrezabal, Maïder; Larroumet, Nicole; Rascle, Nicole; Chauveau, Philippe
Increased attention to medical errors and patient safety highlights the importance of quality improvement in continuing medical education. Ways to enhance quality include informatics, clinical practice guidelines, learning from opinion leaders and patients, learning organizations, and just-in-time and point-of-care delivery of continuing…
Eisenberg, John M.
A continuing medical education course on the physician-patient relationship used on such topics as patient-centered interviews. A majority of 406 respondents (including 205 in a follow-up survey) were using what they learned in practice. Additional workshops on issues of intimacy and difficult relationships were developed. (SK)
Frenette, Jacques; Sindon, Andre; Jacques, Andre; Lalonde, Viateur; Belisle, Claude
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the readability of written patient education materials used to teach patients about the prevention and care of skin and pressure ulcers. Other design characteristics of the materials including organization, writing style, appearance, and appeal also were assessed. Design: This study used a nonexperimental, descriptive design. Setting and Stimulus Materials: Ten pamphlets
Feleta L. Wilson; Barbara N. Williams
Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus, particularly type 2, is increasing in the general population. Similarly, the incidence of patients with diabetes mellitus who develop end-stage renal disease has increased concomitantly in the dialysis facility to 44% of patients starting dialysis therapy with diabetes mellitus as their primary diagnosis. The aim of this study is to determine whether intensive education
Stephen D. McMurray; Greg Johnson; Stephen Davis; Kathryn McDougall
We sought to longitudinally evaluate the potential association of educational level with performance on verbal and nonverbal tasks in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated patients with MCI, age >50 years, no medication intake, absent vascular risk factors, and no lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each patient underwent a clinical assessment packet and a series of neuropsychological tests of the language and constructional praxis subtests of Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMGOG) and the Boston naming test (BNT), at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Educational levels were defined taking into account the total years of education, the school level, and diplomas. MCI patients with low education level showed a stepwise reduction in scores of naming objects (NO; P = 0.009), definition (DF; P = 0.012), language (LT; P = 0.021), constructional praxis (CD; P = 0.022), confrontation naming skills (BXB; P = 0.033), phonemic help (BFB; P = 0.041), and BNT (P = 0.002). Analysis of covariance, controlling for baseline scores, showed that education was associated with NO score (P = 0.002), DF score (P = 0.005), LT (P = 0.008), CD score (P = 0.008), BXB score (44.36 ± 1.84, P = 0.0001), BFB (P = 0.022), and BNT (P = 0.004). Our findings indicate that education appeared to affect verbal and nonverbal task performance in MCI patients. Despite the fact that higher educated patients are more acquainted with the tasks, slower deterioration in consecutive follow-up examinations could be explained by the cognitive reserve theory. The potential association of this protective effect with delayed onset of symptoms deserves further investigation. PMID:23139907
Vadikolias, Konstantinos; Tsiakiri-Vatamidis, Anna; Tripsianis, Grigorios; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Serdari, Aspasia; Heliopoulos, John; Livaditis, Miltos; Piperidou, Charitomeni
The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in effectiveness between comprehensive sexuality abstinence-based education and abstinence-only education. A survey was developed and distributed to over 140 individuals via a variety of sources such as: (1) the researcher's e-mail lists; (2) a group of City Core/City Year volunteers; (3) a…
Pittman, Vicki; Gahungu, Athanase
The purpose of this study was to investigate advocacy influences that may impact school arts programs using data from the 2009-10 National Center for Education Statistics elementary and secondary school surveys on arts education. Regression models were employed to assess the relative effectiveness of variables representing community support,…
Discusses the challenges involved in evaluating federal education programs that provide funds to schools and districts, such as Title I, but do not require a fixed set of activities, reflecting on previous evaluations of federal education funding streams, analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of various evaluation designs, and making the case for…
Birman, Beatrice F.; Porter, Andrew C.
Investigated with a random sample of classes for each of five categories of exceptionality--educable mentally retarded, trainable mentally retarded, socially and emotionally disturbed, brain injured, and physically handicapped--were the costs of special education in Pennsylvania elementary and secondary schools in relation to its quality. Data…
Hayes, Robert B.; And Others
All teachers desire to keep their students on task and focused on meeting lesson objectives. Classroom management, perhaps the most critical factor involved in a lesson's success, includes several considerations. In this article, the authors, who are physical education teacher educators themselves, discuss the five management practices, which they…
Arbogast, Gary; Chandler, Judy P.
Though the existence of a culturally pluralistic society has long been recognized in the United States, demographic trends will force new attitudes toward coping with a larger minority school population. Unless U.S. educators prepare to understand culturally pluralistic student bodies, the result will be an economy dependent on an under-educated…
Two consecutive cleft missions were conducted in Guwahati, northeastern India in December 2010 and January 2011. In the later mission, a standardized patient education program for postoperative care was introduced. The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the impact of the patient education program on cleft lip complications in terms of wound infection and dehiscence. Two hundred ninety-eight cleft lip repairs were performed in the first mission and 220 (74%) returned for early follow-up. In the second mission, 356 patients were operated on and 252 (71%) returned for follow-up. From the first mission, 8 patients (3.7%) were diagnosed with lip wound infection and 21 patients (9.6%) with lip dehiscence. After the second mission, only 1 patient (0.4%) returned with a wound infection and 16 (6.4%) were diagnosed with dehiscence.Using binary logistic regression including age, cleft type, postoperative antibiotics, surgeon, and patient education program as covariates, the patient education program stood out as the only variable with a statistically significant impact on the incidence of postoperative wound infections. Even though the incidence of lip dehiscence was reduced by one third when the patient education program was utilized, our regression model singled out the surgeons as the only factor significantly related to this type of complication. Moreover, no benefits of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis were found. Further analysis of the data also implied that the use of tissue adhesive as a compliment to sutures does not reduce the risk of dehiscence. PMID:25148620
Schönmeyr, Björn; Restrepo, Carolina; Wendby, Lisa; Gillenwater, Justin; Campbell, Alex
their home and school environment. The educational and policy implications of our studies suggest more student-centered instruction is needed in the classrooms because not enough effective instruction is being implemented in diverse classrooms. Our findings...
For 20 years, "life skills" education has been advocated as a key component of HIV and AIDS education for young people. But what do terms such as life skills imply, and what evidence is there that a life skills-based approach really works? This article reviews the literature on the effects and effectiveness of life skills-based education for HIV…
Yankah, Ekua; Aggleton, Peter
Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a key diagnostic and monitoring tool in multiple sclerosis (MS) management. However, many scientific uncertainties, especially concerning correlates to impairment and prognosis remain. Little is known about MS patients' experiences, knowledge, attitudes, and unmet information needs concerning MRI. Methods We performed qualitative interviews (n?=?5) and a survey (n?=?104) with MS patients regarding MRI patient information, and basic MRI knowledge. Based on these findings an interactive training program of 2 hours was developed and piloted in n?=?26 patients. Results Interview analyses showed that patients often feel lost in the MRI scanner and left alone with MRI results and images while 90% of patients in the survey expressed a high interest in MRI education. Knowledge on MRI issues was fair with some important knowledge gaps. Major information interests were relevance of lesions as well as the prognostic and diagnostic value of MRI results. The education program was highly appreciated and resulted in a substantial knowledge increase. Patients reported that, based on the program, they felt more competent to engage in encounters with their physicians. Conclusion This work strongly supports the further development of an evidence-based MRI education program for MS patients to enhance participation in health-care. PMID:25415501
Brand, Judith; Köpke, Sascha; Kasper, Jürgen; Rahn, Anne; Backhus, Imke; Poettgen, Jana; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Siemonsen, Susanne; Heesen, Christoph
This paper presented at the 1976 National Conference on Continuing Education in Nursing describes evaluation methodology used to determine the effectiveness of different continuing education offerings in nursing. The evaluation design, workshops for inservice directors, findings and problems, and examples of three evaluation forms used are…
Deets, Carol; Blume, Dorothy
The purpose of this study is to explore the direct, indirect, and total effects of high school sports participation on educational attainment for Black males using the Educational Longitudinal Study (2002/2006), a large, nationally representative, database. A path analysis procedure for determining underlying causal relationships between variables…
Harris, Paul C.
Over the period 1995-1998 Italy experienced an expansion of its higher education supply with the aim of reducing regional differences in educational attainment. This paper evaluates the effects of this policy on enrolment, drop out and academic performance. The paper combines differences across provinces in the number of campuses constructed with…
This paper is based on an observational study concerning the effectiveness of elementary education. It was conducted in a rural area near Alotau, the provincial capital of the Milne Bay Province, with a special focus on the Maiwala Elementary School. In this paper, the author first briefly describes what elementary education is and how it has been…
Purpose: Although leaders are widely believed to employ visions, little is known about what constitutes an "effective" vision, particularly in the higher education sector. This paper seeks to proposes a research model for examining relationships between vision components and performance of higher education institutions, as measured by financial…
By employing meta-analysis procedures to build on the reviews of Horwitz and Peterson, specific effects of open education are quantified and related to school and student characteristics. From the 45 studies located in ERIC, the Education Index, and Horwitz's monograph, student, setting, and research design characteristics were coded. Twenty-three…
Hetzel, Donna C.; And Others
The effects of four educational benefit programs for military personnel were tested nationwide. The four benefit programs included a control or baseline contributory program, the Veterans Educational Assistance Program (VEAP); a second contribution program offering enhanced kickers in the Army, the Ultra VEAP; and two noncontributory plans, the…
Polich, J. Michael; And Others
Educational researchers and policy analysts concur increasingly that the organizational design and culture of schools can either enhance or hinder the effectiveness of school reform efforts. This book offers a series of essays that may help parents, educators, and policymakers understand and solve school organizational problems that get in the way…
Hawley, Willis D., Ed.
Evidence suggests that the changes which have taken place in the educational background of the work force may have important implications for how organizations should be managed and for their effectiveness. More formal education may cause people to have different expectations and preferences with respect to work. This may lead to more upward job…
Lawler, Edward E., III
This study investigates the effect of geographic distance on students' distance learning experience with the aim to provide tentative answers to a fundamental question--does geographic distance matter in distance education? Using educational outcome data collected from an online master's program in Geographic Information Systems, this…
Luo, Heng; Robinson, Anthony C.; Detwiler, Jim
This report delineates the data and the analytical procedures necessary for comparing educational demonstration programs. Used as a means of encouraging the introduction of new practices into the educational process, demonstration programs and their effectiveness depend, in part, on the quality of the data about the program and its availability to…
Haggart, Sue A.; Rapp, Marjorie L.
An effective educational leadership plays a crucial role in order to bring about sustainable change in schools. Generally, in the Pakistani context and particularly in Northern Areas, customarily, teachers are promoted as principals on seniority basis or they are selected directly before they attend any training in school leadership and management. Most of them being untrained or unaware of educational
Globalization and new technologies have opened up a global market for education pressuring many institutions to be internationalized. Within mainly descriptive mode of analysis, this study investigates how internationalization of higher education can be facilitated by the effective use of information and communication technologies. Reporting…
Magzan, Masha; Aleksic-Maslac, Karmela
Successful inclusion is directly related to collaboration success between the special education specialist and the general classroom teacher. The role of the special educator has undergone steady change ever since students with exceptionalities were intentionally included in regular classrooms. This role now requires effective collaborative…
Eccleston, Stuart T.
With the acceleration of the worldwide globalization, the fluidity of the person on the earth scale advances these days. So guaranteeing the quality of the education and coping with diversification of the social need are demanded to the higher education system. Therefore, colleges and universities are introducing the activity utilized their originality and characteristic, and then promoting the educational reform. However, in those activities, the participant is usually limited or it is difficult to evaluate educational effect. In this paper, to contribute to building up an appropriate evaluation model for the team activity, evaluation systems of these activity of our college are presented and estimated; supplementary lesson, creation training, contest, etc.
Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Uchida, Tatsuo; Ishiyama, Jun-Ichi; Ito, Masahiko; Tanigaki, Miho; Kanno, Hiroyuki
Background The purpose of this national survey is to evaluate hospital pharmacy practice in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia. The results of the survey pertaining to the monitoring and patient education of the medication use process were presented. Methods We have invited pharmacy directors from all 48 hospitals in the Riyadh region to participate in a modified-American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) survey questionnaire. The survey was conducted using similar methods to those of the ASHP surveys. Results The response rate was 60.4% (29/48). Most hospitals (23, 79%) had pharmacists regularly monitor medication therapy for patients. Of these hospitals, 61% had pharmacists monitoring medication therapy daily for less than 26% of patients, 17% monitored 26–50% of patients and 22% monitored more than half of patients daily. In 41% of hospitals, pharmacists routinely monitored serum medication concentrations or their surrogate markers; 27% gave pharmacists the authority to order initial serum medication concentrations, and 40% allowed pharmacists to adjust dosages. Pharmacists routinely documented their medication therapy monitoring activities in 52% of hospitals. Overall, 74% of hospitals had an adverse drug event (ADE) reporting system, 59% had a multidisciplinary committee responsible for reviewing ADEs, and 63% had a medication safety committee. Complete electronic medical record (EMR) systems were available in 15% of hospitals and 81% had a partial EMR system. The primary responsibility for performing patient medication education lays with nursing (37%), pharmacy (37%), or was a shared responsibility (26%). In 44% of hospitals, pharmacists provided medication education to half or more inpatients and in a third of hospitals, pharmacists gave medication education to 26% or more of patients at discharge. Conclusion Hospital pharmacists in the Riyadh region are actively engaged in monitoring medication therapy and providing patient medication education, although there is considerable opportunity for further involvement. PMID:24227955
Alsultan, Mohammed S.; Mayet, Ahmed Y.; Khurshid, Fowad; Al-jedai, Ahmed H.
Background: Because the quality of information on the Internet is of dubious worth, many patients seek out reliable expert sources. As per the American Medical Association (AMA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommendations, readability of patient education materials should not exceed a sixth-grade reading level. The average reading skill of U.S. adults is at the eighth-grade level. Objectives: This study evaluates whether a recognized source of expert content, the American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) website’s patient education materials, recommended readability guidelines for medical information. Materials and Methods: Using the well-validated Flesch-Kincaid formula to analyze grade level readability, we evaluated the readability of all 16 of the publicly-accessible entries within the patient education section of the AAST website. Results: Mean ± SD grade level readability was 10.9 ± 1.8 for all the articles. All but one of the articles had a readability score above the sixth-grade level. Readability of the articles exceeded the maximum recommended level by an average of 4.9 grade levels (95% confidence interval, 4.0-5.8; P < 0.0001). Readability of the articles exceeded the eighth-grade level by an average of 2.9 grade levels (95% confidence interval, 2.0-3.8; P < 0.0001). Only one of the articles had a readability score below the eighth-grade level. Conclusions: The AAST’s online patient education materials may be of limited utility to many patients, as the readability of the information exceeds the average reading skill level of adults in the U.S. Lack of patient comprehension represents a discrepancy that is not in accordance with the goals of the AAST’s objectives for its patient education efforts. PMID:25147778
Eltorai, Adam E. M.; Ghanian, Soha; Adams, Charles A.; Born, Christopher T.; Daniels, Alan H.
Introduction: Adherence to diet and fluids is the cornerstone of patients undergoing hemodialysis. By informing hemodialysis patients we can help them have a proper diet and reduce mortality and complications of toxins. Face to face education is one of the most common methods of training in health care system. But advantages of video- based education are being simple and cost-effective, although this method is virtual. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five hemodialysis patients were divided randomly into face to face and video-based education groups. A training manual was designed based on Orem’s self-care model. Content of training manual was same in both the groups. In the face to face group, 2 educational sessions were accomplished during dialysis with a 1-week time interval. In the video-based education group, a produced film, separated to 2 episodes was presented during dialysis with a 1-week time interval. An Attitude questionnaire was completed as a pretest and at the end of weeks 2 and 4. SPSS software version 11.5 was used for analysis. Results: Attitudes about fluid and diet adherence at the end of weeks 2 and 4 are not significantly different in face to face or video-based education groups. The patients’ attitude had a significant difference in face to face group between the 3 study phases (pre-, 2, and 4 weeks postintervention). The same results were obtained in 3 phases of video-based education group. Conclusion: Our findings showed that video-based education could be as effective as face to face method. It is recommended that more investment be devoted to video-based education. PMID:23853648
Moonaghi, Hossein Karimi; Hasanzadeh, Farzaneh; Shamsoddini, Somayyeh; Emamimoghadam, Zahra; Ebrahimzadeh, Saeed
Background It is well known that patients’ involvement in health care students’ learning is essential and gives students opportunities to experience clinical reasoning and practice clinical skills when interacting with patients. Students encounter patients in different contexts throughout their education. However, looking across the research providing evidence about learning related to patient-student encounters reveals a lack of knowledge about the actual learning process that occurs in encounters between patients and students. The aim of this study was to explore patient-student encounters in relation to students’ learning in a patient-centered health-care setting. Methods An ethnographic approach was used to study the encounters between patients and students. The setting was a clinical education ward for nursing students at a university hospital with eight beds. The study included 10 observations with 11 students and 10 patients. The observer followed one or two students taking care of one patient. During the fieldwork observational and reflective notes were taken. After each observation follow-up interviews were conducted with each patient and student separately. Data were analyzed using an ethnographic approach. Results The most striking results showed that patients took different approaches in the encounters with students. When the students managed to create a good atmosphere and a mutual relationship, the patients were active participants in the students’ learning. If the students did not manage to create a good atmosphere, the relationship became one-way and the patients were passive participants, letting the students practice on their bodies but without engaging in a dialogue with the students. Conclusions Patient-student encounters, at a clinical education ward with a patient-centred pedagogical framework, can develop into either a learning relationship or an attending relationship. A learning relationship is based on a mutual relationship between patients and students resulting in patients actively participating in students’ learning and they both experience it as a joint action. An attending relationship is based on a one-way relationship between patients and students resulting in patients passively participating by letting students to practice on their bodies but without engaging in a learning dialogue with the students. PMID:24989155
Objectives. To examine the impact of active student participation on quality of care in an integrative inpatient setting. Methods. Over a two-year period, we surveyed all patients treated on the Clinical Education Ward for Integrative Medicine (CEWIM), where final-year medical students are integrated into an internal medicine ward complementing conventional medicine with anthroposophic medicine. Patients treated on the regular wards of the same internal medicine department served as the control group (CG). General quality of care was studied with the Picker Inpatient Questionnaire, physician empathy with the Consultation and Relational Empathy measure, and patient enablement with the Patient Enablement Index. ANCOVA was used to control for covariates while examining significant differences between both patient groups. Results. Comparison of the CG wards and the CEWIM revealed no significant differences in medical treatment success. The CEWIM, however, achieved better results for physician-patient interaction, physician empathy, and patient enablement. Eighty Percent of the CEWIM patients rated student participation as positively impacting quality of care. Conclusion. Our results indicate that incorporating students in an integrative healthcare setting may result in greater patient centeredness. Further studies are needed to determine whether this is due to organizational advantages, students' empathic activity, the impact of teaching, or learner-teacher interaction. PMID:23573149
Tauschel, Diethard; Neumann, Melanie; Lutz, Gabriele; Valk-Draad, Maria
This article is intended as a clear and practical introduction to use of a scientific perspective on embodied learning. It looks to embodied cognition and embodied cognitive science to explore education for self-care. The author presents a neurobiologic understanding of embodied learning to bridge adult education to the science-driven world of…
Swartz, Ann L.
This study explored federally qualified health center (FQHC) patients' perceptions about colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) tests, including immunochemical fecal occult blood tests (iFOBT), as well as preferences for receiving in-clinic education about CRCS. Eight mixed gender focus groups were conducted with 53 patients. Findings centered on three thematic factors: (1) motivators and impediments to CRCS, (2) test-specific preferences and receptivity to iFOBTs, and (3) preferences for entertaining and engaging plain language materials. Results informed the development of educational priming materials to increase CRCS using iFOBT in FQHCs. PMID:25249181
Gwede, Clement K; Koskan, Alexis M; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Davis, Stacy N; Ealey, Jamila; Abdulla, Rania; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Elliott, Gloria; Lopez, Diana; Shibata, David; Roetzheim, Richard G; Meade, Cathy D
Research has repeatedly shown that neighbourhood disadvantage negatively influences individual educational outcomes. However, the great variation in outcomes indicates substantial unobserved heterogeneity. Looking at the rates of obtaining a basic educational qualification, the hypothesis is that individual traits of adolescents can buffer neighbourhood effects. First, adolescents with a more resilient personality may be better able to cope with neighbourhood adversity. And second, educational commitments might buffer adolescents from negative neighbourhood influences. These hypotheses are tested employing survival analysis, using six wave panel data, containing information on ten years of adolescents' lives. The results show that resilients experience no negative influence of neighbourhood disadvantage, while both undercontrollers and overcontrollers do. And, the stronger adolescents' educational commitments, the less they experience the negative effect of neighbourhood adversity. In sum, neighbourhood effects are found, but not for everybody. PMID:25592923
Nieuwenhuis, Jaap; Hooimeijer, Pieter; Meeus, Wim
Objective To conduct a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of patient education interventions delivered or directed by health professionals for people with musculoskeletal conditions who also have lower levels of literacy. Methods Electronic databases were searched from 1946 to May 2012. Randomized controlled trials with primary interventions designed specifically for individuals with musculoskeletal conditions and lower levels of literacy were eligible for inclusion. The quality of the study was determined by assessing method of randomization, allocation concealment, creation and maintenance of comparable groups, blinding of patients and providers, control of confounding, and the validity and reliability of outcome measures. Results Of the 2,440 studies located using the search strategy, 6 studies met the inclusion criteria. Three public health community studies and 3 rheumatology clinic-based studies delivered educational programs to people with musculoskeletal conditions who also had lower levels of literacy. Three moderate quality studies suggest that musculoskeletal educational interventions had a small short-term effect on knowledge and 2 moderate quality studies suggest musculoskeletal interventions had a small effect on self-efficacy (although results on self-efficacy were conflicting in 1 of these studies). Only 1 moderate quality study showed a small effect on anxiety and 1 on self-perceived health and well-being in people with lower literacy. Conclusion High quality evidence is lacking on the effectiveness of musculoskeletal education interventions for people with lower literacy levels. Research programs that test the effectiveness of patient education interventions for arthritis must recruit and engage people with lower levels of literacy. PMID:23925869
Lowe, Wendy; Ballinger, Claire; Protheroe, Jo; Lueddeke, Jill; Nutbeam, Don; Armstrong, Ray; Falzon, Louise; Edwards, Chris; Russell, Cynthia; McCaffery, Kirsten; Adams, Jo
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a high school sport education curriculum program on students' motivation for physical education and leisure-time physical activity. Method: Participants were 568 high school students enrolled in the required physical education programs at 2 schools, 1 taught using sport education…
Wallhead, Tristan L.; Garn, Alex C.; Vidoni, Carla
This is a randomised controlled pilot study using a mixed methods design. The overall aim was to test an educational intervention on existential issues and to describe surgical nurses' perceived attitudes towards caring for patients dying of cancer. Specific aims were to examine whether the educational intervention consisting of lectures and reflective discussions, affects nurses' perceived confidence in communication and to explore nurses' experiences and reflections on existential issues after participating in the intervention. Forty-two nurses from three surgical wards at one hospital were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. Nurses in both groups completed a questionnaire at equivalent time intervals: at baseline before the educational intervention, directly after the intervention, and 3 and 6 months later. Eleven face-to-face interviews were conducted with nurses directly after the intervention and 6 months later. Significant short-term and long-term changes were reported. Main results concerned the significant long-term effects regarding nurses' increased confidence and decreased powerlessness in communication, and their increased feelings of value when caring for a dying patient. In addition, nurses described enhanced awareness and increased reflection. Results indicate that an understanding of the patient's situation, derived from enhanced awareness and increased reflection, precedes changes in attitudes towards communication. PMID:24471991
Udo, C; Melin-Johansson, C; Henoch, I; Axelsson, B; Danielson, E
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reading level of patient education material from selected current health care journals. Ten patient education pages from a variety of health care journals were entered into a Microsoft Word program. Applying the Flesch-Kincaid readability formula available from Microsoft Word, a reading level for each page was established and compared to recommended standards. Only 2 of 10 patient education pages fell within the recommended reading levels for health-related materials, and 5 of 10 were above the estimated mean U.S. reading level of 8th grade. A 5th to 6th grade level is recommended for patient education materials. This study suggests that although it is known that low health literacy is a widespread problem, it is not always considered when patient-targeted materials are developed. Health care professionals need to become more active in addressing the literacy needs of the intended receiver of written health-related information. PMID:15847246
Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E; Carpenter-Haefele, Kara M
Background: A growing body of preclinical research suggests that brain glutamate systems may be involved in the pathophysiology of major depression and the mechanism of action of antidepressants. This is the first placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial to assess the treatment effects of a single dose of an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist in patients with depression.Methods: Seven subjects with major depression completed
Robert M Berman; Angela Cappiello; Amit Anand; Dan A Oren; George R Heninger; Dennis S Charney; John H Krystal
Background Patient safety education, including error prevention strategies and management of adverse events, has become a topic of worldwide concern. The importance of the patient safety is also recognized in Japan following two serious medical accidents in 1999. Furthermore, educational curriculum guideline revisions in 2008 by relevant the Ministry of Education includes patient safety as part of the core medical curriculum. However, little is known about the patient safety education in Japanese medical schools partly because a comprehensive study has not yet been conducted in this field. Therefore, we have conducted a nationwide survey in order to clarify the current status of patient safety education at medical schools in Japan. Results Response rate was 60.0% (n?=?48/80). Ninety-eight-percent of respondents (n?=?47/48) reported integration of patient safety education into their curricula. Thirty-nine percent reported devoting less than five hours to the topic. All schools that teach patient safety reported use of lecture based teaching methods while few used alternative methods, such as role-playing or in-hospital training. Topics related to medical error theory and legal ramifications of error are widely taught while practical topics related to error analysis such as root cause analysis are less often covered. Conclusions Based on responses to our survey, most Japanese medical schools have incorporated the topic of patient safety into their curricula. However, the number of hours devoted to the patient safety education is far from the sufficient level with forty percent of medical schools that devote five hours or less to it. In addition, most medical schools employ only the lecture based learning, lacking diversity in teaching methods. Although most medical schools cover basic error theory, error analysis is taught at fewer schools. We still need to make improvements to our medical safety curricula. We believe that this study has the implications for the rest of the world as a model of what is possible and a sounding board for what topics might be important. PMID:22574712
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of adolescents with anxiety-based school attendance problems enrolled in a specialist adolescent educational and mental health program that provides educational assistance and social skills development, and to suggest key elements that may account for its apparent effectiveness. Young people attending the Sulman Program in Sydney, Australia, between March 2003 and
Gerard Mcshane; Cheryl Bazzano; Garry Walter; Giles Barton
Suitable normative information on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is not currently available, though it is clear that there is great individual variability in performance on this assessment tool. Given that the task is presumed to measure the emotion-based learning systems that are thought to form the biological basis of 'intuition,' there is some reason to think that education (especially tertiary education) might explicitly de-emphasise the role of emotion-based learning in decision-making. This suggests the paradoxical finding that better-educated participants should show poorer performance on the IGT. We recruited 30 participants (all female, all aged 18-25) to participate in a 'real money' version of the IGT. There was no significant difference in performance in blocks 1-3 of the task (trials 1-60). However, there was a substantial effect of education on the final two blocks (trials 61-100), such that the less-well-educated participants produced twice as much of an improvement over baseline as did their university-educated colleagues. A range of possible explanations for this remarkable finding are discussed. The most likely appears to be that tertiary education specifically discourages the use of emotion-based learning systems in decision-making. These findings bear on the extent to which education has a role to play in our reliance on cognition and emotion in decision-making, including the likely role of education in the generation and maintenance of false beliefs. PMID:15050783
Evans, Cathryn E Y; Kemish, Karen; Turnbull, Oliver H
Graduating nurse practitioners (n=26) completed simulated clinical encounters with standardized patients. Their performance did not reflect their results on other clinical evaluations and national certifying examinations, suggesting that simulated encounters lack validity and reliability. They may be useful for formative learning. (Contains 38…
Vessey, Judith A.; Huss, Karen
In response to aging patient demographics and a call for increased formal geriatric training in medical schools, a community volunteer geriatric mentor program, Bridging Generations, was developed to shape attitudes of medical students caring for the elderly. The geriatric mentor experience provided students with unique insight into the challenges…
Tomkowiak, John; Gunderson, Anne
Present medical models of treatment compliance have not addressed the role that time plays in the perception of a treatment regimen's costs and benefits. This paper re-evaluates the role of time in understanding compliance behavior. Models from the economic and psychological literature are used to demonstrate that the 'discounting effect' associated with future events, and the 'sunk cost effect' associated with past events may have a direct and predictable impact on the patient's values in health care choices. This article suggests that when the effects of time are incorporated into expectancy models of compliance behavior (such as the Health Belief Model) the resulting predictions are supported by numerous findings in the compliance literature, many of which were previously unaccountable by these expectancy models. From this finding an explanation is derived for the variable results of educational and attitudinal change programs upon compliance behavior, the success of patient contracts, the sudden occurrence of preference reversals in health care choices, and the 'confusing' effect of treatment cost on treatment adherence. This paper also introduces to the compliance literature the concept of a treatment's 'time adjusted rate of return', and speculates upon how this concept may be used to understand the relationship between a treatment's 'desirability' or its ability to motivate a person to start the treatment, and its 'resistance' or its capacity to help a person to finish the treatment once it has begun. It proposes that changes in the temporal distribution of a treatment's benefits and costs can improve the treatment's desirability and resistance, and that a treatment's time adjusted rate of return can be used to allocate more efficiently the effort that providers spend monitoring patient compliance. PMID:3929392
Christensen-Szalanski, J J; Northcraft, G B
We determined the effect of 6-month rosuvastatin treatment on blood lipids, oxidative parameters, apolipoproteins, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipoprotein(a), homocysteine, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Healthy individuals (men aged >40 years and postmenopausal women) with a body mass index ?30 (n = 100) who fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III diagnostic criteria for MetS were included. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels decreased (P < .0001). The change in LDL 1 to 3 subgroups was significant (P = .0007, P < .0001, and P = .006, respectively). Changes in LDL 4 to 7 subgroups were not significant. There was a beneficial effect on oxidized LDL, fibrinogen, homocysteine, and HbA1c. Rosuvastatin significantly increased high-density lipoprotein levels (P = .0003). The oxidant/antioxidant status and subclinical inflammatory state were also beneficially changed. Rosuvastatin had a significant beneficial effect on atherogenic dyslipidemia as well as on oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with MetS. PMID:24554427
Bostan, Cem; Yildiz, Ahmet; Ozkan, Alev Arat; Uzunhasan, Isil; Kaya, Aysem; Yigit, Zerrin
This review discusses the benefits and drawbacks of public health screening for hepatitis C, its cost effectiveness, and the various strategies to identify individuals infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Of the estimated 4 million people infected with hepatitis C in the United States, approximately 50% are unaware of their infection. Both the high incidence and recent improvements in the treatment of hepatitis C make it likely that a screening program for this disease would be beneficial to patients, their families, and to the public. Testing for anti-HCV antibody is now widely available, automated, sensitive (>95%), and relatively inexpensive (approximately $80 per test). Interferons and the introduction of ribavirin into the treatment armamentarium have improved the effectiveness of therapy. Lifestyle modifications can be made to decrease the risk of transmission, and patients can be counseled to avoid alcohol consumption and receive hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccinations, if appropriate. An additional benefit of early detection is that family members can be alerted to the risk factors for hepatitis C. Such education increases overall public awareness of the disease and may improve prevention efforts. Several national agencies within the United States and in Europe have issued guidelines for hepatitis C screening. Each of these calls for screening of high-risk populations, which include individuals who have received blood products and intravenous drug users. Targeted screening and improved treatment outcomes will likely show identification of those with hepatitis C to be cost effective in the future. PMID:10653454
Gordon, F D
Background In this study, we examine the relationship between level of education of patients and five year mortality following major lower extremity amputation. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients who underwent above- or below-knee amputation at the Nashville VA by the vascular surgery service between January 2000 and August 2006. Formal level of education of the study patients was recorded. Outcomes were compared between those patients who had completed high school and those who had not. Bivariate analysis using chi-square and student's t-test, and multivariable logistic regression were performed. Results Five year mortality for patients who completed high school was lower than those who had not completed high school (62.6% vs. 84.3%; p = 0.001), even after adjusting for important clinical factors (Odds Ratio of death = 0.377, 95% CI 0.164 – 0.868 p=0.022). Conclusions Patients with less education have increased long term mortality following lower extremity amputation. PMID:22906244
Corey, Michael R.; Julien, Jamii St; Miller, Carly; Fisher, Bryan; Cederstrand, Sara L.; Nylander, William A.; Guzman, Raul J.; Dattilo, Jeffery B.
Objectives This study was conducted to develop a smartphone application (app) as an educational learning instrument for coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and to assess the users' level of satisfaction. Methods This methodological research involves elicited learning content for CAD patients to develop a learning instrument using the smartphone app. The app was developed according to the steps of Assessment, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation, which is a systematic instructional design model. The levels of satisfaction with the developed smartphone app among 30 outpatients with CAD were assessed via a questionnaire during their visits to a cardiology outpatient department. Results A smartphone app 'Strong Heart' was developed through reviewing the literature associated with education for CAD patients under professional supervision and searching for medical smartphone apps that are already available. The learning contents include six main sections containing essential learning issues in managing CAD and additional information to attract the user's attention, such as patient cases and quizzes. After modification with feedback from experts, the app was finally developed and evaluated by patients who reported that they were satisfied with the usefulness of the app. Conclusions The developed smartphone app is available on both the iPhone App Store and the Android Play Store. Patients with CAD may utilize the app for supporting educational material without limitations of time and space. PMID:24872910
Cho, Min Jung; Sim, Jae Lan
Background There is a need for educational tools in the consenting process of otolaryngology-head and neck procedures. A development strategy for the creation of educational tools in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, particularly pamphlets on the peri-operative period in an adenotonsillectomy, is described. Methods A participatory design approach, which engages key stakeholders in the development of an educational tool, is used. Pamphlets were created through a review of traditional and grey literature and then reviewed by a community expert in the field. The pamphlets were then reviewed by an interdisciplinary team including educational experts, and finally by less vulnerable members of the target population. Questionnaires evaluating the pamphlets’ content, layout, style, and general qualitative features were included. Results The pamphlets yielded high ratings across all domains regardless of patient population. General feedback was provided by a non-vulnerable patient population and final pamphlets were drafted. Conclusions By using a participatory design model, the pamphlets are written at an appropriate educational level to incorporate a broad audience. Furthermore, this methodology can be used in future resource development of educational tools. PMID:25022351
This paper attempts to clarify several lines of research on gender in development and education, inter-relating findings from studies on intuitive/informal knowledge with those from research on achievements and attitudes in science. It acknowledges the declining proportions of male teachers world-wide and examination successes which indicate a…
Bryce, T. G. K.; Blown, E. J.
Our universities are an indispensible part of the UK's healthcare system. This publication is the first in a series of Universities UK reports depicting the vital connections between higher education and healthcare. It illustrates the virtuous partnership between health providers and universities in supplying and developing the healthcare…
Universities UK, 2012
The study was designed as descriptive and cross-sectional to determine the relation between students' views about web-based Patient Education course and anxiety. The study group consisted of all students registered the web-based Patient Education course (N: 148) at 2010-2011 semester at a nursing school. Data were collected using…
Tasocak, Gülsün; Kaya, Hülya; Senyuva, Emine; Isik, Burçin; Bodur, Gönül
Objective: While access to health education information has become easier, the quality of information retrieved from the Internet varies considerably. In response to the need for accessible, quality health information that is tailored to meet individual patient needs, a patient education website, called PEPTalk, was developed. The site houses text…
Atack, Lynda; Luke, Robert
Influenza Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Page 1 of 2 Revised 05/09/2012 The flu the flu (including H1N1 flu) with rest and proper self care strategies. UHS does not give class excuses for the flu. What are flu symptoms? Fever (usually 100 degrees or greater) and cough and/or sore throat
The purpose of this study was to investigate how Canadian adults living with limited literacy and chronic illness made meaning of their patient education experiences. The study used a hermeneutic phenomenological research design and employed three data sources over a nine-month period. Data was interpreted and analyzed as it was collected,…
King, Judy; Taylor, Maurice C.
Introduction: Minimal attention has been given to the intersection and potential collaboration among the domains of continuing education (CE), knowledge translation (KT), quality improvement (QI), and patient safety (PS), despite their overlapping objectives. A study was undertaken to examine leaders' perspectives of these 4 domains and their…
Kitto, Simon C.; Bell, Mary; Goldman, Joanne; Peller, Jennifer; Silver, Ivan; Sargeant, Joan; Reeves, Scott
is it a sign of personal weakness. Depression is a medical disorder (just like diabetes and high blood pressureDepression Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Revised 06/13/12 Page 1 of 3 General Facts Depression is a very common, yet highly treatable, medical illness that can affect anyone. More
Eczema/Atopic Dermatitis Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Revised 5/18/10 Page 1 of 1 Eczema, or atopic dermatitis, is a common allergic skin reaction often affecting the face, elbows the condition when it is symptomatic. Itching is the hallmark symptom of eczema and can sometimes be very
Eczema/Atopic Dermatitis Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Revised 5/09/12 Page 1 of 1 Eczema, or atopic dermatitis, is a common allergic skin reaction often affecting the face, elbows the condition when it is symptomatic. Itching is the hallmark symptom of eczema and can sometimes be very
symptoms, respiratory illness, functional status, and use of health care resources. Results: All 3 groups improved on measures of respi- ratory illnesses, use of health care services, and func- tional status. Patients in both education groups did no better than the usual-care group. Conclusions: The results are inconsistent with the re- sults of the first asthma self-management study at this
William C. Bailey; Connie L. Kohler; James M. Richards; Richard A. Windsor; C. Michael Brooks; Lynn B. Gerald; Beverly Martin; Darlene M. Higgins; Tiepu Liu
Background: Despite improved understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, morbidity and mortality con- tinue to rise, with disproportionate increases occurring among urban, indigent minorities. New approaches in the management of asthma are therefore necessary to re- verse these dramatic and costly trends. Objective: To determine if patients who are admitted to the hospital with acute asthma and receive inpatient education
Maureen R. George; Liza C. O'Dowd; Iris Martin; Kathleen O. Lindell; Fay Whitney; Martha Jones; Tracey Ramondo; Lynne Walsh; Jacqueline Grissinger; John Hansen-Flaschen
Allergies Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Revised 6/13/12 Page 1 of 3 Allergies can identifies certain things as dangerous and reacts to them as if they were germs or viruses. Your allergy allergies is inherited. Common Allergens Common allergens include dust mites, animal dander, molds, mildew
Patient Education 1 The NIH Children's School The NIH Children's School Since 1953, pediatric Children's School. The NIH Children's School is funded by the Federal government and is available free. The School is staffed by teachers from the Home and Hospital Instruction Office of the Montgomery County
Baker, Chris I.
The Pill Birth Control for Women Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Page 1 of 2 Revised 9/14/11 The birth control pill is a combined hormonal contraceptive containing two hormones use another birth control method while on these medications and for 7 days after completing them
BACK PAIN Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Revised 10/10/12 Page 1 of 2 Most low back pain is caused by mechanical problems with the joints or muscles of the back. Your clinician will help rule out more serious disorders of internal organs, which can also cause back pain. Common Causes
The COPE self-management programme, including a self-management education course, self-treatment of exacerbations and a fitness programme, appeared to have no significant effect on health related quality of life (HRQoL) as measured by the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). This is in contrast to our hypothesis and despite expressions of satisfaction of patients to healthcare workers. To understand this discrepancy, a qualitative study was performed. A purposive sample of 20 participants of the COPE self-management programme were interviewed at home using in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed verbatim and analysed according grounded theory. The fitness programme was most positively evaluated by patients due to the perceived increase of exercise capacity and the social aspect of the group training. Major effects gained by the self-management education course reported by patients were the skills to evenly distribute their energy and to listen to their body signals. Most patients thought favourable about self-treatment of exacerbations. The possibility to start early, not having to call a doctor and autonomy were raised as important advantages. Furthermore, several patients reported increased self-confidence and coping behaviour as important effects of the COPE programme. Finally, many patients reported feeling safe due to the frequent follow-up visits and 24h access to the hospital, and this aspect elicited to be very important. In this study, the qualitative interviews suggest that the SGRQ and possibly other existing HRQoL instruments might fail to capture the full experience of patients in self-management studies. The need for more elaborate qualitative research on this subject is indicated. PMID:15530752
Monninkhof, Evelyn; van der Aa, Maaike; van der Valk, Paul; van der Palen, Job; Zielhuis, Gerhard; Koning, Karen; Pieterse, Marcel
Aims To determine whether glycemic control is improved when Motivational Interviewing (MI), a patient-centered behavior change strategy, is used with Diabetes Self Management Education (DSME) as compared to DSME alone. Methods Poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients (n=234) were randomized into 4 groups: MI+DSME or DSME alone, with or without use of a computerized summary of patient self management barriers. We compared HbA1c changes between groups at 6 months and investigated mediators of HbA1c change. Results Study patients attended the majority of intervention visits (mean 3.4/4), but drop-out rate was high at follow-up research visits (35%). Multiple regression showed that groups receiving MI had a mean change in HbA1c that was significantly lower (less improved) than those not receiving MI (t=2.10; p=0.037). Mediators of HbA1c change for the total group were diabetes self-care behaviors and diabetes distress; no between-group differences were found. Conclusions DSME improved blood glucose control, underlining its benefit for T2DM management. However, MI+DSME was less effective than DSME alone. Overall, weak support was found for the clinical utility of MI in the management of T2DM delivered by diabetes educators. PMID:21074887
Zagarins, Sofija E.; Feinberg, Rebecca G.; Garb, Jane L.
Background In order to manage the increasing worldwide problem of obesity, medical students will need to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to assess and counsel patients with obesity. Few educational intervention studies have been conducted with medical students addressing stigma and communication skills with patients who are overweight or obese. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in students' attitudes and beliefs about obesity, and their confidence in communication skills after a structured educational intervention that included a clinical encounter with an overweight standardized patient (SP). Methods First year medical students (n = 127, 47% female) enrolled in a communications unit were instructed to discuss the SPs' overweight status and probe about their perceptions of being overweight during an 8 minute encounter. Prior to the session, students were asked to read two articles on communication and stigma as background information. Reflections on the readings and their performance with the SP were conducted prior to and after the encounter when students met in small groups. A newly constructed 16 item questionnaire was completed before, immediately after and one year after the session. Scale analysis was performed based on a priori classification of item intent. Results Three scales emerged from the questionnaire: negative obesity stereotyping (7 items), empathy (3 items), and counseling confidence (3 items). There were small but significant immediate post-intervention improvements in stereotyping (p?=?.002) and empathy (p?.0001) and a very large mean improvement in confidence (p?.0001). Significant improvement between baseline and immediate follow-up responses were maintained for empathy and counseling at one year after the encounter but stereotyping reverted to the baseline mean. Percent of students with improved scale scores immediately and at one year follow up were as follows: stereotyping 53.1% and 57.8%; empathy 48.4% and 47.7%; and confidence 86.7% and 85.9%. Conclusions A structured encounter with an overweight SP was associated with a significant short-term decrease in negative stereotyping, and longer-term increase in empathy and raised confidence among first year medical students toward persons who are obese. The encounter was most effective for increasing confidence in counseling skills. PMID:24636594
Introduction Health education provided to patients can reduce mortality and morbidity of chronic disease. Although some studies describe the provision of health education by physicians, few studies have examined how physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners differ in the provision of health education. The objective of our study was to evaluate the rate of health education provision by physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners/certified midwives. Methods We analyzed 5 years of data (2005–2009) from the outpatient department subset of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. We abstracted data on 136,432 adult patient visits for the following chronic conditions: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), depression, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and obesity. Results Health education was not routinely provided to patients who had a chronic condition. The percentage of patients who received education on their chronic condition ranged from 13.0% (patients with COPD or asthma who were provided education on smoking cessation by nurse practitioners) to 42.2% (patients with diabetes or obesity who were provided education on exercise by physician assistants). For all conditions assessed, rates of health education were higher among physician assistants and nurse practitioners than among physicians. Conclusion Physician assistants and nurse practitioners provided health education to patients with chronic illness more regularly than did physicians, although none of the 3 types of clinicians routinely provided health education. Possible explanations include training differences, differing roles within a clinic by provider type, or increased clinical demands on physicians. More research is needed to understand the causes of these differences and potential opportunities to increase the delivery of condition-specific education to patients. PMID:24602587
Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B.; Scholting, Patty; Cawley, James F.
A cost-effectiveness evaluation of an Arthritis Self-Management Program assessed direct and indirect costs through self-reporting of health services use. Diminished productivity and effectiveness were measured through a visual analog scale and the health status dimensions of the Canadian Medical Outcomes Study short form. (JOW)
Clarke, Ann E.
Objective: The present study gives a brief introduction into the definition of physician empathy (PE) and its influence on patients’ health outcomes. Furthermore we present assessment instruments to measure PE from the perspective of the patient and medical student. The latter topic will be explored in detail as we conducted a pilot study on the German versions of two self-assessment instruments of empathy, which are mostly used in medical education research, namely the “Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy, Student Version” (JSPE-S) and the “Interpersonal Reactivity Index” (IRI). Methods: We first present an overview of the current empirical and theoretical literature on the definition and outcome-relevance of PE. Additionally, we conducted basic psychometric analyses of the German versions of the JSPE-S and the IRI. Data for this analyses is based on a cross-sectional pilot-survey in N=44 medical students and N=63 students of other disciplines from the University of Cologne. Results: PE includes the understanding of the patient as well as verbal and non-verbal communication, which should result in a helpful therapeutic action of the physician. Patients’ health outcomes in different healthcare settings can be improved considerably from a high quality empathic encounter with their clinician. Basic psychometric results of the German JSPE-S and IRI measures show first promising results. Conclusion: PE as an essential and outcome-relevant element in the patient-physician relationship requires more consideration in the education of medical students and, thus, in medical education research. The German versions of the JSPE-S and IRI measures seem to be promising means to evaluate these education aims and to conduct medical education research on empathy. PMID:22403596
Neumann, Melanie; Scheffer, Christian; Tauschel, Diethard; Lutz, Gabriele; Wirtz, Markus; Edelhäuser, Friedrich
Epilepsy is associated with a significant burden of false beliefs and social stigma in the setting of Sub-Saharan Africa. To assess the impacts of epilepsy on child education in Sierra Leone (SL), we carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study examining its effects on school attendance, participation in physical activities, and social acceptance among classmates. We also assessed the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding epilepsy of both the children's caregivers and teachers. The data were collected at various epilepsy clinics and schools in Freetown, SL. A total of 50 patients were interviewed and questionnaires administered to their caregivers and teachers, making a total of 150 respondents. Fifty-one percent of the children were absent from school for >5 days per month. Ninety percent did not participate in games and sports, with the commonest reason being fear of occurrence of seizures. Thirty-six percent claimed having experienced negative attitude from their classmates. Regarding the caregivers, 48% believed that epilepsy was a medical illness, while 34% considered it a demonic manifestation. Forty-eight percent were apprehensive about sending their children to school, with 83% of these caregivers stating fear of seizures and potential injuries. Only 8% of the caregivers did not prevent their children from taking part in any physical activity at school. Regarding the teachers, 16% believed that epilepsy was a demonic manifestation, and 10% thought that it was contagious. Fourteen percent did not think that children with epilepsy should go to school, and 80% would prevent children with epilepsy from participating in games and sports. When faced with a child having a seizure, 48% would hold the child down, 12% would place a hard object in the child's mouth, and 12% would avoid any physical contact. In total, 20% of the children ceased attending school permanently; daily occurrence of seizures (p<0.05), negative attitude of classmates (p<0.001), and having an illiterate caregiver (p<0.02) all showed a significant association with permanent cessation of schooling. The study demonstrates significant negative impacts of epilepsy on child education. Notably, the reasons for permanent exclusion from school appear to be as much related to attitudes as to the medical aspects of the disease itself. The data thus highlight the need for educational programs to address the widely prevalent misconceptions among both caregivers and teachers. PMID:25108115
Ali, Desta B; Tomek, Michal; Lisk, Durodami R
Abstract: This paper examines the historical concept of technical education in NewZealand as it developed from the British model. It examines how England andWales designed and introduced a new technology curriculum, and how, ofnecessity, a New Zealand technology curriculum has been developed which ismore suited to New Zealand's developing culture. The paper focuses on the____________________________Maxwell S. Reid (email@example.com) is on
Maxwell S. Reid
The Japanese Society of Palliative Medicine has developed a clinical guideline to minimize the large variation in clinical practice of artificial hydration therapy for terminally ill cancer patients. The primary aim of this preliminary study was to explore the effects of a five-hour interactive workshop based on the guideline of nurses' knowledge, confidence, self-reported practice, and nurse-perceived usefulness. The study was designed as a pre-post anonymous questionnaire survey. The nurses attended a five-hour interactive workshop based on the guideline and were asked to complete a questionnaire before and after the workshop. The outcome measures were: nurses' knowledge (13 items; the total number of correct answers was defined as the Knowledge score), confidence in caring for terminally ill cancer patients with reduced oral intake (a single Likert-type scale from 1="not confident at all" to 7="very confident"), and self-reported practice (nine items assessing the degree to which nurses think they would perform more frequently recommended practices described in the guideline after the workshop). Of the 81 nurses who participated in this workshop, we obtained consent from 76 to complete the questionnaire. The Knowledge score significantly increased after the intervention from 7.7+/-2.3 to 11+/-1.4 (P<0.001), and the Confidence score significantly increased from 3.1+/-1.2 to 3.8+/-1.1 (P<0.001). More than 80% of the nurses reported they would perform six of nine recommended practices after the workshop. The percentages of nurses who evaluated this workshop as "useful" or "very useful" were: 84% (to know the medical indications of artificial hydration therapy), 89% (to know the effects of artificial hydration therapy on patient quality of life and survival), 71% (to know the physiology of appetite loss and cancer cachexia), 83% (to know how to provide nursing care), and 91% (to know ethical principles). Based on these results, it is possible that a five-hour interactive workshop on artificial hydration therapy, based on the clinical guideline of the Japanese Society of Palliative Medicine, improves nurses' knowledge, confidence, and self-reported practices. The workshop was generally perceived as useful for nurses. Nationwide dissemination of the guideline with interactive workshop education for nurses, in combination with physicians, is a promising method for improving the clinical practice of artificial hydration therapy for terminally ill cancer patients. PMID:19735900
Yamagishi, Akemi; Tanaka, Fukuko; Morita, Tatsuya
Study protocol for a randomized, controlled trial comparing the efficacy of two educational interventions to improve inhalation techniques in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): TIEPOC Study
Background: An appropriate inhalation technique and adherence to treatment are both critical determinants of the success of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management. We have observed that up to 75% of patients do not use a successful inhalation technique. Knowledge evaluation and frequent reassessment of inhaler use, together with education of patients and healthcare professionals, can significantly improve the benefits that patients with COPD will derive from inhaler therapy. The objective of this study is to test the efficacy of two educational interventions to improve inhalation techniques in patients with COPD. Methods: Multicenter randomized controlled trial with 296 patients diagnosed with COPD selected by a non-probabilistic method of sampling from seven Spanish Primary Care Centers. The patients will be divided into three groups by block randomization. The three groups are: 1) control; 2) Intervention A; and 3) Intervention B. The control group will comprise patients with no explanations or written information; the Intervention A group will comprise patients to whom we give written information only; and the Intervention B group will comprise patients to whom we give written information plus instructor training. Every patient in each group will be visited four times during the year of the study at the health centers. Discussion: Our hypothesis is that the application of educational interventions (A or B) in patients with COPD who use inhaler therapy will increase the number of patients who perform a correct inhalation technique by at least 25%. We will evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions on patient inhalation technique improvement, where feasible within the context of clinical practice. PMID:24991223
Leiva-Fernández, José; Leiva-Fernández, Francisca; Vázquez-Alarcón, Rubén L; García-Ruiz, Antonio; Prados-Torres, Daniel; Barnestein-Fonseca, Pilar
Idriss, Nayla Z; Alikhan, Ali; Baba, Khalil; Armstrong, April W
Background. Patient education has long been recognized as a component of effective diabetes management, but the impact of counseling and education (C/E) interventions on health care costs is not fully understood. Objectives. To identify the incidence and type of diabetes C/E received by type 2 diabetes patients and to evaluate associated economic and clinical outcomes. Methods. This retrospective cohort study used the Premier-Optum Continuum of Care database (2005-2009) to compare adult patients with type 2 diabetes receiving C/E to those not receiving C/E (control). The index date was the first C/E date or, in the control cohort, a randomly assigned date on which some care was delivered. Patients had at least 6 months' pre-index and 12 months' post-index continuous health plan coverage. Health care costs and glycemic levels were evaluated over 12 and 6 months, respectively, with adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics using propensity score matching (PSM). Results. Of 26,790 patients identified, 9.3% received at least one C/E intervention (mean age 53 years, 47% men) and 90.7% received no C/E (mean age 57 years, 54% men). Standard diabetes education was the most common form of C/E (73%). After PSM, C/E patients had some improvements in glycemic levels (among those with laboratory values available), without increased risk for hypoglycemia, and incurred $2,335 per-patient less in diabetes-related health care costs, although their total health care costs increased. Conclusions. Despite the low uptake of C/E services, C/E interventions may be associated with economic and clinical benefits at 12 months. Further analyses are needed to evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of such initiatives. PMID:25647045
Dalal, Mehul R; Robinson, Scott B; Sullivan, Sean D
's descriptive phenomenological method, and supported by spe- cific qualitative analysis software (Sphinx, and tiredness. These symptoms impact greatly on patients' quality of life (Elliot, 2008), resulting
Background: The effects of vitamins on human immune system have been well studied. Vitamin A deficiency and its effects on immune system in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients have been established. This study was carried out to evaluate vitamin A supplementary effect on immunologic profile of tuberculosis patients. Materials and Methods: In a double-blind clinical trial, thirty-five patients with confirmed pulmonary
Somayeh Mohammadian; Jalil Baghdadchi; Ali Reza; Ostad Rahimi; Shahpour Shahghasempour; Majid Valiollahpour Amiri; Foroozan Mohammadi; Seyed Mehdi Mirsaiedi; Ali Akbar Velayati
Students With autism spectrum disorders (ASD) present unique challenges to educators trying to plan effective instructional programs. Although an impressive body of research identifying effective practices has emerged, there have been minimal attempts to integrate the findings into a curricular foundation to be adopted by school districts. This article provides a description of 6 core elements that have empirical support
Rose Iovannone; Glen Dunlap; Heather Huber; Don Kincaid
An elementary and secondary education cost-effectiveness model is designed, emphasizing evaluation of ESEA's Title I programs for the disadvantaged. Focusing heavily on student achievement, the model presents a means for evaluating by computer simulation the relative school, student, and community effects and associated costs of alternative Title…
Abt, Clark C.
The objective of the work was to analyze local priority data on the possible effect of demographic, anamnestic and clinical factors in a non-selected population of 3123 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AIM) on the hospital mortality (HM). 12.6% patients with AIM died in hospital. The mean age of those who died was 71.92 years. There were more than 4 times more patients above 64 years than 64-year-old ones or younger ones who died. The mortality rate of 64-year-old patients and younger ones (5.2% is significantly lower than in patients above 64 years (19%). The mortality rate of patients above 74 years was 27.1%. Important correlations of the HM were moreover found--in women, patients living permanently in rural areas, in widowed subjects, in patients with elementary education, old age, pensioners and non-smokers. The HM was lower (< 10%) in patients with a history of complex ventricular arrhythmias, impaired lipid metabolism and those who had no other serious disease in the case-history. A higher HM (> 15%) was recorded in patients with a history of a cerebrovascular attack, with data on heart failure and in diabetic patients. The majority of patients (39.4% of all who died) died within 24 hours after admission. During the first three days 57% patients died. Analysis of the characteristic of AIM and HM revealed some clinically important data on the HM less than 30% (patients with complicated AIM, with elevated ST segments, with a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40% and with and concurrent heart failure). An adverse course of the disease with a high HM (> 30%) was found in patients with complications of AIM. It was highest, more than 60%, in patients after implemented cardiopulmonary resuscitation, in patients with a combination of three markers of imminent shock and patients in shock. The local priority findings on the HM assembled in Slovakia in a non-selected population of patients with AIM confirm that the high HM still persists in patients of advanced age and in women. It is adversely influenced also by some demographic data, educational level, some anamnestic and clinical factors. The HM of patients with AIM may be adversely influenced also by side-effects of protracted economic transformation which is under way. Data assembled in Slovakia are comparable with similar results assembled in other countries. PMID:12577459
Cagán, S; Wimmerová, S; Besedová, I; Trnovec, T
be 99.7% effective in preventing pregnancy. How does Depo-ProveraÂ® work? Depo-ProveraÂ® prevents mucous to prevent sperm from passing through. How is Depo-ProveraÂ® given? Depo-ProveraÂ® is administered Â· Decreased occurrence of anemia (low iron) Â· Decreased menstrual cramps and pain Â· Suppression of discomfort
/09/13 Page 1 of 2 Types of Upper Respiratory Infections The common cold syndrome is caused by one of many is killed by your immune system. Antibiotics are not effective in treating the common cold. Cold symptoms that cause the common cold. Allow your body to get rid of the virus in its own way. Reasons for not taking
Studied the effects of program and patient characteristics on patient retention in residential, out-patient, and methadone maintenance drug treatment programs. Data for 26,047 patients in 87 programs show that threshold retention rates were generally low for all 3 program types, although program practice and service provision played important…
Hser, Yih-Ing; Joshi, Vandana; Maglione, Margaret; Chou, Chih Ping; Anglin, M. Douglas
Substance abuse among schizophrenic patients is an increasingly recognized clinical phenomenon. The authors review experimental and observed clinical effects of drug abuse and patients’ subjective experiences of acute intoxication. Though drug abuse may exacerbate psychotic symptoms, abused drugs may also lead to transient symptom reduction in subgroups of schizophrenic patients. Some patients report feeling less dysphoric, less anxious, and more
Lisa Dixon; Gretchen Haas; Peter Weiden; John Sweeney; Allen Frances
Background: There are many factors which affect nutritional status of addicted such as lack o f knowledge, incorrect attitude toward modification of food pattern, and careless to food intake. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of educational program on nutritional behavior in addicts referring to Baharan hospital in Zahedan. Patients and Methods: Thirty-six addict patients were selected randomly. After recording general demographic data of patients, nutritional behaviors were determined. To determine the effectiveness of nutritional educational program, pre and post-tests were performed. Evaluation of nutritional behavior was determined as poor, fair and satisfactory levels. Statically analysis was performed by SPSS software. Results: Most addict patients had a medium level of education. Improvement in knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of patients after intervention was observed as follows; decreasing KAP in poor level (2.8% vs. 30.6%), (3% vs. 50%), (25% vs. 80.6%), respectively; also, increasing KAP in fair level (7% vs. 55.6 %), (15% vs. 15%), (19% vs. 7%), respectively and increasing KAP in satisfactory levels (77.8% vs. 13.8%), (50% vs. 8.3%), and (22.2% vs. 0%), respectively (P < 0.0001). There was a significant difference regarding the grade of KAP in patients based on gender, marital status, and education level after education (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: This study showed that nutritional KAP was improved in addicts. After intervention, there was a significant difference in the score of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores in patients in the current study. KAP was improved in patients after intervention including; decreased KAP in poor level and increased KAP in fair and satisfactory levels. This finding indicates that addict patients would like to modify their life style. PMID:25032162
Karajibani, Mansour; Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Dashipour, Alireza; Lashkaripour, Kobra; Abery, Maryam; Salari, Sajedeh
to participate in the online discussion forum hosted by Cell Biology Education at wwwFeature Points of View: Effective Partnerships Between KÂ12 and Higher Education Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Science Education Partnerships: Being Realistic About Meeting Expectations Nancy Moreno
The educational effects of practical education using a debate exercise are investigated using questionnaires. For the group-work composed of discussion and debate, students understand thoroughly various engineering ethical topics, such as factors preventing ethical decision-making. Students enhance their abilities to make a rational and logical decision by themselves such as a judgment based on correct information. Mutual evaluation by students through group interaction elevates positive educational effects. However, students answer fewer questions related to the understanding of professional duties and cooperate social responsibility because of the group-work using failure cases. Students also show less progress in their abilities to communicate with others and to express their opinions to audiences. A more suitable number of group members solves the latter problem.
Takanokura, Masato; Hayashi, Shigeo
In recent years, attention has been drawn toward assessing the effectiveness of oral health education programs. This is in line with demand for evidence based research and will help to inform policy makers on how to allocate resources. (1) Collect and collate all information on oral health education programs. (2) Assess the programs based on various coding criteria. (3) Assess effectiveness of oral health education programs on oral health status and knowledge, attitude and practice. A search of all published articles in Medline was done using the keywords “oral health education, dental health education, oral health promotion”. The resulting titles and abstracts provided the basis for initial decisions and selection of articles. Out of the primary list of articles, a total number of 40 articles were selected as they fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: (1). Articles on oral health programs with an oral health education component (2). Articles published after the year 1990 (3). Articles published in English. The full text of the articles was then obtained from either the internet or libraries of dental research colleges and hospitals in and around Bangalore. A set of important variables were identified and grouped under five headings to make them amenable for coding. The coding variables were then described under various subheadings to allow us to compare the chosen articles. Oral health education is effective in improving the knowledge attitude and practice of oral health and in reducing plaque, bleeding on probing of the gingiva and caries increment. This study identifies a few important variables which contribute to the effectiveness of the programs. There is an indication in this review that the most successful oral health programs are labor intensive, involve significant others and has received funding and additional support. A balance between inputs and outputs and health care resources available will determine if the program can be recommended for general use. PMID:24778989
Nakre, Priya Devadas; Harikiran, A. G.
Purpose: Standardized patients (SP) in Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) curricula are increasingly used for students to practice developing clinical reasoning, communication, and professional skills in an authentic learning environment. The purposes of this article are to: (1) describe an instructional model that synthesized SPs, Internet-based communities of practice, and reflection to teach clinical reasoning in DPT students; and (2) a cardiovascular and pulmonary physical therapy (CPPT) instructor's perspective on the educational process and student clinical skill development. Summary of Key Points: The model, employed in a course: “Integrative Physical Therapy Practice,” enabled the instructor to document student clinical performance and reasoning during an SP interaction. For students, clinical reasoning was illuminated through the model's assessment process. Data collected through the assessment process provided important feedback to the instructor on classroom instructional effectiveness. Conclusions: Examination of student learning experiences enabled the instructor to consider: (1) key aspects of examination and management for persons with cardiovascular or pulmonary disorders, (2) methods for visualizing clinical reasoning, (3) the impact of teaching on student learning, and (4) strategies for teaching CPPT. More research is indicated to investigate pedagogy for the development of clinical reasoning in DPT students. PMID:21886477
Markowski, Alycia; Hickey, Mary; Hayward, Lorna
Purpose When faced with a significant recruitment challenge for three nationwide psycho-educational trials targeting prostate and breast cancer patients, the Cancer Information Service Research Consortium initiated outreach efforts to increase accrual. Recruitment is reported by major outreach strategy to inform the use of similar campaigns, either as primary recruitment efforts or to supplement “in-reach” recruitment within oncology settings. Methods During a 33-month period, recruitment was tracked from the National Cancer Institute’s Cancer Information Service (CIS), the American Cancer Society (ACS), Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation’s Love/Avon Army of Women (AOW), Internet advertising, press releases, radio/television interviews, recruitment materials in community venues, and outreach to churches and cancer support organizations. Results Across projects, the majority (89%) of recruited participants (N = 2,134) was obtained from the CIS (n = 901, 19 months of recruitment), AOW (n = 869, 18 months), and ACS (n = 123, 12 months). Other efforts showed minimal gain in recruitment. Conclusions Cancer information programs (e.g., CIS, ACS) and registries of individuals willing to participate in cancer-related research (e.g., AOW) can represent exceptional resources for outreach recruitment of cancer patients, especially when the eligibility criteria are highly restrictive. However, these resources do not yield samples representative of the larger population of adults diagnosed with cancer, and conclusions from such trials must be tempered accordingly. Implications for cancer survivors Inadequate recruitment to randomized controlled trials limits the creation of useful interventions for cancer survivors. By enrolling in cancer registries and taking part in research, cancer survivors can contribute to the development of effective resources for the survivor population. PMID:23595235
Stanton, Annette L.; Morra, Marion E.; Miller, Suzanne M.; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Slevin-Perocchia, Rosemarie; Raich, Peter C.; Fleisher, Linda; Wen, Kuang-Yi; Tran, Zung Vu; Mohamed, Nihal E.; George, Roshini; Bright, Mary Anne; Marcus, Alfred C.
The effect of post-discharge educational intervention on patients in achieving objectives in modifiable risk factors six months after discharge following an episode of acute coronary syndrome, (CAM-2 Project): a randomized controlled trial
Objectives We investigated whether an intervention mainly consisting of a signed agreement between patient and physician on the objectives to be reached, improves reaching these secondary prevention objectives in modifiable cardiovascular risk factors six-months after discharge following an acute coronary syndrome. Background There is room to improve mid-term adherence to clinical guidelines' recommendations in coronary heart disease secondary prevention, specially non-pharmacological ones, often neglected. Methods In CAM-2, patients discharged after an acute coronary syndrome were randomly assigned to the intervention or the usual care group. The primary outcome was reaching therapeutic objectives in various secondary prevention variables: smoking, obesity, blood lipids, blood pressure control, exercise and taking of medication. Results 1757 patients were recruited in 64 hospitals and 1510 (762 in the intervention and 748 in the control group) attended the six-months follow-up visit. After adjustment for potentially important variables, there were, between the intervention and control group, differences in the mean reduction of body mass index (0.5 vs. 0.2; p < 0.001) and waist circumference (1.6 cm vs. 0.6 cm; p = 0.05), proportion of patients who exercise regularly and those with total cholesterol below 175 mg/dl (64.7% vs. 56.5%; p = 0.001). The reported intake of medications was high in both groups for all the drugs considered with no differences except for statins (98.1% vs. 95.9%; p = 0.029). Conclusions At least in the short term, lifestyle changes among coronary heart disease patients are achievable by intensifying the responsibility of the patient himself by means of a simple and feasible intervention. PMID:21092191
The post-hospital care of 290 patients with selected chronic conditions of a specific severity who were discharged over a 3-month period from a general hospital in Halifax, Canada, was studied. The majority of the patients were married. The average age of the men was 59.2 years and of the women 58.1. More than half of the patients belonged to the low socioeconomic group earning between $1,000 and $6,999 a year. Their average period of education was 8.4 years. Interviews with the patients about their compliance with physicians' orders revealed that 40.4 percent had not complied with one or more of their physician's recommendations. Lack of compliance was related to age, marital status, education, income, and severity of disease. It was also associated with high dosages of medicine and multiple prescriptions. Cost barriers constituted a significant factor in noncompliance. Images p72-a PMID:189344
Brand, F N; Smith, R T; Brand, P A
Background There is evidence to suggest that delivery of diabetes self-management support by diabetes educators in primary care may improve patient care processes and patient clinical outcomes; however, the evaluation of such a model in primary care is nonexistent in Canada. This article describes the design for the evaluation of the implementation of Mobile Diabetes Education Teams (MDETs) in primary care settings in Canada. Methods/design This study will use a non-blinded, cluster-randomized controlled trial stepped wedge design to evaluate the Mobile Diabetes Education Teams' intervention in improving patient clinical and care process outcomes. A total of 1,200 patient charts at participating primary care sites will be reviewed for data extraction. Eligible patients will be those aged ?18, who have type 2 diabetes and a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of ?8%. Clusters (that is, primary care sites) will be randomized to the intervention and control group using a block randomization procedure within practice size as the blocking factor. A stepped wedge design will be used to sequentially roll out the intervention so that all clusters eventually receive the intervention. The time at which each cluster begins the intervention is randomized to one of the four roll out periods (0, 6, 12, and 18?months). Clusters that are randomized into the intervention later will act as the control for those receiving the intervention earlier. The primary outcome measure will be the difference in the proportion of patients who achieve the recommended HbA1c target of ?7% between intervention and control groups. Qualitative work (in-depth interviews with primary care physicians, MDET educators and patients; and MDET educators’ field notes and debriefing sessions) will be undertaken to assess the implementation process and effectiveness of the MDET intervention. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01553266 PMID:22974080
An article which discusses methods for determining the effectiveness of instruction in individual courses and curricula (learning outcomes assessments, ratings from students, peers, and alumni, teaching portfolios) and determining the quality of educational scholarship. Target Audience: 2-4 year College Faculty/Administrators
Felder, Richard M., 1939-; Rugarcia, Armando; Stice, James E. (James Edward)
A 1989 project provided models and ideas to help British further education colleges manage staff development more effectively. It examined the relationship between staff development and organizational development in colleges, found a common language for the two, and discovered ways of integrating their planning processes. A survey of literature…
This collection of papers provides decision-makers with tools to improve resource allocation. The two primary tools, or modes, are cost-effective analysis and cost-benefit analysis, which researchers in education have devised and refined. This volume has three main goals, all intended to help decision-makers construct a useful research program:…
Levin, Henry M., Ed.; McEwan, Patrick J., Ed.
Goals of work Patients diagnosed with cancer need education as they face complex decisions. There is limited evidence about the impact of\\u000a new educational technologies for cancer patients. This paper investigates whether interactive technologies and videotapes\\u000a for patient education in cancer care improve knowledge, satisfaction or other outcomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Literature search of five computerised databases (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, Excerpta
Marjolein Gysels; Irene J. Higginson
OBJECTIVES Few educational opportunities exist in paediatric cardiac critical care units (PCCUs). We introduced a new educational activity in the PCCU in the form of of patient-specific summaries (TPSS). Our objective was to study the role of TPSS in the provision of a positive learning experience to the multidisciplinary clinical team of PCCUs and in improving patient-related clinical outcomes in the PCCU. METHODS Prospective educational intervention with simultaneous clinical assessment was undertaken in PCCU in an academic children's hospital. TPSS was developed utilizing the case presentation format for upcoming week's surgical cases and delivered once every week to each PCCU clinical team member. Role of TPSS to provide clinical education was assessed using five-point Likert-style scale responses in an anonymous survey 1 year after TPSS provision. Paediatric cardiac surgery patients admitted to the PCCU were evaluated for postoperative outcomes for TPSS provision period of 1 year and compared with a preintervention period of 1 year. RESULTS TPSS was delivered to 259 clinical team members including faculty, fellows, residents, nurse practitioners, nurses, respiratory therapists and others from the Divisions of Anesthesia, Cardiology, Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Critical Care, and Pediatrics working in the PCCU. Two hundred and twenty-four (86%) members responded to the survey and assessed the role of TPSS in providing clinical education to be excellent based on mean Likert-style scores of 4.32 ± 0.71 in survey responses. Seven hundred patients were studied for the two time periods and there were no differences in patient demographics, complexity of cardiac defect and surgical details. The length of mechanical ventilation for the TPSS period (57.08 ± 141.44 h) was significantly less when compared with preintervention period (117.39 ± 433.81 h) (P < 0.001) with no differences in length of PCICU stay, hospital stay and mortality for the two time periods. CONCLUSIONS Provision of TPSS in a paediatric cardiac surgery unit is perceived to be beneficial in providing clinical education to multidisciplinary clinical teams and may be associated with improved clinical outcome. PMID:23832839
Agarwal, Hemant S.; Wolfram, Karen B.; Slayton, Jennifer M.; Saville, Benjamin R.; Cutrer, William B.; Bichell, David P.; Harris, Zena L.; Barr, Frederick E.; Deshpande, Jayant K.
Study objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of helicopter EMS for trauma patients. Methods: We applied a cost-effectiveness analysis from the service provider's perspective to cost and effectiveness estimates. The cost estimates comprise direct operating costs and additional survivors' hospital costs. The effectiveness estimates were calculated with the TRISS methodology from literature sources and data from a cohort of patients transported
Peter A Gearhart; Richard Wuerz; A. Russell Localio
The internet has become a major contributor to health literacy promotion. The average American reads at 7th-8th grade level and it is recommended to write patient education materials at or below 6th grade reading level. We tried to assess the level of literacy required to read and understand online patient education materials (OPEM) for neurological diseases from various internet resources. We then compared those to an assumed reference OPEM source, namely the patient education brochures from the American Academy of Neurology (AAN), the world's largest professional association of neurologists. Disease specific patient education brochures were downloaded from the AAN website. OPEM for these diseases were also accessed from other common online sources determined using a predefined criterion. All OPEM were converted to Microsoft Word (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA, USA) and their reading level was analyzed using Readability Studio Professional Edition version 2012.1 (Oleander Software, Vandalia, OH, USA). Descriptive analysis and analysis of variance were used to compare reading levels of OPEM from different resources. Medline Plus, Mayo clinic and Wikipedia qualified for OPEM analysis. All OPEM from these resources, including the AAN, were written above the recommended 6th grade reading level. They were also found to be "fairly difficult", "difficult" or "confusing" on the Flesch Reading Ease scale. AAN OPEM on average needed lower reading level, with Wikipedia OPEM being significantly (p<0.01) more difficult to read compared to the other three resources. OPEM on neurological diseases are being written at a level of reading complexity higher than the average American and the recommended reading levels. This may be undermining the utility of these resources. PMID:25194822
Punia, Vineet; Dagar, Anjali; Agarwal, Nitin; He, Wenzhuan; Hillen, Machteld
A multimedia program (MMP) was developed to educate patients with prostate cancer about their disease. A within-subjects design was used to investigate the changes in levels of cancer-related knowledge, psychosocial functioning, treatment decision-making role and information needs immediately after browsing the MMP. The participants were 67 men recently diagnosed with prostate cancer. Psychosocial functioning was assessed with 20 items describing
D Flynn; P van Schaik; A van Wersch; T Ahmed; D Chadwick
The objective of the Drug Information Center Arthritis Project was to create and assess the value of a patient-focused interactive arthritis education program. A multidisciplinary team developed three content areas: an interactive ask-a-pharmacist component with a satisfaction survey; health assessment tools (SF-8™, osteoarthritis [OA] Impact Survey™, and rheumatoid arthritis [RA] Impact Survey™); and disease and drug information. Results: There were
Nicole T. Ansani; Bethany A. Fedutes-Henderson; Robert J. Weber; Randall Smith; Jennine Dean; Molly Vogt; Kenneth Gold; C. Kent Kwoh; Thaddeus Osial; Terence W. Starz
The use of virtual patients in dental education is gaining acceptance as an adjunctive method to live patient interactions for training dental students. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which virtual patients are being utilized in dental education by conducting a survey that was sent to sixty-seven dental schools in the United States and Canada. A total of thirty dental schools responded to the web-based survey. Sixty-three percent of the responding dental schools use virtual patients for preclinical or clinical exercises. Of this group, 31.3 percent have used virtual patients in their curricula for more than ten years, and approximately one-third of those who do use virtual patients expose their students to more than ten virtual patient experiences over the entirety of their programs. Of the schools that responded, 90.5 percent rated the use of virtual patients in dental education as important or very important. An additional question addressed the utilization of interactive elements for the virtual patient. Use of virtual patients can provide an excellent method for learning and honing patient interviewing skills, medical history taking, recordkeeping, and patient treatment planning. Through the use of virtual patient interactive audio/video elements, the student can experience interaction with his or her virtual patients during a more realistic simulation encounter. PMID:23066135
Cederberg, Robert A; Bentley, Dan A; Halpin, Richard; Valenza, John A
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of educational interventions to encourage incident reporting. Methods This was a quasi-experimental design. The study involved nurses working in two gastroenterology surgical wards at Fukuoka University Hospital, Japan. The number of participants on each ward was 26 nurses at baseline. For the intervention group, we provided 15 minutes of education about patient safety and the importance of incident reporting once per month for six months. After the completion of the intervention, we compared incident reporting in the subsequent 12 months for both groups. Questionnaires about reasons/motives for reporting were administered three times, before the intervention, after the intervention, and six months after the intervention for both the intervention group and the control group. Results For the intervention group, incident reporting during the 6 months after the intervention period increased significantly compared with the baseline. During the same period, the reasons and motives for reporting changed significantly in the intervention group. The increase in reported incidents during the 6- to 12-month period following the intervention was not significant. In the control group, there was no significant difference during follow-up compared with the baseline. Conclusions A brief intervention about patient safety changed the motives for reporting incidents and the frequency of incidents reported by nurses working in surgical wards in a university hospital in Japan. However, the effect of the education decreased after six months following the education. Regular and long-term effort is required to maintain the effect of education. PMID:25152834
Yamashita, Yuichi; Tanihara, Shinichi; Maeda, Chiemi
The greenhouse effect has always existed. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth could well have the oven-like environment of Venus or the deep-freeze environment of Mars. There is some debate about how much the Earth's surface temperature will rise given a certain amount of increase in the amount of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous…
Greenall Gough, Annette; Gough, Noel
Nine long-term survivors of cerebellar medulloblastoma treated with surgery and irradiation were retrospectively examined with a complete battery of neuropsychological tests and the results compared with their nonirradiated siblings. Significant decreased scores were found in the full-scale intelligence quotients (IQ), performance IQ, and verbal IQ with all nine irradiated patients scoring below their siblings. Also, educational quotients (EQ) of the
C. L. Silverman; H. Palkes; B. Talent; E. Kovnar; J. W. Clouse; Prm Thomas
Using Eurobarometer data, we document large variation across European countries in education gradients in income, self-reported health, life satisfaction, obesity, smoking and drinking. While this variation has been documented previously, the reasons why the effect of education on income, health and health behaviors varies is not well understood. We build on previous literature documenting that cohorts graduating in bad times have lower wages and poorer health for many years after graduation, compared to those graduating in good times. We investigate whether more educated individuals suffer smaller income and health losses as a result of poor labor market conditions upon labor market entry. We confirm that a higher unemployment rate at graduation is associated with lower income, lower life satisfaction, greater obesity, more smoking and drinking later in life. Further, education plays a protective role for these outcomes, especially when unemployment rates are high: the losses associated with poor labor market outcomes are substantially lower for more educated individuals. Variation in unemployment rates upon graduation can potentially explain a large fraction of the variance in gradients across different countries. PMID:25113567
Cutler, David M; Huang, Wei; Lleras-Muney, Adriana
Background This research aimed to assess the effect of health care provider education on the accuracy of post partum blood loss estimation. Methods A non-randomized observational study that was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January 1, 2011 and June 30, 2011. Hundred and twenty three health care providers who are involved in the estimation of post partum blood loss were eligible to participate. The participants were subjected to three research phases and an educational intervention. They have assessed a total of 30 different simulated blood loss stations, with 10 stations in each of the research phases. These phases took place before and after educational sessions on how to visually estimate blood loss and how to best utilize patient data in clinical scenarios. We have assessed the differences between the estimated blood loss and the actual measure. P-values were calculated to assess the differences between the three research phases estimations. Results The participants significantly under-estimated post partum blood loss. The accuracy was improved after training (p-value?0.0001) and after analysing each patient’s clinical information (p-value?=?0.042). The overall results were not affected by the participants’ clinical backgrounds or their years of experience. Under-estimation was more prominent in cases where more than average-excessive blood losses were simulated while over-estimations or accurate estimations were more prominent in less than average blood loss incidents. Conclusion Simple education programmes can improve traditional findings related to under-estimation of blood loss. More sophisticated clinical education programmes may provide additional improvements. PMID:24646156
Fourth-grade students were randomly assigned to either a treatment or a Hawthorne control group. The treatment consisted of participation in the Toward Affective Development Program. No treatment effects were noted, regardless of sex or class membership. (Author)
Hudgins, Edward Wren
Prepared in response to growing criticism of South Africa's policies of apartheid, this report was designed to assess the effects of such policies within South Africa. The results of the investigation are carefully laid out under four general areas. The first section deals with education, covering its aims, administration and finance, enrollment,…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).
Migration is one of the main ways of alleviating poverty in developing countries, including China. However, there are concerns about the potential negative effects of migration on the educational achievement of the children that are left behind in villages when one or both of their parents out-migrate to cities. This paper examines changes in school performance before and after the
Xinxin Chen; Qiuqiong Huang; Scott Rozelle; Yaojiang Shi; Linxiu Zhang
Background: Structured feedback of information can produce change in physician behaviour. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of 2 educa- tional interventions for improving the quality of care provided by family physi- cians in Ontario: the Practice Assessment Report (PAR) and the Continuing Medical Education Plan (CMEP) with a follow-up visit by a mentor. Methods: The
Alexander E. M. Borgiel; J. Ivan Williams; David A. Davis; Earl V. Dunn; Neil Hobbs; Brian Hutchison; C. Ruth Wilson; Jamie Jensen; Jennifer J. S. O'Neil; Martin J. Bass; Arab Emirates
The purpose of this research project was to examine whether music teachers' perceptions of effectiveness of inclusion, curriculum adaptations/modifications, or student achievement had altered from previous research findings 20 years before. A survey based on that used by Gfeller, Darrow, and Hedden was sent to music educators through the…
VanWeelden, Kimberly; Whipple, Jennifer
This document draws upon theory and research about early adolescence and about the effects of middle grades structures and practices on student outcomes. The purpose is to identify specific problem areas and promising innovations that should be considered by policymakers as they establish guidelines for the restructuring of education in the middle…
Mac Iver, Douglas
This study assesses the effectiveness of different types of Jewish schools in producing adult religious involvement, using a sample of 1,009 individuals from the Chicago area and an analysis of covariance design. Based on his analysis, the author concludes that the type of supplementary Jewish education received by over 80 percent of those Jews…
Himmelfarb, Harold S.
The Institute of Correspondence Education (ICE) of the University of Madras (India) is highly cost-effective when compared to the conventional system. The fact that a major portion of the cost is recoverable in student fees makes the ICE system more economical; however, the requisite level of resources has not been allocated for student-support…
The question of the extent to which effective leadership in vocational education and training (VET) depends on the specific context in which it occurs was examined. Data were collected from the following sources: an intensive literature analysis; studies of purposive sample of 12 diverse VET sites across Australia; and individual interviews with…
Falk, Ian; Smith, Tony
This research has been aimed to demonstrate the effects of dance education on preadolescent children. A total of 114 students (56 of whom in dance group/58 in control group) at preadolescent (aged 11 [plus or minus] 0.0 year) and adolescent (aged 14 [plus or minus] 0.0 year) stages participated in the research. Prior to dance classes a variety of…
Aldemir, Gulay Yasemin; Ramazanoglu, Nusret; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Kaya, Fatih
This booklet is a synthesis of research on social sciences teaching that has been shown to have a positive effect on a range of desirable student outcomes: cognitive, skills, participatory and affective outcomes. Education in the social sciences plays an important role in developing students' sense of identity and influencing the ways in which…
Sinnema, Claire; Aitken, Graeme
The health benefits of physical activity are well documented, and the important role that schools and physical education (PE) can play in reducing sedentary behavior and contributing to population health has been identified. Although effective teaching is ultimately judged by student achievement, a major component of teacher and school…
McKenzie, Thomas L.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.
The general purpose of this study was to investigate effective practices of interpreting education programs in the United States as measured by the readiness to credential gap. The increasing demand for interpreters has created an environment with under-credentialed interpreters and this is compounded by the fact that the field of interpreter…
Godfrey, Lisa Ann Boegner
The research presented in this report examines the effect of prison-based postsecondary education (PSE) on offenders both while incarcerated and after release. Urban Institute researchers worked with the staff of four institutions in three states to conduct inmate focus groups and stakeholder interviews to explore the motivations for enrolling in…
Winterfield, Laura; Coggeshall, Mark; Burke-Storer, Michelle; Correa, Vanessa; Tidd, Simon
This booklet focuses on effective mathematics teaching. Drawing on a wide range of research, it describes the kinds of pedagogical approaches that engage learners and lead to desirable outcomes. The aim of the booklet is to deepen the understanding of practitioners, teacher educators, and policy makers and assist them to optimize opportunities for…
Anthony, Glenda; Walshaw, Margaret
This evaluation of mini-conferences conducted for Alabama teachers who completed training in the 1996 Summer Space Orientation for Professional Educators (SOPE) examines the effectiveness of follow-up sessions for teachers (N=69) and provides baseline data on teachers' knowledge of and attitudes toward teaching science. Conclusions about the 1996…
Harwell, Sharon H.
The present research aims at presenting a conceptual model for effective distance learning in higher education. Findings of this research shows that an understanding of the technological capabilities and learning theories especially constructive theory and independent learning theory and communicative and interaction theory in Distance learning is…
Farajollahi, Mehran; Zare, Hosein; Hormozi, Mahmood; Sarmadi, Mohammad Reza; Zarifsanaee, Nahid
Efficacy of two educational interventions about inhalation techniques in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). TECEPOC: study protocol for a partially randomized controlled trial (preference trial)
Background Drugs for inhalation are the cornerstone of therapy in obstructive lung disease. We have observed that up to 75?% of patients do not perform a correct inhalation technique. The inability of patients to correctly use their inhaler device may be a direct consequence of insufficient or poor inhaler technique instruction. The objective of this study is to test the efficacy of two educational interventions to improve the inhalation techniques in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Methods This study uses both a multicenter patients´ preference trial and a comprehensive cohort design with 495 COPD-diagnosed patients selected by a non-probabilistic method of sampling from seven Primary Care Centers. The participants will be divided into two groups and five arms. The two groups are: 1) the patients´ preference group with two arms and 2) the randomized group with three arms. In the preference group, the two arms correspond to the two educational interventions (Intervention A and Intervention B) designed for this study. In the randomized group the three arms comprise: intervention A, intervention B and a control arm. Intervention A is written information (a leaflet describing the correct inhalation techniques). Intervention B is written information about inhalation techniques?plus?training by an instructor. Every patient in each group will be visited six times during the year of the study at health care center. Discussion Our hypothesis is that the application of two educational interventions in patients with COPD who are treated with inhaled therapy will increase the number of patients who perform a correct inhalation technique by at least 25?%. We will evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions on patient inhalation technique improvement, considering that it will be adequate and feasible within the context of clinical practice. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRTCTN15106246 PMID:22613015
BACKGROUND: Low rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening persist due to individual, provider and system level barriers. PURPOSE: To develop and obtain initial feedback about a CRC screening educational video from community members and medical professionals. METHODS: Focus groups of patients were conducted prior to the development of an educational video and focus groups of patients provided initial feedback about the developed CRC screening educational video. Medical personnel reviewed the video and made recommendations prior to final editing of the video. RESULTS: Patients identified CRC screening barriers and made suggestions about the information to include in the educational video. Their suggestions included using a healthcare provider to state the importance of completing CRC screening, demonstrate how to complete the fecal occult blood test, and that men and women from diverse ethnic groups and races could be included in the same video. Participants reviewed the developed video and mentioned that their suggestions were portrayed correctly, the video was culturally appropriate, and the information presented in the video was easy to understand. Medical personnel made suggestions on ways to improve the content and the delivery of the medical information prior to final editing of the video. DISCUSSION: Participants provided valuable information in the development of an educational video to improve patient knowledge and patient-provider communication about CRC screening. The educational video developed was based on the Protection Motivation Theory and addressed the colon cancer screening barriers identified in this mostly minority and low-income patient population. Future research will determine if CRC screening increases among patients who watch the educational video. TRANSLATION TO HEALTH EDUCATION PRACTICE: Educational videos can provide important information about CRC and CRC screening to average-risk adults. PMID:20209024
Katz, Mira L; Heaner, Sarah; Reiter, Paul; van Putten, Julie; Murray, Lee; McDougle, Leon; Cegala, Donald J; Post, Douglas; David, Prabu; Slater, Michael; Paskett, Electra D
Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes. PMID:23504449
Dave, Dhaval M.; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E.
Falls are known to be one of the most common in patient adverse events. A high incidence of falls was reported on patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a participatory program on patient's knowledge and self-efficacy of fall prevention and fall incidence in an oncology ward. In this quasi-experimental study, 68 participants were recruited at a medical centre in Taiwan. A 20-min fall prevention program was given to patients. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the effectiveness of program after on day 3 of intervention. The data of fall incidence rates were collected from hospital record. Fall incidences with and without the program were used to compare the effectiveness of intervention. The patients' knowledge and self-efficacy of fall prevention are better than after intervention. A statistically significant difference in fall incidence rate was observed with (0.0%) and without (19.3%) the program. Our findings suggest that the fact of the bedside is that the most risk for falling in hospital must be communicated to the hospitalized patients. Educating patients about fall prevention and activities associated with falling increases their awareness of the potential of falling and promoting patient safety. PMID:25492057
Huang, Li-Chi; Ma, Wei-Fen; Li, Tsai-Chung; Liang, Yia-Wun; Tsai, Li-Yun; Chang, Fy-Uan
\\u000aAN EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A DIVERSITY EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM\\u000aby\\u000aSONYA A. BERKLEY\\u000aMay 2010\\u000aAdvisor: Mary Cay Sengstock\\u000aMajor: Sociology\\u000aDegree: Doctor of Philosophy\\u000aAdministrators and educators have been given the responsibility of working towards improving racial and social interactions in their school settings. It is important to note that most of the literature on diversity programming suggests
Sonya Annette Berkley
Epilepsy is a chronic disease with a wide range of presentations occurring at any age. It affects the patient's quality of life, implying a need for numerous healthcare services. Therapeutic education programs (TEPs) are designed to match patient age, disease course, and individual learning abilities. In France, these programs are proposed by the national health authorities (Superior Health Authority), and authorized by the Regional Health Agencies. Two years ago, a Therapeutic Education Programs Commission (TEPC), supported by the French League against Epilepsy (FLAE), was created. The goal was to bring together representative healthcare professionals in a working group in order to standardize practices. This led to the creation of a national reference of healthcare skills specific for children and adults with epilepsy. Five tables, for five "life periods", outline the framework of this professional reference tool. Program personalization, an essential part of TEPs, is necessary to develop a creative atmosphere. This slow process is specific to the various stages of life and can be influenced by the occurrence of various handicaps. Family and caregivers make key contributions to the process. The national framework for therapeutic education in epilepsy serves as a central crossroad where professions can find essential information to create or adapt their own TEPs. In the near future, regional experiences will be documented and collected for regular updates. This professional therapeutic education network will help promote therapeutic education programs and facilitate standard practices. Finally, several TEP files and tools will be shared on the FLAE website available for professional access. Today, the group's goal is to achieve national deployment of this "referential" framework. PMID:24947486
Prévos-Morgant, M; Petit, J; Grisoni, F; André-Obadia, N; Auvin, S; Derambure, P
Research investigations on teacher training effects have focused almost exclusively on differences between group means. The present paper suggests that several interesting and important research questions might be answered by examining student variability both within and between classrooms. Student variability might be considered as an outcome to…
Examined the effectiveness of an interpersonal life skills course on college students' (N=200) self concepts, responding, and locus of control. Results indicated there were short-term changes in locus of control. The need for a typology of such courses is discussed. (Author/BL)
West, Michael A.; Kirkland, Martha
Out of 300 patients who had taken benoxaprofen for a mean of 6.4 months, 196 (65.3%) reported side effects, resulting in 104 patients (34.6%) having the drug withdrawn. Out of 42 patients aged over 70, 35 (83.3%) had side effects and 29 (69.0%) had the drug withdrawn because of them. cutaneous side effects accounted for 180 (69.5%) of all 259
J P Halsey; N Cardoe
Diazepam was compared to placebo and phenobarbital sodium in a double-blind study with 472 anxious psychoneurotic patients. Patients were treated in 3 settings — medical clinic, general practice, and private psychiatric practice. The treatment setting was found to be at least as important as the medication in producing a treatment response. Drug effects were pronounced. Compared to phenobarbital patients, diazepam
Peter T. Hesbacher; Karl Rickels; Paul E. Gordon; Bruce Gray; Robert Meckelnburg; Charles C. Weise; W. J. Vandervort
Background: Many clinicians lack adequate knowledge about emerging standards of care related to genetic cancer risk assessment and the features of hereditary cancer needed to identify patients at risk. Objective: To determine how a clinical cancer genetics education programme for community based clinicians affected participant knowledge and changed clinical practice. Methods: The effects of the programme on participant knowledge and changes in clinical practice were measured through pre and post session knowledge questionnaires completed by 710 participants and practice impact surveys completed after one year by 69 out of 114 eligible annual conference participants sampled. Results: Respondents showed a 40% average increase in specific cancer genetics knowledge. Respondents to the post course survey reported that they used course information and materials to counsel and refer patients for hereditary cancer risk assessment (77%), shared course information with other clinicians (83%), and wanted additional cancer genetics education (80%). Conclusions: There was a significant immediate gain in cancer genetics knowledge among participants in a targeted outreach programme, and subset analysis indicated a positive long term effect on clinical practice. Clinician education that incorporates evidence based content and case based learning should lead to better identification and care of individuals with increased cancer risk. PMID:15235022
Blazer, K; Grant, M; Sand, S; MacDonald, D; Uman, G; Weitzel, J
Use of oral capecitabine (Xeloda) as home-based therapy leads to savings in healthcare resources and costs and oral chemotherapy is preferred by many cancer patients over intravenous (i.v.) 5-FU. The demands of patient management for oral therapy differ significantly from those of i.v. chemotherapy. Consequently, cancer programmes have begun to implement strategies to meet these unique demands, offer educational programmes for clinicians who prescribe capecitabine, and consider potential changes in staff responsibilities. To encourage patients to take an active part in their care, which is vital with home-based oral therapy, they must be properly informed about their treatment. Patient information needs to be specific for the cancer type and relevant for the country. Various tools have been developed, including prescription guides, diary cards and support kits, which are useful in reinforcing verbal discussions about the use of capecitabine and in helping patients to manage their treatment. Nurses have a vital role to play in encouraging the optimal use of capecitabine and prompt management of adverse events, thereby enabling the patient to achieve a better clinical outcome and maintain an improved quality of life in the home environment. PMID:15341881
Chau, Ian; Legge, Sally; Fumoleau, Pierre
Data defining the isolated effect of insulin on whole body protein and glucose metabolism in cancer patients are limited. Ten normal volun teers (controls), age 55 Â± 3 years (mean Â± SEM); 8 cancer patients, age 61 Â±3years, weight loss 2 Â± 1%(CANWL); and 8 cancer patients, age 55 Â±2 years, weight loss 18 Â± 2% (CAWL), were studied in
Martin J. Heslin; Elliot Newman; Ronald F. Wolf; Peter W. T. Pisters; Murray F. Brennan
Patients who receive a preemptive kidney transplant before starting dialysis avoid the medical complications related to dialysis and have the highest graft success and lowest mortality rates. Because only 2.5% of incident patients receive kidney transplants preemptively, improved psychosocial education may assist more patients in accessing preemptive transplant. This article outlines (1) unique psychosocial issues affecting patients with chronic kidney disease stage 4 (glomerular filtration rates > 20 mL/min per 1.73 m2) and (2) how an educational program about preemptive living donor transplant should be designed and administered to increase access to this treatment option. Early referral patients may be overwhelmed in coping with and learning about their disease and, therefore, not ready to make a treatment decision, or they may be highly motivated to obtain a transplant to avoid dialysis and return to a normal life. An education program that defines the quality-of-life and health benefits possible with early transplant is outlined. The program is focused on minimizing the disruption of starting 2 treatment techniques and maximizing early transplant health, graft survival, employability, and retention of insurance coverage. Once the benefits of preemptive living donor transplant are outlined, educators can focus on demystifying the living donor evaluation process and assisting interested patients in planning how to find a living donor. To reach all patients, especially racial minorities, education about preemptive transplant should be available in primary-care physicians' and community nephrologists' offices, at dialysis centers, and through other kidney organizations. PMID:19186577
Hays, Rebecca; Waterman, Amy D
Reports data from three consecutive classes of first- year optometry students at the Southern California College of Optometry, who were tested preceding and following completion of a patient communication course. Findings indicated that students improved their ability to respond to patients and were better able to discriminate among various levels…
Marsden, Harue J.
Ever since 2006, Nantes University dental educators have started organising lectures led by the mother of a young patient suffering from ectodermic dysplasia (patient-educator) to help second-year students to better understand how important it is for their future dental work to better understand basic sciences. In this study, we have analysed this training experience on students' motivation. For this purpose, students were asked to complete questionnaires 10 days after the patient-educator's lecture (early assessment; n = 193) and 4 years later, during the last year of their dental studies (delayed assessment; n = 47). Moreover, 3 years after the first lecture, we analysed the ability of students to diagnose a mother carrying the ectodermic dysplasia genetic disorder, using a case-based learning exercise with a patient showing dental features similar to those exposed by the patient-educator (measure of knowledge; n = 42). Ten days after the lecture, the early assessment shows that all the students were interested in the lecture and 59% of the students declared being motivated to find out more about genetics whilst 54% declared the same thing about embryology courses. Moreover, 4 years later, 67% of the students remembered the patient-educator's lecture a little or very well. Three years after the course, 83% of the students diagnosed ectodermal dysplasia whilst studying the case-based example that listed typical dental phenotypes. In conclusion, this study shows that this original educational approach enhances dental students' motivation in learning basic sciences and that patient-educators could offer many benefits for students and patients. PMID:24628743
Renard, E; Alliot-Licht, B; Gross, O; Roger-Leroi, V; Marchand, C
Patient empowerment through self-management education is central to improving the quality of diabetes care and preventing Type 2 Diabetes. Although national programs exist, there is no EU-wide strategy for diabetes self-management education, and patients with limited literacy face barriers to effective self-management. The Diabetes Literacy project, initiated with the support of the European Commission, aims to fill this gap. The project investigates the effectiveness of diabetes self-management education, targeting people with or at risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the 28 EU Member States, as part of a comprehensive EU-wide diabetes strategy. National diabetes strategies in the EU, US, Taiwan, and Israel are compared, and diabetes self-management programs inventorized. The costs of the diabetes care pathway are assessed on a per person basis at national level. A comparison is made of the (cost)-effectiveness of different methods for diabetes self-management support, and the moderating role of health literacy, organization of the health services, and implementation fidelity of education programs are considered. Web-based materials are developed and evaluated by randomized trials to evaluate if interactive internet delivery can enhance self-management support for people with lower levels of health literacy. The 3-year project started in December 2012. Several literature reviews have been produced and protocol development and research design are in the final stages. Primary and secondary data collection and analysis take place in 2014. The results will inform policy decisions on improving the prevention, treatment, and care for persons with diabetes across literacy levels. PMID:25337960
Van den Broucke, S; Van der Zanden, G; Chang, P; Doyle, G; Levin, D; Pelikan, J; Schillinger, D; Schwarz, P; Sørensen, K; Yardley, L; Riemenschneider, H
While electronic health record (EHR) use is becoming state-of-the-art, deliberate teaching of health care information technology (HCIT) competencies is not keeping pace with burgeoning use. Medical students require training to become skilled users of HCIT, but formal pedagogy within undergraduate medical education (UME) is sparse. How can medical educators best meet the needs of learners while integrating EHRs into medical education and practice? How can they help learners preserve and foster effective communication skills within the computerized setting? In general, how can UME curricula be devised for skilled use of EHRs to enhance rather than hinder provision of effective, humanistic health care?Within this Perspective, the authors build on recent publications that "set the stage" for next steps: EHR curricula innovation and implementation as concrete embodiments of theoretical underpinnings. They elaborate on previous calls for maximizing benefits and minimizing risks of EHR use with sufficient focus on physician-patient communication skills and for developing core competencies within medical education. The authors describe bridging theory into practice with systematic longitudinal curriculum development for EHR training in UME at their institution, informed by Kern and colleagues' curriculum development framework, narrative medicine, and reflective practice. They consider this innovation within a broader perspective-the overarching goal of empowering undergraduate medical students' patient- and relationship-centered skills while effectively demonstrating HCIT-related skills. PMID:24448045
Wald, Hedy S; George, Paul; Reis, Shmuel P; Taylor, Julie Scott
Adverse events are an important but understudied area in dentistry. Most dentists will face the issue of an adverse event several times in their clinical careers. The authors implemented a six-hour pilot educational module at one dental school to improve fourth-year dental students' knowledge and confidence in communicating with patients about adverse events. Based on results from the twenty-nine students who completed both the pre- and posttests, the module significantly increased the students' knowledge of the key concepts involved in adverse events. However, the module did not improve the students' confidence that they would be able to implement these communication skills in clinical situations. Based on these results, this article discusses how future educational efforts can be modified to better prepare students for the communication challenges associated with adverse events. PMID:24789835
Raja, Sheela; Rajagopalan, Chelsea F; Patel, Janki; Van Kanegan, Kevin
Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (Stage 5 CKD) have palliative care needs similar to patients with cancer. The decision not to commence dialysis or to withdraw from active treatment can have a profound impact upon all those closely involved in the patient's care. It is essential that every effort is made to minimise the physical and psycho-social symptoms experienced by patients who require palliative care. Effective teamwork across professional boundaries and specialities will ensure that patients and their families are provided with maximum comfort during their final days. All members of the healthcare team must strive to ensure patient and family are actively encouraged in the decision-making process surrounding palliative care needs. PMID:20969741
Sedgewick, John; Noble, Helen; Ho, Tai Mooi; Kafkia, Theodora; Van Waeleghem, Jean-Pierre
The possible effects of back education on children's back function were never evaluated. Therefore, main aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of back education in elementary schoolchildren on back function parameters. Since the reliability of back function measurement in children is poorly defined, another objective was to test the selected instruments for reliability in 8-11-year olds. The multi-factorial intervention lasting two school-years consisted of a back education program and the stimulation of postural dynamism in the class. Trunk muscle endurance, leg muscle capacity and spinal curvature were evaluated in a pre-post design including 41 children who received the back education program (mean age at post-test: 11.2 +/- 0.9 years) and 28 controls (mean age at post-test: 11.4 +/- 0.6 years). Besides, test-retest reliability with a 1-week interval was investigated in a separate sample. Therefore, 47 children (mean age: 10.1 +/- 0.5 years) were tested for reliability of trunk muscle endurance and 40 children (mean age: 10.2 +/- 0.7 years) for the assessment of spinal curvatures. Reliability of endurance testing was very good to good for the trunk flexors (ICC = 0.82) and trunk extensors (ICC = 0.63). The assessment of the thoracic (ICC = 0.69) and the lumbar curvature (ICC = 0.52) in seating position showed good to acceptable reliability. Low ICCs were found for the assessment of the thoracic (ICC = 0.39) and the lumbar curvature (ICC = 0.37) in stance. The effects of 2 year back education showed an increase in trunk flexor endurance in the intervention group compared to a decrease in the controls and a trend towards significance for a higher increase in trunk extensor endurance in the intervention group. For leg muscle capacity and spinal curvature no intervention effects were found. The small samples recommend cautious interpretation of intervention effects. However, the present study's findings favor the implementation of back education with focus on postural dynamism in the class as an integral part of the elementary school curriculum in the scope of optimizing spinal loading through the school environment. PMID:16944227
Geldhof, Elisabeth; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Danneels, Lieven; Coorevits, Pascal; Vanderstraeten, Guy; De Clercq, Dirk
OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a safe patient handling and mobility (SPHM) program on patient self-care outcomes. METHOD. We used a retrospective cohort design. Data were obtained from the electronic medical records of 1,292 patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation services. Self-care scores from the FIM™ for patients who participated in rehabilitation before implementation of an SPHM program were compared with the scores of patients who participated after implementation of the program. RESULTS. Patients who received inpatient rehabilitation services with an SPHM program were as likely to achieve at least modified independence in self-care as those who received inpatient rehabilitation services without an SPHM program. CONCLUSION. SPHM programs may not affect self-care performance in adults receiving inpatient rehabilitation services. However, more work must be done to define specific and effective methods for integrating patient handling technologies into occupational therapy practice. PMID:25184472
Shiyko, Mariya; Margulis, Heather; Campo, Marc
OBJECTIVE:Despite the suggested benefits of exercise training in the prevention and management of chronic diseases, few data exist regarding the safety of exercise in Crohn's disease and whether or not exercise may have beneficial effects on patients' health. We performed a pilot study to evaluate the effects of regular light-intensity exercise on sedentary patients with Crohn's disease.METHODS:Sedentary patients with inactive
Colleen P. Loudon; Victor Corroll; Janice Butcher; Patricia Rawsthorne; Charles N. Bernstein
BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was to analyze the perceptions, knowledge, and practices of primary healthcare professionals in providing patient education to people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 23 health professionals working in primary healthcare units in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, participated in a focus group in order to discuss their patient
Heloisa C Torres; Brani Rozemberg; Marta A Amaral; Regina CA Bodstein
Background: Long-term antiepileptic drug (AED) use causes multiple abnormalities in calcium and bone metabolism that have been most extensively described in institutionalized patients. The objective is to determine the effect of AED on vitamin D levels and bone density in ambulatory patients and to compare the effects of enzyme-inducing and -noninducing AED and of single vs multiple therapy on bone
G. Farhat; B. Yamout; M. A. Mikati; S. Demirjian; R. Sawaya; G. El-Hajj Fuleihan
Aim? The aim of this paper is to present findings of a case study on organisational effectiveness in an education setting and draw similarities with a healthcare setting, focusing on the school principal and nurse leader.\\u000aBackground? The study was carried out in a primary school setting and focuses on a principal (as leader). The school, which will be named
Digital resources, including digital libraries, have the potential to transform STEM education by providing access to innovative curricula, stimulating applets and simulations, and other hands-on resources. These resources hold the promise of providing teachers with new ways to engage students; of introducing students to STEM inquiry and work; and of infusing STEM education with student-focused equitable pedagogy and practice. Such engaged teaching would bring the studentsÃÂin all their diversity and needsÃÂinto the center of the curriculum as teachers would focus on the individual student and her or his social context and needs. The Gender, Diversities, and Technology Institute at Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC) was one of the founding collections for the National Science Digital Library (NSDL). EDC, together with colleagues around the country, had the opportunity to fashion what has the potential to become one of the foremost resources for American science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education. In an effort to better meet the needs of KÃÂ12 teachers, EDC developed the Effective Access research project, supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation, which focused on the technology needs and experiences of high school STEM educators. The Effective Access teamÃÂs findings are not generalizable to all STEM teachers because of the nature of the studyÃÂs research design and sample size. However, the studyÃÂs surveys and interviews produced important insights for all of those who care about the intersection of technology, teaching, and learning, including the leaders of the NSDL. The results of the study also align with much of the current literature and with the Effective Access teamÃÂs experience in developing digital resources for teachers. Based on this, the team has framed a set of suggestions for both future research and the development of technology-based resources. These preliminary ideas can help stimulate discussion among policymakers and practitioners, further the development of effective resources for STEM educators in high school, and encourage others to continue and deepen this initial research.
Carlson, Bethany; Hanson, Katherine
Goals of work The quality of informed consent in phase I trials is controversial, partially due to gaps in patient understanding. We assessed\\u000a an educational DVD’s impact on knowledge and satisfaction in cancer patients newly referred to a phase I clinic.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods Forty-nine patients were randomly assigned to view an educational DVD (n?=?22) which explained phase I trials or a
Elizabeth L. Strevel; Colin Newman; Gregory R. Pond; Martha MacLean; Lillian L. Siu
BACKGROUND: Educational outreach visits are commonly used to promote changes in prescribing in family practice. However, the effectiveness of outreach visits has not been evaluated across a range of settings. AIM: To estimate the effectiveness of educational outreach visits on United Kingdom (UK) general practice prescribing and to examine the extent to which practice characteristics influenced outcome. DESIGN OF STUDY: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: General practices in 12 health authorities in England. METHOD: Educational outreach visits were made to practices that received two of four guidelines. Each practice provided data on treatment of patients for all four guidelines for both pre and post-intervention periods. The primary outcome is average effect across all four guidelines. Secondary analyses examined the predictive effect of practice and guideline characteristics. RESULTS: Seventy per cent of practices approached agreed to take part in the intervention. Overall, educational outreach was associated with a significant improvement in prescribing practice (odds ratio [OR] = 1.24 [95% CI = 1.07 to 1.42]), a 5.2% (95% CI = 1.7% to 8.7%) increase in the number of patients treated within the guideline recommendations. Smaller practices (two or fewer full-time equivalent practitioners) responded much more favourably to educational outreach than larger practices. Smaller practices improved their performance in line with the guidelines by 13.5% (95% CI = 6% to 20.9%) attributable to outreach, while larger practices improved by only 1.4% (95% CI = -2.4% to 5.3%, P-value for interaction <0.001). CONCLUSION: In large practices, educational outreach alone is unlikely to achieve worthwhile change. There is good evidence to support the use of educational outreach visits in small practices. PMID:11942445
Freemantle, Nick; Nazareth, Irwin; Eccles, Martin; Wood, John; Haines, Andrew
Background The association between lower socioeconomic status and poorer health outcomes has been observed using both individual-level and aggregate-level measures of income and education. While both are predictive of health outcomes, previous research indicates poor agreement between individual-level and aggregate-level measures. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of agreement between aggregate-level and individual-level measures of income and education among three distinct patient groups, specifically asthma, diabetes, and rheumatoid patients. Methods Individual-level measures of annual household income and education were derived from three separate surveys conducted among patients with asthma (n = 359), diabetes (n = 281) and rheumatoid arthritis (n = 275). Aggregate-level measures of income and education were derived from the 2001 Canadian census, including both census tract-and dissemination area-level measures. Cross-tabulations of individual-level income by aggregate-level income were used to determine the percentage of income classifications in agreement. The kappa statistic (simple and weighted), Spearman's rank correlations, and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were also calculated. Individual-level and aggregate-level education was compared using Chi-Square tests within patient groups. Point biserial correlation coefficients between individual-level and aggregate-level education were computed. Results Individual-level income was poorly correlated with aggregate-level measures, which provided the worst estimations of income among patients in the lowest income category at the individual-level. Both aggregate-level measures were best at approximating individual-level income in patients with diabetes, in whom aggregate-level estimates were only significantly different from individual-level measures for patients in the lowest income category. Among asthma patients, the proportion of patients classified by aggregate-level measures as having a university degree was significantly lower than that classified by individual-level measures. Among diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis patients, differences between aggregate and individual-level measures of education were not significant. Conclusions Agreement between individual-level and aggregate-level measures of socioeconomic status may depend on the patient group as well as patient income. Research is needed to characterize differences between patient groups and help guide the choice of measures of socioeconomic status. PMID:21453534
The use of atypical antipsychotic agents has rapidly increased in the United States and worldwide in the last decade. Nonetheless, many health care practitioners do not appreciate the significance of the cardiovascular side effects that may be associated with their use and the means to minimize them. Thus, atypical antipsychotic medications can cause cardiovascular side effects such as arrhythmias and deviations in blood pressure. In rare cases, they may also cause congestive heart failure, myocarditis, and sudden death. Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality than healthy individuals, possibly because of excessive smoking, the underlying disorder itself, or a combination of both factors. Increased awareness of these potential complications can allow pharmacists and physicians to better manage and monitor high risk patients. Accurate assessments are very important to avoid medications from being given to patients inappropriately. Additionally, monitoring patients regularly via blood draws and checking blood pressure, heart rate, and electrocardiogram can help catch any clinical problems and prevent further complications. Finally, patient and family-member education, which pharmacists in particular can play key roles in, is central for the management and prevention of side effects, which is known to reflect positively on morbidity and mortality in these patients. PMID:24649390
Khasawneh, Fadi T.; Shankar, Gollapudi S.
The impact of regular and special education on 11 learning-disabled children in fourth through sixth grade was studied by analyzing their slope of improvement on curriculum-based measures of reading scores. A time series analysis indicated that daily reading instruction in a resource room was a more effective intervention than regular education.…
The purpose of this study was to develop an inservice model for the systematic inclusion of environmental concepts in the elementary curriculum and to assess the effectiveness of the model in increasing the amount of environmental education in the elementary classroom. The model was based on a multi-disciplinary approach to environmental education and the utilization of peer consultants as inservice
This review summarizes research on the effects of technology use on mathematics achievement in K-12 classrooms. The main research questions included: (1) Do education technology applications improve mathematics achievement in K-12 classrooms as compared to traditional teaching methods without education technology?; and (2) What study and research…
Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2012
This document presents the data gathered by the author when he made an international study tour in 1970. The purpose of the tour was the investigation of planning and management in tertiary education, with particular reference to the cost effectiveness of colleges of higher education in Australia. The tour began with visits to the cities of…
Grounded in person-environment fit theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children’s positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 years at study entry. Results 5 years…
Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu
The status and effects of state-initiated educational reform were studied for local school districts in seven areas of educational improvement (EI): (1) state-mandated testing of students; (2) state curricular outcomes; (3) summer remediation; (4) state evaluation of local districts; (5) more stringent teacher requirements; (6) mentoring; and (7)…
Cooley, Van E.; Thompson, Jay C., Jr.
Therapeutic effects of Portulaca oleracea for respiratory diseases are indicated in ancient Iranian medical books. The relaxant effect of this plant have also been observed on smooth muscle tissue in previous studies. Therefore, in the present study, the bronchodilatory effect of the boiled extract of Portulaca oleracea in the airway of asthmatic patients was examined. The relaxant effect of the
F Malek; M. H Boskabady; M. T Borushaki; M Tohidi
The workshop reported in this document focused on professional and patient smoking education. First, high priority clinical opportunities for smoking intervention were identified. Second, topically-oriented small groups met to plan activities in each of the following priority areas: (1) initiation of smoking cessation/maintaining non-smoking…
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.
This study aimed to describe the expectations of Bachelor of Science nursing students regarding what constitutes an effective clinical education. In this study, a semistructured interview process was utilized with 17 nursing students studying in sophomore, junior and senior years in training units of hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Content analysis was employed to analyse the data. Data analysis led to identification of three main themes: (i) appropriate communication and interaction between instructors and students; (ii) incorporation of both theory and practice in clinical education, with two subthemes, one being the presence of the instructor as a factor for reducing the gap between theory and practice and the other being evaluation based on appropriate criteria; and (iii) having specialized instructors, with a specific emphasis on the instructor's knowledge and motivation as important factors in learning. The findings reveal the significant role of mentors in providing effective educational and clinical experiences. Therefore, mentors must strive to develop their knowledge and clinical behaviours according to students' needs in clinical settings. PMID:25289734
Esmaeili, Maryam; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Salsali, Mahvash; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad
Abstract Increased emphasis on team care has accelerated interprofessional education (IPE) of health professionals. The health mentors program (HMP) is a required, longitudinal, interprofessional curriculum for all matriculating students from medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, pharmacy, and couple and family therapy. Volunteer lay health mentors serve as educators. Student teams complete four modules over 2 years. A mixed-methods approach has been employed since program inception, evaluating 2911 students enrolled in HMP from 2007 to 2013. Program impact on 577 students enrolled from 2009-2011 is reported. Two interprofessional scales were employed to measure attitudes toward IPE and attitudes toward interprofessional practice. Focus groups and reflection papers provide qualitative data. Students enter professional training with very positive attitudes toward IPE, which are maintained over 2 years. Students demonstrated significantly improved attitudes toward team care, which were not different across programs. Qualitative data suggested limited tolerance for logistic challenges posed by IPE, but strongly support that students achieved the major program goals of understanding the roles of colleagues and understanding the perspective of patients. Ongoing longitudinal evaluation will further elucidate the impact on future practice and patient outcomes. PMID:25078465
Arenson, Christine; Umland, Elena; Collins, Lauren; Kern, Stephen B; Hewston, Leigh Ann; Jerpbak, Christine; Antony, Reena; Rose, Molly; Lyons, Kevin
The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multipronged intervention on diabetic dilated fundus examination (DFE) adherence. In a prospective trial, 521 patients with diabetes who were due for follow-up DFEs were randomized to usual care or the intervention group. Usual care received a form letter reminder to schedule and an automated reminder phone call prior to their appointment. Intervention participants received an educational brochure about diabetic eye disease and a personalized letter reminder to schedule. A research assistant called intervention participants to help schedule the appointment, and they received a reminder letter and an automated phone call prior to the scheduled visit. Patients in the intervention group were significantly more likely to schedule (63% vs 40%; P < .0001) and complete their appointment (48% vs 30%; P < .0001) compared with usual care. A multipronged intervention, including an educational mailing and telephone assistance with scheduling an appointment, significantly improved diabetic DFE adherence. PMID:25270737
Zangalli, Camila S; Murchison, Ann P; Hale, Nicole; Hark, Lisa A; Pizzi, Laura T; Dai, Yang; Leiby, Benjamin E; Haller, Julia A
The present observational study addressed effects of cytoflavin as an adjunctive nootropic therapy in patients with organic depressive disorder (F06.36). 54 female and 46 male in-patients were included into the study. All patients received standard antidepressant therapy (controls) and 48 patients additionally received 2 pills of cytoflavin twice per day. Age, gender distribution, education and severity of depression were equal in cytoflavin and control groups. The follow-up assessment at discharge showed a significantly more pronounced decline in the severity of depression symptoms in patients receiving cytoflavin in comparison with the controls. Importantly, the effect of cytoflavin on the depression symptoms was prominent only in females. Moreover, women receiving cytoflavin demonstrated the more pronounced normalization of autonomic regulation in comparison with control women. The present results allow to recommend cytoflavin in dose 4 pills daily as an adjunctive therapy in female patients with organic depressive disorder. PMID:24430035
Gudkova, A N; Osinovskaia, N A; Polunina, A G; Gekht, A B
Patients receiving hemodialysis therapy risk exposure to both disinfectants and sterilants. Dialysis equipment is disinfected periodically with strong solutions of hypochlorite or formaldehyde. Gross hemolysis resulting from accidental hypochlorite infusion has led to cardiac arrest, probably as a result of hyperkalemia. Formaldehyde is commonly used in 4% solutions to sterilize the fluid paths of dialysis controllers and to sterilize dialyzers
The current demand for educational excellence is an outgrowth of recent national reports criticizing secondary education. This push for academic excellence also affects vocational education outcomes. A growing consensus seems to be emerging that at the secondary level (1) vocational education should be integrated with academic education, (2)…
Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR. Education and Work Program.
Background: This article engages with the tradition of educational transitions research, particularly with its attempt to evaluate the effect of exogenous variables on educational attainment. The study revisits a number of hypotheses that have attempted to explain the changing patterns of such effects throughout students' educational career,…
Benito, Ricard; Alegre, Miquel Angel
In this article the authors analyze the effect of private voucher education on student academic performance using new data on Chilean students and a novel identification strategy. Most schools in Chile provide either primary or secondary education. The authors analyze the effect of private voucher education on students who are forced to enroll at…
Lara, Bernardo; Mizala, Alejandra; Repetto, Andrea
Seven author-contributed papers focus on excellence in urban special education schools. Libby Goodman reviews the isolation of special education teachers and children, in "The Effective School Movement and Special Education," while Dan L. Peterson et al. trace the implications for the Seattle School District of the efforts described in "Effective…
Jordan, June B., Ed.
Networked interactivity is one of the essential factors that differentiate recent online educational games from traditional stand-alone CD-based games. Despite the growing popularity of online educational games, empirical studies about the effects of networked interactivity are relatively rare. The current study tests the effects of networked interactivity on game users' learning outcomes by comparing three groups (online educational quiz game
Kwan Min Lee; Eui Jun Jeong; Seoungho Ryu
Introduction This study investigated facilitators and barriers to adoption of an at-scene patient education program by firefighter emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in King County, Washington. Methods We consulted providers of emergency medical services (EMS) to develop a patient education pamphlet in the form of a tear-off sheet that could be attached to the EMT medical incident report. The pamphlet included resources for at-scene patient education on high blood pressure, blood glucose, falls, and social services. The program was launched in 29 fire departments in King County, Washington, on January 1, 2010, and a formal evaluation was conducted in late 2011. We developed a survey based on diffusion theory to assess 1) awareness of the pamphlet, 2) evaluation of the pamphlet attributes, 3) encouragement by peers and superiors for handing out the pamphlet, 4) perceived behavioral norms, and 5) demographic variables associated with self-reported adoption of the at-scene patient education program. The survey was completed by 822 (40.1%) of 2,047 firefighter emergency medical technicians. We conducted bivariate and multivariable analyses to assess associations between independent variables and self-reported adoption of the program. Results Adoption of the at-scene patient education intervention was significantly associated with positive evaluation of the pamphlet, encouragement from peers and superiors, and perceived behavioral norms. EMS providers reported they were most likely to hand out the pamphlet to patients in private residences who were treated and left at the scene. Conclusion Attributes of chronic disease prevention programs and encouragement from peers and supervisors are necessary in diffusion of patient education interventions in the prehospital care setting. PMID:24480631
Stubbs, Benjamin; Fahrenbruch, Carol; Phelan, Elizabeth
...of the Propane Education and Research Council's Operations, Market Changes and Federal Programs...of the Propane Education and Research Council (PERC), in conjunction...with the cumulative effects of market changes and Federal...
This study probed the effects of Brown v. Board of Education on the growth of social psychology and psychology in general. Brown v. Board of Education, the 1954 landmark case that made segregation illegal and ended the "separate but equal...
Bryant, William Howard McKinley
Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of group education, led by health promoters using a guiding style, for people with Type 2 diabetes in public sector community health centres in Cape Town. Methods This was a pragmatic clustered randomized controlled trial with 17 randomly selected intervention and 17 control sites. A total of 860 patients with Type 2 diabetes, regardless of therapy used, were recruited from the control sites and 710 were recruited from the intervention sites. The control sites offered usual care, while the intervention sites offered a total of four monthly sessions of group diabetes education led by a health promoter. Participants were measured at baseline and 12 months later. Primary outcomes were diabetes self-care activities, 5% weight loss and a 1% reduction in HbA1c levels. Secondary outcomes were self-efficacy, locus of control, mean blood pressure, mean weight loss, mean waist circumference, mean HbA1c and mean total cholesterol levels and quality of life. Results A total of 422 (59.4%) participants in the intervention group did not attend any education sessions. No significant improvement was found in any of the primary or secondary outcomes, apart from a significant reduction in mean systolic (-4.65 mmHg, 95% CI 9.18 to -0.12; P = 0.04) and diastolic blood pressure (-3.30 mmHg, 95% CI -5.35 to -1.26; P = 0.002). Process evaluation suggested that there were problems with finding suitable space for group education in these under-resourced settings, with patient attendance and with full adoption of a guiding style by the health promoters. Conclusion The reported effectiveness of group diabetes education offered by more highly trained professionals, in well-resourced settings, was not replicated in the present study, although the reduction in participants’ mean blood pressure is likely to be of clinical significance. What’s new? The study adds to the scarce literature on diabetes education in Africa in the face of a growing public health problem in this continent. The study demonstrates a statistically and clinically significant reduction in participants’ mean blood pressure 1 year after the educational intervention. The study adds to the small amount of literature on group motivational interviewing type interventions for diabetes. The study adds to the small amount of literature on the use of lower-/mid-level health workers for diabetes education. PMID:24766179
Mash, R J; Rhode, H; Zwarenstein, M; Rollnick, S; Lombard, C; Steyn, K; Levitt, N
Calcium channel blockade provides a logical approach to the treatment of pulmonary hypertension because these drugs exert direct vasodilator effects in the highly constricted pulmonary circulation. To determine the effectiveness of verapamil in the treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension the haemodynamic effects of the drug were evaluated in seven patients with this disorder; 10 mg was given intravenously to six patients and 120 mg orally to one patient. Verapamil produced a 20% decline in pulmonary vascular resistance and a 27% decrease in mean pulmonary arterial pressure without significant changes in systemic vascular resistance. One patient who received verapamil 480 mg orally daily for three months showed sustained haemodynamic and clinical improvement. Concomitant with its beneficial effects on the pulmonary circulation, however, verapamil produced a pronounced decrease in right ventricular stroke work index (42%) and increase in right ventricular filling pressure (50%), indicating a direct depressant effect of the drug on right ventricular function. In one patient these cardiodepressant effects were sufficiently pronounced to produce severe hypotension and cardiac arrest. In conclusion, although verapamil appears to exert preferential vasodilator effects on the pulmonary circulation, its negative inotropic effects may be particularly detrimental to patients with primary pulmonary hypertension who have pre-existing right ventricular dysfunction; hence, treatment with verapamil is not recommended in such cases. PMID:6743418
Packer, M; Medina, N; Yushak, M; Wiener, I
This document contains 20 papers presenting the latest research, teaching strategies, and suggested resources for all areas of business education. Three papers provide leading business educators' perspectives on business education, four focus on instructional concepts, nine explore methods and resources for the business education curriculum, and…
Rader, Martha H., Ed.; Kurth, Linda A., Ed.
BackgroundAlthough recent heart failure (HF) management guidelines recommend delivery of patient education and discharge instructions, little is known about predictors of delivery of these materials or how such materials relate to outpatient disposition postdischarge. This report assesses the degree to which the full set of HF discharge instructions and education comprising the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations process-of-care
Nancy M. Albert; Gregg C. Fonarow; William T. Abraham; Karen Chiswell; Wendy Gattis Stough; Mihai Gheorghiade; Barry H. Greenberg; Christopher M. O'Connor; Jie Lena Sun; Clyde W. Yancy; James B. Young
Introduction: Family psychoeducation is one of the most routine interventions in a schizophrenic patients’ management. We evaluated the effects of a needs-assessment-based educational program in comparison with the current program on global function and quality of life (QOL) of the patients and their families. Materials and Methods: In this controlled study, 60 schizophrenia patients and their families were allocated for a needs-assessment-based psychoeducation (treatment) and current education (control) programs. The family members of both the groups participated in 10 sessions of education, within about six months. The patients’ global function and QOL were assessed with the global assessment of function (GAF) and the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scales (SQLS), respectively. The families’ QOL was assessed with the World Health Organization's (WHO) Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF). Assessments were done at the beginning and then every six months, for a total of 18 months. Results: Forty-two cases completed the study. Global function was improved with the treatment (P = 0.002), but not in the control group (P = 0.601). The patients’ quality of life in the treatment group showed significant improvement on the psychosocial (P < 0.01) and symptoms/side effects subscale scores (P < 0.01), but not on the energy subscale score (P > 0.1). There was no significant change in the family's quality of life in both groups. Conclusions: The family psychoeducational needs assessment may lead to more improvement in schizophrenic patients’ global function and quality of life, but has no significant effect on their families’ quality of life. It is recommended that the psychiatric care centers develop their psychoeducation profiles based on the needs-assessment program. PMID:25540798
Omranifard, Viktoria; Yari, Azam; Kheirabadi, Gholam Reza; Rafizadeh, Mahnaz; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Sadri, Sima
A well designed outcomes research study was performed in which 20 primary care physicians were selected to participate. Each physician had more than 30 fibromyalgia patients in their practice. The study design consisted of four phases. In phase one, physicians undertook a self-assessment of their practice. Phase two of the study involved diagnosis and treatment of a virtual case vignette. The third phase consisted of analysis of the data from phase two and providing feedback from an expert rheumatologist, and the fourth phase was to complete patient report forms for five patients in their practice. The year-long study was completed by 12 physicians and resulted in data on 60 patients. The results of this study provide an insight into how physicians are diagnosing and treating patients with fibromyalgia. In this study, we transition from continuing medical education to physician behavior to patient outcomes. PMID:23118542
Somasekhar, Melinda M; Berney, Steven; Rausch, Chris; Degnan, James
Educating at the Interface: Nanotechnology-Environmental Effects and Policy (NEEP) Integrative Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT) in Nanotechnology-Environmental Effects and Policy at Carnegie the skills to create novel nanotechnologies and become policy-literate nanoscience professionals. NEEP
Education is the main avenue for disseminating new research findings into clinical practice. Understanding factors that affect translation of research into practice may help cancer educators design programs that facilitate the time it takes for research-indicated practices to become standard care. To understand various factors, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Office of Education and Special Initiatives (OESI)(1) with individual cooperation from Oncology Nursing Society (ONS), American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), and Association of Oncology Social Work (AOSW) administered a Practitioner Information Needs survey to five different types of practitioners involved in cancer care. While most of the 2,864 practitioners (83%) agreed they had access to current practice information, practitioners in large practice settings were more likely to report having access to research than those small practice settings. However, only 33% indicated that they had adequate time to access the information. Colleagues or experts within the organization were cited as the most frequently relied on information resource (60%), and peer-reviewed journals were cited as second (57%). Overall, 66% strongly or somewhat agreed that their organizations exhibit effective change management practices. A majority (69%) agreed that implementation of new practices is hindered by the lack of available staff time. Financial factors and the characteristics of the information presented were also believed to be factors contributing to research implementation. Group differences were observed among practitioner groups and practice settings for some factors. PMID:20440666
Ousley, Anita L; Swarz, Jeffrey A; Milliken, Erin L; Ellis, Steven
Patient care errors occur in the laboratory. Traditionally, most errors have been thought to occur because of individual human failure. The assumption is that with adequate training, education; and orientation, technologists will perform flawlessly. Laboratory processes are designed on the premise that nothing will go wrong. Health-care professionals are looking at new methods of error prevention including Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). Based on long experience in the engineering field, FMEA assumes everything will fail, humans err frequently, and the cause of an error often is beyond the individual's control. FMEA is a proactive, systematic, multidisciplinary team-based approach to error prevention. Patient safety is now a high priority with the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, and this article introduces FMEA, a new method for improving our processes to enhance patient safety. PMID:14968751
Woodhouse, Sherry; Burney, Brenda; Coste, Kathleen
Background Patients are increasingly using the Internet to access health-related information. The aim of this study was to assess the readability and quality of laryngeal cancer-related websites. Methods Patient education materials were identified by performing an Internet search using three search engines. Readability was assessed using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), and Gunning Fog Index (GFI). The DISCERN instrument was utilised to assess quality of health information. A total of 54 websites were included in the analysis. The mean readability scores were as follows: FRES, 48.2 (95% CI 44.8 - 51.6); FKGL, 10.9 (95% CI 10.3 - 11.5); GFI 13.8 (95% CI 11.3 - 16.3). These scores suggest that, on average, online laryngeal cancer patient information is written at an advanced level. The mean DISCERN score was 49.8 (95% CI 45.4 - 54.2), suggesting that online information is of variable quality. Conclusion Our study suggests much of the laryngeal cancer information available online is of suboptimal quality and written at a level too difficult for the average adult to read comfortably. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25491544
Narwani, Vishal; Nalamada, Keerthana; Lee, Michael; Kothari, Prasad; Lakhani, Raj
The purpose of this study was to determine what aspects of practice and patient management matter most to dental residents and how they rate their level of training in these areas. In 2005, residents in twelve postdoctoral training programs at the School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, were surveyed about the importance of thirteen topics regarding dental practice and patient management. Residents also rated the level of training they received in these areas during their residency and dental school education. Results from the 2005 survey were compared with those from an identical survey administered to residents in 1997. Residents in 2005 rated time management, multidisciplinary coordination, and total quality management as the most important topics. Comparisons between the 1997 and 2005 groups found that time management and total quality management were significantly less emphasized in 2005 than in 1997. Residents from all specialties also rated dealing with health care payers as important to their future practices, but rated it the least emphasized topic in their programs. Results from this survey illustrate which practice and patient management skills are important to residents in comparison to how well they perceive they are being trained in these skills and suggest where programs could enhance their training to help residents run successful practices. PMID:18519594
Houlberg, Bryan J
Physical exercise plays an important role in cancer prevention as well as in the prevention and treatment of cancer related fatigue during and after treatment. Some of these effects are presented in the thesis of M.J. Velthuis. In Part I effects of physical exercise on anthropometric measurements are examined in the Sex Hormones and Physical Exercise (SHAPE) study, a randomised
M. J. Velthuis
When the sewer system in Japan was still poor, TOTO has produced plumbing products, such as toilets, to provide people a healthy and cultural life. The genuine spirit of “High quality” and “Customer satisfaction” made it possible for us to do so. But nowadays, in terms of problems of quality, globalization, aging, we should enhance training engineers to continue making “High quality” and “Customer satisfying” products, in this speed of globalization. We would introduce the effective education system for engineers in TOTO, including our future vision.
Seki, Akiyoshi; Shinohara, Kuniaki
In the United States about 17% of adolescents meet diagnostic criteria for mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Six million young people receive treatment services annually for mental, emotional, or behavioral problems. These problems affect 1 in 5 families and cost $247 million annually (O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009). Some strategies for preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders in young people have been developed, tested, and found to be effective in preventing the onset, persistence, and severity of psychological disorders, drug abuse, and delinquency. Unfortunately, tested and effective prevention policies, programs, and practices are not widely used (O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009). This paper highlights recent advances in prevention science and describes some opportunities and challenges in advancing the use of science-based prevention in communities. The chapter concludes by exploring the potential role of social work education in developing a workforce ready to increase community access to effective prevention strategies. PMID:21072250
Hawkins, J. David; Shapiro, Valerie B.; Fagan, Abigail A.
Context: In India, where the heavy burden of visual impairment exists, low vision services are scarce and under-utilized. Aims: Our study was designed to survey the effectiveness of low vision exams and visual aids in improving patient quality of life in southern rural India. Subjects and Methods: The low vision quality of life (LVQOL) questionnaire measures vision-related quality of life through 25 questions on a Likert scale of 0–5 that pertain to (1) mobility, distance vision, and lighting; (2) psychological adjustment; (3) reading and fine work; and (4) activities of daily living. This tool was translated into Tamil and verbally administered to 55 new low vision referral patients before their first visit at the low vision clinic at Aravind Eye Hospital. Low vision aids (LVAs) were prescribed at the discretion of the low vision specialist. 1-month later, the same questionnaire was administered over the phone. Results: About 44 of 55 low vision patients completed baseline and follow-up LVQOL surveys, and 30 normal vision controls matched for age, gender, and education were also surveyed (average 117.34 points). After the low vision clinic visit, the low vision group demonstrated a 4.55-point improvement in quality of life (from 77.77 to 82.33 points, P = 0.001). Adjusting for age, gender, and education, the low vision patients who also received LVAs (n = 24) experienced an even larger increase than those who did not (n = 20) (8.89 points, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Low vision services and visual aids can improve the quality of life in South Indian rural population regardless of age, gender, and education level. Thus, all low vision patients who meet the criteria should be referred for evaluation. PMID:25579355
Do, Anna T; Ilango, Krishanmurthy; Ramasamy, Dhivya; Kalidasan, Suriya; Balakrishnan, Vijayakumar; Chang, Robert T
Patients receiving hemodialysis therapy risk exposure to both disinfectants and sterilants. Dialysis equipment is disinfected periodically with strong solutions of hypochlorite or formaldehyde. Gross hemolysis resulting from accidental hypochlorite infusion has led to cardiac arrest, probably as a result of hyperkalemia. Formaldehyde is commonly used in 4% solutions to sterilize the fluid paths of dialysis controllers and to sterilize dialyzers before reuse. It can react with red cell antigenic surfaces leading to the formation of anti-N antibodies. The major exposure risk is the low concentration of disinfectant found in municipal water used to prepare 450 L dialysate weekly. With thrice-weekly treatment schedules, the quality requirements for water used to make this solution must be met rigorously. Standards for water used in the preparation of dialysate have recently been proposed but not all patients are treated with dialysate meeting such standards. The introduction of sterilants via tap water is insidious and has let to more pervasive consequences. Both chlorine and chloramines, at concentrations found in potable water, are strong oxidants that cause extensive protein denaturation and hemolysis. Oxidation of the Fe/sup 2 +/ in hemoglobin to Fe/sup 3 +/ forms methemoglobin, which is incapable of carrying either O/sub 2/ or CO/sub 2/. Chloramine can form not only methemoglobin, but can also denature proteins within the red cell, thus forming aggregates (Heinz bodies). Chloramines also inhibit hexose monophosphate shunt activity, a mechanism that makes the red cell even more susceptible to oxidant damage.
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient’s adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal control of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications, causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient’s psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation, self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors, coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relation to DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM. PMID:25512782
Chew, Boon-How; Shariff-Ghazali, Sazlina; Fernandez, Aaron
We tend to measure educational performance by students' attainment in coursework or examinations. In the case of professional education, the impact of the educational programme on the students' own capacities to enhance their work practices, and the wider organizational effects of the students' education and training, are also key 'products' of…
Johnson, Hazel; Thomas, Alan