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Study aims to assess the need for a thyrotoxicosis patienteducation programs and evaluates a group education session. Patients with thyrotoxicosis were surveyed to assess their needs. Determined that people with thyrotoxicosis had limited knowledge about their condition. The offer of a group education program has little effect on that knowledge…
Lincoln, N. B.; Sturrock, N. D. C.; Sowter, H.; Abbott-Harland, S.; Nichols, E.; Jeffcoate, W. J.
The aim of this general practice study was to examine how the consulting behaviour of patients with a cough was affected when the tasks and responsibilities of patients, practice nurses and general practitioners were reorganized. In four 'average' single-handed general practices the effects on the consulting behaviour of patients of a rational practice policy on cough and the provision of systematic patienteducation on cough were compared with patient behaviour in four matched control practices. Changes of behaviour were measured in 548 patients who consulted for cough at least twice, in two successive autumn-winter periods. Significantly more patients in the experimental practice changed their behaviour to follow the practice guidelines than did patients in the control practices (56% versus 30%, P less than 0.001). The proportion of patients who continued to consult in the approved manner was greater among patients receiving intervention (66% versus 29%, P less than 0.001). This was equally true for patients who had suffered less than four episodes of cough or more than four episodes. The more often the patients received the education, the more effective it was. All patients who consulted the general practitioner for cough during the first autumn-winter period filled in a cough diary during the second period. From this it appeared that the intervention did not result in patients delaying consultation when they had a cough lasting longer than three weeks or one with 'serious' symptoms. It would appear that a rational practice policy and the provision of patienteducation can stimulate patients to modify their consulting behaviour. This could result in a reduction in the costs of health care.
Rutten, G; Van Eijk, J; Beek, M; Van der Velden, H
While there has been an increase in research and clinical interest in the sexual functioning of spinal cord injured persons and their partners, little has been reported of the effectiveness of sexual education and counseling procedures with this group of patients. The present study reported on a sex education and counseling program for spinal cord patients, an instrument used to
Jo Ann Brockway; Jeffrey C. Steger; Rosemarian Berni; Vione V. Ost; Thomas E. Williamson-Kirkland; Connie L. Peck
PurposeWe conducted a randomized clinical trial to assess the effectiveness of a newly established education program for adults with asthma. The program was designed to improve patients’ health and functional status.
Thomas V Perneger; Philippe Sudre; Paul Muntner; Christophe Uldry; Christiane Courteheuse; Anne-Françoise Naef; Stéphane Jacquemet; Laurent Nicod; Thierry Rochat; Jean-Philippe Assal
The purpose of this study was to show the effects of education on medication compliance, symptom level and quality of life of outpatients who were being treated with lithium for bipolar disorder. The study was performed comparing a total of 26 patients (14 study and 12 control) who were a patient group in lithium therapy. In the study one group
The effect of a structured program of education on subsequent psychiatric patient compliance with medication-taking was investigated. The subjects consisted of 150 hospitalized patients housed on four acute-care receiving wards and ready for discharge from Fallsview Psychiatric Hospital in Ohio. They were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Results indicated that subjects who received written information with verbal reinforcement
Gary L. Robinson; Alan D. Gilbertson; Lawrence Litwack
Many Korean American persons have hypertension, but competing life priorities often prevent them from attending health-promotion educational activities. Using principles of community-based participatory research, the authors conducted a prospective clinical trial to determine the effectiveness of a mailed vs an in-class culturally tailored education intervention. A total of 380 hypertensive Korean American persons from the Baltimore/Washington area were assigned to a more intense in-class education group or a less intensive mail education group. Evaluation of postintervention blood pressure (BP) outcomes revealed that significant reductions in systolic BP (13.3 mm Hg and 16.1 mm Hg, respectively) and diastolic BP (9.5 mm Hg and 10.9 mm Hg) and increases in BP control rates (42.3% and 54.3%) were achieved in both groups. No significant differences in BP outcomes between groups, however, were found. In conclusion, education by mail was an effective strategy for improving BP control and may be a viable approach for other immigrant groups if the education materials address their cultural needs.
Kim, Miyong T.; Kim, Eun-Young; Han, Hae-Ra; Jeong, Seonghee; Lee, Jong Eun; Park, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Kim B.; Hill, Martha N.
The therapeutic patienteducation is an absolute necessity in the management of chronic diseases including diabetes. This discipline promotes personal autonomy to live optimally, to achieve personal and professional projects, despite the constraints of the disease and treatments. The DAWN2 study demonstrates the systemic effects of this disease that goes beyond simple glycemic control. The biopsychosocial dimension needs to be better explored. Other assessment tools should be used to better manage these patients. Exploring the health literacy and numeracy are other tools that can explore the problems for socially disadvantaged patients. The main goal is development of patient capabilities and his environment for the development of the human person. PMID:25004769
Objectives Venous thromboembolism (VTE) causes approximately 25,000 deaths each year from hospital-acquired thrombosis in the UK. Patient understanding of risk factors and preventive measures is important in preventing VTE. This audit was designed to assess surgical patient awareness and understanding of VTE risk factors and prophylaxis. Design A questionnaire was designed to assess preoperative patient understanding of components of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines. Leaflets were designed to address gaps in understanding and junior doctors were given guidance on patienteducation. A second group of patients completed the same questionnaire after introduction of the education system. Setting Worthing Hospital, UK. Participants One hundred and twenty-one patients due to undergo major general surgery. Seventy-one participants completed the questionnaire prior to implementation of the education system, and 50 after. Main outcome measures Improvement in patient awareness of VTE, its risk factors and its preventative measures (in response to the education system). Results Following the introduction of a targeted VTE education system, there was a significant improvement in the awareness of VTE to 90% (P < 0.01), its signs to 80% (P < 0.01), and its preventative measures to 84% (P < 0.01). Conclusions Patienteducation is of paramount importance in reducing the risks of VTE perioperatively. A simple method of introducing patienteducation at pre-assessment clinic and as part of their discharge planning, for major elective surgery, is an effective system in improving patient understanding of VTE, its risk factors and the importance of prophylaxis. It may also increase compliance.
Sadideen, Hazim; O'Callaghan, John M; Navidi, Maziar; Sayegh, Mazin
Improving patient adherence to antidepressant treatment is an important issue. Patients' attitudes toward symptoms, results, causes, disease course, and effective treatment of depression can influence their adherence to therapy. We aimed to assess the efficacy of an educational leaflet designed to improve patients' attitudes toward depression and antidepressant treatment. Participants were one hundred twenty-two outpatients of three psychiatric clinics in Japan who met the DSM-IV criteria for depression. Patients in the intervention group received an educational leaflet at the start of the study. Participants filled in The Antidepressant Compliance Questionnaire (ADCQ) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) before and after the intervention. Intervention group showed greater improvements on the total score of ADCQ, the score on the "positive beliefs regarding antidepressants" subscale. They maintained the scores on the "perceived doctor-patient relationship" subscale, where the control group lowered those scores. No significant difference in improvement in BDI scores was observed between groups. The intervention using an educational leaflet had a significant positive impact on patients' attitudes toward depression and antidepressant treatment. Our results indicate that the educational leaflet is an effective tool for enhancement of face-to-face education by medical professionals. Trial registration UMIN000002981, www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm. PMID:20199814
Background. In previous studies, the oral and dental health statuses were compared in hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients without taking into account the effect of educational levels on oral health. Hence we aimed to make a comparison of these parameters based upon the subjects educational levels. Patients and Methods. 76 PD (33 males, 43 females-mean age: 44 ± 12 years) and 100 HD (56 males, 44 females-mean age: 46 ± 14 years) patients were included. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth were detected, DMFT index was calculated and plaque index (PI) values were assessed. Results. Significantly higher numbers of filled teeth (P < .001) and lower PI values (P < .01) in the PD group were detected with higher educational levels, whereas no significance was detected in the HD group. Higher DMFT index values were assessed in the lower educated and high school levels in PD than HD patients (P < .05). Higher numbers of filled teeth (P < .05) were detected in the secondary school level in PD patients. This difference was even more significant in the high school level (P < .001). Conclusion. We assume that PD patients, who were found to be in a higher educational level, are more caring for their oral health as compared to HD patients.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of an outpatient education program in patients with uncontrolled asthma. METHODS: This was an uncontrolled study evaluating an educational intervention and involving patients with uncontrolled asthma ? 14 years of age. The participants completed a questionnaire designed to assess the level of asthma control, the inhalation technique, and quality of life. All of the patients underwent pulmonary function testing, after which they participated in an education program consisting of one 45-min face-to-face session, followed by phone interviews at two, four, and eight weeks. The participants were reevaluated after three months. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients completed the study. There was a significant improvement in the level of asthma control (p < 0.001). Of the 63 patients, 28 (44.4%) and 6 (9.5%) were classified as having partially controlled asthma and controlled asthma, respectively. The mean FEV1 was 63.0 ± 20.0% and 68.5 ± 21.2% of the predicted value prior to and after the educational intervention, respectively (p = 0.002), and all of the quality of life scores improved (p < 0.05 for all). The same was true for the proportion of patients prior to and after the educational intervention using the proper inhalation technique when using metered dose inhalers (15.4% vs. 46.2%; p = 0.02) and dry powder inhalers (21.3% vs. 76.6%; p < 0.001). The logistic regression analysis revealed that an incorrect inhalation technique identified during the first evaluation was independently associated with a favorable response to the educational intervention. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that an outpatient education program for asthma patients improves the level of asthma control, lung function parameters, and quality of life. An incorrect inhalation technique identified during the first evaluation was predictive of a favorable response to the educational intervention.
Rodrigues, Carmen Denise Borba; Pereira, Rosemary Petrik; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth
OBJECTIVESTo determine the effects of patienteducation on compliance and on health in patients with active, recent onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA).METHODSA randomised, controlled, assessor blinded, one year trial. The experimental group followed an education programme. All patients started on sulphasalazine therapy. Compliance with sulphasalazine was measured by pill counting. Compliance rates with regimens of physical exercise, endurance activities, and energy
Herman L M Brus; Martin A F J van de Laar; Erik Taal; Johannes J Rasker; Oene Wiegman
Sex education evokes a wide variety of responses in the community and from teachers. Consequently, physicians have a responsibility to present sex education material in a factual, objective way. Many people are misinformed about sexual behavior. Physicians can help patients and the community by being aware of appropriate sex education for each age group. A curriculum for sex education, and opportunities to provide sex information for patients of different ages and stages in the lifecycle, are described.
Nurses and nurse midwives have historically considered patienteducation one of their most important responsibilities. Increasingly, however, appropriate and comprehensive patienteducation has become more difficult to accomplish. There are many reasons for this, including the huge influx of clients of varying cultures into virtually all health care systems across the United States, the lack of time available for patient
Background Whether health literacy is independently associated with processes or outcomes of diabetes-related care is controversial. We tried to demonstrate the interaction of health literacy and understanding of health education and instructions in achieving glycemic control. Methods Five hundred and one consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in the outpatient clinic of the metabolism department were recruited into this pilot study. The demographic data were collected from patients’ self-reports. The clinical background information was collected through electronic medical records. A questionnaire derived from part of the Mandarin Health Literacy Scale was used to measure numeracy and functional health literacy of people with diabetes. Health literacy levels were categorized into inadequate, marginal and adequate. Patient self-ratings of their perceived understanding of the health education information and instructions provided by their case manager in the past were categorized into two subgroups: better and poor. Patients with an HbA1c level equal to or below 7% were considered to have good glycemic control. Multivariate logistic regression was used to find associated factors of health literacy and understanding of health education and instructions. GENMOD procedures were used to analyze repeated outcome measurements of glycemic control. Results Higher educational attainment and higher household income (odds ratios were 2.23 and 2.22, respectively) were significantly associated with patients who had adequate health literacy. Higher educational attainment and patients with a family history of DM (odds ratios were 4.99 and 1.85, respectively) were significantly associated with better understanding of health education and instructions. Adequate health literacy is not the only factor associated with good glycemic control. The effect of adequate health literacy in achieving good glycemic control might be masked by patients with better understanding of health education and instructions. Conclusions Our results revealed that not only were patients with adequate health literacy associated with good glycemic control but patients with marginal health literacy were also able to achieve good glycemic control. Adequate health literacy and better understanding of health education is highly correlated. The role of adequate health literacy on glycemic control could be suppressed if variables are over-controlled during analysis.
OBJECTIVE:The growing use and complexity of endoscopy procedures in GI units has increased the need for good patient preparation. Earlier studies in this area have focused on the psychological benefits of patienteducation programs. The present study was directed at determining cost-effectiveness of a patienteducation program.METHODS:A prospective, randomized, controlled design was used. The patient population consisted of 142 patients
G. Abuksis; M. Mor; N. Segal; I. Shemesh; I. Morad; S. Plaut; E. Weiss; J. Sulkes; G. Fraser; Y. Niv
... Annual Meeting Media Policies Prevent Drug Abuse PatientEducation on Pain AAPM Past President, Perry G. Fine, ... Home Member Center Patient Center Library Advocacy Practice Management CME Annual Meeting Contact Us Members' Community Privacy ...
Background Medical residents are key figures in delivering health care and an important target group for patient safety education. Reporting incidents is an important patient safety domain, as awareness of vulnerabilities could be a starting point for improvements. This study examined effects of patient safety education for residents on knowledge, skills, attitudes, intentions and behavior concerning incident reporting. Methods A controlled study with follow-up measurements was conducted. In 2007 and 2008 two patient safety courses for residents were organized. Residents from a comparable hospital acted as external controls. Data were collected in three ways: 1] questionnaires distributed before, immediately after and three months after the course, 2] incident reporting cards filled out by course participants during the course, and 3] residents' reporting data gathered from hospital incident reporting systems. Results Forty-four residents attended the course and 32 were external controls. Positive changes in knowledge, skills and attitudes were found after the course. Residents' intentions to report incidents were positive at all measurements. Participants filled out 165 incident reporting cards, demonstrating the skills to notice incidents. Residents who had reported incidents before, reported more incidents after the course. However, the number of residents reporting incidents did not increase. An increase in reported incidents was registered by the reporting system of the intervention hospital. Conclusions Patient safety education can have immediate and long-term positive effects on knowledge, skills and attitudes, and modestly influence the reporting behavior of residents.
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I)–informed sleep skills education on sleep quality and initial sleep latency in patients attending a psychiatry partial hospitalization program. Method: This retrospective chart review was conducted in a psychiatry partial hospitalization program of a teaching Veterans Affairs medical center located in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Patients typically attend the program for 1 month. Data were collected from a continuous improvement project from November 2007 to March 2009. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was administered to the patients at the time of entry into the program and at their discharge. Patients who completed both PSQI assessments were included in the study. Results: A total of 183 patients completed both PSQI assessments. Of those, 106 patients attended CBT-I–informed sleep skills education and 77 did not (all patients completed the psychiatry partial hospitalization program). For all patients, the mean ± SD baseline PSQI score was 12.5 ± 4.8. PSQI scores improved by a mean of 3.14 points (95% CI, 2.5–3.8; P < .001) in all patients who completed the psychiatry partial hospitalization program. For all patients, there were significant reductions in sleep latency (17.6 minutes) (t183 = 6.58, P < .001) and significant increases in overall sleep time, from 6.1 to 6.7 hours (t183 = 4.72, P < .001). There was no statistically significant difference in PSQI scores of patients who attended CBT-I–informed sleep skills education and those who did not during their stay in the partial hospitalization program. Conclusions: The quality of sleep and initial sleep latency improved in patients who completed the psychiatry partial hospitalization program regardless of whether they attended CBT-I–informed sleep skills education or not. In this study, a structured psychiatry partial hospitalization program improved perceived sleep quality and initial sleep latency. Additional randomized controlled trials with a higher intensity of CBT-I–informed sleep skills education are needed.
Dieperink, Michael E.; Thuras, Paul; Kunisaki, Ken M.; Schumacher, Marianne M.; Germain, Anne; Amborn, Becky; Hurwitz, Thomas D.
Caring for a patient undergoing hemodialysis is highly stressful and can negatively affect a caregiver's physical and psychological well-being. This study was conducted to examine the effect of educational support concerning caregiver burden and given to the caregivers of hemodialysis patients. This experimental study was performed with 122 caregivers. Patients' data were collected by means of Personal Information Form and Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale (ZCBS). Characteristics of caregivers of hemodialysis patients were analyzed descriptively in terms of frequencies and percentages for categorical data, means, and standard deviations. Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskall-Wallis test, and percentages were used in the data analysis. The mean ZCBS score was 52.1?±?8.6 (range, 0-88). Among the caregivers, the mean score of the ZCBS was significantly higher in women, single, young, family relatives as "daughter/sister/brother/daughter-in-law and town/district, high educational level (P?0.05). Moreover, the mean score of the ZCBS was significantly higher in caregivers who have health problems/diseases. In addition, this study explored the educational needs of home-based such as nutrition (35.2%), dialysis (27.8%), fistula care (20.4%), catheter care (18.8%), the information about chronic kidney disease (18.0%), blood pressure (17.2%), weight control (17.2%), hygiene (3.1%), and travel/exercise (6.5%). The post-educational mean scores (55.0?±?7.6) of caregiver burden were observed to be lower than the pre-educational scores (43.9?±?5.2), and the difference was found to be statistically significant. The home-based educational program demonstrated a decrease in the burden of hemodialysis caregivers. PMID:23279118
The topics included are: (1) Background on development of patienteducation programs; (2) Patienteducation interventions; (3) References for health professionals; and (4) Research and evaluation in patienteducation.
The purpose of this study was to show the effects of education on medication compliance, symptom level and quality of life of outpatients who were being treated with lithium for bipolar disorder. The study was performed comparing a total of 26 patients (14 study and 12 control) who were a patient group in lithium therapy. In the study one group was given a short education program about the disorder and lithium therapy in three sessions. Data were collected from both groups using a medication knowledge form, Brief Symptom Inventory, and WHO Quality of Life Scale before and after the intervention. At the end of 3 months whereas there was no difference seen in the scores of the control group; the study group had an increase in medication knowledge, a decrease in symptom level, an increase in quality of life, and a beginning of more regular medication use. Findings that were obtained show the importance of education about the disorder and medication in increasing the adaptation to society of patients who have bipolar disorder. PMID:14685951
Objective: This study collected on from all research relating to health education and hypertension in China and, with the aid of meta-analysis tools, assessed the outcomes of such health education. The analysis provides a basis for the further development of health-education programmes for patients with hypertension. Methods: Literature searches…
Xu, L. J.; Meng, Q.; He, S. W.; Yin, X. L.; Tang, Z. L.; Bo, H. Y.; Lan, X. Y.
This thesaurus was compiled to make the materials in the PatientEducation Room of the Donald J. Vincent Medical Library at Riverside Methodist Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, more accessible to patients. Subjects are grouped in fairly broad categories (e.g., Aging & Problems of Aging; Alcohol & Alcohol Abuse; Careers in the Medical Field; Childhood and…
Patienteducation programs for persons undergoing cardiac surgery related to knowledge of cardiac rehabilitation principles were conducted with either traditional (n=49) or collaborative (n=47) educational interventions. The two methods produced similar levels of knowledge, but significant differences appeared depending on whether subjects had…
Background and objective: The problems caused by diabetes have direct and indirect impacts on the quality of life of diabetic patients. An increase of these problems means a decrease in a patient's quality of life. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the educational programme based on the precede model in promoting quality of life of…
Taghdisi, M. H.; Borhani, M.; Solhi, M.; Afkari, M. E.; Hosseini, F.
Effective management of chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes) can depend on the extent to which patients can learn and remember disease-relevant information. In two experiments, we explored a technique motivated by theories of self-regulated learning for improving people's learning of information relevant to managing a chronic disease. Materials were passages from patienteducation booklets on diabetes from NIDDK. Session 1 included an initial study trial, Session 2 included self-regulated restudy, and Session 3 included a final memory test. The key manipulation concerned the kind of support provided for self-regulated learning during Session 2. In Experiment 1, participants either were prompted to self-test and then evaluate their learning before selecting passages to restudy, were shown the prompt questions but did not overtly self-test or evaluate learning prior to selecting passages, or were not shown any prompts and were simply given the menu for selecting passages to restudy. Participants who self-tested and evaluated learning during Session 2 had a small but significant advantage over the other groups on the final test. Secondary analyses provided evidence that the performance advantage may have been modest because of inaccurate monitoring. Experiment 2 included a group who also self-tested but who evaluated their learning using idea-unit judgments (i.e., by checking their responses against a list of key ideas from the correct response). Participants who self-tested and made idea-unit judgments exhibited a sizable advantage on final test performance. Secondary analyses indicated that the performance advantage was attributable in part to more accurate monitoring and more effective self-regulated learning. An important practical implication is that learning of patienteducation materials can be enhanced by including appropriate support for learners' self-regulatory processes. PMID:21942317
Rawson, Katherine A; O'Neil, Rochelle; Dunlosky, John
This model focuses on organizational management at three distinct levels within a hospital or other medical care facility: institutional, programmatic, and direct patienteducation. It is based on the premise that patienteducation must be planned, coordi...
A study compared 48 cardiac patients who used an interactive multimedia computer-assisted patienteducation program and 48 taught by tutorial. The computer-assisted instructional method resulted in significantly better knowledge about exercise and self-management of chronic diseases. (Contains 29 references.) (JOW)
Background Type II diabetes and its complications impose a large economic burden on health care systems. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of educational intervention based on extended health belief model on type 2 diabetic patients. Methods 120 patients with type II diabetes referring to randomly selected hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were enrolled in this educational intervention study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups (intervention and control). Data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic information and extended health belief model constructs. Two face to face educational sessions were conducted for each patient. Data were collected in two groups at three stages of the study; before the educational sessions and at 3 months and 6 months intervals. Analysis was performed by SPSS (17.0) and STATA (11.0) using independent T-test, Chi-square, Fisher’s exact test, analysis of covariance and Generalized Estimating Equation. A p value of less than 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results The educational program had a positive and significant impact (p?0.0001) on extended health model belief constructs (including perceived susceptibility, perceived intensity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers and self-efficacy) in experimental group, 3 and 6 months after the intervention. Conclusions The results of this study showed the importance of extended health belief model based education in improving the model constructs and increasing self-efficacy in patients with type-2 diabetes.
A patienteducation workgroup was developed on a progressive care medical/vascular surgical unit. The workgroup identified patienteducation needs regarding discharge education for postsurgical patients and those discharging with oral anticoagulants (OAC). Staff surveys aided the workgroup in identifying a need for additional discharge education for patients and families. After various methods of patienteducation were explored, it was determined the workgroup could best meet the needs of the patient population through a class format providing group discussion and interaction. Logistical details and class formatting were configured to meet both the needs of the patients and the nursing staff. Current institutional patienteducation pamphlets were used to develop the content for the class. Physician review and input were obtained during the development of the content. A patienteducation specialist was also consulted to ensure proper literacy levels were used. To meet the Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal regarding anticoagulant safety, the content focused on home management, which included the following: knowledge of INR goal range, dietary factors, when to call the provider and safety precautions. Other topics to promote self-efficacy in anticoagulation therapy were also included in the content. Postclass evaluations completed by patients and families provided useful feedback for continuous improvement and patient satisfaction. Preliminary survey results indicate high patient satisfaction with the class. Plans include a quality improvement project to evaluate the effectiveness of the patienteducation class on OAC. PMID:21074115
Eickhoff, Jennifer S; Wangen, Tina M; Notch, Katie B; Ferguson, Tanya J; Nickel, Travis W; Schafer, Amy R; Bush, Diana L
Background The purpose of the treatment and management of chronic renal failure during the predialysis period is mainly to retard the\\u000a progression of the deterioration of renal function. Optimal dialysis initiation is important to improve the patient's outcome\\u000a after therapy. We investigated whether providing information through an original educational program could facilitate dialysis\\u000a initiation, with the patient in a better condition,
Background: A review of the literature on handwashing has documented the absence of research on the education of the patient as an intervention model for changing staff behavior regarding handwashing compliance. The primary objective of this project was to conduct a prospective control study of the effect of patient handwashing education on staff compliance with handwashing. Method: A prospective, controlled,
Maryanne McGuckin; Richard Waterman; Lois Porten; Sandra Bello; Mary Caruso; Barbara Juzaitis; Elyse Krug; Sherry Mazer
Through a telephone survey, the Discharge Call Service (DCS) was instituted with 206 patients discharged from two medical-surgical nursing units. The purposes of the survey were to (1) improve patient outcomes by assessing patient perceptions of their recuperation progress after discharge, (2) assess the patient's post discharge educational needs, (3) provide additional information concerning diagnosis, treatment, or medications requested by the patient, and (4) direct patients to the appropriate medical center or community resource as needed for further assistance or education. In general, patients believed their medical status was progressing as expected; nevertheless almost half of the patients surveyed needed additional information or specific directions concerning their self-care. Findings suggest the DCS is an effective strategy to enhance the patient's ability for self-care after discharge. The DCS is also an easily implemented and cost-effective enhancement of hospital patienteducation and health promotion activities. PMID:9753905
Lee, N C; Wasson, D R; Anderson, M A; Stone, S; Gittings, J A
Portable video technology is a widely available new tool with potential to be used by pediatric otolaryngology practices for patient and family education. Podcasts are media broadcasts that employ this new technology. They can be accessed via the Internet and viewed either on a personal computer or on a handheld device, such as an iPod or an MP3 player. We wished to examine the feasibility of establishing a podcast-hosting Web site. We digitally recorded pediatric otologic procedures in the operating room and saved the digital files to DVDs. We then edited the DVDs at home with video-editing software on a personal computer. Next, spoken narrative was recorded with audio-recording software and combined with the edited video clips. The final products were converted into the M4V file format, and the final versions were uploaded onto our hospital's Web site. We then downloaded the podcasts onto a high-quality portable media player so that we could evaluate their quality. All of the podcasts are now on the hospital Web site, where they can be downloaded by patients and families at no cost. The site includes instructions on how to download the appropriate free software for viewing the podcasts on a portable media player or on a computer. Using this technology for patienteducation expands the audience and permits portability of information. We conclude that a home computer can be used to inexpensively create informative surgery demonstrations that can be accessed via a Web site and transferred to portable viewing devices with excellent quality. PMID:18478793
Abreu, Daniel V; Tamura, Thomas K; Sipp, J Andrew; Keamy, Donald G; Eavey, Roland D
Background Brief family intervention may have a positive impact on family caregivers for patients with mental disorders. We assessed the effectiveness of a group psycho-educational program on family caregivers for patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders. Methods This randomized controlled trial was performed on 100 caregivers for patients with mental disorders attending the Isfahan Behavioral Sciences Research Center (IBSRC), in Isfahan, Iran. One hundred family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia (n?=?50) and mood disorders (n?=?50) were selected and assigned randomly to either a psycho-educational group intervention or routine care in each diagnosis category. The caregivers were followed for 3 months. Caregiver burden was assessed using the Zarit Burden Interview Results The mean scores of the Zarit caregiver burden decreased significantly for the group that participated in the psycho-educational program, while scores in the control group did not change significantly. Conclusions This group intervention program was effective to reduce the caregiver burden for both categories of mental disorders in the Iranian population. This group intervention program may improve the quality of life of patients and caregivers by improving the standards of care giving. Trial registration RCT registration number: IRCT138804272200N
The passage of the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act (MIPPA) encouraged education for Stage 4 CKD patients by reimbursing qualified providers for formal instruction. This marked the first time Medicare reimbursed for kidney disease education. Although the law lays out specific requirements, it leaves much of the structure and content of the instruction up to the providers. The CKD clinic staffed by advanced practitioners (physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and/or clinical nurse specialists) provides a natural fit for patienteducation. Educatedpatients choose home modalities more frequently; more often start dialysis with a permanent vascular access; and generally score higher on tests measuring mood, mobility, and anxiety. However, sufficient research into the effects of CKD patienteducation is lacking. PMID:23809284
The third volume of a project to demonstrate the effectiveness of family counseling in stroke patient rehabilitation (January 1967-December 1971) presents reviews of four films on or related to strokes considered as having the most potential for educating...
The virtual patient is a case-based computer program that combines textual information with multimedia elements such as audio, graphics, and animation. It is increasingly being utilized as a teaching modality by medical educators in various fields of instruction. The inherent complexity of older patients and the shortage of geriatrics educators…
Tan, Zaldy S.; Mulhausen, Paul L.; Smith, Stephen R.; Ruiz, Jorge G.
We investigated whether printed or videotaped information is more effective in enhancing colon cancer knowledge. Subjects (n = 1100) were randomized into three groups: to receive a booklet, view a videotape, or receive no intervention. Subjects receiving the intervention showed increased knowledge compared with control subjects (booklet = 23% and videotape = 26% vs no intervention = 3%). Findings suggest that personalized educational materials are effective in enhancing colon cancer knowledge.
Long-term effects of asthma education for physicians on patient satisfaction and use of health services. N.M. Clark, M. Gong, M.A. Schork, N. Kaciroti, D. Evans, D. Roloff, M. Hurwitz, L.A. Maiman, R.B. Mellins. #ERS Journals Ltd 2000. ABSTRACT: This randomized clinical trial evaluated the long-term impact of an interactive seminar for physicians based on principles of self-regulation on clinician behaviour,
N. M. Clark; M. Gong; M. A. Schork; N. Kaciroti; D. Evans; D. Roloff; M. Hurwitz; L. A. Maiman; R. B. Mellins
Background Accidental falls by older patients in hospital are one of the most commonly reported adverse events. Falls after discharge are also common. These falls have enormous physical, psychological and social consequences for older patients, including serious physical injury and reduced quality of life, and are also a source of substantial cost to health systems worldwide. There have been a limited number of randomised controlled trials, mainly using multifactorial interventions, aiming to prevent older people falling whilst inpatients. Trials to date have produced conflicting results and recent meta-analyses highlight that there is still insufficient evidence to clearly identify which interventions may reduce the rate of falls, and falls related injuries, in this population. Methods and design A prospective randomised controlled trial (n = 1206) is being conducted at two hospitals in Australia. Patients are eligible to be included in the trial if they are over 60 years of age and they, or their family or guardian, give written consent. Participants are randomised into three groups. The control group continues to receive usual care. Both intervention groups receive a specifically designed patienteducation intervention on minimising falls in addition to usual care. The education is delivered by Digital Video Disc (DVD) and written workbook and aims to promote falls prevention activities by participants. One of the intervention groups also receives follow up education training visits by a health professional. Blinded assessors conduct baseline and discharge assessments and follow up participants for 6 months after discharge. The primary outcome measure is falls by participants in hospital. Secondary outcome measures include falls at home after discharge, knowledge of falls prevention strategies and motivation to engage in falls prevention activities after discharge. All analyses will be based on intention to treat principle. Discussion This trial will examine the effect of a single intervention (specifically designed patienteducation) on rates of falls in older patients in hospital and after discharge. The results will provide robust recommendations for clinicians and researchers about the role of patienteducation in this population. The study has the potential to identify a new intervention that may reduce rates of falls in older hospital patients and could be readily duplicated and applied in a wide range of clinical settings. Trial Registration ACTRN12608000015347
Hill, Anne-Marie; Hill, Keith; Brauer, Sandra; Oliver, David; Hoffmann, Tammy; Beer, Christopher; McPhail, Steven; Haines, Terry P
Effective management of chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes) can depend on the extent to which patients can learn and remember disease-relevant information. In two experiments, we explored a technique motivated by theories of self-regulated learning for improving people's learning of information relevant to managing a chronic disease. Materials were…
Rawson, Katherine A.; O'Neil, Rochelle; Dunlosky, John
The virtual patient is a case-based computer program that combines textual information with multimedia elements such as audio, graphics, and animation. It is increasingly being utilized as a teaching modality by medical educators in various fields of instruction. The inherent complexity of older patients and the shortage of geriatrics educators have spurred the development of virtual patient programs to teach geriatrics at the medical undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate levels. As an instructional tool, the Virtual Patient must be placed in the correct educational context to help educators identify opportunities for its proper use in the curriculum. In this review, the experiences of three medical schools in the development and application of geriatric virtual patients are described as case studies. In each case study, the challenges encountered and solutions developed are presented. Areas of future research in the use of virtual patients in geriatrics education include the determination of the optimal combination of features, the settings of use of virtual patient programs, the underlying pedagogy, and the limitations in its application in clinical instruction. PMID:20509062
Tan, Zaldy S; Mulhausen, Paul L; Smith, Stephen R; Ruiz, Jorge G
OBJECTIVE: To describe the pathogens found in home nebulizers and in respiratory samples of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and to evaluate the effect that a standardized instruction regarding cleaning and disinfection of nebulizers has on the frequency of nebulizer contamination. METHODS: We included 40 CF patients (22 males), all of whom used the same model of nebulizer. The median patient age was 11.2 ± 3.74 years. We collected samples from the nebulizer mouthpiece and cup, using a sterile swab moistened with sterile saline. Respiratory samples were collected by asking patients to expectorate into a sterile container or with oropharyngeal swabs after cough stimulation. Cultures were performed on selective media, and bacteria were identified by classical biochemical tests. Patients received oral and written instructions regarding the cleaning and disinfection of nebulizers. All determinations were repeated an average of two months later. RESULTS: Contamination of the nebulizer (any part) was detected in 23 cases (57.5%). The nebulizer mouthpiece and cup were found to be contaminated in 16 (40.0%) and 19 (47.5%), respectively. After the standardized instruction had been given, there was a significant decrease in the proportion of contaminated nebulizers (43.5%). CONCLUSIONS: In our sample of CF patients, nebulizer contamination was common, indicating the need for improvement in patient practices regarding the cleaning and disinfection of their nebulizers. A one-time educational intervention could have a significant positive impact.
Zuana, Adriana Della; Garcia, Doroti de Oliveira; Juliani, Regina Celia Turola Passos; da Silva, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira
The objective of therapeutic education is to enable patients to reconcile their life project, disease and treatment. To achieve this, it aims notably to make them autonomous in the management of their health. Often practised in a multi-disciplinary team, it is an essential component of the management of patients with chronic diseases. PMID:24427918
Background. The course Cancer and Creative Art offers cancer patients the possibility to cope with their illness through creativity\\u000a and self-expression. Methods. Five groups of 35 participants, predominantly composed of women with breast cancer, participated in an explorative evaluation\\u000a and effect study; premeasures and postmeasures were applied. Results. The course met the needs of participants that included personal growth and
Background Falls are one of the most frequently occurring adverse events that impact upon the recovery of older hospital inpatients. Falls can threaten both immediate and longer-term health and independence. There is need to identify cost-effective means for preventing falls in hospitals. Hospital-based falls prevention interventions tested in randomized trials have not yet been subjected to economic evaluation. Methods Incremental cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken from the health service provider perspective, over the period of hospitalization (time horizon) using the Australian Dollar (A$) at 2008 values. Analyses were based on data from a randomized trial among n = 1,206 acute and rehabilitation inpatients. Decision tree modeling with three-way sensitivity analyses were conducted using burden of disease estimates developed from trial data and previous research. The intervention was a multimedia patienteducation program provided with trained health professional follow-up shown to reduce falls among cognitively intact hospital patients. Results The short-term cost to a health service of one cognitively intact patient being a faller could be as high as A$14,591 (2008). The education program cost A$526 (2008) to prevent one cognitively intact patient becoming a faller and A$294 (2008) to prevent one fall based on primary trial data. These estimates were unstable due to high variability in the hospital costs accrued by individual patients involved in the trial. There was a 52% probability the complete program was both more effective and less costly (from the health service perspective) than providing usual care alone. Decision tree modeling sensitivity analyses identified that when provided in real life contexts, the program would be both more effective in preventing falls among cognitively intact inpatients and cost saving where the proportion of these patients who would otherwise fall under usual care conditions is at least 4.0%. Conclusions This economic evaluation was designed to assist health care providers decide in what circumstances this intervention should be provided. If the proportion of cognitively intact patients falling on a ward under usual care conditions is 4% or greater, then provision of the complete program in addition to usual care will likely both prevent falls and reduce costs for a health service. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12608000015347.
This article describes principles for patienteducation, beginning with assessment of learning needs through evaluation. Strategies for effective teaching in the home care setting are presented, including use of educational resources. PMID:24802599
The discussions about medical education in the public focus upon quantity. The quality of the teaching process isn’t questioned. But the professionalization of medical education should start with a close look at bedside teaching because it is the core of training medical doctors. Patient-centered teaching: German medical leicensure act (Approbationsordnung) defines the quality of medical education by standard setting for group sizes and fixing the hours of bedside teaching. Although there are some fuzzy definitions it is possible to extract some special forms of bedside teaching. The capacity act (Kapazitätsverordnung) interprets these definitions for calculating the number of students who could be enrolled each year. Types of bedside teaching: The different forms of contact with patients which are necessary for a good medical education can be transformed into distinct types of courses. Our classification of courses with specific forms of patient contact is suitable to describe each German program of medical studies. This quantitative profile offers new opportunities for comparing medical education at the different faculties. Discussion: In many German medical schools the hours of bedside teaching are allocated in a verv pragmatical way according to the medical leicensure act. A more professional curriculum planning leads to a sophisticated use of these diverse forms of patient-centered teaching. Because this professional planning is better derived from the legal basis it offers new arguments against an economically oriented hospital management.
Background Defining bone quality remains elusive. From a patient perspective bone quality can best be defined as an individual’s likelihood\\u000a of sustaining a fracture. Fracture risk indicators and performance measures can help clinicians better understand individual\\u000a fracture risk. Educational resources such as the Web can help clinicians and patients better understand fracture risk, communicate\\u000a effectively, and make decisions concerning diagnosis and
Junaid Shams; Allison B. Spitzer; Ann M. Kennelly; Laura L. Tosi
Background Diabetes is a chronic disease and its control requires essential change in patients' life style. The aim of this study was survey of effects of educational intervention based on PRECEDE Model on self care behaviors and control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods This was a quasi-experimental study carried out in 78 patients with type 2 diabetes who have referred to Minoodasht clinic of diabetes. The educational program has been designed according to the PRECEDE Model. Prior to perform the educational intervention, the patients filled a questionnaire which was designed according to the structure of PRECEDE Model for type 2 diabetes patients. The diabetes education program was performed on three target groups (patients, their families and Health care personnel). After four weeks, the effects of the educational program have been evaluated through the same questionnaire. The findings were analyzed by SPSS version 16 and p-value less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results The mean age of participants was 49 years, 87.2% were married and 19.2% was illiterate. The rate of income of 44.9% was low. 66% had a family history of diabetes and 64% had been afflicted with diabetes more than 5 years. The Chi-square test showed a significant relationship between formation of a file in diabetes clinic and on-time presence to receive services and participation in the educational classes with the marital status variable. The results also showed that there is a significant relationship between observing food diet and job. The mean scores of knowledge, attitude, practice, reinforcing factors and enabling factors has increased after educational intervention. The Chi-square test shows a significant difference before and after of education intervention in stages of the model. Conclusion The obtained results based on PRECEDE Model would support the positive effect of the educational intervention and its major elements (predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors) on diabetes self-care behaviors.
Background: Living with heart failure patients is a complex situation for family caregivers. Few studies have been conducted to examine the effects of interventional programs to ease this condition. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a supportive educative group intervention in reducing family caregivers’ burden of caregiving. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trail was conducted at a selective teaching hospital in Isfahan, Iran in 2012. The intervention consisted of four weekly multimedia training sessions of 2 h that included education and family support for 50 family caregivers. Caregiver burden was measured using the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). Paired t-test, Student's t-tests, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to test for significant differences of the mean scores of burden between the intervention and control groups over a 3-month period. Results: The intervention was successful in reducing caregiver burden over time both at the end of the intervention period (P = 0.000) and 3 months after the intervention (P = 0.000). Conclusions: Nurses and other healthcare providers can use the findings of this study in order to implement effective programs to reduce family caregivers’ challenges and to provide them more support.
Heart Failure (HF) is a chronic disease syndrome that has become one of the leading causes of hospitalization in Canada. The high mortality, marked disability and subsequent lack of productivity of people with HF weigh heavily on the patient, family and society. ^ In this thesis I conducted a pilot study to determine whether intensive education provided to heart failure
Comprehensive information before total hip replacement (THR) allows patients to better understand the benefits and risks of THR. Unfortunately there is an important gap between what surgeons say and what patient understand. Preoperative group sessions were introduced in order to improve patient information before THR. Between 2003 and 2005, 56% (n = 180) of all THR patients participated to this session. 74% of patients reported that the session was reassuring, 96% found that their questions had been answered, and 100% would recommend this seminar to others. Patients were mostly concerned about the prosthesis, the recovery period and the anaesthesia. In conclusion, such a patient-centered approach efficiently complements the usual medical interview. PMID:18277762
Suvŕ, Domizio; Lübbeke, Anne; Hudelson, Patricia; Lataillade, Laurence; Hoffmeyer, Pierre
Successfully completing the 'Foundations in End of Life/Palliative Care' distance-learning module has had a measurable effect on the knowledge, competence and confidence of community nurses in the principles and practice of palliative and end-of-life care. An appropriate practice-based education module can empower community nursing practice and have a direct impact on improving the patient-carer experience at the end of life. This article provides evidence from the quantitative and qualitative data from pre- and post-module self-assessment questionnaires along with the successful completion of an electronic multiple-choice questionnaire and short-answer classroom test to demonstrate this. PMID:24902056
Wheeler, Christine; Anstey, Sally; Lewis, Melanie; Jeynes, Kay; Way, Helen
There is a specific therapeutic patienteducation program for young adults suffering from schizophrenic disorders. The aim of this therapeutic education project is the improvement in the treatment of schizophrenic patients as well as continuity of care. PMID:21462492
The current study surveyed test-usage practices of clinical neuropsychologists to determine whether respondents varied their assessment batteries based on specific patient demographic characteristics. Respondents were 747 doctorate-level psychologists (40% usable response rate) affiliated with Division 40 of the American Psychological Association, National Academy of Neuropsychology, or the International Neuropsychological Society. Respondents read a vignette about a traumatic brain injury patient
The Department of Pharmacy and Nursing should collaborate on a consistent basis to proactively implement and evaluate the patienteducation program. Although many hospitals educate their patients, the systems can often be fragmented. Unanswered questions may include how and where the education takes place, the method of documentation, and who specifically educates the patient. Selection of the best media for educational materials requires that the broad array of printed (i.e., manuals, programmed texts, booklets) and nonprint material (i.e., videotape, motion pictures, etc.) be considered. A multidisciplinary patienteducation committee facilitates the program at MSKCC. Approximately 50 chemotherapy fact cards have been used at MSKCC for six years. This program has yielded positive perceptions from patients as well as from the pharmacy and nursing staff. Future trends will probably include widespread use of interactive patienteducation programs to provide indexing, order entry, and documentation of patienteducation materials. PMID:10128589
OBJECTIVE: The American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) recommends unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in medically ill patients. Despite these recommendations, a previous analysis at our institution revealed a low utilization of VTE prophylaxis in medically ill patients. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of a pharmacy-driven education program on the
Management of risk factors and heart health indexes in the patients who have been diagnosed with myocardial infarction will result in prevention of secondary myocardial infarction, reduction of postimprovement mortality, increase of life span and improvement of life quality. Patienteducation has been found to be one of the most fundamental and essential care programs on the basis of identification and control of the patients' health criteria. The study is a quasi-experimental research consisting of two groups. In this study, 112 patients with myocardial infarction who were below the age of 70 were selected randomly and divided into two groups (case group and control group) after being matched based on age and sex. The researcher first measured the health indexes including smoking, cholesterol level, body mass, level of anxiety, and amount of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients who have been diagnosed with myocardial infarction for the first time. He performed education program in case group and analyzed the said variables after four months. He also compared the behaviors in the two groups after being educated. The data was analyzed by SPSS software, version 15 (This product is licensed to FeFDBi, ABiComputer, 1337), and the two groups were compared by using appropriate statistical tests. According to the results, after education period, systolic blood pressure of the case group improves compared with control group (P < 0.05/P = 0.022), case group tends to quit smoking more than control group does (P = 0.013), cholesterol level of case group improves compared with control group (P < 0.0001), changes of body mass are more positive in case group compared with control group (P = 0.012), and anxiety of case group reduces compared with control group (P < 0.0001).
Introduction This study aimed to investigate the effects of educational intervention on nurses’ knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions\\u000a regarding supplying artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) to terminal cancer patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods A quasi-experimental design was adopted. A structured questionnaire evaluated the effects of educational intervention. From\\u000a April to June 2005, 88 nurses were enrolled in the gastroenterology, general surgery, and intensive
Three articles discuss (1) an investigation of how nurses' attitudes, knowledge, and practice changed after a continuing education program on nursing management of adults with essential hypertension; (2) a study showing that even with enforced behavior changes, attitudes are slow to change; and (3) a workshop on principles of effectivepatient…
Functional illiteracy is a problem often overlooked by nurses. Although the average adult in the United States cannot read above the eighth-grade level, most patienteducation materials are written on a high-school or college reading level. If patients cannot read educational materials, then there is little hope of them using or understanding the information. Strategies for improving the readability of education materials specific to the needs of nephrology patients are discussed in this article. PMID:15453229
Background Individuals of African descent living in western countries have increased rates of hypertension and hypertension-related complications. Poor adherence to hypertension treatment (medication and lifestyle changes) has been identified as one of the most important modifiable causes for the observed disparities in hypertension related complications, with patienteducation being recommended to improve adherence. Despite evidence that culturally-appropriate patienteducation may improve the overall quality of care for ethnic minority patients, few studies have focused on how hypertensive individuals of African descent respond to this approach. This paper describes the design of a study that compares the effectiveness of culturally-appropriate hypertension education with that of the standard approach among Surinamese and Ghanaian hypertensive patients with an elevated blood pressure in Dutch primary care practices. Methods/Design A cluster-randomized controlled trial will be conducted in four primary care practices in Amsterdam, all offering hypertension care according to Dutch clinical guidelines. After randomization, patients in the usual care sites (n = 2) will receive standard hypertension education. Patients in the intervention sites (n = 2) will receive three culturally-appropriate hypertension education sessions, culturally-specific educational materials and targeted lifestyle support. The primary outcome will be the proportion of patients with a reduction in systolic blood pressure ? 10 mmHg at eight months after the start of the trial. The secondary outcomes will be the proportion of patients with self-reported adherence to (i) medication and (ii) lifestyle recommendations at eight months after the start of the trial. The study will enrol 148 patients (74 per condition, 37 per site). Eligibility criteria for patients of either sex will be: current diagnosis of hypertension, self-identified Afro-Surinamese or Ghanaian, ? 20 years, and baseline blood pressure ? 140/90 mmHg. Primary and secondary outcomes will be measured at baseline and at 3 1/2, 6 1/2, and eight months. Other measurements will be performed at baseline and eight months. Discussion The findings will provide new knowledge on how to improve blood pressure control and patient adherence in ethnic minority persons with a high risk of negative hypertension-related health outcomes. Trial registration ISRCTN35675524
Haafkens, Joke A; Beune, Erik JAJ; van Charante, Eric P Moll; Agyemang, Charles O
Effective clinician-patient communication, a clear understanding of patient literacy, and use of the Teach-Back Method are useful tools in helping patients to better understand their own medical conditions. Educatedpatients are able to manage their medications, fully participate in their treatments, and follow protocols to achieve the goal of safe quality care. The end result is win-win: positive patient outcomes and increased patient satisfaction. PMID:24592519
Background Many patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have difficulties becoming actively engaged in the pursuit of pre-emptive living donor kidney transplantation. Study Design The Talking About Live Kidney Donation (TALK) study was a randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of educational and social worker interventions designed to encourage early discussions and active pursuit of pre-emptive LKT among patients with progressive CKD. Setting & Participants We recruited participants with progressive CKD from academically affiliated nephrology practices in Baltimore, Maryland. Intervention Participants randomly received 1) “Usual Care” (routine care with their nephrologists), 2) “TALK Education” intervention (video and booklet), or the 3) “TALK Social Worker” intervention (video and booklet plus patient and family social worker visits). Outcomes We followed participants for 6 months to assess their self-reported achievement of behaviors reflecting their discussions about LKT and/or pursuit of LKT (discussions with family; discussions with physicians; initiating recipient evaluation; completing recipient evaluation; identifying a potential living donor). Measurements We assessed outcomes via questionnaire at 1, 3, and 6-month follow up. Results Participants receiving Usual Care with their nephrologists (n=44), TALK Education (n=43), and the TALK Social Worker (n=43) were similar at baseline. TALK Study interventions improved participants’ LKT discussion and pursuit behaviors, with the Social Worker leading to greater patient activation (participants’ predicted probability (95% confidence interval) of achieving LKT discussions, evaluations, or donor identification over 6 months in Usual Care, TALK Education, and TALK Social Worker groups: 30% (20%–46%), 42% (33% –54%), and 58% (41% –83%), respectively (p=0.03). Limitations Our population was well educated and mostly insured, potentially limiting generalizability of our findings. Conclusions TALK interventions improved discussion and active pursuit of LKT among patients with progressive CKD and may improve their utilization of pre-emptive LKT.
Boulware, L. Ebony; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Kraus, Edward S.; Melancon, J. Keith; Falcone, Brenda; Ephraim, Patti L.; Jaar, Bernard G.; Gimenez, Luis; Choi, Michael; Senga, Mikiko; Kolotos, Maria; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Cook, Courtney; Light, Laney; DePasquale, Nicole; Noletto, Todd; Powe, Neil R.
Computer-based virtual patients (VPs) are an emerging medium for medical education that addresses barriers faced by geriatrics educators. Research has shown VPs to be as effective in changing knowledge and behavior as more traditional forms of teaching. This paper presents a descriptive study of the development of the University of Iowa's…
This randomized clinical trial evaluated the long-term impact of an interactive seminar for physicians based on principles of self-regulation on clinician behaviour, children's use of health services for asthma, and parent's views of physician performance. Seventy-four general practice paediatricians, and 637 of their asthma patients aged 1-12 yrs, were randomized to treatment or control. Children and parents were blind to physicians' participation. Data were collected at baseline and follow-up through self-administered surveys (paediatricians), telephone interviews (parents) and medical records. The seminar focused on development of communication and teaching skills and use of therapeutic medical regimens for asthma as outlined in the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program guidelines. Approximately 2 yrs postintervention, treatment group physicians were more likely than control physicians to: use protocols for delivering asthma education (odds ratio (OR) 4.9, p=0.2), write down for patients how to adjust medicines when symptoms change (OR 5.7, p=0.05), and provide more guidelines for modifying therapy (OR 3.8, p=0.06). Parents scored treatment group physicians higher than control physicians on five specific positive communication behaviours. Children seen by treatment group physicians had fewer hospitalizations (p=0.03) and those with higher levels of emergency department (ED) use at baseline had fewer subsequent ED visits (p=0.03). No differences regarding the number of office visits were noted. There were no significant differences found between treatment and control group physicians in the amount of time spent with patients during office visits (26 versus 29 min) or in the number of patients treated with anti-inflammatory medicine. It is concluded that interactive asthma seminars for paediatricians had significant long-term benefits for their asthma care. PMID:10933079
Clark, N M; Gong, M; Schork, M A; Kaciroti, N; Evans, D; Roloff, D; Hurwitz, M; Maiman, L A; Mellins, R B
Hand dermatitis (HD) is usually due to a combination of various interacting factors. It involves significant impairment of the quality of life with psychological and socioeconomic impact. A therapeutic education program in HD.was elaborated by 19 health professionals (dermatologists, occupational clinical physicians, nurses, psychologists, environmental medical advisor) with experience in therapeutic education or skills in HD, according to the recommendations of Haute Autorité de Santé. The program includes an individual medical consultation to perform educational diagnostic, two collective workshops and a medical evaluation consult. Two group workshops "the disease, irritant factors and its treatments" and "the experiences and feelings" were elaborated with learning objectives and educative tools. Different scores were proposed to evaluate the program and acquired skills. Therapeutic education is an efficient way to help patients to adopt skin protection measures essential to healing. We propose a guideline of therapeutic education in HD including skills and educative tools and intended for health professionals to serve as working basis. PMID:24953622
Gelot, P; Avenel-Audran, M; Balica, S; Bensefa, L; Crépy, M-N; Debons, M; Ammari, H; Milpied, B; Raison, N; Vigan, M; Weibel, N; Stalder, J-F; Bernier, C
Computer-assisted education can be an effective means for patient engagement and empowerment however the feasibility of postoperative computer-assisted ileostomy education has not been studied systematically. The purpose of this study was to assess feasibility and patient acceptance of tablet-based interactive ileostomy education in patients with new stomas, and to evaluate the impact of this education modality on knowledge and self-efficacy. An interactive multimedia education for ileostomy management guided by adult learning theories was tested in 15 hospitalized patients with new ileostomies. After using the avatar-based education, the ileostomy knowledge score improved from 27.8±3.4 to 31.3±1.5 (p<0.002) and stoma care self-efficacy improved from 78.4±22.7 to 92.7±14.1 (p<0.05). Attitudinal surveys and qualitative interviews demonstrated high level of acceptance and provided valuable feedback for future improvements. We concluded that avatar-based interactive instruction can potentially be an effective means to deliver health education to hospitalized patients. PMID:23823383
Bedra, McKenzie; Wick, Elizabeth; Brotman, Daniel; Finkelstein, Joseph
Background Patient care order sets are increasingly being used to optimize care. While studies have evaluated the impact of order sets on provider performance and patient outcomes, their impact on postgraduate medical trainee knowledge remains unknown. We sought to evaluate the impact of order sets on respirology knowledge, order-writing skills, and self-reported learning. Methods We conducted a prospective before-after study. Postgraduate trainees completing a Respirology rotation at a quaternary-care hospital 6 months before (no order set period) and 12 months after (order set period) order set introduction. Guideline-based admission order sets with educational prompts detailing recommended management of cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were implemented on the respirology ward. Each resident completed a test before and after the rotation assessing knowledge and order-writing. Residents in the order set period additionally completed a questionnaire regarding the impact of order set use on their learning. Analysis: The primary outcome, the difference between pre and post rotation scores was compared between residents in the no order set period and residents in the order set period, using univariate linear regression. Test validity was assessed with a 2-sample t-test, analysis of variance and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Self-reported impact of order set use were descriptively analyzed, and written responses were collated and coded. Results Investigators consecutively recruited 11 subjects before and 28 subjects after order set implementation. Residents in the order set period had a greater improvement in post-rotation test scores than residents in the no order set period (p?=?0.04); after adjustment for baseline scores, this was not significant (p?=?0.3). The questionnaire demonstrated excellent convergent, discriminant and construct validity. Residents reported that order sets improved their knowledge and skills and provided a systematic approach to care. Conclusions Order sets do not appear to impair resident education, and may impart a benefit. This will require validation in larger studies and across diseases.
Describes briefly the patienteducation program at United Hospitals in St. Paul, Minnesota and their approach to evaluation. Noting that the orientation is to service rather than research, stress is placed on: (1) an ongoing system to monitor progress, pi...
Patienteducation for pregnancy and childbirth has not been well studied. Although there has been a proliferation of available options for seeking pregnancy-related health facts, women do not always have the most accurate information to be full partners in clinical decision making. There are limited data on what type of education childbearing women desire and what works best for ensuring that women are fully informed on key safety issues. Elective labor induction is often considered by pregnant women and offered as an option by their providers. A review of the state of patienteducation regarding elective induction of labor is presented. PMID:24614811
An effective rehabilitation program was developed for psychiatric patients' self-management of medication and symptoms. The rehabilitation program was designed to allow the patients to understand their illness, cope with their medical regimen, and prevent a relapse by recognizing any of the symptoms when they recur. This study consisted of three phases. The first phase was to explore the extent and the specific mental health needs of psychiatric patients. Data was obtained from 82 subjects who had symptoms of a mental illness including schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and delusional disorder. They had received medication instruction during their hospitalization. The subjects were at the time outpatients in a psychiatric hospital. In the second phase, the researchers developed an educational program focused on coping with the residual and relapse warning signs, managing the drug side effects, medication compliance, and daily routines, according to the information acquired in the first step. The developed program includes the self-efficacy method reported by Bandura, including manuals and videotapes focusing on real life situations, small group discussions, and telephone coaching. Finally, the researchers investigated the effects of this program. Thirty-eight patients were selected for this study, 18 in the experimental program and 20 as controls. The diagnoses were same as those with the first step. The results showed that the subjects who attended this educational program reported significantly more improvement in self-efficacy (p=0.014) and medication compliance (p= 0.005), and significantly less relapse warning symptom scores (p=0.000) than the controls. In conclusion, these instructional materials will be beneficial for medication and symptom management in rehabilitating psychiatric patients in Korea. In addition, the materials may be a useful psychoeducational resource for professionals in the field of clinical psychiatry. PMID:12402370
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention on healthcare professionals' adherence to the technical recommendations for tracheobronchial aspiration in intensive care unit patients. Methods A quasi-experimental study was performed to evaluate intensive care unit professionals' adherence to the tracheobronchial aspiration technical recommendations in intensive care unit patients both before and after a theoretical and practical educational intervention. Comparisons were performed using the chi-square test, and the significance level was set to p<0.05. Results A total of 124 procedures, pre- and post-intervention, were observed. Increased adherence was observed in the following actions: the use of personal protective equipment (p=0.01); precaution when opening the catheter package (p<0.001); the use of a sterile glove on the dominant hand to remove the catheter (p=0.003); the contact of the sterile glove with the catheter only (p<0.001); the execution of circular movements during the catheter removal (p<0.001); wrapping the catheter in the sterile glove at the end of the procedure (p=0.003); the use of distilled water, opened at the start of the procedure, to wash the connection latex (p=0.002); the disposal of the leftover distilled water at the end of the procedure (p<0.001); and the performance of the aspiration technique procedures (p<0.001). Conclusion There was a low adherence by health professionals to the preventive measures against hospital infection, indicating the need to implement educational strategies. The educational intervention used was shown to be effective in increasing adherence to the technical recommendations for tracheobronchial aspiration.
de Lima, Erimara Dall'Agnol; Fleck, Caren Schlottefeld; Borges, Januario Jose Vieira; Condessa, Robledo Leal; Vieira, Silvia Regina Rios
Background The learning preferences of ophthalmology patients were examined. Methods Results from a voluntary survey of ophthalmology patients were analyzed for education preferences and for correlation with race, age, and ophthalmic topic. Results To learn about eye disease, patients preferred one-on-one sessions with providers as well as printed materials and websites recommended by providers. Patients currently learning from the provider were older (average age 59 years), and patients learning from the Internet (average age 49 years) and family and friends (average age 51 years) were younger. Patients interested in cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration, and dry eye were older; patients interested in double vision and glasses were younger. There were racial differences regarding topic preferences, with Black patients most interested in glaucoma (46%), diabetic retinopathy (31%), and cataracts (28%) and White patients most interested in cataracts (22%), glaucoma (22%), and macular degeneration (19%). Conclusion Most ophthalmology patients preferred personalized education: one-on-one with their provider or a health educator and materials (printed and electronic) recommended by their provider. Age-related topics were more popular with older patients, and diseases with racial risk factors were more popular with high risk racial groups.
Rosdahl, Jullia A; Swamy, Lakshmi; Stinnett, Sandra; Muir, Kelly W
The prevalence of chronic diseases strongly increases with age, and the treatment of these diseases is complex in very old persons due to multiple comorbidities, loss of independence and/or frailty. In addition, cognitive troubles, dementia, sensorial disturbances are common. Patienteducation is becoming an important component of chronic disease management. Patientseducation programs aim to provide to the patient information and skill to help him/her live with his/her chronic condition. By applying patienteducation to geriatric patients, we described several specific aspects. Programs should involve family caregivers and must have specific objectives and use special materials which are adapted to very old persons. The model of Alzheimer disease includes caregivers and is a success. We have identified 30 patienteducation programs in France which are specifically devoted to geriatric patients. Most deal with Alzheimer disease, falls, drugs and multiple comorbidities management. Works have to be done to developed specials programs in other chronic diseases, with the relevant adaptation for the geriatric patient and his/her caregiver. PMID:23317631
Background Poor glaucoma education is thought to be a causative factor of non-adherence to glaucoma therapy. However, the multi-factorial nature of non-adherent behaviour may explain the failure of purely educational interventions to achieve significant improvement in adherence. Behaviour Change Counselling (BCC) allows both the imparting of information and assessment of patient ambivalence to medication use and may elicit behaviour change in order to achieve better adherence. The chronic and complex nature of glaucoma means that patient non-adherence to glaucoma therapy does not easily correlate with measureable objective clinical endpoints. However, electronic medication monitoring offers an objective method of measuring adherence without reliance on clinical endpoints. Methods/design The study is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) with glaucoma (open angle) or ocular hypertension patients attending a glaucoma clinic and prescribed travoprost. The study will determine whether additional glaucoma education using BCC is beneficial and cost effective in improving adherence with glaucoma therapy. An 8-month follow-up period, using an electronic adherence monitoring device (Travalert® dosing aid, TDA), will indicate if the intervention is likely to be sustained in the longer term. Additionally, a cost-effectiveness framework will be used to estimate the cost benefit of improving adherence. The development of a novel intervention to deliver glaucoma education using BCC required practitioner training and fidelity testing. Five practitioners were successfully trained to become Glaucoma Support Assistants able to deliver the BCC intervention. The research group had prior clinical and investigative experience in this setting, and used multiple strategies to design a method to address the study objectives. Discussion This RCT, using BCC to improve adherence to ocular hypotensive therapy, to our knowledge is the first within this disease area. Using a variety of adherence measures allows examination of the known inaccuracies of patient self-report with respect to glaucoma medication. The novel BCC component has undergone fidelity testing using BECCI and the BCC template will ensure conformity to a standardised intervention. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN89683704
Objective. To propose a rehabilitation protocol able to produce immediate and long-term beneficial effects on level of disability and overall performance in ADLs. Materials and Methods. Forty-one FM patients were randomized to an exercise and educational-behavioral programme group (experimental group, EG = 21) or to a control group (CG = 20). Each subject was evaluated before, at the end (T1), and after 6 months (T6) from the conclusion of the rehabilitation treatment using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the visual analogue scale (VAS), the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), the fatigue severity scale (FSS), the 6-minute walking test (6MWT), tender points count (TPC), and spinal active range of motion. The exercise protocol included 20 sessions consisting in self-awareness, stretching, strengthening, spine flexibility, and aerobic exercises, which patients were subsequently educated to perform at home. Results. The two groups were comparable at baseline. At T1, the EG showed a positive trend in FIQ, VAS, HAQ, and FSS scales and significant improvement in 6MWT and in most spinal active range of motion measurements (P between 0.001 and 0.04). The positive results were maintained at the follow-up. Conclusion. The proposed programme was well tolerated and produced immediate and medium-term beneficial effects improving function and strain endurance. This trial is registered with DRKS00005071 on DRKS.
Giannotti, Erika; Koutsikos, Konstantinos; Pigatto, Maurizia; Rampudda, Maria Elisa; Doria, Andrea
Providing cancer patients with more information regarding their treatments allows them to feel more in control, increases self efficacy, and can decrease anxiety. The aims of the present study were to develop an interprofessional group education session and to evaluate the usefulness and acceptability of this session. In addition, informational distress levels pre- and post-education were evaluated. A prostate radiation therapy (RT) education session was developed and facilitated by an interprofessional team. Topics discussed included how RT works, side effects and management, and support services available. Prior to the education session, participants reported their informational RT distress levels using the validated Distress Thermometer (DT). Post-education session, the DT was readministered. In addition, participants completed an acceptability survey to assess format, structure, and usefulness of the education session. Participants agreed that the session contained valuable and useful information helping them understand expectations during treatment, including resource availability, side effects and management, as well as procedural expectation during treatment. All stated they would recommend the session to other patients. The interprofessional nature of the sessions was deemed useful. Suggested areas for improvement included addition of a dietitian, information on long-term side effects, statistics of radiotherapy side effects, impact of radiotherapy on sexual function, and overall quality of life. The group education session significantly improved informational distress levels (p?=?0.04). Educating prostate cancer patients utilizing an interprofessional group format can decrease anxiety and stress related to their RT treatment. Future development of group education sessions for other disease site groups may be valuable. PMID:24532366
The effect of patienteducation on morbidity in asthmatics and COPD patients has not previously been investigated in a single study.We randomized 78 asthmatics and 62 COPD patients after ordinary outpatient management. Intervention consisted of educational group sessions and individual sessions administered by a trained nurse and physiotherapist. A self-management plan was developed. The utilization of health resources and absenteeism
The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the traditional method (physician, nurse) versus a systems approach method of providing health education. The objectives were: to identify cost-effective and feasible ways of delivering patienteducation; t...
Therapeutic patienteducation (TPE) is a patient-centred process that entails the transfer of skills (e.g. self-management, treatment adaptation) from a trained healthcare professional to patients and/or their carers. TPE has been shown to help improve adherence, prevent complications, and improve quality of life (QoL) in chronic illnesses such as diabetes, asthma and cardiovascular disease. Recently, TPE recommendations for patients with atopic eczema have been proposed. TPE is a four-step process: understanding the patient's knowledge, beliefs and hopes; setting age-appropriate educational objectives; helping the patient (or carer) to acquire skills; and assessing the success of the programme. TPE programmes always involve a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including nurses, psychologists, doctors and dieticians who are expert in the disease area. TPE should be offered to (never forced upon) any patient who has experienced treatment failure, or to families who feel they lack social support. High-quality TPE programmes should be evidence-based, tailored to a patient's individual educational and cultural background (rather than being standardized in form and content), and have well-defined content and activities. PMID:24720486
Background: The related literatures revealed that there is a lack of effectivepatient/family education in the health care centers. Several studies indicate that patients, while getting discharged from hospitals, receive insufficient information about their illness and self-care. The purpose of the study was to explore the factors influencing patienteducation from the perspectives of nurses in Iran. Materials and Methods: We conducted a qualitative study using a content analysis approach. We used a purposive sampling technique to recruit and interview 18 nurses with at least 2 years of working experience in the cardiac care unit (CCU) and post-CCU ward of two educational hospitals in Tehran related to Tehran University. Data were collected through face-to-face audio-taped interviews and field observations. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed concurrently with data collection. Results: The major theme extracted in this study was the inappropriate organizational culture which includes eight categories listed as follows: Not putting value on education, non-professional activities, physician-oriented atmosphere, conflict and lack of coherence in education, inappropriate communication skills, ignoring patient's right in education, lack of motivation, rewarding system in the organization, and poor supervision and control. Conclusions: The results of this study show that according to the participants’ perspective, organizational culture is in a poor level. So, to improve the performance of nurses, it is necessary to increase their motivation through optimization of organizational culture.
Background In the last decades the presence of social inequalities in diabetes care has been observed in multiple countries, including Spain. These inequalities have been at least partially attributed to differences in diabetes self-management behaviours. Communication problems during medical consultations occur more frequently to patients with a lower educational level. The purpose of this cluster randomized trial is to determine whether an intervention implemented in a General Surgery, based in improving patient-provider communication, results in a better diabetes self-management in patients with lower educational level. A secondary objective is to assess whether telephone reinforcement enhances the effect of such intervention. We report the design and implementation of this on-going study. Methods/Design The study is being conducted in a General Practice located in a deprived neighbourhood of Granada, Spain. Diabetic patients 18 years old or older with a low educational level and inadequate glycaemic control (HbA1c?>?7%) were recruited. General Practitioners (GPs) were randomised to three groups: intervention A, intervention B and control group. GPs allocated to intervention groups A and B received training in communication skills and are providing graphic feedback about glycosylated haemoglobin levels. Patients whose GPs were allocated to group B are additionally receiving telephone reinforcement whereas patients from the control group are receiving usual care. The described interventions are being conducted during 7 consecutive medical visits which are scheduled every three months. The main outcome measure will be HbA1c; blood pressure, lipidemia, body mass index and waist circumference will be considered as secondary outcome measures. Statistical analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions will include multilevel regression analysis with three hierarchical levels: medical visit level, patient level and GP level. Discussion The results of this study will provide new knowledge about possible strategies to promote a better diabetes self-management in a particularly vulnerable group. If effective, this low cost intervention will have the potential to be easily incorporated into routine clinical practice, contributing to decrease health inequalities in diabetic patients. Trial registration Clinical Trials U.S. National Institutes of Health, NCT01849731.
Anaphylaxis is an increasingly prevalent problem in westernized countries. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that the increasing numbers of patients at risk for anaphylaxis receive proper education on the etiology and risk factors as well as appropriate treatment of anaphylaxis with epinephrine. The physician’s role is crucial in order to educate the patients and care takers on effective measures to prevent anaphylaxis and empower them to take charge of early recognition and proper management of an anaphylactic reaction to prevent poor outcomes. This review summarizes the clinical presentation, triggers, avoidance, and management of anaphylaxis.
Patienteducation is an important element of care, but evidence with regard to education material is not always apparent, as it is intertwined with educational strategies as components of heart failure management programs. Difficulties have arisen in determining the effectiveness of particular education strategies, as multiple strategies are commonly bundled together and packaged within research protocols. To further complicate this issue, the bundles are diverse, lack precision in describing their components, and report different outcomes. Despite these difficulties, clinicians can utilise a number of proven commonalities to deliver effectiveeducation: assessment of learning needs and style, verbal interaction with a healthcare professional, and a selection of multimedia patienteducation materials. PMID:24797119
Explains the concepts of distance education and educational technology and describes the major objectives of teacher education. Discusses the teacher education programs of Indira Gandhi National Open University (India) and describes print materials, audio-video programs, assignments, project work, academic counseling, the extended contact…
This study was conducted to assess improvements in nutritional status following the application of nutrition education to elderly patients in a long-term care hospital. The study was carried out from January to May 2009, during which a preliminary survey, a pretest, the application of nutrition education, and a post-test were applied in stages. The number of subjects at pretest was 81, and the number of participants included in the final analysis was 61 (18 men, 43 women), all of whom participated in both the nutrition education program and the post-test. The survey consisted of general demographic items, health behaviors, dietary behaviors, the Nutrition Screening Initiative checklist, and nutrient intake assessment (24 hour recall method). The nutrition education program lasted for four weeks. It included a basic education program, provided once a week, and mini-education program, which was offered daily during lunch times. The survey was conducted before and after the education program using the same assessment method, although some items were included only at pretest. When analyzing the changes in elderly patients after the nutritional education program, we found that, among subjective dietary behaviors, self-rated perceptions of health (P < 0.001) and of depression (P < 0.001) improved significantly and that dietary behavior scores also improved significantly (P < 0.001), while nutritional risk levels decreased. In terms of nutrient intake, subjects' intake of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C all increased significantly (P < 0.001). These results indicated that nutritional education is effective in improving the nutritional status of elderly patients. We hope that the results of this study can be used as preliminary data for establishing guidelines for nutrition management tailored to elderly patients in long-term care hospitals.
This article gives details about the methods and processes used to ensure that usability and accessibility were achieved during development of the Home Parenteral Nutrition Family Caregivers Web site, an evidence-based health education Web site for the family members and caregivers of chronically ill patients. This article addresses comprehensive definitions of usability and accessibility and illustrates Web site development according to Section 508 standards and the national Health and Human Services’ Research-Based Web Design and Usability Guidelines requirements.
YADRICH, DONNA MACAN; FITZGERALD, SHARON A.; WERKOWITCH, MARILYN; SMITH, CAROL E.
An action research project developed a program for implementing character education to improve behavior, particularly as related to respect and responsibility and to reduce inappropriate behavioral choices. Targeted population consisted of junior high and high school students at three sites in a community located in a Midwestern suburban…
Objective: The purposes of this study were (1) to determine the extent to which tobacco exposure assessment and new patienteducation methods, derived from a meta-analysis and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research guideline recommendations, could be provided routinely by trained Medicaid maternity care staff members and (2) to document the behavioral impact of these interventions among pregnant
Richard A. Windsor; Lesa L. Woodby; Thomas M. Miller; J. Michael Hardin; Myra A. Crawford; Carlo C. DiClemente
The authors' repeated measures experimental study at a 359-bed community medical center located in California compared the effect of preadmission structured education with postadmission unstructured education on the outcomes of patient satisfaction, postoperative recovery, and return to functional status. Power analysis for a large effect size was used to determine the sample size of 50 adult females scheduled for open
Because patients with cancer self-administer oral chemotherapy, they typically do not receive the same amount of teaching and monitoring as patients receiving i.v. chemotherapy. Patienteducation is vital to promote patient safety, optimal dosing, and adherence to the treatment plan. Oncology nurses need to tailor their patienteducation efforts to the individual needs of each patient and use resources such as medication information sheets to reinforce teaching. This article reviews the process of teaching patients about oral chemotherapy and discusses the unique patienteducation challenges associated with orally administered chemotherapy. PMID:14705496
Patients (n=672) were screened and instructed about osteoporosis; 53 of their physicians attended lectures, a control group did not. A survey of 258 patients showed doctor-ordered screening tests increased regardless of lecture attendance. Increased patient-initiated discussions about osteoporosis suggest that patienteducation is effective.…
The purpose of this study was to determine whether patienteducation programs were effective at improving knowledge of substance abuse among dual-diagnosis patients. Adult patients at a general psychiatry hospital were identified for a history of substance abuse. Of the 51 patients included in the study, 25 were on forensic units, 7 were in a private ward, and 19 were
ObjectiveIn 1998, the American Cancer Society (ACS) Lymphedema Workshop, called for a three phase approach to patient lymphedema education: (1) pretreatment, (2) postoperatively, and (3) continuing education. The objectives of this study were: to compare recalled pretreatment lymphedema education before and after the 1998 ACS call; compare recalled lymphedema pretreatment education between women with and without breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema;
The effect of patienteducation on steroid inhaler compliance and rescue medication utilization in pa- tients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been previously investi- gated in a single study. We randomized 78 asthmatics and 62 patients with COPD after ordinary out- patient management. Intervention consisted of two 2-h group sessions and 1 to 2 individual
This is a research project that was intended to study the effects of a factual drug education program on the attitudes on high school and junior high students toward the use of psychoactive drugs. The approximately 250 eighth and twelfth grade students involved in the study filled out a number of questionnaires designed to measure a variety of…
Rationale: This article reports on commissioned research funded by the Swedish Council of Technol- ogy Assessment in Health Care (SBU) and the Swedish Nursing Society (SSF). The objective was to review computer-based education programs. However, as the review produced insufficient evidence of effective- ness, the publication was withheld due to a previous incident where such evidence was misunderstood by Swedish
A study was conducted to evaluate the traditional method (physician, nurse) versus a systems approach method of providing health education. The objectives included the following: identify cost-effective and feasible ways of delivering patienteducation; guarantee an important resource for the professional in fulfilling his/her patienteducation…
Gerogogy in PatientEducation was first printed in Home Healthcare Nurse, Volume 14, Number 8, (1996), Lippincott. Writers Mary Pearson, M.Ed, RN- BC and Joan Wessman, MA. have revisited and updated the material to meet the needs of a new generation of health care professionals. Baby Boomers are retiring; they will reach their peak in 2030, with an estimated 72 million drawing social security. With these numbers comes an increase in services to the elderly, mostly in the form of medical expenditure. The problem will not only impact the financial system of Medicare but will have a great toll on families. How will the retirees remain independent in their homes? How will they learn new medical information? Will new health care professions be able to teach them while taking into consideration the physical and psychological alterations that occur with aging and illness? Gerogogy takes into account the person's disease process, age-related changes, educational level and motivation. Then incorporates these factors into practice, utilizing the same foundations found within the nursing process: assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation. As stated, the methods for teaching the elderly are unique and require modifications. Gerogogy meets these needs so individuals can remain at home while also reducing unnecessary medical costs. PMID:21874787
65 Education is a critically important enterprise to the healthcare system and is presumed to directly affect the quality of patient care, systems functions, and institutional efficiency. It can be expensive to develop quality educa- tion programs and also expensive to educate poorly. High costs associated with a failure to educate include the select liabilities associated with fail- ures in
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of websites on asthma for patient and parent education. Seventy websites were evaluated based on the Health Information Technology Institute (HITI) criteria; eight core content criteria from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines; and readability. The ten best websites for asthma education were identified for patient teaching and
Marilyn H Oermann; Jane Gerich; Lisa Ostosh; Sylvia Zaleski
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychotic disorder that affects patients’ personality, career-related and social functioning. Patients stop medications after discharge or inpatient care, when they feel relatively recovered. Most patients do not know that they are sick and they need medication for recovery due to lack of information and cognitive impairment, which makes them incompetent for self-care. A well designed discharge plan with disease management, prevention cares and education along with follow-up can significantly improve patients and decrease the health care costs; because it helps them take care of themselves and maintain a certain level of health. This study aimed to determine the effect of discharge, education and follow-up program on self-care abilities of patients with chronic schizophrenia. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study, using a hospital based accessible sampling method. Participants included 60 schizophrenic patients who were randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control (30 patients in each group). After their symptoms were relatively controlled, the intervention group received a service of post-discharge program and home-care for 6 months. Data were collected before, and one month after education up to 6 month after discharge, using a demographic data questionnaire and a researcher-made questionnaire for self-care. Validity and reliability of instruments were approved by content validity and test-retest, respectively. Also, ethical approval for this study was obtained from the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the self-care abilities after intervention (from month 1 to month 6) in the intervention group compared with the controls. It means that conducting a discharge plan, education and follow-up increased the self-care abilities of the participants in the intervention group compared with themselves and control group members. CONCLUSIONS: Educatingpatients and their families and follow-up cares after discharge along with medications led to independency, self-care improvement and cognitive and social functioning of schizophrenic patients.
Introduction Inadequate health literacy is a pervasive problem with major implications for reduced health status and health disparities. Despite the role of focused education in both primary and secondary prevention of stroke, the effect of health literacy on stroke education retention has not been reported. We examined the relationship of health literacy to the retention of knowledge after recommended stroke education. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at an urban safety-net hospital. Study subjects were patients older than 18 admitted to the hospital stroke unit with a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke who were able to provide informed consent to participate (N = 100). Health literacy levels were measured by using the short form of Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Patienteducation was provided to patients at an inpatient stroke unit by using standardized protocols, in compliance with Joint Commission specifications. The education outcomes for poststroke care education, knowledge retention, was assessed for each subject. The effect of health literacy on the Stroke PatientEducation Retention scores was assessed by using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of the 100 participating patients, 59% had inadequate to marginal health literacy. Stroke patients who had marginal health literacy (mean score, 7.45; standard deviation [SD], 1.9) or adequate health literacy (mean score, 7.31; SD, 1.76) had statistically higher education outcome scores than those identified as having inadequate health literacy (mean score, 5.58; SD, 2.06). Results from multivariate analysis indicated that adequate health literacy was most predictive of education outcome retention. Conclusions This study demonstrated a clear relationship between health literacy and stroke education outcomes. Studies are needed to better understand the relationship of health literacy to key educational outcomes for primary or secondary prevention of stroke and to refine stroke education for literacy levels of high-risk populations.
The conditions for effective and efficient provision of distance education in the small-scale integrated mode normal in Australian higher education are outlined in this paper. Criteria for the evaluation of effective distance education are listed as follows: (1) student learning of information and understanding; (2) student satisfaction with the…
Objective. To describe the planning, implementation, and outcomes of an interprofessional education clinical laboratory facilitated through human patient simulation. Design. An interprofessional education clinical laboratory was developed with a patient-care scenario of acute exacerbation of heart failure that incorporated the use of a high-fidelity patient simulator. Pharmacy and nursing students assumed clinical roles in this realistic scenario and collaborated to diagnose and treat the patient. Assessment. Student attitudes toward and readiness to participate in interprofessional education improved following participation in the laboratory. Students reported that the greatest benefit of the experience was in their communication skills. Conclusion. Students’ ability to participate in interprofessional education experiences and their attitudes toward them improved following participation in this curricular initiative. Further evaluation of the impact of interprofessional education on student learning outcomes and changes in practice is warranted.
Objective. To describe the planning, implementation, and outcomes of an interprofessional education clinical laboratory facilitated through human patient simulation. Design. An interprofessional education clinical laboratory was developed with a patient-care scenario of acute exacerbation of heart failure that incorporated the use of a high-fidelity patient simulator. Pharmacy and nursing students assumed clinical roles in this realistic scenario and collaborated to diagnose and treat the patient. Assessment. Student attitudes toward and readiness to participate in interprofessional education improved following participation in the laboratory. Students reported that the greatest benefit of the experience was in their communication skills. Conclusion. Students' ability to participate in interprofessional education experiences and their attitudes toward them improved following participation in this curricular initiative. Further evaluation of the impact of interprofessional education on student learning outcomes and changes in practice is warranted. PMID:24954934
The purpose of this study is to gain understanding of nurses' expectations of their roles in systematic patienteducation in psychiatric inpatient care. Qualitative design was used in the study. The data were collected through interviews with nurses participating in the implementation of systematic patienteducation (information technology (IT) based patienteducation n= 14, or conventional patienteducation n= 16). The data were analysed using inductive content analysis. The analysis showed that nurses had different roles in both IT-based and conventional patienteducation. Nurses acted as learners, advisors, collaborators, teachers or limiters. The nurses tailored the role in each session according to the patients' interest and mental status. We can conclude that nurses working in psychiatric hospitals have different roles in systematic patienteducation and they are ready and willing to tailor their roles according to patients' individual needs. Information technology should be adopted without delay as a new treatment method in daily practice in psychiatric services. It has potential to support equality between patient and nurse in secluded environments. PMID:22070730
Koivunen, M; Huhtasalo, J; Makkonen, P; Välimäki, M; Hätönen, H
Diabetes is a chronic, progressive disease that affects millions worldwide. The paradigm of diabetes management has shifted to focus on empowering the person with diabetes to manage the disease successfully and to improve their quality of life. Diabetes self-management education is a collaborative process through which people with diabetes gain the knowledge and skills needed to modify their behavior and to self-manage successfully the disease and its related conditions. Diabetes educators are health care professionals who apply in-depth knowledge and skills in the biological and social sciences, communication, counseling, and pedagogy to enable patients to manage daily and future challenges. Diabetes educators are integral in providing individualized education and promoting behavior change, using a framework of seven self-care behaviors known as the AADE7 Self-Care Behaviors™, developed by the American Association of Diabetes Educators. The iterative process of promoting behavior change includes assessment, goal setting, planning, implementation, evaluation, and documentation. Diabetes educators work as part of the patient’s health care team to engage with the patient in informed, shared decision making. The increasing prevalence of diabetes and the growing focus on its prevention require strategies for providing people with knowledge, skills, and strategies they need and can use. The diabetes educator is the logical facilitator of change. Access to diabetes education is critically important; incorporating diabetes educators into more and varied practice settings will serve to improve clinical and quality of life outcomes for persons with diabetes.
Incontinence in westernized white women is clearly a common problem at all ages, but especially in the elderly. Incontinence is associated with embarrassment, isolation, depression, frustration and financial hardship. Improving dialogue between patients and physicians will help destigmatize the condition and may improve treatment outcomes. Attention to principles of adult and geriatric education will increase patient satisfaction and increase patient
Managers trained in executive education programs (n=203) identified ways in which management education can increase an organization's competitive advantage: exposure to new ideas and practices, skill development, and motivation. Characteristics of effective management education included experience-based learning orientation, credible instructors,…
Spillover effects of exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of cancer treatments on patients' general inquiry about their treatments and managing their illness are not well understood. This study examines the effects of cancer patients' exposure to cancer-related DTCA on subsequent health information seeking behaviors from clinician and non-clinician sources (lay media and interpersonal contacts). Using a longitudinal survey design over 3 years, data was collected from cancer survivors diagnosed with colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer who were randomly sampled from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry. Study outcome measures include patients' information engagement with their clinicians and information seeking from non-medical sources about cancer treatment and quality of life issues, measured in the second survey. The predictor variable is the frequency of exposure to cancer-related DTCA since diagnosis, measured at the round 1 survey. The analyses utilized lagged-weighted multivariate regressions and adjusted for round 1 levels of patient-clinician engagement, information seeking from nonmedical sources, and confounders. Exposure to cancer-related DTCA is associated with increased levels of subsequent patient-clinician information engagement (B?=?.023, 95% CI?=?.005-.040, p?=?.012), controlling for confounders. In comparison, exposure to DTCA is marginally significant in predicting health information seeking from non-clinician sources (B?=?.009, 95% CI?=?-.001-.018, p?=?.067). Cancer-related DTCA has potentially beneficial spillover effects on health information seeking behaviors among cancer patients. Exposure to DTCA predicts (a little) more patient engagement with their physicians. PMID:24254248
A major objective of the first two years of this contract was to describe the current status of patienteducation in outpatient settings and health-care-setting-based community health education. The following specific types of settings have been studied: ...
This article delineates certain concepts aimed at improving the process of program evaluation in bilingual education. Educationally defensible and politically-free approaches to such evaluation are recommended. (Author/AL)
The role of the patient as an active partner in health care, and not just a passive object of diagnostic testing and medical\\u000a treatment, is widely accepted. Providing information to patients is considered a crucial issue and the central focus in patient\\u000a educational activities. It is necessary to educatepatients on the nature of the outcomes and the benefits and
Paediatric care places great demands on interpersonal communication skills, especially as regards the handling of psychosocial\\u000a issues. Recent shifts in paediatric morbidity and increases in patient empowerment furthermore emphasize the need for continuing\\u000a paediatric education in communication skills. It is, however, debatable, whether after residency paediatric education can\\u000a influence paediatrician performance. This study evaluated the effects of a 5-day experiential
The papers in this volume were delivered at a Symposium on the "Effective Use of Resources in State Higher Education" at the annual meeting of the Southern Regional Education Board in Houston, Texas, June 11-12, 1970. The papers deal with three general subjects: (1) the orderly development of graduate education; (2) evaluating the community junior…
Alcohol-related problems are especially common among opioid treatment program (OTP) patients, suggesting that educating OTP patients about alcohol and its harmful effects needs to be a priority in OTPs. Using data collected in interviews with a nationwide U.S. sample of OTP directors (N = 200) in 25 states, we identified factors that differentiate…
Strauss, Shiela M.; Harris, Gavin; Katigbak, Carina; Rindskopf, David M.; Singh, Sheena; Greenblum, Ilana; Brown, Lawrence S.; Kipnis, Steven; Kritz, Steven A.; Parrino, Mark W.
Whenever the nurse encounters a patient or a patient's family, there is a transfer of information that is expected to be incorporated into the patient's overall outcome. Objectives help guide the transfer of knowledge and provide a basis by which to evaluate the extent of the patient's understanding. Bloom's Taxonomy has been a cornerstone for the development of objectives in academe for over half of a century. The Revised Bloom's Taxonomy is a tool that can be used by nurses who educatepatients to ensure the education session is focused, clear, has standards for evaluation, and is well documented. PMID:21791265
The free patienteducation website (Cancer.net) offers information about cancer and clinical trials in patient-friendly videos. The videos are produced by ASCO and posted regularly on their YouTube channel. The series includes a variety of cancer topics that patients will find helpful, including clinical trials. Information is presented by physicians and advocates and helps patients accumulate accurate information and formulate questions for their physician as they consider a clinical trial.
Background Virtual Patients (VPs) have been used in undergraduate healthcare education for many years. This project is focused on using VPs for training professionals to care for highly vulnerable patient populations. The aim of the study was to evaluate if Refugee Trauma VPs was perceived as an effective and engaging learning tool by primary care professionals (PCPs) in a Primary Health Care Centre (PHC). Methods A VP system was designed to create realistic and engaging VP cases for Refugee Trauma for training refugee patient interview, use of established trauma and mental health instruments as well as to give feedback to the learners. The patient interview section was based on video clips with a Bosnian actor with a trauma story and mental health problems. The video clips were recorded in Bosnian language to further increase the realism, but also subtitled in English. The system was evaluated by 11 volunteering primary health clinicians at the Lynn Community Health Centre, Lynn, Massachusetts, USA. The participants were invited to provide insights/feedback about the system’s usefulness and educational value. A mixed methodological approach was used, generating both quantitative and qualitative data. Results Self-reported dimensions of clinical care, pre and post questionnaire questions on the PCPs clinical worldview, motivation to use the VP, and IT Proficiency. Construct items used in these questionnaires had previously demonstrated high face and construct validity. The participants ranked the mental status examination more positively after the simulation exercise compared to before the simulation. Follow up interviews supported the results. Conclusions Even though virtual clinical encounters are quite a new paradigm in PHC, the participants in the present study considered our VP case to be a relevant and promising educational tool. Next phase of our project will be a RCT study including comparison with specially prepared paper-cases and determinative input on improving clinical diagnosis and treatment of the traumatized refugee patient.
Objective To explore the impact of patienteducation on the lives of people with diabetes, including the effect on interactions with doctors and other healthcare professionals. Design Qualitative user-led study using longitudinal interviews and 146?h of participant observation. Data were analysed using a narrative approach. Participants 21 patients with type 1 diabetes, those either about to attend a patienteducation course or those who had completed the course in the previous 10?years. Setting Established patienteducation centres in three UK teaching hospitals teaching the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) course. Results Both postcourse and several years later, most participants spoke of the experience of taking part in education as life-changingly positive. It helped them understand how to gain control over a very complex disease and freed them from dependence on medical advice and restrictive regimes. However, interactions within the health system following patienteducation could be fraught. Participants emerged from the course with greater condition-specific knowledge than many of the healthcare professionals they encountered. When these professionals did not understand what their patients were trying to do and were uncomfortable trusting their expertise, there could be serious consequences for these patients' ability to continue effective self-management. Conclusions Patients who have in-depth knowledge of their condition encounter problems when their expertise is seen as inappropriate in standard healthcare interactions, and expertise taught to patients in one branch of medicine can be considered non-compliant by those who are not specialists in that field. Although patienteducation can give people confidence in their own self-management skills, it cannot solve the power imbalance that remains when a generalist healthcare professional, however well meaning, blocks access to medication and supplies needed to manage chronic diseases successfully. There is a role for those involved in primary and hospital care, including those supporting and training healthcare professionals, to recognise these problems and find ways to acknowledge and respect chronic patients' biomedical and practical expertise.
Snow, Rosamund; Humphrey, Charlotte; Sandall, Jane
Over the past 2 decades, e-learning has evolved as a new pedagogy within pharmacy education. As learners and teachers increasingly seek e-learning opportunities for an array of educational and individual benefits, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. This systematic review of the literature examines the quality of e-learning effectiveness studies in pharmacy, describes effectiveness measures, and synthesizes the evidence for each measure. E-learning in pharmacy educationeffectively increases knowledge and is a highly acceptable instructional format for pharmacists and pharmacy students. However, there is limited evidence that e-learning effectively improves skills or professional practice. There is also no evidence that e-learning is effective at increasing knowledge long term; thus, long-term follow-up studies are required. Translational research is also needed to evaluate the benefits of e-learning at patient and organizational levels. PMID:24850945
Salter, Sandra M; Karia, Ajay; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Clifford, Rhonda M
Over the past 2 decades, e-learning has evolved as a new pedagogy within pharmacy education. As learners and teachers increasingly seek e-learning opportunities for an array of educational and individual benefits, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. This systematic review of the literature examines the quality of e-learning effectiveness studies in pharmacy, describes effectiveness measures, and synthesizes the evidence for each measure. E-learning in pharmacy educationeffectively increases knowledge and is a highly acceptable instructional format for pharmacists and pharmacy students. However, there is limited evidence that e-learning effectively improves skills or professional practice. There is also no evidence that e-learning is effective at increasing knowledge long term; thus, long-term follow-up studies are required. Translational research is also needed to evaluate the benefits of e-learning at patient and organizational levels.
Karia, Ajay; Sanfilippo, Frank M.; Clifford, Rhonda M.
The leadership organization focuses on education, teamwork, customer relationship and developing strategy which help in building added value, in managing activities, time and quality. Everyday orthopedic experience shows that medical education is a mixture of: specific knowledge, skills and attitudes of people working together, and that creates effective teamwork in a hospital environment. Apart from the main reason of medical education, teaching about disease treatment and health problem solving, medical education should also concentrate on human factors and behavioral aspects of patient treatment in hospital.Assessment of an organization and medical education process by cultural and teamwork criteria, offers a powerful new way to think about performance at the frontlines of healthcare and in the future it could be gold standard for assessing the success of an organization, and standards in medical education, not only in orthopedics.
This study describes knowledge tests in patienteducation through a systematic review of the Medline, Cinahl, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases with the guidance of the PRISMA Statement. Forty-nine knowledge tests were identified. The contents were health-problem related, focusing on biophysiological and functional knowledge. The mean number of items was 20, with true-false or multiple-choice scales. Most of the tests were purposely designed for the studies included in the review. The most frequently reported quality assessments of knowledge tests were content validity and internal consistency. The outcome measurements for patient-education needs were comprehensive, validating knowledge tests that cover multidimensional aspects of knowledge. Besides the measurement of the outcomes of patienteducation, knowledge tests could be used for several purposes in patienteducation: to guide the content of education as checklists, to monitor the learning process, and as educational tools. There is a need for more efficient content and health problem-specific knowledge-test assessments. PMID:24256595
Introduction: We undertook a meta-analysis of the Continuing Medical Education (CME) outcome literature to examine the effect of moderator variables on physician knowledge, performance, and patient outcomes. Methods: A literature search of MEDLINE and ERIC was conducted for randomized controlled trials and experimental design studies of CME…
ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the perceptions of educators and students in Canadian entry-level professional physiotherapy programmes with respect to the current draping curriculum and the methods of delivery of that content and to determine if there is a need for additional draping education time and resources in these programmes. Methods: Canadian university physiotherapy students (n=127) and educators (n=183) completed questionnaires designed by the authors. Data were collected via Survey Monkey, exported as Excel files, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson chi-square analysis. Results: Students and educators agreed that dignity as a concept and draping as a skill to protect patient dignity are both important and should be included in Canadian physiotherapy curricula. Respondents also agreed that students often have difficulty with draping. Educators identified barriers to teaching draping while students identified components of an effectiveeducational resource on draping. Conclusions: To enhance the development of effective draping skills among entry-level physiotherapists, draping education should be included in Canadian physiotherapy curricula. An effective draping educational resource should be developed for educators and students.
Background Diabetes self-management education has an important role in diabetes management. The efficacy of education has been proven in several randomized trials. However, the status of diabetes education programs in real Korean clinical practice has not yet been evaluated in terms of patient compliance with the education prescription. Methods We retrospectively analyzed clinical and laboratory data from all patients who were ordered to undergo diabetes education during 2009 at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea (n=2,291). After excluding ineligible subjects, 588 patients were included in the analysis. Results Among the 588 patients, 433 received education. The overall compliance rate was 73.6%, which was significantly higher in the subjects with a short duration or living in a rural area compared to those with a long duration (85.0% vs. 65.1%, respectively; P<0.001) or living in an urban area (78.2% vs. 70.4%, respectively; P=0.037). The hemoglobin A1c decreased greater in the compliant group (from 7.84±1.54 at baseline to 6.79±1.06 at 3 months and 6.97±1.20 at 12 months after prescription in the compliant group vs. from 7.74±1.25 to 7.14±1.02 and 7.24±1.24 in the non-compliant group; P=0.001). The decrease in hemoglobin A1c was greater in the subjects with a short duration (P=0.032). Conclusion In our study a large percent of patients refuse to get education despite having a prescription from their physician. This refusal rate was higher in the patients with long-standing diabetes or in urban residence. Furthermore, education was more effective in patients with a short duration of diabetes in clinical practice.
Kim, Mi Yeon; Suh, Sunghwan; Jin, Sang-Man; Kim, Se Won; Bae, Ji Cheol; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Sung Hye; Rha, Mi Yong; Cho, Young Yun; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Moon Kyu; Kim, Kwang-Won
A meta-analysis was performed to assess the Effect Size (ES) from randomized studies comparing the effect of educational interventions in which Virtual patients (VPs) were used either as an alternative method or additive to usual curriculum versus interventions based on more traditional methods. Meta-analysis was designed, conducted and reported…
Context Growing evidence suggests that nurse staffing affects the quality of care in hospitals, but little is known about whether the educational composition of registered nurses (RNs) in hospitals is related to patient outcomes. Objective To examine whether the proportion of hospital RNs educated at the baccalaureate level or higher is associated with risk-adjusted mortality and failure to rescue (deaths in surgical patients with serious complications). Design, Setting, and Population Cross-sectional analyses of outcomes data for 232–342 general, orthopedic, and vascular surgery patients discharged from 168 nonfederal adult general Pennsylvania hospitals between April 1, 1998, and November 30,1999, linked to administrative and survey data providing information on educational composition, staffing, and other characteristics. Main Outcome Measures Risk-adjusted patient mortality and failure to rescue within 30 days of admission associated with nurse educational level. Results The proportion of hospital RNs holding a bachelor’s degree or higher ranged from 0% to 77% across the hospitals. After adjusting for patient characteristics and hospital structural characteristics (size, teaching status, level of technology), as well as for nurse staffing, nurse experience, and whether the patient’s surgeon was board certified, a 10% increase in the proportion of nurses holding a bachelor’s degree was associated with a 5% decrease in both the likelihood of patients dying within 30 days of admission and the odds of failure to rescue (odds ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.91–0.99 in both cases). Conclusion In hospitals with higher proportions of nurses educated at the baccalaureate level or higher, surgical patients experienced lower mortality and failure-to-rescue rates.
Aiken, Linda H.; Clarke, Sean P.; Cheung, Robyn B.; Sloane, Douglas M.; Silber, Jeffrey H.
Objective: To evaluate whether ACOG’s patienteducation pamphlets comply with the recommended readability level for health education materials intended for the general public.Methods: All 100 English-language pamphlets available during 1997 (created or revised between 1988 and 1997) were evaluated using four standard readability formulas.Results: Mean readability levels of ACOG’s pamphlets were between grade 7.0 to grade 9.3, depending on the
Margaret Comerford Freda; Karla Damus; Irwin R Merkatz
This monograph reviews various strands of research on school effectiveness in developed and developing countries. It addresses a central theme of educational planning: how deliberate actions by policymakers, school administrators, teachers, and parents can help in the attainment of educational goals. Chapter 1, "Conceptualization: Perspectives on…
... doctors to learn about research results through CME. Evidence-based medicine is medical practice that is guided by ... Doctors and patients alike benefit from learning about evidence-based medicine guidelines. This is best done through CME ...
The issue of health literacy is focused on whether health consumers understand and are able to apply the information provided to them. In the neonatal setting, limited parent and caregiver health literacy can result in increased stress and poor compliance with instructions. Health literacy and patienteducation go hand in hand. This article includes an overview of health literacy and how it applies to the neonatal setting. Information is provided to assist with assessing for health literacy. Hints and resources are also provided for improving patient and family education. PMID:24816876
Objective To describe how patienteducation is arranged in Swedish primary healthcare (PHC) and to assess whether the type of patienteducation and individual goal setting have an impact on diabetic patients’ possibilities of reaching national treatment targets. Design A Swedish national survey. Setting Swedish PHC. Subjects Data from 485 primary healthcare centres (PHCCs) and 91 637 diabetic patients reported by the PHCCs to the National Diabetes Register in 2006. Main outcome measures Description of how patienteducation is arranged, HbA1c, body mass index, cholesterol, blood pressure, and physical activity. Results Of the PHCCs that reported how they performed the individual counselling, 50% reported checklist-driven counselling and 8% individualized counselling based on patients’ needs. A total of 105 PHCCs reported that they arranged group education. Of these, 67% used pre-planned programmes and 9% individualized the programme to the patients’ needs. The majority of PHCCs (96%) reported that they set individual goals (HbA1c, blood pressure, lipids, and lifestyle). A minority of the PHCCs (27%) reported that the patients were involved in the final decision concerning their goals. Individual goal-setting facilitated patients’ possibilities of reaching treatment targets. Goal-setting, list size of PHCCs, and personnel resources explained a variance of 2.1–5.7%. Neither individual counselling (checklist-driven or individualized to patients’ needs) nor group education had an impact on patients’ possibilities of reaching the targets. Conclusion The current study indicates that improvement is needed in patienteducation in PHC to facilitate diabetic patients’ possibilities of reaching national treatment targets.
Adolfsson, Eva Thors; Smide, Bibbi; Rosenblad, Andreas; Wikblad, Karin
This paper reviews nutrition education research on the effectiveness of message framing in persuading people to comply with recommendations. First, we will define message framing and discuss its basis in prospect theory, a subset of decision theory. Then,...
Techniques of cost-effectiveness analysis and their applications to educational policy are discussed. Recommendations are made to increase the capacity of evaluators, policy analysts, and decision makers to use these tools appropriately for resource allocation. (SLD)
Context-Effective lung transplant education helps ensure informed decision making by patients and better transplant outcomes.Objective-To understand the educational needs and experiences of lung transplant patients.Design-Mixed-method study employing focus groups and patient surveys.Setting-Barnes-Jewish Hospital in St Louis, Missouri.Patients-50 adult lung transplant patients: 23 pretransplant and 27 posttransplant.Main Outcome Measures-Patients' interest in receiving specific transplant information, the stage in the transplant process during which they wanted to receive the education, and the preferred format for presenting the information.Results-Patients most wanted information about how to sustain their transplant (72%), when to contact their coordinator immediately (56%), transplant benefits (56%), immunosuppressants (54%), and possible out-of-pocket expenses (52%). Patients also wanted comprehensive information early in the transplant process and a review of a subset of topics immediately before transplant (time between getting the call that a potential donor has been found and getting the transplant). Patients reported that they would use Internet resources (74%) and converse with transplant professionals (68%) and recipients (62%) most often.Discussion-Lung transplant patients are focused on learning how to get a transplant and ensuring its success afterwards. A comprehensive overview of the evaluation, surgery, and recovery process at evaluation onset with a review of content about medications, pain management, and transplant recovery repeated immediately before surgery is ideal. PMID:24919729
A 1975 Dartmouth Outward Bound Mental Health Project, begun with a pilot project for disturbed adolescents, has evolved into an ongoing treatment option in three separate clinical settings for psychiatric patients and recovering alcoholics. Outward Bound consists of a series of prescribed physical and social tasks where the presence of stress,…
This paper argues that the process of making significant moves towards a patient safety culture requires changes in healthcare education. Improvements in patient safety are a shared international priority as too many errors and other forms of unnecessary harm are currently occurring in the process of caring for and treating patients. A description of the patient safety agenda is given followed by a brief analysis of human factors theory and its use in other safety critical industries, most notably aviation. The all too common problem of drug administration errors is used to illustrate the relevance of human factors theory to healthcare education with specific mention made of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). PMID:16713030
Therapeutic patienteducation, which with the "Hospital, patients, health and territories" law became a priority of the healthcare system, notably for chronic diseases, has been rooted in nursing training and practice since the 1960s. Following in the steps of the World Health Organisation and the International Council of Nurses, successive laws relating to the profession have continuously emphasised it. Now that it has an official and general framework in France, it should develop within nursing practice. PMID:22641939
Presented at a National Conference on Hospital based patienteducation. The report briefly describes seven evaluation efforts and problems encountered over a 2 and a half year period as the Office of Consumer Affairs at the College of Medicine and Dentist...
Standardized patient encounters, a pedagogic approach to helping students develop appropriate clinical skills, are widely used in medical education and are being adopted by advanced practice nursing programs. Two types, simulated clinical encounters, in which students complete an episodic or comprehensive visit, and objective structured clinical experiences, multiple stations each presenting a different clinical problem, are used for formative and
Objectives. This study was conducted to assess the impact of an interactive seminar based on self-regulation theory on 1) the treatment practices and communications and education behavior of physicians, 2) the health status and medical care utilization of their pediatric patients with asthma, and 3) the satisfaction with care of the subjects' parents. Methods. A total of 74 general practice
Noreen M. Clark; Molly Gong; M. Anthony Schork; David Evans; Dietrich Roloff; Martin Hurwitz; Lois Maiman; Robert B. Mellins
A study was conducted to determine the SMOG readability formula scores of currently available patienteducation materials. It was hypothesized that the reading level of the materials would be higher than 7.5, the reading level of the average American citizen; and that there would be a significant reduction in the measured document reading levels…
Describes the human patient simulator and discusses the value of this technology for undergraduate and graduate nursing education, research, and evaluation. Highlights include an example of the use of the simulator; critical incident nursing management as a framework for instruction using the simulator; and administrative considerations. (LRW)
Nehring, Wendy M.; Ellis, Wayne E.; Lashley, Felissa R.
Simulation is used widely in medical and health professions educational programs. Standardized patients (SPs) are individuals who are trained to simulate specific symptoms or conditions as part of a structured learning experience with students. In this qualitative, phenomenological study the researcher interviewed 8 first-year graduate art therapy…
Patienteducation and self-management programmes have proved effective in many studies with short follow-up periods. We studied the 3-year cost-effectiveness of an intensive programme of patienteducation and supervision for self-management.The study consisted of 162 consecutive newly diagnosed asthmatics who were randomized either into an intervention group (IG) receiving intensive patienteducation and supervision for self-management at an outpatient clinic
R. Kauppinen; H. Sintonen; V. Vilkka; H. Tukiainen
Purpose The aim of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of patienteducation methods on quality of life and functional impairment\\u000a of patients with schizophrenia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A multicentre, randomized controlled trial was carried out in two psychiatric hospitals in Finland from March 2005 to October\\u000a 2007. A total of 311 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder or delusional disorder
Anneli PitkanenMaritta; Maritta Välimäki; Lauri Kuosmanen; Jouko Katajisto; Marita Koivunen; Heli Hätönen; Anita Patel; Martin Knapp
The report is the Executive Summary of a study which was a follow-up to contract No. HEW-100-75-0082, which identified and surveyed health education programs with on-going or planned evaluations, and discussed on-going projects which could yield valuable ...
The purpose of this paper is to help public health actors with an interest in health promotion and health care professionals involved in therapeutic education to develop and implement an educational strategy consistent with their vision of health and health care. First, we show that the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the French Charter for Popular Education share common values. Second, an examination of the career and work of Paulo Freire, of Ira Shor's pedagogical model and of the person-centered approach of Carl Rogers shows how the work of educational practitioners, researchers and theorists can help health professionals to implement a truly "health-promoting" or "therapeutic" educational strategy. The paper identifies a number of problems facing health care professionals who become involved in education without reflecting on the values underlying the pedagogical models they use. PMID:24313072
Background To reduce harm caused by health care is a global priority. Medical students should be able to recognize unsafe conditions, systematically report errors and near misses, investigate and improve such systems with a thorough understanding of human fallibility, and disclose errors to patients. Incorporating the knowledge of how to do this into the medical student curriculum is an urgent necessity. This paper aims to systematically review the literature about patient safety education for undergraduate medical students in terms of its content, teaching strategies, faculty availability and resources provided so as to identify evidence on how to promote patient safety in the curriculum for medical schools. This paper includes a perspective from the faculty of a medical school, a major hospital and an Evidence Based Medicine Centre in Sichuan Province, China. Methods We searched MEDLINE, ERIC, Academic Source Premier(ASP), EMBASE and three Chinese Databases (Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, CBM; China National Knowledge Infrastructure, CNKI; Wangfang Data) from 1980 to Dec. 2009. The pre-specified form of inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed for literature screening. The quality of included studies was assessed using Darcy Reed and Gemma Flores-Mateo criteria. Two reviewers selected the studies, undertook quality assessment, and data extraction independently. Differing opinions were resolved by consensus or with help from the third person. Results This was a descriptive study of a total of seven studies that met the selection criteria. There were no relevant Chinese studies to be included. Only one study included patient safety education in the medical curriculum and the remaining studies integrated patient safety into clinical rotations or medical clerkships. Seven studies were of a pre and post study design, of which there was only one controlled study. There was considerable variation in relation to contents, teaching strategies, faculty knowledge and background in patient safety, other resources and outcome evaluation in these reports. The outcomes from including patient safety in the curriculum as measured by medical students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes varied between the studies. Conclusions There are only a few relevant published studies on the inclusion of patient safety education into the undergraduate curriculum in medical schools either as a selective course, a lecture program, or by being integrated into the existing curriculum even in developed countries with advanced health and education systems. The integration of patient safety education into the existing curriculum in medical schools internationally, provides significant challenges.
Objective: The current research was designed to develop a health education programme for type 2 diabetes mellitus based on the Taba-Tyler model and to evaluate its effect. Design: The study was quasi-experimental in design. Setting: Fifty-five patients from the Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit, University Hospital of Ankara. Method: An education…
Objective To explore healthcare professionals' views about the benefits and challenges of using information technology (IT) resources for educatingpatients about their warfarin therapy. Methods A cross-sectional survey of both community and hospital-based healthcare professionals (e.g., doctors, pharmacists and nurses) involved using a purpose-designed questionnaire. The questionnaires were distributed using a multi-modal approach to maximise response rates. Results Of the total 300 questionnaires distributed, 109 completed surveys were received (43.3% response rate). Over half (53.2%) of the healthcare participants were aged between 40-59 years, the majority (59.5%) of whom were female. Fifty nine (54.1%) participants reported having had no access to warfarin-specific IT-based patienteducation resources, and a further 19 (38.0%) of the participants who had IT-access reported that they never used such resources. According to the healthcare participants, the main challenges associated with educating their patients about warfarin therapy included: patient-related factors, such as older age, language barriers, cognitive impairments and/or ethnic backgrounds or healthcare professional factors, such as time constraints. The healthcare professionals reported that there were several aspects about warfarin therapy which they found difficult to educate their patients about which is why they identified computers and interactive touch screen kiosks as preferred IT devices to deliver warfarin education resources in general practices, hospital-based clinics and community pharmacies. At the same time, the healthcare professionals also identified a number of facilitators (e.g., to reinforce warfarin education, to offer reliable and easily comprehensible information) and barriers (e.g., time and costs of using IT resources, difficulty in operating the resources) that could impact on the effective implementation of these devices in educatingpatients about their warfarin therapy. Conclusions The findings of the study suggest that there is a need for improving healthcare professionals' use of, and access to IT-based warfarin education resources for patients. The study findings also suggest addressing the concerns raised by the healthcare professionals when implementing such IT resources successfully to help educatepatients about their warfarin therapy.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different ocular massage health education methods on ocular massage in glaucoma patients after trabeculectomy. Eighty-six patients with glaucoma after trabeculectomy (86 eyes) were randomly divided into two health education groups. One group was a watch video group (43 patients, 43 eyes), while the other was an orally taught health education group (43 patients, 43 eyes). Patients were followed up for 1 week, 1 month, and 3, 6, and 12 months after discharge. Records of the patient responses after health education, compliance of patients with follow-up, and intraocular pressure were determined. Measurements included intraocular pressure and differences between the watch video and orally taught health education groups. The differences between the watch video group and orally taught health education group were not statistically significant at 1 week and 1 month, while the differences were statistically significant at 3, 6, and 12 months. The results indicated that health education videos can enable glaucoma patients to have a better mastery of ocular massage after trabeculectomy. According to the needs of patients, health education video use produced good results and should be promoted. PMID:24937652
Although patients on hemodialysis require effectiveeducation for self-care, several issues associated with the process raise barriers that make learning difficult. Computer-based education can reduce these problems and improve the quality of education. This study aims to develop and validate a theory-based multimedia application to educate Persian patients on hemodialysis. The study consisted of five phases: (1) content development, (2) prototype development 1, (3) evaluation by users, (4) evaluation by a multidisciplinary group of experts, and (5) prototype development 2. Data were collected through interviews and literature review with open-ended questions and two survey forms that consisted of a five-level scale. In the Results section, patient needs on hemodialysis self-care and related content were categorized into seven sections, including kidney function and failure, hemodialysis, vascular access, nutrition, medication, physical activity, and living with hemodialysis. The application designed includes seven modules consisting of user-controlled small multimedia units. During navigation through this application, the users were provided step-by-step information on self-care. Favorable scores were obtained from evaluations by users and experts. The researchers concluded that this application can facilitate hemodialysis education and learning process for the patients by focusing on their self-care needs using the multimedia design principles. PMID:24642877
Nurses in practice and students in training often fear hurting a patient or doing something wrong. Experienced nurses have developed assessment skills and clinical intuition to recognize and intervene to prevent patient risk and harm. Beginning nursing students have not yet had the opportunity to develop an awareness of patient risk, safety concerns, or a clear sense of their accountability in the nurse role as the primary advocate for patient safety. In this Safety Manifesto, the authors call for educators to critically review their prelicensure curricula for inclusion of teaching and learning activities that are focused on patient safety and offer recommendations for curricular changes with an emphasis on integration of instructional strategies that develop students' skills for clinical reasoning and judgment. PMID:22459141
In this prospective study, we sought to compare pregnant women's self-perception of their preterm uterine contractility versus electronically obtained data and to evaluate the impact of intensive patienteducation on increasing awareness of the presence of uterine contractions. Thirty-eight women each monitored their uterine activity at home for two 60-minute periods daily during a 21-day sequence. An event marker was used to document perceived contractions and after a 3-day baseline interval, an intensive nursing-service educational intervention was initiated for all subjects. Thirty-five percent of women underreported uterine contractions, whereas only 5% overreported their uterine activity during the study. Derived patient scores of underreporting and overreporting of contractions did not vary among seven consecutive 3-day study intervals. Analysis of the data revealed that patients perceived fewer than 10% of all contractions documented electronically. No improvement in the reliability of patient perception of preterm uterine contractility was obtained after the educational intervention. PMID:2359589
Brustman, L E; Langer, O; Anyaegbunam, A; Belle, C; Merkatz, I R
This paper, prepared as a chapter for a forthcoming book, describes the potential significance of student peer effects for the economic structure and behavior of higher education. The existence of student peer effects would motivate much of the restricted supply, student queuing, and selectivity, and institutional competition via merit and honors…
Regular quality physical education (PE) contributes to the harmonized biopsychosocial development of a young person--to relaxation, neutralization of negative effects of sedentary hours, and other unhealthy habits/behaviors. The evaluation approach to PE effectiveness provides important information to PE teachers and also to students. However,…
THIS STUDY AIMS TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF A TRAINED DEDICATED DIETITIAN ON CLINICAL OUTCOMES AMONG LEBANESE HEMODIALYSIS (HD) PATIENTS: and thus demonstrate a viable developing country model. This paper describes the study protocol and baseline data. The study was a multicenter randomized controlled trial with parallel-group design involving 12 HD units: assigned to cluster A (n = 6) or B (n = 6). A total of 570 patients met the inclusion criteria. Patients in cluster A were randomly assigned as per dialysis shift to the following: Dedicated Dietitian (DD) (n = 133) and Existing Practice (EP) (n = 138) protocols. Cluster B patients (n = 299) received Trained Hospital Dietitian (THD) protocol. Dietitians of the DD and THD groups were trained by the research team on Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative nutrition guidelines. DD protocol included: individualized nutrition education for 2 hours/month/HD patient for 6 months focusing on renal osteodystrophy and using the Trans-theoretical theory for behavioral change. EP protocol included nutrition education given to patients by hospital dietitians who were blinded to the study. The THD protocol included nutrition education to patients given by hospital dietitian as per the training received but within hospital responsibilities, with no set educational protocol or tools. Baseline data revealed that 40% of patients were hyperphosphatemics (> 5.5 mg/dl) with low dietary adherence and knowledge of dietary P restriction in addition to inadequate daily protein intake (58.86%± 33.87% of needs) yet adequate dietary P intake (795.52 ± 366.94 mg/day). Quality of life (QOL) ranged from 48-75% of full health. Baseline differences between the 3 groups revealed significant differences in serum P, malnutrition status, adherence to diet and P chelators and in 2 factors of the QOL: physical and social functioning. The data show room for improvement in the nutritional status of the patients. The NEMO trial may be able to demonstrate a better nutritional management of HD patients. PMID:24611112
Creating a culture of safety in healthcare systems is a goal of leaders in the patient safety movement. Commitment of leadership to safety in the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) Nursing Division has resulted in the development of the Patient Safety Project Team (PSPT) and a steady shift in the culture of the organization toward a systems approach to patient safety. Graduates prepared with the competencies necessary to be diligent about their practice and skilled in determining the root causes of system error in healthcare will become leaders in shifting the healthcare culture to strengthen patient safety. The PSPT believes this cultural shift begins with the education system. It involves modifications to curricula content, facilitation of multidisciplinary processes, and inclusion of theory and practice that reflect critical inquiry into healthcare and nursing education systems to ensure patient safety. In this paper the practical approaches and initiatives of the PSPT are reviewed. The integration of Patient Safety Core Curriculum modules for competency development is described. The policy for reporting adverse events and near misses is outlined. In addition, the student-focused reporting tool, the results and the implications for teaching in the clinical setting are discussed. Processes used to engage faculty are also addressed. PMID:18382159
The Enhancing Patient Prenatal Education study tested the feasibility and educational impact of an interactive program for patient prenatal genetic screening and testing education. Patients at two private practices and one public health clinic participated (N = 207). The program collected knowledge and measures of anxiety before and after use of…
Griffith, Jennifer M.; Sorenson, James R.; Bowling, J. Michael; Jennings-Grant, Tracey
In this paper we present a novel approach to generate tailored patienteducation materials by using an evidence- based clinical practice guideline to model patients and direct the selection of relevant education content. We converted a Canadian guideline for managing dyslipidemia into the XML-based GEM formalism, and then modified it to support the tailoring of patienteducation material. We created
Background: Inclusive education/mainstreaming is a key policy objective for the education of children and young people with special educational needs (SEN) and disabilities. Aims: This paper reviews the literature on the effectiveness of inclusive education/mainstreaming. The focus is on evidence for effects in terms of child outcomes with…
Using pilot project funding from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, the American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation (AAFP/F) developed a program by which health/patienteducation print materials were reviewed. Favorably reviewed materials were entered into a database accessible through the AAFP/F's Huffington Library. The review service and resulting database were designed to help the busy clinician identify scientifically accurate, reliable materials for use in patienteducation. The review process developed for the project is described, as is the database and its use by family physicians. Research findings from the pilot project are discussed, some of which assisted in planning the self-supporting second phase of the program.
The author discusses the use of adult education precepts in professional realms outside its mainstream, specifically patienteducation. He cites the effect of role playing on cardiac rehabilitation education. (JOW)
Computer games are very popular among children and adolescents. In this respect, they could be exploited by educational software designers to render educational software more attractive and motivating. However, it remains to be explored what the educational scope of educational software games is. In this paper, we explore several issues concerning…
In this study, a comprehensive educationaleffectiveness model is tested in relation to student's civic knowledge. Multilevel analysis was applied on the dataset of the IEA Civic Education Study (CIVED; Torney-Purta, Lehmann, Oswald, & Schulz, 2001), which was conducted among junior secondary-school students (age 14), their schools, and their…
Isac, Maria Magdalena; Maslowski, Ralf; van der Werf, Greetje
Despite the extensive literature on educational innovations, there is only limited empirical research available into the impact of innovations on student achievement. In this article, the following research questions will be answered: What form do innovations in secondary education take, are there types of innovative schools, and what effect do…
Hofman, Roelande H.; de Boom, Jan; Meeuwisse, Marieke; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan
The purpose of this study was to understand the effectiveness of sexuality education training on the parents in the group regarding their sex knowledge, awareness of sexuality education, attitude towards sexuality education, self-efficacy in sexuality education, communication effectiveness and communication behavior in the hope that they would be…
Currently, 10% of cancer chemotherapy is prescribed to patients by means of an oral formulation, but, by 2013, this percentage is predicted to increase to 25%. Oral chemotherapy offers many advantages, including no need for sometimes painful intravenous access, no intravenous drug administration fees, more time at home for patients, and a greater sense of patient autonomy. However, oral cancer chemotherapy also poses challenges, many of which revolve around adherence and safety. These challenges are discussed here. There are few other circumstances in which patienteducation and the maintenance of institutional safety infrastructure play such an integral role in sustaining favorable cancer clinical outcomes. PMID:20437116
introduction and objective. The presented study assesses levels of specific knowledge of the disease among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and their families, and evaluates the effectiveness of a targeted, disease specific education programme. materials and methods. A cross-sectional survey among 462 families with a CF child evaluated their knowledge of the disease. A one year follow up survey among 200 families assessed the effectiveness of an educational programme developed to correct gaps, errors and misconceptions identified in the previously administered survey. Self-administered, comprehensive, 5-domains, 45-item multiple-choice CF Disease Knowledge Questionnaire (CFDKQ) was anonymously completed by 462 subjects. results. 228 respondents were male (49%), 234 female (51%). The level of disease-specific knowledge in the age groups 0-6 and 7-10 years, was significantly higher than in 11-14 and 15-18 years of age groups (p<0.005). General medical and Genetics/Reproduction knowledge was low in all patients. Significant predictors of patient and parental knowledge were age and domicile. Patients and parents rely heavily on doctors for information about CF (77%). The follow-up survey (CFDKQ) emphasized that special education programmes significantly improved levels of disease specific knowledge (p<0.0001). conclusions. If left uncorrected, the misconceptions, gaps and errors in CF knowledge identified in the presented study could result in inadvertent non-adherence to treatment, and impact on the progression and outcome of the disease. Secondly, the results demonstrate the effectiveness of targeted, disease specific information in improving disease knowledge of CF patients and their families, and highlights the value and need for the development of educational programmes for chronically ill patients and their families. PMID:24959802
Chomik, S?awomir; Klincewicz, Beata; Cichy, Wojciech
This report outlines the work and results of an Educational Assessment Task Force at Mount Hood Community College (Oregon) that was charged with improving institutional planning, strengthening programs and services, and meeting external accountability demands. The task force addressed both institutional effectiveness (the annual assessment of…
This guidebook is designed to assist educators in becoming more effective child guidance leaders within the school system. Sections discuss the following areas: (1) indicators of current emotional problems; (2) children's common emotional problems, including fears, separation and loss, misbehavior motivations, aggressiveness, stealing, lying,…
Background: Family health history (FHH) is an underutilized tool in primary care to identify and risk-stratify individuals with increased cancer risk. Objective: Evaluate the influence of patienteducation on quantity and quality of FHH entered into a primary care-based software program, and impact on the program's cancer risk management recommendations. Design: Two primary care practices within a larger type II hybrid implementation-effectiveness controlled clinical trial. Participants: English speaking non-adopted patients with a well visit appointment December 2012-March 2013. Interventions: One to two weeks prior to their well visit appointment, participants entered their FHH into the program. Participants were then provided educational materials describing key FHH components. They were instructed to use the interval to collect additional FHH information. Patients then returned for their scheduled appointment, and updated their FHH with any new information. Main Measures: Percentage per pedigree of relatives meeting individual quality criteria. Changes made after patienteducation and changes to recommendations for surveillance, chemoprevention or genetic counseling referral. Key Results: Post patienteducation, pedigrees exhibited a greater percentage (per pedigree) of: deceased relatives with age at death (84 vs. 81 % p = 0.02), deceased relatives with cause of death (91 vs. 87 % p = 0.02), relatives with a named health condition (45 vs. 42 % p = 0.002), and a greater percentage of relatives with high quality records (91 vs. 89 % p = 0.02). Of 43 participants with pedigree changes that could trigger changes in risk stratified prevention recommendations, 12 participants (28 %) received such changes. Conclusions: Patienteducation improves FHH collection and subsequent risk stratification utilized in providing actionable evidence-based care recommendations for cancer risk management. PMID:24515581
Beadles, Chris A; Ryanne Wu, R; Himmel, Tiffany; Buchanan, Adam H; Powell, Karen P; Hauser, Elizabeth; Henrich, Vincent C; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Orlando, Lori A
While student-run clinics are often important healthcare safety nets for underserved populations, their efficacy for improving patient health knowledge has not been thoroughly explored. From September 2011 to April 2012, we assessed patients' retention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) knowledge after receiving student-led education at two student-run HBV screening and vaccination clinics. Patienteducation was provided by trained first and second-year medical, nursing, and pharmacy students, aided by a script and interpreters. Patient knowledge of HBV was evaluated at three points: before education, after the initial visit, and at one-month follow-up. Student-led education produced improved knowledge of HBV transmission, prevention, and management, which was retained 1 month after education for 52 patients tracked through time. Mean scores on an HBV knowledge survey improved from 56.4 % (SD = 15.2 %) at baseline to 66.6 % (SD = 15.1 %) after education, and 68.3 % (SD = 15.2 %) after one month. There was a statistically significant difference between the first and second (paired T test, p < 0.001) and the first and third tests (paired T test, p < 0.001), but no difference between the second and third tests (paired T test, p = 0.45). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that retention was correlated with patienteducational background but independent of patient age, gender, income, primary language and number of years lived in the United States. Our study suggests that trained health professional students can effectively impart health knowledge that is retained by patients for at least 1 month. These results warrant consideration of student-led educational sessions at SRCs as a promising community health education model. PMID:23161212
This paper investigates empirically the impact of parental education level, family income, scholastic ability, and expectations on earnings and employment on the demand for higher education in the Netherlands. In theory the factors mentioned are important determinants of educational choice. The Wald or distance test is used to discriminate between direct and indirect effects of the parental education level and
One of the goals of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) is to disseminate patienteducation materials that suit the readability skills of the patient population. According to standard guidelines from healthcare organizations, the readability of patient educa- tion materials should be no higher than the sixth-grade level. We hypothesized the readability level of patienteducation materials available on
Sanjeev Sabharwal; Sameer Badarudeen MBBS; Unes Kunju MBBS
Effective strategies include (1) helping consumers see how lifestyles and consumer behavior are related; (2) limiting amount of new terminology used; (3) dispelling myths and misperceptions; (4) doing product life-cycle analysis; and (5) emphasizing long-term goals for behavior change. (JOW)
Knowledge of the warning signs of stroke may reduce the incidence of having a second stroke by receiving medical intervention in a timely manner. The need for stroke education is paramount to empower stroke patients to recognize the signs and symptoms of an impending stroke. The purpose of this pilot study was to develop and to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational method of providing stroke education in an acute care setting. Twenty patients were recruited and randomized to two groups. Group 1 received the standard of care: verbal and written education at the time of discharge by the discharge nurse. Group 2 received individualized protocol-driven verbal and written education with their caregiver present within the context of the Therapeutic Alliance Model using motivational interviewing techniques. Each group was sent a Stroke Knowledge Test and a patient satisfaction survey at 1 month. Results indicate that the enhanced education group received improved scores on the Stroke Knowledge Test and had better patient satisfaction scores regarding stroke education. An enhanced educational method using motivational interviewing and an individualized protocol-driven education intervention given to both the patient and a caregiver enhance stroke knowledge and patient satisfaction after discharge from the acute care setting. PMID:21207769
Byers, Ann Marie; Lamanna, Lenore; Rosenberg, Antonieta
Introduction: Despite an explosion of interest in improving safety and reducing error in health care, one important aspect of patient safety that has received little attention is a systematic approach to education and training for the whole health care workforce. This article describes an evaluation of an innovative multiprofessional, team-based…
Background Chronic heart failure requires a complex treatment regimen on a life-long basis. Therefore, self-care/self-management is an essential part of successful treatment and comprehensive patienteducation is warranted. However, specific information on program features and educational strategies enhancing treatment success is lacking. This trial aims to evaluate a patient-oriented and theory-based self-management educational group program as compared to usual care education during inpatient cardiac rehabilitation in Germany. Methods/Design The study is a multicenter cluster randomized controlled trial in four cardiac rehabilitation clinics. Clusters are patienteducation groups that comprise HF patients recruited within 2 weeks after commencement of inpatient cardiac rehabilitation. Cluster randomization was chosen for pragmatic reasons, i.e. to ensure a sufficient number of eligible patients to build large-enough educational groups and to prevent contamination by interaction of patients from different treatment allocations during rehabilitation. Rehabilitants with chronic systolic heart failure (n?=?540) will be consecutively recruited for the study at the beginning of inpatient rehabilitation. Data will be assessed at admission, at discharge and after 6 and 12 months using patient questionnaires. In the intervention condition, patients receive the new patient-oriented self-management educational program, whereas in the control condition, patients receive a short lecture-based educational program (usual care). The primary outcome is patients’ self-reported self-management competence. Secondary outcomes include behavioral determinants and self-management health behavior (symptom monitoring, physical activity, medication adherence), health-related quality of life, and treatment satisfaction. Treatment effects will be evaluated separately for each follow-up time point using multilevel regression analysis, and adjusting for baseline values. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a comprehensive self-management educational program by a cluster randomized trial within inpatient cardiac rehabilitation in Germany. Furthermore, subgroup-related treatment effects will be explored. Study results will contribute to a better understanding of both the effectiveness and mechanisms of a self-management group program as part of cardiac rehabilitation. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00004841; WHO International Clinical Trials: = DRKS00004841
One of the goals of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) is to disseminate patienteducation materials that\\u000a suit the readability skills of the patient population. According to standard guidelines from healthcare organizations, the\\u000a readability of patienteducation materials should be no higher than the sixth-grade level. We hypothesized the readability\\u000a level of patienteducation materials available on the
Sanjeev Sabharwal; Sameer Badarudeen; Shebna Unes Kunju
Background: Foot ulceration is one of the most common complications associated with diabetes that needs to be managed. In Iran, prevalence of diabetes foot ulcer is 3%. According to studies, evidence-based nursing (EBN) is an effective alternative to facilitate clinical decision making in patient care and may lead to quality improvement in nursing practice. The aims of this study are to assess the effects of EBN education on the knowledge, attitude, and practice of nurses who take care of patient with diabetes foot ulcer. Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental study (based on IOWA model as a framework to improve nursing practice) was conducted using a before-and-after design. All of nurses (consisted of 19 baccalaureate nurses) who are working in an endocrinology ward were chosen and taught using EBN approach through different workshops. Before and after educational intervention, the data about nurses’ knowledge, attitude, and practice were gathered by questionnaire and then compared. The nurses’ performance in patient care was evaluated in 3 months by one checklist. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: There were statistically significant differences in knowledge, attitude, and practice of nurses before and after intervention (P = 0.001). The nurses’ performance in caring for patient with diabetes foot ulcer, based on clinical guideline, showed the improvement in clinical practice. Conclusion: Education of EBN can improve the nurse's knowledge and attitude to EBN, and be used as a basis on which to influence the professional practice of nursing.
Varaei, Shokoh; Salsali, Mahvash; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Tehrani, Mohammad Reza Mohajeri; Heshmat, Ramin
The role of the special educator has changed. Similar to general educators, special educators are more accountable, more specialized, and more collaborative. To be effective in this new role, special educators need to recommit to the founding principles of the discipline and embrace the tools that allow them to meet the needs of students with…
"Designing and Implementing Effective Adapted Physical Education Programs" was written to assist adapted and general physical educators who are dedicated to ensuring that the physical and motor needs of all their students are addressed in physical education. While it is anticipated that adapted physical educators, where available, will typically…
Summary This study is concerned with the educational intervention layout proposed as a possible answer for the disparities in healthcare services for disabled persons. Material and methods The data sampling was performed on individuals in Rome, affected by psychophysical disabilities, living in residential care facilities. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: Study and Control Group, consisting of patients who did or did not participate in the Educational Phase. All the caregivers participated in an educational course. Screening period: September 2008 – March 2009. Examinations were performed using Visible Plaque Index (VPI), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Microbiological Analysis. Results The total number of patients utilized for the study was 36 (18 in each group). The final sample amounted to 70% (14/20) in the Study Group and to 75% (15/20) in the Control Group. In both examined groups Oral Hygiene, Gingival Health State and Microbiological Analysis show an overall improvement of the indices, compared with the initial status, mostly at a follow-up after 4 weeks. However, Study Group show a significantly better improvement. Conversely, after 6 months the overall clinical indices worsened again. Conclusion The difference in the significant improvements of the groups, even if only over a short-time evaluation, endorses that the participation of the patients as well as tutors in the educational phase is an effective strategy for the short-term.
The CPD(iQ) Saskatchewan Project (ICEC(4)) is directed by the Inter-Professional Continuing Education for Collaborative Client Centered Care Committee, representing the disciplines of medicine, nursing, physical therapy, pharmacy, kinesiology and dentistry at the University of Saskatchewan. It was designed to serve two target audiences: the urban underserved community that would access services at the West Winds Primary Care Centre; and health professionals at the West Winds who would deliver educational modules to those in need. The main objectives were to identify the learning needs of health professionals related to working collaboratively in urban underserved community settings; identify and develop relevant educational modules to address needs identified, implement the program, and evaluate participants' experience with the educational modules. Evaluation consisted of debriefing after each educational session and the completion of a self administered questionnaire. Findings from this pilot study. The results of the study suggest the modules as a useful approach to addressing some of the barriers to effective inter-professional collaborative care. Common themes from the evaluation included satisfaction with learning other professionals' contributions to patient care. The module format may serve useful in an inter-professional case-based clinical educational setting. PMID:19005954
Davis, Penny; Clackson, Jody; Henry, Carol; Bobyn, Joan; Suveges, Linda
This paper analyzed the effect of a smartphone application in Taekwondo Academy. The iPhone app was self-developed to display Taekwondo education contents for Poomsae training. From the viewpoint of education, reregistration and recommendation effect, it showed statistically significant difference in 196 trainee sample survey. Therefore, the research suggest that the use of smartphone technology in Poomsae education would be a
In Sook Ha; Seung Il Lee; Eun Jong Cha; Tae Soo Lee
Examines the educationaleffectiveness of a game named POMP AND CIRCUMSTANCE for sex education in a Japanese high school. Compares the effectiveness of educational videos with game conditions and discusses results that show the value of playing the game in the role of the opposite sex. (Author/LRW)
Aims\\/hypothesis The aim of this study was to measure the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) compared with usual care on changes in\\u000a glycaemic control and competence of diabetes self-management in patients with diabetes mellitus.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Patients were eligible if they had type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus, were over 18 years of age and had participated in a 4 day\\u000a group education programme offered
L. K. Rosenbek Minet; L. Wagner; E. M. Lřnvig; J. Hjelmborg; J. E. Henriksen
Children's literature can be used to educatepatients about illness, surgery, and hospitalization. However, nurses must evaluate popular literature for developmental appropriateness and content accuracy. Developmental considerations for selecting appropriate children's literature as patienteducation material include cognitive abilities, language development, and children's literary preferences. Content accuracy is judged based on current practice. Twenty-three children's books addressing surgery and hospitalization were reviewed by the senior author. A seven-step process was utilized to determine the appropriateness of each piece of children's literature reviewed. Based on the review, four common content inaccuracies were identified: (a) the depiction of nurses and their roles, (b) parental visitation policies, (c) preoperative preparation requirements, and (d) the depiction of inpatient surgeries that are currently performed on an outpatient basis. Only four of the 23 books reviewed were recommended to prepare children for surgery in the authors' community. The process of reviewing a book is demonstrated using the example of Curious George Goes to the Hospital. PMID:10085997
An educational video increased patients’ self-assessed likelihood to enroll in a clinical trial. This format of patienteducation has potential for universal applicability because of its low cost of administration and the low demands on patient and staff time.
A group (n = 170) of inner-city, predominantly African American, health clinic patients were asked to identify the characteristics they desired in a new clinic health educator. A plurality (44%) of the patients perceived a bachelor's degree would be a sufficient level of education. The vast majority of patients claimed the sex of the health…
The research objective was to study 1) the situation and readiness of the Thai education for the integration of nanotechnology and 2) to propose the plans, the strategies and guidelines for educational reform to adapt nanotechnology to the system. The data collection was done by 4 methods: 1) documentary study, 2) observation, 3) informal interviews, and 4) group discussion. The findings revealed that: 1. William Wresch's Theory (1997) was used in this research to study of the situation and readiness of the Thai education for the integration of nanotechnology. 1) Getting connected to nanotechnology by search engine websites, libraries, magazines, books, and discussions with experts. 2) Curriculum integration: nanotechnology should be integrated in many branches of engineering, such as industrial, computer, civil, chemical, electrical, mechanical, etc. 3) Resources for educators: nanotechnology knowledge should be spread in academic circles by publications and the Internet websites. 4) Training and professional resources for teachers: Teachers should be trained by experts in nanotechnology and researchers from the National Nanotechnology Center. This will help trainees get correct knowledge, comprehension, and awareness in order to apply to their professions and businesses in the future. 2. As for the plans, the strategies, and guidelines for educational reform to adapt nanotechnology to the present system, I analyzed the world nanotechnology situation that might have an effect on Thai society. The study is based on the National Plan to Develop Nanotechnology. The goal of this plan is to develop nanotechnology to be the national strategy within 10 years (2004-2013) and have it integrated into the Thai system. There are 4 parts in this plan: 1) nanomaterials, 2) nanoelectronics, 3) nanobiotechnology, and 4) human resources development. Data for human resource development should be worked with the present technology and use the country's resources to produce many products of nanotechnology, such as 1) handicrafts, decorations, and gifts, 2) agricultural products and food, 3) beverages, such as alcoholic and non- alcoholic drinks, and 5) textiles.
Utilising a globalisation framework this study contributes to discussions concerning inequality, education, and development by re-examining the effects of educational and economic variables on income inequality. This research shows that the effects of education on income inequality are affected by the level of economic freedom in a country, and…
Educational webcasts are nowadays widely used by many organizations and institutions all over the world. However, the educationaleffectiveness of webcasts when used as an autonomous method is yet to be explored. In this paper, the clarification of certain issues concerning their educationaleffectiveness is attempted. Following specific…
The Voluntary Education (VOLED) Program provides off duty educational opportunities integrating a variety of continuing education programs to Sailors seeking to enhance their professional and personal growth. VOLED supplements military training and allows...
Patienteducation is an important part of successful headache therapy. Patienteducation can enhance self-efficacy and influence the locus of control. Motivation and adherence to nonpharmacological therapy (aerobic endurance training and relaxation training) as well as pharmacological therapy may be improved by headache-specific patienteducation. Patients with specific knowledge of their headache disorder and headache treatment may be more self-confident and successful in handling their disease. In moderately affected headache patients, education alone may result in improvement, whereas education as part of a multidisciplinary treatment is superior in severely affected and chronic patients. All components of a multidisciplinary treatment program should be harmonized toward a comprehensive concept. Patients should take an active part in the therapy. PMID:24989424
Maintains that China has established "window cities," designed to view and absorb Western policies. Asserts that education is categorized as one of the Chinese development strategies. Examines the relationship between educational development and the window effects. (CFR)
Background Weight loss in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common clinical manifestation that may have clinical significance. Objectives To evaluate if there is a difference between nutrition education and oral nutritional supplementation on nutritional status in patients with AD. Methods A randomized, prospective 6-month study which enrolled 90 subjects with probable AD aged 65 years or older divided into 3 groups: Control Group (CG) [n = 27], Education Group (EG) [n = 25], which participated in an education program and Supplementation Group (SG) [n = 26], which received two daily servings of oral nutritional supplementation. Subjects were assessed for anthropometric data (weight, height, BMI, TSF, AC and AMC), biochemical data (total protein, albumin, and total lymphocyte count), CDR (Clinical Dementia Rating), MMSE (Mini-mental state examination), as well as dependence during meals. Results The SG showed a significant improvement in the following anthropometric measurements: weight (H calc = 22.12, p =< 0.001), BMI (H calc = 22.12, p =< 0.001), AC (H calc = 12.99, p =< 0.002), and AMC (H calc = 8.67, p =< 0.013) compared to the CG and EG. BMI of the EG was significantly greater compared to the CG. There were significant changes in total protein (H calc = 6.17, p =< 0.046), and total lymphocyte count in the SG compared to the other groups (H cal = 7.94, p = 0.019). Conclusion Oral nutritional supplementation is more effective compared to nutrition education in improving nutritional status.
Reports on the development of a college-level eco-educational course that attempts to capitalize on the ecological and educational strengths of ecotourism by establishing a partnership with a local community. Makes suggestions for establishing community partnerships for effective international eco-educational program development. (Contains 15…
This study showed selected effects on students from a Southern Regional Christian University taking multicultural education courses and Biblical education courses. Besides quantitative data, qualitative data were used. Qualitative data were gathered from student interviews from multicultural and Biblical education courses. The students completed a…
The purpose was to compare the short-term cost-effectiveness of intensive vs conventional education and supervision for the self-management of mild asthmatic patients. Consecutive newly diagnosed asthmatic patients (n = 162) were randomized into an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG) with 1 yr of treatment and follow-up. Intensive education was given to 77 patients at visits every third month in the outpatient clinic. Eighty CG patients received conventional education and advice at the baseline visit only. All patients received similar inhaled anti-inflammatory treatment. At baseline and at 12 months standard clinical lung functions and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were measured, the latter by the disease-specific St George's Respiratory Questionnaire and the generic 15D. Furthermore, the use of extra health care services, medication and sickness days were recorded. The IG experienced a significant improvement in all clinical and HRQOL outcome variables. The same applied to the CG except spirometric values. The groups differed significantly only in terms of FEV1 (P < 0.05) in favour of the IG. There was a significant difference between the groups in extra costs. The mean cost was FIM 2351 per patient (294 Pounds sterling) in the CG and FIM 2757 per patient (345 Pounds) in the IG, of which the intervention cost was FIM 1978 per patient (247 Pounds). In 1 yr follow-up the intensive education programme did not prove to be cost effective but was dominated by the conventional one regardless of what effectiveness measure was used. Also, a purely monetary cost-benefit calculation showed that the intervention resulted in a negative net benefit (loss) of FIM 406 per patient (51 Pounds). A longer follow-up may be needed before definitive conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of this kind of intervention can be drawn. PMID:9616530
This study has as its objective to identify the scientific studies dealing with the orientation to patients submitted to ostomy published between 1970 to 2004 and to classify them according to quantity, chronology of publication, authors' function, source, kind of study, topic, origin and key words by using the bibliometrics methodology. A total of 27 publications were collected in the DEDALUS databank, in the LILACS and MEDLINE databases and from a professor of the University of Săo Paulo's Nursing School (EEUSP, which is a national reference in ostomy in Brazil). Of these, 19 were written by Brazilians and 8 by non-Brazilians; most were written by nurses and enterostomal therapists. Dissertations, theses, orientation manuals, books and articles were found. The origin of the material was academia, laboratories and hospitals. The 1990s concentrated the largest number of studies in this thematic area. All of them have the purpose of elevating patients' self-esteem in order to make them feel that, even with an ostomy, they can have a normal life. Thus the study concludes that the nurse, as an educator for the ostomy patient, should be acquainted with those publications to improve the assistance he/she provides. PMID:17722390
The authors compare alternative methods of cost estimation for a patient multimedia education (PME) program, using a computerized weight-reduction PME project as an example. Data from the project planning and budgeting process and actual costs of the completed project are analyzed retrospectively to calculate three different estimates-pre-work, post-work, and actual work. Three traditional methods of estimating the cost of computer programs (the lines-of-code, function point, and task ratio analyses) underestimate costs in this example. A commercial program (Cost Xpert) that calculates the cost of developing a graphical user interface provided a better estimate, as did a tally reflecting the complexity and quality of media material in the project. PMID:11230386
Caban, A; Cimino, C; Swencionis, C; Ginsberg, M; Wylie-Rosett, J
The Navy's Voluntary Education (VOLED) program provides off-duty sailors seeking to enhance their professional and personal growth with educational opportunities integrating various continuing education. VOLED's four major components are tuition assistance, the Program for Afloat College Education (PACE), academic skills learning centers, and…
Garcia, Federico E.; Joy, Ernest H.; Reese, David L.
There are several challenges to producing high-quality BMI education programs. These include limited opportunities for hands-on education; a dearth of textbooks targeted toward engineers, especially undergraduate engineers; and, like many fields, advancements so rapid that textbooks and other educational resources become out of date quickly, often before being released. Although there are many challenges to BMI education, there are many
Background Lack of adherence with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is the major cause of treatment failure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. We evaluated the effectiveness of our intensive educational program on adherence in the short term and the long term. Methods The educational program consisted of: intensive training, whereby each patient performed individual and collective sessions of three hours receiving information about obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, familiarizing themselves with CPAP tools, on six consecutive days; long-term training; and support meetings, with reassessment at three months and one year. Results In 202 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, the mean (standard deviation) apnea/hypopnea index was 45 ± 22, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale score was 14 ± 5, and the average titration pressure was 10 ± 2 cm H2O. At three months, 166 patients (82%) used CPAP for an average of 7.3 hours per night. At one year, 162 (80%) used CPAP for about seven hours per night. At two years, 92 patients (43%) used CPAP for about five hours per night. The level of satisfaction remained higher in patients in ventilation. Conclusion Our data show strong adherence to CPAP at three months and one year, with a decrease at two years. The initial educational program seems to play an important role in adherence. This effect is lost in the long term, suggesting that periodic reinforcement of educational support would be helpful.
La Piana, Giuseppe Emanuele; Scartabellati, Alessandro; Chiesa, Lodovico; Ronchi, Luca; Raimondi, Paola; Carro, Miriam A; Zibetti, Silvia; Aiolfi, Stefano
The booklet lists special education materials rated effective by the Teacher Initiated Materials Evaluation (TIME) process. Six hundred eleven special educators completed report forms identifying effective materials. The contents are organized by exceptionality area, level and curricular area. The exceptionality area is broken into the following…
Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Div. of Special Education.
The catalog lists special education materials identified by approximately 500 special educators (through the Teacher Initiated Materials Evaluation Process) as effective with handicapped and gifted children. The evaluation process is built on the premise that teachers in contact with handicapped children know the most effective materials.…
Objective To identify primary care providers’ (PCPs) perceived barriers to educatingpatients about chronic kidney disease (CKD) during routine clinical visits. Methods We conducted three focus groups of eighteen PCPs in Baltimore, Maryland (MD), USA. Focus groups began with the presentation of a hypothetical case of a patient with CKD, followed by open-ended questions to assess providers’ perceived barriers to delivering education about CKD. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded independently by two investigators who identified major themes. Results PCPs reported on several patient, provider and system level barriers contributing to poor education about CKD in primary care that were both common and unique to barriers previously reported in educatingpatients regarding other chronic diseases. Conclusions Interventions designed to address barriers to CKD education identified by PCPs could improve the delivery of education about CKD in primary care settings.
Greer, Raquel C.; Crews, Deidra C.; Boulware, L. Ebony
The ability to perform a laboratory experiment as a nonhands-on observer, such as in a distance education context, has been questioned by some educators who ponder whether distance education lab courses are as effective as those held in a physical laboratory environment. This article examines this issue and compares the performance of distance…
Abdel-Salam, Tarek M.; Kauffmann, Paul J.; Crossman, Gary R.
Presents results of a study of neighborhood effects on educational attainment in Scotland. Reports a significant negative association between deprivation in the home neighborhood and educational attainment. Concludes that policies to alleviate educational disadvantage must focus on social deprivation in the society at large and not just on…
A review of 10 major studies, conducted since 1976, assessing the effectiveness of Title VII bilingual education programs suggest that bilingual education is a viable instructional program for children of limited English-speaking ability. The studies examined are: "Bilingual Education: An Appraisal of Empirical Research," Zappert and Cruz;…
Uses data from a sample of New Zealand twins to test the relationship between education and volunteering, holding unobservable family effects constant. Results show that education significantly reduces the probability of volunteering and the supply of volunteer hours. Volunteering may not be an external benefit of education. (Contains 18…
This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…
Emphasizes the importance of effective communication in ensuring that deaf children have an appropriate and successful physical education experience, looking at issues related to the psychomotor abilities of deaf children, discussing the need for educational interpreters in the physical education class, and explaining the communication…
This document provides guidance on effective practice in delivering personal finance education in secondary schools. It is based on the findings from research carried out by NFER (the National Foundation for Educational Research) on behalf of pfeg (Personal Finance Education Group) as part of an evaluation of Learning Money Matters (LMM). This…
Background: Despite the renewed interest in citizenship education, relatively little is known about effective ways to realize citizenship education in the classroom. In the literature on citizenship education, dialogue is considered to be a crucial element. However, there is very little, if any, empirical research into the different ways to…
Schuitema, Jaap; Veugelers, Wiel; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; ten Dam, Geert
The use of standardized patients (SPs) shows promise in tobacco cessation treatment (TCT) training by providing a simulated clinical environment for dental students to practice counseling skills with individuals trained to portray patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge between dental students who received a lecture and practice sessions with SPs and those who received a lecture only. Dental students in an introductory clinical course at one dental school were invited to participate in the study by completing a pre and post questionnaire. The pre questionnaire was administered to all students prior to a tobacco cessation lecture. Students were group-randomized to either the intervention or control group. The intervention group completed the post questionnaire after the lecture and practice sessions with SPs, and the control group completed it after the lecture only. Of ninety-eight students who attended the lecture and were invited to participate in the study, a total of ninety-four from the two groups (96 percent) provided two linkable questionnaires for analysis. In the results, training with lecture and SPs increased the students' understanding of barriers, subjective norms, perceived skills, self-efficacy, and intentions to provide TCT more than those in the lecture only; however, it did not significantly increase their attitudes and knowledge. These findings suggest that using SPs is a valuable educational method to promote the provision of TCT by dental students and graduates. PMID:24882775
Singleton, Jacqueline A; Carrico, Ruth M; Myers, John A; Scott, David A; Wilson, Richard W; Worth, Celeste T
Identifies barriers and facilitators to the implementation of patienteducation in community pharmacies and classifies these barriers and facilitators into the diffusion stages of Rogers'"Innovations in Organizations" model. Discusses the implementation of patienteducation activities that require individual and organizational change in…
Pronk, M. C. M.; Blom, A. Th. G.; Van Burg, A.; Jonkers, R.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines and recommendations on patienteducation programmes of any type, targeted specially to individuals with OA and which were designed to improve the clinical effectiveness of managing OA. Methods: The Ottawa Methods Group contacted specialized organizations that focus on management for…
Purpose Systematic educational programs and genetic counseling certification courses for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) have not yet been introduced in Korea. We provided and evaluated the effects of genetic counseling education on Korean healthcare providers' knowledge, awareness, and counseling skills for patients at high risk of HBOC. Methods A 3-day educational program was conducted for healthcare providers who were interested in genetic counseling for patients at high risk of HBOC. Participants who completed a knowledge test and satisfaction questionnaire were included in the present sample. Pre-post comparisons were conducted to determine the effects of the intervention. Results Significant differences between preprogram and postprogram knowledge scores were observed (p=0.002). Awareness (p<0.001) and confidence (p<0.001) regarding genetic counseling significantly increased after the training. Doctors and participants with fewer years of work experience performed well on the knowledge test. Previous educational experience was correlated with increased confidence in knowledge and counseling skills. Conclusion Genetic counseling education regarding HBOC improved knowledge and awareness of HBOC and enhanced confidence in the counseling process. The effects varied according to occupation and participants' previous education. The implementation of systematic educational programs that consider participant characteristics may improve the effects of such interventions.
Lee, Jihyoun; Cho, Hyung Jung; Yoo, Han-Wook; Park, Sue K.; Yang, Jae Jeong; Kim, Sung-Won; Kang, Eunyoung; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Lee, Soo-Jung; Suh, Young Jin; Kim, Sung Yong; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Moon, Nan Mo
The need for and challenges of educating and informing patients are well known and these are even greater for patients with low levels of literacy. Furthermore, as the population ages and with the increase in prevalence of chronic diseases where patient self-management is essential to holding disease in abeyance, patienteducation becomes increasingly important. With the advent of electronic medical records, there is an opportunity for automated tools to assist in addressing these challenges. In this paper we report on one approach to recommending relevant educational articles to patients. We attempt to infer the patient’s information needs from his/her electronic medical records and use topic modeling to identify and match topics. A manual evaluation of the articles recommended by the proposed method showed that these articles are significantly more relevant (p < 0.01) to the patient’s disease state than articles selected at random from within the same disease domain.
Kandula, Sasikiran; Curtis, Dorothy; Hill, Brent; Zeng-Treitler, Qing
The Early Patient-Oriented Care Program provides early clinical education for pharmacy students and clinical services for patients. Six students were assigned to visit 12-15 hemodialysis patients monthly under preceptor supervision. Topics covered include approach to patient, medical information retrieval, pharmaceutical care philosophy,…
Grabe, Darren W.; Bailie, George R.; Manley, Harold J.; Yeaw, Barbara F.
Health and social care professionals increasingly use narrative approaches to focus on the patient and to communicate with each other. Both effective interprofessional education (IPE) and practice (IPP) require recognizing the various values and voices of different professions, how they relate to the patient's life story, and how they interact with each other at the level of the healthcare team. This article analyzes and integrates the literature on narrative to explore: self-narrative as an expression of one's professional identity; the co-creation of the patient's narrative by the professional and the patient; and the interprofessional multi-vocal narrative discourse as co-constructed by members of the healthcare team. Using a narrative approach to thinking about professional identity, provider-patient communication, and interprofessional teamwork expands our thinking about both IPE and IPP by providing new insights into the nature of professional practice based on relationships to oneself, the patient, and others on the team. How professionals define themselves, gather and present information from the patient, and communicate as members of a clinical team all have important dimensions that can be revealed by a narrative approach. Implications and conclusions for the further development of the narrative approach in IPE and IPP are offered. PMID:24224865
The purpose of the present study was to explore the self-learning experiences of depression patients on interactive multimedia education program. Qualitative in-depth interviews were employed. Fourteen patients with a first episode of major depression were recruited from a psychiatric outpatient department. Explanations of the purposes of the exercise and on-the-spot teaching were provided by the researcher before the study began. A tape-recorded, semi-structured interview format was employed after two weeks. Data analysis was performed in the framework of line-by-line content, contextual and thematic analysis. Eight subjects successfully completed the entire learning activities. Content analysis revealed 4 main aspects of successful self-learning experiences: the triggering of learning motivation, the enjoyment of self-paced learning, support for the effects of learning materials, and the gaining of self- awareness and changes. The factors influencing learning performance were related to: environmental impact, the degree of familiarity with traditional learning, possession or non-possession of the necessary computer operation skills, and good computer support. However, the findings provide a preliminary understanding of the application of interactive multimedia education programs in terms of self-learning outcomes and recognizing key elements of learning impediments among the study sample. A larger sample size with different clinical contexts is recommended to determine the effect and generalizability for future research. Furthermore, the creation of a computerized learning environment with different educational styles is crucial to patients' success in obtaining depression-related information and understanding effective adaptive skills. PMID:15619180
The University of South Carolina (USC) School of Medicine (SOM) librarians have partnered with eight free medical clinics in South Carolina to enhance patienteducation efforts. During these outreach projects, project librarians purchased and installed computers, projectors, screens, LCD monitors, and touch-screen information kiosks equipment in each clinic, conducted MedlinePlus training sessions with clinic staff, and added links to MedlinePlus on the patienteducation area of the clinics’ websites. As a result, the free medical clinics incorporated MedlinePlus into their patienteducation classes or use the self-playing tutorials in patient waiting rooms.
McMullen, Karen D.; McConnaughy, Rozalynd P.; Riley, Ruth A.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is complex to manage, especially when a substitutive treatment has to be implemented. Strict medical follow-up is mandatory but not sufficient to provide optimal care to the CKD patients. Educational intervention gives more skills to the patients to cope with this chronic disease. In this approach, physicians and nurses help patients to have a greater acceptance of their illness and make their treatment their own. Therapeutic education is part of this patient-centred approach. Peer counselling is also used in our program as well as an educative journal. PMID:19317314
Martin, P-Y; Droulez, M-G; Sexton-Dobby, A; Marangon, N; Hadaya, K; Saudan, P; Lacroix, M; Stoermann-Chopard, C; Bourquin, V; Gombert-Jupille, B
As a result of educational reforms, students with disabilities are educated in inclusive settings to a greater degree than ever before. Regrettably, many teachers report that they feel unprepared to work effectively with these students. Because teacher effectiveness is strongly linked to student outcomes, these perceptions of inadequacy are…
Electronic mail and other telecommunications processes may prove to be valuable tools for the active involvement of educators in legislative and policy development. Involving educators in regulations development could reduce implementation problems significantly. Using electronic media to disseminate policy information to educational agencies and…
OBJECTIVE.National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute clinical practice guidelines strongly recommend that health professionals educate children with asthma and their caregivers about self-management. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the effects of pediatric asthma education on hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and urgent physician visits for asthma. PATIENTS AND METHODS.Inclusion criteria included enrollment of children aged 2 to 17 years with
Janet M. Coffman; Michael D. Cabana; Edward H. Yelin
The technological revolution of the 20th century has changed not only the life style but also the human interrelations, including the physician-patient relationship. The old, primarily patriarchal, system (in which the patient trusted completely the physician and followed religiously his commandments) evolved into the current system in which the patient is an active partner in medical care. Patienteducation is increasingly recognized as an integral part of the therapy. The objectives of therapeutical education rely essentially in the improvement of the patient knowledge and skills concerning the disease and its treatment in order to harmonize his life style with the restrains of the illness. Therapeutical education must be complex, individualized, repeated, motivating, and controlled. In chronic diseases, both the health provider and the patient are in front of a permanent challenge. The educational process is in continuous movement, liable to permanent improvement. PMID:17595841
Background Low back pain remains a costly quality-of-life-related health problem. Microdiscectomy is often the surgical procedure of choice for a symptomatic, single-level, lumbar disc herniation in younger and middle-aged adults. The question of whether a post-microdiscectomy exercise program enhances function, quality of life, and disability status has not been systematically explored. Thus, the overall purpose of this study is to assess immediate and long-term outcomes of an exercise program, developed at University of Southern California (USC), targeting the trunk and lower extremities (USC Spine Exercise Program) for persons who have undergone a single-level microdiscectomy for the first time. Methods/design One hundred individuals between the ages of 18 and 60 who consent to undergo lumbar microdiscectomy will be recruited to participate in this study. Subjects will be randomly assigned to one of two groups: 1) one session of back care education, or 2) a back care education session followed by the 12-week USC Spine Exercise Program. The outcome examiners (evaluators), as well as the data managers, will be blinded to group allocation. Education will consist of a one-hour "one-on-one" session with the intervention therapist, guided by an educational booklet specifically designed for post-microdiscectomy care. This session will occur four to six weeks after surgery. The USC Spine Exercise Program consists of two parts: back extensor strength and endurance, and mat and upright therapeutic exercises. This exercise program is goal-oriented, performance-based, and periodized. It will begin two to three days after the education session, and will occur three times a week for 12 weeks. Primary outcome measures include the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, SF-36® quality of life assessment, Subjective Quality of Life Scale, 50-foot Walk, Repeated Sit-to-Stand, and a modified Sorensen test. The outcome measures in the study will be assessed before and after the 12-week post-surgical intervention program. Long-term follow up assessments will occur every six months beginning one year after surgery and ending five years after surgery. Immediate and long-term effects will be assessed using repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). If significant interactions are found, one-way ANOVAs will be performed followed by post-hoc testing to determine statistically significant pairwise comparisons. Discussion We have presented the rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a treatment regimen for people who have undergone a single-level lumbar microdiscectomy.
Selkowitz, David M; Kulig, Kornelia; Poppert, Elizabeth M; Flanagan, Sean P; Matthews, Ndidiamaka D; Beneck, George J; Popovich, John M; Lona, Jose R; Yamada, Kimiko A; Burke, Wendy S; Ervin, Carolyn; Powers, Christopher M
Objective This paper describes the rationale and design of a theory-informed patienteducation programme addressing cardiovascular disease for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to illustrate how theory can explicitly be translated into practice. Methods A steering group of rheumatologists and psychologists was convened to design the programme. The Common Sense Model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Stages of Change Model were used to underpin the topics and activities in the programme. User involvement was sought. The programme was formatted into a manual and the reading age of the materials was calculated. Results A small group 8-week programme was designed. The structure of the patienteducation programme, including topics, underlying psychological theory as well as behaviour change techniques, is described. Conclusion This patienteducation programme addresses a currently unmet educational need for patients with RA and uses theory to design, not just evaluate, the programme. This will allow both enhanced interpretation of the results when the programme is implemented and replication by other units if successful. Practice implications The actual design and detail of education programmes merit wider dissemination to facilitate progress in the process of development and application.
John, Holly; Hale, Elizabeth D.; Bennett, Paul; Treharne, Gareth J.; Carroll, Douglas; Kitas, George D.
Patienteducation in asthma management is important; however, there is little known about the characteristics of patients receiving asthma education or how often primary care physicians provide it. The objective of the study was to identify the characteristics of patients receiving asthma education. It was a cross-sectional study using 2001…
Shah, Shaival S.; Lutfiyya, May Nawal; McCullough, Joel Emery; Henley, Eric; Zeitz, Howard Jerome; Lipsky, Martin S.
American educational leaders and philosophers have long valued schooling for its role in preparing the nation’s youth to be civically engaged citizens. Numerous studies have found a positive relationship between education and subsequent civic participation. However, little is known about possible variation in effects by selection into higher education, a critical omission considering education’s expressed role as a key mechanism for integrating disadvantaged individuals into civic life. I disaggregate effects and examine whether civic returns to higher education are largest for disadvantaged low likelihood or advantaged high likelihood college goers. I find evidence for significant effect heterogeneity: civic returns to college are greatest among individuals who have a low likelihood for college completion. Returns decrease as the propensity for college increases.
The American Psychosocial Oncology Society and the Individual Cancer Assistance Network have launched the online continuing education accredited program "ICAN: Distress Management for Oncology Nursing" to address the ability of oncology nurses to assess, treat, and refer patients with a range of psychosocial problems. An important goal of the program is to reduce traditional barriers to psychosocial oncology education by providing the oncology nursing community with easy access to information from experts in the field. There are 4 Internet webcasts: Nurse's Role in Recognizing Distress in Patients and Caregivers; Assessment Recommendations; Treatment Strategies; and Principles and Guidelines for Psychotherapy and Referral. The program examines the prevalence and dimensions of patient distress and offers instruction on how to effectively integrate screening tools, such as the Distress Thermometer and Problem Check List, into clinical practice. It provides details on relevant interventions and referral algorithms based on the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines for Distress Management. It explores the devastating impact of psychological distress on quality of life, and the unique position of nurses in busy inpatient settings, outpatient clinics, and offices to detect, intervene, and refer to appropriate services. Providing information over the Internet addresses common barriers to learning, including schedule and time constraints. PMID:18987517
From the mid-1950s to the 1960s, the Government of Peru undertook a major expansion of public education, increasing the number of schools, requiring primary schools that offered an incomplete cycle to add grades, and increasing school inputs (principally teachers and textbooks). The paper examines the effects of Peru's educational policies, and the effects of family background and community characteristics on
The issue of teacher effectiveness has risen rapidly to the top of the education policy agenda, and the federal government and states are considering bold steps to improve teacher and leader effectiveness. One place to look for ideas is the experiences of high-performing education systems around the world. Finland, Ontario, and Singapore all have…
This article explores the perceived effectiveness of personal, social, health and economic (PSHE) education in primary and secondary schools. It outlines the relationship between perceived effectiveness and a range of explanatory factors, linking these to the values and ethos of schools, differing views of the purposes of PSHE education, and…
Effective government relations is the key to meeting the fiscal and legislative needs of public education. This fastback is designed to help educators establish an effective government-relations program. It offers suggestions for identifying legislative priorities; forming internal and external networks and coalitions in support of the legislative…
As adult learners and educators pioneer the use of technology in the new century, attention has been focused on developing strategic approaches to effectively integrate adult learning and technology in different learning environments. "Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for EffectiveEducation: Strategic Approaches" provides innovative…
This article seeks to describe attributes of effective health educators by presenting the interrelationships between Stephen Covey's "Seven Habits of Highly Effective People" and the responsibilities and competencies proposed by the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing, Inc. A brief historical account of key figures and events…
This paper examines educational outcomes of pupils selected to secondary school types by different tracking regimes in a German state: Pupils are alternatively streamed after fourth grade or after sixth grade. Regression results indicate that, estimated on the mean, there are no negative effects of later tracking on educational outcomes in the middle of secondary school. Positive effects are observed
Aims To investigate whether education level of family members predicts all-cause and cardiovascular death and initial-episode peritonitis in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Methods A total of 2264 patients on chronic PD were collected from seven centers affiliated with the Socioeconomic Status on the Outcome of Peritoneal Dialysis (SSOP) Study. All demographic, socioeconomic and laboratory data of patients and the education level of all family members were recorded at baseline. Multivariate Cox regression was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and initial-episode peritonitis with adjustments for recognized traditional factors. Results There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between patients with (n?=?1752) and without (n?=?512) complete education information. According to the highest education level of patients' family, included 1752 patients were divided into four groups, i.e. elementary or lower (15%), middle (27%), high (24%) and more than high school (34%). The family highest education (using elementary school or lower group as reference, hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval of middle school group, high school group and more than high school group was 0.68[0.48–0.96], 0.64[0.45–0.91], 0.66[0.48–0.91], respectively) rather than their average education level or patients' or spouse's education was significantly associated with the higher mortality. Neither patients' nor family education level did correlate to the risk for cardiovascular death or initial-episode peritonitis. Conclusions Family members' education level was found to be a novel predictor of PD outcome. Family, as the main source of health care providers, should be paid more attention in our practice.
The purpose of this study was to investigate advocacy influences that may impact school arts programs using data from the 2009-10 National Center for Education Statistics elementary and secondary school surveys on arts education. Regression models were employed to assess the relative effectiveness of variables representing community support,…
This study investigates the possibilities of estimating value added as a performance indicator in senior secondary vocational education. Value added is interesting in this context because it is considered as a reliable tool for comparing the effectiveness of educational institutions. Although value added indicators have been developed since the…
Four major component areas of the Hazard (Kentucky) Educational Region were sampled using questionnaires, tests, and interviews in an effort to assess the effects of a regional career education program. The community component, randomly selected to achieve a five percent representative sample, was examined for major variables associated with the…
The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in effectiveness between comprehensive sexuality abstinence-based education and abstinence-only education. A survey was developed and distributed to over 140 individuals via a variety of sources such as: (1) the researcher's e-mail lists; (2) a group of City Core/City Year volunteers; (3) a…
Musculoskeletal injuries caused by patient lifting and transfers are a concern to health care workers. The Safe Patient Handling Act calls for all health care organizations to move to mechanical assistance from previous manual methods of transfers. This research analyzed two different educational programs that addressed safe patient handling for…
The shift in patterns of disease toward chronic illness necessitates greater patient participation in its management and in their own rehabilitation, and they require greater social support over longer peiods. Patient activation, or the enhancement of patient and support group involvement in personal health care through teaching management techniques and problem-solving skills, has emerged in health education in response to
Donald E. Morisky; Michael H. Bowler; Jack S. Finlay
This article describes how, by using a paper-and-pencil, multiple-risk-factor assessment instrument referred to as the Heart Health Assessment Questionnaire, the specific educational needs of an aging veteran population were more clearly identified. Findings are discussed in relation to the pivotal role of the health education professional for…
Stewardship is the name given to a theory and model for educational leadership and administration developed by the Department of Educational Administration at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah. In the stewardship theory, the job of the personnel administrator is to make it safe for others to find their own best ways of doing things to…
Career and technical education (CTE) teachers, through ongoing professional development, gain a deeper understanding of the content they teach, stay informed of the latest research, and ensure that the skills they teach are aligned to the most current workplace standards. Professional development has long been a part of educators' lives, but the…
The main aim of this research is to better understand and measure students' attitudes and perceptions towards the importance of mobile learning in distance education. Results of this survey clearly indicate that facilitating mobile learning can improve the entire distance education by enhancing ways of communication among distance learners, tutors…
This study addressed whether the educational impact of a zoo visit can be enhanced through the provision of appropriate instructional supports such as preparatory trainings or orientations. One important function of the educational process, in contrast to providing direct information or skill development, is to make the learner more sensitive to…
This article includes an introduction to the current approach to dietary treatment of diabetes. Are provided the nutritional recommendations to primary secondary and tertiary prevention of diabetes, as recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) adapted to different types of diabetes, treatments and special situations. Secondly, it introduces the concept of Therapeutic Education, especially education and nutritional diet for persons with diabetes and their families, the educational objectives in food according to type of diabetes type 1 or type 2 in different treatment modalities and educational strategies recommended by the Diabetes Education Study Group (wear) of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) to facilitate better adherence to dietary treatment. PMID:21776930
The purpose of this study was to test the effect of cardiac educational program on the level of knowledge and adherence to healthy lifestyle among patients with coronary artery disease in the north of Jordan. Pretest-posttest design was used. Eighty-four patients completed the posttest questionnaire. Knowledge and adherence to healthy lifestyle were measured at baseline and at 1 month after the application of the program. Paired t-test was used to analyze the data. The results showed that the change in the mean knowledge scores (10.50), p < .01 was statistically significant 1 month after the application of the program. In addition, the change in the mean adherence to healthy lifestyle scores (33.30), p < .01 was statistically significant 1 month after the application of the cardiac educational program. Implementing cardiac educational programs help enhance knowledge and adherence to healthy lifestyle among patients with coronary artery disease in north of Jordan. PMID:23666931
In this article, we examine the topic of patient participation in health care and report on how we have drawn on the concept of patient expertise to produce a new kind of information booklet for chronic arthritis patients. The booklet is patient-generated and contains the illness narratives of patients with three kinds of arthritis. The booklet draws upon the knowledge
Objective: This study aimed to explore the effect of medical education on students' attitudes toward psychiatry and psychiatric patients, and examined the usefulness of a new evaluation tool: the 6-item Psychiatric Experience, Attitudes, and Knowledge (PEAK-6). Method: Authors studied the attitudes of 116 medical students toward psychiatry…
Objective: To evaluate the benefits of using computer-based interventions to provide patienteducation to individuals with hypertension. Methods: MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, ERIC, EMBASE, and PsychINFO were searched from 1995 to April 2009 using keywords related to "computers," "hypertension," "education," and "clinical trial." Additional…
Most health-related literature is written above the reading ability of the lay audience; however, no studies to date have identified the impact of medical terms on readability of health education materials. The purpose of this study was to identify whether there was a change in calculated reading levels of patienteducation brochures after medical terms were removed from analysis passages.
Patients with epilepsy experience memory problems, but there have been few attempts to provide and evaluate the effectiveness of memory training. We designed a 6-week, group-based, psychoeducation and strategy course that was evaluated using a waitlist crossover design, with three assessments conducted 12 weeks apart. Thirty-one patients with a history of seizures participated. Significant gains were found on tests of anterograde (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test) and appointment memory. In addition, patients reported using more strategies and experiencing fewer prospective memory difficulties in daily life. Memory was more likely to improve in participants who were younger, less educated, and less depressed. Moreover, lower baseline memory, but better attention corresponded to better outcome. Of the clinical variables related to epilepsy, only number of anticonvulsant medications was found to be associated with outcome. Our study provides evidence that a relatively short intervention can improve memory functioning in patients with epilepsy. PMID:21803657
Radford, Kylie; Lah, Suncica; Thayer, Zoë; Miller, Laurie A
Objective. To evaluate the physiological effects of decannulation on breathing patterns and respiratory mechanics by comparing mouth breathing (MB) to tracheal breathing (TB) in tracheostomized patients. Design and setting. Prospective cross-over study in a critical and neuromuscular care unit. Patients and methods. Nine consecutive neuromuscular tracheostomized patients. Flow, esophageal pressure, gastric pressure, expiratory gas, and arterial blood gases were measured
Karim Chadda; Bruno Louis; Lamine Benaďssa; Djillali Annane; Philippe Gajdos; Jean Claude Raphaël; Frédéric Lofaso
British government proposals for community care of psychiatric patients require a response from adult educators about the need for learning opportunities both inside and outside institutions for people with mental health problems. (SK)
Patient-centered cancer care has become a priority in the oncology field. Increasing efforts to train oncologists in communication skills have led to a growing literature on patient-centered cancer education. In addition, systems approaches have led to an increased emphasis on the concept of teams as an organizing framework for cancer care. In this essay, we examine issues involved in educating teams to provide patient-centered cancer care. In the process, we question the applicability of a tightly coordinated ‘team’ concept, and suggest the concept of a ‘care community’ as a more achievable ideal for the way that cancer care is commonly delivered. We discuss the implications that this has for cancer communication education, and propose three principles to guide the development of educational interventions aimed at increasing patient-centeredness in cancer care delivery systems.
Haidet, Paul; Fecile, Mary Lynn; West, Heather F.; Teal, Cayla R.
Background: The high frequency of hemoglobinopathies in Brazil constitutes a public health problem and thus educational and preventive measures are necessary to reduce the incidence. Genetic guidance, a modality of genetic counseling, and family screening are measures that can assist in reproductive decisions and mitigate clinical, psychological and social problems of families with these disorders. Objetive: The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of educational and preventive measures for hemoglobinopathies using genetic guidance and laboratory screening of families. Methods: The diagnoses of patients with hemoglobinopathies were confirmed and then the level of knowledge about their disease was evaluated and genetic guidance was provided. Three months later, the level of assimilated information of these patients was evaluated. In addition, laboratory diagnosis of family members was carried out. Results: Diagnosis of sickle cell anemia was confirmed for most patients. Moreover, the majority of the patients who had a low level of knowledge before genetic guidance (68.8%) demonstrated a higher level of assimilated information after the process (81.8%). Almost 70% of the family members had hemoglobin changes and some had hemoglobinopathies(2.6%). They were duly informed about the results of the examinations, which made it possible to investigate further. Conclusion: Genetic guidance and family screening were effective preventive and educational measures that improved the quality of life of patients, preventing complications and sequels and allowed the referral of those who may transmit altered genes for clinical diagnosis and to genetic counseling services.
Ferreira, Tatiana Dela-Savia; Freire, Adriana Sousa; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisangela de Paula; Garcia-Zapata, Marco Tulio Antonio
In this paper, the authors argue that patient satisfaction is an insufficient measure of the quality of the doctor-patient relationship. While shown to have a salutary effect on patient anxiety concerning illness and treatment, the only other significant outcome associated with levels of satisfaction is utilization behavior. This is not surprising, the authors argue, since prevailing conceptualizations of patient satisfaction
Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the net effects of nurse practice environments on nurse and patient outcomes after accounting for nurse staffing and education. Background Staffing and education have well-documented associations with patient outcomes, but evidence on the effect of care environments on outcomes has been more limited. Methods Data from 10,184 nurses and 232,342 surgical patients in 168 Pennsylvania hospitals were analyzed. Care environments were measured using the practice environment scales of the Nursing Work Index. Outcomes included nurse job satisfaction, burnout, intent to leave, and reports of quality of care, as well as mortality and failure to rescue in patients. Results Nurses reported more positive job experiences and fewer concerns with care quality, and patients had significantly lower risks of death and failure to rescue in hospitals with better care environments. Conclusion Care environment elements must be optimized alongside nurse staffing and education to achieve high quality of care.
Aiken, Linda H.; Clarke, Sean P.; Sloane, Douglas M.; Lake, Eileen T.; Cheney, Timothy
Describes a study conducted of adult distance learners involved in a graduate special education teacher education program delivered via televised instruction. Focus group methodologies and data analysis found instructor skills, interaction, group dynamics, and site facilitators to be critical elements in effective televised instruction. Discusses…
This article reviews the (quasi)experimental research of the past decade on the learning effects of computer simulations in science education. The focus is on two questions: how use of computer simulations can enhance traditional education, and how computer simulations are best used in order to improve learning processes and outcomes. We report on…
Rutten, Nico; van Joolingen, Wouter R.; van der Veen, Jan T.
An examination of the effects of economic crisis on women in higher education in Europe, Australia, the United States, and Japan looked at women's access to higher education as students, choice of subjects, employment prospects, and employment as faculty, finding that recent trends toward equalization are in jeopardy. (MSE)
This paper reviews the results of several studies that examined the educationaleffects of Sesame Street. Three studies by the Educational Testing Service on Sesame Street's first two seasons determined that among children who watched Sesame Street, those who watched the most scored highest on an achievement measure; frequent viewers made more…
Education, like other public services, is now characterized by a range of structural realignments, new purchaser-provider relationships, and new management/political coalitions. The school-effectiveness movement exemplifies the new managerialism in education, part of an ideological and technological process to industrialize school productivity.…
Background: While the field of speech-language pathology and medical education both provide training to improve the abilities of their students to communicate with patients, these fields rarely interact or collaborate with one another to maximise the effectiveness of this training. With a recent emphasis on the communication needs of patients with aphasia and other communication disorders in healthcare, and barriers
Michael I. Burns; Carolyn R. Baylor; Megan A. Morris; Thomas E. McNalley; Kathryn M. Yorkston
We sought to longitudinally evaluate the potential association of educational level with performance on verbal and nonverbal tasks in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated patients with MCI, age >50 years, no medication intake, absent vascular risk factors, and no lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each patient underwent a clinical assessment packet and a series of neuropsychological tests of the language and constructional praxis subtests of Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMGOG) and the Boston naming test (BNT), at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Educational levels were defined taking into account the total years of education, the school level, and diplomas. MCI patients with low education level showed a stepwise reduction in scores of naming objects (NO; P = 0.009), definition (DF; P = 0.012), language (LT; P = 0.021), constructional praxis (CD; P = 0.022), confrontation naming skills (BXB; P = 0.033), phonemic help (BFB; P = 0.041), and BNT (P = 0.002). Analysis of covariance, controlling for baseline scores, showed that education was associated with NO score (P = 0.002), DF score (P = 0.005), LT (P = 0.008), CD score (P = 0.008), BXB score (44.36 ± 1.84, P = 0.0001), BFB (P = 0.022), and BNT (P = 0.004). Our findings indicate that education appeared to affect verbal and nonverbal task performance in MCI patients. Despite the fact that higher educatedpatients are more acquainted with the tasks, slower deterioration in consecutive follow-up examinations could be explained by the cognitive reserve theory. The potential association of this protective effect with delayed onset of symptoms deserves further investigation. PMID:23139907
We sought to longitudinally evaluate the potential association of educational level with performance on verbal and nonverbal tasks in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated patients with MCI, age >50 years, no medication intake, absent vascular risk factors, and no lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each patient underwent a clinical assessment packet and a series of neuropsychological tests of the language and constructional praxis subtests of Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMGOG) and the Boston naming test (BNT), at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Educational levels were defined taking into account the total years of education, the school level, and diplomas. MCI patients with low education level showed a stepwise reduction in scores of naming objects (NO; P = 0.009), definition (DF; P = 0.012), language (LT; P = 0.021), constructional praxis (CD; P = 0.022), confrontation naming skills (BXB; P = 0.033), phonemic help (BFB; P = 0.041), and BNT (P = 0.002). Analysis of covariance, controlling for baseline scores, showed that education was associated with NO score (P = 0.002), DF score (P = 0.005), LT (P = 0.008), CD score (P = 0.008), BXB score (44.36 ± 1.84, P = 0.0001), BFB (P = 0.022), and BNT (P = 0.004). Our findings indicate that education appeared to affect verbal and nonverbal task performance in MCI patients. Despite the fact that higher educatedpatients are more acquainted with the tasks, slower deterioration in consecutive follow-up examinations could be explained by the cognitive reserve theory. The potential association of this protective effect with delayed onset of symptoms deserves further investigation.
Background: The burden of diabetes and its foot complications is increasing in India. Prevention of these complications through foot care education should be explored. The objective of our study was to assess the risk factors of poor diabetic foot care and to find the effectiveness of health education in improving foot care practice among diabetes patients. Materials and Methods: A structured pre-tested questionnaire was administered to the outpatients of a rural health center with type 2 diabetes. Awareness regarding diabetes, care of diabetes and foot care practice ware assessed and scored. Individual and group health education focusing on foot care was performed. Foot care practice was reassessed after 2 weeks of education. Results: Only 54% were aware that diabetes could lead to reduced foot sensation and foot ulcers. Nearly 53% and 41% of the patients had good diabetes awareness and good diabetes care respectively. Only 22% of the patients had their feet examined by a health worker or doctor. The patients with poor, satisfactory and good practice scores were 44.7%, 35.9% and 19.4% respectively. Low education status, old age and low awareness regarding diabetes were the risk factors for poor practice of foot care. Average score for practice of foot care improved from 5.90 ± 1.82 to 8.0 ± 1.30 after 2 weeks of health education. Practice related to toe space examination, foot inspection and foot wear inspection improved maximally. Conclusion: Foot care education for diabetics in a primary care setting improves their foot care practice and is likely to be effective in reducing the burden of diabetic foot ulcer.
Managing diabetes can be a daunting task for patients with cancer. Empowerment-based diabetes education and motivational interviewing are complementary approaches. Oncology nurses may feel unprepared to teach patients and their families about self-care for diabetes, but they provide individualized information on symptom management of cancer throughout hospitalization and at discharge. The essential self-care issues include food, exercise, medication, blood glucose monitoring, prevention, recognition and treatment of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and when and how to get additional medical and educational support. This patient-centered model of diabetes education differs from the older “compliance” model that covers many universal rules for all patients, which are predetermined by the nurse. Informing nurses about their role in care of patients with cancer and diabetes is critical.
Leak, Ashley; Davis, Ellen D.; Houchin, Laura B.; Mabrey, Melanie
Evolving professional, social and political pressures highlight the importance of lifelong learning for clinicians. Continuing medical education (CME) facilitates lifelong learning and is a fundamental factor in the maintenance of certification. The type of CME differs between surgical and non-surgical specialties. CME methods of teaching include lectures, workshops, conferences and simulation training. Interventions involving several modalities, instructional techniques and multiple exposures are more effective. The beneficial effects of CME can be maintained in the long term and can improve clinical outcome. However, quantitative evidence on validity, reliability, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of various methods is lacking. This is especially evident in urology. The effectiveness of CME interventions on maintenance of certification is also unknown. Currently, many specialists fulfil mandatory CME credit requirements opportunistically, therefore erroneously equating number of hours accumulated with competence. New CME interventions must emphasize actual performance and should correlate with clinical outcomes. Improved CME practice must in turn lead to continuing critical reflection, practice modification and implementation with a focus towards excellent patient care. PMID:24032064
Ahmed, Kamran; Wang, Tim T; Ashrafian, Hutan; Layer, Graham T; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos
Evolving professional, social and political pressures highlight the importance of lifelong learning for clinicians. Continuing medical education (CME) facilitates lifelong learning and is a fundamental factor in the maintenance of certification. The type of CME differs between surgical and non-surgical specialties. CME methods of teaching include lectures, workshops, conferences and simulation training. Interventions involving several modalities, instructional techniques and multiple exposures are more effective. The beneficial effects of CME can be maintained in the long term and can improve clinical outcome. However, quantitative evidence on validity, reliability, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of various methods is lacking. This is especially evident in urology. The effectiveness of CME interventions on maintenance of certification is also unknown. Currently, many specialists fulfil mandatory CME credit requirements opportunistically, therefore erroneously equating number of hours accumulated with competence. New CME interventions must emphasize actual performance and should correlate with clinical outcomes. Improved CME practice must in turn lead to continuing critical reflection, practice modification and implementation with a focus towards excellent patient care.
Ahmed, Kamran; Wang, Tim T.; Ashrafian, Hutan; Layer, Graham T.; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos
Objective The aim of this study is to assess the effect of different levels of health education on diabetes outcome among patients visiting the Primary Health Care (PHC) Centers in Al-Qassim Region. Methods This study was conducted between October 2012 and March2013. Baseline HbA1C results recorded for all those included in the study, After 6 months of health education a well-constructed questionnaire for each other diabetic patient (male or female) visiting the PHC Center, last reading for HbA1c for each patient recorded.. The majority of the health education services included in this study was related to diabetes. Sample size calculated and increased to 420 to account for the design effect. Data entry and analysis was carried out using SPSS (version 17 for Windows. Results Male respondent to a self-administered questionnaire is 70.1 %. Our study revealed that more exposure to all levels of health education will result in more to control diabetes compare to one or two types of health education. HbA1c level improved after health education. Conclusion Improving the communication skills and health awareness among service providers in in PHC Centers through well designed programs involving health educators will improve the outcome among patients with diabetes mellitus and population in general. Moreover, medical students should be involved in such activities of health education in the community related health problems.
Abstract The purpose of this retrospective qualitative case report is to describe how a case-based, virtual patient interprofessional education (IPE) simulation activity was utilized to achieve physician assistant (PA), physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) student IPE learning outcomes. Following completion of a virtual patient case, 30 PA, 46 PT and 24 OT students were required to develop a comprehensive, written treatment plan and respond to reflective questions. A qualitative analysis of the submitted written assignment was used to determine whether IPE learning objectives were met. Student responses revealed three themes that supported the learning objectives of the IPE experience: benefits of collaborative care, role clarification and relevance of the IPE experience for future practice. A case-based, IPE simulation activity for physician assistant and rehabilitation students using a computerized virtual patient software program effectively facilitated achievement of the IPE learning objectives, including development of greater student awareness of other professions and ways in which collaborative patient care can be provided. PMID:24593330
Shoemaker, Michael J; Platko, Christina M; Cleghorn, Susan M; Booth, Andrew
Without appropriate educational preparation, nurse managers may not have the competencies to effectively manage accelerated change that is so pervasive on the front lines of healthcare organizations in transformation. Part 1 of this article describes the findings from an extensive literature review of nursing, business, and higher education literature on the subject of change management. A comprehensive reference list is provided. Part 2 reports the results of a Delphi study from which baccalaureate-prepared nurse manager experts and nurse educator experts in baccalaureate nursing programs validated what linear and nonlinear change management concepts they believed were relevant in managing change in today's dynamic environment. With key roles as organizational change agents, staff development educators and administrators can use the validated concepts to develop educational offerings to promote effective change management. PMID:11912821
Education has a protective effect against cognitive deficits following various forms of brain insult. Professional fighting (boxing and mixed martial arts) provides a model for assessing the impact of cumulative brain injuries on cognition and brain health. In the current cross-sectional observational study, we explore whether education would be protective against cognitive loss in fighters. We tested 141 professional fighters using a computerized neurocognitive battery, in addition to structural MRI. We used automated segmentation software to compute the volumes of various brain structures. We found fighters with high school education or less to show more associations between fight exposure and cognitive test scores. The relationship between brain structure volume and exposure did not differ based on education. These results are interpreted as putatively showing a protective effect of education on functional integrity in fighters, although longitudinal data and a larger sample size are required to further understand this relationship. PMID:24191967
Banks, Sarah J; Obuchowski, Nancy; Shin, Wanyong; Lowe, Mark; Phillips, Michael; Modic, Michael; Bernick, Charles
An important role of the paediatrician is that of a teacher - every clinician is an educator to patients and their families. This education, however, often occurs under difficult or time-pressured learning conditions. The authors present principles derived from three basic theories of human cognition that may help to guide clinicians' instruction of parents and patients. Cognitive load theory holds that an individual's capacity to process information is finite. By controlling information flow rate, decreasing reliance on working memory and removing extraneous cognitive load, learning is improved. Dual code theory suggests that humans have separate cognitive 'channels' for text/audio information versus visual information. By constructing educational messages that take advantage of both channels simultaneously, information uptake may be improved. Multimedia theory is based on the notion that there is an optimal blend of media to accomplish a given learning objective. The authors suggest seven practical strategies that clinicians may use to improve patienteducation. PMID:24665218
Pusic, Martin V; Ching, Kevin; Yin, Hsiang Shonna; Kessler, David
To assess the risk involved, an attempt was made to calculate the effective dose delivered to patients undergoing radiographic examinations. The examination parameters of 704 radiographs were used to calculate the average effective dose for each one of 40 different types of radiographic examinations and the results were tabulated. A sample of 2571 radiographs representing 1586 patients, obtained over a period of 2 weeks, was used to calculate the dose administered to this group. It was found that the average effective dose/radiograph was 549 muSv and the average effective dose/patient was 890 muSv, taking into account the fact that, on average, there were 1.62 exposures per patient. These figures were extrapolated to the total number of patients going through the radiology department giving a total dose of 59.4 Sv each year, causing an average annual risk of about three malignancies. PMID:8032810
Applies research on the instructional effectiveness of science-oriented field trips to humane education programs. Advocates the use of animal-related field trips and provides guidelines for excursion activities. (ML)
Background: We reviewed psycho-educational intervention studies that were designed to reduce interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) in adult hemodialysis patients. Our goals were to critique research methods, describe the effectiveness of tested interventions, and make recommendations for future research.Methods: Medline, PsychInfo, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Applied Health (CINAHL) databases were searched to identify empirical work. Each study was
Active learning techniques encourage students to participate in acquiring skills and knowledge. One technique that encourages active learning is patient simulation. Patient simulation tools can range from simple part-task trainers to complex high-fidelity simulators. A variety of human simulators can be used to teach basic patient care skills or more complex skills such as trauma management. Simulation research has demonstrated
To determine current practices in the disposal and handling of home medical care (HMC) waste, a questionnaire was mailed to 1965 offices nationwide. Of the office that responded, 1283 offices were analyzed. Offices were classified by management configuration: those attached to hospitals were classified as "attached offices" and others as "independent offices". More nurses from attached offices recovered medical waste from patients' homes than those from independent offices. Most nurses educated their patients on how to store HMC waste in their homes (79.3% of total) and on how to separate HMC waste (76.5% of total). On the other hand, only around half of nurses (47.3% from attached offices and 53.2% from independent offices) educated their patients on where to dispose of their HMC waste. 66.0% of offices replied that patients had separated their waste appropriately. The need for patienteducation has emerged in recent years, with education for nurses under the diverse conditions of HMC being a key factor in patienteducation. PMID:24814769
Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus, particularly type 2, is increasing in the general population. Similarly, the incidence of patients with diabetes mellitus who develop end-stage renal disease has increased concomitantly in the dialysis facility to 44% of patients starting dialysis therapy with diabetes mellitus as their primary diagnosis. The aim of this study is to determine whether intensive education
Stephen D. McMurray; Greg Johnson; Stephen Davis; Kathryn McDougall
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the readability of written patienteducation materials used to teach patients about the prevention and care of skin and pressure ulcers. Other design characteristics of the materials including organization, writing style, appearance, and appeal also were assessed. Design: This study used a nonexperimental, descriptive design. Setting and Stimulus Materials: Ten pamphlets
Background:Increased interest in quotidian hemodialysis (HD) programs requires that nephrology nurses have a larger role in transitioning patients to more frequent HD. Nursing issues include the selection, training, and education of patients before they begin more frequent HD therapy.
Rosemary Leitch; Michaelene Ouwendyk; Evelyn Ferguson; Laurie Clement; Karen Peters; A. Paul Heidenheim; Robert M. Lindsay
The vitamin K antagonists (VKA) remain to this day the only oral form of therapeutic anticoagulation. Approximately 1% of the French population, mainly elderly, is treated with these anticoagulants. Oral anticoagulants have significant risks of iatrogenic complications; indeed they are the leading cause of such drug-induced complications, predominantly hemorrhages. AFSSAPS (French Drug and Medical Products Agency) clinical practice recommendations, repeatedly disseminated, emphasize the education of patients receiving VKAs. Managing oral anticoagulant treatment is challenging, with a significant risk of under- or overdosing and consequently, thrombosis or hemorrhage. The therapeutic window is narrow, multiple drug-interactions are possible, and the specific dose required for a particular individual to achieve appropriate International Normalized Ratio (INR) levels is unpredictable. The literature contains few randomized controlled trials about the efficacy of education for patients treated with oral anticoagulants. These education programs are not standardized and are therefore varied and difficult to compare. Nevertheless, studies demonstrate the importance of patienteducation programs in reducing the risk of hemorrhage and achieving better treatment stability. The Grenoble region hospital-community network for vascular diseases (GRANTED) has developed an education program for these patients, consisting of individual sessions for the patient and/or a friend or family member (either at a health care facility or at the patient's home), telephone support and group sessions, and using educational tools and supports. There is also a link with the general practitioner who receives a report. This approach makes it possible to adapt the educational message to individual patients and their daily lives, as well as directly involving them in the management of their treatment. PMID:19815369
Librarians located in a 560-bed, inner city academic medical center with 25,000 + admissions per year planned and opened a Patient and Family Education Center (PFEC) in the lobby of a new patient care pavilion. A review of use in the first 19 months revealed that expected needs were being met while a variety of unexpected needs were identified. Ongoing use continues to be monitored by a detailed log of patron visits maintained by library staff. This article describes the evolution of the Patient and Family Education Center, outreach to the hospital community, and plans for the future. PMID:21271449
Calabretta, Nancy; Cavanaugh, Susan; Malone, Marita; Swartz, Betty Jean
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized medical patients. Evidence-based guidelines exist for preventing VTE; unfortunately, these guidelines are not always adhered to by clinicians. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability, utility and clinical impact of an educational outreach visit (EOV) on nurses' provision of mechanical prophylaxis to hospitalized medical patients using a prospective, uncontrolled, before-and-after design. Nurses received a 1-to-1 educational session on mechanical VTE prevention by a trained nurse facilitator. The EOV intervention was designed by a multidisciplinary group of healthcare professionals using social marketing theory. Eighty-five of the 120 eligible nurses (71%) attended the EOV. The median length of each visit was 11.5 minutes (interquartile range [IQR], 10-15) and the median time spent arranging and conducting each visit was 63 minutes (IQR, 49-85). Eighty-four (99%) of the 85 participants gave a verbal commitment to trial the new evidence-based mechanical VTE prevention practices. However, there were no measurable improvements in the proportion of patients risk assessed (-1.7% improvement; 95% confidence interval [CI], -7.0 to 10.3; P = .68) or provided appropriate mechanical prophylaxis (-0.3% improvement; 95% CI, -13.4 to 14; P = .96). Researchers conclude that EOV should not be used to improve nurses' use of mechanical VTE prevention because it has no measurable impact on clinical practice and is resource intensive, requiring 4.5 minutes of preparation for every minute spent face to face with participants. Further research into the specific mechanism of action is required to explain the variability in clinical effect seen with this intervention. PMID:24238096
Duff, Jed; Walker, Kim; Omari, Abdullah; Middleton, Sandy; McInnes, Elizabeth
The aim of this survey conducted among patient associations is to define the role and the position that they have with regard to the development of therapeutic education in France. 124 associations were solicited (out of over 500 existing), and 68 replied. 17 indicated that the survey was not relevant for them. 51 answered the 43 questions related to the conception and implementation of educational programmes, their goals and objectives, the choice and selection of educational activities, the target audiences and pedagogical principles of reference. The results obtained demonstrate the predominance of informational activities and psychological support. The responding associations declared that sometimes they conduct educational activities which rather resemble informational activities. Only three associations declared having Implemented and managed formalised educational programmes based on pedagogical methods. The aims and objectives most frequently targeted were focused on increasing the patients' knowledge on their disease and its treatment. These educational programmes are usually delivered by members of the association's office staff. However, overall most of the responding associations indicated that it is relatively difficult to provide precise data on the pedagogical methods of the activities undertaken. In light of the results, it is therefore necessary to consider the totality of the activities conducted by the associations as a mechanism for building educational resources in which the place of formalised educational programmes remains marginal, even quasi-absent, for the moment. Associations believe that patienteducation is an important issue for their development. It is highly likely that the emergence of such programmes will only be possible if the associations show some degree of autonomy in relation to the health care sector and assert a point of view specific to patients, above and beyond that of health care users. PMID:12737086
Lecimbre, E; Gagnayre, R; Deccache, A; d'Ivernois, J F
Educating men at risk for primary or secondary prostate cancer on lifestyle modification may help prevent the development of the disease, reduce the risk of recurrence in those treated for cancer, and slow the progression of active disease. To date, substantial literature on male patient attitudes towards risk modification does not exist. In this project, we evaluate the attitudes and educational needs of men at high-risk for primary or secondary prostate cancer to assess the need for a dedicated clinic focused on education and prevention. Two clinic nurses administered surveys to 76 male patients seen at the University Kansas Cancer Center (KUCC) and Urology clinics. Survey responses showed the patients' perspectives and desire for more support and education regarding late effects of treatment, management of risk, and lifestyle modification. Findings from this survey inspired the establishment of the Burns & McDonnell High-Risk Prostate Cancer Prevention Program at KUCC. PMID:24214853
On December 1 and 2, 2005, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, the American Political Science Association's Standing Committee on Civic Education and Engagement, and CIRCLE (The Center for Information & Research on Civic Learning & Engagement) convened 22 distinguished scholars from political science, developmental psychology,…
Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement (CIRCLE), 2006
This paper attempts to clarify several lines of research on gender in development and education, inter-relating findings from studies on intuitive/informal knowledge with those from research on achievements and attitudes in science. It acknowledges the declining proportions of male teachers world-wide and examination successes which indicate a…
Examines the linguistic isolation of 11 million Magyar-speaking Hungarians in a context of political, economic, and educational change. Changes in foreign language learning since 1989 are outlined, and the declining popularity of Russian and increasing interest in studying the languages of Western Europe are discussed. (Contains 13 references.)…
This article investigates the evolution of computing, with specific reference to the security issues involved. These issues are then taken further to determine the need for education in the workplace through an information security awareness program. Techniques borrowed from the field of social psychology, which have been largely ignored in current awareness programs, are highlighted in order to show how
In this paper, we investigate the association between weight and children's educational achievement, as measured by scores on Peabody Individual Achievement Tests in math and reading, and grade attainment. Data for the study came from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), which contains a large, national sample of…
This paper describes the vision and goals of the School Communities That Work task force. This group envisions a new kind of school district: the local education support system. It marshals all of a city's resources to provide schools, students, and teachers with needed support and timely interventions; ensures that schools have the power and…
A long-standing question in educational research and policy discussion turns on whether technology-based instruction can improve academic performance. Finding a convincing answer to this question is important because school systems across the country have invested and continue to invest very large sums on new instructional hardware and software.…
This collection of papers includes: (1) "Opportunities in Medical, Dental and Veterinary (MDV) Educational Development" (John Sweet); (2) "Culture, Collegiality, and Collaborative Learning" (George Brown, Madeline Rohin, and Michael Manogue); (3) "Communication Skills: On Being Patient-Centered" (Jeff Wilson); (4) "Curriculum" (John Sweet); (5)…
The National Science Foundation requires that grantees make an effort to extend the reach of academic research to communities beyond the laboratory and address the work's possible ``Broader Impacts'' to society. NSF CAREER awards and many of the NSF Research Center grant solicitations are even more explicit, requiring that grantees craft educational initiatives that are based in best practices, bring the academic research to the broader community, and positively impact the pipeline of students pursuing science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education and careers. For new faculty, and even veteran faculty, these requirements for creative educational initiatives that significantly affect a community outside the confines of the laboratory can be very daunting. This presentation addresses how to design an effectiveeducational plan that incorporates K-12 educational outreach, that will have a real impact on the target audience, and that can realistically be accomplished by a science faculty member.
Education is often found to be a strong determinant of ethnic pre judice. However, there is preliminary evidence that this educationaleffect varies across countries. Moreover, there are also theoretical arguments to expect cross-national variances in the educationaleffect on ethnic pre judice. From both a cultural and structural perspective, we set out to explain these cross-national variances in the
This study was designed to analyze the effects of the support programs provided in education welfare action zones. Education welfare action zone policy came into effect by government from 2003 to guarantee actual educational opportunity to disadvantaged children in urban areas by providing educational, cultural, and welfare service. Education…
Learning about patient safety is an important aspect of undergraduate medical curricula but there are no clear priority areas. A recent consensus of international medical educators identified several priority areas and these recommendations include approaches to increase knowledge of patient safety, including the causes and frequency, to develop willingness to take responsibility, to develop self awareness of the situations when patient safety is compromised, to develop communication skills, especially inter-personal, and to develop team working skills. PMID:17538837
Learning to counsel patients in a teaching clinic or hospital occurs in the presence of the competing agendas of patient care\\u000a and student education. We wondered about the challenges that these tensions create for clinical novices learning to deliver\\u000a bad news to patients. In this preliminary study, we audio-taped and transcribed the interviews of seven senior optometry students\\u000a and six
Marlee M. Spafford; Catherine F. Schryer; Stefan Creutz
This study was to examine the integrity of intervention delivery and identify precursory factors contributing to successful delivery and the effectiveness of a psycho-educational intervention comprising progressive muscle relaxation and health education in patients receiving palliative lung cancer radiotherapy. This mixed methods study employed both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate intervention integrity and to identify key precursory factors among 70 Hong Kong Chinese lung cancer patients. Results show that the intervention conducted by two support nurses, in line with that planned at the outset of the study, achieved a high degree of consistency. Full adherence to the 20-minute muscle relaxation component was an important factor contributing to better symptom management. Other contributing factors included use of supplementary audio and reading materials and frequent self-practice of muscle relaxation. Reinforcement strategies, together with the use of supplementary learning materials and a flexible approach to progressive muscle relaxation, are recommended for future research. PMID:22554216
Chan, Carmen W H; Richardson, Alison; Richardson, Janet
The University of Colorado School of Medicine's curriculum for primary care physician's assistants in pediatrics includes a unit on interviewing the adolescent patient. Teaching methods include lectures, videotapes and role-playing. Videotapes of the students with simulated patients are used as an evaluation technique. (JMD)
The authors present some of the most important online patient information methods on all aspects of deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs and, in particular, the diagnosis using Doppler ultrasound (easy-to-understand articles, brochures, guides, patient page, frequently asked questions, illustrations, forums, blogs). PMID:21210017
There is growing recognition of the importance of patienteducation given the prevalence and consequences of low health literacy in Canada and the USA. Research has shown that in addition to plain language, the use of theories of learning can contribute to the effectiveness of patienteducation resources, and as such, various guidelines and toolkits have been put together to help healthcare providers utilize these theories. Despite these efforts, this knowledge is not consistently applied in practice. To address this gap, we describe a new theory-based protocol, the "3Ws and an H," that is designed to guide healthcare providers in the production of effectivepatienteducation resources. Adult learning theory underpins each step of the process, and by using the "3Ws and an H," relevant theories are applied as the steps of the protocol are followed. To facilitate the adoption of this process, we describe it using a resource development project for survivors of endometrial cancer as an example. PMID:24420003
Objective. To evaluate the impact of the Salt Education Program for hypertensive adults on student pharmacists' knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes regarding sodium consumption. Design. As part of the introductory pharmacy practice experience program in community pharmacies, student pharmacists assessed patients' sodium intake knowledge and behaviors, taught them how to read nutrition labels, and obtained information about their hypertensive conditions. Students completed pre-and post-intervention questionnaires in April and August 2012, respectively. Assessment. One hundred thirty student pharmacists (70% female, 78% white) completed pre- and post-intervention questionnaires. Students demonstrated significant improvements in knowledge scores (p<0.001) and perceived benefit of a low-salt diet (p=0.004). Further, there were significant improvements in the self-reported frequency of looking at sodium content of foods when shopping (p<0.001) and purchasing low-salt foods (p=0.004). Conclusion. Changes in students' knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes after participating in the Salt Education program suggested that the program was effective in improving student knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes.
Westrick, Salisa C.; Teeter, Benjamin S.; Stevenson, T. Lynn
ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to assess the possible interactive effects of age, sex, duration of hemodialysis (HD), educational and income levels, and stress coping mechanisms on depression and anxiety in patients on maintenance HD.
Study Design Randomized trial with concurrent observational cohort. 1171 patients were divided into subgroups by educational attainment: high school or less, some college, and college degree or above. Objective To assess the influence of education level on outcomes for treatment of lumbar disk herniation. Summary of Background Data Educational attainment has been demonstrated to have an inverse relationship with pain perception, co-morbidities, and mortality. Methods The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial enrolled surgical candidates (imaging-confirmed disk herniation with at least 6 weeks of persistent signs and symptoms of radiculopathy) from 13 multidisciplinary spine clinics in 11 US states. Treatments were standard open diskectomy vs. non-operative treatment. Outcomes were changes from baseline for SF-36 bodily pain (BP) and physical function (PF) scales and the modified Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and yearly through 4 years. Results Substantial improvement was seen in all patient cohorts. Surgical outcomes did not differ by level of education. For non-operative outcomes, however, higher levels of education were associated with significantly greater overall improvement over 4 years in BP (p=0.007), PF (p=0.001) and ODI (p=0.003). At 4 years a “dose-response” type relationship was shown for BP (high school or less 25.5; some college 31; college graduate or above 36.3; p= 0.004); results were similar for PF and ODI. The success of non-operative treatment in the more educated cohort resulted in an attenuation of the relative benefit of surgery. Conclusions Patients with higher educational attainment demonstrated significantly greater improvement with non-operative treatment while educational attainment was not associated with surgical outcomes.
Olson, Patrick R.; Lurie, Jon D.; Frymoyer, John; Walsh, Thomas; Zhao, Wenyan; Abdu, William A.; Weinstein, James N.
Background: The health model which forms the basis is knowledge, attitude, temporary, and permanent behaviors. Currently, more emphasis has been directed towards the combined influence of lifestyle, education, levels and socioeconomic factors, instead of regular risk factors in dealing with chronic illnesses. The present study is conducted to correlate the periodontal health of people with reference to lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Periodontics, Narayana Dental College and Hospital, Nellore. A total of 1350 subjects were examined and 948 patients were randomly selected from out patient department. Information about their lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status were recorded using a questionnaire and correlated with the periodontal status. Results: The statistical analysis showed significant decrease in periodontitis when income and education levels increased. Also the prevalence of periodontitis associated with a healthy lifestyle is significantly lower when compared to an unhealthy lifestyle. Conclusions: There is a strong association of lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status with periodontal health.
Both lower education and the personality trait of neuroticism have been associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among older adults, but little is known about the role of other personality traits in HRQOL. We examined the associations of all Five-Factor Model personality traits and education, above and beyond physician-rated medical burden, with different aspects of HRQOL in a sample of 442 primary care patients 65 years of age or older who completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. We used the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 (SF-36), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and the physical self-maintenance scale to assess different aspects of HRQOL. Even after statistically adjusting for age, gender, the presence of major depressive disorder, and physician-rated medical morbidity, we found that a higher neuroticism level was associated with lower functioning on the IADLs and the physical self-maintenance scale and worse HRQOL on the Social Functioning and Role Emotional subscales of the SF-36. Higher conscientiousness level was associated with better HRQOL on the SF-36 Role Physical scale and better IADL function. Higher education level was associated with better HRQOL on all measures except emotional role impairment. In exploratory moderation analyses, a higher openness level diminished the effect of medical burden on IADL impairment. Preliminary population-attributable risk comparisons suggest that--on a strictly population basis--the impairment conferred by a neuroticism level that is 1 SD above the mean may be equivalent to or greater than that of major depressive disorder. Future research aimed at understanding how personality traits are linked with HRQOL and functioning in later life may enhance the identification of at-risk older adults and inform the development of interventions. PMID:18079419
Chapman, Benjamin; Duberstein, Paul; Lyness, Jeffrey M
Background The purpose of this national survey is to evaluate hospital pharmacy practice in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia. The results of the survey pertaining to the monitoring and patienteducation of the medication use process were presented. Methods We have invited pharmacy directors from all 48 hospitals in the Riyadh region to participate in a modified-American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) survey questionnaire. The survey was conducted using similar methods to those of the ASHP surveys. Results The response rate was 60.4% (29/48). Most hospitals (23, 79%) had pharmacists regularly monitor medication therapy for patients. Of these hospitals, 61% had pharmacists monitoring medication therapy daily for less than 26% of patients, 17% monitored 26–50% of patients and 22% monitored more than half of patients daily. In 41% of hospitals, pharmacists routinely monitored serum medication concentrations or their surrogate markers; 27% gave pharmacists the authority to order initial serum medication concentrations, and 40% allowed pharmacists to adjust dosages. Pharmacists routinely documented their medication therapy monitoring activities in 52% of hospitals. Overall, 74% of hospitals had an adverse drug event (ADE) reporting system, 59% had a multidisciplinary committee responsible for reviewing ADEs, and 63% had a medication safety committee. Complete electronic medical record (EMR) systems were available in 15% of hospitals and 81% had a partial EMR system. The primary responsibility for performing patient medication education lays with nursing (37%), pharmacy (37%), or was a shared responsibility (26%). In 44% of hospitals, pharmacists provided medication education to half or more inpatients and in a third of hospitals, pharmacists gave medication education to 26% or more of patients at discharge. Conclusion Hospital pharmacists in the Riyadh region are actively engaged in monitoring medication therapy and providing patient medication education, although there is considerable opportunity for further involvement.
Alsultan, Mohammed S.; Mayet, Ahmed Y.; Khurshid, Fowad; Al-jedai, Ahmed H.
Background As a consequence of the improved survival due to the availability of several treatment option cost-effectiveness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) issues have gained increasing attention in colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, we aimed to evaluate quality of life, level of anxiety and depression before and after a 6-month follow-up period in chemotherapy receiving patients with CRC. Methods The study was conducted in 50 patients with colon or rectal cancer. All patients were informed and educated about their disease and treatment before getting the treatment and were followed for 6 months, during which they received chemotherapy. A “Questionnaire Form” to collect patient demographic characteristics; the “EORTC QLQ-C30 Scale” and “EQ-5D Scale” to evaluate patient’s quality of life; and the “Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale” to evaluate the level of anxiety and depression status of patients, were used as data collecting tools. Results Quality of life scores in all functional fields were high in the sixth course when compared to the first according to EORTC QLQ-C30 Scale, reaching to statistically significant level in emotional function score compared to the initial ones (P<0.05). Moreover quality of life score measured in the sixth month with EQ-5D was statistically significantly higher than the initial. Conclusions These data, shows that with proper patient management, quality of life score, and the anxiety and depression levels improve during the course of treatment.
The role of education in improving quality of life of patients with chronic renal failure has been emphasized by many studies. This survey was performed to assess the effect of a confined program of home-care on the health status of patients who were receiving hemodialysis. In this research, 37 patients afflicted by chronic renal insufficiency were chosen and put into
Background Printed educational materials for clinician education are one of the most commonly used approaches for quality improvement. The objective of this pragmatic cluster randomized trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational toolkit focusing on cardiovascular disease screening and risk reduction in people with diabetes. Methods and Findings All 933,789 people aged ?40 years with diagnosed diabetes in Ontario, Canada were studied using population-level administrative databases, with additional clinical outcome data collected from a random sample of 1,592 high risk patients. Family practices were randomly assigned to receive the educational toolkit in June 2009 (intervention group) or May 2010 (control group). The primary outcome in the administrative data study, death or non-fatal myocardial infarction, occurred in 11,736 (2.5%) patients in the intervention group and 11,536 (2.5%) in the control group (p?=?0.77). The primary outcome in the clinical data study, use of a statin, occurred in 700 (88.1%) patients in the intervention group and 725 (90.1%) in the control group (p?=?0.26). Pre-specified secondary outcomes, including other clinical events, processes of care, and measures of risk factor control, were also not improved by the intervention. A limitation is the high baseline rate of statin prescribing in this population. Conclusions The educational toolkit did not improve quality of care or cardiovascular outcomes in a population with diabetes. Despite being relatively easy and inexpensive to implement, printed educational materials were not effective. The study highlights the need for a rigorous and scientifically based approach to the development, dissemination, and evaluation of quality improvement interventions. Trial Registration http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01411865 and NCT01026688 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Shah, Baiju R.; Bhattacharyya, Onil; Yu, Catherine H. Y.; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Parsons, Janet A.; Straus, Sharon E.; Zwarenstein, Merrick
Our universities are an indispensible part of the UK's healthcare system. This publication is the first in a series of Universities UK reports depicting the vital connections between higher education and healthcare. It illustrates the virtuous partnership between health providers and universities in supplying and developing the healthcare…
Teenage pregnancies have become a public health issue because of their observed negative effects on perinatal outcomes and long-term morbidity. The association of young maternal age and long-term morbidity is usually confounded, however, by the high prevalence of poverty, low level of education, and single marital status among teenage mothers. The authors assess the independent effect of teenage pregnancy on
Ralitza V. Gueorguieva; Randy L. Carter; Mario Ariet; Jeffrey Roth; Charles S. Mahan
An elementary and secondary education cost-effectiveness model is designed, emphasizing evaluation of ESEA's Title I programs for the disadvantaged. Focusing heavily on student achievement, the model presents a means for evaluating by computer simulation the relative school, student, and community effects and associated costs of alternative Title…
Purpose – To present a model of innovative change in higher education based on research into the factors behind the performance of highly creative historical communities. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The article diagnoses current pressures under which academia is laboring, explains the hothouse effect, and proposes solutions based on the hothouse effect model. Findings – The article proposes restructuring of discipline-based learning,
Since the summer term 2009 the study project „Patientensicherheit – Der klinische Umgang mit Patienten- und Eingriffsverwechslungen sowie Medikationsfehlern“ (Patient Safety – the clinical handling of patients – and mistaking of procedures as well as medication errors) is offered within the Modellstudiengang Medizin. Seminars on patient safety in Germany so far mainly address trained doctors and health economists. In contrast, this study project on patient safety should at an early stage contribute to a “culture of discussing and preventing mistakes” – an aspect that is little established in clinical medicine, but also in medical training. For this purpose, a broad variety of courses was developed, which – relying on problem-oriented learning – enables the students to analyse so-called adverse events (AE) and develop adequate prevention measures on the basis of the insights gained by this analysis. Therefore, theoretical lessons are complemented by discussing prototypical clinical cases. These discussions are moderated by experienced clinicians. After completing the seminar, students showed a significant increase (comparison of means) in the self-assessed qualifications „Wissen zu Patientensicherheit“ (Knowledge of Patient Safety) and „Wahrnehmung von Risikosituationen“ (Appreciation of Risk Situations). All in all, the students rated their training success with a grade of 1.5 (good).
Since the summer term 2009 the study project "Patientensicherheit - Der klinische Umgang mit Patienten- und Eingriffsverwechslungen sowie Medikationsfehlern" (Patient Safety - the clinical handling of patients - and mistaking of procedures as well as medication errors) is offered within the Modellstudiengang Medizin. Seminars on patient safety in Germany so far mainly address trained doctors and health economists. In contrast, this study project on patient safety should at an early stage contribute to a "culture of discussing and preventing mistakes" - an aspect that is little established in clinical medicine, but also in medical training. For this purpose, a broad variety of courses was developed, which - relying on problem-oriented learning - enables the students to analyse so-called adverse events (AE) and develop adequate prevention measures on the basis of the insights gained by this analysis. Therefore, theoretical lessons are complemented by discussing prototypical clinical cases. These discussions are moderated by experienced clinicians. After completing the seminar, students showed a significant increase (comparison of means) in the self-assessed qualifications "Wissen zu Patientensicherheit" (Knowledge of Patient Safety) and "Wahrnehmung von Risikosituationen" (Appreciation of Risk Situations). All in all, the students rated their training success with a grade of 1.5 (good). PMID:21818227
Internet-based patient support systems are widely assumed to predict a future trend in patienteducation. Coherent information is still lacking on how patienteducation is adopted in psychiatric hospitals and how information technology is used in it. Our aim was to describe nurses' adoption of an Internet-based patienteducation programme and the variables explaining it. The study was based on Rogers' model of the diffusion of innovation. The Internet-based patienteducation sessions were carried out by nurses on nine acute psychiatric inpatient wards in two Finnish hospitals. They were evaluated with reports and analysed statistically. Out of 100 nurses, 83 adopted the programme during the study period. The nurses fell into Rogers' groups, late majority (72%), laggards (17%), early majority (7%), early adopters (3%) and innovators (1%). Three groups were formed according to their activity: laggards, late majority, adopters (including early majority, early adopters, innovators). There was a statistical difference between the nurses' programme adoption between the two hospitals (P= 0.045): more laggards (65% vs. 35%) and adopters (73% vs. 27%) in the same hospital. The findings help to provide insight into the contexts and settings when adopting information technology programmes in the area of mental health care. PMID:22070578
Anttila, M; Välimäki, M; Koivunen, M; Luukkaala, T; Kaila, M; Pitkänen, A; Kontio, R
Aim To evaluate how exposure to educational leaflet about healthy sleep affects knowledge about sleep in adolescents. Methods The study included students aged 15-18 years from 12 high schools (1209 participants; 85% of eligible study population). Multistage sampling was used and the selected schools were randomly assigned into two intervention groups and two control groups, according to the Solomon experimental design. Intervention groups received educational leaflets and control groups did not. In one of the intervention groups and one of the control groups, pre-testing of knowledge about sleep was performed. Students answered the Sleep Knowledge Test, which was constructed in accordance with the information on the leaflet. Data were analyzed by four-way ANOVA and additional analyses of simple main effects were performed. Results Positive effect of educational leaflet was found in students aged 15 (F?=?28.46; P?0.001), 16 (F?=?5.74; P?=?0.017), and 17 (F?=?17.17; P?0.001), but there was no effect in students aged 18 (P?=?0.467). In male students, positive effect of the leaflet was found only in the group that had not been pre-tested (F?=?6.29; P?=?0.012), while in female students, it was found in both pre-tested (F?=?26.24; P?0.001) and not pre-tested group (F?=?17.36; P?0.001), with greater effect in pre-tested group (F?=?5.70; P?=?0.017). Female students generally showed better knowledge about sleep than male students (F?=?95.95; P?0.001). Conclusion Educational leaflets can be an effective first step in educating younger high school students about healthy sleep, with the method being more effective in female adolescents.
Abstract A variety of stakeholders, including students, faculty, educational institutions and the broader health care and social service communities, work behind-the-scenes to support interprofessional education initiatives. While program designers are faced with multiple challenges associated with implementing and sustaining such programs, little has been written about how program designers practice the interprofessional competencies that are expected of students. This brief report describes the backstage collaboration underpinning the Dalhousie Health Mentors Program, a large and complex pre-licensure interprofessional experience connecting student teams with community volunteer mentors who have chronic conditions to learn about interprofessional collaboration and patient/client-centered care. Based on our experiences, we suggest that just as students are required to reflect on collaborative processes, interprofessional program designers should examine the ways in which they work together and take into consideration the impact this has on the delivery of the educational experience. PMID:24593325
MacKenzie, Diane E; Doucet, Shelley; Nasser, Susan; Godden-Webster, Anne L; Andrews, Cynthia; Kephart, George
Background Patient safety education, including error prevention strategies and management of adverse events, has become a topic of worldwide concern. The importance of the patient safety is also recognized in Japan following two serious medical accidents in 1999. Furthermore, educational curriculum guideline revisions in 2008 by relevant the Ministry of Education includes patient safety as part of the core medical curriculum. However, little is known about the patient safety education in Japanese medical schools partly because a comprehensive study has not yet been conducted in this field. Therefore, we have conducted a nationwide survey in order to clarify the current status of patient safety education at medical schools in Japan. Results Response rate was 60.0% (n?=?48/80). Ninety-eight-percent of respondents (n?=?47/48) reported integration of patient safety education into their curricula. Thirty-nine percent reported devoting less than five hours to the topic. All schools that teach patient safety reported use of lecture based teaching methods while few used alternative methods, such as role-playing or in-hospital training. Topics related to medical error theory and legal ramifications of error are widely taught while practical topics related to error analysis such as root cause analysis are less often covered. Conclusions Based on responses to our survey, most Japanese medical schools have incorporated the topic of patient safety into their curricula. However, the number of hours devoted to the patient safety education is far from the sufficient level with forty percent of medical schools that devote five hours or less to it. In addition, most medical schools employ only the lecture based learning, lacking diversity in teaching methods. Although most medical schools cover basic error theory, error analysis is taught at fewer schools. We still need to make improvements to our medical safety curricula. We believe that this study has the implications for the rest of the world as a model of what is possible and a sounding board for what topics might be important.
Background It is well known that patients’ involvement in health care students’ learning is essential and gives students opportunities to experience clinical reasoning and practice clinical skills when interacting with patients. Students encounter patients in different contexts throughout their education. However, looking across the research providing evidence about learning related to patient-student encounters reveals a lack of knowledge about the actual learning process that occurs in encounters between patients and students. The aim of this study was to explore patient-student encounters in relation to students’ learning in a patient-centered health-care setting. Methods An ethnographic approach was used to study the encounters between patients and students. The setting was a clinical education ward for nursing students at a university hospital with eight beds. The study included 10 observations with 11 students and 10 patients. The observer followed one or two students taking care of one patient. During the fieldwork observational and reflective notes were taken. After each observation follow-up interviews were conducted with each patient and student separately. Data were analyzed using an ethnographic approach. Results The most striking results showed that patients took different approaches in the encounters with students. When the students managed to create a good atmosphere and a mutual relationship, the patients were active participants in the students’ learning. If the students did not manage to create a good atmosphere, the relationship became one-way and the patients were passive participants, letting the students practice on their bodies but without engaging in a dialogue with the students. Conclusions Patient-student encounters, at a clinical education ward with a patient-centred pedagogical framework, can develop into either a learning relationship or an attending relationship. A learning relationship is based on a mutual relationship between patients and students resulting in patients actively participating in students’ learning and they both experience it as a joint action. An attending relationship is based on a one-way relationship between patients and students resulting in patients passively participating by letting students to practice on their bodies but without engaging in a learning dialogue with the students.
This is a randomised controlled pilot study using a mixed methods design. The overall aim was to test an educational intervention on existential issues and to describe surgical nurses' perceived attitudes towards caring for patients dying of cancer. Specific aims were to examine whether the educational intervention consisting of lectures and reflective discussions, affects nurses' perceived confidence in communication and to explore nurses' experiences and reflections on existential issues after participating in the intervention. Forty-two nurses from three surgical wards at one hospital were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. Nurses in both groups completed a questionnaire at equivalent time intervals: at baseline before the educational intervention, directly after the intervention, and 3 and 6 months later. Eleven face-to-face interviews were conducted with nurses directly after the intervention and 6 months later. Significant short-term and long-term changes were reported. Main results concerned the significant long-term effects regarding nurses' increased confidence and decreased powerlessness in communication, and their increased feelings of value when caring for a dying patient. In addition, nurses described enhanced awareness and increased reflection. Results indicate that an understanding of the patient's situation, derived from enhanced awareness and increased reflection, precedes changes in attitudes towards communication. PMID:24471991
Udo, C; Melin-Johansson, C; Henoch, I; Axelsson, B; Danielson, E
Aims: To assess the effects of erythropoietin(EPO) on bone metabolism in patients receivingchronic hemodialysis (HD).Methods: Forty one patients were divided intotwo groups whether they required theadministration of EPO to treat renal anemia ornot. Serial measurements of predialysis bloodsamples and bone mineral density were performedprospectively over a year.Results: The administration of EPO wasassociated with an increased serum creatinirle(11.9 ± 0.4 to
In recent years, attention has been drawn toward assessing the effectiveness of oral health education programs. This is in line with demand for evidence based research and will help to inform policy makers on how to allocate resources. (1) Collect and collate all information on oral health education programs. (2) Assess the programs based on various coding criteria. (3) Assess effectiveness of oral health education programs on oral health status and knowledge, attitude and practice. A search of all published articles in Medline was done using the keywords “oral health education, dental health education, oral health promotion”. The resulting titles and abstracts provided the basis for initial decisions and selection of articles. Out of the primary list of articles, a total number of 40 articles were selected as they fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: (1). Articles on oral health programs with an oral health education component (2). Articles published after the year 1990 (3). Articles published in English. The full text of the articles was then obtained from either the internet or libraries of dental research colleges and hospitals in and around Bangalore. A set of important variables were identified and grouped under five headings to make them amenable for coding. The coding variables were then described under various subheadings to allow us to compare the chosen articles. Oral health education is effective in improving the knowledge attitude and practice of oral health and in reducing plaque, bleeding on probing of the gingiva and caries increment. This study identifies a few important variables which contribute to the effectiveness of the programs. There is an indication in this review that the most successful oral health programs are labor intensive, involve significant others and has received funding and additional support. A balance between inputs and outputs and health care resources available will determine if the program can be recommended for general use.
Background/Aim: Sustained attention is a vital function mediated by the right frontoparietal cortex. The Six Letter Cancellation Task (SLCT) measures sustained attention. Development of sustained attention in a yoga-based education system compared to a modern one is the theme of the present study. Aim: To compare the effectiveness of the Modern Education System (MES) and the Gurukula Education System (GES) in developing sustained attention. Materials and Methods: Forty nine boys (11-13 years) were selected from two residential schools, one MES and the other GES, providing similar ambiance and daily routines. The boys were matched for age and socioeconomic status. The GES educational program is based around integrated yoga modules while the MES provides a conventional modern education program. Sustained attention was assessed using the SLCT at the start and end of an academic year. Results: Within groups, the pre-post test differences were significant for both groups. However, the between groups result showed improvement in the GES group compared to the MES group at a P < 0.001 significance level. Conclusions: The study suggests that both MES and GES improve sustained attention in school boys, but GES is more effective.
Analysing survey data from 32 selected cities across China in 2003, this article examines parents’ expenditure on their children’s education from two aspects: factors affecting domestic education expenditure and factors affecting expenditure on overseas education. The main findings that emerge from this study are as follows. First, household income has significant effects on the magnitude of the domestic and overseas
Analysing survey data from 32 selected cities across China in 2003, this article examines parents’ expenditure on their children's education from two aspects: factors affecting domestic education expenditure and factors affecting expenditure on overseas education. The main findings that emerge from this study are as follows. First, household income has significant effects on the magnitude of the domestic and overseas
Context: The most important way against bioterrorism is reinforcement of knowledge of health and medical team to diagnose and rapid reaction during these events. Aims: To assess the effect of bioterrorism education on knowledge and attitudes of nurses. Settings and Design: the setting of study was one of the infectious disease wards, emergency rooms or internal wards of the hospitals under supervision of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this pre-experimental study, 65 nurses who had all inclusion criteria are selected by accessible sampling method. Data on nurses knowledge and attitudes toward bioterrorism were collected using a self-administered questionnaire before and after two two-h sessions education. After a month of education, the units responded to questionnaire again. Statistical Analysis Used: A descriptive statistics Wilcoxon tests and Spearman correlation coefficient were used. Results: Before education, the majority of units (96.9%) had low knowledge about bioterrorism (0-33.3% score of 100%),whereas after education, the majority of them (100%) had good knowledge(well done) (66.7-100% score of 100%). And majority of units (96.9%) before education had indifferent attitude toward bioterrorism (33.4-66.6% score of 100%), whereas a majority of them (98.5%) after education had positive attitude (66.7-100% score of 100%). Conclusions: The education has a positive effect on nurses’ knowledge and attitudes and it can be a guideline for administrators of the Ministry of Health and medicine for planning to achieve the goals of preventive and defense against bioterrorism.
Background There is a need for educational tools in the consenting process of otolaryngology-head and neck procedures. A development strategy for the creation of educational tools in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, particularly pamphlets on the peri-operative period in an adenotonsillectomy, is described. Methods A participatory design approach, which engages key stakeholders in the development of an educational tool, is used. Pamphlets were created through a review of traditional and grey literature and then reviewed by a community expert in the field. The pamphlets were then reviewed by an interdisciplinary team including educational experts, and finally by less vulnerable members of the target population. Questionnaires evaluating the pamphlets’ content, layout, style, and general qualitative features were included. Results The pamphlets yielded high ratings across all domains regardless of patient population. General feedback was provided by a non-vulnerable patient population and final pamphlets were drafted. Conclusions By using a participatory design model, the pamphlets are written at an appropriate educational level to incorporate a broad audience. Furthermore, this methodology can be used in future resource development of educational tools.
The operation of cardiopulmonary bypass procedure requires an advanced skill in both physiological and mechanical knowledge. We developed a virtual patient simulator system using a numerical cardiovascular regulation model to manage perfusion crisis. This article evaluates the ability of the new simulator to prevent perfusion crisis. It combined short-term baroreflex regulation of venous capacity, vascular resistance, heart rate, time-varying elastance of the heart, and plasma-refilling with a simple lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system. The combination of parameters related to baroreflex regulation was calculated using clinical hemodynamic data. We examined the effect of differences in autonomous-nerve control parameter settings on changes in blood volume and hemodynamic parameters and determined the influence of the model on operation of the control arterial line flow and blood volume during the initiation and weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Typical blood pressure (BP) changes (hypertension, stable, and hypotension) were reproducible using a combination of four control parameters that can be estimated from changes in patient physiology, BP, and blood volume. This simulation model is a useful educational tool to learn the recognition and management skills of extracorporeal circulation. Identification method for control parameter can be applied for diagnosis of heart failure. PMID:22963152
This baccalaureate program integrated computerized patient care documentation with courses in nursing fundamentals and health assessment. Using an information system designed for acute care settings, students become familiar with computer use while learning documentation of care and other nursing skills. Computer literacy may be enhanced with integration of content and increased exposure to different information systems. PMID:1997138
Graduating nurse practitioners (n=26) completed simulated clinical encounters with standardized patients. Their performance did not reflect their results on other clinical evaluations and national certifying examinations, suggesting that simulated encounters lack validity and reliability. They may be useful for formative learning. (Contains 38…
During the past year, we obtained lRB approval from the DOD to begin data collection in December, 2001. However, the practice of the Breast Health Center, where the study was planned, had changed. Because randomization of patients according to core biopsy...
In response to aging patient demographics and a call for increased formal geriatric training in medical schools, a community volunteer geriatric mentor program, Bridging Generations, was developed to shape attitudes of medical students caring for the elderly. The geriatric mentor experience provided students with unique insight into the challenges…
This paper argues for a new perspective on information technology programmes in pre?service education, suggesting that the majority of such programmes are constructed on weak and sometimes ill?defined premises. It provides an assessment of the nature and relative effectiveness of current information technology programmes, as well as noting those factors and characteristics which are likely to impact significantly on the
Podcasting is now being used frequently in the higher education sector. Although research has been conducted into the use of podcasting in teaching business, engineering, sciences and languages, little has been done on its use in arts learning. This paper reports on a study that investigated the effectiveness of using podcasts to learn music and…
The extent to which various factors were stress producing, the effects of stress, and coping methods used by 274 regular and special educators and administrators were examined. Ss completed questionnaires on descriptive variables (such as age, sex, type of assignment and level of academic preparation) and indicated stress of 52 factors. They also…
This collection of papers provides decision-makers with tools to improve resource allocation. The two primary tools, or modes, are cost-effective analysis and cost-benefit analysis, which researchers in education have devised and refined. This volume has three main goals, all intended to help decision-makers construct a useful research program:…
Patients often desire more information about their conditions than they receive during a physician office visit. To address the patient's information needs, a touchscreen information kiosk was implemented. Results from the first prototype identified interface, security, and technical issues. Misspelling of search terms was identified as the most observable cause of search failure. An experimental remote control assistance feature was added in the second prototype. The feature allowed a medical librarian to provide real-time remote help during searches by taking control of the patient's computer. Remote assistance improved patient satisfaction, increased ease of use, and raised document retrieval rate (86.7% vs. 56.7%). Both patients and librarians found the application useful. Reasons included its convenience and flexibility, opportunity for direct patient contact, ability to teach through direct demonstration, and complementing the librarian's role as an information gateway. The project demonstrated the feasibility of applying remote control technology to patienteducation.
Lin, I. K.; Bray, B. E.; Smith, J. A.; Lange, L. L.
Objectives. To examine the impact of active student participation on quality of care in an integrative inpatient setting. Methods. Over a two-year period, we surveyed all patients treated on the Clinical Education Ward for Integrative Medicine (CEWIM), where final-year medical students are integrated into an internal medicine ward complementing conventional medicine with anthroposophic medicine. Patients treated on the regular wards of the same internal medicine department served as the control group (CG). General quality of care was studied with the Picker Inpatient Questionnaire, physician empathy with the Consultation and Relational Empathy measure, and patient enablement with the Patient Enablement Index. ANCOVA was used to control for covariates while examining significant differences between both patient groups. Results. Comparison of the CG wards and the CEWIM revealed no significant differences in medical treatment success. The CEWIM, however, achieved better results for physician-patient interaction, physician empathy, and patient enablement. Eighty Percent of the CEWIM patients rated student participation as positively impacting quality of care. Conclusion. Our results indicate that incorporating students in an integrative healthcare setting may result in greater patient centeredness. Further studies are needed to determine whether this is due to organizational advantages, students' empathic activity, the impact of teaching, or learner-teacher interaction.
Tauschel, Diethard; Neumann, Melanie; Lutz, Gabriele; Valk-Draad, Maria
Recent calls for reporting and interpreting effect sizes have been numerous, with the 5th edition of the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association" (2001) calling for the inclusion of effect sizes to interpret quantitative findings. Many top journals have required that effect sizes accompany claims of statistical significance.…
Generally, the speaking aspect is not properly debated when discussing the positive and negative effects of television (TV), especially on children. So, to highlight this point, this study was first initialized by asking the question: "What are the effects of TV on speech?" and secondly, to transform the effects that TV has on speech in a…
The number of patients with heart failure is growing. To optimize care for these patients in hospital and at home, a supportive-educative intervention is developed. The intervention is guided by a standard nursing care plan which is developed from literature, existing standard nursing care plans, and interviews with nurses. A case study is used to explain and illustrate the intervention and to review the importance of the standard nursing care plan. PMID:9469126
The human patient simulator (HPS) has recently been introduced as an adjunct technology in nursing education. An international survey of nursing schools and simulation centers that collaborate with nursing schools and have purchased a Medical Education Technologies, Inc. (METI) HPS was undertaken in 2002. Thirty-four schools of nursing (18 based in universities and 16 based in community colleges) and six simulation centers participated in the survey. Information gathered from the survey and reported on in this article includes curricular use, faculty time and use, student opinions, evaluation, and other uses of the HPS, specifically in research and continuing education. The results provide a foundation for early use of the HPS in nursing education at all levels. PMID:15508564
In a waiting-list controlled study on a multi-family psycho-educational intervention in bipolar disorder, key relatives in the treatment group showed a significant change from high to low levels of expressed emotion (EE) compared with the control group. In addition, patients with low-EE key relatives had a significantly lower number of hospital admissions compared with those living with high-EE key relatives.
Adriaan Honig; Annet Hofman; Nico Rozendaal; Peter Dingemans
An increasing number of older people are treated for cancer. Several factors, such as comorbidity and sensory deficits, occur more frequently in older patients than in younger patients. In addition, their life circumstances, values, and preferences may differ. These factors ask for tailored nurse-older patient communication. This article reviews recent literature on the specific needs of older patients with cancer
Jesse Jansen; Weert van J. C. M; Dulmen van A. M; Thea Heeren; Jozien Bensing
An amendment to the German medical curriculum in April 2002 will place communication and social skills at the centre of medical training. In addition to providing cognitive knowledge, psychosomatic courses offer the opportunity to integrate affective learning, with a focus on communication and interaction processes. In winter term 2001/2002 a training with standardised patients was implemented and evaluated as part of the psychosomatic internship of the Department of General Internal and Psychosomatic Medicine at the Medical Hospital of the University of Heidelberg. Quantitative and qualitative results showed that training with standardised patients is well accepted and that acceptance is independent of student gender, career choice, or interests. These training units are easy to integrate into psychosomatic practical courses. The results discussed here will focus on the role and importance of various elements of medical training. PMID:14600846
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if delivery of wound care instruction pre-Mohs micrographic surgery versus the typical, post-Mohs surgery would allow for greater patient retention. Design: A non-blinded, randomized, controlled trial receiving institutional review board exemption from Michigan State University was conducted over a three-month period. Patients scheduled for Mohs surgery on 13 selected days were randomized into pre- versus post-procedure groups to receive wound care education. Setting: This study was conducted at a dermatology practice in Saint Joseph, Michigan. Participants: Fifty cognitive and literate patients greater than 18 years of age were evaluated in this study. Measurements: Participants’ ability to recall instructions delivered by a Mohs surgeon in the form of digital media was assessed by a 10-question, multiple-choice exam. Additional analyses were conducted on patient’s disposition around medical professionals, past experience with Mohs surgery, preference for digital media versus human instruction, and desire for home access. Results: Pre- (n=24; score=77±14%) versus post-(n=26; 83±11%) procedure education displayed no significant difference (p=0.13) in overall questionnaire performance. Seventy-four percent of participants preferred video delivery as opposed to provider instruction. Thirty-four percent reported being intimidated by healthcare workers. Participant performance showed no significant change (p=0.78) with previous exposure (79±19%) to Mohs surgery versus a first-time encounter (80±11%). Conclusion: Video education prior to or post-Mohs surgery serves as an effective mechanism for patienteducation and improvement of time management in clinical practice.
Many scientists would describe an effective E&O partnership as one that did not take up too much of their time. The California Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (CA COSEE), educators at the Ocean Institute (OI), Dana Point, and researchers at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) have collaborated to develop a highly efficient, productive and rewarding approach to crafting scientist/educator partnerships. These efforts represent a new model for facilitated collaboration between informal science education and research partners. Each partner brings unique elements to this collaboration. The Ocean Institute's recently funded Sea Floor Science Exhibition represents an innovative approach to exhibits and programming for K-12 students and the public. The exhibits and programs are firmly grounded in the needs of the formal science education community (i.e. standards based), designed to be constructed/created on extremely short time frames (months), convertible for both public display and programming needs and easily updated. Scripps researchers, as well as those from other institutions, provide briefings on their ongoing research work, loan or donate equipment and instrumentation both for use and display, and in some cases provide research experiences for OI staff and students. CA-COSEE acts as the catalyst, identifying and engaging researchers from disciplines that are consistent with OI exhibit and program goals, serve as a liaison between newly introduced scientists and educators and facilitate the incorporation of E&O components in scientists research proposals, including funding for future exhibits. Using the example of the newest Sea Floor Science exhibit, "Slopes, Slides and Tsunamis!", we will describe the role each partner has played in creating this research based exhibit and program, the chronology of the process, and how this approach will provide the basis for a long-term, sustained partnership between the researchers and science educators.
Objectives This study was conducted to develop a smartphone application (app) as an educational learning instrument for coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and to assess the users' level of satisfaction. Methods This methodological research involves elicited learning content for CAD patients to develop a learning instrument using the smartphone app. The app was developed according to the steps of Assessment, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation, which is a systematic instructional design model. The levels of satisfaction with the developed smartphone app among 30 outpatients with CAD were assessed via a questionnaire during their visits to a cardiology outpatient department. Results A smartphone app 'Strong Heart' was developed through reviewing the literature associated with education for CAD patients under professional supervision and searching for medical smartphone apps that are already available. The learning contents include six main sections containing essential learning issues in managing CAD and additional information to attract the user's attention, such as patient cases and quizzes. After modification with feedback from experts, the app was finally developed and evaluated by patients who reported that they were satisfied with the usefulness of the app. Conclusions The developed smartphone app is available on both the iPhone App Store and the Android Play Store. Patients with CAD may utilize the app for supporting educational material without limitations of time and space.
This article, jointly created by authors Mary E. Cooley, Helene Moriarty and Thomas H. Short, describes a dataset on the readability of American Cancer Society and National Cancer Institute pamphlets about cancer. This tests are designed to test whether the reading levels of these patients are high enough to comprehend this literature. Students should be familiar with scales of measurement, data reduction, measuring center, constructing and interpreting displays, and reaching conclusions in real problems.
Cooley, Mary E.; Moriarty, Helene; Short, Thomas H.
Explains how revising patient-education materials provided for undergraduate technical communication students a review and reinforcement of principles they had studied all semester, such as accessible organization of information, audience analysis, use of formatting and graphics to enhance communication, and clear sentence structure and diction.…
The purpose of this study was to investigate how Canadian adults living with limited literacy and chronic illness made meaning of their patienteducation experiences. The study used a hermeneutic phenomenological research design and employed three data sources over a nine-month period. Data was interpreted and analyzed as it was collected,…
Introduction: Minimal attention has been given to the intersection and potential collaboration among the domains of continuing education (CE), knowledge translation (KT), quality improvement (QI), and patient safety (PS), despite their overlapping objectives. A study was undertaken to examine leaders' perspectives of these 4 domains and their…
Kitto, Simon C.; Bell, Mary; Goldman, Joanne; Peller, Jennifer; Silver, Ivan; Sargeant, Joan; Reeves, Scott
The purpose of this study was to indicate which patienteducation activities directed at users of oral hypoglycemic agents are desirable in Dutch community pharmacies and to explore which preconditions should be considered when implementing the desired activities. A qualitative study was conducted with a panel composed of seven pharmacists and seven technicians with considerable experience in giving advice to
In most cases, the health professional has been the target for simulation based learning curricula. We have developed a simulation based curriculum for patienteducation. In our curriculum lay-women learn how to perform the clinical female pelvic examination using a manikin-based trainer. Learner assessments show that prior negative expectations turned into positive expectations regarding future pelvic examinations. PMID:19377178
Background Men who have been treated for prostate cancer in Australia can consult their general practitioner (GP) for advice about symptoms or side effects at any time following treatment. However, there is no evidence that such men are consistently advised by GPs and patients experience substantial unmet need for reassurance and advice. Objective The intent of the study was to evaluate a brief, email-based educational program for GPs to manage standardized patients presenting with symptoms or side effects months or years after prostate cancer treatment. Methods GPs viewed six pairs of video vignettes of actor-patients depicting men who had been treated for prostate cancer. The actor-patients presented problems that were attributable to the treatment of cancer. In Phase 1, GPs indicated their diagnosis and stated if they would prescribe, refer, or order tests based on that diagnosis. These responses were compared to the management decisions for those vignettes as recommended by a team of experts in prostate cancer. After Phase 1, all the GPs were invited to participate in an email-based education program (Spaced Education) focused on prostate cancer. Participants received feedback and could compare their progress and their performance with other participants in the study. In Phase 2, all GPs, regardless of whether they had completed the program, were invited to view another set of six video vignettes with men presenting similar problems to Phase 1. They again offered a diagnosis and stated if they would prescribe, refer, or order tests based on that diagnosis. Results In total, 64 general practitioners participated in the project, 57 GPs participated in Phase 1, and 45 in Phase 2. The Phase 1 education program was completed by 38 of the 57 (59%) participants. There were no significant differences in demographics between those who completed the program and those who did not. Factors determining whether management of cases was consistent with expert opinion were number of sessions worked per week (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.67-0.90), site of clinical practice (remote practice, OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.01-5.03), number of patients seen per week (150 patients or more per week, OR 10.66, 95% CI 3.40-33.48), and type of case viewed. Completion of the Spaced Education did impact whether patient management was consistent with expert opinion (not completed, OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.5-1.56). Conclusions The management of standardized patients by GPs was particularly unlikely to be consistent with expert opinion in the management of impotence and bony metastasis. There was no evidence from this standardized patient study that Spaced Education had an impact on the management of patients in this context. However, the program was not completed by all participants. Practitioners with a greater clinical load were more likely to manage cases as per expert opinion.
Halkett, Georgia; Meng, Xingqiong; Pillai, Vinita; Berg, Melissa; Shaw, Tim
Background/Aim: Memory is more associated with the temporal cortex than other cortical areas. The two main components of memory are spatial and verbal which relate to right and left hemispheres of the brain, respectively. Many investigations have shown the beneficial effects of yoga on memory and temporal functions of the brain. This study was aimed at comparing the effect of one Gurukula Education System (GES) school based on a yoga way of life with a school using the Modern Education System (MES) on memory. Materials and Methods: Forty nine boys of ages ranging from 11-13 years were selected from each of two residential schools, one MES and the other GES, providing similar ambiance and daily routines. The boys were matched for age and socioeconomic status. The GES educational program is based around integrated yoga modules while the MES provides a conventional modern education program. Memory was assessed by means of standard spatial and verbal memory tests applicable to Indian conditions before and after an academic year. Results: Between groups there was matching at start of the academic year, while after it the GES boys showed significant enhancement in both verbal and visual memory scores than MES boys (P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney test). Conclusions: The present study showed that the GES meant for total personality development adopting yoga way of life is more effective in enhancing visual and verbal memory scores than the MES.
OBJECTIVE To examine the educationaleffects of a tailored leaflet on current drinking behavior, thoughts about drinking alcohol during pregnancy, and knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) among pregnant women. DESIGN Intervention. PARTICIPANTS We recruited pregnant women who were participating in maternity classes held at five municipal health centers in Saitama Prefecture and Tokyo in Japan. METHODS Questionnaires were administered before and after distribution of either a tailored or a non-tailored leaflet and again after the women delivered their babies. RESULTS More women read the non-tailored leaflet than the tailored one; this was because they felt they could read the non-tailored leaflet immediately. As for educationaleffects, the tailored leaflet was not superior to the non-tailored one in changing the women’s behavior, thoughts, or knowledge. CONCLUSION It is more important for health education leaflets to seem easy to read in terms of volume than to be tailored.
This paper presents results of an investigation of the effects of shear flow profile on impedance eduction processes employed at NASA Langley. Uniform and 1-D shear-flow propagation models are used to educe the acoustic impedance of three test liners based on aeroacoustic data acquired in the Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube, at source levels of 130, 140 and 150 dB, and at centerline Mach numbers of 0.0, 0.3 and 0.5. A ceramic tubular, calibration liner is used to evaluate the propagation models, as this liner is expected to be insensitive to SPL, grazing flow Mach number, and flow profile effects. The propagation models are then used to investigate the effects of shear flow profile on acoustic impedances educed for two conventional perforate-over-honeycomb liners. Results achieved with the uniform-flow models follow expected trends, but those educed with the 1-D shear-flow model do not, even for the calibration liner. However, when the flow profile used with the shear-flow model is varied to increase the Mach number gradient near the wall, results computed with the shear-flow model are well matched to those achieved with the uniform-flow model. This indicates the effects of flow profile on educed acoustic liner impedance are small, but more detailed investigations of the flow field throughout the duct are needed to better understand these effects.
Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie r.; Nark, Douglas M.
ObjectiveThis paper describes the development and validation of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ). The aim was to develop a user-friendly, relevant, and psychometrically sound instrument for the comprehensive evaluation of patienteducation programs, which can be applied across a broad range of chronic conditions.
Richard H. Osborne; Gerald R. Elsworth; Kathryn Whitfield
This report reviews and critically evaluates the development of 3 movements in healthcare that have had a profound impact on changes occurring at all levels of medical education: patient safety, healthcare simulation, and competency-based education (exemplified by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education). The authors performed a critical and selective review of the literature from 1999 to 2011 to identify uses of simulation to address patient-safety issues aligned according to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education 6 core competencies: (1) patient care; (2) medical knowledge; (3) interpersonal and communication skills; (4) professionalism; (5) practice-based learning; and (6) systems-based practice. The research synthesis is reported to inform and provide evidence about how simulation is used to train and evaluate learners on a range of patient-safety issues for each of the core competencies: There is emerging evidence that simulation can be used in training efforts to reduce medical errors related to medical knowledge and patient care (particular invasive procedures as well as improved communication and teamwork skills). There remains limited evidence on its impact to improve patient safety related to more complex competencies of practice-based learning and systems-based practice. Simulation-based learning can lead to positive patient outcomes and reduction of medical errors particularly when used for individual skills. However, particular attention needs to be placed on the organizational context in which it is implemented if improvements in practice-based learning and systems-based practice are to be realized. PMID:22069208
Issenberg, S Barry; Chung, Hyun Soo; Devine, Luke Adam
Background In order to manage the increasing worldwide problem of obesity, medical students will need to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to assess and counsel patients with obesity. Few educational intervention studies have been conducted with medical students addressing stigma and communication skills with patients who are overweight or obese. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in students' attitudes and beliefs about obesity, and their confidence in communication skills after a structured educational intervention that included a clinical encounter with an overweight standardized patient (SP). Methods First year medical students (n = 127, 47% female) enrolled in a communications unit were instructed to discuss the SPs' overweight status and probe about their perceptions of being overweight during an 8 minute encounter. Prior to the session, students were asked to read two articles on communication and stigma as background information. Reflections on the readings and their performance with the SP were conducted prior to and after the encounter when students met in small groups. A newly constructed 16 item questionnaire was completed before, immediately after and one year after the session. Scale analysis was performed based on a priori classification of item intent. Results Three scales emerged from the questionnaire: negative obesity stereotyping (7 items), empathy (3 items), and counseling confidence (3 items). There were small but significant immediate post-intervention improvements in stereotyping (p?=?.002) and empathy (p?.0001) and a very large mean improvement in confidence (p?.0001). Significant improvement between baseline and immediate follow-up responses were maintained for empathy and counseling at one year after the encounter but stereotyping reverted to the baseline mean. Percent of students with improved scale scores immediately and at one year follow up were as follows: stereotyping 53.1% and 57.8%; empathy 48.4% and 47.7%; and confidence 86.7% and 85.9%. Conclusions A structured encounter with an overweight SP was associated with a significant short-term decrease in negative stereotyping, and longer-term increase in empathy and raised confidence among first year medical students toward persons who are obese. The encounter was most effective for increasing confidence in counseling skills.
The greenhouse effect has always existed. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth could well have the oven-like environment of Venus or the deep-freeze environment of Mars. There is some debate about how much the Earth's surface temperature will rise given a certain amount of increase in the amount of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous…
The Social Effects of New Technology in Schools (SENTIS) project has been operating in Tasmania, Australia, since 1989. It probes student computer use at home and at school. The results from several thousand students have allowed us to consider questions about the effects of informa tion and communication technologies upon friendship patterns. The project found that teachers generally feared the
The present article provides a primer on using effect sizes in research. A small heuristic data set is used in order to make the discussion concrete. Additionally, various admonitions for best practice in reporting and interpreting effect sizes are presented. Among these is the admonition to not use Cohen's benchmarks for "small," "medium," and…
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to understand the factors involved in increasing physical activity levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients for improved glycemic control. [Subjects] The subjects were 101 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who had completed an inpatient diabetes education program. [Methods] The survey evaluated physical activity levels on the basis of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a questionnaire listing physical and psychosocial factors. [Results] Four variables—participation or non-participation in farm work, presence or absence of a job, stage of change in attitude toward exercise behavior, and social support—accounted for 34% of physical activity levels in these diabetes mellitus patients. The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient between physical activity level and HbA1c was ?0.31. [Conclusion] Intervention in terms of practical use of living environments, promotion of exercise behavior, and social support may be effective in helping to improve glycemic control.
Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease complications. Therefore, medical institutions conduct educational hospitalization for early treatment and education of CKD patients. However, patients who have been discharged after achieving educational targets can end up showing poor symptoms at home. There also have been several cases of rehospitalization or disease aggravation. In this study, we analyzed rehospitalized patients who were discharged from the hospital after CKD educational hospitalization and investigated the purpose of analyzing rehospitalization factors. Materials and methods This was an observational case-control study conducted at Yokosuka Kyousai Hospital. We performed univariate analysis using patient background features and laboratory data between a rehospitalization group and a no-rehospitalization group. Next, we performed multiple logistic regression analysis using the results of the univariate analysis. Results From the results of this study, we identified independent risk factors, such as serum albumin level, heart-failure complications, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Moreover, the serum Alb level was identified as the most important risk factor for rehospitalization. Therefore, we considered that it is important to live a life that makes it possible to maintain CKD stage G3b for a long time after discharge, because the cutoff level of eGFR is 31 mL/minute/1.73 m2. Conclusion We believe that it is important to educatepatients, their families, and medical staff on the importance of early detection and treatment, and we consider that this approach is important to inclusively protect the kidney.
Kose, Eiji; An, Taesong; Kikkawa, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Hiroyuki
Summary Background and objectives Web-based technology is critical to the future of healthcare. As part of the Safe Kidney Care cohort study evaluating patient safety in CKD, this study determined how effectively a representative sample of patients with CKD or family members could interpret and use the Safe Kidney Care website (www.safekidneycare.org), an informational website on safety in CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Between November of 2011 and January of 2012, persons with CKD or their family members underwent formal usability testing administered by a single interviewer with a second recording observer. Each participant was independently provided a list of 21 tasks to complete, with each task rated as either easily completed/noncritical error or critical error (user cannot complete the task without significant interviewer intervention). Results Twelve participants completed formal usability testing. Median completion time for all tasks was 17.5 minutes (range=10–44 minutes). In total, 10 participants had greater than or equal to one critical error. There were 55 critical errors in 252 tasks (22%), with the highest proportion of critical errors occurring when participants were asked to find information on treatments that may damage kidneys, find the website on the internet, increase font size, and scroll to the bottom of the webpage. Participants were generally satisfied with the content and usability of the website. Conclusions Web-based educational materials for patients with CKD should target a wide range of computer literacy levels and anticipate variability in competency in use of the computer and internet.
Background: Obesity, and therefore diabetes, is an ever growing problem in worldwide healthcare. As weight loss is critical in controlling blood sugar levels, more patients are turning to bariatric surgery after failing conventional weight loss methods. Gastric bypass, as the most commonly performed bariatric surgery, has been shown to be effective in glycemic control and even diabetes resolution. Laparoscopic adjustable
Background: Most interventions aimed at reducing hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have employed resource-intense programs in high-risk individuals. Although COPD is a progressive disease, little is known about the effectiveness of proactive interventions aimed at preventing hospitalizations and ED visits in the much larger population of low-risk (no known COPD-related hospitalizations or ED visits in the prior year) patients, some of whom will eventually become high-risk. Methods: We tested the effect of a simple educational and self-efficacy intervention (n = 2243) versus usual care (n = 2182) on COPD/breathing-related ED visits and hospitalizations in a randomized study of low-risk patients at three Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers in the upper Midwest. Administrative data was used to track VA admissions and ED visits. A patient survey was used to determine health-related events outside the VA. Results: Rates of COPD-related VA hospitalizations in the education and usual care group were not significantly different (3.4 versus 3.6 admissions per 100 person-years, respectively; 95% CI of difference ?1.3 to 1.0, P = 0.77). The much higher patient-reported rates of non-VA hospitalizations for breathing-related problems were lower in the education group (14.0 versus 19.0 per 100 person-years; 95% CI ?8.6 to ?1.4, P = 0.006). Rates of COPD-related VA ED visits were not significantly different (6.8 versus 5.3; 95% CI ?0.1 to 3.0, P = 0.07), nor were non-VA ED visits (32.4 versus 36.5; 95% CI ?9.3 to 1.1, P = 0.12). All-cause VA admission and ED rates did not differ. Mortality rates (6.9 versus 8.3 per 100 person-years, respectively; 95% CI ?3.0 to 0.4, P = 0.13) did not differ. Conclusion: An educational intervention that is practical for large numbers of low-risk patients with COPD may reduce the rate of breathing-related hospitalizations. Further research that more closely tracks hospitalizations to non-VA facilities is needed to confirm this finding.
Siddique, Haamid H; Olson, Raymond H; Parenti, Connie M; Rector, Thomas S; Caldwell, Michael; Dewan, Naresh A; Rice, Kathryn L
Virtual Patients are computer-based simulations of a clinical encounter where the user plays the role of a healthcare provider while receiving in-context instruction. This unique pedagogical approach enables active case-based learning for learners. Academic institutions around the world have developed high-quality virtual patients using many different authoring and playback technologies. However, sustainability and scalability have proved challenging due to the number of cases needed and production costs. In an effort to promote sharing of Virtual Patients and broader adoption into medical education at all levels, MedBiquitous organized an international working group to create an XML-based “MedBiquitous Virtual Patient Standard” (MVP) describing a common structure for virtual patient content and activities. The MVP enables virtual patient exchange across systems, modification, and display within conformant player software.
Triola, Marc M.; Campion, Ned; McGee, James B.; Albright, Susan; Greene, Peter; Smothers, Valerie; Ellaway, Rachel
An incorporation-upward mobility model is the most accurate description of the effect of immigration on educational stratification in West Germany. Instead of remaining external to the stratification system, guestworkers occupy the bottom rung and cause the native population to be redistributed upward. (Author/RM)
In this review of the literature, the authors examined studies investigating course delivery methods for preparing special education teachers. Ultimately, 17 studies were reviewed using a constant comparative qualitative method of analysis. This analysis led to the emergence of five themes: (a) established needs, (b) effectiveness, (c) logistics,…
Vernon-Dotson, Lisa J.; Floyd, Loury O.; Dukes, Charles; Darling, Sharon M.
Job-related measures of the educationaleffectiveness of an institution are critiqued. Three criteria of job-related measures are: the measure's ability to discriminate between the performance that can be attributed to the program being studied compared to what might have happened if there were no program, and whether the measure is economic.…
The health benefits of physical activity are well documented, and the important role that schools and physical education (PE) can play in reducing sedentary behavior and contributing to population health has been identified. Although effective teaching is ultimately judged by student achievement, a major component of teacher and school…
The reasons for schools' lack of leadership in using microcomputers for technological diffusion are explored in this article. General systems theory is used to examine the effects of the computer revolution on political, social, economic, and educational systems. Selected characteristics of schools and computers are offered as possible…
This paper presents an exploratory study that investigates the effects of online learning on distance education students in an open university context. Two hypotheses are posited: (1) a direct relationship exists between students involvement in online learning and distance learning outcomes, and (2) an indirect relationship exists between these…
This paper presents an exploratory study that investigates the effects of online learning on distance education students in an open university context. Two hypotheses are posited: (1) a direct relationship exists between students' involvement in online learning and distance learning outcomes, and (2) an indirect relationship exists between these two domains via the mediating vari- able of an institutional Transactional
This research has been aimed to demonstrate the effects of dance education on preadolescent children. A total of 114 students (56 of whom in dance group/58 in control group) at preadolescent (aged 11 [plus or minus] 0.0 year) and adolescent (aged 14 [plus or minus] 0.0 year) stages participated in the research. Prior to dance classes a variety of…
Aldemir, Gulay Yasemin; Ramazanoglu, Nusret; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Kaya, Fatih
Despite the fact that migraine headaches are common and debilitating, little is known about their effect on educational attainment. Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate the relationship between migraine headache and three outcomes: high school grade point average, the probability of graduating…
A model for enhancing the educationaleffectiveness of an African university was developed through the West Virginia University-Bayero University, Kano (Nigeria) linkage activities carried out from 1984-1988. The three goals of the model were to: further develop abilities of African university faculty to carry out research, curriculum development,…
The research presented in this report examines the effect of prison-based postsecondary education (PSE) on offenders both while incarcerated and after release. Urban Institute researchers worked with the staff of four institutions in three states to conduct inmate focus groups and stakeholder interviews to explore the motivations for enrolling in…
Winterfield, Laura; Coggeshall, Mark; Burke-Storer, Michelle; Correa, Vanessa; Tidd, Simon
The reduction of transaction costs is a commonly mentioned yet rarely elaborated goal for aid effectiveness in educational development. The casual use of the concept of transaction costs conceals which costs may be reduced, which costs are required and, indeed, what transaction costs actually are. Examining issues related to harmonizing the…
The question of the extent to which effective leadership in vocational education and training (VET) depends on the specific context in which it occurs was examined. Data were collected from the following sources: an intensive literature analysis; studies of purposive sample of 12 diverse VET sites across Australia; and individual interviews with…
This paper summarizes the experience and findings from the monitoring work carried out by UNESCO throughout 2009 to examine and assess the possible effects of the global financial and economic crisis on education provision in its Member States. The findings showed that although it was too early to ascertain the full extent of the impact of the…
Much educationaleffectiveness research has been conducted over the past 40 years in developed countries, whereas few studies have focused on developing or newly industrialized countries such as the People's Republic of China. The case studies discussed in this article are part of a larger multiple-case, mixed-methods study that investigated 6…
Multilevel modeling was carried out on national value-added data to study the effects of single-sex education on the progress of pupils from 2002 Key Stage 3 to 2004 GCSE. The analysis suggests that pupils in a selective environment achieve higher progress in single-sex schools; however, the advantage of single-sex schooling seems to decrease with…
Educational administrators' concern with planning and time management results from the fragmentation of their daily activities, which research has documented, and their consequent search for order and control. Time is important because its scarcity affects productivity and its use has social-psychological effects on staffs' perceptions of…
Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in…
Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman
Virtual classroom (VC) is the preferred application in distance education since it provides simultaneous interaction and a communication environment between the student and the instructor. The aim of this study is to determine the key components which make VC sessions effective in terms of environment and method. Determination of these components…
To meet challenges of diversity in classrooms various multicultural teacher education programs to prepare pre-service teachers are introduced with the objective of changing beliefs, attitudes, knowledge base, and pedagogical skills. Studies reporting effectiveness of these programs used measure such as portfolio assessment, interviews, survey and…
Fourth-grade students were randomly assigned to either a treatment or a Hawthorne control group. The treatment consisted of participation in the Toward Affective Development Program. No treatment effects were noted, regardless of sex or class membership. (Author)
The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) is an approach to providing comprehensive care for children, youth, and adults in the primary care setting. PCMH emphasizes planned care, care coordination, family-centered approaches, and quality of care while also improving access to care and modernizing the care experience. Although health educators as a group have not traditionally focused their efforts on the primary care setting, the PCMH model increases the potential for their inclusion. Health educators, given their training and expertise, are likely to be well positioned to contribute to primary care oriented with a PCMH model. Health educator roles within PCMH that are especially relevant include participating in a team approach to care, attention to coordination and integration of care, and preventive and end-of-life care. Such roles may be realized in direct delivery of patienteducation such as health coaching, serving as a facilitator or connector to community resources, or involvement in practice or practice organization quality improvement and population-based assessment efforts. If implemented properly, the involvement of health educators in this new model of care has the potential to enhance how primary care is delivered, improve the health of Americans with regard to chronic conditions, and reduce related health care costs. PMID:20817632
Background Despite the availability of evidence-based guidelines on venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention clinical audit and research reveals that hospitalised medical patients frequently receive suboptimal prophylaxis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability, utility and clinical impact of an educational outreach visit (EOV) on the provision of VTE prophylaxis to hospitalised medical patients in a 270 bed acute care private hospital in metropolitan Australia. Methods The study used an uncontrolled before-and-after design with accompanying process evaluation. The acceptability of the intervention to participants was measured with a post intervention survey; descriptive data on resource use was collected as a measure of utility; and clinical impact (prophylaxis rate) was assessed by pre and post intervention clinical audits. Doctors who admit >40 medical patients each year were targeted to receive the intervention which consisted of a one-to-one educational visit on VTE prevention from a trained peer facilitator. The EOV protocol was designed by a multidisciplinary group of healthcare professionals using social marketing theory. Results Nineteen (73%) of 26 eligible participants received an EOV. The majority (n?=?16, 85%) felt the EOV was effective or extremely effective at increasing their knowledge about VTE prophylaxis and 15 (78%) gave a verbal commitment to provide evidence-based prophylaxis. The average length of each visit was 15 minutes (IQ range 15 to 20) and the average time spent arranging and conducting each visit was 92 minutes (IQ range 78 to 129). There was a significant improvement in the proportion of medical patients receiving appropriate pharmacological VTE prophylaxis following the intervention (54% to 70%, 16% improvement, 95% CI 5 to 26, p?=?0.004). Conclusions EOV is effective at improving doctors’ provision of pharmacological VTE prophylaxis to hospitalised medical patients. It was also found to be an acceptable implementation strategy by the majority of participants; however, it was resource intensive requiring on average 92 minutes per visit.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if delivery of wound care instruction pre-Mohs micrographic surgery versus the typical, post-Mohs surgery would allow for greater patient retention. Design: A non-blinded, randomized, controlled trial receiving institutional review board exemption from Michigan State University was conducted over a three-month period. Patients scheduled for Mohs surgery on 13 selected days were randomized into pre- versus post-procedure groups to receive wound care education. Setting: This study was conducted at a dermatology practice in Saint Joseph, Michigan. Participants: Fifty cognitive and literate patients greater than 18 years of age were evaluated in this study. Measurements: Participants' ability to recall instructions delivered by a Mohs surgeon in the form of digital media was assessed by a 10-question, multiple-choice exam. Additional analyses were conducted on patient's disposition around medical professionals, past experience with Mohs surgery, preference for digital media versus human instruction, and desire for home access. Results: Pre- (n=24; score=77±14%) versus post-(n=26; 83±11%) procedure education displayed no significant difference (p=0.13) in overall questionnaire performance. Seventy-four percent of participants preferred video delivery as opposed to provider instruction. Thirty-four percent reported being intimidated by healthcare workers. Participant performance showed no significant change (p=0.78) with previous exposure (79±19%) to Mohs surgery versus a first-time encounter (80±11%). Conclusion: Video education prior to or post-Mohs surgery serves as an effective mechanism for patienteducation and improvement of time management in clinical practice. PMID:24765229
This study evaluated effects of a key session from a nationally recognized drug abuse prevention program on basic memory processes in 211 high-risk youth in Southern California. In a randomized, between-subject design, the authors manipulated assignment to a Myth and Denial program session and the time of assessment (immediate vs. one-week delay). The authors examined program decay effects on memory accessibility and judgment errors. Those participants exposed to the program session generated more myths and facts from the program than those in the control group, suggesting that even a single program session influenced students’ memory for program information and this was retained at least one week and detectable with indirect tests of memory accessibility. However, consistent with basic research perspectives, participants in the program delayed assessment group erroneously generated more fact-related information from the session to the prompt “It is a myth that_____” than the participants in the program immediate assessment group; that is, they retained more facts as myths. These types of program effects, anticipated by basic memory theory, were not detected with a traditional judgment task in the present sample. The results suggest that basic science approaches offer a novel way of conceptually recasting prevention effects to more completely understand how these effects may operate. Implications for program evaluation and conceptualization are discussed.
Ames, Susan L.; Krank, Marvin; Grenard, Jerry L.; Sussman, Steve; Stacy, Alan W.
Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes.
Background: There are many factors which affect nutritional status of addicted such as lack o f knowledge, incorrect attitude toward modification of food pattern, and careless to food intake. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of educational program on nutritional behavior in addicts referring to Baharan hospital in Zahedan. Patients and Methods: Thirty-six addict patients were selected randomly. After recording general demographic data of patients, nutritional behaviors were determined. To determine the effectiveness of nutritional educational program, pre and post-tests were performed. Evaluation of nutritional behavior was determined as poor, fair and satisfactory levels. Statically analysis was performed by SPSS software. Results: Most addict patients had a medium level of education. Improvement in knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of patients after intervention was observed as follows; decreasing KAP in poor level (2.8% vs. 30.6%), (3% vs. 50%), (25% vs. 80.6%), respectively; also, increasing KAP in fair level (7% vs. 55.6 %), (15% vs. 15%), (19% vs. 7%), respectively and increasing KAP in satisfactory levels (77.8% vs. 13.8%), (50% vs. 8.3%), and (22.2% vs. 0%), respectively (P < 0.0001). There was a significant difference regarding the grade of KAP in patients based on gender, marital status, and education level after education (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: This study showed that nutritional KAP was improved in addicts. After intervention, there was a significant difference in the score of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores in patients in the current study. KAP was improved in patients after intervention including; decreased KAP in poor level and increased KAP in fair and satisfactory levels. This finding indicates that addict patients would like to modify their life style.
This paper presents an overview of studies into effects and side effects of control mechanisms in education. We focus on effects and side effects of inspection visits and public performance indicators. A first conclusion is that the studies do not provide us with a clear answer to the question of whether inspections have positive causal effects on…
Millions of Americans use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies, often in the absence of scientific evidence\\u000a of their safety and effectiveness and, in many cases, with-out including a medical professional in the decision-making process\\u000a (1). Depending on how broadly one defines it, between 36 and 62% of the US population now relies on some form of CAM (2). Although
Studied cross-national variances in the effect of education on ethnic prejudice using data from11 European countries with a total sample of 11,904 adults. Findings show that a country's democratic tradition and degree of religious heterogeneity are important for the strength of an educationaleffect on ethnic prejudice, while ethnic composition…
In the United States, access to dental care is often challenging for patients from socioeconomically disadvantaged and/or minority populations and for patients with special health care needs (SHCN). The objectives of this study were to a) explore endodontic residents', endodontic faculty members', and private practice endodontists' perceptions of their education about treating underserved patients, along with their related attitudes and behavior, and b) to determine how their educational experiences were related to their attitudes and behavior concerning these patients. It was hypothesized that the quality of educational experiences related to these issues would correlate with the providers' professional attitudes and behavior. Methods: Survey data were collected from seventy-eight endodontic residents, forty-eight endodontic faculty members, and seventy-five endodontists in private practice. Results: The residents reported themselves being better prepared to treat these patients than did the endodontists in private practice. The residents and faculty members had more positive attitudes towards patients with SHCN, developmental disabilities, and pro bono cases and were more confident when treating patients with developmental disabilities than private practitioners. However, the three groups did not differ in educational experiences and attitudes concerning patients from different ethnic/racial groups. The better the respondents' graduate education about certain patient groups had been, the more positive were their attitudes and behavior. Conclusions: Improving endodontic residents' education about treating underserved patients is likely to improve their attitudes and behavior related to providing much-needed care for these patients. These findings are a call-to-action for dental educators to ensure quality education is being provided about these issues in order to decrease access to care problems for underserved patients. PMID:24789833
Background and Aims: The hemodialysis (HD) patients are experiencing high biopsychosocial stress on all levels. Therefore, this study was designed to survey on physiologic and psychosocial stressors among HD patients in two educational hospitals of Northern Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 80 HD patients who were referred to Khomeini and Fatemeh Zahra hospitals in Mazandaran (Northern Iran) during the year 2011. Data were collected using a demographic information record sheet and Baldree Hemodialysis Stress Scale. Finding: The following physiologic stressors were noted: Fatigue (51.25%), limited time and places for enjoyment (46.25%), and physical activation limitation (32.5%). Similarly the following psychosocial stressors were observed: Fistula (58.75%), limitation of drinking water (47.5%), low quality of life (47.5%), travelling difficulties to the dialysis center (45%), treatment cost (41.5%), and low life expectancy. The stress level was high in women who were married, younger, less dialysis vintage, and belonged to a low education level. Conclusion: This study reports that HD patients have with significant physical and psychosocial problems and they need education, family, and social supports.
Gorji, Mohammad Ali Heidari; Mahdavi, Ali; Janati, Yadollah; Illayi, Ehteramossadat; Yazdani, Jamshid; Setareh, Javad; Panjaki, Seyed Azam Hoseiny; Gorji, Ali Morad Heidari
From 1985 to 1988, a state-wide program of cancer education was offered to community-based allied health professionals (AHPs) at five different program sites in Pennsylvania. During this three-year period, 512 social workers, clergy, dieticians, physical therapists and others received training to increase their knowledge about cancer and counseling, improve their supportive attitude regarding cancer patients and families, and decrease stress related to their work with this population. Overall, the Program was successful in reaching AHPs working with cancer clients who had little formal training in the cancer field. At the beginning of training, it was observed that AHPs with initially higher levels of education and more years of work experience with cancer patients had higher levels of counseling knowledge. Those who were women, worked in hospitals, or had worked with cancer patients longer exhibited higher levels of cancer knowledge. Participants who were women and who had more education had reported lower levels of job stress. Among those AHPs who completed the training courses, cancer knowledge increased by 14 percent. In addition, knowledge related to counseling cancer patients and their families improved by 11 percentage points. Perceived job stress among the AHPs also declined by 10 percent. Finally, participant supportive attitude concerning cancer clients improved. PMID:10116581