Inman, Diane M; Jacobson, Therese M; Maxson, Pamela M; Wang, Huey; Lohse, Christine M
In a nonrandomized prospective study, significant decreases in patient anxiety with home urinary catheter management and in length of stay were reported when patients attended the preoperative prostatectomy class with standard postoperative education versus standard postoperative education. PMID:24592522
Padberg, R M; Padberg, L F
In spite of the recognized significance of patient education, many factors contribute to difficulties in providing effective patient teaching: diminished time from reduced hospital stays, the shortage of nursing personnel, and often, the patient's compromised physical and emotional status. With these constraints, teaching must be effective and efficient. In reviewing the literature, primary emphasis was found on providing sound clinical information with little attention to the techniques of effective methods for teaching adults. This article draws upon the principles of andragogy--the methods of teaching adults delineated by Malcolm Knowles--to provide a conceptual framework for developing effective patient education practice. Examples of both effective and ineffective practice are provided from the nursing literature. The information provided should assist nurses in understanding how adults learn and provide them with a structure to use in tailoring their teaching to meet the individual needs of their patients. PMID:2300506
Naomi J Shaw-Stuart; Andrew Stuart
Objective: This study sought to determine the effectiveness of a recently developed educational patient compliance program (A Taste for Life ; Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) on improving serum phosphate levels in patients receiving hemodialysis.Design: An ABA time series design was used.Participants\\/setting: Eighty-one patients receiving hemodialysis participated. The experimental group consisted of 50 participants (mean [M] = 57.9 years of
Smith, Michael A.; Benedict, Neal
A review of the literature on the effectiveness of educational technologies to teach patient care skills to pharmacy students was conducted. Nineteen articles met inclusion criteria for the review. Seven of the articles included computer-aided instruction, 4 utilized human-patient simulation, 1 used both computer-aided instruction and human-patient simulation, and 7 utilized virtual patients. Educational technology was employed with more than 2700 students at 12 colleges and schools of pharmacy in courses including pharmacotherapeutics, skills and patient care laboratories, drug diversion, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) orientation. Students who learned by means of human-patient simulation and virtual patients reported enjoying the learning activity, whereas the results with computer-aided instruction were mixed. Moreover, the effect on learning was significant in the human-patient simulation and virtual patient studies, while conflicting data emerged on the effectiveness of computer-aided instruction. PMID:25741031
Holder, Jessica L.
Patient education is an important aspect of patient care in dermatology. Successful education increases patient satisfaction and results in improved outcomes and adherence. This article discusses the role of patient education in dermatology. Specifically, Part I of the review examines evidence demonstrating the benefits of patient education and recognizes the challenges that limit effective patient education. These challenges can be summarized as barriers to understanding, poor patient recall, conflicting information, and barriers to physician delivery. Further descriptions and an assessment of these limitations along with methods to combat them are included in the review. PMID:20725581
Clayton, Laura H
Nutrition and diet therapy are at the center of health promotion activities and self-management of chronic diseases. To assist an individual in making informed decisions regarding his or her diet and increase adherence to dietary recommendations or treatments, healthcare professionals must select health information that is appropriate to the client's level of understanding. A systematic approach in the evaluation of patient education material, whether in print or on the World Wide Web, must focus on the information's content, literacy level, graphical displays, layout and typography, motivating principles, cultural relevance, and feasibility. Additional criteria should be evaluated when accessing Web sites and include source, site credibility, conflict of interest, disclaimer, disclosure, navigation, and interactivity information. PMID:20962303
Jafari, Mojtaba; Rafiei, Hossein; Nassehi, Asra; Soleimani, Farzaneh; Arab, Mansuor; Noormohammadi, Mohammad Reza
Background: Education about caring for dying patients could be effective in changing nursing students’ attitude toward caring for dying patients. Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the nursing students’ attitude toward caring for dying patients and effects of education on their attitude. Materials and Methods: The present study enjoys a quasi-experimental method with using one-group pre-test/post-test design conducted in Bam in southeast of Iran. The attitude of nursing students was measured using Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying (FATCOD) scale before and after an educational intervention. Data were analyzed using non-parametric tests in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 18 software. Results: Of 32 students, 30 participated in this study (response rate of 94%). Only 20% of the students reported previous experience of dying patients in their clinical courses. Students showed moderately negative to neutral attitudes toward caring for dying patients. Education has improved students’ attitude significantly (mean score of FATCOD before study were 3.5 ± 0.43 and after intervention were 4.7 ± 0.33) (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Educational programs about death and caring for dying patients should be added to undergraduate nursing curricula. Further research recommended examining nursing students’ knowledge about caring for dying patients and the effect of education on their knowledge. PMID:26009673
Ahmad Reza Assareh; Mohammad Alasti; Shahla Beigi; Seddigheh Fayyazi
Background: A relatively common disease, congestive heart failure has a significant effect on the quality of life. Given that hospital admission is an important problem in patients afflicted with congestive heart failure, we sought to evaluate the effect of discharge education on the quality of life and hospital readmission in this group of patients. Methods: Eighty patients admitted with decompensated
Yu-Feng Chan; Robert Lavery; Nicole Fox; Robert Kwon; Shreni Zinzuwadia; Richard Massone; David Livingston
The purpose of this study was to explore whether passive watching of a stroke videotape in the Emergency Department waiting room could be an effective method for patient education. The setting was an urban, inner city teaching hospital. After providing informed consent, subjects were randomized into two arms: those watching a 12-min educational video on stroke developed by the American
Patient education is an increasingly important component of therapeutic strategies, especially for chronic illnesses, which currently affect about 12% of the French population and will undoubtedly increase in coming years. Patient education aims to enhance patients' personal responsibility and participation in their therapeutic management and quality of life. Article 84 of French health legislation passed in 2009 inscribes patient education in the Public Health Code for the first time. It distinguishes personalized therapeutic education, patient accompaniment, and learning programs. Direct links between patients and drug companies are prohibited. However, the notion of patient accompaniment remains to be defined, along with the evaluation of patient education, funding sources and practical modalities. PMID:22812156
Jeong, Jong-hwa; Yoo, Won-gyu
[Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of caregiver education on pulmonary rehabilitation of patients who have undergone lung resection for cancer. [Subjects] Patients were divided into experimental (n = 22) and control (n = 19) groups. [Methods] The caregivers of the experimental group patients received education on pulmonary rehabilitation, while the control group patients received general management advice for 4 weeks. [Results] Pulmonary muscle strength (maximum inspiratory pressure and maximum expiratory pressure) was increased significantly in the experimental group compared to the control group. Modified Borg scale scores were decreased significantly in the experimental vs. control group. [Conclusion] Providing caregivers with education pertaining to pulmonary rehabilitation was associated with improved pulmonary function in lung cancer patients following lung resection. PMID:26180291
Joplin, Samantha; van der Zwan, Rick; Joshua, Fredrick; Wong, Peter K. K.
Background. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease affecting <1% of the population. Incompletely controlled RA results in fatigue, joint and soft tissue pain, progressive joint damage, reduced quality of life, and increased cardiovascular mortality. Despite an increasing range of disease modifying agents which halt disease progression, poor patient adherence with medication is a significant barrier to management. Objective. The goal of this review was to examine the effectiveness of measures to improve patient medication adherence. Methods. Studies addressing treatment adherence in patients with RA were identified by trawling PsycINFO, Medline, Cochrane, Pubmed, and ProQuest for studies published between January 2000 and October 2014. Articles were independently reviewed to identify relevant studies. Results. Current strategies were of limited efficacy in improving patient adherence with medications used to treat RA. Conclusion. Poor medication adherence is a complex issue. Low educational levels and limited health literacy are contributory factors. Psychological models may assist in explaining medication nonadherence. Increasing patient knowledge of their disease seems sensible. Existing educational interventions appear ineffective at improving medication adherence, probably due to an overemphasis on provision of biomedical information. A novel approach to patient education using musculoskeletal ultrasound is proposed. PMID:26060812
Sex education evokes a wide variety of responses in the community and from teachers. Consequently, physicians have a responsibility to present sex education material in a factual, objective way. Many people are misinformed about sexual behavior. Physicians can help patients and the community by being aware of appropriate sex education for each age group. A curriculum for sex education, and opportunities to provide sex information for patients of different ages and stages in the lifecycle, are described. PMID:21274069
Park, H Y; Kim, J H; Choi, S; Kang, E; Oh, S; Kim, J Y; Kim, S W
Treatments for breast cancer often include interventions related to psychosocial issues such as negative body image, loss of femininity, and low self-esteem. We identified the psychological effects of a cosmetics education programme in patients with breast cancer. Cosmetic programme is a specific care designed to help patients handle appearance-related side effects. Thirty-one women with breast cancer at a university hospital in South Korea who received a cosmetics education programme were compared with 29 subjects in a control group who received the treatment as usual. Psychological factors including distress, self-esteem, and sexual functioning were assessed three times (before and after the programme, and at the 1-month follow-up). After the programme, patients in the treatment group were significantly less likely than those in the control group to rely on distress (P?=?0.038) and avoidance coping (P?0.001) but not on self-esteem. The mean scores in the treatment group for sexual functioning were higher than those in the control group after the treatment. Our results suggest the potential usefulness of a brief cosmetics education programme for reducing distress and reliance on negative coping strategies. Implementing a cosmetics programme for patients with breast cancer may encourage patients to control negative psychological factors. PMID:25651297
Tarhan, Huseyin; Cakmak, Ozgur; Unal, Elif; Akarken, Ilker; Un, Sitki; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Konyalioglu, Ersin; Isoglu, Cemal Selcuk; Zorlu, Ferruh
Introduction: We assess the effect of video-based education on patient anxiety during transrectal prostate biopsy. Methods: A total of 246 patients who underwent transrectal prostate biopsy were prospectively enrolled in the study. Group 1 included 123 patients who received both written and video-based education, while Group 2 included 123 patients who received only written instructions regarding prostate biopsies. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to assess state and trait anxiety (STAI-S/T) After completing the STAI-S and STAI-T questionnaires, all patients in Group 1 received written information and video-based education and they again completed STAI-S before the biopsy. On the contrary, after completing the STAI-S and STAI-T questionnaires, the patients in Group 2 received only written information and then they completed the STAI-S before the biopsy. Moreover, a visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess pain scores during digital rectal examination, probe insertion, periprostatic local anesthesic infiltration, and biopsy. Results: No difference was noted between 2 groups regarding VAS scores. Comparing the 2 groups on baseline anxiety, we found that trait anxiety scores (STAI-T) were similar (p = 0.238). Pre-information STAI-S scores were similar in both groups (p = 0.889) and they both indicated high anxiety levels (score ?42). While post-information STAI-S scores remained high in Group 2, post-information STAI-S scores significantly decreased in Group 1 (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Undergoing a prostate biopsy is stressful and may cause anxiety for patients. Video-based education about the procedure can diminish patient anxiety. PMID:25553162
Systematic depression screening is feasible, efficient, and well accepted; however the lack of consistent assessment in heart failure inpatients suggests barriers preventing its effective diagnosis and treatment. This pilot study assessed the impact of an educational intervention on nurses' beliefs about depression and their likelihood of routinely screening heart failure patients. Registered nurses (n = 35) from adult medical-surgical units were surveyed before and after an educational intervention to assess their beliefs about depression prevalence and screening in heart failure patients. There was no significant influence on nurses' beliefs about depression, but the results suggested an increased likelihood that nurses would routinely screen for depression. The moderately significant correlation between beliefs and intent to screen for depression indicates that educational intervention could ultimately have a positive influence on patient outcomes through early detection and treatment of depression in patients with cardiovascular disease; however the observed increase in the intent to screen without a corresponding change in beliefs indicates other influences affecting nurses' intent to screen heart failure patients for depression. PMID:25525516
Mollao?lu, Mukadder; Kayata?, Mansur; Yürügen, Birsen
Caring for a patient undergoing hemodialysis is highly stressful and can negatively affect a caregiver's physical and psychological well-being. This study was conducted to examine the effect of educational support concerning caregiver burden and given to the caregivers of hemodialysis patients. This experimental study was performed with 122 caregivers. Patients' data were collected by means of Personal Information Form and Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale (ZCBS). Characteristics of caregivers of hemodialysis patients were analyzed descriptively in terms of frequencies and percentages for categorical data, means, and standard deviations. Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskall-Wallis test, and percentages were used in the data analysis. The mean ZCBS score was 52.1?±?8.6 (range, 0-88). Among the caregivers, the mean score of the ZCBS was significantly higher in women, single, young, family relatives as "daughter/sister/brother/daughter-in-law and town/district, high educational level (P?0.05). Moreover, the mean score of the ZCBS was significantly higher in caregivers who have health problems/diseases. In addition, this study explored the educational needs of home-based such as nutrition (35.2%), dialysis (27.8%), fistula care (20.4%), catheter care (18.8%), the information about chronic kidney disease (18.0%), blood pressure (17.2%), weight control (17.2%), hygiene (3.1%), and travel/exercise (6.5%). The post-educational mean scores (55.0?±?7.6) of caregiver burden were observed to be lower than the pre-educational scores (43.9?±?5.2), and the difference was found to be statistically significant. The home-based educational program demonstrated a decrease in the burden of hemodialysis caregivers. PMID:23279118
Kim, Jae-Il; Lee, Sook; Kim, Jung-Hee
The effectiveness of methods to prevent stroke recurrence and of education focusing on learners' needs has not been fully explored. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of such interventions among stroke patients and their primary caregivers and to evaluate the feasibility of a web-based stroke education program. The participants were…
Hill, J; Bird, H; Johnson, S
OBJECTIVE—To determine whether a patient education programme (PE) would improve rates of adherence to a slow acting antirheumatic drug and to assess any subsequent effect on patient outcome.?METHODS—A randomly controlled study comprising 100 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (49 control CG; 51 experimental EG) requiring D-penicillamine (DPA). The same practitioner saw patients on seven occasions, for the same length of time. The EG received 7 × 30 minute one to one sessions of PE, while the CG received standard management. The primary measure of adherence was a pharmacological marker (phenobarbitone) encapsulated with the DPA assayed at monthly intervals for six months. Plasma viscosity (PV), C reactive protein, articular index, morning stiffness, and pain score were used to assess outcome.?RESULTS—454 blood samples were collected and assayed and the pharmacological marker showed the EG to be significantly more adherent on more occasions than the CG (p<0.05). Patterns of adherence over time showed that at 12 weeks 86% (38/44) of those in the EG compared with 64% (29/45) of the CG remained adherent (p=0.01). These trends continued and by the end of the study 85% (29/34) of the EG compared with 55% (23/42) of the CG were taking their DPA as prescribed. Fifteen patients (12 from the EG) experienced side effects requiring study withdrawal and 14 patients requested study withdrawal (two from the EG). On study entry patients in the CG had significantly higher levels of PV than the EG and this remained so throughout the research. However, on completion, the health status of patients in both groups had improved significantly (p<0.01).?CONCLUSIONS—PE significantly increased adherence to DPA and its effects persisted over a period of six months. No additional clinical benefit was detected in the EG in comparison with the CG.?? PMID:11502614
Xu, L. J.; Meng, Q.; He, S. W.; Yin, X. L.; Tang, Z. L.; Bo, H. Y.; Lan, X. Y.
Objective: This study collected on from all research relating to health education and hypertension in China and, with the aid of meta-analysis tools, assessed the outcomes of such health education. The analysis provides a basis for the further development of health-education programmes for patients with hypertension. Methods: Literature searches…
Fernández, Rita; Peñarubia, Maria T; Luciano, Juan V; Blanco, Maria E; Jiménez, Mónica; Montesano, Adrián; Verduras, Camino; Ruiz, José M; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni
Background Most fibromyalgia patients are seen in primary care (PC). However, the effectiveness of the treatments prescribed by general practitioners is usually minimal. The main objective of the present research is to assess the efficacy of structured psycho-educational intervention, combined with relaxation, developed to improve the quality of life of patients suffering fibromyalgia (FM). The second objective is to assess the cost-effectiveness of this multimodal intervention. Method/Design Design. Randomized controlled trial with a 12-month follow-up involving two groups, one of which is the intervention group that includes patients receiving a psychoeducational program and the other the control group consisting of patients treated for FM in the usual way. Setting. Three urban PC centers in the province of Barcelona (Spain). Sample. The total sample comprises 218 patients (over 18 years of age) suffering FM, selected from a database (Rheumatology service-Viladecans Hospital) of patients with this illness. Only those patients introduced in the database between the years 2005 and 2007 were included in the selection. Selected patients will be asked for written informed consent to participate in the study. Intervention. Multi-component program including information about the illness, counselling about physical exercise and training in autogenic relaxation. The intervention consists of nine 2-hour sessions delivered during a two-month period. The pharmacological treatment prescribed by the physician was maintained in both groups. Main variables. Sociodemographic characteristics, quality of life, use and cost of healthcare and social services. Measures. Quality of life is to be measured with the FIQ and the EuroQol-5D, and the use of healthcare services with an adapted version of the Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI). These variables will be measured before the beginning of the program (baseline) and 1, 2, 6 and 12 months later. Discussion This research project is an attempt to demonstrate that a psycho-educational program implemented in the context of PC can produce a significant increase in the quality of life for patients with FM, as well as a decrease in the use of healthcare and social services, compared with usual care. Trial registration NCT00550966
Hinderliter, Diane; Doughty, Andrea S; Delaney, Kathleen; Pitula, Carol Rogers; Campbell, Jacquelyn
This study examined the prevalence of formal intimate partner violence (IPV) education during basic and advanced practice programs and its effect on the likelihood of screening for IPV. A national, random sample of 553 nurse practitioners completed a written survey documenting their IPV educational experiences in both their basic and advanced practice programs. Although 77.9% had received IPV education at some point in their nursing education, this education had a far greater effect on their subjective feelings of competence and comfort in working with IPV patients than it had on the likelihood of their screening or identifying IPV victims in their practice. Nurse educators must provide students with the words, body language, and screening measures to use to screen effectively. Study implications for nursing education, limitations, and recommendations are discussed. PMID:14577731
Taghdisi, M. H.; Borhani, M.; Solhi, M.; Afkari, M. E.; Hosseini, F.
Background and objective: The problems caused by diabetes have direct and indirect impacts on the quality of life of diabetic patients. An increase of these problems means a decrease in a patient's quality of life. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the educational programme based on the precede model in promoting quality of life of…
Gregory A. DeBourgh
Responding to the growing concern about medical error and patient harm, nurse educators are seeking innovative strategies to ensure nursing students develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that enable them to safely and effectively manage patient care. A nursing school and hospital affiliate engaged in a partnership to increase opportunities for students to acquire these competencies. The Synergy Partnership model
Jenny, Ng Yuen Yee; Fai, Tam Sing
A study compared 48 cardiac patients who used an interactive multimedia computer-assisted patient education program and 48 taught by tutorial. The computer-assisted instructional method resulted in significantly better knowledge about exercise and self-management of chronic diseases. (Contains 29 references.) (JOW)
Eickhoff, Jennifer S; Wangen, Tina M; Notch, Katie B; Ferguson, Tanya J; Nickel, Travis W; Schafer, Amy R; Bush, Diana L
A patient education workgroup was developed on a progressive care medical/vascular surgical unit. The workgroup identified patient education needs regarding discharge education for postsurgical patients and those discharging with oral anticoagulants (OAC). Staff surveys aided the workgroup in identifying a need for additional discharge education for patients and families. After various methods of patient education were explored, it was determined the workgroup could best meet the needs of the patient population through a class format providing group discussion and interaction. Logistical details and class formatting were configured to meet both the needs of the patients and the nursing staff. Current institutional patient education pamphlets were used to develop the content for the class. Physician review and input were obtained during the development of the content. A patient education specialist was also consulted to ensure proper literacy levels were used. To meet the Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal regarding anticoagulant safety, the content focused on home management, which included the following: knowledge of INR goal range, dietary factors, when to call the provider and safety precautions. Other topics to promote self-efficacy in anticoagulation therapy were also included in the content. Postclass evaluations completed by patients and families provided useful feedback for continuous improvement and patient satisfaction. Preliminary survey results indicate high patient satisfaction with the class. Plans include a quality improvement project to evaluate the effectiveness of the patient education class on OAC. PMID:21074115
Fongcum Tilokskulchai Tim Schultz
Development of strategies to improve adherence is one of the most significant challenges for mental health professionals. Educating schizophrenic patients and their families before discharge is an integral part of patient's care. The major goal of this education is to increase patient adherence to medication regimens following discharge. Two systematic reviews have been conducted to assess the effectiveness of a
Kwok Key Lam; Matthew T. V Chan; Phoon Ping Chen; Warwick D. Ngan Kee
Study Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of a structured preoperative education program in patients receiving patient-controlled analgesia (PCA).Design: Randomized controlled trial.Setting: University-affiliated hospital.Patients: 60 ASA physical status I and II women undergoing major gynecologic surgery.Interventions: Patients were randomly allocated to receive either standard information given during routine preanesthetic assessment (n = 30) or additional structured preoperative education on the use
Behrman, Alison; Rutledge, John; Hembree, Amanda; Sheridan, Sarah
Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of vocal hygiene education (VHE) and voice production therapy (VP) in altering patient perception of vocal handicap in adult women with benign, bilateral phonotraumatic vocal fold lesions and the role of adherence in that perception. Method: Sixty-two women were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of VP (n = 31) or…
Daijo Inaguma; Miho Tatematsu; Hibiki Shinjo; Sachiyo Suzuki; Tomoko Mishima; Shinichiro Inaba; Kei Kurata
Background The purpose of the treatment and management of chronic renal failure during the predialysis period is mainly to retard the\\u000a progression of the deterioration of renal function. Optimal dialysis initiation is important to improve the patient's outcome\\u000a after therapy. We investigated whether providing information through an original educational program could facilitate dialysis\\u000a initiation, with the patient in a better condition,
Kelly E. Ormond; Eugene Pergament; Beth A. Fine
Previous studies have shown that unexplained deviations in maternal serum multiple marker screening (MMS) generate considerable anxiety during the remainder of pregnancy. While the role of education in decreasing anxiety is documented, to date there has been no prospective evaluation of which educational practices might minimize this emotional stress. In a pilot study, we prospectively examined the effects on anxiety
Jafari, Fatemeh; Mobasheri, Mahmoud; Mirzaeian, Razieh
Background and aim: Nutrition is a key factor in the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease because kidney burden decrease causes uremic reduction and its side effects. The aim of this research is to examine the effect of diet education on blood pressure changes and interdialytic weight in Hemodialysis patients admitted to Hemodialysis ward of Hajar hospital in Shahrekord. Methods: This quasi-experimental and interventional study of 100 dialysis patients referred to Hemodialysis ward of Hajar hospital was performed in a pre-test and post-test in 2011. Diet education, including face to face training with instruction booklets, were conducted in the two sessions. Having carried out the educational program, blood pressure and interdialytic weight gain were measured and recorded one month before and during three stages and after the educational program by researcher-designed checklists. The data were analyzed through SPSS 16 software by Paired t-test and ANOVA. Results: The results showed that mean of primary weight of the patients increase from 66.15±15.10 to 64.43±14.67. Mean of Systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients in three stages were reduced to 6.65±1.51 mmg 2.24±1.82 mmg respectively. There was a significant difference between the creatinine amount in patients before and after of training (p?0.01) but no meaningful difference was observed between the BUN amount before and after of training (p?0.031). Conclusion: training to patients underwent hemodialysis in order to observe diet and its effects on improvement in treatment are of significant importance. PMID:25395881
Jafari, Fatemeh; Mobasheri, Mahmoud; Mirzaeian, Razieh
Background and aim: Nutrition is a key factor in the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease because kidney burden decrease causes uremic reduction and its side effects. The aim of this research is to examine the effect of diet education on blood pressure changes and interdialytic weight in Hemodialysis patients admitted to Hemodialysis ward of Hajar hospital in Shahrekord. Methods: This quasi-experimental and interventional study of 100 dialysis patients referred to Hemodialysis ward of Hajar hospital was performed in a pre-test and post-test in 2011. Diet education, including face to face training with instruction booklets, were conducted in the two sessions. Having carried out the educational program, blood pressure and interdialytic weight gain were measured and recorded one month before and during three stages and after the educational program by researcher-designed checklists. The data were analyzed through Spss16 software by Paired t-test and ANOVA. Results: The results showed that mean of primary weight of the patients increase from 66.15±15.10 to 64.43±14.67. Mean of Systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients in three stages were reduced to 6.65±1.51 mmg 2.24±1.82 mmg respectively. There was a significant difference between the creatinine amount in patients before and after of training (p?0.01) but no meaningful difference was observed between the BUN amount before and after of training (p?0.031). Conclusion: Training to patients underwent hemodialysis in order to observe diet and its effects on improvement in treatment are of significant importance. PMID:25568630
Molsted, Stig; Tribler, Jane; Poulsen, Peter B.; Snorgaard, Ole
The worldwide epidemic of Type 2 diabetes necessitates evidence-based self-management education programmes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and costs of an empowerment-based structured diabetes self-management education programme in an unselected group of patients with Type 2 diabetes. Seven hundred and two patients…
Redman, Barbara K
Although patient education is central to the ethical practice of nursing, it can be practiced in an ethically contested or unethical way. It is sometimes used to: forward a societal goal the individual might not have chosen; assume that patients should learn to accommodate unjust treatment; exclude the views of all except the dominant health care provider group; limit the knowledge a patient can receive; make invalid or unreliable judgments about what a patient can learn; or require a patient to change his or her identity to meet a medical ideal. Both health promotion education and manipulating patient beliefs in situations of uncertainty are ethically contested. Nussbaum's capabilities approach is used here as a moral framework through which to view the goals and practice of patient education. This provides better guidance than the current conception of patient education as an instrument to carry out the directives of medical practice. PMID:18849370
Kim, Jae-Il; Lee, Sook; Kim, Jung-Hee
The effectiveness of methods to prevent stroke recurrence and of education focusing on learners' needs has not been fully explored. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of such interventions among stroke patients and their primary caregivers and to evaluate the feasibility of a web-based stroke education program. The participants were 36 patients with a clinical diagnosis of ischemic stroke within 12 months post-stroke and their primary caregivers. The participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. The primary measures included blood chemistry, self-reported health behaviors, sense of control, and health motivation for stroke patients, and caregiver mastery for caregivers. To test the feasibility of the intervention program, the rates of participation and occurrence of technical problems were calculated. The experimental group tended to improve significantly more than the control group in terms of exercise, diet, sense of control and health motivation for the stroke patients and in terms of caregiver mastery for the primary caregivers. The rate of participation in the web-based program was 63.1%. This program, which focuses on recurrence prevention in stroke patients and caregivers, has the potential to improve health behaviors for stroke patients. PMID:23515115
Rodríguez-Gázquez, María de los Ángeles; Arredondo-Holguín, Edith; Herrera-Cortés, Richard
Unblinded randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational program in nursing (educational meetings, home visits, telenursing and a printed book) in the improvement of self-care behaviors in patients with heart failure was evaluated. Thirty-three people participated in the intervention group and thirty in the control group. At the beginning and at the end of the study (ninth month), Nancy Artinian's Heart Failure Self-care Behaviors Scale was applied to assess the level of self-care. 66.0% of the intervention group versus 26.6% of the control group improved the self-care score by at least 20% (p<0.001). The Number Needed to Treat was 2.5. The findings suggest that the educational intervention has beneficial effects on the self-care behaviors of people with heart failure. PMID:22699730
N. M. Clark; M. Gong; M. A. Schork; N. Kaciroti; D. Evans; D. Roloff; M. Hurwitz; L. A. Maiman; R. B. Mellins
Long-term effects of asthma education for physicians on patient satisfaction and use of health services. N.M. Clark, M. Gong, M.A. Schork, N. Kaciroti, D. Evans, D. Roloff, M. Hurwitz, L.A. Maiman, R.B. Mellins. #ERS Journals Ltd 2000. ABSTRACT: This randomized clinical trial evaluated the long-term impact of an interactive seminar for physicians based on principles of self-regulation on clinician behaviour,
Tan, Zaldy S.; Mulhausen, Paul L.; Smith, Stephen R.; Ruiz, Jorge G.
The virtual patient is a case-based computer program that combines textual information with multimedia elements such as audio, graphics, and animation. It is increasingly being utilized as a teaching modality by medical educators in various fields of instruction. The inherent complexity of older patients and the shortage of geriatrics educators…
Walsh, P L
A variety of factors require attention in the design of patient education programs for adults. Andragogy, the art and science of helping adults learn, describes certain conditions of learning that are more conducive to growth and development for adults and prescribes practices in the learning-teaching transaction to meet them. Stigma, a special discrepancy between virtual and actual social identity, reduces a patient's self-esteem and fosters a feeling of dependence on others for care. Anxiety related to diagnosis and illness creates a situation in which patients cannot productively learn. The stages in acceptance of diagnosis provide a roadmap for understanding a patient's feelings/psychological processes and insight into opportunities to intervene with patient education. The specific disease a patient has effects his ability to learn. Each of these factors is considered with implications described for designing and implementing patient education activities for adults. PMID:10258421
Background The number of patients with type 2 diabetes is drastically increasing worldwide. It is a serious health problem in Japan as well. Lifestyle interventions can reduce progression from impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes, and glycemic control has been shown to improve postprandial plasma glucose levels. Moreover, several studies have suggested that continuous interventions (combined diet and exercise) can improve the plasma glucose level and reduce dosage of hypoglycemic agents. Although many interventional studies of lifestyle education for persons with diabetes in hospitals have been reported, only a few have been clinic-based studies employing an evidence-based lifestyle education program. This article describes the design of a cluster randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of lifestyle education for patients with type 2 diabetes in clinics by registered dietitians. Methods/Design In Japan, general practitioners generally have their own medical clinics to provide medical care for outpatients in the community, including those with type 2 diabetes. With the collaboration of such general practitioners, the study patients were enrolled in the present study. Twenty general practitioners were randomly allocated to each provide patients for entry into either an intervention group (10) or a control group (10). In total, 200 participants will be included in the study. The intervention group will receive intensive education on lifestyle improvement related to type 2 diabetes by registered dietitians in clinics. Lifestyle education will be conducted several times during the study period. The control group will receive information on dietary intake and standard advice on glycemic control by registered dietitians. The primary endpoint is the change from the baseline value of HbA1c at 6 months. Data on health behavior and related issues will be gathered continuously over a 6-month period. Discussion This is the first study to evaluate lifestyle education in clinics by a cluster randomization trial in Japan. The proposed study will provide practical information about the usefulness of the intensive lifestyle improvement education program in primary care settings. The study was started in September 2007 and entry of subjects was completed in December 2010. Data on the effect evaluation will be available in 2011. Trial Registration UMIN000004049 PMID:21118514
Basu, Chandrasekhar Bob; Chen, Li-Mei; Hollier, Larry H; Shenaq, Saleh M
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Work-Hours Duty Policy became effective on July 1, 2003, mandating the reduction of resident duty work hours. The Baylor College of Medicine Multi-Institutional Integrated Plastic Surgery Program instituted a resident duty work-hours policy on July 1, 2002 (1 year ahead of the national mandate). Outcomes data are needed to facilitate continuous improvements in plastic surgical residency training while maintaining high-quality patient care. To assess the effect of this policy intervention on plastic surgery resident education as measured through the six core competencies and patient/resident safety, the investigators surveyed all categorical plastic surgery residents 6 months after implementation of the policy. This work represents the first empiric study investigating the effect of duty hours reduction on plastic surgery training and education. The categorical plastic surgery residents at the Baylor College of Medicine Multi-Institutional Integrated Plastic Surgery Program completed a 68-item survey on a five-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree). Residents were asked to rate multiple parameters based on the ACGME six core competencies, including statements on patient care and clinical/operative duties, resident education, resident quality of life, and resident perceptions on this policy. All surveys were completed anonymously. The sample size was n = 12 (program year 3 through program year 6), with a 100 percent response rate. Univariate and bivariate statistical analysis was conducted with SPSS version 10.0 statistical software. Specifically, interquartile deviations were used to find consensus among resident responses to each statement. Descriptive statistics indicated higher percentages of agreement on a majority of statements in three categories, including patient care and clinical/operative duties, academic duties, and resident quality of life. Using interquartile deviation, the highest levels of consensus among the residents were found in positive statements addressing resident alertness (both in and out of the operative environment), time to read/prepare for cases/conferences, efficacy of the didactic curriculum, and overall satisfaction with this policy for surgery resident education. Residents also felt that their patients favored this work hours policy. In addition, there was high consensus that this policy improved overall patient care. The majority of residents identified a negative effect of this policy through an increase in cross-coverage responsibilities, however, and half of the residents perceived that faculty negatively viewed their unavailability postcall. In addition, no consensus among the residents was achieved regarding perceptions on overall weekly operative experience. Plastic surgery residents perceived that the reduction of resident work hours through adherence to the ACGME guidelines has beneficial effects on patient care and clinical/operative duties, academic duties, and resident quality of life. Residents felt, however, that these benefits may increase cross-coverage workloads. Furthermore, residents were concerned about faculty perception of their changes in postcall duties. In contrast to previously published findings in the general surgery literature, the current results indicate that residents do not believe that this policy negatively affects continuity of patient care. In fact, the current findings suggest that adherence to this policy improves patient care on multiple levels. The effect on the operative experience remains to be elucidated. Further large-scale and longitudinal research design and analysis is warranted to better assess the results of the ACGME resident duty work-hours policy in plastic surgery resident education. PMID:15577363
Rawson, Katherine A.; O'Neil, Rochelle; Dunlosky, John
Effective management of chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes) can depend on the extent to which patients can learn and remember disease-relevant information. In two experiments, we explored a technique motivated by theories of self-regulated learning for improving people's learning of information relevant to managing a chronic disease. Materials were…
Adriaan Visser; Mayke Op ’T Hoog
Background. The course Cancer and Creative Art offers cancer patients the possibility to cope with their illness through creativity\\u000a and self-expression. Methods. Five groups of 35 participants, predominantly composed of women with breast cancer, participated in an explorative evaluation\\u000a and effect study; premeasures and postmeasures were applied. Results. The course met the needs of participants that included personal growth and
Rall, Marcus; van Gessel, Elisabeth; Staender, Sven
Patient Safety is not a side-effect of good patient care by skilled clinicians. Patient safety is a subject on its own, which was traditionally not taught to medical personnel. This must and will dramatically change in the future. The 2010 Helsinki Declaration for Patient Safety in Anaesthesiology states accordingly "Education has a key role to play in improving patient safety, and we fully support the development, dissemination and delivery of patient safety training". Patient safety training is a multidisciplinary topic and enterprise, which requires us to cooperate with safety experts from different fields (e.g. psychologists, educators, human factor experts). Anaesthesiology has been a model for the patient safety movement and its European organisations like ESA and EBA have pioneered the field up to now: Helsinki Patient Safety Declaration and the European Patient Safety Course are the newest establishments. But Anaesthesiology must continue in its efforts in order to stay at the top of the patient safety movement, as many other disciplines gain speed in this topic. We should strive to fulfill the Helsinki Declaration and move even beyond that. As the European Council states: "Education for patient-safety should be introduced at all levels within health-care systems" PMID:21550549
T. Jaarsma; R. Halfens; H. Huijer Abu-Saad; K. Dracup; T. Gorgels; J. van Ree; J. Stappers
Aims To test the eVect of education and support by a nurse on self-care and resource utilization in patients with heart failure. Methods A total of 179 patients (mean age 73, 58% male, NYHA III-IV) hospitalized with heart failure were evalu- ated prospectively. Patients were randomized to the study intervention or to 'care as usual'. The supportive educative intervention consisted
Background Falls are one of the most frequently occurring adverse events that impact upon the recovery of older hospital inpatients. Falls can threaten both immediate and longer-term health and independence. There is need to identify cost-effective means for preventing falls in hospitals. Hospital-based falls prevention interventions tested in randomized trials have not yet been subjected to economic evaluation. Methods Incremental cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken from the health service provider perspective, over the period of hospitalization (time horizon) using the Australian Dollar (A$) at 2008 values. Analyses were based on data from a randomized trial among n = 1,206 acute and rehabilitation inpatients. Decision tree modeling with three-way sensitivity analyses were conducted using burden of disease estimates developed from trial data and previous research. The intervention was a multimedia patient education program provided with trained health professional follow-up shown to reduce falls among cognitively intact hospital patients. Results The short-term cost to a health service of one cognitively intact patient being a faller could be as high as A$14,591 (2008). The education program cost A$526 (2008) to prevent one cognitively intact patient becoming a faller and A$294 (2008) to prevent one fall based on primary trial data. These estimates were unstable due to high variability in the hospital costs accrued by individual patients involved in the trial. There was a 52% probability the complete program was both more effective and less costly (from the health service perspective) than providing usual care alone. Decision tree modeling sensitivity analyses identified that when provided in real life contexts, the program would be both more effective in preventing falls among cognitively intact inpatients and cost saving where the proportion of these patients who would otherwise fall under usual care conditions is at least 4.0%. Conclusions This economic evaluation was designed to assist health care providers decide in what circumstances this intervention should be provided. If the proportion of cognitively intact patients falling on a ward under usual care conditions is 4% or greater, then provision of the complete program in addition to usual care will likely both prevent falls and reduce costs for a health service. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12608000015347. PMID:23692953
Etemadifar, Shahram; Bahrami, Masoud; Shahriari, Mohsen; Farsani, Alireza Khosravi
Background: Living with heart failure patients is a complex situation for family caregivers. Few studies have been conducted to examine the effects of interventional programs to ease this condition. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a supportive educative group intervention in reducing family caregivers’ burden of caregiving. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trail was conducted at a selective teaching hospital in Isfahan, Iran in 2012. The intervention consisted of four weekly multimedia training sessions of 2 h that included education and family support for 50 family caregivers. Caregiver burden was measured using the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). Paired t-test, Student's t-tests, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to test for significant differences of the mean scores of burden between the intervention and control groups over a 3-month period. Results: The intervention was successful in reducing caregiver burden over time both at the end of the intervention period (P = 0.000) and 3 months after the intervention (P = 0.000). Conclusions: Nurses and other healthcare providers can use the findings of this study in order to implement effective programs to reduce family caregivers’ challenges and to provide them more support. PMID:24949057
Marcum, Julie; Ridenour, Maureen; Shaff, Gaye; Hammons, Mary; Taylor, Monica
Of 124 acute care nurses, 97% felt that patient education was a priority. Inhibiting factors were time, staffing, and patient receptiveness. Enhancers included having time to teach, receiving effective teaching guidance materials, and having access to teaching resources. (SK)
van Dijk, Jacqueline F M; van Wijck, Albert J M; Kappen, Teus H; Peelen, Linda M; Kalkman, Cor J; Schuurmans, Marieke J
Guidelines for postoperative pain treatment are based on patients' pain scores. Patients with an intermediate Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score of 5 or 6 may consider their pain as either bearable or unbearable, which makes it difficult to decide on pain treatment because guidelines advise professionals to treat pain at NRS > 4. Educating patients in using an NRS score for pain might improve adequate pain treatment. A quasi-randomized controlled trial was conducted in which 194 preoperative patients watched the educational film and 183 the control film. Pain scores were considered discordant when patients reported an NRS ? 4 and wanted additional opioids or when patients reported an NRS > 4 and did not want additional opioids. Beliefs, fear, and knowledge of pain; pain assessment; and pain treatment were measured by questionnaires. No significant differences in discordant pain scores between the groups were found: relative risk (RR) 0.73, confidence interval (CI) 0.47-1.15 at rest and RR 0.96, CI 0.72-1.28 at movement. Patients in the intervention group had lower NRS pain scores than patients in the control group. In the intervention group, patients had significantly more knowledge and lower barriers to pain management compared with the control group. We did not find a statistically significant reduction in discordant pain scores when comparing the intervention group with the control group. However, patients in the intervention group had significantly lower pain scores, lower barriers, and more knowledge of pain treatment than patients in the control group. PMID:25246325
Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising worldwide, as has been the global mean fasting plasma glucose level. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a structured individual-based lifestyle education (SILE) program to reduce the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level in type 2 diabetes patients delivered by registered dietitians in primary care clinical settings. Methods This was a 6-month prospective cluster randomized controlled trial in a primary care setting with randomization at the practice level. Twenty general practitioners in 20 clinics in Kanagawa prefecture, Japan, were involved. 193 adults (51% men, mean age 61.3 years) with type 2 diabetes and HbA1c ?6.5% who received treatment in medical clinics were the participants. A SILE program was implemented through 4 sessions with trained registered dietitians during the 6-month study period. Results were compared with those of a control group who received usual care. The primary endpoint was the change in HbA1c levels at 6 months from baseline. Secondary endpoints were the changes at 6 months from baseline in fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, BMI, energy, and nutrient intakes (whole day and each meal). Intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. Mixed-effects linear models were used to examine the effects of the treatment. Results The mean change at 6 months from baseline in HbA1c was a 0.7% decrease in the intervention group (n?=?100) and a 0.2% decrease in the control group (n?=?93) (difference ?0.5%, 95%CI: -0.2% to ?0.8%, p?=?0.004). After adjusting for baseline values and other factors, the difference was still significant (p?=?0.003?~?0.011). The intervention group had a significantly greater decrease in mean energy intake at dinner compared with the control group and a greater increase in mean vegetable intake for the whole day, breakfast, and lunch as shown in crude and adjusted models. A tendency toward improvement was observed in the other secondary endpoints but the improvement was not statistically significant. These results were confirmed by several sensitivity analyses. Conclusions The SILE program that was provided in primary care settings for patients with type 2 diabetes resulted in greater improvement in HbA1c levels than usual diabetes care and education. Trial registration http://UMIN000004049 PMID:23672733
Linne, Agneta Bjorck; Liedholm, Hans; Jacobsson, Lennart
In a randomized, controlled trial, patients with joint diseases and concomitant treatment with NSAIDs and diuretics received systematic education. The intervention group was given information focusing on awareness of drug interactions and encouragement of self-adjustment of treatment. Results reveal that the intervention group achieved greater…
Fiscella, Kevin; Goodwin, Meredith A.; Stange, Kurt C.
Significant disparities in health care based on patient socioeconomic status have been documented. The extent to which physician behavior accounts for these differences is not known. We examined the impact of patient socioeconomic status, measured by years of education, on physician behavior assessed by direct observation of office visits, chart audits, and patient reports among 138 family physicians in 84 practices. Outcomes included time use measured with the Davis Observation Code, delivery of preventive services recommended by the US Preventive Services Task Force, satisfaction assessed with the MOS 9-item Visit Rating Scale, and delivery of attributes of primary care measured by the Components of Primary Care Index. After controlling for patient characteristics among 2538 visits by adult patients who returned questionnaires, a high school education or less was associated with slightly greater proportion of time spent on physical examination and providing nutrition counseling, and less time on patient questions, assessing patient health knowledge, negotiation, and exercise counseling. This indicates that physicians adopt a more directive style with less educated patients. Screening tests were provided at lower rates among less educated patients, but there were no differences in rates of health habit counseling or immunization services delivered and no differences in delivery of patient-reported components of primary care. Less educated patients had similar overall visit satisfaction, but were slightly less likely to have their expectations met. These show that patients' education has relatively small, but potentially important, effects on the outpatient delivery of primary care. PMID:11918385
Noorian, Cobra; Aein, Fereshteh
Background: The thought of having a surgery can be stressful for everyone. Providing the necessary information to the patient can help both the patient and the treatment team. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of face-to-face verbal training and educational pamphlets on the readiness of patients for undergoing non-emergency surgeries. Materials and Methods: The study was a before–after randomized clinical trial. 90 patients scheduled to undergo non-emergency surgery who referred to Shahrekord Ayatollah Kashani Hospital in 2013 were distributed randomly and gradually into two experimental groups (group of face-to-face verbal training and group of educational pamphlet) and one control group. Dependent variable of the study was pre-surgery readiness. Data analysis was carried out by using SPSS statistical software. Statistical analysis were analysis of variance (ANOVA) and correlation test. Results: Results showed that the mean scores of pre-surgery readiness in both interventional groups were significantly higher than that in the control group after the intervention (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the two experimental groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Each of the methods of face-to-face verbal education and using the pamphlet could be equally effective in improving the readiness of the patients undergoing surgery. Therefore, in environments where the health care providers are facing with the pressure of work and lack of sufficient time for face-to-face verbal training, suitable educational pamphlets can be used to provide the necessary information to patients and prepare them for surgery.
Fleming, Jean E.
Adult education in healthcare comes in several forms: degree and certificate programs aimed at preparing better academic and clinical educators; and community education programs aimed at wellness, rehabilitation, or learning to live with chronic diseases. Patient-centered healthcare, however, is part of something new: coordinated and transitional…
Maslennikova, G. Ya.; Morosova, M. E.; Salman, N. V.; Kulikov, S. M.; Oganov, R. G.
U.S. recommendations for asthma management were adapted for use in educating Moscow families with children with asthma (N=252). Use of anti-inflammatory drugs, doctor visits, peak flow rates, and daily peak flow were also measured. One-year follow up showed significant improvement in asthma self-management skills among the education group.…
Bryans, Alexander M.; Crothers, Katherine
The Clinical Learning Center of Queen's University in Ontario uses volunteer patients with documented illnesses in a purely education setting--no health services are provided--to facilitate the development of medical student's clinical skills. Significant educational benefits are achieved and a large number of patients are available and…
Mahan, J. Maurice; And Others
One method for evaluating an aspect of physician practice behavior, patient referrals, resulting from continuing medical education programs on cancer at the University of Texas Medical Branch is described. Data presented provide strong support for the effectiveness of continuing education in modifying physician practice behavior. (LBH)
Orton, Eric; Mulhausen, Paul
Computer-based virtual patients (VPs) are an emerging medium for medical education that addresses barriers faced by geriatrics educators. Research has shown VPs to be as effective in changing knowledge and behavior as more traditional forms of teaching. This paper presents a descriptive study of the development of the University of Iowa's…
Cabana, Michael D.; Slish, Kathryn K.; Evans, David; Mellins, Robert B.; Brown, Randall W.; Lin, Xihong; Kaciroti, Niko; Clark, Noreen M.
Objective: We evaluated the effectiveness of a continuing medical education program, Physician Asthma Care Education, in improving pediatricians' asthma therapeutic and communication skills and patients' health care utilization for asthma. Methods: We conducted a randomized trial in 10 regions in the United States. Primary care providers…
Rosenbloom, S. Trent; Geissbuhler, Antoine J.; Dupont, William D.; Giuse, Dario A.; Talbert, Douglas A.; Tierney, William M.; Plummer, W. Dale; Stead, William W.; Miller, Randolph A.
Objective: Authors evaluated whether displaying context sensitive links to infrequently accessed educational materials and patient information via the user interface of an inpatient computerized care provider order entry (CPOE) system would affect access rates to the materials. Design: The CPOE of Vanderbilt University Hospital (VUH) included “baseline” clinical decision support advice for safety and quality. Authors augmented this with seven new primarily educational decision support features. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial compared clinicians' utilization rates for the new materials via two interfaces. Control subjects could access study-related decision support from a menu in the standard CPOE interface. Intervention subjects received active notification when study-related decision support was available through context sensitive, visibly highlighted, selectable hyperlinks. Measurements: Rates of opportunities to access and utilization of study-related decision support materials from April 1999 through March 2000 on seven VUH Internal Medicine wards. Results: During 4,466 intervention subject-days, there were 240,504 (53.9/subject-day) opportunities for study-related decision support, while during 3,397 control subject-days, there were 178,235 (52.5/subject-day) opportunities for such decision support, respectively (p = 0.11). Individual intervention subjects accessed the decision support features at least once on 3.8% of subject-days logged on (278 responses); controls accessed it at least once on 0.6% of subject-days (18 responses), with a response rate ratio adjusted for decision support frequency of 9.17 (95% confidence interval 4.6–18, p < 0.0005). On average, intervention subjects accessed study-related decision support materials once every 16 days individually and once every 1.26 days in aggregate. Conclusion: Highlighting availability of context-sensitive educational materials and patient information through visible hyperlinks significantly increased utilization rates for study-related decision support when compared to “standard” VUH CPOE methods, although absolute response rates were low. PMID:15802487
Zareban, Iraj; Karimy, Mahmood; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Haidarnia, Alireza; Rakhshani, Fatemeh
Background: Diabetes as the most common diseases caused by metabolic disorders is an important global challenge. This is a disease that requires lifelong self-care because self-care and improved quality of life is cost effective. This study is aimed to determine the impact of self-care education program on reducing HbA1c, type 2 diabetic patients and was conducted in Zahedan. Materials and Methods: This is an experimental study done on 138 diabetic female patients in Zahedan city, in 2011 (1390). This sampling method of patients was based on inclusion and exclusion criteria of the Diabetes Center, at Hazrat Ali Asghar Hospital (AS) in Zahedan. Samples were divided randomly in to two groups: 69 cases and 69 controls. Data collected included validity and reliability confirmed questionnaire. Checklist was based on patients ‘performance of reporting and (HbA1c) testing. Before the educational intervention, the checklist of questions for recording the (HbA1c) test for both the groups were completed, and study samples received 5 sessions of education (with the group discussion and film show) for a month. However, the control group received only routine training. Three months after the educational intervention, both groups completed the questionnaire and the check list and data using SPSS software and the appropriate tests were analyzed. Results: Findings showed that the mean domain scores of area of knowledge, attitude and practice educational groups, were recorded as (46.6 ± 8.57, 46.5 ± 0.86 and 29.06 ± 10.02), respectively. And after education scores of knowledge, attitude and practice were recorded as (52.80 ± 2.20, 12.98 ± 1.02 and 39.69 ± 4.74), respectively, and in study group significant difference (P < 0/001) was seen. Conclusion: Self-care training in striation leads to improve knowledge, attitude and self-care performance of the study samples and also improves the average (HbA1c). Because it seems to increase the active participation of learners in their care that they have experienced with this training method and their motivation enhanced them to learn better self-care. So this type of care education should be given to the attention of nurses and healthcare's staff. PMID:25540796
Parvan, Kobra; Hasankhani, Hadi; Seyyedrasooli, Allehe; Riahi, Seyed Mohammad; Ghorbani, Mahmoud
Introduction:Patients with chronic renal disease (CRD) deal with many potential problems with hemodialysis for all their life. Regarding the importance of preventing dialysis adverse effects, which are in close connection with lack of knowledge and report on how to train the patients? This study aims at comparing the impact of two methods of face to face training and training pamphlet on complying and informing of hemodialysis treatments. Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on 58 hemodialysis patients who visited Shahid Rahnemun Teaching hospital, Yazd, Iran, and had required conditions of the research. Data were collected through a questionnaire including personal-social information, several questions to assess the level of compliance and to inform the treatment method. The quantitative analysis of this study used the Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS version 13 and descriptive (frequency, mean, standard deviation) and inferential (Chi-square, paired t-test, ANOVA, ANCOVA) statistics were employed. Results: The mean scores for informing both groups (face to face and training pamphlet) were significantly increased. The mean score for adherence to treatments was also significant.Conclusion: In this research, face to face training was found to be more effective than training pamphlet. It seemed to have more strong effect on increasing the level of information and adherence to treatment. To train these people, face to face training should be, thus, preferred. PMID:25821762
Toru Akebi; Masaiwa Inoue; Noriaki Harada
Objective The objective of this study was to examine the effects of educational intervention on joint angles of the trunk and lower\\u000a extremity and on muscle activities during patient-handling task.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Thirty-two subjects (17 males and 15 females) volunteered for the study. They were classified into three groups: intervention\\u000a group 1, comprised of first grade physical therapist students; control group, which included
Soltannezhad, Fateme; Farsi, Zahra; Jabari Moroei, Masoud
Background: Self-care self-efficacy in patients with end stage renal disease, waiting for kidney transplantation, probably decreases due to facing new conditions and side effects of treatment. Objectives: The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of educating health promotion strategies on self-care self-efficacy in patients undergoing kidney transplantation. Patients and Methods: A double blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 52 patients undergoing kidney transplantation in Baqiyatallah Hospital in 2012. Patients were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. The questionnaire of Strategies Used by People to Promote Health (SUPPH) was employed to measure self-care self-efficacy. At first, the two groups filled the questionnaire. Then, the intervention group was trained regarding health promotion strategies within 4 sessions before the transplantation. The control group was trained according to routine protocol of the transplantation unit. Then, the two groups were followed up for two months, and reassessed at the end of the first and second months after the transplantation. The data were analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics including independent samples T test, Chi square and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: In the intervention group, the mean of total self-care self-efficacy was 106.96 ± 25.1 at first, and changed to 135.81 ± 9.65 and 111.19 ± 12.45 after the first and second post-test respectively (P = 0.001). In the control group, the mean of total self-care self-efficacy was 112.73 ± 14.33 at first, and changed to 118.58 ± 17.59 and 108.73 ± 15.93 after the first and second post-test respectively (P = 0.001). Significant differences were observed between the two groups in the first post-test regarding total score of self-care self-efficacy (P = 0.001) and dimensions of reduction of stress (P = 0.001), enjoying life (P = 0.01), and coping (P = 0.001). The mean scores of the intervention group were higher than those of the controls in all domains of self-care self-efficacy in the second post-test. However, the difference was only significant in decision-making dimension (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Educating health promotion strategies was effective in improving self-care self-efficacy in patients undergoing kidney transplantation. Establishment of a holistic caring program is suggested to integrate the pre-transplantation educations with a continual post discharge follow-up. PMID:25414881
Miguel A Salinero-Fort; Carrillo-de Santa Enrique Pau; Francisco J Arrieta-Blanco; Juan C Abanades-Herranz; Carmen Martín-Madrazo; Berta Rodés-Soldevila; Carmen de Burgos-Lunar
Background Individual health education is considered to be essential in the overall care of patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2), although\\u000a there is some uncertainty regarding its metabolic control benefits. There have been very few randomized studies on the effects\\u000a of individual education on normal care in DM2 patients with a control group, and none of these have assessed the long-term
Effectiveness of two interventions based on improving patient-practitioner communication on diabetes self-management in patients with low educational level: study protocol of a clustered randomized trial in primary care
Background In the last decades the presence of social inequalities in diabetes care has been observed in multiple countries, including Spain. These inequalities have been at least partially attributed to differences in diabetes self-management behaviours. Communication problems during medical consultations occur more frequently to patients with a lower educational level. The purpose of this cluster randomized trial is to determine whether an intervention implemented in a General Surgery, based in improving patient-provider communication, results in a better diabetes self-management in patients with lower educational level. A secondary objective is to assess whether telephone reinforcement enhances the effect of such intervention. We report the design and implementation of this on-going study. Methods/Design The study is being conducted in a General Practice located in a deprived neighbourhood of Granada, Spain. Diabetic patients 18 years old or older with a low educational level and inadequate glycaemic control (HbA1c?>?7%) were recruited. General Practitioners (GPs) were randomised to three groups: intervention A, intervention B and control group. GPs allocated to intervention groups A and B received training in communication skills and are providing graphic feedback about glycosylated haemoglobin levels. Patients whose GPs were allocated to group B are additionally receiving telephone reinforcement whereas patients from the control group are receiving usual care. The described interventions are being conducted during 7 consecutive medical visits which are scheduled every three months. The main outcome measure will be HbA1c; blood pressure, lipidemia, body mass index and waist circumference will be considered as secondary outcome measures. Statistical analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions will include multilevel regression analysis with three hierarchical levels: medical visit level, patient level and GP level. Discussion The results of this study will provide new knowledge about possible strategies to promote a better diabetes self-management in a particularly vulnerable group. If effective, this low cost intervention will have the potential to be easily incorporated into routine clinical practice, contributing to decrease health inequalities in diabetic patients. Trial registration Clinical Trials U.S. National Institutes of Health, NCT01849731. PMID:24153053
Smith, S S
This paper traces the history of Medicare policies and practices with respect to reimbursement for preventive health care services and examines future propositions and trends for such reimbursement to hospitals and physicians. The discussion focuses on fee-for-service reimbursement under Medicare Part B (Supplementary Medical Insurance). Reimbursement under Part A (Hospital Insurance) for outpatient diabetes education is also described. The types of services and circumstances for which Medicare Part B provides reimbursement are explained. The paper describes a variety of outpatient preventive clinical and educational services that are reimbursable when ordered by a physician for diagnosis of a suspected illness or pathology or for treatment of same. The importance of the manner of claim presentation to Medicare carriers or intermediaries is emphasized. The concluding sections examine reimbursement for inpatient hospital education under Medicare Part A in light of the growing impact of the prospective pricing system's diagnosis-related groups (DRGs). The influence of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act on Medicare beneficiaries' enrollment in health maintenance organizations is recognized, and implications of the prospective payment system for health education practitioners are outlined. PMID:10301099
Barbarot, S; Stalder, J F
Therapeutic patient education (TPE) is a patient-centred process that entails the transfer of skills (e.g. self-management, treatment adaptation) from a trained healthcare professional to patients and/or their carers. TPE has been shown to help improve adherence, prevent complications, and improve quality of life (QoL) in chronic illnesses such as diabetes, asthma and cardiovascular disease. Recently, TPE recommendations for patients with atopic eczema have been proposed. TPE is a four-step process: understanding the patient's knowledge, beliefs and hopes; setting age-appropriate educational objectives; helping the patient (or carer) to acquire skills; and assessing the success of the programme. TPE programmes always involve a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including nurses, psychologists, doctors and dieticians who are expert in the disease area. TPE should be offered to (never forced upon) any patient who has experienced treatment failure, or to families who feel they lack social support. High-quality TPE programmes should be evidence-based, tailored to a patient's individual educational and cultural background (rather than being standardized in form and content), and have well-defined content and activities. PMID:24720486
Osmar, Kari; Webb, Deborah
Patient education is an integral part of the cancer patient's journey. Radiation therapists strive to provide timely, effective, and evidence-based information on care processes, side effects, and side effect management treatment strategies. Patient satisfaction surveys in health-care settings can guide new interventions and strategies to provide the right education to patients at the right time. Courses offered in adult education and patient education to practicing health-care providers allow for a unique opportunity to look at the current provision of health-care education to patients. This paper explores the development and implementation of a new visual aid for radiation therapy patients in an acute health-care setting with a diversity of languages spoken using principles of adult education. PMID:25260656
McCann, D P; Blossom, H J
Patient nonadherence to therapeutic regimens is a serious issue in the practice of medicine. Empiric studies done by professionals from diverse backgrounds have shown that physicians who use educational strategies can be effective in gaining the cooperation of patients to follow their recommendations. The educational model that currently is most familiar to physicians and the one they use most frequently when educating patients is pedagogy, the theoretic basis for teaching children. Andragogy, a theoretic basis for teaching adults, is now being suggested by medical educators as an alternative model. To illustrate the clinical relevance and application of the andragogic approach, studies focusing on physician behaviors associated with behavioral measures of adherence were reviewed, analyzed, and categorized according to a framework called the "ADULT" model. Physicians in a postgraduate training program who have had exposure to this framework and have incorporated it into their practices report less difficulty functioning as patient educators. The systematic use of this approach can have a positive effect on patient adherence. PMID:2202158
Bleakley, Alan; Bligh, John
Medical students must be prepared for working in inter-professional and multi-disciplinary clinical teams centred on a patient's care pathway. While there has been a good deal of rhetoric surrounding patient-centred medical education, there has been little attempt to conceptualise such a practice beyond the level of describing education of communication skills and empathy within a broad 'professionalism' framework. Paradoxically, while aiming to strengthen patient-student interactions, this approach tends to refocus on the role modelling of the physician, and opportunities for potentially deep collaborative working relationships between students and patients are missed. A radical overhaul of conventional doctor-led medical education may be necessary, that also challenges the orthodoxies of individualistic student-centred approaches, leading to an authentic patient-centred model that shifts the locus of learning from the relationship between doctor as educator and student to the relationship between patient and student, with expert doctor as resource. Drawing on contemporary poststructuralist theory of text and identity construction, and on innovative models of work-based learning, the potential quality of relationship between student and patient is articulated in terms of collaborative knowledge production, involving close reading with the patient as text, through dialogue. Here, a medical 'education' displaces traditional forms of medical 'training' that typically involve individual information reproduction. Students may, paradoxically, improve clinical acumen through consideration of silences, gaps, and contradictions in patients as texts, rather than treating communication as transparent. Such paradoxical effects have been systematically occluded or denied in traditional medical education. PMID:17075690
Ling Yap, Yen; Leng Lee, Wee; Chang Soh, Yee
Objective. To determine whether human patient simulation (HPS) is superior to case-based learning (CBL) in teaching diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and thyroid storm (TS) to pharmacy students. Design. In this cross-over, open-label, single center, randomized control trial, final-year undergraduate pharmacy students enrolled in an applied therapeutics course were randomized to HPS or CBL groups. Pretest, posttest, knowledge retention tests, and satisfaction survey were administered to students. Assessment. One hundred seventy-four students participated in this study. The effect sizes attributable to HPS were larger than CBL in both cases. HPS groups performed significantly better in posttest and knowledge retention test compared to CBL groups pertaining to TS case (p<0.05). Students expressed high levels of satisfaction with HPS sessions. Conclusion. HPS was superior to CBL in teaching DKA and TS to final-year undergraduate pharmacy students. PMID:25386018
Tanzawa, T; Futaki, K; Tani, C; Hasegawa, T; Yamamoto, M; Miyazaki, T; Maki, K
In recent years, with the increasing social awareness of safety in medical practice, improving clinical skills has become very important, especially for recently graduated dentists. Traditionally, mannequins have been used for clinical skill training, but a mannequin is quite different from a real patient because they have no autonomous movement or conversational ability. This indicates that pre-clinical simulation education is inadequate. We have, therefore, developed a robot patient that can reproduce an authentic clinical situation for dental clinical training. The robot patient, designed as a full-body model with a height of 157 cm, has eight degrees of freedom in the head and the ability to perform various autonomous movements. Moreover, saliva secretion and conversation with the trainee can be reproduced. We have introduced the robot patient into an objective structured clinical examination targeted at fifth-grade students in our dental school to evaluate their skills in cavity preparation, whilst considering the safety of the treatment. As a result, many of the students were able to deal appropriately with a patient's unexpected movement. Moreover, results of a questionnaire survey showed that almost all the students recognised the educational value of the robot patient especially for 'risk management', and they preferred the robot patient to traditional mannequins. Practical application of the robot patient in dental clinical education was evaluated through the experiences of the fifth-grade students, which showed the effectiveness of the robot patient in the dental field. PMID:22251346
Kirch, Darrell G; Ast, Cori
Interprofessional teams in health care are showing promise in achieving the triple aim-providing better care for the individual patient, reducing costs, and improving population health. To complement current changes in health care delivery in the United States, there is a growing consensus among health professions educators that students should be trained in interprofessional models prior to entering clinical practice. Current interprofessional education (IPE) efforts in anatomy education are producing positive results in enhancing professional respect, collaboration, and teamwork among health professions students. In spite of existing structural and cultural barriers to IPE, health professions educators must continue to lead and grow IPE efforts as a critical component to improving the health of our nation. Anat Sci Educ 8: 296-298. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:25394336
Lane, Deirdre A; Barker, Rachel V; Lip, Gregory Y H
Patients' beliefs about their health (and illness), medications and healthcare they receive are important determinants of whether or not they accept recommended treatments; influence their coping responses in relation to their illness; make them adhere to recommended therapy and ultimately affect health outcomes. Incorporation of patients' preferences for therapy should now be considered an integral part of the decision-making process. This gradual shift in health-care practice from paternalistic to shared-decision making, whereby there is a two-way exchange of information between the patient and healthcare provider and both are involved in the treatment decision, requires a reasonable level of understanding and knowledge of the condition and its treatment by the patient. However, patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) often have poor knowledge about their condition and the benefits and risks of AF and AF treatments. Physicians and other healthcare providers may have doubts over a patient's ability to adhere to certain treatment regimens, particularly oral anticoagulation, due in part to the lack of patient knowledge, and this may be an important determinant of whether such treatments are even considered as therapeutic options. Further, patients often hold misconceptions about AF and treatment options, which may act as barriers to their acceptance of the condition and adherence to therapy. This review will summarise the literature on the knowledge of patients about AF and its management, how patients' values and preferences can impact on their treatment choices, the ideal components of patient education, the impact of educational interventions on patients' knowledge and perceptions of AF, and where appropriate highlight specific issues facing lone AF patients. PMID:25175094
Merakou, K.; Knithaki, A.; Karageorgos, G.; Theodoridis, D.; Barbouni, A.
This study aims to assess the impact of a brief patient group education intervention in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The sample, 193 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were patients at the diabetic clinic of a primary health care setting in Attica, was assigned to two groups, intervention (138 individuals) and control group (55…
Michael J. Griffin; Louise Brennan; Alan J. McShane
Purpose To determine the effect of intensive preoperative education on the outcome of Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) postoperatively.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods This prospective randomised study was carried out in a single teaching hospital over three months. One group of patients (n\\u000a = 42) received a 20 min standardised tutorial regarding PCA use from a single investigator and the other group (n = 43) received
Järvinen, Kirsi M; Celestin, Jocelyn
Anaphylaxis is an increasingly prevalent problem in westernized countries. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that the increasing numbers of patients at risk for anaphylaxis receive proper education on the etiology and risk factors as well as appropriate treatment of anaphylaxis with epinephrine. The physician’s role is crucial in order to educate the patients and care takers on effective measures to prevent anaphylaxis and empower them to take charge of early recognition and proper management of an anaphylactic reaction to prevent poor outcomes. This review summarizes the clinical presentation, triggers, avoidance, and management of anaphylaxis. PMID:25031541
Viviana Lora; Paolo Gisondi; Anna Calza; Mauro Zanoni; Giampiero Girolomoni
Background: An effective patient-physician relationship is important in the management of psoriatic patients. Objective: Our purpose was to investigate the efficacy of an educational intervention for patients with psoriasis in improving disease knowledge and attitude towards physicians and systemic treatments. Methods: The intervention consisted of a single, 2-hour educational programme conducted either by a dermatologist or by a dermatologist and
Background: Deterioration of heart failure causes and complicates many hospital admissions in people aged over 65 years. Frequent readmissions cause an immense burden on the individual, the family and the health care system. Heart failure management programmes, in which patient education is an important component, have been shown to be effective in improving self-care and reducing readmissions. Aim: This paper
Jerome S. Legge; Veta M. Massey; Catherine I. Vena; Bernard J. Reilly
This paper presents an evaluation of a diabetic education program for patients at Stephens County Hospital in Toccoa, Georgia. An analysis of covariance is employed along with multiple classification analysis to determine the effect of the program in reducing hospital readmissions. The major finding is that the teaching program is an important variable in the reduction of readmissions. A second
Ascher-Svanum, H; Rochford, S; Cisco, D; Claveaux, A
This study investigated patients' expectations prior to participation in an education program about coping with schizophrenia, and their evaluations of the program upon its completion. Adult inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenic disorders (N = 123) responded anonymously to a preintervention expectation measured and a postintervention evaluation questionnaire. Results point to high expectations of this illness self-management education program, and a high level of satisfaction upon its completion, with a self-fulfilling prophecy effect, in which those with high expectations later reported greater satisfaction. Patients perceived, however, a differential level of helpfulness of the program's nine content areas, and rated learning about diagnosis and medication management as most helpful. Content areas that were rated less helpful included prevalence of schizophrenia, its psychosocial rehabilitation, and use of community resources. Implications for clinical practice in patient education are identified and discussed. PMID:11885215
Kirch, Darrell G.; Ast, Cori
Interprofessional teams in health care are showing promise in achieving the triple aim--providing better care for the individual patient, reducing costs, and improving population health. To complement current changes in health care delivery in the United States, there is a growing consensus among health professions educators that students should…
Navidian, Ali; Yaghoubinia, Fariba; Ganjali, Alireza; Khoshsimaee, Sadegh
Background Cardiovascular diseases are among somatic disorders and psychological factors affect their onset, exacerbation, and treatment. This study was conducted on the hospitalized patients who had heart failure with and without depression. The study criteria was to evaluate the effect of self-care education on awareness, attitude, and adherence to self-care behaviors on these patients. Materials and Methods In this quasi-experimental study, seventy patients with heart failure that met the inclusion criteria were recruited through purposive sampling method. They were assigned in to two equal size groups regarding their depression status. First, the eligible patients were selected; then Beck Depression Inventory was done on the patients followed by examination by the clinical psychologist. Patients with average and higher scores were classified in the depressed group and others who got lower than average scores were classified as the non -depressed group. A questionnaire containing items related to awareness, attitude, and adherence to self-care behaviors was used to collect the data. First, self-care behavior was determined and then a four-sessions of educational intervention were held individually for both groups. The second round of questionnaires were completed at patients’ home twelve weeks after the discharge. The Collected data was analyzed using independent-samples and paired-sample t tests, Chi square, and statistical analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) tests through SPSS (version 21, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results After the educational sessions, the statistical analysis showed significant differences in the mean scores of awareness, attitude, and adherence to self-care behaviors between the two groups (P<0.0001). Conclusion Self-care behavior education had lower effects on the depressed patients with heart failure. Therefore, before providing education for these patients, it is necessary to consider their psychological problems such as depression. PMID:26091101
Context: Written patient education materials frequently exceed the reading ability of the general public. Patients are often intimidated by the task of reading patient education materials, perceiving the materials’ difficulty levels as prohibitive, even when they do not exceed the patients’ reading abilities. It is unclear how the delivery mechanism—print or a computer screen—affects a patient’s reading experience through his/her perception of its difficulty. Objective: To determine whether first-year college students perceived online or print-based patient education materials as more difficult to read. Design: Convenience sampling of first-year college students. Results: Some first-year college students perceived online patient education materials to be more difficult to read than print-based ones—even when the reading level of the patient education materials was similar. Demographic information about this sample’s high levels of digital literacy suggests that other populations might also perceive online patient education materials as more difficult to read than print-based equivalents. Patients’ perceptions of the difficulty of patient education materials influenced their ability to effectively learn from those materials. Conclusion: This article concludes with a call for more research into patients’ perceptions of difficulty of patient education materials in print vs on a screen. PMID:25662526
Farkhondeh Sharif; Sadrollah Mohebbi; Hamid-Reza Tabatabaee; Mehdi Saberi-Firoozi; Sakineh Gholamzadeh
BACKGROUND: Chronic liver diseases (CLDs) are progressive disorder which has a significant impact on the well-being of patients and leads to significant morbidity. CLDs are characterized by disturbances in physical, psychological and social aspects of well-being. It causes significant health-related quality of life (QOL) impairment. Psycho-educational interventions targeting to functional factors could be beneficial for patients with CLDs. METHODS: An
Doupi, Persephone; van der Lei, Johan
Patient education is a significant factor in the provision of health care services, contributing to improved disease management and health care outcomes. In order to be most effective, patient education should be adapted to the characteristics of the individual recipient. Computer-based approaches have been explored as a possible means of achieving this goal. The success and capabilities of the resulting applications have been restricted by the absence of a direct link to patient data and the reliance on locally produced written material, which is expensive to produce, update and tailor. In our research project STructured Evaluated Personalized Patient Support (STEPPS), we are investigating the potential of a novel strategy for personalized or tailored patient education, based on the integration of electronic patient record data and material derived from online health information and knowledge resources. In this paper we present an overview of the pertinent technical issues and the way we have addressed them in the context of our development work in the domain of burn care. Further, we discuss how the choices made in the design of the system interrelate with the considerations for its implementation in health care practice settings. PMID:14664080
Khoo, Chin Meng; Chen, Jiegen; Pamuklar, Zehra; Torquati, Alfonso
Objective The long-term changes in insulin sensitivity and ?-cell function in morbidly obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who undergo RYGB surgery or standard medical care remain unclear. We prospectively studied longitudinal changes of glucostatic parameters in morbidly obese patients with T2DM undergoing RYGB surgery or Diabetes Support and Education (DSE). Research Methods and Design 61 morbidly obese subjects (41.7±0.6 kg/m2) with T2DM were assigned to RYGB surgery (n=30) or DSE (n=31). They were matched for sex, age and body weight. Insulin sensitivity index (Si) and acute insulin response (AIR) were derived from frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Body composition was measured using dual-emission absorptiometry X-ray. General linear model with repeated measures were used to examine the longitudinal changes (baseline, 6-month, 12-month) in these parameters. Results At 12-month follow-up, significant improvement in obesity measures, body composition, glucose homeostasis, Si and AIR were observed following RYGB surgery and weight loss. These outcomes were not influenced by pre-operative insulin use. Although there were no significant changes in the body composition amongst DSE subjects, they experienced a decline in the Si and AIR, along with an increase in fasting glucose and HbA1c. The between-group differences in Si and AIR at 12-month follow-up were completely attenuated with adjustment to changes in body weight. Conclusions The long-term effects of RYGB surgery on glucostatic parameters are partly dependent on weight loss. In morbidly obese diabetic patients who were offered DSE, a progressive decline in the glucose homeostasis and glucostatic parameters is observed despite absence of weight gain. (NCT00787670) PMID:23732262
Richard A. Windsor; Lesa L. Woodby; Thomas M. Miller; J. Michael Hardin; Myra A. Crawford; Carlo C. DiClemente
Objective: The purposes of this study were (1) to determine the extent to which tobacco exposure assessment and new patient education methods, derived from a meta-analysis and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research guideline recommendations, could be provided routinely by trained Medicaid maternity care staff members and (2) to document the behavioral impact of these interventions among pregnant
Patients (n=672) were screened and instructed about osteoporosis; 53 of their physicians attended lectures, a control group did not. A survey of 258 patients showed doctor-ordered screening tests increased regardless of lecture attendance. Increased patient-initiated discussions about osteoporosis suggest that patient education is effective.…
Adams, Robert John
A central plank of health care reform is an expanded role for educated consumers interacting with responsive health care teams. However, for individuals to realize the benefits of health education also requires a high level of engagement. Population studies have documented a gap between expectations and the actual performance of behaviours related to participation in health care and prevention. Interventions to improve self-care have shown improvements in self-efficacy, patient satisfaction, coping skills, and perceptions of social support. Significant clinical benefits have been seen from trials of self-management or lifestyle interventions across conditions such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the focus of many studies has been on short-term outcomes rather that long term effects. There is also some evidence that participation in patient education programs is not spread evenly across socio economic groups. This review considers three other issues that may be important in increasing the public health impact of patient education. The first is health literacy, which is the capacity to seek, understand and act on health information. Although health literacy involves an individual’s competencies, the health system has a primary responsibility in setting the parameters of the health interaction and the style, content and mode of information. Secondly, much patient education work has focused on factors such as attitudes and beliefs. That small changes in physical environments can have large effects on behavior and can be utilized in self-management and chronic disease research. Choice architecture involves reconfiguring the context or physical environment in a way that makes it more likely that people will choose certain behaviours. Thirdly, better means of evaluating the impact of programs on public health is needed. The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework has been promoted as one such potential approach. PMID:22312219
Abdul Razak, I; Lind, O P
A questionnaire survey was conducted to examine the attitudes of Malaysian dentists toward patient education and preventive dentistry and the level of preventive care adopted in Malaysian dental practice. An adjusted response rate of 73.1% was obtained. Generally the Malaysian dentists had positive attitudes towards patient education and preventive dentistry including fluoridation. However, a sizable proportion of them considered that preventive measures were no challenge for the dentist. The common preventive measures given to patients were scaling, dental health education, prophylaxis and instruction in correct brushing and flossing in as much as 40 to 50 percent of the queried dentist claimed that these preventive items were provided to most or all of their new patients. In spite of the fact that the majority of the dentists had good knowledge about the application and effects of sealants only about 41 percent of the dentists claimed to have used sealants. More dentists in the private sector reportedly having done so. Also many Malaysian dentists (18.5%) did not use leaded protection for any of their new patients when taking radiographs. PMID:7811664
Roland, Damian; Balslev, Thomas
Patient video cases (PVCs) are brief video recordings of patients during spontaneous or instructed activity. PVCs are true to life and can be replayed, enabling the establishment of highly interactive, contextual and safe learning environments, with a minimum of facilitation. This article describes the use of workshops in which PVCs are used to assist with the development of observational skills and clinical reasoning in medical students and postgraduates. We describe why PVCs are a valuable addition to an educator's portfolio of resources, what evidence there is for their effectiveness, how to use videos for teaching, and some practical advice and tips on their collection and storage. PMID:25972599
YADRICH, DONNA MACAN; FITZGERALD, SHARON A.; WERKOWITCH, MARILYN; SMITH, CAROL E.
This article gives details about the methods and processes used to ensure that usability and accessibility were achieved during development of the Home Parenteral Nutrition Family Caregivers Web site, an evidence-based health education Web site for the family members and caregivers of chronically ill patients. This article addresses comprehensive definitions of usability and accessibility and illustrates Web site development according to Section 508 standards and the national Health and Human Services’ Research-Based Web Design and Usability Guidelines requirements. PMID:22024970
Livorsi, D J; Kundu, M G; Batteiger, B; Kressel, A B
Contact precautions may have an adverse effect on a patient's hospital experience and the delivery of care. This case-control study compared patient satisfaction scores between 70 patients isolated for MRSA and 139 non-isolated patients. Based on an adjusted analysis, there was no difference in patient satisfaction between the two groups. Age and educational status were found to affect patient satisfaction. PMID:25799481
Herndon, James E.; Kornblith, Alice B.; Holland, Jimmie C.; Paskett, Electra D.
Purpose To investigate the effect of socioeconomic status, as measured by education, on the survival of 1,577 lung cancer patients treated on 11 studies conducted by the Cancer and Leukemia Group B. Patients and Methods Sociodemographic data, including education, was reported by the patient at the time of clinical trial accrual. Cox proportional hazards model stratified by treatment arm/study was used to examine the effect of education on survival after adjustment for known prognostic factors. Results The patient population included 1,177 patients diagnosed with non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC; stage III or IV) and 400 patients diagnosed with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC; extensive or limited). Patients with less than an eighth grade education (13% of patients) were significantly more likely to be male, nonwhite, and older; have a performance status (PS) of 1 or 2; and have chest pain. Significant predictors of poor survival in the final model included male sex, PS of 1 or 2, dyspnea, weight loss, liver or bone metastases, unmarried, presence of adrenal metastases and high alkaline phosphatase levels among patients with NSCLC, and high WBC levels among patients with advanced disease. Education was not predictive of survival. Conclusion The physical condition of patients with low education who enroll onto clinical trials is worse than patients with higher education. Once enrolled onto a clinical trial, education does not affect the survival of patients with SCLC or stage III or IV NSCLC. The standardization of treatment and follow-up within a clinical trial, regardless of education, is one possible explanation for this lack of effect. PMID:18757325
Yvonne Chan, Yu-Feng; Nagurka, Roxanne; Bentley, Suzanne; Ordonez, Edgardo; Sproule, William
Background: The utilization of kiosks has previously been shown to be effective for collecting information, delivering educational modules, and providing access to health information. We discuss a review of current literature for the utilization of kiosks for the delivery of patient education. Methods: The criteria for inclusion in this literature review were: (1) study discusses the utilization of kiosks for patient health education; (2) study discusses the use of touch screens for patient health information; (3) published in English. Our review includes searches via MEDLINE databases and Google Scholar for the years 1996-2014. Results: Overall, 167 articles were screened for final eligibility, and after discarding duplicates and non-eligible studies with abstract. Full-text review of 28 articles was included in the final analysis. Conclusion: The review of available literature demonstrates the effectiveness of touch screen kiosks to educate patients and to improve healthcare, both at a performance and cost advantage over other modes of patient education. PMID:25097831
Albano, Maria Grazia; Jourdain, Patrick; De Andrade, Vincent; Domenke, Aukse; Desnos, Michel; d'Ivernois, Jean-François
Therapeutic patient education programmes on heart failure have been widely proposed for many years for heart failure patients, but their efficiency remains questionable, partly because most articles lack a precise programme description, which makes comparative analysis of the studies difficult. To analyse the degree of precision in describing therapeutic patient education programmes in recent randomized controlled trials. Three major recent recommendations on therapeutic patient education in heart failure inspired us to compile a list of 23 relevant items that an 'ideal' description of a therapeutic patient education programme should contain. To discover the extent to which recent studies into therapeutic patient education in heart failure included these items, we analysed 19 randomized controlled trials among 448 articles published in this field from 2005 to 2012. The major elements required to describe a therapeutic patient education programme were present, but some other very important pieces of information were missing in most of the studies we analysed: the patient's educational needs, health literacy, projects, expectations regarding therapeutic patient education and psychosocial status; the educational methodology used; outcomes evaluation; and follow-up strategies. Research into how therapeutic patient education can help heart failure patients will be improved if more precise descriptions of patients, educational methodology and evaluation protocols are given by authors, ideally in a standardized format. PMID:24613089
Alain Deccache; Karin van Ballekom
Patient education started in Belgium in the late 70s. Tuberculosis and diabetes management and care were the first topics addressed. In the two main regions of the country (Flemish and French), the development of patient education has been very different. The Belgian French Ministry of Health and regional hospital associations appointed a non-profit resource center, the “Center d’Education du Patient”,
Prathibha Varkey; Sudhakar Karlapudi; Steven Rose; Steve Swensen
Graduate medical education (GME) has traditionally focused on the diagnosis and management of disease with little attention devoted to patient safety and systems thinking. In this article, we describe the results of a needs assessment conducted to develop a patient safety curriculum for GME. Eight program directors, 10 patient safety experts, and 9 experts in education technology were interviewed for
John Ermisch; Chiara Pronzato
The paper shows that parents’ education is an important, but hardly exclusive part of the common family background that generates positive correlation between the educational attainments of siblings from the same family. But the correlation between the educational attainments of parents and those of their children overstates considerably the causal effect of parents’ education on the education of their children.
Freitag, Carl B.; Hassler, Shawn David
Although fear of death is recorded in the writings of the oldest major religions, the study of death and the fear of death have only occurred for the last few decades. Death education courses have grown in number since the early 1970's. College students participated in an investigation of the effects of death education on death anxiety by…
Skelton, Stacy L.; Waterman, Amy D.; Davis, LaShara A.; Peipert, John D.; Fish, Anne F.
Despite the known benefits of kidney transplant, less than 30% of the 615000 patients living with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States have received a transplant. More than 100000 people are presently on the transplant waiting list. Although the shortage of kidneys for transplant remains a critical factor in explaining lower transplant rates, another important and modifiable factor is patients’ lack of comprehensive education about transplant. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of known best practices from the broader literature that can be used as an evidence base to design improved education for ESRD patients pursuing a kidney transplant. Best practices in chronic disease education generally reveal that education that is individually tailored, understandable for patients with low health literacy, and culturally competent is most beneficial. Effective education helps patients navigate the complex health care process successfully. Recommendations for how to incorporate these best practices into transplant education design are described. Providing more ESRD patients with transplant education that encompasses these best practices may improve their ability to make informed health care decisions and increase the numbers of patients interested in pursuing transplant. PMID:25758805
Pisu, Maria; Kvale, Elizabeth A.; Johns, Shelley A.
Pain is prevalent, burdensome, and undertreated in individuals with cancer across the disease trajectory. Providing patients and family caregivers psychosocial support and education to manage cancer pain is a core component of quality care that can result in significant clinical benefit. In this review, we (1) outline an approach for developing and assessing the effectiveness of education programs for adults with cancer pain; (2) discuss considerations for tailoring programs to the needs of diverse populations and those with limited health literacy skills; (3) describe the resource needs and costs of developing a program; and (4) highlight innovative approaches to cancer pain education. We conclude with recommendations for future research and the next generation of educational interventions. PMID:22644901
Lisa Smith; Patti Pagels
Title: Health Literacy Education Initiative (HLEI): improving patient health literacy while enhancing physician assistant patient education skills\\u000aAuthors: Lisa Smith, MLS and Patti Pagels, MPAS, PA-C\\u000aSummary \\/ Objective The Health Science Library in conjunction with the University Physician Assistant Studies program sought to increase the health literacy of caregivers of pediatric patients while increasing Physician Assistant student patient education
Stellefson, Michael L.
. Patients reported a lack of knowledge and skill development related to rehabilitative activities such as controlled breathing and stress reduction. A multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted to determine the effect of 3 educational treatments...
Suhling, Hendrik; Rademacher, Jessica; Zinowsky, Imke; Fuge, Jan; Greer, Mark; Warnecke, Gregor; Smits, Jacqueline M.; Bertram, Anna; Haverich, Axel; Welte, Tobias; Gottlieb, Jens
Background Accurate immunosuppression is of critical importance in preventing rejection, while avoiding toxicity following lung transplantation. The mainstay immunosuppressants are calcineurin inhibitors, which require regular monitoring due to interactions with other medications and diet. Adherence to immunosuppression and patient knowledge is vital and can be improved through patient education. Education using tablet-computers was investigated. Objective To compare tablet-PC education and conventional education in improving immunosuppression trough levels in target range 6 months after a single education. Secondary parameters were ratio of immunosuppression level measurements divided by per protocol recommended measurements, time and patient satisfaction regarding education. Design Single-centre, open labelled randomised controlled trial. Participants Patients >6 months after lung-transplantation with <50% of calcineurin inhibitor trough levels in target range. Intervention Tablet-pc education versus personal, nurse-led education. Measurements Calcineurin inhibitor levels in target range 6 months after education, level variability, interval adherence, knowledge and adherence was studied. As outcome parameter, renal function was measured and adverse events registered. Results Sixty-four patients were 1:1 randomised for either intervention. Levels of immunosuppression 6 months after education were equal (tablet-PC 58% vs. conventional 48%, p?=?0.27), both groups improved in achieving a CNI trough level within target range by either education method (delta tablet-PC 29% vs. conventional 20%). In all patients, level variability decreased (?20.4%), whereas interval adherence remained unchanged. Knowledge about immunosuppression improved by 7% and compliance tests demonstrated universal improvements with no significant difference between groups. Conclusion Education is a simple, effective tool in improving adherence to immunosuppression. Tablet-PC education was non-inferior to conventional education. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01398488 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01398488?term=gottlieb+tablet+pc+education&rank=1. PMID:24608864
Gerogogy in Patient Education was first printed in Home Healthcare Nurse, Volume 14, Number 8, (1996), Lippincott. Writers Mary Pearson, M.Ed, RN- BC and Joan Wessman, MA. have revisited and updated the material to meet the needs of a new generation of health care professionals. Baby Boomers are retiring; they will reach their peak in 2030, with an estimated 72 million drawing social security. With these numbers comes an increase in services to the elderly, mostly in the form of medical expenditure. The problem will not only impact the financial system of Medicare but will have a great toll on families. How will the retirees remain independent in their homes? How will they learn new medical information? Will new health care professions be able to teach them while taking into consideration the physical and psychological alterations that occur with aging and illness? Gerogogy takes into account the person's disease process, age-related changes, educational level and motivation. Then incorporates these factors into practice, utilizing the same foundations found within the nursing process: assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation. As stated, the methods for teaching the elderly are unique and require modifications. Gerogogy meets these needs so individuals can remain at home while also reducing unnecessary medical costs. PMID:21874787
The review of the press and other media following the May 17, 1954 opinion of "Brown v. Board of Education" summarized here leaves little doubt that the message was not misunderstood. There exists today more segregation in the large cities of our nation than there was in 1954. The schools, though not responsible for the exodus to the suburbs, did…
Weber, David J.
Butts i-ii iii-iv v-vi 1-2 3-17 18-33 34-45 46-57 58-72 73-82 83-95 #12;Chapter 8 Policy, Practice Department of Education Erin Butts University of Montana Michele Capio Illinois PBIS Network Joanne Cashman
Bartlett, E E
Hospital administrators are constantly looking for ways to cut costs and yet not jeopardize quality of care. One possibility is patient education. Patient education is the process of informing patients and family members about an illness so the patient's chances for recovery are increased and the hospital stay itself is improved. Such a strategy can potentially reduce hospital costs shortening length of stay and decreasing anxiety, pain, complications, and the need for analgesic medication. The implications for Medicare patients are strong. Patient education can reduce Medicare costs while in the hospital and make the possibility of readmission less likely. In short, patient education is a means of reducing costs and increasing quality of care--doing more with less. PMID:10300176
Bleakley, Alan; Bligh, John
Medical students must be prepared for working in inter-professional and multi-disciplinary clinical teams centred on a patient's care pathway. While there has been a good deal of rhetoric surrounding patient-centred medical education, there has been little attempt to conceptualise such a practice beyond the level of describing education of…
Wallace, Lorraine S; Wexler, Randell K; Miser, W Frederick; McDougle, Leon; Haddox, J David
Background Although there are screening tools to aid clinicians in assessing the risk of opioid misuse, an instrument to assess opioid-related knowledge is not currently available. The purpose of this study was to develop a content-valid, understandable, readable, and reliable Patient Opioid Education Measure (POEM). Methods Using concept mapping, clinicians caring for patients with chronic pain participated in brainstorming, sorting, and rating need-to-know information for patients prescribed opioids. Concept mapping analyses identified seven clusters addressing knowledge and expectations associated with opioid use, including medicolegal issues, prescribing policies, safe use and handling, expected outcomes, side effects, pharmacology, and warnings. Results The 49-item POEM was verbally administered to 83 patients (average age 51.3 ± 9.8 years, 77.1% female, 47.1% African American) taking opioids for chronic nonmalignant pain. Patients averaged in total 63.9% ± 14.3% (range 23%–91%) correct responses on the POEM. The POEM demonstrated substantial test-retest reliability (interclass correlation coefficient 0.87). The POEM had a mean readability Lexile (L) score of 805.9 ± 257.3 L (equivalent to approximately a US fifth grade reading level), with individual items ranging from 280 L to 1370 L. Conclusion The POEM shows promise for rapidly identifying patients’ opioid-related knowledge gaps and expectations. Correcting misunderstandings and gaps could result in safer use of opioids in a clinical care setting. PMID:24049456
Wohlauer, Max V; Arora, Vineet M; Horwitz, Leora I; Bass, Ellen J; Mahar, Sean E; Philibert, Ingrid
In 2010, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education released its resident duty hours restrictions, requiring that faculty monitor their residents' patient handoffs to ensure that residents are competent in handoff communications. Although studies have reported the need to improve the effectiveness of the handoff and a variety of curricula have been suggested and implemented, a common method for teaching and evaluating handoff skills has not been developed. Also in 2010, engineers, informaticians, and physicians interested in patient handoffs attended a symposium in Savannah, Georgia, hosted by the Association for Computing Machinery, entitled Handovers and Handoffs: Collaborating in Turns. As a result of this symposium, a workgroup formed to develop practical and readily implementable educational materials for medical educators involved in teaching patient handoffs to residents. In this article, the result of that yearlong collaboration, the authors aim to provide clarity on the definition of the patient handoff, to review the barriers to performing effective handoffs in academic health centers, to identify available solutions to improve handoffs, and to provide a structured approach to educating residents on handoffs via a curricular blueprint. The authors' blueprint was developed to guide educators in customizing handoff education programs to fit their specific, local needs. Hopefully, it also will provide a starting point for future research into improving the patient handoff. Increasingly complex patient care environments require both innovations in handoff education and improvements in patient care systems to improve continuity of care. PMID:22361791
Jensen, Natasja K.; Pals, Regitze Anne Saurbrey
In recent years, the need for person-centered patient education has become evident. To translate this approach into practice, new theoretically and empirically sound methods and models are required. This brief communication introduces a newly developed toolkit that has shown promise in facilitating person-centered education and active involvement of patients. Two health education models constituting the underlying basis for the toolkit are also presented. PMID:25593847
Pugsley, Lesley; McCrorie, Peter
Is medical education unique among all other educational disciplines? Why does it not seem to conform to the rules laid down by universities for every other faculty? We explore the ways in which particular elements pertaining to medical education have been perceived historically and consider the ways in which medical educators and students have…
Tan, Andy SL
Spillover effects of exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of cancer treatments on patients’ general inquiry about their treatments and managing their illness are not well understood. This study examines the effects of cancer patients’ exposure to cancer-related DTCA on subsequent health information seeking behaviors from clinician and non-clinician sources (lay media and interpersonal contacts). Using a longitudinal survey design over three years, data was collected from cancer survivors diagnosed with colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer who were randomly sampled from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry. Study outcome measures include patients’ information engagement with their clinicians and information seeking from non-medical sources about cancer treatment and quality of life issues, measured in the second survey. The predictor variable is the frequency of exposure to cancer-related DTCA since diagnosis, measured at the round 1 survey. The analyses utilized lagged weighted multivariate regressions and adjusted for round 1 levels of patient-clinician engagement, information seeking from non-medical sources, and confounders. Exposure to cancer-related DTCA is associated with increased levels of subsequent patient-clinician information engagement (B=.023, 95%CI=.005 to .040, p=.012), controlling for confounders. In comparison, exposure to DTCA is marginally significant in predicting health information seeking from non-clinician sources (B=.009, 95%CI=?.001 to .018, p=.067). Cancer-related DTCA has potentially beneficial spillover effects on health information seeking behaviors among cancer patients. Exposure to DTCA predicts (a little) more patient engagement with their physicians. PMID:24254248
Newkirk, Gary; And Others
A self-instructional health education program that utilizes a slide-tape device was studied to determine whether it could be educationally effective in an ambulatory clinical setting without being an inconvenience to patients. Infant and child nutrition was chosen as the topic to be used in the waiting room of a pediatric clinic. (JMD)
At least 1.5 million preventable injuries because of adverse drug events occur in the United States each year, according to an Institute of Medicine report. IOM and other organizations at the forefront of health care improvement emphasize that stronger partnerships between patients, their families, and health care providers are necessary to make health care safer. Health educators possess a skill set and an ethical framework that effectively equip them to advance patient and family-centered care and contribute in other significant ways to a safer health care system. Health educators in clinical settings are playing varied and significant roles in advancing patient safety. They are removing barriers to clear communication and forging partnerships between patients, their families, and staff. Health educators are leading patient safety culture change within their institutions and contributing to the shift from provider-centric to patient-centric systems. To expand their impact in improving patient safety, health educators in clinical settings are participating in public awareness campaigns. In seeking to enhance patient safety, health educators face a number of challenges. To successfully manage those, health educators must expand their knowledge, broaden connections, and engage patients and families in meaningful ways. PMID:17384402
Anderson, Amy Shelton; Klemm, Paula
The Internet has changed how patients with cancer learn about and cope with their disease. Newly diagnosed patients with cancer often have complex educational and informational needs related to diagnosis and treatment. Nurses frequently encounter time and work-related constraints that can interfere with the provision of patient education. They are challenged to educate patients in an environment of rapidly expanding and innovative computer technology. Barriers that hinder nurses in integrating educational Internet resources into patient care include lack of training, time constraints, and inadequate administrative support. Advantages of Internet use for patient education and support include wide-ranging and current information, a variety of teaching formats, patient empowerment, new communication options, and support 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Pitfalls associated with Internet use for patients with cancer include inaccurate information, lack of access, poor quality of online resources, and security and privacy issues. Nurses routinely use computer technology in the workplace and follow rigorous security and privacy standards to protect patient information. Those skills can provide the foundation for the use of online sources for patient teaching. Nurses play an important role in helping patients evaluate the veracity of online information and introducing them to reliable Internet resources. PMID:18258575
West, Amy M; Bittner, Edward A; Ortiz, Vilma E
We studied the effect of an instructional video in Spanish on self-reported anxiety, knowledge about general anesthesia procedures, and satisfaction with the preoperative anesthesia process in patients requiring a Spanish interpreter. This prospective, randomized, nonblinded pilot study took place at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), a university-affiliated tertiary-care hospital. Twenty adult, ASA physical status 1, 2, and 3 patients, scheduled for elective surgery (gynecological, orthopedic, and intrabdominal surgery) during general anesthesia were studied. Anxiety, knowledge, and patient satisfaction were assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). There was a significant reduction in anxiety score in patients who viewed the video compared with those who did not (median reduction 2 vs 0; P = 0.020). There was an increase in satisfaction score in the video group (median increase 2 vs 0; P = 0.046). There was no difference in reported knowledge-improvement scores between the two groups (3.5 vs 4; P = 0.908). In Spanish-speaking patients, the addition of an instructional video in Spanish to a preanesthesia interview decreased anxiety and increased patient satisfaction. PMID:24882604
Bonnet, Caroline; Gagnayre, Remi; d'Ivernois, Jean-Francois
Surveys 85 health care professionals on the learning difficulties of diabetic patients. Results show that educators find it easy to teach techniques: patients master procedures well and make few mistakes. In contrast, diabetic patients seem to have problems learning skills, such as insulin dose adjustment, that require complex problem-solving.…
Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC. Indian Education Programs.
The Indian Education Programs supplement state, local, and tribal education efforts to improve the quality of Indian education and assure parental and community participation. Each year, the Office of Indian Education, assisted by the six regional Indian Education Technical Assistance Centers, selects effective projects to be showcased at the…
Strauss, Shiela M.; Harris, Gavin; Katigbak, Carina; Rindskopf, David M.; Singh, Sheena; Greenblum, Ilana; Brown, Lawrence S.; Kipnis, Steven; Kritz, Steven A.; Parrino, Mark W.
Alcohol-related problems are especially common among opioid treatment program (OTP) patients, suggesting that educating OTP patients about alcohol and its harmful effects needs to be a priority in OTPs. Using data collected in interviews with a nationwide U.S. sample of OTP directors (N = 200) in 25 states, we identified factors that differentiate…
Graduate School of Education Assessing Our Effectiveness . #12;Graduate School of Education effectiveness To identify areas for program improvement #12;Graduate School of Education Assessment Task Force Thieman Cheryl Livneh Steve Isaacson #12;Graduate School of Education What did we accomplish in 2007
Naimoli, J F; Endsley, S; Roungou, J B; Parker, K; Bryce, J; Doutizonga, R; Gbadjamo, M
This paper describes the design and implementation of a health worker training program in diarrhea case management and its effect on patient education in health facilities in the Central African Republic (C.A.R.). In 1989, a facility-based assessment of health worker practices in managing diarrheal disease in children under 5 years of age documented serious deficiencies in patient education as performed by health workers. Based on these results, the Ministry of Health (MOH) designed an inservice training program that promoted education as an integral component of curative care. The training program was implemented in all five health regions of the country. An evaluation of the training's impact on the delivery of patient education indicated dramatic increases in the number of messages health workers communicated to mothers. This experience demonstrated that the patient education practices of health workers can be improved through inservice training that integrates the teaching of clinical and communication skills. Additional study in C.A.R. is needed to (1) further improve the quality of patient education for diarrhea and other childhood communicable diseases, (2) determine the impact of patient education on the care provided by mothers in the home following a clinic visit, and (3) assess how operational research can be conducted within the limitations of inservice training programs and routine clinical operations. PMID:8788345
The free patient education website (Cancer.net) offers information about cancer and clinical trials in patient-friendly videos. The videos are produced by ASCO and posted regularly on their YouTube channel. The series includes a variety of cancer topics that patients will find helpful, including clinical trials. Information is presented by physicians and advocates and helps patients accumulate accurate information and formulate questions for their physician as they consider a clinical trial.
Insulin pump therapy is a diabetes management tool that can significantly aid in achieving treatment goals in children, adolescents and adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus. These goals include optimal glycaemic control, lifestyle flexibility, quality-of-life improvement, and independence. Successful implementation of CSII requires a motivated, conscientious patient with a range of technical skills and self-management capabilities. Patients develop this knowledge through the program of education provided by a healthcare team including diabetologists, diabetes educator, dietietian, pump manufacturer representative, and in some cases, mental health professionals. Training of the patient to use a pump includes three basic steps: 1 - pre-pump education, 2 - pump start-up, 3 - evaluation, independence assessment and re-education. It is a relatively long process that can range from a few weeks to several months. Insulin pump therapy checklist, included in this paper, is a useful tool in planning and providing education for insulin pump users. PMID:17036508
Brenner, Adam M.
Objectives: The use of standardized patients (SPs) is becoming prominent as a learning and evaluation tool in both undergraduate and graduate medical education. As increasing attempts are made to extend this tool to psychiatric training and education, it has been suggested that SPs can be useful not only to expose students to the variety of…
Objectives: This review explores the challenges and solutions in educating patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to lower serum phosphorus while avoiding protein insufficiency and hypercalcemia. Methods: A literature search including terms “hyperphosphatemia,” “patient education,” “food fatigue,” “hypercalcemia,” and “phosphorus–protein ratio” was undertaken using PubMed. Results: Hyperphosphatemia is a strong predictor of mortality in advanced CKD and is remediated via diet, phosphorus binders, and dialysis. Dietary counseling should encourage the consumption of foods with the least amount of inorganic or absorbable phosphorus, low phosphorus-to-protein ratios, and adequate protein content, and discourage excessive calcium intake in high-risk patients. Emerging educational initiatives include food labeling using a “traffic light” scheme, motivational interviewing techniques, and the Phosphate Education Program – whereby patients no longer have to memorize the phosphorus content of each individual food component, but only a “phosphorus unit” value for a limited number of food groups. Phosphorus binders are associated with a clear survival advantage in CKD patients, overcome the limitations associated with dietary phosphorus restriction, and permit a more flexible approach to achieving normalization of phosphorus levels. Conclusion: Patient education on phosphorus and calcium management can improve concordance and adherence and empower patients to collaborate actively for optimal control of mineral metabolism. PMID:23667310
Discussion of the effectiveness of mediated education in distance education focuses on the effectiveness of educational television. Topics include mass media research; greater preparation by teachers using television that led to its effectiveness; research needs; attitudes of students and teachers; and aptitude treatment interaction analysis. (LRW)
Walker, Stacy E.; Weidner, Thomas G.
Context: Standardized patients are widely used in health care programs to both teach and evaluate the communication and clinical skills of students. Although athletic training education programs (ATEPs) commonly use simulations, little information exists related to the use and implementation of standardized patients (SPs). Objective: To provide…
Marchand, C.; d'Ivernois, J. F.; Assal, J. P.; Slama, G.; Hivon, R.
Assesses whether concept maps used with diabetic patients could describe their cognitive structure, before and after having followed an educational program. Involves 10 diabetic patients and shows that concept maps can be a suitable technique to explore the type and organization of the patients' prior knowledge and to visualize what they have…
Burhansstipanov, Linda; Krebs, Linda U; Harjo, Lisa; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Pingatore, Noel; Isham, Debra; Duran, Florence Tinka; Denny, Loretta; Lindstrom, Denise; Crawford, Kim
Native Navigators and the Cancer Continuum (NNACC) was a community-based participatory research study among five American Indian organizations. The intervention required lay Native Patient Navigators (NPNs) to implement and evaluate community education workshops in their local settings. Community education was a new role for the NPNs and resulted in many lessons learned. NPNs met quarterly from 2008 through 2013 and shared lessons learned with one another and with the administrative team. In July 2012, the NPNs prioritized lessons learned throughout the study that were specific to implementing the education intervention. These were shared to help other navigators who may be including community education within their scope of work. The NPNs identified eight lessons learned that can be divided into three categories: NPN education and training, workshop content and presentation, and workshop logistics and problem-solving. A ninth overarching lesson for the entire NNACC study identified meeting community needs as an avenue for success. This project was successful due to the diligence of the NPNs in understanding their communities' needs and striving to meet them through education workshops. Nine lessons were identified by the NPNs who provided community education through the NNACC project. Most are relevant to all patient navigators, regardless of patient population, who are incorporating public education into navigation services. Due to their intervention and budget implications, many of these lessons also are relevant to those who are developing navigation research. PMID:25087698
Zellmer, Caroline; Zimdars, Peggy; Parker, Sarah; Safdar, Nasia
Patient education is important for the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs). The usefulness of available patient education materials is unclear. Using a validated evaluation tool, the Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool, we systematically assessed patient education materials for SSI. We found that available materials performed poorly, and further research is needed in this area. PMID:25541334
Consorti, Fabrizio; Mancuso, Rosaria; Nocioni, Martina; Piccolo, Annalisa
A meta-analysis was performed to assess the Effect Size (ES) from randomized studies comparing the effect of educational interventions in which Virtual patients (VPs) were used either as an alternative method or additive to usual curriculum versus interventions based on more traditional methods. Meta-analysis was designed, conducted and reported…
Sheldon Greenfield; Sherrie H. Kaplan; Ware John E. Jr
An intervention was developed to increase patient involvement in care. Using a treatment algorithm as a guide, patients were helped to read their medical record and coached to ask questions and negotiate medical decisions with their physicians during a 20-minute session before their regularly scheduled visit. In a randomized controlled trial we compared this intervention with a standard educational session
Utsumi, Miho; Son, Daisuke; Kawamura, Kazumi; Nakashima, Mitsuko
To work collaboratively in healthcare practice, health professionals should learn not only the competencies of their own specialties but also those of other professions so as to promote effective interprofessional work (IPW), thus optimizing patient/client outcomes. For this reason interprofessional education (IPE) is urgently needed. Since the establishment of Centre for the Advancement of Interprofessional Education (CAIPE) in 1987, many IPE programs have been developed and implemented worldwide. Currently, our Japan Society for Instructional Systems in Healthcare (JSISH) IPE program project team is conducting a study to develop an effective and versatile IPE program according to the framework of instructional design (ID). The main categories of learning goals of our program are intellectual skills and attitudes among Gagne's five categories. Therefore we designed our program to start from the drama (skit or video) of a bad example of IPW for learners to see and discuss the barriers of interprofessional collaboration. The drama of IPW seems to enhance attention and relevance for learners; both of which are components of the ARCS model. We expect every health professional including pharmacists to learn about IPW competencies through participating in our IPE program, enabling us further to pursue the ideal patient/client/family-centered care together. PMID:25743910
Hemmati Maslakpak, Masumeh; Shams, Shadi
Background End stage renal disease negatively affects the patients’ quality of life. There are different educational methods to help these patients. This study was performed to compare the effectiveness of self-care education in two methods, face to face and video educational, on the quality of life in patients under treatment by hemodialysis in education-medical centers in Urmia. Methods In this quasi-experimental study, 120 hemodialysis patients were selected randomly; they were then randomly allocated to three groups: the control, face to face education and video education. For face to face group, education was given individually in two sessions of 35 to 45 minutes. For video educational group, CD was shown. Kidney Disease Quality Of Life- Short Form (KDQOL-SF) questionnaire was filled out before and two months after the intervention. Data analysis was performed in SPSS software by using one-way ANOVA. Results ANOVA test showed a statistically significant difference in the quality of life scores among the three groups after the intervention (P=0.024). After the intervention, Tukey’s post-hoc test showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups of video and face to face education regarding the quality of life (P>0.05). Conclusion Implementation of the face to face and video education methods improves the quality of life in hemodialysis patients. So, it is suggested that video educational should be used along with face to face education. PMID:26171412
The conditions for effective and efficient provision of distance education in the small-scale integrated mode normal in Australian higher education are outlined in this paper. Criteria for the evaluation of effective distance education are listed as follows: (1) student learning of information and understanding; (2) student satisfaction with the…
... doctors to learn about research results through CME. Evidence-based medicine is medical practice that is guided by ... Doctors and patients alike benefit from learning about evidence-based medicine guidelines. This is best done through CME ...
Kumah-Crystal, Yaa; Mulvaney, Shelagh
Many studies have tested clinical and behavioral approaches for improving glycemic control in people with diabetes. We review research to identify how blood glucose (BG) values have been used in patient-focused clinical research and interventions. We sought to describe the frequency that BG values have been the focus of patient education research and to characterize the different methods to integrate BG into an intervention, the approaches implemented to support patient education and behavior change, and the nature of communication about BG values. Thirty-four eligible studies were identified that included patient education using BG values. Information regarding the study and intervention characteristics include: 1) Characteristics of the study sample, 2) How BG values were obtained, 3) Use of a graphical interface for BG values, 4) Use of a BG log, 5) BG interpretation and regimen adjustments, 6) Recommended actions to patient, 7) Modality of intervention, and 8) Intervention communication schedule. The review demonstrated that new BG technologies provide outstanding opportunities for greater access to BG data, and for patient support and intervention. However, it also indicated a need to improve and expand support for people with diabetes in their daily use of BG values to maintain and improve glycemic control. In order to make the most sustainable impact on behavior, generalizable skills such as problem solving need to be integrated into BG education. PMID:24057927
Background Malnutrition in dependent patients has a high prevalence and can influence the prognosis associated with diverse pathologic processes, decrease quality of life, and increase morbidity-mortality and hospital admissions. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of an educational intervention for caregivers on the nutritional status of dependent patients at risk of malnutrition. Methods/Design Intervention study with control group, randomly allocated, of 200 patients of the Home Care Program carried out in 8 Primary Care Centers (Spain). These patients are dependent and at risk of malnutrition, older than 65, and have caregivers. The socioeconomic and educational characteristics of the patient and the caregiver are recorded. On a schedule of 0–6–12 months, patients are evaluated as follows: Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), food intake, dentures, degree of dependency (Barthel test), cognitive state (Pfeiffer test), mood status (Yesavage test), and anthropometric and serum parameters of nutritional status: albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, haemoglobin, lymphocyte count, iron, and ferritin. Prior to the intervention, the educational procedure and the design of educational material are standardized among nurses. The nurses conduct an initial session for caregivers and then monitor the education impact at home every month (4 visits) up to 6 months. The North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) methodology will be used. The investigators will study the effect of the intervention with caregivers on the patient’s nutritional status using the MNA test, diet, anthropometry, and biochemical parameters. Bivariate normal test statistics and multivariate models will be created to adjust the effect of the intervention. The SPSS/PC program will be used for statistical analysis. Discussion The nutritional status of dependent patients has been little studied. This study allows us to know nutritional risk from different points of view: diet, anthropometry and biochemistry in dependent patients at nutritional risk and to assess the effect of a nutritional education intervention. The design with random allocation, inclusion of all patients, validated methods, caregivers’ education and standardization between nurses allows us to obtain valuable information about nutritional status and prevention. Trial Registration number Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01360775 PMID:22625878
Alexandra M. van Dulmen; Robert A. Holl
Paediatric care places great demands on interpersonal communication skills, especially as regards the handling of psychosocial\\u000a issues. Recent shifts in paediatric morbidity and increases in patient empowerment furthermore emphasize the need for continuing\\u000a paediatric education in communication skills. It is, however, debatable, whether after residency paediatric education can\\u000a influence paediatrician performance. This study evaluated the effects of a 5-day experiential
Pascual, Franchette T; Hoang, Kathy; Hollen, Christopher; Swearingen, Richard; Hakimi, Andrea S; King, Jeanne Ann; Thompson, David
Epilepsy is a costly diagnosis, with emergency room (ER) visits and hospital admissions comprising a large portion of total direct cost. An educational intervention to decrease the number of ER visits was implemented on outpatients with epilepsy, using educational handouts and DVD. The number of ER visits declined significantly in the four months following intervention compared with the preceding four months. This finding supports patient education as a valuable tool to reduce ER use, which may, in turn, cut down on health-care cost. PMID:25499153
Williams, Arthur R.; McDougall, John C.; Bruggeman, Sandra K.; Erwin, Patricia J.; Kroshus, Margo E.; Naessens, James M.
Introduction: A search of the literature on the cost of patient education found that provider education time per patient per day was rarely reported and usually not derivable from published reports. Costs of continuing education needed by health professionals to support patient education also were not given. Without this information, it is…
HealthDoc: Customizing patient information and health education by medical condition and personal a comprehensive approach to the customization of patient-information and health-education materials through of ontological and linguistic knowledge sources. 1 Customizing patient-education material Present-day health-education
National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice, Rockville, MD.
Results of a joint meeting between national advisory councils in medicine and nursing on physician-nurse collaboration to enhance patient safety are reported. Recommendations on which participants reached consensus are organized by these Institute of Medicine (IOM) themes: establish a national focus to create leadership through research and…
Inott, Theresa; Kennedy, Betsy B
Nurses must facilitate and support patient and family decision-making and improvement in health outcomes using instructional skills. Complex patient needs and nursing responsibilities necessitate thoughtful consideration for maximizing the effectiveness of patient teaching encounters. This article reviews assessment of patient learning styles in combination with context for an individualized approach, as well as motivation for adult learners as a framework for organization of patient teaching. Methods and modes of patient teaching are discussed as well as tips for overcoming barriers to planning and implementing patient teaching. PMID:21791266
Adequate pain management is a compelling and universal requirement in health care. Despite considerable advancements, the adverse physiological and psychological implications of unmanaged pain remain substantially unresolved. Ineffective pain management can lead to a marked decrease in desirable clinical and psychological outcomes and patients' overall quality of life. Effective management of acute pain results in improved patient outcomes and increased patient satisfaction. Although research and advanced treatments in improved practice protocols have documented progressive improvements in management of acute and postoperative pain, little awareness of the effectiveness of best practices persists. Improved interventions can enhance patients' attitudes to and perceptions of pain. What a patient believes and understands about pain is critical in influencing the patient's reaction to the pain therapy provided. Use of interdisciplinary pain teams can lead to improvements in patients' pain management, pain education, outcomes, and satisfaction. PMID:26033099
Milligan, Frank J
This paper argues that the process of making significant moves towards a patient safety culture requires changes in healthcare education. Improvements in patient safety are a shared international priority as too many errors and other forms of unnecessary harm are currently occurring in the process of caring for and treating patients. A description of the patient safety agenda is given followed by a brief analysis of human factors theory and its use in other safety critical industries, most notably aviation. The all too common problem of drug administration errors is used to illustrate the relevance of human factors theory to healthcare education with specific mention made of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). PMID:16713030
Lagger, G; Chambouleyron, M; Correia, J C; Sittarame, F; Miganne, G; Lasserre Moutet, A; Golay, A
Type 2 diabetes is a potentially reversible disease. Patient education encompasses a deep investment of the health care providers, who with the aid of pedagogic tools, help the pa tient commit to this path. This facilitates the learning of uncommon knowledge and skills required. Whether or not it leads to a complete remission of the disease may not be the main purpose. The main goal lies in the patient's motivation to learn and change on a long term basis. PMID:26027202
Longenecker, Clinton O.; Ariss, Sonny S.
Managers trained in executive education programs (n=203) identified ways in which management education can increase an organization's competitive advantage: exposure to new ideas and practices, skill development, and motivation. Characteristics of effective management education included experience-based learning orientation, credible instructors,…
Chapman, Michael S.
Undergraduate Medical Education (UME) Program Objectives A. PATIENT CARE AND PROCEDURE SKILLS Core Competency: Demonstrate compassionate, appropriate, and effective care for the treatment of health problems and the promotion of health. 1. Obtain an accurate history, covering essential medical, personal, and socioeconomic
Mansouri, Maliheh; Lockyer, Jocelyn
Introduction: We undertook a meta-analysis of the Continuing Medical Education (CME) outcome literature to examine the effect of moderator variables on physician knowledge, performance, and patient outcomes. Methods: A literature search of MEDLINE and ERIC was conducted for randomized controlled trials and experimental design studies of CME…
‘Changing Minds’: determining the effectiveness and key ingredients of an educational intervention to enhance healthcare professionals’ intentions to prescribe physical activity to patients with physical disabilities
Background Healthcare professionals (HCPs) are vital conduits of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) information; however, few discuss LTPA with their patients with disabilities. ‘Changing Minds, Changing Lives’ (CMCL) is a nationwide, theory- and evidence-based seminar aimed at increasing LTPA-discussion among HCPs by enhancing their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control (PBC), and intentions. The purposes of the current study were to: examine the effectiveness and short- and long-term maintenance of a CMCL seminar on HCPs’ social cognitions to discuss LTPA; and explore key implementation variables that predict changes in HCPs’ social cognitions. Methods Prior-to, as well as immediately, one, and six months following a CMCL seminar, 97 HCPs (Mage ± SD = 36.23 ± 10.42; 69.0% female; 97.9% Caucasian; 38.1% rehabilitation therapists; years in profession = 11.56 ± 9.94) from five Canadian provinces completed questionnaires that assessed the Theory of Planned Behaviour constructs with regard to discussing LTPA with their patients with a physical disability. Key presenter characteristics and intervention delivery components were extracted from presenter demographic questionnaires and seminar checklists, respectively. Separate repeated-measures ANOVAs and post-hoc t-tests evaluated changes in HCPs’ social cognitions. Hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to predict intentions and to understand which implementation variables may help explain significant changes in social cognitions. Results Significant increases in HCPs’ social cognitions for discussing LTPA were reported from pre- to post-seminar (ps <0.002); however, increases were not maintained at follow-up. PBC emerged as the strongest predictor of participants’ post-CMCL intentions (? = 0.45, p <0.001). Although several implementation characteristics were related to changes in perceptions, the number of seminars the presenter delivered was the only significant negative predictor of post-seminar PBC (? = -0.18, p <0.05). Conclusions Future iterations of the CMCL intervention should include additional strategies to sustain improvements in HCPs’ social cognitions over time. Future CMCL evaluations should measure additional implementation variables so that the key ingredients for ‘Changing Minds’ can continue to be investigated. PMID:24581329
Pilonidal Disease Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Revised 2/8/12 Page 1 of 1 What is Pilonidal Disease and What Causes It? Pilonidal disease is a chronic infection of the skin in the region occurring in the cleft between the buttocks. The disease is more common in men than women and frequently
Hansberry, David R; Suresh, Ragha; Agarwal, Nitin; Heary, Robert F; Goldstein, Ira M
Given its practicality, the internet is a primary resource for patients afflicted with diseases like peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, it is important that the readily available online resources on peripheral neuropathy are tailored to the general public, particularly concerning readability. Patient education resources were downloaded from the US National Library of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Neuropathy.org, GBS/CIDP Foundation International, Hereditary Neuropathy Foundation, Charcot-Marie-Tooth Association, Foundation for Peripheral Neuropathy, and Neuropathy Action Foundation websites. All patient education material related to peripheral neuropathy was evaluated for its level of readability using the Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level. The FRE scores averaged 43.4 with only the US National Library of Medicine scoring above 60 (76.5). The Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level scores averaged 11.0. All scores were above a seventh-grade level except the US National Library of Medicine, which had a score of a fifth-grade reading level. Most Americans may not fully benefit from patient education resources concerning peripheral neuropathy education on many of the websites. Only the US National Library of Medicine, which is written at a fifth-grade level, is likely to benefit the average American. PMID:23521643
Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza
Adaptive Patient Education Framework Featuring Personalized Cardiovascular Risk Management Interventions Selena Davis and Syed Sibte Raza Abidi Health Informatics Laboratory, Faculty of Computer Science of cardiovascular risk. We present a web-based adaptive hypermedia system to create and deliver the personalized
Johnson, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Helen; Deaver, Sarah; Johansson, Mark; Calisch, Abby
Simulation is used widely in medical and health professions educational programs. Standardized patients (SPs) are individuals who are trained to simulate specific symptoms or conditions as part of a structured learning experience with students. In this qualitative, phenomenological study the researcher interviewed 8 first-year graduate art therapy…
Shoulder Injuries Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Revised 2/13/2013 Page 1 of 2 The common types of shoulder injuries are: Sprains: overstretching or tearing a ligament that connects bone to bone Strain: overstretching of tendons or muscles Tendinitis: inflammation of a tendon Dislocation
... About Your Medicines” Month 2014 Safe Use of Acetaminophen Acetaminophen is found in more than 600 different medicines — ... as well as cough, cold, and allergy medicines. Acetaminophen is safe and effective when it is used ...
Discusses issues that affected the perspectives and roles of music education such as Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, a national interest in educational accountability, the National Standards for Music Education, and research focusing on the correlation between music skills and higher achievement. Recommends teaching strategies…
Pino, Cécile; Boutron, Isabelle; Ravaud, Philippe
Background With the increasing prevalence of chronic noncommunicable diseases, patient education is becoming important to strengthen disease prevention and control. We aimed to systematically determine the extent to which registered, ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluated an educational intervention focus on patient-important outcomes (i.e., outcomes measuring patient health status and quality of life). Methods On May 6, 2009, we searched for all ongoing RCTs registered in the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry platform. We used a standardized data extraction form to collect data and determined whether the outcomes assessed were 1) patient-important outcomes such as clinical events, functional status, pain, or quality of life or 2) surrogate outcomes, such as biological outcome, treatment adherence, or patient knowledge. Principal Findings We selected 268 of the 642 potentially eligible studies and assessed a random sample of 150. Patient-important outcomes represented 54% (178 of 333) of all primary outcomes and 46% (286 of 623) of all secondary outcomes. Overall, 69% of trials (104 of 150) used at least one patient-important outcome as a primary outcome and 66% (99 of 150) as a secondary outcome. Finally, for 31% of trials (46 of 150), primary outcomes were only surrogate outcomes. The results varied by medical area. In neuropsychiatric disorders, patient important outcomes represented 84% (51 of 61) of primary outcomes, as compared with 54% (32 of 59) in malignant neoplasm and 18% (4 of 22) in diabetes mellitus trials. In addition, only 35% assessed the long-term impact of interventions (i.e., >6 months). Conclusions There is a need to improve the relevance of outcomes and to assess the long term impact of educational interventions in RCTs. PMID:22916183
Research suggests that many Patient Information Leaflets are written at too high a level for the population to understand. This study took 2 leaflets on Cervical Cancer, with their readability measured using 3 different ...
Baker, Vicki D.
The purpose of this study was to develop a profile of an effective urban music educator in an effort to provide strategies for university teacher training programs to prepare students to teach in urban schools. The study examined urban music teachers' (N = 158) educational background, effective and ineffective characteristics, perceived…
Rink, Judith E.
This article summarizes the research base on teacher effectiveness in physical education from a historical perspective and explores the implications of the recent emphasis on student performance and teacher observation systems to evaluate teachers for physical education. The problems and the potential positive effects of using student performance…
Crawford-Ferre, Heather Glynn; Wiest, Lynda R.
Online education has emerged as an effective and increasingly common alternative to face-to-face instruction in postsecondary education. This article is a summary of effective practices in online instructional methods, including course design, interaction among course participants, and instructor preparation and support.
Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R; Jatoi, Aminah
Currently, 10% of cancer chemotherapy is prescribed to patients by means of an oral formulation, but, by 2013, this percentage is predicted to increase to 25%. Oral chemotherapy offers many advantages, including no need for sometimes painful intravenous access, no intravenous drug administration fees, more time at home for patients, and a greater sense of patient autonomy. However, oral cancer chemotherapy also poses challenges, many of which revolve around adherence and safety. These challenges are discussed here. There are few other circumstances in which patient education and the maintenance of institutional safety infrastructure play such an integral role in sustaining favorable cancer clinical outcomes. PMID:20437116
This article discusses health literacy and cultural factors that have implications for the ethical practice of health education. It specifically focuses on recent data that speaks to the challenges in carrying out patient education from the perspective of comprehension and equitable distribution of health-related information across diverse cultures and communities. It discusses strategies for reducing the negative impact of low health literacy among diverse groups and the importance of acknowledging this pervasive problem in the context of ensuring equity in the optimal delivery of health promotion messages. PMID:19574584
Johansson, Kirsi; Salanterä, Sanna; Katajisto, Jouko; Leino-Kilpi, Helena
Written patient education materials are one way of supporting patient empowerment. The aim of this study was to evaluate written orthopedic patient education materials (n = 25) drawn from a university hospital's electronic databank. In the absence of suitable tools for evaluation, an analytic framework was developed by a panel of nursing scientists and clinical experts. The materials were evaluated from the point of view of empowerment by their external appearance, content and instructiveness. In terms of their external appearance the materials were well prepared, but much was left to be desired with regard to contents and instructiveness. Development needs to focus on making better use of methods of visual representation, on increasing the coverage of content areas that so far have received less attention, like social, experiential, ethical and financial empowerment, and on providing a more focused perspective on the patient. PMID:15132523
Griffith, Jennifer M.; Sorenson, James R.; Bowling, J. Michael; Jennings-Grant, Tracey
The Enhancing Patient Prenatal Education study tested the feasibility and educational impact of an interactive program for patient prenatal genetic screening and testing education. Patients at two private practices and one public health clinic participated (N = 207). The program collected knowledge and measures of anxiety before and after use of…
Sameer Badarudeen; Sanjeev Sabharwal
Background Health literacy is the single best predictor of an individual’s health status. It is important to customize health-related\\u000a education material to the individual patient’s level of reading skills. Readability of a given text is the objective measurement\\u000a of the reading skills one should possess to understand the written material.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes In this article, some of the commonly used readability assessment tools
Gibson, P A; Ruby, C; Craig, M D
Using pilot project funding from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, the American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation (AAFP/F) developed a program by which health/patient education print materials were reviewed. Favorably reviewed materials were entered into a database accessible through the AAFP/F's Huffington Library. The review service and resulting database were designed to help the busy clinician identify scientifically accurate, reliable materials for use in patient education. The review process developed for the project is described, as is the database and its use by family physicians. Research findings from the pilot project are discussed, some of which assisted in planning the self-supporting second phase of the program. PMID:1958908
Godino, Carolina; Jodar, Lina; Durán, Angela; Martínez, Isabel; Schiaffino, Anna
People with cancer have identified fatigue as a major obstacle to normal functioning and a good quality of life. It is a nearly universal symptom for patients undergoing primary antineoplasic therapy or treatment with biologic response modifiers (BRM) and is extremely common in patients with persistent or advanced disease. The aim of the study was to determine whether nursing education decreased the perception of fatigue in patients with colon or gastric cancer. We compared the fatigue level between two groups of patients who received the same treatment and had the same type of cancer (experimental group and control group). We provided an individualised and structured nursing intervention with education to the experimental group. We followed up the fatigue level in both groups with three different measures on the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Fatigue (FACT-F) Scale. After the nursing intervention there was a decrease in the level of fatigue in the experimental group, whereas the group of patients that did not receive this intervention showed an increase in fatigue level along the treatment. The nursing intervention with the individualised education and counselling has provided patients with cancer with an effective tool to manage fatigue. PMID:16618589
Twelve classes of students in grades 4 through 6 studied beaver ecology, either at an outdoor-education center near Toronto or in the classroom. Results indicate that outdoor education was more effective in promoting students' cognitive achievement than classroom study, but did not confirm the popular belief that outdoor programs influence…
Kafka, James J.
Advocates of residential education have isolated three determinants of residential adult education effectiveness: isolation from the outside environment; concentration on content; and group support. This study investigated the independent and collective relationships of different levels of these determinants with cognitive gain and posttest…
Peter R. Kilmann; Richard L. Wanlass; Robert F. Sabalis; Bernard Sullivan
This paper reviewed 33 empirical studies which assessed the effectiveness of sex education. Methodological issues were considered within six sections: (a) populations, (b) instructors, (c) program formats, (d) time format, (e) program goals, and (f) outcome measures. College students were the most frequently assessed population, followed by educators and counselors, and then medical-school populations. Most investigators did not include control
Ahern, Terence C.; Repman, Judi
Discusses uses of technology in distance education and describes a study of college graduate students that illustrated the effects of two different instructional delivery technologies on the nature of interaction in online education systems: one used a synchronous video link-up and one used an asynchronous computer-mediated communication system.…
Richard A Windsor; H Pennington Whiteside; Laura J Solomon; Susan L Prows; Rebecca J Donatelle; Paul M Cinciripini; Helen E McIlvain
OBJECTIVETo describe and apply a process evaluation model (PEM) for patient education programs for pregnant smokers.METHODSThe preparation of a process evaluation plan required each program to define its essential “new” patient assessment and intervention procedures for each episode (visit) of patient–staff contact. Following specification of these core implementation procedures (p) by each patient education program, the PEM, developed by the
Ascione, F J; Shimp, L A
A study was designed for practitioners wishing to provide comprehensive educational services to the elderly. The effectiveness of four methods (i.e., oral instructions alone or in combination with written information, a medication reminder calendar, or a medication reminder package) of changing patient attitudes, drug knowledge, and compliance behavior was measured in 158 ambulatory cardiovascular patients using a randomized, controlled, single-blind design. The results indicate that drug knowledge will most likely be improved by a strategy that provides small amounts of specific information, thereby reducing the possibility of overwhelming the patient. Noncompliance behavior caused by forgetfulness can be best improved by combining a reminder aid with oral reinforcement. The high levels of motivation present in these patients indicate that improving patient attitudes toward medication taking may be unnecessary. PMID:6499663
Moradkhani, Anilga; Douglas, Kristin S. Vickers; Prinsen, Sharon K.; Fischer, Erin N.; Schroeder, Darrell R.
Abstract Objective: The objective of this investigation was to assess whether a new electronic health (e-health) platform, combining mobile computing and a content management system, could effectively deliver modular and “just-in-time” education to older patients following cardiac surgery. Subjects and Methods: Patients were provided with iPad® (Apple®, Cupertino, CA) tablets that delivered educational modules as part of a daily “to do” list in a plan of care. The tablet communicated wirelessly to a dashboard where data were aggregated and displayed for providers. Results: A surgical population of 149 patients with a mean age of 68 years utilized 5,267 of 6,295 (84%) of education modules delivered over a 5.3-day hospitalization. Increased age was not associated with decreased use. Conclusions: We demonstrate that age, hospitalization, and major surgery are not significant barriers to effective patient education if content is highly consumable and relevant to patients' daily care experience. We also show that mobile technology, even if unfamiliar to many older patients, makes this possible. The combination of mobile computing with a content management system allows for dynamic, modular, personalized, and “just-in-time” education in a highly consumable format. This approach presents a means by which patients may become informed participants in new healthcare models. PMID:24443928
This randomized clinical trial compares multimedia psychoeducation to print education in preparing patients with cancer for decision making about clinical trial participation. Multimedia psychoeducation includes a DVD and written materials with a combined focus on knowledge and attitude change, and may be an effective method to help patients prepare for decision making about clinical trial participation. It is not yet known whether a multimedia psychoeducation is more effective than print education in preparing patients for decision making about clinical trials.
Lu, Shiang-Ru; Hong, Rong-Bin; Chou, Willy; Hsiao, Pei-Chi
Introduction This retrospective cohort study evaluated whether education in combination with physiotherapy can reduce the risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Methods We analyzed 1,217 women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer between January 2007 and December 2011 who underwent tumor resection and axillary lymph node dissection. The patients were divided into three groups: Group A (n=415), who received neither education nor physiotherapy postsurgery; Group B (n=672), who received an educational program on BCRL between Days 0 and 7 postsurgery; and Group C (n=130), who received an educational program on BCRL between Days 0 and 7 postsurgery, followed by a physiotherapy program. All patients were monitored until October 2013 to determine whether BCRL developed. BCRL risk factors were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results During the follow-up, 188 patients (15.4%) developed lymphedema, including 77 (18.6%) in Group A, 101 (15.0%) in Group B, and 10 (7.7%) in Group C (P=0.010). The median period from surgery to lymphedema was 0.54 years (interquartile range =0.18–1.78). The independent risk factors for BCRL included positive axillary lymph node invasion, a higher (>20) number of dissected axillary lymph nodes, and having undergone radiation therapy, whereas receiving an educational program followed by physiotherapy was a protective factor against BCRL (hazard ratio =0.35, 95% confidence interval =0.18–0.67, P=0.002). Conclusion Patient education that begins within the first week postsurgery and is followed by physiotherapy is effective in reducing the risk of BCRL in women with breast cancer. PMID:25750536
Ben Said, M.; Consoli, S.; Jean, J.
ISIS is a patient education computer program about hypertension. It aims to be complementary to the habitual educational techniques by bringing into patient education the facility of multimedia features. Its efficiency in improving the knowledge about hypertension was tested among 158 hypertensive patients. Their prior knowledge was evaluated using a questionnaire. They were then randomly separated in a control group (CG) which had the regular education program and ISIS group or (IG) which, in addition, had an interactive session using ISIS. Two months after discharge, all the patients were asked the same questions over the telephone. A total of 138 observations (69 CG, 69 IG) were reported in the final analysis. The initial scores were significantly improved for both groups. The improvement is more evident in the IG, particularly among patients whose initial score was low and patients whose hypertension was discovered for more than 6 months. ISIS is actually used by hospitalized patients and by nurse students. PMID:7949841
Suzanne Bakken; Sarah Sheets Cook; Lesly Curtis; Karen S. Desjardins; Sookyung Hyun; Melinda L. Jenkins; Ritamarie John; W. Ted Klein; Jossie Paguntalan; W. Dan Roberts; Michael Soupios
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee on Quality of Health Care in America identified the critical role of information technology in designing safe and effective health care. In addition to technical aspects such as regional or national health information infrastructures, to achieve this goal, healthcare professionals must receive the requisite training during basic and advanced educational programs. In this article,
Marri, Sheetal R; Buchman, Alan L
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has the propensity to affect patients who are in their late teens and early 20s, an age when most people decide on their educational and career directions. This review describes the effects that IBD has on the continuum of education and employment. Patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis attain a similar level of education as that of the general population. The quality of life of such patients in school, as measured by both patients' and teachers' perceptions, indicates that, despite the difficulties that students face in terms of missed school time and physical inconveniences, teachers are generally perceived by students to have favorable attitudes toward helping them. Even though earlier work in the area of employment has suggested that the occurrence of IBD is clustered among people in white-collar positions, recent data have suggested that certain environmental risks for IBD (i.e., sedentary or indoor jobs) may be associated with jobs classified as being white-collar, and therefore having a white-collar job may in itself not be a risk factor for the development of IBD. Patients with IBD have a higher rate of nonparticipation in the labor force, and the participation rate seems to maintain steady levels over time. A majority of patients with IBD continue in the same employment positions over a period of years. Patients with IBD, especially those who have undergone surgery, took more sick leave than their counterparts without IBD. A majority of patients with IBD favored the disclosure of their diagnosis to their employers and perceived little discrimination in the workplace. Furthermore, most employers were perceived by their employees with IBD as having fair attitudes toward the compensation provided for their employees with IBD. PMID:15677911
Hepp, H H; Maier, S; Hermle, L; Spitzer, M
Schizophrenic patients (n = 44) and normal controls (n = 50) performed a computerized version of the Stroop color-word interference task. Schizophrenic patients generally showed more Stroop interference than normal subjects. The effect was neither related to demographic variables, nor to actual psychopathology. However, the course of the disorder was related to the Stroop effect, in that acute, chronic, and schizoaffective patients displayed a larger interference effect than patients with a recurrent episode. From a methodological perspective, the computerized version of the Stroop task proved to be more sensitive to interference effects in the patient group. The finding of enhanced reverse Stroop interference in patients strongly preoccupied with colors is discussed within the framework of MacLeod and Dunbar's (MacLeod and Dunbar, 1988) theory of Stroop interference involving differential practice effects. PMID:9000316
Kegley, Jacquelyn Ann K
The Human Genome project will result in a rapid increase in information about genetically based disease and possible genetically based therapies and cures. In light of this, radical changes in medical education may be necessary. Patients rely on physicians for medical advice about genetic ills and treatments and yet there is mounting evidence that physicians are not well informed about genetics and indeed that they are misinformed. There is also evidence that informed consent is not always honored in the context of genetic testing and indeed that coercion to test and even to act on test information is a practice. Misinformation and the mishandling of genetic information can cause physical, psychological and social harm to persons and intentional and non-intentional violations of informed consent, confidentiality, and privacy are causes for alarm. It is an ethical imperative that genetic literacy and education for physicians be fully and quickly addressed. PMID:12889647
Nikolaos Zografakis; Angeliki N. Menegaki; Konstantinos P. Tsagarakis
A lot of today's world vices can be eliminated if certain targeted modules and adapted curricula are introduced in the schooling system. One of these vices is energy squandering with all its negative consequences for the planet (e.g. depletion of finite energy sources and the subsequent climate change). This paper describes the results of an energy-thrift information and education project
Doctors today not only must communicate verbally, they must also realize that the written word is important to their ability to connect with the patients that they already have and also to attract new patients. Doctors will be expected to write blogs, to create content for their Web sites, to write articles for local publications, and even to learn to express themselves in 140 characters or less (i.e., Twitter). This article presents 10 rules for selecting the right words to enhance your communication with existing patients and potentially to attract new patients to your practice. PMID:26062324
Wang, Shu-Fang; Li, Yu-Chan; Chang, Jia-Rong; Courtney, Mary; Chang, Yueh-Ling
As the incidence of chronic disease increases, empowerment of patients with chronic disease to adopt self-care responsibilities becomes paramount. Self-efficacy is a belief in one's ability to perform a task that will lead to the desired outcome. Utilizing self-efficacy counseling skills is an effective way to enhance patients' compliance with self-care activities. The development of such skills can compensate for the lack of traditional health education provided for diabetes patients and plays a significant part in the prevention of acute and chronic complications. Self-efficacy counseling strategies involve: asking questions; focusing on patient's agenda; planning personal treatment schedules; defining problems; setting goals (taking a step-by-step approach); regular follow-up and contact with patients; scaling questions; brainstorming solutions; considering past efforts, successes and failures; reassessing confidence; and finally checking behavior changes. Self-efficacy counseling skills can be learned through structured training courses in counseling skills. The aims of this report were twofold: (1) to undertake a literature review on self-efficacy and counseling skills used as the theoretical framework in a health education training program for diabetes; (2) to analyze cases when a counseling guide based upon a self-efficacy framework was used by health counselors to help patients improve their self-confidence and self-care ability. This report reveals it is important to promote the application of counseling skills in nursing interventions in the clinical practice field. PMID:17340550
Evans, Steven Owens
Patient centered medicine is a paradigm of health care that seeks to treat the whole person, rather than only the illness. The physician must understand the patient as a whole by considering the patient's individual needs, social structure, socioeconomic status, and educational background. Medical education includes ways to train students in this…
Price, James; Sidani, Jaime
A group (n = 170) of inner-city, predominantly African American, health clinic patients were asked to identify the characteristics they desired in a new clinic health educator. A plurality (44%) of the patients perceived a bachelor's degree would be a sufficient level of education. The vast majority of patients claimed the sex of the health…
Morisky, D E; Levine, D M; Green, L W; Shapiro, S; Russell, R P; Smith, C R
Three health education interventions for urban poor hypertensive patients were introduced sequentially in a randomized factorial design: 1) an exit interview to increase understanding of and compliance with the prescribed regimen; 2) a home visit to encourage a family member to provide support for the patient's regimen; and 3) invitations to small group sessions to increase the patient's confidence and ability to manage his/her problem. Previous evaluation of the initial two-year experience demonstrated a positive effect of the educational program on compliance with the medical treatment and blood pressure control. Data accumulated over an additional three years, including mortality analysis, are now presented. The study group consisted of the same cohort of 400 ambulatory hypertensive outpatients in the eight experimental and control groups. The five-year analysis shows a continuing positive effect on appointment keeping, weight control, and blood pressure control. All-cause life table mortality rate was 57.3 per cent less for the experimental group compared to the control group (12.9/100 vs 30.2/100, p less than .05), while the hypertension-related mortality rate was 53.2 per cent less (8.9/100 vs 19.0/100, p less than .01). The results from this longitudinal study provide evidence to encourage health practitioners to utilize such educational programs in the long-term management and control of high blood pressure. PMID:6849473
There is an extensive literature on how physicians can best educate their patients about living healthier-one might call it a "pedagogy of living." In this essay, I suggest that physicians develop a "pedagogy of dying" for their adult patients: educating them about how they can approach death with some measure of grace and dignity, as consistent with their wants as possible, and cognizant of the final reality we all face. This process happens in the ambulatory settings as part of ongoing care and precedes any serious illness or the crisis of hospitalization. I draw on known models for communicating effectively, my own practice experience, and the disciplines of palliative care and bioethics in asking physicians to consider developing such a "pedagogy of dying," a kind of anticipatory guidance toward aging, infirmity, and, ultimately, death [corrected]. PMID:25201942
Pišot, Rado; Plevnik, Matej; Štemberger, Vesna
Regular quality physical education (PE) contributes to the harmonized biopsychosocial development of a young person--to relaxation, neutralization of negative effects of sedentary hours, and other unhealthy habits/behaviors. The evaluation approach to PE effectiveness provides important information to PE teachers and also to students. However,…
Conn, Vicki S.; Hafdahl, Adam R.; Brown, Sharon A.; Brown, Lori M.
Objective This meta-analysis integrates primary research testing the effect of patient education to increase physical activity (PA) on behavior outcomes among adults with diverse chronic illnesses. Methods Extensive literature searching strategies located published and unpublished intervention studies that measured PA behavior outcomes. Primary study results were coded. Fixed- and random-effects meta-analytic procedures included moderator analyses. Results Data were synthesized across 22,527 subjects from 213 samples in 163 reports. The overall mean weighted effect size for two-group comparisons was 0.45 (higher mean for treatment than control). This effect size is consistent with a difference of 48 minutes of PA per week or 945 steps per day. Preliminary moderator analyses suggest interventions were most effective when they targeted only PA behavior, used behavioral strategies (vs. cognitive strategies), and encouraged PA self-monitoring. Differences among chronic illnesses were documented. Individual strategies unrelated to PA outcomes included supervised exercise sessions, exercise prescription, fitness testing, goal setting, contracting, problem solving, barriers management, and stimulus/cues. PA outcomes were unrelated to gender, age, ethnicity, or socioeconomic distribution among samples. Conclusion These findings suggest that some patient education interventions to increase PA are effective, despite considerable heterogeneity in the magnitude of intervention effect. Practice Implications Moderator analyses are preliminary and provide suggestive evidence for further testing of interventions to inform practice. PMID:18023128
Matthew J. Gurka; Anne M. Wolf; Mark R. Conaway; Jayne Q. Crowther; Jerry L. Nadler; Viktor E. Bovbjerg
Objective: To determine whether people with different educational backgrounds respond differently to a lifestyle intervention program for obese patients with type 2 diabetes.Research Methods and Procedures: The study consisted of a 12-month randomized controlled trial of 147 health plan members with type 2 diabetes who were overweight or obese (BMI ? 27 kg\\/m2). Participants were randomized to lifestyle case management
Patel, Shaan S; Sheppard, Evan D; Siegel, Herrick J; Ponce, Brent A
Cancer patients rely on patient education materials (PEMs) to gather information regarding their disease. Patients who are better informed about their illness have better health outcomes. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends that PEMs be written at a sixth- to seventh-grade reading level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the readability of online PEMs of bone and soft-tissue sarcomas and related conditions. We identified relevant online PEMs from the following websites: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, academic training centers, sarcoma specialists, Google search hits, Bonetumor.org, Sarcoma Alliance, Sarcoma Foundation of America, and Medscape. We used 10 different readability instruments to evaluate the reading level of each website's PEMs. In assessing 72 websites and 774 articles, we found that none of the websites had a mean readability score at or below 7 (seventh grade). Collectively, all websites had a mean readability score of 11.4, and the range of scores was grade level 8.9 to 15.5. None of the PEMs in this study of bone and soft-tissue sarcomas and related conditions met the NIH recommendation for PEM reading levels. Concerted efforts to improve the reading level of orthopedic oncologic PEMs are necessary. PMID:25566558
Foster, Glen G.; And Others
Reporting a significant relationship between teacher acceptance of diverse behavior and their resistance to the biasing influence of a deviancy label, this article indicates academic performance of at least some children may be affected by the bias effect and suggests five ways to reduce the negative effects of bias. (Author/SB)
van Batenburg, Theo A.; Lokman, Ineke H.
Research was conducted in the Netherlands to determine what variables at the school level contribute to the differences in school effectiveness in the senior secondary vocational education system. Information was gathered through questionnaires answered by a representative sample of 57 of the country's 276 senior vocational schools and through…
This study decomposes the detrimental effects of increased sibship on educational attainment by the sex of the respondent and his\\/her siblings. Previous theories regarding the interaction of gender and sibship sex composition are reviewed and a new hypothesis is offered: a revision of the sex minority hypothesis, positing that an increased number of siblings of the opposite sex (regardless of
Zdep, Stanley M.; Irvine, Sidney H.
In an evaluation of the effectiveness of broadcasting media in education the control class achieved higher posttest scores than the experimental classes. These results suggest that when experimental and control classes are housed at the same location, teachers of control classes may and can motivate their students so that their classes no longer…
This article synthesizes the series of manuscripts on teacher effectiveness in physical education recently published by the "Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport" and highlights both the consensus and points of disagreement. Although there is much agreement as to the mission to develop a physically active lifestyle, there is a great…
Parsapoor, A R; Salari, P; Larijani, B
At the aim of explaining the rights of health care recipients and upgrading ethical observance in the field of treatment-the most important field of health care-, the Patient’s Rights Charter was declared by Ministry of Health and Medical Education to all medical universities in September 2009. This paper provides a report of strategic planning for implementation of Patient’s Rights Charter and a summary of other projects. PMID:23865009
Grabe, Darren W.; Bailie, George R.; Manley, Harold J.; Yeaw, Barbara F.
The Early Patient-Oriented Care Program provides early clinical education for pharmacy students and clinical services for patients. Six students were assigned to visit 12-15 hemodialysis patients monthly under preceptor supervision. Topics covered include approach to patient, medical information retrieval, pharmaceutical care philosophy,…
Lin, Yen-Chin; Chu, Yuan-Hsiang; Lin, Helene H.
The purpose of this study was to understand the effectiveness of sexuality education training on the parents in the group regarding their sex knowledge, awareness of sexuality education, attitude towards sexuality education, self-efficacy in sexuality education, communication effectiveness and communication behavior in the hope that they would be…
Cude, Brenda J.
Effective strategies include (1) helping consumers see how lifestyles and consumer behavior are related; (2) limiting amount of new terminology used; (3) dispelling myths and misperceptions; (4) doing product life-cycle analysis; and (5) emphasizing long-term goals for behavior change. (JOW)
Health Education Journal, 2011
Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines and recommendations on patient education programmes of any type, targeted specially to individuals with OA and which were designed to improve the clinical effectiveness of managing OA. Methods: The Ottawa Methods Group contacted specialized organizations that focus on management for…
Seibert, Thomas; Veazey, Kathryn; Leccese, Paul; Druck, Jeffrey
Introduction This study examines the emergency department (ED) waiting room (WR) population’s knowledge about the ED process and hospital function and explores the types of educational materials that might appeal to patients and their companions in an ED waiting room. Our goal was to identify potential high-impact opportunities for patient education. Methods A 32-question survey about demographics, usage of primary care physicians (PCP), understanding of the ED and triage process, desire to know about delays, health education and understanding of teaching hospitals was offered to all qualified individuals. Results Five hundred and forty-four surveys were returned. Fifty-five percent reported having a PCP, of which 53% (29% of all WR patients) called a PCP prior to coming to the ED. It was found that 51.2% can define triage; 51% as an acuity assessment and 17% as a vital signs check. Sixty-nine percent knew why patients were seen according to triage priority. Seventy-two percent wanted to know about delays, yet only 25% wanted to know others’ wait times. People wanted updates every 41 minutes and only three percent wanted a physician to do this. Forty-one percent wanted information on how the ED functions, 60% via handouts and 43% via video. Information on updates and common medical emergencies is significantly more important than material on common illnesses, finding a PCP, or ED function (p<0.05). Median estimated time for medical workup ranged from 35 minutes for radiographs, to one hour for lab results, computed tomography, specialist consult, and admission. Sixty-nine percent knew the definition of a teaching hospital and of those, 87% knew they were at a teaching hospital. Subgroup analysis between racial groups showed significantly reduced knowledge of the definitions of triage and teaching hospitals and significantly increased desire for information on ED function in minority groups (p<0.05). Conclusion The major findings in this study were that many visitors would like handouts about ED function and medical emergencies over other topics. Additionally, the knowledge of functions such as triage and teaching hospitals were 70% and 69%, respectively. This was reduced in non-Caucasian ethnicities, while there was an increased desire for information on ED function relative to Caucasians. This research suggests increasing updates and educational materials in the waiting room could impact the waiting room and overall hospital experience. PMID:25493116
John Ermisch; Chiara Pronzato
The paper shows that parents education is an important, but hardly exclusive part of the common family background that generates positive correlation between siblings educational attainments. Our estimates based on Norwegian twins indicate that an additional year of either mothers or fathers education increases their childrens education by as little as one-tenth of a year. There is evidence that fathers
Data section Example Data Elements - Set 2 was changed from cystic fibrosis to asthma September 24170.302 (m) Patient specific education resources Errata December 3, 2010 1 Errata for §170.302 (m) Patient specific education resources The purpose of this document is to record known technical corrections
Utilising a globalisation framework this study contributes to discussions concerning inequality, education, and development by re?examining the effects of educational and economic variables on income inequality. This research shows that the effects of education on income inequality are affected by the level of economic freedom in a country, and specifically that more economic liberalisation may limit the equalising effects of
An 8-Week Knee Osteoarthritis Treatment Program of Hyaluronic Acid Injection, Deliberate Physical Rehabilitation, and Patient Education is Cost Effective at 2 Years Follow-up: The OsteoArthritis Centers of America(SM) Experience.
Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E
Numerous nonsurgical interventions have been reported to improve symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA) over the short term. However, longer follow-up is required to accurately characterize outcomes such as cost effectiveness and delayed arthroplasty. A total of 553 patients with symptomatic knee OA who previously underwent a single 8-week multimodal treatment program were contacted at 1 year (n = 336) or 2 years (n = 217) follow-up. The percentage of patients who underwent knee arthroplasty was 10% at 1 year and 18% at 2 years following program completion. The treatment program was highly cost effective at $12,800 per quality-adjusted life year at 2 years. Cost effectiveness was maintained under a variety of plausible assumptions and regardless of gender, age, body mass index, disease severity, or knee pain severity. In summary, a single 8-week multimodal knee OA treatment program is cost effective and may lower knee arthroplasty utilization through 2 years follow-up. PMID:25574144
An 8-Week Knee Osteoarthritis Treatment Program of Hyaluronic Acid Injection, Deliberate Physical Rehabilitation, and Patient Education is Cost Effective at 2 Years Follow-up: The OsteoArthritis Centers of AmericaSM Experience
Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E
Numerous nonsurgical interventions have been reported to improve symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA) over the short term. However, longer follow-up is required to accurately characterize outcomes such as cost effectiveness and delayed arthroplasty. A total of 553 patients with symptomatic knee OA who previously underwent a single 8-week multimodal treatment program were contacted at 1 year (n = 336) or 2 years (n = 217) follow-up. The percentage of patients who underwent knee arthroplasty was 10% at 1 year and 18% at 2 years following program completion. The treatment program was highly cost effective at $12,800 per quality-adjusted life year at 2 years. Cost effectiveness was maintained under a variety of plausible assumptions and regardless of gender, age, body mass index, disease severity, or knee pain severity. In summary, a single 8-week multimodal knee OA treatment program is cost effective and may lower knee arthroplasty utilization through 2 years follow-up. PMID:25574144
David A. Kodde; Jozef M. M. Ritzen
This paper investigates empirically the impact of parental education level, family income, scholastic ability, and expectations on earnings and employment on the demand for higher education in the Netherlands. In theory the factors mentioned are important determinants of educational choice. The Wald or distance test is used to discriminate between direct and indirect effects of the parental education level and
Heinesen, Eskil; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe
We estimate causal effects of breast and colorectal cancer on labour market outcomes 1-3 years after the diagnosis. Based on Danish administrative data we estimate average treatment effects on the treated by propensity score weighting methods using persons with no cancer diagnosis as control group. We conduct robustness checks using matching, difference-in-differences methods and an alternative control group of later cancer patients. The different methods give approximately the same results. Cancer increases the risks of leaving the labour force and receiving disability pension, and the effects are larger for the less educated. Effects on income are small and mostly insignificant. We investigate some of the mechanisms which may be important in explaining the educational gradient in effects of cancer on labour market attachment. PMID:24096321
Berman, Anthony C
Educators have tried for many years to define teaching and effective teachers. More specifically, medical educators have tried to define what characteristics are common to successful teachers in the healthcare arena. The goal of teacher educators has long been to determine what makes an effective teacher so that they could do a better job of preparing future teachers to have a positive impact on the learning of their students. Medical educators have explored what makes some of their colleagues more able than others to facilitate the development of healthcare professionals who can successfully and safely meet the needs of future patients. Although there has historically been disagreement regarding the characteristics that need be developed in order for teachers to be effective, educational theorists have consistently agreed that becoming an effective teacher is a complex task. Such discussions have been central to deciding what education at any level is really all about. By exploring the literature and reflecting upon the personal experiences encountered in his lengthy career as a teacher, and as a teacher of teachers, the author reaches the conclusions that teaching is both art and science, that "good teaching is good teaching" regardless of the learning environment or the subject to be explored, and that the characteristics making up an effective medical educator are really not much different than those making up effective educators in any other area. Anat Sci Educ 8: 386-394. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:25907166
Froomkin (Joseph) Inc., Washington, DC.
Until now, the economic analysis of education has not contributed effectively to policy formation because it has failed to answer (1) the question of who benefits from education, and (2) the concomitant question of the best way to finance education, particularly postsecondary education. The reasons for this failure have been the lack of consensus…
Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).
Conscious that the achievement of educational equality for Australia's Indigenous peoples is a national priority, Australia's ministers of education, at a March 2000 meeting, committed themselves to a model of more culturally inclusive and educationally effective schools. The model is based on findings from recent work to improve educational…
Lam, Sherrell T
In the field of medicine, there is strong emphasis on the healing of others, but not as much on the healing of self. It is therefore not surprising that physicians may be ill-equipped to not only care for other physicians, but to be treated as patients. Multiple studies indicate that relatively few physicians have their own primary physicians and often rely on self-treatment, rather than obtaining comprehensive care from other physicians. Through the lens of a personal struggle with serious illness, the author develops a discussion about potential barriers physicians face in seeking care, the downstream effects of physicians' perceptions of health care, and ways to make changes to prevailing physician health attitudes. Potential changes at the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing medical education levels are considered, in order to help physicians both to embrace their roles as patients and also better serve their colleagues who are under their care. PMID:24823487
Musculoskeletal injuries caused by patient lifting and transfers are a concern to health care workers. The Safe Patient Handling Act calls for all health care organizations to move to mechanical assistance from previous manual methods of transfers. This research analyzed two different educational programs that addressed safe patient handling for…
Agneta Björck Linné; Hans Liedholm
BACKGROUND: Disease-management programmes including patient education have promoted improvement in outcome for patients with heart failure. However, there is sparse evidence concerning which component is essential for success, and very little is known regarding the validity of methods or material used for the education. METHODS: Effects of standard information to heart failure patients given prior to discharge from hospital were
Shah, Shaival S.; Lutfiyya, May Nawal; McCullough, Joel Emery; Henley, Eric; Zeitz, Howard Jerome; Lipsky, Martin S.
Patient education in asthma management is important; however, there is little known about the characteristics of patients receiving asthma education or how often primary care physicians provide it. The objective of the study was to identify the characteristics of patients receiving asthma education. It was a cross-sectional study using 2001…
The research objective was to study 1) the situation and readiness of the Thai education for the integration of nanotechnology and 2) to propose the plans, the strategies and guidelines for educational reform to adapt nanotechnology to the system. The data collection was done by 4 methods: 1) documentary study, 2) observation, 3) informal interviews, and 4) group discussion. The findings revealed that: 1. William Wresch's Theory (1997) was used in this research to study of the situation and readiness of the Thai education for the integration of nanotechnology. 1) Getting connected to nanotechnology by search engine websites, libraries, magazines, books, and discussions with experts. 2) Curriculum integration: nanotechnology should be integrated in many branches of engineering, such as industrial, computer, civil, chemical, electrical, mechanical, etc. 3) Resources for educators: nanotechnology knowledge should be spread in academic circles by publications and the Internet websites. 4) Training and professional resources for teachers: Teachers should be trained by experts in nanotechnology and researchers from the National Nanotechnology Center. This will help trainees get correct knowledge, comprehension, and awareness in order to apply to their professions and businesses in the future. 2. As for the plans, the strategies, and guidelines for educational reform to adapt nanotechnology to the present system, I analyzed the world nanotechnology situation that might have an effect on Thai society. The study is based on the National Plan to Develop Nanotechnology. The goal of this plan is to develop nanotechnology to be the national strategy within 10 years (2004-2013) and have it integrated into the Thai system. There are 4 parts in this plan: 1) nanomaterials, 2) nanoelectronics, 3) nanobiotechnology, and 4) human resources development. Data for human resource development should be worked with the present technology and use the country's resources to produce many products of nanotechnology, such as 1) handicrafts, decorations, and gifts, 2) agricultural products and food, 3) beverages, such as alcoholic and non- alcoholic drinks, and 5) textiles.
LUPTON, DANIEL E.
RESEARCH (1) ANALYZED SPECIFIC OUTCOMES OF COUNSELING, INSTRUCTION, AND DENTAL THERAPY, AND (2) DETERMINED THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF PATIENT EDUCATION FOR RELIEF OF TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT (TMJ) DYSFUNCTION. SIXTY ADULT PATIENTS ATTENDING THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS TMJ RESEARCH CENTER WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO ONE OF THREE PROGRAMS--DENTISTRY,…
Jang, Soo Min; Cerulli, Jennifer; Grabe, Darren W.; Fox, Chester; Vassalotti, Joseph A.; Prokopienko, Alexander J.
Introduction Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently associated with community-acquired acute kidney injury (AKI), a strong risk factor for development and progression of chronic kidney disease. Using access to prescription medication profiles, pharmacists can identify patients at high risk for NSAID-induced AKI. The primary objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of a community pharmacy–based patient education program on patient knowledge of NSAID-associated renal safety concerns. Methods Patients receiving prescription medications for hypertension or diabetes mellitus were invited to participate in an educational program on the risks of NSAID use. A patient knowledge questionnaire (PKQ) consisting of 5 questions scored from 1 to 5 was completed before and after the intervention. Information was collected on age, race, sex, and frequency of NSAID use. Results A total of 152 participants (60% women) completed both the pre- and post-intervention questionnaire; average age was 54.6 (standard deviation [SD], 17.5). Mean pre-intervention PKQ score was 3.3 (SD, 1.4), and post-intervention score was 4.6 (SD, 0.9) (P = .002). Participants rated program usefulness (1 = not useful to 5 = extremely useful) as 4.2 (SD, 1.0). In addition, 48% reported current NSAID use and 67% reported that the program encouraged them to limit their use. Conclusion NSAID use was common among patients at high risk for AKI. A brief educational intervention in a community pharmacy improved patient knowledge on NSAID-associated risks. Pharmacists practicing in the community can partner with primary care providers in the medical home model to educate patients at risk for AKI. PMID:25523351
Finlay, Vidya; Davidoss, Nishant; Lei, Cory; Huangfu, Juhui; Burrows, Sally; Edgar, Dale Wesley; Rea, Suzanne; Wood, Fiona M
Patient involvement is an important component of burn care and is necessary to produce good outcomes. Patient education using multimedia resources is useful in facilitating self-management and recovery from burn injury. The study aims to provide and evaluate an instructional DVD to assist burn patients with their self-management. The project was divided into three phases: 1) research about the needs of patients, 2) production of the DVD based on those needs, and 3) evaluation of the effectiveness of the DVD. In phase III, 49 burn patients (73% male; median age 32 years, median TBSA 3%) completed a survey on confidence in their burn care before development of an educational DVD, the results of which were compared with those of 55 burn patients (58% male; median age 35 years, median TBSA 3%) who completed the same survey questions after viewing a burn care DVD. Patient confidence in all self-management activities showed a statistically significant improvement (P < .01). An instructional burns DVD improves confidence in self-management of patients who have not been admitted to hospital and is a useful adjunct to current burn practice. PMID:22210066
Distance education is an alternative method for delivering academic course work to students unable to attend traditional campus-based classes. This Digest presents information on the many forms of distance education and keys to successful teaching with distance education. Distance education is a method of education in which the learner is…
U?ur, Esra; Demir, Hulya; Akbal, Elif
Objective: Diabetic management process requires nurses with expert knowledge and patient care skills. This study was carried out to identify nurses’ diabetic care approaches and their post graduate education needs in order to develop a “Basic Diabetes Patient Care Education Program” in a university hospital in Turkey. Methods: The descriptive study, using the survey technique, was carried out in a university hospital with 87 bedside nurses who were caring for diabetic patients. Investigators developed data collection tool consisting of closed ended questions and opportunities for open-ended responses. Results: Among the 87 nurses, 88.5% were staff nurses, and 11.5% were nurse managers. The mean age was 27.41 ± 4.82 and years of professional experience was 6.86 ± 4.23. The 41.4% of nurses stated that they were caring for 1-2 patients with diabetes per week and 72.4% of nurses stated that they had attended an educational session about diabetes after graduation. The 95.4% of nurses reported a need for a continuous education program for diabetes patient care. Medication regimen (69.0%) and special care applications such as wound care (54.0%) were the most needed educational requirements. There were no difference in educational needs based on basic education or years of professional experience (p>0.05). Conclusions: Nurses caring for patients with diabetes should be supported by orientation, in-service education and continuing education programs. Additionally, the placement of patient care courses for chronic diseases, like diabetes, into the core curriculum of nursing schools would be useful in responding to actual patient care and family needs. PMID:26150859
Carson, Susan M; Martin, Marie B
Chronic blood transfusion is the only treatment for severe anemia in patients with ?-thalassemia major. However, red blood cell transfusions lead to iron overload and subsequent organ damage because of the toxic effects of iron. The heart is particularly vulnerable to iron toxicity, and heart failure is the leading cause of death among these patients. Iron chelation therapy prevents or reverses iron loading, thereby reducing the risk of complications from excess iron. Serum ferritin and liver iron concentration often are used to gauge the risk of organ iron overload, but these measurements may not correlate well with cardiac iron load. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive diagnostic tool that can provide a more direct measure of iron concentration in both the heart and liver. Cardiac iron determined by MRI is expressed as a function of T2*, in which higher values represent lower concentrations. Changes in T2* are used to assess the effectiveness of iron chelation and to adjust therapy. Early treatment and compliance are keys to successful therapy. Nursing strategies to optimize chelation therapy include identifying patients who are at risk for developing organ damage, developing chelation plans, promoting compliance, and educating patients. The efficacy and safety of iron chelators, as well as nursing best practices, are reviewed. PMID:24476732
Yucel, Gamze M. A.; Cavkaytar, Atilla
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a parent education program on parents' awareness about the Independent Autistic Children Education Centre (ACEC: in Turkish OCEM). The program was offered through a distance education program. Participants of the study included parents of 72 children with autism who were receiving…
Jason P. Seacat; Marita Rohr Inglehart
This study investigated dental and dental hygiene students' a) perceptions of their education about treating patients with HIV infections\\/AIDS, b) knowledge of universal precautions, c) attitudes towards treating these patients and patients perceived to be at risk for HIV infections, and d) evaluations of potential curricular activities such as discussion groups with HIV-infected patients. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires
Haugland, Trude; Veenstra, Marijke; Vatn, Morten H.; Wahl, Astrid K.
The purpose of the study was to evaluate changes in general self-efficacy, health related quality of life (HRQoL), and stress among patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET) following a multidisciplinary educational intervention. Forty-one patients were enrolled in this exploratory pilot study. A total of 37 patients completed the full 26-week intervention based on the principles of self-efficacy. General self-efficacy was measured by the General Self-Efficacy Scale, HRQoL was measured with the SF-36, and stress was measured with the Impact of Event Scale. Mixed effect models were used to evaluate changes in general self-efficacy, mental and physical components of HRQoL, and stress adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. Results showed significant improvements in patients' general self-efficacy (? = 0.71; P < 0.05), physical component scores of HRQoL (? = 3.09; P < 0.01), and stress (? = ?2.10, P = 0.008). Findings suggest that patients with NET have the capacity to improve their ability to cope with their disease, problem-solve, improve their physical status, and reduce their stress following an educational intervention based on the principles of self-efficacy. These preliminary data provide a basis for future randomized controlled trials to test interventions to improve HRQoL for patients with NET. PMID:23738063
Knowles, Asa S.
Cooperative education, the combination of periods of on-campus classroom instruction with periods of off-campus experience, is particularly well suited to the needs of minority students in higher education. At a traditional four-year college, minority students are inclined to confine their associations to their own members, both on campus and at…
Lavender, Peter; Godding, Bernard
British government proposals for community care of psychiatric patients require a response from adult educators about the need for learning opportunities both inside and outside institutions for people with mental health problems. (SK)
Objective: To evaluate the benefits of using computer-based interventions to provide patient education to individuals with hypertension. Methods: MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, ERIC, EMBASE, and PsychINFO were searched from 1995 to April 2009 using keywords related to "computers," "hypertension," "education," and "clinical trial." Additional…
Issaka, Ayuba; Hopkins, Liza
Children and young people with chronic health conditions are at greater risk of school absence and poorer educational achievement than their healthy peers. A range of strategies are implemented in home, school and hospital settings to improve the connection of these children and young people to their educational pathways, yet gaps in provision…
McIntyre, D. John, Ed.; Byrd, David M., Ed.
This yearbook addresses the nation's need to train and retain good teachers, exploring exemplary practices in teacher education. There are four sections divided into 12 chapters. The book begins with a forward, "Research on Effective Models for Teacher Education: Powerful Teacher Education Programs" (E.M. Guyton). Section 1, "Models for Enhancing…
Raphaela Schlicht; Isabelle Stadelmann-Steffen; Markus Freitag
Since the publication of the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), scholarly interest in analysing the effectiveness and performance of education policy has risen again. The present article follows this path and presents the first empirical evaluation of the influence of national education policies on educational inequality in the European Union member states. We examine whether the availability of
A structural model is proposed in which parents affect their children directly through their education and earnings, and indirectly through inherited ability to earn and learn. By taking account of inherited ability the causal effect of parental outcomes for education and earnings upon the education and earnings of their children is identified. A generated regressor methodology is used to estimate
Harry A. Sackey
This study uses cross-sectional data from the 1992 and 1999 Ghana living standards surveys to examine the effects of parental education and household resources on the education of children. The results show that parental education and household resources exert positive impacts on children's school attendance. While parental schooling impact appears to have fallen over time, the impact of school quality
Hare, Peter; Thomas, Harold
Examines experiences of an English language teaching project at the Inner Mongolia Teacher University (China). Considers the effect of higher education reform processes on teacher education at Inner Mongolia. Presents these reforms in context of international trends in higher education over the past decade and more specific reforms happening in…
Land, Warren A.; Land, Elizabeth R.
This study was directed toward determining the effect on National Teacher Education (NTE) Test Scores of changing a professional undergraduate educational program, and exploring whether there is a specific significant difference between the use of a traditional undergraduate professional educational program and a modified undergraduate…
Jansà, Margarida; Murillo, Serafin; Vidal, Mercè
This article includes an introduction to the current approach to dietary treatment of diabetes. Are provided the nutritional recommendations to primary secondary and tertiary prevention of diabetes, as recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) adapted to different types of diabetes, treatments and special situations. Secondly, it introduces the concept of Therapeutic Education, especially education and nutritional diet for persons with diabetes and their families, the educational objectives in food according to type of diabetes type 1 or type 2 in different treatment modalities and educational strategies recommended by the Diabetes Education Study Group (wear) of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) to facilitate better adherence to dietary treatment. PMID:21776930
Garcia, Federico E.; Joy, Ernest H.; Reese, David L.
The Navy's Voluntary Education (VOLED) program provides off-duty sailors seeking to enhance their professional and personal growth with educational opportunities integrating various continuing education. VOLED's four major components are tuition assistance, the Program for Afloat College Education (PACE), academic skills learning centers, and…
Lewin, Keith; And Others
Because of world-wide economic problems, less developed countries have less money to spend for education and are more interested in the correlation between greater education and development goals. Research on the relationships between education and productivity in the agricultural, modern, and urban sectors and education and income distribution…
THE EFFECT OF FERTILITY LEVELS ON THE EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT OF CHILDREN IN UGANDA Tara Roach fertility levels and the educational attainment of children in Uganda. It seeks to address whether or not lower fertility rates increase the amount of education a child receives, while controlling for other
Cristina Conati; Maria Klawe
We describe preliminary research on devising intelligent agents that can improve the educational effectiveness of collaborative, educational computer games. We illustrate how these agents can overcome some of the shortcomings of educational games by explicitly monitoring how students interact with the games, by modeling both the students' cognitive and emotional states, and by generating calibrated interventions to trigger constructive reasoning
Joshua D. Angrist
The majority of armed forces veterans make use of the subsidized training and educational benefits provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs. The effect of veterans benefits on educational attainment am civilian earnings is estimated here using the Census Bureau's 1987 Survey of Veterans. Two identification strategies are employed to control for unobserved characteristics that are correlated with educational attainment
Savard, William G.; Cotton, Kathleen
The paper summarizes some educational research findings regarding effective schooling practices. Only those findings which have particular impact on educational program planners in the field of migrant education are discussed. These findings pertain to the following issues: class size, group size, ability grouping, parent participation in…
Bylund, Carma L.; D'Agostino, Thomas A.; Ho, Evelyn Y.; Chewning, Betty A.
In recent years, communication education has been used as a means of improving the clinician-patient relationship and promoting health. The focus of these interventions has primarily centered on clinician training. An area that has received less focus, although equally important, is training patients to be good communicators. The purpose of the…
Eisenberg, John M.
Increased attention to medical errors and patient safety highlights the importance of quality improvement in continuing medical education. Ways to enhance quality include informatics, clinical practice guidelines, learning from opinion leaders and patients, learning organizations, and just-in-time and point-of-care delivery of continuing…
Frenette, Jacques; Sindon, Andre; Jacques, Andre; Lalonde, Viateur; Belisle, Claude
A continuing medical education course on the physician-patient relationship used on such topics as patient-centered interviews. A majority of 406 respondents (including 205 in a follow-up survey) were using what they learned in practice. Additional workshops on issues of intimacy and difficult relationships were developed. (SK)
Feleta L. Wilson; Barbara N. Williams
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the readability of written patient education materials used to teach patients about the prevention and care of skin and pressure ulcers. Other design characteristics of the materials including organization, writing style, appearance, and appeal also were assessed. Design: This study used a nonexperimental, descriptive design. Setting and Stimulus Materials: Ten pamphlets
To determine current practices in the disposal and handling of home medical care (HMC) waste, a questionnaire was mailed to 1965 offices nationwide. Of the office that responded, 1283 offices were analyzed. Offices were classified by management configuration: those attached to hospitals were classified as "attached offices" and others as "independent offices". More nurses from attached offices recovered medical waste from patients' homes than those from independent offices. Most nurses educated their patients on how to store HMC waste in their homes (79.3% of total) and on how to separate HMC waste (76.5% of total). On the other hand, only around half of nurses (47.3% from attached offices and 53.2% from independent offices) educated their patients on where to dispose of their HMC waste. 66.0% of offices replied that patients had separated their waste appropriately. The need for patient education has emerged in recent years, with education for nurses under the diverse conditions of HMC being a key factor in patient education. PMID:24814769
Thompson, Deryn Lee; Thompson, Murray John
Aims A discussion on the reasons educational interventions about eczema, by nurses, are successful, with the subsequent development of a theoretical framework to guide nurses to become effective patient educators. Background Effective child and parent education is the key to successful self-management of eczema. When diagnosed, children and parents should learn to understand the condition through clear explanations, seeing treatment demonstrations and have ongoing support to learn practical skills to control eczema. Dermatology nurses provide these services, but no one has proposed a framework of the concepts underpinning their successful eczema educational interventions. Design A discussion paper. Data Sources A literature search of online databases was undertaken utilizing terms ‘eczema OR atopic dermatitis’, ‘education’, ‘parent’, ‘nurs*’, ‘framework’, ‘knowledge’, motivation’, in Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, Medline and Pubmed. Limits were English language and 2003–2013. Implications for Nursing The framework can inform discussion on child and parent education, provide a scaffold for future research and guide non-specialist nurses, internationally, in providing consistent patient education about eczema. Conclusion Founded on an understanding of knowledge, the framework utilizes essential elements of cognitive psychology and social cognitive theory leading to successful self-management of eczema. This framework may prove useful as a basis for future research in child and parent education, globally, in the healthcare community. A framework has been created to help nurses understand the essential elements of the learning processes at the foundation of effective child and parent education. The framework serves to explain the improved outcomes reported in previous nurse-led eczema educational interventions. PMID:25312442
Williams, Summer L; Haskard, Kelly B; DiMatteo, M Robin
There is growing evidence that the outcomes of health care for seniors are dependent not only upon patients’ physical health status and the administration of care for their biomedical needs, but also upon care for patients’ psychosocial needs and attention to their social, economic, cultural, and psychological vulnerabilities. Even when older patients have appropriate access to medical services, they also need effective and empathic communication as an essential part of their treatment. Older patients who are socially isolated, emotionally vulnerable, and economically disadvantaged are particularly in need of the social, emotional, and practical support that sensitive provider-patient communication can provide. In this review paper, we examine the complexities of communication between physicians and their older patients, and consider some of the particular challenges that manifest in providers’ interactions with their older patients, particularly those who are socially isolated, suffering from depression, or of minority status or low income. This review offers guidelines for improved physician-older patient communication in medical practice, and examines interventions to coordinate care for older patients on multiple dimensions of a biopsychosocial model of health care. PMID:18044195
J. M. Donovan; K. Von Bergmann; K. D. R. Setchell; J. Isaacsohn; A. S. Pappu; D. R. Illingworth; T. Olson; S. K. Burke
Colesevelam HCl is a potent bile acid–binding polymer. This study's aim was to determine effects of colesevelam HCl on sterol and bile acid excretion in patients with type IIa hypercholesterolemia. Twenty-four patients (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 130 to 220 mg\\/dL) enrolled in an open-label, parallel-design study, entered an American Heart Association\\/National Cholesterol Education Program diet for 6 weeks and were randomized
Weller, Jennifer; Boyd, Matt; Cumin, David
Modern healthcare is delivered by multidisciplinary, distributed healthcare teams who rely on effective teamwork and communication to ensure effective and safe patient care. However, we know that there is an unacceptable rate of unintended patient harm, and much of this is attributed to failures in communication between health professionals. The extensive literature on teams has identified shared mental models, mutual respect and trust and closed-loop communication as the underpinning conditions required for effective teams. However, a number of challenges exist in the healthcare environment. We explore these in a framework of educational, psychological and organisational challenges to the development of effective healthcare teams. Educational interventions can promote a better understanding of the principles of teamwork, help staff understand each other's roles and perspectives, and help develop specific communication strategies, but may not be sufficient on their own. Psychological barriers, such as professional silos and hierarchies, and organisational barriers such as geographically distributed teams, can increase the chance of communication failures with the potential for patient harm. We propose a seven-step plan to overcome the barriers to effective team communication that incorporates education, psychological and organisational strategies. Recent evidence suggests that improvement in teamwork in healthcare can lead to significant gains in patient safety, measured against efficiency of care, complication rate and mortality. Interventions to improve teamwork in healthcare may be the next major advance in patient outcomes. PMID:24398594
Wong, Leslie P.; Yamamoto, Kalani T.; Reddy, Vijay; Cobb, Denise; Chamberlin, Alice; Pham, Hien; Sun, Sumi J.; Mallareddy, Madhavi; Saldivar, Miguel
? Background and Objectives: Peritoneal dialysis catheter (PDC) complications are an important barrier to peritoneal dialysis (PD) utilization. Practice guidelines for PDC placement exist, but it is unknown if these recommendations are followed. We performed a quality improvement study to investigate this issue. ? Methods: A prospective observational study involving 46 new patients at a regional US PD center was performed in collaboration with a nephrology fellowship program. Patients completed a questionnaire derived from the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) catheter guidelines and were followed for early complications. ? Results: Approximately 30% of patients reported not being evaluated for hernias, not being asked to visualize their exit site, or not receiving catheter location marking before placement. After insertion, 20% of patients reported not being given instructions for follow-up care, and 46% reported not being taught the warning signs of PDC infection. Directions to manage constipation (57%), immobilize the PDC (68%), or leave the dressing undisturbed (61%) after insertion were not consistently reported. Nearly 40% of patients reported that their PDC education was inadequate. In 41% of patients, a complication developed, with 30% of patients experiencing a catheter or exit-site problem, 11% developing infection, 13% needing PDC revision, and 11% requiring unplanned transfer to hemodialysis because of catheter-related problems. ? Conclusions: There were numerous deviations from the ISPD guidelines for PDC placement in the community. Patient satisfaction with education was suboptimal, and complications were frequent. Improving patient education and care coordination for PDC placement were identified as specific quality improvement needs. PMID:23818002
Banja, John D.
This essay examines ethical considerations in the nurse patient relationship, in particular the relationship between "professional morality" and the nurse's professional identity in the role of advocate for doctors, patients, and hospitals. A discussion of ethics and professionals explores professional ethics, the need for such ethics, and their…
B. P. M. CREEMERS; L. KYRIAKIDES
This chapter attempts to make a contribution to knowledge and theory building in the field of school improvement in relation to educational effectiveness research. It refers to a dynamic perspective of educational effectiveness and improvement stressing the importance of using an evidence-based and theory-driven approach. Specifically, an approach to school improvement based on the work done in relation to the
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
This manual is the result of a regional training workshop on the cost-effectiveness of different training strategies in population education by Unesco in Kathmandu, Nepal, June 1-8, 1987. The purpose of the manual is to enable project staff to initiate studies to determine cost-effective training strategies in population growth control education.…
Ovsiannikov, A. A.; Monakhov, S. V.
A system of education is a unique social institution, the purpose of which is to develop and multiply human capital. Based on the education system it is possible to judge the situation in the country and society not only at the present time but also in the future. A system of education also should be seen as an ideological institution: it produces…
Physicians' ability to effectively and compassionately communicate information is key to a successful patient-physician relationship. The current health care environment demands increasing clinical productivity and affords less time with each patient, which can impede effective patient-physician communication. The use of patient-centered interviewing, caring communication skills, and shared decision making improves patient-physician communication. Involving advanced practice nurses or physician assistants may improve the patient's experience and understanding of her visit. Electronic communication with established patients also can enhance the patient experience in select situations. PMID:24451677
Schirmer, Barbara R.
The study assessed how well the field of teacher education in special education is preparing the next generation of teacher educators to be stewards of the discipline by exploring the particular case of deaf education. Assuming that preparing doctoral graduates who are able to conduct valuable and quality research requires mentoring by faculty who…
Monninkhof, Evelyn; van der Aa, Maaike; van der Valk, Paul; van der Palen, Job; Zielhuis, Gerhard; Koning, Karen; Pieterse, Marcel
The COPE self-management programme, including a self-management education course, self-treatment of exacerbations and a fitness programme, appeared to have no significant effect on health related quality of life (HRQoL) as measured by the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). This is in contrast to our hypothesis and despite expressions of satisfaction of patients to healthcare workers. To understand this discrepancy, a qualitative study was performed. A purposive sample of 20 participants of the COPE self-management programme were interviewed at home using in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed verbatim and analysed according grounded theory. The fitness programme was most positively evaluated by patients due to the perceived increase of exercise capacity and the social aspect of the group training. Major effects gained by the self-management education course reported by patients were the skills to evenly distribute their energy and to listen to their body signals. Most patients thought favourable about self-treatment of exacerbations. The possibility to start early, not having to call a doctor and autonomy were raised as important advantages. Furthermore, several patients reported increased self-confidence and coping behaviour as important effects of the COPE programme. Finally, many patients reported feeling safe due to the frequent follow-up visits and 24h access to the hospital, and this aspect elicited to be very important. In this study, the qualitative interviews suggest that the SGRQ and possibly other existing HRQoL instruments might fail to capture the full experience of patients in self-management studies. The need for more elaborate qualitative research on this subject is indicated. PMID:15530752
Levy, M; Ferrand, P; Chirat, V
SESAM-DIABETE is an interactive educational expert system that provides personalized advice and therapeutic recommendations for insulin-requiring diabetic patients. Because of its sophisticated explanation facilities, this system is intended to complete the more traditional educational tools for diabetic patients. It has been developed using an original essential expert system, namely SESAM, itself implemented in an upper-layer of Lisp, MBX. Its control structure uses a top-down strategy to solve a problem; i.e., it decomposes the current problem into subproblems easier to solve, this method being recursively applied to each subproblem. All information about patients is kept in a Patient Medical Record, which allows their follow-up. This system is currently available from their home for selected patients through the French telematic network TELETEL and is under clinical evaluation. PMID:2776447
Hérault, Nicolas; Zakirova, Rezida
This paper contributes to the literature by separately analysing the course enrolment and completion effects of vocational education and training (VET) as well as higher education. Moreover, we investigate the persistence of these wage effects over time while controlling for two potential selection biases. We take advantage of the Longitudinal…
Wang, Victor C. X.
As adult learners and educators pioneer the use of technology in the new century, attention has been focused on developing strategic approaches to effectively integrate adult learning and technology in different learning environments. "Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches" provides innovative…
The purpose of this paper was to identify the characteristics and history of online education, to examine research on the effectiveness of online learning, and to note the principles and practices indicated for maximizing the effectiveness of online learning. Leading articles and studies on online education were identified and examined for this…
Brand, Judith; Köpke, Sascha; Kasper, Jürgen; Rahn, Anne; Backhus, Imke; Poettgen, Jana; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Siemonsen, Susanne; Heesen, Christoph
Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a key diagnostic and monitoring tool in multiple sclerosis (MS) management. However, many scientific uncertainties, especially concerning correlates to impairment and prognosis remain. Little is known about MS patients' experiences, knowledge, attitudes, and unmet information needs concerning MRI. Methods We performed qualitative interviews (n?=?5) and a survey (n?=?104) with MS patients regarding MRI patient information, and basic MRI knowledge. Based on these findings an interactive training program of 2 hours was developed and piloted in n?=?26 patients. Results Interview analyses showed that patients often feel lost in the MRI scanner and left alone with MRI results and images while 90% of patients in the survey expressed a high interest in MRI education. Knowledge on MRI issues was fair with some important knowledge gaps. Major information interests were relevance of lesions as well as the prognostic and diagnostic value of MRI results. The education program was highly appreciated and resulted in a substantial knowledge increase. Patients reported that, based on the program, they felt more competent to engage in encounters with their physicians. Conclusion This work strongly supports the further development of an evidence-based MRI education program for MS patients to enhance participation in health-care. PMID:25415501
Brand, Jennie E.
American educational leaders and philosophers have long valued schooling for its role in preparing the nation’s youth to be civically engaged citizens. Numerous studies have found a positive relationship between education and subsequent civic participation. However, little is known about possible variation in effects by selection into higher education, a critical omission considering education’s expressed role as a key mechanism for integrating disadvantaged individuals into civic life. I disaggregate effects and examine whether civic returns to higher education are largest for disadvantaged low likelihood or advantaged high likelihood college goers. I find evidence for significant effect heterogeneity: civic returns to college are greatest among individuals who have a low likelihood for college completion. Returns decrease as the propensity for college increases. PMID:22223924
Westrick, Salisa C.; Teeter, Benjamin S.; Stevenson, T. Lynn
Objective. To evaluate the impact of the Salt Education Program for hypertensive adults on student pharmacists' knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes regarding sodium consumption. Design. As part of the introductory pharmacy practice experience program in community pharmacies, student pharmacists assessed patients' sodium intake knowledge and behaviors, taught them how to read nutrition labels, and obtained information about their hypertensive conditions. Students completed pre-and post-intervention questionnaires in April and August 2012, respectively. Assessment. One hundred thirty student pharmacists (70% female, 78% white) completed pre- and post-intervention questionnaires. Students demonstrated significant improvements in knowledge scores (p<0.001) and perceived benefit of a low-salt diet (p=0.004). Further, there were significant improvements in the self-reported frequency of looking at sodium content of foods when shopping (p<0.001) and purchasing low-salt foods (p=0.004). Conclusion. Changes in students' knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes after participating in the Salt Education program suggested that the program was effective in improving student knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes. PMID:24249861
Common myths about nutrition education and care of cancer patients are debunked and realities are discussed. First, frequently held misconceptions of nonspecialized health professionals are considered. These include the myths that diet change in the population will be rapid now that dietary guidelines to prevent cancer have been issued; nutrition education is best relegated to the dietitian for cancer patients; patients do not need nutritional advice until treatment is actually in progress, and then only rarely while they are hospitalized; nutrition education needs taper off once consolidation or intermittent therapy begins and cease entirely with survival of 5 or more years; and nutrition education of the family usually can be ignored. Next, common myths which many patients and their families subscribe to are discussed. These myths include the following: by following the cancer prevention dietary guidelines, protection against cancer is guaranteed; if only the victim had eaten differently, the cancer never would have developed; cancer prevention dietary guidelines also should be followed in the nutritional support of cancer patients; cancer patients can rely on their appetites and hidden hungers to stay in good nutritional balance; special diets can cure cancer; all cancer anorexia can now be reversed by following proper diet; children who have cancer should neither be fed nor can they eat diets similar to those fed to other children at that age; special nutritional support measures such as tube feeding and total parenteral nutrition are only useful for those younger than 65 years; and there is no sense in paying attention to the nutrition of cancer patients in hospices because they are going to die anyway. It is concluded that nutrition education can enhance quality of life, for the patient and his family, throughout his illness and after his recovery. PMID:3756810
Cornelia M Ruland
ObjectiveWhile preference elicitation techniques have been effective in helping patients make decisions consistent with their preferences, little is known about whether information about patient preferences affects clinicians in clinical decision making and improves patient outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a decision support system for eliciting elderly patients' preferences for self-care capability and providing this information to
Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Persky, Susan; McCall, Cade; Lachance, Christina; Loewenstein, Johanna; Beall, Andrew C.; Blascovich, Jim
Objective Applying genetic susceptibility information to improve health will likely require educating patients about abstract concepts, for which there is little existing research. This experimental study examined the effect of learning mode on comprehension of a genomic concept. Methods 156 individuals aged 18–40 without specialized knowledge were randomly assigned to either a virtual reality active learning or didactic learning condition. The outcome was comprehension (recall, transfer, mental models). Results Change in recall was greater for didactic learning than active learning (p<0.001). Mean transfer and change in mental models were also higher for didactic learning (p<0.0001 and p<0.05, respectively). Believability was higher for didactic learning (p<0.05), while ratings for motivation (p<0.05), interest (p<0.0001), and enjoyment (p<0.0001) were higher for active learning, but these variables did not mediate the association between learning mode and comprehension. Conclusion These results show that learning mode affects comprehension, but additional research is needed regarding how and in what contexts different approaches are best for educating patients about abstract concepts. Practice implications Didactic, interpersonal health education approaches may be more effective than interactive games in educating patients about abstract, unfamiliar concepts. These findings indicate the importance of traditional health education approaches in emerging areas like genomics. PMID:19409749
Lin, I. K.; Bray, B. E.; Smith, J. A.; Lange, L. L.
Patients often desire more information about their conditions than they receive during a physician office visit. To address the patient's information needs, a touchscreen information kiosk was implemented. Results from the first prototype identified interface, security, and technical issues. Misspelling of search terms was identified as the most observable cause of search failure. An experimental remote control assistance feature was added in the second prototype. The feature allowed a medical librarian to provide real-time remote help during searches by taking control of the patient's computer. Remote assistance improved patient satisfaction, increased ease of use, and raised document retrieval rate (86.7% vs. 56.7%). Both patients and librarians found the application useful. Reasons included its convenience and flexibility, opportunity for direct patient contact, ability to teach through direct demonstration, and complementing the librarian's role as an information gateway. The project demonstrated the feasibility of applying remote control technology to patient education. PMID:11825214
Rosentreter, Michael; Groß, Dominik; Schäfer, Gereon
Since the summer term 2009 the study project „Patientensicherheit – Der klinische Umgang mit Patienten- und Eingriffsverwechslungen sowie Medikationsfehlern“ (Patient Safety – the clinical handling of patients – and mistaking of procedures as well as medication errors) is offered within the Modellstudiengang Medizin. Seminars on patient safety in Germany so far mainly address trained doctors and health economists. In contrast, this study project on patient safety should at an early stage contribute to a “culture of discussing and preventing mistakes” – an aspect that is little established in clinical medicine, but also in medical training. For this purpose, a broad variety of courses was developed, which – relying on problem-oriented learning – enables the students to analyse so-called adverse events (AE) and develop adequate prevention measures on the basis of the insights gained by this analysis. Therefore, theoretical lessons are complemented by discussing prototypical clinical cases. These discussions are moderated by experienced clinicians. After completing the seminar, students showed a significant increase (comparison of means) in the self-assessed qualifications „Wissen zu Patientensicherheit“ (Knowledge of Patient Safety) and „Wahrnehmung von Risikosituationen“ (Appreciation of Risk Situations). All in all, the students rated their training success with a grade of 1.5 (good). PMID:21818227
Moonaghi, Hossein Karimi; Hasanzadeh, Farzaneh; Shamsoddini, Somayyeh; Emamimoghadam, Zahra; Ebrahimzadeh, Saeed
Introduction: Adherence to diet and fluids is the cornerstone of patients undergoing hemodialysis. By informing hemodialysis patients we can help them have a proper diet and reduce mortality and complications of toxins. Face to face education is one of the most common methods of training in health care system. But advantages of video- based education are being simple and cost-effective, although this method is virtual. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five hemodialysis patients were divided randomly into face to face and video-based education groups. A training manual was designed based on Orem’s self-care model. Content of training manual was same in both the groups. In the face to face group, 2 educational sessions were accomplished during dialysis with a 1-week time interval. In the video-based education group, a produced film, separated to 2 episodes was presented during dialysis with a 1-week time interval. An Attitude questionnaire was completed as a pretest and at the end of weeks 2 and 4. SPSS software version 11.5 was used for analysis. Results: Attitudes about fluid and diet adherence at the end of weeks 2 and 4 are not significantly different in face to face or video-based education groups. The patients’ attitude had a significant difference in face to face group between the 3 study phases (pre-, 2, and 4 weeks postintervention). The same results were obtained in 3 phases of video-based education group. Conclusion: Our findings showed that video-based education could be as effective as face to face method. It is recommended that more investment be devoted to video-based education. PMID:23853648
White, C B
The role of age and education in adult moral reasoning was examined utilizing Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental stage theory of moral development and the most recent Standard Scoring System for assessing moral judgments. Individual interviews utilizing standard Kohlberg moral dilemmas were conducted with 195 adults ranging in age from nineteen to eight-two years and in years of education from three to twenty-five years. Results indicated no overall significant effect for age of reasoner, no significant effect for sex, and a significant effect for education (p less than .01). However, the effect of age was significant in the group with eighteen or more years of education, but not in the group with less than eighteen years of education. PMID:3246457
Yousuf, Muhammad Imran
The main aim of this research is to better understand and measure students' attitudes and perceptions towards the importance of mobile learning in distance education. Results of this survey clearly indicate that facilitating mobile learning can improve the entire distance education by enhancing ways of communication among distance learners, tutors…
Ronald E. Anderson
Before making recommendations for national policy priorities, it is fundamental to assess why these actions should be taken. In the first working session of the Task Group on National Educational Computing Policy Alternatives a discussion took place toward identifying assumptions about underlying values for education and computers. While a total consensus was never attained within the group, there was general
Arbogast, Gary; Chandler, Judy P.
All teachers desire to keep their students on task and focused on meeting lesson objectives. Classroom management, perhaps the most critical factor involved in a lesson's success, includes several considerations. In this article, the authors, who are physical education teacher educators themselves, discuss the five management practices, which they…
Explores implementation and the change process in relation to "The Quiet Evolution: Changing the Face of Arts Education," which assesses the six regional institutes that receive multiyear funding from the Getty Education Institute for the Arts. Stresses that the report illustrates the importance of designing and documenting implementation…
Kafka, James J.; Griffith, William S.
This study was conducted to investigate the aspects of residential adult education that might account for differences among the participants in residential programs. An analysis of the claims advanced by advocates of residential adult education led to the identification of three factors that appeared to account for the alleged superiority of this…
The research objective was to study 1) the situation and readiness of the Thai education for the integration of nanotechnology and 2) to propose the plans, the strategies and guidelines for educational reform to adapt nanotechnology to the system. The data collection was done by 4 methods: 1) documentary study, 2) observation, 3) informal interviews, and 4) group discussion. The
Tomkowiak, John; Gunderson, Anne
In response to aging patient demographics and a call for increased formal geriatric training in medical schools, a community volunteer geriatric mentor program, Bridging Generations, was developed to shape attitudes of medical students caring for the elderly. The geriatric mentor experience provided students with unique insight into the challenges…
The purpose of this study was to investigate advocacy influences that may impact school arts programs using data from the 2009-10 National Center for Education Statistics elementary and secondary school surveys on arts education. Regression models were employed to assess the relative effectiveness of variables representing community support,…
Jackson, Chavon L.
The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent a teacher education program prepares teacher candidates to be effective urban educators who are reflective, innovative, and committed to diversity based on the perceptions and insight from students. As the nation grapples with an extreme range of outputs from our public schools, an…
Murano, Isamu; Asakawa, Yasutsugu; Mizukami, Masafumi; Takihara, Jun; Shimizu, Kaoru; Imai, Taihei
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to understand the factors involved in increasing physical activity levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients for improved glycemic control. [Subjects] The subjects were 101 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who had completed an inpatient diabetes education program. [Methods] The survey evaluated physical activity levels on the basis of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a questionnaire listing physical and psychosocial factors. [Results] Four variables—participation or non-participation in farm work, presence or absence of a job, stage of change in attitude toward exercise behavior, and social support—accounted for 34% of physical activity levels in these diabetes mellitus patients. The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient between physical activity level and HbA1c was ?0.31. [Conclusion] Intervention in terms of practical use of living environments, promotion of exercise behavior, and social support may be effective in helping to improve glycemic control. PMID:24926134
Peter A Gearhart; Richard Wuerz; A. Russell Localio
Study objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of helicopter EMS for trauma patients. Methods: We applied a cost-effectiveness analysis from the service provider's perspective to cost and effectiveness estimates. The cost estimates comprise direct operating costs and additional survivors' hospital costs. The effectiveness estimates were calculated with the TRISS methodology from literature sources and data from a cohort of patients transported
Yilmaz, Arzu; Haag, Martin
Assessments deliver information about the knowledge level of a student. Formative assessments' main purposes are to identify student's weaknesses and strengths, and support educators in the planning process of their instruction. In this paper a graphical user interface concept is presented to provide feedback with the aid of the editing results of medical students, who train with Virtual Patient, which is a computer-based simulation of patient care. PMID:24825696
Halkett, Georgia; Meng, Xingqiong; Pillai, Vinita; Berg, Melissa; Shaw, Tim
Background Men who have been treated for prostate cancer in Australia can consult their general practitioner (GP) for advice about symptoms or side effects at any time following treatment. However, there is no evidence that such men are consistently advised by GPs and patients experience substantial unmet need for reassurance and advice. Objective The intent of the study was to evaluate a brief, email-based educational program for GPs to manage standardized patients presenting with symptoms or side effects months or years after prostate cancer treatment. Methods GPs viewed six pairs of video vignettes of actor-patients depicting men who had been treated for prostate cancer. The actor-patients presented problems that were attributable to the treatment of cancer. In Phase 1, GPs indicated their diagnosis and stated if they would prescribe, refer, or order tests based on that diagnosis. These responses were compared to the management decisions for those vignettes as recommended by a team of experts in prostate cancer. After Phase 1, all the GPs were invited to participate in an email-based education program (Spaced Education) focused on prostate cancer. Participants received feedback and could compare their progress and their performance with other participants in the study. In Phase 2, all GPs, regardless of whether they had completed the program, were invited to view another set of six video vignettes with men presenting similar problems to Phase 1. They again offered a diagnosis and stated if they would prescribe, refer, or order tests based on that diagnosis. Results In total, 64 general practitioners participated in the project, 57 GPs participated in Phase 1, and 45 in Phase 2. The Phase 1 education program was completed by 38 of the 57 (59%) participants. There were no significant differences in demographics between those who completed the program and those who did not. Factors determining whether management of cases was consistent with expert opinion were number of sessions worked per week (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.67-0.90), site of clinical practice (remote practice, OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.01-5.03), number of patients seen per week (150 patients or more per week, OR 10.66, 95% CI 3.40-33.48), and type of case viewed. Completion of the Spaced Education did impact whether patient management was consistent with expert opinion (not completed, OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.5-1.56). Conclusions The management of standardized patients by GPs was particularly unlikely to be consistent with expert opinion in the management of impotence and bony metastasis. There was no evidence from this standardized patient study that Spaced Education had an impact on the management of patients in this context. However, the program was not completed by all participants. Practitioners with a greater clinical load were more likely to manage cases as per expert opinion. PMID:24571952
Cooley, Mary E.
This article, jointly created by authors Mary E. Cooley, Helene Moriarty and Thomas H. Short, describes a dataset on the readability of American Cancer Society and National Cancer Institute pamphlets about cancer. This tests are designed to test whether the reading levels of these patients are high enough to comprehend this literature. Students should be familiar with scales of measurement, data reduction, measuring center, constructing and interpreting displays, and reaching conclusions in real problems.
Zuckerman, Marni; Fink, Wanda; Hu, Peter; Yang, Shiming; Fink, Jeffrey C.
Summary Background and objectives Web-based technology is critical to the future of healthcare. As part of the Safe Kidney Care cohort study evaluating patient safety in CKD, this study determined how effectively a representative sample of patients with CKD or family members could interpret and use the Safe Kidney Care website (www.safekidneycare.org), an informational website on safety in CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Between November of 2011 and January of 2012, persons with CKD or their family members underwent formal usability testing administered by a single interviewer with a second recording observer. Each participant was independently provided a list of 21 tasks to complete, with each task rated as either easily completed/noncritical error or critical error (user cannot complete the task without significant interviewer intervention). Results Twelve participants completed formal usability testing. Median completion time for all tasks was 17.5 minutes (range=10–44 minutes). In total, 10 participants had greater than or equal to one critical error. There were 55 critical errors in 252 tasks (22%), with the highest proportion of critical errors occurring when participants were asked to find information on treatments that may damage kidneys, find the website on the internet, increase font size, and scroll to the bottom of the webpage. Participants were generally satisfied with the content and usability of the website. Conclusions Web-based educational materials for patients with CKD should target a wide range of computer literacy levels and anticipate variability in competency in use of the computer and internet. PMID:22798537
Rahe, Julia; Liesk, Jennifer; Rosen, Jan B; Petrelli, Annette; Kaesberg, Stephanie; Onur, Oezguer A; Kessler, Josef; Fink, Gereon R; Kalbe, Elke
Cognitive training has been shown to be effective in improving cognitive functions in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). However, data on factors that may influence training gains including sociodemographic variables such as sex or age is rare. In this study, the impact of sex on cognitive training effects was examined in N = 32 age- and education-matched female (n = 16) and male (n = 16) amnestic MCI patients (total sample: age M = 74.97, SD = 5.21; education M = 13.50, SD = 3.11). Patients participated in a six-week multidomain cognitive training program including 12 sessions each 90 min twice weekly in mixed groups with both women and men. Various cognitive domains were assessed before and after the intervention. Despite comparable baseline performance in women and men, we found significant interaction effects Time × Sex in immediate (p = .04) and delayed verbal episodic memory (p= .045) as well as in working memory (p = .042) favoring the female MCI patients. In contrast, the overall analyses with the total sample did not reveal any significant within-subject effects Time. In conclusion, our results give preliminary evidence for stronger cognitive training improvements of female compared to male MCI patients. More generally, they emphasize the importance of sex-sensitive evaluations of cognitive training effects. Possible underlying mechanisms of the found sex differences are discussed and directions for future research are given. PMID:25818876
Patterson, Robert D.; Gurian, Bennett S.
A survey was conducted by a mental health center to evaluate the effects of a nursing home education project which attempted 1) to teach mental health professionals and nursing home staff how to set up in-service education programs in nursing homes, and 2) to teach nursing home staff mental health principles. (Author/EJT)
Over the period 1995-1998 Italy experienced an expansion of its higher education supply with the aim of reducing regional differences in educational attainment. This paper evaluates the effects of this policy on enrolment, drop out and academic performance. The paper combines differences across provinces in the number of campuses constructed with…
BACKGROUND: The main objective of this study was to determine the perceptions of Iranian nurse educators and students regarding the evaluation of teaching effectiveness in university-based programs. METHODS: An exploratory descriptive design was employed. 143 nurse educators in nursing faculties from the three universities in Tehran, 40 undergraduate, and 30 graduate students from Tehran University composed the study sample. In
Eccleston, Stuart T.
Successful inclusion is directly related to collaboration success between the special education specialist and the general classroom teacher. The role of the special educator has undergone steady change ever since students with exceptionalities were intentionally included in regular classrooms. This role now requires effective collaborative…
Diana L. Bonate; John C. Jessell
The effect of educational intervention upon perceptions of sexual harassment was investigated. Also investigated was whether gender differences in perceptions would be altered by educational intervention. Participants were 51 female and 45 male undergraduates (36% Caucasian, 31% Asian, 17% Hispanic, 14% African American, 2% unspecified) randomly assigned to three groups: one group viewed a video of vignettes about sexual harassment;
Mary P. Endres; Merry J. Evans
The effects of a parent education program on knowledge, atti tudes, and overt behavior of parents and self-concepts of their children were studied. Three randomized groups of fourth grade children and their respective parents comprised the experimental, placebo, and control groups. After the parents in the experimental group received parent education, several types of data were ob tained. Analyses of
Boulet, Marie-Michele; Boudreault, Serge; Guerette, Louis
Presents an analysis of the learning outcomes pertaining to one unit of the undergraduate television distance-education course, Information Technology, in the computer science program at University Laval (Quebec, Canada). Investigates the relative effects of television distance education versus tradition classroom teaching on learning…
Bishop, John H.; Wobmann, Ludger
This paper presents a model of educational production that tries to make sense of recent evidence on effects of institutional arrangements on student performance. In a simple principal-agent framework, students choose their learning effort to maximize their net benefits, while the government chooses educational spending to maximize its net…
In this case study, the process of nutritional diagnosis and intervention conducted at a hospital on a malnourished patient who underwent treatment for a chronic illness (chemotherapy for cancer treatment) was recorded. The patient received his first round of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer, and then a second round after the cancer metastasized to the liver. The patient was malnourished and had experienced weight loss (17% loss in the most recent 3 months) due to side effects of chemotherapy including stomatitis, nausea, and vomiting. Nutritional diagnosis and intervention via the nutrition care process were implemented through two screening rounds, and the quantity of oral intake increased from 28% to 62% of the recommended daily intake. The patient required continuous monitoring and outpatient care after hospital discharge. It is speculated that if a more active patient education and dietary regimen with respect to chemotherapy side effects had been offered after the patient's first chemotherapy cycle, it might have been possible to treat ingestion problems due to stomatitis during the second cycle of chemotherapy and prevent the weight loss. Henceforth, patients receiving chemotherapy should be educated about nutrition management methods and monitored continuously to prevent malnutrition. PMID:25713794
Sikes, Derek S.
, effective practitioners" EDSE 632: Special Education Law: Principles and Practices Summer 2013 Credits: 3 Merrill/Prentice Hall. This textbook was selected because of its currency, efficient writing style from the professionals' perspective (vs. parent). Additional website, supplemental text
Siddique, Haamid H; Olson, Raymond H; Parenti, Connie M; Rector, Thomas S; Caldwell, Michael; Dewan, Naresh A; Rice, Kathryn L
Background: Most interventions aimed at reducing hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have employed resource-intense programs in high-risk individuals. Although COPD is a progressive disease, little is known about the effectiveness of proactive interventions aimed at preventing hospitalizations and ED visits in the much larger population of low-risk (no known COPD-related hospitalizations or ED visits in the prior year) patients, some of whom will eventually become high-risk. Methods: We tested the effect of a simple educational and self-efficacy intervention (n = 2243) versus usual care (n = 2182) on COPD/breathing-related ED visits and hospitalizations in a randomized study of low-risk patients at three Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers in the upper Midwest. Administrative data was used to track VA admissions and ED visits. A patient survey was used to determine health-related events outside the VA. Results: Rates of COPD-related VA hospitalizations in the education and usual care group were not significantly different (3.4 versus 3.6 admissions per 100 person-years, respectively; 95% CI of difference ?1.3 to 1.0, P = 0.77). The much higher patient-reported rates of non-VA hospitalizations for breathing-related problems were lower in the education group (14.0 versus 19.0 per 100 person-years; 95% CI ?8.6 to ?1.4, P = 0.006). Rates of COPD-related VA ED visits were not significantly different (6.8 versus 5.3; 95% CI ?0.1 to 3.0, P = 0.07), nor were non-VA ED visits (32.4 versus 36.5; 95% CI ?9.3 to 1.1, P = 0.12). All-cause VA admission and ED rates did not differ. Mortality rates (6.9 versus 8.3 per 100 person-years, respectively; 95% CI ?3.0 to 0.4, P = 0.13) did not differ. Conclusion: An educational intervention that is practical for large numbers of low-risk patients with COPD may reduce the rate of breathing-related hospitalizations. Further research that more closely tracks hospitalizations to non-VA facilities is needed to confirm this finding. PMID:23118535
Compton, David A.; Whitehead, Michael B.
Much is written about the availability of healthcare services among elements of the U.S. population, with a large proportion of the literature focusing on access. Although physical access is an overarching issue for many, educators must remember that a key factor in providing complete and competent healthcare is to understand the patient and any…
King, Judy; Taylor, Maurice C.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how Canadian adults living with limited literacy and chronic illness made meaning of their patient education experiences. The study used a hermeneutic phenomenological research design and employed three data sources over a nine-month period. Data was interpreted and analyzed as it was collected,…
Sexual Assault Victim Care Options Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Reviewed 8/2012 Page 1 of 1 Sexual Assault Victim Care Options- Points to help Penn State students make to address risk of pregnancy, sexually transmitted infection, involuntary drugging or injuries related
BED BUGS Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Revised 02/12/2014 Page 1 of 1 Bed bugs, trains, and other areas where a large number of people may sleep. Signs of bed bugs include: Bite marks after being bitten. Bed bug exoskeletons after molting, Bed bugs found in mattress and sheet folds
Stoll, Scott T.; Russo, David P.; Atchison, James W.
In a survey of 165 physicians and 166 patients, the majority felt that manual medicine (musculoskeletal manipulation) was safe, beneficial, and appropriate in primary care. Only 40% of physicians had relevant training; 56% were willing to pay to acquire appropriate continuing education credits. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)
Barker, L. Randol
Most of the 23 European providers of continuing medical education (CME) surveyed reported programming on the doctor-patient relationship and psychosocial issues. Visits to programs in France, the Netherlands, and Spain identified the formats used most often in small group instruction, intensive individual learning, and national-level CME. (SK)
Tension Headaches Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Page 1 of 2 Reviewed 04/11/12 The two most common types are: Tension headaches Tension headaches cause pressure or tightness on both sides of the head. Migraine headaches Migraine headaches often start off mild and then get worse
The Pill Birth Control for Women Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Page 1 of 2 Revised 9/14/11 The birth control pill is a combined hormonal contraceptive containing two hormones use another birth control method while on these medications and for 7 days after completing them
--blister and loss of the top layer of skin 3rd degree--damaging the entire skin layer #12;Wound Care ApprovedWound Care Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Page 1 of 2 Reviewed 2/08/12 Wounds can the healing occurs. Guidelines for Wound Care Keep the area clean and dry unless instructed to do otherwise
Atack, Lynda; Luke, Robert
Objective: While access to health education information has become easier, the quality of information retrieved from the Internet varies considerably. In response to the need for accessible, quality health information that is tailored to meet individual patient needs, a patient education website, called PEPTalk, was developed. The site houses text…
Background There is a need for educational tools in the consenting process of otolaryngology-head and neck procedures. A development strategy for the creation of educational tools in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, particularly pamphlets on the peri-operative period in an adenotonsillectomy, is described. Methods A participatory design approach, which engages key stakeholders in the development of an educational tool, is used. Pamphlets were created through a review of traditional and grey literature and then reviewed by a community expert in the field. The pamphlets were then reviewed by an interdisciplinary team including educational experts, and finally by less vulnerable members of the target population. Questionnaires evaluating the pamphlets’ content, layout, style, and general qualitative features were included. Results The pamphlets yielded high ratings across all domains regardless of patient population. General feedback was provided by a non-vulnerable patient population and final pamphlets were drafted. Conclusions By using a participatory design model, the pamphlets are written at an appropriate educational level to incorporate a broad audience. Furthermore, this methodology can be used in future resource development of educational tools. PMID:25022351
Ha, In Sook; Lee, Seung Il; Cha, Eun Jong; Lee, Tae Soo
This paper analyzed the effect of a smartphone application in Taekwondo Academy. The iPhone app was self-developed to display Taekwondo education contents for Poomsae training. From the viewpoint of education, reregistration and recommendation effect, it showed statistically significant difference in 196 trainee sample survey. Therefore, the research suggest that the use of smartphone technology in Poomsae education would be a great help to the trainee for the acquisition of Taekwondo knowledge and make a great contribution to the growth of Taekwondo. PMID:22255527
This article is an analysis of a cancer patient education programme run by cosmetic companies. I focus on an analysis of imagery, arguing that there are particular discursive elements that the cosmetic companies use in order to make productive the relationship between femininity and cancer. I contextualize this education programme by presenting the controversies regarding cosmetics as they relate to the growth of breast tumours. In doing so, I conclude that conversations and questions about a link between chemicals and cancer are subverted by both ;horror' narratives of cancer and the provocative use of standards of beauty. Such discursive dominance in patient education programmes makes it difficult to engage in a more public understanding of cancer growth as affected by cosmetic chemicals. PMID:19103716
Sweet, John, Ed.; Huttly, Sharon, Ed.; Taylor, Ian, Ed.
This collection of papers includes: (1) "Opportunities in Medical, Dental and Veterinary (MDV) Educational Development" (John Sweet); (2) "Culture, Collegiality, and Collaborative Learning" (George Brown, Madeline Rohin, and Michael Manogue); (3) "Communication Skills: On Being Patient-Centered" (Jeff Wilson); (4) "Curriculum" (John Sweet); (5)…
Harvey J. Sugerman; Eric J. DeMaria; John M. Kellum; Elizabeth L. Sugerman; Jill G. Meador; Luke G. Wolfe
Objective: Evaluate the safety and efficacy of bariatric surgery in older patients. Background: Because of an increased morbidity in older patients who may not be as active as younger individuals, there remain concerns that they may not tolerate the operation well or lose adequate amounts of weight. Methods: The database of patients who had undergone bariatric surgery since 1980 and
Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B.; Scholting, Patty; Cawley, James F.
Introduction Health education provided to patients can reduce mortality and morbidity of chronic disease. Although some studies describe the provision of health education by physicians, few studies have examined how physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners differ in the provision of health education. The objective of our study was to evaluate the rate of health education provision by physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners/certified midwives. Methods We analyzed 5 years of data (2005–2009) from the outpatient department subset of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. We abstracted data on 136,432 adult patient visits for the following chronic conditions: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), depression, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and obesity. Results Health education was not routinely provided to patients who had a chronic condition. The percentage of patients who received education on their chronic condition ranged from 13.0% (patients with COPD or asthma who were provided education on smoking cessation by nurse practitioners) to 42.2% (patients with diabetes or obesity who were provided education on exercise by physician assistants). For all conditions assessed, rates of health education were higher among physician assistants and nurse practitioners than among physicians. Conclusion Physician assistants and nurse practitioners provided health education to patients with chronic illness more regularly than did physicians, although none of the 3 types of clinicians routinely provided health education. Possible explanations include training differences, differing roles within a clinic by provider type, or increased clinical demands on physicians. More research is needed to understand the causes of these differences and potential opportunities to increase the delivery of condition-specific education to patients. PMID:24602587
Banks, Sarah J; Obuchowski, Nancy; Shin, Wanyong; Lowe, Mark; Phillips, Michael; Modic, Michael; Bernick, Charles
Education has a protective effect against cognitive deficits following various forms of brain insult. Professional fighting (boxing and mixed martial arts) provides a model for assessing the impact of cumulative brain injuries on cognition and brain health. In the current cross-sectional observational study, we explore whether education would be protective against cognitive loss in fighters. We tested 141 professional fighters using a computerized neurocognitive battery, in addition to structural MRI. We used automated segmentation software to compute the volumes of various brain structures. We found fighters with high school education or less to show more associations between fight exposure and cognitive test scores. The relationship between brain structure volume and exposure did not differ based on education. These results are interpreted as putatively showing a protective effect of education on functional integrity in fighters, although longitudinal data and a larger sample size are required to further understand this relationship. PMID:24191967
Wong, Brian M
A commonly held belief is that education and training are weak interventions that have limited success on their own in improving system reliability, clinical processes and, ultimately, patient safety and healthcare quality (Caffazzo and St-Cyr 2012). Yet, for emerging fields such as patient safety and quality improvement (PS/QI), one should not underestimate the importance of educating frontline staff in the fundamentals of these disciplines. For most healthcare institutions, there is a major bandwidth problem when it comes to PS/QI work, which acts as a critical barrier to accelerating change and improving patient safety and healthcare quality. Too few people are relied on to solve all of the institution's safety and quality problems. PMID:25344612
J P Halsey; N Cardoe
Out of 300 patients who had taken benoxaprofen for a mean of 6.4 months, 196 (65.3%) reported side effects, resulting in 104 patients (34.6%) having the drug withdrawn. Out of 42 patients aged over 70, 35 (83.3%) had side effects and 29 (69.0%) had the drug withdrawn because of them. cutaneous side effects accounted for 180 (69.5%) of all 259
C. L. Silverman; H. Palkes; B. Talent; E. Kovnar; J. W. Clouse; Prm Thomas
Nine long-term survivors of cerebellar medulloblastoma treated with surgery and irradiation were retrospectively examined with a complete battery of neuropsychological tests and the results compared with their nonirradiated siblings. Significant decreased scores were found in the full-scale intelligence quotients (IQ), performance IQ, and verbal IQ with all nine irradiated patients scoring below their siblings. Also, educational quotients (EQ) of the
Huang, Li-Chi; Ma, Wei-Fen; Li, Tsai-Chung; Liang, Yia-Wun; Tsai, Li-Yun; Chang, Fy-Uan
Falls are known to be one of the most common in patient adverse events. A high incidence of falls was reported on patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a participatory program on patient's knowledge and self-efficacy of fall prevention and fall incidence in an oncology ward. In this quasi-experimental study, 68 participants were recruited at a medical centre in Taiwan. A 20-min fall prevention program was given to patients. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the effectiveness of program after on day 3 of intervention. The data of fall incidence rates were collected from hospital record. Fall incidences with and without the program were used to compare the effectiveness of intervention. The patients' knowledge and self-efficacy of fall prevention are better than after intervention. A statistically significant difference in fall incidence rate was observed with (0.0%) and without (19.3%) the program. Our findings suggest that the fact of the bedside is that the most risk for falling in hospital must be communicated to the hospitalized patients. Educating patients about fall prevention and activities associated with falling increases their awareness of the potential of falling and promoting patient safety. PMID:25492057
Fenerty, Sarah D; West, Cameron; Davis, Scott A; Kaplan, Sebastian G; Feldman, Steven R
Background Patient adherence is an important component of the treatment of chronic disease. An understanding of patient adherence and its modulating factors is necessary to correctly interpret treatment efficacy and barriers to therapeutic success. Purpose This meta-analysis aims to systematically review published randomized controlled trials of reminder interventions to assist patient adherence to prescribed medications. Methods A Medline search was performed for randomized controlled trials published between 1968 and June 2011, which studied the effect of reminder-based interventions on adherence to self-administered daily medications. Results Eleven published randomized controlled trials were found between 1999 and 2009 which measured adherence to a daily medication in a group receiving reminder interventions compared to controls receiving no reminders. Medication adherence was measured as the number of doses taken compared to the number prescribed within a set period of time. Meta- analysis showed a statistically significant increase in adherence in groups receiving a reminder intervention compared to controls (66.61% versus 54.71%, 95% CI for mean: 0.8% to 22.4%). Self-reported and electronically monitored adherence rates did not significantly differ (68.04% versus 63.67%, P = 1.0). Eight of eleven studies showed a statistically significant increase in adherence for at least one of the reminder group arms compared to the control groups receiving no reminder intervention. Limitations The data are limited by imperfect measures of adherence due to variability in data collection methods. It is also likely that concomitant educational efforts in the study populations, such as instructions regarding proper administration and importance of correct dosing schedules, contributed to improved patient adherence, both in reminder and control arms. The search strategy could have missed relevant studies which were categorized by disease rather than adherence. Conclusions Reminder-based interventions may improve adherence to daily medications. However, the interventions used in these studies, which included reminder phone calls, text messages, pagers, interactive voice response systems, videotelephone calls, and programmed electronic audiovisual reminder devices, are impractical for widespread implementation, and their efficacy may be optimized when combined with alternative adherence-modifying strategies. More practical reminder-based interventions should be assessed to determine their value in improving patient adherence and treatment outcomes. PMID:22379363
Sahebalzamani, Mohammad; Zamiri, Maryam; Rashvand, Farnoosh
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and progressive disease of the central nervous system with debilitating symptoms and complications. Therefore, education and appropriate interventions, including self-care education, are necessary to increase the quality of life in these patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of self-care education on quality of life in MS patients affiliated to Iranian MS Association. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study assessed a single group of MS patients before and after training. Totally, 50 MS patients were selected non-randomly from the patients referring to Iranian MS Association. A two-part questionnaire was used to collect data. The first part included demographic information and the second part consisted of a quality of life questionnaire (MSQOL-54) including 54 items in 3 sections and 14 subgroups. The scores ranges from zero to a hundred in each subgroup. The reliability of the questionnaire has been confirmed (Cronbach's alpha = 0.96). The questionnaires were filled out by the patients before training. After at least six 50-minute training sessions during three months, the same questionnaire was again completed by the participants. Statistical analyses, including absolute and relative frequency tables and mean and standard deviation for descriptive analysis, and t-test and Pearson correlation for descriptive analysis, were performed by SPSS. Findings: The mean values of quality of life in physical health, pain, fatigue, health conception, changes in health status, sexual activities, as well as overall quality of life scores differed significantly after training. Moreover, except for cognitive activity, there were significant differences in values of mental health before and after training. Conclusions: Designing and applying the self-care programs based on the educational needs of MS patients has a positive effect on physical and psychological aspects of their quality of life. PMID:23493483
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Effectiveness of Health Education on Toxoplasma-Related Knowledge, Behavior, and Risk Appendix Key Words: congenital toxoplasmosis, prenatal care, health education, health promotion Word count the effectiveness of health education on toxoplasma-related knowledge, behavior, and risk of seroconversion
VERONICA THOMAS; MARGARET HEATH; DAVID ROSE; PETER FLORY
V. THOMAS, M. HEATH, D. ROSE AND P. FLORY Summary We have evaluated the level of state and trait anxiety, neuroticism, extroversion and coping style as predictors of the effectiveness of patient- controlled analgesia (PCA) in 110 patients under- going total abdominal hysterectomy. After operation patients were allocated to receive pain control with either PCA or im injections (IMI). Pain
) Avoid red products to prevent confusing red colored effects on vomit and diarrhea, from blood. When. Some examples of clear liquids are as follows: Water, ice chips, popsicles (not creamy) Weak tea Soup with noodles Cream of wheat/oatmeal (made with water) Avoid dairy products and meat for at least
Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Lang, Cecilia; Flensner, Gullvi
Objective Patient education plays an important role in the management of chronic diseases that can cause disability and predictable psychosocial problems. Quality of life assessment in multiple sclerosis (MS) has confirmed that psychosocial complications related to working life, marriage/partnership, and the family often occur. Furthermore, symptoms such as fatigue, pain, and sexual dysfunction have a great impact. We wanted to develop and implement study circles to promote the patients’ abilities to meet such common problems and to provide a network where they can be autonomous and develop appropriate strategies in self-care and existential problems. Methods Together with the MS patient organization and a study association, we have arranged study circles for patients with MS, thus providing structured information according to a pedagogic model. The patients are encouraged to work together in groups to learn about the disease and its key symptoms, to develop strategies to master these symptoms in everyday life, and to make necessary changes, ie, self-care management. The programme also contains handicap policies. Results Fifteen study circles with a total of 105 patients started during the first year. Fifteen circle leaders were approved. A focus interview showed that the patients are highly satisfied but also revealed some problems in interactions with health care professionals. The study circles were included in a wider project from a newly started multidisciplinary centre for health education for a variety of chronic diseases causing disability, which aims at becoming a regional interface between the health care system, patient organizations, and educational services. Conclusion The study circles have an important role to play in the management of MS. Good organization is required to make such a project work since health care services do not normally work so closely with patient organizations and educational services. Practice implications Study circles that are permanently established and function well are of great help for the patients and the work at the MS clinic is substantially facilitated. Health care professionals also gain from the arrangement by learning more about the self-perceived impact of the disease. PMID:19920967
Chester E. Finn Jr.
While it is a considerable over-simplification, I have found it useful to think in terms of four theories of action that I believe dominate the education-reform arena today. I think that two of these theories have some promise. Two of them do not, but we will nevertheless surely continue to use them. In the real world, we commonly find more
Collins, Dave; Bostock, Stephen J.
Discusses the use of computer conferencing in education; addresses difficulties involved in conferencing software, including computer literacy, the communications technology, the conferencing interface, integration with other software, and limitations on access; and describes FICS (Friendly Interface to Conferencing System) that was developed at…
M. E. Thomson; Rossouw Von Solms
This article investigates the evolution of computing, with specific reference to the security issues involved. These issues are then taken further to determine the need for education in the workplace through an information security awareness program. Techniques borrowed from the field of social psychology, which have been largely ignored in current awareness programs, are highlighted in order to show how
The Digit Span test is one of the most commonly used measures of immediate verbal recall, attentional capacity, and working memory in neuropsychological research and clinical evaluations. This test comprises two modalities, digits forward and digits backward. It has been established that age, education, and culture are important variables that affect performance on this test. The purposes of this study
Millions of Americans use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies, often in the absence of scientific evidence\\u000a of their safety and effectiveness and, in many cases, with-out including a medical professional in the decision-making process\\u000a (1). Depending on how broadly one defines it, between 36 and 62% of the US population now relies on some form of CAM (2). Although
Kuriata, Mark A.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if delivery of wound care instruction pre-Mohs micrographic surgery versus the typical, post-Mohs surgery would allow for greater patient retention. Design: A non-blinded, randomized, controlled trial receiving institutional review board exemption from Michigan State University was conducted over a three-month period. Patients scheduled for Mohs surgery on 13 selected days were randomized into pre- versus post-procedure groups to receive wound care education. Setting: This study was conducted at a dermatology practice in Saint Joseph, Michigan. Participants: Fifty cognitive and literate patients greater than 18 years of age were evaluated in this study. Measurements: Participants’ ability to recall instructions delivered by a Mohs surgeon in the form of digital media was assessed by a 10-question, multiple-choice exam. Additional analyses were conducted on patient’s disposition around medical professionals, past experience with Mohs surgery, preference for digital media versus human instruction, and desire for home access. Results: Pre- (n=24; score=77±14%) versus post-(n=26; 83±11%) procedure education displayed no significant difference (p=0.13) in overall questionnaire performance. Seventy-four percent of participants preferred video delivery as opposed to provider instruction. Thirty-four percent reported being intimidated by healthcare workers. Participant performance showed no significant change (p=0.78) with previous exposure (79±19%) to Mohs surgery versus a first-time encounter (80±11%). Conclusion: Video education prior to or post-Mohs surgery serves as an effective mechanism for patient education and improvement of time management in clinical practice. PMID:24765229
Markowski, Alycia; Hickey, Mary; Hayward, Lorna
Purpose: Standardized patients (SP) in Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) curricula are increasingly used for students to practice developing clinical reasoning, communication, and professional skills in an authentic learning environment. The purposes of this article are to: (1) describe an instructional model that synthesized SPs, Internet-based communities of practice, and reflection to teach clinical reasoning in DPT students; and (2) a cardiovascular and pulmonary physical therapy (CPPT) instructor's perspective on the educational process and student clinical skill development. Summary of Key Points: The model, employed in a course: “Integrative Physical Therapy Practice,” enabled the instructor to document student clinical performance and reasoning during an SP interaction. For students, clinical reasoning was illuminated through the model's assessment process. Data collected through the assessment process provided important feedback to the instructor on classroom instructional effectiveness. Conclusions: Examination of student learning experiences enabled the instructor to consider: (1) key aspects of examination and management for persons with cardiovascular or pulmonary disorders, (2) methods for visualizing clinical reasoning, (3) the impact of teaching on student learning, and (4) strategies for teaching CPPT. More research is indicated to investigate pedagogy for the development of clinical reasoning in DPT students. PMID:21886477
The National Science Foundation requires that grantees make an effort to extend the reach of academic research to communities beyond the laboratory and address the work's possible ``Broader Impacts'' to society. NSF CAREER awards and many of the NSF Research Center grant solicitations are even more explicit, requiring that grantees craft educational initiatives that are based in best practices, bring the academic research to the broader community, and positively impact the pipeline of students pursuing science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education and careers. For new faculty, and even veteran faculty, these requirements for creative educational initiatives that significantly affect a community outside the confines of the laboratory can be very daunting. This presentation addresses how to design an effective educational plan that incorporates K-12 educational outreach, that will have a real impact on the target audience, and that can realistically be accomplished by a science faculty member.
Andersson, Yvonne; Ekdahl, Karl
Reptiles have become increasingly common as domestic pets, and with them reptile-associated Salmonella infections in humans. From 1990 to 2000, a total of 339 reptile-associated Salmonella cases were reported in Sweden. In 1996, as part of its efforts to adapt its import regulations to those of the European Union, Sweden no longer required certificates stating that imported animals were free of Salmonella. A subsequent increase was noted in the incidence of reptile-associated cases from 0.15/100,000 in the period 1990–1994 to 0.79/100,000 in 1996 and 1997. After a public education campaign directed toward the general public was begun through the news media, the incidence dropped to 0.46/100,000. Children were the most affected age group among patients (incidence 1.3/100,000). Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis was the most frequent serotype (24% of isolates), followed by S. Typhimurium (9% of isolates). Import restrictions and public information campaigns are effective public health measures against reptile-associated salmonellosis. PMID:15757554
Ali, Desta B; Tomek, Michal; Lisk, Durodami R
Epilepsy is associated with a significant burden of false beliefs and social stigma in the setting of Sub-Saharan Africa. To assess the impacts of epilepsy on child education in Sierra Leone (SL), we carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study examining its effects on school attendance, participation in physical activities, and social acceptance among classmates. We also assessed the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding epilepsy of both the children's caregivers and teachers. The data were collected at various epilepsy clinics and schools in Freetown, SL. A total of 50 patients were interviewed and questionnaires administered to their caregivers and teachers, making a total of 150 respondents. Fifty-one percent of the children were absent from school for >5 days per month. Ninety percent did not participate in games and sports, with the commonest reason being fear of occurrence of seizures. Thirty-six percent claimed having experienced negative attitude from their classmates. Regarding the caregivers, 48% believed that epilepsy was a medical illness, while 34% considered it a demonic manifestation. Forty-eight percent were apprehensive about sending their children to school, with 83% of these caregivers stating fear of seizures and potential injuries. Only 8% of the caregivers did not prevent their children from taking part in any physical activity at school. Regarding the teachers, 16% believed that epilepsy was a demonic manifestation, and 10% thought that it was contagious. Fourteen percent did not think that children with epilepsy should go to school, and 80% would prevent children with epilepsy from participating in games and sports. When faced with a child having a seizure, 48% would hold the child down, 12% would place a hard object in the child's mouth, and 12% would avoid any physical contact. In total, 20% of the children ceased attending school permanently; daily occurrence of seizures (p<0.05), negative attitude of classmates (p<0.001), and having an illiterate caregiver (p<0.02) all showed a significant association with permanent cessation of schooling. The study demonstrates significant negative impacts of epilepsy on child education. Notably, the reasons for permanent exclusion from school appear to be as much related to attitudes as to the medical aspects of the disease itself. The data thus highlight the need for educational programs to address the widely prevalent misconceptions among both caregivers and teachers. PMID:25108115
Background Technological advances have enabled the widespread use of video cases via web-streaming and online download as an educational medium. The use of real subjects to demonstrate acute pathology should aid the education of health care professionals. However, the methodology by which this effect may be tested is not clear. Methods We undertook a literature review of major databases, found relevant articles relevant to using patient video cases as educational interventions, extracted the methodologies used and assessed these methods for internal and construct validity. Results A review of 2532 abstracts revealed 23 studies meeting the inclusion criteria and a final review of 18 of relevance. Medical students were the most commonly studied group (10 articles) with a spread of learner satisfaction, knowledge and behaviour tested. Only two of the studies fulfilled defined criteria on achieving internal and construct validity. The heterogeneity of articles meant it was not possible to perform any meta-analysis. Conclusions Previous studies have not well classified which facet of training or educational outcome the study is aiming to explore and had poor internal and construct validity. Future research should aim to validate a particular outcome measure, preferably by reproducing previous work rather than adopting new methods. In particular cognitive processing enhancement, demonstrated in a number of the medical student studies, should be tested at a postgraduate level. PMID:23256787
Rice, Courtney R.
Scholars Thesis by COURTNEY RAE RICE OBSERVING HEALTHCARE INTERIOR ENVIRONMENTS AND THE EFFECT ON PATIENT BEHAVIOR OBSERVING HEALTHCARE INTERIOR ENVIRONMENTS AND THE EFFECT ON PATIENT BEHAVIOR Approved by: Research Advisor: Mark... as UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR A Senior Scholars Thesis by COURTNEY RAE RICE iii ABSTRACT Observing Healthcare Interior Environments and the Efect on Patient Behavior. (April 2010) Courtney Rae Rice Department of Architecture Texas A&M University...
Tamar Doliashvili; Diana Giorgadze; Elene Giorgadze; Ketevan Bochorishvili; Nana Tsagareli; Tea Ezugbaia
Nowadays for treatment of arterial hypertension a set of hypotensive drugs are available, however in case of obesity they are less effective. The aim of our investigation was study of monoxidin effect on metabolic disorders and detection of advantages of monoxidin administration in case of obese patients with the purpose of arterial pressure correction. Total of 30 patients with various
Evelyn Hello; Peer Scheepers; Mérove Gijsberts
Education is often found to be a strong determinant of ethnic pre judice. However, there is preliminary evidence that this educational effect varies across countries. Moreover, there are also theoretical arguments to expect cross-national variances in the educational effect on ethnic pre judice. From both a cultural and structural perspective, we set out to explain these cross-national variances in the
The methods and findings of studies of the effects and value of preschool education and compensatory education programs, such as Head Start, are reviewed. After introductory comments on ideological controversies and on terminology, section 1 focuses on evaluative studies of the immediate and long-term effects of preschool education and early…
Background The main objective of this study was to determine the perceptions of Iranian nurse educators and students regarding the evaluation of teaching effectiveness in university-based programs. Methods An exploratory descriptive design was employed. 143 nurse educators in nursing faculties from the three universities in Tehran, 40 undergraduate, and 30 graduate students from Tehran University composed the study sample. In addition, deans from the three nursing faculties were interviewed. A researcher-developed questionnaire was used to determine the perceptions of both faculty and students about evaluating the teaching effectiveness of nurse educators, and an interview guide was employed to elicit the views of deans of faculties of nursing regarding evaluation policies and procedures. Data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric statistics to identify similarities and differences in perceptions within the Iranian nurse educator group and the student group, and between these two groups of respondents. Results While faculty evaluation has always been a major part of university based nursing programs, faculty evaluation must be approached more analytically, objectively, and comprehensively to ensure that all nursing educators receive the fairest treatment possible and that the teaching-learning process is enhanced. Conclusion Educators and students stressed that systematic and continuous evaluation as well as staff development should be the primary goals for the faculty evaluation process. The ultimate goals is the improvement of teaching by nurse educators. PMID:16045808
Sheldon-Keller, A E; Lloyd-McGarvey, E; Canterbury, R J
Eighty-three consortia of institutions of higher education, organized under funding from the Fund for the Improvement of Post-Secondary Education (FIPSE) Drug Prevention Programs of the Department of Education, were surveyed to measure organizational effectiveness. Generalized satisfaction with the functioning of the consortia was related to the number of active members, the average miles traveled to meetings, satisfaction with performance of task functions, members' roles, the level of trust among members and the level of creativity and innovation in problem-solving. Satisfaction with goal attainment was significantly related to the presence of at least one "internal" goal for the consortium. PMID:7500226
Tuot, Delphine S; Davis, Elizabeth; Velasquez, Alexandra; Banerjee, Tanushree; Powe, Neil R
Background Awareness of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is suboptimal among patients with CKD, perhaps due to poor readability of patient education materials (PEMs). We reviewed the suitability and readability of common PEMs that focused on 5 content areas: basics of CKD, risk factors for CKD development, risk factors for CKD progression, complications of CKD and self-management strategies to improve kidney health. Methods Three reviewers (nephrologist, primary care physician, patient) used the Suitability Assessment of Materials to rate PEMs on message content/stimulation of learning, typography, visuals and layout and determined literacy level. Mean ratings were calculated for each PEM by content area and overall (Superior=70–100; Adequate=40–69; Inadequate=<40). Linear regression was used to determine the impact of literacy level on mean rating. Results We reviewed 69 PEMs from 19 organizations, divided into 113 content area sections. Most (79%) PEM sections were “Adequate” (mean rating, 58.3%). Inclusion of patient-centered content and opportunities for patient interaction were associated with “Superior” ratings. Mean ratings (SD) were similar across content areas: basics of CKD, 58.9% [9.1]; risk factors for CKD development, 57.0% [12.3]; risk factors for CKD progression, 58.5% [12.0]; CKD complications, 62.3% [15.7] and self-management strategies, 62.2% [12.3]. ? 6th grade literacy level (vs >6th grade) was associated with an 11.7 point higher mean rating. Conclusion Most PEMs for kidney disease were adequate. Outstanding PEMs shared characteristics of patient centeredness, a low literacy level, and patient interaction. Providers should be aware of strengths and limitations of PEMs when educating their patients about CKD. PMID:23970127
J. M. Donovan; K. Von Bergmann; K. D. R. Setchell; J. Isaacsohn; A. S. Pappu; D. R. Illingworth; T. Olson; S. K. Burke
Colesevelam HCl is a potent bile acid–binding polymer. This study's aim was to determine effects of colesevelam HCl on sterol\\u000a and bile acid excretion in patients with type IIa hypercholesterolemia. Twenty-four patients (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol,\\u000a 130 to 220 mg\\/dL) enrolled in an open-label, parallel-design study, entered an American Heart Association\\/National Cholesterol\\u000a Education Program diet for 6 weeks and were randomized
Background Ichthyoses are a heterogeneous group of rare genodermatoses. Patients and their families face difficulties related to daily care and management that may be aggravated by social isolation. Objectives To evaluate the impact of therapeutic educational programs in improving the knowledge of ichthyosis patients, and their relatives, about their disease. Patients and methods We organized a two sessions-program of “know-how” dedicated to the overall management of ichthyoses. These sessions were conducted based on a tool specifically designed for the study, which addressed our various areas of expertise through a collective game. The participants (patients and their parents and siblings) were divided into groups, and the questions were tailored according to the participants’ age. The program was conceived as a knowledge reinforcement program that took place during a weekend of education and rest, organized away from healthcare structures. Our aim was to facilitate the program in a neutral place to encourage respite care and to ensure the availability of a multidisciplinary healthcare team. Results After the reinforcement session, children aged from 6 to 12 years and their families acquired the targeted know-how and social skills. Conclusion Benefits of TPE in the management of ichthyoses are the following: (1) the trust between patients their families and the caregivers was strengthened; (2) the context of the program encouraged self-expression, answered questions and provided mutual aid; and (3) the more self-sufficient families could better manage emergencies. PMID:23902898
Health literacy links literacy skill level with the ability to understand health information and take control of one's health. People who have multiple sclerosis (MS) are bombarded with information on the disease and its prognosis, symptom management, and complex treatment options--information that is vital to self-management and quality of life. Approximately 50% of the people who have MS experience cognitive deficits, such as memory loss and a diminished capacity for learning, processing, and recalling information. By identifying and removing barriers to learning and building collaborative nurse-patient partnerships, nurses can make MS education meaningful for their patients. PMID:17069267
Introducing a fertility decision and child care cost into an overlapping generations model with public education and social\\u000a security, we examine the effects of these public policies on fertility. We show that an increase in income tax, which finances\\u000a social security benefits and public investment in education, increases fertility. On the other hand, with a constant tax rate,\\u000a a change
Kulik, James A.; And Others
This metaanalysis of 32 comparative studies shows that computer-based education has generally had positive effects on the achievement of elementary school pupils. However, these effects are different for off-line computer managed instruction and interactive computer assisted instruction (CAI); interactive CAI produces greater increases in student…
Thomas, Hywel; Qiu, Tian
Purpose: Within the context of policies on developing the workforce of the government health sector in England, this paper aims to investigate participation in work-related continuing education and training (WRCET), its pedagogy and effectiveness. Individual and organizational characteristics associated with effective WRCET are examined.…
Bertil Holmlund; Qian Liu; Oskar Nordström Skans
This paper estimates the effects on earnings of “gap years” between high school and university enrollment. The effect is estimated by means of standard earnings functions augmented to account for gap years and a rich set of control variables using administrative Swedish data. We find that postponement of higher education is associated with a persistent and non-trivial earnings penalty. The
Bertil Holmlund; Qian Liu; Oskar Nordström Skans
This paper estimates the effects on earnings of “gap years” between high school and university enrollment. The effect is estimated by means of standard earnings functions augmented to account for gap years and a rich set of control variables using administrative Swedish data. We find that postponement of higher education is associated with a persistent and non-trivial earnings penalty. The
Bertil Holmlund; Qian Liu; Oskar Nordström Skans
This paper estimates the effects on earnings of ‘gap years’ between high school and university enrollment. The effect is estimated by means of standard earnings functions augmented to account for gap years and a rich set of control variables using administrative Swedish data. We find that postponement of higher education is associated with a persistent and non-trivial earnings penalty. The
Abt, Clark C.
A look at cost-effectiveness as the major characteristic for which to develop a forecasting method, because it encompasses concerns of most educators. It indicates relative costs and relative effectiveness, and provides a rational basis for optimal resource allocation. (Author)
Mulder, Bob C; Lokhorst, Anne Marike; Rutten, Guy E H M; van Woerkum, Cees M J
Many type 2 diabetes mellitus patients have difficulties reaching optimal blood glucose control. With patients treated in primary care by nurses, nurse communication plays a pivotal role in supporting patient health. The twofold aim of the present review is to categorize common barriers to nurse-patient communication and to review potentially effective communication methods. Important communication barriers are lack of skills and self-efficacy, possibly because nurses work in a context where they have to perform biomedical examinations and then perform patient-centered counseling from a biopsychosocial approach. Training in patient-centered counseling does not seem helpful in overcoming this paradox. Rather, patient-centeredness should be regarded as a basic condition for counseling, whereby nurses and patients seek to cooperate and share responsibility based on trust. Nurses may be more successful when incorporating behavior change counseling based on psychological principles of self-regulation, for example, goal setting, incremental performance accomplishments, and action planning. PMID:24757047
Magnano San Lio, M; Mancinelli, S; Palombi, L; Buonomo, E; Altan, A Doro; Germano, P; Magid, N A; Pesaresi, A; Renzi, E; Scarcella, P; Zimba, I; Marazzi, M C
This study evaluates the effectiveness of a holistic model for treating people living with AIDS in Africa; the model aims to improve knowledge about AIDS prevention and care, increase trust in the health centre, impact behaviour, and promote a high level of adherence to HAART. The study took place in the context of the DREAM (Drug Resource Enhancement against AIDS and Malnutrition) programme in Mozambique, designed by the Community of Sant'Egidio to treat HIV patients in Africa. It provides patients with free anti-retroviral drugs, laboratory tests (including viral load), home care and nutritional support. This is a prospective study involving 531 patients over a 12-month period. The patients, predominantly poor and with a low level of education, demonstrated a good level of knowledge about AIDS (more than 90% know how it is transmitted) and trust in the treatment, with a relatively small percentage turning to traditional healers. Overall the patients had a low level of engaging in risky sexual behaviour and a very good level of adherence to HAART (69.5% of the 531 subjects had a pill count higher than 95%). The positive results of the programme's educational initiatives were confirmed with the patients' good clinical results. PMID:19171667
Francisca Azocar; Robert B. Branstrom
In a collaborative effort between a managed behavioral health organization, a health maintenance organization, and a state\\u000a employer, this pilot study tested the value of mailing a depression education flyer to primary care patients who were recently\\u000a prescribed antidepressant medications and an informational letter to their physician. The intervention, designed to improve\\u000a use of behavioral healthcare services and antidepressant medication
Katherine Nguyen; Arlene Fink; John C. Beck; Jerilyn Higa
Background: This study evaluated the feasibility of a combined alcohol-screening and health education system for elderly patients Methods: The Computerized Alcohol-Related Problems Survey (CARPS) was evaluated in primary care practices among 106 current drinkers, 60 years and older. The CARPS contains (1) a self-adminis- tered screening survey; (2) software to scan or hand-enter survey responses; (3) software to process data
Schwandt, Anita; Wood, Laura S; Rini, Brian; Dreicer, Robert
Advances in the understanding of the biology of renal cell carcinoma have led to recent approval of several new agents including drugs that target vascular endothelial growth factor. Sunitinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor which interferes with multiple intracellular tumorogenic pathways, and has demonstrated impressive antitumor activity in phase II and subsequently improvement in progression free survival in phase III renal cancer trials. We review the unique side effects of sunitinib therapy with emphasis on establishing effective patient education for anticipation and early management of therapy-related side effects. PMID:20616894
Sviggum, Cortney B.; O’Meara, John G.; Berg, Melody L.
Objective Appropriate calcium and vitamin D intake for the prevention of osteoporosis represents an important component of osteoporosis prevention education (OPE). We sought to assess the presence and quality of OPE among osteoporotic and at-risk inpatients. Design Prospective chart review plus cross-sectional interview Setting Single academic tertiary referral medical center in Rochester, MN. Participants Adults admitted to an inpatient medicine service who were determined to be at risk for osteoporosis based on an investigator-developed screening tool or previously diagnosed with osteoporosis. Four-hundred sixty-four patients were screened, 192 patients were approached for participation, and 150 patients consented to be interviewed for the study. Main Outcome Measures Source of OPE, rates of appropriate calcium intake and supplementation. Results OPE from a healthcare provider was reported by 31.3% of patients, with only one patient reporting education from a pharmacist. Self OPE and no OPE were received by 29.3% and 39.3% of patients, respectively. Appropriate overall calcium intake was found in 30.7% of patients, and only 21.3% of patients were taking an appropriate calcium salt. Conclusion Patients with osteoporosis and risk factors for osteoporosis lack adequate education from healthcare providers regarding appropriate intake of dietary and supplemental calcium and vitamin D. A particular deficit was noted in pharmacist-provided education. Specific education targeting elemental calcium amounts, salt selection, and vitamin D intake should be provided to increase the presence of appropriate overall calcium consumption. PMID:24413013
Louw, Adriaan; Diener, Ina
Background Recently a preoperative pain neuroscience education (NE) program was developed for lumbar surgery (LS) for radiculopathy as a means to decrease postoperative pain and disability. This study attempts to determine the short term effects, if any, of providing NE before surgery on patient outcomes. Methods A case series of 10 patients (female = 7) received preoperative one-on-one educational session by a physical therapist on the neuroscience of pain, accompanied by an evidence-based booklet, prior to LS for radiculopathy. Post-intervention data was gathered immediately after NE, as well as 1, 3 and 6 months following LS. Primary outcome measures were Pain Catastrophization Scale (PCS), forward flexion, straight leg raise (SLR) and beliefs regarding LS. Results Immediately following NE for LS for radiculopathy, all patients had lower PCS scores, with 5 patients exceeding the MDC score of 9.1 and 8 of the patients had PCS change scores exceeding the MDC by the 1, 3 and 6 month follow ups. Physical changes showed that fingertip-to-floor test in 6 patients had changes in beyond the MDC of 4.5 cm and 6 patients had changes in SLR beyond the MDC of 5.7°. The main finding, however, indicated a positive and more realistic shift in expectations regarding pain after the impending LS by all patients. Conclusions The results of the case series suggest that immediately after NE, patients scheduled for LS for radiculopathy had meaningful detectable changes in pain catastrophizing, fingertip-to-floor test, passive SLR and positive shifts in their beliefs about LS. PMID:26056626
Zarei, Ehsan; Daneshkohan, Abbas; Khabiri, Roghayeh; Arab, Mohammad
Background: The trust is meant the belief of the patient to the practitioner or the hospital based on the concept that the care provider seeks the best for the patient and will provide the suitable care and treatment for him/her. One of the main determinants of patient’s trust is the service quality. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effect of quality of services provided in private hospitals on the patient’s trust. Patients and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 969 patients were selected using the consecutive method from eight private general hospitals of Tehran, Iran, in 2010. Data were collected through a questionnaire containing 20 items (14 items for quality, 6 items for trust) and its validity and reliability were confirmed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate regression. Results: The mean score of patients' perception of trust was 3.80 and 4.01 for service quality. Approximately 38% of the variance in patient trust was explained by service quality dimensions. Quality of interaction and process (P < 0.001) were the strongest factors in predicting patient’s trust, but the quality of the environment had no significant effect on the patients' degree of trust. Conclusions: The interaction quality and process quality were the key determinants of patient’s trust in the private hospitals of Tehran. To enhance the patients' trust, quality improvement efforts should focus on service delivery aspects such as scheduling, timely and accurate doing of the service, and strengthening the interpersonal aspects of care and communication skills of doctors, nurses and staff. PMID:25763258
Miller, Maria; Supranowicz, Piotr; Targowski, Micha?; Piechowiak-Modrzejewska, Elzbieta
The study on quality and accessibility of educational materials for patients was taken up in Health Promotion Department of the National Institute of Hygiene and the Mazovian Centre of Public Health in 2003. The questionnaire contained demographic information (gender, age, civil state, residence, employment and level of education), and questions about patients' opinions concerning the sources of health information (usefulness for knowledge enlargement, use in everyday life and perceived truth). The data were obtained from 110 patients living in Warsaw, who waited for visit in dispensaries or had treated in hospitals. The patients pointed television (54.5% of respondents), members of family (50.9%), physician or nurse in the course of consultations (48.2%), journals (46.4%) and friends (43.6%) as the sources, which most frequently provided health information. Women significantly more frequently than men acquired health information from journals (respectively: 53.8% and 26.7%), while men more frequently than women received health information from physicians or nurses in course of visits (respectively: 66.7% and 41.3%). As regards to age, the younger patients significantly more frequently acquired health information from family (younger group--61.2%, medium group--37.9%, elder group - 28,2%), friends (respectively: 55.2%, 27.2%, 21.4%) and from educational materials exposed in specific dispensaries (respectively: 44.8%, 17.2%, 14.3%). The elder patients more frequently received health information from physicians or nurses in course of consultations (elder group--85.7%, medium group--62.1%, younger group--34.3%). In comparison with other sources, the highest percentage of respondents assessed health information received from physician or nurse as very useful for enlargement their knowledge, use in their everyday life and very true, however, this percentage is low (respectively: 29.0%, 25.7% and 46.7%). Our findings confirm the need to elaborate health education materials more adequate to patients' expectations. PMID:15493344
Gocen, Gokcen; Okur, Alpaslan
Generally, the speaking aspect is not properly debated when discussing the positive and negative effects of television (TV), especially on children. So, to highlight this point, this study was first initialized by asking the question: "What are the effects of TV on speech?" and secondly, to transform the effects that TV has on speech in a…
F Malek; M. H Boskabady; M. T Borushaki; M Tohidi
Therapeutic effects of Portulaca oleracea for respiratory diseases are indicated in ancient Iranian medical books. The relaxant effect of this plant have also been observed on smooth muscle tissue in previous studies. Therefore, in the present study, the bronchodilatory effect of the boiled extract of Portulaca oleracea in the airway of asthmatic patients was examined. The relaxant effect of the
Asadpour, Amir Abbas; Aslezare, Mohammad; Nazari Adkani, Lina; Armin, Mohsen; Vojdani, Mohammad
Background: Premature ejaculation is one of the most problems in clinical practice. The association between varicocele and premature ejaculation was poorly understood. The effects of varicocelectomy on premature ejaculation in varicocele patient was studied. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the impacts of varicocelectomy on patients with both premature ejaculation and varicoceles. Patients and Methods: This was a clinical trial study, conducted on 124 patients (20-35 years old), with varicoceles and premature ejaculation (PE), since March 2011 to April 2013. Inguinal and sub inguinal varicocelectomy were performed for them. All patients had both impairment of spermiogram and PE. These patients were followed up for about 2 years and evaluated for PE, in addition to parameters of spermiogram, before and after the surgery. Results: A total number of 124 patients with varicoceles and PE were enrolled into the study. Following the surgery 46 patients (37%) were fully treated (P < 0.001), 78 patients (63%) had improvements in PE symptoms changed to early ejaculation (P < 0.05) and 89 patients (72%) had improved parameters of spermiogram (P < 0.002). Conclusions: In a significant number of patients who had clinical varicocele and not well responded to medical treatments for PE, varicocelectomy could effectively improve PE and spermiogram parameters. PMID:25032134
Nakre, Priya Devadas; Harikiran, A G
In recent years, attention has been drawn toward assessing the effectiveness of oral health education programs. This is in line with demand for evidence based research and will help to inform policy makers on how to allocate resources. (1) Collect and collate all information on oral health education programs. (2) Assess the programs based on various coding criteria. (3) Assess effectiveness of oral health education programs on oral health status and knowledge, attitude and practice. A search of all published articles in Medline was done using the keywords "oral health education, dental health education, oral health promotion". The resulting titles and abstracts provided the basis for initial decisions and selection of articles. Out of the primary list of articles, a total number of 40 articles were selected as they fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: (1). Articles on oral health programs with an oral health education component (2). Articles published after the year 1990 (3). Articles published in English. The full text of the articles was then obtained from either the internet or libraries of dental research colleges and hospitals in and around Bangalore. A set of important variables were identified and grouped under five headings to make them amenable for coding. The coding variables were then described under various subheadings to allow us to compare the chosen articles. Oral health education is effective in improving the knowledge attitude and practice of oral health and in reducing plaque, bleeding on probing of the gingiva and caries increment. This study identifies a few important variables which contribute to the effectiveness of the programs. There is an indication in this review that the most successful oral health programs are labor intensive, involve significant others and has received funding and additional support. A balance between inputs and outputs and health care resources available will determine if the program can be recommended for general use. PMID:24778989
Silverman, C.L.; Palkes, H.; Talent, B.; Kovnar, E.; Clouse, J.W.; Thomas, P.R.
Nine long-term survivors of cerebellar medulloblastoma treated with surgery and irradiation were retrospectively examined with a complete battery of neuropsychological tests and the results compared with their nonirradiated siblings. Significant decreased scores were found in the full-scale intelligence quotients (IQ), performance IQ, and verbal IQ with all nine irradiated patients scoring below their siblings. Also, educational quotients (EQ) of the irradiated patients were 12 to 17 points below the nonirradiated siblings with arithmetic EQ significantly decreased. Most severely affected were those children younger than 8 years at time of irradiation. No correlation was found with whole-brain dose, or objective physical or neurologic findings.
Kloza, Edward M; Haddow, Paula K; Halliday, Jacquelyn V; O'Brien, Barbara M; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn M; Palomaki, Glenn E
Informed consent is the process by which the treating health care provider discloses appropriate information to a competent patient so that the patient may make a voluntary choice to accept or refuse treatment. When the analysis of circulating cell free DNA (ccfDNA) became commercially available in 2011 through the Prenatal Diagnostic Laboratory at Women & Infants Hospital of Providence, Rhode Island to "high-risk" women, it provided an opportunity to examine how commercial laboratories informed potential consumers. We identified, via an internet search, four laboratories offering such testing in the United States and one in Europe. We evaluated patient educational materials (PEMs) from each using the Flesch Reading Ease method and a modified version of the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) criteria. Pamphlets were also reviewed for their inclusion of content recommendations from the International Society for Prenatal Diagnosis, the National Society of Genetic Counselors, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists jointly with the Society of Maternal Fetal Medicine, and the American College of Genetics and Genomics. Reading levels were typically high (10th-12th grade). None of the pamphlets met all SAM criteria evaluated nor did any pamphlet include all recommended content items. To comply with readability and content recommendations more closely, Women & Infants Hospital created a new pamphlet to which it applied the same criteria, and also subjected it to focus group assessment. These types of analyses can serve as a model for future evaluations of similar patient educational materials. PMID:25204423
Holmstrom, Eric C
Care for African-American patients and families at the end of life presents a unique challenge to healthcare providers. Providers need to be culturally and historically competent to effectively serve persons with a long history of distrust of the white-dominated healthcare system. Effective means of addressing outreach, access, and service issues for this community need to be twofold. They must focus on those who deliver the care and those who receive it. This twofold focus inspired the education and community outreach that were key elements in this ACE Project. The resources of the Duke Institute on Care at the End of Life (ICEOL), particularly their APPEAL curriculum, was key to strengthening end-of-life care in the internal culture of Abington Memorial Hospital and the community they serve. PMID:23977786
Khasawneh, Fadi T.; Shankar, Gollapudi S.
The use of atypical antipsychotic agents has rapidly increased in the United States and worldwide in the last decade. Nonetheless, many health care practitioners do not appreciate the significance of the cardiovascular side effects that may be associated with their use and the means to minimize them. Thus, atypical antipsychotic medications can cause cardiovascular side effects such as arrhythmias and deviations in blood pressure. In rare cases, they may also cause congestive heart failure, myocarditis, and sudden death. Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality than healthy individuals, possibly because of excessive smoking, the underlying disorder itself, or a combination of both factors. Increased awareness of these potential complications can allow pharmacists and physicians to better manage and monitor high risk patients. Accurate assessments are very important to avoid medications from being given to patients inappropriately. Additionally, monitoring patients regularly via blood draws and checking blood pressure, heart rate, and electrocardiogram can help catch any clinical problems and prevent further complications. Finally, patient and family-member education, which pharmacists in particular can play key roles in, is central for the management and prevention of side effects, which is known to reflect positively on morbidity and mortality in these patients. PMID:24649390
Aghaei, Nahid; Nesami, Masoumeh Bagheri
Context: The most important way against bioterrorism is reinforcement of knowledge of health and medical team to diagnose and rapid reaction during these events. Aims: To assess the effect of bioterrorism education on knowledge and attitudes of nurses. Settings and Design: the setting of study was one of the infectious disease wards, emergency rooms or internal wards of the hospitals under supervision of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this pre-experimental study, 65 nurses who had all inclusion criteria are selected by accessible sampling method. Data on nurses knowledge and attitudes toward bioterrorism were collected using a self-administered questionnaire before and after two two-h sessions education. After a month of education, the units responded to questionnaire again. Statistical Analysis Used: A descriptive statistics Wilcoxon tests and Spearman correlation coefficient were used. Results: Before education, the majority of units (96.9%) had low knowledge about bioterrorism (0-33.3% score of 100%),whereas after education, the majority of them (100%) had good knowledge(well done) (66.7-100% score of 100%). And majority of units (96.9%) before education had indifferent attitude toward bioterrorism (33.4-66.6% score of 100%), whereas a majority of them (98.5%) after education had positive attitude (66.7-100% score of 100%). Conclusions: The education has a positive effect on nurses’ knowledge and attitudes and it can be a guideline for administrators of the Ministry of Health and medicine for planning to achieve the goals of preventive and defense against bioterrorism. PMID:23723614
Jose Portolés; Antonio Torralbo; Piedad Martin; Jose Rodrigo; Jose A. Herrero; Alberto Barrientos
Treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has solved the problem of anemia in patients on dialysis. However, its application to predialysis patients has raised some doubts about its effects on the progression of renal disease and on blood pressure (BP) and hemodynamic regulation. We have prospectively studied over at least 6 months a group of 11 predialysis patients receiving rHuEPO
Milap C. Nahata
Chloramphenicol serum concentration is often monitored to assure efficacy and prevent toxicity. We studied the relationship between steady-state chloramphenicol serum concentration and hematologic adverse effects in 45 pediatric patients. The mean peak serum concentration of chloramphenicol in patients with and without toxicity were not different (p > 0.1): 22.7 ?g\\/ml in neutropenic patients versus 23.1 ?g\\/ml in those without neutropenia;
Fay-Hillier, Theresa M; Regan, Roseann V; Gallagher Gordon, Mary
The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) found that 65% of medical sentinel events or medical errors are associated with communication breakdowns. In addition to the JCAHO, The Institute of Medicine, in their Core Competencies for health care professional education, recommend improvement in professional communication, collaboration, and a patient-centered approach to provide safety. Consistency of opportunities for students to practice their communication and collaboration skills is limited based on the variety of clinical experiences that are available. Simulation would provide consistency in students' experiences. Students can practice giving a structured report, providing and receiving peer feedback, and obtaining patient feedback in a safe setting through a simulation experience. A structured hand-off shift report using a technique such as SBAR communication has been found to improve patient safety in health care environments. This paper examines the implementation of a simulation experience for students taking a Mental Health course in a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) Program to support their practice of patient and professional communication, as well as, collaboration skills with a patient-centered approach using a standardized patient simulation. PMID:23146005
Greenall Gough, Annette; Gough, Noel
The greenhouse effect has always existed. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth could well have the oven-like environment of Venus or the deep-freeze environment of Mars. There is some debate about how much the Earth's surface temperature will rise given a certain amount of increase in the amount of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous…
Tam, Cheung On
Podcasting is now being used frequently in the higher education sector. Although research has been conducted into the use of podcasting in teaching business, engineering, sciences and languages, little has been done on its use in arts learning. This paper reports on a study that investigated the effectiveness of using podcasts to learn music and…
Levin, Henry M., Ed.; McEwan, Patrick J., Ed.
This collection of papers provides decision-makers with tools to improve resource allocation. The two primary tools, or modes, are cost-effective analysis and cost-benefit analysis, which researchers in education have devised and refined. This volume has three main goals, all intended to help decision-makers construct a useful research program:…
Rangan, R; Nagendra, H R; Bhatt, Ramachandra
Background/Aim: Sustained attention is a vital function mediated by the right frontoparietal cortex. The Six Letter Cancellation Task (SLCT) measures sustained attention. Development of sustained attention in a yoga-based education system compared to a modern one is the theme of the present study. Aim: To compare the effectiveness of the Modern Education System (MES) and the Gurukula Education System (GES) in developing sustained attention. Materials and Methods: Forty nine boys (11-13 years) were selected from two residential schools, one MES and the other GES, providing similar ambiance and daily routines. The boys were matched for age and socioeconomic status. The GES educational program is based around integrated yoga modules while the MES provides a conventional modern education program. Sustained attention was assessed using the SLCT at the start and end of an academic year. Results: Within groups, the pre-post test differences were significant for both groups. However, the between groups result showed improvement in the GES group compared to the MES group at a P < 0.001 significance level. Conclusions: The study suggests that both MES and GES improve sustained attention in school boys, but GES is more effective. PMID:21234214
Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie r.; Nark, Douglas M.
This paper presents results of an investigation of the effects of shear flow profile on impedance eduction processes employed at NASA Langley. Uniform and 1-D shear-flow propagation models are used to educe the acoustic impedance of three test liners based on aeroacoustic data acquired in the Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube, at source levels of 130, 140 and 150 dB, and at centerline Mach numbers of 0.0, 0.3 and 0.5. A ceramic tubular, calibration liner is used to evaluate the propagation models, as this liner is expected to be insensitive to SPL, grazing flow Mach number, and flow profile effects. The propagation models are then used to investigate the effects of shear flow profile on acoustic impedances educed for two conventional perforate-over-honeycomb liners. Results achieved with the uniform-flow models follow expected trends, but those educed with the 1-D shear-flow model do not, even for the calibration liner. However, when the flow profile used with the shear-flow model is varied to increase the Mach number gradient near the wall, results computed with the shear-flow model are well matched to those achieved with the uniform-flow model. This indicates the effects of flow profile on educed acoustic liner impedance are small, but more detailed investigations of the flow field throughout the duct are needed to better understand these effects.
Beattie, Mary S.; Lee, Robin; Braithwaite, Dejana; Wilcox, Carolina; Metrikin, Maya; Lamvik, Kate; Luce, Judith
The Cancer Risk Education Intervention Tool (CREdIT) is a computer-based (non-interactive) slide presentation designed to educate low-literacy, and ethnically and racially diverse public hospital patients at risk of Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) about genetics. To qualitatively evaluate participants’ experience with and perceptions of a genetic education program as an adjunct to genetic counseling, we conducted direct observations of the intervention, semi-structured in person interviews with 11 women who viewed CREdIT, and post-counseling questionnaires with the two participating genetic counselors. Five themes emerged from the analysis of interviews: (1) genetic counseling and testing for breast/ovarian cancer was a new concept; (2) CREdIT’s story format was particularly appealing; (3) changes in participants’ perceived risk for breast cancer varied; (4) some misunderstandings about individual risk and heredity persisted after CREdIT and counseling; (5) the context for viewing CREdIT shaped responses to the presentation. Observations demonstrated ways to make the information provided in CREdIT and by genetic counselors more consistent. In a post-session counselor questionnaire, counselors’ rating of the patient’s preparedness before the session was significantly higher for patients who viewed CREdIT prior to their appointments than for other patients. This novel educational tool fills a gap in HBOC education by tailoring information to women of lower literacy and diverse ethnic/racial backgrounds. The tool was well received by interview participants and counselors alike. Further study is needed to examine the varied effects of CREdIT on risk perception. In addition, the implementation of CREdIT in diverse clinical settings and the cultural adaptation of CREdIT to specific populations reflect important areas for future work. PMID:20490636
Kathleen Duncan; Bunny Pozehl
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an individual feedback intervention provided to nurses on selected patient outcomes related to postoperative pain management. Individual performance feedback served as the intervention. Thirty orthopedic staff nurses received feedback information on their past performance of recommended pain management practices. Data were collected preintervention and postintervention on selected patient pain
Ng, W; Alexander, D; Kerr, B; Ho, M F; Amato, M; Katz, K
Inappropriate hair removal is a risk factor for postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs). A series of obstetric patient awareness interventions were introduced regarding hair self-removal before presentation at hospital. Active inpatient and outpatient surveillance of SSIs following caesarean section was undertaken prospectively. The rate of hair self-removal decreased significantly from 41% (2008) to 27% (2011) after implementation of posters and enhanced prenatal education (P = 0.048). Concurrently, a 51% reduction was seen in the SSI rate following caesarean section. This multi-faceted strategy proved successful in reducing prehospital hair self-removal overall, particularly shaving. Other simultaneous SSI prevention interventions are also likely to have contributed to the reduction in SSI rate. PMID:23103244
Paulsson, Gun; Söderfeldt, Björn; Nederfors, Tommy; Fridlund, Bengt
Three years after providing an oral health education program (OHEP) to nursing personnel, the authors analyzed the effect of the program on knowledge of the importance of oral health and on perception among the nurses of the possibility to implement oral care in patient care. The study was based on a cross-sectional survey of all nursing personnel (N = 2,901) in five municipalities in the Southwestern Sweden, of whom 950 had attended four one-hour lessons during an OHEP in 1996. The response rate to the survey questionnaire was 67% (1,930 subjects). Statistical analysis was performed by means of descriptive and analytical statistics. The program was shown to have an independent effect on the dependent variables "knowledge of oral health" and "assessment of implementation possibilities," This study has given further evidence of the feasibility of an educational program to improve both knowledge and implementation of oral health care. PMID:14620765
Kosmas I. Paraskevas
Lipid abnormalities, and especially hypertriglyceridaemia, are a prominent feature of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The\\u000a results from several studies have shown that statins are effective and safe lipid-lowering agents in these individuals. Besides\\u000a lipid lowering, current evidence suggests that these agents exert multiple beneficial effects on PD patients. Statins may\\u000a maintain residual kidney function by altering the response of the
Rangan, R; Nagendra, HR; Bhat, G Ramachandra
Background/Aim: Memory is more associated with the temporal cortex than other cortical areas. The two main components of memory are spatial and verbal which relate to right and left hemispheres of the brain, respectively. Many investigations have shown the beneficial effects of yoga on memory and temporal functions of the brain. This study was aimed at comparing the effect of one Gurukula Education System (GES) school based on a yoga way of life with a school using the Modern Education System (MES) on memory. Materials and Methods: Forty nine boys of ages ranging from 11-13 years were selected from each of two residential schools, one MES and the other GES, providing similar ambiance and daily routines. The boys were matched for age and socioeconomic status. The GES educational program is based around integrated yoga modules while the MES provides a conventional modern education program. Memory was assessed by means of standard spatial and verbal memory tests applicable to Indian conditions before and after an academic year. Results: Between groups there was matching at start of the academic year, while after it the GES boys showed significant enhancement in both verbal and visual memory scores than MES boys (P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney test). Conclusions: The present study showed that the GES meant for total personality development adopting yoga way of life is more effective in enhancing visual and verbal memory scores than the MES. PMID:20842265
Karaman, Selcuk; Aydemir, Melike; Kucuk, Sevda; Yildirim, Gurkan
Virtual classroom (VC) is the preferred application in distance education since it provides simultaneous interaction and a communication environment between the student and the instructor. The aim of this study is to determine the key components which make VC sessions effective in terms of environment and method. Determination of these components…
Sinnema, Claire; Aitken, Graeme
This booklet is a synthesis of research on social sciences teaching that has been shown to have a positive effect on a range of desirable student outcomes: cognitive, skills, participatory and affective outcomes. Education in the social sciences plays an important role in developing students' sense of identity and influencing the ways in which…
McKenzie, Thomas L.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.
The health benefits of physical activity are well documented, and the important role that schools and physical education (PE) can play in reducing sedentary behavior and contributing to population health has been identified. Although effective teaching is ultimately judged by student achievement, a major component of teacher and school…
Multilevel modeling was carried out on national value-added data to study the effects of single-sex education on the progress of pupils from 2002 Key Stage 3 to 2004 GCSE. The analysis suggests that pupils in a selective environment achieve higher progress in single-sex schools; however, the advantage of single-sex schooling seems to decrease with…
Winterfield, Laura; Coggeshall, Mark; Burke-Storer, Michelle; Correa, Vanessa; Tidd, Simon
The research presented in this report examines the effect of prison-based postsecondary education (PSE) on offenders both while incarcerated and after release. Urban Institute researchers worked with the staff of four institutions in three states to conduct inmate focus groups and stakeholder interviews to explore the motivations for enrolling in…
The major objective of this paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of dynamic assessment (DA) in revealing outcomes of cognitive education programmes. Three programmes based on "mediated learning experience" theory are reviewed: "Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment", "Bright Start", and "Peer Mediation with Young Children". In all three…
Toledo, Michael A.; Yangco, Rosanelia; Espinosa, Allen A.
The study focused on media cartoons as a teaching strategy in Environmental Education. Specifically, it sought to determine the effects of media cartoons on the issue resolution skills of first year high school students. The study was conducted in La Salle Green Hills that had eleven sections in the first year high school level for the School Year…
Renard, E; Alliot-Licht, B; Gross, O; Roger-Leroi, V; Marchand, C
Ever since 2006, Nantes University dental educators have started organising lectures led by the mother of a young patient suffering from ectodermic dysplasia (patient-educator) to help second-year students to better understand how important it is for their future dental work to better understand basic sciences. In this study, we have analysed this training experience on students' motivation. For this purpose, students were asked to complete questionnaires 10 days after the patient-educator's lecture (early assessment; n = 193) and 4 years later, during the last year of their dental studies (delayed assessment; n = 47). Moreover, 3 years after the first lecture, we analysed the ability of students to diagnose a mother carrying the ectodermic dysplasia genetic disorder, using a case-based learning exercise with a patient showing dental features similar to those exposed by the patient-educator (measure of knowledge; n = 42). Ten days after the lecture, the early assessment shows that all the students were interested in the lecture and 59% of the students declared being motivated to find out more about genetics whilst 54% declared the same thing about embryology courses. Moreover, 4 years later, 67% of the students remembered the patient-educator's lecture a little or very well. Three years after the course, 83% of the students diagnosed ectodermal dysplasia whilst studying the case-based example that listed typical dental phenotypes. In conclusion, this study shows that this original educational approach enhances dental students' motivation in learning basic sciences and that patient-educators could offer many benefits for students and patients. PMID:24628743
Chew, Boon-How; Shariff-Ghazali, Sazlina; Fernandez, Aaron
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient’s adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal control of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications, causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient’s psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation, self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors, coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relation to DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM. PMID:25512782
Steven, Alison; Magnusson, Carin; Smith, Pam; Pearson, Pauline H
Education is crucial to how nurses practice, talk and write about keeping patients safe. The aim of this multisite study was to explore the formal and informal ways the pre-registration medical, nursing, pharmacy and physiotherapy students learn about patient safety. This paper focuses on findings from nursing. A multi-method design underpinned by the concept of knowledge contexts and illuminative evaluation was employed. Scoping of nursing curricula from four UK university programmes was followed by in-depth case studies of two programmes. Scoping involved analysing curriculum documents and interviews with 8 programme leaders. Case-study data collection included focus groups (24 students, 12 qualified nurses, 6 service users); practice placement observation (4 episodes=19 hrs) and interviews (4 Health Service managers). Within academic contexts patient safety was not visible as a curricular theme: programme leaders struggled to define it and some felt labelling to be problematic. Litigation and the risk of losing authorisation to practise were drivers to update safety in the programmes. Students reported being taught idealised skills in university with an emphasis on 'what not to do'. In organisational contexts patient safety was conceptualised as a complicated problem, addressed via strategies, systems and procedures. A tension emerged between creating a 'no blame' culture and performance management. Few formal mechanisms appeared to exist for students to learn about organisational systems and procedures. In practice, students learnt by observing staff who acted as variable role models; challenging practice was problematic, since they needed to 'fit in' and mentors were viewed as deciding whether they passed or failed their placements. The study highlights tensions both between and across contexts, which link to formal and informal patient safety education and impact negatively on students' feelings of emotional safety in their learning. PMID:23726756
One of the major tasks of medical educators is to help maintain and increase trainee empathy for patients. Yet research suggests that during the course of medical training, empathy in medical students and residents decreases. Various exercises and more comprehensive paradigms have been introduced to promote empathy and other humanistic values, but with inadequate success. This paper argues that the potential for medical education to promote empathy is not easy for two reasons: a) Medical students and residents have complex and mostly unresolved emotional responses to the universal human vulnerability to illness, disability, decay, and ultimately death that they must confront in the process of rendering patient care b) Modernist assumptions about the capacity to protect, control, and restore run deep in institutional cultures of mainstream biomedicine and can create barriers to empathic relationships. In the absence of appropriate discourses about how to emotionally manage distressing aspects of the human condition, it is likely that trainees will resort to coping mechanisms that result in distance and detachment. This paper suggests the need for an epistemological paradigm that helps trainees develop a tolerance for imperfection in self and others; and acceptance of shared emotional vulnerability and suffering while simultaneously honoring the existence of difference. Reducing the sense of anxiety and threat that are now reinforced by the dominant medical discourse in the presence of illness will enable trainees to learn to emotionally contain the suffering of their patients and themselves, thus providing a psychologically sound foundation for the development of true empathy. PMID:18336719
Wald, Hedy S; George, Paul; Reis, Shmuel P; Taylor, Julie Scott
While electronic health record (EHR) use is becoming state-of-the-art, deliberate teaching of health care information technology (HCIT) competencies is not keeping pace with burgeoning use. Medical students require training to become skilled users of HCIT, but formal pedagogy within undergraduate medical education (UME) is sparse. How can medical educators best meet the needs of learners while integrating EHRs into medical education and practice? How can they help learners preserve and foster effective communication skills within the computerized setting? In general, how can UME curricula be devised for skilled use of EHRs to enhance rather than hinder provision of effective, humanistic health care?Within this Perspective, the authors build on recent publications that "set the stage" for next steps: EHR curricula innovation and implementation as concrete embodiments of theoretical underpinnings. They elaborate on previous calls for maximizing benefits and minimizing risks of EHR use with sufficient focus on physician-patient communication skills and for developing core competencies within medical education. The authors describe bridging theory into practice with systematic longitudinal curriculum development for EHR training in UME at their institution, informed by Kern and colleagues' curriculum development framework, narrative medicine, and reflective practice. They consider this innovation within a broader perspective-the overarching goal of empowering undergraduate medical students' patient- and relationship-centered skills while effectively demonstrating HCIT-related skills. PMID:24448045
Steinhilber, August W.
Chapter 20 of a book on school law provides guidelines for school access to copyrighted materials. The 1976 copyright law, which became effective January 1, 1978, abolished common law copyright and established a single federal system. Certain sections of the law under the judicial doctrine of fair use are subject to exceptions that are of benefit…
Claxton, Charles S.
Reviews current research to argue that minority students do not have learning styles different from students of the dominant culture. Stresses that an understanding of cultural and gender factors will help developmental instructors become more effective teachers. Suggests use of the "Connected Teaching" model of Belenky to develop such…
The need for properly administered classroom discipline is manifested by misbehaving students desiring structure that reveals the importance of managing time, distinguishes between right and wrong, and supports the notion of perseverance. Top performers in administration and teaching understand and practice effective discipline by reinforcing and…
Blazer, K; Grant, M; Sand, S; MacDonald, D; Uman, G; Weitzel, J
Background: Many clinicians lack adequate knowledge about emerging standards of care related to genetic cancer risk assessment and the features of hereditary cancer needed to identify patients at risk. Objective: To determine how a clinical cancer genetics education programme for community based clinicians affected participant knowledge and changed clinical practice. Methods: The effects of the programme on participant knowledge and changes in clinical practice were measured through pre and post session knowledge questionnaires completed by 710 participants and practice impact surveys completed after one year by 69 out of 114 eligible annual conference participants sampled. Results: Respondents showed a 40% average increase in specific cancer genetics knowledge. Respondents to the post course survey reported that they used course information and materials to counsel and refer patients for hereditary cancer risk assessment (77%), shared course information with other clinicians (83%), and wanted additional cancer genetics education (80%). Conclusions: There was a significant immediate gain in cancer genetics knowledge among participants in a targeted outreach programme, and subset analysis indicated a positive long term effect on clinical practice. Clinician education that incorporates evidence based content and case based learning should lead to better identification and care of individuals with increased cancer risk. PMID:15235022
Cutler, David M; Huang, Wei; Lleras-Muney, Adriana
Using Eurobarometer data, we document large variation across European countries in education gradients in income, self-reported health, life satisfaction, obesity, smoking and drinking. While this variation has been documented previously, the reasons why the effect of education on income, health and health behaviors varies is not well understood. We build on previous literature documenting that cohorts graduating in bad times have lower wages and poorer health for many years after graduation, compared to those graduating in good times. We investigate whether more educated individuals suffer smaller income and health losses as a result of poor labor market conditions upon labor market entry. We confirm that a higher unemployment rate at graduation is associated with lower income, lower life satisfaction, greater obesity, more smoking and drinking later in life. Further, education plays a protective role for these outcomes, especially when unemployment rates are high: the losses associated with poor labor market outcomes are substantially lower for more educated individuals. Variation in unemployment rates upon graduation can potentially explain a large fraction of the variance in gradients across different countries. PMID:25113567
Gomes, Ludmila Mourão Xavier; de Andrade Barbosa, Thiago Luis; Vieira, Elen Débora Souza; Vieira, Lara Jhulian Tolentino; Castro, Karla Patrícia Ataíde Nery; Pereira, Igor Alcântara; Caldeira, Antônio Prates; de Carvalho Torres, Heloísa; Viana, Marcos Borato
Introduction Despite advances in the management of sickle cell disease, gaps still exist in the training of primary healthcare professionals for monitoring patients with the disease. Objective To assess the perception of community healthcare workers about the care and monitoring of patients with sickle cell disease after an educational intervention. Method This exploratory, descriptive, and the qualitative study was conducted in Montes Claros, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The intervention involved the educational training of community healthcare workers from the Family Health Program of the Brazilian Unified Health System. The focus group technique was used to collect the data. The following topics were covered in the discussion: assessment of educational workshops, changes observed in the perception of professionals after training, profile of home visits, and access to and provision of basic healthcare services to individuals with sickle cell disease. The discussions were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were subjected to content analysis and empirically organized into two categories. Results Changes in the healthcare practices of community health workers were observed after the educational intervention. The prioritization of healthcare services for patients with sickle cell disease and monitoring of clinical warning signs in healthcare units were observed. Furthermore, changes were observed in the profile of home visits to patients, which were performed using a script provided in the educational intervention. Conclusion The educational intervention significantly changed the work process of community health workers concerning patient monitoring in primary healthcare. PMID:25960859
Lee, Ji-Hyun; Fulp, William; Wells, Kristen J.; Meade, Cathy D.; Calcano, Ercilia; Roetzheim, Richard
Objectives The objective of this study is to evaluate whether a patient navigation (PN) program is effective in reducing delay in diagnostic resolution among medically underserved patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) related abnormalities in Tampa Bay, Florida. Methods This study involved 10 primary care clinics randomized either to receive navigation or serve as controls (5 clinics per arm). Each clinic identified all subjects with colorectal-related abnormalities in the year prior to the clinic beginning participation in the Moffitt Patient Navigation Research Program. Patients with CRC related abnormalities were navigated from time of a colorectal abnormality to diagnostic resolution. Control patients received usual care, and outcome information was obtained from medical record abstraction. Using a frailty Cox proportional hazard model, we examined the length of time between colorectal abnormality and definitive diagnosis. Results 193 patients were eligible for the study because of a colorectal cancer related abnormality (75 navigated; 118 control). Analysis of PN effect by two time periods of resolution (0-4 months and > 4 months) showed a lagged effect of PN. The adjusted time-varying PN effect on diagnostic resolution compared to control was marginally significant (adjusted Hazard Ratio, aHR=1.15, 95% CI: 1.02-1.29) after controlling for insurance status. The predicted aHR at 4 months was 1.2, but showed no significant effect until 12 months. Conclusions For patients having an abnormal symptom of CRC, PN appeared to have a positive effect over time and sped diagnostic resolution after 4 months. However, the small sample size limits drawing a definitive conclusion regarding the positive PN effect. PMID:24113902
Samuel R. Lucas
This article proposes a general explanation for social background- related inequality. Educational attainment research indicates that the later an education transition, the lower the social background effect. While some suggest life course changes in the parent-child relationship or between-family competition explain this pattern, oth- ers contend the result is a statistical artifact, and that the analytic strategy presupposes agents are
Dion, Liza; Rodgers, Nancy; Cutshall, Susanne M.; Cordes, Mary Ellen; Bauer, Brent; Cassivi, Stephen D.; Cha, Stephen
Background: Integrative therapies such as massage have gained support as interventions that improve the overall patient experience during hospitalization. Thoracic surgery patients undergo long procedures and commonly have postoperative back, neck, and shoulder pain. Purpose: Given the promising effects of massage therapy for alleviation of pain, we studied the effectiveness and feasibility of massage therapy delivered in the postoperative thoracic surgery setting. Methods: Patients who received massage in the postoperative setting had pain scores evaluated pre and post massage on a rating scale of 0 to 10 (0 = no pain, 10 = worst possible pain). Results: In total, 160 patients completed the pilot study and received massage therapy that was individualized. Patients receiving massage therapy had significantly decreased pain scores after massage (p ? .001), and patients’ comments were very favorable. Patients and staff were highly satisfied with having massage therapy available, and no major barriers to implementing massage therapy were identified. Conclusions: Massage therapy may be an important additional pain management component of the healing experience for patients after thoracic surgery. PMID:21847428
Kreuter, M W; Christenson, G M
We have tried to raise several issues in this paper. First, schools are very complex systems. It is as difficult to generalize about schools as it is to generalize about the children in them. Second, because of this complexity, any serious discussion of outcomes resulting from any educational program requires a commitment to specificity in problem identification and planning. Third, the current national interest in health promotion, disease prevention and risk reduction has given rise to a greater emphasis on the principles of epidemiologic analysis. This kind of analysis facilitates a focus on outcomes which are, to varying degrees, contributing factors to specific health problems. Fourth, while there are those who fear that this emphasis may compromise the traditional goals of schools, there is clear evidence that the addition of an epidemiologic cause/effect dimension to school health education is consistent both with the tenets of major educational philosophers as well as the goals of health education as stated by scholars in the field. Fifth, the process of decision-making (the assessment of which is admittedly primitive at this point) represents the bridge across which the science of epidemiology can cooperatively join hands with the art of education toward the goal of enhancing the competence of children and youth. PMID:7275655
Do, Anna T; Ilango, Krishanmurthy; Ramasamy, Dhivya; Kalidasan, Suriya; Balakrishnan, Vijayakumar; Chang, Robert T
Context: In India, where the heavy burden of visual impairment exists, low vision services are scarce and under-utilized. Aims: Our study was designed to survey the effectiveness of low vision exams and visual aids in improving patient quality of life in southern rural India. Subjects and Methods: The low vision quality of life (LVQOL) questionnaire measures vision-related quality of life through 25 questions on a Likert scale of 0–5 that pertain to (1) mobility, distance vision, and lighting; (2) psychological adjustment; (3) reading and fine work; and (4) activities of daily living. This tool was translated into Tamil and verbally administered to 55 new low vision referral patients before their first visit at the low vision clinic at Aravind Eye Hospital. Low vision aids (LVAs) were prescribed at the discretion of the low vision specialist. 1-month later, the same questionnaire was administered over the phone. Results: About 44 of 55 low vision patients completed baseline and follow-up LVQOL surveys, and 30 normal vision controls matched for age, gender, and education were also surveyed (average 117.34 points). After the low vision clinic visit, the low vision group demonstrated a 4.55-point improvement in quality of life (from 77.77 to 82.33 points, P = 0.001). Adjusting for age, gender, and education, the low vision patients who also received LVAs (n = 24) experienced an even larger increase than those who did not (n = 20) (8.89 points, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Low vision services and visual aids can improve the quality of life in South Indian rural population regardless of age, gender, and education level. Thus, all low vision patients who meet the criteria should be referred for evaluation. PMID:25579355
Breen, Gerald-Mark; Wan, Thomas T H; Zhang, Ning Jackie; Marathe, Shriram S; Seblega, Binyam K; Paek, Seung Chun
This analysis investigates what patients and practitioners can do to improve their interactive communications to achieve optimal patient-centric (PC) care. One goal of this clinical practice approach is to improve patient satisfaction, compliance, and outcomes. The mutual responsibilities required of both the patients and practitioners to attain PC care are discussed. Innovative, information technology techniques in the healthcare environment in general and in care delivery in particular are explored. Practitioner-to-patient encouragement vis-a-vis self education on their conditions is also provided. PMID:19397100
Mikula, Pavol; Nagyova, Iveta; Krokavcova, Martina; Vitkova, Marianna; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Szilasiova, Jarmila; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W; van Dijk, Jitse P
Fatigue, as one of the most frequent symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), has various adverse effects on the physical and mental health-related quality of life (PCS, MCS) of patients. The aim of this study was to explore whether coping mediates the relationship between fatigue and PCS and MCS. We collected data from 154 consecutive MS patients (76.0% women; mean age 40.0 ± 9.9). Patients completed the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) and the coping self-efficacy scale. The mediating effect of coping was analysed using linear regressions and the Sobel z-test. In PCS significant mediation was found in some of the fatigue dimensions (general, physical and reduced Motivation), while in MCS, it was significant in all dimensions. These results can be implemented into educational programmes for patients, their caregivers or physicians, and can also be helpful in the treatment process. PMID:25879302
Meng, Karin; Seekatz, Bettina; Haug, Günter; Mosler, Gabriele; Schwaab, Bernhard; Worringen, Ulrike; Faller, Hermann
Patient education is an essential part of the treatment of coronary heart disease in cardiac rehabilitation. In Germany, no standardized and evaluated patient education programs for coronary heart disease have been available so far. In this article, we report the evaluation of a patient-oriented program. A multicenter quasi-experimental,…
Yoshio Horita; Kazuaki Yakabe; Masato Tadokoro; Naofumi Suyama; Kohei Hayashida; Yuhei Kawano; Masanobu Miyazaki; Shigeru Kohno; Kouichi Taura
Background: Reports indicate that acetazolamide (ACZ) induces the vasodilation of all vessels in animal models, as well as in small and medium kidney vessels in animal models. However, the effect of ACZ on the renal circulation of patients with essential hypertension remains unknown. In this study we examined the effects of a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide (ACZ), on the renal
Paquette, David W; Bell, Kathryn P; Phillips, Ceib; Offenbacher, Steven; Wilder, Rebecca S
Population studies consistently support associations between poor oral (periodontal) health and systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of dentists and document their opinions regarding the evidence on oral-systemic disease relationships. A survey consisting of 39 items was developed and mailed to 1,350 licensed dentists in North Carolina. After three mailings, 667 dentists (49%) meeting inclusion criteria responded. The respondents were predominantly male (76.3%), in solo practice (59.5%), and in non-rural settings (74%). More than 75% of these dentists correctly identified risk factors like diet, genetics, smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity for CVD and diabetes. The majority rated the evidence linking periodontal disease with CVD and diabetes as strong (71% and 67%, respectively). These dentists were most comfortable inquiring about patients' tobacco habits (93%), treating patients with diabetes (89%) or CVD (84%) and concurrent periodontal disease, and discussing diabetes-periodontal disease risks with patients (88%). Fewer respondents were comfortable asking patients about alcohol consumption (54%) or providing alcohol counseling (49%). Most agreed that dentists should be trained to identify risk factors (96%) or actively manage systemically diseased patients (74%). Over 90% agreed that medical and dental professionals should be taught to practice more collaboratively. These data indicate that these dentists were knowledgeable about oral-systemic health associations, had mixed comfort levels translating the evidence into clinical practice, but expressed support for interprofessional education to improve their readiness to actively participate in their patients' overall health management. PMID:26034026
Wendy Levinson; Debra Roter
Purpose: To evaluate and compare the effects of two types of continuing medical education (CME) programs on the communication skills\\u000a of practicing primary care physicians.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants: Fifty-three community-based general internists and family practitioners practicing in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan\\u000a area and 473 of their patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method: For the short program (a 4 1\\/2-hour workshop), 31 physicians were randomized to either
Arenson, Christine; Umland, Elena; Collins, Lauren; Kern, Stephen B; Hewston, Leigh Ann; Jerpbak, Christine; Antony, Reena; Rose, Molly; Lyons, Kevin
Increased emphasis on team care has accelerated interprofessional education (IPE) of health professionals. The health mentors program (HMP) is a required, longitudinal, interprofessional curriculum for all matriculating students from medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, pharmacy, and couple and family therapy. Volunteer lay health mentors serve as educators. Student teams complete four modules over 2 years. A mixed-methods approach has been employed since program inception, evaluating 2911 students enrolled in HMP from 2007 to 2013. Program impact on 577 students enrolled from 2009-2011 is reported. Two interprofessional scales were employed to measure attitudes toward IPE and attitudes toward interprofessional practice. Focus groups and reflection papers provide qualitative data. Students enter professional training with very positive attitudes toward IPE, which are maintained over 2 years. Students demonstrated significantly improved attitudes toward team care, which were not different across programs. Qualitative data suggested limited tolerance for logistic challenges posed by IPE, but strongly support that students achieved the major program goals of understanding the roles of colleagues and understanding the perspective of patients. Ongoing longitudinal evaluation will further elucidate the impact on future practice and patient outcomes. PMID:25078465
Somasekhar, Melinda M; Berney, Steven; Rausch, Chris; Degnan, James
A well designed outcomes research study was performed in which 20 primary care physicians were selected to participate. Each physician had more than 30 fibromyalgia patients in their practice. The study design consisted of four phases. In phase one, physicians undertook a self-assessment of their practice. Phase two of the study involved diagnosis and treatment of a virtual case vignette. The third phase consisted of analysis of the data from phase two and providing feedback from an expert rheumatologist, and the fourth phase was to complete patient report forms for five patients in their practice. The year-long study was completed by 12 physicians and resulted in data on 60 patients. The results of this study provide an insight into how physicians are diagnosing and treating patients with fibromyalgia. In this study, we transition from continuing medical education to physician behavior to patient outcomes. PMID:23118542
Hans F. Berg; Boulos Maraha; Gert-Jan Scheffer; Marcel F. Peeters; Jan A. J. W. Kluytmans
Atherosclerosis can to a certain extent be regarded as an inflammatory disease. Also, inflammatory markers may provide information about cardiovascular risk. Whether macrolide antibiotics, especially clarithromycin, have an anti-inflammatory effect in patients with atherosclerosis is not exactly known. To study this phenom- enon, a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study was performed. A total of 231 patients with documented coronary artery disease
The influenza virus is currently a global public health problem. There are several thousand cases of classic and newly emerging atypical influenza virus infections around the world annually. Prevention, early diagnosis and treatment are the keys to managing influenza outbreaks. Some influenza treatments have proven to be more useful than others. A standard antiviral drug has been developed and is recommended for the management of hospitalized influenza patients. This article briefly outlines the rates and effectiveness of antiviral use among hospitalized influenza patients. It also discusses some important considerations regarding controversial issues and future perspectives on antiviral use for the management of hospitalized influenza patients. PMID:25968485
Airan-Javia, Subha L.; Kogan, Jennifer R.; Smith, Megan; Lapin, Jennifer; Shea, Judy A.; Dine, C. Jessica; Ishida, Koto; Myers, Jennifer S.
Background Improving handoff communications is a National Patient Safety Goal. Interns and residents are rarely taught how to safely handoff their patients. Our objective was to determine whether teaching safe handoff principles would improve handoff quality. Methods Our study was conducted on the inpatient services at 2 teaching hospitals. In this single-institution, randomized controlled trial, internal medicine interns (N??=??44) and residents (N??=??24) participated in a 45-minute educational session on safe handoff communication skills. Residents received additional education on effective feedback practices and were asked to provide each intern with structured feedback. Quality of interns' electronic and verbal handoffs was measured by using a Handoff Evaluation Tool created by the authors. The frequency of handoff communication failures was also assessed through semistructured phone interviews of postcall interns. Results Interns who received handoff education demonstrated superior verbal handoff skills than control interns (P?.001), while no difference was seen in electronic handoff skills. Communication failures related to code status (P?.001) and overnight tasks (P?.050) were less frequent in the intervention group. Conclusions Interns' electronic handoff documentation skills did not improve with the intervention. This may reflect greater difficulty in changing physicians' electronic documentation habits. PMID:23730443
Ricard Benito; Miquel Àngel Alegre
Background:?This article engages with the tradition of educational transitions research, particularly with its attempt to evaluate the effect of exogenous variables on educational attainment. The study revisits a number of hypotheses that have attempted to explain the changing patterns of such effects throughout students’ educational career, particularly: life course hypothesis, selective attrition, maximally maintained inequality, effectively maintained inequality and path
Kirkman, Matthew A; Sevdalis, Nick; Arora, Sonal; Baker, Paul; Vincent, Charles; Ahmed, Maria
Objective To systematically review the latest evidence for patient safety education for physicians in training and medical students, updating, extending and improving on a previous systematic review on this topic. Design A systematic review. Data sources Embase, Ovid Medline and PsycINFO databases. Study selection Studies including an evaluation of patient safety training interventions delivered to trainees/residents and medical students published between January 2009 and May 2014. Data extraction The review was performed using a structured data capture tool. Thematic analysis also identified factors influencing successful implementation of interventions. Results We identified 26 studies reporting patient safety interventions: 11 involving students and 15 involving trainees/residents. Common educational content included a general overview of patient safety, root cause/systems-based analysis, communication and teamwork skills, and quality improvement principles and methodologies. The majority of courses were well received by learners, and improved patient safety knowledge, skills and attitudes. Moreover, some interventions were shown to result in positive behaviours, notably subsequent engagement in quality improvement projects. No studies demonstrated patient benefit. Availability of expert faculty, competing curricular/service demands and institutional culture were important factors affecting implementation. Conclusions There is an increasing trend for developing educational interventions in patient safety delivered to trainees/residents and medical students. However, significant methodological shortcomings remain and additional evidence of impact on patient outcomes is needed. While there is some evidence of enhanced efforts to promote sustainability of such interventions, further work is needed to encourage their wider adoption and spread. PMID:25995240
Demiral, Ayse Nur [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dokuz Eyluel University Medical School, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: email@example.com; Sen, Mehmet [Cookridge Hospital, Leeds Teaching Hospitals Trust, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Demiral, Yuecel [Department of Public Health, Dokuz Eyluel University Medical School, Izmir (Turkey); Kinay, Muenir [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dokuz Eyluel University Medical School, Izmir (Turkey)
Purpose: To determine the effect of socioeconomic factors on quality of life (QoL) after treatment in patients with head and neck carcinoma (HNC). Patients and Methods: The study population included 50 HNC patients seen in their control examinations after radiotherapy during a 2-month interval and who were willing to complete the Short-Form 36 QoL questionnaire. Socioeconomic, demographic, and tumor- and treatment-related factors were analyzed for their effect on physical component summary score (PCS) and mental component summary score (MCS) using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: All patients received radiotherapy, and 33 patients (66%) underwent surgery for the primary tumor and/or neck disease. Chemotherapy was given in 9 patients (18%). Mean PCS and MCS were 47.9 (range, 24.8-59.3) and 46.7 (range, 22-63.3) for the whole patient population. There was no significant factor affecting PCS. Education level of 'middle school or higher,' perceived economic status of 'medium or higher,' social security status of not being 'absent or minimally covered,' and unilateral type of neck surgery were found to increase MCS significantly. According to separate linear regression analyses performed for three socioeconomic variables, the most significant factor for MCS was social security status compared with education level and perceived economic status. It was the only parameter that retained its significance when all five parameters were combined in a linear regression model. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that educational status, perceived economic status, and social security status showed a significant effect on the QoL of HNC patients after radiotherapy. When all variables were taken into account, only 'social security status' remained significant.
Digital resources, including digital libraries, have the potential to transform STEM education by providing access to innovative curricula, stimulating applets and simulations, and other hands-on resources. These resources hold the promise of providing teachers with new ways to engage students; of introducing students to STEM inquiry and work; and of infusing STEM education with student-focused equitable pedagogy and practice. Such engaged teaching would bring the studentsÂ?in all their diversity and needsÂ?into the center of the curriculum as teachers would focus on the individual student and her or his social context and needs. The Gender, Diversities, and Technology Institute at Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC) was one of the founding collections for the National Science Digital Library (NSDL). EDC, together with colleagues around the country, had the opportunity to fashion what has the potential to become one of the foremost resources for American science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education. In an effort to better meet the needs of KÂ?12 teachers, EDC developed the Effective Access research project, supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation, which focused on the technology needs and experiences of high school STEM educators. The Effective Access teamÂ?s findings are not generalizable to all STEM teachers because of the nature of the studyÂ?s research design and sample size. However, the studyÂ?s surveys and interviews produced important insights for all of those who care about the intersection of technology, teaching, and learning, including the leaders of the NSDL. The results of the study also align with much of the current literature and with the Effective Access teamÂ?s experience in developing digital resources for teachers. Based on this, the team has framed a set of suggestions for both future research and the development of technology-based resources. These preliminary ideas can help stimulate discussion among policymakers and practitioners, further the development of effective resources for STEM educators in high school, and encourage others to continue and deepen this initial research.
This study addresses a prospective aspect of general education: through general education, people obtain information about returns to their future specific education, thereby enabling them to choose fields in which they excel. According to that property of education, this paper presents a theoretical framework as a basis for understanding effects…
Téllez-García, Mario; de-la-Llave-Rincón, Ana I; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Palacios-Ceña, Maria; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César
The objective of the current study was to determine the short-term effects of trigger point dry needling (TrP-DN) alone or combined with neuroscience education on pain, disability, kinesiophobia and widespread pressure sensitivity in patients with mechanical low back pain (LBP). Twelve patients with LBP were randomly assigned to receive either TrP-DN (TrP-DN) or TrP-DN plus neuroscience education (TrP-DN + EDU). Pain intensity (Numerical Pain Rating Scale, 0-10), disability (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire-RMQ-, Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index-ODI), kinesiophobia (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia-TSK), and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, transverse process of L3 vertebra, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior muscle were collected at baseline and 1-week after the intervention. Patients treated with TrP-DN + EDU experienced a significantly greater reduction of kinesiophobia (P = 0.008) and greater increases in PPT over the transverse process of L3 (P = 0.049) than those patients treated only with TrP-DN. Both groups experienced similar decreases in pain, ODI and RMQ, and similar increases in PPT over the C5/C6 joint, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior after the intervention (all, P > 0.05). The results suggest that TrP-DN was effective for improving pain, disability, kinesiophobia and widespread pressure sensitivity in patients with mechanical LBP at short-term. The inclusion of a neuroscience educational program resulted in a greater improvement in kinesiophobia. PMID:26118519
White, William B; Schnitzer, Thomas J; Bakris, George L; Frayssinet, Hayet; Duquesroix, Brigitte; Weber, Michael
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are associated with increases in blood pressure (BP), particularly in patients treated with antihypertensive therapy. Naproxcinod is a nitric oxide-donating cyclooxygenase inhibitor in development for osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, we characterized the effects of naproxcinod on BP in an integrated safety analysis of 3 pivotal trials of patients with OA of the hip or knee involving 2,734 patients. The changes from baseline in the systolic BP after 13 weeks of therapy with naproxcinod (375 and 750 mg), naproxen 500 mg (equipotent to naproxcinod 750 mg), or placebo twice daily were evaluated in all patients and in the subgroup taking renin-angiotensin system inhibitors. Heterogeneity testing showed no treatment-by-study interaction. The effects of naproxcinod 750 mg on the systolic BP was not different from placebo (mean change from baseline vs placebo -0.4 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval -1.6 to 0.8). Naproxen increased the systolic BP relative to placebo (mean change from baseline vs placebo +1.4 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval 0.1 to 2.7). In the renin-angiotensin system inhibitor-treated patients, the effect of naproxcinod 750 mg compared to naproxen 500 mg in the changes from baseline in the systolic BP was -4.3 mm Hg (95% confidence interval -8.5 to -0.0). In conclusion, naproxcinod had effects on BP similar to that of placebo in patients with OA. These results imply that naproxcinod would be less likely to alter systolic BP control in patients with OA than a conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, particularly in those treated with renin-angiotensin system inhibitor agents. PMID:21371681
Parkerton, Patricia H; Wagner, Edward H; Smith, Dean G; Straley, Hugh L
BACKGROUND Primary care physicians are spending fewer hours in direct patient care, yet it is not known whether reduced hours are associated with differences in patient outcomes. OBJECTIVE To determine whether patient outcomes vary with physicians' clinic hours. DESIGN Cross-sectional retrospective design assessing primary care practices in 1998. SETTING All 25 outpatient-clinics of a single medical group in western Washington. PARTICIPANTS One hundred ninety-four family practitioners and general internists, 80% of whom were part-time, who provided ambulatory primary care services to specified HMO patient panels. Physician appointment hours ranged from 10 to 35 per week (30% to 100% of full time). MEASUREMENTS Twenty-three measures of individual primary care physician performance collected in an administrative database were aggregated into 4 outcome measures: cancer screening, diabetic management, patient satisfaction, and ambulatory costs. Multivariate regression on each of the 4 outcomes controlled for characteristics of physicians (administrative role, gender, seniority) and patient panels (size, case mix, age, gender). MAIN RESULTS While the effects were small, part-time physicians had significantly higher rates for cancer screening (4% higher, P = .001), diabetic management (3% higher, P = .033), and for patient satisfaction (3% higher, P = .035). After controlling for potential confounders, there was no significant association with patient satisfaction (P = .212) or ambulatory costs (P = .323). CONCLUSIONS Primary care physicians working fewer clinical hours were associated with higher quality performance than were physicians working longer hours, but with patient satisfaction and ambulatory costs similar to those of physicians working longer hours. The trend toward part-time clinical practice by primary care physicians may occur without harm to patient outcomes. PMID:12950480
Santana, Jacqueline Soares de; Almeida, Ana Paula Gonçalves de; Brandão, Patrícia Martins Carvalho
The objective of this article is to show the effect of the Ai Chi method, as an alternative form of hydrotherapeutic approach in fibromyalgia syndrome patients. Ten patients were studied, four were part of the experiment group and five of the control group, with one desistance. The patients were evaluated through the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (QIF) and Scale of Intensity and Index of pain in Sensible Points. Two evaluations were performed, before and after the treatment. The patients were submitted to ten sessions of the Ai Chi method during 40 minutes. The scale of intensity of pain in sensible points presented an improvement in the intensity of pain after the intervention, while quality of life remained without alteration. Regarding the quality of life, it was observed that the groups had similar results, because of the fact that patients had not presented improvement at depressive state. It was also verified a difference in the index of the sensible points between the groups; the explanation for this difference might be because of the benefits of the immersion in warm water and the effect of the Ai Chi method. There was no significant difference between the groups, which can be attributed to its limitations. In this way, new studies referring to the application of the Ai Chi method in patients carrying fibromyalgia syndrome become relevant. PMID:20640304
Deighan, Carolyn; Armitage, Wendy; Clark, Michelle; Cleland, John G; Jaarsma, Tiny
Background Heart failure (HF) is common, and it is associated with high rates of hospital readmission and mortality. It is generally assumed that appropriate self-care can improve outcomes in patients with HF, but patient adherence to many self-care behaviors is poor. Objective The objective of our study was to develop and test an intervention to increase self-care in patients with HF using a novel, online, automated education and coaching program. Methods The online automated program was developed using a well-established, face-to-face, home-based cardiac rehabilitation approach. Education is tailored to the behaviors and knowledge of the individual patient, and the system supports patients in adopting self-care behaviors. Patients are guided through a goal-setting process that they conduct at their own pace through the support of the system, and they record their progress in an electronic diary such that the system can provide appropriate feedback. Only in challenging situations do HF nurses intervene to offer help. The program was evaluated in the HeartCycle study, a multicenter, observational trial with randomized components in which researchers investigated the ability of a third-generation telehealth system to enhance the management of patients with HF who had a recent (<60 days) admission to the hospital for symptoms or signs of HF (either new onset or recurrent) or were outpatients with persistent New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III/IV symptoms despite treatment with diuretic agents. The patients were enrolled from January 2012 through February 2013 at 3 hospital sites within the United Kingdom, Germany, and Spain. Results Of 123 patients enrolled (mean age 66 years (SD 12), 66% NYHA III, 79% men), 50 patients (41%) reported that they were not physically active, 56 patients (46%) did not follow a low-salt diet, 6 patients (5%) did not restrict their fluid intake, and 6 patients (5%) did not take their medication as prescribed. About 80% of the patients who started the coaching program for physical activity and low-salt diet became adherent by achieving their personal goals for 2 consecutive weeks. After becoming adherent, 61% continued physical activity coaching, but only 36% continued low-salt diet coaching. Conclusions The HeartCycle education and coaching program helped most nonadherent patients with HF to adopt recommended self-care behaviors. Automated coaching worked well for most patients who started the coaching program, and many patients who achieved their goals continued to use the program. For many patients who did not engage in the automated coaching program, their choice was appropriate rather than a failure of the program. PMID:25499976
Sultan Kav; Judi Johnson; Cynthia Rittenberg; Paz Fernadez-Ortega; Tarja Suominen; Pia Riis Olsen; Elisabeth Patiraki; Davina Porock; Annette Dahler; Jolanta Toliusiene; Dusanka Tadic; Pongpak Pittayapan; Vijay Roy; Qi Wang; Meric Colak; Hanan Saca-Hazboun; David Makumi; Ilana Kadmon; Sarah Ben Ami; Elsie Anderson; Rebecca Clark-Snow
Purpose The aim of this study was to explore the nursing role in education and follow-up of patients who were taking oral chemotherapy\\u000a (CT) and to identify the worldwide gap in patient education about oral CT.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer members were invited to participate in a survey on oral CT. Nurse coordinators\\u000a collected data via
Background Structured education programmes for patients with diabetes and other chronic conditions are being widely adopted. However, follow-up studies suggest that course graduates may struggle to sustain the self-care practices taught on their courses over time. This study explored the support needs of patients with type 1 diabetes after attending a structured education programme promoting an empowerment approach and training in use of flexible intensive insulin therapy, a regimen now widely advocated and used to manage this condition. The objective was to inform future support offered to course graduates. Methods Repeat, in-depth interviews with 30 type 1 diabetes patients after attending Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) courses in the UK, and six and 12?months later. Data were analysed using an inductive, thematic approach. Results While the flexible intensive insulin treatment approach taught on DAFNE courses was seen as a logical and effective way of managing one’s diabetes, it was also considered more technically complex than other insulin regimens. To sustain effective disease self-management using flexible intensive insulin treatment over time, patients often expected, and needed, on-going input and support from health care professionals trained in the approach. This included: help determining insulin dose adjustments; reassurance; and, opportunities to trouble-shoot issues of concern. While some benefits were identified to receiving follow-up support in a group setting, most patients stated a preference or need for tailored and individualised support from appropriately-trained clinicians, accessible on an ‘as and when needed’ basis. Conclusions Our findings highlight potential limitations to group-based forms of follow-up support for sustaining diabetes self-management. To maintain the clinical benefits of structured education for patients with type 1 diabetes over time, course graduates may benefit from and prefer ongoing, one-to-one support from health care professionals trained in the programme’s practices and principles. This support should be tailored and personalised to reflect patients’ specific and unique experiences of applying their education and training in the context of their everyday lives, and could be the subject of future research. PMID:22891794
Wolf, Jacqueline H; Wolf, Kevin S
Context When elderly patients face a terminal illness such as lung cancer, most are unaware that what we term in this article “the Lake Wobegon effect” taints the treatment advice imparted to them by their oncologists. In framing treatment plans, cancer specialists tend to intimate that elderly patients are like the children living in Garrison Keillor's mythical Lake Wobegon: above average and thus likely to exceed expectations. In this article, we use the story of our mother's death from lung cancer to investigate the consequences of elderly people's inability to reconcile the grave reality of their illness with the overly optimistic predictions of their physicians. Methods In this narrative analysis, we examine the routine treatment of elderly, terminally ill cancer patients through alternating lenses: the lens of a historian of medicine who also teaches ethics to medical students and the lens of an actuary who is able to assess physicians’ claims for the outcome of medical treatments. Findings We recognize that a desire to instill hope in patients shapes physicians’ messages. We argue, however, that the automatic optimism conveyed to elderly, dying patients by cancer specialists prompts those patients to choose treatment that is ineffective and debilitating. Rather than primarily prolong life, treatments most notably diminish patients’ quality of life, weaken the ability of patients and their families to prepare for their deaths, and contribute significantly to the unsustainable costs of the U.S. health care system. Conclusions The case described in this article suggests how physicians can better help elderly, terminally ill patients make medical decisions that are less damaging to them and less costly to the health care system. PMID:24320166
The Baltimore Partnership to Educate and Achieve Control of Hypertension (The BPTEACH Trial): A Randomized Trial of the Effect of Education on Improving Blood Pressure Control in a Largely African-American Population
Johnson, Wallace; Shaya, Fadia T; Khanna, Niharika; Warrington, Verlyn O; Rose, Vivienne A; Yan, Xia; Bailey-Weaver, Bessie; Mullins, C. Daniel; Saunders, Elijah
Hypertension is a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease and is more prevalent in African-Americans compared to Caucasians. African-Americans are often underrepresented in clinical trials. This study was composed of a largely urban African-American cohort of hypertensive patients. This was a prospective, four-arm randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of both physician and patient education (PPE), patient education only (PAE), and physician education only (PHE) versus usual care (UC). Hypertension specialists gave a series of didactic lectures to the physicians, while a nurse educator performed the patient education. The mean adjusted difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) from baseline in the PPE group was an average reduction of 12mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI], -4.5 ? -19.4) at 6-months, followed by average reductions of 4.6 mmHg (6.9 ? -16.12) in the PAE group, 4.1 mmHg (3.4 ? -11.7) in the PHE group, and 2.6 mmHg (3 ? -8.2) in the UC group. The PPE group achieved a significantly better reduction in SBP compared with the UC group. Additional research should be conducted to evaluate whether the use of certified hypertension educators in collaboration with physicians will result in a similar blood pressure reduction. PMID:21806766
Mette C. Deding; Mohammad Azhar Hussain
The importance of parental education and living conditions on children's educational attainment is quantified. Two estimation strategies are followed: the least squares estimation uses number of years of education as the dependent variable, and the \\
Iverson, Maynard J.; Davis, Paul D.
A study determined effective inservice education methods to reduce the apprehension of experienced vocational education teachers regarding instruction of handicapped students. In order to guide the study, three null hypotheses were generated and tested. A three-group, randomized, pre- and post-test experimental design was utilized. Thirty teachers…
This paper provides estimates of the effect of educational decentralization on student outcomes in Egypt. With the support of the United States, two types of decentralization programs have been implemented in Egypt since 2000: Parent-Teacher Councils and Boards of Tru stees of Parents and Teachers. While Parent-Teacher Councils have not decentralized their local governorates' education systems to the same degree
Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2012
This review summarizes research on the effects of technology use on mathematics achievement in K-12 classrooms. The main research questions included: (1) Do education technology applications improve mathematics achievement in K-12 classrooms as compared to traditional teaching methods without education technology?; and (2) What study and research…
Boisaubin, E V; Winkler, M G
In many ways, the practice of medicine has been a visual science from the time of the early Renaissance anatomists to the high-speed scanners of today. But images of patients and their anatomical parts do not necessarily lead to an understanding of their problems. Meaning must follow the sensory experience and be coupled with reflection. The visual arts, therefore, can be used to help physicians in training increase their observational and interpretive skills. Works by classic and contemporary artists can be used to increase awareness of the complex nature of human beings and their conditions, which lie beneath the appearances. In addition to painting, television, motion pictures, and printed media may also be used in classroom settings to educate. Medical schools that do not have accessible fine arts or humanities programs may form allegiances with local artists to increase communication and understanding between these disciplines. PMID:10830552
Toshihiro Nakahara; Kazuhiko Nakahara; Miho Uehara; Ken-ichiro Koyama; Kouha Li; Toshiro Harada; Daisuke Yasuhara; Hikaru Taguchi; Sinya Kojima; Ken-ichiro Sagiyama; Akio Inui
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of juggling therapy for anxiety disorder patients. DESIGN AND METHOD: Subjects were 17 female outpatients who met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders. Subjects were treated with standard psychotherapy, medication and counseling for 6 months. For the last 3 months of treatment, subjects were randomized into either a
OMER KUCUK; FAZLUL H. SARKAR; Z ORA DJURIC; WAEL SAKR; MICHAEL N. POLLAK; FRED KHACHIK; MOUSUMI BANERJEE; JOHN S. BERTRAM; DAVID P. WOOD
Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse association be- tween dietary intake of lycopene and prostate cancer risk. We conducted a clinical trial to investigate the biological and clini- cal effects of lycopene supplementation in patients with local- ized prostate cancer. Twenty-six men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer were randomly assigned to receive a tomato oleoresin extract containing 30 mg of
Benito, Ricard; Alegre, Miquel Angel
Background: This article engages with the tradition of educational transitions research, particularly with its attempt to evaluate the effect of exogenous variables on educational attainment. The study revisits a number of hypotheses that have attempted to explain the changing patterns of such effects throughout students' educational career,…
Jacobsen, Ramune; Vadstrup, Eva; Røder, Michael; Frølich, Anne
The main aim of the study was to identify predictors of the effects of lifestyle intervention on diabetes mellitus type 2 patients by means of multivariate analysis. Data from a previously published randomised clinical trial, which compared the effects of a rehabilitation programme including standardised education and physical training sessions in the municipality's health care centre with the same duration of individual counseling in the diabetes outpatient clinic, were used. Data from 143 diabetes patients were analysed. The merged lifestyle intervention resulted in statistically significant improvements in patients' systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, exercise capacity, glycaemic control, and some aspects of general health-related quality of life. The linear multivariate regression models explained 45% to 80% of the variance in these improvements. The baseline outcomes in accordance to the logic of the regression to the mean phenomenon were the only statistically significant and robust predictors in all regression models. These results are important from a clinical point of view as they highlight the more urgent need for and better outcomes following lifestyle intervention for those patients who have worse general and disease-specific health. PMID:22593714
Mojzsis, Stephen J.
Ahimsa Media - For Educators - The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect: Extension Activity By Erica Hargreave Extensions Have students brainstorm ways they can reduce greenhouse gases at home, play and school. Visit a local organization that is successfully reducing greenhouse gas emissions
Molnár, Márta; Szekeresné Izsák, Margit; Nagy, Judit; Figler, Mária
It is known that dietary protein restriction slows the progression of chronic renal disease. If daily protein intake is less than 0.5-0.6 g/kgbw, the diet has to be supplemented with essential aminoacids/ketoacids. In this study the authors evaluate the long-term effect of low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids on the progression of chronic renal failure, calcium and phosphorus metabolism, nutritional status, the compliance of patients and the permanent dietary education for the compliance. 51 predialysis patients have been treated with ketoacids supplemented low-protein diet during 12-57 months (mean treatment period: 26 months). Serum creatinine raised from 349.72+/-78.04 micromol/l to 460.66+/-206.66 micromol/l (27 micromol/l/year or 2.3 micromol/l/month), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreased from 21.52+/-7.84 ml/min to 18.22+/-7.76 ml/min (0.83 ml/min/year or 0.07 ml/min/month). The slope of 1/serum creatinine versus time was 0.0018 by linear regression analysis. Serum parathormon decreased significantly, but serum calcium and phosphorus did not change. Nutritional status of patients did not change significantly during the follow-up period. Protein intake decreased significantly and remained at this lower level during the treatment period. According to results: low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids was effective in slowing progression of chronic renal failure, decreased PTH, did not change nutritional status. With permanently and good education it was possible to keep patients on low-protein diet for a long period. PMID:19158020
McDonald, W S; Sharp, C W; Deitch, E A
Recent animal studies indicate that immediate enteral feeding may be beneficial in patients with major burns. Yet, largely because of the fear of complications, immediate enteral feeding is not commonly performed in patients with major burns until after the resuscitation period. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of immediate enteral tube feedings in patients with burns larger than 20% of their body surface area. The daily intake of enteral feedings begun immediately (less than 6 hours) after burn was measured during the first 7 days after burn in 106 consecutive patients with a mean +/- SD burn size of 40% +/- 21%. The incidence of complications related to enteral feeding was low; aspiration pneumonia did not occur. Vomiting was the major complication observed and occurred 21 times in 16 patients during the 745 study days (2.8% daily incidence). The mean number of calories absorbed enterally increased daily and met the patient's calculated resting energy expenditure (REE) on day 3 after burn (99% +/- 7% REE). The results of this study indicate that immediate enteral feeding is a safe and effective method of delivering nutritional support to burn victims with major burns. PMID:1899551
The lack of effective energy conservation education and interest regarding alternative energy sources on Albion College’s campus illustrates a common problem among American university campuses. The purpose of this study is to integrate both education and renewable ...
University of Maryland New General Education Program: Effective Dates for Transfer Students Students matriculating* to the University of Maryland (including freshmen and students transferring from. Students transferring to the University who have completed their general education requirements at another
Dawson, Diane; Jacobs, Rowena; Martin, Steve; Smith, Peter
In many countries, patient choice is a routine part of the normal healthcare system. However, many choice initiatives in secondary care are part of policies aimed at reducing waiting times. This article provides evidence on the effectiveness of patient choice as a mechanism to reduce waiting times within a metropolitan area. The London Patient Choice Project was a large-scale pilot offering patients on hospital waiting lists a choice of alternative hospitals with shorter waiting times. A total of 22 500 patients were offered choice and 15 000 accepted. The acceptance rate of 66% was very high by international standards. In this article we address two questions. First, did the introduction of choice significantly reduce waiting times in London relative to the rest of the country where there was no choice? Second, how were the waiting times of London patients not offered choice affected by the choice regime? We examine the evidence on these issues for one specialty, orthopaedics. A difference-in-difference analysis is used to compare waiting times for hospitals within London before and after the introduction of choice. Although there was a small but significant reduction in waiting times in London relative to other areas where there was no patient choice, the main effect of the choice regime was to produce convergence of mean waiting times within London. Convergence was achieved by bringing down waiting times at the hospitals with high waiting times to the levels that prevailed in hospitals with low waiting times. This represented a clear improvement in equity of access, an important objective of the English National Health Service. PMID:15901194
McDougald Scott, Amanda M.; Jackson, Gretchen Purcell; Ho, Yun-Xian; Yan, Zhou; Davison, Coda; Rosenbloom, S. Trent
Despite increases in the scientific evidence for a variety of medical treatments, a gap remains in the adoption of best medical practices. This manuscript describes a process for adapting published summary guides from comparative effectiveness research to render them concise, targeted to audience, and easily actionable; and a strategy for disseminating such evidence to patients and their physicians through a web-based portal and linked electronic health record. This project adapted summary guides about oral medications for adults with type 2 diabetes to a fifth-grade literacy level and modified the resulting materials based on evaluations with the Suitability Assessment of Materials instrument. Focus groups and individual interviews with patients, diabetes providers, and health literacy experts were employed to evaluate and enhance the adapted summary guide. We present the lessons learned as general guidelines for the creation of concise, targeted, and actionable evidence and its delivery to both patients and providers through increasingly prevalent health information technologies. PMID:24551387
Dong, Ze-hua; Yu, Bang-xu; Sun, Yun-bo; Fang, Wei; Li, Lei
BACKGROUND: For patients in intensive care unit (ICU), mechanical ventilation is an effective treatment to survive from acute illness and improve survival rates. However, long periods of bed rest and restricted physical activity can result in side effects. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of early rehabilitation therapy in patients with mechanical ventilation. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was carried out. Sixty patients, with tracheal intubation or tracheostomy more than 48 hours and less than 72 hours, were admitted to the ICU of the Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, from May 2010 to May 2012. These patients were randomly divided into a rehabilitation group and a control group. In the rehabilitation group, rehabilitation therapy was performed twice daily, and the training time and intensity were adjusted according to the condition of the patients. Early rehabilitation therapy included heading up actively, transferring from the supine position to sitting position, sitting at the edge of the bed, sitting in chair, transferring from sitting to standing, and ambulating bedside. The patient's body mass index, days to first out of bed, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay, APACHE II score, highest FiO2, lowest PaO2/FiO2 and hospital mortality of patients were all compared between the rehabilitation group and the control group. The differences between the two groups were compared using Student's t test. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in body mass index, APACHE II score, highest FiO2, lowest PaO2/FiO2 and hospital mortality between the rehabilitation group and the control group (P>0.05). Patients in the rehabilitation group had shorter days to first out of bed (3.8±1.2 d vs. 7.3±2.8 d; P=0.00), duration of mechanical ventilation (5.6±2.1 d vs. 12.7±4.1 d; P=0.005) and length of ICU stay (12.7±4.1 d vs. 15.2±4.5 d; P=0.01) compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Early rehabilitation therapy was feasible and effective in improving the outcomes of patients with mechanical ventilation. PMID:25215147
Zafar, Muhammad A; Diers, Tiffiny; Schauer, Daniel P; Warm, Eric J
As part of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System, residency programs must connect resident-physician education to improved patient care outcomes. Residency training programs, however, face multiple obstacles in doing so. Results from residency quality improvement (QI) curricula tend to show improvement in simple process-based measures but not in more complex outcomes of care such as diabetes or blood pressure control. In this article, the authors describe the evolution of their QI educational program for internal medicine residents at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center within the structure of a novel training model called the Ambulatory Long Block. They discuss a resident-run project that led to reduced rates of patients with uncontrolled diabetes as an example of improvement in outcome measures. Despite favorable results from that particular resident group, the successful intervention did not spread practice-wide. Using this example, they detail the phases of evolution and lessons learned from their curriculum from 2006 to 2014 within a framework of previously published general principles for successful QI education, including those of exemplary care and learning sites. Successful programs require leadership, faculty expertise and mentorship, data management, learner buy-in, and patient engagement. Their experience will hopefully be of help to others as they attempt to simultaneously improve care and education. Further research and innovation are needed in this area, including optimizing strategies for strengthening resident-driven projects through partnership with nursing, allied health, and longitudinally engaged faculty members. PMID:25054419
Lowe, Donald R.; Nummedal, Dag
Progress is assessed within the following areas of geoscience education: undergraduate and graduate enrollments, continuing education activities, conferences, National Science Foundation programs, source- and textbook and other educational material publications, earth-science teaching at the precollege level, and marine education (geology of ocean…
Brosseau, Lucie; Wells, George A.; Tugwell, Peter; Egan, Mary; Dubouloz, Claire-Jehanne; Welch, Vivian A.; Trafford, Laura; Sredic, Danjiel; Pohran, Kathryn; Smoljanic, Jovana; Vukosavljevic, Ivan; De Angelis, Gino; Loew, Laurianne; McEwan, Jessica; Bell, Mary; Finestone, Hillel M.; Lineker, Sydney; King, Judy; Jelly, Wilma; Casimiro, Lynn; Haines-Wangda, Angela; Russell-Doreleyers, Marion; Laferriere, Lucie; Lambert, Kim
Background and purpose: The objective of this article is to create guidelines for education interventions in the management of patients ([greater than] 18 years old) with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: The Ottawa Methods Group identified and synthesized evidence from comparative controlled trials using Cochrane Collaboration methods. The…
Seki, Akiyoshi; Shinohara, Kuniaki
When the sewer system in Japan was still poor, TOTO has produced plumbing products, such as toilets, to provide people a healthy and cultural life. The genuine spirit of “High quality” and “Customer satisfaction” made it possible for us to do so. But nowadays, in terms of problems of quality, globalization, aging, we should enhance training engineers to continue making “High quality” and “Customer satisfying” products, in this speed of globalization. We would introduce the effective education system for engineers in TOTO, including our future vision.
Kuriyama, Hiroko; Shigemori, Ichiro; Watanabe, Satoko; Aihara, Yuka; Kita, Masakazu; Sawai, Kiyoshi; Nakajima, Hiroo; Yoshida, Noriko; Kunisawa, Masahiro; Kawase, Masanori; Fukui, Kenji
We examined how aromatherapy massage influenced psychologic and immunologic parameters in 12 breast cancer patients in an open semi-comparative trial. We compared the results 1 month before aromatherapy massage as a waiting control period with those during aromatherapy massage treatment and 1 month after the completion of aromatherapy sessions. The patients received a 30 min aromatherapy massage twice a week for 4 weeks (eight times in total). The results showed that anxiety was reduced in one 30 min aromatherapy massage in State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) test and also reduced in eight sequential aromatherapy massage sessions in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) test. Our results further suggested that aromatherapy massage ameliorated the immunologic state. Further investigations are required to confirm the anxiolytic effect of aromatherapy in breast cancer patients. PMID:18955225
Izdebski, K.; Fontanesi, J.; Ross, J.C.; Hetzler, D.
The effects of radiation therapy on the ability of totally laryngectomized patients to produce voice and speech were examined using objective non-invasive methods. Moderate to severe losses were noted in patients producing voice with all types of alaryngeal modalities: tracheoesophageal, esophageal, and electrolaryngeal. Voice and speech losses were related to the impaired motility and vibratory capability of the esophageal wall and mucosa, to fibrosis of the submandibular region and to trismus. Tracheoesophageal and esophageal voice was recovered some weeks after completion of irradiation. No voice losses were observed in alaryngeal speakers who did not undergo voice restoration until after irradiation. All irradiated patients also showed various degrees of dysphagia during the treatment.
Levett-Jones, Tracy; Hoffman, Kerry; Dempsey, Jennifer; Jeong, Sarah Yeun-Sim; Noble, Danielle; Norton, Carol Anne; Roche, Janiece; Hickey, Noelene
Acute care settings are characterised by patients with complex health problems who are more likely to be or become seriously ill during their hospital stay. Although warning signs often precede serious adverse events there is consistent evidence that 'at risk' patients are not always identified or managed appropriately. 'Failure to rescue', with rescue being the ability to recognise deteriorating patients and to intervene appropriately, is related to poor clinical reasoning skills. These factors provided the impetus for the development of an educational model that has the potential to enhance nursing students' clinical reasoning skills and consequently their ability to manage 'at risk' patients. Clinical reasoning is the process by which nurses collect cues, process the information, come to an understanding of a patient problem or situation, plan and implement interventions, evaluate outcomes, and reflect on and learn from the process. Effective clinical reasoning depends upon the nurse's ability to collect the right cues and to take the right action for the right patient at the right time and for the right reason. This paper provides an overview of a clinical reasoning model and the literature underpinning the 'five rights' of clinical reasoning. PMID:19948370
Schooley, Benjamin; San Nicolas-Rocca, Tonia
Background Many studies have provided evidence of the importance of quality provider-patient communications and have suggested improvements to patient understanding by using video-based instruction. Objective The objective of this study was to understand how mobile information technology assisted video and three-dimensional (3D) image instruction, provided by a health care worker, influences two categories of outcome: (1) patient understanding of information about their condition and detailed medical discharge instructions; and (2) patient perceptions and attitudes toward their health care providers, which included physicians, nurses, and staff. We hypothesize that video and 3D image instruction, provided on a mobile, tablet hardware platform, will improve patient understanding about the diagnostic testing, diagnoses, procedures, medications, and health topics provided to them. We also propose that use of the tablet/video combination will result in improved attitudinal evaluation by patients of their providers and the treatment plan. Methods This study evaluated a hospital clinic-based trial (patient N=284) of video and 3D image instruction, provided on a mobile, tablet hardware platform, and its potential to improve patient understanding about the diagnostic testing, diagnoses, procedures, medications, and health topics provided to them. Results Results showed strong evidence that the system was perceived as helpful for improving patient understanding, and that it improved communication between physicians and patients (P<.001). The advanced age of some patients had no effect on their perceptions of the tablet-based mediation. Physician comments provided useful insights on effective use of such systems in the future. Implications for further development and future research are discussed. Conclusions This study added to the body of evidence that computer-assisted video instructional systems for patients can improve patient understanding of medical instructions from their health care providers and assist with patient compliance. In addition, such systems can be appealing to both patient and provider. PMID:25583145
Zary, Nabil; Kononowicz, Andrzej A.
Background. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are an emerging trend in online learning. However, their technology is not yet completely adjusted to the needs of healthcare education. Integration of Virtual Patients within MOOCs to increase interactivity and foster clinical reasoning skills training, has been discussed in the past, but not verified by a practical implementation. Objective. To investigate the technical feasibility of integrating MOOCs with Virtual Patients for the purpose of enabling further research into the potential pedagogical benefits of this approach. Methods. We selected OpenEdx and Open Labyrinth as representative constituents of a MOOC platform and Virtual Patient system integration. Based upon our prior experience we selected the most fundamental technical requirement to address. Grounded in the available literature we identified an e-learning standard to guide the integration. We attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of the integration by designing a “proof-of-concept” prototype. The resulting pilot implementation was subject of verification by two test cases. Results. A Single Sign-On mechanism connecting Open Labyrinth with OpenEdx and based on the IMS LTI standard was successfully implemented and verified. Conclusion. We investigated the technical perspective of integrating Virtual Patients with MOOCs. By addressing this crucial technical requirement we set a base for future research on the educational benefits of using virtual patients in MOOCs. This provides new opportunities for integrating specialized software in healthcare education at massive scale. PMID:25405078
Stathakarou, Natalia; Zary, Nabil; Kononowicz, Andrzej A
Background. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are an emerging trend in online learning. However, their technology is not yet completely adjusted to the needs of healthcare education. Integration of Virtual Patients within MOOCs to increase interactivity and foster clinical reasoning skills training, has been discussed in the past, but not verified by a practical implementation. Objective. To investigate the technical feasibility of integrating MOOCs with Virtual Patients for the purpose of enabling further research into the potential pedagogical benefits of this approach. Methods. We selected OpenEdx and Open Labyrinth as representative constituents of a MOOC platform and Virtual Patient system integration. Based upon our prior experience we selected the most fundamental technical requirement to address. Grounded in the available literature we identified an e-learning standard to guide the integration. We attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of the integration by designing a "proof-of-concept" prototype. The resulting pilot implementation was subject of verification by two test cases. Results. A Single Sign-On mechanism connecting Open Labyrinth with OpenEdx and based on the IMS LTI standard was successfully implemented and verified. Conclusion. We investigated the technical perspective of integrating Virtual Patients with MOOCs. By addressing this crucial technical requirement we set a base for future research on the educational benefits of using virtual patients in MOOCs. This provides new opportunities for integrating specialized software in healthcare education at massive scale. PMID:25405078
YUSOFF, Hafzan; WAN DAUD, Wan Nudri; AHMAD, Zulkifli
Background This study was carried out to compare the effect between nutrition education intervention and non-nutrition education intervention on awareness regarding iron deficiency among schooling adolescents in Tanah Merah, one of rural district in Kelantan, Malaysia. Methods: This study which was started in year 2010 involved 280 respondents (223 girls, 57 boys, age: 16 yr) from schools in Tanah Merah. The selection criteria were based on hemoglobin level (Hb = 7 – 11.9 g/dL for girls; Hb = 7 – 12.9 g/dL for boys). They were divided into 2 groups. The first group received nutrition education package (Nutrition education, NE), whereas another group was entitled to receive non-nutrition education intervention (Non-Nutrition Education, NNE) (supplement only). Both interventions were implemented for 3 months. The changes in awareness among respondents of both groups were evaluated using multi-choices questionnaire. Results: Nutrition education receiver group (NE) demonstrated improvement in awareness at post-intervention. No substantial improvement was demonstrated by the counterpart group (NNE). Conclusion: Multimedia nutrition education program conducted at school setting was in fact practical and effective in improving awareness on iron deficiency among anemic adolescents. PMID:23802103
Background Recent educational initiatives by both the World Health Organization and the American Association of Medical Colleges have endorsed integrating teaching of patient safety and quality improvement (QI) to medical students. Curriculum development should take into account learners’ attitudes and preferences. We surveyed students to assess preferences and attitudes about QI and patient safety education. Methods An electronic survey was developed through focus groups, literature review, and local expert opinion and distributed via email to all medical students at a single medical school in the spring of 2012. Results A greater proportion of students reported previous exposure to patient safety than to quality improvement topics (79% vs. 47%). More than 80% of students thought patient safety was of the same or greater importance than basic science or clinical skills whereas quality improvement was rated as the same or more important by about 70% of students. Students rated real life examples of quality improvement projects and participation in these projects with actual patients as potentially the most helpful (mean scores 4.2/5 and 3.9/5 respectively). For learning about patient safety, real life examples of mistakes were again rated most highly (mean scores 4.5/5 for MD presented mistakes and 4.1/5 for patient presented mistakes). Students rated QI as very important to their future career regardless of intended specialty (mean score 4.5/5). Conclusions Teaching of patient safety and quality improvement to medical students will be best received if it is integrated into clinical education rather than solely taught in pre-clinical lectures or through independent computer modules. Students recognize that these topics are important to their careers as future physicians regardless of intended specialty. PMID:23379673
Ertugay, Cigdem Kalaycik; Toros, Sema Zer; Karaca, Cigdem Tepe; Kulekci, Semra; Verim, Aysegul; Ertugay, Omer Cagatay; Naiboglu, Baris
We aimed to find out whether snoring relieve with nasal surgery in patients with nasal obstruction. Sixty-four patients who underwent septoplasty under general anesthesia with complaint of nasal obstruction and snoring at Haydarpasa Numune Education and Research Hospital were enrolled in the study. All patients were evaluated by otolaryngological examination. Septal deviation was graded as mild, moderate and severe with endoscopy. Variables examined included age, sex, body mass index. All patients also completed the questionnaires, including Nose Obstruction Symptom Evaluation scale (NOSE), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Snore Symptom Inventory (SSI) before and after septoplasty. NOSE scale, ESS, and SSI scores showed statistically significant improvement after nasal surgery (p < 0.01) but we could not find any statistically significant association between septal deviation grading and improvement in scores of NOSE scale, ESS, and SSI (p > 0.05). Added to this, the association between body mass index (BMI) and improvement in scores of NOSE scale, ESS, and SSI did not reach statistical significance (p > 0.05). Our results demonstrated that septoplasty is effective on the subjective parameters of nasal obstruction in habitual snorers irrespective of the nasal septal deviation and severity of BMI. PMID:25182390
The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for education technology planning. A state educational technology plan is a written strategy that outlines the way a state proposes to integrate educational technology into its overall educational goals. The report has been divided into three categories: preparing, writing, and evaluating. Stage…
Weisberg, Daniel F.
Medical schools instill a classic moral standoff in which the responsibility for the betterment of the patient stands at odds with the responsibility for the betterment of society. In critical ways, the latter, in the form of a robust research and technology-driven enterprise, has taken precedence over the former, resulting in harm to patients and individual dignity. This tradeoff can be traced to Abraham Flexner, the father of American medical education. In the wake of the Flexner report, American medicine set out on a course of exponential scientific advancement, but the mistreatment of research subjects and the erosion of the doctor-patient relationship in a health care system that is increasingly unaffordable, complex, and impersonal suggest that such progress has come at a price. Recent efforts by medical schools to emphasize humanism in their curricula and admissions processes have shown promise in orienting the values of academic medicine toward the individual patient’s well-being. PMID:24600339
Recently, schools of nursing have adopted the use of high-fidelity human patient simulators in laboratory settings to teach nursing. Although numerous articles document the benefits of teaching undergraduate nursing students in this way, little attention has been paid to the discourses and texts organizing this approach. This institutional ethnography uses the critical feminist sociology of Dorothy E. Smith to examine the literature and interviews with Practical and Bachelor of Science in Nursing students, and their faculty about this experience. The research shows how discourses rationalize and sustain certain processes at the expense of others. For example, ruling discourses such as biomedicine, efficiency, and the relational ontology are activated to construct the simulation lab as part of nursing and nursing education. The analysis also highlights the intended and unintended effects of these discourses on nursing education and discusses how emphasizing nursing knowledges can make the simulation lab a positive place for learning. PMID:20137031
Giannapia Affaitati; Raffaele Costantini; Alessandra Fabrizio; Domenico Lapenna; Emmanuele Tafuri; Maria Adele Giamberardino
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) frequently co-occurs with regional pain disorders. This study evaluated how these disorders contribute to FS, by assessing effects of local active vs placebo treatment of muscle\\/joint pain sources on FS symptoms.Female patients with (1) FS+myofascial pain syndromes from trigger points (n=68), or (2) FS+joint pain (n=56) underwent evaluation of myofascial\\/joint symptoms [number\\/intensity of pain episodes, pressure pain
Jeffrey A. Lieberman; T. Scott Stroup; Joseph P. McEvoy; Marvin S. Swartz; Robert A. Rosenheck; Diana O. Perkins; Richard S. E. Keefe; Sonia M. Davis; Clarence E. Davis; Barry D. Lebowitz; Joanne Severe; John K. Hsiao
background The relative effectiveness of second-generation (atypical) antipsychotic drugs as com- pared with that of older agents has been incompletely addressed, though newer agents are currently used far more commonly. We compared a first-generation antipsychotic, perphenazine, with several newer drugs in a double-blind study. methods A total of 1493 patients with schizophrenia were recruited at 57 U.S. sites and random-
Soheil L. Hanna; Barry D. Fletcher
\\u000a Considerable progress has been made in therapy for hematological malignancies over the past few decades, particularly for\\u000a pediatric patients (Bleyer 1990). The increasing number of childhood cancer survivors underscores the need to screen for late adverse effects of therapy that\\u000a could affect up to one- half of the survivors (Meadows and Hobbie 1986), and the need for radiologists to become
Riccardo Torta; Ilaria Siri; Paola Caldera
Goals of work Cancer is often burdened by psychological comorbidity, mainly represented by depression, anxiety and adjustment disorders.\\u000a Efficacy and tolerability of sertraline in the treatment of depressive disorders is well known; however, its efficacy and\\u000a safety in patients with cancer has been poorly studied. This study was aimed to provide evidences of effectiveness, safety,\\u000a tolerability and rapidity of action of
Rolf K. W. van der Velden; Maarten H. J. Wolbers
This article explores the total (measured and unmeasured) impact of education on some of the main socio-economic outcomes (that is, employment opportunities, job security and wages) among school-leavers who finished upper secondary or tertiary education in the Netherlands. The empirical analysis shows that the effects of education are typically underestimated in labour market research. Education has a large impact on
Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu
Grounded in Person-Environment Fit Theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children's positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 at study entry. Results 5 years after random assignment, when children were ages 8 to 10, indicated that mothers' education preferences did moderate program impacts on teacher-reported child behavior problems and positive behavior. Children whose mothers were assigned to the education program were rated by teachers to have less externalizing behavior and more positive behavior than children whose mothers were assigned to the employment program, but only when mothers had strong preferences for education. PMID:22861169
Duan, Naihua; Kravitz, Richard L.; Schmid, Christopher H.
Objective To raise awareness among clinicians and epidemiologists that single-patient (n-of-1) trials are potentially useful for informing personalized treatment decisions for patients with chronic conditions. Study Design and Setting We reviewed the clinical and statistical literature on methods and applications of single-patient trials and then critically evaluated the needs for further methodological developments. Results Existing literature reports application of 2,154 single-patient trials in 108 studies for diverse clinical conditions; various recent commentaries advocate for wider application of such trials in clinical decision making. Preliminary evidence from several recent pilot acceptability studies suggests that single-patient trials have the potential for widespread acceptance by patients and clinicians as an effective modality for increasing the therapeutic precision. Bayesian and adaptive statistical methods hold promise for increasing the informational yield of single-patient trials while reducing participant burden, but are not widely used. Personalized applications of single-patient trials can be enhanced through further development and application of methodologies on adaptive trial design, stopping rules, network meta-analysis, washout methods, and methods for communicating trial findings to patients and clinicians. Conclusions Single-patient trials may be poised to emerge as an important part of the methodological armamentarium for comparative effectiveness research and patient-centered outcomes research. By permitting direct estimation of individual treatment effects, they can facilitate finely graded individualized care, enhance therapeutic precision, improve patient outcomes, and reduce costs. PMID:23849149
McKenzie, Thomas L; Lounsbery, Monica A F
The health benefits of physical activity are well documented, and the important role that schools and physical education (PE) can play in reducing sedentary behavior and contributing to population health has been identified. Although effective teaching is ultimately judged by student achievement, a major component of teacher and school effectiveness studies has been student engagement. Thus, in PE, it is important to assess the teaching and learning processes related to expected outcomes, including what students and teachers do and how lessons are delivered. Within a public health context, it is then important to assess how teachers provide students with ample health-enhancing physical activity to help them become physically fit and to learn generalizable movement and behavioral skills designed to promote physical activity and fitness outside of class time. In this article, we emphasize that the future of PE in our nation's schools will depend on the ability of schools to provide programs that are perceived to be of importance to the public; moreover, we believe that the future of PE rests on the effectiveness of PE teachers to operate within a public health context. In addition, we also provide a summary of teacher effectiveness research within a public health context and offer visions for the future assessment and evaluation of PE teacher effectiveness that move beyond the PE lesson to include components of the comprehensive school physical activity model. PMID:24592772
Dolton, Peter J.; Silles, Mary A.
This paper uses a new survey of graduates from one large civil university in the UK to examine the determinants of over-education and its subsequent impact on labour market earnings. Multiple measurements of over-education were collected to assess the effect of measurement error on the estimated pay penalty associated with over-education. Panel…
South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, Columbia.
This publication examines data reported annually by South Carolina's public institutions of higher education as part of institutional effectiveness reporting. Data are displayed on the 33 public institutions of higher education within groupings of institutions. The 11 sections highlight various aspects of higher education: (1) "Mission Focus"…
The short- and long-term effects of quality physical education programs have been a subject of considerable debate by educational administrators and state legislators during the past decade. While physical educators have repeatedly demonstrated the importance of daily moderate and vigorous physical activity on the immediate health and wellbeing of…
Eleonora Patacchini; Yves Zenou
ABSTRACT We analyze the intergenerational transmission of education focusing on the interplay between family and neighborhood effects. We develop a theoretical model suggesting that both neighborhood quality and parental effort are of importance for the education attained by children. This model proposes a mechanism explaining why and how they are of importance, distinguishing between high? and low?educated parents. We then
Carla S Harting
This study investigated three prevention initiatives implemented through a grant used in general education settings to help students at-risk for academic failure overcome cognitive deficits that could result in referral for special education services. The prevention initiatives used since the 1998–1999 school year were examined for similarities and differences. Their effectiveness was compared with respect to special education referral and
The purpose of this report is to provide the Florida legislature with information required by Florida statutes regarding educational services in the Department of Juvenile Justice Programs. This section requires the Department of Education and Department of Juvenile Justice to report annually the progress toward developing effective educational…
Cathy Cavanaugh; Jo Gillan; Robert Blomeyer
Abstract Since the early 1930s, elementary and secondarystudents have learned through the use of electronic distance learning systems. Several benefits have been reported for K-12 distance education: increased access to education for students with a wide range of needs, flexibility in the speed and schedule of learning, greater parental influence on education. However, some researchers have found that the effectiveness
Howard, Caroline; Schenk, Karen; Discenza, Richard
"Distance Learning and University Effectiveness: Changing Educational Paradigms for Online Learning" addresses the challenges and opportunities associated with information and communication technologies (ICTs) as related to education. From discussing new and innovative educational paradigms and learning models resulting from ICTs to addressing…
Eric Dearing; Kathleen McCartney; Heather B. Weiss; Holly Kreider; Sandra Simpkins
Longitudinal data for 167 low-income children were analyzed to examine associations between family educational involvement during kindergarten, children's feelings about literacy, and children's literacy achievement from kindergarten through fifth grade. The promotive effect of family educational involvement for feelings about literacy and literacy achievement was moderated by maternal education such that involvement was more positively associated with literacy outcomes for
of an Educational Game Cristina Conati University of British Columbia 2366 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C., V6T1Z4, Canada2@cs.sfu.ca ABSTRACT Electronic educational games can be highly entertaining, but studies have shown that they do not always trigger learning. To enhance the effectiveness of educational games, we propose
Cristina Conati; Xiaohong Zhao
Electronic educational games can be highly entertaining, but studies have shown that they do not always trigger learning. To enhance the effectiveness of educational games, we propose intelligent pedagogical agents that can provide individualized instruction integrated with the entertaining nature of the games. In this paper, we describe one such agent, that we have developed for Prime Climb, an educational
Hastie, Peter A.; Saunders, John E.
The effects of class size and availability of physical education equipment on students' and teachers' classroom behaviors were studied. The academic learning time-physical education instrument was used in primary-school physical-education classes in Queensland (Australia) containing 12, 24, and 44 5- and 6-year olds. These variables affected…