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Sample records for effective polar membrane

  1. Mechano-capacitive properties of polarized membranes.

    PubMed

    Mosgaard, Lars D; Zecchi, Karis A; Heimburg, Thomas

    2015-10-28

    Biological membranes are capacitors that can be charged by applying a field across the membrane. The charges on the capacitor exert a force on the membrane that leads to electrostriction, i.e. a thinning of the membrane. Since the force is quadratic in voltage, negative and positive voltage have an identical influence on the physics of symmetric membranes. However, this is not the case for a membrane with an asymmetry leading to a permanent electric polarization. Positive and negative voltages of identical magnitude lead to different properties. Such an asymmetry can originate from a lipid composition that is different on the two monolayers of the membrane, or from membrane curvature. The latter effect is called 'flexoelectricity'. As a consequence of permanent polarization, the membrane capacitor is discharged at a voltage different from zero. This leads to interesting electrical phenomena such as outward or inward rectification of membrane permeability. Here, we introduce a generalized theoretical framework, that treats capacitance, polarization, flexoelectricity, piezoelectricity and thermoelectricity in the same language. We show applications to electrostriction, membrane permeability and piezoelectricity and thermoelectricity close to melting transitions, where such effects are especially pronounced. PMID:26324950

  2. An experimental study on the effect of spacer on concentration polarization in a long channel reverse osmosis membrane cell.

    PubMed

    Mo, H; Ng, H Y

    2010-01-01

    This study was to experimentally investigate the performance and organic fouling behaviour in a 1-m long RO membrane channel with or without spacer for desalting. It was found that local permeate flux distributed heterogeneously along the long membrane channel without a spacer inserted due to exponential growth of concentration polarization, which also resulted in decreasing salt rejection and increasing organic fouling along the membrane channel in the downstream direction. This heterogeneity could be lessened by inserting a spacer into the channel, which mitigated concentration polarization due to the enhanced turbulence caused by a spacer, especially at the downstream portion of the channel. However, in the upstream of the channel, inserting a spacer exerted an additional vertical resistance which might counteract the effect of concentration polarization mitigation by a spacer and caused a lower permeate flux. This suggests that it is necessary to consider the integral effect of spacer for designing an RO membrane module and an overall RO system in order to prevent extra resistance, reduce concentration polarization and membrane fouling. PMID:20389001

  3. Temperature polarization coefficients in membrane distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Diez, L.; Vazquez-Gonzalez, M.I.; Florido-Diaz, F.J.

    1998-04-01

    Membrane distillation is a membrane process in which two liquid phases at different temperatures are separated by a microporous hydrophobic membrane. The membrane plays the role of a physical support for the vapor-liquid interface. The aim of this paper is to study pure water transport by membrane distillation through a PTFE flat membrane. The dependence of the phenomenon on average temperature and recirculation rate at the membrane sides is investigated. The influence of these operating conditions on water transport is discussed by taking into account mass and heat transfer within the membrane and the adjoining liquid phases. The concept of temperature polarization is introduced into the transport equations and shown to be important in the interpretation of the experimental results.

  4. Nanoscale Membrane Curvature detected by Polarized Localization Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Christopher; Maarouf, Abir; Woodward, Xinxin

    Nanoscale membrane curvature is a necessary component of countless cellular processes. Here we present Polarized Localization Microscopy (PLM), a super-resolution optical imaging technique that enables the detection of nanoscale membrane curvature with order-of-magnitude improvements over comparable optical techniques. PLM combines the advantages of polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence localization microscopy to reveal single-fluorophore locations and orientations without reducing localization precision by point spread function manipulation. PLM resolved nanoscale membrane curvature of a supported lipid bilayer draped over polystyrene nanoparticles on a glass coverslip, thus creating a model membrane with coexisting flat and curved regions and membrane radii of curvature as small as 20 nm. Further, PLM provides single-molecule trajectories and the aggregation of curvature-inducing proteins with super-resolution to reveal the correlated effects of membrane curvature, dynamics, and molecular sorting. For example, cholera toxin subunit B has been observed to induce nanoscale membrane budding and concentrate at the bud neck. PLM reveals a previously hidden and critical information of membrane topology.

  5. The polarized EMC effect

    SciTech Connect

    W. Bentz; I. C. Cloet; A. W. Thomas

    2007-02-01

    We calculate both the spin independent and spin dependent nuclear structure functions in an effective quark theory. The nucleon is described as a composite quark-diquark state, and the nucleus is treated in the mean field approximation. We predict a sizable polarized EMC effect, which could be confirmed in future experiments.

  6. Effect of concentration polarization on permselectivity.

    PubMed

    Abu-Rjal, Ramadan; Chinaryan, Vahe; Bazant, Martin Z; Rubinstein, Isaak; Zaltzman, Boris

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the variation of permselectivity in the course of concentration polarization is systematically analyzed for a three-layer membrane system consisting of a nonperfectly permselective ion exchange membrane, homogeneous or heterogeneous, flanked by two diffusion layers of a binary univalent electrolyte. For a heterogeneous membrane, an ionic transport model is proposed, which is amenable to analytical treatment. In this model, assuming a constant fixed charge in the membrane and disregarding water splitting, the entire transport problem is reduced to solution of a single algebraic equation for the counterion transport number. It is concluded that for both types of membrane the concentration polarization may significantly affect the permselectivity of the system through the effects of the induced nonuniformity of the coion diffusion flux in the membrane (convexity of the coion concentration profile) and varying membrane-solution interface concentration. While the former is significant for low membrane fixed charge density, for a heterogeneous membrane, the latter might be considerably affected by the flux focusing effect at the permeable membrane segments. PMID:24580222

  7. Effect of concentration polarization on permselectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    abu-Rjal, Ramadan; Chinaryan, Vahe; Bazant, Martin Z.; Rubinstein, Isaak; Zaltzman, Boris

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the variation of permselectivity in the course of concentration polarization is systematically analyzed for a three-layer membrane system consisting of a nonperfectly permselective ion exchange membrane, homogeneous or heterogeneous, flanked by two diffusion layers of a binary univalent electrolyte. For a heterogeneous membrane, an ionic transport model is proposed, which is amenable to analytical treatment. In this model, assuming a constant fixed charge in the membrane and disregarding water splitting, the entire transport problem is reduced to solution of a single algebraic equation for the counterion transport number. It is concluded that for both types of membrane the concentration polarization may significantly affect the permselectivity of the system through the effects of the induced nonuniformity of the coion diffusion flux in the membrane (convexity of the coion concentration profile) and varying membrane-solution interface concentration. While the former is significant for low membrane fixed charge density, for a heterogeneous membrane, the latter might be considerably affected by the flux focusing effect at the permeable membrane segments.

  8. Sterol-Rich Membrane Domains Define Fission Yeast Cell Polarity.

    PubMed

    Makushok, Tatyana; Alves, Paulo; Huisman, Stephen Michiel; Kijowski, Adam Rafal; Brunner, Damian

    2016-05-19

    Cell polarization is crucial for the functioning of all organisms. The cytoskeleton is central to the process but its role in symmetry breaking is poorly understood. We study cell polarization when fission yeast cells exit starvation. We show that the basis of polarity generation is de novo sterol biosynthesis, cell surface delivery of sterols, and their recruitment to the cell poles. This involves four phases occurring independent of the polarity factor cdc42p. Initially, multiple, randomly distributed sterol-rich membrane (SRM) domains form at the plasma membrane, independent of the cytoskeleton and cell growth. These domains provide platforms on which the growth and polarity machinery assembles. SRM domains are then polarized by the microtubule-dependent polarity factor tea1p, which prepares for monopolar growth initiation and later switching to bipolar growth. SRM polarization requires F-actin but not the F-actin organizing polarity factors for3p and bud6p. We conclude that SRMs are key to cell polarization. PMID:27180904

  9. Enzyme Activities in Polarized Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Bass, L.; McIlroy, D. K.

    1968-01-01

    The theoretical pH dependence of enzyme activities in membranes of low dielectric constant is estimated. It is shown that in biological membranes some types of enzymes may attain a limiting pH sensitivity such that an increment of only 0.2 pH unit (sufficient to induce action potentials in squid axons) causes a relative activity change of over 25%. The transients of enzyme activity generated by membrane depolarization and by pH increments in the bathing solution are discussed in relation to the transients of nervous excitation. PMID:5641405

  10. Decoupling Polarization of the Golgi Apparatus and GM1 in the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Bisel, Blaine; Calamai, Martino; Vanzi, Francesco; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2013-01-01

    Cell polarization is a process of coordinated cellular rearrangements that prepare the cell for migration. GM1 is synthesized in the Golgi apparatus and localized in membrane microdomains that appear at the leading edge of polarized cells, but the mechanism by which GM1 accumulates asymmetrically is unknown. The Golgi apparatus itself becomes oriented toward the leading edge during cell polarization, which is thought to contribute to plasma membrane asymmetry. Using quantitative image analysis techniques, we measure the extent of polarization of the Golgi apparatus and GM1 in the plasma membrane simultaneously in individual cells subject to a wound assay. We find that GM1 polarization starts just 10 min after stimulation with growth factors, while Golgi apparatus polarization takes 30 min. Drugs that block Golgi polarization or function have no effect on GM1 polarization, and, conversely, inhibiting GM1 polarization does not affect Golgi apparatus polarization. Evaluation of Golgi apparatus and GM1 polarization in single cells reveals no correlation between the two events. Our results indicate that Golgi apparatus and GM1 polarization are controlled by distinct intracellular cascades involving the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways, respectively. Analysis of cell migration and invasion suggest that MEK/ERK activation is crucial for two dimensional migration, while PI3K activation drives three dimensional invasion, and no cumulative effect is observed from blocking both simultaneously. The independent biochemical control of GM1 polarity by PI3K and Golgi apparatus polarity by MEK/ERK may act synergistically to regulate and reinforce directional selection in cell migration. PMID:24312472

  11. Dynamic nuclear polarization of membrane proteins: covalently bound spin-labels at protein-protein interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Benjamin J; Dzikovski, Boris G; Pawsey, Shane; Caporini, Marc; Rosay, Melanie; Freed, Jack H; McDermott, Ann E

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that dynamic nuclear polarization of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers may be achieved using a novel polarizing agent: pairs of spin labels covalently bound to a protein of interest interacting at an intermolecular interaction surface. For gramicidin A, nitroxide tags attached to the N-terminal intermolecular interface region become proximal only when bimolecular channels forms in the membrane. We obtained signal enhancements of sixfold for the dimeric protein. The enhancement effect was comparable to that of a doubly tagged sample of gramicidin C, with intramolecular spin pairs. This approach could be a powerful and selective means for signal enhancement in membrane proteins, and for recognizing intermolecular interfaces. PMID:25828256

  12. Dynamic nuclear polarization methods in solids and solutions to explore membrane proteins and membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Han, Songi

    2013-01-01

    Membrane proteins regulate vital cellular processes, including signaling, ion transport, and vesicular trafficking. Obtaining experimental access to their structures, conformational fluctuations, orientations, locations, and hydration in membrane environments, as well as the lipid membrane properties, is critical to understanding their functions. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of frozen solids can dramatically boost the sensitivity of current solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance tools to enhance access to membrane protein structures in native membrane environments. Overhauser DNP in the solution state can map out the local and site-specific hydration dynamics landscape of membrane proteins and lipid membranes, critically complementing the structural and dynamics information obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Here, we provide an overview of how DNP methods in solids and solutions can significantly increase our understanding of membrane protein structures, dynamics, functions, and hydration in complex biological membrane environments. PMID:23331309

  13. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Methods in Solids and Solutions to Explore Membrane Proteins and Membrane Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Han, Songi

    2013-04-01

    Membrane proteins regulate vital cellular processes, including signaling, ion transport, and vesicular trafficking. Obtaining experimental access to their structures, conformational fluctuations, orientations, locations, and hydration in membrane environments, as well as the lipid membrane properties, is critical to understanding their functions. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of frozen solids can dramatically boost the sensitivity of current solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance tools to enhance access to membrane protein structures in native membrane environments. Overhauser DNP in the solution state can map out the local and site-specific hydration dynamics landscape of membrane proteins and lipid membranes, critically complementing the structural and dynamics information obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Here, we provide an overview of how DNP methods in solids and solutions can significantly increase our understanding of membrane protein structures, dynamics, functions, and hydration in complex biological membrane environments.

  14. Hydrophilic Mineral Coating of Membrane Substrate for Reducing Internal Concentration Polarization (ICP) in Forward Osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qing; Li, Jingguo; Zhou, Zhengzhong; Xie, Jianping; Lee, Jim Yang

    2016-01-01

    Internal concentration polarization (ICP) is a major issue in forward osmosis (FO) as it can significantly reduce the water flux in FO operations. It is known that a hydrophilic substrate and a smaller membrane structure parameter (S) are effective against ICP. This paper reports the development of a thin film composite (TFC) FO membrane with a hydrophilic mineral (CaCO3)-coated polyethersulfone (PES)-based substrate. The CaCO3 coating was applied continuously and uniformly on the membrane pore surfaces throughout the TFC substrate. Due to the intrinsic hydrophilicity of the CaCO3 coating, the substrate hydrophilicity was significantly increased and the membrane S parameter was reduced to as low as the current best of cellulose-based membranes but without the mechanical fragility of the latter. As a result, the ICP of the TFC-FO membrane could be significantly reduced to yield a remarkable increase in water flux without the loss of membrane selectivity.

  15. Calculation of polarization effects

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, A.W.

    1983-09-01

    Basically there are two areas of accelerator applications that involve beam polarization. One is the acceleration of a polarized beam (most likely a proton beam) in a synchrotron. Another concerns polarized beams in an electron storage ring. In both areas, numerical techniques have been very useful.

  16. Effective rigidity of membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peliti, L.

    1986-12-01

    The role of thermal fluctuations of shape (undulations) in reducing the effective rigidity of membranes is reviewed. The consequences of this effect on vesicle size distribution and on the structure of microemulsions, as well as on other physical phenomena, are sketched.

  17. Orientational Ordering of Carotenoids in Myelin Membranes Resolved by Polarized Raman Microspectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kutuzov, Nikolay P.; Brazhe, Alexey R.; Maksimov, Georgy V.; Dracheva, Olga E.; Lyaskovskiy, Vladimir L.; Bulygin, Fedor V.; Rubin, Andrey B.

    2014-01-01

    We study orientational ordering of membrane compounds in the myelinated nerve fiber by means of polarized Raman microspectroscopy. The theory of orientational distribution functions was adapted to live-cell measurements. The obtained orientational distribution functions of carotenoids and lipid acyl chain clearly indicated a predominantly radial-like orientation in membranes of the myelin. Two-dimensional Raman images, made under optimal polarization of incident laser beam, corroborated the proposed carotenoid orientation within the bilayer. Experimental data suggested the tilted orientation of both carotenoid polyenic and lipid acyl chains. The values of maximum tilt angles were similar, with possible implication of carotenoid-induced ordering effect on lipid acyl chains, and hence change of myelin membrane properties. This study stages carotenoids of the nerve as possible mediators of excitation and leverages underlying activity-dependent membrane reordering. PMID:25140424

  18. Dynamic membrane patterning, signal localization and polarity in living cells.

    PubMed

    Zamparo, M; Chianale, F; Tebaldi, C; Cosentino-Lagomarsino, M; Nicodemi, M; Gamba, A

    2015-02-01

    We review the molecular and physical aspects of the dynamic localization of signaling molecules on the plasma membranes of living cells. At the nanoscale, clusters of receptors and signaling proteins play an essential role in the processing of extracellular signals. At the microscale, "soft" and highly dynamic signaling domains control the interaction of individual cells with their environment. At the multicellular scale, individual polarity patterns control the forces that shape multicellular aggregates and tissues. PMID:25563791

  19. Concentration polarization model for hollow-fiber membrane ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.M. ); Cheng, T.W. )

    1994-02-01

    The concentration polarization model has been applied to analyze the permeate flux of hollow-fiber membrane ultrafiltration. Comparison of theoretical prediction with experimental data has been made under various transmembrane pressures, feed velocities, and solution concentrations. Both theoretical prediction and experimental results show that average permeate flux increases as transmembrane pressure or feed velocity increases, but decreases when solution concentration increases. 24 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Membrane aging during cell growth ascertained by Laurdan generalized polarization.

    PubMed

    Parasassi, T; Di Stefano, M; Ravagnan, G; Sapora, O; Gratton, E

    1992-10-01

    The sensitivity of the fluorescent probe Laurdan to the phase state of lipids has been utilized to detect modifications in the composition and physical state of cell membranes during cell growth. In phospholipid vesicles, the Laurdan emission spectrum shows a 50-nm red shift by passing from the gel to the liquid-crystalline phase. The Generalized Polarization (GP) value has been used for the data treatment instead of the ratiometric method common in investigations utilizing other fluorescent probes that display spectral sensitivity to medium properties. The GP value can be measured easily and quickly and possesses all the properties of "classical" polarization, including the additivity rule. Once Laurdan limiting GP values have been established for the gel and the liquid-crystalline phase of lipids, the quantitative determination of coexisting phases in natural samples is possible. In the present work the observation of a relevant decrease in the fractional intensity of the liquid-crystalline phase in K562 cell membranes during 5 days of asynchronous growth is reported. A decrease in the "fluidity" of cell membranes in K562 cells kept in culture for several months is also reported. The procedure developed for labeling cell membranes with Laurdan is reported and the influence of cell metabolism on fluorescence parameters is discussed. Also discussed is the influence of cholesterol on Laurdan GP. PMID:1397095

  1. Circularly polarized waves in a plasma with vacuum polarization effects

    SciTech Connect

    Lundin, J.; Stenflo, L.; Brodin, G.; Marklund, M.; Shukla, P. K.

    2007-06-15

    The theory for large amplitude circularly polarized waves propagating along an external magnetic field is extended in order to also include vacuum polarization effects. A general dispersion relation, which unites previous results, is derived.

  2. Influence of polar and nonpolar carotenoids on structural and adhesive properties of model membranes.

    PubMed

    Augustynska, Dominika; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Burda, Kvetoslava; Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2015-09-01

    Carotenoids, which are known primarily for their photoprotective and antioxidant properties, may also strongly influence the physical properties of membranes. The localization and orientation of these pigments in the lipid bilayer depends on their structure and is determined by their interactions with lipid molecules. This affects both phase behavior and the mechanical properties of membranes. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) allowed us to gain a direct insight into the differences between the interaction of the non-polar β-carotene and polar zeaxanthin embedded into DPPC liposomes. DSC results showed that zeaxanthin, having polar ionone rings, interacts more strongly with the membrane lipids than β-carotene. The decrease in molar heat capacity by a factor of 2 with a simultaneous broadening of the main phase transition (gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition) as compared to the two other systems studied suggests some increased length of the coupled interactions between the polar xanthophyll and lipids. Long-distance interactions lead to the formation of larger clusters which may exhibit higher flexibility than small clusters when only short-distance interactions occur. AFM experiments show that adhesive forces are 2 and 10 times higher for DPPC membranes enriched in β-carotene and zeaxanthin, respectively, than those observed for an untreated system. Temperature dependent measurements of adhesion revealed that subphases can be formed in the gel lamellar state of DPPC bilayers. The presence of the non-polar carotenoid enhanced the effect and even a bifurcation of the substates was detected within a temperature range of 30.0-32.5°C prior to pretransition. It is the first time when the presence of subphases has been demonstrated. This knowledge can be helpful in better understanding the functioning of carotenoids in biological membranes. AFM seem to be a very unique and sensitive method for detecting such fine changes

  3. Spontaneous membrane-translocating peptides: influence of peptide self-aggregation and cargo polarity

    PubMed Central

    Macchi, Sara; Signore, Giovanni; Boccardi, Claudia; Di Rienzo, Carmine; Beltram, Fabio; Cardarelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Peptides that translocate spontaneously across cell membranes could transform the field of drug delivery by enabling the transport of otherwise membrane-impermeant molecules into cells. In this regard, a 9-aminoacid-long motif (representative sequence: PLIYLRLLR, hereafter Translocating Motif 9, TM9) that spontaneously translocates across membranes while carrying a polar dye was recently identified by high-throughput screening. Here we investigate its transport properties by a combination of in cuvette physico-chemical assays, rational mutagenesis, live-cell confocal imaging and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy measurements. We unveil TM9 ability to self-aggregate in a concentration-dependent manner and demonstrate that peptide self-aggregation is a necessary –yet not sufficient– step for effective membrane translocation. Furthermore we show that membrane crossing can occur with apolar payloads while it is completely inhibited by polar ones. These findings are discussed and compared to previous reports. The present results impose a careful rethinking of this class of sequences as direct-translocation vectors suitable for delivery purposes. PMID:26567719

  4. The local anesthetic tetracaine destabilizes membrane structure by interaction with polar headgroups of phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Shimooka, T; Shibata, A; Terada, H

    1992-03-01

    The effect of the local anesthetic tetracaine at less than 10 mM on the water permeability of the phospholipid membrane was examined using liposomes composed of various molar ratios of negatively charged cardiolipin to electrically neutral phosphatidylcholine by monitoring their osmotic shrinkage in hypertonic glucose solution at 30 degrees C. The concentration of tetracaine causing the maximum velocity of shrinkage of liposomes increased with increase in the molar ratio of cardiolipin. Tetracaine increased the zeta-potential of the negatively charged liposomal membrane toward the positive side due to the binding of its cationic form to the negatively charged polar headgroups in the membrane. The maximum velocity of water permeation induced by osmotic shock was observed at essentially the same tetracaine concentration giving a zeta-potential of the liposomal membrane of 0 mV. These concentrations were not affected by change in the sort of acyl-chain of phospholipids in the liposomes when their negative charges were the same. These results suggests that the membrane integrity is governed mainly by the electrical charge of phospholipid polar headgroups when phospholipid bilayers are in the highly fluid state, and that positively charged tetracaine molecules neutralize the negative surface charge, lowering the barrier for water permeation through phospholipid bilayers. PMID:1547263

  5. Hydrophilic Mineral Coating of Membrane Substrate for Reducing Internal Concentration Polarization (ICP) in Forward Osmosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Li, Jingguo; Zhou, Zhengzhong; Xie, Jianping; Lee, Jim Yang

    2016-01-01

    Internal concentration polarization (ICP) is a major issue in forward osmosis (FO) as it can significantly reduce the water flux in FO operations. It is known that a hydrophilic substrate and a smaller membrane structure parameter (S) are effective against ICP. This paper reports the development of a thin film composite (TFC) FO membrane with a hydrophilic mineral (CaCO3)-coated polyethersulfone (PES)-based substrate. The CaCO3 coating was applied continuously and uniformly on the membrane pore surfaces throughout the TFC substrate. Due to the intrinsic hydrophilicity of the CaCO3 coating, the substrate hydrophilicity was significantly increased and the membrane S parameter was reduced to as low as the current best of cellulose-based membranes but without the mechanical fragility of the latter. As a result, the ICP of the TFC-FO membrane could be significantly reduced to yield a remarkable increase in water flux without the loss of membrane selectivity. PMID:26796675

  6. Hydrophilic Mineral Coating of Membrane Substrate for Reducing Internal Concentration Polarization (ICP) in Forward Osmosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Li, Jingguo; Zhou, Zhengzhong; Xie, Jianping; Lee, Jim Yang

    2016-01-01

    Internal concentration polarization (ICP) is a major issue in forward osmosis (FO) as it can significantly reduce the water flux in FO operations. It is known that a hydrophilic substrate and a smaller membrane structure parameter (S) are effective against ICP. This paper reports the development of a thin film composite (TFC) FO membrane with a hydrophilic mineral (CaCO3)-coated polyethersulfone (PES)-based substrate. The CaCO3 coating was applied continuously and uniformly on the membrane pore surfaces throughout the TFC substrate. Due to the intrinsic hydrophilicity of the CaCO3 coating, the substrate hydrophilicity was significantly increased and the membrane S parameter was reduced to as low as the current best of cellulose-based membranes but without the mechanical fragility of the latter. As a result, the ICP of the TFC-FO membrane could be significantly reduced to yield a remarkable increase in water flux without the loss of membrane selectivity. PMID:26796675

  7. Vesicular sorting controls the polarity of expanding membranes in the C. elegans intestine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongjie; Kim, Ahlee; Abraham, Nessy; Khan, Liakot A.; Göbel, Verena

    2013-01-01

    Biological tubes consist of polarized epithelial cells with apical membranes building the central lumen and basolateral membranes contacting adjacent cells or the extracellular matrix. Cellular polarity requires distinct inputs from outside the cell, e.g., the matrix, inside the cell, e.g., vesicular trafficking and the plasma membrane and its junctions.1 Many highly conserved polarity cues have been identified, but their integration during the complex process of polarized tissue and organ morphogenesis is not well understood. It is assumed that plasma-membrane-associated polarity determinants, such as the partitioning-defective (PAR) complex, define plasma membrane domain identities, whereas vesicular trafficking delivers membrane components to these domains, but lacks the ability to define them. In vitro studies on lumenal membrane biogenesis in mammalian cell lines now indicate that trafficking could contribute to defining membrane domains by targeting the polarity determinants, e.g., the PARs, themselves.2 This possibility suggests a mechanism for PARs’ asymmetric distribution on membranes and places vesicle-associated polarity cues upstream of membrane-associated polarity determinants. In such an upstream position, trafficking might even direct multiple membrane components, not only polarity determinants, an original concept of polarized plasma membrane biogenesis3,4that was largely abandoned due to the failure to identify a molecularly defined intrinsic vesicular sorting mechanism. Our two recent studies on C. elegans intestinal tubulogenesis reveal that glycosphingolipids (GSLs) and the well-recognized vesicle components clathrin and its AP-1 adaptor are required for targeting multiple apical molecules, including polarity regulators, to the expanding apical/lumenal membrane.5,6 These findings support GSLs’ long-proposed role in in vivo polarized epithelial membrane biogenesis and development and identify a novel function in apical polarity for classical

  8. Polarization Effects at a Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1998-11-01

    For Muon Colliders, Polarization will be a useful tool if high polarization is achievable with little luminosity loss. Formulation and effects of beam polarization and luminosity including polarization effects in Higgs resonance studies are discussed for improving precision measurements and Higgs resonance ''discovery'' capability e.g. at the First Muon Collider (FMC).

  9. Polarization effects in radiative decay of a polarized τ lepton

    SciTech Connect

    Gakh, G. I.; Konchatnij, M. I. Korchin, A. Yu.; Merenkov, N. P.

    2015-02-15

    The polarization effects in the one-meson radiative decay of a polarized τ lepton, τ → π{sup −}γν{sub τ}, are investigated. The inner bremsstrahlung and structural amplitudes are taken into account. The asymmetry of the differential decay width caused by the τ-lepton polarization and the Stokes parameters of the emitted photon itself are calculated depending on the polarization of the decaying τ lepton. These physical quantities are estimated numerically for an arbitrary direction of the τ lepton polarization 3-vector in the rest frame. The vector and axial-vector form factors describing the structure-dependent part of the decay amplitude are determined using the chiral effective theory with resonances (RχT)

  10. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program biocatalysis research activity. Potential membrane applications to biocatalyzed processes: Assessment of concentration polarization and membrane fouling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingham, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Separation and purification of the products of biocatalyzed fermentation processes, such as ethanol or butanol, consumes most of the process energy required. Since membrane systems require substantially less energy for separation than most alternatives (e.g., distillation) they have been suggested for separation or concentration of fermentation products. This report is a review of the effects of concentration polarization and membrane fouling for the principal membrane processes: microfiltration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis including a discussion of potential problems relevant to separation of fermentation products. It was concluded that advanced membrane systems may result in significantly decreased energy consumption. However, because of the need to separate large amounts of water from much smaller amounts of product that may be more volatile than wate, it is not clear that membrane separations will necessarily be more efficient than alternative processes.

  11. Polarized fluorescence photobleaching recovery for measuring rotational diffusion in solutions and membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Velez, M; Axelrod, D

    1988-01-01

    A variation of fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) suitable for measuring the rate of rotational molecular diffusion in solution and cell membranes is presented in theory and experimental practice for epi-illumination microscopy. In this technique, a brief flash of polarized laser light creates an anisotropic distribution of unbleached fluorophores which relaxes by rotational diffusion, leading to a time-dependent postbleach fluorescence. Polarized FPR (PFPR) is applicable to any time scales from seconds to microseconds. However, at fast (microsecond) time scales, a partial recovery independent of molecular orientation tends to obscure rotational effects. The theory here presents a method for overcoming this reversible photobleaching, and includes explicit results for practical geometries, fast wobble of fluorophores, and arbitrary bleaching depth. This variation of a polarized luminescence "pump-and-probe" technique is compared with prior ones and with "pump-only" time-resolved luminescence anisotropy decay methods. The technique is experimentally verified on small latex beads with a variety of diameters, common fluorophore labels, and solvent viscosities. Preliminary measurements on a protein (acetylcholine receptor) in the membrane of nondeoxygenated cells in live culture (rat myotubes) show a difference in rotational diffusion between clustered and nonclustered receptors. In most experiments, signal averaging, high laser power, and automated sample translation must be employed to achieve adequate statistical accuracy. PMID:3382712

  12. REDUCTION OF CONCENTRATION POLARIZATION IN PERVAPORATION USING VIBRATING MEMBRANE MODULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A vibrating membrane module currently marketed for filtration applications was evaluated for the separation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from aqueous solutions by pervaporation. Preliminary screening experiments with three VOCs, four silicone membranes, and in the presenc...

  13. Chimera proteins with affinity for membranes and microtubule tips polarize in the membrane of fission yeast cells

    PubMed Central

    Recouvreux, Pierre; Sokolowski, Thomas R.; Grammoustianou, Aristea; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein; Dogterom, Marileen

    2016-01-01

    Cell polarity refers to a functional spatial organization of proteins that is crucial for the control of essential cellular processes such as growth and division. To establish polarity, cells rely on elaborate regulation networks that control the distribution of proteins at the cell membrane. In fission yeast cells, a microtubule-dependent network has been identified that polarizes the distribution of signaling proteins that restricts growth to cell ends and targets the cytokinetic machinery to the middle of the cell. Although many molecular components have been shown to play a role in this network, it remains unknown which molecular functionalities are minimally required to establish a polarized protein distribution in this system. Here we show that a membrane-binding protein fragment, which distributes homogeneously in wild-type fission yeast cells, can be made to concentrate at cell ends by attaching it to a cytoplasmic microtubule end-binding protein. This concentration results in a polarized pattern of chimera proteins with a spatial extension that is very reminiscent of natural polarity patterns in fission yeast. However, chimera levels fluctuate in response to microtubule dynamics, and disruption of microtubules leads to disappearance of the pattern. Numerical simulations confirm that the combined functionality of membrane anchoring and microtubule tip affinity is in principle sufficient to create polarized patterns. Our chimera protein may thus represent a simple molecular functionality that is able to polarize the membrane, onto which additional layers of molecular complexity may be built to provide the temporal robustness that is typical of natural polarity patterns. PMID:26831106

  14. Chimera proteins with affinity for membranes and microtubule tips polarize in the membrane of fission yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Recouvreux, Pierre; Sokolowski, Thomas R; Grammoustianou, Aristea; Ten Wolde, Pieter Rein; Dogterom, Marileen

    2016-02-16

    Cell polarity refers to a functional spatial organization of proteins that is crucial for the control of essential cellular processes such as growth and division. To establish polarity, cells rely on elaborate regulation networks that control the distribution of proteins at the cell membrane. In fission yeast cells, a microtubule-dependent network has been identified that polarizes the distribution of signaling proteins that restricts growth to cell ends and targets the cytokinetic machinery to the middle of the cell. Although many molecular components have been shown to play a role in this network, it remains unknown which molecular functionalities are minimally required to establish a polarized protein distribution in this system. Here we show that a membrane-binding protein fragment, which distributes homogeneously in wild-type fission yeast cells, can be made to concentrate at cell ends by attaching it to a cytoplasmic microtubule end-binding protein. This concentration results in a polarized pattern of chimera proteins with a spatial extension that is very reminiscent of natural polarity patterns in fission yeast. However, chimera levels fluctuate in response to microtubule dynamics, and disruption of microtubules leads to disappearance of the pattern. Numerical simulations confirm that the combined functionality of membrane anchoring and microtubule tip affinity is in principle sufficient to create polarized patterns. Our chimera protein may thus represent a simple molecular functionality that is able to polarize the membrane, onto which additional layers of molecular complexity may be built to provide the temporal robustness that is typical of natural polarity patterns. PMID:26831106

  15. Temperature dependence of spectral induced polarization data: experimental results and membrane polarization theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairlein, Katharina; Bücker, Matthias; Hördt, Andreas; Hinze, Björn

    2016-04-01

    Spectral induced polarization measurements are affected by temperature variations due to a variety of temperature-dependent parameters that control the complex electrical conductivity. Most important is the influence of the ion mobility, which increases with increasing temperature. It is responsible for the increase of the conductivity of the fluid in the pores with temperature and influences the electrical double layer on the mineral surface. This work is based on laboratory measurements of 13 sandstone samples from different sources with different geological and petrophysical characteristics. We measured the complex impedance in a frequency range from 0.01 to 100 Hz and a temperature range from 0 to 40 °C. The main observation is a decrease of the characteristic time (defined by the inverse of the frequency, at which the phase shift is maximum) with increasing temperature. The strength of this decrease differs from one sample to another. The temperature dependence of the phase shift magnitude cannot easily be generalized, as it depends on the particular sample. The experimental findings suggest that neglecting the influence of temperature on complex conductivity may lead to significant errors when estimating hydraulic conductivity from relaxation time. We also simulate the temperature dependence with a theoretical model of membrane polarization and review some of the model properties, with an emphasis on the temperature dependence of the parameters. The model reproduces several features characterizing the measured data, including the temperature dependence of the characteristic times. Computed tomography and microscope images of the pore structure of three samples also allow us to associate differences in the geometrical parameters used in the modelling with pore scale parameters of the actual samples.

  16. Effects of double-layer polarization on ion transport.

    PubMed

    Hainsworth, A H; Hladky, S B

    1987-01-01

    It has been proposed that changes in ionic strength will alter the shape of current-voltage relations for ion transport across a lipid membrane. To investigate this effect, we measured currents across glyceryl monooleate membranes at applied potentials between 10 and 300 mV using either gramicidin and 1 mM NaCl or valinomycin and 1 mM KCl. A bridge circuit with an integrator as null detector was used to separate the capacitative and ionic components of the current. The changes in the current-voltage relations when ionic strength is varied between 1 and 100 mM are compared with predictions of Gouy-Chapman theory for the effects of these variations on polarization of the electrical diffuse double-layer. Double-layer polarization accounts adequately for the changes observed using membranes made permeable by either gramicidin or valinomycin. PMID:2432953

  17. Electrokinetic effects near a membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoste, David

    2009-03-01

    We discuss the electrostatic and electrokinetic contribution to the elastic moduli of a cell or artificial membrane placed in an electrolyte and driven by a DC electric field. The field drives ion currents across the membrane, through specific channels, pumps or natural pores. In steady state, charges accumulate in the Debye layers close to the membrane, modifying the membrane elastic moduli. We first study a model of a membrane of zero thickness, later generalizing this treatment to allow for a finite thickness and finite dielectric constant. Our results clarify and extend the results presented in [D. Lacoste, M. Cosentino Lagomarsino, and J. F. Joanny, Europhys. Lett., 77, 18006 (2007)], by providing a physical explanation for a destabilizing term proportional to kps^3 in the fluctuation spectrum, which we relate to a nonlinear (E^2) electro-kinetic effect called induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO). Recent studies of ICEO have focused on electrodes and polarizable particles, where an applied bulk field is perturbed by capacitive charging of the double layer and drives flow along the field axis toward surface protrusions; we predict similar ICEO flows around driven membranes, due to curvature-induced tangential fields within a non-equilibrium double layer, which hydrodynamically enhance protrusions.

  18. Polarized EMC Effect in Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Cloet; A. W. Thomas; W. Bentz

    2006-06-05

    The discovery of the EMC effect and the proton spin crisis by the European Muon Collaboration are two of the standout experiments of the last 25 years. It is therefore surprising that there has been no experimental and little theoretical investigation of the spin structure functions of atomic nuclei. To address this we present results for the spin-dependent structure functions of nuclei. The quark degrees of freedom in nuclei are accessed via the convolution formalism. Where the nucleon bound state is obtained by solving the relativistic Faddeev equation, and a relativistic shell model is used to model the atomic nucleus. We find the important result that the medium modifications to the polarized structure functions are about twice that of the unpolarized case.

  19. Dlg5 maintains apical polarity by promoting membrane localization of Crumbs during Drosophila oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jun; Wang, Heng; Kang, Di; Guo, Xuan; Wan, Ping; Wang, Dou; Chen, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Apical-basal polarity plays critical roles in the functions of epithelial tissues. However, the mechanisms of epithelial polarity establishment and maintenance remain to be fully elucidated. Here we show that the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family protein Dlg5 is required for the maintenance of apical polarity of follicle epithelium during Drosophila oogenesis. Dlg5 localizes at the apical membrane and adherens junction (AJ) of follicle epithelium in early stage egg chambers. Specifically, we demonstrate that the major function of Dlg5 is to promote apical membrane localization of Crumbs, since overexpression of Crumbs but not other major apical or AJ components could rescue epithelial polarity defects resulted from loss of Dlg5. Furthermore, we performed a structure-function analysis of Dlg5 and found that the C-terminal PDZ3 and PDZ4 domains are required for all Dlg5’s functions as well as its ability to localize to apical membrane. The N-terminal coiled-coil motif could be individually targeted to the apical membrane, while the central linker region could be targeted to AJ. Lastly, the MAGUK core domains of PDZ4-SH3-GUK could be individually targeted to apical, AJ and basolateral membranes. PMID:27211898

  20. Dlg5 maintains apical polarity by promoting membrane localization of Crumbs during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Wang, Heng; Kang, Di; Guo, Xuan; Wan, Ping; Wang, Dou; Chen, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Apical-basal polarity plays critical roles in the functions of epithelial tissues. However, the mechanisms of epithelial polarity establishment and maintenance remain to be fully elucidated. Here we show that the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family protein Dlg5 is required for the maintenance of apical polarity of follicle epithelium during Drosophila oogenesis. Dlg5 localizes at the apical membrane and adherens junction (AJ) of follicle epithelium in early stage egg chambers. Specifically, we demonstrate that the major function of Dlg5 is to promote apical membrane localization of Crumbs, since overexpression of Crumbs but not other major apical or AJ components could rescue epithelial polarity defects resulted from loss of Dlg5. Furthermore, we performed a structure-function analysis of Dlg5 and found that the C-terminal PDZ3 and PDZ4 domains are required for all Dlg5's functions as well as its ability to localize to apical membrane. The N-terminal coiled-coil motif could be individually targeted to the apical membrane, while the central linker region could be targeted to AJ. Lastly, the MAGUK core domains of PDZ4-SH3-GUK could be individually targeted to apical, AJ and basolateral membranes. PMID:27211898

  1. Fluorescence generalized polarization of cell membranes: a two-photon scanning microscopy approach.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, W; So, P T; French, T; Gratton, E

    1996-01-01

    We use the lipophilic fluorescence probe Laurdan to study cell membranes. The generalized polarization (GP) of Laurdan-labeled cells contains useful information about membrane fluidity and polarity. A high GP is usually associated with low fluidity, low polarity, or high cholesterol content of the membranes, and a low GP is the opposite. We have combined the GP method and two-photon fluorescence microscopy to provide an alternative approach to study cell membranes. Using two-photon excitation in a conventional microscope offers great advantages for studying biological samples. These advantages include efficient background rejection, low photodamage, and improved depth discrimination. We performed GP measurements on mouse fibroblast cells and observed that both intensity and GP images are not spatially uniform. We tested for possible GP artifacts arising from cellular autofluorescence and lifetime quenching, using a procedure for background fluorescence subtraction and by direct lifetime measurements in the microscope. GP measured in a single cell displays a broad distribution, and the GP of 40 different cells grown on the same cover glass is also statistically distributed. The correlations between intensity and GP images were analyzed, and no monotonic dependence between the two was found. By digitally separating high and low GP values, we found that high GP values often associate with the regions of the plasma membrane and low GP values link with the nuclear membranes. Our results also show local GP variations within the plasma and nuclear membranes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:8789081

  2. Effective interactions between fluid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bing-Sui; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2015-08-01

    A self-consistent theory is proposed for the general problem of interacting undulating fluid membranes subject to the constraint that they do not interpenetrate. We implement the steric constraint via an exact functional integral representation and, through the use of a saddle-point approximation, transform it into a novel effective steric potential. The steric potential is found to consist of two contributions: one generated by zero-mode fluctuations of the membranes and the other by thermal bending fluctuations. For membranes of cross-sectional area S , we find that the bending fluctuation part scales with the intermembrane separation d as d-2 for d ≪√{S } but crosses over to d-4 scaling for d ≫√{S } , whereas the zero-mode part of the steric potential always scales as d-2. For membranes interacting exclusively via the steric potential, we obtain closed-form expressions for the effective interaction potential and for the rms undulation amplitude σ , which becomes small at low temperatures T and/or large bending stiffnesses κ . Moreover, σ scales as d for d ≪√{S } but saturates at √{kBT S /κ } for d ≫√{S } . In addition, using variational Gaussian theory, we apply our self-consistent treatment to study intermembrane interactions subject to different types of potentials: (i) the Moreira-Netz potential for a pair of strongly charged membranes with an intervening solution of multivalent counterions, (ii) an attractive square well, (iii) the Morse potential, and (iv) a combination of hydration and van der Waals interactions.

  3. Effective interactions between fluid membranes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bing-Sui; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2015-08-01

    A self-consistent theory is proposed for the general problem of interacting undulating fluid membranes subject to the constraint that they do not interpenetrate. We implement the steric constraint via an exact functional integral representation and, through the use of a saddle-point approximation, transform it into a novel effective steric potential. The steric potential is found to consist of two contributions: one generated by zero-mode fluctuations of the membranes and the other by thermal bending fluctuations. For membranes of cross-sectional area S, we find that the bending fluctuation part scales with the intermembrane separation d as d-2 for d≪√S but crosses over to d-4 scaling for d≫√S, whereas the zero-mode part of the steric potential always scales as d-2. For membranes interacting exclusively via the steric potential, we obtain closed-form expressions for the effective interaction potential and for the rms undulation amplitude σ, which becomes small at low temperatures T and/or large bending stiffnesses κ. Moreover, σ scales as d for d≪√S but saturates at √kBTS/κ for d≫√S. In addition, using variational Gaussian theory, we apply our self-consistent treatment to study intermembrane interactions subject to different types of potentials: (i) the Moreira-Netz potential for a pair of strongly charged membranes with an intervening solution of multivalent counterions, (ii) an attractive square well, (iii) the Morse potential, and (iv) a combination of hydration and van der Waals interactions. PMID:26382349

  4. Bacterial attachment to RO membranes surface-modified by concentration-polarization-enhanced graft polymerization.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Roy; Belfer, Sofia; Freger, Viatcheslav

    2011-07-15

    Concentration polarization-enhanced radical graft polymerization, a facile surface modification technique, was examined as an approach to reduce bacterial deposition onto RO membranes and thus contribute to mitigation of biofouling. For this purpose an RO membrane ESPA-1 was surface-grafted with a zwitterionic and negatively and positively charged monomers. The low monomer concentrations and low degrees of grafting employed in modifications moderately reduced flux (by 20-40%) and did not affect salt rejection, yet produced substantial changes in surface chemistry, charge and hydrophilicity. The propensity to bacterial attachment of original and modified membranes was assessed using bacterial deposition tests carried out in a parallel plate flow setup using a fluorescent strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Compared to unmodified ESPA-1 the deposition (mass transfer) coefficient was significantly increased for modification with the positively charged monomer. On the other hand, a substantial reduction in bacterial deposition rates was observed for membranes modified with zwitterionic monomer and, still more, with very hydrophilic negatively charged monomers. This trend is well explained by the effects of surface charge (as measured by ζ-potential) and hydrophilicity (contact angle). It also well correlated with force distance measurements by AFM using surrogate spherical probes with a negative surface charge mimicking the bacterial surface. The positively charged surface showed a strong hysteresis with a large adhesion force, which was weaker for unmodified ESPA-1 and still weaker for zwitterionic surface, while negatively charged surface showed a long-range repulsion and negligible hysteresis. These results demonstrate the potential of using the proposed surface- modification approach for varying surface characteristics, charge and hydrophilicity, and thus minimizing bacterial deposition and potentially reducing propensity biofouling. PMID:21682251

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Membrane Trafficking in Regulation of Cdc42 Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Leah J.; Rossi, Guendalina; Brennwald, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Vesicle delivery of Cdc42 has been proposed as an important mechanism for generating and maintaining Cdc42 polarity at the plasma membrane. This mechanism requires the density of Cdc42 on secretory vesicles to be equal to or higher than the plasma membrane polarity cap. Using a novel method to estimate Cdc42 levels on post-Golgi secretory vesicles in intact yeast cells, we: 1) determined that endocytosis plays an important role in Cdc42’s association with secretory vesicles 2) found that a GFP-tag placed on the N-terminus of Cdc42 negatively impacts this vesicle association and 3) quantified the surface densities of Cdc42 on post-Golgi vesicles which revealed that the vesicle density of Cdc42 is three times more dilute than that at the polarity cap. This work suggests that the immediate consequence of secretory vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane polarity cap is to dilute the local Cdc42 surface density. This provides strong support for the model in which vesicle trafficking acts to negatively regulate Cdc42 polarity on the cell surface while also providing a means to recycle Cdc42 between the cell surface and internal membrane locations. PMID:25158298

  6. Probing membrane protein structure using water polarization transfer solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jonathan K.; Hong, Mei

    2014-10-01

    Water plays an essential role in the structure and function of proteins, lipid membranes and other biological macromolecules. Solid-state NMR heteronuclear-detected 1H polarization transfer from water to biomolecules is a versatile approach for studying water-protein, water-membrane, and water-carbohydrate interactions in biology. We review radiofrequency pulse sequences for measuring water polarization transfer to biomolecules, the mechanisms of polarization transfer, and the application of this method to various biological systems. Three polarization transfer mechanisms, chemical exchange, spin diffusion and NOE, manifest themselves at different temperatures, magic-angle-spinning frequencies, and pulse irradiations. Chemical exchange is ubiquitous in all systems examined so far, and spin diffusion plays the key role in polarization transfer within the macromolecule. Tightly bound water molecules with long residence times are rare in proteins at ambient temperature. The water polarization-transfer technique has been used to study the hydration of microcrystalline proteins, lipid membranes, and plant cell wall polysaccharides, and to derive atomic-resolution details of the kinetics and mechanism of ion conduction in channels and pumps. Using this approach, we have measured the water polarization transfer to the transmembrane domain of the influenza M2 protein to obtain information on the structure of this tetrameric proton channel. At short mixing times, the polarization transfer rates are site-specific and depend on the pH, labile protons, sidechain conformation, as well as the radial position of the residues in this four-helix bundle. Despite the multiple dependences, the initial transfer rates reflect the periodic nature of the residue positions from the water-filled pore, thus this technique provides a way of gleaning secondary structure information, helix tilt angle, and the oligomeric structure of membrane proteins.

  7. High-efficiency ultrasmall polarization converter in InP membrane.

    PubMed

    Pello, Josselin; van der Tol, Jos; Keyvaninia, Shahram; van Veldhoven, René; Ambrosius, Huub; Roelkens, Gunther; Smit, Meint

    2012-09-01

    An ultrasmall (<10  μm length) polarization converter in InP membrane is fabricated and characterized. The device relies on the beating between the two eigenmodes of chemically etched triangular waveguides. Measurements show a very high polarization conversion efficiency of >99% with insertion losses of <-1.2  dB at a wavelength of 1.53 μm. Furthermore, our design is found to be broadband and tolerant to dimension variations. PMID:22940999

  8. Probing Membrane Protein Structure Using Water Polarization Transfer Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jonathan K.; Hong, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Water plays an essential role in the structure and function of proteins, lipid membranes and other biological macromolecules. Solid-state NMR heteronuclear-detected 1H polarization transfer from water to biomolecules is a versatile approach for studying water-protein, water-membrane, and water-carbohydrate interactions in biology. We review radiofrequency pulse sequences for measuring water polarization transfer to biomolecules, the mechanisms of polarization transfer, and the application of this method to various biological systems. Three polarization transfer mechanisms, chemical exchange, spin diffusion and NOE, manifest themselves at different temperatures, magic-angle-spinning frequencies, and pulse irradiations. Chemical exchange is ubiquitous in all systems examined so far, and spin diffusion plays the key role in polarization transfer within the macromolecule. Tightly bound water molecules with long residence times are rare in proteins at ambient temperature. The water polarization-transfer technique has been used to study the hydration of microcrystalline proteins, lipid membranes, and plant cell wall polysaccharides, and to derive atomic-resolution details of the kinetics and mechanism of ion conduction in channels and pumps. Using this approach, we have measured the water polarization transfer to the transmembrane peptide of the influenza M2 protein to obtain information on the structure of this tetrameric proton channel. At short mixing times, the polarization transfer rates are site-specific and depend on the pH, labile protons, sidechain conformation, as well as the radial position of the residues in this four-helix bundle. Despite the multiple dependences, the initial transfer rates reflect the periodic nature of the residue positions from the water-filled pore, thus this technique provides a way of gleaning secondary structure information, helix tilt angle, and the oligomeric structure of membrane proteins. PMID:25228502

  9. Probing membrane protein structure using water polarization transfer solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jonathan K; Hong, Mei

    2014-10-01

    Water plays an essential role in the structure and function of proteins, lipid membranes and other biological macromolecules. Solid-state NMR heteronuclear-detected (1)H polarization transfer from water to biomolecules is a versatile approach for studying water-protein, water-membrane, and water-carbohydrate interactions in biology. We review radiofrequency pulse sequences for measuring water polarization transfer to biomolecules, the mechanisms of polarization transfer, and the application of this method to various biological systems. Three polarization transfer mechanisms, chemical exchange, spin diffusion and NOE, manifest themselves at different temperatures, magic-angle-spinning frequencies, and pulse irradiations. Chemical exchange is ubiquitous in all systems examined so far, and spin diffusion plays the key role in polarization transfer within the macromolecule. Tightly bound water molecules with long residence times are rare in proteins at ambient temperature. The water polarization-transfer technique has been used to study the hydration of microcrystalline proteins, lipid membranes, and plant cell wall polysaccharides, and to derive atomic-resolution details of the kinetics and mechanism of ion conduction in channels and pumps. Using this approach, we have measured the water polarization transfer to the transmembrane domain of the influenza M2 protein to obtain information on the structure of this tetrameric proton channel. At short mixing times, the polarization transfer rates are site-specific and depend on the pH, labile protons, sidechain conformation, as well as the radial position of the residues in this four-helix bundle. Despite the multiple dependences, the initial transfer rates reflect the periodic nature of the residue positions from the water-filled pore, thus this technique provides a way of gleaning secondary structure information, helix tilt angle, and the oligomeric structure of membrane proteins. PMID:25228502

  10. Polarization effects and multipolarization SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Imaging radar polarimeters are usually implemented using a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) approach to give a high resolution image in two dimensions: range and azimuth. For each pixel in the image a polarimetric SAR gives sufficient information to characterize the polarimetric scattering properties of the imaged area (or target) as seen by the radar. Using a polarimetric SAR system as opposed to a single-polarization SAR system provides significantly more information about the target scattering mechanisms and allows better discrimination between different types of surfaces. In these notes a brief overview of SAR polarimetry is offered. The notes are intended as a text to accompany a lecture on SAR polarimetry as part of an AGARD-NATO course. Covered in the notes are the following: the polarization properties of electromagnetic waves; the concepts of radar scattering and measuring radar backscatter with a SAR; polarization synthesis; scattering matrix, Stokes matrix, and covariance matrix representations of polarimetric SAR data; polarization signature plots; design and calibration of polarimetric SAR systems; polarization filtering for target detection; fitting a simple model to polarimetric SAR measurements of naturally occurring features; and supervised classification of polarimetric SAR data.

  11. Localized Patch Clamping of Plasma Membrane of a Polarized Plant Cell 1

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Alison R.; Brownlee, Colin

    1992-01-01

    We used an ultraviolet laser to rupture a small region of cell wall of a polarized Fucus spiralis rhizoid cell and gained localized access to the plasma membrane at the growing apex. Careful control of cell turgor enabled a small portion of plasma membrane-bound cytoplasm to be exposed. Gigaohm seals allowing single-channel recordings were obtained with a high success rate using this method with conventional patch clamp techniques. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:16669092

  12. Pervaporation from a dense membrane: roles of permeant-membrane interactions, Kelvin effect, and membrane swelling.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Thampi, Sumesh P; Suggala, Satyanarayana V; Bhattacharya, Prashant K

    2004-05-25

    Dense polymeric membranes with extremely small pores in the form of free volume are used widely in the pervaporative separation of liquid mixtures. The membrane permeation of a component followed by its vaporization on the opposite face is governed by the solubility and downstream pressure. We measured the evaporative flux of pure methanol and 2-propanol using dense membranes with different free volumes and different affinities (wettabilities and solubilities) for the permeant. Interestingly, the evaporative flux for different membranes vanished substantially (10-75%) below the equilibrium vapor pressure in the bulk. The discrepancy was larger for a smaller pore size and for more wettable membranes (higher positive spreading coefficients). This observation, which cannot be explained by the existing (mostly solution-diffusion type) models ofpervaporation, suggests an important role for the membrane-permeant interactions in nanopores that can lower the equilibrium vapor pressure. The pore sizes, as estimated from the positron annihilation, ranged from 0.2 to 0.6 nm for the dry membranes. Solubilities of methanol in different composite membranes were estimated from the Flory-Huggins theory. The interaction parameter was obtained from the surface properties measured by the contact angle goniometry in conjunction with the acid-base theory of polar surface interactions. For the membranes examined, the increase in the "wet" pore volume due to membrane swelling correlates almost linearly with the solubility of methanol in these membranes. Indeed, the observations are found to be consistent with the lowering of the equilibrium vapor pressure on the basis of the Kelvin equation. Thus, a higher solubility or selectivity of a membrane also implies stronger permeant-membrane interactions and a greater retention of the permeant by the membrane, thus decreasing its evaporative flux. This observation has important implications for the interpretation of existing experiments and in

  13. Radiation damage effects in polarized deuterated ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    P.M. McKee

    2003-07-01

    Solid polarized targets utilizing deuterated ammonia, {sup 15}ND{sub 3}, offer an attractive combination of high polarization, high dilution factor and high resistance to polarization losses from radiation damage. Jefferson Laboratory Experiment E93-026 used {sup 15}ND{sub 3} as a target material in a five-month form factor measurement, allowing a detailed study of it's performance. The dependence of the deuteron polarization on received dose by the ammonia and the effectiveness of annealing the material to recover performance lost to radiation damage will be discussed.

  14. Polar interactions trump hydrophobicity in stabilizing the self-inserting membrane protein Mistic.

    PubMed

    Broecker, Jana; Fiedler, Sebastian; Gimpl, Katharina; Keller, Sandro

    2014-10-01

    Canonical integral membrane proteins are attached to lipid bilayers through hydrophobic transmembrane helices, whose topogenesis requires sophisticated insertion machineries. By contrast, membrane proteins that, for evolutionary or functional reasons, cannot rely on these machineries need to resort to driving forces other than hydrophobicity. A striking example is the self-inserting Bacillus subtilis protein Mistic, which is involved in biofilm formation and has found application as a fusion tag supporting the recombinant production and bilayer insertion of other membrane proteins. Although this unusual protein contains numerous polar and charged residues and lacks characteristic membrane-interaction motifs, it is tightly bound to membranes in vivo and membrane-mimetic systems in vitro. Therefore, we set out to quantify the contributions from polar and nonpolar interactions to the coupled folding and insertion of Mistic. To this end, we defined conditions under which the protein can be unfolded completely and reversibly from various detergent micelles by urea in a two-state equilibrium and where the unfolded state is independent of the detergent used for solubilizing the folded state. This enabled equilibrium unfolding experiments previously used for soluble and β-barrel membrane proteins, revealing that polar interactions with ionic and zwitterionic headgroups and, presumably, the interfacial dipole potential stabilize the protein much more efficiently than nonpolar interactions with the micelle core. These findings unveil the forces that allow a protein to tightly interact with a membrane-mimetic environment without major hydrophobic contributions and rationalize the differential suitability of detergents for the extraction and solubilization of Mistic-tagged membrane proteins. PMID:25177765

  15. Ischemia induces partial loss of surface membrane polarity and accumulation of putative calcium ionophores.

    PubMed Central

    Molitoris, B A; Wilson, P D; Schrier, R W; Simon, F R

    1985-01-01

    To determine if ischemia induces alterations in renal proximal tubule surface membranes, brush border (BBM) and basolateral membranes (BLM) were isolated simultaneously from the same cortical homogenate after 50 min of renal pedicle clamping. Ischemia caused a selective decrease in the specific activity of BBM marker enzymes leucine aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase, but did not effect enrichment (15 times). Neither specific activity nor enrichment (10 times) of BLM NaK-ATPase was altered by ischemia. Contamination of BBM by intracellular organelles was also unchanged, but there was an increase in the specific activity (41.1 vs. 60.0, P less than 0.01) and enrichment (2.3 vs. 4.3, P less than 0.01) of NaK-ATPase in the ischemic BBM fraction. Ischemia increased BLM lysophosphatidylcholine (1.3 vs. 2.5%, P less than 0.05) and phosphatidic acid (0.4 vs. 1.3%, P less than 0.05). Ischemia also decreased BBM sphingomyelin (38.5 vs. 29.6%, P less than 0.01) and phosphatidylserine (16.1 vs. 11.4%, P less than 0.01), and increased phosphatidylcholine (17.2 vs. 29.7%, P less than 0.01), phosphatidylinositol (1.8 vs. 4.6%, P less than 0.01), and lysophosphatidylcholine (1.0 vs. 1.8%, P less than 0.05). The large changes in BBM phospholipids did not result from new phospholipid synthesis, since the specific activity (32P dpm/nmol Pi) of prelabeled individual and total phospholipids was unaltered by ischemia. We next evaluated if these changes were due to inability of ischemic cells to maintain surface membrane polarity. Cytochemical evaluation showed that while NaK-ATPase could be detected only in control BLM, specific deposits of reaction product were present in the BBM of ischemic kidneys. Furthermore, using continuous sucrose gradients, the enzymatic profile of ischemic BBM NaK-ATPase shifted away from ischemic BLM NaK-ATPase and toward the BBM enzymatic marker leucine aminopeptidase. Taken together, these data suggest that NaK-ATPase activity determined enzymatically

  16. Spatial and temporal electroselection patterns in electric field stimulation of polarized luminescence from photosynthetic membrane vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Rosemberg, Yosef; Rozen, Philip; Malkin, Shmuel; Korenstein, Rafi

    1992-01-01

    Electroselection processes of charge recombination are manifested in the study of electric field induced polarized emission from photosynthetic membrane vesicles. The study explores the coupled spatial-temporal characteristics of electric field induced charge recombination by examining the dependence of the integrated polarized emission and the time dependent polarization on electric field strength. The experimental results were fitted to theoretical models by computer simulations employing empirical parameters. Simulation of the dependence of the integrated polarized components of emission on electric field strength, suggests field-dependent increased ratio between radiative and nonradiative rates of charge recombination. The observation that the initial polarization values are independent of electric field strength supports the assumption that electric field induced emission originates from the pole area and then spreads away from it towards the equator. The propagation rate of this electric field induced charge recombination from the pole area towards the equator is reflected by the decay of polarization which increases upon raising the electric field strength. Simulation of the polarization's decay, based on a calculated angle of 26.3 ± 0.4° between the transition moment of emission and the plane of the membrane, establishes coupled temporal spatial patterns of electroselection in intramembrane electron transfer invoked by exposing preilluminated photosynthetic vesicles to a homogeneous electric field. PMID:19431835

  17. Polarity of Water Transport across Epidermal Cell Membranes in Tradescantia virginiana1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Hiroshi; Fei, Jiong; Knipfer, Thorsten; Matthews, Mark A.; Gambetta, Greg; Shackel, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Using the automated cell pressure probe, small and highly reproducible hydrostatic pressure clamp (PC) and pressure relaxation (PR) tests (typically, applied step change in pressure = 0.02 MPa and overall change in volume = 30 pL, respectively) were applied to individual Tradescantia virginiana epidermal cells to determine both exosmotic and endosmotic hydraulic conductivity (LpOUT and LpIN, respectively). Within-cell reproducibility of measured hydraulic parameters depended on the method used, with the PR method giving a lower average coefficient of variation (15.2%, 5.8%, and 19.0% for half-time, cell volume [Vo], and hydraulic conductivity [Lp], respectively) than the PC method (25.4%, 22.0%, and 24.2%, respectively). Vo as determined from PC and PR tests was 1.1 to 2.7 nL and in the range of optically estimated Vo values of 1.5 to 4.9 nL. For the same cell, Vo and Lp estimates were significantly lower (about 15% and 30%, respectively) when determined by PC compared with PR. Both methods, however, showed significantly higher LpOUT than LpIN (LpOUT/LpIN ≅ 1.20). Because these results were obtained using small and reversible hydrostatically driven flows in the same cell, the 20% outward biased polarity of water transport is most likely not due to artifacts associated with unstirred layers or to direct effects of externally applied osmotica on the membrane, as has been suggested in previous studies. The rapid reversibility of applied flow direction, particularly for the PR method, and the lack of a clear increase in LpOUT/LpIN over a wide range of Lp values suggest that the observed polarity is an intrinsic biophysical property of the intact membrane/protein complex. PMID:24495955

  18. The young and happy marriage of membrane traffic and cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Barry J; Perez, Franck; Vaccari, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The ESF–EMBO meeting on ‘Cell Polarity and Membrane Traffic' took place in Poland in April 2012. It brought together scientists from two once separate fields and highlighted their emerging interdependence. The wealth of scientific insights and discoveries presented laid a path for future research. PMID:22777496

  19. DETERMINATION OF POLAR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN WATER BY MEMBRANE PERMEATE AND TRAP GC-MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel approach is presented combining semipermeable membranes with the accepted purge and trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology to produce a method of selectively extracting polar, volatile organic compounds from water, particularly those compounds not am...

  20. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization of membrane proteins: covalently bound spin-labels at protein-protein interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Benjamin J; Dzikovski, Boris G.; Pawsey, Shane; Caporini, Marc; Rosay, Melanie; Freed, Jack H.; McDermott, Ann E.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers may be achieved using a novel polarizing agent: pairs of spin labels covalently bound to a protein of interest interacting at an intermolecular interaction surface. For gramicidin A, nitroxide tags attached to the N-terminal intermolecular interface region become proximal only when bimolecular channels forms in the membrane. We obtained signal enhancements of 6-fold for the dimeric protein. The enhancement affect was comparable to that of a doubly tagged sample of gramicidin C, with intramolecular spin pairs. This approach could be a powerful and selective means for signal enhancement in membrane proteins, and for recognizing intermolecular interfaces. PMID:25828256

  1. Monitoring Changes in Membrane Polarity, Membrane Integrity, and Intracellular Ion Concentrations in Streptococcus pneumoniae Using Fluorescent Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Roche-Håkansson, Hazeline; Håkansson, Anders P.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane depolarization and ion fluxes are events that have been studied extensively in biological systems due to their ability to profoundly impact cellular functions, including energetics and signal transductions. While both fluorescent and electrophysiological methods, including electrode usage and patch-clamping, have been well developed for measuring these events in eukaryotic cells, methodology for measuring similar events in microorganisms have proven more challenging to develop given their small size in combination with the more complex outer surface of bacteria shielding the membrane. During our studies of death-initiation in Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), we wanted to elucidate the role of membrane events, including changes in polarity, integrity, and intracellular ion concentrations. Searching the literature, we found that very few studies exist. Other investigators had monitored radioisotope uptake or equilibrium to measure ion fluxes and membrane potential and a limited number of studies, mostly in Gram-negative organisms, had seen some success using carbocyanine or oxonol fluorescent dyes to measure membrane potential, or loading bacteria with cell-permeant acetoxymethyl (AM) ester versions of ion-sensitive fluorescent indicator dyes. We therefore established and optimized protocols for measuring membrane potential, rupture, and ion-transport in the Gram-positive organism S. pneumoniae. We developed protocols using the bis-oxonol dye DiBAC4(3) and the cell-impermeant dye propidium iodide to measure membrane depolarization and rupture, respectively, as well as methods to optimally load the pneumococci with the AM esters of the ratiometric dyes Fura-2, PBFI, and BCECF to detect changes in intracellular concentrations of Ca2+, K+, and H+, respectively, using a fluorescence-detection plate reader. These protocols are the first of their kind for the pneumococcus and the majority of these dyes have not been used in any other bacterial species

  2. Two-photon fluorescence microscopy of laurdan generalized polarization domains in model and natural membranes.

    PubMed

    Parasassi, T; Gratton, E; Yu, W M; Wilson, P; Levi, M

    1997-06-01

    Two-photon excitation microscopy shows coexisting regions of different generalized polarization (GP) in phospholipid vesicles, in red blood cells, in a renal tubular cell line, and in purified renal brushborder and basolateral membranes labeled with the fluorescent probe laurdan. The GP function measures the relative water content of the membrane. In the present study we discuss images obtained with polarized laser excitation, which selects different molecular orientations of the lipid bilayer corresponding to different spatial regions. The GP distribution in the gel-phase vesicles is relatively narrow, whereas the GP distribution in the liquid-crystalline phase vesicles (DOPC and DLPC) is broad. Analysis of images obtained with polarized excitation of the liquid-crystalline phase vesicles leads to the conclusion that coexisting regions of different GP must have dimensions smaller than the microscope resolution (approximately 200 nm radially and 600 nm axially). Vesicles of an equimolar mixture of DOPC and DPPC show coexisting rigid and fluid domains (high GP and low GP), but the rigid domains, which are preferentially excited by polarized light, have GP values lower than the pure gel-phase domains. Cholesterol strongly modifies the domain morphology. In the presence of 30 mol% cholesterol, the broad GP distribution of the DOPC/DPPC equimolar sample becomes narrower. The sample is still very heterogeneous, as demonstrated by the separations of GP disjoined regions, which are the result of photoselection of regions of different lipid orientation. In intact red blood cells, microscopic regions of different GP can be resolved, whereas in the renal cells GP domains have dimensions smaller than the microscope resolution. Preparations of renal apical brush border membranes and basolateral membranes show well-resolved GP domains, which may result from a different local orientation, or the domains may reflect a real heterogeneity of these membranes. PMID:9168019

  3. Effect of membrane tension on the physical properties of DOPC lipid bilayer membrane

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, A. Srinivas; Warshaviak, Dora Toledo; Chachisvilis, Mirianas

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a dioleoylphosphocholine (DOPC) lipid bilayer were performed to explore its mechanosensitivity. Variations in the bilayer properties, such as area per lipid, volume, thickness, hydration depth (HD), hydration thickness (HT), lateral diffusion coefficient, and changes in lipid structural order were computed in the membrane tension range 0 to 15 dyn/cm. We determined that an increase in membrane tension results in a decrease in the bilayer thickness and HD of ∼5% and ∼5.7% respectively, whereas area per lipid, volume, and HT/HD increased by 6.8%, 2.4%, and 5% respectively. The changes in lipid conformation and orientation were characterized using orientational (S2) and deuterium (SCD) order parameters. Upon increase of membrane tension both order parameters indicated an increase in lipid disorder by 10– 20%, mostly in the tail end region of the hydrophobic chains. The effect of membrane tension on lipid lateral diffusion in the DOPC bilayer was analyzed on three different time scales corresponding to inertial motion, anomalous diffusion and normal diffusion. The results showed that lateral diffusion of lipid molecules is anomalous in nature due to the non-exponential distribution of waiting times. The anomalous and normal diffusion coefficients increased by 20% and 52% when the membrane tension changed from 0 to 15 dyn/cm, respectively. In conclusion, our studies showed that membrane tension causes relatively significant changes in the area per lipid, volume, polarity, membrane thickness, and fluidity of the membrane suggesting multiple mechanisms by which mechanical perturbation of the membrane could trigger mechanosensitive response in cells. PMID:22588133

  4. Treatment of high salinity brines by direct contact membrane distillation: Effect of membrane characteristics and salinity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Guan, Yunshan; Cheng, Fangqin; Liu, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) is one of the attractive technologies for high salinity brine treatment. In this study, four polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes were examined in treating highly concentrated salt solutions. Results showed that non-supported membranes generally have a higher overall mass transfer coefficient but porosity seems to be the most important parameter controlling membrane flux and thermal efficiency. Supported membranes with large thickness had relatively higher thermal efficiency than small thickness. This can be attributed to their reduced heat loss through heat condition. In addition, KCl, NaCl and MgCl2 solutions showed distinct trends over flux decline at high salt concentrations (⩾2.0M). The difference in flux was largely due to the discrepancy in water activities of these solutions (KCl>NaCl>MgCl2). However, the effect of viscosity on permeate flux could not be neglected for MgCl2 at high salt concentrations as the suddenly increased viscosity could lead to serious temperature polarization. This study indicates that membrane distillation is a promising technology for high salinity brine treatment. PMID:25563165

  5. Picosecond fiber laser microfabrication of THz wire-grid polarizers on polymer membrane substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Tim D.; Fast, Dylan; Kozlov, Vladimir G.

    2012-03-01

    Ultrafast picosecond lasers provide the gentle cold ablation required to selectively remove a 400 nm metal film from an unsupported ultra-thin polymer membrane without damaging the membrane substrate. Selected areas of the metal film are completely removed in an ablative lift-off process enabled by a single laser pulse. No damage to the polymer membrane is observed even for samples with the metal completely removed over a 50x50 mm area of the membrane. The 400 nm thick metal films can be patterned into arbitrary forms with feature sizes as small as 10 micrometers, and even submicron features are realistically possible with a modification to the processing system. The skin depth of aluminium in the THz regime is significantly shorter than the 400 nm metal thickness, so thicker metal films that are significantly more difficult to machine are not beneficial. As an example, thin-film wire grid polarizers for the THz regime are demonstrated. The thin-film polarizers are much easier and faster to fabricate than polarizers made by winding free-standing wires around a frame and their performance is very comparable. The thin-film polarizers also have the added benefit of a significantly higher potential for functionality deeper in to the THz spectrum due to their capacity for smaller feature sizes. More intricate patterns, such as meshes, can also be made to create THz bandpass filters. This method can be extended to cold ablation processing of multilayer films fabricated on thin polymer substrates for applications such as plastic electronics, displays and solar cells.

  6. The effect of polar caps on obliquity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    Rubincam has shown that the Martian obliquity is dependent on the seasonal polar caps. In particular, Rubincam analytically derived this dependence and showed that the change in obliquity is directly proportional to the seasonal polar cap mass. Rubincam concludes that seasonal friction does not appear to have changed Mars' climate significantly. Using a computer model for the evolution of the Martian atmosphere, Haberle et al. have made a convincing case for the possibility of huge polar caps, about 10 times the mass of the current polar caps, that exist for a significant fraction of the planet's history. Since Rubincam showed that the effect of seasonal friction on obliquity is directly proportional to polar cap mass, a scenario with a ten-fold increase in polar cap mass over a significant fraction of the planet's history would result in a secular increase in Mars' obliquity of perhaps 10 degrees. Hence, the Rubincam conclusion of an insignificant contribution to Mars' climate by seasonal friction may be incorrect. Furthermore, if seasonal friction is an important consideration in the obliquity of Mars, this would significantly alter the predictions of past obliquity.

  7. Rab GTPase–Myo5B complexes control membrane recycling and epithelial polarization

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, David M.; Datta, Anirban; Itzen, Aymelt; Mostov, Keith E.; Goldenring, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The Rab GTPases are the largest family of proteins regulating membrane traffic. Rab proteins form a nidus for the assembly of multiprotein complexes on distinct vesicle membranes to regulate particular membrane trafficking pathways. Recent investigations have demonstrated that Myosin Vb (Myo5B) is an effector for Rab8a, Rab10, and Rab11a, all of which are implicated in regulating different pathways for recycling of proteins to the plasma membrane. It remains unclear how specific interactions of Myo5B with individual Rab proteins can lead to specificity in the regulation of alternate trafficking pathways. We examined the relative contributions of Rab/Myo5B interactions with specific pathways using Myo5B mutants lacking binding to either Rab11a or Rab8a. Myo5B Q1300L and Y1307C mutations abolished Rab8a association, whereas Myo5B Y1714E and Q1748R mutations uncoupled association with Rab11a. Expression of Myo5B tails containing these mutants demonstrated that Rab11a, but not Rab8a, was required for recycling of transferrin in nonpolarized cells. In contrast, in polarized epithelial cyst cultures, Myo5B was required for apical membrane trafficking and de novo lumen formation, dependent on association with both Rab8a and Rab11a. These data demonstrate that different combinations of Rab GTPase association with Myo5B control distinct membrane trafficking pathways. PMID:21282656

  8. Polarization effects in molecular mechanical force fields.

    PubMed

    Cieplak, Piotr; Dupradeau, François-Yves; Duan, Yong; Wang, Junmei

    2009-08-19

    The focus here is on incorporating electronic polarization into classical molecular mechanical force fields used for macromolecular simulations. First, we briefly examine currently used molecular mechanical force fields and the current status of intermolecular forces as viewed by quantum mechanical approaches. Next, we demonstrate how some components of quantum mechanical energy are effectively incorporated into classical molecular mechanical force fields. Finally, we assess the modeling methods of one such energy component-polarization energy-and present an overview of polarizable force fields and their current applications. Incorporating polarization effects into current force fields paves the way to developing potentially more accurate, though more complex, parameterizations that can be used for more realistic molecular simulations. PMID:21828594

  9. Polarization effects in molecular mechanical force fields

    PubMed Central

    Cieplak, Piotr; Dupradeau, François-Yves; Duan, Yong; Wang, Junmei

    2014-01-01

    The focus here is on incorporating electronic polarization into classical molecular mechanical force fields used for macromolecular simulations. First, we briefly examine currently used molecular mechanical force fields and the current status of intermolecular forces as viewed by quantum mechanical approaches. Next, we demonstrate how some components of quantum mechanical energy are effectively incorporated into classical molecular mechanical force fields. Finally, we assess the modeling methods of one such energy component—polarization energy—and present an overview of polarizable force fields and their current applications. Incorporating polarization effects into current force fields paves the way to developing potentially more accurate, though more complex, parameterizations that can be used for more realistic molecular simulations. PMID:21828594

  10. Low-Energy Electron Effects on the Polar Wind Observed by the POLAR Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J. L.; Su, Y.-J.; Dors, E. E.; Moore, Thomas E.; Giles, Barbara L.; Chandler, Michael O.; Craven, Paul D.; Chang, S.-W.; Scudder, J.

    1998-01-01

    Large ion outflow velocity variation at POLAR apogee have been observed. The observed H+ flow velocities were in the range of 23-110 km/s and 0+ flow velocities were in the range of 5-25 km/s. These velocity ranges lie between those predicted by simulations of the photoelectron-driven polar wind and "baseline" polar wind. The electric current contributions of the photoelectrons and polar rain are expected to control the size and altitude of an electric potential drop which accelerates the polar wind at relatively high altitudes. In this presentation, we compare polar wind characteristics observed near 5000 km and 8 RE altitudes by the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) with measurements of low-energy electrons sampled by HYDRA, both from the POLAR spacecraft, to examine possible effects of the polar rain and photoelectrons on the polar wind. Both correlations and anti-correlations are found between the polar wind velocities and the polar rain fluxes at POLAR apogee during different polar cap crossings. Also, the low-altitude upward/downward photoelectron spectra are used to estimates the potential drops above the spacecraft. We interpret these observations in terms of the effects that both photoelectrons and polar rain may have on the electric potential and polar wind acceleration along polar cap magnetic field lines.

  11. Inverse polarizing effect of an elliptical-polarization recorded hologram at a large cross angle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiying; Kang, Guoguo; Zang, Jinliang; Wang, Jue; Liu, Ying; Tan, Xiaodi; Shimura, Tsutomu; Kuroda, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    We report on the inverse polarizing effect (IPE) of an elliptical-polarization recorded hologram at a large recording angle. The IPE is a polarizing phenomenon in which the reconstructed signal switches the major and minor axes and keeps the original polarization, direction compared, to that of the signal wave. In reviewing the case of a linear-polarization and circular-polarization recorded hologram, we found that the IPE is a unique phenomenon for elliptical polarization. The IPE was observed at the cross angle of 38° experimentally, and was theoretically explained using tensor theory to remove paraxial limitation. PMID:27607989

  12. Plasma membrane protein polarity and trafficking in RPE cells: Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Guillermo L.; Benedicto, Ignacio; Philp, Nancy J.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) comprises a monolayer of polarized pigmented epithelial cells that is strategically interposed between the neural retina and the fenestrated choroid capillaries. The RPE performs a variety of vectorial transport functions (water, ions, metabolites, nutrients and waste products) that regulate the composition of the subretinal space and support the functions of photoreceptors (PRs) and other cells in the neural retina. To this end, RPE cells display a polarized distribution of channels, transporters and receptors in their plasma membrane (PM) that is remarkably different from that found in conventional extra-ocular epithelia, e.g. intestine, kidney, and gall bladder. This characteristic PM protein polarity of RPE cells depends on the interplay of sorting signals in the RPE PM proteins and sorting mechanisms and biosynthetic/recycling trafficking routes in the RPE cell. Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the RPE trafficking machinery, most available data have been obtained from immortalized RPE cell lines that only partially maintain the RPE phenotype and by extrapolation of data obtained in the prototype Madin–Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line. The increasing availability of RPE cell cultures that more closely resemble the RPE in vivo together with the advent of advanced live imaging microscopy techniques provides a platform and an opportunity to rapidly expand our understanding of how polarized protein trafficking contributes to RPE PM polarity. PMID:25152359

  13. Polarization effects in cutaneous autofluorescent spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, E.; Angelova, L.; Jeliazkova, Al.; Genova, Ts.; Pavlova, E.; Troyanova, P.; Avramov, L.

    2014-05-01

    Used polarized light for fluorescence excitation one could obtain response related to the anisotropy features of extracellular matrix. The fluorophore anisotropy is attenuated during lesions' growth and level of such decrease could be correlated with the stage of tumor development. Our preliminary investigations are based on in vivo point-by-point measurements of excitation-emission matrices (EEM) from healthy volunteers skin on different ages and from different anatomical places using linear polarizer and analyzer for excitation and emission light detected. Measurements were made using spectrofluorimeter FluoroLog 3 (HORIBA Jobin Yvon, France) with fiber-optic probe in steady-state regime using excitation in the region of 280-440 nm. Three different situations were evaluated and corresponding excitation-emission matrices were developed - with parallel and perpendicular positions for linear polarizer and analyzer, and without polarization of excitation and fluorescence light detected from a forearm skin surface. The fluorescence spectra obtained reveal differences in spectral intensity, related to general attenuation, due to filtering effects of used polarizer/analyzer couple. Significant spectral shape changes were observed for the complex autofluorescence signal detected, which correlated with collagen and protein cross-links fluorescence, that could be addressed to the tissue extracellular matrix and general condition of the skin investigated, due to morphological destruction during lesions' growth. A correlation between volunteers' age and the fluorescence spectra detected was observed during our measurements. Our next step is to increase developed initial database and to evaluate all sources of intrinsic fluorescent polarization effects and found if they are significantly altered from normal skin to cancerous state of the tissue, this way to develop a non-invasive diagnostic tool for dermatological practice.

  14. Laurdan generalized polarization fluctuations measures membrane packing micro-heterogeneity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Susana A.; Tricerri, Maria A.; Gratton, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Cellular membranes are heterogeneous in composition, and the prevailing theory holds that the structures responsible for this heterogeneity in vivo are small structures (10–200 nm), sterol- and sphingolipid-enriched, of different sizes, highly dynamic denominated rafts. Rafts are postulated to be platforms, which by sequestering different membrane components can compartmentalize cellular processes and regulate signaling pathways. Despite an enormous effort in this area, the existence of these domains is still under debate due to the characteristics of the structures itself: small in size and highly mobile, which from the technical point of view implies using techniques with high spatial and temporal resolution. In this report we measured rapid fluctuations of the normalized ratio of the emission intensity at two wavelengths of Laurdan, a membrane fluorescent dye sensitive to local membrane packing. We observed generalized polarization fluctuations in the plasma membrane of intact rabbit erythrocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells that can be explained by the existence of tightly packed micro-domains moving in a more fluid background phase. These structures, which display different lipid packing, have different sizes; they are found in the same cell and in the entire cell population. The small size and characteristic high lipid packing indicate that these micro-domains have properties that have been proposed for lipid rafts. PMID:22529342

  15. Cardiolipin effects on membrane structure and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Unsay, Joseph D; Cosentino, Katia; Subburaj, Yamunadevi; García-Sáez, Ana J

    2013-12-23

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a lipid with unique properties solely found in membranes generating electrochemical potential. It contains four acyl chains and tends to form nonlamellar structures, which are believed to play a key role in membrane structure and function. Indeed, CL alterations have been linked to disorders such as Barth syndrome and Parkinson's disease. However, the molecular effects of CL on membrane organization remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the structure and physical properties of CL-containing membranes using confocal microscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. We found that the fluidity of the lipid bilayer increased and its mechanical stability decreased with CL concentration, indicating that CL decreases the packing of the membrane. Although the presence of up to 20% CL gave rise to flat, stable bilayers, the inclusion of 5% CL promoted the formation of flowerlike domains that grew with time. Surprisingly, we often observed two membrane-piercing events in atomic force spectroscopy experiments with CL-containing membranes. Similar behavior was observed with a lipid mixture mimicking the mitochondrial outer membrane composition. This suggests that CL promotes the formation of membrane areas with apposed double bilayers or nonlamellar structures, similar to those proposed for mitochondrial contact sites. All together, we show that CL induces membrane alterations that support the role of CL in facilitating bilayer structure remodeling, deformation, and permeabilization. PMID:23962277

  16. Studies of the molecular effects of a solid support upon lipid membranes and membrane bound proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartshorn, Christopher M.

    Often, membrane/protein systems are studied and/or utilized on solid supports. The underlying substrate in solid supported lipid bilayer assemblies causes large perturbations to the membrane, but the nature of these effects are not well understood. To gain an understanding, these effects were studied on two fronts: the effect upon the membrane by itself, and then the effects upon a membrane/protein system. First, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of DLPC, DMPC, POPC, and DEPC on a hydroxylated nanocrystalline alpha-quartz (011) slab revealed a pronounced thinning effect in the lipid bilayers. It was shown that this thinning effect proceeded by one of two mechanisms: the first through a curling of the terminal methyl groups at the interface of the opposing leaflets, and the second through increased interdigitation of the alkyl chains. Also, with the introduction of the solid support, marked asymmetries in a number of structural properties were reported. These asymmetries included (a) the surface area per lipid, (b) the electron densities of the polar head groups, (c) the radial distributions of the choline groups, and (d) the average orientation of water surrounding the membranes. Next, the free energy perturbation method was used to begin calculating the change in free energy (DeltaGbinding) from a Gramicidin monomer to its dimeric state, which were simulated via MD of supported DLPC, DMPC, and DEPC bilayers. The most notable effect was an asymmetry of the calculated free energies relative to the bilayer side closest to the solid support. In all three systems, there was a large difference in free energy between the Gramicidin monomers that were close to the support and the monomers further from the support.

  17. Effect of Headgroups on Small-Ion Permeability across Archaea-Inspired Tetraether Lipid Membranes.

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Takaoki; Leriche, Geoffray; Yep, Alvin; Onofrei, David; Holland, Gregory P; Mayer, Michael; Yang, Jerry

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of four different polar headgroups on small-ion membrane permeability from liposomes comprised of Archaea-inspired glycerolmonoalkyl glycerol tetraether (GMGT) lipids. We found that the membrane-leakage rate across GMGT lipid membranes varied by a factor of ≤1.6 as a function of headgroup structure. However, the leakage rates of small ions across membranes comprised of commercial bilayer-forming 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol (PO) lipids varied by as much as 32-fold within the same series of headgroups. These results demonstrate that membrane leakage from GMGT lipids is less influenced by headgroup structure, making it possible to tailor the structure of the polar headgroups on GMGT lipids while retaining predictable leakage properties of membranes comprised of these tethered lipids. PMID:27142341

  18. Cellular Solid-State NMR Investigation of a Membrane Protein Using Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Caporini, Marc A.; Im, Sang-Choul; Waskell, Lucy; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-01-01

    While an increasing number of structural biology studies successfully demonstrate the power of high-resolution structures and dynamics of membrane proteins in fully understanding their function, there is considerable interest in developing NMR approaches to obtain such information in a cellular setting. As long as the proteins inside the living cell tumble rapidly in the NMR timescale, recently developed in-cell solution NMR approaches can be applied towards the determination of 3D structural information. However, there are numerous challenges that need to be overcome to study membrane proteins inside a cell. Research in our laboratory is focused on developing a combination of solid-state NMR and biological approaches to overcome these challenges with a specific emphasis on obtaining high-resolution structural insights into electron transfer biological processes mediated by membrane-bound proteins like mammalian cytochrome b5, cytochrome P450 and cytochrome P450 reductase. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of using the signal-enhancement rendered by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy for in-cell studies on a membrane-anchored protein. Our experimental results obtained from 13C-labeled membrane-anchored cytochrome b5 in native Escherichia coli cells show a ~16-fold DNP signal enhancement (ε). Further, results obtained from a 2D 13C/13C chemical shift correlation MAS experiment demonstrates that it is highly possible to suppress the background signals from other cellular contents for high-resolution structural studies on membrane proteins. We believe that this study would pave new avenues for high-resolution 3D structural studies on a variety of membrane-associated proteins and their complexes in the cellular context to fully understand their functional roles in physiological processes. PMID:25017802

  19. Myosin light chain kinase regulates cell polarization independently of membrane tension or Rho kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Sunny S.; Diz-Muñoz, Alba; Weiner, Orion D.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Cells polarize to a single front and rear to achieve rapid actin-based motility, but the mechanisms preventing the formation of multiple fronts are unclear. We developed embryonic zebrafish keratocytes as a model system for investigating establishment of a single axis. We observed that, although keratocytes from 2 d postfertilization (dpf) embryos resembled canonical fan-shaped keratocytes, keratocytes from 4 dpf embryos often formed multiple protrusions despite unchanged membrane tension. Using genomic, genetic, and pharmacological approaches, we determined that the multiple-protrusion phenotype was primarily due to increased myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression. MLCK activity influences cell polarity by increasing myosin accumulation in lamellipodia, which locally decreases protrusion lifetime, limiting lamellipodial size and allowing for multiple protrusions to coexist within the context of membrane tension limiting protrusion globally. In contrast, Rho kinase (ROCK) regulates myosin accumulation at the cell rear and does not determine protrusion size. These results suggest a novel MLCK-specific mechanism for controlling cell polarity via regulation of myosin activity in protrusions. PMID:25918227

  20. Probing Membrane Order and Topography in Supported Lipid Bilayers by Combined Polarized Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence-Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Oreopoulos, John; Yip, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    Determining the local structure, dynamics, and conformational requirements for protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions in membranes is critical to understanding biological processes ranging from signaling to the translocating and membranolytic action of antimicrobial peptides. We report here the application of a combined polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy-in situ atomic force microscopy platform. This platform's ability to image membrane orientational order was demonstrated on DOPC/DSPC/cholesterol model membranes containing the fluorescent membrane probe, DiI-C20 or BODIPY-PC. Spatially resolved order parameters and fluorophore tilt angles extracted from the polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy images were in good agreement with the topographical details resolved by in situ atomic force microscopy, portending use of this technique for high-resolution characterization of membrane domain structures and peptide-membrane interactions. PMID:19254557

  1. Hypobaric bacteriology: growth, cytoplasmic membrane polarization and total cellular fatty acids in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorny, N. J.; Boulter-Bitzer, J. I.; Hart, M. M.; Storey, L.; Lee, H.; Trevors, J. T.

    2005-10-01

    Escherichia coli JM109 (Gram-negative) and Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) were grown under hypobaric conditions for 19 days at 25 °C to study the effects of 33 and 67 kPa low pressures on selected physiological responses; growth, cytoplasmic membrane polarization (measure of cytoplasmic membrane fluidity) and total cellular fatty acids. In the first experiment, cytoplasmic membrane polarization in B. subtilis increased under both hypobaric conditions, indicating the membrane became more rigid or less fluid. This experiment was repeated and the effect of the hypobaric conditions was not evident as in the first experiment with B. subtilis. In addition, total cellular fatty acids analysis for B. subtilis showed that hypobaric conditions did not alter the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. The cytoplasmic membrane remained in the same fluid state in hypobaric grown E. coli cell cultures as in the 101 kPa ambient control cells in both experiments. However, the saturated to unsaturated ratios were altered in E. coli under hypobaric conditions. It is important to note the ratios for E. coli were less than 1, while the ratios for Bacillus were in the 28 50 range. Growth of both species was also measured by colony forming units at the termination of the 19 day experiment. Both bacterial species were capable of growth under hypobaric conditions and no distinct trend emerged as to the effect of hypobaric pressure on bacterial growth and cytoplasmic membrane fluidity.

  2. Effects of protein crowding on membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Guigas, Gernot; Weiss, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    Cellular membranes are typically decorated with a plethora of embedded and adsorbed macromolecules, e.g. proteins, that participate in numerous vital processes. With typical surface densities of 30,000 proteins per μm(2) cellular membranes are indeed crowded places that leave only few nanometers of private space for individual proteins. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of protein crowding in membrane systems. We first give a brief overview on state-of-the-art approaches in experiment and simulation that are frequently used to study crowded membranes. After that, we review how crowding can affect diffusive transport of proteins and lipids in membrane systems. Next, we discuss lipid and protein sorting in crowded membrane systems, including effects like protein cluster formation, phase segregation, and lipid droplet formation. Subsequently, we highlight recent progress in uncovering crowding-induced conformational changes of membranes, e.g. membrane budding and vesicle formation. Finally, we give a short outlook on potential future developments in the field of crowded membrane systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biosimulations edited by Ilpo Vattulainen and Tomasz Róg. PMID:26724385

  3. Effects of green tea catechins on membrane fluidity.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, H

    1999-07-01

    Catechins originating from green tea have been used in plaque inhibition for caries prevention and treatment for liver damage because of their antibacterial activity against cariogenic bacteria and protective activity on hepatic cells. The effects of catechins on membrane fluidity were studied by a fluorescence polarization method using liposomes prepared with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine to assess their pharmacological mechanism at micromol/l levels found in human body fluids after clinical application. All eight catechins tested, ranging from 1 to 1,000 micromol/l, significantly reduced membrane fluidity in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions of lipid bilayers. Catechin gallate esters were superior in fluidity reduction to the corresponding nonesters. The fluidity-reducing degree was different between the cis and trans forms, suggesting the stereospecific activity of catechins. A reference antiplaque agent, chlorhexidine, similarly reduced membrane fluidity at the antibacterial concentration. (+)-Catechin (250 micromol/l) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (2.5 micromol/l) significantly prevented the membrane fluidization induced by hepatotoxic chloroform. These results indicate that the reduction in membrane fluidity is responsible for the antiplaque and hepatoprotective effects of green tea catechins. PMID:10352424

  4. Improvement the equation of polarization curve of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell at different channel geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazaee, I.

    2015-12-01

    The polarization curve of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is an important parameter which is expressed by the change of voltage and current of it that indicates the performance of the cell. The voltage of the cell is a function of temperature that is expressed by the Nernst equation and the equation of voltage losses such as activation loss, ohmic loss and concentration loss. In this study a new correlation for polarization curve is obtained that it in addition to temperature, a new parameter is involved in it that shows the effect of the geometry of cross-section area of channels. For this purpose three PEM fuel cells with different channels geometry of rectangular, elliptical and triangular have constructed. The active area of each cell is 25 cm2 that its weight is 1300 g. The material of the gas diffusion layer is carbon clothes, the membrane is nafion 117 and the catalyst layer is a plane with 0.004 g/cm2 platinum. Also a test bench designed and constructed for testing the cell and a series of experiments are carried out to investigate the influence of the geometry of the cell on performance of the cell. The results show that when the geometry of channel is rectangular the performance of the cell is better than the triangular and elliptical channel.

  5. Polarization effects at RHIC and LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, C. C. Jr.

    2013-03-25

    Recently, the STAR collaboration has measured the {Lambda} and {sup -}{Lambda} polarizations as functions of the transverse momentum and the pseudorapidity in 200 GeV Au-Au collisions at RHIC. In this study, the global polarization has been measured, and the results presents some differences when comparedwith the ones obtained in proton-nucleus collisions. These results can be understood in terms of a model that we recently proposed, that is based on the hydrodynamical model, and taking into account the average effect of the final-state interactions (that occur in the hadronic phase) between the hyperons and other produced particles. In this work, we show how this model may be applied in such collisions, and also will discuss the relation of our results with other models, in order to explain the experimental data.

  6. Plasma Membrane Polarity and Compartmentalization are Established Before Cellularization in the Fly Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Mavrakis, Manos; Rikhy, Richa; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Summary Patterning in the Drosophila embryo requires local activation and dynamics of proteins in the plasma membrane (PM). We used in vivo fluorescence imaging to characterize the organization and diffusional properties of the PM in the early embryonic syncytium. Before cellularization, the PM is polarized into discrete domains having epithelial-like characteristics. One domain resides above individual nuclei and has apical-like characteristics, while the other domain is lateral to nuclei and contains markers associated with basolateral membranes and junctions. Pulse-chase photoconversion experiments show that molecules can diffuse within each domain but do not exchange between PM regions above adjacent nuclei. Drug-induced F-actin depolymerization disrupted both the apicobasal-like polarity and the diffusion barriers within the syncytial PM. These events correlated with perturbations in the spatial pattern of dorsoventral Toll signaling. We propose that epithelial-like properties and an intact F-actin network compartmentalize the PM and shape morphogen gradients in the syncytial embryo. PMID:19154721

  7. Effects of 3D geometries on cellular gradient sensing and polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spill, Fabian; Andasari, Vivi; Mak, Michael; Kamm, Roger D.; Zaman, Muhammad H.

    2016-06-01

    During cell migration, cells become polarized, change their shape, and move in response to various internal and external cues. Cell polarization is defined through the spatio-temporal organization of molecules such as PI3K or small GTPases, and is determined by intracellular signaling networks. It results in directional forces through actin polymerization and myosin contractions. Many existing mathematical models of cell polarization are formulated in terms of reaction–diffusion systems of interacting molecules, and are often defined in one or two spatial dimensions. In this paper, we introduce a 3D reaction–diffusion model of interacting molecules in a single cell, and find that cell geometry has an important role affecting the capability of a cell to polarize, or change polarization when an external signal changes direction. Our results suggest a geometrical argument why more roundish cells can repolarize more effectively than cells which are elongated along the direction of the original stimulus, and thus enable roundish cells to turn faster, as has been observed in experiments. On the other hand, elongated cells preferentially polarize along their main axis even when a gradient stimulus appears from another direction. Furthermore, our 3D model can accurately capture the effect of binding and unbinding of important regulators of cell polarization to and from the cell membrane. This spatial separation of membrane and cytosol, not possible to capture in 1D or 2D models, leads to marked differences of our model from comparable lower-dimensional models.

  8. Effect of membrane polymeric materials on relationship between surface pore size and membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Taro; Yuasa, Kotaku; Ishigami, Toru; Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Kamio, Eiji; Ohmukai, Yoshikage; Saeki, Daisuke; Ni, Jinren; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the effect of different membrane polymeric materials on the relationship between membrane pore size and development of membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). Membranes with different pore sizes were prepared using three different polymeric materials, cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), polyvinyl butyral (PVB), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and the development of membrane fouling in each membrane was evaluated by batch filtration tests using a mixed liquor suspension obtained from a laboratory-scale MBR. The results revealed that the optimal membrane pore size to mitigate membrane fouling differed depending on membrane polymeric material. For PVDF membranes, the degree of membrane fouling decreased as membrane pore size increased. In contrast, CAB membranes with smaller pores had less fouling propensity than those with larger ones. Such difference can be attributed to the difference in major membrane foulants in each membrane; in PVDF, they were small colloids or dissolved organics in which proteins are abundant, and in CAB, microbial flocs. The results obtained in this study strongly suggested that optimum operating conditions of MBRs differ depending on the characteristics of the used membrane.

  9. X11/Mint Genes Control Polarized Localization of Axonal Membrane Proteins in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Garrett G.; Lone, G. Mohiddin; Leung, Lok Kwan; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Mislocalization of axonal proteins can result in misassembly and/or miswiring of neural circuits, causing disease. To date, only a handful of genes that control polarized localization of axonal membrane proteins have been identified. Here we report that Drosophila X11/Mint proteins are required for targeting several proteins, including human amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Drosophila APP-like protein (APPL), to axonal membranes and for their exclusion from dendrites of the mushroom body in Drosophila, a brain structure involved in learning and memory. Axonal localization of APP is mediated by an endocytic motif, and loss of X11/Mint results in a dramatic increase in cell-surface levels of APPL, especially on dendrites. Mutations in genes required for endocytosis show similar mislocalization of these proteins to dendrites, and strongly enhance defects seen in X11/Mint mutants. These results suggest that X11/Mint-dependent endocytosis in dendrites may serve to promote the axonal localization of membrane proteins. Since X11/Mint binds to APP, and abnormal trafficking of APP contributes to Alzheimer's disease, deregulation of X11/Mint may be important for Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. PMID:23658195

  10. X11/Mint genes control polarized localization of axonal membrane proteins in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gross, Garrett G; Lone, G Mohiddin; Leung, Lok Kwan; Hartenstein, Volker; Guo, Ming

    2013-05-01

    Mislocalization of axonal proteins can result in misassembly and/or miswiring of neural circuits, causing disease. To date, only a handful of genes that control polarized localization of axonal membrane proteins have been identified. Here we report that Drosophila X11/Mint proteins are required for targeting several proteins, including human amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Drosophila APP-like protein (APPL), to axonal membranes and for their exclusion from dendrites of the mushroom body in Drosophila, a brain structure involved in learning and memory. Axonal localization of APP is mediated by an endocytic motif, and loss of X11/Mint results in a dramatic increase in cell-surface levels of APPL, especially on dendrites. Mutations in genes required for endocytosis show similar mislocalization of these proteins to dendrites, and strongly enhance defects seen in X11/Mint mutants. These results suggest that X11/Mint-dependent endocytosis in dendrites may serve to promote the axonal localization of membrane proteins. Since X11/Mint binds to APP, and abnormal trafficking of APP contributes to Alzheimer's disease, deregulation of X11/Mint may be important for Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. PMID:23658195

  11. Segregative clustering of Lo and Ld membrane microdomains induced by local pH gradients in GM1-containing giant vesicles: a lipid model for cellular polarization.

    PubMed

    Staneva, Galya; Puff, Nicolas; Seigneuret, Michel; Conjeaud, Hélène; Angelova, Miglena I

    2012-11-27

    Several cell polarization processes are coupled to local pH gradients at the membrane surface. We have investigated the involvement of a lipid-mediated effect in such coupling. The influence of lateral pH gradients along the membrane surface on lipid microdomain dynamics in giant unilamellar vesicles containing phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, cholesterol, and the ganglioside GM1 was studied. Lo/Ld phase separation was generated by photosensitization. A lateral pH gradient was established along the external membrane surface by acid local microinjection. The gradient promotes the segregation of microdomains: Lo domains within an Ld phase move toward the higher pH side, whereas Ld domains within an Lo phase move toward the lower pH side. This results in a polarization of the vesicle membrane into Lo and Ld phases poles in the axis of the proton source. A secondary effect is inward tubulation in the Ld phase. None of these processes occurs without GM1 or with the analog asialo-GM1. These are therefore related to the acidic character of the GM1 headgroup. LAURDAN fluorescence experiments on large unilamellar vesicles indicated that, with GM1, an increase in lipid packing occurs with decreasing pH, attributed to the lowering of repulsion between GM1 molecules. Packing increase is much higher for Ld phase vesicles than for Lo phase vesicles. It is proposed that the driving forces for domain vectorial segregative clustering and vesicle polarization are related to such differences in packing variations with pH decrease between the Lo and Ld phases. Such pH-driven domain clustering might play a role in cellular membrane polarization processes in which local lateral pH gradients are known to be important, such as migrating cells and epithelial cells. PMID:23121205

  12. The role of mechanical pressure difference in the generation of membrane voltage under conditions of concentration polarization.

    PubMed

    Grzegorczyn, Sławomir; Ślęzak, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical pressure difference across the bacterial cellulose membrane located in a horizontal plane causes asymmetry of voltage measured between electrodes immersed in KCl solutions symmetrically on both sides of the membrane. For all measurements, KCl solution with lower concentration was above the membrane. In configuration of the analyzed membrane system, the concentration boundary layers (CBLs) are created only by molecular diffusion. The voltages measured in the membrane system in concentration polarization conditions were compared with suitable voltages obtained from the model of diffusion through CBLs and ion transport through the membrane. An increase of difference of mechanical pressure across the membrane directed as a difference of osmotic pressure always causes a decrease of voltage between the electrodes in the membrane system. In turn, for mechanical pressure difference across the membrane directed in an opposite direction to the difference of osmotic pressure, a peak in the voltage as a function of mechanical pressure difference is observed. An increase of osmotic pressure difference across the membrane at the initial moment causes an increase of the maximal value of the observed peak and a shift of this peak position in the direction of higher values of the mechanical pressure differences across the membrane. PMID:27060081

  13. A Sec14p-nodulin domain phosphatidylinositol transfer protein polarizes membrane growth of Arabidopsis thaliana root hairs

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Patrick; Chua, Michael; Nogue, Fabien; Fairbrother, Ashley; Mekeel, Hal; Xu, Yue; Allen, Nina; Bibikova, Tatiana N.; Gilroy, Simon; Bankaitis, Vytas A.

    2005-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) transfer proteins (PITPs) regulate signaling interfaces between lipid metabolism and membrane trafficking. Herein, we demonstrate that AtSfh1p, a member of a large and uncharacterized Arabidopsis thaliana Sec14p-nodulin domain family, is a PITP that regulates a specific stage in root hair development. AtSfh1p localizes along the root hair plasma membrane and is enriched in discrete plasma membrane domains and in the root hair tip cytoplasm. This localization pattern recapitulates that visualized for PtdIns(4,5)P2 in developing root hairs. Gene ablation experiments show AtSfh1p nullizygosity compromises polarized root hair expansion in a manner that coincides with loss of tip-directed PtdIns(4,5)P2, dispersal of secretory vesicles from the tip cytoplasm, loss of the tip f-actin network, and manifest disorganization of the root hair microtubule cytoskeleton. Derangement of tip-directed Ca2+ gradients is also apparent and results from isotropic influx of Ca2+ from the extracellular milieu. We propose AtSfh1p regulates intracellular and plasma membrane phosphoinositide polarity landmarks that focus membrane trafficking, Ca2+ signaling, and cytoskeleton functions to the growing root hair apex. We further suggest that Sec14p-nodulin domain proteins represent a family of regulators of polarized membrane growth in plants. PMID:15728190

  14. Spin polarization effect for Fe2 molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shi-Ying; Zhu, Zheng-He

    2006-07-01

    This paper uses the density functional theory (DFT)(B3p86) of Gaussian03 to optimize the structure of Fe2 molecule. The result shows that the ground state for Fe2 molecule is a 9-multiple state, which shows spin polarization effect of Fe2 molecule of transition metal elements for the first time. Meanwhile, we have not found any spin pollution because the wavefunction of the ground state does not mingle with wavefunctions with higher energy states. So, that the ground state for Fe2 molecule is a 9-multiple state is indicative of the spin polarization effect of Fe2 molecule of transition metal elements. That is, there exist 8 parallel spin electrons. The non-conjugated electron is greatest in number. These electrons occupy different spacious tracks, so that the energy of the Fe2 molecule is minimized. It can be concluded that the effect of parallel spin of the Fe2 molecule is larger than the effect of the conjugated molecule, which is obviously related to the effect of electron d delocalization. In addition, the Murrell-Sorbie potential functions with the parameters for the ground state and other states of Fe2 molecule are derived. Dissociation energy De for the ground state of Fe2 molecule is 2.8586ev, equilibrium bond length Re is 0.2124nm, vibration frequency ωe is 336.38 cm-1. Its force constants f2, f3, and f4 are 1.8615aJ.nm-2, -8.6704aJ.nm-3, 29.1676aJ.nm-4 respectively. The other spectroscopic data for the ground state of Fe2 molecule ωeχe,Be, αe are 1.5461 cm-1, 0.1339 cm-1, 7.3428×10-4 cm-1 respectively.

  15. Induced-charge electrokinetics, bipolar current, and concentration polarization in a microchannel-Nafion-membrane system.

    PubMed

    Park, Sinwook; Yossifon, Gilad

    2016-06-01

    The presence of a floating electrode array located within the depletion layer formed due to concentration polarization across a microchannel-membrane interface device may produce not only induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) but also bipolar current resulting from the induced Faradaic reaction. It has been shown that there exists an optimal thickness of a thin dielectric coating that is sufficient to suppress bipolar currents but still enables ICEO vortices that stir the depletion layer, thereby affecting the system's current-voltage response. In addition, the use of alternating-current electro-osmosis by activating electrodes results in further enhancement of the fluid stirring and opens new routes for on-demand spatiotemporal control of the depletion layer length. PMID:27415327

  16. Induced-charge electrokinetics, bipolar current, and concentration polarization in a microchannel-Nafion-membrane system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sinwook; Yossifon, Gilad

    2016-06-01

    The presence of a floating electrode array located within the depletion layer formed due to concentration polarization across a microchannel-membrane interface device may produce not only induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) but also bipolar current resulting from the induced Faradaic reaction. It has been shown that there exists an optimal thickness of a thin dielectric coating that is sufficient to suppress bipolar currents but still enables ICEO vortices that stir the depletion layer, thereby affecting the system's current-voltage response. In addition, the use of alternating-current electro-osmosis by activating electrodes results in further enhancement of the fluid stirring and opens new routes for on-demand spatiotemporal control of the depletion layer length.

  17. A study for polarized illumination effects in photo resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Junjiang; Bai, Min; Shiely, Jim; Zhang, Lin

    2005-06-01

    Using a polarized illumination source is a promising RET technique for improvement of wafer printability for features of 65 nm and below. Polarization effects could be considered in several different stages of lithography modeling and simulation. For example, light propagation in thin films, wave superstition and interference in the thin film stack, and mask-induced polarization all deserve special attention and delicate treatment because TE and TM waves have different behaviors through these stages. In this paper we consider effects of polarized illumination in photo resist, using the Kirchhoff approximation for masks. We discuss some theoretical aspects of our vector modeling methods and show an example of simulation for polarized illumination effects.

  18. Effect of Preparation Methods on Crystallization Behavior and Tensile Strength of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Membranes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Lu, Xiaolong; Wu, Chunrui

    2013-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes were prepared by non solvent induced phase separation (NIPS), melt spinning and the solution-cast method. The effect of preparation methods with different membrane formation mechanisms on crystallization behavior and tensile strength of PVDF membranes was investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to examine the crystal form of the surface layers and the overall membranes, respectively. Spherulite morphologies and thermal behavior of the membranes were studied by polarized light optical microscopy (PLO) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) separately. It was found that the crystallization behavior of PVDF membranes was closely related to the preparation methods. For membranes prepared by the NIPS method, the skin layers had a mixture of α and β phases, the overall membranes were predominantly α phase, and the total crystallinity was 60.0% with no spherulite. For melt spinning membranes, the surface layers also showed a mixture of α and β phases, the overall membranes were predominantly α phase. The total crystallinity was 48.7% with perfect spherulites. Whereas the crystallization behavior of solution-cast membranes was related to the evaporation temperature and the additive, when the evaporation temperature was 140 °C with a soluble additive in the dope solution, obvious spherulites appeared. The crystalline morphology of PVDF exerted a great influence on the tensile strength of the membranes, which was much higher with perfect spherulites. PMID:24957064

  19. Effect of Preparation Methods on Crystallization Behavior and Tensile Strength of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Lu, Xiaolong; Wu, Chunrui

    2013-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes were prepared by non solvent induced phase separation (NIPS), melt spinning and the solution-cast method. The effect of preparation methods with different membrane formation mechanisms on crystallization behavior and tensile strength of PVDF membranes was investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to examine the crystal form of the surface layers and the overall membranes, respectively. Spherulite morphologies and thermal behavior of the membranes were studied by polarized light optical microscopy (PLO) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) separately. It was found that the crystallization behavior of PVDF membranes was closely related to the preparation methods. For membranes prepared by the NIPS method, the skin layers had a mixture of α and β phases, the overall membranes were predominantly α phase, and the total crystallinity was 60.0% with no spherulite. For melt spinning membranes, the surface layers also showed a mixture of α and β phases, the overall membranes were predominantly α phase. The total crystallinity was 48.7% with perfect spherulites. Whereas the crystallization behavior of solution-cast membranes was related to the evaporation temperature and the additive, when the evaporation temperature was 140 °C with a soluble additive in the dope solution, obvious spherulites appeared. The crystalline morphology of PVDF exerted a great influence on the tensile strength of the membranes, which was much higher with perfect spherulites. PMID:24957064

  20. EMC and polarized EMC effects in Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Cloet; Wolfgang Bentz; Anthony Thomas

    2006-05-23

    We determine nuclear structure functions and quark distributions for {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 15}N and {sup 27}Al. For the nucleon bound state we solve the covariant quark-diquark equations in a confining Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model, which yields excellent results for the free nucleon structure functions. The nucleus is described using a relativistic shell model, including mean scalar and vector fields that couple to the quarks in the nucleon. The nuclear structure functions are then obtained as a convolution of the structure function of the bound nucleon with the light-cone nucleon distributions. We find that we are readily able to reproduce the EMC effect in finite nuclei and confirm earlier nuclear matter studies that found a large polarized EMC effect.

  1. Acceptance Effects in the Hyperons Global Polarization Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Selyuzhenkov, Ilya

    2006-11-17

    The possible sources of systematic uncertainties in the hyperons global polarization measurement are discussed. The equation with detector acceptance effects taken into account is provided. Contribution of the hyperons directed flow into the hyperons global polarization measurement is shown. The systematic uncertainties of the {lambda} hyperons global polarization measurement in Au+Au collisions with the STAR detector at RHIC are calculated.

  2. Effect of 3D Polarization profiles on polarization measurements and colliding beam experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Bazilevsky, A.

    2011-08-18

    The development of polarization profiles are the primary reason for the loss of average polarization. Polarization profiles have been parametrized with a Gaussian distribution. We derive the effect of 3-dimensional polarization profiles on the measured polarization in polarimeters, as well as the observed polarization and the figure of merit in single and double spin experiments. Examples from RHIC are provided. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the only collider of spin polarized protons. During beam acceleration and storage profiles of the polarization P develop, which affect the polarization measured in a polarimeter, and the polarization and figure of merit (FOM) in colliding beam experiments. We calculate these for profiles in all dimensions, and give examples for RHIC. Like in RHIC we call the two colliding beams Blue and Yellow. We use the overbar to designate intensity-weighted averages in polarimeters (e.g. {bar P}), and angle brackets to designate luminosity-weighted averages in colliding beam experiments (e.g.

    ).

  3. Detection of 13,19-didesmethyl C spirolide by fluorescence polarization using Torpedo electrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Fonfría, Eva S; Vilariño, Natalia; Molgó, Jordi; Aráoz, Rómulo; Otero, Paz; Espiña, Begoña; Louzao, M Carmen; Alvarez, Mercedes; Botana, Luis M

    2010-08-01

    Fluorescence polarization (FP) is a powerful tool for studying molecular interactions by monitoring changes in the apparent size of fluorescent molecules. In this paper, a previously described fluorescence polarization assay was used to detect 13,19-didesmethyl C spirolide. The assay is based on the competition of cyclic imine marine biotoxins with alpha-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-enriched membranes of Torpedo marmorata. The 13,19-didesmethyl C spirolide was detected in buffer and mussel matrix. The sensitivity of the assay for the 13,19-didesmethyl C spirolide and the 13-desmethyl C spirolide was similar. After an acetone/chloroform extraction of spiked mussel meat, the average recovery rate of 13,19-didesmethyl C spirolide was 77.7 +/- 1.9%. The quantification range for this toxin in mussel was 40-200 microg/kg of shellfish meat. This assay can be used to detect the spirolides 13,19-didesmethyl C spirolide and 13-desmethyl C spirolide, in shellfish as a screening assay. PMID:20382103

  4. VANGL2 regulates membrane trafficking of MMP14 to control cell polarity and migration.

    PubMed

    Williams, B Blairanne; Cantrell, V Ashley; Mundell, Nathan A; Bennett, Andrea C; Quick, Rachel E; Jessen, Jason R

    2012-05-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) describes the polarized orientation of cells within the plane of a tissue. Unlike epithelial PCP, the mechanisms underlying PCP signaling in migrating cells remain undefined. Here, the establishment of PCP must be coordinated with dynamic changes in cell adhesion and extracellular matrix (ECM) organization. During gastrulation, the membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP or MMP14) is required for PCP and convergence and extension cell movements. We report that the PCP protein Vang-like 2 (VANGL2) regulates the endocytosis and cell-surface availability of MMP14 in manner that is dependent on focal adhesion kinase. We demonstrate that zebrafish trilobite/vangl2 mutant embryos exhibit increased Mmp14 activity and decreased ECM. Furthermore, in vivo knockdown of Mmp14 partially rescues the Vangl2 loss-of-function convergence and extension phenotype. This study identifies a mechanism linking VANGL2 with MMP14 trafficking and suggests that establishment of PCP in migrating gastrula cells requires regulated proteolytic degradation or remodeling of the ECM. Our findings implicate matrix metalloproteinases as downstream effectors of PCP and suggest a broadly applicable mechanism whereby VANGL2 affects diverse morphogenetic processes. PMID:22357946

  5. VANGL2 regulates membrane trafficking of MMP14 to control cell polarity and migration

    PubMed Central

    Williams, B. Blairanne; Cantrell, V. Ashley; Mundell, Nathan A.; Bennett, Andrea C.; Quick, Rachel E.; Jessen, Jason R.

    2012-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) describes the polarized orientation of cells within the plane of a tissue. Unlike epithelial PCP, the mechanisms underlying PCP signaling in migrating cells remain undefined. Here, the establishment of PCP must be coordinated with dynamic changes in cell adhesion and extracellular matrix (ECM) organization. During gastrulation, the membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP or MMP14) is required for PCP and convergence and extension cell movements. We report that the PCP protein Vang-like 2 (VANGL2) regulates the endocytosis and cell-surface availability of MMP14 in manner that is dependent on focal adhesion kinase. We demonstrate that zebrafish trilobite/vangl2 mutant embryos exhibit increased Mmp14 activity and decreased ECM. Furthermore, in vivo knockdown of Mmp14 partially rescues the Vangl2 loss-of-function convergence and extension phenotype. This study identifies a mechanism linking VANGL2 with MMP14 trafficking and suggests that establishment of PCP in migrating gastrula cells requires regulated proteolytic degradation or remodeling of the ECM. Our findings implicate matrix metalloproteinases as downstream effectors of PCP and suggest a broadly applicable mechanism whereby VANGL2 affects diverse morphogenetic processes. PMID:22357946

  6. High-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization in MAS spectra of membrane and soluble proteins.

    PubMed

    Rosay, Melanie; Lansing, Jonathan C; Haddad, Kristin C; Bachovchin, William W; Herzfeld, Judith; Temkin, Richard J; Griffin, Robert G

    2003-11-12

    One of the principal promises of solid-state NMR (SSNMR) magic angle spinning (MAS) experiments has been the possibility of determining the structures of molecules in states that are not accessible via X-ray or solution NMR experiments-e.g., membrane or amyloid proteins. However, the low sensitivity of SSNMR often restricts structural studies to small-model compounds and precludes many higher-dimensional solid-state MAS experiments on such systems. To address the sensitivity problem, we have developed experiments that utilize dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to enhance sensitivity. In this communication, we report the successful application of MAS DNP to samples of cryoprotected soluble and membrane proteins. In particular, we have observed DNP signal enhancements of up to 50 in 15N MAS spectra of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and alpha-lytic protease (alpha-LP). The spectra were recorded at approximately 90 K where MAS is experimentally straightforward, and the results suggest that the described protocol will be widely applicable. PMID:14599177

  7. 250-GHz electron spin resonance studies of polarity gradients along the aliphatic chains in phospholipid membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Earle, K. A.; Moscicki, J. K.; Ge, M.; Budil, D. E.; Freed, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Rigid-limit 250-GHz electron spin resonance (FIR-ESR) spectra have been studied for a series of phosphatidylcholine spin labels (n-PC, where n = 5, 7, 10, 12, 16) in pure lipid dispersions of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC), as well as dispersions of DPPC containing the peptide gramicidin A (GA) in a 1:1 molar ratio. The enhanced g-tensor resolution of 250-GHz ESR for these spin labels permitted a careful study of the nitroxide g-tensor as a function of spin probe location and membrane composition. In particular, as the spin label is displaced from the polar head group, Azz decreases and gxx increases as they assume values typical of a nonpolar environment, appropriate for the hydrophobic alkyl chains in the case of pure lipid dispersions. The field shifts of spectral features due to changes in gxx are an order of magnitude larger than those from changes in Azz. The magnetic tensor parameters measured in the presence of GA were characteristic of a polar environment and showed only a very weak dependence of Azz and gxx on label position. These results demonstrate the significant influence of GA on the local polarity along the lipid molecule, and may reflect increased penetration of water into the alkyl chain region of the lipid in the presence of GA. The spectra from the pure lipid dispersions also exhibit a broad background signal that is most significant for 7-, 10-, and 12-PC, and is more pronounced in DPPC than in POPC. It is attributed to spin probe aggregation yielding spin exchange narrowing. The addition of GA to DPPC essentially suppressed the broad background signal observed in pure DPPC dispersions. PMID:7518705

  8. Membrane topologies of the PGLa antimicrobial peptide and a transmembrane anchor sequence by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization/solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Salnikov, Evgeniy Sergeevich; Aisenbrey, Christopher; Aussenac, Fabien; Ouari, Olivier; Sarrouj, Hiba; Reiter, Christian; Tordo, Paul; Engelke, Frank; Bechinger, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has been introduced to overcome the sensitivity limitations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy also of supported lipid bilayers. When investigated by solid-state NMR techniques the approach typically involves doping the samples with biradicals and their investigation at cryo-temperatures. Here we investigated the effects of temperature and membrane hydration on the topology of amphipathic and hydrophobic membrane polypeptides. Although the antimicrobial PGLa peptide in dimyristoyl phospholipids is particularly sensitive to topological alterations, the DNP conditions represent well its membrane alignment also found in bacterial lipids at ambient temperature. With a novel membrane-anchored biradical and purpose-built hardware a 17-fold enhancement in NMR signal intensity is obtained by DNP which is one of the best obtained for a truly static matrix-free system. Furthermore, a membrane anchor sequence encompassing 19 hydrophobic amino acid residues was investigated. Although at cryotemperatures the transmembrane domain adjusts it membrane tilt angle by about 10 degrees, the temperature dependence of two-dimensional separated field spectra show that freezing the motions can have beneficial effects for the structural analysis of this sequence. PMID:26876950

  9. Membrane topologies of the PGLa antimicrobial peptide and a transmembrane anchor sequence by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization/solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Salnikov, Evgeniy Sergeevich; Aisenbrey, Christopher; Aussenac, Fabien; Ouari, Olivier; Sarrouj, Hiba; Reiter, Christian; Tordo, Paul; Engelke, Frank; Bechinger, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has been introduced to overcome the sensitivity limitations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy also of supported lipid bilayers. When investigated by solid-state NMR techniques the approach typically involves doping the samples with biradicals and their investigation at cryo-temperatures. Here we investigated the effects of temperature and membrane hydration on the topology of amphipathic and hydrophobic membrane polypeptides. Although the antimicrobial PGLa peptide in dimyristoyl phospholipids is particularly sensitive to topological alterations, the DNP conditions represent well its membrane alignment also found in bacterial lipids at ambient temperature. With a novel membrane-anchored biradical and purpose-built hardware a 17-fold enhancement in NMR signal intensity is obtained by DNP which is one of the best obtained for a truly static matrix-free system. Furthermore, a membrane anchor sequence encompassing 19 hydrophobic amino acid residues was investigated. Although at cryotemperatures the transmembrane domain adjusts it membrane tilt angle by about 10 degrees, the temperature dependence of two-dimensional separated field spectra show that freezing the motions can have beneficial effects for the structural analysis of this sequence. PMID:26876950

  10. An operator perturbation method for polarized line transfer. II. Resonance polarization with partial frequency redistribution effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paletou, Frederic; Faurobert-Scholl, Marianne

    1997-12-01

    The effects of partial frequency redistribution are implemented in the Polarized Accelerated Lambda Iteration (PALI) method of Faurobert-Scholl et al. (1997). The numerical scheme is an extension of the core-wing technique of Paletou & Auer (1995) originally developed for non-polarized line transfer problems. Using a new code, we validate theoretical results against those given by a Feautrier type code.

  11. Electroviscous Effects in Ceramic Nanofiltration Membranes.

    PubMed

    Farsi, Ali; Boffa, Vittorio; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    2015-11-16

    Membrane permeability and salt rejection of a γ-alumina nanofiltration membrane were studied and modeled for different salt solutions. Salt rejection was predicted by using the Donnan-steric pore model, in which the extended Nernst-Planck equation was applied to predict ion transport through the pores. The solvent flux was modeled by using the Hagen-Poiseuille equation by introducing electroviscosity instead of bulk viscosity. γ-Alumina particles were used for ζ-potential measurements. The ζ-potential measurements show that monovalent ions did not adsorb on the γ-alumina surface, whereas divalent ions were highly adsorbed. Thus, for divalent ions, the model was modified, owing to pore shrinkage caused by ion adsorption. The ζ-potential lowered the membrane permeability, especially for membranes with a pore radius lower than 3 nm, a ζ-potential higher than 20 mV, and an ionic strength lower than 0.01 m. The rejection model showed that, for a pore radius lower than 3 nm and for solutions with ionic strengths lower than 0.01 m, there is an optimum ζ-potential for rejection, because of the concurrent effects of electromigration and convection. Hence, the model can be used as a prediction tool to optimize membrane perm-selectivity by designing a specific pore size and surface charge for application at specific ionic strengths and pH levels. PMID:26346603

  12. Polarization Effects Aboard the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Jason; Young, Martin; Dubovitsky, Serge; Dorsky, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    For precision displacement measurements, laser metrology is currently one of the most accurate measurements. Often, the measurement is located some distance away from the laser source, and as a result, stringent requirements are placed on the laser delivery system with respect to the state of polarization. Such is the case with the fiber distribution assembly (FDA) that is slated to fly aboard the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) next decade. This system utilizes a concatenated array of couplers, polarizers and lengthy runs of polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber to distribute linearly-polarized light from a single laser to fourteen different optical metrology measurement points throughout the spacecraft. Optical power fluctuations at the point of measurement can be traced back to the polarization extinction ration (PER) of the concatenated components, in conjunction with the rate of change in phase difference of the light along the slow and fast axes of the PM fiber.

  13. The effect of bacterial cellulose membrane compared with collagen membrane on guided bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Youn-Mook; Jeong, Sung In; An, Sung-Jun; Kang, Seong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was to evaluate the effects of bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes as a barrier membrane on guided bone regeneration (GBR) in comparison with those of the resorbable collagen membranes. MATERIALS AND METHODS BC membranes were fabricated using biomimetic technology. Surface properties were analyzed, Mechanical properties were measured, in vitro cell proliferation test were performed with NIH3T3 cells and in vivo study were performed with rat calvarial defect and histomorphometric analysis was done. The Mann-Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon signed rank test was used (α<.05). RESULTS BC membrane showed significantly higher mechanical properties such as wet tensile strength than collagen membrane and represented a three-dimensional multilayered structure cross-linked by nano-fibers with 60 % porosity. In vitro study, cell adhesion and proliferation were observed on BC membrane. However, morphology of the cells was found to be less differentiated, and the cell proliferation rate was lower than those of the cells on collagen membrane. In vivo study, the grafted BC membrane did not induce inflammatory response, and maintained adequate space for bone regeneration. An amount of new bone formation in defect region loaded with BC membrane was significantly similar to that of collagen membrane application. CONCLUSION BC membrane has potential to be used as a barrier membrane, and efficacy of the membrane on GBR is comparable to that of collagen membrane. PMID:26816579

  14. Polarization effects in silver delafossite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panapitiya, Gihan; Lewis, James P.

    Delafossites are a promising class of materials which has applications in catalysis and optoelectronic devices. Even though much work has been carried out on the cuprate family of delafossites, little is known about the structural and electronic properties of it's silver counterpart. In this work, we present a computational study for two delafossite oxides of the form AgB1 - x FexO2 (For B = Al,Ga). A large number of structures are studied by varying the Fe alloying percentage(x) from 0 to 5 and by choosing the impurity sites randomly. We find that the local structural changes occurring at the vicinity of Fe atoms in these two systems have opposite trends with regard to the O-O distance. The reason for this difference in the trends is identified as the polarization effects on the inter-atomic distances caused by the displacements in O atoms resulting from the incorporation of Fe in sites, previously occupied by either Al or Ga. We believe that these effects are mediated by the differences in the atomic radii of Fe, Al and Ga. Higher alloying levels coupled with nearest neighbor Fe atoms can intensify these distortions in the structure creating deformations in the O-Ag-O bonds, which are directly related to the formation of the conduction band edge in these systems.

  15. Polar and low polar solvents media effect on dipole moments of some diazo Sudan dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Golghasemi Sorkhabi, Sh.; Shamkhali, A. N.

    2014-06-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectra of three Sudan dyes (SudanIII, SudanIV and Sudan black B) were recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 300-800 nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic method was used to investigate dipole moments of these dyes in ground and excited states, in different media. The solvatochromic behavior of these substances and their solvent-solute interactions were analyzed via solvent polarity parameters. Obtained results express the effects of solvation on tautomerism and molecular configuration (geometry) of Sudan dyes in solvent media with different polarity. Furthermore, analyze of solvent-solute interactions and value of ground and excited states dipole moments suggests different forms of resonance structures for Sudan dyes in polar and low-polar solvents.

  16. Effect of peptide conformation on membrane permeability.

    PubMed

    Boguslavsky, V; Hruby, V J; O'Brien, D F; Misicka, A; Lipkowski, A W

    2003-06-01

    The effect of peptide conformational constraint on the peptide permeation across the model membranes was examined by determining the permeability of pairs of cyclic and acyclic peptides related to c[d-Pen2, d-Pen5] enkephalin (DPDPE). The peptides were cyclized by formation of an intramolecular disulfide bridge between the second and fifth residues composed of either d-penicillamine or cysteine. In each case the acyclic peptide was three to seven times more permeable than corresponding cyclic peptide. The possibility that the differences in permeability of cyclic and acyclic peptides is based on the greater conformational freedom of the acyclic peptides in the presence of membrane was examined in more detail by isothermal titration calorimetric studies of Trp6-DPDPE and its acyclic analog. The membrane binding of the acyclic peptide is a more exothermic process than binding of its cyclic Trp6-DPDPE. The transfer of acyclic peptide from water to membrane is an enthalpy driven process, whereas the transfer of the cyclic peptide is driven by entropy. PMID:12753376

  17. Study of polarization effects at Nuclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladygin, V. P.; Janek, M.; Kurilkin, P. K.; Ladygina, N. B.; Batyuk, P. N.; Mertz, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    The major goal of the upgraded Nuclotron facility is to obtain the information on the equation-of-state for dense nuclear matter playing a key role in the under standing of the collapse supernovae and neutron stars stability. These studies can be performed either in heavy ion collisions or via the short-range few nucleon correlations. The obtained experimental results and future program with the use of polarized deuteron beam and the internal target station are discussed. The polarization studies for the NN, NA and dA reactions with the extracted deuteron beam at the BM@N setup are proposed. The further extension of the polarization program at BM@N is related with the study of the in-medium modification of the polarization for the strange and multi-strange baryons and the spin alignment for vector mesons decaying in hadronic modes.

  18. Zeno and anti-Zeno effects for photon polarization dephasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofman, A. G.; Kurizki, G.; Opatrný, T.

    2001-04-01

    We discuss a simple, experimentally feasible scheme, which elucidates the principles of controlling the reservoir spectrum and the spectral broadening incurred by repeated measurements. This control can yield either the inhibition (Zeno effect) or the acceleration (anti-Zeno effect) of the quasiexponential decay of the observed state by means of frequent measurements. In the discussed scheme, a photon is bouncing back and forth between two perfect mirrors, each time passing a polarization rotator. The horizontal and vertical polarizations can be viewed as analogs of an excited and a ground state of a two level system (TLS). A polarization beam splitter and an absorber for the vertically polarized photon are inserted between the mirrors, and effect measurements of the polarization. The polarization angle acquired in the electrooptic polarization rotator can fluctuate randomly, e.g., via noisy modulation. In the absence of an absorber the polarization randomization corresponds to TLS decay into an infinite-temperature reservoir. The non-Markovian nature of the decay stems from the many round trips required for the randomization. We consider the influence of the polarization measurements by the absorber on this non-Markovian decay, and develop a theory of the Zeno and anti-Zeno effects in this system.

  19. Polarization mode coupling and related effects in fiber Bragg grating inscribed in polarization maintaining fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanshuang; Sun, Bo; Liu, Yanlei; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Jianzhong; Yang, Jun; Canning, John; Peng, G D; Yuan, Libo

    2016-01-11

    Polarization mode coupling (PMC) and related effects from writing fiber Bragg gratings in polarization maintaining fiber (FBGs-in-PMF) are observed experimentally for the first time by optical fiber coherence domain polarimetry (OCDP) using a broadband light source. PMC is another useful aspect of FBG-in-PMF besides Bragg wavelength and its possible potential is evaluated and discussed. A localized and long range temperature measurement based on the PMC and Bragg wavelength is given as an example. PMID:26832291

  20. Human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B contains autonomous determinants for vectorial targeting to apical membranes of polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tugizov, S; Maidji, E; Xiao, J; Zheng, Z; Pereira, L

    1998-09-01

    We previously reported that human cytomegalovirus (CMV) glycoprotein B (gB) is vectorially transported to apical membranes of CMV-infected polarized human retinal pigment epithelial cells propagated on permeable filter supports and that virions egress predominantly from the apical membrane domain. In the present study, we investigated whether gB itself contains autonomous information for apical transport by expressing the molecule in stably transfected Madine-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells grown on permeable filter supports. Laser scanning confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and domain-selective biotinylation of surface membrane domains showed that CMV gB was transported to apical membranes independently of other envelope glycoproteins and that it colocalized with proteins in transport vesicles of the biosynthetic and endocytic pathways. Determinants for trafficking to apical membranes were located by evaluating the targeting of gB derivatives with deletions in the lumen, transmembrane (TM) anchor, and carboxyl terminus. Derivative gB(Delta717-747), with an internal deletion in the luminal juxtamembrane sequence that preserved the N- and O-glycosylation sites, retained vectorial transport to apical membranes. In contrast, derivatives that lacked the TM anchor and cytosolic domain (gBDelta646-906) or the TM anchor alone (gBDelta751-771) underwent considerable basolateral targeting. Likewise, derivatives lacking the entire cytosolic domain (gBDelta772-906) or the last 73 amino acids (gBDelta834-906) showed disrupted apical transport. Site-specific mutations that deleted or altered the cluster of acidic residues with a casein kinase II phosphorylation site at the extreme carboxyl terminus, which can serve as an internalization signal, caused partial missorting of gB to basolateral membranes. Our studies indicate that CMV gB contains autonomous information for apical targeting in luminal, TM anchor, and cytosolic domain sequences, forming distinct structural

  1. Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein B Contains Autonomous Determinants for Vectorial Targeting to Apical Membranes of Polarized Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tugizov, Sharof; Maidji, Ekaterina; Xiao, Jianqiao; Zheng, Zhenwei; Pereira, Lenore

    1998-01-01

    We previously reported that human cytomegalovirus (CMV) glycoprotein B (gB) is vectorially transported to apical membranes of CMV-infected polarized human retinal pigment epithelial cells propagated on permeable filter supports and that virions egress predominantly from the apical membrane domain. In the present study, we investigated whether gB itself contains autonomous information for apical transport by expressing the molecule in stably transfected Madine-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells grown on permeable filter supports. Laser scanning confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and domain-selective biotinylation of surface membrane domains showed that CMV gB was transported to apical membranes independently of other envelope glycoproteins and that it colocalized with proteins in transport vesicles of the biosynthetic and endocytic pathways. Determinants for trafficking to apical membranes were located by evaluating the targeting of gB derivatives with deletions in the lumen, transmembrane (TM) anchor, and carboxyl terminus. Derivative gB(Δ717-747), with an internal deletion in the luminal juxtamembrane sequence that preserved the N- and O-glycosylation sites, retained vectorial transport to apical membranes. In contrast, derivatives that lacked the TM anchor and cytosolic domain (gBΔ646-906) or the TM anchor alone (gBΔ751-771) underwent considerable basolateral targeting. Likewise, derivatives lacking the entire cytosolic domain (gBΔ772-906) or the last 73 amino acids (gBΔ834-906) showed disrupted apical transport. Site-specific mutations that deleted or altered the cluster of acidic residues with a casein kinase II phosphorylation site at the extreme carboxyl terminus, which can serve as an internalization signal, caused partial missorting of gB to basolateral membranes. Our studies indicate that CMV gB contains autonomous information for apical targeting in luminal, TM anchor, and cytosolic domain sequences, forming distinct structural elements that

  2. Determination of apical membrane polarity in mammary epithelial cell cultures: The role of cell-cell, cell-substratum, and membrane-cytoskeleton interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, G.; Beck, J.C.; Moss, L.; Bartley, J. ); Ojakian, G.K. )

    1990-06-01

    The membrane glycoprotein, PAS-O, is a major differentiation antigen on mammary epithelial cells and is located exclusively in the apical domain of the plasma membrane. The authors have used 734B cultured human mammary carcinoma cells as a model system to study the role of tight junctions, cell-substratum contacts, and submembranous cytoskeletal elements in restricting PAS-O to the apical membrane. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectronmicroscopy experiments demonstrated that while tight junctions demarcate PAS-O distribution in confluent cultures, apical polarity could be established at low culture densities when cells could not form tight junctions with neighboring cells. They suggest, then, that interactions between vitronectin and its receptor, are responsible for establishment of membrane domains in the absence of tight junctions. The role of cytoskeletal elements in restricting PAS-O distribution was examined by treating cultures with cytochalasin D, colchicine, or acrylamide. Cytochalasin D led to a redistribution of PAS0O while colchicine and acrylamide did not. They hypothesize that PAS-O is restricted to the apical membrane by interactions with a microfilament network and that the cytoskeletal organization is dependent upon cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions.

  3. Effects of laser polarization in the expansion of plasma waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemos, N.; Grismayer, T.; Cardoso, L.; Geada, J.; Figueira, G.; Dias, J. M.

    2013-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that a column of hydrogen plasma generated by an ultra-short (sub-picosecond), moderate intensity (˜1015-16 W.cm-2) laser, radially expands at a higher velocity when using a circularly polarized laser beam instead of a linearly polarized beam. Interferometry shows that after 1 ns there is a clear shock structure formed, that can be approximated to a cylindrical blast wave. The shock velocity was measured for plasmas created with linearly and circularly polarized laser beams, indicating an approximately 20% higher velocity for plasmas generated with a circularly polarized laser beam, thus implying a higher plasma electron temperature. The heating mechanism was determined to be the Above Threshold Ionization effect. The calculated electrum energy spectrum for a circularly polarized laser beam was broader when compared to the one generated by a linearly polarized laser beam, leading to a higher plasma temperature.

  4. Effects of laser polarization in the expansion of plasma waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, N.; Grismayer, T.; Cardoso, L.; Geada, J.; Figueira, G.; Dias, J. M.

    2013-10-15

    We experimentally demonstrate that a column of hydrogen plasma generated by an ultra-short (sub-picosecond), moderate intensity (∼10{sup 15–16} W.cm{sup –2}) laser, radially expands at a higher velocity when using a circularly polarized laser beam instead of a linearly polarized beam. Interferometry shows that after 1 ns there is a clear shock structure formed, that can be approximated to a cylindrical blast wave. The shock velocity was measured for plasmas created with linearly and circularly polarized laser beams, indicating an approximately 20% higher velocity for plasmas generated with a circularly polarized laser beam, thus implying a higher plasma electron temperature. The heating mechanism was determined to be the Above Threshold Ionization effect. The calculated electrum energy spectrum for a circularly polarized laser beam was broader when compared to the one generated by a linearly polarized laser beam, leading to a higher plasma temperature.

  5. Effect of lipid head group interactions on membrane properties and membrane-induced cationic β-hairpin folding.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Sai J; Xu, Hongcheng; Matysiak, Silvina

    2016-07-21

    Stages in POPS membrane induced SVS-1 folding. One key characteristic of mIFs is the dielectric gradient and subsequently, electrostatic potential that arises from dipolar interactions in the head group region. In this work, we present a coarse-grained (CG) model for anionic and zwitterionic lipids that accounts for dipolar intricacies in the head group region. Prior work on adding dipolar interactions in a coarse grained (CG) model for peptides enabled us to achieve α/β secondary structure content de novo, without any added bias. We have now extended this idea to lipids. To mimic dipolar interactions, two dummy particles with opposite charges are added to CG polar beads. These two dummy charges represent a fluctuating dipole that introduces structural polarization into the head group region. We have used POPC (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and POPS (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine) as our model lipids. We characterize structural, dynamic, and dielectric properties of our CG bilayer, along with the effect of monovalent ions. We observe head group dipoles to play a significant role in membrane dielectric gradient and lipid clustering induced by dipole-dipole interactions in POPS lipids. In addition, we studied membrane-induced peptide folding of a cationic antimicrobial peptide with anticancer activity, SVS-1. We find that membrane-induced peptide folding is driven by both (a) cooperativity in peptide self-interaction and (b) cooperativity in membrane-peptide interaction. In particular, dipolar interactions between the peptide backbone and lipid head groups contribute to stabilizing folded conformations. PMID:27165814

  6. Effects of anionic surfactants on the water permeability of a model stratum corneum lipid membrane.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Wook; Tettey, Kwadwo E; Yarovoy, Yury; Lee, Daeyeon

    2014-01-14

    The stratum corneum (SC) is the ourtermost layer of the epidermis and has a brick-and-mortar-like structure, in which multilamellar lipid bilayers surround flattened dead cells known as corneocytes. The SC lipid membranes provide the main pathway for the transport of water and other substances through the SC. While the physicochemical properties of the SC can be affected by exogenous materials such as surfactants, little is known about how the water barrier function of the SC lipid membranes is compromised by common surfactants. Here, we study the effect of common anionic surfactants on the water permeability of a model SC lipid membrane using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Particularly, the effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) is compared. These two surfactants share commonality in their molecular structure: sulfate in the polar headgroup and the same apolar tail. The mass of the lipid membranes increases after the surfactant treatment at or above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactants due to their absorption into the membranes. The incorporation of the surfactants into the lipid membranes is also accompanied by partial dissolution of the lipids from the model SC lipid membranes as confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Although the water sorption of pure SDS is much lower than that of pure SLES, the water sorption of SDS-treated membranes increases significantly similar to that of SLES-treated membranes. By combining QCM-D and FT-IR spectroscopy, we find that the chain conformational order and stiffness of the lipid membranes decrease after SDS treatment, resulting in the increased water sorption and diffusivity. In contrast, the conformational order and stiffness of the SLES-treated lipid membranes increase, suggesting that the increased water sorption capacity of SLES-treated lipid membranes is due to the hygroscopic nature of SLES. PMID

  7. Polarization effects in double open-charm production at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarría, Miguel G.; Kasemets, Tomas; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian

    2015-04-01

    Double open-charm production is one of the most promising channels to disentangle single from double parton scattering (DPS) and study different properties of DPS. Several studies of the DPS contributions have been made. A missing ingredient so far has been the study of polarization effects, arising from spin correlations between the two partons inside an unpolarized proton. We investigate the impact polarization has on the double open-charm cross section. We show that the longitudinally polarized gluons can give significant contributions to the cross section, but for most of the considered kinematic region only have a moderate effect on the shape. We compare our findings to the LHCb data in the D 0 D 0 final state, identify observables where polarization does have an impact on the distribution of the final state particles, and suggest measurements which could lead to first experimental indications of, or limits on, polarization in DPS.

  8. Favorable effect of in-situ generated platinum in the membrane on fuel cell membrane durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macauley, Natalia; Wong, Ka Hung; Watson, Mark; Kjeang, Erik

    2015-12-01

    The overall lifetime of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is often determined by the membrane durability. Platinum, which may dissolve from the catalyst layers during fuel cell operation and deposit in the membrane, has been shown to have both positive and negative effects on membrane stability. In the present work, we analyze what specific conditions are required in order to reach a favorable, membrane stabilizing effect with the controlled use of platinum in the membrane. Using accelerated membrane durability testing, field operated membrane samples, and electron microscopy, we demonstrate that a high platinum concentration with specific particle shapes and sizes is essential for enhanced membrane stability. Specifically, star shaped and dendritic particles with high particle density and high surface area are shown to be preferable. These particles contain high levels of Pt(111) and are expected to have high catalytic activity toward peroxide quenching and crossover gas consumption, thereby mitigating chemical membrane degradation. On the other hand, small, dispersed cubic particles are found to have no effect or the opposite, negative effect on membrane stability.

  9. How small polar molecules protect membrane systems against osmotic stress: the urea-water-phospholipid system.

    PubMed

    Costa-Balogh, Fátima O; Wennerström, Håkan; Wadsö, Lars; Sparr, Emma

    2006-11-30

    We investigate how a small polar molecule, urea, can act to protect a phospholipid bilayer system against osmotic stress. Osmotic stress can be caused by a dry environment, by freezing, or by exposure to aqueous systems with high osmotic pressure due to solutes like in saline water. A large number of organisms regularly experience osmotic stress, and it is a common response to produce small polar molecules intracellularly. We have selected a ternary system of urea-water-dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) as a model to investigate the molecular mechanism behind this protective effect, in this case, of urea, and we put special emphasis on the applications of urea in skin care products. Using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and sorption microbalance measurements, we studied the phase behavior of lipid systems exposed to an excess of solvent of varying compositions, as well as lipid systems exposed to water at reduced relative humidities. From this, we have arrived at a rather detailed thermodynamic characterization. The basic findings are as follows: (i) In excess solvent, the thermally induced lipid phase transitions are only marginally dependent on the urea content, with the exception being that the P(beta) phase is not observed in the presence of urea. (ii) For lipid systems with limited access to solvent, the phase behavior is basically determined by the amount (volume) of solvent irrespective of the urea content. (iii) The presence of urea has the effect of retaining the liquid crystalline phase at relative humidities down to 64% (at 27 degrees C), whereas, in the absence of urea, the transition to the gel phase occurs already at a relative humidity of 94%. This demonstrates the protective effect of urea against osmotic stress. (iv) In skin care products, urea is referred to as a moisturizer, which we find slightly misleading as it replaces the water while keeping the physical properties unaltered. (v) In other systems, urea is known to

  10. Polarization effects in heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, C. C. Jr.

    2010-11-12

    Recent experiments at RHIC have shown that in 200 GeV Au-Au collisions, the {Lambda} and {Lambda}-bar hyperons are produced with very small polarizations, almost consistent with zero. These results can be understood in terms of a model that we recently proposed. In this work, we show how this model may be applied in such collisions, and also will discuss the relation of our results with other models, in order to explain the experimental data.

  11. Polarization effects on hard target calibration of lidar systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    The theory of hard target calibration of lidar backscatter data, including laboratory measurements of the pertinent target reflectance parameters, is extended to include the effects of polarization of the transmitted and received laser radiation. The bidirectional reflectance-distribution function model of reflectance is expanded to a 4 x 4 matrix allowing Mueller matrix and Stokes vector calculus to be employed. Target reflectance parameters for calibration of lidar backscatter data are derived for various lidar system polarization configurations from integrating sphere and monostatic reflectometer measurements. It is found that correct modeling of polarization effects is mandatory for accurate calibration of hard target reflectance parameters and, therefore, for accurate calibration of lidar backscatter data.

  12. Aharonov-Bohm effect induced by circularly polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurdsson, H.; Kibis, O. V.; Shelykh, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrated theoretically that the strong electron interaction with circularly polarized photons in ring-like nanostructures changes the phase of electron wave. This optically-induced effect is caused by the breaking of time-reversal symmetry and is similar to the Aharonov-Bohm effect. As a consequence of this phenomenon, the conductance of mesoscopic rings irradiated by a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave behaves as an oscillating function of the intensity and frequency of the wave.

  13. The effects of organic fouling on the removal of radionuclides by reverse osmosis membranes.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiyuan; Yang, Yu; Li, Chen; Huang, Haiou; Hou, Li-An

    2016-05-15

    The removals of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr), two hazardous and abundant radionuclides in aquatic environment, were assessed with their isotopes in a synthetic water containing Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM), a natural surface water (SW) and a wastewater effluent (WW) by two different types of ultra-low pressure RO membranes (M1 and M2). The rejections of Sr by the membranes M1 and M2 were higher than 97.5% and 96.0%, respectively, and the rejections of Cs exceeded 90.0% and 85.0%, respectively, in the filtration of real water. The membrane M1 exhibited a more significant flux decline in the filtration of the SRNOM solution, while more severe flux declines were observed with the membrane M2 in the filtration of SW and WW. Protein-like materials with relatively high molecular weight were the main contributors to the flux decline, and humic-acid-like compounds had little effect on the flux decline. Donnan exclusion and size exclusion by humic-acid-like compounds improved the rejections by the membrane M2 with weaker hydrophilicity, while the cake-enhanced concentration polarization reduced the rejections of Cs and Sr by the membrane M1 with stronger hydrophilicity. The ionic strength in the real water resulted in the mitigation of membrane fouling. This study provided important insights into foulant characterization and the mechanisms of organic-fouling-enhanced rejections of Cr and Sr by ultra-low pressure RO membranes. PMID:26994696

  14. Effect of a Freeze-Thaw Cycle on Properties of Microsomal Membranes from Wheat 1

    PubMed Central

    Borochov, Amihud; Walker, Mark A.; Kendall, Edward J.; Pauls, K. Peter; McKersie, Bryan D.

    1987-01-01

    A freeze-thaw cycle to −12°C induced several physical and compositional changes in the microsomal membranes isolated from crown tissue of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Frederick). Exposing 7-day-old, nonacclimated seedlings to a single freeze-thaw cycle prevented regrowth of the crown and resulted in increased membrane semipermeability. The phospholipid and protein content of microsomal membranes isolated from the crowns decreased by 70 and 50%, respectively. Microsomal membranes isolated after the lethal freeze-thaw stress, and liposomes prepared from total membrane lipids, exhibited greater microviscosity, measured by fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. The number of free thiol groups per milligram membrane protein, measured using the specific fluorescent probe, N-dansylaziridine, decreased after freezing. In contrast, acclimated wheat seedlings which showed increased freezing tolerance, as indicated by survival and ion leakage, suffered almost no effects from the freeze thaw treatment as determined by measurements of membrane microviscosity, phospholipid content, protein content, or danzylaziridine fluorescence. An examination of membranes isolated from frozen tissue showed that most of the changes occurred during the freezing and not during the thawing phase. PMID:16665386

  15. Effect of a freeze-thaw cycle on properties of microsomal membranes from wheat.

    PubMed

    Borochov, A; Walker, M A; Kendall, E J; Pauls, K P; McKersie, B D

    1987-05-01

    A freeze-thaw cycle to -12 degrees C induced several physical and compositional changes in the microsomal membranes isolated from crown tissue of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Frederick). Exposing 7-day-old, nonacclimated seedlings to a single freeze-thaw cycle prevented regrowth of the crown and resulted in increased membrane semipermeability. The phospholipid and protein content of microsomal membranes isolated from the crowns decreased by 70 and 50%, respectively. Microsomal membranes isolated after the lethal freeze-thaw stress, and liposomes prepared from total membrane lipids, exhibited greater microviscosity, measured by fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. The number of free thiol groups per milligram membrane protein, measured using the specific fluorescent probe, N-dansylaziridine, decreased after freezing. In contrast, acclimated wheat seedlings which showed increased freezing tolerance, as indicated by survival and ion leakage, suffered almost no effects from the freeze thaw treatment as determined by measurements of membrane microviscosity, phospholipid content, protein content, or danzylaziridine fluorescence. An examination of membranes isolated from frozen tissue showed that most of the changes occurred during the freezing and not during the thawing phase. PMID:16665386

  16. On the curvature effect of thin membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Duo; Jiao, Xiangmin; Conley, Rebecca; Glimm, James

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the curvature effect of a thin, curved elastic interface that separates two subdomains and exerts a pressure due to a curvature effect. This pressure, which we refer to as interface pressure, is similar to the surface tension in fluid mechanics. It is important in some applications, such as the canopy of parachutes, biological membranes of cells, balloons, airbags, etc., as it partially balances a pressure jump between the two sides of an interface. In this paper, we show that the interface pressure is equal to the trace of the matrix product of the curvature tensor and the Cauchy stress tensor in the tangent plane. We derive the theory for interfaces in both 2-D and 3-D, and present numerical discretizations for computing the quality over triangulated surfaces.

  17. Evaluation of polycaprolactone as a new sorbent coating for determination of polar organic compounds in water samples using membrane-SPME.

    PubMed

    Marcinkowski, Łukasz; Kloskowski, Adam; Spietelun, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-02-01

    Commercially available solid-phase microextraction fibers used for isolation of polar analytes are based on the adsorption phenomenon. In consequence, typical limitations bonded with analytes displacement and matrix effects are very frequent. In the present study, alternative solution is described. Polycaprolactone (PCL) was used for the first time as sorbent to isolate polar organic compounds from water samples using the membrane-solid-phase microextraction (M-SPME) technique. In this technique, due to protective role of the mechanically and thermally stable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane, internal polar coating might be melted during extraction and desorption of analytes. In consequence sorbents with low melting points like a PCL might be utilized. Based on chromatographic retention data, triazines were selected as a model compounds for evaluation of the sorptive properties of the polycaprolactone. Applying the screening plan and central composite design, statistically significant parameters influencing extraction efficiency were determined and optimized. The analysis of variance confirmed the significant influence of temperature, salt content, and pH of samples on the extraction efficiency. Besides the new PCL/PDMS fiber, a commercial fiber coated with divinylbenzene/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/PDMS) was used for comparative studies. The results obtained showed that PCL is an interesting sorbent which can be successfully applied for isolation of polar organics from aqueous matrices at a broad range of analytes concentration. The determined detection limits of procedure based on the novel fiber enable its application at the concentration levels of triazines recommended by the US EPA standards. The practical applicability of the developed fiber has been confirmed by the results based on the analysis of real samples. PMID:25416232

  18. Underwater image recovery considering polarization effects of objects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bingjing; Liu, Tiegen; Hu, Haofeng; Han, Jiahui; Yu, Mingxuan

    2016-05-01

    In underwater imaging scenarios, the scattering media could cause severe image degradation due to the backscatter veiling as well as signal attenuation. In this paper, we consider the polarization effect of the object, and propose a method of retrieving the objects radiance based on estimating the polarized-difference image of the target signal. We show with a real-world experiment that by taking into account the polarized-difference image of the target signal additionally, the quality of the underwater image can be effectively enhanced, which is particularly effective in the cases where both the object radiance and the backscatter contribute to the polarization, such as underwater detection of the artifact objects. PMID:27137596

  19. Specific ion effects on membrane potential and the permselectivity of ion exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Geise, Geoffrey M; Cassady, Harrison J; Paul, Donald R; Logan, Bruce E; Hickner, Michael A

    2014-10-21

    Membrane potential and permselectivity are critical parameters for a variety of electrochemically-driven separation and energy technologies. An electric potential is developed when a membrane separates electrolyte solutions of different concentrations, and a permselective membrane allows specific species to be transported while restricting the passage of other species. Ion exchange membranes are commonly used in applications that require advanced ionic electrolytes and span technologies such as alkaline batteries to ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis, but membranes are often only characterized in sodium chloride solutions. Our goal in this work was to better understand membrane behaviour in aqueous ammonium bicarbonate, which is of interest for closed-loop energy generation processes. Here we characterized the permselectivity of four commercial ion exchange membranes in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and ammonium bicarbonate. This stepwise approach, using four different ions in aqueous solution, was used to better understand how these specific ions affect ion transport in ion exchange membranes. Characterization of cation and anion exchange membrane permselectivity, using these ions, is discussed from the perspective of the difference in the physical chemistry of the hydrated ions, along with an accompanying re-derivation and examination of the basic equations that describe membrane potential. In general, permselectivity was highest in sodium chloride and lowest in ammonium bicarbonate solutions, and the nature of both the counter- and co-ions appeared to influence measured permselectivity. The counter-ion type influences the binding affinity between counter-ions and polymer fixed charge groups, and higher binding affinity between fixed charge sites and counter-ions within the membrane decreases the effective membrane charge density. As a result permselectivity decreases. The charge density and polarizability

  20. The Neurospora crassa exocyst complex tethers Spitzenkörper vesicles to the apical plasma membrane during polarized growth

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Meritxell; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Callejas-Negrete, Olga; Roberson, Robert W.; Ludwig, Sarah; Beltrán-Aguilar, Alejandro; Seiler, Stephan; Novick, Peter; Freitag, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Fungal hyphae are among the most highly polarized cells. Hyphal polarized growth is supported by tip-directed transport of secretory vesicles, which accumulate temporarily in a stratified manner in an apical vesicle cluster, the Spitzenkörper. The exocyst complex is required for tethering of secretory vesicles to the apical plasma membrane. We determined that the presence of an octameric exocyst complex is required for the formation of a functional Spitzenkörper and maintenance of regular hyphal growth in Neurospora crassa. Two distinct localization patterns of exocyst subunits at the hyphal tip suggest the dynamic formation of two assemblies. The EXO-70/EXO-84 subunits are found at the peripheral part of the Spitzenkörper, which partially coincides with the outer macrovesicular layer, whereas exocyst components SEC-5, -6, -8, and -15 form a delimited crescent at the apical plasma membrane. Localization of SEC-6 and EXO-70 to the plasma membrane and the Spitzenkörper, respectively, depends on actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. The apical region of exocyst-mediated vesicle fusion, elucidated by the plasma membrane–associated exocyst subunits, indicates the presence of an exocytotic gradient with a tip-high maximum that dissipates gradually toward the subapex, confirming the earlier predictions of the vesicle supply center model for hyphal morphogenesis. PMID:24523289

  1. Continuum treatment of electronic polarization effect.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yu-Hong; Luo, Ray

    2007-03-01

    A continuum treatment of electronic polarization has been explored for in molecular mechanics simulations in implicit solvents. The dielectric constant for molecule interior is the only parameter in the continuum polarizable model. A value of 4 is found to yield optimal agreement with high-level ab initio quantum mechanical calculations for the tested molecular systems. Interestingly, its performance is not sensitive to the definition of molecular volume, in which the continuum electronic polarization is defined. In this model, quantum mechanical electrostatic field in different dielectric environments from vacuum, low-dielectric organic solvent, and water can be used simultaneously in atomic charge fitting to achieve consistent treatment of electrostatic interactions. The tests show that a single set of atomic charges can be used consistently in different dielectric environments and different molecular conformations, and the atomic charges transfer well from training monomers to tested dimers. The preliminary study gives us the hope of developing a continuum polarizable force field for more consistent simulations of proteins and nucleic acids in implicit solvents. PMID:17362100

  2. Continuum treatment of electronic polarization effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yu-Hong; Luo, Ray

    2007-03-01

    A continuum treatment of electronic polarization has been explored for in molecular mechanics simulations in implicit solvents. The dielectric constant for molecule interior is the only parameter in the continuum polarizable model. A value of 4 is found to yield optimal agreement with high-level ab initio quantum mechanical calculations for the tested molecular systems. Interestingly, its performance is not sensitive to the definition of molecular volume, in which the continuum electronic polarization is defined. In this model, quantum mechanical electrostatic field in different dielectric environments from vacuum, low-dielectric organic solvent, and water can be used simultaneously in atomic charge fitting to achieve consistent treatment of electrostatic interactions. The tests show that a single set of atomic charges can be used consistently in different dielectric environments and different molecular conformations, and the atomic charges transfer well from training monomers to tested dimers. The preliminary study gives us the hope of developing a continuum polarizable force field for more consistent simulations of proteins and nucleic acids in implicit solvents.

  3. Cross-tolerance of human placental plasma membranes of smokers to fluidizing effects of alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, B.V.R.; Horst, M.A.; Naukam, R.J. )

    1991-03-11

    There is cross-tolerance between ethanol and several centrally acting drugs at the membrane level. In order to evaluate cross-tolerance between maternal smoking during pregnancy and alcohol, the authors have prepared plasma membranes of human term placentas from nonsmokers (NS, n=5) and smokers (S, 24 {plus minus} 8 cigarettes/day, n=5) and studied their microviscosities by steady state fluorescence polarization using trans-1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene as a fluorescent probe. These experiments gave the following results: (a) microviscosity was increased by maternal smoking; (b) alcohol decreased microviscosity of the membranes of smokers; (c) exogenous nicotine did not exert any significant effect on the membranes of smokers and nonsmokers. Therefore, the increase in the rigidity of placental plasma membranes is due to chronic smoking, and these membranes are tolerant to the fluidizing effects of alcohol. Cross-tolerance between smoking and ethanol suggests a common hydrophobic locus of the apparent adaptation at the membrane level.

  4. Membrane bioreactors for municipal wastewater treatment - a viable option to reduce the amount of polar pollutants discharged into surface waters?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stefan; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2008-08-01

    The potential of a lab-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) to remove polar pollutants from municipal wastewater was studied for industrial and household chemicals over a period of 22 months parallel to a conventional activated sludge (CAS) treatment. For half of the compounds, such as benzotriazole, 5-tolyltriazole (5-TTri), benzothiazole-2-sulfonate and 1,6-naphthalene disulfonate (1,6-NDSA), removal by MBR was significantly better than in CAS, while no improvement was recorded for the other half (1,5-NDSA, 1,3-NDSA, 4-TTri and naphthalene-1-sulfonate). The influence of operational conditions on trace pollutant removal by MBR was studied but no significant effects were found for variation of hydraulic retention time (7h-14h) and sludge retention time (26d-102d), suggesting that the lowest values selected have already been high enough for good removal. It is shown that the seemingly inconsistent results reported here and in previous studies regarding the comparison of trace pollutant removal in MBR and CAS are highly consistent. MBR is neither superior for well degradable compounds that are already extensively degraded in CAS treatment nor for recalcitrant compounds that are not amenable to biodegradation. For most compounds of intermediate removal in CAS treatment (15-80%), among them pharmaceuticals, personal care products and industrial chemicals, the MBR is clearly superior and reduces the effluent concentration by 20-50%. Despite of this clear benefit of MBR, the effect is not pronounced enough to serve as a sole argument for employing MBR in municipal wastewater treatment. PMID:18684484

  5. Inverse Faraday Effect with Linearly Polarized Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.; Davies, J. R.; Mendonca, J. T.

    2010-07-16

    The inverse Faraday effect is usually associated with circularly polarized radiation; here, we show that it can also occur for linearly polarized radiation. The quasistatic axial magnetic field generated by a laser propagating in plasma can be calculated by considering both the spin and the orbital angular momenta of the laser pulse. A net spin is present when the radiation is circularly polarized and a net orbital angular momentum is present if there is any deviation from perfect rotational symmetry. The orbital angular momentum gives an additional contribution to the axial magnetic field that can enhance or reduce the effect usually attributed to circular polarization and strongly depends on the intensity profile of the Laguerre-Gaussian modes involving the azimuthal and radial mode numbers.

  6. Polarization Effects in Group III-Nitride Materials and Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qiyuan

    Group III-nitride semiconductors have wide application in optoelectronic devices. Spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization effects have been found to be critical for electric and optical properties of group III-nitrides. In this dissertation, firstly, the crystal orientation dependence of the polarization is calculated and in-plane polarization is revealed. The in-plane polarization is sensitive to the lateral characteristic dimension determined by the microstructure. Specific semi-polar plane growth is suggested for reducing quantum-confined Stark effect. The macroscopic electrostatic field from the polarization discontinuity in the heterostructures is discussed, b ased on that, the band diagram of InGaN/GaN quantum well/barrier and AlGaN/GaN heterojunction is obtained from the self-consistent solution of Schrodinger and Poisson equations. New device design such as triangular quantum well with the quenched polarization field is proposed. Electron holography in the transmission electron microscopy is used to examine the electrostatic potential under polarization effects. The measured potential energy profiles of heterostructure are compared with the band simulation, and evidences of two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) in a wurtzite AlGaN/ AlN/ GaN superlattice, as well as quasi two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a zinc-blende AlGaN/GaN are found. The large polarization discontinuity of AlN/GaN is the main source of the 2DHG of wurtzite nitrides, while the impurity introduced during the growth of AlGaN layer provides the donor states that to a great extent balance the free electrons in zinc-blende nitrides. It is also found that the quasi-2DEG concentration in zinc-blende AlGaN/GaN is about one order of magnitude lower than the wurtzite AlGaN/GaN, due to the absence of polarization. Finally, the InAlN/GaN lattice-matched epitaxy, which ideally has a zero piezoelectric polarization and strong spontaneous polarization, is experimentally studied. The breakdown in

  7. Membrane Transporters as Mediators of Cisplatin Effects and Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Ciarimboli, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Transporters are important mediators of specific cellular uptake and thus, not only for effects, but also for side effects, metabolism, and excretion of many drugs such as cisplatin. Cisplatin is a potent cytostatic drug, whose use is limited by its severe acute and chronic nephro-, oto-, and peripheral neurotoxicity. For this reason, other platinum derivatives, such as carboplatin and oxaliplatin, with less toxicity but still with antitumoral action have been developed. Several transporters, which are expressed on the cell membranes, have been associated with cisplatin transport across the plasma membrane and across the cell: the copper transporter 1 (Ctr1), the copper transporter 2 (Ctr2), the P-type copper-transporting ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B, the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), and the multidrug extrusion transporter 1 (MATE1). Some of these transporters are also able to accept other platinum derivatives as substrate. Since membrane transporters display a specific tissue distribution, they can be important molecules that mediate the entry of platinum derivatives in target and also nontarget cells possibly mediating specific effects and side effects of the chemotherapeutic drug. This paper summarizes the literature on toxicities of cisplatin compared to that of carboplatin and oxaliplatin and the interaction of these platinum derivatives with membrane transporters. PMID:24278698

  8. Rab10-Mediated Secretion Synergizes with Tissue Movement to Build a Polarized Basement Membrane Architecture for Organ Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Isabella, Adam J; Horne-Badovinac, Sally

    2016-07-11

    Basement membranes (BMs) are planar protein networks that support epithelial function. Regulated changes to BM architecture can also contribute to tissue morphogenesis, but how epithelia dynamically remodel their BMs is unknown. In Drosophila, elongation of the initially spherical egg chamber correlates with the generation of a polarized network of fibrils in its surrounding BM. Here, we use live imaging and genetic manipulations to determine how these fibrils form. BM fibrils are assembled from newly synthesized proteins in the pericellular spaces between the egg chamber's epithelial cells and undergo oriented insertion into the BM by directed epithelial migration. We find that a Rab10-based secretion pathway promotes pericellular BM protein accumulation and fibril formation. Finally, by manipulating this pathway, we show that BM fibrillar structure influences egg chamber morphogenesis. This work highlights how regulated protein secretion can synergize with tissue movement to build a polarized BM architecture that controls tissue shape. PMID:27404358

  9. Unique Charge Storage Characteristics of FEP/THV/FEP Sandwich Electret Membrane Polarized by Thermally Charging Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang-Jin; Lei, Ming-Feng; Xiao, Hui-Ming; Wu, Ling

    2014-12-01

    Utilizing the synergy of three processes (space charge injection, dipole orientation and interfacial polarization) which determine the electret properties, a sandwich electret membrane FEP/THV/FEP (FEP: fluorinated ethylene propylene, THV: tetrafluoroethylene-hexafluoropropylene-vinylidene) is prepared by the laminating method and the thermal charging technology. The surface potential measurement indicates that the sandwich electret membrane exhibits excellent charge storage stability. When washing the sample surface with alcohol, its surface potential first undergoes decay to zero, and then quickly restores to a high value. The surface potential value is associated with the charging electric field and temperature. The best charging condition is 18.75 MV·m-1 and 130°C. A charge storage profile is proposed, and the experimental results are in good agreement with this profile.

  10. Estimating terra MODIS polarization effect using ocean data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, Andrew; Brinkmann, Jake; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Jack

    2016-05-01

    Terra MODIS has been known since pre-launch to have polarization sensitivity, particularly in shortest-wavelength bands 8 and 9. On-orbit reflectance trending of pseudo-invariant sites show a variation in reflectance as a function of band and scan mirror angle of incidence consistent with time-dependent polarization effects from the rotating doublesided scan mirror. The MODIS Characterization Support Team [MCST] estimates the Mueller matrix trending from this variation as observed from a single desert site, but this effect is not included in Collection 6 [C6] calibration. Here we extend the MCST's current polarization sensitivity monitoring to two ocean sites distributed over latitude to help estimate the uncertainties in the derived Mueller matrix. The Mueller matrix elements derived for polarization-sensitive Band 8 for a given site are found to be fairly insensitive to surface brdf modeling. The site-to-site variation is a measure of the uncertainty in the Mueller estimation. Results for band 8 show that the polarization correction reduces mirror-side striping by up to 50% and reduces the instrument polarization effect on reflectance time series of an ocean target.

  11. Effect of Hydroperoxides on Red Blood Cell Membrane Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Hale, John P.; Winlove, C. Peter; Petrov, Peter G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of oxidative stress on red blood cell membrane mechanical properties in vitro using detailed analysis of the membrane thermal fluctuation spectrum. Two different oxidants, the cytosol-soluble hydrogen peroxide and the membrane-soluble cumene hydroperoxide, are used, and their effects on the membrane bending elastic modulus, surface tension, strength of confinement due to the membrane skeleton, and 2D shear elastic modulus are measured. We find that both oxidants alter significantly the membrane elastic properties, but their effects differ qualitatively and quantitatively. While hydrogen peroxide mainly affects the elasticity of the membrane protein skeleton (increasing the membrane shear modulus), cumene hydroperoxide has an impact on both membrane skeleton and lipid bilayer mechanical properties, as can be seen from the increased values of the shear and bending elastic moduli. The biologically important implication of these results is that the effects of oxidative stress on the biophysical properties, and hence the physiological functions, of the cell membrane depend on the nature of the oxidative agent. Thermal fluctuation spectroscopy provides a means of characterizing these different effects, potentially in a clinical milieu. PMID:22004746

  12. Selective photosensitizer delivery into plasma membrane for effective photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Santos, Olavo Amorim; Park, Ji-Ho

    2014-10-10

    Subcellular localization of photosensitizers (PSs) determines the therapeutic efficacy in the photodynamic therapy. However, among the subcellular compartments, there has been little effort to deliver the PSs selectively into the plasma membrane and examine the phototherapeutic efficacy of membrane-localized PSs. Here, we developed a liposomal delivery system to localize the hydrophobic PSs selectively into the plasma membrane. The membrane fusogenic liposomes (MFLs), the membrane of which is engineered to fuse with the plasma membrane, was prepared for the membrane localization of PSs. The phototherapeutic efficacy of cells treated with ZnPc-loaded MFLs was superior over that of cells treated with ZnPc-loaded non-fusogenic liposomes, which is the conventional liposomal formulation that delivers the PSs into the intracellular compartments via endocytosis. The membrane localization of ZnPc molecules led to rapid membrane disruption upon irradiation and subsequent necrosis-like cell death. The membrane-localized generation of reactive oxygen species in the cells treated with ZnPc-loaded MFLs was likely to account for the effective disruption of plasma membrane. Thus, this work provides a novel delivery method to localize the PSs selectively into the plasma membrane with the enhanced phototherapeutic efficacy. PMID:24892975

  13. Effects of membrane orientation on fouling characteristics of forward osmosis membrane in concentration of microalgae culture.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ryo; Rukapan, Weerapong; Komura, Hitomi; Teraoka, Yuta; Noguchi, Mana; Hoek, Eric M V

    2015-12-01

    Application of forward osmosis (FO) membrane to microalgae cultivation processes enables concentration of microalgae and nutrients with low energy consumption. To understand fouling characteristics of FO membrane in concentration of microalgae culture, we studied flux decline, flux recovery by cleaning, and foulants characteristics, in different membrane orientation of active-layer-facing-feed-solution (AL-FS) and active-layer-facing-draw-solution (AL-DS) modes. Batch concentration of Chlorella vulgaris was conducted with a cellulose-triacetate FO membrane. Rapid flux decline and lower flux recovery was observed in AL-DS mode because of inner-membrane fouling including internal pore clogging, adsorption and internal concentration polarization in the support layer. A proportion of polysaccharides in extracellular polymeric substances to soluble microbial products were larger in chemical cleaning effluent than physical one in AL-DS mode, although those were not significantly different in AL-FS mode. Excitation-emission matrix analysis revealed that proteins and humic-like substances were also possible irreversible foulants both in AL-DS and AL-FS modes. PMID:26356114

  14. Quark and pion effective couplings from polarization effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braghin, Fábio L.

    2016-05-01

    A flavor SU(2) effective model for pions and quarks is derived by considering polarization effects departing from the usual quark-quark effective interaction induced by dressed gluon exchange, i.e. a global color model for QCD. For that, the quark field is decomposed into a component that yields light mesons and the quark-antiquark condensate, being integrated out by means of the auxiliary field method, and another component which yields constituent quarks, which is basically a background quark field. Within a long-wavelength and weak quark field expansion (or large quark effective mass expansion) of a quark determinant, the leading terms are found up to the second order in a zero-order derivative expansion, by neglecting vector mesons that are considerably heavier than the pion. Pions are considered in the structureless limit and, besides the chiral invariant terms that reproduce previously derived expressions, symmetry breaking terms are also presented. The leading chiral quark-quark effective couplings are also found corresponding to a NJL and a vector-NJL couplings. All the resulting effective coupling constants and parameters are expressed in terms of the current and constituent quark masses and of the coupling g.

  15. Interparticle interactions and polarization effects in colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Hayter, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The physics of simple colloidal systems is usually dominated by three independent length scales: the particle size, the average interparticle distance, and the range of the interparticle potential. The dispersed particles typically have characteristic dimensions in the range 5 to 100 nm, often with spherical or cylindrical symmetry. Dispersion densities vary over volume fractions ranging from 0.5 to 10/sup -4/, with the corresponding mean interparticle distances ranging from about 1 to 10 diameters (in spherical systems). The interaction potential may be very short ranged (hard sphere), very long ranged (Coulomb or dipolar), or anywhere in between (screened Coulomb), and the correlations exhibited in the dispersion may be gas-like, liquid-like or crystalline, depending on the range of the potential relative to the interparticle distance. This rich phase behavior is responsible for the remarkable importance of colloidal studies in many areas of condensed matter physics and biophysics, but it poses often intractable problems in developing the statistical mechanical descriptions necessary for an understanding of scattering data from colloids. This paper will review the considerable recent progress in this field, in the context of SANS experiments on colloids in which the potentials are dominated by either screened Coulomb or magnetic dipolar interactions; in the case of magnetic colloids (ferrofluids), the use of polarization analysis will also be discussed. 32 refs., 4 figs.

  16. The antecedents and belief-polarized effects of thought confidence.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsuan-Yi; Lien, Nai-Hwa; Liang, Kuan-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates 2 possible antecedents of thought confidence and explores the effects of confidence induced before or during ad exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that both consumers' dispositional optimism and spokesperson attractiveness have significant effects on consumers' confidence in thoughts that are generated after viewing the advertisement. Higher levels of thought confidence will influence the quality of the thoughts that people generate, lead to either positively or negatively polarized message processing, and therefore induce better or worse advertising effectiveness, depending on the valence of thoughts. The authors posit the belief-polarization hypothesis to explain these findings. PMID:21902013

  17. Electromembrane extraction of polar basic drugs from plasma with pure bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphite as supported liquid membrane.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuixiu; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2016-08-31

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) of polar basic drugs from human plasma was investigated for the first time using pure bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphite (DEHPi) as the supported liquid membrane (SLM). The polar basic drugs metaraminol, benzamidine, sotalol, phenylpropanolamine, ephedrine, and trimethoprim were selected as model analytes, and were extracted from 300 μL of human plasma, through 10 μL of DEHPi as SLM, and into 100 μL of 10 mM formic acid as acceptor solution. The extraction potential across the SLM was 100 V, and extractions were performed for 20 min. After EME, the acceptor solutions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). In contrast to other SLMs reported for polar basic drugs in the literature, the SLM of DEHPi was highly stable in contact with plasma, and the system-current across the SLM was easily kept below 50 μA. Thus, electrolysis in the sample and acceptor solution was kept at an acceptable level with no detrimental consequences. For the polar model analytes, representing a log P range from -0.40 to 1.32, recoveries in the range 25-91% were obtained from human plasma. Strong hydrogen bonding and dipole interactions were probably responsible for efficient transfer of the model analytes into the SLM, and this is the first report on efficient EME of highly polar analytes without using any ionic carrier in the SLM. PMID:27506347

  18. Radiative effects in scattering of polarized leptons by polarized nucleons and light nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Akushevich; A. Ilyichev; N. Shumeiko

    2001-07-01

    Recent developments in the field of radiative effects in polarized lepton-nuclear scattering are reviewed. The processes of inclusive, semi-inclusive, diffractive and elastic scattering are considered. The explicit formulae obtained within the covariant approach are discussed. FORTRAN codes POLRAD, RADGEN, HAPRAD, DIFFRAD and MASCARAD created on the basis of the formulae are briefly described. Applications for data analysis of the current experiments on lepton-nuclear scattering at CERN, DESY, SLAC and TJNAF are illustrated by numerical results.

  19. Solutocapillary Convection Effects on Polymeric Membrane Morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, William B.; Todd, Paul W.; Kinagurthu, Sanjay

    1996-01-01

    Macro voids are undesirable large pores in membranes used for purification. They form when membranes are cast as thin films on a smooth surface by evaporating solvent (acetone) from a polymer solution. There are two un-tested hypotheses explaining the growth of macro voids. One states that diffusion of the non-solvent (water) is solely responsible, while the other states that solutocapillary convection is the primary cause of macro void growth. Solutocapillary convection is flow-caused by a concentration induced surface-tension gradient. Macrovoid growth in the former hypothesis is gravity independent, while in the latter it is opposed by gravity. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, experiments were designed to cast membranes in zero-gravity. A semi-automated apparatus was designed and built for casting membranes during the 20 secs of zero-g time available in parabolic aircraft flight such as NASA's KC-135. The phase changes were monitored optically, and membrane morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These studies appear to be the first quantitative studies of membrane casting in micro-gravity which incorporate real-time data acquisition. Morphological studies of membranes cast at 0, 1, and 1.8 g revealed the presence of numerous, sparse and no macrovoids respectively. These results are consistent with the predictions of the solutocapillary hypothesis of macrovoid growth.

  20. Upper bounds on the electrocaloric effect in polar solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirc, R.; Kutnjak, Z.; Blinc, R.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2011-01-01

    Physical upper bounds on the electrocaloric effect (ECE) in bulk polar solids are derived using thermodynamic and statistical mechanics arguments. It is shown that the maximum ECE temperature change ΔT under saturation can be estimated from the dielectric data, such as the saturation polarization and effective Curie constant, as well as from the orientational degeneracy Ω of the elementary dipolar entities in the system and the specific heat of the material. Also obtained is a universal relation for the theoretical maximum value of ΔT, which depends only on Ω and the molar specific heat.

  1. Impact of nonlinear and polarization effects in coherent systems.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chongjin

    2011-12-12

    Coherent detection with digital signal processing (DSP) significantly changes the ways impairments are managed in optical communication systems. In this paper, we review the recent advances in understanding the impact of fiber nonlinearities, polarization-mode dispersion (PMD), and polarization-dependent loss (PDL) in coherent optical communication systems. We first discuss nonlinear transmission performance of three coherent optical communication systems, homogeneous polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK), hybrid PDM-QPSK and on/off keying (OOK), and PDM 16-ary quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) systems. We show that while the dominant nonlinear effects in coherent optical communication systems without optical dispersion compensators (ODCs) are intra-channel nonlinearities, the dominant nonlinear effects in dispersion-managed (DM) systems with inline dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) are different when different modulation formats are used. In DM coherent optical communication systems using modulation formats of constant amplitude, the dominant nonlinear effect is nonlinear polarization scattering induced by cross-polarization modulation (XPolM), whereas when modulation formats of non-constant amplitude are used, the impact of inter-channel cross-phase modulation (XPM) is much larger than XPolM. We then describe the effects of PMD and PDL in coherent systems. We show that although in principle PMD can be completely compensated in a coherent optical receiver, a real coherent receiver has limited tolerance to PMD due to hardware limitations. Two PDL models used to evaluate PDL impairments are discussed. We find that a simple lumped model significantly over-estimates PDL impairments and show that a distributed model has to be used in order to accurately evaluate PDL impairments. Finally, we apply system outage considerations to coherent systems, taking into account the statistics of polarization effects in fiber. PMID

  2. EFFECT OF COMPRESSION ON CONDUCTIVITY AND MORPHOLOGY OF PFSA MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect

    Kusoglu, Ahmet; Weber, Adam; Jiang, Ruichin; Gittleman, Craig

    2011-07-20

    Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cells (PEFCs) are promising candidates for powering vehicles and portable devices using renewable-energy sources. The core of a PEFC is the solid electrolyte membrane that conducts protons from anode to cathode, where water is generated. The conductivity of the membrane, however, depends on the water content of the membrane, which is strongly related to the cell operating conditions. The membrane and other cell components are typically compressed to minimize various contact resistances. Moreover, the swelling of a somewhat constrained membrane in the cell due to the humidity changes generates additional compressive stresses in the membrane. These external stresses are balanced by the internal swelling pressure of the membrane and change the swelling equilibrium. It was shown using a fuel-cell setup that compression could reduce the water content of the membrane or alter the cell resistance. Nevertheless, the effect of compression on the membrane’s transport properties is yet to be understood, as well as its implications in the structure-functions relationships of the membrane. We previously studied, both experimentally and theoretically, how compression affects the water content of the membrane.6 However, more information is required the gain a fundamental understanding of the compression effects. In this talk, we present the results of our investigation on the in-situ conductivity of the membrane as a function of humidity and cell compression pressure. Moreover, to better understand the morphology of compressed membrane, small-angle X-ray-scattering (SAXS) experiments were performed. The conductivity data is then analyzed by investigating the size of the water domains of the compressed membrane determined from the SAXS measurements.

  3. Polarization effects on hard target calibration of lidar systems.

    PubMed

    Kavaya, M J

    1987-03-01

    The theory of hard target calibration of lidar backscatter data, including laboratory measurements of the pertinent target reflectance parameters, is extended to include the effects of polarization of the transmitted and received laser radiation. The bidirectional reflectance-distribution function model of reflectance is expanded to a 4 x 4 matrix allowing Mueller matrix and Stokes vector calculus to be employed. Target reflectance parameters for calibration of lidar backscatter data are derived for various lidar system polarization configurations from integrating sphere and monostatic reflectometer measurements. It is found that correct modeling of polarization effects is mandatory for accurate calibration of hard target reflectance parameters and, therefore, for accurate calibration of lidar backscatter data. PMID:20454226

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: Polarization effects in molecular mechanical force fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieplak, Piotr; Dupradeau, François-Yves; Duan, Yong; Wang, Junmei

    2009-08-01

    The focus here is on incorporating electronic polarization into classical molecular mechanical force fields used for macromolecular simulations. First, we briefly examine currently used molecular mechanical force fields and the current status of intermolecular forces as viewed by quantum mechanical approaches. Next, we demonstrate how some components of quantum mechanical energy are effectively incorporated into classical molecular mechanical force fields. Finally, we assess the modeling methods of one such energy component—polarization energy—and present an overview of polarizable force fields and their current applications. Incorporating polarization effects into current force fields paves the way to developing potentially more accurate, though more complex, parameterizations that can be used for more realistic molecular simulations.

  5. Direct numerical simulation of electrokinetic chaos driven by ion concentration polarization next to an ion-selective membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druzgalski, Clara; Andersen, Mathias; Mani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    We present a three-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) of electrokinetic instability and hydrodynamic chaos near an ion-selective membrane subject to normal electric current. We employ a non-dissipative computational algorithm to numerically solve the full Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Navier-Stokes equations for a symmetric binary electrolyte in a gap between an ion-selective surface and a stationary reservoir. In our simulation the numerically stiff electric double layer (EDL) and extended space charge (ESC) regions are resolved without resorting to asymptotic models. Our 3D results enable visualization of the onset of instability and detailed flow structures over a wide range of scales and distances to the membrane. We present the time-averaged statistics from this simulation and its comparison to an otherwise identical 2D calculation. These simulations demonstrate transport phenomena that are crucial for accurate prediction of charge and mass transport in various electrochemical systems such as flow batteries and electrodialysis and electrolysis cells. Direct numerical simulation of electrokinetic chaos driven by ion concentration polarization next to an ion-selective membrane.

  6. Efficiency of Membrane Protein Expression Following Infection with Recombinant Adenovirus of Polarized Non-Transformed Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Müller, Claudia; Blenkinsop, Timothy A; Stern, Jeffrey H; Finnemann, Silvia C

    2016-01-01

    Transient expression of exogenous proteins facilitates studies of molecular mechanisms and utility for transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in culture. Here, we compared expression of the membrane protein β5 integrin-GFP (β5-GFP) in two recently established models of differentiated human RPE, adult RPE stem cell-derived RPE and primary fetal RPE, upon infection with recombinant adenovirus or transfection with DNA in liposomes. We varied viral titer and duration of virus incubation and examined β5-GFP and the tight junction marker ZO-1 in manipulated cells by confocal microscopy. Fewer than 5 % of cells expressed β5-GFP after liposome-mediated transfection. The percentage of cells with detectable β5-GFP exceeded 90 % after adenovirus infection for as little as 1 h. Decreasing virus titer two-fold did not alter the fraction of cells expressing β5-GFP but increased variability of β5-GFP level among cells. In cells with low expression levels, β5-GFP localized mostly to the apical plasma membrane like endogenous αvβ5 integrin. In cells with high expression levels, β5-GFP localized to the cytoplasm in addition to the apical surface suggesting accumulation in trafficking compartments. Altogether, adenovirus delivery yields efficient exogenous membrane protein expression of correct polarity in differentiated human RPE cells in culture. PMID:26427482

  7. Membrane effects of N-terminal fragment of apolipoprotein A-I: a fluorescent probe study.

    PubMed

    Trusova, Valeriya; Gorbenko, Galyna; Girych, Mykhailo; Adachi, Emi; Mizuguchi, Chiharu; Sood, Rohit; Kinnunen, Paavo; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    The binding of monomeric and aggregated variants of 1-83 N-terminal fragment of apolipoprotein A-I with substitution mutations G26R, G26R/W@8, G26R/W@50 and G26R/W@72 to the model lipid membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine and its mixture with cholesterol has been investigated using fluorescent probes pyrene and Laurdan. Examination of pyrene spectral behavior did not reveal any marked influence of apoA-I mutants on the hydrocarbon region of lipid bilayer. In contrast, probing the membrane effects by Laurdan revealed decrease in the probe generalized polarization in the presence of aggregated proteins. suggesting that oligomeric and fibrillar apoA-I species induce increase in hydration degree and reduction of lipid packing density in the membrane interfacial region. These findings may shed light on molecular details of amyloid cytotoxicity. PMID:25595057

  8. New Results for the Polarization Current Effect on NTM Threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imada, Koki; Tronko, Natalia; Wilson, Howard

    2013-10-01

    For successful operation of future tokamaks, such as ITER, it is essential to control neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs): plasma instabilities characterized by the evolution of magnetic islands. Experimental observations show that sufficiently small magnetic islands heal themselves and shrink away. It has been suggested that the neoclassical polarization current, induced due to ion inertia, may contribute to the NTM threshold. However, the physics of polarization current is not fully understood in toroidal geometry. Slab model calculations show that the contribution from the narrow island separatrix layer opposes that away from the island, nearly cancelling each other out. However, no previous works have investigated this layer contribution in full toroidal geometry; this is essential for accurately determining the trapped particle effect and hence the overall sign of the polarization current. In this project, we aim to determine the full contribution of the polarization current in the tokamak toroidal geometry, including the separatrix layer contribution, using drift kinetic theory. If the polarization current contribution is found to be stabilizing, our new result will provide valuable information towards the development of effective NTM control system for ITER. This project is supported by the United Kingdom Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council under the grant EP/H049460/1, and the European Fusion Development Agreement, under the task agreement WP12-FRF-CCFE/Imada.

  9. Interfacial Water-Transport Effects in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kienitz, Brian; Yamada, Haruhiko; Nonoyama, Nobuaki; Weber, Adam

    2009-11-19

    It is well known that the proton-exchange membrane is perhaps the most critical component of a polymer-electrolyte fuel cell. Typical membranes, such as Nafion(R), require hydration to conduct efficiently and are instrumental in cell water management. Recently, evidence has been shown that these membranes might have different interfacial morphology and transport properties than in the bulk. In this paper, experimental data combined with theoretical simulations will be presented that explore the existence and impact of interfacial resistance on water transport for Nafion(R) 21x membranes. A mass-transfer coefficient for the interfacial resistance is calculated from experimental data using different permeation cells. This coefficient is shown to depend exponentially on relative humidity or water activity. The interfacial resistance does not seem to exist for liquid/membrane or membrane/membrane interfaces. The effect of the interfacial resistance is to flatten the water-content profiles within the membrane during operation. Under typical operating conditions, the resistance is on par with the water-transport resistance of the bulk membrane. Thus, the interfacial resistance can be dominant especially in thin, dry membranes and can affect overall fuel-cell performance.

  10. Hydrodynamic effects of air sparging on hollow fiber membranes in a bubble column reactor.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lijun; Law, Adrian Wing-Keung; Fane, Anthony G

    2013-07-01

    Air sparging is now a standard approach to reduce concentration polarization and fouling of membrane modules in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). The hydrodynamic shear stresses, bubble-induced turbulence and cross flows scour the membrane surfaces and help reduce the deposit of foulants onto the membrane surface. However, the detailed quantitative knowledge on the effect of air sparging remains lacking in the literature due to the complex hydrodynamics generated by the gas-liquid flows. To date, there is no valid model that describes the relationship between the membrane fouling performance and the flow hydrodynamics. The present study aims to examine the impact of hydrodynamics induced by air sparging on the membrane fouling mitigation in a quantitative manner. A modelled hollow fiber module was placed in a cylindrical bubble column reactor at different axial heights with the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) monitored under constant flux conditions. The configuration of bubble column without the membrane module immersed was identical to that studied by Gan et al. (2011) using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA), to ensure a good quantitative understanding of turbulent flow conditions along the column height. The experimental results showed that the meandering flow regime which exhibits high flow instability at the 0.3 m is more beneficial to fouling alleviation compared with the steady flow circulation regime at the 0.6 m. The filtration tests also confirmed the existence of an optimal superficial air velocity beyond which a further increase is of no significant benefit on the membrane fouling reduction. In addition, the alternate aeration provided by two air stones mounted at the opposite end of the diameter of the bubble column was also studied to investigate the associated flow dynamics and its influence on the membrane filtration performance. It was found that with a proper switching interval and membrane module orientation, the membrane fouling can be effectively

  11. Free and membrane-bound calcium in microgravity and microgravity effects at the membrane level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyavskaya, N. A.

    The changes of [Ca^2+]_i controlled is known to play a key regulatory role in numerous cellular processes especially associated with membranes. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated an increase in calcium level in root cells of pea seedlings grown aboard orbital station ``Salyut 6'' /1/. These results: 1) indicate that observed Ca^2+-binding sites of membranes also consist in proteins and phospholipids; 2) suggest that such effects of space flight in membrane Ca-binding might be due to the enhancement of Ca^2+ influx through membranes. In model presented, I propose that Ca^2+-activated channels in plasma membrane in response to microgravity allow the movement of Ca^2+ into the root cells, causing a rise in cytoplasmic free Ca^2+ levels. The latter, in its turn, may induce the inhibition of a Ca^2+ efflux by Ca^2+-activated ATPases and through a Ca^2+/H^+ antiport. It is possible that increased cytosolic levels of Ca^2+ ions have stimulated hydrolysis and turnover of phosphatidylinositols, with a consequent elevation of cytosolic [Ca^2+]_i. Plant cell can response to such a Ca^2+ rise by an enhancement of membranous Ca^2+-binding activities to rescue thus a cell from an abundance of a cytotoxin. A Ca^2+-induced phase separation of membranous lipids assists to appear the structure nonstable zones with high energy level at the boundary of microdomains which are rich by some phospholipid components; there is mixing of molecules of the membranes contacted in these zones, the first stage of membranous fusion, which was found in plants exposed to microgravity. These results support the hypothesis that a target for microgravity effect is the flux mechanism of Ca^2+ to plant cell.

  12. Effect of hydration on the structure of caveolae membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Caracciolo, Giulio; Sciubba, Fabio; Caminiti, Ruggero

    2009-04-13

    In situ energy dispersive x-ray diffraction was used to investigate the effect of hydration on the structure of caveolae membranes. The structure of caveolae membrane was found to be strongly dependent on hydration. At low hydration two lamellar phases with distinct repeat spacings were found to coexist with segregated cholesterol crystallites. Upon hydration, the lamellar phases did swell, while diffraction peak of cholesterol crystals disappeared suggesting that cholesterol molecules redistributed homogeneously within the caveolae membrane. At full hydration, unbinding of caveolae membrane occurred. Upon dehydration the system returned to the bound state, demonstrating that the unbinding transition is fully reversible.

  13. Solvent Polarity Effect on Nonradiative Decay Rate of Thioflavin T.

    PubMed

    Stsiapura, Vitali I; Kurhuzenkau, Siarhei A; Kuzmitsky, Valery A; Bouganov, Oleg V; Tikhomirov, Sergey A

    2016-07-21

    It has been established earlier that fluorescence quantum yield of thioflavin T (ThT)-a probe widely used for amyloid fibrils detection-is viscosity-dependent, and photophysical properties of ThT can be well-described by the fluorescent molecular rotor model, which associates twisted internal charge transfer (TICT) reaction with the main nonradiative decay process in the excited state of the dye. Solutions of ThT in a range of polar solvents were studied using steady-state fluorescence and sub-picosecond transient absorption spectroscopy methods, and we showed that solvent effect on nonradiative transition rate knr cannot be reduced to the dependence on viscosity only and that ∼3 times change of knr can be observed for ThT in aprotic solvents and water, which correlates with solvent polarity. Different behavior was observed in alcohol solutions, particularly in longer n-alcohols, where TICT rate was mainly determined by rotational diffusion of ThT fragments. Quantum-chemical calculations of S0 → S1 transition energy were performed to get insight of polar solvent contribution to the excited-state energy stabilization. Effect of polar solvent on electronic energy levels of ThT was simulated by applying homogeneous electric field according to the Onsager cavity model. Static solvent effect on the excited-state potential energy surface, where charge transfer reaction takes place, was not essential to account for experimentally observed TICT rate differences in water and aprotic solvents. From the other side, nonradiative decay rate of ThT in water, ethylene glycol, and aprotic solvents was found to follow dynamics of polar solvation knr ∼ τS(-1), which can explain dependence of the TICT rate on both polarity and viscosity of the solvents. PMID:27351358

  14. Estimating Potential Effects of Hypothetical Oil Spills on Polar Bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.; McDonald, T.L.; Johnson, W.R.

    2006-01-01

    Much is known about the transport and fate of oil spilled into the sea and its toxicity to exposed wildlife. Previously, however, there has been no way to quantify the probability that wildlife dispersed over the seascape would be exposed to spilled oil. Polar bears, the apical predator of the arctic, are widely dispersed near the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean, an area also undergoing considerable hydrocarbon exploration and development. We used 15,308 satellite locations from 194 radiocollared polar bears to estimate the probability that polar bears could be exposed to hypothetical oil spills. We used a true 2 dimensional Gausian kernel density estimator, to estimate the number of bears likely to occur in each 1.00 km2 cell of a grid superimposed over near shore areas surrounding 2 oil production facilities: the existing Northstar oil production facility, and the proposed offshore site for the Liberty production facility. We estimated the standard errors of bear numbers per cell with bootstrapping. Simulated oil spill footprints for September and October, the times during which we hypothesized effects of an oil-spill would be worst, were estimated using real wind and current data collected between 1980 and 1996. We used ARC/Info software to calculate overlap (numbers of bears oiled) between simulated oil-spill footprints and polar bear grid-cell values. Numbers of bears potentially oiled by a hypothetical 5912 barrel spill (the largest spill thought probable from a pipeline breach) ranged from 0 to 27 polar bears for September open water conditions, and from 0 to 74 polar bears in October mixed ice conditions. Median numbers oiled by the 5912 barrel hypothetical spill from the Liberty simulation in September and October were 1 and 3 bears, equivalent values for the Northstar simulation were 3 and 11 bears. In October, 75% of trajectories from the 5912 barrel simulated spill at Liberty oiled 9 or fewer bears while 75% of the trajectories affected 20 or

  15. Electromagnetic wave propagation in rain and polarization effects

    PubMed Central

    OKAMURA, Sogo; OGUCHI, Tomohiro

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes our study on microwave and millimeter-wave propagation in rain with special emphasis on the effects of polarization. Starting from a recount of our past findings, we will discuss developments with these and how they are connected with subsequent research. PMID:20551593

  16. In Situ Formation of a Biocatalytic Alginate Membrane by Enhanced Concentration Polarization.

    PubMed

    Marpani, Fauziah; Luo, Jianquan; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Meyer, Anne S; Pinelo, Manuel

    2015-08-19

    A thin alginate layer induced on the surface of a commercial polysulfone membrane was used as a matrix for noncovalent immobilization of enzymes. Despite the expected decrease of flux across the membrane resulting from the coating, the initial hypothesis was that such a system should allow high immobilized enzyme loadings, which would benefit from the decreased flux in terms of increased enzyme/substrate contact time. The study was performed in a sequential fashion: first, the most suitable types of alginate able to induce a very thin, sustainable gel layer by pressure-driven membrane filtration were selected and evaluated. Then, an efficient method to make the gel layer adhere to the surface of the membrane was developed. Finally, and after confirming that the enzyme loading could remarkably be enhanced by using this method, several strategies to increase the permeate flux were evaluated. Alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1), able to catalyze the conversion of formaldehyde into methanol, was selected as the model enzyme. An enzyme loading of 71.4% (44.8 μg/cm(2)) was attained under the optimal immobilization conditions, which resulted in a 40% conversion to methanol as compared to the control setup (without alginate) where only 10.8% (6.9 μg/cm(2)) enzyme was loaded, with less than 5% conversion. Such conversion increased to 60% when polyethylene glycol (PEG) was added during the construction of the gel layer, as a strategy to increase flux. No enzyme leakage was observed for both cases (with/without PEG addition). Modeling results showed that the dominant fouling mechanism during gel layer induction (involving enzyme entrapment) was cake layer formation in the initial and intermediate phases, while pore blocking was the dominant mechanism in the final phase. Such mechanisms had a direct consequence on the type of immobilization promoted in each phase. The results suggested that the strategy proposed could be efficiently used to enhance the enzyme loading on

  17. Antagonistic effects of α-tocopherol and ursolic acid on model bacterial membranes.

    PubMed

    Broniatowski, Marcin; Flasiński, Michał; Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna

    2015-10-01

    α-tocopherol (Toc), the most active component of vitamin E can exert antagonistic effects disabling the therapy of cancers and bacterial infections. Such antagonisms were observed also between Toc and bioactive pentacyclic triterpenes (PT) exhibiting anticancer and antibacterial properties. Both Toc and PT are water-insoluble membrane active substances. Thus, our idea was to emulate their interactions with model Escherichia coli membranes. E. coli inner membranes were selected for the experiments because their lipid composition is quite simple and well characterized and the two main components are phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. As a model of E. coli membranes we applied Langmuir monolayers formed by the E. coli total extract of polar lipids (Etotal) as well as by the main lipid components: phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE) and phosphatidylglycerol (ECPG). The antagonistic effects of ursolic acid (Urs) and Toc were investigated with the application of ternary Langmuir monolayers formed by Urs, Toc and one of the phospholipids POPE or ECPG. Our studies indicated that the affinities of Urs and Toc towards the POPE molecule are comparable; whereas there are profound differences in the interactions of Urs and Toc with ECPG. Thus, the model experiments prove that in the case of E. coli membrane, the differences in the interactions between Urs and Toc with the anionic bacterial phosphatidylglycerol can be the key factor responsible for the antagonistic effects observed between PT and Toc in vivo. PMID:26003534

  18. Specular nonlinear anisotropic polarization effect along fourfold crystal symmetry axes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bungay, A. R.; Popov, S. V.; Zheludev, N. I.; Svirko, Yu. P.

    1995-02-01

    We present what is to our knowledge the first experimental observation of the specular nonlinear anisotropic polarization effect of a pump-induced polarization-plane rotation for normal-incidence reflection from the (001) surface of a cubic crystal. In GaAs, azimuth rotation of the order of 9 \\times 10 -6 rad is seen for a pump intensity of 75 MW cm-2 at 750 nm, from which the anisotropic component of the cubic nonlinearity |Re( chi xxxx-2 chi xxyy- chi xyyx)|=5 \\times 10 -9 esu is found.

  19. The Effect of Membrane Charge on Gold Nanoparticle Synthesis via Surfactant Membranes.

    PubMed

    Markowitz; Dunn; Chow; Zhang

    1999-02-01

    The effect of vesicle membrane structure and charge on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles was investigated. The vesicle membranes were comprised of either negatively charged soy lipids or mixtures of charge neutral and negatively charged soy lipids. Palladium ions bound to the membranes served as the catalyst for metal particle synthesis using an electroless metallization procedure. The size range of particles synthesized using membranes comprised of only negatively charged lipids (5-15 nm) was significantly smaller than those synthesized using mixtures of negatively charged and charge-neutral lipids (2-180 nm). X-ray diffraction revealed that the average crystallite size decreased with increasing palladium ion content of the membranes. It also showed that the average crystallite size was smaller for particles synthesized using vesicles comprised of only soy phoshohydroxyethanol lipids than for particles synthesized using vesicles comprised of only soy phosphatidic acid lipids. Particles synthesized with membranes comprised of only negatively charged lipids were encapsulated within the resulting lipid membrane matrix. FT-IR of the lipid matrix indicated that the matrix was formed as the result of ionic bridging of the lipid phosphate headgroups with gold ions. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:9924109

  20. Effect of EMP fields on cell membrane potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Gailey, P.C.; Easterly, C.E.

    1993-06-01

    A simple model is presented for cell membrane potentials induced during exposure to electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Using calculated values of internal electric field strength induced during EMP exposure, the model predicts that cell membrane potentials of about 100 mV may be induced for time frames on the order of 10 ns. Possible biological effects of these potentials including electroporation area discussed.

  1. Spatial Congruity Effects Reveal Metaphorical Thinking, not Polarity Correspondence

    PubMed Central

    Dolscheid, Sarah; Casasanto, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Spatial congruity effects have often been interpreted as evidence for metaphorical thinking, but an alternative account based on polarity correspondence (a.k.a. markedness) has challenged this view. Here we compared metaphor- and polarity-correspondence-based explanations for spatial congruity effects, using musical pitch as a testbed. In one experiment, English speakers classified high- and low-frequency pitches as “high” and “low,” or as “front” and “back,” to determine whether space-pitch congruity effects could be elicited by any marked spatial continuum. Although both pairs of terms describe bipolar spatial continuums, we found congruity effects only for high/low judgments, indicating that markedness is not sufficient to produce space-pitch congruity effects. A second experiment confirmed that there were no space-pitch congruity effects for another pair of terms that have clear markedness (big/small), but which do not denote spatial height. By contrast, this experiment showed congruity effects for words that cued an appropriate vertical spatial schema (tall/short), even though these words are not used conventionally in English to describe pitches, ruling out explanations for the observed pattern of results based on verbal polysemy. Together, results suggest that space-pitch congruity effects reveal metaphorical uses of spatial schemas, not polarity correspondence effects. PMID:26635713

  2. Effective area for northern Polar Cap index data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The northern (PCN) and southern (PCS) Polar Cap indices are used, among other, in applications to forecast geomagnetic storms and substorms. The index values are based on geomagnetic observations that for the forecast are transmitted in real-time from selected stations, PCN on data from Qaanaaq (Thule) in Greenland and PCS on geomagnetic data from Vostok in Antarctica. Observational conditions in the harsh polar environments are difficult and data transmission links are vulnerable. Hence, it could be advantageous to base real-time PC index values on data from multiple sites in order to safeguard the forecasts. The presentation shall compare PCN index values derived from a range of further observatories in Greenland and Canada in order to delimit an effective Polar Cap area for providing geomagnetic data for a useful index and to settle whether reliable (preliminary) index values could be derived from other than the standard observatories particularly during strongly disturbed conditions.

  3. Widespread spin polarization effects in photoemission from topological insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Jozwiak, C.; Chen, Y. L.; Fedorov, A. V.; Analytis, J. G.; Rotundu, C. R.; Schmid, A. K.; Denlinger, J. D.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Lee, D.-H.; Fisher, I. R.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Shen, Z.-X.; Hussain, Z.; Lanzara, A.

    2011-06-22

    High-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES) was performed on the three-dimensional topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} using a recently developed high-efficiency spectrometer. The topological surface state's helical spin structure is observed, in agreement with theoretical prediction. Spin textures of both chiralities, at energies above and below the Dirac point, are observed, and the spin structure is found to persist at room temperature. The measurements reveal additional unexpected spin polarization effects, which also originate from the spin-orbit interaction, but are well differentiated from topological physics by contrasting momentum and photon energy and polarization dependencies. These observations demonstrate significant deviations of photoelectron and quasiparticle spin polarizations. Our findings illustrate the inherent complexity of spin-resolved ARPES and demonstrate key considerations for interpreting experimental results.

  4. Piezotronic Effect in Polarity-Controlled GaN Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenfu; Pu, Xiong; Han, Changbao; Du, Chunhua; Li, Linxuan; Jiang, Chunyan; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-08-25

    Using high-quality and polarity-controlled GaN nanowires (NWs), we studied the piezotronic effect in crystal orientation defined wurtzite structures. By applying a normal compressive force on c-plane GaN NWs with an atomic force microscopy tip, the Schottky barrier between the Pt tip and GaN can be effectively tuned by the piezotronic effect. In contrast, the normal compressive force cannot change the electron transport characteristics in m-plane GaN NWs whose piezoelectric polarization axis is turned in the transverse direction. This observation provided solid evidence for clarifying the difference between the piezotronic effect and the piezoresistive effect. We further demonstrated a high sensitivity of the m-plane GaN piezotronic transistor to collect the transverse force. The integration of c-plane GaN and m-plane GaN indicates an overall response to an external force in any direction. PMID:26256533

  5. Membrane air-stripping: Effects of pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, K. ); Zander, A.K. . Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

    1995-03-01

    As a result of the Safe Drinking Water Act and its 1986 amendments, the number of regulated volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) has increased substantially. The discovery of drinking water supply sources contaminated by VOCs is also increasing. These factors have led to the development of alternative treatment methods for control of VOCs. Microporous polypropylene hollow-fiber membranes offer significant advantages over packed-tower aeration for removing volatile organic chemicals. A laboratory study assessed the performance of membrane air-stripping in continuous operation, while exposed to various pretreatments. Results indicate that membrane air-stripping is compatible with low-pH or low-chlorine waters but not with waters of high pH or high-chlorine concentration or those that are ozonated.

  6. Optimization of cross-polarization at low radiofrequency fields for sensitivity enhancement in solid-state NMR of membrane proteins reconstituted in magnetically aligned bicelles.

    PubMed

    Koroloff, Sophie N; Nevzorov, Alexander A

    2015-07-01

    Solid-state NMR (ssNMR) of oriented membrane proteins (MPs) is capable of providing structural and dynamic information at nearly physiological conditions. However, NMR experiments performed on oriented membrane proteins generally suffer from low sensitivity. Moreover, utilization of high-power radiofrequency (RF) irradiations for magnetization transfer may give rise to sample heating, thereby decreasing the efficiency of conventional cross-polarization schemes. Here we have optimized the recently developed repetitive cross-polarization (REP-CP) sequence (Tang et al., 2011) to further increase the magnetization transfer efficiency for membrane proteins reconstituted in magnetically aligned bicelles and compared its performance to single-contact Hartmann-Hahn cross-polarization (CP), CP-MOIST and the adiabatic transfer. It has been found that employing the REP-CP sequence at RF amplitudes of 19kHz instead of the commonly used higher RF fields (>45kHz) enhances the efficiency of REP-CP. An additional 30% signal can be obtained as compared to the previously published REP-CP, and 20% when compared to the re-optimized REP-CP at 50kHz RF fields. Moreover, the (15)N signal gain of low-power REP-CP was found to be 40% over the adiabatic CP and up to 80% over CP-MOIST. Thus, the low-power REP-CP sequence surpasses all of the previous CP schemes in addition of having the tremendous advantage of reducing the RF powers by a factor of seven, thereby preserving the liquid-like bicelle sample. By contrast, in purely static (NAL crystal) and semi-rigid systems (Pf1 phage), the adiabatic CP was found to be more effective. Periodic oscillations of the intensity profile (distinct from the transient oscillations) as a function of the CP contact time and B1 RF field strengths were observed during the REP-CP optimization with the oscillations becoming more pronounced with lower RF fields. Many-spin simulations were performed to explain the oscillations and their periodicity. PMID

  7. Effects of Polarization Azimuth of Writing Beams on Diffraction Properties in Vector Holograms Using Radially Polarized Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Taro; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro

    2012-06-01

    It is very important for realizing the polarization-multiplex holographic memory to clarify the optical properties of vector holograms recorded using the inhomogeneous polarized beams. In the present paper we present a simple yet useful method using the radially polarized writing beams to systematically investigate the optical properties of complicated vector holograms and preliminary data about effects of polarization azimuth of writing beams on diffraction properties. The diffraction properties of the vector holograms written in the azobenzene-containing polymers were strongly dependent on the angle between the grating vector and polarization azimuth of the writing beam. Considering the above-mentioned dependence, the theoretical calculation on the basis of Jones calculus revealed optical properties of the vector holograms written by various types of radially polarized beams.

  8. Physical Effects of Buckwheat Extract on Biological Membrane In Vitro and Its Protective Properties.

    PubMed

    Włoch, Aleksandra; Strugała, Paulina; Pruchnik, Hanna; Żyłka, Romuald; Oszmiański, Jan; Kleszczyńska, Halina

    2016-04-01

    Buckwheat is a valuable source of many biologically active compounds and nutrients. It has properties that reduce blood cholesterol levels, and so reduces the risk of atherosclerosis, seals the capillaries, and lowers blood pressure. The aim of the study was to determine quantitative and qualitative characteristics of polyphenols contained in extracts from buckwheat husks and stalks, the biological activity of the extracts, and biophysical effects of their interaction with the erythrocyte membrane, treated as a model of the cell. An analysis of the extract's composition has shown that buckwheat husk and stalk extracts are a rich source of polyphenolic compounds, the stalk extracts showing more compounds than the husk extract. The study allowed to determine the location which incorporated polyphenols occupy in the erythrocyte membrane and changes in the membrane properties caused by them. It was found that the extracts do not induce hemolysis of red blood cells, causing an increase in osmotic resistance of erythrocytes. They affect mainly the hydrophilic region by changing the degree of order of the polar heads of lipids, but do little to change the fluidity of the membrane and its hydration. The results showed also that polyphenolic substances included in the extracts well protect the membranes of red blood cells against oxidation and exhibit anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:26581904

  9. Polarity correspondence effect between loudness and lateralized response set

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Seah; Cho, Yang Seok

    2015-01-01

    Performance is better when a high pitch tone is associated with an up or right response and a low pitch tone with a down or left response compared to the opposite pairs, which is called the spatial-musical association of response codes effect. The current study examined whether polarity codes are formed in terms of the variation in loudness. In Experiments 1 and 2, in which participants performed a loudness-judgment task and a timbre-judgment task respectively, the correspondence effect was obtained between loudness and response side regardless of whether loudness was relevant to the task or not. In Experiments 3 and 4, in which the identical loudness- and timbre-judgment tasks were conducted while the auditory stimulus was presented only to the left or right ear, the correspondence effect was modulated by the ear to which the stimulus was presented, even though the effect was marginally significant in Experiment 4. The results suggest that loudness produced polarity codes that influenced response selection (Experiments 1 and 2), and additional spatial codes provided by stimulus position modulated the effect, generating the stimulus eccentricity effect (Experiments 3 and 4), which is consistent with the polarity correspondence principle. PMID:26052305

  10. Polarity correspondence effect between loudness and lateralized response set.

    PubMed

    Chang, Seah; Cho, Yang Seok

    2015-01-01

    Performance is better when a high pitch tone is associated with an up or right response and a low pitch tone with a down or left response compared to the opposite pairs, which is called the spatial-musical association of response codes effect. The current study examined whether polarity codes are formed in terms of the variation in loudness. In Experiments 1 and 2, in which participants performed a loudness-judgment task and a timbre-judgment task respectively, the correspondence effect was obtained between loudness and response side regardless of whether loudness was relevant to the task or not. In Experiments 3 and 4, in which the identical loudness- and timbre-judgment tasks were conducted while the auditory stimulus was presented only to the left or right ear, the correspondence effect was modulated by the ear to which the stimulus was presented, even though the effect was marginally significant in Experiment 4. The results suggest that loudness produced polarity codes that influenced response selection (Experiments 1 and 2), and additional spatial codes provided by stimulus position modulated the effect, generating the stimulus eccentricity effect (Experiments 3 and 4), which is consistent with the polarity correspondence principle. PMID:26052305

  11. Effect of Membrane Permeability on Survival of Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Francesco; Martin-Malo, Alejandro; Hannedouche, Thierry; Loureiro, Alfredo; Papadimitriou, Menelaos; Wizemann, Volker; Jacobson, Stefan H.; Czekalski, Stanislaw; Ronco, Claudio; Vanholder, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    The effect of high-flux hemodialysis membranes on patient survival has not been unequivocally determined. In this prospective, randomized clinical trial, we enrolled 738 incident hemodialysis patients, stratified them by serum albumin ≤4 and >4 g/dl, and assigned them to either low-flux or high-flux membranes. We followed patients for 3 to 7.5 yr. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed no significant difference between high-flux and low-flux membranes, and a Cox proportional hazards model concurred. Patients with serum albumin ≤4 g/dl had significantly higher survival rates in the high-flux group compared with the low-flux group (P = 0.032). In addition, a secondary analysis revealed that high-flux membranes may significantly improve survival of patients with diabetes. Among those with serum albumin ≤4 g/dl, slightly different effects among patients with and without diabetes suggested a potential interaction between diabetes status and low serum albumin in the reduction of risk conferred by high-flux membranes. In summary, we did not detect a significant survival benefit with either high-flux or low-flux membranes in the population overall, but the use of high-flux membranes conferred a significant survival benefit among patients with serum albumin ≤4 g/dl. The apparent survival benefit among patients who have diabetes and are treated with high-flux membranes requires confirmation given the post hoc nature of our analysis. PMID:19092122

  12. Fungicidal effect of isoquercitrin via inducing membrane disturbance.

    PubMed

    Yun, JiEun; Lee, Heejeong; Ko, Hae Ju; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Lee, Dong Gun

    2015-02-01

    Isoquercitrin is a flavonoid isolated from Aster yomena, which has been used as a traditional medicinal herb. In the present study, we investigated the antifungal activity and the underlying mechanism of isoquercitrin. Isoquercitrin had a potent effect in the susceptibility test against pathogenic fungi and almost no hemolysis. Propidium iodide and potassium release assays were conducted in Candida albicans, and these studies confirmed that isoquercitrin induced membrane damage, thereby, increasing permeability. Membrane potential was analyzed using 3,3'-dipropylthiacarbocyanine iodide [DiSC3(5)], and the transition of membrane potential was indicated by an increased fluorescence intensity. To further analyze these results using model membranes, giant unilamellar vesicles and large unilamellar vesicles that encapsulated calcein were prepared and the detection of calcein leakage from liposomes indicated that membrane was disturbed. We further verified membrane disturbance by observing the disordered status of the lipid bilayer with 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene fluorescence. Moreover, changes in size and granularity of the cell were revealed in flow cytometric analysis. All these results suggested the membrane disturbance and the degree of disturbance was estimated to be within a range of 2.3 nm to 3.3 nm by fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran analysis. Taken together, isoquercitrin exerts its fungicidal effect by disturbing the membrane of cells. PMID:25445674

  13. Nondipole Effects in Chiral Systems Measured with Linearly Polarized Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, K. P.; Hemmers, O.; Guillemin, R.; Stolte, W. C.; Piancastelli, M. N.; Lindle, D. W.

    2015-06-01

    With the advent of third-generation synchrotron light sources, it has been demonstrated that higher-order corrections to the dipole approximation are necessary for the description of light-matter interactions in the soft x-ray range. These effects, known as 'nondipole effects', present themselves as asymmetries in the angular distributions of photoelectrons. Chiral molecules, known to have asymmetries in photoelectron angular distributions when exposed to circularly polarized light, have been proposed to demonstrate a chiral-specific nondipole effect when exposed to linearly polarized light. We present the first-ever measurement of nondipole chiral angular distributions for the case of each enantiomer of camphor in the photon energy range 296-343eV.

  14. Protection of Membrane Walls of Boilers Against Earthquake Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppelka, Peter

    2014-12-01

    In this article we present a brief overview of the results of our design, construction, calculation and assembly work in the construction of two boilers for Chile, with the main intention of protecting their membrane walls against seismic effects

  15. Phosphocreatine Interacts with Phospholipids, Affects Membrane Properties and Exerts Membrane-Protective Effects

    PubMed Central

    Tokarska-Schlattner, Malgorzata; Epand, Raquel F.; Meiler, Flurina; Zandomeneghi, Giorgia; Neumann, Dietbert; Widmer, Hans R.; Meier, Beat H.; Epand, Richard M.; Saks, Valdur; Wallimann, Theo; Schlattner, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    A broad spectrum of beneficial effects has been ascribed to creatine (Cr), phosphocreatine (PCr) and their cyclic analogues cyclo-(cCr) and phospho-cyclocreatine (PcCr). Cr is widely used as nutritional supplement in sports and increasingly also as adjuvant treatment for pathologies such as myopathies and a plethora of neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, Cr and its cyclic analogues have been proposed for anti-cancer treatment. The mechanisms involved in these pleiotropic effects are still controversial and far from being understood. The reversible conversion of Cr and ATP into PCr and ADP by creatine kinase, generating highly diffusible PCr energy reserves, is certainly an important element. However, some protective effects of Cr and analogues cannot be satisfactorily explained solely by effects on the cellular energy state. Here we used mainly liposome model systems to provide evidence for interaction of PCr and PcCr with different zwitterionic phospholipids by applying four independent, complementary biochemical and biophysical assays: (i) chemical binding assay, (ii) surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR), (iii) solid-state 31P-NMR, and (iv) differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). SPR revealed low affinity PCr/phospholipid interaction that additionally induced changes in liposome shape as indicated by NMR and SPR. Additionally, DSC revealed evidence for membrane packing effects by PCr, as seen by altered lipid phase transition. Finally, PCr efficiently protected against membrane permeabilization in two different model systems: liposome-permeabilization by the membrane-active peptide melittin, and erythrocyte hemolysis by the oxidative drug doxorubicin, hypoosmotic stress or the mild detergent saponin. These findings suggest a new molecular basis for non-energy related functions of PCr and its cyclic analogue. PCr/phospholipid interaction and alteration of membrane structure may not only protect cellular membranes against various insults, but could

  16. Differential Effect of Plant Lipids on Membrane Organization

    PubMed Central

    Grosjean, Kevin; Mongrand, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The high diversity of the plant lipid mixture raises the question of their respective involvement in the definition of membrane organization. This is particularly the case for plant plasma membrane, which is enriched in specific lipids, such as free and conjugated forms of phytosterols and typical phytosphingolipids, such as glycosylinositolphosphoceramides. This question was here addressed extensively by characterizing the order level of membrane from vesicles prepared using various plant lipid mixtures and labeled with an environment-sensitive probe. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that among major phytosterols, campesterol exhibits a stronger ability than β-sitosterol and stigmasterol to order model membranes. Multispectral confocal microscopy, allowing spatial analysis of membrane organization, demonstrated accordingly the strong ability of campesterol to promote ordered domain formation and to organize their spatial distribution at the membrane surface. Conjugated sterol forms, alone and in synergy with free sterols, exhibit a striking ability to order membrane. Plant sphingolipids, particularly glycosylinositolphosphoceramides, enhanced the sterol-induced ordering effect, emphasizing the formation and increasing the size of sterol-dependent ordered domains. Altogether, our results support a differential involvement of free and conjugated phytosterols in the formation of ordered domains and suggest that the diversity of plant lipids, allowing various local combinations of lipid species, could be a major contributor to membrane organization in particular through the formation of sphingolipid-sterol interacting domains. PMID:25575593

  17. Coherent control of optical polarization effects in metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyedmohammad A; Plum, Eric; Shi, Jinhui; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2015-01-01

    Processing of photonic information usually relies on electronics. Aiming to avoid the conversion between photonic and electronic signals, modulation of light with light based on optical nonlinearity has become a major research field and coherent optical effects on the nanoscale are emerging as new means of handling and distributing signals. Here we demonstrate that in slabs of linear material of sub-wavelength thickness optical manifestations of birefringence and optical activity (linear and circular birefringence and dichroism) can be controlled by a wave coherent with the wave probing the polarization effect. We demonstrate this in proof-of-principle experiments for chiral and anisotropic microwave metamaterials, where we show that the large parameter space of polarization characteristics may be accessed at will by coherent control. Such control can be exerted at arbitrarily low intensities, thus arguably allowing for fast handling of electromagnetic signals without facing thermal management and energy challenges. PMID:25755071

  18. Effect of polarization on superfluidity in low density neutron matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J. W.; Kallman, C.-G.; Yang, C.-H.; Chakkalakal, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    The singlet-state quasi-particle interaction in neutron matter is examined on the basis of results of a detailed evaluation of the Landau Fermi-liquid parameters for pure neutron effects, including polarization effects. This means that the interaction induced by exchange of density and spin-density excitations is taken into account. It is shown that polarization actually works to suppress the pairing matrix elements, owing to the spin dependence of the quasi-particle interaction and, ultimately, the balance of attraction, repulsion, and spin dependence in the fundamental two-neutron interaction. Since the isotropic energy gap and the condensation energy in low-density neutron-star matter are extremely sensitive functions of the pairing matrix elements, they will also be suppressed by the polarizability of the neutron medium.

  19. Coherent control of optical polarization effects in metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyedmohammad A.; Plum, Eric; Shi, Jinhui; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2015-01-01

    Processing of photonic information usually relies on electronics. Aiming to avoid the conversion between photonic and electronic signals, modulation of light with light based on optical nonlinearity has become a major research field and coherent optical effects on the nanoscale are emerging as new means of handling and distributing signals. Here we demonstrate that in slabs of linear material of sub-wavelength thickness optical manifestations of birefringence and optical activity (linear and circular birefringence and dichroism) can be controlled by a wave coherent with the wave probing the polarization effect. We demonstrate this in proof-of-principle experiments for chiral and anisotropic microwave metamaterials, where we show that the large parameter space of polarization characteristics may be accessed at will by coherent control. Such control can be exerted at arbitrarily low intensities, thus arguably allowing for fast handling of electromagnetic signals without facing thermal management and energy challenges. PMID:25755071

  20. Solid effect in magic angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corzilius, Björn; Smith, Albert A.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2012-08-01

    For over five decades, the solid effect (SE) has been heavily utilized as a mechanism for performing dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Nevertheless, it has not found widespread application in contemporary, high magnetic field DNP experiments because SE enhancements display an ω _0 ^{ - 2} field dependence. In particular, for nominally forbidden zero and double quantum SE transitions to be partially allowed, it is necessary for mixing of adjacent nuclear spin states to occur, and this leads to the observed field dependence. However, recently we have improved our instrumentation and report here an enhancement of ɛ = 91 obtained with the organic radical trityl (OX063) in magic angle spinning experiments performed at 5 T and 80 K. This is a factor of 6-7 higher than previous values in the literature under similar conditions. Because the solid effect depends strongly on the microwave field strength, we attribute this large enhancement to larger microwave field strengths inside the sample volume, achieved with more efficient coupling of the gyrotron to the sample chamber. In addition, we develop a theoretical model to explain the dependence of the buildup rate of enhanced nuclear polarization and the steady-state enhancement on the microwave power. Buildup times and enhancements were measured as a function of 1H concentration for both trityl and Gd-DOTA. Comparison of the results indicates that for trityl the initial polarization step is the slower, rate-determining step. However, for Gd-DOTA the spread of nuclear polarization via homonuclear 1H spin diffusion is rate-limiting. Finally, we discuss the applicability of the solid effect at fields > 5 T and the requirements to address the unfavorable field dependence of the solid effect.

  1. Investigation of polarization effects on new mask materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubke, Karsten; Teuber, Silvio; Hoellein, Ingo; Becker, Hans; Seitz, Holger; Buttgereit, Ute

    2005-05-01

    As microlithography moves to smaller critical dimensions, structures on reticles reach feature sizes comparable to the operating wavelength. Furthermore, with increasing NA the angle of incidence of light illuminating the mask steadily increases. In particular for immersion lithography this will have severe consequences on the printing behavior of reticles. Polarization effects arise which have an impact on, among other things, the contrast of the printed image. Angular effects have to be considered when aggressive off-axis illumination schemes are used. Whereas numerous articles have been published on those effects and the underlying theory seems to be understood, there is a strong need for experimental verification of properties of real masks at the actinic wavelength. This paper presents measurements of polarization effects on different mask blank types produced at Schott Lithotec including chrome and alternative absorber binary mask blanks, as well as phase shift mask blanks. Thickness and optical dispersion of all layers were determined using grazing incidence x-ray reflectometry (GIXR) and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE). The set of mask blanks was patterned using a special design developed at the Advanced Mask Technology Center (AMTC) to allow measurements at different line width and pitch sizes. VUV Ellipsometry was then used to measure the properties of the structured materials, in particular the intensities in the 0th and 1st diffraction order for both polarization directions and varying angle of incidence. The degree of polarization of respective mask types is evaluated for dense lines with varying pitches and duty cycles. The results obtained experimentally are compared with simulations based on rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA).

  2. Solid effect in magic angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization

    PubMed Central

    Corzilius, Björn; Smith, Albert A.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    For over five decades, the solid effect (SE) has been heavily utilized as a mechanism for performing dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Nevertheless, it has not found widespread application in contemporary, high magnetic field DNP experiments because SE enhancements display an \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}\\omega _0 ^{ - 2}\\end{equation*} \\end{document}ω0−2 field dependence. In particular, for nominally forbidden zero and double quantum SE transitions to be partially allowed, it is necessary for mixing of adjacent nuclear spin states to occur, and this leads to the observed field dependence. However, recently we have improved our instrumentation and report here an enhancement of ɛ = 91 obtained with the organic radical trityl (OX063) in magic angle spinning experiments performed at 5 T and 80 K. This is a factor of 6-7 higher than previous values in the literature under similar conditions. Because the solid effect depends strongly on the microwave field strength, we attribute this large enhancement to larger microwave field strengths inside the sample volume, achieved with more efficient coupling of the gyrotron to the sample chamber. In addition, we develop a theoretical model to explain the dependence of the buildup rate of enhanced nuclear polarization and the steady-state enhancement on the microwave power. Buildup times and enhancements were measured as a function of 1H concentration for both trityl and Gd-DOTA. Comparison of the results indicates that for trityl the initial polarization step is the slower, rate-determining step. However, for Gd-DOTA the spread of nuclear polarization via homonuclear 1H spin diffusion is rate-limiting. Finally, we discuss the applicability of the solid effect at fields > 5 T and the requirements

  3. Solid effect in magic angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization.

    PubMed

    Corzilius, Björn; Smith, Albert A; Griffin, Robert G

    2012-08-01

    For over five decades, the solid effect (SE) has been heavily utilized as a mechanism for performing dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Nevertheless, it has not found widespread application in contemporary, high magnetic field DNP experiments because SE enhancements display an ω(0)(-2) field dependence. In particular, for nominally forbidden zero and double quantum SE transitions to be partially allowed, it is necessary for mixing of adjacent nuclear spin states to occur, and this leads to the observed field dependence. However, recently we have improved our instrumentation and report here an enhancement of ε = 91 obtained with the organic radical trityl (OX063) in magic angle spinning experiments performed at 5 T and 80 K. This is a factor of 6-7 higher than previous values in the literature under similar conditions. Because the solid effect depends strongly on the microwave field strength, we attribute this large enhancement to larger microwave field strengths inside the sample volume, achieved with more efficient coupling of the gyrotron to the sample chamber. In addition, we develop a theoretical model to explain the dependence of the buildup rate of enhanced nuclear polarization and the steady-state enhancement on the microwave power. Buildup times and enhancements were measured as a function of (1)H concentration for both trityl and Gd-DOTA. Comparison of the results indicates that for trityl the initial polarization step is the slower, rate-determining step. However, for Gd-DOTA the spread of nuclear polarization via homonuclear (1)H spin diffusion is rate-limiting. Finally, we discuss the applicability of the solid effect at fields > 5 T and the requirements to address the unfavorable field dependence of the solid effect. PMID:22894339

  4. Effects of Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors on Bilayer Lipid Membranes.

    PubMed

    Dubinin, Mikhail V; Astashev, Maxim E; Penkov, Nikita V; Gudkov, Sergey V; Dyachenko, Igor A; Samartsev, Victor N; Belosludtsev, Konstantin N

    2016-06-01

    The work examines the effect of inhibitors of cytosolic Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent phospholipases A2 on bilayer lipid membranes. It was established that trifluoroperazine (TFP) and, to a lesser extent, arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF3) and palmitoyl trifluoromethyl ketone (PACOCF3) were able to permeabilize artificial lipid membranes (BLM and liposomes). It was shown that AACOCF3 lowered the temperature of phase transition of DMPC liposomes, inducing disordering of the hydrophobic region of lipid bilayer. TFP disordered membranes both in the hydrophobic region and in the region of hydrophilic heads, this being accompanied by changes in the membrane permeability: appearance of a channel-like BLM activity and leakage of sulforhodamine B from liposomes. In contrast to AACOCF3 and TFP, PACOCF3 increased membrane orderliness in the hydrophobic region (heightened the temperature of phase transition of DMPC liposomes) and in the region of lipid heads. The effectiveness of AACOCF3 and PACOCF3 as inductors of BLM and liposome permeabilization was considerably lower comparatively to TFP. As revealed by dynamic light scattering, incorporation of TFP, AACOCF3 and PACOCF3 into the membrane of liposomes resulted in the increase of the average size of particles in the suspension, presumably due to their aggregation or fusion. The paper discusses possible mechanisms of the influence of phospholipase A2 inhibitors on bilayer lipid membranes. PMID:26762382

  5. Effects of polarization mode dispersion on polarization-entangled photons generated via broadband pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Hong, Kang-Hee; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    An inexpensive and compact frequency multi-mode diode laser enables a compact two-photon polarization entanglement source via the continuous wave broadband pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) process. Entanglement degradation caused by polarization mode dispersion (PMD) is one of the critical issues in optical fiber-based polarization entanglement distribution. We theoretically and experimentally investigate how the initial entanglement is degraded when the two-photon polarization entangled state undergoes PMD. We report an effect of PMD unique to broadband pumped SPDC, equally applicable to pulsed pumping as well as cw broadband pumping, which is that the amount of the entanglement degradation is asymmetrical to the PMD introduced to each quantum channel. We believe that our results have important applications in long-distance distribution of polarization entanglement via optical fiber channels. PMID:27174100

  6. Effects of polarization mode dispersion on polarization-entangled photons generated via broadband pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Hong, Kang-Hee; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    An inexpensive and compact frequency multi-mode diode laser enables a compact two-photon polarization entanglement source via the continuous wave broadband pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) process. Entanglement degradation caused by polarization mode dispersion (PMD) is one of the critical issues in optical fiber-based polarization entanglement distribution. We theoretically and experimentally investigate how the initial entanglement is degraded when the two-photon polarization entangled state undergoes PMD. We report an effect of PMD unique to broadband pumped SPDC, equally applicable to pulsed pumping as well as cw broadband pumping, which is that the amount of the entanglement degradation is asymmetrical to the PMD introduced to each quantum channel. We believe that our results have important applications in long-distance distribution of polarization entanglement via optical fiber channels. PMID:27174100

  7. Effects of polarization mode dispersion on polarization-entangled photons generated via broadband pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Hong, Kang-Hee; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2016-05-01

    An inexpensive and compact frequency multi-mode diode laser enables a compact two-photon polarization entanglement source via the continuous wave broadband pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) process. Entanglement degradation caused by polarization mode dispersion (PMD) is one of the critical issues in optical fiber-based polarization entanglement distribution. We theoretically and experimentally investigate how the initial entanglement is degraded when the two-photon polarization entangled state undergoes PMD. We report an effect of PMD unique to broadband pumped SPDC, equally applicable to pulsed pumping as well as cw broadband pumping, which is that the amount of the entanglement degradation is asymmetrical to the PMD introduced to each quantum channel. We believe that our results have important applications in long-distance distribution of polarization entanglement via optical fiber channels.

  8. Effects of grain growth on the interstellar polarization curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voshchinnikov, Nikolai V.; Hirashita, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    We apply the time evolution of grain size distributions through accretion and coagulation found in our previous work to the modelling of the wavelength dependence of interstellar linear polarization. We focus in particular on the parameters of the Serkowski curve K and λmax , characterizing the width and maximum wavelength of this curve, respectively. We use aligned silicate and non-aligned carbonaceous spheroidal particles with different aspect ratios a/b. The imperfect alignment of grains with sizes larger than a cut-off size rV, cut is considered. We find that the evolutionary effects on the polarization curve are negligible in the original model with commonly used material parameters (hydrogen number density nH = 103 cm-3, gas temperature Tgas = 10 K and sticking probability for accretion Sacc = 0.3). Therefore, we apply the tuned model, where the coagulation threshold of silicate is removed. In this model, λmax displaces to longer wavelengths and the polarization curve becomes wider (K reduces) on time-scales ˜(30-50)(nH/103cm-3)-1 Myr. The tuned models at T ≲ 30 (n_H/10^3 cm^{-3})^{-1} Myr and different values of the parameters rV, cut can also explain the observed trend between K and λmax . It is significant that the evolutionary effect appears in the perpendicular direction to the effect of rV, cut on the K - λmax diagram. Very narrow polarization curves can be reproduced if we change the type of particles (prolate/oblate) and/or vary a/b.

  9. Normal and tumor-derived myoepithelial cells differ in their ability to interact with luminal breast epithelial cells for polarity and basement membrane deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Villadsen, Rene; Rank, Fritz; Bissell, Mina J.; Petersen, Ole William

    2001-10-04

    The signals that determine the correct polarity of breast epithelial structures in vivo are not understood. We have shown previously that luminal epithelial cells can be polarized when cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane gel. We reasoned that such cues in vivo may be given by myoepithelial cells. Accordingly, we used an assay where luminal epithelial cells are incorrectly polarized to test this hypothesis. We show that culturing human primary luminal epithelial cells within collagen-I gels leads to formation of structures with no lumina and with reverse polarity as judged by dual stainings for sialomucin, epithelial specific antigen or occludin. No basement membrane is deposited, and {beta}4-integrin staining is negative. Addition of purified human myoepithelial cells isolated from normal glands corrects the inverse polarity, and leads to formation of double-layered acini with central lumina. Among the laminins present in the human breast basement membrane (laminin-1, -5 and -10/11), laminin-1 was unique in its ability to substitute for myoepithelial cells in polarity reversal. Myoepithelial cells were purified also from four different breast cancer sources including a biphasic cell line. Three out of four samples either totally lacked the ability to interact with luminal epithelial cells, or conveyed only correction of polarity in a fraction of acini. This behavior was directly related to the ability of the tumor myoepithelial cells to produce {alpha}-1 chain of laminin. In vivo, breast carcinomas were either negative for laminin-1 (7/12 biopsies) or showed a focal, fragmented deposition of a less intensely stained basement membrane (5/12 biopsies). Dual staining with myoepithelial markers revealed that tumorassociated myoepithelial cells were either negative or weakly positive for expression of laminin-1, establishing a strong correlation between loss of laminin-1 and breast cancer. We conclude that the double-layered breast acinus may be

  10. Influence of Ground Effect on Low Aspect Ratio Membrane Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleischwitz, Robert; de Kat, Roeland; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2014-11-01

    Inspired by the current interest of membrane wings for Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) and hard limits in aerodynamic performance for wings in moderate Reynolds number regimes, an experimental wind tunnel study is conducted at a Reynolds number of approximately 65,000 to determine the aeromechanics of flexible, low aspect ratio (AR) membrane wings (AR <= 2) in the vicinity of the ground. Pitch angle α and height over ground h / c is varied with a traverse system. Flexible membrane wings are compared with rigid flat plates. A rolling road is used to impose the ground effect and the boundary layer leading up to the road is removed using a suction system. Time-averaged lift, drag and pitch moment changes are captured with a 6-axis force transducer and its effects are interpreted in terms of the membrane motions obtained using Direct-Image-Correlation (DIC) technique. Flow-structure-ground interactions are examined and the membrane dynamics are compared to results obtained outside of ground effect. Ultimately, understanding the ground effect on flexible membrane wings at moderate Reynolds numbers could help to design Wing-in-Ground MAVs with extended range and reduced energy consumption.

  11. Effects of polarization of polar semiconductor on electrical properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/ZnO heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Takeshi Fujimura, Norifumi

    2015-06-21

    The electrical properties of heterostructures composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) and ZnO with different crystallographic polarities, i.e., O- and Zn-polar ZnO, were investigated. Distinct differences in the capacitance-voltage and polarization-voltage characteristics between the P(VDF-TrFE)/O- and Zn-polar ZnO were obtained in the depletion regions of ZnO. The band configurations were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) using a synchrotron radiation beam to analyze the differences in the electrical properties of the P(VDF-TrFE)/O- and Zn-polar ZnO. The XPS spectra indicated that the valence band maximum of P(VDF-TrFE) is 2.9 and 2.7 eV higher than Zn- and O-polar ZnO, respectively. Thus, both structures have staggered band configurations with large valence band offsets, and the spontaneous polarization of ZnO is less effective on the band lineup. The electrical properties of the P(VDF-TrFE)/ZnO heterostructures are modulated through carrier generation because of the polarization-mediated interface charges and the staggered band alignments of the P(VDF-TrFE)/ZnO with a large valence band offset.

  12. Character of the opposition effect and negative polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, Carle M.; Shkuratov, Yu. G.; Stankevich, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    Photometric and polarimetric properties at small phase angles were measured for silicates with controlled surface properties in order to distinguish properties that are associated with surface reflection from those that are associated with multiple scattering from internal grain boundaries. These data provide insight into the causes and conditions of photometric properties observed at small phase angles for dark bodies of the solar system. Obsidian was chosen to represent a silicate dielectric with no internal scattering boundaries. Because obsidian is free of internal scatterers, light reflected from both the rough and smooth obsidian samples is almost entirely single and multiple Fresnel reflections form surface facets with no body component. Surface structure alone cannot produce an opposition effect. Comparison of the obsidian and basalt results indicates that for an opposition effect to occur, surface texture must be both rough and contain internal scattering interfaces. Although the negative polarization observed for the obsidian samples indicates single and multiple reflections are part of negative polarization, the longer inversion angle of the multigrain inversion samples implies that internal reflections must also contribute a significant negative polarization component.

  13. Polarization effects in thallium bromide x-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kozorezov, A.; Wigmore, J. K.; Gostilo, V.; Shorohov, M.; Owens, A.; Quarati, F.; Webb, M. A.

    2010-09-15

    We present the results of a detailed experimental study of polarization effects in thallium bromide planar x-ray detectors. Measurements were carried out in the range 10-100 keV by scanning a highly focused x-ray beam, 50 {mu}m in diameter, from a synchrotron source across the detector. Above a certain radiation threshold the detector response showed a systematic degradation of its spectroscopic characteristics, peak channel position, peak height, and energy resolution. Using a pump-and-probe technique, we studied the dynamics of spectral degradation, the spatial extent and relaxation of the polarized region, and the dependence of the detector response on bias voltage and temperature. For comparison, we modeled polarization effects induced by the charging of traps by both electrons and holes using a model based on recent theoretical work of Bale and Szeles. We calculated the charge collection efficiency and spectral line shapes as functions of exposure time, beam position, count rate, and photon energy, and obtained credible agreement with experimental results.

  14. Effects of polarization-charge shielding in microwave heating

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M. S.; Lin, S. M.; Chiang, W. Y.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R.

    2015-08-15

    Heating of dielectric objects by radio frequency (RF) and microwaves has long been a method widely employed in scientific research and industrial applications. However, RF and microwave heating are often susceptible to an excessive temperature spread due to uneven energy deposition. The current study elucidates an important physical reason for this difficulty and proposes an effective remedy. Non-spherical samples are placed in an anechoic chamber, where it is irradiated by a traveling microwave wave with 99% intensity uniformity. Polarization charges induced on the samples tend to partially cancel the incident electric field and hence reduce the heating rate. The polarization-charge shielded heating rate is shown to be highly dependent on the sample's shape and its orientation relative to the wave electric field. For samples with a relatively high permittivity, the resultant uneven heating can become a major cause for the excessive temperature spread. It is also demonstrated that a circularly polarized wave, with its rapidly rotating electric field, can effectively even out the heating rate and hence the temperature spread.

  15. [Effect of radiation on erythrocyte membrane structure using fluorescent probes].

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, G P; Krupin, V D; Tovstiak, V V

    1994-01-01

    The effect of electrons with the energy of 5 MeV on the erythrocyte membrane structure was investigated using a fluorescent probe (4-dimethylaminostiryl)-1-methylpyridinium (DSM). Analysis of a competitive binding of DSM and ribonuclease with the erythrocyte ghosts has shown that irradiation causes an increase in the constant of protein association with membranes. It is suggested that a negative surface change increase with irradiation. PMID:7754561

  16. Nonselective and polarization effects in time-resolved optogalvanic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhechev, D.; Steflekova, V.

    2016-02-01

    Three interfering effects in optogalvanic (OG) spectroscopy are identified in a hollow cathode discharge (HCD) - OG detector. The laser beam is found to generate two nonselective processes, namely photoelectron emission (PE) from the cathode surface with a sub-breakdown bias applied, and nonresonant space ionization. The convolution of these galvanic contributions was determined experimentally as an instrumental function and a deconvolution procedure to determine the actual OG signal was developed. Specific plasma conductance is detected dependent on the polarization of the laser beam irradiating. Linearly/circularly polarized light beam is found to induce OG signals differ in amplitude (and their shape parameters in the time-resolved OG signals (TROGS)). The phenomena coherence and specific conductance are found to be in causal relationship. The additional conductance due to coherent states of atoms manifests itself as an intrinsic instrumental property of OG detector.

  17. The effects of vacuum polarization on thermonuclear reaction rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Added to the pure Coulomb potential, the contribution from vacuum polarization increases the barrier, reducing the wave function (u) for reacting nuclei within the range of nuclear forces. The cross section and reaction rate are then reduced accordingly by a factor proportional to u squared. The effect is treated by evaluating the vacuum polarization potential as a small correction to the Coulomb term, then computing u in a WKB formulation. The calculation is done analytically employing the small r power-series expansion for the Uehling potential to express the final result in terms of convenient parameters. At a temperature of 1.4 x 10 to the 7th K the (negative) correction is 1.3 percent for the fundamental fusion process p + p yields d + e(+) + nu.

  18. Effects of surface charge on interfacial interactions related to membrane fouling in a submerged membrane bioreactor based on thermodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huihui; Fan, Hao; Zhao, Leihong; Hong, Huachang; Shen, Liguo; He, Yiming; Lin, Hongjun; Chen, Jianrong

    2016-03-01

    Effects of both membrane and sludge foulant surface zeta potentials on interfacial interactions between membrane and sludge foulant in different interaction scenarios were systematically investigated based on thermodynamic methods. Under conditions in this study, it was found that zeta potential had marginal effects on total interfacial interaction between two infinite planar surfaces, and the total interfacial interaction between foulant particles and membrane would be more repulsive with increase of absolute value of zeta potential. Adhesion of foulant particles on membrane surface should overcome an energy barrier. There exists a critical zeta potential below which energy barrier would disappear. Results also showed that rough surface membrane corresponded to significantly low strength of interfacial interactions. This study not only provided a series of methods to quantitatively assess the interfacial interactions between membrane and sludge foulants, but also reconciled the contradictory conclusions regarding effects of zeta potential in literature, giving important implications for membrane fouling mitigation. PMID:26641562

  19. Postoperative exposure of bioresorbable GTR membranes: effect on healing results.

    PubMed

    Christgau, M; Bader, N; Schmalz, G; Hiller, K A; Wenzel, A

    1997-09-01

    The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of postoperative exposure of two different bioresorbable membranes on the guided tissue regeneration (GTR) healing results compared to nonexposed sites. In each of 25 patients one pair of contralateral intrabony lesions was treated either with polylactic acid (PLA) or polyglactin 910 (PG-910) membranes. Postoperative exposure occurred in 9 PLA and 13 PG-910 sites. Standardized clinical [papillary bleeding index (PBI), gingival recession (REC), probing pocket depth (PPD), probing attachment level (PAL)] and radiographic examinations (digital subtraction radiography) were performed immediately before (baseline) and 6 and 12 months postoperatively (p.o.). Subgingival bacterial samples from surgical sites were evaluated by culture at baseline, 6 weeks, and 6 and 12 months p.o. Six months after surgery the changes (delta) of REC were significantly (P < or = 0.05) greater in exposed than in nonexposed sites, independently of the membrane material (median): exposed sites, delta REC = -1 mm; nonexposed sites, delta REC = 0.0 mm. However, 12 months p.o. no significant differences were found due to a decrease in the initial recessions in exposed sites. Although a higher percentage of exposed than nonexposed sites harbored periodontal pathogens 6 weeks p.o. at the gingiva-faced membrane surface, membrane exposure did not have a significant negative effect on delta PPD, delta PAL, or radiographic bone density changes 6 and 12 months p.o. Both membranes showed significant gains in PAL and bone density in both exposed and nonexposed sites. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that with consistent infection control the postoperative exposure of PLA and PG-910 membranes has no significant negative effect on the regeneration outcome, although higher initial gingival recessions must be expected than in the nonexposed sites. However, in exposed sites plaque and infection control were clearly impeded by the rough, exposed

  20. Sorting of membrane and fluid at the apical pole of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Leung, S M; Ruiz, W G; Apodaca, G

    2000-06-01

    When fluid-phase markers are internalized from opposite poles of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, they accumulate in distinct apical and basolateral early endosomes before meeting in late endosomes. Recent evidence suggests that significant mixing of apically and basolaterally internalized membrane proteins occurs in specialized apical endosomal compartments, including the common recycling endosome and the apical recycling endosome (ARE). The relationship between these latter compartments and the fluid-labeled apical early endosome is unknown at present. We report that when the apical recycling marker, membrane-bound immunoglobulin A (a ligand for the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor), and fluid-phase dextran are cointernalized from the apical poles of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, they enter a shared apical early endosome (

  1. Sorting of Membrane and Fluid at the Apical Pole of Polarized Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Som-Ming; Ruiz, Wily G.; Apodaca, Gerard

    2000-01-01

    When fluid-phase markers are internalized from opposite poles of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, they accumulate in distinct apical and basolateral early endosomes before meeting in late endosomes. Recent evidence suggests that significant mixing of apically and basolaterally internalized membrane proteins occurs in specialized apical endosomal compartments, including the common recycling endosome and the apical recycling endosome (ARE). The relationship between these latter compartments and the fluid-labeled apical early endosome is unknown at present. We report that when the apical recycling marker, membrane-bound immunoglobulin A (a ligand for the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor), and fluid-phase dextran are cointernalized from the apical poles of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, they enter a shared apical early endosome (≤2.5 min at 37°C) and are then rapidly segregated from one another. The dextran remains in the large supranuclear EEA1-positive early endosomes while recycling polymeric immunoglobulin receptor–bound immunoglobulin A is delivered to a Rab11-positive subapical recycling compartment. This latter step requires an intact microtubule cytoskeleton. Receptor-bound transferrin, a marker of the basolateral recycling pathway, has limited access to the fluid-rich apical early endosome but is excluded from the subapical elements of the Rab11-positive recycling compartment. We propose that the term ARE be used to describe the subapical Rab11-positive compartment and that the ARE is distinct from both the transferrin-rich common recycling endosome and the fluid-rich apical early endosome. PMID:10848634

  2. Effect of EHF-radiation polarization on yeast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Golant, M.B.; Mudrik, D.G.; Kruglyakova, O.P.

    1994-07-01

    It is known that millimeter-wave radiation can cause numerous changes in living organisms. The detection of changes in the states of living organisms is a very complex task, since a complete biological examination is extremely complicated if not practically impossible. As a result, some important aftereffects could be undiscovered. Here we present experimental data on the effects of EHF radiation with left and right circular polarization on a yeast cell culture (Saccharomyces Carlsbergensis). EHF circular polarizers were specially prepared for this. The radiation had a fixed frequency f = 42.19 GHz, power p = 0.12 mW/cm{sup 2}, and 1-hr exposure time. If cell division cycles are synchronized by synchronization of the generated or EHF oscillations under the influence of external coherent EHF radiation, it follows that EHF oscillations chiefly with left circular polarization are excited in the cells. On the other hand, the examined results can be considered evidence that objects with the dimensions of cells are the primary receivers of EHF radiation in the cell culture. A ratio value d{sub mol}/{lambda} {approx} 10{sup -6} is too low to produce space dispersion at the molecular level.

  3. Electro-hydrodynamic effects on lipid membranes in giant vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staykova, Margarita; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Dimova, Rumiana

    2009-11-01

    Electric fields are widely applied for cell manipulation in numerous micron-scale systems. Here, we show for the first time that alternating electric fields may cause pronounced flows in the membrane of giant lipid vesicles as well as in the surrounding fluid media.^ The lipid vesicles are not only biomimetic model for the cell membrane but also have many potential biotechnological applications, e.g. as drug-delivery systems and micro-reactors. The reported effects should be considered in electric micro-manipulation procedures on cells and vesicles. They might be useful for applications in microfluidic technologies, for lipid mixing, trapping and displacement, as will be demonstrated. We also believe that our method for visualization of the lipid flows by fluorescently labeled intra-membrane domains will be helpful for studies on membrane behavior in vesicles subjected to shear or mechanical stresses.

  4. Effects of tetrandrine on calcium transport, protein fluorescences and membrane fluidity of sarcoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lan-Ying; Chen, Xi; Tian, Xiao-Li; Yu, Xiao-Hong

    2000-01-01

    To understand whether the molecular mechanism of Tetrandrine (Tet)'s pharmacological effects is concerned with sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium transport so as to be involved in myocardial contractility, we observed the effects of Tet on calcium transport and membrane structure of rabbit skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles (SR) and rat cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles (CSR).Calcium uptake was monitored with a dual-wavelength spectrophotometer. Protein conformation and fluorescence polarization were measured by fluospectrophotometric method and membrane lipids labelled with fluorescence probes for SR, respectively.128 μmol l−1 Tet reduced the initial rate of calcium uptake to 59% of control 6 min after reaction. Tet un-competitively inhibited SR Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase activity, causing the stoichiometric ratio of SR Ca2+/ATP to decrease to 1.43 from 2.0 of control.Inhibitory rates on SR Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase by Tet were reduced from 60% in the absence of phosphate to 50% in the presence of phosphate and reduced from 92% in 1 mmol l−1 ATP to 60% in 5 mmol l−1 ATP.Tet markedly reduced SR intrinsic protein fluorescence, while it slightly decreased the thiol(SH)-modified protein fluorescence of SR labelled with N-(3-pyrene)-maleimide.Tet slightly increased fluorescence polarization in the middle and deep layers of SR membrane lipids labelled with 7- or 12-(9-anthroyloxy) stearic acid (AS) probes, whereas it did not change that of SR labelled with 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatrine (DPH).These results revealed that prevention of SR calcium uptake by Tet was due to inhibition of the SR calcium pump Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase, changes in spatial conformation of the pumps protein molecules and a decrease in the extent of motion of membrane lipid molecules, thus altering the regulation of [Ca2+]i and myocardial contractility. PMID:11015304

  5. Effects of polarization induced by non-weak electric fields on the excitability of elongated neurons with active dendrites.

    PubMed

    Reznik, Robert I; Barreto, Ernest; Sander, Evelyn; So, Paul

    2016-02-01

    An externally-applied electric field can polarize a neuron, especially a neuron with elongated dendrites, and thus modify its excitability. Here we use a computational model to examine, predict, and explain these effects. We use a two-compartment Pinsky-Rinzel model neuron polarized by an electric potential difference imposed between its compartments, and we apply an injected ramp current. We vary three model parameters: the magnitude of the applied potential difference, the extracellular potassium concentration, and the rate of current injection. A study of the Time-To-First-Spike (TTFS) as a function of polarization leads to the identification of three regions of polarization strength that have different effects. In the weak region, the TTFS increases linearly with polarization. In the intermediate region, the TTFS increases either sub- or super-linearly, depending on the current injection rate and the extracellular potassium concentration. In the strong region, the TTFS decreases. Our results in the weak and strong region are consistent with experimental observations, and in the intermediate region, we predict novel effects that depend on experimentally-accessible parameters. We find that active channels in the dendrite play a key role in these effects. Our qualitative results were found to be robust over a wide range of inter-compartment conductances and the ratio of somatic to dendritic membrane areas. In addition, we discuss preliminary results where synaptic inputs replace the ramp injection protocol. The insights and conclusions were found to extend from our polarized PR model to a polarized PR model with I h dendritic currents. Finally, we discuss the degree to which our results may be generalized. PMID:26560333

  6. Search for Polarization Effects in the Antiproton Production Process

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Grzonka, D.; Kilian, K.; Ritman, J.; Sefzick, T.; Oelert, W.; Diermaier, M.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; Głowacz, B.; Moskal, P.; et al

    2015-01-01

    For the production of a polarized antiproton beam, various methods have been suggested including the possibility that antiprotons may be produced polarized which will be checked experimentally. The polarization of antiprotons produced under typical conditions for antiproton beam preparation will be measured at the CERN/PS. If the production process creates some polarization, a polarized antiproton beam could be prepared by a rather simple modification of the antiproton beam facility. The detection setup and the expected experimental conditions are described.

  7. Effects of Insecticides on the Fluidity of Mitochondrial Membranes of the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella, Resistant and Susceptible to Avermectin

    PubMed Central

    Hu, J.; Liang, P.; Shi, X.; Gao, X.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of various insecticides on the fluidity of mitochondrial membranes and cross-resistance were investigated in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) using strains that were both resistant and susceptible to avermectin. The resistant strain of P. xylostella, AV-R, developed 1078-fold resistance to avermetins with a high level of cross-resistance to the analogs of avermectins, ivermectin and emamectin benzoate. It had more than 1000 times greater resistance when compared with the avermectin-susceptible strain, XH-S. Mitochondrial membrane fluidity was measured by detecting fluorescence polarization using DPH (1,6-Diphenyl -1,3,5-hexatriene) as the fluorescence probe. Abamectin, emamectin benzoate, ivermectin, cypermethrin and fenvalerate decreased the fluidity of mitochondrial membranes in the XH-S strain at 25°C. However, fipronil and acephate did not change the fluidity of mitochondrial membrane when the concentration of these insecticides was 1×10-4 mol/L. Membrane fluidity increased as the temperature increased. The thermotropic effect on the polarization value of DPH increased as the insecticide concentration was increased. There was a significant difference of mitochondrial membrane fluidity between both XH-S and AV-R when temperature was less than 25°C and no difference was observed when the temperature was more than 25°C. The low-dose abamectin (0.11 mg/L) in vivo treatment caused a significant change of membrane fluidity in the XH-S strain and no change in the AV-R strain. However, a high-dose abamectin (11.86 mg/L) resulted in 100% mortality of the XH-S strain. In vivo treatment may cause a significant change of membrane fluidity in the AV-R strain PMID:20345311

  8. Cost-effective usage of membrane oxygenators in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in infants.

    PubMed

    Özyüksel, A; Ersoy, C; Akçevin, A; Türkoğlu, H; Çiçek, A E; Kahraman, A; Kayhan, B; Cantürk, E

    2015-04-01

    Although the poly-methylpentene (PMP) oxygenators have significant advantages in ECMO implementation, their usage may be limited in some situations, which may be related to economic constraints. In this report, we aimed to emphasize our cost-effective usage of a membrane oxygenator at the ECMO setup. We implemented ECMO with eight Capiox® FX05 or Baby RX05 hollow-fiber membrane oxygenators in five neonatal patients. The average ECMO duration was 121 hours (ranging from 41 to 272 hours). Following the termination of the ECMO, the system was broken down into its components for macroscopic analysis. Neither gross blood clots nor plasma leakage were observed in any of the components. The integration of a centrifugal pump and a separate hollow-fiber oxygenator may provide a cost-effective ECMO implementation setup with no adverse effects which may be an encouraging alternative for the low cost usage of ECMO in neonates. PMID:24965913

  9. Amniotic membrane mesenchymal cells-derived factors skew T cell polarization toward Treg and downregulate Th1 and Th17 cells subsets.

    PubMed

    Pianta, Stefano; Bonassi Signoroni, Patrizia; Muradore, Ivan; Rodrigues, Melissa Francis; Rossi, Daniele; Silini, Antonietta; Parolini, Ornella

    2015-06-01

    We previously demonstrated that cells derived from the mesenchymal layer of the human amniotic membrane (hAMSC) and their conditioned medium (CM-hAMSC) modulate lymphocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In order to understand the mechanisms involved in immune regulation exerted by hAMSC, we analyzed the effects of CM-hAMSC on T-cell polarization towards Th1, Th2, Th17, and T-regulatory (Treg) subsets. We show that CM-hAMSC equally suppresses the proliferation of both CD4(+) T-helper (Th) and CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Moreover, we prove that the CM-hAMSC inhibitory ability affects both central (CD45RO(+)CD62L(+)) and effector memory (CD45RO(+)CD62L(-)) subsets. We evaluated the phenotype of CD4(+) cells in the MLR setting and showed that CM-hAMSC significantly reduced the expression of markers associated to the Th1 (T-bet(+)CD119(+)) and Th17 (RORγt(+)CD161(+)) populations, while having no effect on the Th2 population (GATA3(+)CD193(+)/GATA3(+)CD294(+)cells). T-cell subset modulation was substantiated through the analysis of cytokine release for 6 days during co-culture with alloreactive T-cells, whereby we observed a decrease in specific subset-related cytokines, such as a decrease in pro-inflammatory, Th1-related (TNFα, IFNγ, IL-1β), Th2 (IL-5, IL-6), Th9 (IL-9), and Th17 (IL-17A, IL-22). Furthermore, CM-hAMSC significantly induced the Treg compartment, as shown by an induction of proliferating CD4(+)FoxP3(+) cells, and an increase of CD25(+)FoxP3(+) and CD39(+)FoxP3(+) Treg in the CD4(+) population. Induction of Treg cells was corroborated by the increased secretion of TGF-β. Taken together, these data strengthen the findings regarding the immunomodulatory properties of CM-hAMSC derived from human amniotic membrane MSC, and in particular provide insights into their effect on regulation of T cell polarization. PMID:25348066

  10. Selected SNARE proteins are essential for the polarized membrane insertion of igf-1 receptor and the regulation of initial axonal outgrowth in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Diego; Plonka, Florentyna Bustos; Oksdath, Mariana; Guil, Alvaro Nieto; Sosa, Lucas J; Quiroga, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of polarity necessitates initial axonal outgrowth and, therefore, the addition of new membrane to the axon’s plasmalemma. Axolemmal expansion occurs by exocytosis of plasmalemmal precursor vesicles (PPVs) primarily at the neuronal growth cone. Little is known about the SNAREs family proteins involved in the regulation of PPV fusion with the neuronal plasmalemma at early stages of differentiation. We show here that five SNARE proteins (VAMP2, VAMP4, VAMP7, Syntaxin6 and SNAP23) were expressed by hippocampal pyramidal neurons before polarization. Expression silencing of three of these proteins (VAMP4, Syntaxin6 and SNAP23) repressed axonal outgrowth and the establishment of neuronal polarity, by inhibiting IGF-1 receptor exocytotic polarized insertion, necessary for neuronal polarization. In addition, stimulation with IGF-1 triggered the association of VAMP4, Syntaxin6 and SNAP23 to vesicular structures carrying the IGF-1 receptor and overexpression of a negative dominant form of Syntaxin6 significantly inhibited exocytosis of IGF-1 receptor containing vesicles at the neuronal growth cone. Taken together, our results indicated that VAMP4, Syntaxin6 and SNAP23 functions are essential for regulation of PPV exocytosis and the polarized insertion of IGF-1 receptor and, therefore, required for initial axonal elongation and the establishment of neuronal polarity.

  11. Compensation of Beam Line Polarizing Effects at UE112 of BESSY II

    SciTech Connect

    Bahrdt, J.; Follath, R.; Frentrup, W.; Gaupp, A.; Scheer, M.

    2010-06-23

    Reflections in synchrotron radiation beam lines tend to change the state of polarization of the radiation. This effect is more pronounced for steep angle of incidence, i.e. at low photon energy (say below 100 eV) beam lines. The APPLE II undulator UE112 at BESSY has all four magnetic rows shiftable and thus generates any state of polarization. To provide any intended polarization state at the sample we perform polarization measurements based on simple and fast linear polarization analysis that together with calculations of the undulator radiation predicts undulator settings that cancel beam line polarization effects.

  12. How-to-Do-It: Demonstrating the Effects of Stress on Cellular Membranes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodopich, Darrell S.; Moore, Randy

    1989-01-01

    Describes two simple procedures allowing students to experiment with living membranes and to relate their results to fundamental membrane structure. Provides instructions for determining the effects of temperature and organic solvent stress on cellular membranes, and spectrophotometric analysis. (RT)

  13. Photoelectric Effects in Lipid Bilayer Membranes. A Pedagogical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Jay S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides information appropriate for introductory lectures on photoelectric effects in membranes. Describes the apparatus and supplies required for laboratory exercises. Outlines typical laboratory exercises. Identifies the chromophores known to induce photoelectric effects. Concludes that this topic can provide useful subjects for undergraduate…

  14. The Effect of Curcumin on Intracellular pH (pHi), Membrane Hyperpolarization and Sperm Motility

    PubMed Central

    Naz, Rajesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Curcumin has shown to affect sperm motility and function in vitro and fertility in vivo. The molecular mechanism(s) by which curcumin affects sperm motility has not been delineated. Since modulation of intracellular pH (pHi) and plasma membrane polarization is involved in sperm motility, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of curcumin on these sperm (human and murine) parameters. Methods The effect of curcumin on sperm forward motility was examined by counting percentages of forward moving sperm. The effect of curcumin on intracellular pH (pHi) was measured by the fluorescent pH indicator 2,7-bicarboxyethyl-5,6-carboxyfluorescein-acetoxymethyl ester (BCECF-AM). The effect of curcumin on plasma membrane polarization was examined using the fluorescence sensitive dye bis (1,3-dibarbituric acid)-trimethine oxanol [DiBAC4(3)]. Results Curcumin caused a concentration-dependent (p<0.05) decrease in forward motility of both human and mouse sperm. It also caused a concentration-dependent decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) in both human and mouse sperm. Curcumin induced significant (p<0.05) hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane in both human and mouse sperm. Conclusion These findings indicate that curcumin inhibits sperm forward motility by intracellular acidification and hyperpolarization of sperm plasma membrane. This is the first study to our knowledge which examined the effect of curcumin on sperm pHi and membrane polarization that affect sperm forward motility. These exciting findings will have application in deciphering the signal transduction pathway involved in sperm motility and function and in development of a novel non-steroidal contraceptive for infertility. PMID:24918078

  15. Evidence for a discrete charge effect within lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C C; Bruner, L J

    1978-01-01

    A high amplitude voltage step technique has been used to meausre the surface density of dipicrylamine anions adsorbed at the surfaces of lipid bilayer membranes. Accompanying low amplitude measurements have determined the relaxation time for transient current flow across the membranes, a parameter governed by the height of the central energy barrier which dipicrylamine anions must cross in moving from one membrane surface to the other. Measured relaxation times and surface charge densities have been related by a quasi-continuum model of the discrete charge effect, which predicts that the membrane central barrier height will increase with increasing density of adsorbed surface charge. The experimentally determined relationship is in satisfactory agreement with the predictions of the model. The model does not provide a complete description of the membrane/solution interface, however, because it cannot be applied to the description of previously measured isotherms for the adsorption of dipicrylamine anions onto bilayer membranes surfaces. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. PMID:737286

  16. Divergences in the response to ultraviolet radiation between polar and non-polar ciliated protozoa: UV radiation effects in Euplotes.

    PubMed

    Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Cervia, Davide; Vallesi, Adriana

    2012-02-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has detrimental effects on marine ecosystems, in particular in the polar regions where stratospheric ozone reduction causes higher levels of solar radiation. We analyzed two polar species of Euplotes, Euplotes focardii and Euplotes nobilii, for the sensitivity to UV radiation in comparison with two akin species from mid-latitude and tropical waters. Results showed that they face UV radiation much more efficiently than the non-polar species by adopting alternative strategies that most likely reflect different times of colonization of the polar waters. While E. focardii, which is endemic to the Antarctic, survives for longer exposed to UV radiation, E. nobilii, which inhabits both the Antarctic and Arctic, recovers faster from UV-induced damage. PMID:21904954

  17. Permeability-Selectivity Analysis of Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes: Effect of Pore Size and Shape Distribution and Membrane Stretching.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Muhammad Usama; Arif, Abul Fazal Muhammad; Bashmal, Salem

    2016-01-01

    We present a modeling approach to determine the permeability-selectivity tradeoff for microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes with a distribution of pore sizes and pore shapes. Using the formulated permeability-selectivity model, the effect of pore aspect ratio and pore size distribution on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff of the membrane is analyzed. A finite element model is developed to study the effect of membrane stretching on the distribution of pore sizes and shapes in the stretched membrane. The effect of membrane stretching on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff of membranes is also analyzed. The results show that increasing pore aspect ratio improves membrane performance while increasing the width of pore size distribution deteriorates the performance. It was also found that the effect of membrane stretching on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff is greatly affected by the uniformity of pore distribution in the membrane. Stretching showed a positive shift in the permeability-selectivity tradeoff curve of membranes with well-dispersed pores while in the case of pore clustering, a negative shift in the permeability-selectivity tradeoff curve was observed. PMID:27509528

  18. The Effect of Acute Microgravity on Mechanically-Induced Membrane Damage and Membrane-Membrane Fusion Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Mark, S. F.; Vanderburg, Charles R.; Feedback, Daniel L.

    2001-01-01

    Although it is unclear how a living cell senses gravitational forces there is no doubt that perturbation of the gravitational environment results in profound alterations in cellular function. In the present study, we have focused our attention on how acute microgravity exposure during parabolic flight affects the skeletal muscle cell plasma membrane (i.e. sarcolemma), with specific reference to a mechanically-reactive signaling mechanism known as mechanically-induced membrane disruption or "wounding". This response is characterized by both membrane rupture and membrane resealing events mediated by membrane-membrane fusion. We here present experimental evidence that acute microgravity exposure can inhibit membrane-membrane fusion events essential for the resealing of sarcolemmal wounds in individual human myoblasts. Additional evidence to support this contention comes from experimental studies that demonstrate acute microgravity exposure also inhibits secretagogue-stimulated intracellular vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane in HL-60 cells. Based on our own observations and those of other investigators in a variety of ground-based models of membrane wounding and membrane-membrane fusion, we suggest that the disruption in the membrane resealing process observed during acute microgravity is consistent with a microgravity-induced decrease in membrane order.

  19. The effect of acute microgravity on mechanically-induced membrane damage and membrane-membrane fusion events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, M. S.; Vanderburg, C. R.; Feeback, D. L.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Although it is unclear how a living cell senses gravitational forces there is no doubt that perturbation of the gravitational environment results in profound alterations in cellular function. In the present study, we have focused our attention on how acute microgravity exposure during parabolic flight affects the skeletal muscle cell plasma membrane (i.e. sarcolemma), with specific reference to a mechanically-reactive signaling mechanism known as mechanically-induced membrane disruption or "wounding". Both membrane rupture and membrane resealing events mediated by membrane-membrane fusion characterize this response. We here present experimental evidence that acute microgravity exposure can inhibit membrane-membrane fusion events essential for the resealing of sarcolemmal wounds in individual human myoblasts. Additional evidence to support this contention comes from experimental studies that demonstrate acute microgravity exposure also inhibits secretagogue-stimulated intracellular vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane in HL-60 cells. Based on our own observations and those of other investigators in a variety of ground-based models of membrane wounding and membrane-membrane fusion, we suggest that the disruption in the membrane resealing process observed during acute microgravity is consistent with a microgravity-induced decrease in membrane order.

  20. Icehouse Effect: A Polar Autumn and Winter Cooling Trend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetzel, Peter J.

    1999-01-01

    The icehouse effect is a hypothesized polar climate trend toward cooling (or lack of warming) in response to greenhouse warming of adjacent lower latitudes. When greenhouse warmed air from lower latitudes moves over ice and snow, it generates a stronger, more stable, cappino, inversion than in a parallel case without greenhouse warming. Because the degree of decoupling between vertically adjacent air masses is directly dependent on the strength of the inversion, the capping inversion acts somewhat analogously to the walls and roof of the icehouse of generations past. What is inside the icehouse, namely the cold polar atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) air, is preserved by the "insulation" or decoupling, provided by the warm air aloft. Observations over the Arctic Ocean have shown an unexpected lack of any detectable surface warming trend over the past 40 years. This finding strongly contradicts climate model predictions that polar regions should show the strongest effect of greenhouse warming. It also stands in contrast to the consensus reached by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), that human caused greenhouse warming is now detectable globally. One might ask: Are these Arctic observations wrong? Or, if right, is there a plausible physical explanation for them? The published observations mentioned above used about 50,000 soundings over the Arctic Ocean. Here I present a novel analysis of ALL available Arctic rawinsonde data north of 65N--a total of more than 1.1 million soundings. The analysis confirms the previously published result: There is indeed a slight climate-cooling trend in the vast majority of the data. Importantly, there are also select conditions (very strong and very weak stability of the ABL) which show a consistent, strong Arctic warming trend. It is the juxtaposition of these warming and cooling trends which defines a unique "icehouse signature" for which an explanation can be sought.

  1. Potentiodynamic polarization effect on phase and microstructure of SAC305 solder in hydrochloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaini, Nurwahida Binti Mohd; Nazeri, Muhammad Firdaus Bin Mohd

    2016-07-01

    The corrosion analysis of SAC305 lead free solder was investigated in Hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. Potentiodynamic polarization was used to polarize the SAC305. The effect of polarization on the phase and microstructure were compared to as-prepared SAC305 solder. Potentiodynamic polarization introduces mixed corrosion products on the surface of SAC305 solder. The XRD analysis confirms that the mixed corrosion products emerged on the surface after polarization by formation of SnO and SnO2 of which confirmed that dissolution of Sn was dominant during polarization. Microstructure analysis reveal the presence of gap and porosities produced limits the protection offered by the passivation film.

  2. Pyrene-POSS nanohybrid as a dispersant for carbon nanotubes in solvents of various polarities: its synthesis and application in the preparation of a composite membrane

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this study we report the preparation of nanohybrid dispersant molecules based on pyrene and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes for non-covalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The prepared dispersant improves the dispersion of MWCNTs in organic solvents with very different polarities such as tetrahydrofuran, toluene, and n-hexane. The functionalized MWCNTs were used to introduce conductivity into polydimethylsiloxane membranes which can be used for electrostatic discharge applications. PMID:22676373

  3. Experimental effects of orbit on polarization loss in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjbar V.; Bai, M.; Huang, H.; Marusic, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Minty, M.

    2012-05-20

    We are performing several experiments during the RHIC ramp to better understand the impact of orbit errors on the polarization at our current working point. These will be conducted by exciting specified orbit harmonics during the final two large intrinsic resonance crossing in RHIC during the 250 GeV polarized proton ramp. The resultant polarization response will then be measured.

  4. Effect of surface and membrane potentials on IAA (indoleactic acid) uptake and binding by zucchini membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, K.A.; Goldsmith, M.H.M.

    1986-08-01

    The polar transport of the endogenous hormone controlling extension growth of plant cells, indoleacetic acid (IAA), is thought to depend on transmembrane pH and electrical gradients resulting in part from the action of proton ATPases in the plasma membrane. Elements of this transport process are permeation of the membrane by the undissociated lipophilic indoleacetic acid (IAAH) from the acidic apoplast, followed by dissociation of the weak acid and accumulation of the IAA anion (IAA/sup -/) in the alkaline cytoplasm; a saturable symport of IAA/sup -/ with one or more protons; a carrier-mediated efflux of IAA/sup -/ down a considerable electrochemical gradient. The efflux is greater from the basal than the apical end of cells and is thought to be responsible for the overall polarity of the process. This step is also the site of action of napthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and herbicides that inhibit polar transport but stimulate net accumulation of auxin by tissues and cells. We are using membrane vesicles as a simplified system for studying the mechanisms involved in the transport and accumulation of auxin. In particular, we are interested in determining the involvement of the transmembrane pH (pH/sub o/ < pH/sub i/) and voltage gradients (K/sup +/ diffusion potential, (K/sup +/)/sub in/ > (K/sup +/)/sub out/) in IAA uptake. 19 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Superamphiphobic nanofibrous membranes for effective filtration of fine particles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Zhu, Zhigao; Sheng, Junlu; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2014-08-15

    The worldwide demands are rising for an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach that can provide advanced nanofibrous membranes with high filtration performance and superior antifouling properties. Here we report a novel synthesized fluorinated polyurethane (FPU) modified nanofibrous membrane optimized to achieve oil and non-oil aerosol particle filtration. By employing the FPU incorporation, the polyacrylonitrile/polyurethane (PAN/PU) composite membranes were endowed with superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 154° and superoleophobicity with an oil contact angle of 151°. Morphology, surface wettability, porous structure, and filtration performance could be manipulated by tuning the solution composition as well as the hierarchical structure. Furthermore, the as-prepared membranes can capture, for the first time, a range of different oil aerosol particles in a single-unit operation, with >99.9% filtration efficiency, by using the combined contribution of fiber diameter and surface roughness acting on the objective particles. Exemplified here by the construction of superamphiphobic nanofibrous membrane, numerous applications of this medium includes high efficiency particulate air filters, ultra-low penetration air filters, and respiratory protection equipment. PMID:24910033

  6. Polaronic effects in monolayer black phosphorus on polar substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogulkoc, A.; Mogulkoc, Y.; Rudenko, A. N.; Katsnelson, M. I.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the effect of charge carrier interaction with surface optical phonons on the band properties of monolayer black phosphorus induced by polar substrates. We develop an analytical method based on the Lee-Low-Pines theory to calculate the spectrum of Fröhlich type continuum Hamiltonian in the long-wavelength limit. We examine the modification of a band gap and renormalization of effective masses due to the substrate-related polaronic effect. Our results show that an energy gap in supported monolayer black phosphorus is enlarged depending on a particular substrate and the interlayer distance z . Among the substrate considered, the largest gap broadening at z =2.5 Å is observed for the Al2O3 substrate, which is found to be ˜50 meV. Carrier-phonon coupling also renormalizes the effective masses which is more pronounced along the zigzag direction. Anisotropy of the effective masses becomes stronger by the influence of the polaronic effect corresponding to direction-dependent carrier-phonon coupling. We conclude that substrate phonons have a non-negligible effect on the static band properties of monolayer black phosphorus, which may be further exploited in its experimental and theoretical studies.

  7. The quintuple-shape memory effect in electrospun nanofiber membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fenghua; Zhang, Zhichun; Liu, Yanju; Lu, Haibao; Leng, Jinsong

    2013-08-01

    Shape memory fibrous membranes (SMFMs) are an emerging class of active polymers, which are capable of switching from a temporary shape to their permanent shape upon appropriate stimulation. Quintuple-shape memory membranes based on the thermoplastic polymer Nafion, with a stable fibrous structure, are achieved via electrospinning technology, and possess a broad transition temperature. The recovery of multiple temporary shapes of electrospun membranes can be triggered by heat in a single triple-, quadruple-, quintuple-shape memory cycle, respectively. The fiber morphology and nanometer size provide unprecedented design flexibility for the adjustable morphing effect. SMFMs enable complex deformations at need, having a wide potential application field including smart textiles, artificial intelligence robots, bio-medical engineering, aerospace technologies, etc in the future.

  8. Effect of Erythrodiol, A Natural Pentacyclic Triterpene from Olive Oil, on the Lipid Membrane Properties.

    PubMed

    Habib, Lamice; Jraij, Alia; Khreich, Nathalie; Charcosset, Catherine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2015-12-01

    The effect of erythrodiol, a natural pentacyclic triterpene to which humans are exposed through nutrients, on the lipid membranes is studied using liposomes as a membrane model. Empty and erythrodiol-loaded liposomes were prepared by the reverse phase evaporation method followed by the extrusion and by the thin film hydration method. Liposomes were characterized in terms of size and zeta potential and were imaged by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of erythrodiol on thermotropic behavior of DPPC bilayers is also examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The DSC thermograms suggested that erythrodiol interacted with the polar head groups of phospholipids and may produce a disruption of the ordering of the alkyl chains. The diffraction light scattering analysis showed that erythrodiol-loaded liposomes presented a decrease in the vesicle size when compared to blank liposomes. Images obtained by TEM confirmed the formation of unilamellar and spherical liposomes. AFM images showed spherical vesicles and single lipid bilayers. The latter were more abundant in the preparations containing erythrodiol than in the blank ones. Moreover, erythrodiol-loaded liposomes tended to rupture into single lipid bilayers during scanning. The study may provide a better understanding of pentacyclic triterpenes-membrane interaction. PMID:26141679

  9. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Influences PIN Polarization by Controlling Clathrin-Mediated Membrane Trafficking in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Ischebeck, Till; Werner, Stephanie; Krishnamoorthy, Praveen; Lerche, Jennifer; Meijón, Mónica; Stenzel, Irene; Löfke, Christian; Wiessner, Theresa; Im, Yang Ju; Perera, Imara Y.; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Busch, Wolfgang; Boss, Wendy F.; Teichmann, Thomas; Hause, Bettina; Persson, Staffan; Heilmann, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    The functions of the minor phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] during vegetative plant growth remain obscure. Here, we targeted two related phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinases (PI4P 5-kinases) PIP5K1 and PIP5K2, which are expressed ubiquitously in Arabidopsis thaliana. A pip5k1 pip5k2 double mutant with reduced PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels showed dwarf stature and phenotypes suggesting defects in auxin distribution. The roots of the pip5k1 pip5k2 double mutant had normal auxin levels but reduced auxin transport and altered distribution. Fluorescence-tagged auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN1)–green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PIN2-GFP displayed abnormal, partially apolar distribution. Furthermore, fewer brefeldin A–induced endosomal bodies decorated by PIN1-GFP or PIN2-GFP formed in pip5k1 pip5k2 mutants. Inducible overexpressor lines for PIP5K1 or PIP5K2 also exhibited phenotypes indicating misregulation of auxin-dependent processes, and immunolocalization showed reduced membrane association of PIN1 and PIN2. PIN cycling and polarization require clathrin-mediated endocytosis and labeled clathrin light chain also displayed altered localization patterns in the pip5k1 pip5k2 double mutant, consistent with a role for PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the regulation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Further biochemical tests on subcellular fractions enriched for clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) indicated that pip5k1 and pip5k2 mutants have reduced CCV-associated PI4P 5-kinase activity. Together, the data indicate an important role for PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the control of clathrin dynamics and in auxin distribution in Arabidopsis. PMID:24326589

  10. Comment on "effect of a polarized hydrogen target on the polarization of a stored proton beam".

    PubMed

    MacKay, W W; Montag, C

    2006-02-01

    Meyer [Phys. Rev. E 50, 1485 (1994)] analyzed the filtering mechanism of polarizing a stored beam by scattering from an internal polarized target. We noticed in Meyer's derivation of Eq. (4) of that paper that he had added a new twist to an old argument [W. Brückner, Physics with Antiprotons at LEAR in the ACOL Era: Proceedings of the Third LEAR Workshop, Tignes, Savoie, France, January 19-26, 1985 (Editions Frontières, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 1985), p. 245] by allowing some particles that are spin flipped to be kept in the beam. We show that this invalidates the old result and leads to a more complicated expression for the buildup of polarization. PMID:16605487

  11. Hydration effects on membrane structure probed by single molecule orientations.

    PubMed

    Huckabay, Heath A; Dunn, Robert C

    2011-03-15

    Single molecule fluorescence measurements are used to probe the structural changes in glass-supported DPPC bilayers as a function of relative humidity (RH). Defocused polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy is employed to determine the three-dimensional orientation of the fluorescent lipid analogue BODIPY-PC, doped into DPPC membranes in trace amounts. Supported DPPC bilayers formed using vesicle fusion and Langmuir-Blodgett/Langmuir-Schäfer (LB/LS) transfer are compared and show similar trends as a function of relative humidity. Population histograms of the emission dipole tilt angle reveal bimodal distributions as observed previously for BODIPY-PC in DPPC. These distributions are dominated by large populations of BODIPY-PC molecules with emission dipoles oriented parallel (≥81°) and normal (≤10°) to the membrane plane, with less than 25% oriented at intermediate tilts. As the relative humidity is increased from 13% to 95%, the population of molecules oriented normal to the surface decreases with a concomitant increase in those oriented parallel to the surface. The close agreement in trends observed for bilayers formed from vesicle fusion and LB/LS transfer supports the assignment of an equivalent surface pressure of 23 mN/m for bilayers formed from vesicle fusion. At each RH condition, a small population of BODIPY-PC dye molecules are laterally mobile in both bilayer preparations. This population exponentially increases with RH but never exceeds 6% of the total population. Interestingly, even under conditions where there is little lateral diffusion, fluctuations in the single molecule orientations can be observed which suggests there is appreciable freedom in the acyl chain region. Dynamic measurements of single molecule orientation changes, therefore, provide a new view into membrane properties at the single molecule level. PMID:21319764

  12. Effectiveness Factors and Conversion in a Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Godongwana, Buntu

    2016-01-01

    Analytical expressions of the effectiveness factor of a biocatalytic membrane reactor, and its asymptote as the Thiele modulus becomes large, are presented. The evaluation of the effectiveness factor is based on the solution of the governing equations for solute transport in the two regions of the reactor, i.e. the lumen and the matrix (with the biofilm immobilized in the matrix). The lumen solution accounts for both axial diffusion and radial convective flow, while the matrix solution is based on Robin-type boundary conditions. The effectiveness factor is shown to be a function of the Thiele modulus, the partition coefficient, the Sherwood number, the Peclet number, and membrane thickness. Three regions of Thiele moduli are defined in the effectiveness factor graphs. These correspond with reaction rate limited, internal-diffusion limited, and external mass transfer limited solute transport. Radial convective flows were shown to only improve the effectiveness factor in the region of internal diffusion limitation. The assumption of first order kinetics is shown to be applicable only in the Thiele modulus regions of internal and external mass transfer limitation. An iteration scheme is also presented for estimating the effectiveness factor when the solute fractional conversion is known. The model is validated with experimental data from a membrane gradostat reactor immobilised with Phanerochaete chrysosporium for the production of lignin and manganese peroxidases. The developed model and experimental data allow for the determination of the Thiele modulus at which the effectiveness factor and fractional conversion are optimal. PMID:27104954

  13. Induced spin polarization effect in graphene by ferromagnetic nanocontact

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, Sumit; Saha, Shyamal K.

    2015-03-07

    Chemically synthesized graphene contains large number of defects which act as localized spin moments at the defect sites. Cobalt nanosheets of variable thickness are grown on graphene surface to investigate spin/magnetotransport through graphene sheets containing large number of localized spins. Negative magnetoresistance (MR) is observed over the entire temperature range (5–300 K) for thin cobalt sheets, while a cross-over from negative to positive MR with increasing temperature is noticed for thicker cobalt sheets. The observed MR results are explained on the basis of recently reported spin polarization effect in graphene due to the presence of ferromagnetic atoms on the surface considering a spin valve like Co/graphene/Co nanostructures.

  14. Heat sink effects in variable polarity plasma arc welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelmessih, Amanie N.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Shuttle External Tank is fabricated by the variable polarity plasma arc (VPPA) welding process. In VPPA welding, a noble gas, usually argon, is directed through an arc to emerge from the torch as a hot plasma jet. This jet is surrounded by a shielding gas, usually helium, to protect the weld from contamination with air. The high velocity, hot plasma jet completely penetrates the workpiece (resembling a line heat source) when operated in the 'keyhole' mode. The metal melts on touching the side of the jet, as the torch travels in the perpendicular direction to the direction of the jet, and melted metal moves around the plasma jet in the keyhole forming a puddle which solidifies behind the jet. Heat sink effects are observed when there are irregularities in the workpiece configuration, especially, if these irregularities are close to the weld bead. These heat sinks affect the geometry of the weld bead, i.e., in extreme cases they could cause defects such as incomplete fusion. Also, different fixtures seem to have varying heat sink effects. The objective of this research is to study the effect of irregularities in workpiece configuration and fixture differences (heat sink effects) on the weld bead geometry with the ultimate objective to compensate for the heat sink effects and achieve a perfect weld. Experiments were performed on different workpiece geometries and compared to approximate models.

  15. Assessing vehicle effects on skin absorption using artificial membrane assays.

    PubMed

    Karadzovska, Daniela; Riviere, Jim E

    2013-12-18

    A vast number of variations in drug/vehicle combinations may come into contact with skin. Evaluating the effect of potential drug, vehicle and skin interactions for all possible combinations is a daunting task. A practical solution is a rapid screening technique amenable to high throughput approaches (e.g. 96-well plates). In this study, three artificial membranes (isopropyl myristate (IPM), certramides and Strat-M™) were evaluated for their ability to predict the skin permeability of caffeine, cortisone, diclofenac sodium, mannitol, salicylic acid and testosterone applied in propylene glycol, water and ethanol as unsaturated and saturated concentrations. Resultant absorption data was compared to porcine skin diffusion cell data. The correlations (r(2)) between membrane and diffusion cell data from saturated and unsaturated concentrations were 0.38, 0.47 and 0.56 for the Strat-M™, certramide and IPM membranes, respectively. This relationship improved when only saturated concentrations were evaluated (r(2) = 0.60, 0.63 and 0.66 for the Strat-M™, certramide and IPM membranes, respectively). A correlation between membrane retention and the amount remaining in skin had r(2) values of 0.73 (Strat-M™), 0.67 (certramides), and 0.67 (IPM). Quantitative structure-permeability relationship models for each membrane identified different physicochemical factors influencing the absorption process. Although further investigations exploring complex topical formulations are required, these results suggest potential use as an initial screening approach to assist in narrowing the selection of formulations to be evaluated with a more biologically intact model, thereby assisting in the development of new topical formulations. PMID:23474357

  16. Polarization Effects and Ionic Bonding in a Polar Diatomic: the CaF^+ x{ }^1 Σ ^+ State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coy, Stephen L.; Baraban, Joshua H.; Field, Robert W.; Wong, Bryan M.

    2013-06-01

    Core multipoles and polarization effects affect the term values and spectroscopy of Rydberg states, and, conversely, Rydberg state spectroscopy provides a window into the nature of ground electronic state charge distributions, and into polarization due to configuration interaction. As experimental resolution continues to increase through the introduction of techniques like chirped mm-wave techniques for Rydberg systems, more details about the core electronic structure as a function of Rydberg state quantum numbers (n,ℓ) and internuclear separation, R, will become available. Existing modeling of the CaF Rydberg spectrum, although extensive, is not ready for the challenge of higher resolution measurements. Even for the existing data, MQDT calculations (based on a two center effective potential with limited atomic polarization) show reasonable agreement at equilibrium R, but deviates from the phenomenological QDT fit with R. We have performed a series of all-electron calculations for CaF{}^+ itself, and for CaF{}^+ with a test negative charge fixed at distances and angular positions around the core with a range of R, with a goal of improving our understanding of the nature and magnitude of polarization effects for polar diatomics like CaF. In analyzing these results, we have considered core moments through the octupole, and polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities defined in perturbation theory to 4^{th} order that contribute to the e{}^-core energy in first and second order. Polarization contributes to ab-initio energies with characteristic (r,θ) dependence that allows the contributions to be identified by type and as a function of R. Terms describing asymmetric polarization like dipole-dipole and dipole-octopole are found to contribute more strongly than symmetric terms like quadrupole-quadrupole. The fields present in the e{}^{-}-core interaction are so high that the F- anion polarizability is approaching saturation at R=R_{eq}=3.54 a_0, while the Ca^{+2

  17. Effects of thyroid hormones on inner mitochondrial membrane fluidity.

    PubMed

    Chimenti, R; Covello, C; De Cicco, T; Bruno, R; Martino, G

    2001-01-01

    Authors studied the effects of thyroid hormones and their diasteroisomers and 3,5-diiodothyronine (LT2) on the fluidity properties of inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) by specifical fluorescent probe for the internal zone of biological membranes, the 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). The studied parameters are Arrhenius and Perrin plots. The DPH shows a decreased fluorescence quenching in the presence of both T3 and T4. The maximum effect is observed with 2 nM LT2. LT2 is more effective than LT3 in the central zone. The data confirm the selective action of LT3 and LT4 on IMM fluidity. PMID:11822198

  18. The Polarized Effect of Intracellular Calcium on the Renal Epithelial Sodium Channel Occurs as a Result of Subcellular Calcium Signaling Domains Maintained by Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Thai, Tiffany L; Yu, Ling; Galarza-Paez, Laura; Wu, Ming Ming; Lam, Ho Yin Colin; Bao, Hui Fang; Duke, Billie Jeanne; Al-Khalili, Otor; Ma, He-Ping; Liu, Bingchen; Eaton, Douglas C

    2015-11-27

    The renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) provides regulated sodium transport in the distal nephron. The effects of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) on this channel are only beginning to be elucidated. It appears from previous studies that the [Ca(2+)]i increases downstream of ATP administration may have a polarized effect on ENaC, where apical application of ATP and the subsequent [Ca(2+)]i increase have an inhibitory effect on the channel, whereas basolateral ATP and [Ca(2+)]i have a stimulatory effect. We asked whether this polarized effect of ATP is, in fact, reflective of a polarized effect of increased [Ca(2+)]i on ENaC and what underlying mechanism is responsible. We began by performing patch clamp experiments in which ENaC activity was measured during apical or basolateral application of ionomycin to increase [Ca(2+)]i near the apical or basolateral membrane, respectively. We found that ENaC does indeed respond to increased [Ca(2+)]i in a polarized fashion, with apical increases being inhibitory and basolateral increases stimulating channel activity. In other epithelial cell types, mitochondria sequester [Ca(2+)]i, creating [Ca(2+)]i signaling microdomains within the cell that are dependent on mitochondrial localization. We found that mitochondria localize in bands just beneath the apical and basolateral membranes in two different cortical collecting duct principal cell lines and in cortical collecting duct principal cells in mouse kidney tissue. We found that inhibiting mitochondrial [Ca(2+)]i uptake destroyed the polarized response of ENaC to [Ca(2+)]i. Overall, our data suggest that ENaC is regulated by [Ca(2+)]i in a polarized fashion and that this polarization is maintained by mitochondrial [Ca(2+)]i sequestration. PMID:26451045

  19. Ultrasonic study of melittin effects on phospholipid model membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Colotto, A; Kharakoz, D P; Lohner, K; Laggner, P

    1993-01-01

    Low dose effects of melittin on dilute suspensions of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine multilamellar vesicles are investigated by studying the acoustic properties of the system. The temperature dependencies of sound velocity and absorption have been measured at 7.2 MHz in the temperature range of 20-55 degrees C, for different peptide/lipid molar ratios, R. The most pronounced effects were observed at R = 5 x 10(-3), in the vicinity of the pretransition, with a simultaneous increase in sound absorption and velocity. This indicates that melittin affects the polar head group region of the bilayer resulting in a decrease in mobility of the polar head groups. A nonmonotonic dependence of the main transition temperature, with an initial decrease followed by an increase as melittin is added, is interpreted as a consequence of a destabilizing action of the interfaces between mellitin-affected clusters and the unaffected phase. PMID:8312475

  20. Protective effect of sucrose on the membrane properties of Lactobacillus casei Zhang subjected to freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiping; Lu, Meijun; Guo, Hongfang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Heping

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of sucrose at 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0% as a protectant during freeze-drying on the viability and membrane properties of Lactobacillus casei Zhang. Membrane properties were determined using zeta potential, hydrophobicity, fluidity, and integrity before and after freeze-drying. Exposing L. casei Zhang to sucrose protected it from drastic changes in cell surface electrophoretic mobility and hydrophobicity in contrast with the untreated condition, and the effect was dose related. Sucrose caused an increase in membrane fluidity compared with the control sample. Moreover, 2.0% sucrose decreased the general polarization values less than 4.0 or 8.0% sucrose, while 4.0% sucrose and 8.0% sucrose had no significant difference in decreasing general polarization values (P < 0.05). L. casei Zhang freeze-dried in the presence of 2.0% sucrose retained up to 23.7% membrane integrity, whereas cells freeze-dried with 4.0 and 8.0% sucrose had 32.4 and 37.6% membrane integrity compared with that of L. casei Zhang before freeze-drying. Correspondingly, the number of survivors of L. casei Zhang, determined by the plate count method, decreased from 8.02 to 0.63 log CFU/ml after freeze-drying in the absence of sucrose. However, in the presence of 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0% sucrose, the numbers of survivors were 2.01, 2.87, and 3.20 log CFU/ml after freeze-drying, respectively. The present work suggested that sucrose was an effective membrane protectant at 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0% on the surface zeta potential, hydrophobicity, fluidity, and integrity of L. casei Zhang. PMID:20377961

  1. Cdc42 and Actin Control Polarized Expression of TI-VAMP Vesicles to Neuronal Growth Cones and Their Fusion with the Plasma MembraneV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Philipp; Rudge, Rachel; Irinopoulou, Theano; Danglot, Lydia; Gauthier-Rouvière, Cécile; Galli, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    Tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP)-mediated fusion of intracellular vesicles with the plasma membrane is crucial for neurite outgrowth, a pathway not requiring synaptobrevin-dependent exocytosis. Yet, it is not known how the TI-VAMP membrane trafficking pathway is regulated or how it is coordinated with cytoskeletal dynamics within the growth cone that guide neurite outgrowth. Here, we demonstrate that TI-VAMP, but not synaptobrevin 2, concentrates in the peripheral, F-actin-rich region of the growth cones of hippocampal neurons in primary culture. Its accumulation correlates with and depends upon the presence of F-actin. Moreover, acute stimulation of actin remodeling by homophilic activation of the adhesion molecule L1 induces a site-directed, actin-dependent recruitment of the TI-VAMP compartment. Expression of a dominant-positive mutant of Cdc42, a key regulator of cell polarity, stimulates formation of F-actin- and TI-VAMP-rich filopodia outside the growth cone. Furthermore, we report that Cdc42 activates exocytosis of pHLuorin tagged TI-VAMP in an actin-dependent manner. Collectively, our data suggest that Cdc42 and regulated assembly of the F-actin network control the accumulation and exocytosis of TI-VAMP-containing membrane vesicles in growth cones to coordinate membrane trafficking and actin remodeling during neurite outgrowth. PMID:16381811

  2. The temperature-dependent physical state of polar lipids and their miscibility impact the topography and mechanical properties of bilayer models of the milk fat globule membrane.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Appala Venkata Ramana; Guyomarc'h, Fanny; Lopez, Christelle

    2016-09-01

    The polar lipid assembly and biophysical properties of the biological membrane enveloping the milk fat globules (the MFGM) are yet poorly known, especially in connection with the temperature history that milk can experience after its secretion. However, bioactive mechanisms depend on biological structure, which itself highly depend on temperature. The objectives of this study were to investigate polar lipid packing in hydrated bilayers, models of the MFGM, and to follow at intermolecular level temperature-induced changes in the range 60-6°C, using the combination of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and force spectroscopy. MFGM polar lipids, especially sphingomyelin, contain long chain saturated fatty acids with high phase transition temperatures. On cooling, the liquid disordered ld to solid ordered so (gel) phase transition of MFGM polar lipids started at about 40°C, leading to phase separation and formation of so phase domains protruding by about 1nm from the ld phase. Indentation measurements using AFM revealed that the resistance of the so phase domains to rupture was significantly higher than that of the ld phase and that it increased for both the domain and fluid phases with decreasing temperature. However, packing and stability of the bilayers were adversely affected by fast cooling to 6°C or by cooling-rewarming cycle. This study showed that MFGM polar lipid bilayers are dynamic systems. Heterogeneity in the structure and mechanical properties of the membrane was induced by temperature-dependent so/ld phase immiscibility of the lipid components. This could have consequences on the MFGM technological and biological functions (e.g. immunity and milk lipid digestion). PMID:27349732

  3. Effective Management of Polarities: Educating Men to Manage Unsolvable Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Joseph B.; Vanderveen, Neil

    1994-01-01

    Article distinguishes between two types of problems: those that necessitate either-or solutions, and those called polarities, which require both-and solutions. Suggests how inherently unsolvable polarities can be managed by integrating them into men's counseling groups. Suggestions include direct teaching, individual analysis and action planning,…

  4. Effective field theory of dark matter from membrane inflationary paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Sayantan; Dasgupta, Arnab

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we have studied the cosmological and particle physics constraints on dark matter relic abundance from effective field theory of inflation from tensor-to-scalar ratio (r), in case of Randall-Sundrum single membrane (RSII) paradigm. Using semi-analytical approach we establish a direct connection between the dark matter relic abundance (ΩDMh2) and primordial gravity waves (r), which establishes a precise connection between inflation and generation of dark matter within the framework of effective field theory in RSII membrane. Further assuming the UV completeness of the effective field theory perfectly holds good in the prescribed framework, we have explicitly shown that the membrane tension, σ ≤ O(10-9) Mp4, bulk mass scale M5 ≤ O(0.04 - 0.05) Mp, and cosmological constant Λ˜5 ≥ - O(10-15) Mp5, in RSII membrane plays the most significant role to establish the connection between dark matter and inflation, using which we have studied the features of various mediator mass scale suppressed effective field theory "relevant operators" induced from the localized s, t and u channel interactions in RSII membrane. Taking a completely model independent approach, we have studied an exhaustive list of tree-level Feynman diagrams for dark matter annihilation within the prescribed setup and to check the consistency of the obtained results, further we apply the constraints as obtained from recently observed Planck 2015 data and Planck + BICEP2 + Keck Array joint data sets. Using all of these derived results we have shown that to satisfy the bound on, ΩDMh2 = 0.1199 ± 0.0027, as from Planck 2015 data, it is possible to put further stringent constraint on r within, 0.01 ≤ r ≤ 0.12, for thermally averaged annihilation cross-section of dark matter, < σv > ≈ O(10-28 - 10-27) cm3 / s, which are very useful to constrain various membrane inflationary models.

  5. Radiation effects on membranes - 1. Cellular permeability and cell survival

    SciTech Connect

    Khare, S.; Jayakumar, A.; Trivedi, A.; Kesavan, P.C.; Prasad, R.

    1982-05-01

    The effect of various doses of ..gamma.. radiation (5-60 krad) on the membrane permeability and cell survival of Candida albicans, a pathogenic yeast, was investigated. A reduction in the cell survival and in the accumulation of amino acids (proline, glycine, lysine, and glutamic acid) was observed following irradiation. The rate of oxygen uptake, which is often associated with transport, was also reduced. There was no damage to available sulfhydryl groups following the exposure of cells to various doses of ..gamma.. radiation. The membrane lipid composition of C. albicans cells can be altered by growing them in alkanes of varying chain lengths. The effects of such altered lipid composition on radiosensitivity was examined. It was observed that C. albicans cells with altered lipid content acquire resistance to ..gamma.. radiation.

  6. THE X-RAY POLARIZATION SIGNATURE OF QUIESCENT MAGNETARS: EFFECT OF MAGNETOSPHERIC SCATTERING AND VACUUM POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Rodrigo; Davis, Shane W.

    2011-04-01

    In the magnetar model, the quiescent non-thermal soft X-ray emission from anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma repeaters is thought to arise from resonant Comptonization of thermal photons by charges moving in a twisted magnetosphere. Robust inference of physical quantities from observations is difficult, because the process depends strongly on geometry, and current understanding of the magnetosphere is not very deep. The polarization of soft X-ray photons is an independent source of information, and its magnetospheric imprint remains only partially explored. In this paper, we calculate how resonant cyclotron scattering would modify the observed polarization signal relative to the surface emission, using a multidimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code that accounts for the gradual coupling of polarization eigenmodes as photons leave the magnetosphere. We employ a globally twisted, self-similar, force-free magnetosphere with a power-law momentum distribution, assume a blackbody spectrum for the seed photons, account for general relativistic light deflection close to the star, and assume that vacuum polarization dominates the dielectric properties of the magnetosphere. The latter is a good approximation if the pair multiplicity is not much larger than unity. Phase-averaged polarimetry is able to provide a clear signature of the magnetospheric reprocessing of thermal photons and to constrain mechanisms generating the thermal emission. Phase-resolved polarimetry, in addition, can characterize the spatial extent and magnitude of the magnetospheric twist angle at {approx}100 stellar radii, and discern between uni- or bidirectional particle energy distributions, almost independently of every other parameter in the system. We discuss prospects for detectability with the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism (GEMS) mission.

  7. Reprint of : Spin polarization induced by an electric field in the presence of weak localization effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerci, Daniele; Borge, Juan; Raimondi, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    We evaluate the spin polarization (Edelstein or inverse spin galvanic effect) and the spin Hall current induced by an applied electric field by including the weak localization corrections for a two-dimensional electron gas. We show that the weak localization effects yield logarithmic corrections to both the spin polarization conductivity relating the spin polarization and the electric field and to the spin Hall angle relating the spin and charge currents. The renormalization of both the spin polarization conductivity and the spin Hall angle combine to produce a zero correction to the total spin Hall conductivity as required by an exact identity. Suggestions for the experimental observation of the effect are given.

  8. Polar Kerr effect in high temperature cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewari, Sumanta; Sharma, Girish; Goswami, Pallab; Yakovenko, Victor; Chakravarty, Sudip

    A mechanism is proposed for the tantalizing evidence of polar Kerr effect in a class of high temperature superconductors-the signs of the Kerr angle from two opposite faces of the same sample are identical and magnetic field training is non-existent. The mechanism does not break global time reversal symmetry, as in an antiferromagnet, and results in zero Faraday effect. It is best understood in a phenomenological model of bilayer cuprates, such as YBCO, in which intra-bilayer tunneling nucleates a chiral d-density wave such that the individual layers have opposite chirality. Although the presentation is specific to the chiral d-density wave, the mechanism may be more general to any quasi-two-dimensional orbital antiferromagnet in which time reversal symmetry is broken in each plane, but not when averaged macroscopically. St and GS supported by AFOSR (FA9550-13-1-0045), PG supported by JQI-NSF-PFC, SC supported by NSF-DMR-1004520.

  9. The Martian polar CAP - Radiative effects of ozone, clouds, and airborne dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, B. L.

    1990-02-01

    The solar and thermal flux striking the polar cap of Mars is computed for various ozone, dust, and cloud abundances and for three solar zenith angles. Ozone does not significantly affect the total energy budget of the polar cap. Hence the observed hemispherical asymmetry in ozone abundance causes only an insignificant hemispherical asymmetry in the polar caps. Vertical optical depths of dust and cloud ranging from zero to 1 cause little change in the total flux absorbed by the polar cap near its edge but increase the absorbed flux significantly as one travels poleward. Hemispherical asymmetries in dust abundance, cloud cover, and surface pressure combine to cause a significant hemispherical asymmetry in the total flux absorbed by the residual polar caps, which helps to explain the dichotomy in the residual polar caps on Mars. Other processes which affect the energy budget of the polar cap are proposed and reviewed, particularly with respect to their interaction with the radiative effects of clouds and dust.

  10. Acyl chain length and charge effect on Tamoxifen-lipid model membrane interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilge, Duygu; Kazanci, Nadide; Severcan, Feride

    2013-05-01

    Tamoxifen (TAM), which is an antiestrogenic agent, is widely used during chemotherapy of breast, pancreas, brain and liver cancers. In this study, TAM and model membrane interactions in the form of multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) were studied for lipids containing different acyl chain length and different charge status as a function of different TAM (1, 6, 9 and 15 mol%) concentrations. Zwitterionic lipids namely dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) lipids were used to see the acyl chain length effect and anionic dipalmitoyl phosphtidylglycerol (DPPG) lipid was used to see the charge effect. For this purpose Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) techniques have been conducted. For zwitterionic lipid, concentration dependent different action of TAM was observed both in the gel and liquid crystalline phases by significantly increasing the lipid order and decreasing the dynamics for 1 mol% TAM, while decreasing the lipid order and increasing the dynamics of the lipids for higher concentrations (6, 9 and 15 mol%). However, different than neutral lipids, the dynamics and disorder of DPPG liposome increased for all TAM concentrations. The interactions between TAM and head group of multilamellar liposomes was monitored by analyzing the Cdbnd O stretching and PO2- antisymmetric double bond stretching bands. Increasing Tamoxifen concentrations led to a dehydration around these functional groups in the polar part of the lipids. DSC studies showed that for all types of lipids, TAM eliminates the pre-transition, shifts the main phase transition to lower temperatures and broadened the phase transition curve. The results indicate that not the acyl chain length but the charge status of the polar head group induces different effects on lipid membranes order and dynamics.

  11. Experimental investigation of thermal effects and PCT on FBGs-based linearly polarized fiber laser performance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Long; Ma, Pengfei; Tao, Rumao; Shi, Chen; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu

    2015-04-20

    We experimentally study the impacts of thermal effects and polarization crosstalk (PCT) on the performance of FBGs-based linearly polarized all-fiber laser. The mechanism that the thermal effects and PCT influence the performance of the laser is analyzed. Thermally-dependent reflection peaks of polarization maintaining (PM) fiber Bragg gratings are revealed to be the prime reason why temperature influences spectrum, output power, and polarization property of the laser. The PCT would also influence the performance of the laser seriously in the case of mismatched angle even with effectively overlapped spectrum. It is revealed experimentally that stable linearly polarized output can be obtained if a certain pair of aligned principal axes of PM FBGs is not only spectrally overlapped but also strictly angle matched. Further, we point out that accurate temperature control and careful angle match are essential for stable linearly polarized output and even possible power scaling further. PMID:25969091

  12. Effects of slow clinorotation on lipid contents and proton permeability of thylakoid membranes of pea chloroplasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylenko, N. F.; Sytnik, S. K.; Zolotareva, E. K.

    Photochemical characteristics and lipid composition of thylakoid membranes from 12 day-old pea leaves that were exposed to slow clino-rotation were examined and compared with a vertical control. Proton permeability of thylakoid membranes was estimated from light-induced proton uptake (ΔH+) and post-illumination proton efflux in chloroplast suspensions. The ΔpH magnitude was calculated from the level of light-induced quenching of 9-aminoacridine fluorescence. Proton permeability of thylakoid membranes increased during exposure to clino-rotation. When subsequently transferred to darkness, proton efflux increased almost 2-fold in clinorotated leaves. The results were compared with data on pigment and polar lipid composition of photosynthetic membranes in clino-rotated and control plants. It was concluded that both the increase of proton permeability and the decrease of polar lipid content in chloroplasts were induced by clino-rotation.

  13. Membrane Targeting of the Spir·Formin Actin Nucleator Complex Requires a Sequential Handshake of Polar Interactions*

    PubMed Central

    Tittel, Janine; Welz, Tobias; Czogalla, Aleksander; Dietrich, Susanne; Samol-Wolf, Annette; Schulte, Markos; Schwille, Petra; Weidemann, Thomas; Kerkhoff, Eugen

    2015-01-01

    Spir and formin (FMN)-type actin nucleators initiate actin polymerization at vesicular membranes necessary for long range vesicular transport processes. Here we studied in detail the membrane binding properties and protein/protein interactions that govern the assembly of the membrane-associated Spir·FMN complex. Using biomimetic membrane models we show that binding of the C-terminal Spir-2 FYVE-type zinc finger involves both the presence of negatively charged lipids and hydrophobic contributions from the turret loop that intrudes the lipid bilayer. In solution, we uncovered a yet unknown intramolecular interaction between the Spir-2 FYVE-type domain and the N-terminal kinase non-catalytic C-lobe domain (KIND) that could not be detected in the membrane-bound state. Interestingly, we found that the intramolecular Spir-2 FYVE/KIND and the trans-regulatory Fmn-2-FSI/Spir-2-KIND interactions are competitive. We therefore characterized co-expressed Spir-2 and Fmn-2 fluorescent protein fusions in living cells by fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy. The data corroborate a model according to which Spir-2 exists in two different states, a cytosolic monomeric conformation and a membrane-bound state in which the KIND domain is released and accessible for subsequent Fmn-2 recruitment. This sequence of interactions mechanistically couples membrane binding of Spir to the recruitment of FMN, a pivotal step for initiating actin nucleation at vesicular membranes. PMID:25564607

  14. Osmotic pressure effect on membrane fouling in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor and its experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianrong; Zhang, Meijia; Wang, Aijun; Lin, Hongjun; Hong, Huachang; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2012-12-01

    A laboratory-scale submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) treating sewage was used to investigate the membrane fouling mechanism. Characterization of cake layer formed on membrane surface showed that cake layer was hydrated, rich of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and negative charged with the charge density of 0.21-0.46 meq/kg MLSS. Detailed analysis revealed a new membrane fouling mechanism, osmotic pressure during cake layer filtration process due to the interception of ions. An osmotic pressure model was then developed to elaborate the existence of osmotic pressure and to estimate the contribution of osmotic pressure to membrane fouling. The calculated results showed that osmotic pressure accounted for the largest fraction of total operation pressure, indicating that osmotic pressure generated by the retained ions was one of the major mechanisms responsible for membrane fouling problem in MBRs. These findings provided a new insight into membrane fouling in MBRs. PMID:23026319

  15. Differential effects of cholesterol and lanosterol on artificial membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Yeagle, P L; Martin, R B; Lala, A K; Lin, H K; Bloch, K

    1977-01-01

    The effects of cholesterol, 4,4-dimethylcholesterol, and lanosterol (4,4',14alpha-trimethyl-delta8,24-cholestadiene-3beta-ol) on some properties of lecithin vesicles have been compared. Unlike cholesterol, lanosterol retards the exit of trapped glucose from phospholipid vesicles only slightly. The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of cholesterol/lecithin vesicles shows no resonances attributable to the sterol. By contrast, several resonances attributable to quaternary carbon atoms or methyl groups are seen in the 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of lanosterol/lecithin vesicles, indicating that lanosterol is much less immobilized than cholesterol. Because the membrane behavior of 4,4-dimethylcholesterol is closely similar to that of cholesterol, it is concluded that the axial 14-alpha-methyl group is responsible for the lessened membrane immobilization of lanosterol. The results emphasize the importance of a planar sterol alpha-face for interaction with phospholipid acyl chains. PMID:270726

  16. Effect of choline carboxylate ionic liquids on biological membranes

    PubMed Central

    Rengstl, Doris; Kraus, Birgit; Van Vorst, Matthew; Elliott, Gloria D.; Kunz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Choline carboxylates, ChCm, with m = 2–10 and choline oleate are known as biocompatible substances, yet their influence on biological membranes is not well-known, and the effect on human skin has not previously been investigated. The short chain choline carboxylates ChCm with m = 2, 4, 6 act as hydrotropes, solubilizing hydrophobic compounds in aqueous solution, while the longer chain choline carboxylates ChCm with m = 8,10 and oleate are able to form micelles. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of choline carboxylates was tested using HeLa and SK-MEL-28 cells. The influence of these substances on liposomes prepared from dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was also evaluated to provide insights on membrane interactions. It was observed that the choline carboxylates with a chain length of m > 8 distinctly influence the bilayer, while the shorter ones had minimal interaction with the liposomes. PMID:25444662

  17. Specific effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the cholesterol-poor membrane domain in a model membrane.

    PubMed

    Onuki, Yoshinori; Hagiwara, Chihiro; Sugibayashi, Ko; Takayama, Kozo

    2008-08-01

    To understand more fully the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on lipid bilayers, we investigated the effects of treatment with fatty acids on the properties of a model membrane. Three kinds of liposomes comprising dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dioleylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), and cholesterol (Ch) were used as the model membrane, and the fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) and detergent insolubility were determined. Characterization of the liposomes clarified that DPPC, DPPC/Ch, and DPPC/DOPC/Ch existed as solid-ordered phase (L beta), liquid-ordered phase (l o), and a mixture of l o and liquid-disordered phase (L alpha) membranes at room temperature. Treatment with unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid (OA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) markedly decreased the fluorescence anisotropy value and detergent insolubility. PUFAs and OA had different effects on the model membranes. In DPPC liposomes, the most prominent change was induced by PUFAs, whereas, in DPPC/Ch and DPPC/DOPC/Ch liposomes, OA had a stronger effect than PUFAs. The effect of PUFAs was strongly affected by the amount of Ch in the membrane, which confirmed a specific effect of PUFAs on the Ch-poor membrane domain. We further explored the effect of fatty acids dispersed in a water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsion and found that unsaturated fatty acids acted on the membranes even when incorporated in emulsion form. These findings suggest that treatment with PUFAs increases the segregation of ordered and disordered phase domains in membranes. PMID:18670110

  18. Scanning force microscopy study of phase segregation in fuel cell membrane materials as a function of solvent polarity and relative humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, Marilyn Emily; Kim, Yu S; Hjelm, Rex P

    2010-01-01

    Scanning force microscopy (SFM) phase imaging provides a powerful method for directly studying and comparing phase segregation in fuel cell membrane materials due to different preparation and under different temperature and hwnidity exposures. In this work, we explored two parameters that can influence phase segregation: the properties of the solvents used in casting membrane films and how these solvents alter phase segregation after exposure to boiling water as a function of time. SFM was used under ambient conditions to image phase segregation in Nafion samples prepared using five different solvents. Samples were then subjected to water vapor maintained at 100C for periods ranging from 30 minutes to three hours and re-imaged using the same phase imaging conditions. SFM shows what appears to be an increase in phase segregation as a function of solvent polarity that changes as a function of water exposure.

  19. Water-quality data from semipermeable-membrane devices and polar organic chemical integrative samplers deployed in the McKenzie River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Alvarez, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Two types of passive samplers—the semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) and the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS)—are being used to collect data from the McKenzie River, Oregon. The McKenzie River is the source of drinking water for the City of Eugene, Oregon, and passive-sampler data are part of an ongoing monitoring effort designed to help understand and protect the drinking water source. Data from the passive samplers are reported here. This data report is dynamic and will be appended with additional data as they become available.

  20. Solvent effects on the polar network of ionic liquid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardes, Carlos E. S.; Shimizu, Karina; Canongia Lopes, José N.

    2015-05-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were used to probe mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs) with common molecular solvents. Four types of systems were considered: (i) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide plus benzene, hexafluorobenzene or 1,2-difluorobenzene mixtures; (ii) choline-based ILs plus ether mixtures (iii) choline-based ILs plus n-alkanol mixtures; and (iv) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate aqueous mixtures. The results produced a wealth of structural and aggregation information that highlight the resilience of the polar network of the ILs (formed by clusters of alternating ions and counter-ions) to the addition of different types of molecular solvent. The analysis of the MD data also shows that the intricate balance between different types of interaction (electrostatic, van der Waals, H-bond-like) between the different species present in the mixtures has a profound effect on the morphology of the mixtures at a mesoscopic scale. In the case of the IL aqueous solutions, the present results suggest an alternative interpretation for very recently published x-ray and neutron diffraction data on similar systems.

  1. Impurity effects on polarized magnetoexcitons with ring-like confinement.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias da Silva, Luis G.; Ulloa, Sergio E.; Govorov, Alexander O.

    2004-03-01

    We study the role of impurity scattering on the photoluminescence(PL) emission of polarized magnetoexcitons. We consider the case where both the electron and hole are confined on a ring structure(Quantum Rings) and also type-II Quantum Dot excitons, where the electron is spatially separated from the hole. Despite their neutral character, excitons exhibit strong modulation effects on the energy and oscillator strength in the presence of magnetic fields [1]. The presence of scattering impurities enhances the PL intensity on otherwise "dark" magnetic field windows and non-zero PL emission appears for a wide magnetic field range even at zero temperature. For higher temperatures, impurity-induced anticrossings on the excitonic energy levels lead to peaks and valleys on the PL intensity as function of magnetic field. Such behavior is absent on clean systems and could account for some unexpected features on recent experimental results [2]. Supported by the US DOE and FAPESP [1] A.O. Govorov et al. Phys. Rev. B 66 081309 (2002); A.O. Govorov et al. Physica E 13, 297 (2002). [2] E. Ribeiro, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, W. Carvalho Jr., cond-mat 0304092

  2. Solvent effects on the polar network of ionic liquid solutions.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Carlos E S; Shimizu, Karina; Canongia Lopes, José N

    2015-05-20

    Molecular dynamics simulations were used to probe mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs) with common molecular solvents. Four types of systems were considered: (i) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide plus benzene, hexafluorobenzene or 1,2-difluorobenzene mixtures; (ii) choline-based ILs plus ether mixtures (iii) choline-based ILs plus n-alkanol mixtures; and (iv) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate aqueous mixtures. The results produced a wealth of structural and aggregation information that highlight the resilience of the polar network of the ILs (formed by clusters of alternating ions and counter-ions) to the addition of different types of molecular solvent. The analysis of the MD data also shows that the intricate balance between different types of interaction (electrostatic, van der Waals, H-bond-like) between the different species present in the mixtures has a profound effect on the morphology of the mixtures at a mesoscopic scale. In the case of the IL aqueous solutions, the present results suggest an alternative interpretation for very recently published x-ray and neutron diffraction data on similar systems. PMID:25923649

  3. Cross-polarized wave generation by effective cubic nonlinear optical interaction.

    PubMed

    Petrov, G I; Albert, O; Etchepare, J; Saltiel, S M

    2001-03-15

    A new cubic nonlinear optical effect in which a linearly polarized wave propagating in a single quadratic medium is converted into a wave that is cross polarized to the input wave is observed in BBO crystal. The effect is explained by cascading of two different second-order processes: second-harmonic generation and difference frequency mixing. PMID:18040322

  4. Experimental designs dedicated to the evaluation of a membrane extraction method: membrane-assisted solvent extraction for compounds having different polarities by means of gas chromatography-mass detection.

    PubMed

    Vincelet, Carole; Roussel, Jean Marc; Benanou, David

    2010-03-01

    Membrane-assisted solvent extraction was applied for the determination of different classes of compounds in water, having K(o/w) (octanol-water partition coefficient) values between 10(1) (aniline) and 10(8) (methyl stearate), by means of experimental designs. Four solvents were investigated--propan-2-ol, ethyl acetate, diisopropyl ether and cyclohexane--as well as extraction time, temperature, salt impact, pH and methanol addition. The best choice was diisopropyl ether, 50 degrees C, 30 min and an addition of 3 g of sodium chloride at pH 2 for polar compounds. The relative standard deviation (n = 3) was found in the range from 5 to 17%. Recoveries ranged between 34 and 100%. Membrane-assisted solvent extraction was successfully applied to a fast screening method dedicated to an unknown wastewater sample. PMID:20127320

  5. Quasideuteron effect with a polarized {gamma}{searrow}-ray beam

    SciTech Connect

    Babusci, D.; Bellini, V.; Capogni, M.; Casano, L.; Curro Dossi, B.; DAngelo, A.; De Lima, D.A.; Ghio, F.; Girolami, B.; Hu, L.; Leidemann, W.; Lugaresi, F.; Moricciani, D.; Orlandini, G.; Picozza, P.; Schaerf, C.

    1996-10-01

    The {sup 28}Si({gamma}{searrow},{ital np}){ital X} reaction has been studied using the Ladon polarized and tagged {gamma}-ray beam, in the energy region between 50 and 75 MeV. The data have been compared with the {ital quasideuteron} mechanism. At the highest photon energy the applied model leads to a satisfactory description of both the unpolarized cross section and beam polarization asymmetry. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  6. Effective photochromic nonlinearity of dried blue-membrane bacteriorhodopsin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallent, Jack; Song, Q. Wang; Li, Zengfa; Stuart, Jeff; Birge, R. R.

    1996-09-01

    We report the effective nonlinearity for photochromic conversion in a blue-membrane bacteriorhodopsin film hosted in a dry polyvinyl alcohol matrix. The shift in absorption maximum on photoconversion in this film is larger than that of the same material in hydrated form, thus offering a larger modulation of the refractive index. The photoexcited index modulation is stable for several months, which provides for holographic data recording and long-term photochromic data storage. The effective index modulation is experimentally measured and is in good agreement with the theoretical predictions based on the Kramers-Kronig transformation.

  7. Effects of Atmospheric Dust on Residual South Polar Cap Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonrv, B. P.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Hansen, G. B.; James, P. B.; Wolff, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    The Martian polar caps have been studied from the time of Herschel. Neither polar cap normally disappears in summer. The Residual North Polar Cap (portion that remains through summer) is composed of a mixture of water ice and dust, and its interannual stability is due to its low sublimation rate at the summer temperatures in the North Polar Region. The Residual South Polar Cap (RSPC) is more enigmatic, surviving the relatively hot perihelic summer season despite being composed of much more volatile CO2. It is able to do so because of its unusually high albedo, which is larger than that of other bright regions in the seasonal cap (e.g. Mountains of Mitchel). The proximity of the albedo of the RSPC to the critical albedo for stability raises the question of whether the RSPC exists in every Martian year. The ground based record is somewhat ambivalent. Douglass and Lowell reported that RSPC suddenly vanished at Ls=297deg in 1894 and did not reappear until Ls=0deg [1], and Kuiper reported that it disappeared in 1956 [2]; but both observations were questioned by contemporaries, who tended to attribute them to obscuring dust. Barker [3] reported a large amount of water vapor over the south polar cap in 1969 that could be attributed to exposure of near surface water ice during partial removal of the CO2 in the RSPC in 1969.

  8. [The Effect of Observation Geometry on Polarized Skylight Spectrum].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ren-bin; Wang, Ling-mei; Gao, Jun; Wang, Chi

    2015-03-01

    Study on polarized skylight spectral characters while observation geometry changing in different solar zenith angles (SZA), viewing zenith angles (VZA) or relative azimuth angles (RAA). Simulation calculation of cloudless daylight polarimetric spectrum is realized based on the solver, vector discrete ordinate method, of radiative transfer equation. In the Sun's principal and perpendicular plane, the spectral irradiance data, varying at wavelengths in the range between 0.4 and 3 μm, are calculated to extend the atmospheric polarization spectral information under the conditions: the MODTRAN solar reference spectrur is the only illuminant source; the main influencing factors of polarized radiative transfer include underlying surface albedo, aerosol layers and components, and the absorption of trace gases. Simulation analysis results: (1) While the relative azimuth angle is zero, the magnitude of spectrum U/I is lower than 10(-7) and V/I is negligible, the degree of polarization and the spectrum Q/I are shaped like the letter V or mirror-writing U. (2) In twilight, when the Sun is not in FOV of the detector, the polarization of the daytime sky has two maximum near 0.51 and 2.75 μm, and a minimum near 1.5 μm. For arbitrary observation geometry, the spectral signal of V/I may be ignored. According to observation geometry, choosing different spectral bands or polarized signal will be propitious to targets detection. PMID:26117882

  9. Modeling the Effect of Refractive Optics on CMB Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Sarah Marie; Gallardo, Patricio; Koopman, Brian; Niemack, Michael; ACTPol Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Precise CMB polarization measurements are crucial in investigating dark energy. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) in Chile is built to simultaneously measure temperature and polarization. Polarization angle measurements require an error margin < 0.1°, or these will limit our results. This requires greater understanding of how refractive optics alter the polarization of the microwave radiation. Lens coatings are necessary to avoid the reflection of the majority of the incoming light. Early experiments found that there were systematic angular distortions in the data, in which the optical elements in the ACTPol telescope rotated the polarization of the incoming microwave radiation slightly. We modeled a single lens using two commercial optics modeling software packages, CodeV and Zemax, with single and double-layer coatings. Unexpectedly, significant disparities between these models were observed. We subsequently developed our own Python model of the single lens system in order to predict the polarization rotation values. I will present the results of this work. Our next aim is to reproduce the modeled phenomena using physical lenses.

  10. [Effect of dithranol therapy on membrane, basement membrane and nuclear markers in psoriasis lesions].

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Schlesier, F; Schaarschmidt, H; Knopf, B; Hipler, C; Henkel, U; Roth, H; Bartá, U

    1987-02-15

    We investigated the effects of anti-psoriatic therapy with dithranol (1/20-1%) in salicylic acid (0.5%) in white petrolatum on lesional skin. FITC-labeled lectins and pemphigus vulgaris antibodies (PV) served as analytical means to study the glycocalyx. Antibodies of bullous pemphigoid (BP) were used as basal membrane markers. Nuclear antigens were recorded according to the binding of speckled, anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) as well as antibodies to dsDNA. With some lectins, dithranol therapy resulted in pronounced fluorescence of the lower parts of the basal cells. ConA was fixed by the basal cell layer. To a lesser degree, ANA were fixed by nuclei of keratinocytes. PV antibodies were not fixed at all. PMID:3554801

  11. The photoelectric effect from CsI by polarized soft X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Ping S.; Church, Eric D.; Hanany, Shaul; Liu, Yee; Fleischman, Judith; Kaaret, Philip; Novick, Robert; Manzo, Giuseppe

    1991-01-01

    Studies of the polarization dependence of the photoelectric effect produced by soft X-rays from CsI indicate that the geometrical effects in these experiments can often mimic the polarization signature. This paper presents a detailed calculation of these geometrical effects that are produced when the X-ray beam is not precisely aligned on a rotatable plane photocathode. The experimentally observed geometrical effects were used to precisely determine the realignment of the incident beam of polarized X-rays on a rotatable photocathode. The results allow determinations of the true polarization dependence of the photoemission from CsI. It is shown that the photoelectric effect in CsI depends on the polarization state of the X-rays.

  12. Ion implantation: effect on flux and rejection properties of NF membranes.

    PubMed

    Abitoye, Joshua Olufemi; Mukherjee, J Parna; Jones, Kimberly

    2005-09-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) membranes typically carry a net electric charge, enabling electrostatic interactions to play a pivotal role in the rejection of species such as metals, nitrates, and other charged contaminants. In this study, two types of polymeric NF membranes, polyamide and cellulose acetate, were modified by ion implantation to increase the effective surface charge of the membranes. The modified membranes contain implanted ions in the membrane matrix, inducing a discrete, permanent charge in the active membrane layer. The presence of a permanent charge in the membrane matrix allows for increased electrostatic repulsive forces throughout the entire pH range. Streaming potential measurements were conducted as a function of pH for the modified and unmodified membranes to determine the effect of ion implantation on the zeta potential of the membranes. Rejection experiments were performed in order to quantify the effect of increased electrostatic repulsion on ion rejection, and flux measurements quantified the effect of the modification on permeability. Results indicate that electrostatic interactions near the membrane surface can affect rejection; however, the extent of the effect of increased membrane charge depends on physical-chemical characteristics of the membrane. Increased negative zeta potential of the modified membranes resulted in slightly higher rejection of salts with divalent co-ions from the membrane, with less increase observed with salts of monovalent co-ions. Modified membranes were less permeable than the unmodified membranes. Results of this research hold implications in membrane synthesis and modification studies as well as choice of membranes for water treatment applications. PMID:16190203

  13. Pressure effects on the equilibrium configurations of bilayer lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVita, Raffaella; Stewart, Iain W.; Leo, Donald J.

    2007-10-01

    Planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) are currently employed to construct many bio-inspired material systems and structures. In order to characterize the pressure effects on the equilibrium configurations of these biological membranes, a novel continuum model is proposed. The BLM is assumed to be a two-layer smectic A liquid crystal. The mean orientation of the amphiphilic molecules comprising the membrane is postulated to be perpendicular to the layers and each layer is idealized as a two-dimensional liquid. Moreover, the BLM is modeled as a simply supported plate undergoing small deformations. It is subjected to a pressure load that acts perpendicularly to the layers. The equilibrium equations and boundary conditions are derived from the bulk elastic energy for smectic A liquid crystals as described by de Gennes and Prost (1993 The Physics of Liquid Crystals 2nd edn (Oxford Science Publications)) by using variational methods. The resulting fourth-order linear partial differential equation is solved by employing cylindrical functions and the series solution is proved to be convergent. The solution is numerically computed for values of the model parameters that are reported in the literature. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our colleagues, Professors Kevin P Granata and Liviu Librescv, who lost their lives during the sensless tragedy on 16 April, 2007 at Virginia Tech.

  14. The effect of electron scattering redistribution on atomic line polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriya, H. D.; Nagendra, K. N.; Sampoorna, M.; Ravindra, B.

    2012-09-01

    The polarization of spectral lines is generated by the scattering of angularly anisotropic incident radiation field on the atoms in the stellar atmosphere. This atomic scattering polarization is modified by frequency non-coherent scattering of line photons on free electrons. With modern spectropolarimeters of high sensitivity, it is possible to detect such changes in the spectral line polarization caused by scattering on electrons. We present new and efficient numerical techniques to solve the problem of line radiative transfer with atomic and electron scattering frequency redistribution in planar media. The evaluation and use of angle-dependent partial frequency redistribution functions (both atomic and electron scattering type) in the transfer equation require a lot of computing effort. In this paper, we apply a decomposition technique to handle this numerically difficult problem. This recently developed technique is applied for the first time to the electron scattering partial redistribution. This decomposition technique allows us to devise fast iterative methods of solving the polarized line transfer equation. An approximate lambda iteration (ALI) method and a method based on Neumann series expansion of the polarized source vector are proposed. We show that these numerical methods can be used to obtain a solution of the problem, when both atomic and electron scattering partial frequency redistribution are considered together. This is in contrast with the classical numerical methods which require a great amount of computing time. We show the importance of electron scattering redistribution in the far wing line polarization, which has practical implications in the analysis of polarized stellar or solar spectra, where non-coherent electron scattering controls the line wing transfer.

  15. Effects of thermal efficiency in DCMD and the preparation of membranes with low thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhehao; Peng, Yuelian; Dong, Yajun; Fan, Hongwei; Chen, Ping; Qiu, Lin; Jiang, Qi

    2014-10-01

    The effects of the membrane characteristics and operational conditions on the vapor flux and thermal efficiency in a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process were studied with a mathematical simulation. The membrane temperature, driving force of vapor transfer, membrane distillation coefficient, etc. were used to analyze the effects. The operating conditions that increased the vapor flux improved the thermal efficiency. The membrane characteristics of four microporous membranes and their performances in DCMD were compared. A polysulfone (PSf) membrane prepared via vapor-induced phase separation exhibited the lowest thermal conductivity. The PSf and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes were modified using SiO2 aerogel blending and coating to reduce the thermal conductivity of the membrane. The coating process was more effective than the blending process toward this end. The changes in the structure of the modified membrane were observed with a scanning electron microscope. Si was found on the modified membrane surface with an energy spectrometer. The PVDF composite and support membranes were tested during the DCMD process; the composite membrane had a higher vapor flux and a better thermal efficiency than the support. A new method based on a 3ω technique was used to measure the thermal conductivity of the membranes.

  16. Full-scale simulation of seawater reverse osmosis desalination processes for boron removal: Effect of membrane fouling.

    PubMed

    Park, Pyung-Kyu; Lee, Sangho; Cho, Jae-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to further develop previously reported mechanistic predictive model that simulates boron removal in full-scale seawater reverse osmosis (RO) desalination processes to take into account the effect of membrane fouling. Decrease of boron removal and reduction in water production rate by membrane fouling due to enhanced concentration polarization were simulated as a decrease in solute mass transfer coefficient in boundary layer on membrane surface. Various design and operating options under fouling condition were examined including single- versus double-pass configurations, different number of RO elements per vessel, use of RO membranes with enhanced boron rejection, and pH adjustment. These options were quantitatively compared by normalizing the performance of the system in terms of E(min), the minimum energy costs per product water. Simulation results suggested that most viable options to enhance boron rejection among those tested in this study include: i) minimizing fouling, ii) exchanging the existing SWRO elements to boron-specific ones, and iii) increasing pH in the second pass. The model developed in this study is expected to help design and optimization of the RO processes to achieve the target boron removal at target water recovery under realistic conditions where membrane fouling occurs during operation. PMID:22578430

  17. Optically Induced Nuclear Spin Polarization in the Quantum Hall Regime: The Effect of Electron Spin Polarization through Exciton and Trion Excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiba, K.; Kanasugi, S.; Yuge, T.; Nagase, K.; Hirayama, Y.

    2015-07-01

    We study nuclear spin polarization in the quantum Hall regime through the optically pumped electron spin polarization in the lowest Landau level. The nuclear spin polarization is measured as a nuclear magnetic field BN by means of the sensitive resistive detection. We find the dependence of BN on the filling factor nonmonotonic. The comprehensive measurements of BN with the help of the circularly polarized photoluminescence measurements indicate the participation of the photoexcited complexes, i.e., the exciton and trion (charged exciton), in nuclear spin polarization. On the basis of a novel estimation method of the equilibrium electron spin polarization, we analyze the experimental data and conclude that the filling factor dependence of BN is understood by the effect of electron spin polarization through excitons and trions.

  18. Optically Induced Nuclear Spin Polarization in the Quantum Hall Regime: The Effect of Electron Spin Polarization through Exciton and Trion Excitations.

    PubMed

    Akiba, K; Kanasugi, S; Yuge, T; Nagase, K; Hirayama, Y

    2015-07-10

    We study nuclear spin polarization in the quantum Hall regime through the optically pumped electron spin polarization in the lowest Landau level. The nuclear spin polarization is measured as a nuclear magnetic field B(N) by means of the sensitive resistive detection. We find the dependence of B(N) on the filling factor nonmonotonic. The comprehensive measurements of B(N) with the help of the circularly polarized photoluminescence measurements indicate the participation of the photoexcited complexes, i.e., the exciton and trion (charged exciton), in nuclear spin polarization. On the basis of a novel estimation method of the equilibrium electron spin polarization, we analyze the experimental data and conclude that the filling factor dependence of B(N) is understood by the effect of electron spin polarization through excitons and trions. PMID:26207494

  19. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1986-08-26

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  20. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.

    1986-01-01

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  1. Water and methanol uptakes in Nafion membranes and membrane effects on direct methanol cell performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, X.; Springer, T.E.; Gottesfeld, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper compares direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) employing two types of Nafion{reg{underscore}sign} (E.I.DuPont de Nemours and Company) membranes of different equivalent weight (EW). Methanol and water uptakes in 1,100 and 1,200 EW Nafion membranes were determined by weighing P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-dried and methanol solution-equilibrated membranes. Both methanol and water uptakes in the 1,200 EW membrane were about 70--74% of those in the 1,100 EW membrane. The methanol crossover rate corresponding to that in a DMFC at open circuit was measured using a voltammetric method in the DMFC configuration and under the same cell operating conditions. After accounting for the thickness difference between the membrane samples, the methanol crossover rate through a 1,200 EW membrane was 52% of that through an 1,100 EW membrane. To resolve the cathode and anode performances in an operating DMFC, a dynamic hydrogen electrode was used as a reference electrode. Results show that in an operating DMFC the cathode can be easily flooded, as shown in a DMFC using 1,100 EW membrane. An increase in methanol crossover rate decreases the DMFC cathode potential at open circuit. At a high cell current density, the DMFC cathode potential can approach that of a H{sub 2}/air cell.

  2. The Double Fixed Charge Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Coster, H. G. L.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis is made of the AC characteristics of a membrane consisting of two fixed charge regions of opposite sign, in contact. It is shown that the equivalent parallel capacitance and conductance of such a membrane undergo a strong dispersion at low frequencies. The dielectric dispersion is a result of polarization effects in the diffusion of coions in each of the two fixed charge lattices. This, at low frequencies, gives rise to a very large diffusion capacitance. The form of the dispersion characteristics is very similar to those observed for synthetic-fused anion-cation membranes and various cellular membranes. PMID:4702011

  3. Effect of lanthanide ions on dynamic nuclear polarization enhancement and liquid-state T1 relaxation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Jeremy W; Fain, Sean B; Rowland, Ian J

    2012-12-01

    In the dynamic nuclear polarization process, microwave irradiation facilitates exchange of polarization from a radical's unpaired electron to nuclear spins at cryogenic temperatures, increasing polarization by >10,000. Doping samples with Gd(3+) ions further increases the achievable solid-state polarization. However, on dissolution, paramagnetic lanthanide metals can be potent relaxation agents, decreasing liquid-state polarization. Here, the effects of lanthanide metals on the solid and liquid-state magnetic properties of [1-(13)C]pyruvate are studied. The results show that in addition to gadolinium, holmium increases not only the achievable polarization but also the rate of polarization. Liquid-state relaxation studies found that unlike gadolinium, holmium minimally affects T(1). Additionally, results reveal that linear contrast agents dissociate in pyruvic acid, greatly reducing liquid-state T(1). Although macrocyclic agents do not readily dissociate, they yield lower solid-state polarization. Results indicate that polarization with free lanthanides and subsequent chelation during dissolution produces the highest polarization enhancement while minimizing liquid-state relaxation. PMID:22367680

  4. Effect of Lanthanide Ions on Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhancement and Liquid State T1 Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Jeremy; Fain, Sean B.; Rowland, Ian J

    2012-01-01

    In the dynamic nuclear polarization process, microwave irradiation facilitates exchange of polarization from a radical’s unpaired electron to nuclear spins at cryogenic temperatures, increasing polarization by >10000. Doping samples with Gd3+ ions further increases the achievable solid-state polarization. However, upon dissolution, paramagnetic lanthanide metals can be potent relaxation agents, decreasing liquid-state polarization. Here, the effects of lanthanide metals on the solid and liquid-state magnetic properties of [1-13C]pyruvate are studied. The results show that in addition to gadolinium, holmium not only increases the achievable polarization but also the rate of polarization. Liquid-state relaxation studies found that unlike gadolinium, holmium minimally affects T1. Additionally, results reveal that linear contrast agents dissociate in pyruvic acid, greatly reducing liquid-state T1. While macrocyclic agents do not readily dissociate, they yield lower solid-state polarization. Results indicate that polarization with free lanthanides and subsequent chelation during dissolution produces the highest polarization enhancement while minimizing liquid-state relaxation. PMID:22367680

  5. The effect of polarization on radar detection of lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazur, V.; Walker, G. B.

    1982-01-01

    The polarization dependence of lightning echoes received with a 23-cm wavelength radar is estimated theoretically and experimentally. The reduction in the lightning radar cross-section due to the transmission of circular polarization instead of linear is measured to be about 4 dB and is much smaller than the 15-30 dB reduction in reflectivity of weak precipitation regions. The 8.7 dB average reduction in reflectivity maxima has been observed. This leads to an increase in the detected lightning flash rate by as much as 40%. The radar cross-section ratio of circular to linear polarization obtained experimentally suggests that lightning elements tend to be horizontally oriented.

  6. Effect of Electronic Polarization to Human α-Thrombin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Li-Li; Li, Zong-Chao; He, Xiang; Zhang, Qing-Gang

    2014-04-01

    The polarized protein-specific charges (PPC) of human α-thrombin (thrombin) and its inhibitor (L86) are made possible by employing the recently developed molecular fractionation with conjugate caps approach incorporated the Poisson—Boltzmann model. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of thrombin have been carried out to investigate the dynamics and stability of the thrombin-inhibitor using PPC and AMBER charges respectively. Detailed analysis and comparison of MD results show that the PPC can correctly describe the polarized state of the thrombin and L86. Especially, the root-mean-square deviation of backbone atoms and the hydrogen bonds using PPC are more stable than the AMBER charge. The present results indicate that protein polarization plays critical roles in maintaining the compact structure of thrombin.

  7. Regulatory effects of polyamines on membrane-bound acetylcholinesterase

    PubMed Central

    Kossorotow, A.; Wolf, H. U.; Seiler, N.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of putrescene, spermidine and spermine on membrane-bound acetylcholinesterase from human erythrocyte `ghosts' and the solubilized enzyme of the electric organ of the electric eel were studied by kinetic methods. Measurements were made by using a photometric method which made it possible to record the enzyme reaction in the steady-state phase. Substrate-concentration-dependent activation and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by polyamines is similar to that by Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and certain quaternary and bisquaternary amines. The kinetics suggest an allosteric reaction mechanism. On the basis of the kinetic results a role for the polyamines as modulators of synaptic acetylcholinesterase is proposed. PMID:4462573

  8. Selective effect of cell membrane on synaptic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Postila, Pekka A; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Róg, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were performed with 13 non-peptidic neurotransmitters (NTs) in three different membrane environments. The results provide compelling evidence that NTs are divided into membrane-binding and membrane-nonbinding molecules. NTs adhere to the postsynaptic membrane surface whenever the ligand-binding sites of their synaptic receptors are buried in the lipid bilayer. In contrast, NTs that have extracellular ligand-binding sites do not have a similar tendency to adhere to the membrane surface. This finding is a seemingly simple yet important addition to the paradigm of neurotransmission, essentially dividing it into membrane-independent and membrane-dependent mechanisms. Moreover, the simulations also indicate that the lipid composition especially in terms of charged lipids can affect the membrane partitioning of NTs. The revised paradigm, highlighting the importance of cell membrane and specific lipids for neurotransmission, should to be of interest to neuroscientists, drug industry and the general public alike. PMID:26782980

  9. Selective effect of cell membrane on synaptic neurotransmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postila, Pekka A.; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Róg, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were performed with 13 non-peptidic neurotransmitters (NTs) in three different membrane environments. The results provide compelling evidence that NTs are divided into membrane-binding and membrane-nonbinding molecules. NTs adhere to the postsynaptic membrane surface whenever the ligand-binding sites of their synaptic receptors are buried in the lipid bilayer. In contrast, NTs that have extracellular ligand-binding sites do not have a similar tendency to adhere to the membrane surface. This finding is a seemingly simple yet important addition to the paradigm of neurotransmission, essentially dividing it into membrane-independent and membrane-dependent mechanisms. Moreover, the simulations also indicate that the lipid composition especially in terms of charged lipids can affect the membrane partitioning of NTs. The revised paradigm, highlighting the importance of cell membrane and specific lipids for neurotransmission, should to be of interest to neuroscientists, drug industry and the general public alike.

  10. Development and polarization of the Na+/H+ antiport system during reorganization of LLC-PK1A cells into an epithelial membrane.

    PubMed

    Viniegra, S; Rabito, C A

    1988-05-25

    Changes in Na+/H+ antiport activity and transepithelial electrical resistance were analyzed in a clone of LLC-PK1 cells as the dispersed cells became organized into an epithelial membrane. The clone designated LLC-PK1A showed a 250% increase in Na+/H+ exchange activity as compared with the parent cell line. Na+ influx induced by an outwardly oriented H+ gradient is almost completely abolished during active cell proliferation or after cell dispersion. The activity of the Na+/H+ antiport system increases after plating the cells at high density. This increase precedes the increase in the transepithelial electrical resistance. The increase in the Na+/H+ antiport activity was not observed when the cells were plated at low density in the presence of an antimitotic agent indicating that close cell contact is an absolute requirement for the development of the system. The increase in Na+ influx correlated with an increase in Vmax, while the Km for Na+ remained essentially unchanged. Unidirectional Na+ influx measured from the apical or basolateral side as the dispersed cells became reorganized into an epithelial membrane indicated that the insertion of the Na+/H+ antiporter proteins occurred directly in the apical membrane of the epithelial cells. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that the sorting of native proteins occurs intracellularly prior to their insertion in the apical membrane of the epithelial cells. The delay in the increase of transepithelial electrical resistance as compared with the increase in Na+ influx indicates that the settlement of the limits between the apical and basolateral membrane (fence function) precedes the closing of the intercellular space (barrier function) during the development of the occluding junctions. Further, the development of the Na+/H+ antiporter was inhibited by cycloheximide but not by actinomycin D, suggesting that the expression of epithelial cell polarization is a translational or posttranslational event. PMID

  11. Effects of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) on membrane fouling in anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactors (AnCMBRs) treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiaodi; Koh, Yoong Keat Kelvin; Ng, How Yong

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) have been regarded as a potential solution to achieve energy neutrality in the future wastewater treatment plants. Coupling ceramic membranes into AnMBRs offers great potential as ceramic membranes are resistant to corrosive chemicals such as cleaning reagents and harsh environmental conditions such as high temperature. In this study, ceramic membranes with pore sizes of 80, 200 and 300 nm were individually mounted in three anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactors (AnCMBRs) treating real domestic wastewater to examine the treatment efficiencies and to elucidate the effects of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) on fouling behaviours. The average overall chemical oxygen demands (COD) removal efficiencies could reach around 86-88%. Although CH4 productions were around 0.3 L/g CODutilised, about 67% of CH4 generated was dissolved in the liquid phase and lost in the permeate. When filtering mixed liquor of similar properties, smaller pore-sized membranes fouled slower in long-term operations due to lower occurrence of pore blockages. However, total organic removal efficiencies could not explain the fouling behaviours. Liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectrophotometer and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence and ultra-violet detectors were used to analyse the DOMs in detail. The major foulants were identified to be biopolymers that were produced in microbial activities. One of the main components of biopolymers--proteins--led to different fouling behaviours. It is postulated that the proteins could pass through porous cake layers to create pore blockages in membranes. Hence, concentrations of the DOMs in the soluble fraction of mixed liquor (SML) could not predict membrane fouling because different components in the DOMs might have different interactions with membranes. PMID:26255104

  12. Study of the effect of scattering from turbid water on the polarization of a laser beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, R. G.; Hovanlou, A. H.

    1978-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation method was used to determine the effect of scattering from turbid water on the polarization of a backscattered beam of laser light. The relationship between the polarization and the type and amount of suspended particulates in the water was investigated.

  13. Effect of display polarity and luminance contrast on visual lobe shape characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Steve N H; Chan, Alan H S; Yu, R F

    2012-01-01

    The effect of display polarity and luminance contrast on visual lobe (effective visual field) shape characteristics was studied using three levels of luminance contrast with combinations of positive and negative polarities. The binocular effective visual field for a detection task, with a peripherally presented target (V) embedded in a homogeneous competing background (Xs), was mapped on 24 imaginary axes passing through the fixation point. The results showed that visual lobes mapped using positive polarity were statistically larger in area, rounder and more regular in shape than those for negative polarity. The medium contrast condition lobes were more symmetric and regular than low contrast condition lobes, and lobe area and perimeter increased with increasing luminance contrast ratio. Under the interaction of positive polarity and high luminance contrast, visual lobes were found to be larger, smoother and rounder. The high level of luminance and contrast however resulted in a higher degree of visual discomfort. The results indicated that positive polarity and contrast of medium (26:1) to high (41:1) levels are possible display settings for better visual lobe characteristics and better anticipated search performance. Practitioner Summary: The effect of display polarity and luminance contrast on visual lobe shape characteristics was examined with uniform stimulus materials in this study. The results help to identify the optimum display settings for luminance contrast and display polarity to enhance lobe shape characteristics and hence search performance in industrial inspection tasks. PMID:22676836

  14. Effects of Si-doping on structural, electrical, and optical properties of polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongquan; Zhang, Xiong; Wang, Shuchang; Wang, Yi; Luan, Huakai; Dai, Qian; Wu, Zili; Zhao, Jianguo; Cui, Yiping

    2016-08-01

    The polar (0001)-oriented c-plane and non-polar (11 2 bar 0) -oriented a-plane wurtzite AlGaN epi-layers were successfully grown on polar (0001)-oriented c-plane and semi-polar (1 1 bar 02) -oriented r-plane sapphire substrates, respectively with various Si-doping levels in a low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. The morphological, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Hall effect, and Raman spectroscopy. The characterization results show that Si dopants incorporated into the polar and non-polar AlGaN films induced a relaxation of compressive residual strain and a generation of biaxial tensile strain on the surface in consequence of the dislocation climbing. In particular, it was found that the Si-induced compressive strain relaxation in the non-polar AlGaN samples can be promoted by the structural anisotropy as compared with the polar counterparts. The gradually increased relaxation of compressive residual strain in both polar and non-polar AlGaN samples with increasing Si-doping level was attributed to the Si-induced enhancement in the opportunity for the dislocations to interact and annihilate. This implies that the crystal quality for both polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers can be remarkably improved by Si-doping.

  15. Effective protection of biological membranes against photo-oxidative damage: Polymeric antioxidant forming a protecting shield over the membrane.

    PubMed

    Mertins, Omar; Mathews, Patrick D; Gomide, Andreza B; Baptista, Mauricio S; Itri, Rosangela

    2015-10-01

    We have prepared a chitosan polymer modified with gallic acid in order to develop an efficient protection strategy biological membranes against photodamage. Lipid bilayers were challenged with photoinduced damage by photosensitization with methylene blue, which usually causes formation of hydroperoxides, increasing area per lipid, and afterwards allowing leakage of internal materials. The damage was delayed by a solution of gallic acid in a concentration dependent manner, but further suppressed by the polymer at very low concentrations. The membrane of giant unilamellar vesicles was covered with this modified macromolecule leading to a powerful shield against singlet oxygen and thus effectively protecting the lipid membrane from oxidative stress. The results have proven the discovery of a promising strategy for photo protection of biological membranes. PMID:26055894

  16. The effective flux through a thin-film composite membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruna, M.; Chapman, S. J.; Ramon, G. Z.

    2015-05-01

    Composite membrane structures, used extensively in separation processes, comprise an ultra-thin selective polymer film cast over a porous support, whose pores partially obstruct transport out of the top film. Here, we model the composite as a finite thickness slab with a periodic array of circular absorbing patches in an otherwise reflective surface and study the effective transport properties of the composite. We obtain an analytical approximation for the effective diffusive flux as a function of the geometrical parameters, namely the film thickness, the support porosity and the pore size. We find a good agreement with full numerical solutions, and that a good effective rate is achievable with a relatively small number of pores.

  17. Benthic effects on the polarization of light in shallow waters.

    PubMed

    Gilerson, Alexander A; Stepinski, Jan; Ibrahim, Amir I; You, Yu; Sullivan, James M; Twardowski, Michael S; Dierssen, Heidi M; Russell, Brandon; Cummings, Molly E; Brady, Parrish; Ahmed, Samir A; Kattawar, George W

    2013-12-20

    Measurements of the upwelling polarized radiance in relatively shallow waters of varying depths and benthic conditions are compared to simulations, revealing the depolarizing nature of the seafloor. The simulations, executed with the software package RayXP, are solutions to the vector radiative transfer equation, which depends on the incident light field and three types of parameters: inherent optical properties, the scattering matrix, and the benthic reflectance. These were measured directly or calculated from measurements with additional assumptions. Specifically, the Lambertian model used to simulate benthic reflectances is something of a simplification of reality, but the bottoms used in this study are found to be crucial for accurate simulations of polarization. Comparisons of simulations with and without bottom contributions show that only the former corroborate measurements of the Stokes components and the degree of linear polarization (DoLP) collected by the polarimeter developed at the City College of New York. Because this polarimeter is multiangular and hyperspectral, errors can be computed point-wise over a large range of scattering angles and wavelengths. Trends also become apparent. DoLP is highly sensitive to the benthic reflectance and to the incident wavelength, peaking in the red band, but the angle of linear polarization is almost spectrally constant and independent of the bottom. These results can thus facilitate the detection of benthic materials as well as future studies of camouflage by benthic biota; to hide underwater successfully, animals must reflect light just as depolarized as that reflected by benthic materials. PMID:24513934

  18. Effect of electrode polarity on wire explosion in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Rousskikh, A. G.; Pil'tikhina, D; Baksht, R. B.; Beilis, I. I.; Chaikovsky, S. A.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents experimental results on electrical explosions of thin tungsten wires at wire currents of 0.04-0.4 kA and current rise times of several tens of nanoseconds. The experiment was performed for both negative and positive polarity of the high-voltage electrode. In addition to conventional current and voltage measurements, the current to a grounded cylindrical collector placed between the exploded wire and the return conductor was measured. The collector current was observed only for a 6 {mu}m wire exploded with the high-voltage electrode being at a negative potential. In all other test modes (a 6 {mu}m wire exploded with electrode positive polarity, 6 {mu}m wire exploded with electrodes enclosed in ceramic tubes, 30 {mu}m wires exploded with electrode negative and positive polarities) no collector current was detected. A model of the discharge initiation during a wire explosion (WE) in vacuum has been proposed which is based on the supposition that a surface discharge develops over the electrodes. The presence of plasma-emitted electrons at the cathode surface makes it possible to interpret the experimental results on WEs at different electrode polarities reported both in this paper and in previous publications.

  19. The effect of polarity and surface states on the Fermi level at III-nitride surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, P; Bryan, I; Bryan, Z; Guo, W; Hussey, L; Collazo, R; Sitar, Z

    2014-09-28

    Surface states and their influence on the Fermi level at the surface of GaN and AlN are studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effect of polarity on surface electronic properties was studied. Accurate modeling of the valence band edge and comparison with XPS data revealed the presence of donor surface states at 1.4 eV and acceptor states at energies > 2.7 eV from the valence band in GaN. Al polar AlN showed acceptor states at energies > 3.3 eV. Density of acceptor surface states was estimated to be between 10(13) and 10(14) eV(-1) cm(-2) in both GaN and AlN. The shift in charge neutrality levels and barrier heights due to polarity and the density of surface states on AlN and GaN were estimated from XPS measurements. Theoretical modeling and comparison with XPS data implied full compensation of spontaneous polarization charge by charged surface states. Barrier height measurements also reveal a dependence on polarity with phi(metal-polar)>phi(non-polar)>phi(nitrogen-polar) suggesting that the N-polar surface is the most suitable for Ohmic contacts. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  20. LINE-INTERLOCKING EFFECTS ON POLARIZATION IN SPECTRAL LINES BY RAYLEIGH AND RAMAN SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect

    Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N.; Stenflo, J. O. E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in

    2013-06-20

    The polarized spectrum of the Sun and stars is formed from the scattering of anisotropic radiation on atoms. Interpretation of this spectrum requires the solution of polarized line transfer in multilevel atomic systems. While sophisticated quantum theories of polarized line formation in multilevel atomic systems exist, they are limited by the approximation of complete frequency redistribution in scattering. The partial frequency redistribution (PRD) in line scattering is a necessary component in modeling the polarized spectra of strong lines. The polarized PRD line scattering theories developed so far confine themselves to a two-level or a two-term atom model. In this paper, we present a heuristic approach to the problem of polarized line formation in multilevel atoms taking into account the effects of PRD and a weak magnetic field. Starting from the unpolarized PRD multilevel atom approach of Hubeny et al., we incorporate the polarization state of the radiation field. However, the lower level polarization is neglected. Two iterative methods of solving the polarized PRD line transfer in multilevel atoms are also presented. Taking the example of a five-level Ca II atom model, we present illustrative results for an isothermal one-dimensional model atmosphere.

  1. Effect of light polarization on holographic recording in glassy azocompounds and chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozols, Andris; Kokars, Valdis; Augustovs, Peteris; Uiska, Ilze; Traskovskis, Kaspars; Saharov, Dmitry

    2011-04-01

    Light polarization effects on a holographic grating recording in a glassy chalcogenide a-As40S15Se45 film has been experimentally studied and compared with previously studied glassy molecular azobenzene film 8a at 633, using s - s,p - p, CE-1 and CE-2 circular-elliptic recording-beam polarizations (differing by light electric field rotation directions). The azocompound exhibited much higher self-diffraction efficiency (SDE) and diffraction efficiency whereas chalcogenide was more sensitive. Their recording efficiency polarization dependences also were different. SDE up to 45% was achieved in 8a with p - p and up to 2.6% in a-As40S15Se45 with CE-2 polarized recording beams. The polarization changes in the diffraction process were studied as well in these and other materials ( 11, 16, 19 and a-As2S3 film, LiTaO3:Fe crystal). It was found that light polarization changes in the process of diffraction from gratings recorded vectorially by s- p polarizations depended on chemical composition, wavelength, and exposure time. Vector gratings with SDE up to 25% were recorded in 8a, rotating a linear polarization by 90°. No light polarization changes were found in azobenzene 19 and chalcogenide films and in LiTaO3:Fe crystal, thus showing a vector recording of scalar holograms. The recording mechanisms in azocompounds and chalcogenides are discussed and compared.

  2. Effect of light polarization on holographic recording in glassy azocompounds and chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozols, Andris; Kokars, Valdis; Augustovs, Peteris; Uiska, Ilze; Traskovskis, Kaspars; Saharov, Dmitry

    2011-04-01

    Light polarization effects on a holographic grating recording in a glassy chalcogenide a-As40S15Se45 film has been experimentally studied and compared with previously studied glassy molecular azobenzene film 8a at 633, using s - s,p - p, CE-1 and CE-2 circular-elliptic recording-beam polarizations (differing by light electric field rotation directions). The azocompound exhibited much higher self-diffraction efficiency (SDE) and diffraction efficiency whereas chalcogenide was more sensitive. Their recording efficiency polarization dependences also were different. SDE up to 45% was achieved in 8a with p - p and up to 2.6% in a-As40S15Se45 with CE-2 polarized recording beams. The polarization changes in the diffraction process were studied as well in these and other materials (11, 16, 19 and a-As2S3 film, LiTaO3:Fe crystal). It was found that light polarization changes in the process of diffraction from gratings recorded vectorially by s-p polarizations depended on chemical composition, wavelength, and exposure time. Vector gratings with SDE up to 25% were recorded in 8a, rotating a linear polarization by 90°. No light polarization changes were found in azobenzene 19 and chalcogenide films and in LiTaO3:Fe crystal, thus showing a vector recording of scalar holograms. The recording mechanisms in azocompounds and chalcogenides are discussed and compared.

  3. Spatially resolved hard X-ray polarization in solar flares: effects of Compton scattering and bremsstrahlung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffrey, N. L. S.; Kontar, E. P.

    2011-12-01

    Aims: We study the polarization of hard X-ray (HXR) sources in the solar atmosphere, including Compton backscattering of photons in the photosphere (the albedo effect) and the spatial distribution of polarization across the source. Methods: HXR photon polarization and spectra produced via electron-ion bremsstrahlung emission are calculated from various electron distributions typical for solar flares. Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption are then modelled using Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport in the photosphere to study the observed (primary and albedo) sources. Polarization maps across HXR sources (primary and albedo components) for each of the modelled electron distributions are calculated at various source locations from the solar centre to the limb. Results: We show that Compton scattering produces a distinct polarization variation across the albedo patch at peak albedo energies of 20-50 keV for all anisotropies modelled. The results show that there are distinct spatial polarization changes in both the radial and perpendicular to radial directions across the extent of the HXR source at a given disk location. In the radial direction, the polarization magnitude and direction at specific positions along the HXR source will either increase or decrease with increased photon distribution directivity towards the photosphere. We also show how high electron cutoff energies influence the direction of polarization at above ~100 keV. Conclusions: Spatially resolved HXR polarization measurements can provide important information about the directivity and energetics of the electron distribution. Our results indicate the preferred angular resolution of polarization measurements required to distinguish between the scattered and primary components. We also show how spatially resolved polarization measurements could be used to probe the emission pattern of an HXR source, using both the magnitude and the direction of the polarization.

  4. Magnetic Flux Effect on a Kondo-Induced Electric Polarization in a Triangular Triple Quantum Dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Mikito; Matsumoto, Masashige; Kusunose, Hiroaki

    2014-08-01

    A magnetic flux effect is studied theoretically on an electric polarization induced by the Kondo effect in a triangular triple-quantum-dot system, where one of the three dots is connected to a metallic lead. This electric polarization exhibits an Aharonov-Bohm oscillation as a function of the magnetic flux penetrating through the triangular loop. The numerical renormalization group analysis reveals how the oscillation pattern depends on the Kondo coupling of a local spin with lead electrons, which is sensitive to the point contact with the lead. It provides an experimental implication that the Kondo effect is the origin of the emergent electric polarization.

  5. Effects of Bloom-Forming Algae on Fouling of Integrated Membrane Systems in Seawater Desalination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladner, David Allen

    2009-01-01

    Combining low- and high-pressure membranes into an integrated membrane system is an effective treatment strategy for seawater desalination. Low-pressure microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes remove particulate material, colloids, and high-molecular-weight organics leaving a relatively foulant-free salt solution for treatment by…

  6. The Excitable Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Offner, Franklin F.

    1972-01-01

    The model of the excitable membrane assumes common channels for Na+ and K+; the two ion species interact within the pores through their electrostatic forces. The electric field varies across the membrane and with time, as a result of ionic redistribution. Ionic flow is primarily controlled by energy barriers at the two interfaces and by Ca++ adsorption at the external interface. When the membrane is polarized, the high electric field at the external interface acting on the membrane fixed charge keeps the effective channel diameter small, so that only dihydrated ions can cross the interface. The higher energy required to partially dehydrate Na+ accounts for its lower permeability when polarized. Depolarized, the channel entrance can expand, permitting quadrihydrated ions to pass; the large initial Na+ flow is the result of the large concentration ratio across the interface. The effect at the internal interface is symmetric; Na+ crosses with greater difficulty when the membrane is depolarized. Na+ inactivation occurs when the ion distribution within the membrane has assumed its new steady-state value. Calculations based on parameters consistent with physicochemical data agree generally with a wide range of experiments. The model does not obey the two fundamental Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) postulates (independence principle, ion flow proportional to thermodynamic potential). In several instances the model predicts experimental results which are not predicted by the HH equations. ImagesFIGURE 12 PMID:4655662

  7. Solid effect DNP polarization dynamics in a system of many spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiśniewski, Daniel; Karabanov, Alexander; Lesanovsky, Igor; Köckenberger, Walter

    2016-03-01

    We discuss the polarization dynamics during solid effect dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in a central spin model that consists of an electron surrounded by many nuclei. To this end we use a recently developed formalism and validate first its performance by comparing its predictions to results obtained by solving the Liouville von Neumann master equation. The use of a Monte Carlo method in our formalism makes it possible to significantly increase the number of spins considered in the model system. We then analyse the dependence of the nuclear bulk polarization on the presence of nuclei in the vicinity of the electron and demonstrate that increasing the minimal distance between nuclei and electrons leads to a rise of the nuclear bulk polarization. These observations have implications for the design of radicals that can lead to improved values of nuclear spin polarization. Furthermore, we discuss the potential to extend our formalism to more complex spin systems such as cross effect DNP.

  8. Singular observation of the polarization-conversion effect for a gammadion-shaped metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chu-En; Yen, Ta-Jen; Yu, Chih-Jen; Hsieh, Cheng-Min; Lee, Min-Han; Chen, Chii-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Wei

    2016-02-01

    In this article, the polarization-conversion effects of a gammadion-shaped metasurface in transmission and reflection modes are discussed. In our experiment, the polarization-conversion effect of a gammadion-shaped metasurface is investigated because of the contribution of the phase and amplitude anisotropies. According to our experimental and simulated results, the polarization property of the first-order transmitted diffraction is dominated by linear anisotropy and has weak depolarization; the first-order reflected diffraction exhibits both linear and circular anisotropies and has stronger depolarization than the transmission mode. These results are different from previously published research. The Mueller matrix ellipsometer and polar decomposition method will aid in the investigation of the polarization properties of other nanostructures.

  9. Singular observation of the polarization-conversion effect for a gammadion-shaped metasurface.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chu-En; Yen, Ta-Jen; Yu, Chih-Jen; Hsieh, Cheng-Min; Lee, Min-Han; Chen, Chii-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the polarization-conversion effects of a gammadion-shaped metasurface in transmission and reflection modes are discussed. In our experiment, the polarization-conversion effect of a gammadion-shaped metasurface is investigated because of the contribution of the phase and amplitude anisotropies. According to our experimental and simulated results, the polarization property of the first-order transmitted diffraction is dominated by linear anisotropy and has weak depolarization; the first-order reflected diffraction exhibits both linear and circular anisotropies and has stronger depolarization than the transmission mode. These results are different from previously published research. The Mueller matrix ellipsometer and polar decomposition method will aid in the investigation of the polarization properties of other nanostructures. PMID:26915332

  10. Singular observation of the polarization-conversion effect for a gammadion-shaped metasurface

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chu-En; Yen, Ta-Jen; Yu, Chih-Jen; Hsieh, Cheng-Min; Lee, Min-Han; Chen, Chii-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the polarization-conversion effects of a gammadion-shaped metasurface in transmission and reflection modes are discussed. In our experiment, the polarization-conversion effect of a gammadion-shaped metasurface is investigated because of the contribution of the phase and amplitude anisotropies. According to our experimental and simulated results, the polarization property of the first-order transmitted diffraction is dominated by linear anisotropy and has weak depolarization; the first-order reflected diffraction exhibits both linear and circular anisotropies and has stronger depolarization than the transmission mode. These results are different from previously published research. The Mueller matrix ellipsometer and polar decomposition method will aid in the investigation of the polarization properties of other nanostructures. PMID:26915332

  11. Biophysical mechanism of the protective effect of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L. var. kamtschatica Sevast.) polyphenols extracts against lipid peroxidation of erythrocyte and lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Bonarska-Kujawa, D; Pruchnik, H; Cyboran, S; Żyłka, R; Oszmiański, J; Kleszczyńska, H

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present research was to determine the effect of blue honeysuckle fruit and leaf extracts components on the physical properties of erythrocyte and lipid membranes and assess their antioxidant properties. The HPLC analysis showed that the extracts are rich in polyphenol anthocyanins in fruits and flavonoids in leaves. The results indicate that both extracts have antioxidant activity and protect the red blood cell membrane against oxidation induced by UVC irradiation and AAPH. The extracts do not induce hemolysis and slightly increase osmotic resistance of erythrocytes. The research showed that extracts components are incorporated mainly in the external part of the erythrocyte membrane, inducing the formation of echinocytes. The values of generalized polarization and fluorescence anisotropy indicate that the extracts polyphenols alter the packing arrangement of the hydrophilic part of the erythrocyte and lipid membranes, without changing the fluidity of the hydrophobic part. The DSC results also show that the extract components do not change the main phase transition temperature of DPPC membrane. Studies of electric parameters of membranes modified by the extracts showed that they slightly stabilize lipid membranes and do not reduce their specific resistance or capacity. Examination of IR spectra indicates small changes in the degree of hydration in the hydrophilic region of liposomes under the action of the extracts. The location of polyphenolic compounds in the hydrophilic part of the membrane seems to constitute a protective shield of the cell against other substances, the reactive forms of oxygen in particular. PMID:24862869

  12. Effects of Antimicrobial Peptide Revealed by Simulations: Translocation, Pore Formation, Membrane Corrugation and Euler Buckling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Licui; Jia, Nana; Gao, Lianghui; Fang, Weihai; Golubovic, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    We explore the effects of the peripheral and transmembrane antimicrobial peptides on the lipid bilayer membrane by using the coarse grained Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations. We study peptide/lipid membrane complexes by considering peptides with various structure, hydrophobicity and peptide/lipid interaction strength. The role of lipid/water interaction is also discussed. We discuss a rich variety of membrane morphological changes induced by peptides, such as pore formation, membrane corrugation and Euler buckling. PMID:23579956

  13. Effects of the membrane action of tetralin on the functional and structural properties of artificial and bacterial membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Sikkema, J; Poolman, B; Konings, W N; de Bont, J A

    1992-01-01

    Tetralin is toxic to bacterial cells at concentrations below 100 mumol/liter. To assess the inhibitory action of tetralin on bacterial membranes, a membrane model system, consisting of proteoliposomes in which beef heart cytochrome c oxidase was reconstituted as the proton motive force-generating mechanism, and several gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were studied. Because of its hydrophobicity, tetralin partitioned into lipid membranes preferentially (lipid/buffer partition coefficient of tetralin is approximately 1,100). The excessive accumulation of tetralin caused expansion of the membrane and impairment of different membrane functions. Studies with proteoliposomes and intact cells indicated that tetralin makes the membrane permeable for ions (protons) and inhibits the respiratory enzymes, which leads to a partial dissipation of the pH gradient and electrical potential. The effect of tetralin on the components of the proton motive force as well as disruption of protein-lipid interaction(s) could lead to impairment of various metabolic functions and to low growth rates. The data offer an explanation for the difficulty in isolating and cultivating microorganisms in media containing tetralin or other lipophilic compounds. PMID:1314806

  14. Effects of hydraulic retention time and bioflocculant addition on membrane fouling in a sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lijuan; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao; Du, Bing; Wei, Qin; Tran, Ngoc Han; Nguyen, Nguyen Cong; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Li, Jianxin

    2016-06-01

    The characteristics of activated sludge and membrane fouling were evaluated in a sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor (SSMBR) at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (6.67, 5.33 and 4.00h). At shorter HRT, more obvious membrane fouling was caused by exacerbated cake layer formation and aggravated pore blocking. Activated sludge possessed more extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) due to excessive growth of biomass and lower protein to polysaccharide ratio in soluble microbial products (SMP). The cake layer resistance was aggravated by increased sludge viscosity together with the accumulated EPS and biopolymer clusters (BPC) on membrane surface. However, SMP showed marginal effect on membrane fouling when SSMBRs were operated at all HRTs. The SSMBR with Gemfloc® addition at the optimum HRT of 6.67h demonstrated superior sludge characteristics such as larger floc size, less SMP in mixed liquor with higher protein/polysaccharide ratio, less SMP and BPC in cake layer, thereby further preventing membrane fouling. PMID:26852274

  15. Complete polarization conversion using one crystal with dual transverse Pockels effect.

    PubMed

    Li, Changsheng

    2008-05-01

    Based on dual transverse Pockels effect, complete polarization conversion can be achieved by using only one electro-optic crystal and its two externally applied voltages. The electro-optic phase retardation and the azimuth angle of the field-induced principal dielectric axes of the crystal can be independently and linearly controlled by the amplitude and direction of the applied electric field, and the formulas for this correlation are deduced for arbitrary input and output polarization states. The candidate crystals mainly include the uniaxial crystals of 3 m, 62 m, and 32 symmetry groups, and the cubic crystals of 43 m and 23 symmetry groups. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that one crystal exhibiting both dual transverse Pockels effect and optical activity can also be used for complete polarization converter. The continuous polarization rotation of a linearly polarized light from 0 degrees to 180 degrees has been performed experimentally by use of single lithium niobate crystal with four lateral electrodes. In addition the light beam position-dependent polarization conversion by using a bulk electro-optic crystal is also measured in the experiment. This new type of polarization converter will have potential applications in many fields due to its simple configuration, explicit control logic of polarization conversion, and lower power consumption. PMID:18449288

  16. Effects of fermion exchange on the polarization of exciton condensates.

    PubMed

    Combescot, Monique; Combescot, Roland; Alloing, Mathieu; Dubin, François

    2015-03-01

    Exchange interaction is responsible for the stability of elementary boson condensates with respect to momentum fragmentation. This remains true for composite bosons when single fermion exchanges are included but spin degrees of freedom are ignored. Here, we show that their inclusion can produce a spin fragmentation of the dark exciton condensate, i.e., an unpolarized condensate with an equal amount of spin (+2) and (-2) excitons not coupled to light. The composite boson many-body formalism allows us to predict that, for spatially indirect excitons, the condensate polarization switches from unpolarized to fully polarized when the distance between the layers confining electrons and holes increases. Importantly, the threshold distance for this switch lies in a regime fully accessible to experiments. PMID:25793784

  17. Effects of Fermion Exchange on the Polarization of Exciton Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combescot, Monique; Combescot, Roland; Alloing, Mathieu; Dubin, François

    2015-03-01

    Exchange interaction is responsible for the stability of elementary boson condensates with respect to momentum fragmentation. This remains true for composite bosons when single fermion exchanges are included but spin degrees of freedom are ignored. Here, we show that their inclusion can produce a spin fragmentation of the dark exciton condensate, i.e., an unpolarized condensate with an equal amount of spin (+2 ) and (-2 ) excitons not coupled to light. The composite boson many-body formalism allows us to predict that, for spatially indirect excitons, the condensate polarization switches from unpolarized to fully polarized when the distance between the layers confining electrons and holes increases. Importantly, the threshold distance for this switch lies in a regime fully accessible to experiments.

  18. Trusting others: the polarization effect of need for closure.

    PubMed

    Acar-Burkay, Sinem; Fennis, Bob M; Warlop, Luk

    2014-10-01

    Because trust-related issues inherently involve uncertainty, we expected individuals' social-cognitive motivation to manage uncertainty--which is captured by their need for closure--to influence their level of trust in others. Through the results of 6 studies, we showed that higher need for closure was related to more polarized trust judgments (i.e., low trust in distant others and high trust in close others) in the case of both chronic and situational need for closure. Moreover, participants with high need for closure did not revise their level of trust when they received feedback about the trustees' actual trustworthiness, whereas participants with low need for closure did. Overall, our findings indicate that polarized (either high or low, as opposed to moderate) and persistent levels of trust may serve people's seizing and freezing needs for achieving cognitive closure. PMID:25111303

  19. Observation of polarization effects in Λc+ semileptonic decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, H.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Hamacher, T.; Hofmann, R. P.; Kirchhoff, T.; Mankel, R.; Nau, A.; Nowak, S.; Schröder, H.; Schulz, H. D.; Walter, M.; Wurth, R.; Hast, C.; Kapitza, H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kosche, A.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Schieber, M.; Siegmund, T.; Spaan, B.; Thurn, H.; Töpfer, D.; Wegener, D.; Eckstein, P.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Waldi, R.; Reim, K.; Wegener, H.; Eckmann, R.; Kuipers, H.; Mai, O.; Mundt, R.; Oest, T.; Reiner, R.; Schnidt-Parzefall, W.; Stiewe, J.; Werner, S.; Ehret, K.; Hofmann, W.; Hüpper, A.; Khan, S.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Seeger, M.; Spengler, J.; Krieger, P.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Prentice, J. D.; Saull, P. R. B.; Tzamariudaki, K.; van de Water, R. G.; Yoon, T.-S.; Frankl, C.; Reβing, D.; Schmidtler, M.; Schneider, M.; Weseler, S.; Kernel, G.; Križan, P.; Križnič, E.; Podobnik, T.; Živko, T.; Balagura, V.; Belyaev, I.; Chechelnitsky, S.; Danilov, M.; Droutskoy, A.; Gershtein, Yu.; Golutvin, A.; Korolko, I.; Kostina, G.; Litvintsev, D.; Lubimov, V.; Pakhlov, P.; Semenov, S.; Snizhko, A.; Tichomirov, I.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Argus Collaboration

    1994-05-01

    Polarization of the Λ daughter baryon from Λc+ → Λl+vl decay has been measured for the first time using the ARGUS detector at the DORIS II ɛ+ɛ- storage ring. Expressed in terms of the Λc+ semileptonic asymmetry parameter the result is αΛc= -0.91±0.49 for events in the mass region 1.85< M( Λl+)<2.20 GeV/ c2.

  20. Effect of cathodic polarization on coating doxycycline on titanium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Geißler, Sebastian; Tiainen, Hanna; Haugen, Håvard J

    2016-06-01

    Cathodic polarization has been reported to enhance the ability of titanium based implant materials to interact with biomolecules by forming titanium hydride at the outermost surface layer. Although this hydride layer has recently been suggested to allow the immobilization of the broad spectrum antibiotic doxycycline on titanium surfaces, the involvement of hydride in binding the biomolecule onto titanium remains poorly understood. To gain better understanding of the influence this immobilization process has on titanium surfaces, mirror-polished commercially pure titanium surfaces were cathodically polarized in the presence of doxycycline and the modified surfaces were thoroughly characterized using atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and angle-resolved X-ray spectroscopy. We demonstrated that no hydride was created during the polarization process. Doxycycline was found to be attached to an oxide layer that was modified during the electrochemical process. A bacterial assay using bioluminescent Staphylococcus epidermidis Xen43 showed the ability of the coating to reduce bacterial colonization and planktonic bacterial growth. PMID:27040230

  1. The polarization effect of a laser in multiphoton Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Guo-Hua; Lü, Qing-Zheng; Teng, Ai-Ping; Li, Ying-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The multiphoton Compton scattering in a high-intensity laser beam is studied by using the laser-dressed quantum electrodynamics (QED) method, which is a non-perturbative theory for the interaction between a plane electromagnetic field and a charged particle. In order to analyze in the real experimental condition, a Lorentz transformation for the cross section of this process is derived between the laboratory frame and the initial rest frame of electrons. The energy of the scattered photon is analyzed, as well as the cross sections for different laser intensities and polarizations and different electron velocities. The angular distribution of the emitted photon is investigated in a special velocity of the electron, in which for a fixed number of absorbed photons, the electron energy will not change after the scattering in the lab frame. We obtain the conclusion that higher laser intensities suppress few-laser-photon absorption and enhance more-laser-photon absorption. A comparison between different polarizations is also made, and we find that the linearly polarized laser is more suitable to generate nonlinear Compton scattering.

  2. THE EFFECT OF THE DUST SIZE DISTRIBUTION ON ASTEROID POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Masiero, Joseph; Hartzell, Christine; Scheeres, Daniel J. E-mail: christine.hartzell@colorado.edu

    2009-12-15

    We have developed a theoretical description of how of an asteroid's polarization-phase curve will be affected by the removal of the dust from the surface due to a size-dependent phenomenon such as radiation pressure-driven escape of levitated particles. We test our calculations against new observations of four small (D {approx} 1 km) near-Earth asteroids (NEAs; (85236), (142348), (162900), and 2006 SZ{sub 217}) obtained with the Dual Beam Imaging Polarimeter on the University of Hawaii's 2.2 m telescope, as well as previous observations of (25143) Itokawa and (433) Eros. We find that the polarization of the light reflected from an asteroid is controlled by the mineralogical and chemical composition of the surface and is independent of dust particle. The relation between the slope of the polarization-phase curve beyond the inversion angle and the albedo of an asteroid is thus independent of the surface regolith size distribution and is valid for both Main Belt and NEAs.

  3. Polarization effects in optical fiber communication and distributed vibration sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ziyi

    This thesis includes studies of polarization effects in two main research areas of optical fiber technology: optical fiber communication systems and optical fiber sensors. Polarization of light in optical fiber is sensitive to environmental disturbances. On the negative side, this results in complex measurement processes and errors in communication systems caused by dynamic polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization dependent loss (PDL). On the positive side though, it also results in the possibility of developing a distributed optical fiber vibration sensor. For the purpose of fast polarization measurement for high bit-rate communication systems, a new PDL vector method was proposed based on the equation of motion in Stokes space. It is capable of providing accurate PDL measurements while requiring less measurement steps compared with other available techniques. We had performed a PMD field test, and found the fastest PMD change in submarine fibers under the Caribbean Sea. With long measurement duration (>24h) on one pair of fiber, correlations between polarization effects and tides were reported for the first time. A histogram of the differential group delay (DGD) data and an auto-correlation function of state of polarization (SOP) and DGD were validated by theoretical fittings. The average and fastest drift time for both SOP and DGD was found to be ˜3min and less than 15s, respectively. Polarization effects were then utilized as a sensing parameter to detect and locate external disturbances along the optical fiber. A system based on polarization optical time domain reflectometry (Polarization-OTDR) technique was developed in order to pinpoint the disturbances as well as to give events' frequency information. For the first time, a fully distributed optical fiber vibration sensor has been demonstrated in a 1km fiber link with 10m spatial resolution and 5kHz maximum detectable frequency. Moreover, by our proposed spectrum analysis, multiple simultaneous

  4. Integrating Partial Polarization into a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen

    1999-01-01

    The ferroelectric channel in a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MFSFET) can partially change its polarization when the gate voltage near the polarization threshold voltage. This causes the MFSFET Drain current to change with repeated pulses of the same gate voltage near the polarization threshold voltage. A previously developed model [11, based on the Fermi-Dirac function, assumed that for a given gate voltage and channel polarization, a sin-le Drain current value would be generated. A study has been done to characterize the effects of partial polarization on the Drain current of a MFSFET. These effects have been described mathematically and these equations have been incorporated into a more comprehensive mathematical model of the MFSFET. The model takes into account the hysteresis nature of the MFSFET and the time dependent decay as well as the effects of partial polarization. This model defines the Drain current based on calculating the degree of polarization from previous gate pulses, the present Gate voltage, and the amount of time since the last Gate volta-e pulse.

  5. Differential resistance of GaN-based laser diodes with and without polarization effect.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Liu, Z S; Zhao, D G; Jiang, D S; Chen, P; Zhu, J J; Yang, J; Le, L C; Liu, W; He, X G; Li, X J; Liang, F; Zhang, L Q; Liu, J Q; Yang, H

    2015-10-10

    In this paper, we used numerical calculation and simulation to investigate the differential resistance of GaN-based laser diodes (LDs) with and without polarization effect. We confirmed the existence of a kink at the vicinity of threshold current in the differential resistance curve of GaN-based LDs and found that the kink polarity can be reversed dependent on the polarization effect. The serial parasitic diodes should be included in the theoretical analysis of the equivalent circuit of the LD devices. We determined that the superposition effects of the n-side, active, and p-side regions of the LDs caused the kink and its polarity. We also found that the differential resistance before and after the threshold was dominated by the p-side region and its gradual reduction is related to an electron overflow into p-side. Finally, we studied the effects of cavity facet reflectivity on the kink. PMID:26479807

  6. Theoretical investigation of polarization effects in solution: Importance of solvent collective motions

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Tateki

    2015-01-22

    Recent theoretical studies on interesting topics related to polarization effects in solutions are presented. As one of interesting topics, ionic liquids (ILs) solvents are focused on. The collective dynamics of electronic polarizability through interionic dynamics and the effect of polarization in ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF{sub 6}]), are studied with molecular dynamics simulation. Also, the time-dependent polarization effect on the probe betaine dye molecule, pyridinium N-phenoxide, in water is investigated by a time-dependent reference interaction site model self-consistent field (time-dependent RISM-SCF) approach. The importance of considering polarization effects on solution systems related to solvent collective motions is shown.

  7. Measuring X-Ray Polarization in the Presence of Systematic Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; ODell, S. L.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a mathematical formalism for determining the 1 and 2 parameter errors in the magnitude and position angle of X ]ray polarization. The formalism includes a treatment of systematic effects, such as background and instrumental bias.

  8. The effect of spontaneous polarization on two-dimensional elasticity of smectic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Dolganov, P. V. Dolganov, V. K.; Cluzeau, P.

    2013-06-15

    The influence of polarity on orientational elasticity and on structures formed in the director field is studied in free-standing smectic films. Periodic stripe patterns and 2{pi}-walls in a magnetic field are investigated. Measurements are performed on a nonpolar racemic mixture, on an optically pure ferroelectric compound, and in mixtures with different concentrations of the chiral isomers of opposite signs. The structure of periodic stripes changes drastically with the polarity of the film. The ratio of the bend K{sub B} and splay K{sub S} elastic constants for smectic films is determined as a function of polarization from the structure of periodic stripe patterns and 2{pi}-walls. We find that the elastic anisotropy K{sub B}/K{sub S} increases essentially with increasing the polarity of the film. Changes of the elasticity and the structure of periodic stripes are explained by polarization charge effects.

  9. Dielectric tensor of tetracene single crystals: the effect of anisotropy on polarized absorption and emission spectra.

    PubMed

    Tavazzi, S; Raimondo, L; Silvestri, L; Spearman, P; Camposeo, A; Polo, M; Pisignano, D

    2008-04-21

    The full UV-visible dielectric tensor and the corresponding directions of the principal axes of triclinic tetracene crystals are reported as deduced either by polarized absorption and ellipsometry measurements or by calculations based on the molecular and crystallographic data. The results allow the attribution of the polarized bands observed in both absorption and photoluminescence emission spectra. In particular, the spectral line shape and polarization of the emission are found to depend on the sample thickness, and the effect is attributed to the modification of the state of polarization of the emitted light during its propagation inside the crystal. Indeed, the directions of polarization of the lowest optical transitions and the directions of the principal axes of the dielectric tensor are demonstrated not to coincide, in contrast to the assumptions typically made in the literature, thus causing the mixed transverse/longitudinal character of light propagation. PMID:18433260

  10. A polarization independent liquid crystal phase modulation adopting surface pinning effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Tsou, Yu-Shih

    2011-12-01

    A polarization-independent liquid crystal (LC) phase modulation using the surface pinning effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystals (SP-PDLC) is demonstrated. In the bulk region of the SP-PDLC, the orientations of LC directors are randomly dispersed; thus, any polarization of incident light experiences the same averaged refractive index. In the regions near glass substrates, the LC droplets are pinned. The orientations of top and bottom droplets are orthogonal. Two eigen-polarizations of an incident light experience the same phase shift. As a result, the SP-PDLC is polarization independent. Polarizer-free microlens arrays of SP-PDLC are also demonstrated. The SP-PDLC has potential for application in spatial light modulators, laser beam steering, and electrically tunable microprisms.

  11. Ray Scattering by an Arbitrarily Oriented Spheroid: 2. Transmission and Cross-polarization Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Transmission of an arbitrarily polarized plane wave by an arbitrarily oriented spheroid in the short-wavelength limit is considered in the context of ray theory. The transmitted electric field is added to the diffracted plus reflected ray-theory electric field that was previously derived to obtain an approximation to the far-zone scattered intensity in the forward hemisphere. Two different types of cross-polarization effects are found. These are: (a) a rotation of the polarization state of the transmitted rays from when they are referenced with respect to their entrance into the spheroid to when they are referenced with respect to their exit from it and (b) a rotation of the polarization state of the transmitted rays when they are referenced with respect to the polarization state of the diffracted plus reflected rays.

  12. Controlled field evaluation of water flow rate effects on sampling polar organic compounds using polar organic chemical integrative samplers.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxia; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Helm, Paul A; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2010-11-01

    The uptake of polar organic contaminants into polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) varies with environmental factors, such as water flow rate. To evaluate the influence of water flow rate on the uptake of contaminants into POCIS, flow-controlled field experiments were conducted with POCIS deployed in channel systems through which treated sewage effluent flowed at rates between 2.6 and 37 cm/s. Both pharmaceutical POCIS and pesticide POCIS were exposed to effluent for 21 d and evaluated for uptake of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting substances (EDS). The pesticide POCIS had higher uptake rates for PPCPs and EDS than the pharmaceutical POCIS, but there are some practical advantages to using pharmaceutical POCIS. The uptake of contaminants into POCIS increased with flow rate, but these effects were relatively small (i.e., less than twofold) for most of the test compounds. There was no relationship observed between the hydrophobicity (log octanol/water partition coefficient, log K(OW)) of model compounds and the effects of flow rate on the uptake kinetics by POCIS. These data indicate that water flow rate has a relatively minor influence on the accumulation of PPCPs and EDS into POCIS. PMID:20865700

  13. In Situ Determination of Clostridium Endospore Membrane Fluidity during Pressure-Assisted Thermal Processing in Combination with Nisin or Reutericyclin

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, S.; Winter, R.; McMullen, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined the membrane fluidity of clostridial endospores during treatment with heat and pressure with nisin or reutericyclin. Heating (90°C) reduced laurdan (6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene) general polarization, corresponding to membrane fluidization. Pressure (200 MPa) stabilized membrane order. Reutericyclin and nisin exhibit divergent effects on heat- and pressure-induced spore inactivation and membrane fluidity. PMID:23335780

  14. In situ determination of Clostridium endospore membrane fluidity during pressure-assisted thermal processing in combination with nisin or reutericyclin.

    PubMed

    Hofstetter, S; Winter, R; McMullen, L M; Gänzle, M G

    2013-03-01

    This study determined the membrane fluidity of clostridial endospores during treatment with heat and pressure with nisin or reutericyclin. Heating (90°C) reduced laurdan (6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene) general polarization, corresponding to membrane fluidization. Pressure (200 MPa) stabilized membrane order. Reutericyclin and nisin exhibit divergent effects on heat- and pressure-induced spore inactivation and membrane fluidity. PMID:23335780

  15. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes.

    PubMed

    Koyano, Yuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S

    2016-08-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous two-dimensional fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it was shown [A. S. Mikhailov and R. Kapral, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015)PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1506825112] that such active proteins should induce nonthermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxislike drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them. PMID:27627343

  16. Polarized Range-Extended X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Oriented Photosystem II Membranes in the S[subscript 1] State

    SciTech Connect

    Pushkar, Yulia; Yano, Junko; Glatzel, Pieter; Messinger, Johannes; Lewis, Azul; Sauer, Kenneth; Bergmann, Uwe; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2007-11-13

    Detailed information about the orientation of particular Mn-Mn and Mn-Ca vectors in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of the Photosystem II in the S1 state provide a critical starting point for the analysis of the structural changes in the OEC along the catalytic S{sub i}-state cycle. The method of polarized range-extended EXAFS is an important technical development, that allows: (i) resolution of the 2.7 {angstrom} and 2.8 {angstrom} Mn-Mn interactions; (ii) resolution of 3.2 {angstrom} Mn-Mn and 3.4 {angstrom} Mn-Ca; (iii) determination of 2.7 {angstrom}, 2.8 {angstrom}, 3.2 {angstrom} Mn-Mn and 3.4 {angstrom} Mn-Ca vectors orientation relative to the membrane normal.

  17. Effect of anti-inflammatory drugs in phosphatidylcholine membranes: A fluorescence and calorimetric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lúcio, M.; Nunes, C.; Gaspar, D.; Gołębska, K.; Wisniewski, M.; Lima, J. L. F. C.; Brezesinski, G.; Reis, S.

    2009-03-01

    NSAIDs are the most prescribed drugs for inflammation, and their use is associated with severe gastrointestinal toxicity. This work focuses on the interaction of NSAIDs with membranes, specifically, on their ability to affect the lipid dynamic properties, since this may explain the compromising effects on the integrity of gastric barrier. Studies covered the assessment of drug-membrane/water partition coefficient and location by derivative spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching techniques and effects on membrane biophysics by DSC. Results indicate that the NSAIDs studied have membrane destabilizing effects, which could be transposed to similar effects in the stomach's phospholipid layer justifying their toxicity.

  18. Effects of Very Low Dose Fast Neutrons on Cell Membrane And Secondary Protein Structure in Rat Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nafee, Sherif S.; Shaheen, Salem A.; Al-Hadeethi, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on biological cells have been reported in several literatures. Most of them were mainly concerned with doses greater than 0.01 Gy and were also concerned with gamma rays. On the other hand, the studies on very low dose fast neutrons (VLDFN) are rare. In this study, we have investigated the effects of VLDFN on cell membrane and protein secondary structure of rat erythrocytes. Twelve female Wistar rats were irradiated with neutrons of total dose 0.009 Gy (241Am-Be, 0.2 mGy/h) and twelve others were used as control. Blood samples were taken at the 0, 4th, 8th, and 12th days postirradiation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of rat erythrocytes were recorded. Second derivative and curve fitting were used to analysis FTIR spectra. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to classify group spectra. The second derivative and curve fitting of FTIR spectra revealed that the most significant alterations in the cell membrane and protein secondary structure upon neutron irradiation were detected after 4 days postirradiation. The increase in membrane polarity, phospholipids chain length, packing, and unsaturation were noticed from the corresponding measured FTIR area ratios. This may be due to the membrane lipid peroxidation. The observed band shift in the CH2 stretching bands toward the lower frequencies may be associated with the decrease in membrane fluidity. The curve fitting of the amide I revealed an increase in the percentage area of α-helix opposing a decrease in the β-structure protein secondary structure, which may be attributed to protein denaturation. The results provide detailed insights into the VLDFN effects on erythrocytes. VLDFN can cause an oxidative stress to the irradiated erythrocytes, which appears clearly after 4 days postirradiation. PMID:26436416

  19. Polarization memory effect in optical coherence tomography and dental imaging application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yueli; Otis, Linda; Zhu, Quing

    2011-08-01

    We report the existence of polarization memory effect (PME) in optical coherence tomography and investigate its potential applications in dental imaging. We performed the study in three steps. First, microsphere scattering phantoms of different sizes were imaged in order to validate experimental results with PME theory. Both linearly and circularly polarized light were used to probe the samples. Second, healthy tooth samples were scanned and polarization memory effect was identified in dentin. In this step, specific verification and signal processing were performed to rule out possible image interpretation by birefringence effect. Third, we evaluated dentin demineralization with PME. Results show polarization memory can be useful to characterize this dynamic mineralization process for early caries detection and rehabilitation.

  20. Polarization effects in nitride and ferroelectric based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Madhusudan

    This dissertation addresses the application of theoretical and computational methods to examine heterostructure devices based on planar semiconductors. The thesis pursues III-V nitrides and ferroelectrics like LiNbO3 and BaxSr1-xTiO 3. GaN and other nitrides exhibit a large polarization charge arising from the built in polarization revealed in the [1000] growth direction, and are also wide band-gap materials (with the exception of InN). The nitrides are important for high-power/high-temperature electronics and for short wavelength light emitters. Our studies address important issues in large bandgap junctions, transistors and light emitters. One of the salient results of our studies has been the first calculations of tunnel current in polar junctions and the potential of using built in polar charge at interface to design junctions. We find that novel junctions cam be designed to produce tailorable I-V characteristics. Our studies have led to experimental realization of such tailorable junctions. We also present results on charge control in ferroelectric-nitride structures where post growth junction tailoring can be carried out (using poling) to create functional devices. This leads to a new class of devices such as switches. We have developed extensive charge control, Monte Carlo based transport models and device simulation techniques to examine nitride based transistors. These studies allow us to examine mobility, transit time, high frequency behavior, noise, transconductance, etc. We have examined device non-linearity issues, scaling issues, temperature dependence, noise sources, and device design optimization issues. Our results are closely coupled to experimental results. Role of unusual velocity-field relations, self-heating and non-equilibrium phonons is examined. III-V nitride based light emitters often exhibit a very high radiative efficiency, higher than the presence of dislocations in the system suggests. Calculations indicate however, that local disorder

  1. Effects of oxygen vacancies on polarization stability of barium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Shen, YaoGen; Song, Fan; Ke, FuJiu; Bai, YiLong; Lu, ChunSheng

    2016-03-01

    Oxygen vacancy, a kind of native point defects in ferroelectric ceramics, usually causes an increase of the dielectric loss. Based on experimental observations, it is believed that all of the oxygen vacancies are an unfavorable factor for energy saving. By using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the increase of coercive and saturated electric fields is due to the difficulty to switch local polarization near an oxygen vacancy, and so that a ferroelectric device has to sustain the rising consumption of energy. The simulation results also uncover how oxygen vacancies influence ferroelectric properties.

  2. Effects of basilar membrane arch and radial tension on the travelling wave in gerbil cochlea.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wei Xuan; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2015-09-01

    The basilar membrane velocity of gerbil cochlea showed discrepancy between theoretical model and experimental measurements. We hypothesize that the reasons of such discrepancies are due to the arch towards the scala tympani and radial tension present in the basilar membrane of the gerbil cochlea. The arch changes the bending stiffness in the basilar membrane, reduces the effective fluid force on the membrane and increases the basilar membrane's inertia. The existence of the radial tension also dampens the acoustic travelling wave. In this paper, the wave number functions along the gerbil basilar membrane are calculated from experimentally measured physical parameters with the theoretical model as well as extracted from experimentally measured basilar membrane velocity with the wave number inversion formula. The two wave number functions are compared and the effects of the tension and membrane arch on the wave number are studied based on various parameters of the model. We found that the bending stiffness across the gerbil basilar membrane varies (1-2 orders along the cochlea in the section 2.2 mm-3 mm from base) more than the calculated value in the flat basilar membrane model and the radial tension increases the damping of the travelling wave in gerbil cochlea significantly (5 times more than that without radial tension). These effects of arch and radial tension in the basilar membrane elucidate the discrepancy between previous theoretical model and experimental measurements in gerbil cochlea. PMID:26070425

  3. Transport properties of track-etched membranes having variable effective pore-lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Ali, Mubarak; Nasir, Saima; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    The transport rate of molecules through polymeric membranes is normally limited because of their micrometer-scale thickness which restricts their suitability for more practical application. To study the effect of effective pore length on the transport behavior, polymer membranes containing cylindrical and asymmetric-shaped nanopores were prepared through a two-step ion track-etching technique. Permeation experiments were performed separately to investigate the transport properties (molecular flux and selectivity) of these track-etched membranes. The permeation data shows that the molecular flux across membranes containing asymmetric nanopores is higher compared to those having cylindrical pores. On the other hand, the cylindrical pore membranes exhibit higher selectivity than asymmetric pores for the permeation of charged molecules across the membrane. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements of single-pore membranes further verify that asymmetric pores exhibit lower resistance for the flow of ions and therefore show higher currents than cylindrical pores. Moreover, unmodified and polyethyleneimine (PEI) modified asymmetric-shaped pore membranes were successfully used for the separation of cationic and anionic analyte molecules from their mixture, respectively. In this study, two distinct effects (pore geometry and pore density, i.e. number of pores cm-2), which mainly influence membrane selectivity and molecular transport rates, were thoroughly investigated in order to optimize the membrane performance. In this context, we believe that membranes with high molecular transport rates could readily find their application in molecular separation and controlled drug delivery processes.

  4. Transport properties of track-etched membranes having variable effective pore-lengths.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Ali, Mubarak; Nasir, Saima; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    The transport rate of molecules through polymeric membranes is normally limited because of their micrometer-scale thickness which restricts their suitability for more practical application. To study the effect of effective pore length on the transport behavior, polymer membranes containing cylindrical and asymmetric-shaped nanopores were prepared through a two-step ion track-etching technique. Permeation experiments were performed separately to investigate the transport properties (molecular flux and selectivity) of these track-etched membranes. The permeation data shows that the molecular flux across membranes containing asymmetric nanopores is higher compared to those having cylindrical pores. On the other hand, the cylindrical pore membranes exhibit higher selectivity than asymmetric pores for the permeation of charged molecules across the membrane. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements of single-pore membranes further verify that asymmetric pores exhibit lower resistance for the flow of ions and therefore show higher currents than cylindrical pores. Moreover, unmodified and polyethyleneimine (PEI) modified asymmetric-shaped pore membranes were successfully used for the separation of cationic and anionic analyte molecules from their mixture, respectively. In this study, two distinct effects (pore geometry and pore density, i.e. number of pores cm(-2)), which mainly influence membrane selectivity and molecular transport rates, were thoroughly investigated in order to optimize the membrane performance. In this context, we believe that membranes with high molecular transport rates could readily find their application in molecular separation and controlled drug delivery processes. PMID:26553245

  5. Effects of polar and nonpolar groups on the solubility of organic compounds in soil organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Kile, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Vapor sorption capacities on a high-organic-content peat, a model for soil organic matter (SOM), were determined at room temperature for the following liquids: n-hexane, 1,4-dioxane, nitroethane, acetone, acetonitrile, 1-propanol, ethanol, and methanol. The linear organic vapor sorption is in keeping with the dominance of vapor partition in peat SOM. These data and similar results of carbon tetrachloride (CT), trichloroethylene (TCE), benzene, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME), and water on the same peat from earlier studies are used to evaluate the effect of polarity on the vapor partition in SOM. The extrapolated liquid solubility from the vapor isotherm increases sharply from 3-6 wt % for low-polarity liquids (hexane, CT, and benzene) to 62 wt % for polar methanol and correlates positively with the liquid's component solubility parameters for polar interaction (??P) and hydrogen bonding (??h). The same polarity effect may be expected to influence the relative solubilities of a variety of contaminants in SOM and, therefore, the relative deviations between the SOM-water partition coefficients (Kom) and corresponding octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) for different classes of compounds. The large solubility disparity in SOM between polar and nonpolar solutes suggests that the accurate prediction of Kom from Kow or Sw (solute water solubility) would be limited to compounds of similar polarity.

  6. Scale effects and the formation of polarization vortices in tetragonal ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishna, Ananya Renuka; Huber, John E.

    2015-03-01

    Vortices consisting of 90 ° quadrant domains are rarely observed in ferroelectrics. Although experiments show polarization flux closures with stripe domains, it is as yet unclear why pure single vortices are not commonly observed. Here, we model and explore the energy of polarization patterns with vortex and stripe domains, formed on the square cross-section of a barium titanate nanowire. Using phase-field simulations, we calculate the associated energy of polarization patterns as a function of nanowire width. Further, we demonstrate the effects of surface energy and electrical boundary conditions on equilibrium polarization patterns. The minimum energy equilibrium polarization pattern for each combination of surface energy and nanowire width is mapped for both open- and short-circuit boundary conditions. The results indicate a narrow range of conditions where single vortices are energetically favorable: nanowire widths less than about 30 nm, open-circuit boundary condition, and surface energy of less than 4 N/m. Short-circuit boundary conditions tend to favor the formation of a monodomain, while surface energy greater than 4 N/m can lead to the formation of complex domain patterns or loss of ferroelectricity. The length scale at which a polarization vortex is energetically favorable is smaller than the typical size of nanoparticle in recent experimental studies. The present work provides insight into the effects of scaling, surface energy, and electrical boundary conditions on the formation of polarization patterns.

  7. Effect of texturing on polarization switching dynamics in ferroelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Sergey; Genenko, Yuri A.; Koruza, Jurij; Schultheiß, Jan; von Seggern, Heinz; Sakamoto, Wataru; Ichikawa, Hiroki; Murata, Tatsuro; Hayashi, Koichiro; Yogo, Toshinobu

    2016-01-01

    Highly (100),(001)-oriented (Ba0.85Ca0.15)TiO3 (BCT) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were fabricated by the reactive templated grain growth method using a mixture of plate-like CaTiO3 and BaTiO3 particles. Piezoelectric properties of the ceramics with a high degree of texture were found to be considerably enhanced compared with the BCT ceramics with a low degree of texture. With increasing the Lotgering factor from 26% up to 94%, the piezoelectric properties develop towards the properties of a single crystal. The dynamics of polarization switching was studied over a broad time domain of 8 orders of magnitude and was found to strongly depend on the degree of orientation of the ceramics. Samples with a high degree of texture exhibited 2-3 orders of magnitude faster polarization switching, as compared with the ones with a low degree of texture. This was rationalized by means of the Inhomogeneous Field Mechanism model as a result of the narrower statistical distribution of the local electric field values in textured media, which promotes a more coherent switching process. The extracted microscopic parameters of switching revealed a decrease of the critical nucleus energy in systems with a high degree of texture providing more favorable switching conditions related to the enhanced ferroelectric properties of the textured material.

  8. Effect of polar solvents on beta-carotene radical precursor.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu-Xi; Han, Rui-Min; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Skibsted, Leif H

    2008-03-01

    Beta-carotene forms radicals in chloroform upon photo-excitation (i) in the femtosecond time-scale by direct electron ejection into chloroform and (ii) in the microsecond time-scale by secondary reactions with chloroform radicals formed in the faster reactions. The precursor for beta-carotene radical cation decays in a second-order reaction in the mixed solvents, with a rate decreasing for increasing dielectric constant of cosolvent (acetic acid < ethanol < acetonitrile approximately methanol). The precursor is assigned as an ion pair from which the beta-carotene radical cation is formed in neat chloroform, but in more polar solvents it reacts at least partly through disproportionation in a bimolecular reaction promoted by the presence of ions. The stabilization of the radical precursor by increased solvent polarity, allowing for deactivation of the precursor by an alternative reaction channel, is discussed in relation to the balance of pro- and antioxidative properties of beta-carotene at lipid/water interfaces. PMID:18344123

  9. The Influence of Local Geometric Effects on Mars Polar Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, M. H.

    2005-01-01

    Using simple, qualitative heat balance models, this paper addresses textures and structures that will result from the evolution of volatile layers by accretion and by ablation. Such phenomena may have global implications that are not apparent when only flat or sloped surfaces are modeled. In general, structures such as mounds or depressions formed out of volatile materials will evolve in shape such that the growth or retreat of any particular surface will be maximized. It can be shown that the local radius of curvature is proportional to the growth or retreat rate. For example, icy surfaces will tend to form facets that face the dominant sun direction. Two such cases are evaluated: a) Features associated with condensation of volatiles, include cold-trapping and redistribution, such as the concentration of frost around the Viking 2 lander [1]. Here I will focus on textures that likely result from the formation of seasonal CO2 deposits. b) Features associated with sublimation of volatiles, such as those described by Ingersoll et. al. [2] result in textured surfaces that affect both the apparent emissivity and albedo. Similar calculations have been performed with respect to the "Swiss cheese" features on the South Polar Cap [3]. Here, I evaluate the likely sublimation rates from optimal ice scarp structures and their implications for the long-term evolution of the polar caps and formation of layered terrain.

  10. Mass Polarization Effect in He-like Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Drachman, Richard J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Eigenvalues for the ground state S and excited S and P states have been calculated for He-like systems, He, Li(+), Be(+2), and Ne(+8), using Hylleraas-type wave functions. These calculations have been carried out for a number of mass ratios R=mu/M=m(sub e)/(m(sub e)+M), where m(sub e) is the mass of the electron and M is the arbitrary mass of the nucleus. The eigenvalues are fitted to a 5th degree polynomial in R giving the mass polarization term (Delta (sub 1) x Delta (sub 2) and higher order corrections. The mass polarization term obtained from the fitting procedure agrees very well with the first-order result obtained directly. For example, in He we find E=E(sub 0)+Sigma(sup 5)(sub n=1)R(sup n)C(sub n), where E(sub 0)=-5.807448754 Ry and C(sub 1)=0.318138927 which agrees very well with the directly obtained first-order value 0.318138966083 and the result 0.318372 obtained by Yamanaka, using wave functions of the configuration-interaction form. We have carried out a similar calculation for the bound state of H(-).

  11. Investigation of the effect of bilayer membrane structures and fluctuation amplitudes on SANS/SAXS profile for short membrane wavelength

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Victor; Hawa, Takumi

    2013-09-28

    The effect of bilayer membrane structures and fluctuation amplitudes on small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) profile is investigated based on harmonic motions of the surfactant bilayers with bending as well as thickness fluctuation motions. In this study we consider the case in which the wavelength of the bilayer membrane is shorter than the thickness of the membrane. We find that the thickness of the surfactant bilayer membrane, d{sub m}, affects both q{sub dip} and q{sub peak} of I(q,0) profile, and that the fluctuation amplitude, a, of the membrane changes the peak of I(q,0). A simple formula is derived to estimate the thickness of the bilayer based on the q{sub dip} of the profile obtained from the simulation. The resulting estimates of the thickness of the bilayer with harmonic motion showed accuracy within 1%. Moreover, the bilayer thicknesses estimated from the proposed formula show an excellent agreement with the SANS and SAXS experimental results available in the literatures. We also propose a curve fit model, which describes the relationship between the fluctuation amplitude and the normalized q{sub peak} ratio. The present results show the feasibility of the simple formula to estimate the fluctuation amplitude based on the SANS and SAXS profiles.

  12. Character of extracellular polymeric substances and soluble microbial products and their effect on membrane hydraulics during airlift membrane bioreactor applications.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Vazquez, Hector; Pidou, Marc; Holdner, Jennifer; Judd, Simon J

    2008-12-01

    The effect of extracellular polymeric substances and soluble microbial products developed from wastewater and mature landfill leachate biomass was assessed using a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor operating polymeric and ceramic air-lift sidestream multichannel membranes. The plant was operated under identical conditions of sludge retention time, system hydrodynamics ,and parity of food-to-microorganism ratios. Biomass samples were extracted and fractionated (fixed and bound material, carbohydrate and protein extracts) and chemically and physically analyzed with the feedwaters. Both ceramic and polymeric membranes were tested and the critical flux (J(C)) determined according to the classical flux-step analysis. Although permeability (K) of both materials reduced with increasing flux (J), the ceramic material had a higher resistance to fouling, demonstrating a higher K (by a factor of 1.2 and 3.2 for wastewater and leachate, respectively, at J of 30 L x m(-2) x h(-1)) and lower fouling rate (dP/dt) (by more than an order of magnitude at the same J) than the polymeric membrane. Evidence suggests that deterioration of membrane permeability resulting from leachate biomass arises from the feedwater itself, rather than the products derived from the biomass, and that colloidal and/or soluble total organic carbon is primarily responsible for it. PMID:19146096

  13. Tailoring of Polarizing Agents in the bTurea Series for Cross-Effect Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Aqueous Media.

    PubMed

    Sauvée, Claire; Casano, Gilles; Abel, Sébastien; Rockenbauer, Antal; Akhmetzyanov, Dimitry; Karoui, Hakim; Siri, Didier; Aussenac, Fabien; Maas, Werner; Weber, Ralph T; Prisner, Thomas; Rosay, Mélanie; Tordo, Paul; Ouari, Olivier

    2016-04-11

    A series of 18 nitroxide biradicals derived from bTurea has been prepared, and their enhancement factors ɛ ((1)H) in cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization (CE DNP) NMR experiments at 9.4 and 14.1 T and 100 K in a DNP-optimized glycerol/water matrix ("DNP juice") have been studied. We observe that ɛ ((1)H) is strongly correlated with the substituents on the polarizing agents, and its trend is discussed in terms of different molecular parameters: solubility, average e-e distance, relative orientation of the nitroxide moieties, and electron spin relaxation times. We show that too short an e-e distance or too long a T1e can dramatically limit ɛ ((1)H). Our study also shows that the molecular structure of AMUPol is not optimal and its ɛ ((1)H) could be further improved through stronger interaction with the glassy matrix and a better orientation of the TEMPO moieties. A new AMUPol derivative introduced here provides a better ɛ ((1)H) than AMUPol itself (by a factor of ca. 1.2). PMID:26992052

  14. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, S.

    1986-08-19

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  15. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi

    1986-01-01

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  16. The polarized Debye sheath effect on Kadomtsev-Petviashvili electrostatic structures in strongly coupled dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Shahmansouri, M.; Alinejad, H.

    2015-04-15

    We give a theoretical investigation on the dynamics of nonlinear electrostatic waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma with strong electrostatic interaction between dust grains in the presence of the polarization force (i.e., the force due to the polarized Debye sheath). Adopting a reductive perturbation method, we derived a three-dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation that describes the evolution of weakly nonlinear electrostatic localized waves. The energy integral equation is used to study the existence domains of the localized structures. The analysis provides the localized structure existence region, in terms of the effects of strong interaction between the dust particles and polarization force.

  17. Polarization induced resistance switching effect in ferroelectric vinylidene-fluoride/trifluoroethylene copolymer ultrathin films

    SciTech Connect

    Usui, S. Nakajima, T.; Hashizume, Y.; Okamura, S.

    2014-10-20

    We observed a clear polarization reversal-induced resistance switching effect in ferroelectric Vinylidene-fluoride (VDF)/Trifluoroethylene (TrFE) copolymer thin films. Pt and Au were used as the bottom and top electrodes, respectively, and the thickness of the VDF/TrFE copolymer film was adjusted to be 10 nm. The conduction current was 100 times higher in the case of the spontaneous polarization of the VDF/TrFE film towards the Au electrode than that in the case of the opposite direction. This resistance switching was confirmed to be reproducible after 10 successive polarization reversals.

  18. Effects of polarization and phase modulation on the focal spot in 4Pi microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaocong; You, Shangting; Fang, Yue; Wang, Yifan; Kuang, Cuifang; Liu, Xu

    2016-07-01

    In 4Pi microscopy, the intensity and polarization distributions of the focal spot directly determine the system resolution, influencing its extended applications. This paper illustrates how the focal spot is affected by the polarization and phase modulation of the incident beams. Various combinations of polarization states and phase modulations are considered and their effects on the focal spot are investigated. The optimal configurations for generating a solid spot and a doughnut-shaped spot are proposed. This paper provides the theoretical basis and reference for extended applications, such as super-resolution confocal microscopy, 4Pi microscopy or 4Pi-STED microscopy.

  19. Analysis of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides excited by two orthogonal polarization waves

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez, A. M.; Boria, V. E.

    2014-08-15

    Circular waveguides, either employed as resonant cavities or as irises connecting adjacent guides, are widely present in many passive components used in different applications (i.e., particle accelerators and satellite subsystems). In this paper, we present the study of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides considering the coexistence of the two polarizations of the fundamental TE{sub 11} circular waveguide mode. For a better understanding of the problem, only low multipactor orders have been explored as a function of the polarization ellipse eccentricity. Special attention has been paid to the linear and circular polarizations, but other more general configurations have also been explored.

  20. Effects of polarity, hydrophobicity, and density of ionic liquids on cellulose solubility.

    PubMed

    Abe, Mitsuru; Kuroda, Kosuke; Sato, Daiki; Kunimura, Haruhito; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-28

    We have synthesised novel ionic liquids (ILs) to show both cellulose dissolution ability and LCST-type phase transition after mixing with water. To realise both polar and hydrophobic properties, tetraalkylphosphonium cations and a series of carboxylate anions were employed to assume hydrophobic and highly polar properties, respectively. Effects of their alkyl chain length on the water compatibility and cellulose solubility of the corresponding ILs were systematically examined. We succeeded in synthesising novel ILs which dissolve cellulose and separable with water at moderate temperature. Through the present study, we have clarified that not only polarity but also density of ILs is an important factor in designing the ILs for cellulose dissolution. PMID:26583649

  1. Polarization-sensitive effects of solgel materials containing various chiral media.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wei-dong; Bai, Gui-ru; Lu, Zu-kang

    2004-04-15

    The polarization-sensitive effects of solgel materials containing various chiral media were measured experimentally. The results show that the solgel material displays optical activity when it contains organic chiral molecules and manifests depolarization when it contains inorganic chiral microcrystals with a particle size of 70 microm. Solgel material containing glass powder that also has a particle size of 70 microm displays a polarization held characteristic (i.e., the polarization of the output light is the same as that of the input light). PMID:15119408

  2. Irradiation effect of polarization direction and intensity of semiconductor laser on injured peripheral nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo-Xin, Xiong; Lei-lei, Xiong

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the irradiation effect of polarization direction and the intensity of a semiconductor laser on the injured peripheral nerve in rabbits, the model of the injured common peroneal nerve was established, the L5,6 spinal segments of the rabbits were irradiated, a uniform rotating polarizer was placed at the laser output which made the polarization direction and intensity of the output laser change according to the 80 Hz cosine law. The experimental results show that irradiating the spinal segment of injured nerves in rabbits with this changeable semiconductor laser can significantly promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves and the function recovery.

  3. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Burnett

    2004-09-29

    Produced water is a major waste generated at the oil and natural gas wells in the state of Texas. This water could be a possible source of new fresh water to meet the growing demands of the state after treatment and purification. Treatment of brine generated in oil fields or produced water with an ultrafiltration membranes were the subject of this thesis. The characterization of ultrafiltration membranes for oil and suspended solids removal of produced water, coupled with the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of brine were studied on lab size membrane testing equipment and a field size testing unit to test whether a viable membrane system could be used to treat produced water. Oil and suspended solids were evaluated using turbidity and oil in water measurements taken periodically. The research considered the effect of pressure and flow rate on membrane performance of produced water treatment of three commercially available membranes for oily water. The study also analyzed the flux through the membrane and any effect it had on membrane performance. The research showed that an ultrafiltration membrane provided turbidity removal of over 99% and oil removal of 78% for the produced water samples. The results indicated that the ultrafiltration membranes would be asset as one of the first steps in purifying the water. Further results on selected RO membranes showed that salt rejection of greater than 97% could be achieved with satisfactory flux and at reasonable operating cost.

  4. Effect of ion bombardment on plasma-driven superpermeation of hydrogen isotopes through a niobium membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notkin, M. E.; Livshits, A. I.; Bruneteau, A. M.; Bacal, M.

    2001-08-01

    Hydrogen plasma-driven permeation through the superpermeable niobium membrane was investigated under bombardment of the input membrane surface with hydrogen, deuterium and helium ions with energy 0-250 eV over the range of membrane temperature 910-1420 K. The membrane surface was covered with a nonmetal monolayer generating a potential barrier responsible for the superpermeability to suprathermal hydrogen particles. Both an increase of ion energy and an increase of mass of sputtering ions result in a significant decrease of permeability due to destruction of the nonmetal monolayer, when the ion energy is higher than the threshold energy of surface film sputtering. On the contrary, the increase of the membrane temperature results in the decrease of the ion bombardment effect and in the increase of the membrane permeability due to recovery of the surface barrier through segregation of impurities dissolved in the membrane bulk onto the membrane surface. To increase the membrane ability to recover the potential barrier, oxygen was dissolved in the membrane bulk up to a concentration of 2.5 at.%. This resulted in a significant decrease of the damaging effect of ion bombardment and in the extension of the range of the membrane temperature and ion energy over which plasma-driven superpermeability was observed.

  5. Interfacial Effects in Polymer Membranes for Clean Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soles, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Polymeric membranes are critical components in several emerging clean energy technologies. Examples include proton exchange membranes for hydrogen fuel cells, anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells, flow batteries, and even block copolymer membranes for solid electrolytes/separators in lithium ion and other battery technologies. In all of these examples the function of the membrane is to physically separate two reactive electrodes or reactants, but allow the transport or exchange of specific ions through the membrane between the active electrodes. The flow of the charged ionic species between the electrodes can be used to balance the flow of electrons through an external electrical circuit that connects the electrodes, thereby storing or delivering charge electrochemically. In this presentation I will review the use of polymeric membranes in electrochemical energy storage technologies and discuss the critical issues related to the membranes that hinder these technologies. In particular I will also focus on the role the polymer membrane interface on device performance. At some point the polymer membrane must be interfaced with an active electrode or catalyst and the nature of this interface can significantly impact performance. Simulations of device performance based on bulk membrane transport properties often fail to predict the actual performance and empirical interfacial impedance terms usually added to capture the device performance. In this presentation I will explore the origins of this interfacial impedance in the different types of fuel cell membranes (proton and alkaline) by creating model thin film membranes where all of the membrane can be considered interfacial. We then use these thin films as a surrogate for the interfacial regions of a bulk membrane and then quantify the structure, dynamics, and transport properties of water and ions in the confined interfacial films. Using neutron reflectivity, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and

  6. Polymeric blend nanocomposite membranes for ethanol dehydration-effect of morphology and membrane-solvent interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanocomposite membranes (NCMs) of sodium alginate/poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) blend polymers incorporated with varying concentrations of phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40) (PWA) nanoparticles have been prepared and used in ethanol dehydration by the pervaporation (PV) technique. Effe...

  7. Nonlocal effects on the polarization state of a photon, induced by distant absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryff, Luis Carlos B.

    1994-01-01

    A variant of a Franson's two-photon correlation experiment is discussed, in which the linear polarization state of one of the photons depends on the path followed in the interferometer. It is shown that although the path difference is greater than the coherence length, the photon can be found in a polarization state represented by the superposition of the polarization states associated to the paths when there is coincident detection. Since the photons, produced via parametric down-conversion, are fairly well localized in space and time, the situation in which one of the photons is detected before the other can reach the interferometer raises an intriguing point: it seems that in some cases the second photon would have to be described by two wave packets simultaneously. Unlike previous experiments, in which nonlocal effects were induced by means of polarizers of phase shifters, in the proposed experiment nonlocal effects can be induced by means of variable absorbers.

  8. Comparative study of nuclear effects in polarized electron scattering from 3He

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ethier, Jacob James; Melnitchouk, Wally

    2013-11-04

    We present a detailed analysis of nuclear effects in inclusive electron scattering from polarized 3He nuclei for polarization asymmetries, structure functions and their moments, both in the nucleon resonance and deep-inelastic regions. We compare the results of calculations within the weak binding approximation at finite Q2 with the effective polarization ansatz often used in experimental data analyses, and explore the impact of Δ components in the nuclear wave function and nucleon off-shell corrections on extractions of the free neutron structure. Using the same framework we also make predictions for the Q2 dependence of quasielastic scattering from polarized 3He, data onmore » which can be used to constrain the spin-dependent nuclear smearing functions in 3He.« less

  9. Redefining electrical double layer thickness in narrow confinements: Effect of solvent polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Siddhartha; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper we delineate the consequences of field-dependent solvent polarization in the electric double layer (EDL) electrostatic potential distribution, and the effective EDL thickness in narrow nanofluidic confinements with thick (or overlapping) EDLs. The EDL, formed at the interface between a charged substrate and an electrolyte solution, induces a large electric field spanning across few nanometer distances from the interface. As a result, a polar solvent like water gets polarized, making its relative permittivity a function of the EDL electric field. This affects the overall EDL electrostatic potential distribution and most importantly, leads to a significant reduction of the effective EDL thickness, with the extent of the reduction being dictated by the value of field independent EDL thickness, strength of the solvent polarization, and the substrate-liquid interfacial electrostatic potential. Such a finding will necessitate redefining the classical EDL thickness, which will be of overwhelming significance in nanofluidic transport.

  10. Effect of polarization field on mean free path of phonons in indium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Sushant Kumar

    2016-05-01

    The effect of built-in-polarization field on mean free path of acoustic phonons in bulk wurtzite indium nitride (InN) has been theoretically investigated. The elastic constant of the material gets modified due to the existence of polarization field. As a result velocity and Debye frequency of phonons get enhanced. The various scattering rates of phonons are suppressed by the effect of polarization field, which implies an enhanced combined relaxation time. Thus phonons travel freely for a longer distance between two successive scatterings. This would enhance the thermal transport properties of the material when built-in-polarization field taken into account. Hence by the application of electric field the transport properties of such materials can be controlled as and when desired.

  11. Comparative study of nuclear effects in polarized electron scattering from 3 He

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ethier, J. J.; Melnitchouk, W.

    2013-11-01

    We present a detailed analysis of nuclear effects in inclusive electron scattering from polarized 3He nuclei for polarization asymmetries, structure functions and their moments, both in the nucleon resonance and deep-inelastic regions. We compare the results of calculations within the weak binding approximation at finite Q2 with the effective polarization ansatz often used in experimental data analyses, and explore the impact of Δ components in the nuclear wave function and nucleon off-shell corrections on extractions of the free neutron structure. Using the same framework we also make predictions for the Q2 dependence of quasielastic scattering from polarized 3He, data onmore » which can be used to constrain the spin-dependent nuclear smearing functions in 3He.« less

  12. Apical Membrane Localization of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Tumor Suppressor Protein and Subcellular Distribution of the β-Catenin Destruction Complex in Polarized Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reinacher-Schick, Anke; Gumbiner, Barry M.

    2001-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein is implicated in the majority of hereditary and sporadic colon cancers. APC is known to function as a tumor suppressor through downregulation of β-catenin as part of a high molecular weight complex known as the β-catenin destruction complex. The molecular composition of the intact complex and its site of action in the cell are still not well understood. Reports on the subcellular localization of APC in various cell systems have differed significantly and have been consistent with an association with a cytosolic complex, with microtubules, with the nucleus, or with the cortical actin cytoskeleton. To better understand the role of APC and the destruction complex in colorectal cancer, we have begun to characterize and isolate these complexes from confluent polarized human colon epithelial cell monolayers and other epithelial cell types. Subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy reveal that a predominant fraction of APC associates tightly with the apical plasma membrane in a variety of epithelial cell types. This apical membrane association is not dependent on the mutational status of either APC or β-catenin. An additional pool of APC is cytosolic and fractionates into two distinct high molecular weight complexes, 20S and 60S in size. Only the 20S fraction contains an appreciable portion of the cellular axin and small but detectable amounts of glycogen synthase kinase 3β and β-catenin. Therefore, it is likely to correspond to the previously characterized β-catenin destruction complex. Dishevelled is almost entirely cytosolic, but does not significantly cofractionate with the 20S complex. The disproportionate amount of APC in the apical membrane and the lack of other destruction complex components in the 60S fraction of APC raise questions about whether these pools of APC take part in the degradation of β-catenin, or alternatively, whether they could be involved in other functions of the protein that

  13. The Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity Protein-tyrosine Kinase-7 (PTK7) Is a Highly Efficient Proteolytic Target of Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase

    PubMed Central

    Golubkov, Vladislav S.; Chekanov, Alexei V.; Cieplak, Piotr; Aleshin, Alexander E.; Chernov, Andrei V.; Zhu, Wenhong; Radichev, Ilian A.; Zhang, Danhua; Dong, P. Duc; Strongin, Alex Y.

    2010-01-01

    PTK7 is an essential component of the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. We provide evidence that the Wnt/PCP pathway converges with pericellular proteolysis in both normal development and cancer. Here, we demonstrate that membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), a key proinvasive proteinase, functions as a principal sheddase of PTK7. MT1-MMP directly cleaves the exposed PKP621↓LI sequence of the seventh Ig-like domain of the full-length membrane PTK7 and generates, as a result, an N-terminal, soluble PTK7 fragment (sPTK7). The enforced expression of membrane PTK7 in cancer cells leads to the actin cytoskeleton reorganization and the inhibition of cell invasion. MT1-MMP silencing and the analysis of the uncleavable L622D PTK7 mutant confirm the significance of MT1-MMP proteolysis of PTK7 in cell functions. Our data also demonstrate that a fine balance between the metalloproteinase activity and PTK7 levels is required for normal development of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aberration of this balance by the proteinase inhibition or PTK7 silencing results in the PCP-dependent convergent extension defects in the zebrafish. Overall, our data suggest that the MT1-MMP-PTK7 axis plays an important role in both cancer cell invasion and normal embryogenesis in vertebrates. Further insight into these novel mechanisms may promote understanding of directional cell motility and lead to the identification of therapeutics to treat PCP-related developmental disorders and malignancy. PMID:20837484

  14. Polarity effects in the lactose operon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Altman, Sidney

    2004-05-21

    An intergenic RNA segment between lacY and lacA of the lactose operon in Escherichia coli is cleaved by RNase P, an endoribonuclease. The cleavage of the intergenic RNA was ten times less efficient than cleavage of a tRNA precursor in vitro. Fragments of the RNase P cleavage product are detectable in vivo in the wild-type strain but not in a mutant strain at the restrictive temperature. The cleavage product that contains lacA in the wild-type strain was quickly degraded. When this intergenic segment was cloned upstream of a reporter gene, the expression of the reporter gene was also inhibited substantially in wild-type E.coli, but not in a temperature sensitive mutant strain in RNase P at the restrictive temperature. These results support data regarding the natural polarity between lacZ versus lacA, the downstream gene. PMID:15123418

  15. Solvent polarity effects on carbene/ether-O-ylide equilibria.

    PubMed

    Hoijemberg, Pablo A; Moss, Robert A; Krogh-Jespersen, Karsten

    2012-05-17

    p-Nitrophenylchlorocarbene (PNPCC) reacted reversibly with tetrahydrofuran (THF), tetrahydropyran (THP), 1,3-dioxane (1,3-D), and 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) to form O-ylides 8, 9, 10, and 11, respectively. The O-ylides were visualized by their characteristic UV-vis spectroscopic signatures. Equilibrium constants (K) were determined spectroscopically, and studies of K as a function of pentane/1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) solvent blends illustrated the dependence of K on solvent polarity. Electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory provided carbene/ether O-ylide structures and energetics, as well as electronic spectroscopic parameters for use in the determination of K. Comparisons of the computed and experimental data were generally satisfactory. PMID:22564048

  16. Fatigue effect on polarization switching dynamics in polycrystalline bulk ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, S.; Glaum, J.; Kungl, H.; Sapper, E.; Dittmer, R.; Genenko, Y. A.; von Seggern, H.

    2016-08-01

    Statistical distribution of switching times is a key information necessary to describe the dynamic response of a polycrystalline bulk ferroelectric to an applied electric field. The Inhomogeneous Field Mechanism (IFM) model offers a useful tool which allows extraction of this information from polarization switching measurements over a large time window. In this paper, the model was further developed to account for the presence of non-switchable regions in fatigued materials. Application of the IFM-analysis to bipolar electric cycling induced fatigue process of various lead-based and lead-free ferroelectric ceramics reveals different scenarios of property degradation. Insight is gained into different underlying fatigue mechanisms inherent to the investigated systems.

  17. Interaction of Cotton-Mouton and Faraday effect under different initial polarization state of incident beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, J.; Kravtsov, Yu. A.

    2010-12-01

    The evolution of polarization along the ray in homogeneous plasma is analyzed in situation when Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effects are not small and comparable with each other. On the basis of the quasi-isotropic approximation of geometrical optics method authors find the numerical solution for azimuthal and ellipticity angles of polarization ellipse and analyze how the initial state of the incident beam affects obtained results. Numerical modeling is performed for plasma parameters comparable with those acceptable for the ITER project.

  18. Effect of dust particle polarization on scattering processes in complex plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kodanova, S. K.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Bastykova, N. Kh.; Moldabekov, Zh. A.

    2015-06-15

    Screened interaction potentials in dusty plasmas taking into account the polarization of dust particles have been obtained. On the basis of screened potentials scattering processes for ion-dust particle and dust particle-dust particle pairs have been studied. In particular, the scattering cross section is considered. The scattering processes for which the dust grain polarization is unimportant have been found. The effect of zero angle dust particle-dust particle scattering is predicted.

  19. Spicules and the Effect of Rigid Rods on Enclosing Membrane Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, D. R.; Turner, M. S.

    2005-12-01

    Membrane tubes (spicules) arise in cells, or artificial membranes, in the nonlinear deformation regime due to, e.g., the growth of microtubules, actin filaments, or sickle hemoglobin fibers towards a membrane. We calculate the axial force f exerted by the tube, and its average radius, taking into account steric interactions between the fluctuating membrane and the enclosed rod. We find a smooth crossover of the axial force between ftilde σ and ftilde σ as the membrane tension σ increases and the tube radius shrinks. This crossover occurs around the most physiologically relevant membrane tensions. Our work may be important in (i) interpreting experiments in which axial force is related to the tube radius or membrane tension, and (ii) constructing dynamical theories for biopolymer growth in narrow tubes where these fluctuation effects control the tube radius.

  20. Optically controlled spin-polarization memory effect on Mn delta-doped heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanta, M. A. G.; Brasil, M. J. S. P.; Iikawa, F.; Mendes, Udson C.; Brum, J. A.; Danilov, Yu. A.; Dorokhin, M. V.; Vikhrova, O. V.; Zvonkov, B. N.

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the dynamics of the interaction between spin-polarized photo-created carriers and Mn ions on InGaAs/GaAs: Mn structures. The carriers are confined in an InGaAs quantum well and the Mn ions come from a Mn delta-layer grown at the GaAs barrier close to the well. Even though the carriers and the Mn ions are spatially separated, the interaction between them is demonstrated by time-resolved spin-polarized photoluminescence measurements. Using a pre-pulse laser excitation with an opposite circular-polarization clearly reduces the polarization degree of the quantum-well emission for samples where a strong magnetic interaction is observed. The results demonstrate that the Mn ions act as a spin-memory that can be optically controlled by the polarization of the photocreated carriers. On the other hand, the spin-polarized Mn ions also affect the spin-polarization of the subsequently created carriers as observed by their spin relaxation time. These effects fade away with increasing time delays between the pulses as well as with increasing temperatures.

  1. Local Maps of the Polarization and Depolarization in Organic Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ronggang; Jonas, Alain M.

    2016-01-01

    We study the local ferroelectric polarization and depolarization of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) in p-type ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FeFETs). Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is used to obtain local maps of the polarization on model metal-semiconductor-ferroelectric stacks, and on FeFETs stripped from their top-gate electrode; transfer curves are measured on complete FeFETs. The influence of the semiconductor layer thickness and of the polarity and amplitude of the poling voltage are investigated. In accumulation, the stable “on” state consists of a uniform upward-polarized ferroelectric layer, with compensation holes accumulating at the ferroelectric/semiconducting interface. In depletion, the stable “off” state consists of a depolarized region in the center of the transistor channel, surrounded by partially downward-polarized regions over the source and drain electrodes and neighboring regions. The partial depolarization of these regions is due to the incomplete screening of polarization charges by the charges of the remote electrodes. Therefore, thinner semiconducting layers provide higher downward polarizations, which result in a more depleted transistor channel and a higher charge injection barrier between the electrodes and the semiconductor, leading to lower threshold voltages and higher on/off current values at zero gate bias. Clues for optimization of the devices are finally provided. PMID:26905962

  2. Optically controlled spin-polarization memory effect on Mn delta-doped heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Balanta, M A G; Brasil, M J S P; Iikawa, F; Mendes, Udson C; Brum, J A; Danilov, Yu A; Dorokhin, M V; Vikhrova, O V; Zvonkov, B N

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the dynamics of the interaction between spin-polarized photo-created carriers and Mn ions on InGaAs/GaAs: Mn structures. The carriers are confined in an InGaAs quantum well and the Mn ions come from a Mn delta-layer grown at the GaAs barrier close to the well. Even though the carriers and the Mn ions are spatially separated, the interaction between them is demonstrated by time-resolved spin-polarized photoluminescence measurements. Using a pre-pulse laser excitation with an opposite circular-polarization clearly reduces the polarization degree of the quantum-well emission for samples where a strong magnetic interaction is observed. The results demonstrate that the Mn ions act as a spin-memory that can be optically controlled by the polarization of the photocreated carriers. On the other hand, the spin-polarized Mn ions also affect the spin-polarization of the subsequently created carriers as observed by their spin relaxation time. These effects fade away with increasing time delays between the pulses as well as with increasing temperatures. PMID:27080310

  3. Optically controlled spin-polarization memory effect on Mn delta-doped heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Balanta, M. A. G.; Brasil, M. J. S. P.; Iikawa, F.; Mendes, Udson C.; Brum, J. A.; Danilov, Yu. A.; Dorokhin, M. V.; Vikhrova, O. V.; Zvonkov, B. N.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the dynamics of the interaction between spin-polarized photo-created carriers and Mn ions on InGaAs/GaAs: Mn structures. The carriers are confined in an InGaAs quantum well and the Mn ions come from a Mn delta-layer grown at the GaAs barrier close to the well. Even though the carriers and the Mn ions are spatially separated, the interaction between them is demonstrated by time-resolved spin-polarized photoluminescence measurements. Using a pre-pulse laser excitation with an opposite circular-polarization clearly reduces the polarization degree of the quantum-well emission for samples where a strong magnetic interaction is observed. The results demonstrate that the Mn ions act as a spin-memory that can be optically controlled by the polarization of the photocreated carriers. On the other hand, the spin-polarized Mn ions also affect the spin-polarization of the subsequently created carriers as observed by their spin relaxation time. These effects fade away with increasing time delays between the pulses as well as with increasing temperatures. PMID:27080310

  4. Electroosmosis in Membranes: Effects of Unstirred Layers and Transport Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Barry, P. H.; Hope, A. B.

    1969-01-01

    When a current is passed through a membrane system, differences in transport numbers between the membrane and the adjacent solutions will, in general, result in depletion and enhancement of concentrations at the membrane-solution interfaces. This will be balanced by diffusion back into the bulk solution, diffusion of solute back across the membrane itself, and osmosis resulting from these local concentration gradients. The two main results of such a phenomenon are (1) that there is a current-induced volume flow, which may be mistaken for electroosmosis, and (2) that there will generally develop transient changes in potential difference (PD) across membranes during and after the passage of current through them. PMID:5786317

  5. ESTIMATION OF EFFECTIVE SHEAR STRESS WORKING ON FLAT SHEET MEMBRANE USING FLUIDIZED MEDIA IN MBRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaw, Hlwan Moe; Li, Tairi; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Mishima, Iori

    This study was aimed at estimating effective shear stress working on flat sheet membrane by the addition of fluidized media in MBRs. In both of laboratory-scale aeration tanks with and without fluidized media, shear stress variations on membrane surface and water phase velocity variations were measured and MBR operation was conducted. For the evaluation of the effective shear stress working on membrane surface to mitigate membrane surface, simulation of trans-membrane pressure increase was conducted. It was shown that the time-averaged absolute value of shear stress was smaller in the reactor with fluidized media than without fluidized media. However, due to strong turbulence in the reactor with fluidized media caused by interaction between water-phase and media and also due to the direct interaction between membrane surface and fluidized media, standard deviation of shear stress on membrane surface was larger in the reactor with fluidized media than without media. Histograms of shear stress variation data were fitted well to normal distribution curves and mean plus three times of standard deviation was defined to be a maximum shear stress value. By applying the defined maximum shear stress to a membrane fouling model, trans-membrane pressure curve in the MBR experiment was simulated well by the fouling model indicting that the maximum shear stress, not time-averaged shear stress, can be regarded as an effective shear stress to prevent membrane fouling in submerged flat-sheet MBRs.

  6. Effective cleaning and sanitizing of polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Bohner, H F; Bradley, R L

    1992-03-01

    Polysulfone UF membranes that were soiled by Cheddar cheese whey were successfully cleaned in place. This cleaning procedure was completed in about 1 h. Most cleaning chemicals used were common and inexpensive. The cleaning procedure consisted of rinsing the membrane system for 2 min with water initially and after each cleaning solution. Sodium hydroxide at pH 11.0, with .1% of a nonionic surfactant added, was circulated for 20 min. After a 2-min rinse with water, a 1:1 mixture of nitric and phosphoric acids at pH 2 was circulated for 20 min and rinsed again with water. Finally, sodium hydroxide at pH 11.0, with 200 ppm of sodium hypochlorite added, was circulated for 20 min and rinsed. All cleaning solutions and all rinse waters were at 54 degrees C. Membranes cleaned by this procedure were found to be free from whey residue under examination by scanning electron microscopy. The cleaning process did not damage the membranes even when it was used continuously for 300 h. Microbial populations on the membrane were estimated by incubating small (4-cm2) sections of membrane in screw-cap vials filled with trypticase soy broth. From the portion of vials showing growth after 72 h at 32 degrees C, a most probable microbial population was calculated. Santizing cleaned polysulfone UF membranes with 100 ppm of sodium hypochlorite or 100 ppm of dichloroisocyanurate at 54 degrees C resulted in membranes free from viable microorganisms. When dichloroisocyanurate was used at 10 degrees C and 200 ppm, a most probable microbial population of 290/m2 was found. No microbial growth was detected when cleaned and sanitized membranes were stored in tap water for 24 h. This technique for cleaning UF membranes does not require the use of a holding solution containing santizers to control the growth of residual microorganisms. PMID:1569262

  7. Effects of spontaneous polarization on GaInN/GaN quantum well structures

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, M.; Joenen, H.; Rossow, U.; Hangleiter, A.

    2011-06-15

    Using electron beam irradiation, cathodoluminescence, and photoluminescence under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, we study the effect of spontaneous polarization on polar (0001) and nonpolar (1100) GaInN/GaN quantum well structures. We use cathodoluminescence measurements with an electron beam irradiation time of up to several hours. A drastic blueshift of the quantum well emission accompanied by a 100-fold increase of intensity is observed in polar samples. These changes can be described by an activation of the spontaneous polarization field due to the desorption of surface charges, which counteracts the piezoelectric field in the quantum well. Etching or annealing of the surface leads to similar effects. The influence of the sample structure was investigated by varying the cap thickness of the samples. A different time- dependent behavior of changes in the quantum well emission energy and the intensity depending on cap thickness and acceleration voltage was observed. This can be explained by de-screening and screening effects induced by the electron beam which are discussed in detail. For nonpolar (1100) samples, no change in quantum well emission energy or intensity was observed. This is consistent with a spontaneous-polarization-induced surface field in the c-plane case and verifies the absence of the spontaneous polarization field in the nonpolar (1100) direction.

  8. Effect of Amphotericin B antibiotic on the properties of model lipid membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiryakova, S.; Dencheva-Zarkova, M.; Genova, J.

    2014-12-01

    Model membranes formed from natural and synthetic lipids are an interesting object for scientific investigations due to their similarity to biological cell membrane and their simple structure with controlled composition and properties. Amphotericin B is an important polyene antifungal antibiotic, used for treatment of systemic fungal infections. It is known from the literature that the studied antibiotic has a substantial effect on the transmembrane ionic channel structures. When applied to the lipid membranes it has the tendency to create pores and in this way to affect the structure and the properties of the membrane lipid bilayer. In this work the thermally induced shape fluctuations of giant quasi-spherical liposomes have been used to study the influence of polyene antibiotic amphotericin B on the elastic properties of model lipid membranes. It have been shown experimentally that the presence of 3 mol % of AmB in the lipid membrane reduces the bending elasticity of the lipid membrane for both studied cases: pure SOPC membrane and mixed SOPC-Cholesterol membrane. Interaction of the amphotericin B with bilayer lipid membranes containing channels have been studied in this work. Model membranes were self-assembled using the patch-clamp and tip-dip patch clamp technique. We have found that amphotericin B is an ionophore and reduces the resistance of the lipid bilayer.

  9. Relativistic Effects and Polarization in Three High-Energy Pulsar Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyks, J.; Harding, Alice K.; Rudak, B.

    2004-01-01

    We present the influence of the special relativistic effects of aberration and light travel time delay on pulsar high-energy lightcurves and polarization characteristics predicted by three models: the two-pole caustic model, the outer gap model, and the polar cap model. Position angle curves and degree of polarization are calculated for the models and compared with the optical data on the Crab pulsar. The relative positions of peaks in gamma-ray and radio lightcurves are discussed in detail for the models. We find that the two-pole caustic model can reproduce qualitatively the optical polarization characteristics of the Crab pulsar - fast swings of the position angle and minima in polarization degree associated with both peaks. The anticorrelation between the observed flux and the polarization degree (observed in the optical band also for B0656+14) naturally results from the caustic nature of the peaks which are produced in the model due to the superposition of radiation from many different altitudes, ie. polarized at different angles. The two-pole caustic model also provides an acceptable interpretation of the main features in the Crab's radio profile. Neither the outer gap model nor the polar cap model are able to reproduce the optical polarization data on the Crab. Although the outer gap model is very successful in reproducing the relative positions of gamma-ray and radio peaks in pulse profiles, it can reproduce the high-energy lightcurves only when photon emission from regions very close to the light cylinder is included.

  10. Theoretical investigation on polar dielectric with large electrocaloric effect as cooling devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Li, Bo; Leng, Jinsong

    2011-10-01

    Polar dielectric based cooling devices are modeled as a system with two degrees of freedom and represented by either an entropy-temperature or electric displacement-electric field plane. A typical thermodynamic energy cyclic path is proposed for polar dielectric as cooling devices to experience. With the influence of temperature taken into consideration, the free energy of a thermal electrical coupling system of polar dielectrics is formulated, and the variation of temperature and entropy, the absorption of heat, and the work under different electric fields are calculated for BaTiO3, Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3, P(VDF-TrFE), and water. And the simulation results obtained agree well with the recently published experimental data [B. Neese, et al., Science 321, 821 (2008)]. It is, therefore, suggested that the high polar liquid dielectrics may possess a large electrocaloric effect.

  11. Axion-like particle effects on the polarization of cosmic high-energy gamma sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bassan, Nicola; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Roncadelli, Marco E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@desy.de

    2010-05-01

    Various satellite-borne missions are being planned to measure the polarization of a large number of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We show that the polarization pattern resulting from the current models of GRB emission can be drastically modified by the existence of very light axion-like particles (ALPs), which are predicted by many extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics. Basically, the propagation of photons emitted by a GRB through cosmic magnetic fields with a domain-like structure induces photon-ALP mixing, which is expected to produce a strong modification of the initial photon polarization. Because of the random orientation of the magnetic field in each domain, this effect strongly depends on the orientation of the line of sight. As a consequence, photon-ALP conversion considerably broadens the initial polarization distribution. Searching for such a peculiar feature through future high-statistics polarimetric measurements therefore offers a new opportunity to discover very light ALPs.

  12. Effects of a rough boundary surface on polarization of the scattered field from an inhomogeneous medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, A. K.; Eom, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    A combination of the standard Kirchhoff method for rough surface scattering with the Rayleigh phase function radiative transfer method for volume scattering is employed in the present study of the effect of surface roughness on the polarization of the scattered field. It is found that for pure surface scattering, the polarization ratio between zero and 20 deg incidence angles is sensitive to surface roughness change. When both surface and volume scattering are present, however, copolarization nulls by colatitude or degree of polarization at zero to 15 deg incidence angle, and copolarization or crosspolarization nulls by longitude at large incidence angles, are better indicators of surface roughness changes. It is noted that degree of polarization and copolarization nulls by colatitude vary monotonously with incidence angle, while in combined surface and volume scattering these have, respectively, a minimum and a maximum. This characteristic allows the separation of combined surface and volume scattering from pure surface or volume scattering.

  13. The effect of hydroxylated fatty acid-containing phospholipids in the remodeling of lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Piotto, Stefano; Trapani, Alfonso; Bianchino, Erminia; Ibarguren, Maitane; López, David J; Busquets, Xavier; Concilio, Simona

    2014-06-01

    The synthetic fatty acid 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2OHOA) is an antitumor drug that regulates membrane lipid composition and structure. An important effect of this drug is the restoration of sphingomyelin (SM) levels in cancer cell membranes, where the SM concentration is lower than in non-tumor cells. It is well known that free fatty acid concentration in cell membranes is lower than 5%, and that fatty acid excess is rapidly incorporated into phospholipids. In a recent work, we have considered the effect of free 2OHOA in model membranes in liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) phases, by using all-atom molecular dynamics. This study concerns membranes that are modified upon incorporation of 2OHOA into different phospholipids. 2OHOA-containing phospholipids have a permanent effect on lipid membranes, making a Ld membrane surface more compact and less hydrated, whereas the opposite effect is observed in Lo domains. Moreover, the hydroxyl group of fatty acid chains increases the propensity of Ld model membranes to form hexagonal or other non-lamellar structures. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Structure and Function: Relevance in the Cell's Physiology, Pathology and Therapy. PMID:24463068

  14. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-03-01

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices.

  15. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices. PMID:26954833

  16. Influences of surface and flexoelectric polarization on the effective anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Rong-Hua; Ye, Wen-Jiang; Xing, Hong-Yu

    2015-10-01

    The physical effects on surface and flexoelectric polarization in a weak anchoring nematic liquid crystal cell are investigated systematically. We derive the analytic expressions of two effective anchoring energies for lower and upper substrates respectively as well as their effective anchoring strengths and corresponding tilt angles of effective easy direction. All of these quantities are relevant to the magnitudes of both two polarizations and the applied voltage U. Based on these expressions, the variations of effective anchoring strength and the tilt angle with the applied voltage are calculated for the fixed values of two polarizations. For an original weak anchoring hybrid aligned nematic cell, it may be equivalent to a planar cell for a small value of U and has a threshold voltage. The variation of reduced threshold voltage with reduced surface polarization strength is also calculated. The role of surface polarization is important without the adsorptive ions considered. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274088, 11374087, and11304074), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. A2014202123), the Research Project of Hebei Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. QN2014130), and the Key Subject Construction Project of Hebei Provincial University, China.

  17. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices. PMID:26954833

  18. Effects of climatic changes on anisakid nematodes in polar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokicki, Jerzy

    2009-11-01

    Anisakid nematodes are common in Antarctic, sub-Antarctic, and Arctic areas. Current distributional knowledge of anisakids in the polar regions is reviewed. Climatic variables influence the occurrence and abundance of anisakids, directly influencing their free-living larval stages and also indirectly influencing their predominantly invertebrate (but also vertebrate) hosts. As these parasites can also be pathogenic for humans, the paucity of information available is a source of additional hazard. As fish are a major human dietary component in Arctic and Antarctic areas, and are often eaten without heat processing, a high risk of infection by anisakid larvae might be expected. The present level of knowledge, particularly relating to anisakid larval stages present in fishes, is far from satisfactory. Preliminary molecular studies have revealed the presence of species complexes. Contemporary climate warming is modifying the marine environment and may result in an extension of time during which anisakid eggs can persist and hatch, and of the time period during which newly hatched larvae remain viable. As a result there may be an increase in the extent of anisakid distribution. Continued warming will modify the composition of the parasitic nematode fauna of marine animals, due to changes in feeding habits, as the warming of the sea and any localised reduction in salinity (from freshwater runoff) can be expected to bring about changes in the species composition of pelagic and benthic invertebrates.

  19. The Effect of Negative Polarity Items on Inference Verification

    PubMed Central

    SZABOLCSI, ANNA; BOTT, LEWIS; McELREE, BRIAN

    2010-01-01

    The scalar approach to negative polarity item (NPI) licensing assumes that NPIs are allowable in contexts in which the introduction of the NPI leads to proposition strengthening (e.g. Kadmon & Landman 1993; Krifka 1995; Lahiri 1997; Chierchia 2006). A straightforward processing prediction from such a theory is that NPIs facilitate inference verification from sets to subsets. Three experiments are reported that test this proposal. In each experiment, participants evaluated whether inferences from sets to subsets were valid. Crucially, we manipulated whether the premises contained an NPI. In Experiment 1, participants completed a metalinguistic reasoning task and Experiments 2 and 3 tested reading times using a self-paced reading task. Contrary to expectations, no facilitation was observed when the NPI was present in the premise compared to when it was absent. In fact, the NPI significantly slowed down reading times in the inference region. Our results therefore favour those scalar theories that predict that the NPI is costly to process (Chierchia 2006), or other, non-scalar theories (Ladusaw 1992; Giannakidou 1998; Szabolcsi 2004; Postal 2005) that likewise predict NPI processing cost but, unlike Chierchia (2006), expect the magnitude of the processing cost to vary with the actual pragmatics of the NPI. PMID:21562618

  20. Spin effects in Kapitza-Dirac scattering at light with elliptical polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhard, Rico; Bauke, Heiko

    2015-10-01

    The Kapitza-Dirac effect, which refers to electron scattering at standing light waves, is studied in the Bragg regime with counterpropagating elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves with the same intensity, wavelength, and degree of polarization for two different setups. In the first setup, where the electric-field components of the counterpropagating waves have the same sense of rotation, we find distinct spin effects. The spins of the scattered electrons and of the nonscattered electrons, respectively, precess with a frequency that is of the order of the Bragg-reflection Rabi frequency. When the electric-field components of the counterpropagating waves have an opposite sense of rotation, which is the second considered setup, the standing wave has linear polarization, and no spin effects can be observed. Our results are based on numerical solutions of the time-dependent Dirac equation and the analytical solution of a relativistic Pauli equation, which accounts for the leading relativistic effects.

  1. Designing Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistors Based on the Polarization-Rotation Effect for Low Operating Voltage and Fast Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yubo; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of polarization rotation on the performance of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors is investigated with a Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory-based model. In this analytical model, the depolarization field, polarization rotations, and electrostatic properties of the doped silicon substrate are considered to illustrate the size effect of ferroelectric oxides and the stability of polarization in each direction. Based on this model, we provide guidance in designing electronic logic devices with low operating voltages and low active-energy consumption: First, we demonstrate that MOSFET operation could be achieved by polarization reorientation with a low operating voltage, if the thickness of the ferroelectric oxide is properly selected. Polarization reorientation can boost the surface potential of the silicon substrate, leading to a subthreshold swing S lower than 60 mV /decade . We also demonstrate that, compared with polarization inversion, polarization rotation offers significant advantages, including a lower energy barrier and a wider range of transferability in nanoelectronic devices.

  2. SCATTERING POLARIZATION AND HANLE EFFECT IN STELLAR ATMOSPHERES WITH HORIZONTAL INHOMOGENEITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Manso Sainz, Rafael; Trujillo Bueno, Javier E-mail: jtb@iac.es

    2011-12-10

    Scattering of light from an anisotropic source produces linear polarization in spectral lines and in the continuum. In the outer layers of a stellar atmosphere the anisotropy of the radiation field is typically dominated by the radiation escaping away, but local horizontal fluctuations of the physical conditions may also contribute, distorting the illumination and, hence, the polarization pattern. Additionally, a magnetic field may perturb and modify the line scattering polarization signals through the Hanle effect. Here, we study such symmetry-breaking effects. We develop a method to solve the transfer of polarized radiation in a scattering atmosphere with weak horizontal fluctuations of the opacity and source functions. It comprises linearization (small opacity and Planck function fluctuations are assumed), reduction to a quasi-plane-parallel problem through harmonic analysis, and the problem's numerical solution by generalized standard techniques. We apply this method to study scattering polarization in atmospheres with horizontal fluctuations in the Planck function and opacity. We derive several very general results and constraints from considerations on the symmetries and dimensionality of the problem, and we give explicit solutions of a few illustrative problems of special interest. For example, we show (1) how the amplitudes of the fractional linear polarization signals change when considering increasingly smaller horizontal atmospheric inhomogeneities, (2) that in the presence of such inhomogeneities even a vertical magnetic field may modify the scattering line polarization, and (3) that forward scattering polarization may be produced without the need for an inclined magnetic field. These results are important for understanding the physics of the problem and as benchmarks for multidimensional radiative transfer codes.

  3. Effects of polarization in low-level laser therapy of spinal cord injury in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Takahiro; Sato, Shunichi; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Hamblin, Michael R.; Obara, Minoru

    2012-03-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a promising approach to treat the spinal cord injury (SCI). Since nerve fibers have optical anisotropy, propagation of light in the spinal tissue might be affected by its polarization direction. However, the effect of polarization on the efficacy of LLLT has not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of polarization on the efficacy of near-infrared LLLT for SCI. Rat spinal cord was injured with a weight-drop device. The lesion site was irradiated with an 808-nm diode laser beam that was transmitted through a polarizing filter immediately after injury and daily for five consecutive days. The laser power at the injured spinal cord surface was 25 mW, and the dosage per day was 9.6 J/cm2 (spot diameter, 2 cm; irradiation duration, 1200 s). Functional recovery was assessed daily by an open-field test. The results showed that the functional scores of the SCI rats that were treated with 808-nm laser irradiation were significantly higher than those of the SCI alone group (Group 1) from day 5 after injury, regardless of the polarization direction. Importantly, as compared to the locomotive function of the SCI rats that were treated with the perpendicularly-polarized laser parallel to the spinal column (Group 2), that of the SCI rats that were irradiated with the linearly aligned polarization (Group 3) was significantly improved from day 10 after injury. In addition, the ATP contents in the injured spinal tissue of Group 3, which were measured immediately after laser irradiation, were moderately higher than those of Group 2. These observations are attributable to the deeper penetration of the parallelpolarized light in the anisotropic spinal tissue, suggesting that polarization direction significantly affects the efficacy of LLLT for SCI.

  4. Effects of DIDS on the chick retinal pigment epithelium. I. Membrane potentials, apparent resistances, and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gallemore, R P; Steinberg, R H

    1989-06-01

    While little is known about the transport properties of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) basal membrane, mechanisms for anion movement across the basal membrane appear to be present (Miller and Steinberg, 1977; Hughes et al., 1984; Miller and Farber, 1984). This work examines the electrophysiological effects of the anion conductance blocker, 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (DIDS) on the basal membrane of an in vitro preparation of chick retina-RPE-choroid. DIDS (10-125 microM), added to the choroidal bath, decreased the transtissue potential by decreasing the potential across the RPE. Intracellular RPE recordings showed that DIDS affected the membrane potential in 2 phases, initially hyperpolarizing the basal membrane and then, after prolonged exposure, depolarizing the apical membrane. Resistance assessment by transtissue current pulses and intracellular c-wave recordings suggested that DIDS increased basal membrane resistance (Rba) during the first phase and increased apical membrane resistance (Rap) during the second phase. Measurements of intracellular Cl- activity (aiCl) showed that Cl- was actively accumulated by the chick RPE since it was distributed above equilibrium across both the apical and basal membranes. Perfusion of the basal membrane with 50 microM DIDS significantly increased aiCl-. The DIDS-induced basal membrane hyperpolarization, apparent increase in Rba, and increase in aiCl- are all consistent with Cl- -conductance blockade. During the second phase, apical membrane responsiveness to the light-evoked decrease in subretinal [K+]o (Oakley, 1977) was reduced an average of 58%. This finding, given the second-phase apical membrane depolarization and apparent increase in Rap, is consistent with a decrease in apical membrane K+ conductance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2723761

  5. Flavonoid-membrane Interactions: A Protective Role of Flavonoids at the Membrane Surface?

    PubMed Central

    Oteiza, Patricia I.; Erlejman, Alejandra G.; Verstraeten, Sandra V.; Keen, Carl L.; Fraga, César G.

    2005-01-01

    Flavonoids can exert beneficial health effects through multiple mechanisms. In this paper, we address the important, although not fully understood, capacity of flavonoids to interact with cell membranes. The interactions of polyphenols with bilayers include: (a) the partition of the more non-polar compounds in the hydrophobic interior of the membrane, and (b) the formation of hydrogen bonds between the polar head groups of lipids and the more hydrophilic flavonoids at the membrane interface. The consequences of these interactions are discussed. The induction of changes in membrane physical properties can affect the rates of membrane lipid and protein oxidation. The partition of certain flavonoids in the hydrophobic core can result in a chain breaking antioxidant activity. We suggest that interactions of polyphenols at the surface of bilayers through hydrogen bonding, can act to reduce the access of deleterious molecules (i.e. oxidants), thus protecting the structure and function of membranes. PMID:15712595

  6. Relativity mission with two counter-orbiting polar satellites. [nodal dragging effect on earth orbiting satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Patten, R. A.; Everitt, C. W. F.

    1975-01-01

    In 1918, J. Lense and H. Thirring calculated that a moon in orbit around a massive rotating planet would experience a nodal dragging effect due to general relativity. We describe an experiment to measure this effect with two counter-orbiting drag-free satellites in polar earth orbit. For a 2 1/2 year experiment, the measurement accuracy should approach 1%. In addition to precision tracking data from existing ground stations, satellite-to-satellite Doppler ranging data are taken at points of passing near the poles. New geophysical information on both earth harmonics and tidal effects is inherent in the polar ranging data.

  7. [The effect of nitrofurans on the membrane apparatus of coccal bacteria].

    PubMed

    Kutsmako, R T; Kuliash, Iu V; Rudzit, E A; Ermachenko, V A; Simakova, I M

    1984-01-01

    Secondary membrane effects on the membrane apparatus of coccus bacteria were being studied. Cultivation of Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Staphylococcus aureus cells on subbacteriostatic concentrations of nitrofurans results in a lower biosynthesis of many membrane proteins, as well as in inhibiting the activity of respiratory enzymes, i. e. the specific concentration of cytochromes and specific activity of NADH-, malate-, lactate oxidases and some reductases drop. Some cytological changes were revealed, when cells were grown on solafur, furazolidone, and furacriline. PMID:6522358

  8. Effect of sludge characteristics on membrane fouling during start-up of a tertiary submerged membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Oliver; Vera, Luisa; González, Enrique; García, Elisa; Rodríguez-Sevilla, Juan

    2016-05-01

    In membrane bioreactors applied to wastewater treatment, fouling is typically a complex function of sludge characteristics. A pilot-scale tertiary submerged membrane bioreactor (tMBR) was continuously operated for over 200 days to assess the effect of biomass physiological state and environmental stress on process performance. Sludge characteristics were evaluated in terms of suspended solid concentration (MLSS and MLVSS), apparent viscosity, bioflocculation state, filterability, bioactivity, biopolymeric clusters (BPCs) and soluble microbial products. During the initial period of the tMBR start-up, when MLSS was below 3000 mg/L, the biomass was found to be very sensitive to environmental stress by sudden oxygen increase or organic shock loading, resulting in temporary biomass deflocculation and BPC release, and consequently, severe induced membrane fouling. However, at higher MLSS values, low stable biomass growth (0.04 ± 0.002 kg MLVSS/kg COD) was measured, regardless of organic overloading shocks or feeding failures. This period was also characterised by low bioactivity, BPC content and membrane fouling. Statistical analysis showed that BPCs have an important role when compared with other sludge properties as indicators of its fouling potential. PMID:26822213

  9. Effect of membrane filtration artifacts on dissolved trace element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Elrick, Kent A.; Colberg, Mark R.

    1992-01-01

    Among environment scientists, the current and almost universally accepted definition of dissolved constituents is an operational one; only those materials which pass through a 0.45-??m membrane filter are considered to be dissolved. Detailed laboratory and field studies on Fe and Al indicate that a number of factors associated with filtration, other than just pore size, can substantially alter 'dissolved' trace element concentrations; these include: filter type, filter diameter, filtration method, volume of sample processed, suspended sediment concentration, suspended sediment grain-size distribution, concentration of colloids and colloidally associated trace elements and concentration of organic matter. As such, reported filtered-water concentrations employing the same pore size filter may not be equal. Filtration artifacts may lead to the production of chemical data that indicate seasonal or annual 'dissolved' chemical trends which do not reflect actual environmental conditions. Further, the development of worldwide averages for various dissolved chemical constituents, the quantification of geochemical cycles, and the determination of short- or long-term environmental chemical trends may be subject to substantial errors, due to filtration artifacts, when data from the same or multiple sources are combined. Finally, filtration effects could have a substantial impact on various regulatory requirements.

  10. Effect of deuterium oxide on junctional membrane channel permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Brink, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of deuterium oxide on junctional membrane permeability to dichlorofluorescein was examined to determine the mode of transfer of the dye from one cell interior to another in the septate giant axon of earthworm. Dichlorofluorescein was shown to diffuse through the nexus passively and in a hydrated form. Additionally, evidence suggested an alteration of the cell-to-cell channel structure by deuterium/hydrogen exchange. Dichlorofluorescein was rendered impermeant at 6 degrees C in D/sub 2/O and 4 degrees C in H/sub 2/O. Action potentials, however, were capable of propagation from cell to cell at 4 degrees C in D/sub 2/O and H/sub 2/O. The results are consistent with a hydrophilic channel where solute molecules diffuse through the junction (nexus) in a hydrated form. The temperature blocks are presumably brought about by increasing hydration shells around solute and channel proteins with cooling until the solute is rendered too large to diffuse.

  11. Membrane Permeabilization Induced by Sphingosine: Effect of Negatively Charged Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Rojo, Noemi; Sot, Jesús; Viguera, Ana R.; Collado, M. Isabel; Torrecillas, Alejandro; Gómez-Fernández, J.C.; Goñi, Félix M.; Alonso, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine [(2S, 3R, 4E)-2-amino-4-octadecen-1, 3-diol] is the most common sphingoid long chain base in sphingolipids. It is the precursor of important cell signaling molecules, such as ceramides. In the last decade it has been shown to act itself as a potent metabolic signaling molecule, by activating a number of protein kinases. Moreover, sphingosine has been found to permeabilize phospholipid bilayers, giving rise to vesicle leakage. The present contribution intends to analyze the mechanism by which this bioactive lipid induces vesicle contents release, and the effect of negatively charged bilayers in the release process. Fluorescence lifetime measurements and confocal fluorescence microscopy have been applied to observe the mechanism of sphingosine efflux from large and giant unilamellar vesicles; a graded-release efflux has been detected. Additionally, stopped-flow measurements have shown that the rate of vesicle permeabilization increases with sphingosine concentration. Because at the physiological pH sphingosine has a net positive charge, its interaction with negatively charged phospholipids (e.g., bilayers containing phosphatidic acid together with sphingomyelins, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cholesterol) gives rise to a release of vesicular contents, faster than with electrically neutral bilayers. Furthermore, phosphorous 31-NMR and x-ray data show the capacity of sphingosine to facilitate the formation of nonbilayer (cubic phase) intermediates in negatively charged membranes. The data might explain the pathogenesis of Niemann-Pick type C1 disease. PMID:24940775

  12. Effects of Endosomal Photodamage on Membrane Recycling and Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kessel, David; Santiago, Ann Marie; Andrzejak, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The flux of receptor-independent endocytosis can be estimated by addition of wortmannin to cell cultures. Membrane influx is unaffected but traffic out of late endosomes is impaired, resulting in a substantial enlargement of these organelles. Using the 1c1c7 murine hepatoma, we investigated the effect of endosomal photodamage on this endocytic pathway. We previously reported that photodamage catalyzed by the lysosomal photosensitizer NPe6 prevented wortmannin-induced endosomal swelling, indicating an earlier block in the process. In this study, we show that endosomal photodamage, initiated by photodamage from an asymmetrically-substituted porphine or a phthalocyanine, also prevents wortmannin-induced endosomal swelling, even when the PDT dose is insufficient to cause endosomal disruption. As the PDT dose is increased, endosomal breakage occurs, as does apoptosis and cell death. Very high PDT doses result in necrosis. We propose that photodamage to endosomes results in alterations in the endosomal structure such that influx of new material is inhibited and receptor-independent endocytosis is prevented. In an additional series of studies, we found that the swollen late endosomes induced by wortmannin are unable to retain previously accumulated fluorescent probes or photosensitizers. PMID:21208213

  13. Substrate polarization in enzyme catalysis: QM/MM analysis of the effect of oxaloacetate polarization on acetyl-CoA enolization in citrate synthase.

    PubMed

    van der Kamp, Marc W; Perruccio, Francesca; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2007-11-15

    Citrate synthase is an archetypal carbon-carbon bond forming enzyme. It promotes the conversion of oxaloacetate (OAA) to citrate by catalyzing the deprotonation (enolization) of acetyl-CoA, followed by nucleophilic attack of the enolate form of this substrate on OAA to form a citryl-CoA intermediate and subsequent hydrolysis. OAA is strongly bound to the active site and its alpha-carbonyl group is polarized. This polarization has been demonstrated spectroscopically, [(Kurz et al., Biochemistry 1985;24:452-457; Kurz and Drysdale, Biochemistry 1987;26:2623-2627)] and has been suggested to be an important catalytic strategy. Substrate polarization is believed to be important in many enzymes. The first step, formation of the acetyl-CoA enolate intermediate, is thought to be rate-limiting in the mesophilic (pig/chicken) enzyme. We have examined the effects of substrate polarization on this key step using quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods. Free energy profiles have been calculated by AM1/CHARMM27 umbrella sampling molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, together with potential energy profiles. To study the influence of OAA polarization, profiles were calculated with different polarization of the OAA alpha-carbonyl group. The results indicate that OAA polarization influences catalysis only marginally but has a larger effect on intermediate stabilization. Different levels of treatment of OAA are compared (MM or QM), and its polarization in the protein and in water analyzed at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d)/CHARMM27 level. Analysis of stabilization by individual residues shows that the enzyme mainly stabilizes the enolate intermediate (not the transition state) through electrostatic (including hydrogen bond) interactions: these contribute much more than polarization of OAA. PMID:17623847

  14. Effectiveness of water desalination by membrane distillation process.

    PubMed

    Gryta, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The membrane distillation process constitutes one of the possibilities for a new method for water desalination. Four kinds of polypropylene membranes with different diameters of capillaries and pores, as well as wall thicknesses were used in studied. The morphology of the membrane used and the operating parameters significantly influenced process efficiency. It was found that the membranes with lower wall thickness and a larger pore size resulted in the higher yields. Increasing both feed flow rate and temperature increases the permeate flux and simultaneously the process efficiency. However, the use of higher flow rates also enhanced heat losses by conduction, which decreases the thermal efficiency. This efficiency also decreases when the salt concentration in the feed was enhanced. The influence of fouling on the process efficiency was considered. PMID:24958289

  15. Effectiveness of Water Desalination by Membrane Distillation Process

    PubMed Central

    Gryta, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The membrane distillation process constitutes one of the possibilities for a new method for water desalination. Four kinds of polypropylene membranes with different diameters of capillaries and pores, as well as wall thicknesses were used in studied. The morphology of the membrane used and the operating parameters significantly influenced process efficiency. It was found that the membranes with lower wall thickness and a larger pore size resulted in the higher yields. Increasing both feed flow rate and temperature increases the permeate flux and simultaneously the process efficiency. However, the use of higher flow rates also enhanced heat losses by conduction, which decreases the thermal efficiency. This efficiency also decreases when the salt concentration in the feed was enhanced. The influence of fouling on the process efficiency was considered. PMID:24958289

  16. Phenotypic effects of membrane protein overexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melén, Karin; Blomberg, Anders; von Heijne, Gunnar

    2006-07-01

    Large-scale protein overexpression phenotype screens provide an important complement to the more common gene knockout screens. Here, we have targeted the so far poorly understood Saccharomyces cerevisiae membrane proteome and report growth phenotypes for a strain collection overexpressing 600 C-terminally tagged integral membrane proteins grown both under normal and three different stress conditions. Although overexpression of most membrane proteins reduce the growth rate in synthetic defined medium, we identify a large number of proteins that, when overexpressed, confer specific resistance to various stress conditions. Our data suggest that regulation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis and the Na+/K+ homeostasis system constitute major downstream targets of the yeast PKA/RAS pathway and point to a possible connection between the early secretory pathway and the cells' response to oxidative stress. We also have quantified the expression levels for >550 membrane proteins, facilitating the choice of well expressing proteins for future functional and structural studies. caffeine | paraquat | salt tolerance | yeast

  17. Effect of silicon, tantalum, and tungsten doping and polarization on bioactivity of hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhal, Jharana

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) ceramics has important applications as bone graft because of the structural and compositional similarities with bone tissue. However, inferior osteogenic capacity to bone and poor mechanical properties have been identified to be major disadvantages of synthetic HAp compared to the living bone tissue. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the effect of doping with higher valent cations (Tungsten, tantalum, and silicon) and polarization or combination of both on change in property of doped HAp and subsequent impact its bioactivity. In vitro study with human osteoblast cells was used to investigate the influences of doping and polarization on bone cell-materials interactions. The bioactivity of doped HAp was compared with pure HAp. Effect of doping and polarization on the change in HAp was investigated by monitoring change in mineral phases, stored charge, and activation energy of HAp. Activation energy of depolarization was used to explain the possible mechanism of polarization in doped samples. Bioactivity of HAp increased when doped with tantalum and tungsten. Polarization further increased the bioactivity of tungsten- and tantalum-doped samples. Increase in bioactivity on polarized and doped samples was attributed to increase in surface energy and increase in surface wettability. Whereas, an increase in bioactivity on doped unpolarized surface was attributed to change in microstructure. Polarized charge calculated from TSDC indicates that polarized charge decreases on tantalum- and tungsten-doped HAp. The decrease in polarized charge was attributed to the presence of significant amount of different phases that may hinder the ionic motion in doped samples. However, for silicon-doped HAp, TSDC study showed no difference in the mechanism of polarization between doped and undoped samples. Increase in silicon doping decreased the grain size though mechanism is not affected by grain size. Total stored charge decreased with increase in

  18. Effects of short-term prenatal alcohol exposure on neuronal membrane order in rats.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, C V; Rauch, S; Hitzemann, R

    1988-02-01

    Long-Evans rat dams were treated with ethanol (4 g/kg, twice daily) by gavage on gestational days 10-14. This dosage schedule has been shown to produce significant behavioral and ponderal teratogenicity. Pair-fed dams were gavaged with isocaloric amounts of sucrose. All offspring were reared by untreated, surrogate dams. Pups were sacrificed on days 3 and 28, and whole brain neuronal plasma membranes were prepared for analysis by a fluorescence polarization technique using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene as the membrane probe. On day 3, steady-state anisotropy was significantly decreased in the ethanol-treated pups. Arrhenius plots revealed that this difference was associated with a change on both membrane entropy and enthalpy. By day 28, the differences between groups disappeared. These data would be consistent with the view that the brief gestational ethanol exposure delays neuronal maturation. PMID:3359307

  19. Femtosecond pulsed light polarization induced effects in direct laser writing 3D nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinauskas, Mangirdas; RekštytÄ--, Sima; Jonavičius, Tomas; Gailevičius, Darius; Mizeikis, Vygantas; Gamaly, Eugene; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate how the coupling between (i) polarization of the writing laser beam, (ii) tight focusing and (iii) heat conduction affects the size, shape and absorption in the laser-affected area and therefore the polymerization process. It is possible to control the sizes of 3D laser-produced structure at the scale of several nanometers. Specifically we were able to tune the aspect ratio of 3D suspended line up to 20% in hybrid SZ2080 resist. The focal spot of tightly focused linearly polarized beam has an elliptical form with the long axis in the field direction. It is shown here that this effect is enhanced by increase in the electronic heat conduction when polarization coincide with temperature gradient along with the absorption. Overlapping of three effects (i- iii) results in the difference of several tens of nanometers between two axes of the focal ellipse. Narrow line appears when polarization and scan direction coincide, while the wide line is produced when these directions are perpendicular to each other. The effect scales with the laser intensity giving a possibility to control the width of the structure on nanometer scale as demonstrated experimentally in this work. These effects are of general nature and can be observed in any laser-matter interaction experiments where plasma produced by using tight focusing of linear-polarized light.

  20. The effect of macroscopic polarization on intrinsic and extrinsic thermal conductivities of AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedam, Vikas; Pansari, Anju; Sinha, Arvind Kumar; Sahoo, Bijay Kumar

    2015-03-01

    The effect of macroscopic polarization on thermal conductivity of bulk wurtzite AlN has been theoretically investigated. Our results show that macroscopic polarization modifies the phonon group velocity, Debye frequency and Debye temperature of the AlN. Using revised phonon velocity and Debye temperature, various phonon scattering rates and combined scattering rate are calculated as functions of the phonon frequency at room temperature. The intrinsic and extrinsic thermal conductivities of AlN have been estimated using these modified parameters. The theoretical analysis shows that up to a certain temperature the polarization effect acts as negative effect and reduces the intrinsic and extrinsic thermal conductivities. However, after this temperature both thermal conductivities are significantly enhanced. High phonon velocity and Debye temperature are the reason of this enhancement which happens due to the polarization effect. The revised thermal conductivities at room temperature are found to be increased by more than 20% in AlN due to macroscopic polarization phenomenon. The method we have developed can be taken into account during the simulation of heat transport in optoelectronic nitride devices to minimize the self heating processes.

  1. Enhanced environmental stability induced by effective polarization of a polar dielectric layer in a trilayer dielectric system of organic field-effect transistors: a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Subbarao, Nimmakayala V V; Gedda, Murali; Iyer, Parameswar K; Goswami, Dipak K

    2015-01-28

    We report a concept fabrication method that helps to improve the performance and stability of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) based organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) in ambient. The devices were fabricated using a trilayer dielectric system that contains a bilayer polymer dielectrics consisting of a hydrophobic thin layer of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) or poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) or polystyrene (PS) with Al2O3 as a third layer. We have explored the peculiarities in the device performance (i.e., superior performance under ambient humidity), which are caused due to the polarization of dipoles residing in the polar dielectric material. The anomalous behavior of the bias-stress measured under vacuum has been explained successfully by a stretched exponential function modified by adding a time dependent dipole polarization term. The OFET with a dielectric layer of PVA or PVP containing hydroxyl groups has shown enhanced characteristics and remains highly stable without any degradation even after 300 days in ambient with three times enhancement in carrier mobility (0.015 cm(2)·V(-1)·s(-1)) compared to vacuum. This has been attributed to the enhanced polarization of hydroxyl groups in the presence of absorbed water molecules at the CuPc/PMMA interface. In addition, a model has been proposed based on the polarization of hydroxyl groups to explain the enhanced stability in these devices. We believe that this general method using a trilayer dielectric system can be extended to fabricate other OFETs with materials that are known to show high performances under vacuum but degrade under ambient conditions. PMID:25552195

  2. Pair-collision between heterogeneous capsules in simple shear: Effect of membrane stiffness and membrane constitutive laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajesh; Sarkar, Kausik

    2012-11-01

    Deformability of red blood cells affects hydrodynamic properties of blood and thereby physiological functions in many cardiovascular diseases, e.g. in sickle cell anemia and malaria, the cell membrane becomes stiff affecting their circulation through microvessels. Here, we numerically simulate the hydrodynamic interaction between a pair of cell-like capsules in a free shear flow, using a front-tracking method. The membrane is modeled using various constitutive equations. By varying the stiffness of one capsule (C2) and keeping all other parameters constant, we find a significant effect on the deformation and trajectory of the other (C1) . Increasing the stiffness of C2 surprisingly increases the peak deformation of C1 while decreasing the cross-stream shift in its trajectory However, the relative trajectory between capsules remains the same. Effects of constitutive laws and difference in behaviors between capsules and drops are investigated explaining underlying physics. partial support from NSF.

  3. Effect of biological/physical stimulation on guided bone regeneration through asymmetrically porous membrane.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Ho; Oh, Se Heang; Na, Seung Yeon; Chun, So Young; Lee, Jin Ho

    2012-06-01

    Asymmetrically porous polycaprolactone (PCL)/Pluronic F127 guided bone regeneration (GBR) membranes were fabricated. The top surface of the membrane had nanosize pores (∼10 nm) which can effectively prevent invasion by fibrous connective tissue but permeate nutrients, whereas the bottom surface had microsize pores (∼200 μm) which can enhance the adhesiveness with bone tissue. Ultrasound was applied to a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2)-immobilized PCL/F127 GBR membrane to investigate the feasibility of using dual biological (BMP-2) and physical (ultrasound) stimulation for enhancing bone regeneration through the membrane. In an animal study using SD rats (cranial defect model), the bone regeneration behavior that occurred when using BMP-2-loaded GBR membranes with ultrasound treatment (GBR/BMP-2/US) was much faster than when the same GBR membrane was used without the ultrasound treatment (GBR/BMP-2), as well as when GBR membranes were used without stimulations (GBR). The enhanced bone regeneration of the GBR/BMP-2/US group can be interpreted as resulting from the synergistic or additive effect of the asymmetrically porous PCL/F127 membrane with unique properties (selective permeability, hydrophilicity, and osteoconductivity) and the stimulatory effects of BMP-2 and ultrasound (osteoinductivity). The asymmetrically porous GBR membrane with dual BMP-2 and ultrasound stimulation may be promising for the clinical treatment of delayed and insufficient bone healing. PMID:22408081

  4. Probing for compositeness, discrete time effects and Markov enviromental influences using spin polarization precession.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Carl

    By considering a spin-one particle precession in a magnetic field, we demonstrate that if very refined measurements were made of both the precession frequency and the amplitude of spin polarization, these measurements could be used to probe for compositeness of gauge bosons, discrete time effects and possible Markov environmental effects.

  5. QCD investigation of polarization effects in the inclusive photoproduction of SUSY particles

    SciTech Connect

    Sadykhov, F.S.; Akhmedov, A.I.

    1995-10-01

    Polarization effects in the inclusive photoproduction of SUSY particles is investigated in QCD. Two-spin asymmetries are studied as functions of the transverse momentum, the effective mass of scalar pairs, and the scattering angle. It is shown that information about the masses of scalar quarks can be deduced from the analysis of spin asymmetry. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Effects of Wave-Particle Interactions on Double-Hump Distributions of the H + Polar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrard, V.; Barghouthi, I. A.

    2006-04-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation is used in order to study the effects of wave-particle interactions (WPI) on H+ distributions in the polar wind outflow. The simulation also considers effects of the gravity, the polarization electric field, the divergence of geomagnetic field lines and H+-O+ Coulomb collisions. The proton velocity distribution function (VDF) and the profiles of its moments (density, bulk velocity, parallel and perpendicular temperatures, heat flux…) are found for different levels of WPI, i.e., for different values of the normalized diffusion rate in the velocity space ( D ⊥). We find that the wave-particle interactions accelerate the polar wind and can have important effects on the double-hump H+ distribution obtained in the transition region between the collision-dominated low altitudes and the collisionless high altitude regions.

  7. Systematic Effects in Polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometers for Cosmic Microwave Background Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, Peter C.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan; Tucker, Gregory S.

    2015-11-01

    The detection of the primordial B-mode polarization signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) would provide evidence for inflation. Yet as has become increasingly clear, the detection of a such a faint signal requires an instrument with both wide frequency coverage to reject foregrounds and excellent control over instrumental systematic effects. Using a polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) for CMB observations meets both of these requirements. In this work, we present an analysis of instrumental systematic effects in polarizing FTSs, using the Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) as a worked example. We analytically solve for the most important systematic effects inherent to the FTS—emissive optical components, misaligned optical components, sampling and phase errors, and spin synchronous effects—and demonstrate that residual systematic error terms after corrections will all be at the sub-nK level, well below the predicted 100 nK B-mode signal.

  8. A method used to overcome polarization effects in semi-polar structures of nitride light-emitting diodes emitting green radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morawiec, Seweryn; Sarzała, Robert P.; Nakwaski, Włodzimierz

    2013-11-01

    Polarization effects are studied within nitride light-emitting diodes (LEDs) manufactured on standard polar and semipolar substrates. A new theoretical approach, somewhat different than standard ones, is proposed to this end. It is well known that when regular polar GaN substrates are used, strong piezoelectric and spontaneous polarizations create built-in electric fields leading to the quantum-confined Stark effects (QCSEs). These effects may be completely avoided in nonpolar crystallographic orientations, but then there are problems with manufacturing InGaN layers of relatively high Indium contents necessary for the green emission. Hence, a procedure leading to partly overcoming these polarization problems in semi-polar LEDs emitting green radiation is proposed. The (11 22) crystallographic substrate orientation (inclination angle of 58∘ to c plane) seems to be the most promising because it is characterized by low Miller-Bravais indices leading to high-quality and high Indium content smooth growth planes. Besides, it makes possible an increased Indium incorporation efficiency and it is efficient in suppressing QCSE. The In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN QW LED grown on the semipolar (11 22) substrate has been found as currently the optimal LED structure emitting green radiation.

  9. Effective removal of humic acid using xanthan gum incorporated polyethersulfone membranes.

    PubMed

    Sathish Kumar, R; Arthanareeswaran, G; Paul, Diby; Kweon, Ji Hyang

    2015-11-01

    In this study, xanthan gum (XA) was used as a hydrophilic biopolymer additive for the modification of polyethersulfone (PES) membrane to removal of humic acid (HA). The membranes are prepared using phase inversion technique and the concentration of XA was varied from 0.5 to 1.5wt%. The prepared membranes are characterized as a function of hydrophilicity, equilibrium water content (EWC), porosity studies and functional group analysis. Membrane surface and cross-sectional morphology was studied using scanning electron microscope. The lower contact angle value 64.2° was exhibited, when 1.5wt% of XA incorporated in PES membrane and this ensures that increase of hydrophilicity in pristine PES membrane. Further, higher water permeability (PWP) of 68.9(-9)m/skPa was observed for 1.5wt% of XA/PES membrane. The effect of pH on HA removal was studied for neat PES and XA/PES membranes. The rejection performance of XA incorporated in PES membranes were compared with commercial available PES membrane. PMID:25857244

  10. Carry-over effects of the membrane interface probe.

    PubMed

    Bumberger, Jan; Radny, Dirk; Berndsen, Andreas; Goblirsch, Tobias; Flachowsky, Johannes; Dietrich, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The membrane interface probe (MIP) is widely used to characterize the subsurface distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One problem that arises during MIP application is that disproportionately high MIP signals are obtained after passing source zones which contain mobile or residual phases. This serious problem occurs because of a carry-over effect, in particular caused by compound-specific retention times in the conventional unheated transfer line, commonly used during such an investigation. The objective of this study was to perform a qualitative methodical field evaluation of the carry-over effect of a conventional MIP system with a conventional unheated transfer line. This was achieved by coupling a mobile mass spectrometer to the MIP device. Results obtained were then further compared with those achieved using a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) system. Because of this coupling, time- and depth-dependent signals for different substances became known. Field evaluation data obtained showed complex superpositions of compounds with MIP system results. As a result of this superposition, MIP signals from the saturated zone beneath the source zone (zone with free and/or residual phase) are blurred and are therefore not representative of particular depths. However, utilizing multidirectional probing alongside conventional MIP probing (forwards and backwards), it was possible to detect the upper and lower phase boundary of the source zone. These MIP results correlated excellently with the LIF results. An important conclusion that can be drawn from the field investigation is that coupling a mobile mass spectrometer to the MIP system enables advanced MIP signal interpretation to be successfully achieved. PMID:22070365

  11. Effects of polar cortical cytoskeleton and unbalanced cortical surface tension on intercellular bridge thinning during cytokinesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; An, Mei-Wen; Li, Xiao-Na; Yang, Fang; Liu, Yang

    2011-12-01

    To probe the contributions of polar cortical cytoskeleton and the surface tension of daughter cells to intercellular bridge thinning dynamics during cytokinesis, we applied cytochalasin D (CD) or colchicine (COLC) in a highly localized manner to polar regions of dividing normal rat kidney (NRK) cells. We observed cellular morphological changes and analyzed the intercellular bridge thinning trajectories of dividing cells with different polar cortical characteristics. Global blebbistatin (BS) application was used to obtain cells losing active contractile force groups. Our results show that locally released CD or colchicine at the polar region caused inhibition of cytokinesis before ingression. Similar treatment at phases after ingression allowed completion of cytokinesis but dramatically influenced the trajectories of intercellular bridge thinning. Disturbing single polar cortical actin induced transformation of the intercellular bridge thinning process, and polar cortical tension controlled deformation time of intercellular bridges. Our study provides a feasible framework to induce and analyze the effects of local changes in mechanical properties of cellular components on single cellular cytokinesis.

  12. Polarization effects induced by a two-mirror laser beam scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimbal, Scott; Li, Qiaochu; Petrova-Mayor, Anna

    2012-10-01

    The polarization lidar technique requires that the transmitted laser beam in the atmosphere is linearly polarized so that a depolarization ratio from hydrometeors and aerosol particles can be detected. This is easily achieved in vertically pointing lidars used to study clouds. However, in scanning lidars, which are of interest for wind and pollution studies, stand-off detection and biodefense, the state of polarization of the laser beam is modified upon reflection by the mirrors of the scanner. We study experimentally the effect of a two-mirror scanner, or beam steering unit (BSU), on the polarization state of a linearly polarized beam at 1.54 micron wavelength. We built a miniature BSU in the lab and used a polarimeter to map the state of polarization (SOP) for all combinations of azimuth-elevation angles. We found that the linear polarization is preserved for a horizontal scan (elevation angle is 0°) but it rotates as a function of azimuth angle. There are a few more pointing directions in which the SOP is linear. Overall, the transmit beam is elliptically polarized for a non-zero elevation angle. The ellipticity and orientation of the ellipses is not constant. However, we found a period of repeatability of 180° in both azimuth and elevation angles. When comparing two different coatings, we note that the ellipticity is a function of the type of coating. We propose a method to eliminate the induced ellipticity by the BSU mirrors for all scan directions by means of altering the incident SOP on the BSU.

  13. The Effects of Plant Virus Infection on Polarization Reflection from Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Daniel J.; Partridge, Julian C.; Roberts, Nicholas W.; Boonham, Neil; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Alteration of leaf surface phenotypes due to virus infection has the potential to affect the likelihood of colonisation by insect vectors, or to affect their feeding activities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether viruses that rely on insects for their transmission, and which can be sensitive to the polarization of light, affect the percentage polarization of light reflected from leaves. We also set out to discover whether a correlation exists between the expression of ECERIFERUM (CER) genes involved in cuticular wax synthesis and the polarization of the light reflected from the leaf surfaces. It was found that the aphid-vectored viruses Potato virus Y and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) caused significant reductions in the percentage polarization of light reflected from the abaxial surfaces of leaves of Nicotiana tabacum, whereas the non-insect-vectored viruses Tobacco mosaic virus and Pepino mosaic virus did not induce this effect. In Arabidopsis thaliana, there was little difference in the impacts of CMV and the non-insect-vectored Turnip vein clearing virus on polarization reflection, with both viruses increasing the percentage polarization of light reflected from the abaxial surfaces of leaves. There was a trend towards increased accumulation of CER6 transcripts in N. tabacum and A. thaliana when infected with aphid-vectored viruses. No significant effect of infection on trichome densities was found in A. thaliana, suggesting that alterations to the formation of cuticular waxes may be the more likely phenotypic change on the leaf surface contributing to the changes in polarization reflection. The possible impacts and adaptive significance of these effects with regard to viral transmission by insects are discussed. PMID:27100188

  14. The Effects of Plant Virus Infection on Polarization Reflection from Leaves.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Daniel J; Partridge, Julian C; Roberts, Nicholas W; Boonham, Neil; Foster, Gary D

    2016-01-01

    Alteration of leaf surface phenotypes due to virus infection has the potential to affect the likelihood of colonisation by insect vectors, or to affect their feeding activities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether viruses that rely on insects for their transmission, and which can be sensitive to the polarization of light, affect the percentage polarization of light reflected from leaves. We also set out to discover whether a correlation exists between the expression of ECERIFERUM (CER) genes involved in cuticular wax synthesis and the polarization of the light reflected from the leaf surfaces. It was found that the aphid-vectored viruses Potato virus Y and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) caused significant reductions in the percentage polarization of light reflected from the abaxial surfaces of leaves of Nicotiana tabacum, whereas the non-insect-vectored viruses Tobacco mosaic virus and Pepino mosaic virus did not induce this effect. In Arabidopsis thaliana, there was little difference in the impacts of CMV and the non-insect-vectored Turnip vein clearing virus on polarization reflection, with both viruses increasing the percentage polarization of light reflected from the abaxial surfaces of leaves. There was a trend towards increased accumulation of CER6 transcripts in N. tabacum and A. thaliana when infected with aphid-vectored viruses. No significant effect of infection on trichome densities was found in A. thaliana, suggesting that alterations to the formation of cuticular waxes may be the more likely phenotypic change on the leaf surface contributing to the changes in polarization reflection. The possible impacts and adaptive significance of these effects with regard to viral transmission by insects are discussed. PMID:27100188

  15. The effect of membrane parameters on the properties of the nerve impulse.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabah, N. H.; Leibovic, K. N.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of varying some membrane parameters is explored, basing the investigation on computer simulation of the Hodgkin-Huxley equations for the squid giant axon, including variations in the membrane capacitance, conductances, and the rate constants. It is shown that by reducing the degree of regeneration in the excitable membrane, the character of the nerve signal can be smoothly changed from that of the axonal spike to essentially electrotonic spread, with all gradations in between. The reduction in the degree of regeneration can most simply be brought about by a decrease in the density of active membrane patches.

  16. Antibacterial effects of electrospun chitosan/poly(ethylene oxide) nanofibrous membranes loaded with chlorhexidine and silver.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiankang; Remmers, Stefan J A; Shao, Jinlong; Kolwijck, Eva; Walboomers, X Frank; Jansen, John A; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G; Yang, Fang

    2016-07-01

    To prevent percutaneous device associated infections (PDAIs), we prepared electrospun chitosan/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanofibrous membrane containing silver nanoparticles as an implantable delivery vehicle for the dual release of chlorhexidine and silver ions. We observed that the silver nanoparticles were distributed homogeneously throughout the fibers, and a fast release of chlorhexidine in 2days and a sustained release of silver ions for up to 28days. The antibacterial efficacy of the membranes against Staphylococcus aureus showed that the membranes exhibited an obvious inhibition zone upon loading with either chlorhexidine (20μg or more per membrane) or AgNO3 (1 and 5wt% to polymer). Furthermore, long-term antibacterial effect up to 4days was verified using membranes containing 5wt% AgNO3. The results suggest that the membranes have strong potential to act as an active antibacterial dressing for local delivery of antibacterial agents to prevent PDAIs. PMID:26970025

  17. Effects of freezing and cold acclimation on the plasma membrane of isolated protoplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Steponkus, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    This project focuses on lesions in the plasma membrane of protoplasts that occur during freezing to temperatures below {minus}5{degrees} which result in changes in the semipermeablity of the plasma membrane. This injury, referred to as loss of osmotic responsiveness, is associated with the formation of large, aparticulate domains in the plasma membrane, aparticulate lamellae subtending the plasma membrane, and lamellar-to-hexagonal{sub II} phase transitions in the plasma membrane and subtending lamellar. The goals of this project are to provide a mechanistic understanding of the mechanism by which freeze-induced dehydration effects the formation of aparticulate domains and lamellar-to-hexagonal{sub II} phase transitions and to determine the mechanisms by which cold acclimation and cryoprotectants preclude or diminish these ultrastructural changes. Our working hypothesis is the formation of aparticulate domains and lamellar-to-hexagon{sub II} phase transitions in the plasma membrane and subtending lamellae are manifestations of hydration-dependent bilayer-bilayer interactions.

  18. Effect of deacetylation degree in chitosan composite membranes on pervaporation performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.M.; Park, H.B.; Nam, S.Y.; Won, J.M.; Kim, H.

    1998-06-01

    The effect of the degree of deacetylation in chitosan composite membranes on their pervaporation performance for ethanol dehydration was investigated. The degree of deacetylation of chitosans was measured by using an infrared spectroscopic method and elemental analysis. The chitosan composite membranes were prepared by coating a chitosan solution onto a microporous polyethersulfone membrane with 3--7 nm pore sizes. Then the surface of the top layer (chitosan) of well-dried membranes was crosslinked with sulfuric acid, and pervaporation experiments for binary mixtures (water-ethanol) were carried out at various conditions. In the case of a chitosan membrane with a high degree of deacetylation, the flux increases while the separation factor decreases compared with membranes with a low degree of deacetylation.

  19. Sunlight penetration through the Martian polar caps: Effects on the thermal and frost budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee

    1992-01-01

    An energy balance model of the seasonal polar caps on Mars is modified to include penetration of solar radiation into and through the ice. Penetration of solar radiation has no effect on subsurface temperature or total frost sublimation if seasonal ice overlies a dust surface. An effect is noted for seasonal ice which overlies the residual polar caps. For the case of an exposed water-ice residual polar cap, the temperature at depth is calculated to be up to several degrees warmer and the calculated lifetime of seasonal CO2 frost is slightly lower when penetration of sunlight is properly treated in the model. For the case of a residual polar cap which is perennially covered by CO2 frost, the calculated lifetime of seasonal CO2 frost is very slightly increased as a result of sunlight penetration through the ice. Hence, penetration of sunlight into the ice helps to stabilize the observed dichotomy in the residual polar caps on Mars, although it is a small effect.

  20. Sunlight penetration through the Martian polar caps - Effects on the thermal and frost budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Bernhard L.

    1992-01-01

    An energy balance model of the seasonal polar caps on Mars is modified to include penetration of solar radiation into and through the ice. Penetration of solar radiation has no effect on subsurface temperature or total frost sublimation if seasonal ice overlies a dust surface. An effect is noted for seasonal ice which overlies the residual polar caps. For the case of an exposed water-ice residual polar cap, the temperature at depth is calculated to be up to several degrees warmer, and the calculated lifetime of seasonal CO2 frost is slightly lower when penetration of sunlight is properly treated in the model. For the case of a residual polar cap which is perennially covered by CO2 frost, the calculated lifetime of seasonal CO2 frost is very slightly increased as a result of sunlight penetration through the ice. Hence, penetration of sunlight into the ice helps to stabilize the observed dichotomy in the residual polar caps on Mars, although it is a small effect.

  1. Atomic Force Microscopic Analysis of the Effect of Lipid Composition on Liposome Membrane Rigidity.

    PubMed

    Takechi-Haraya, Yuki; Sakai-Kato, Kumiko; Abe, Yasuhiro; Kawanishi, Toru; Okuda, Haruhiro; Goda, Yukihiro

    2016-06-21

    Mechanical rigidity of the liposome membrane is often defined by the membrane bending modulus and is one of the determinants of liposome stability, but the quantitative experimental data are still limited to a few kinds of liposomes. Here, we used atomic force microscopy to investigate the membrane bending moduli of liposomes by immobilizing them on bovine serum albumin-coated glass in aqueous medium. The following lipids were used for liposome preparation: egg yolk phosphatidylcholine, dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane, cholesterol, and N-(carbonylmethoxypoly(ethylene glycol) 2000)-1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine. By using liposomes of various compositions, we showed that the thermodynamic phase state of the membrane rather than the electric potential or liposome surface modification with poly(ethylene glycol) is the predominant determinant of the bending modulus, which decreased in the following order: solid ordered > liquid ordered > liquid disordered. By using the generalized polarization value of the Laurdan fluorescent probe, we investigated membrane rigidity in terms of membrane fluidity. Atomic force microscopic analysis was superior to the Laurdan method, especially in evaluating the membrane rigidity of liposomes containing hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. Positively charged liposomes with a large bending modulus were taken up by cells more efficiently than those with a small bending modulus. These findings offer a quantitative method of analyzing the membrane rigidity of nanosized liposomes with different lipid compositions and will contribute to the control of liposome stability and cellular uptake efficiency of liposomal formulations intended for clinical use. PMID:27232007

  2. Transport properties of proton-exchange membranes: Effect of supercritical-fluid processing and chemical functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido Ayazo

    NafionRTM membranes commonly used in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC), are tipically limited by high methanol permeability (also known as the cross-over limitation). These membranes have phase segregated sulfonated ionic domains in a perfluorinated backbone, which makes processing challenging and limited by phase equilibria considerations. This study used supercritical fluids (SCFs) as a processing alternative, since the gas-like mass transport properties of SCFs allow a better penetration into the membranes and the use of polar co-solvents influenced their morphology, fine-tuning the physical and transport properties in the membrane. Measurements of methanol permeability and proton conductivity were performed to the NafionRTM membranes processed with SCFs at 40ºC and 200 bar and the co-solvents as: acetone, tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropyl alcohol, HPLC-grade water, acetic acid, cyclohexanone. The results obtained for the permeability data were of the order of 10 -8-10-9 cm2/s, two orders of magnitude lower than unprocessed Nafion. Proton conductivity results obtained using AC impedance electrochemical spectroscopy was between 0.02 and 0.09 S/cm, very similar to the unprocessed Nafion. SCF processing with ethanol as co-solvent reduced the methanol permeability by two orders of magnitude, while the proton conductivity was only reduced by 4%. XRD analysis made to the treated samples exhibited a decreasing pattern in the crystallinity, which affects the transport properties of the membrane. Also, SAXS profiles of the Nafion membranes processed were obtained with the goal of determining changes produced by the SCF processing in the hydrophilic domains of the polymer. With the goal of searching for new alternatives in proton exchange membranes (PEMs) triblock copolymer of poly(styrene-isobutylene-styrene) (SIBS) and poly(styrene-isobutylene-styrene) SEBS were studied. These sulfonated tri-block copolymers had lower methanol permeabilities, but also lower proton

  3. The Effects of Instrumental Elliptical Polarization on Stellar Point Spread Function Fine Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, Joseph C.; Kern, Brian D.; Breckinridge, James B.; Trauger, John T.

    2005-01-01

    We present procedures and preliminary results from a study on the effects of instrumental polarization on the fine structure of the stellar point spread function (PSF). These effects are important to understand because the the aberration caused by instrumental polarization on an otherwise diffraction-limited will likely have have severe consequences for extreme high contrast imaging systems such as NASA's planned Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission and the proposed NASA Eclipse mission. The report here, describing our efforts to examine these effects, includes two parts: 1) a numerical analysis of the effect of metallic reflection, with some polarization-specific retardation, on a spherical wavefront; 2) an experimental approach for observing this effect, along with some preliminary laboratory results. While the experimental phase of this study requires more fine-tuning to produce meaningful results, the numerical analysis indicates that the inclusion of polarization-specific phase effects (retardation) results in a point spread function (PSF) aberration more severe than the amplitude (reflectivity) effects previously recorded in the literature.

  4. Permeation of protons, potassium ions, and small polar molecules through phospholipid bilayers as a function of membrane thickness.

    PubMed Central

    Paula, S; Volkov, A G; Van Hoek, A N; Haines, T H; Deamer, D W

    1996-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for solute permeation of lipid bilayers. Partitioning into the hydrophobic phase of the bilayer, followed by diffusion, is accepted by many for the permeation of water and other small neutral solutes, but transient pores have also been proposed to account for both water and ionic solute permeation. These two mechanisms make distinctively different predictions about the permeability coefficient as a function of bilayer thickness. Whereas the solubility-diffusion mechanism predicts only a modest variation related to bilayer thickness, the pore model predicts an exponential relationship. To test these models, we measured the permeability of phospholipid bilayers to protons, potassium ions, water, urea, and glycerol. Bilayers were prepared as liposomes, and thickness was varied systematically by using unsaturated lipids with chain lengths ranging from 14 to 24 carbon atoms. The permeability coefficient of water and neutral polar solutes displayed a modest dependence on bilayer thickness, with an approximately linear fivefold decrease as the carbon number varied from 14 to 24 atoms. In contrast, the permeability to protons and potassium ions decreased sharply by two orders of magnitude between 14 and 18 carbon atoms, and leveled off, when the chain length was further extended to 24 carbon atoms. The results for water and the neutral permeating solutes are best explained by the solubility-diffusion mechanism. The results for protons and potassium ions in shorter-chain lipids are consistent with the transient pore model, but better fit the theoretical line predicted by the solubility-diffusion model at longer chain lengths. PMID:8770210

  5. Permeation of protons, potassium ions, and small polar molecules through phospholipid bilayers as a function of membrane thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paula, S.; Volkov, A. G.; Van Hoek, A. N.; Haines, T. H.; Deamer, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for solute permeation of lipid bilayers. Partitioning into the hydrophobic phase of the bilayer, followed by diffusion, is accepted by many for the permeation of water and other small neutral solutes, but transient pores have also been proposed to account for both water and ionic solute permeation. These two mechanisms make distinctively different predictions about the permeability coefficient as a function of bilayer thickness. Whereas the solubility-diffusion mechanism predicts only a modest variation related to bilayer thickness, the pore model predicts an exponential relationship. To test these models, we measured the permeability of phospholipid bilayers to protons, potassium ions, water, urea, and glycerol. Bilayers were prepared as liposomes, and thickness was varied systematically by using unsaturated lipids with chain lengths ranging from 14 to 24 carbon atoms. The permeability coefficient of water and neutral polar solutes displayed a modest dependence on bilayer thickness, with an approximately linear fivefold decrease as the carbon number varied from 14 to 24 atoms. In contrast, the permeability to protons and potassium ions decreased sharply by two orders of magnitude between 14 and 18 carbon atoms, and leveled off, when the chain length was further extended to 24 carbon atoms. The results for water and the neutral permeating solutes are best explained by the solubility-diffusion mechanism. The results for protons and potassium ions in shorter-chain lipids are consistent with the transient pore model, but better fit the theoretical line predicted by the solubility-diffusion model at longer chain lengths.

  6. Coherent-backscatter effect - A vector formulation accounting for polarization and absorption effects and small or large scatterers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Kenneth J.

    1992-01-01

    Previous theoretical work on the coherent-backscatter effect in the context of speckle time autocorrelation has gone beyond the diffusion approximation and the assumption of isotropic (point) scatterers. This paper extends the theory to include the effects of polarization and absorption, and to give the angular line shape. The results are expressions for angular variations valid for small and large scatterers and linear and circular polarizations, in lossless or lossy media. Calculations show that multiple anisotropic scattering results in the preservation of incident polarization. Application to a problem in radar astronomy is considered. It is shown that the unusual radar measurements (high reflectivity and polarization ratios) of Jupiter's icy Galilean satellites can be explained by coherent backscatter from anisotropic (forward) scatterers.

  7. Polarization fluctuation dominated electrical transport processes of polymer-based ferroelectric field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senanayak, Satyaprasad P.; Guha, S.; Narayan, K. S.

    2012-03-01

    Ferroelectric field effect transistors (FE-FETs) consisting of tunable dielectric layers are utilized to investigate interfacial transport processes. Large changes in the dielectric constant as a function of temperature are observed in FE-FETs in conjunction with the ferroelectric to paraelectric transition. The devices offer a test bed to evaluate specific effects of polarization on the electrical processes. FE-FETs have dominant contributions from polarization fluctuation rather than static dipolar disorder prevalent in high k paraelectric dielectric-based FETs. Additionally, photo-excitation measurements in the depletion mode reveal clear features in the FET response at different temperatures, indicative of different transport regimes.

  8. Effective polarization fatigue from repeated dielectric barrier discharges in cellular polypropylene ferroelectrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xunlin; Gerhard, Reimund

    2008-10-01

    Polarization fatigue is observed when cellular polypropylene (PP) ferroelectrets are subjected to high-voltage cycles. The fatigue rate strongly depends on the amplitude and the number of the applied voltage cycles, whereas the frequency and the waveform of the voltage do not have a strong influence. The much lower piezoelectric activity of significantly fatigued cellular PP ferroelectret films recovers in part after a storage period of typically several hours in ambient air. It is believed that the effective polarization fatigue is mainly caused by the plasma modification of the internal surfaces effected by the repeated dielectric barrier discharges inside the voids.

  9. Effect of VSR invariant Chern-Simons Lagrangian on photon polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, Alekha C.; Verma, Ravindra K.; Jain, Pankaj

    2015-07-21

    We propose a generalization of the Chern-Simons (CS) Lagrangian which is invariant under the SIM(2) transformations but not under the full Lorentz group. The generalized lagrangian is also invariant under a SIM(2) gauge transformation. We study the effect of such a term on radiation propagating over cosmological distances. We find that the dominant effect of this term is to produce circular polarization as radiation propagates through space. We use the circular polarization data from distant radio sources in order to impose a limit on this term.

  10. Membrane curvature and cholesterol effects on lipids packing and spin-labelled lipids conformational distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukovsky, Nurit; Sanders, Ella; Matalon, Erez; Wolf, Sharon G.; Goldfarb, Daniella

    2013-10-01

    Nitroxide spin-labelled lipid analogues are often used to study model membrane properties using EPR spectroscopy. Whereas in liquid phase membranes the spin label assumes, on average, its putative location, in gel phases and frozen membrane, depending on its position along the acyl chain, it may exhibit a different average location. Here we used 2H three-pulse Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM) of phospholipid spin probes, combined with various deuteration schemes to detect the effect of the model membrane curvature and cholesterol on vertical migrations of the spin label. We compared large and small unilamellar 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) vesicles with and without cholesterol (10%). The vertical displacement of the spin label was manifested as an apparently flat trans-membrane profile of water concentration and of label proximity to the head group choline. The spin-label propensity to migrate was found to increase with vesicle curvature and decrease in the presence of cholesterol. This in turn reflects the effect of packing and ordering of the membrane lipids. The results show that in curved vesicles lacking cholesterol, the label attached to carbon 16 may travel as far high along the membrane normal as the location of the label on carbon 5, due to the presence of U-shaped lipid conformations. This phenomenon must be taken into account when using spin-labelled lipids as membrane depth markers or to trace trans-membrane profiles.

  11. Effects of ADH on the apical and basolateral membranes of toad urinary bladder epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, P J; Leader, J P

    1993-11-01

    Short-circuited urinary bladders from Bufo marinus were supported on their apical surface by an agar mounting method and impaled with microelectrodes via their basolateral membrane. This arrangement provided stable and long-lasting impalements of epithelial cells and yielded reliable membrane potentials and voltage divider ratios (Ra/Rb), where Ra and Rb are apical and basolateral membrane resistances respectively. The membrane potential under short-circuit conditions (Vsc) was -51.4 +/- 2.2 mV (n = 59), while under open-circuit conditions apical membrane potential (Va) and basolateral membrane potential (Vb) were -31.0 +/- 2.4 and 59.5 +/- 2.4 mV, respectively. This yields a "well-shaped" potential profile across the toad urinary bladder, where Va is inversely related to the rate of transport, Isc. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) produced a hyperpolarisation of Vsc and Vb but had no significant effect on Va. In addition, Ra/Rb was significantly increased by ADH (4.6 +/- 0.5 to 10.2 +/- 3.6). Calculation of individual membrane resistances following the addition of amiloride showed that ADH produced a parallel decrease in Ra and Rb membrane resistance, with the observed increase in Ra/Rb being due to a greater percentage decrease in Rb than in Ra. The ability of ADH to effect parallel changes in apical and basolateral membrane conductance helps to maintain a constant cellular volume despite an increase in transepithelial transport. PMID:8309781

  12. Effect of evaporation time on cellulose acetate membrane for gas separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jami'an, W. N. R.; Hasbullah, H.; Mohamed, F.; Yusof, N.; Ibrahim, N.; Ali, R. R.

    2016-06-01

    Throughout this decades, membrane technology has been the desirable option among the others gas separation technologies. However, few issues have been raised regarding the membrane gas separation application including the trade-off between its permeability and selectivity and also its effects towards environment. Therefore, for this research, a biopolymer membrane for gas separation application will be developed with reasonably high on both permeability and selectivity. The main objective of this research is to study the effect of solvent evaporation time on the flat sheet asymmetric membrane morphology and gas separation performance. The membranes were produced by a simple dry/wet phase inversion technique using a pneumatically controlled casting system. The dope solution for the membrane casting was prepared by dissolving the cellulose acetate (CA) polymer in N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and the solvent evaporation time was varied. Permeability and selectivity of the membrane was performed by using pure gases of carbon dioxide, CO2 and methane, CH4. The increase in solvent evaporation time had improved the membrane morphologies as the porosity of the membrane surface decrease and formation of a more mature skin layer. The gas permeation tests determined that increasing in solvent evaporation time had increased the selectivity of CO2/CH4 but reduce the permeability of both gases

  13. Effects of cholesterol concentration on the interaction of cytarabine with lipid membranes: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Karami, Leila; Jalili, Seifollah

    2015-01-01

    Liposomal cytarabine, DepoCyt, is a chemotherapy agent which is used in cancer treatment. This form of cytarabine has more efficacy and fewer side effects relative to the other forms. Since DepoCyt contains the cytarabine encapsulated within phosphatidylcholine and the sterol molecules, we modeled dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC)/cholesterol bilayer membrane as a carrier for cytarabine to study drug-bilayer interactions. For this purpose, we performed a series of united-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for 25 ns to investigate the interactions between cytarabine and cholesterol-containing DOPC lipid bilayers. Only the uncharged form of cytarabine molecule was investigated. In this study, different levels of the cholesterol content (0, 20, and 40%) were used. MD simulations allowed us to determine dynamical and structural properties of the bilayer membrane and to estimate the preferred location and orientation of the cytarabine molecule inside the bilayer membrane. Properties such as membrane thickness, area per lipid, diffusion coefficient, mass density, bilayer packing, order parameters, and intermolecular interactions were examined. The results show that by increasing the cholesterol concentration in the lipid bilayers, the bilayer thickness increases and area per lipid decreases. Moreover, in accordance with the experiments, our calculations show that cholesterol molecules have ordering effect on the hydrocarbon acyl chains. Furthermore, the cytarabine molecule preferentially occupies the polar region of the lipid head groups to form specific interactions (hydrogen bonds). Our results fully support the experimental data. Our finding about drug-bilayer interaction is crucial for the liposomal drug design. PMID:25068451

  14. Effect of nanoscale morphology on selective ethanol transport through block copolymer membranes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on the effect of block copolymer domain size on transport of liquid mixtures through the membranes by presenting pervaporation data of an 8 wt% ethanol/water mixture through A-B-A and B-A-B triblock copolymer membranes. The A-block was chosen to facilitate ethanol transport while the B-blo...

  15. Effect of catalyst layer defects on local membrane degradation in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavassoli, Arash; Lim, Chan; Kolodziej, Joanna; Lauritzen, Michael; Knights, Shanna; Wang, G. Gary; Kjeang, Erik

    2016-08-01

    Aiming at durability issues of fuel cells, this research is dedicated to a novel experimental approach in the analysis of local membrane degradation phenomena in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, shedding light on the potential effects of manufacturing imperfections on this process. With a comprehensive review on historical failure analysis data from field operated fuel cells, local sources of iron oxide contaminants, catalyst layer cracks, and catalyst layer delamination are considered as potential candidates for initiating or accelerating the local membrane degradation phenomena. Customized membrane electrode assemblies with artificial defects are designed, fabricated, and subjected to membrane accelerated stress tests followed by extensive post-mortem analysis. The results reveal a significant accelerating effect of iron oxide contamination on the global chemical degradation of the membrane, but dismiss local traces of iron oxide as a potential stressor for local membrane degradation. Anode and cathode catalyst layer cracks are observed to have negligible impact on the membrane degradation phenomena. Notably however, distinct evidence is found that anode catalyst layer delamination can accelerate local membrane thinning, while cathode delamination has no apparent effect. Moreover, a substantial mitigating effect for platinum residuals on the site of delamination is observed.

  16. Effects of biradical deuteration on the performance of DNP: Towards better performing polarizing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Perras, Frédéric A.; Reinig, Regina R.; Slowing, Igor I.; Sadow, Aaron D.; Pruski, Marek

    2015-11-20

    We study the effects of the deuteration of biradical polarizing agents on the efficiency of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) via the cross-effect. To this end, we synthesized a series of bTbK and TOTAPol biradicals with systematically increased deuterium substitution. The deuteration increases the radicals' relaxation time, thus contributing to a higher saturation factor and larger DNP enhancement, and reduces the pool of protons within the so-called spin diffusion barrier. Notably, we report that full or partial deuteration leads to improved DNP enhancement factors in standard samples, but also slows down the build-up of hyperpolarization. Improvements in DNP enhancements factors of up to 70% and time savings of up to 38% are obtained upon full deuteration. As a result, it is foreseen that this approach may be applied to other DNP polarizing agents thus enabling further sensitivity improvements.

  17. Effects of biradical deuteration on the performance of DNP: Towards better performing polarizing agents

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Perras, Frédéric A.; Reinig, Regina R.; Slowing, Igor I.; Sadow, Aaron D.; Pruski, Marek

    2015-11-20

    We study the effects of the deuteration of biradical polarizing agents on the efficiency of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) via the cross-effect. To this end, we synthesized a series of bTbK and TOTAPol biradicals with systematically increased deuterium substitution. The deuteration increases the radicals' relaxation time, thus contributing to a higher saturation factor and larger DNP enhancement, and reduces the pool of protons within the so-called spin diffusion barrier. Notably, we report that full or partial deuteration leads to improved DNP enhancement factors in standard samples, but also slows down the build-up of hyperpolarization. Improvements in DNP enhancements factors ofmore » up to 70% and time savings of up to 38% are obtained upon full deuteration. As a result, it is foreseen that this approach may be applied to other DNP polarizing agents thus enabling further sensitivity improvements.« less

  18. Analysis of the polarity effects in the electrical breakdown of liquids.

    SciTech Connect

    Woodworth, Joseph Ray; Qian, J.; Joshi, Ravindra P.; Schamiloglu, Edl; Gaudet, John A.; Lehr, Jane Marie

    2005-03-01

    Electrical breakdown simulations are carried out for liquids in response to a sub-microsecond ({approx}100-200 ns) voltage pulse. This model builds on our previous analysis and focuses particularly on the polarity effect seen experimentally in point-plane geometries. The flux-corrected transport approach is used for the numerical implementation. Our model adequately explains experimental observations of pre-breakdown current fluctuations, streamer propagation and branching as well as disparities in hold-off voltage and breakdown initiation times between the anode and cathode polarities. It is demonstrated that polarity effects basically arise from the large mobility difference between electrons and ions. The higher electron mobility leads to greater charge smearing and diffusion that impacts the local electric field distributions. Non-linear couplings between the number density, electric field and charge generation rates then collectively affect the formation of ionized channels and their temporal dynamics.

  19. Determination of mask induced polarization effects on AltPSM mask structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollein, Ingo; Teuber, Silvio; Bubke, Karsten

    2005-06-01

    In the process of discussion of possible mask-types for the 5x nm node (half-pitch) and below, the alternating phase-shifting mask (AltPSM) is a potential candidate to be screened. The current scenario suggests using 193 nm immersion lithography with NA values of up to 1.2 and above. New optical effects from oblique incident angles, mask-induced polarization of the transmitted light and birefringence from the substrate need to be taken into account when the optical performance of a mask is evaluated. This paper addresses mask induced polarization effects from dense lines-and-space structures on a real mask. Measurements of the polarization dependent diffraction efficiencies have been performed on AltPSM masks. Experimental results show good agreement with simulations. A comparison with Binary Masks is made.

  20. Analysis of the polarization rotation effect in the inversely tapered spot size converter.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lianxi; Zhou, Haifeng; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Song, Junfeng; Huang, Ying; Tu, Xiaoguang; Luo, Xianshu; Li, Chao; Fang, Qing; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guoqiang

    2015-10-19

    Inversely tapered spot size converter (SSC) is widely used to connect silicon waveguide with fiber in silicon photonics. However, the tapered structure may cause polarization rotation and further generate interference fluctuation in the transmission spectrum even of a straight waveguide. We analyzed the light propagation in a straight waveguide with SSC at the both ends with coupling matrix and transmission matrix methods. The analysis results matched with the phenomena we observed in the transmission spectrum. Combining the analysis with the measurement results, we calculated the polarization rotation efficiency of the SSC in different samples and analyzed the origin of the polarization rotation effect. Finally, we discussed the influence of the effect to the DP-QPSK signal and proposed several methods to release the impact. PMID:26480439

  1. Polarization singularities and orbital angular momentum sidebands from rotational symmetry broken by the Pockels effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiancong; Wu, Ziwen; Zhang, Wuhong; Chen, Lixiang

    2014-05-01

    The law of angular momentum conservation is naturally linked to the rotational symmetry of the involved system. Here we demonstrate theoretically how to break the rotational symmetry of a uniaxial crystal via the electro-optic Pockels effect. By numerical method based on asymptotic expansion, we discover the 3D structure of polarization singularities in terms of C lines and L surfaces embedded in the emerging light. We visualize the controllable dynamics evolution of polarization singularities when undergoing the Pockels effect, which behaves just like the binary fission of a prokaryotic cell, i.e., the splitting of C points and fission of L lines are animated in analogy with the cleavage of nucleus and division of cytoplasm. We reveal the connection of polarization singularity dynamics with the accompanying generation of orbital angular momentum sidebands. It is unexpected that although the total angular momentum of light is not conserved, the total topological index of C points is conserved.

  2. Polarization singularities and orbital angular momentum sidebands from rotational symmetry broken by the Pockels effect

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiancong; Wu, Ziwen; Zhang, Wuhong; Chen, Lixiang

    2014-01-01

    The law of angular momentum conservation is naturally linked to the rotational symmetry of the involved system. Here we demonstrate theoretically how to break the rotational symmetry of a uniaxial crystal via the electro-optic Pockels effect. By numerical method based on asymptotic expansion, we discover the 3D structure of polarization singularities in terms of C lines and L surfaces embedded in the emerging light. We visualize the controllable dynamics evolution of polarization singularities when undergoing the Pockels effect, which behaves just like the binary fission of a prokaryotic cell, i.e., the splitting of C points and fission of L lines are animated in analogy with the cleavage of nucleus and division of cytoplasm. We reveal the connection of polarization singularity dynamics with the accompanying generation of orbital angular momentum sidebands. It is unexpected that although the total angular momentum of light is not conserved, the total topological index of C points is conserved. PMID:24784778

  3. Polarization singularities and orbital angular momentum sidebands from rotational symmetry broken by the Pockels effect.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiancong; Wu, Ziwen; Zhang, Wuhong; Chen, Lixiang

    2014-01-01

    The law of angular momentum conservation is naturally linked to the rotational symmetry of the involved system. Here we demonstrate theoretically how to break the rotational symmetry of a uniaxial crystal via the electro-optic Pockels effect. By numerical method based on asymptotic expansion, we discover the 3D structure of polarization singularities in terms of C lines and L surfaces embedded in the emerging light. We visualize the controllable dynamics evolution of polarization singularities when undergoing the Pockels effect, which behaves just like the binary fission of a prokaryotic cell, i.e., the splitting of C points and fission of L lines are animated in analogy with the cleavage of nucleus and division of cytoplasm. We reveal the connection of polarization singularity dynamics with the accompanying generation of orbital angular momentum sidebands. It is unexpected that although the total angular momentum of light is not conserved, the total topological index of C points is conserved. PMID:24784778

  4. Thickness and Temperature effect on tip induced polarization switching of Ni substituted PZT Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Shalini; Pradhan, Dhiren; Vasudevan, Rama; Strelcove, Eveghni; Ortega, Nora; Kumar, Ashok; Kalinin, Sergei; Katiyar, Ram

    Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is one of the most popular techniques used for the complex investigations of the ferroelectric materials, allowing visualization of the static ferroelectric domain structures. Substitution of Ni in B site of PZT has been chosen for the present study to reduce the optical band gap for phototovoltaic applications. Here we experimentally studied the effect of thickness and temperature on tip induced polarization reversal of Ni doped PZT thin films by band excitation PFM. The out of field and in field band excitation polarization spectroscopy along with poling experiment conclusively confirm the existence of ferroelectricity down to 5 nm. The decrease of piezoresponse is observed with increase of temperature. The ferroelectric phase transition is also probed by the temperature dependence of piezoresponse studies. Detailed studies on effect of thickness and temperature on coercive field, imprint, switchable polarization, nucleation bias of PZTNi30 will be discussed in the meeting.

  5. Effect of microfiltration concentration factor on serum protein removal from skim milk using spiral-wound polymeric membranes.

    PubMed

    Beckman, S L; Barbano, D M

    2013-10-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of concentration factor (CF) on the removal of serum protein (SP) from skim milk during microfiltration (MF) at 50 °C using a 0.3-μm-pore-size spiral-wound (SW) polymeric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Pasteurized (72°C for 16 s) skim milk was MF (50 °C) at 3 CF (1.50, 2.25, and 3.00×), each on a separate day of processing starting with skim milk. Two phases of MF were used at each CF, with an initial startup-stabilization phase (40 min in full recycle mode) to achieve the desired CF, followed by a steady-state phase (90-min feed-and-bleed with recycle) where data was collected. The experiment was replicated 3 times, and SP removal from skim milk was quantified at each CF. System pressures, flow rates, CF, and fluxes were monitored during the 90-min run. Permeate flux increased (12.8, 15.3, and 19.0 kg/m(2) per hour) with decreasing CF from 3.00 to 1.50×, whereas fouled water flux did not differ among CF, indicating that the effect of membrane fouling on hydraulic resistance of the membrane was similar at all CF. However, the CF used when microfiltering skim milk (50°C) with a 0.3-μm polymeric SW PVDF membrane did affect the percentage of SP removed. As CF increased from 1.50 to 3.00×, the percentage of SP removed from skim milk increased from 10.56 to 35.57%, in a single stage bleed-and-feed MF system. Percentage SP removal from skim milk was lower than the theoretical value. Rejection of SP during MF of skim milk with SW PVDF membranes was caused by fouling of the membrane, not by the membrane itself and differences in the foulant characteristic among CF influenced SP rejection more than it influenced hydraulic resistance. We hypothesize that differences in the conditions near the surface of the membrane and within the pores during the first few minutes of processing, when casein micelles pass through the membrane, influenced the rejection of SP because more pore size narrowing and plugging occurred at

  6. The effect of membrane filtration on dissolved trace element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Lum, K.R.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hall, G.E.M.; Lemieux, C.; Demas, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    The almost universally accepted operational definition for dissolved constituents is based on processing whole-water samples through a 0.45-??m membrane filter. Results from field and laboratory experiments indicate that a number of factors associated with filtration, other than just pore size (e.g., diameter, manufacturer, volume of sample processed, amount of suspended sediment in the sample), can produce substantial variations in the 'dissolved' concentrations of such elements as Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, and Ni. These variations result from the inclusion/exclusion of colloidally- associated trace elements. Thus, 'dissolved' concentrations quantitated by analyzing filtrates generated by processing whole-water through similar pore- sized membrane filters may not be equal/comparable. As such, simple filtration through a 0.45-??m membrane filter may no longer represent an acceptable operational definition for dissolved chemical constituents. This conclusion may have important implications for environmental studies and regulatory agencies.

  7. The effects of oxygen on the evolution of microbial membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, L. L.

    1991-01-01

    One prokaryote, Methylococcus capsulatus, synthesizes both hopanoids and sterols and, thus, provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution of membrane function. When M. capsulatus was grown at different temperatures, lipid analysis of the whole cells showed that both sterol and unsaturated fatty acid levels decreased at higher growth temperatures; sterol concentrations were 0.116 micro mole/micro mole phospholipid at 30 C and 0.025 micro mole/mirco mole phospholipid at 45 C, while the saturated to unsaturated fatty acid ratio increased from 0.397 to 1.475. Hopane polyol levels were constant over this range; however, methylation of the A-ring decreased markedly in cells grown at 30 C. These results imply that sterol and hopane molecules are required for enhancement of some specific membrane function, potentially by modulating membrane fluidity.

  8. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulation: Effect of polarization on thrombin-ligand binding energy.

    PubMed

    Duan, Li L; Feng, Guo Q; Zhang, Qing G

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations lasting 500 ns were performed in explicit water to investigate the effect of polarization on the binding of ligands to human α-thrombin based on the standard nonpolarizable AMBER force field and the quantum-derived polarized protein-specific charge (PPC). The PPC includes the electronic polarization effect of the thrombin-ligand complex, which is absent in the standard force field. A detailed analysis and comparison of the results of the MD simulation with experimental data provided strong evidence that intra-protein, protein-ligand hydrogen bonds and the root-mean-square deviation of backbone atoms were significantly stabilized through electronic polarization. Specifically, two critical hydrogen bonds between thrombin and the ligand were broken at approximately 190 ns when AMBER force field was used and the number of intra-protein backbone hydrogen bonds was higher under PPC than under AMBER. The thrombin-ligand binding energy was computed using the molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) method, and the results were consistent with the experimental value obtained using PPC. Because hydrogen bonds were unstable, it was failed to predict the binding affinity under the AMBER force field. Furthermore, the results of the present study revealed that differences in the binding free energy between AMBER and PPC almost comes from the electrostatic interaction. Thus, this study provides evidence that protein polarization is critical to accurately describe protein-ligand binding. PMID:27507430

  9. Ferroelectric polarization effect on surface chemistry and photo-catalytic activity: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. A.; Nadeem, M. A.; Idriss, H.

    2016-03-01

    The current efficiency of various photocatalytic processes is limited by the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the photocatalyst as well as the back-reaction of intermediate species. This review concentrates on the use of ferroelectric polarization to mitigate electron-hole recombination and back-reactions and therefore improve photochemical reactivity. Ferroelectric materials are considered as wide band gap polarizable semiconductors. Depending on the surface polarization, different regions of the surface experience different extents of band bending and promote different carriers to move to spatially different locations. This can lead to some interesting interactions at the surface such as spatially selective adsorption and surface redox reactions. This introductory review covers the fundamental properties of ferroelectric materials, effect of an internal electric field/polarization on charge carrier separation, effect of the polarization on the surface photochemistry and reviews the work done on the use of these ferroelectric materials for photocatalytic applications such as dye degradation and water splitting. The manipulation of photogenerated charge carriers through an internal electric field/surface polarization is a promising strategy for the design of improved photocatalysts.

  10. Interrogation and mitigation of polarization effects for standard and birefringent FBGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Selwan K.; Van Roosbroeck, Jan; O'Dowd, John A.; Van Hoe, Bram; Lindner, Eric; Vlekken, Johan; Farnan, Martin; Karabacak, Devrez M.; Singer, Johannes M.

    2016-05-01

    Optical sensors based on Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) are used in several applications and industries. Several inscription techniques and type of fibers can be used. However, depending on the writing process, type of fiber used and the packaging of the sensor a Polarization Dependent Frequency Shift (PDFS) can often be observed with polarized tunable laser based optical interrogators. Here we study the PDFS of the FBG peak for the different FBG types. A PDFS of <1pm up to >20pm was observed across the FBGs. To mitigate and reduce this effect we propose a polarization mitigation technique which relies on a synchronous polarization switch to reduce the effect typically by a factor greater than 4. In other scenarios the sensor itself is designed to be birefringent (Bi-FBG) to allow pressure and/or simultaneous temperature and strain measurements. Using the same polarization switch we demonstrate how we can interrogate the Bi-FBGs with high accuracy to enable high performance of such sensors to be achievable.

  11. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulation: Effect of polarization on thrombin-ligand binding energy

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Li L.; Feng, Guo Q.; Zhang, Qing G.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations lasting 500 ns were performed in explicit water to investigate the effect of polarization on the binding of ligands to human α-thrombin based on the standard nonpolarizable AMBER force field and the quantum-derived polarized protein-specific charge (PPC). The PPC includes the electronic polarization effect of the thrombin-ligand complex, which is absent in the standard force field. A detailed analysis and comparison of the results of the MD simulation with experimental data provided strong evidence that intra-protein, protein-ligand hydrogen bonds and the root-mean-square deviation of backbone atoms were significantly stabilized through electronic polarization. Specifically, two critical hydrogen bonds between thrombin and the ligand were broken at approximately 190 ns when AMBER force field was used and the number of intra-protein backbone hydrogen bonds was higher under PPC than under AMBER. The thrombin-ligand binding energy was computed using the molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) method, and the results were consistent with the experimental value obtained using PPC. Because hydrogen bonds were unstable, it was failed to predict the binding affinity under the AMBER force field. Furthermore, the results of the present study revealed that differences in the binding free energy between AMBER and PPC almost comes from the electrostatic interaction. Thus, this study provides evidence that protein polarization is critical to accurately describe protein-ligand binding. PMID:27507430

  12. Stable multi-wavelength fiber laser based on a compounded nonlinear polarization rotation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Hui; Lou, Shuqin; Ma, Jianli; Su, Wei; Han, Bolin; Shen, Xiao

    2014-11-01

    A stable multi-wavelength polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber (PM-EDF) laser with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) based on a compounded nonlinear polarization rotation effect (CNPRE) is proposed and demonstrated. In order to effectively reduce homogeneous broadening of EDF and then to the alleviate mode competition, two sandwich configurations formed by a polarization dependent isolator (PDI) or a segment of single-mode fiber sandwiched between two polarization controllers (PC), are introduced into the ring cavity to generate the CNPRE. A home-made asymmetry twin-core fiber (ATCF) is also incorporated in the ring cavity as a comb filter. With only 150 mW pump power, there are up to 45-wavelengths lasing with the approximate amplitude in a 3 dB bandwidth generated at room temperature. The wavelength spacing between the adjacent peaks is 0.29 nm and the highest SNRs reach 41.5 dB by optimizing the state of polarization of PCs. The power fluctuation and wavelength shift for each lasing wavelength are less than 0.05 dB and 0.02 nm, respectively. This indicates that the proposed multi-wavelength fiber laser can be stably operated at room temperature.

  13. The effect of compatible solute ectoines on the structural organization of lipid monolayer and bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Harishchandra, Rakesh Kumar; Wulff, Stephanie; Lentzen, Georg; Neuhaus, Thorsten; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2010-08-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes responsible for osmotic balance and at the same time compatible with the cellular metabolism. Here, we have investigated the effect of the compatible solutes, ectoine and hydroxyectoine, on the fluid-rigid domain structure of lipid monolayer and bilayer membranes. Mainly saturated dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine membranes exhibiting a clear le/lc phase transition were used. Fluorescence microscopy showed that ectoines added to the aqueous subphase expand and fluidize the lipid monolayers especially at surface pressures below 30mN/m. The domain structure at the le/lc phase transition is sensitively modified leading to smaller but more numerous domains in the presence of ectoines. Hydroxyectoine was more efficient than ectoine. These results are explained by the replacement theory assuming that the ectoines are likely to be expelled from the membrane surface thus favoring the hydration of the lipid membrane. This effect reduces the line tension, which is the interfacial energy at the domain edges leading to reduced domain sizes and increased number of rigid domains. Isotherms of negatively charged phosphatidylglycerol membranes show a similar expansion, while unsaturated lipids are less affected. Mixed phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylglycerol membranes exhibit the same effect on the line tension increasing the tendency for a phase separation. This could be shown also in bilayer vesicles, where the compatible solutes have only a minor effect on the lipid main phase transition in pure DPPC membranes but reduce the extent of the pretransition. In mixed DPPC/DPPG bilayer membranes ectoines cause a phase separation leading to the enrichment of expanded DPPC domains. In conclusion, our study gives for the first time evidence that ectoines have an effect on lipid membranes increasing the hydration of the surface and thus increasing the mobility of the lipid head groups and fluidizing the lipid layer accordingly. This increased

  14. On effective temperatures and electron spin polarization in storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.D.

    1998-05-01

    This note is a summary of the author`s views on the subject of effective temperatures (and the Unruh temperature in particular) in accelerators. Unruh analyzes the response to vacuum fluctuations of a linearly accelerated two-level atom serving as a detector and shows that the relative populations of the two states are given by a boltzmann factor with kT = {h_bar}a/2{pi}c, where a is the acceleration. The inference is that the detector is immersed in a black-body spectrum of Unruh radiation at the Unruh temperature. He refers to these ideas as the Unruh effect.

  15. The effects of polar excipients transcutol and dexpanthenol on molecular mobility, permeability, and electrical impedance of the skin barrier.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Sebastian; Pham, Quoc Dat; Jensen, Louise Bastholm; Knudsen, Nina Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Dencker; Ekelund, Katarina; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Engblom, Johan; Sparr, Emma

    2016-10-01

    In the development of transdermal and topical products it is important to understand how formulation ingredients interact with the molecular components of the upper layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC), and thereby influence its macroscopic barrier properties. The aim here was to investigate the effect of two commonly used excipients, transcutol and dexpanthenol, on the molecular as well as the macroscopic properties of the skin membrane. Polarization transfer solid-state NMR methods were combined with steady-state flux and impedance spectroscopy measurements to investigate how these common excipients influence the molecular components of SC and its barrier function at strictly controlled hydration conditions in vitro with excised porcine skin. The NMR results provide completely new molecular insight into how transcutol and dexpanthenol affect specific molecular segments of both SC lipids and proteins. The presence of transcutol or dexpanthenol in the formulation at fixed water activity results in increased effective skin permeability of the model drug metronidazole. Finally, impedance spectroscopy data show clear changes of the effective skin capacitance after treatment with transcutol or dexpanthenol. Based on the complementary data, we are able to draw direct links between effects on the molecular properties and on the macroscopic barrier function of the skin barrier under treatment with formulations containing transcutol or dexpanthenol. PMID:27388135

  16. Ti3C2Tx Filler Effect on the Proton Conduction Property of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yahua; Zhang, Jiakui; Zhang, Xiang; Li, Yifan; Wang, Jingtao

    2016-08-10

    Conductive polymer electrolyte membranes are increasingly attractive for a wide range of applications in hydrogen-relevant devices, for instance hydrogen fuel cells. In this study, two-dimensional Ti3C2Tx, a typical representative of the recently developed MXene family, is synthesized and employed as a universal filler for its features of large specific surface area, high aspect ratio, and sufficient terminated -OH groups. The Ti3C2Tx is incorporated into polymer matrix to explore its function on membrane microstructure and proton condu