Off-Design Reynolds Number Effects for a Supersonic Transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owens, Lewis R.; Wahls, Richard A.; Rivers, S. Melissa
2005-01-01
A high Reynolds number wind tunnel test was conducted to assess Reynolds number effects on the aerodynamic performance characteristics of a realistic, second-generation supersonic transport concept. The tests included longitudinal studies at transonic and low-speed, high-lift conditions across a range of chord Reynolds numbers (8 million to 120 million). Results presented focus on Reynolds number and static aeroelastic sensitivities at Mach 0.30 and 0.90 for a configuration without a tail. Static aeroelastic effects, which mask Reynolds number effects, were observed. Reynolds number effects were generally small and the drag data followed established trends of skin friction as a function of Reynolds number. A more nose-down pitching moment was produced as Reynolds number increased because of an outward movement of the inboard leading-edge separation at constant angles of attack. This study extends the existing Reynolds number database for supersonic transports operating at off-design conditions.
Reynolds number effects in combustion noise
Seshan, P.K.
1981-01-01
Acoustic emission spectra have been obtained for non-premixed turbulent combustion from two small diameter laboratory gas burners, two commercial gas burners and a large gas burner in the firebox of a Babcock-Wilcox Boiler (50,000 lb steam/hr). The changes in burner size and firing rate represent changes in Reynolds number and changes in air/fuel ratio represent departure from stoichiometric proportions. The combustion efficiency was measured independently through gas analysis. The acoustic spectra obtained from the various burners exhibit a persistent shape over the Reynolds number range of 8200-82,000. The spectra were analyzed for identification of a predictable frequency domain that is most responsive to, and readily correlated with, combustion efficiency. A simple parameter (consisting of the ratio of the average acoustic power output in the most responsive frequency bandwidth to the acoustic power level of the loudest frequency) is proposed whose value increases significantly and unmistakably as combustion efficiency approaches 100%. The dependence of the most responsive frequency domain on the various Reynolds numbers associated with turbulent jets is discussed.
Reynolds Number Effects on the Performance of Lateral Control Devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mineck, Raymond E.
2000-01-01
The influence of Reynolds number on the performance of outboard spoilers and ailerons was investigated on a generic subsonic transport configuration in the National Transonic Facility over a chord Reynolds number range 41 from 3x10(exp 6) to 30xl0(exp 6) and a Mach number range from 0.50 to 0.94, Spoiler deflection angles of 0, 10, 15, and 20 deg and aileron deflection angles of -10, 0, and 10 deg were tested. Aeroelastic effects were minimized by testing at constant normalized dynamic pressure conditions over intermediate Reynolds number ranges. Results indicated that the increment in rolling moment due to spoiler deflection generally becomes more negative as the Reynolds number increases from 3x10(exp 6) to 22x10(exp 6) with only small changes between Reynolds numbers of 22x10(exp 6) and 30x10(exp 6). The change in the increment in rolling moment coefficient with Reynolds number for the aileron deflected configuration is generally small with a general trend of increasing magnitude with increasing Reynolds number.
Reynolds Number Effects on a Supersonic Transport at Transonic Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wahls, R. N.; Owens, L. R.; Rivers, S. M. B.
2001-01-01
A High Speed Civil Transport configuration was tested in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of NASA's High Speed Research Program. The primary purposes of the tests were to assess Reynolds number scale effects and the high Reynolds number aerodynamic characteristics of a realistic, second generation supersonic transport while providing data for the assessment of computational methods. The tests included longitudinal and lateral/directional studies at low speed high-lift and transonic conditions across a range of Reynolds numbers from that available in conventional wind tunnels to near flight conditions. Results are presented which focus on both the Reynolds number and static aeroelastic sensitivities of longitudinal characteristics at Mach 0.90 for a configuration without an empennage.
Turbulent intensity and Reynolds number effects on an airfoil at low Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, S.; Zhou, Y.; Alam, Md. Mahbub; Yang, H.
2014-11-01
This work investigates the aerodynamics of a NACA 0012 airfoil at the chord-based Reynolds numbers (Rec) from 5.3 × 103 to 2.0 × 104. The lift and drag coefficients, CL and CD, of the airfoil, along with the flow structure, were measured as the turbulent intensity Tu of oncoming flow varies from 0.6% to 6.0%. The analysis of the present data and those in the literature unveils a total of eight distinct flow structures around the suction side of the airfoil. Four Rec regimes, i.e., the ultra-low (<1.0 × 104), low (1.0 × 104-3.0 × 105), moderate (3.0 × 105-5.0 × 106), and high Rec (>5.0 × 106), are proposed based on their characteristics of the CL-Rec relationship and the flow structure. It has been observed that Tu has a more pronounced effect at lower Rec than at higher Rec on the shear layer separation, reattachment, transition, and formation of the separation bubble. As a result, CL, CD, CL/CD and their dependence on the airfoil angle of attack all vary with Tu. So does the critical Reynolds number Rec,cr that divides the ultra-low and low Rec regimes. It is further noted that the effect of increasing Tu bears similarity in many aspects to that of increasing Rec, albeit with differences. The concept of the effective Reynolds number Rec,eff advocated for the moderate and high Rec regimes is re-evaluated for the low and ultra-low Rec regimes. The Rec,eff treats the non-zero Tu effect as an addition of Rec and is determined based on the presently defined Rec,cr. It has been found that all the maximum lift data from both present measurements and previous reports collapse into a single curve in the low and ultra-low Rec regimes if scaled with Rec,eff.
High Reynolds Number and Turbulence Effects on Turbine Heat Transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeh, Frederick C.; Hippensteele, Steven A.; vanFossen, G. James; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Ameri, Ali
1994-01-01
Experimental data on pressure distribution and heat transfer on a turbine airfoil were obtained over a range of Reynolds numbers from 0.75 to 7.0 x 10(exp 6) and a range of turbulence intensities from 1.8 to about 15%. The purpose of this study was to obtain fundamental heat transfer and pressure distribution data over a wide range of high Reynolds numbers and to extend the heat transfer data base to include the range or Reynolds numbers encountered in the Space Shuttle main engine turbopump turbines. The results of this study indicated that Reynolds number and turbulence intensity have a large effect on both the transition from laminar to turbulent flow and the resulting heat transfer. For a given turbulence intensity, heat transfer for all Reynolds numbers at the leading edge can generally be correlated with the Frossling number developed for lower Reynolds numbers. For a given turbulence intensity, heat transfer for the airfoil surfaces downstream of the leading edge can be approximately correlated with a dimensionless parameter. Comparisons of the experimental results were also made with a numerical solution from a two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code.
Reynolds and Mach number effects on multielement airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Valarezo, Walter O.; Dominik, Chet J.; Mcghee, Robert J.
1992-01-01
Experimental studies were conducted to assess Reynolds and Mach number effects on a supercritical multielement airfoil. The airfoil is representative of the stall-critical station of an advanced transport wing design. The experimental work was conducted as part of a cooperative program between the Douglas Aircraft Company and the NASA LaRC to improve current knowledge of high-lift flows and to develop a validation database with practical geometries/conditions for emerging computational methods. This paper describes results obtained for both landing and takeoff multielement airfoils (four and three-element configurations) for a variety of Mach/Reynolds number combinations up to flight conditions. Effects on maximum lift are considered for the landing configurations and effects on both lift and drag are reported for the takeoff geometry. The present test results revealed considerable maximum lift effects on the three-element landing configuration for Reynolds number variations and significant Mach number effects on the four-element airfoil.
Reynold-Number Effects on Near-Wall Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mansour, N. N.; Kim, J.; Moser, R. D.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The Reynolds stress budget in a full developed turbulent channel flow for three Reynolds numbers (Re = 180,395,590) are used to investigate the near wall scaling of various turbulence quantities. We find that as the Reynolds number increases, the extent of the region where the production of the kinetic energy is equal to the dissipation increases. At the highest Reynolds number the region of equilibrium extends from y+ - 120 to y+ = 240. As the Reynolds number increases, we find that wall scaling collapses the budgets for the streamwise fluctuating component, but the budgets for the other two components show Reynolds number dependency.
Subsonic Reynolds Number Effects on a Diamond Wing Configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luckring, J. M.; Ghee, T. A.
2001-01-01
An advanced diamond-wing configuration was tested at low speeds in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) in air at chord Reynolds numbers from 4.4 million (typical wind-tunnel conditions) to 24 million (nominal flight value). Extensive variations on high-lift rigging were explored as part of a broad multinational program. The analysis for this study is focused on the cruise and landing settings of the wing high-lift systems. Three flow domains were identified from the data and provide a context for the ensuing data analysis. Reynolds number effects were examined in incremental form based upon attached-flow theory. A similar approach showed very little effect of low-speed compressibility.
Reynolds number effects on mixing due to topological chaos.
Smith, Spencer A; Warrier, Sangeeta
2016-03-01
Topological chaos has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate fluid mixing. While this theory can guarantee a lower bound on the stretching rate of certain material lines, it does not indicate what fraction of the fluid actually participates in this minimally mandated mixing. Indeed, the area in which effective mixing takes place depends on physical parameters such as the Reynolds number. To help clarify this dependency, we numerically simulate the effects of a batch stirring device on a 2D incompressible Newtonian fluid in the laminar regime. In particular, we calculate the finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field for three different stirring protocols, one topologically complex (pseudo-Anosov) and two simple (finite-order), over a range of viscosities. After extracting appropriate measures indicative of both the amount of mixing and the area of effective mixing from the FTLE field, we see a clearly defined Reynolds number range in which the relative efficacy of the pseudo-Anosov protocol over the finite-order protocols justifies the application of topological chaos. More unexpectedly, we see that while the measures of effective mixing area increase with increasing Reynolds number for the finite-order protocols, they actually exhibit non-monotonic behavior for the pseudo-Anosov protocol. PMID:27036184
Reynolds number effects on gill pumping mechanics in mayfly nymphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sensenig, Andrew; Shultz, Jeffrey; Kiger, Ken
2006-11-01
Mayfly nymphs have an entirely aquatic life stage in which they frequently inhabit stagnant water. Nymphs have the capability to generate a ventilation current to compensate for the low oxygen level of the water by beating two linear arrays of plate-like gills that typically line the lateral edge of the abdomen. The characteristic Reynolds number associated with the gill motion changes with animal size, varying over a span of Re = 5 to 100 depending on age and species. The assumption that the system maintains optimal energetic efficiency leads to the prediction that animals transition from rowing to flapping mechanisms with increasing Re, while possibly utilizing a squeeze mechanism to a greater extent at lower Re. To investigate this hypothesis, we capture the motion of the gills through 3D imaging to investigate the effect of Reynolds number on the stroke patterns. PIV is utilized to assess flow rates and viscous dissipation. The effectiveness of the ventilation mechanism at each size has important consequences for the range of oxygen levels, and hence the habitat range, that can be tolerated by that size.
Reynolds Number Effects at High Angles of Attack
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fisher, David F.; Cobleigh, Brent R.; Banks, Daniel W.; Hall, Robert M.; Wahls, Richard A.
1998-01-01
Lessons learned from comparisons between ground-based tests and flight measurements for the high-angle-of-attack programs on the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), the X-29 forward-swept wing aircraft, and the X-31 enhanced fighter maneuverability aircraft are presented. On all three vehicles, Reynolds number effects were evident on the forebodies at high angles of attack. The correlation between flight and wind tunnel forebody pressure distributions for the F-18 HARV were improved by using twin longitudinal grit strips on the forebody of the wind-tunnel model. Pressure distributions obtained on the X-29 wind-tunnel model at flight Reynolds numbers showed excellent correlation with the flight data up to alpha = 50 deg. Above (alpha = 50 deg. the pressure distributions for both flight and wind tunnel became asymmetric and showed poorer agreement, possibly because of the different surface finish of the model and aircraft. The detrimental effect of a very sharp nose apex was demonstrated on the X-31 aircraft. Grit strips on the forebody of the X-31 reduced the randomness but increased the magnitude of the asymmetry. Nose strakes were required to reduce the forebody yawing moment asymmetries and the grit strips on the flight test noseboom improved the aircraft handling qualities.
Reynolds number, thickness and camber effects on flapping airfoil propulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashraf, M. A.; Young, J.; Lai, J. C. S.
2011-02-01
The effect of varying airfoil thickness and camber on plunging and combined pitching and plunging airfoil propulsion at Reynolds number Re=200, 2000, 20 000 and 2×106 was studied by numerical simulations for fully laminar and fully turbulent flow regimes. The thickness study was performed on 2-D NACA symmetric airfoils with 6-50% thick sections undergoing pure plunging motion at reduced frequency k=2 and amplitudes h=0.25 and 0.5, and for combined pitching and plunging motion at k=2, h=0.5, phase ϕ=90°, pitch angle θo=15° and 30° and the pitch axis was located at 1/3 of chord from leading edge. At Re=200 for motions where positive thrust is generated, thin airfoils outperform thick airfoils. At higher Re significant gains could be achieved both in thrust generation and propulsive efficiency by using a thicker airfoil section for plunging and combined motion with low pitch amplitude. The camber study was performed on 2-D NACA airfoils with varying camber locations undergoing pure plunging motion at k=2, h=0.5 and Re=20 000. Little variation in thrust performance was found with camber. The underlying physics behind the alteration in propulsive performance between low and high Reynolds numbers has been explored by comparing viscous Navier-Stokes and inviscid panel method results. The role of leading edge vortices was found to be key to the observed performance variation.
Reynolds Number Effects on the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Niederhaus, Charles; Vitaliy, Krivets; Collins, Brett; Jacobs, Jeffrey
2002-01-01
This presentation compares the results of two very different experimental studies of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability: shock tube experiments in which an air/SF6 interface is accelerated by a weak shock wave; and incompressible experiments in which a box containing two different density miscible liquids is impulsively accelerated by bouncing it off of a fixed coil spring. Both experiments are initiated with sinusoidal initial perturbations. The interface perturbation initially remains sinusoidal as it grows in amplitude, but eventually the interfacial vorticity concentrates into points, forming a row of line vortices of alternating sign. The Reynolds number based on vortex circulation ranges from 1,000 to 45,000 in these experiments. It is found that viscous effects have a large, quantifiable effect on the evolution of the individual vortices. The effects of viscosity on the overall perturbation amplitude, however, are small and will be compared to theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baals, D. D. (Editor)
1977-01-01
Fundamental aerodynamic questions for which high Reynolds number experimental capability is required are discussed. The operational characteristics and design features of the National Transonic Facility are reviewed.
Effect of Reynolds Number and Mach Number on flow angularity probe sensitivity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, L. A.; Adcock, J. B.
1986-01-01
Preliminary calibrations were performed on nine flow angularity probes in the Langley 7- by 10-Foot High-Speed Tunnel (7 x 10 HST) and the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT). These probes will be used in surveying the test section flows of the National Transonic Facility (NTF). The probes used in this study have a pyramid head with five pressure orifices. The calibrations consisted of both isolated probe measurements and rake-mounted multiprobe measurements that covered a range of subsonic Mach numbers up to 0.90 and Reynolds numbers per foot up to 40 X 10 to the 6th power. The preliminary calibration in the 7 x 10 HST included testing the probes both individually and in a rake. The 0.3-m TCT calibration tested two probes singly at varying Reynolds numbers. The results from these tests include Mach number, Reynolds number, and rake-mounting effects. The results of these tests showed probe sensitivity to be slightly affected by Mach number. At Reynolds numbers per foot above 10 x 10 to the 6th power, the probe did not exhibit a Reynolds number sensitivity.
The effect of Prandtl number on mixing in low Reynolds number Kelvin-Helmholtz billows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahmani, M.; Seymour, B. R.; Lawrence, G. A.
2016-05-01
The effect of Prandtl number on mixing in temporally evolving Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities at low to moderate Reynolds numbers is studied through direct numerical simulation. We distinguish between the mixing induced by the primary billow and the mixing generated by three-dimensional motions by performing each simulation in two and three dimensions. The results indicate that the time evolution of the rate of two- and three-dimensional mixing through different stages of the life cycle of KH flow is significantly influenced by the Prandtl number. As the Prandtl number increases, the final amount of mixing increases for Reynolds that are too low to support active three-dimensional motions. This trend is the opposite in sufficiently high Reynolds number KH flows that can overcome viscous effects and develop significant three-dimensional instabilities. While the mixing generated in the two-dimensional flows, uniform in the span-wise direction, is not significantly dependent on the Prandtl number, the turbulent mixing induced by three-dimensional motions is a function of the Prandtl number. We observe a steady increase in the total amount of mixing for buoyancy Reynolds numbers above 7, consistent with the results of Shih et al. ["Parameterization of turbulent fluxes and scales using homogeneous sheared stably stratified turbulence simulations," J. Fluid Mech. 525, 193-214 (2005)]. Both maximum instantaneous and cumulative mixing efficiencies exhibit a decreasing trend with increasing Prandtl number. We compare the dependence of the mixing efficiency on Prandtl number to previous studies.
High Reynolds number effects on a localized stratified turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Qi; Diamessis, Peter
2015-11-01
We report large-eddy simulations (LES) of the turbulent flow behind a sphere of diameter D translating at speed U in a linearly stratified Boussinesq fluid with buoyancy frequency N. These simulations are performed using a spectral-multidomain-penalty incompressible Navier-Stokes solver, at Reynolds numbers Re ≡ UD / ν ∈ { 5 ×103 , 105 , 4 ×105 } and Froude numbers Fr ≡ 2 U / (ND) ∈ { 4 , 16 , 64 } . An increasingly richer turbulent fine-structure is observed within the larger-scale quasi-horizontal vortices at later times. Turbulent transport of momentum is examined during the non-equilibrium (NEQ) regime of the turbulent life cycle, with an emphasis on the vertical transport that occurs after the establishment of local buoyancy control. The turbulent viscosities in both horizontal and vertical directions are estimated through the LES data; possible parameterization of the vertical turbulent viscosity with the buoyancy Reynolds number Reb = ɛ / (νN2) (or its easy-to-obtain surrogates) is discussed. The dynamical role of the buoyancy Reynolds number in choosing the vertical turbulence length scales is also investigated. ONR grant N00014-13-1-0665 (managed by Dr. R. Joslin); HPCMP Frontier Project FP-CFD-FY14-007 (P.I.: Dr. S. de Bruyn Kops).
Reynolds and Atwood Numbers Effects on Homogeneous Rayleigh Taylor Instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aslangil, Denis; Livescu, Daniel; Banerjee, Arindam
2015-11-01
The effects of Reynolds and Atwood numbers on turbulent mixing of a heterogeneous mixture of two incompressible, miscible fluids with different densities are investigated by using high-resolution Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). The flow occurs in a triply periodic 3D domain, with the two fluids initially segregated in random patches, and turbulence is generated in response to buoyancy. In turn, stirring produced by turbulence breaks down the scalar structures, accelerating the molecular mixing. Statistically homogeneous variable-density (VD) mixing, with density variations due to compositional changes, is a basic mixing problem and aims to mimic the core of the mixing layer of acceleration driven Rayleigh Taylor Instability (RTI). We present results covering a large range of kinematic viscosity values for density contrasts including small (A =0.04), moderate (A =0.5), and high (A =0.75 and 0.9) Atwood numbers. Particular interest will be given to the structure of the turbulence and mixing process, including the alignment between various turbulence and scalar quantities, as well as providing fidelity data for verification and validation of mix models. Arindam Banerjee acknowledges support from NSF CAREER award # 1453056.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yamauchi, G. K.; Johnson, W.
1983-01-01
The primary effects of Reynolds number on two dimensional airfoil characteristics are discussed. Results from an extensive literature search reveal the manner in which the minimum drag and maximum lift are affected by the Reynolds number. C sub d sub min and C sub l sub max are plotted versus Reynolds number for airfoils of various thickness and camber. From the trends observed in the airfoil data, universal scaling laws and easily implemented methods are developed to account for Reynolds number effects in helicopter rotor analyses.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dorney, Daniel J.
1996-01-01
Experimental data from jet-engine tests have indicated that unsteady blade-row interaction effects can have a significant impact on the efficiency of low-pressure turbine stages. Measured turbine efficiencies at takeoff can be as much as two points higher than those at cruise conditions. Preliminary studies indicate that Reynolds number effects may contribute to the lower efficiencies at cruise conditions. In the current study, numerical experiments have been performed to quantify the Reynolds number dependence of unsteady wake/separation bubble interaction on the performance of a low-pressure turbine.
Comments on Reynolds number effects in wall-bounded shear layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.
1991-01-01
The effect of Reynolds number on the structure of turbulent boundary layers and channel flows is discussed. Published data are reexamined in light of the following questions: (1) does the boundary layer turbulence structure change after the well known Reynolds number limit viz, when Re(theta) is greater than 6000?; (2) is it possible to disturb a high Reynolds number flat plate turbulent boundary layer near the wall such that the recovery length is O(100 delta)?; and (3) how close is the numerically simulated low Reynolds number flat plate turbulence structure to that observed experimentally? The turbulence structure appears to change continuously with Reynolds number virtually throughout the bounday layer and sometimes in unexpected manners at high Reynolds numbers.
High Reynolds number and turbulence effects on aerodynamics and heat transfer in a turbine cascade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeh, Frederick C.; Hippensteele, Steven A.; Vanfossen, G. James; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Ameri, Ali
1993-01-01
Experimental data on pressure distribution and heat transfer on a turbine airfoil were obtained over a range of Reynolds numbers from 0.75 to 7.5 x 10 exp 6 and a range of turbulence intensities from 1.8 to about 15 percent. The purpose of this study was to obtain fundamental heat transfer and pressure distribution data over a wide range of high Reynolds numbers and to extend the heat transfer data base to include the range of Reynolds numbers encountered in the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) turbopump turbines. Specifically, the study aimed to determine (1) the effect of Reynolds number on heat transfer, (2) the effect of upstream turbulence on heat transfer and pressure distribution, and (3) the relationship between heat transfer at high Reynolds numbers and the current data base. The results of this study indicated that Reynolds number and turbulence intensity have a large effect on both the transition from laminar to turbulent flow and the resulting heat transfer. For a given turbulence intensity, heat transfer for all Reynolds numbers at the leading edge can be correlated with the Frossling number developed for lower Reynolds numbers. For a given turbulence intensity, heat transfer for the airfoil surfaces downstream of the leading edge can be approximately correlated with a dimensionless parameter. Comparison of the experimental results were also made with a numerical solution from a two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code.
Reynolds number effects on the transonic aerodynamics of a slender wing-body configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luckring, James M.; Fox, Charles H., Jr.; Cundiff, Jeffrey S.
1989-01-01
Aerodynamic forces and moments for a slender wing-body configuration are summarized from an investigation in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The results include both longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic properties as well as slideslip derivatives. Results were selected to emphasize Reynolds number effects at a transonic speed although some lower speed results are also presented for context. The data indicate nominal Reynolds number effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients and more pronounced effects for the lateral-directional aerodynamic coefficients. The Reynolds number sensitivities for the lateral-directional coefficients were limited to high angles of attack.
Reynolds Number Effects on the Stability and Control Characteristics of a Supersonic Transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owens, L. R.; Wahls, R. A.; Elzey, M. B.; Hamner, M. P.
2002-01-01
A High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configuration was tested in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of NASA's High Speed Research Program. A series of tests included longitudinal and lateral/directional studies at transonic and low speed, high-lift conditions across a range of Reynolds numbers from that available in conventional wind tunnels to near flight conditions. Results presented focus on Reynolds number sensitivities of the stability and control characteristics at Mach 0.30 and 0.95 for a complete HSCT aircraft configuration including empennage. The angle of attack where the pitching-moment departure occurred increased with higher Reynolds numbers for both the landing and transonic configurations. The stabilizer effectiveness increased with Reynolds number for both configurations. The directional stability also increased with Reynolds number for both configurations. The landing configuration without forebody chines exhibited a large yawing-moment departure at high angles of attack and zero sideslip that varied with increasing Reynolds numbers. This departure characteristic nearly disappeared when forebody chines were added. The landing configuration's rudder effectiveness also exhibited sensitivities to changes in Reynolds number.
Reynolds Number Effects on the Performance of Ailerons and Spoilers (Invited)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mineck, R. E.
2001-01-01
The influence of Reynolds number on the performance of outboard spoilers and ailerons was investigated on a generic subsonic transport configuration in the National Transonic Facility over a chord Reynolds number range from 3 to 30 million and a Mach number range from 0.70 to 0.94. Spoiler deflection angles of 0, 10, and 20 degrees and aileron deflection angles of -10, 0, and 10 degrees were tested. Aeroelastic effects were minimized by testing at constant normalized dynamic pressure conditions over intermediate Reynolds number ranges. Results indicated that the increment in rolling moment due to spoiler deflection generally becomes more negative as the Reynolds number increases from 3 x 10(exp 6) to 22 x 10 (exp 6) with only small changes between Reynolds numbers of 22 x 10(exp 6) and 30 x 10(exp 6). The change in the increment in rolling moment coefficient with Reynolds number for the aileron deflected configuration is generally small with a general trend of increasing magnitude with increasing Reynolds number.
Study of Low Reynolds Number Effects on the Losses in Low-Pressure Turbine Blade Rows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dorney, Daniel J.; Ashpis, David E.
1998-01-01
Experimental data from jet-engine tests have indicated that unsteady blade row interactions and separation can have a significant impact on the efficiency of low-pressure turbine stages. Measured turbine efficiencies at takeoff can be as much as two points higher than those at cruise conditions. Several recent studies have revealed that Reynolds number effects may contribute to the lower efficiencies at cruise conditions. In the current study numerical experiments have been performed to study the models available for low Reynolds number flows, and to quantify the Reynolds number dependence of low-pressure turbine cascades and stages. The predicted aerodynamic results exhibit good agreement with design data.
Reynolds Number Effects on a Supersonic Transport at Subsonic High-Lift Conditions (Invited)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owens, L.R.; Wahls, R. A.
2001-01-01
A High Speed Civil Transport configuration was tested in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of NASA's High Speed Research Program. The primary purposes of the tests were to assess Reynolds number scale effects and high Reynolds number aerodynamic characteristics of a realistic, second generation supersonic transport while providing data for the assessment of computational methods. The tests included longitudinal and lateral/directional studies at transonic and low-speed, high-lift conditions across a range of Reynolds numbers from that available in conventional wind tunnels to near flight conditions. Results are presented which focus on Reynolds number and static aeroelastic sensitivities of longitudinal characteristics at Mach 0.30 for a configuration without an empennage. A fundamental change in flow-state occurred between Reynolds numbers of 30 to 40 million, which is characterized by significantly earlier inboard leading-edge separation at the high Reynolds numbers. Force and moment levels change but Reynolds number trends are consistent between the two states.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tomek, W. G.; Hall, R. M.; Wahls, R. A.; Luckring, J. M.; Owens, L. R.
2002-01-01
A wind tunnel test of a generic fighter configuration was tested in the National Transonic Facility through a cooperative agreement between NASA Langley Research Center and McDonnell Douglas. The primary purpose of the test was to assess Reynolds number scale effects on a thin-wing, fighter-type configuration up to full-scale flight conditions (that is, Reynolds numbers of the order of 60 million). The test included longitudinal and lateral/directional studies at subsonic and transonic conditions across a range of Reynolds numbers from that available in conventional wind tunnels to flight conditions. Results are presented for three Mach numbers (0.6, 0.8, and 0.9) and three configurations: (1) Fuselage/Wing; (2) Fuselage/Wing/Centerline Vertical Tail/Horizontal Tail; and (3) Fuselage/Wing/Trailing-Edge Extension/Twin Vertical Tails. Reynolds number effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics are presented herein.
The effect of Reynolds number on transonic compressor blade rotor section
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beheshti Amiri, H.; Shahrabi Farahani, A.; Khazaei, H.
2015-12-01
In this paper, the effect of Reynolds number on transonic compressor blade rotor section is investigated. After passing through the first transonic compressor stages , the flow becomes remarkably compressed. In the present work, it is intended to numerically investigate the effects of the inflow Reynolds number on the unique incidence, flow losses, deviation angle, and shock position, at three different important points of "Minimum Loss" and "Choked Flow" in started conditions and "Stall Operation" in un-started conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rivers, Melissa B.; Wahls, Richard A.
1999-01-01
This paper gives the results of a grid study, a turbulence model study, and a Reynolds number effect study for transonic flows over a high-speed aircraft using the thin-layer, upwind, Navier-Stokes CFL3D code. The four turbulence models evaluated are the algebraic Baldwin-Lomax model with the Degani-Schiff modifications, the one-equation Baldwin-Barth model, the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model, and Menter's two-equation Shear-Stress-Transport (SST) model. The flow conditions, which correspond to tests performed in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF), are a Mach number of 0.90 and a Reynolds number of 30 million based on chord for a range of angle-of-attacks (1 degree to 10 degrees). For the Reynolds number effect study, Reynolds numbers of 10 and 80 million based on chord were also evaluated. Computed forces and surface pressures compare reasonably well with the experimental data for all four of the turbulence models. The Baldwin-Lomax model with the Degani-Schiff modifications and the one-equation Baldwin-Barth model show the best agreement with experiment overall. The Reynolds number effects are evaluated using the Baldwin-Lomax with the Degani-Schiff modifications and the Baldwin-Barth turbulence models. Five angles-of-attack were evaluated for the Reynolds number effect study at three different Reynolds numbers. More work is needed to determine the ability of CFL3D to accurately predict Reynolds number effects.
A review of some Reynolds number effects related to bodies at high angles of attack
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Polhamus, E. C.
1984-01-01
A review of some effects of Reynolds number on selected aerodynamic characteristics of two- and three-dimensional bodies of various cross sections in relation to fuselages at high angles of attack at subsonic and transonic speeds is presented. Emphasis is placed on the Reynolds number ranges above the subcritical and angles of attack where lee side vortex flow or unsteady wake type flows predominate. Lists of references, arranged in subject categories, are presented with emphasis on those which include data over a reasonable Reynolds number range. Selected Reynolds number data representative of various aerodynamic flows around bodies are presented and analyzed and some effects of these flows on fuselage aerodynamic parameters are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rivers, S. M. B.; Wahls, R. A.; Owens, L. R.
2001-01-01
A computational study focused on leading-edge radius effects and associated Reynolds number sensitivity for a High Speed Civil Transport configuration at transonic conditions was conducted as part of NASA's High Speed Research Program. The primary purposes were to assess the capabilities of computational fluid dynamics to predict Reynolds number effects for a range of leading-edge radius distributions on a second-generation supersonic transport configuration, and to evaluate the potential performance benefits of each at the transonic cruise condition. Five leading-edge radius distributions are described, and the potential performance benefit including the Reynolds number sensitivity for each is presented. Computational results for two leading-edge radius distributions are compared with experimental results acquired in the National Transonic Facility over a broad Reynolds number range.
Reynolds and froude number effect on the flow past an interface-piercing circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koo, Bonguk; Yang, Jianming; Yeon, Seong Mo; Stern, Frederick
2014-09-01
The two-phase turbulent flow past an interface-piercing circular cylinder is studied using a high-fidelity orthogonal curvilinear grid solver with a Lagrangian dynamic subgrid-scale model for large-eddy simulation and a coupled level set and volume of fluid method for air-water interface tracking. The simulations cover the sub-critical and critical and post critical regimes of the Reynolds and sub and super-critical Froude numbers in order to investigate the effect of both dimensionless parameters on the flow. Significant changes in flow features near the air-water interface were observed as the Reynolds number was increased from the sub-critical to the critical regime. The interface makes the separation point near the interface much delayed for all Reynolds numbers. The separation region at intermediate depths is remarkably reduced for the critical Reynolds number regime. The deep flow resembles the single-phase turbulent flow past a circular cylinder, but includes the effect of the free-surface and the limited span length for sub-critical Reynolds numbers. At different Froude numbers, the air-water interface exhibits significantly changed structures, including breaking bow waves with splashes and bubbles at high Froude numbers. Instantaneous and mean flow features such as interface structures, vortex shedding, Reynolds stresses, and vorticity transport are also analyzed. The results are compared with reference experimental data available in the literature. The deep flow is also compared with the single-phase turbulent flow past a circular cylinder in the similar ranges of Reynolds numbers. Discussion is provided concerning the limitations of the current simulations and available experimental data along with future research
Reynolds Number, Compressibility, and Leading-Edge Bluntness Effects on Delta-Wing Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luckring, James M.
2004-01-01
An overview of Reynolds number, compressibility, and leading edge bluntness effects is presented for a 65 degree delta wing. The results of this study address both attached and vortex-flow aerodynamics and are based upon a unique data set obtained in the NASA-Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF) for i) Reynolds numbers ranging from conventional wind-tunnel to flight values, ii) Mach numbers ranging from subsonic to transonic speeds, and iii) leading-edge bluntness values that span practical slender wing applications. The data were obtained so as to isolate the subject effects and they present many challenges for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) studies.
Negative Magnus Effect on a Rotating Sphere at around the Critical Reynolds Number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muto, Masaya; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Tsubokura, Makoto; Oshima, Nobuyuki
2011-12-01
Negative Magnus lift acting on a sphere rotating about the axis perpendicular to an incoming flow is investigated using large-eddy simulation at three Reynolds numbers of 1.0× 104, 2.0 × 105, and 1.14 × 106. The numerical methods adopted are first validated on a non-rotating sphere and the spatial resolution around the sphere is determined so as to reproduce the laminar separation, reattachment, and turbulent transition of the boundary layer observed at around the critical Reynolds number. In the rotating sphere, positive or negative Magnus effect is observed depending on the Reynolds number and the rotating speed imposed. At the Reynolds number in the subcritical or supercritical region, the direction of the lift force follows the Magnus effect to be independent of the rotational speed tested here. In contrast, negative lift is observed at the Reynolds number at the critical region when particular rotating speeds are imposed. The negative Magnus effect is discussed in the context of the suppression or promotion of boundary layer transition around the separation point.
Reynolds Number and Leading-Edge Bluntness Effects on a 65 deg Delta Wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luckring, J. M.
2002-01-01
A 65 degree delta wing has been tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at mean aerodynamic chord Reynolds numbers from 6 million to 120 million at subsonic and transonic speeds. The configuration incorporated systematic variation of the leading edge bluntness. The analysis for this paper is focused on the Reynolds number and bluntness effects at subsonic speeds (M = 0.4) from this data set. The results show significant effects of both these parameters on the onset and progression of leading-edge vortex separation.
Transonic Reynolds Number and Leading-Edge Bluntness Effects on a 65 deg Delta Wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luckring, J. M.
2003-01-01
A 65 deg delta wing has been tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at mean aerodynamic chord Reynolds numbers from 6 million to 120 million at subsonic and transonic speeds. The configuration incorporated a systematic variation of the leading edge bluntness. The analysis for this paper is focused on the Reynolds number and bluntness effects at transonic speeds (M=0.85) from this data set. The results show significant effects of both these parameters on the onset and progression of leading-edge vortex separation.
Transonic Reynolds Number and Leading-Edge Bluntness Effects on a 65 deg Delta Wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luckring, J. M.
2003-01-01
A 65 degree delta wing has been tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at mean aerodynamic chord Reynolds numbers from 6 million to 120 million at subsonic and transonic speeds. The configuration incorporated a systematic variation of the leading edge bluntness. The analysis for this paper is focused on the Reynolds number and bluntness effects at transonic speeds (M = 0.85) from this data set. The results show significant effects of both these parameters on the onset and progression of leading edge vortex separation.
Transonic Reynolds Number and Leading-Edge Bluntness Effects on a 65 deg Delta Wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luckring, J. M.
2003-01-01
A 65 deg delta wing has been tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at mean aerodynamic chord Reynolds numbers from 6 million to 120 million at subsonic and transonic speeds. The configuration incorporated a systematic variation of the leading edge bluntness. The analysis for this paper is focused on the Reynolds number and bluntness effects at transonic speeds (M = 0.85) from this data set. The results show significant effects of both these parameters on the onset and progression of leading- edge vortex separation.
Reynolds Number and Leading-Edge Bluntness Effects on a 65 Deg Delta Wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luckring, J. M.
2002-01-01
A 65 deg delta wing has been tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at mean aerodynamic chord Reynolds numbers from 6 million to 120 million at subsonic and transonic speeds. The configuration incorporated systematic variation of the leading edge bluntness. The analysis for this paper is focused on the Reynolds number and bluntness effects at subsonic speeds (M = 0.4) from this data set. The results show significant effects of both these parameters on the onset and progression of leading-edge vortex separation.
Turbulence effect on crossflow around a circular cylinder at subcritical Reynolds numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sadeh, W. Z.; Saharon, D. B.
1982-01-01
An investigation of the effect of freestream turbulence on the flow around a smooth circular cylinder at subcritical Reynolds numbers from 5.2 x 10 to the 4th power to 2.09 x 10 to the 5th power was conducted. Measurements show that the interaction of incident turbulence with the initial laminar boundary layer: (1) modifies the characteristics of the mean surface pressure distribution; (2) induces an aft shift in the separation point ranging from 5 to 50 beyond the laminar separation angle of 80 degrees; and, (3) reduces the mean drag coefficient to values between 97 and 46% of its nearly constant laminar counterpart. The extent of these changes depends on the particular Reynolds number background turbulence combination. These results demonstrate that a boundary-layer flow similar to that found in critical, supercritical and/or transcritical flow regimes is induced by turbulence at subcritical Reynolds numbers and, hence, the effect of turbulence is equivalent to an effective increase in the Reynolds number. The change in the nature and properties of the boundary layer in the subcritical regime, consequent upon the penetration of turbulence into it, is in agreement with the model proposed by the vorticity-amplification theory.
Effects of droplet interactions on droplet transport at intermediate Reynolds numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shuen, J. S.
1986-01-01
Effects of droplet interactions on drag, evaporation, and combustion of a planar droplet array, oriented perpendicular to the approaching flow, are studied numerically. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, with variable thermophysical properties, are solved using finite-difference techniques. Parameters investigated include the droplet spacing, droplet Reynolds number, approaching stream oxygen concentration, and fuel type. Results are obtained for the Reynolds number range of 5 to 100, droplet spacing from 2 to 24 diameters, oxygen concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2, and methanol and n-butanol fuels. The calculations show that the gasification rates of interacting droplets decrease as the droplet spacings decrease. The reduction in gasification rates is significant only at small spacings and low Reynolds numbers. For the present array orientation, the effects of interactions on the gasification rates diminish rapidly for Reynolds numbers greater than 10 and spacings greater than 6 droplet diameters. The effects of adjacent droplets on drag are shown to be small.
Effects of droplet interactions on droplet transport at intermediate Reynolds numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shuen, Jian-Shun
1987-01-01
Effects of droplet interactions on drag, evaporation, and combustion of a planar droplet array, oriented perpendicular to the approaching flow, are studied numerically. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, with variable thermophysical properties, are solved using finite-difference techniques. Parameters investigated include the droplet spacing, droplet Reynolds number, approaching stream oxygen concentration, and fuel type. Results are obtained for the Reynolds number range of 5 to 100, droplet spacings from 2 to 24 diameters, oxygen concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2, and methanol and n-butanol fuels. The calculations show that the gasification rates of interacting droplets decrease as the droplet spacings decrease. The reduction in gasification rates is significant only at small spacings and low Reynolds numbers. For the present array orientation, the effects of interactions on the gasification rates diminish rapidly for Reynolds numbers greater than 10 and spacings greater than 6 droplet diameters. The effects of adjacent droplets on drag are shown to be small.
Reynolds number influences in aeronautics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, Dennis M.; Yip, Long P.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Lin, John C.; Lawing, Pierce L.; Batina, John T.; Hardin, Jay C.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Fenbert, James W.; Domack, Christopher S.
1993-01-01
Reynolds number, a measure of the ratio of inertia to viscous forces, is a fundamental similarity parameter for fluid flows and therefore, would be expected to have a major influence in aerodynamics and aeronautics. Reynolds number influences are generally large, but monatomic, for attached laminar (continuum) flow; however, laminar flows are easily separated, inducing even stronger, non-monatomic, Reynolds number sensitivities. Probably the strongest Reynolds number influences occur in connection with transitional flow behavior. Transition can take place over a tremendous Reynolds number range, from the order of 20 x 10(exp 3) for 2-D free shear layers up to the order of 100 x 10(exp 6) for hypersonic boundary layers. This variability in transition behavior is especially important for complex configurations where various vehicle and flow field elements can undergo transition at various Reynolds numbers, causing often surprising changes in aerodynamics characteristics over wide ranges in Reynolds number. This is further compounded by the vast parameterization associated with transition, in that any parameter which influences mean viscous flow development (e.g., pressure gradient, flow curvature, wall temperature, Mach number, sweep, roughness, flow chemistry, shock interactions, etc.), and incident disturbance fields (acoustics, vorticity, particulates, temperature spottiness, even electro static discharges) can alter transition locations to first order. The usual method of dealing with the transition problem is to trip the flow in the generally lower Reynolds number wind tunnel to simulate the flight turbulent behavior. However, this is not wholly satisfactory as it results in incorrectly scaled viscous region thicknesses and cannot be utilized at all for applications such as turbine blades and helicopter rotors, nacelles, leading edge and nose regions, and High Altitude Long Endurance and hypersonic airbreathers where the transitional flow is an innately critical
Reynolds number effects on wavelet components of self-preserving turbulent structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rinoshika, Akira; Zhou, Yu
2009-04-01
The effect of the Reynolds number on the wavelet-decomposed turbulent structures in a self-preserving plane wake has been investigated for Reθ (based on the free-stream velocity and momentum thickness, θ , of the wake) =1350 and 4600. Measurements were made at x/θ ( x is the streamwise distance downstream of the cylinder) =580 for the circular cylinder using two orthogonal arrays of 16 X wires, eight in the (x,y) plane, and eight in the (x,z) plane. A wavelet multiresolution technique is used to analyze the measured hot-wire data. This technique decomposes turbulence structures into a number of components based on their central frequencies, which are linked with the turbulence scales. Sectional streamlines and vorticity contours at the same central frequency, i.e., the comparable scales of turbulent structures, are examined and compared between the two Reynolds numbers. Discernible differences are observed in the turbulent structures of relatively large to intermediate scales. The differences are further quantified in terms of contributions from the turbulent structures of different scales to the Reynolds stresses, vorticity variance, and probability density functions of the fluctuating velocities. The large-scale structure contributes most to the Reynolds stresses and this contribution drops for the higher Reθ .
Effect of Reynolds Number in Turbulent-Flow Range on Flame Speeds of Bunsen Burner Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bollinger, Lowell M; Williams, David T
1949-01-01
The effect of flow conditions on the geometry of the turbulent Bunsen flame was investigated. Turbulent flame speed is defined in terms of flame geometry and data are presented showing the effect of Reynolds number of flow in the range of 3000 to 35,000 on flame speed for burner diameters from 1/4 to 1 1/8 inches and three fuels -- acetylene, ethylene, and propane. The normal flame speed of an explosive mixture was shown to be an important factor in determining its turbulent flame speed, and it was deduced from the data that turbulent flame speed is a function of both the Reynolds number of the turbulent flow in the burner tube and of the tube diameter.
Nevmerzhitskiy, N V; Sotskov, E A; Sen'kovskiy, E D; Krivonos, O L; Polovnikov, A A; Levkina, E V; Frolov, S V; Abakumov, S A; Marmyshev, V V
2014-09-01
The results of the experimental study of the Reynolds number effect on the process of the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability transition into the turbulent stage are presented. The experimental liquid layer was accelerated by compressed gas. Solid particles were scattered on the layer free surface to specify the initial perturbations in some experiments. The process was recorded with the use of a high-speed motion picture camera. The following results were obtained in experiments: (1) Long-wave perturbation is developed at the interface at the Reynolds numbers Re < 10(4). If such perturbation growth is limited by a hard wall, the jet directed in gas is developed. If there is no such limitation, this perturbation is resolved into the short-wave ones with time, and their growth results in gas-liquid mixing. (2) Short-wave perturbations specified at the interface significantly reduce the Reynolds number Re for instability to pass into the turbulent mixing stage. PMID:25053861
Biotechnology at low Reynolds numbers.
Brody, J P; Yager, P; Goldstein, R E; Austin, R H
1996-01-01
The shrinking of liquid handling systems to the micron and submicron size range entails moving into the area of small Reynolds numbers. The fluid dynamics in this regime are very different from the macroscale. We present an intuitive explanation of how the different physics of small Reynolds numbers flow, along with microscopic sizes, can influence device design, and give examples from our own work using fluid flow in microfabricated devices designed for biological processing. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8968612
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hammer, Patrick R.
It is well established that natural flyers flap their wings to sustain flight due to poor performance of steady wing aerodynamics at low Reynolds number. Natural flyers also benefit from the propulsive force generated by flapping. Unsteady airfoils allow for simplified study of flapping wing aerodynamics. Limited previous work has suggested that both the Reynolds number and motion trajectory asymmetry play a non-negligible role in the resulting forces and wake structure of an oscillating airfoil. In this work, computations are performed to on this topic for a NACA 0012 airfoil purely pitching about its quarter-chord point. Two-dimensional computations are undertaken using the high-order, extensively validated FDL3DI Navier-Strokes solver developed at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The Reynolds number range of this study is 2,000-22,000, reduced frequencies as high as 16 are considered, and the pitching amplitude varies from 2° to 10°. In order to simulate the incompressible limit with the current compressible solver, freestream Mach numbers as low as 0.005 are used. The wake structure is accurately resolved using an overset grid approach. The results show that the streamwise force depends on Reynolds number such that the drag-to-thrust crossover reduced frequency decreases with increasing Reynolds number at a given amplitude. As the amplitude increases, the crossover reduced frequency decreases at a given Reynolds number. The crossover frequency data show good collapse for all pitching amplitudes considered when expressed as the Strouhal number based on trailing edge-amplitude for different Reynolds numbers. Appropriate scaling causes the thrust data to become nearly independent of Reynolds number and amplitude. An increase in propulsive efficiency is observed as the Reynolds number increases while less dependence is seen in the peak-to-peak lift and drag amplitudes. Reynolds number dependence is also seen for the wake structure. The crossover reduced frequency
High Reynolds number research - 1980
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mckinney, L. W. (Editor); Baals, D. D. (Editor)
1981-01-01
The fundamental aerodynamic questions for which high Reynolds number experimental capability is required were examined. Potential experiments which maximize the research returns from the use of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) were outlined. Calibration plans were reviewed and the following topics were discussed: fluid dynamics; high lit; configuration aerodynamics; aeroelasticity and unsteady aerodynamics; wind tunnel/flight correlation; space vehicles; and theoretical aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mortazavi, Milad; Mani, Ali
2015-11-01
Air entrainment in breaking waves is a ubiquitous and complex phenomenon. It is the main source of air transfer from atmosphere to the oceans. Furthermore, air entrainment due to ship-induced waves contributes to bubbly flows in ship wakes and also affect their performance. In this study, we consider a turbulent hydraulic jump as a canonical setting to investigate air entrainment due to turbulence-wave interactions. The flow has an inlet Froude number of 2.0, while three different Weber numbers (We = 1820, 729, 292), and two different Reynolds numbers (Re = 11000, 5500) based on the inlet height and inlet velocity are investigated. Air entrainment is shown to be very sensitive to the We number, while Re number has a minor effect. Wave breaking and interface collisions are significantly reduced in the low Weber number cases. As a result, micro-bubble generation is significantly reduced with decreasing Weber number. Vortex shedding events are observed to emerge at the toe of the jump in all of the cases. For high Weber number regimes, shedding of vortices is accompanied by engulfment of air pockets into the jump in a periodic manner, while for lower Webber number regimes such events are significantly suppressed. Reynolds number is shown to have a negligible effect on the air entrainment, wave breaking and micro-bubble generation, contrary to the previous assumptions in other studies. Supported by ONR.
Sweep and Compressibility Effects on Active Separation Control at High Reynolds Numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seifert, Avi; Pack, LaTunia G.
2000-01-01
This paper explores the effects of compressibility, sweep and excitation location on active separation control at high Reynolds numbers. The model, which was tested in a cryogenic pressurized wind tunnel, simulates the upper surface of a 20% thick Glauert Goldschmied type airfoil at zero angle of attack. The flow is fully turbulent since the tunnel sidewall boundary layer flows over the model. Without control, the flow separates at the highly convex area and a large turbulent separation bubble is formed. Periodic excitation is applied to gradually eliminate the separation bubble. Two alternative blowing slot locations as well as the effect of compressibility, sweep and steady suction or blowing were studied. During the test the Reynolds numbers ranged from 2 to 40 million and Mach numbers ranged from 0.2 to 0.7. Sweep angles were 0 and 30 deg. It was found that excitation must be introduced slightly upstream of the separation region regardless of the sweep angle at low Mach number. Introduction of excitation upstream of the shock wave is more effective than at its foot. Compressibility reduces the ability of steady mass transfer and periodic excitation to control the separation bubble but excitation has an effect on the integral parameters, which is similar to that observed in low Mach numbers. The conventional swept flow scaling is valid for fully and even partially attached flow, but different scaling is required for the separated 3D flow. The effectiveness of the active control is not reduced by sweep. Detailed flow field dynamics are described in the accompanying paper.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, C. B.; Johnson, W. G., Jr.; Stainback, P.G.
1986-01-01
Reynolds number effects noted from selected test programs conducted in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT) are discussed. The tests, which cover a unit Reynolds number range from about 2.0 to 80.0 million per foot, summarize effects of Reynolds number on: (1) aerodynamic data from a supercritical airfoil, (2) results from several wall interference correction techniques, and (3) results obtained from advanced, cryogenic tests techniques. The test techniques include: (1) use of a cryogenic sidewall boundary layer removal system, (2) detailed pressure and hot wire measurements to determine test section flow quality, and (3) use of a new hot film system suitable for transition detection in a cryogenic wind tunnel. The results indicate that Reynolds number effects appear most significant when boundary layer transition effects are present and at high lift conditions when boundary layer separation exists on both the model and the tunnel sidewall.
Biomemetic pumping by gill plate arrays: Reynolds number effects in mayfly nymphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sensenig, Andrew; Shultz, Jeffrey; Kiger, Ken
2007-11-01
Mayfly nymphs are entirely aquatic and must alter behavior and metabolism to accommodate changes in ambient dissolved oxygen levels. Many species can generate a ventilation current to compensate for low oxygen levels by beating two linear arrays of plate-like gills that line the lateral edge of the abdomen. The characteristic Reynolds number associated with the gill motion changes with animal size, varying over a span of Re = 5 to 100 depending on age and species. Thus mayflies provide a novel system model for studying ontological changes in pumping mechanisms associated with transitions from a viscous- to inertia-dominated flow. Indeed, observation of other animals and theoretical analysis[1] indicate that a bifurcation should exist for inertial thrust generation by a reciprocal flapper for Reynolds numbers on the order of 10-20. In the ongoing work, the gill kinematics and resulting fluid motion is recorded experimentally through the use of high-speed stereo imaging and cinematographic planar PIV. Results show that the gills transition from a strongly asymmetric motion at Re=5 to a more reciprocal motion by Re=21. Details of the hydrodynamic mechanisms and pumping effectiveness will be discussed. [1] Childress, S. & Dudley, R. (2004), J. Fluid Mech. 498, 257--288.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagchi, Prosenjit
2008-11-01
The interaction of an isolated rigid sphere with an isotropic turbulent ambient flow is considered using a direct numerical simulation. The turbulence field is obtained from one realization of a separate DNS calculation (Donzis et al, JFM (2005), vol. 532; Yeung et al, JFM (2007) vol. 582), and used as the inflow condition for the flow around the sphere. This study is an extension of an earlier work (Bagchi and Balachandar, Phys. Fluids (2003), vol. 15; Bagchi and Balachandar, JFM (2004), vol. 518), where the Taylor microscale Reynolds number, Rλ, of the turbulence field was kept constant at 164. In the present study, we consider the effect of varying Rλ as 38, 90, 140 and 240. The sphere Reynolds number (based on the diameter and relative velocity) is in the range 63 to 400, and the sphere diameter varies from 1 to 8 times the Kolmogorov scale, and 0.18 to 0.0042 times the integral length scale, of the ambient turbulent flow. We present DNS results on the drag and lift forces, and added-mass and history forces on the sphere under varying Rλ, and compare them with the analytical results. Mean, RMS and PDF of these forces are analyzed. We also present transition in the sphere wake as Rλ is varied. Mean wake, and the modulation of the freestream turbulence in the wake are also presented under varying Rλ of the ambient flow.
Effects of microstructure on flow properties of fibrous porous media at moderate Reynolds number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamayol, A.; Wong, K. W.; Bahrami, M.
2012-02-01
In this study, effects of microstructure on the viscous permeability and Forchheimer coefficient of monodispersed fibers are investigated. The porous material is represented by a unit cell which is assumed to be repeated throughout the medium. Based on the orientation of the fibers in the space, fibrous media are divided into three categories: one-, two-, and three-directional (1D, 2D, and 3D) structures. Parallel and transverse flow through square arrangements of 1D fibers, simple 2D mats, and 3D simple cubic structures are solved numerically over a wide range of porosity (0.35 < ɛ < 0.95) and Reynolds number (0.01 < Re < 200). The results are used to calculate the permeability and the inertial coefficient of the considered geometries. An experimental study is performed; the flow coefficients of three different ordered tube banks in the moderate range of Reynolds number (0.001 < Re < 15) are determined. The numerical results are successfully compared with the present and the existing experimental data in the literature. The results suggest that the permeability and Forchheimer coefficient are functions of porosity and fiber orientation. A comparison of the experimental and numerical results with the Ergun equation reveals that this equation is not suitable for highly porous materials. As such, accurate correlations are proposed for determining the Forchheimer coefficient in fibrous porous media.
Hydrodynamics of Fishlike Swimming: Effects of swimming kinematics and Reynolds number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilmanov, Anvar; Posada, Nicolas; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2003-11-01
We carry out a series of numerical simulations to investigate the effects of swimming kinematics and Reynolds number on the flow past a three-dimensional fishlike body undergoing undulatory motion. The simulated body shape is that of a real mackerel fish. The mackerel was frozen and subsequently sliced in several thin fillets whose dimensions were carefully measured and used to construct the fishlike body shape used in the simulations. The flow induced by the undulating body is simulated by solving the 3D, unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the second-order accurate, hybrid Cartesian/Immersed Boundary formulation of Gilmanov and Sotiropoulos (J. Comp. Physics, under review, 2003). We consider in-line swimming at constant speed and carry out simulations for various types of swimming kinematics, varying the tailbeat amplitude, frequency, and Reynolds number (300
The effects of Reynolds number, tip speed ratio, and solidity in VAWTs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parker, Colin; Schult, Allen; Leftwich, Megan C.
2015-11-01
The wakes of several scale models of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are investigated in a wind tunnel using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). The tip speed ratio, Reynolds number, and solidity (chord to diameter ratio) is varied to see effect each parameter. The solidity is changed by varying the chord length of a three blade turbine of constant diameter. The range of parameters (Reynolds number and tip-speed ratio) investigated, closely matches those of full size turbines. Time averaging behind the turbines shows the asymmetry in wake. A more complete picture of the wake is seen using phase averaging by syncing the imaging to the position of the turbine. These results show a cycle of structures developing on the blades and then being shed into the wake. Imaging is done at the midplane of the turbine from upstream of the turbine back into the wake. Additionally a vertical plane behind the center of the turbine is used to measure the horizontal components in the wake.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shields, Matthew; Mohseni, Kamran
2011-11-01
The innovation of micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) has brought to attention the unique flow regime associated with low aspect ratio (LAR), low Reynolds number fliers. The dominant effects of developing tip vortices and leading edge vortices create a fundamentally different flow regime than that of conventional aircraft. An improved knowledge of low aspect ratio, low Reynolds number aerodynamics can be greatly beneficial for future MAV design. A little investigated but vital aspect of LAR aerodynamics is the behavior of the fluid as the wing yaws. Flow visualization experiments undertaken in the group for the canonical case of varying AR flat plates indicate that the propagation of the tip vortex keeps the flow attached over the upstream portion of the wing, while the downstream vortex is convected away from the wing. This induces asymmetric, destabilizing loading on the wing which has been observed to adversely affect MAV flight. In addition, experimental load measurements indicate significant nonlinearities in forces and moments which can be attributed to the development and propagation of these vortical structures. A non-dimensional analysis of the rigid body equations of motion indicates that these nonlinearities create dependencies which dramatically change the conventional linearization process. These flow phenomena are investigated with intent to apply to future MAV design.
Spectral approach to finite Reynolds number effects on Kolmogorov's 4/5 law in isotropic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tchoufag, J.; Sagaut, P.; Cambon, C.
2012-01-01
The Kolmogorov's 4/5 law is often considered as the sole exact relationship of inertial range statistics. Its asymptotic character, however, has been evidenced, investigating the finite Reynolds number (FRN) effect for the third-order structure function S3(r) (e.g., for longitudinal velocity increments with r separation length) using variants of the Kármán-Howarth equation in physical space. Similar semi-empirical fits were proposed for the maximum of the normalized structure function, C3 = -maxrS3(r)/(ɛr), expressing C3 - 4/5 as a power law of the Taylor-based Reynolds number. One of the most complete studies in this domain is by Antonia and Burratini [J. Fluid Mech. 550, 175 (2006)]. Considering that these studies are based on a model for the unsteady second-order structure function S2(r,t), with no explicit model for the third-order structure function itself, we propose to revisit the FRN effect by a spectral approach, in the line of Qian [Phys. Rev. E 55, 337 (1997), Phys. Rev. E 60, 3409 (1999)]. The spectral transfer term T(k,t), from which S3(r,t) is derived by an exact quadrature, is directly calculated by solving the Lin equation for the energy spectrum E(k,t), closed by a standard triadic (or three-point) theory, here Eddy Damped Quasi Normal Markovian. We show that the best spectral approach to the FRN effect is found by separately investigating the negative (largest scales) and positive (smaller scales) bumps of the transfer term, and not only by looking at the maximum of the spectral flux or maxk ∫k∞T(p ,t)dp→ɛ. In the forced case, previous results are well reproduced, with Reynolds numbers as high as Reλ = 5 000 to nearly recover the 4/5 value. In the free decay case, the general trend is recovered as well, with an even higher value of Reλ = 50 000, but the EDQNM plots are systematically below those in Antonia and Burattini [J. Fluid Mech. 550, 175 (2006)]. This is explained by the sensitivity to initial data for E(k) in solving the Lin
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pauley, H.; Ralston, J.; Dickes, E.
1995-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Defense Research Agency (United Kingdom) have ongoing experimental research programs in rotary-flow aerodynamics. A cooperative effort between the two agencies is currently underway to collect an extensive database for the development of high angle of attack computational methods to predict the effects of Reynolds number on the forebody flowfield at dynamic conditions, as well as to study the use of low Reynolds number data for the evaluation of high Reynolds number characteristics. Rotary balance experiments, including force and moment and surface pressure measurements, were conducted on circular and rectangular aftbodies with hemispherical and ogive noses at the Bedford and Farnborough wind tunnel facilities in the United Kingdom. The bodies were tested at 60 and 90 deg angle of attack for a wide range of Reynolds numbers in order to observe the effects of laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow separation on the forebody characteristics when rolling about the velocity vector.
Reynolds number effects on the vortical-flow structure generated by a double-delta wing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hebbar, S. K.; Platzer, M. F.; Fritzelas, A. E.
An experimental investigation of the high-incidence vortical flowfield over a 76/40° double-delta wing model with sharp leading edges was conducted in the Naval Postgraduate School water tunnel facility at three nominal flow Reynolds numbers of 15000, 45000, and 75000 (based on centerline chord). Extensive flow visualization studies were performed with the dye-injection technique, followed by laser Doppler velocity measurements. The primary objective of this investigation was the determination of the influence of Reynolds number on vortex interactions/trajectories, and breakdown. It was found that there is a significant influence of Reynolds number. Specifically, with the increase of flow Reynolds number the strake and wing vortex trajectories tend to move outboards and closer to the model surface, and the vortex breakdown location moves forwards toward the apex of the model. The intertwining or coiling-up feature of the vortex interaction phenomenon becomes less dominant and disappears altogether at high Reynolds numbers. These trends in the vortex interaction and bursting data are found to be in good agreement with previous wind tunnel data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Subbarao, E. R.; Cantwell, B. J.
1992-01-01
The behavior of a vertical jet of helium issuing into a co-flow of air at a fixed exit velocity ratio of 2 was investigated experimentally over a wide range of governing parameters with emphasis on flow structure and the scaling properties of the natural frequency of the jet. The experiments were conducted in a variable-pressure facility, which made it possible to vary the Reynolds number and the Richardson number independently. At all the experimental conditions studied, the flow exhibits a strong self-excited periodicity. A buoyancy Strouhal number is defined and used to correlate frequency data from the approximately seventy different Reynolds and Richardson numbers studied. The buoyancy Strouhal number is found to be nearly independent of Reynolds number and Richardson number for Richardson numbers greater than one.
Inertial effects at moderate Reynolds number in thin-film rimming flows driven by surface shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kay, E. D.; Hibberd, S.; Power, H.
2013-10-01
In this paper, we study two-dimensional thin-film flow inside a stationary circular cylinder driven by an imposed surface shear stress. Modelling is motivated by a need to understand the cooling and film dynamics provided by oil films in an aero-engine bearing chamber characterised by conditions of very high surface shear and additional film mass flux from oil droplets entering the film through the surface. In typical high-speed operation, film inertial effects can provide a significant leading-order mechanism neglected in existing lubrication theory models. Inertia at leading-order is included within a depth-averaged formulation where wall friction is evaluated similar to hydraulic models. This allows key nonlinear inertial effects to be included while retaining the ability to analyse the problem in a mathematically tractable formulation and compare with other approaches. In constructing this model, a set of simplified mass and momentum equations are integrated through the depth of the film yielding a spatially one-dimensional depth-averaged formulation of the problem. An a priori assumed form of velocity profile is needed to complete the system. In a local Stokes flow analysis, a quadratic profile is the exact solution for the velocity field though it must be modified when inertial effects become important. Extension of the velocity profile to a cubic profile is selected enabling specification of a wall friction model to include the roughness of the cylinder wall. A modelling advantage of including the inertia term, relevant to the applications considered, is that a smooth progression in solution can be obtained between cases of low Reynolds number corresponding to lubrication theory, and high Reynolds number corresponding to uniform rimming-flow. Importantly, we also investigate the effect of inertia on some typical solutions from other studies and present a greater insight to existing and new film solutions which arise from including inertia effects.
Estimating the effective Reynolds number in implicit large-eddy simulation.
Zhou, Ye; Grinstein, Fernando F; Wachtor, Adam J; Haines, Brian M
2014-01-01
In implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES), energy-containing large scales are resolved, and physics capturing numerics are used to spatially filter out unresolved scales and to implicitly model subgrid scale effects. From an applied perspective, it is highly desirable to estimate a characteristic Reynolds number (Re)-and therefore a relevant effective viscosity-so that the impact of resolution on predicted flow quantities and their macroscopic convergence can usefully be characterized. We argue in favor of obtaining robust Re estimates away from the smallest scales of the simulated flow-where numerically controlled dissipation takes place and propose a theoretical basis and framework to determine such measures. ILES examples include forced turbulence as a steady flow case, the Taylor-Green vortex to address transition and decaying turbulence, and simulations of a laser-driven reshock experiment illustrating a fairly complex turbulence problem of current practical interest. PMID:24580356
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Subbarao, E. R.
1989-01-01
The behavior of a vertical jet of helium issuing into a coflow of air at a fixed exit velocity ratio of 2.0 has been studied for various Reynolds numbers and Richardson numbers. It is found that the transition to turbulence is very sudden and that the point of transition moves closer to the jet exit as either the Reynolds number or the Richardson number increases. Under most of the conditions considered, the flow exhibits a strong periodic longitudinal instability whose wavelength increases with Richardson number.
Propulsion at low Reynolds number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Najafi, Ali; Golestanian, Ramin
2005-04-01
We study the propulsion of two model swimmers at low Reynolds number. Inspired by Purcell's model, we propose a very simple one-dimensional swimmer consisting of three spheres that are connected by two arms whose lengths can change between two values. The proposed swimmer can swim with a special type of motion, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry. We also show that an ellipsoidal membrane with tangential travelling wave on it can also propel itself in the direction preferred by the travelling wave. This system resembles the realistic biological animals like Paramecium.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gentry, L., Jr.; Gentry, C. L., Jr.
1983-01-01
The aerodynamic characteristics of pressure loss and turbulence on four tube-bundle configurations representing heat-exchanger geometries with nominally the same heat capacity were measured as a function of Reynolds numbers from about 4000 to 400,000 based on tube hydraulic diameter. Two configurations had elliptical tubes, the other two had round tubes, and all four had plate fins. The elliptical-tube configurations had lower pressure loss and turbulence characteristics than the round-tube configurations over the entire Reynolds number range.
Magnus effects at high angles of attack and critical Reynolds numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seginer, A.; Ringel, M.
1983-01-01
The Magnus force and moment experienced by a yawed, spinning cylinder were studied experimentally in low speed and subsonic flows at high angles of attack and critical Reynolds numbers. Flow-field visualization aided in describing a flow model that divides the Magnus phenomenon into a subcritical region, where reverse Magnus loads are experienced, and a supercritical region where these loads are not encountered. The roles of the spin rate, angle of attack, and crossflow Reynolds number in determining the boundaries of the subcritical region and the variations of the Magnus loads were studied.
Flow Structure over Moderate Swept Delta Wing: Effects of Reynolds Number and Attack Angle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozturk, Ilhan; Zharfa, Mohammadreza; Yavuz, Mehmet Metin
2013-11-01
Recent investigations have revealed the appearance of a distinctive type of leading edge vortex, dual vortex structure, over simple delta wing planforms having moderate sweep angles. Flow over a moderate swept 45-degree wing has been investigated using laser illuminated smoke visualization, Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA), and surface pressure measurements. The effects of Reynolds number and attack angles on dual vortex structure, vortex breakdown, and poststall regime are reported. The footprint of flow regimes on the surface of the planform is captured by the pressure measurements, and the lift performance of the wing is tried to be extracted. The relation between surface pressure fluctuations and near surface velocity fluctuations is investigated. The reattachment region of the separated shear layer on the surface, vortex breakdown, and stall regime are studied with considering the aforementioned relation, which will enlighten some of the aspects of the buffeting on the wing planform.
High Reynolds Number Effects on Multi-Hole Probes and Hot Wire Anemometers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramachandran, N.; Smith, A.; Gerry, G.; Kauffman, W.
1995-01-01
The paper reports on the results from an experimental investigation of the response of multi-hole and hot wire probes at high flow Reynolds numbers (Re approx. 10(exp 6)). The limited results available in literature for 5-hole probes are restricted to Re approx. 10(exp 4). The experiment aims to investigate the probe response (in terms of dimensionless pressure ratios, characterizing pitch, and yaw angles and the total and static pressures) at high Re values and to gauge their effect on the calculated velocity vector. Hot wire calibrations were also undertaken with a parametric variation of the flow pressure, velocity and temperature. Different correction and calibration schemes are sought to be tested against the acquired data set. The data is in the analysis stage at the present time. The test provided good benchmark quality data that can be used to test future calibration and testing methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ireland, Peter J.; Bragg, Andrew D.; Collins, Lance R.
2016-06-01
In this study, we analyze the statistics of both individual inertial particles and inertial particle pairs in direct numerical simulations of homogeneous isotropic turbulence in the absence of gravity. The effect of the Taylor microscale Reynolds number $R_\\lambda$ on the particle statistics is examined over the largest range to date (from $R_\\lambda = 88-597$). We first explore the effect of preferential sampling on the single-particle statistics, and use our understanding of preferential sampling to provide a physical explanation for many of the trends in the particle velocity gradients, kinetic energies, and accelerations at low $St$. As $St$ increases, inertial filtering effects become more important, causing the particle kinetic energies and accelerations to decrease. We then consider particle-pair statistics, and focus our attention on the relative velocities and radial distribution functions (RDFs) of the particles. The relative velocity statistics indicate that preferential-sampling effects are important for $St \\lesssim 0.1$ and that path-history/non-local effects become increasingly important for $St \\gtrsim 0.2$. The lower-order relative velocity statistics are only weakly sensitive to changes in Reynolds number at low $St$. We find that the RDFs peak near $St$ of order unity, that they exhibit power-law scaling for low and intermediate $St$, and that they are largely independent of Reynolds number for low and intermediate $St$. We also observe that at large $St$, changes in the RDF are related to changes the scaling exponents of the relative velocity variances. The particle collision kernel is found to be largely insensitive to the flow Reynolds number, suggesting that relatively low-Reynolds-number simulations may be able to capture much of the relevant physics of droplet collisions and growth in the adiabatic cores of atmospheric clouds.
Reynolds number effects on supersonic asymmetrical flows over a cone at high angle of attack
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, J. L.
1991-01-01
The supersonic viscous flow over a 5-degree half-angle cone at an angle of attack of four times the cone half-angle is studied computationally using both the conical and the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical solutions were obtained with an implicit, upwind-biased algorithm. Asymmetrical flowfields of the absolute-instability type are found using the conical-flow equations which agree with published results. However, the absolute instabilities of the originally symmetric flow found with the conical equations do not occur in the three-dimensional simulations, although spurious asymmetric three-dimensional flows for symmetric bodies arise if the grid resolution is insufficient in the nose region. The asymmetric flows computed with the three-dimensional equations are convective instabilities and are possible if the local Reynolds number exceeds a critical value and a fixed geometric asymmetry is imposed. A continuous range of asymmetries can be developed, depending on the size of the disturbance and the Reynolds number. As the Reynolds number is increased, the asymmetries demonstrate a bistable behavior at levels of side force consistent with those predicted using the conical equations. Below a certain critical Reynolds number, any flow asymmetries arising from a geometrical asymmetry are damped with increasing distance downstream from the geometrical asymmetry.
The effect of Reynolds number on the drag of a rectangular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breidenthal, Robert; Wai, Jonathan
2015-11-01
Direct numerical simulations of the flow past a rectangular cylinder at low Reynolds number reveal that the aspect ratio for maximum drag is much less than that measured at high Reynolds number. Nakaguchi et al. (1967) discovered a remarkably sharp peak in the drag coefficient at a cylinder aspect ratio of 0.62 for Re = 20,000. In contrast, our numerical simulations at Re = 500 indicate a maximum-drag aspect ratio of 0.2. This dramatic difference is attributed to the rollup station of the laminar vortex sheet from the separating boundary layer. Essentially inviscid, the rollup process scales with the thickness of the vortex sheet at the separation point, which in turn varies inversely with the square root of the Reynolds number. Consequently, at low Reynolds number, the sheet remains thin and laminar, curving tightly toward the cylinder. On the other hand, at high Reynolds number, the vortex sheet promptly rolls up into a rapidly growing, turbulent shear layer. The thick, turbulent layer has a large displacement thickness, deflecting the outer streamlines and altering its own trajectory so that it curves relatively gradually toward the cylinder. Bearman and Trueman (1972) showed that the peak drag corresponds to the shear layer nearly reattaching to the bluff body and rolling up into vortices very close to the base of the cylinder. The low pressure of the vortex cores is reflected in a low base pressure and thus high drag. The critical aspect ratio is much smaller for the laminar vortex sheet because of its more tightly curved trajectory.
Zhou, Ye; Thornber, Ben
2016-04-12
Here, the implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) has been utilized as an effective approach for calculating many complex flows at high Reynolds number flows. Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) induced flow can be viewed as a homogeneous decaying turbulence (HDT) after the passage of the shock. In this article, a critical evaluation of three methods for estimating the effective Reynolds number and the effective kinematic viscosity is undertaken utilizing high-resolution ILES data. Effective Reynolds numbers based on the vorticity and dissipation rate, or the integral and inner-viscous length scales, are found to be the most self-consistent when compared to the expected phenomenology andmore » wind tunnel experiments.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamberlin, R.
1974-01-01
A circular-arc - conic boattail nozzle, typical of those used on a twin engine fighter, was tested on an underwing nacelle mounted on an F-106B aircraft. The boattail had a radius ratio r/r sub c of 0.41 and a terminal boattail angle of approximately 19 deg. The gas generator was a J85-GE-13 turbojet engine. The effects of Reynolds number and angle of attack on boattail pressure drag and boattail pressure profiles were investigated. Increasing Reynolds number resulted in reduced boattail drag at both Mach numbers of 0.6 and 0.9.
Reynolds number effects on flow over twisted cylinder with drag reduction and vortex suppression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Jae Hwan; Yoon, Hyun Sik
2015-11-01
We investigated the Reynolds number effects on the flow over a twisted cylinder in the range of 3×103 <= Re <=1×104. To analyze the effect of the twisted cylinder, a large eddy simulation (LES) with a dynamic subgrid model was employed. A simulation of the smooth cylinder was also carried out to compare the results with those of the twisted cylinder. As Re increased, the mean drag and lift coefficient of the twisted cylinder increased with the same tendency as those of the smooth cylinder. However, the increases in the mean drag and lift coefficient of the twisted cylinder were much smaller than those of the smooth. Furthermore, elongated shear layer and suppressed vortex shedding from the twisted cylinder occurred compared to those of the smooth cylinder, resulting in a drag reduction and suppression of the vortex-induced vibration (VIV). In particular, the twisted cylinder achieved a significant reduction of over 96% in VIV compared with that of the smooth cylinder, regardless of increasing Re. As a result, we concluded that the twisted cylinder effectively controlled the flow structures with reductions in the drag and VIV compared with the smooth cylinder, irrespective of increasing Re. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) through GCRC-SOP (No. 2011-0030013) and (NRF-2015R1D1A3A01020867).
Reynolds number effects on Rayleigh-Taylor Instability with Implications for Type Ia Supernovae
Cabot, W H; Cook, A W
2006-03-22
Spontaneous mixing of materials at unstably stratified interfaces occurs in a wide variety of atmospheric, oceanic, geophysical and astrophysical flows. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability, in particular, plays key roles in the death of stars, planet formation and the quest for controlled thermonuclear fusion. Despite its ubiquity, fundamental questions regarding Rayleigh-Taylor instability persist. Among such questions are: Does the flow forget its initial conditions? Is the flow self-similar? What is the value of the scaling constant? How does mixing influence the growth rate? Here we show results from a 3072{sup 3} grid-point Direct Numerical Simulation in an attempt to answer these and other questions. The data indicate that the scaling constant cannot be found by fitting a curve to the width of the mixing region (as is common practice) but can only be accurately obtained by recourse to the similarity equation for the growth rate. The data further establish that the ratio of kinetic energy to released potential energy is not constant, as has heretofore been assumed. The simulated flow reaches a Reynolds number of 32,000, far exceeding that of all previous simulations. The latter stages of the simulation reveal a weak Reynolds number dependence, which may have profound consequences for modeling Type Ia supernovae as well as other high Reynolds number flows.
Effect of low Reynolds number flow on the quorum sensing behavior of sessile bacteria
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ingremeau, Francois; Minyoung, Kevin Kim; Bassler, Bonnie; Stone, Howard; Mechanical; Aerospace Engineering, Complex fluids Group Team; Molecular Biology Lab Team
2014-11-01
Sessile and planktonic bacteria can be sensitive to the bacteria cell density around them through a chemical mediated communication called quorum sensing. When the quorum sensing molecules reach a certain value, the metabolism of the bacteria changes. Quorum sensing is usually studied in static conditions or in well mixed environments. However, bacteria biofilms can form in porous media or in the circulatory system of an infected body: quorum sensing in such flowing environment at low Reynolds number is not well studied. Using microfluidic devices, we observe how the flow of a pure media affects quorum sensing of bacteria attached to the wall. The biofilm formation is quantified by measuring the optical density in brightfield microscopy and the quorum sensing gene expression is observed through the fluorescence of a green fluorescent protein, which is a reporter for one of the quorum sensing genes. We measured without flow the amount of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm when the quorum sensing gene expression starts. In contrast, when the media is flowing in the microchannel, the quorum sensing expression is delayed. This effect can be understood and modelled by considering the diffusion of the quorum sensing molecules in the biofilm and their convection by the flowing media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ireland, Peter J.; Bragg, Andrew D.; Collins, Lance R.
2016-06-01
In Part I of this study, we analyzed the motion of inertial particles in isotropic turbulence in the absence of gravity using direct numerical simulation (DNS). Here, in Part II, we introduce gravity and study its effect over a wide range of flow Reynolds numbers, Froude numbers, and particle Stokes numbers. We see that gravity causes particles to sample the flow more uniformly and reduces the time particles can spend interacting with the underlying turbulence. We also find that gravity tends to increase inertial particle accelerations, and we introduce a model to explain that effect. We then analyze the particle relative velocities and radial distribution functions (RDFs), which are generally seen to be independent of Reynolds number for low and moderate Kolmogorov-scale Stokes numbers $St$. We see that gravity causes particle relative velocities to decrease, and that the relative velocities have higher scaling exponents with gravity. We observe that gravity has a non-trivial effect on clustering, acting to decrease clustering at low $St$ and to increase clustering at high $St$. By considering the effect of gravity on the clustering mechanisms described in the theory of Zaichik & Alipchenkov (New J. Phys., 11:103018, 2009), we provide an explanation for this non-trivial effect of gravity. We also show that when the effects of gravity are accounted for in the theory of Zaichik & Alipchenkov, the results compare favorably with DNS. The relative velocities and RDFs exhibit considerable anisotropy at small separations, and this anisotropy is quantified using spherical harmonic functions. We use the relative velocities and the RDFs to compute the particle collision kernels, and find that the collision kernel remains as it was for the case without gravity, namely nearly independent of Reynolds number for low and moderate $St$.
Effect of Reynolds number variation on aerodynamics of a hydrogen-fueled transport concept at Mach 6
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Penland, Jim A.; Marcum, Don C., Jr.
1987-01-01
Two separate tests have been made on the same blended wing-body hydrogen-fueled transport model at a Mach number of about 6 and a range of Reynolds number (based on theoretical body length) of 1.577 to 55.36 X 10 to the 6th power. The results of these tests, made in a conventional hypersonic blowdown tunnel and a hypersonic shock tunnel, are presented through a range of angle of attack from -1 to 8 deg, with an extended study at a constant angle of attack of 3 deg. The model boundary layer flow appeared to be predominately turbulent except for the low Reynolds number shock tunnel tests. Model wall temperatures varied considerably; the blowdown tunnel varied from about 255 F to 340 F, whereas the shock tunnel had a constant 70 F model wall temperature. The experimental normal-force coefficients were essentially independent of Reynolds number. A current theoretical computer program was used to study the effect of Reynolds number. Theoretical predictions of normal-force coefficients were good, particularly at anticipated cruise angles of attack, that is 2 to 5 deg. Axial-force coefficients were generally underestimated for the turbulent skin friction conditions, and pitching-moment coefficients could not be predicted reliably.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Polhamus, Edward C.
1996-01-01
This paper presents a survey of the effects of Reynolds number on the low- speed lift characteristics of wings encountering separated flows at their leading and side edges, with emphasis on the region near the stall. The influence of leading-edge profile and Reynolds number on the stall characteristics of two- dimensional airfoils are reviewed first to provide a basis for evaluating three- dimensional effects associated with various wing planforms. This is followed by examples of the effects of Reynolds number and geometry on the lift characteristics near the stall for a series of three-dimensional wings typical of those suitable for high-speed aircraft and missiles. Included are examples of the effects of wing geometry on the onset and spanwise progression of turbulent reseparation near the leading edge and illustrations of the degree to which simplified theoretical approaches can be useful in defining the influence of the various geometric parameters. Also illustrated is the manner in which the Reynolds number and wing geometry parameters influence whether the turbulent reseparation near the leading edge results in a sudden loss of lift, as in the two-dimensional case, or the formation of a leading-edge vortex with Rs increase in lift followed by a gentle stall as in the highly swept wing case. Particular emphasis is placed on the strong influence of 'induced camber' on the development of turbulent reseparation. R is believed that the examples selected for this report may be useful in evaluating viscous flow solutions by the new computational methods based on the Navier-Stokes equations as well as defining fruitful research areas for the high-Reynolds-number wind tunnels.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jorgensen, L. H.; Brownson, J. J.
1972-01-01
Static aerodynamic forces and moments were measured to study the effects of Reynolds number and body corner radius on the aerodynamic characteristics of a straight wing space shuttle orbiter at subsonic speeds. A 0.02-scale model was tested at Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.9 and Reynolds numbers from about 600,000 to 3 million, based on body width. The body alone and the body with its wing and horizontal tail attached were tested at angles of attack from 35 to 75 degrees. The effects of rounding the body corners at the junctures connecting the bottom and sides were investigated for corner radii from 0 to 8.5 percent of the body width. At low subsonic Mach numbers (free stream Mach number approximately equal 0.3) the aerodynamic characteristics are affected significantly by changes in Reynolds number and body corner radius. With increase in Mach number to free stream Mach number = 0.9 the effect of Reynolds number seems to vanish, but a significant effect of body corner radius remains.
2015-01-01
Background The changes of hemodynamics and drug concentration distribution caused by the implantation of drug eluting stents (DESs) in curved vessels have significant effects on In-Stent Restenosis. Methods A 3D virtual stent with 90°curvature was modelled and the distribution of wall shear stress (WSS) and drug concentration in this model were numerically studied at Reynolds numbers of 200, 400, 600, 800. Results The results showed that (1) the intensity of secondary flow at the 45° cross-section was stronger than that at the 90° cross-section; (2) As the Reynolds number increases, the WSS decreases. When the Reynolds number reaches 600, the low-WSS region only accounts for 3% of the total area. (3) The effects of Reynolds number on drug concentration in the vascular wall decreases in proportionally and then the blood velocity increased 4 times, the drug concentration in the vascular wall decreased by about 30%. (4) The size of the high drug concentration region is inversely proportional to the Reynolds number. As the blood velocity increases, the drug concentration in the DES decreases, especially at the outer bend. Conclusions It is beneficial for the patient to decrease vigorous activities and keep calm at the beginning of the stent implantation, because a substantial amount of the drug is released in the first two months of stent implantation, thus a calm status is conducive to drug release and absorption; Subsequently, appropriate exercise which increases the blood velocity is helpful in decreasing regions of low-WSS. PMID:25602685
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bertin, J. J.; Goodrich, W. D.
1976-01-01
Heat-transfer data obtained at hypersonic shock tunnel conditions and three-dimensional flow field computations were used to study the influence of surface temperature and Reynolds number on the heating experienced by the leeward fuselage area of the Space Shuttle Orbiter configuration. The basic results of this study indicate that systematic variations in the average total enthalpy within a boundary layer (as obtained through controlled nonadiabatic processes) has an influence on the heat transfer to downstream areas which can be correlated; even in three-dimensional separated flow areas. Specifically, the average separated-flow Stanton number for the fuselage leeward surface is shown to be moderately dependent on the windward-wall to free-stream total temperature ratio.
The effect of tip speed ratio on a vertical axis wind turbine at high Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parker, Colin M.; Leftwich, Megan C.
2016-05-01
This work visualizes the flow surrounding a scaled model vertical axis wind turbine at realistic operating conditions. The model closely matches geometric and dynamic properties—tip speed ratio and Reynolds number—of a full-size turbine. The flow is visualized using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) in the midplane upstream, around, and after (up to 4 turbine diameters downstream) the turbine, as well as a vertical plane behind the turbine. Time-averaged results show an asymmetric wake behind the turbine, regardless of tip speed ratio, with a larger velocity deficit for a higher tip speed ratio. For the higher tip speed ratio, an area of averaged flow reversal is present with a maximum reverse flow of -0.04U_∞. Phase-averaged vorticity fields—achieved by syncing the PIV system with the rotation of the turbine—show distinct structures form from each turbine blade. There were distinct differences in results by tip speed ratios of 0.9, 1.3, and 2.2 of when in the cycle structures are shed into the wake—switching from two pairs to a single pair of vortices being shed—and how they convect into the wake—the middle tip speed ratio vortices convect downstream inside the wake, while the high tip speed ratio pair is shed into the shear layer of the wake. Finally, results show that the wake structure is much more sensitive to changes in tip speed ratio than to changes in Reynolds number.
Low Reynolds number airfoil survey, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carmichael, B. H.
1981-01-01
The differences in flow behavior two dimensional airfoils in the critical chordlength Reynolds number compared with lower and higher Reynolds number are discussed. The large laminar separation bubble is discussed in view of its important influence on critical Reynolds number airfoil behavior. The shortcomings of application of theoretical boundary layer computations which are successful at higher Reynolds numbers to the critical regime are discussed. The large variation in experimental aerodynamic characteristic measurement due to small changes in ambient turbulence, vibration, and sound level is illustrated. The difficulties in obtaining accurate detailed measurements in free flight and dramatic performance improvements at critical Reynolds number, achieved with various types of boundary layer tripping devices are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Zhe-Yan; Pasqualini, Sylvio; Qin, Bo
2014-06-01
In the present study, an experimental study was conducted to characterize the effect of Reynolds number on flow structures in the turbulent wake of a circular parachute canopy by utilizing stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (Stereo-PIV) technique. The parachute model tested in the present study was attached by 28 nylon suspension lines and placed horizontally at the test section center of the wind tunnel. The obtained results showed that with the increase of Reynolds number, the intensities of the vortices near the downstream region of the canopy skirt were found to increase accordingly. However, the increase of Reynolds number did not result in a significant change in ensembleaveraged normalized x-component of the velocity, ensembleaveraged normalized vorticity, normalized Reynolds stress, and normalized turbulent kinetic energy distributions in the turbulent wake of the circular parachute canopy. The obtained results are very useful to further our understanding about the unsteady aerodynamics in the wake of flexible circular parachute canopies and to constitute a reference for CFD computation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heidelberg, L. J.; Ball, C. L.
1972-01-01
A 9.4-centimeter (3.7-in.) diameter six-stage axial-flow compressor was tested in argon over a range of inlet pressures corresponding to a Reynolds number range of 30,600 to 160,000. The effect of Reynolds number on efficiency, pressure ratio, work input, maximum flow, and surge is shown. The Reynolds number effects are discussed in terms of changes in boundary-layer thickness, losses, and the resulting changes in throughflow velocity. Significant deviation was noted from the 0.2 power relation often used to express the variation of loss with Reynolds number.
Studies of the Combined Effects of Roughness and Reynolds Number in Turbulent Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehdi, Faraz; Klewicki, Joseph
2010-11-01
Mehdi, Klewicki & White [Physica D 239(2010)] provide evidence from existing studies that the prevalent scheme for classifying roughness regimes is likely to be incomplete. To further pursue these findings, more data are required, and for this purpose, additional rough-wall experiments are being performed. We report on our studies of the combined roughness-Reynolds number problem conducted in a 8m long wind-tunnel. The roughness considered is the randomly distributed type and introduced in the form of 24-grit sandpaper and pea gravel. The primary measurement tool is two-component LDV. The basis of the analysis is the mean equation of dynamics. In this regard, the length scale defining where the mean dynamics become dominated by inertia is of central importance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebrahimian, Mehran; Yekehzare, Mohammad; Ejtehadi, Mohammad Reza
2015-12-01
To generalize simple bead-linker model of swimmers to higher dimensions and to demonstrate the chemotaxis ability of such swimmers, here we introduce a low-Reynolds predator, using a two-dimensional triangular bead-spring model. Two-state linkers as mechanochemical enzymes expand as a result of interaction with particular activator substances in the environment, causing the whole body to translate and rotate. The concentration of the chemical stimulator controls expansion versus the contraction rate of each arm and so affects the ability of the body for diffusive movements; also the variation of activator substance's concentration in the environment breaks the symmetry of linkers' preferred state, resulting in the drift of the random walker along the gradient of the density of activators. External food or danger sources may attract or repel the body by producing or consuming the chemical activators of the organism's enzymes, inducing chemotaxis behavior. Generalization of the model to three dimensions is straightforward.
Ebrahimian, Mehran; Yekehzare, Mohammad; Ejtehadi, Mohammad Reza
2015-12-01
To generalize simple bead-linker model of swimmers to higher dimensions and to demonstrate the chemotaxis ability of such swimmers, here we introduce a low-Reynolds predator, using a two-dimensional triangular bead-spring model. Two-state linkers as mechanochemical enzymes expand as a result of interaction with particular activator substances in the environment, causing the whole body to translate and rotate. The concentration of the chemical stimulator controls expansion versus the contraction rate of each arm and so affects the ability of the body for diffusive movements; also the variation of activator substance's concentration in the environment breaks the symmetry of linkers' preferred state, resulting in the drift of the random walker along the gradient of the density of activators. External food or danger sources may attract or repel the body by producing or consuming the chemical activators of the organism's enzymes, inducing chemotaxis behavior. Generalization of the model to three dimensions is straightforward. PMID:26764831
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forrette, Robert E.; Holeski, Donald E.; Plohr, Henry W.
1959-01-01
High-altitude turbojet performance is adversely affected by the effects of low air density. This performance loss is evaluated as a Reynolds number effect, which represents the increased significance of high fluid viscous forces in relation to dynamic fluid forces as the Reynolds number is decreased. An analytical and experimental investigation of the effects of low Reynolds number operation on a single-stage, high-work-output turbine with a downstream stator was carried out at Reynolds numbers of 182,500, 39,600, and 23,000, based on average rotor-design flow conditions. At low Reynolds numbers and turbulent flow conditions, increased viscous losses caused decreased effective flow area, and thus decreased weight flow, torque, and over-all efficiency at a given equivalent speed and pressure ratio. Decreasing the Reynolds number from 182,500 to 23,000 at design equivalent speed resulted in a 5.00-point loss in peak over-all turbine efficiency for both theory and experiment. The choking equivalent weight flow decreased 2.30 percent for these conditions. Limiting loading work output was reached at design equivalent speed for all three Reynolds numbers. The value of limiting loading work output at design speed decreased 4.00 percent as Reynolds number was decreased from 182,500 to 23,000. A theoretical performance-prediction method using basic boundary-layer relations gave good agreement with experimental results over most of the performance range at a given Reynolds number if the experimental and analytical design operating conditions were carefully matched at the highest Reynolds number with regard to design performance parameters. High viscous losses in the inlet stator and rotor prevented the attainment of design equivalent work output at the lowest Reynolds number of 23,000.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodrigues, Neil S.; Kulkarni, Varun; Sojka, Paul E.
2014-11-01
While like-on-like doublet impinging jet atomization has been extensively studied in the literature, there is poor agreement between experimentally observed spray characteristics and theoretical predictions (Ryan et al. 1995, Anderson et al. 2006). Recent works (Bremond and Villermaux 2006, Choo and Kang 2007) have introduced a non-uniform jet velocity profile, which lead to a deviation from the standard assumptions for the sheet velocity and the sheet thickness parameter. These works have assumed a parabolic profile to serve as another limit to the traditional uniform jet velocity profile assumption. Incorporating a non-uniform jet velocity profile results in the sheet velocity and the sheet thickness parameter depending on the sheet azimuthal angle. In this work, the 1/7th power-law turbulent velocity profile is assumed to provide a closer match to the flow behavior of jets at high Reynolds and Weber numbers, which correspond to the impact wave regime. Predictions for the maximum wavelength, sheet breakup length, ligament diameter, and drop diameter are compared with experimental observations. The results demonstrate better agreement between experimentally measured values and predictions, compared to previous models. U.S. Army Research Office under the Multi-University Research Initiative Grant Number W911NF-08-1-0171.
Suslov, D; Schulz, A; Wittig, S
2001-05-01
The development of effective cooling methods is of major importance for the design of new gas turbines blades. The conception of optimal cooling schemes requires a detailed knowledge of the heat transfer processes on the blade's surfaces. The thermal load of turbine blades is predominantly determined by convective heat transfer which is described by the local heat transfer coefficient. Heat transfer is closely related to the boundary layer development along the blade surface and hence depends on various flow conditions and geometrical parameters. Particularly Reynolds number, pressures gradient and turbulence level have great impact on the boundary layer development and the according heat transfer. Therefore, in the present study, the influence of Reynolds number, turbulence intensity, and periodic unsteady inflow on the local heat transfer of a typical low pressure turbine airfoil is experimentally examined in a plane cascade. PMID:11460633
Decay of turbulence at high reynolds numbers.
Sinhuber, Michael; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Bewley, Gregory P
2015-01-23
Turbulent motions in a fluid decay at a certain rate once stirring has stopped. The role of the most basic parameter in fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number, in setting the decay rate is not generally known. This Letter concerns the high-Reynolds-number limit of the process. In a classical grid-turbulence wind-tunnel experiment that both reaches higher Reynolds numbers than ever before and covers a wide range of them (10^{4}
Decay of Turbulence at High Reynolds Numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinhuber, Michael; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Bewley, Gregory P.
2015-01-01
Turbulent motions in a fluid decay at a certain rate once stirring has stopped. The role of the most basic parameter in fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number, in setting the decay rate is not generally known. This Letter concerns the high-Reynolds-number limit of the process. In a classical grid-turbulence wind-tunnel experiment that both reaches higher Reynolds numbers than ever before and covers a wide range of them (1 04
Reynolds Number Effects on Boundary Layer Streamwise Velocity Statistics and Length Scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metzger, M.; Atzet, I.; Klewicki, J.
2003-11-01
Well-resolved streamwise velocity data were recently obtained in a turbulent boundary layer at R_θ ≈ 5 × 10^6. Hot-wire anemometry experiments were performed on the salt playa of Utah's western desert under conditions of near-neutral thermal stability, as verified by the Monin-Obukhov length. A distinction of the present data is the use of 20 simultaneously sampled hot-wires to cover a wall normal distance (inner normalized) spanning 5≤ y^+ ≤ 10^4. Because of inherent temporal variations in the atmosphere, simultaneous data are needed to clarify trends in the statistical profiles. The present atmospheric results are compared with wind tunnel data acquired in the range 2500 ≤ R_θ ≤ 1.5×10^4. In all cases, the inner normalized wire length is less than 10. The inner normalized mean profile at high R_θ exhibit a logarithmic region with an inverse slope less than the typical value of κ=0.41, observed at lower R_θ. Evidence for a secondary peak in the inner normalized rms profile is observed near y^+=550 at R_θ ≈ 5 × 10^6. The variation of intermediate length and time scales (Taylor microscales) as a function of Reynolds number and distance from the wall is also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumaran, V.; Koch, Donald L.
1993-05-01
The hydrodynamic interaction between a pair of nondeformable bubbles (low Weber number limit) in potential flow (high Reynolds number limit) was analyzed. The velocity potential was determined using twin spherical expansions, and the equations of motion were calculated by enforcing the zero net force condition on the surface of the bubbles. The acceleration due to the interaction is expressed in a perturbation series in the parameter (ai/R), where ai is the radius of bubble i, R is the distance between the bubbles, and the leading-order acceleration was found to decrease as (ai/R)4. The effect of potential flow interactions on the trajectory of a pair of bubbles of different sizes (size ratio greater than 1.07 at a Reynolds number of 200) rising due to gravity was studied. A salient feature of the trajectories is that the surfaces of the bubble do not come into contact during the interaction, except when the smaller bubble radius is less than 0.233 times the larger bubble radius when the Reynolds number based on the larger bubble is 200. In the latter case, however, the Reynolds number based on the radius of the smaller bubble is not large enough to justify the potential flow approximation. For interactions where collisions do not occur, the mean-square fluctuating velocity in a uniform suspension and the hydrodynamic diffusivities in a nonuniform suspension were calculated by performing an ensemble average over pair interactions. The pair averaging procedure is valid for dilute suspensions (V≪18/Re, where V is the volume fraction of the bubbles and Re is the Reynolds number based on the bubble radius and its terminal velocity).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bertin, J. J.; Senalug, G.; Mcbride, M.; Willman, R. B.
1975-01-01
The effect of windward surface temperature on the heat transfer to the leeward surface of the shuttle orbiter was investigated. Heat-transfer distributions, surface-pressure distributions, and schlieren photographs were obtained for an 0.01-scale model of the 37-0 shuttle orbiter at angles-of-attack of 30 deg and of 40 deg. Similar data were obtained for a fuselage-only configuration at angles-of-attack of 30 deg and of 90 deg. Data were obtained for various Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers, and surface temperatures.
Low-Reynolds-number swimming at pycnoclines
Doostmohammadi, Amin; Stocker, Roman; Ardekani, Arezoo M.
2012-01-01
Microorganisms play pivotal functions in the trophic dynamics and biogeochemistry of aquatic ecosystems. Their concentrations and activities often peak at localized hotspots, an important example of which are pycnoclines, where water density increases sharply with depth due to gradients in temperature or salinity. At pycnoclines organisms are exposed to different environmental conditions compared to the bulk water column, including reduced turbulence, slow mass transfer, and high particle and predator concentrations. Here we show that, at an even more fundamental level, the density stratification itself can affect microbial ecology at pycnoclines, by quenching the flow signature, increasing the energetic expenditure, and stifling the nutrient uptake of motile organisms. We demonstrate this through numerical simulations of an archetypal low-Reynolds-number swimmer, the “squirmer.” We identify the Richardson number—the ratio of buoyancy forces to viscous forces—as the fundamental parameter that quantifies the effects of stratification. These results demonstrate an unexpected effect of buoyancy on low-Reynolds-number swimming, potentially affecting a broad range of abundant organisms living at pycnoclines in oceans and lakes. PMID:22355147
Experimental study of low Reynolds number nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grisnik, Stanley P.; Smith, Tamara A.; Saltz, Larry E.
1987-01-01
High-performance electrothermal thrusters operate in a low nozzle-throat Reynolds number regime. Under these conditions, the flow boundary layer occupies a large volume inside the nozzle, contributing to large viscous losses. Four nozzles (conical, bell, trumpet, and modified trumpet) and a sharp-edged orifice were evaluated over a Reynolds number range of 500 to 9000 with unheated nitrogen and hydrogen. The nozzles showed significant decreases in specific impulse efficiency with decreasing Reynolds number. At Reynolds numbers less than 1000, all four nozzles were probably filled with a large boundary layer. The discharge coefficient decreased with Reynolds number in the same manner as the specific impulse efficiency. The bell and modified trumpet nozzles had discharge coefficients 4 to 8 percent higher than those of the cone or trumpet nozzles. The Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) nozzle analysis computer program was used to predict nozzle performance. The results were then compared to the experimental results in order to determine the accuracy of the program within this flow regime.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lockwood, Vernard E.; McKinney, Linwood W.
1960-01-01
A two-dimensional lifting circular cylinder has been tested over a Mach number range from 0.011 to 0.32 and a Reynolds number range from 135,000 to 1,580,000 to determine the force and pressure distribution characteristics. Two flaps having chords of 0.37 and 6 percent of the cylinder diameter, respectively, and attached normal to the surface were used to generate lift. A third configuration which had 6-percent flaps 1800 apart was also investigated. All flaps were tested through a range of angular positions. The investigation also included tests of a plain cylinder without flaps. The lift coefficient showed a wide variation with Reynolds number for the 6-percent flap mounted on the bottom surface at the 50-percent-diameter station, varying from a low of about 0.2 at a Reynolds number of 165,000 to a high of 1.54 at a Reynolds number of 350,000 and then decreasing almost linearly to a value of 1.0 at a Reynolds number of 1,580,000. The pressure distribution showed that the loss of lift with Reynolds number above the critical was the result of the separation point moving forward on the upper surface. Pressure distributions on a plain cylinder also showed similar trends with respect to the separation point. The variation of drag coefficient with Reynolds number was in direct contrast to the lift coefficient with the minimum drag coefficient of 0.6 occurring at a Reynolds number of 360,000. At this point the lift-drag ratios were a maximum at a value of 2.54. Tests of a flap with a chord of 0.0037 diameter gave a lift coefficient of 0.85 at a Reynolds number of 520,000 with the same lift-drag ratio as the larger flap but the position of the flap for maximum lift was considerably farther forward than on the larger flap. Tests of two 6-percent flaps spaced 180 deg apart showed a change in the sign of the lift developed for angular positions of the flap greater than 132 deg at subcriti- cal Reynolds numbers. These results may find use in application to air- craft using
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rao, Dhanvada M.; Hoffler, Keith D.
1988-01-01
A low-speed wind tunnel test was performed to investigate Reynolds number effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of a supersonic cruise wing concept model with a 60-deg swept wing incorporating leading-edge and trailing-edge flap deflections. The Reynolds number ranged from 0.3 to 1.6 x 10 to the 6th, and corresponding Mach numbers from .05 to 0.3. The objective was to define a threshold Reynolds number above which the flap aerodynamics basically remained unchanged, and also to generate a data base useful for validating theoretical predictions for the Reynolds number effects on flap performance. This report documents the test procedures used and the basic data acquired in the investigation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reubush, D. E.; Putnam, L. E.
1976-01-01
An investigation was conducted to determine whether large Reynolds number effects occur on isolated boattails, including an analytical study and tests in a 1/3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel. This investigation was conducted at an angle of attack of 0 deg at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 0.9 for Reynolds numbers up to 130 million. Results indicate that as the Reynolds number was increased, the static pressure coefficients in the expansion region of the boattail became more negative whereas those in the recompression region became more positive. These two trends were compensating and, as a result, there was only a small effect (if any) of Reynolds numbers on boattail pressure drag.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rostamzadeh, Nikan; Kelso, Richard M.; Dally, Bassam
2016-05-01
Leading-edge modifications based on designs inspired by the protrusions on the pectoral flippers of the humpback whale (tubercles) have been the subject of research for the past decade primarily due to their flow control potential in ameliorating stall characteristics. Previous studies have demonstrated that, in the transitional flow regime, full-span wings with tubercled leading edges outperform unmodified wings at high attack angles. The flow mechanism associated with such enhanced loading traits is, however, still being investigated. Also, the performance of full-span tubercled wings in the turbulent regime is largely unexplored. The present study aims to investigate Reynolds number effects on the flow mechanism induced by a full-span tubercled wing with the NACA-0021 cross-sectional profile in the transitional and near-turbulent regimes using computational fluid dynamics. The analysis of the flow field suggests that, with the exception of a few different flow features, the same underlying flow mechanism, involving the presence of transverse and streamwise vorticity, is at play in both cases. With regard to lift-generation characteristics, the numerical simulation results indicate that in contrast to the transitional flow regime, where the unmodified NACA-0021 undergoes a sudden loss of lift, in the turbulent regime, the baseline foil experiences gradual stall and produces more lift than the tubercled foil. This observation highlights the importance of considerations regarding the Reynolds number effects and the stall characteristics of the baseline foil, in the industrial applications of tubercled lifting bodies.
Mixing length in low Reynolds number compressible turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, D. M.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Holley, B. B.
1975-01-01
The paper studies the effect of low Reynolds number in high-speed turbulent boundary layers on variations of mixing length. Boundary layers downstream of natural transition on plates, cones and cylinders, and boundary layers on nozzle walls without laminarization-retransition are considered. The problem of whether low Reynolds number amplification of shear stress is a result of transitional flow structure is considered. It is concluded that a knowledge of low Reynolds number boundary layer transition may be relevant to the design of high-speed vehicles.
The aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmitz, F. W.
1980-01-01
Aerodynamic characteristics of wing model gliders and bird wings in particular are discussed. Wind tunnel measurements and aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers are enumerated. Airfoil behavior in the critical transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer, which is more important to bird wing models than to large airplanes, was observed. Experimental results are provided, and an artificial bird wing is described.
Measurements in a High Reynolds Number Wake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hultmark, Marcus; Jimenez, Juan; Bailey, Sean; Smits, Alexander
2008-11-01
Experiments were conducted in the Princeton/ONR HRTF windtunnel with highly pressurized air. The wake of a DARPA SUBOFF submarine model was measured over a large range of Reynolds numbers at 5 different downstream locations. The model is an axisymmetric body without appendages (fins) supported by a streamlined support, mimicking a semi-infinite sail. For all Reynolds numbers studied, the mean velocity distribution becomes self-similar between 3 and 6 diameters, D, downstream for the side where the support is not located. In contrast, self-similarity in the Reynolds stresses is not reached at the furthest downstream location (x/D=15). The spectra reveal two peaks in the near-wake. The lower wavenumber peak corresponds to a Strouhal number based on diameter and freestream velocity of about 0.22, suggesting that it is associated with an azimuthal or helical shedding mode in the wake. This mode is evident at all Reynolds numbers, at all cross-stream positions, indicating that it is unlikely to be due to the interference of the support wake with the model wake. The mode is seen only for x/D<15, suggesting that it plays a partial role in the approach to self-similarity of the turbulent stresses.
A Reynolds Number Study of Wing Leading-Edge Effects on a Supersonic Transport Model at Mach 0.3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, M. Susan; Owens, Lewis R., Jr.; Chu, Julio
1999-01-01
A representative supersonic transport design was tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) in its original configuration with small-radius leading-edge flaps and also with modified large-radius inboard leading-edge flaps. Aerodynamic data were obtained over a range of Reynolds numbers at a Mach number of 0.3 and angles of attack up to 16 deg. Increasing the radius of the inboard leading-edge flap delayed nose-up pitching moment to a higher lift coefficient. Deflecting the large-radius leading-edge flap produced an overall decrease in lift coefficient and delayed nose-up pitching moment to even higher angles of attack as compared with the undeflected large- radius leading-edge flap. At angles of attack corresponding to the maximum untrimmed lift-to-drag ratio, lift and drag coefficients decreased while lift-to-drag ratio increased with increasing Reynolds number. At an angle of attack of 13.5 deg., the pitching-moment coefficient was nearly constant with increasing Reynolds number for both the small-radius leading-edge flap and the deflected large-radius leading-edge flap. However, the pitching moment coefficient increased with increasing Reynolds number for the undeflected large-radius leading-edge flap above a chord Reynolds number of about 35 x 10 (exp 6).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blair, M. F.; Dring, R. P.; Joslyn, H. D.
1988-01-01
Part I of this paper presents airfoil heat transfer data obtained in a rotating turbine model at its design rotor incidence. This portion of the paper presents heat transfer data obtained in the same model for various combinations of Reynolds number and inlet turbulence and for a very wide range of rotor incidence. On the suction surfaces of the first stage airfoils the locations and lengths of transition were influenced by both the inlet turbulence level and the Reynolds number. In addition it was demonstrated that on the first stage pressure surfaces combinations of high Reynolds number and high turbulence can produce heat transfer rates well in excess of two-dimensional turbulent flow. Rotor heat transfer distributions indicate that for relatively small deviations from the design incidence, local changes to the heat transfer distributions were produced on both pressure and suction sides near the stagnation region. For extremely large negative incidence the flow was completely separated from the rotor pressure surface producing very high local heat transfer.
High Reynolds Number Thermal Stability Experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Emens, Jessica M.; Brown, Sarah P.; Frederick Robert A., Jr.; Wood, A. John
2004-01-01
This work represents preliminary thermal stability results for liquid hydrocarbon fuels. High Reynolds Number Thermal Stability experiments with Jet A and RP-1 resulted in a quantitative measurement of the thermal stability. Each fuel flowed through a heated capillary tube that held the outlet temperature at 290 C. An optical pyrometer measured the surface temperature of the tube at 12 locations as a function of time. The High Reynolds Number Thermal Stability number was then determined using standards published by the American Society for Testing and Materials. The results for Jet A showed lower thermal stability than similar tests conducted at another facility. The RP-1 results are the first reported using this technique. Because the temperature rise on the capillary tube during testing for the RP-1 fuels was not significant, a new standard for the testing conditions should be developed for these types of fuels.
Nichols, J Tyler; Krueger, Paul S
2012-09-01
Recent results have demonstrated that pulsed-jet propulsion can achieve propulsive efficiency greater than that for steady jets when short, high frequency pulses are used, and the pulsed-jet advantage increases as Reynolds number decreases into the intermediate range (∼50). An important aspect of propulsive performance, however, is the vehicle configuration. The nozzle configuration influences the jet speed and, in the case of pulsed-jets, the formation of the vortex rings with each jet pulse, which have important effects on thrust. Likewise, the hull configuration influences the vehicle speed through its effect on drag. To investigate these effects, several flow inlet, nozzle, and hull tail configurations were tested on a submersible, self-propelled pulsed-jet vehicle ('Robosquid' for short) for jet pulse length-to-diameter ratios (L/D) in the range 0.5-6 and pulsing duty cycles (St(L)) of 0.2 and 0.5. For the configurations tested, the vehicle Reynolds number (Re(υ)) ranged from 25 to 110. In terms of propulsive efficiency, changing between forward and aft-facing inlets had little effect for the conditions considered, but changing from a smoothly tapered aft hull section to a blunt tail increased propulsive efficiency slightly due to reduced drag for the blunt tail at intermediate Re(υ). Sharp edged orifices also showed increased vehicle velocity and propulsive efficiency in comparison to smooth nozzles, which was associated with stronger vortex rings being produced by the flow contraction through the orifice. Larger diameter orifices showed additional gains in propulsive efficiency over smaller orifices if the rate of mass flow was matched with the smaller diameter cases, but using the same maximum jet velocity with the larger diameter decreased the propulsive efficiency relative to the smaller diameter cases. PMID:22549087
The Influence of Realistic Reynolds Numbers on Slat Noise Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2012-01-01
The slat noise from the 30P/30N high-lift system has been computed using a computational fluid dynamics code in conjunction with a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings solver. Varying the Reynolds number from 1.71 to 12.0 million based on the stowed chord resulted in slight changes in the radiated noise. Tonal features in the spectra were robust and evident for all Reynolds numbers and even when a spanwise flow was imposed. The general trends observed in near-field fluctuations were also similar for all the different Reynolds numbers. Experiments on simplified, subscale high-lift systems have exhibited noticeable dependencies on the Reynolds number and tripping, although primarily for tonal features rather than the broadband portion of the spectra. Either the 30P/30N model behaves differently, or the computational model is unable to capture these effects. Hence, the results underscore the need for more detailed measurements of the slat cove flow.
MHD Turbulence at Moderate Magnetic Reynolds Number
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knaepen, B.; Kassinos, S.; Carati, D.
2003-01-01
In the present article we will consider the decay of MHD turbulence under the influence of a strong external magnetic field at moderate magnetic Reynolds numbers. Typical values of R(sub m) that are considered here range from R(sub m) approx. 0.1 to R(sub m) approx. 20. As a comparison, the initial kinetic Reynolds number common to all our simulations is Re(sub L) = 199. This means that the range of Prandtl numbers explored is 5 x 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1). Our motivation is mainly to exhibit how the transition from the QS approximation to FMHD occurs. At the lowest values of R(sub m) studied here, the QS approximation is shown to model the flow faithfully. However, for the higher values of R(sub m) considered, it is clearly inadequate but can be replaced by another approximation which will be referred to as the Quasi-Linear (QL) approximation. Another objective of the present study is to describe how variations in the magnetic Reynolds number (while maintaining all other parameters constant) affect the dynamics of the flow. This complements past studies where variations in either the strength of the external magnetic field or the kinetic Reynolds number were considered. This article is organized as follows. In section 2 we recall the definition of the quasi-static approximation. Section 3 is devoted to the description of the numerical experiments performed using the quasi-static approximation and full MHD. In section 4 we describe the quasi-linear approximation and test it numerically against full MHD. A concluding summary is given in section 5.
Hot wire in low Reynolds number flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolb, M. A.; Covert, E. E.
1984-01-01
Progress reports were issued on the following experiments: (1) low Reynolds number flow phenomenon of periodic vortex shedding in the wake behind a cylinder as studied by applying the hot wire anemometer technique of flow measurement. The downstream diffusion of these shed vortices was of prime concern. An evaluation of the performance of the hot wire at low Reynolds number is also considered. (2) A brief examination of the back sections of the Wright Brothers wind tunnel circuits were conducted to establish whether or not gross flow deviations were present at corners, or turning vane regions. A calibration of the test sections was done. (3) The attractiveness of using rembedded grids for airfoil calculations modeled by the Euler equations was explored. These calculations were extended to C-type grids and then to Navier-Stokes calculations,
Low Reynolds number, long endurance aircraft design
Foch, R.J.; Ailinger, K.G. )
1992-02-01
Airplanes are typically designed to maximize range at the highest practical cruising speed. However, several missions require extended duration rather than range, and favor the slowest possible cruise speed. Such missions include surveillance, radio relay, and ship's electronic decoy. These missions are ideally suited for advanced technology unmanned aircraft, either remotely piloted or autonomous. Feasibility studies have been conducted and flight demonstrator prototypes of such unique aircraft have been under steady research and development at the Naval Research Laboratory since 1978. This paper discusses the design aspects and tradeoffs unique to small, slow speed long endurance unmanned aircraft operating at wing chord Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 500,000. Additionally, many of these low Reynolds number-driven design features have applicability to high altitude, long endurance aircraft. 6 refs.
Moslemi, Ali A; Krueger, Paul S
2011-06-01
The effect of Reynolds number on the propulsive efficiency of pulsed-jet propulsion was studied experimentally on a self-propelled, pulsed-jet underwater vehicle, dubbed Robosquid due to the similarity of its propulsion system with squid. Robosquid was tested for jet slug length-to-diameter ratios (L/D) in the range 2-6 and dimensionless frequency (St(L)) in the range 0.2-0.6 in a glycerin-water mixture. Digital particle image velocimetry was used for measuring the impulse and energy of jet pulses from the velocity and vorticity fields of the jet flow to calculate the pulsed-jet propulsive efficiency, and compare it with an equivalent steady jet system. Robosquid's Reynolds number (Re) based on average vehicle velocity and vehicle diameter ranged between 37 and 60. The current results for propulsive efficiency were compared to the previously published results in water where Re ranged between 1300 and 2700. The results showed that the average propulsive efficiency decreased by 26% as the average Re decreased from 2000 to 50 while the ratio of pulsed-jet to steady jet efficiency (η(P)/η(P, ss)) increased up to 0.15 (26%) as the Re decreased over the same range and for similar pulsing conditions. The improved η(P)/η(P, ss) at lower Re suggests that pulsed-jet propulsion can be used as an efficient propulsion system for millimeter-scale propulsion applications. The Re = 37-60 conditions in the present investigation, showed a reduced dependence of η(P) and η(P)/η(P, ss)on L/D compared to higher Re results. This may be due to the lack of clearly observed vortex ring pinch-off as L/D increased for this Re regime. PMID:21364256
Preston Probe Calibrations at High Reynolds Number
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smits, Alexander J.
1998-01-01
The overall goal of the research effort is to study the performance of two Preston probes designed by NASA Langley Research Center across an unprecedented range of Reynolds number (based on friction velocity and probe diameter), and perform an accurate calibration over the same Reynolds number range. Using the Superpipe facility in Princeton, two rounds of experiments were performed. In each round of experiments for each Reynolds number, the pressure gradient, static pressure from the Preston probes and the total pressure from the Preston probes were measured. In the first round, 3 Preston probes having outer diameters of 0.058 inches, 0.083 inches and 0.203 inches were tested over a large range of pipe Reynolds numbers. Two data reduction methods were employed: first, the static pressure measured on the Preston probe was used to calculate P (modified Preston probe configuration), and secondly, the static pressure measured at the reference pressure tap was used to calculate P (un-modified Preston probe configuration). For both methods, the static pressure was adjusted to correspond with the static pressure at the Preston probe tip using the pressure gradient. The measurements for Preston probes with diameters of 0.058 inches, and 0.083 inches respectively were performed in the test pipe before it was polished a second time. Therefore, the measurements at high pipe Reynolds numbers may have been affected by roughness. In the second round of experiments the 0.058 inches and 0.083 inches diameter, un-modified probes were tested after the pipe was polished and prepared to ensure that the surface was smooth. The average velocity was estimated by assuming that the connection between the centerline velocity and the average velocity was known, and by using a Pitot tube to measure the centerline velocity. A preliminary error estimate suggests that it is possible to introduce a 1% to 2% error in estimating the average velocity using this approach. The evidence on the errors
Propeller slipstream/wing boundary layer effects at low Reynolds numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miley, S. J.; Howard, R. M.; Holmes, B. J.
1985-01-01
The effects of propeller slipstream on the wing laminar boundary are being investigated. Hot-wire velocity sensor measurements have been performed in flight and in a wind tunnel. It is shown that the boundary layer cycles between a laminar state and a turbulent state at the propeller blade passage rate. The cyclic length of the turbulent state increases with decreasing laminar stability. Analyses of the time varying velocity profiles show the turbulent state to lie in a transition region between fully laminar and fully turbulent. The observed cyclic boundary layer has characteristics similar to relaminarizing flow and laminar flow with external turbulence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kapral, Raymond; Mikhailov, Alexander S.
2016-04-01
Most of the proteins in the cell, including not only molecular motors and machines, but also enzymes, are active. When ATP or other substrates are supplied, these macromolecules cyclically change their conformations. Therefore, they mechanically stir the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm, so that non-thermal fluctuating flows are produced. As we have recently shown (Mikhailov and Kapral, 2015), stochastic advection by such flows might lead to substantial diffusion enhancement of particles inside a living cell. Additionally, when gradients in the concentrations of active particles or in the ATP/substrate supply are present, chemotaxis-like drift should take place. Here, the motion of passive tracers with various sizes in a mixture of different kinds of active proteins is analyzed. Moreover, effects of hydrodynamic interactions on the motion of active proteins are explored. Theoretical results are compared with available experimental data for ATP-dependent diffusion of natural and microinjected particles in biological cells.
Effect of added mass on the interaction of bubbles in a low-Reynolds-number shear flow.
Lavrenteva, Olga; Prakash, Jai; Nir, Avinoam
2016-02-01
Equal size air bubbles that are entrapped by a Taylor vortex of the secondary flow in a Couette device, thereby defying buoyancy, slowly form a stable ordered ring with equal separation distances between all neighbors. We present two models of the process dynamics based on force balance on a bubble in the presence of other bubbles positioned on the same streamline in a simple shear flow. The forces taken into account are the viscous resistance, the added mass force, and the inertia-induced repulsing force between two bubbles in a low-Reynolds-number shear flow obtained in Prakash et al. [J. Prakash et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 043002 (2013)]. The first model of the process assumes that each bubble interacts solely with its nearest neighbors. The second model takes into account pairwise interactions among all the bubbles in the ring. The performed dynamic simulations were compared to the experimental results reported in Prakash et al. [J. Prakash et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 043002 (2013)] and to the results of quasistationary models (ignoring the added mass effect) suggested in that paper. It is demonstrated that taking into account the effect of added mass, the models describe the major effect of the bubbles' ordering, provide good estimation of the relaxation time, and also predict nonmonotonic behavior of the separation distance between the bubbles, which exhibit over- and undershooting of equilibrium separations. The latter effects were observed in experiments, but are not predicted by the quasistationary models. PMID:26986411
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lockwood, V. E.
1972-01-01
The investigation was made on a 1/18-scale model of a twin-engine light airplane. Static longitudinal, lateral, and directional characteristics were obtained at 0 deg and plus or minus 5 deg sideslip at a Mach number of about 0.2. The angle of attack varied from about 20 deg at a Reynolds number of 0.39 times one million to 13 deg at a Reynolds number of 3.7 times one million, based on the reference chord. The effect of fixed transition, vertical and horizontal tails, and nacelle fillets was studied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bernot, P. T.
1974-01-01
Longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics of the 139-B orbiter (model 32-0) were obtained in a continuous flow hypersonic tunnel at Mach 10.3. Tests were made at Reynolds numbers of 1.04 million and 2.17 million (based on body length) over an angle of attack range of 12 deg to 36 deg at sideslip angles of 0 deg and minus 5 deg. Data were obtained at three elevon/body flap settings.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Furlong, G. Chester; Fitzpatrick, James E.
1947-01-01
Wing was tested with full-span, partial-span, or split flaps deflected 60 Degrees and without flaps. Chordwise pressure-distribution measurements were made for all flap configurations.. Peak values of maximum lift coefficient were obtained at relatively low free-stream Mach numbers and, before critical Mach number was reached, were almost entirely dependent on Reynolds Number. Lift coefficient increased by increasing Mach number or deflecting flaps while critical pressure coefficient was reached at lower free-stream Mach numbers.
Grid sensitivity in low Reynolds number hypersonic continuum flows
Rutledge, W.H. ); Hoffmann, K.A. . Dept. of Aerospace Engineering)
1991-01-01
A computational scheme is presented to solve the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations over a blunt body at high altitude, high Mach number atmospheric reentry flow conditions. This continuum approach is directed to low Reynolds/low density hypersonic flows by accounting for non-zero bulk viscosity effects in near frozen flow conditions. A significant difference from previous studies is the inclusion of the capability to model non-zero bulk viscosity effects. The grid definition for these low Reynolds number, viscous dominated flow fields is especially important in terms of numerical stability and accurate heat transfer solutions. 11 refs., 15 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Islam, Toukir; Curet, Oscar M.
2015-11-01
Zebrafish exhibits significant changes in fin morphology as well as fin actuation during its physical development. In larval stage (Re ~ 10), they beat pectoral fins asymmetrically during slow swimming and prey tracking and a hypothesis suggests pectoral fin motion enhances fluid mixing to assist respiration. We performed a series of computational simulations to study effect of Reynolds number (Re) and pectoral fin kinematics in the fluid dynamics and mixing around a larval zebrafish. The CFD algorithm is based on a constraint formulation where the kinematics of the zebrafish are specified. We simulated experimental zebrafish kinematics at different Re (17 to 300) and considered variations on the fin kinematics to evaluate role of fin deformation in the fluid structures generated by the pectoral fins. Using Lagrangian Coherent Structures and Lagrangian fluid tracers, we identified distinctly dynamic fluid regions and found that mixing around the pectoral fin significantly increases with Re and fin bending enhance fluid mixing at low Re. However, as zebrafish matures and its Re increases, the need to beat the pectoral fins to enhance mixing is reduced.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yucel, S. Banu; Sahin, Mehmet; Unal, M. Fevzi
2015-12-01
The flow pattern around a NACA0012 airfoil undergoing harmonic plunging motion corresponding to the deflected wake phenomenon reported by Jones and Platzer (Exp Fluids 46:799-810, 2009) is investigated in detail using direct numerical simulations. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation based on an unstructured side-centered finite volume method is utilized in order to solve the incompressible unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The Reynolds number is chosen to be 252, and the reduced frequency of plunging motion ( k = 2π fc/ U ∞) and the plunge amplitude non-dimensionalized with respect to chord are set to be 12.3 and 0.12, respectively, as in the experimental study of Jones and Platzer (2009). The present numerical simulations reveal a highly persistent transient effect, and it takes two orders of magnitude larger duration than the heave period to reach the time-periodic state. In addition, the three-dimensional simulation reveals that the flow field is three-dimensional for the parameters used herein. The calculation reproduces the deflected wake and shows a good agreement with the experimental wake pattern. The instantaneous vorticity contours, finite-time Lyapunov exponent fields and particle traces are presented along with the aerodynamic parameters including the lift and thrust coefficients.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kruse, R. L.; Lovette, G. H.; Spencer, B., Jr.
1977-01-01
The subsonic aerodynamic characteristics of a series of irregular planform wings were studied in wind tunnel tests conducted at M = 0.3 over a range of Reynolds numbers from 1.6 million to 26 million/m. The five basic wing planforms varied from a trapezoidal to a delta shape. Leading edge extensions, added to the basic shape, varied in approximately 5 deg increments from the wing leading edge sweep-back angle to a maximum 80 deg. Most of the tests were conducted using an NACA 0008 airfoil section with grit boundary layer trips. Tests were also conducted using an NACA 0012 airfoil section and an 8% thick wedge. In addition, the effect of free transition (no grit) was investigated. A body was used on all models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Priyadarshana, P. J. A.; Klewicki, J. C.
2004-12-01
Physical experiments are used to explore the properties of the motions contributing to the Reynolds stresses in high and low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers. The low Reynolds number smooth wall measurements (Rθ=1010, Rθ=2870, and Rθ=4850) were acquired in a large-scale low speed wind tunnel, while the high Reynolds number measurements [Rθ˜O(106)] were acquired at the Surface Layer Turbulence and Environmental Science Test site, Dugway, Utah. These high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer data were acquired over nearly hydraulically smooth and rough walls. At each Reynolds number and surface roughness, data comparisons were made at approximately yp/2 and 2yp, where yp is the peak position of the Reynolds shear stress. Scale separation effects associated with increasing Rθ are analyzed via spectral measurements (u, v, and u-v cospectra), and by segregating the streamwise and wall-normal velocities according to their frequency content using simultaneous high- and low-pass filtering. A primary observation is that the predominant motions underlying the stress undergo a significant shift from large to intermediate scales as Rθ becomes large, irrespective of surface roughness. Quadrant analysis of the filtered signals is employed to clarify the correlated scales involved in the generation of the stress. Overall, it is apparent that the types of motions contributing to Reynolds stress undergo significant variations at comparable wall-normal locations (relative to yp) over the Reynolds number range explored.
Simplified dragonfly airfoil aerodynamics at Reynolds numbers below 8000
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levy, David-Elie; Seifert, Avraham
2009-07-01
Effective aerodynamics at Reynolds numbers lower than 10 000 is of great technological interest and a fundamental scientific challenge. The current study covers a Reynolds number range of 2000-8000. At these Reynolds numbers, natural insect flight could provide inspiration for technology development. Insect wings are commonly characterized by corrugated airfoils. In particular, the airfoil of the dragonfly, which is able to glide, can be used for two-dimensional aerodynamic study of fixed rigid wings. In this study, a simplified dragonfly airfoil is numerically analyzed in a steady free-stream flow. The aerodynamic performance (such as mean and fluctuating lift and drag), are first compared to a "traditional" low Reynolds number airfoil: the Eppler-E61. The numerical results demonstrate superior performances of the corrugated airfoil. A series of low-speed wind and water tunnel experiments were performed on the corrugated airfoil, to validate the numerical results. The findings indicate quantitative agreement with the mean wake velocity profiles and shedding frequencies while validating the two dimensionality of the flow. A flow physics numerical study was performed in order to understand the underlying mechanism of corrugated airfoils at these Reynolds numbers. Airfoil shapes based on the flow field characteristics of the corrugated airfoil were built and analyzed. Their performances were compared to those of the corrugated airfoil, stressing the advantages of the latter. It was found that the flow which separates from the corrugations and forms spanwise vortices intermittently reattaches to the aft-upper arc region of the airfoil. This mechanism is responsible for the relatively low intensity of the vortices in the airfoil wake, reducing the drag and increasing the flight performances of this kind of corrugated airfoil as compared to traditional low Reynolds number airfoils such as the Eppler E-61.
Finite-span rotating flat-plate wings at low reynolds number and the effects of aspect ratio
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carr, Zakery R.
In the complex and dangerous environments of the modern warrior and emergency professional, the small size, maneuverability, and stealth of flapping-wing micro air vehicles (MAVs), scaled to the size of large insects or hummingbirds, has the potential to provide previously inaccessible levels of situational awareness, reconnaissance capability, and flexibility directly to the front lines. Although development of such an efficient, autonomous, and capable MAV is years away, there are immediate contributions that can be made to the fundamental science of the flapping-wing-type propulsion that makes MAVs so attractive. This investigation contributes to those fundamentals by considering the unsteady vortex dynamics problem of a rigid, rectangular flat plate at a fixed angle of attack rotating from rest---a simplified hovering half-stroke. Parameters are chosen to be biologically-relevant and relevant to MAVs operating at Reynolds numbers of O (103), and experiments are performed in a 50% by mass glycerin-water mixture. These experiments use novel application of methodologies verified by rigorous uncertainty analysis. The overall objective is to understand the vortex formation and forces as well as aspect ratio ( AR) effects. Of interest is the overall, time-varying, three-dimensional vortex structure obtained qualitatively from dye visualization and quantitatively from volumes reconstructed using planar stereoscopic digital particle image velocimetry (S-DPIV) measurements. The velocity information from S-DPIV also allows statements to be made on leading-edge vortex (LEV) stability, spanwise flow, LEV and tip-vortex (TV) circulation, and numerous circulation scalings. Force measurements are made and the lift coefficient is discussed in the context of the flow structure, the dimensional lift and the ability to relate velocity and force measurements going forward. AR effects is a topic of continued interest to those performing MAV-related research and also a primary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amiralaei, M. R.; Alighanbari, H.; Hashemi, S. M.
2010-08-01
The growing applications of low Reynolds number (LRN) operating vehicles impose the need for accurate LRN flow solutions. These applications usually involve complex unsteady phenomena, which depend on the kinematics of the vehicle such as pitching, plunging, and flapping of a wing. The objective of the present study is to address the issues related to LRN aerodynamics of a harmonically pitching NACA0012 airfoil. To this end, the influence of unsteady parameters, namely, amplitude of oscillation, d, reduced frequency, k, and Reynolds number, Re, on the aerodynamic performance of the model is investigated. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is utilized to solve Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations discretized based on the Finite Volume Method (FVM). The resulting instantaneous lift coefficients are compared with analytical data from Theodorsen’s method. The simulation results reveal that d, k, and Re are of great importance in the aerodynamic performance of the system, as they affect the maximum lift coefficients, hysteresis loops, strength, and number of the generated vortices within the harmonic motion, and the extent of the so-called figure-of-eight phenomenon region. Thus, achieving the optimum lift coefficients demands a careful selection of these parameters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schobeiri, M. T.; Ozturk, B.; Ashpis, David E.
2007-01-01
The paper experimentally studies the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds numbers on boundary layer development, separation and re-attachment along the suction surface of a low pressure turbine blade. The experimental investigations were performed on a large scale, subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility at Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory (TPFL) of Texas A&M University. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds numbers of 110,000 and 150,000 (based on suction surface length and exit velocity). One steady and two different unsteady inlet flow conditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities were investigated. The reduced frequencies chosen cover the operating range of LP turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, surface pressure measurements were performed. The inception, onset, and the extent of the separation bubble information collected from the pressure measurements were compared with the hot wire measurements. The results presented in ensemble-averaged, and the contour plot forms help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds number. It was found that the suction surface displayed a strong separation bubble for these three different reduced frequencies. For each condition, the locations defining the separation bubble were determined carefully analyzing and examining the pressure and mean velocity profile data. The location of the boundary layer separation was dependent of the Reynolds number. It is observed that starting point of the separation bubble and the re-attachment point move further downstream by increasing Reynolds number from 110,000 to 150,000. Also, the size of the separation bubble is smaller when compared to that for Re=110,000.
Investigation of Transonic Reynolds Number Scaling on a Twin-Engine Transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Curtin, M. M.; Bogue, D. R.; Om, D.; Rivers, S. M. B.; Pendergraft, O. C., Jr.; Wahls, R. A.
2002-01-01
This paper discusses Reynolds number scaling for aerodynamic parameters including force and wing pressure measurements. A full-span model of the Boeing 777 configuration was tested at transonic conditions in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at Reynolds numbers (based on mean aerodynamic chord) from 3.0 to 40.0 million. Data was obtained for a tail-off configuration both with and without wing vortex generators and flap support fairings. The effects of aeroelastics were separated from Reynolds number effects by varying total pressure and temperature independently. Data from the NTF at flight Reynolds number are compared with flight data to establish the wind tunnel/flight correlation. The importance of high Reynolds number testing and the need for developing a process for transonic Reynolds number scaling is discussed. This paper also identifies issues that need to be worked for Boeing Commercial to continue to conduct future high Reynolds number testing in the NTF.
Wave phenomena in a high Reynolds number compressible boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bayliss, A.; Maestrello, L.; Parikh, P.; Turkel, E.
1985-01-01
Growth of unstable disturbances in a high Reynolds number compressible boundary layer is numerically simulated. Localized periodic surface heating and cooling as a means of active control of these disturbances is studied. It is shown that compressibility in itself stabilizes the flow but at a lower Mach number, significant nonlinear distortions are produced. Phase cancellation is shown to be an effective mechanism for active boundary layer control.
Aerodynamics and design for ultra-low Reynolds number flight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunz, Peter Josef
Growing interest in micro-air-vehicles has created the need for improved understanding of the relevant aerodynamics. A reasonable starting point is the study of airfoil aerodynamics at Reynolds numbers below 10,000, here termed ultra-low Reynolds numbers. The effects of airfoil geometry on performance are explored using an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver. Variations in thickness, camber, and the shape of leading and trailing edges are studied. Results indicate an increase in maximum lift coefficient with decreasing Reynolds number, but the lift to drag ratio continues to decrease, making the power required for flight a more restrictive consideration than lift. This performance penalty can be mitigated by careful airfoil design. Contrary to the notion that viscous fairing reduces airfoil geometry effectiveness, the computational results indicate that geometry still has a profound effect on performance at ultra-low Reynolds numbers. To further explore this design space, the flow solver has been coupled with an optimizer, resulting in the first airfoils quantitatively designed for this flow regime and demonstrating that unconventional camberlines can offer significant performance gains. Building on these results, tools are developed for ultra-low Reynolds number rotors combining enhanced classical rotor theory with airfoil data from Navier-Stokes calculations. This performance prediction method is coupled with optimization for both design and analysis. Performance predictions from these tools are compared with three-dimensional Navier-Stokes analyses and experimental data for several micro-rotor designs. Comparisons among the analyses and experimental data show reasonable agreement both in the global thrust and power, but the spanwise distributions of these quantities exhibit deviations, partially attributable to three-dimensional and rotational effects that effectively modify airfoil section performance. While these issues may limit the applicability of blade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henderson, W. P.
1976-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Langley low turbulence pressure tunnel to determine the effects of wing leading edge radius and Reynolds number on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a series of highly swept wing-body configurations. The tests were conducted at Mach numbers below 0.30, angles of attack up to 16 deg, and Reynolds numbers per meter from 6.57 million to 43.27 million. The wings under study in this investigation had leading edge sweep angles of 61.7 deg, 64.61 deg, and 67.01 deg in combination with trailing edge sweep angles of 0 deg and 40.6 deg. The leading edge radii of each wing planform could be varied from sharp to nearly round.
Low Reynolds number suspension gravity currents.
Saha, Sandeep; Salin, Dominique; Talon, Laurent
2013-08-01
The extension of a gravity current in a lock-exchange problem, proceeds as square root of time in the viscous-buoyancy phase, where there is a balance between gravitational and viscous forces. In the presence of particles however, this scenario is drastically altered, because sedimentation reduces the motive gravitational force and introduces a finite distance and time at which the gravity current halts. We investigate the spreading of low Reynolds number suspension gravity currents using a novel approach based on the Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method. The suspension is modeled as a continuous medium with a concentration-dependent viscosity. The settling of particles is simulated using a drift flux function approach that enables us to capture sudden discontinuities in particle concentration that travel as kinematic shock waves. Thereafter a numerical investigation of lock-exchange flows between pure fluids of unequal viscosity, reveals the existence of wall layers which reduce the spreading rate substantially compared to the lubrication theory prediction. In suspension gravity currents, we observe that the settling of particles leads to the formation of two additional fronts: a horizontal front near the top that descends vertically and a sediment layer at the bottom which aggrandises due to deposition of particles. Three phases are identified in the spreading process: the final corresponding to the mutual approach of the two horizontal fronts while the laterally advancing front halts indicating that the suspension current stops even before all the particles have settled. The first two regimes represent a constant and a decreasing spreading rate respectively. Finally we conduct experiments to substantiate the conclusions of our numerical and theoretical investigation. PMID:23933985
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cunningham, Atlee M., Jr.; Spragle, Gregory S.
1987-01-01
The influence of Mach and Reynolds numbers as well as airfoil and planform geometry on the phenomenon of constant shock jump pressure coefficient for conditions of shock induced trailing edge separation (SITES) was studied. It was demonstrated that the phenomenon does exist for a wide variety of two and three dimensional flow cases and that the influence of free stream Mach number was not significant. The influence of Reynolds number was found to be important but was not strong. Airfoil and planform geometric characteristics were found to be very important where the pressure coefficient jump was shown to vary with the sum of: (1) airfoil curvature at the upper surface crest, and (2) camber surface slope at the trailing edge. It was also determined that the onset of SITES could be defined as a function of airfoil geometric parameters and Mach number normal to the leading edge. This onset prediction was shown to predict the angle of onset to within + or - 1 deg accuracy or better for about 90% of the cases studied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flegel, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.
2014-01-01
The effects of high inlet turbulence intensity on the aerodynamic performance of a variable speed power turbine blade are examined over large incidence and Reynolds number ranges. These results are compared to previous measurements made in a low turbulence environment. Both high and low turbulence studies were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The purpose of the low inlet turbulence study was to examine the transitional flow effects that are anticipated at cruise Reynolds numbers. The current study extends this to LPT-relevant turbulence levels while perhaps sacrificing transitional flow effects. Assessing the effects of turbulence at these large incidence and Reynolds number variations complements the existing database. Downstream total pressure and exit angle data were acquired for 10 incidence angles ranging from +15.8deg to -51.0deg. For each incidence angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number ranging from 2.12×10(exp 5) to 2.12×10(exp 6) and at a design exit Mach number of 0.72. In order to achieve the lowest Reynolds number, the exit Mach number was reduced to 0.35 due to facility constraints. The inlet turbulence intensity, Tu, was measured using a single-wire hotwire located 0.415 axial-chord upstream of the blade row. The inlet turbulence levels ranged from 8 to 15 percent for the current study. Tu measurements were also made farther upstream so that turbulence decay rates could be calculated as needed for computational inlet boundary conditions. Downstream flow field measurements were obtained using a pneumatic five-hole pitch/yaw probe located in a survey plane 7 percent axial chord aft of the blade trailing edge and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressures were acquired for each flow condition as well. The blade loading data show that the suction surface separation that was evident at many of the low Tu conditions has been eliminated. At
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flegel, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.
2014-01-01
The effects of high inlet turbulence intensity on the aerodynamic performance of a variable speed power turbine blade are examined over large incidence and Reynolds number ranges. These results are compared to previous measurements made in a low turbulence environment. Both high and low turbulence studies were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The purpose of the low inlet turbulence study was to examine the transitional flow effects that are anticipated at cruise Reynolds numbers. The current study extends this to LPT-relevant turbulence levels while perhaps sacrificing transitional flow effects. Assessing the effects of turbulence at these large incidence and Reynolds number variations complements the existing database. Downstream total pressure and exit angle data were acquired for 10 incidence angles ranging from +15.8deg to -51.0deg. For each incidence angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number ranging from 2.12×10(exp 5) to 2.12×10(exp 6) and at a design exit Mach number of 0.72. In order to achieve the lowest Reynolds number, the exit Mach number was reduced to 0.35 due to facility constraints. The inlet turbulence intensity, Tu, was measured using a single-wire hotwire located 0.415 axial-chord upstream of the blade row. The inlet turbulence levels ranged from 8 to 15 percent for the current study. Tu measurements were also made farther upstream so that turbulence decay rates could be calculated as needed for computational inlet boundary conditions. Downstream flow field measurements were obtained using a pneumatic five-hole pitch/yaw probe located in a survey plane 7 percent axial chord aft of the blade trailing edge and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressures were acquired for each flow condition as well. The blade loading data show that the suction surface separation that was evident at many of the low Tu conditions has been eliminated. At
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McNaughton, J.; Billard, F.; Revell, A.
2014-05-01
This paper presents a two-dimensional numerical investigation of a vertical axis turbine with focus on the prediction from two different turbulence modelling schemes. The three bladed turbine configuration tested is that of Roa et al. (2010) which has a high solidity of 1.1 and is tested at a chord-based Reynolds number of 1.5 × 105. Results are provided at three different tip speed ratios: the optimal value, and values 25% higher and lower. A detailed investigation of the flow ensues and results are presented as obtained from the original SST model and a modified version for low Reynolds number effects, recently tested by Wang et al. (2010) for a similar flow. Post-processing includes the evolution of the skin-friction coefficient over the blade throughout a cycle which enables a better understanding of the flow structure and the dynamic stall effects, as well as blade-vortex interaction. The low Reynolds number version of the model acts to reduce turbulence viscosity, leading to laminar flow at various parts of the cycle, which is seen to correctly enable the formation of leading edge vortices observed in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chitsomboon, Tawit
1994-11-01
Wall functions, as used in the typical high Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model, can be implemented in various ways. A least disruptive method (to the flow solver) is to directly solve for the flow variables at the grid point next to the wall while prescribing the values of k and epsilon. For the centrally-differenced finite-difference scheme employing artificial viscocity (AV) as a stabilizing mechanism, this methodology proved to be totally useless. This is because the AV gives rise to a large error at the wall due to too steep a velocity gradient resulting from the use of a coarse grid as required by the wall function methodology. This error can be eliminated simply by extrapolating velocities at the wall, instead of using the physical values of the no-slip velocities (i.e. the zero value). The applicability of the technique used in this paper is demonstrated by solving a flow over a flat plate and comparing the results with those of experiments. It was also observed that AV gives rise to a velocity overshoot (about 1 percent) near the edge of the boundary layer. This small velocity error, however, can yield as much as 10 percent error in the momentum thickness. A method which integrates the boundary layer up to only the edge of the boundary (instead of infinity) was proposed and demonstrated to give better results than the standard method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chitsomboon, Tawit
1994-01-01
Wall functions, as used in the typical high Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model, can be implemented in various ways. A least disruptive method (to the flow solver) is to directly solve for the flow variables at the grid point next to the wall while prescribing the values of k and epsilon. For the centrally-differenced finite-difference scheme employing artificial viscocity (AV) as a stabilizing mechanism, this methodology proved to be totally useless. This is because the AV gives rise to a large error at the wall due to too steep a velocity gradient resulting from the use of a coarse grid as required by the wall function methodology. This error can be eliminated simply by extrapolating velocities at the wall, instead of using the physical values of the no-slip velocities (i.e. the zero value). The applicability of the technique used in this paper is demonstrated by solving a flow over a flat plate and comparing the results with those of experiments. It was also observed that AV gives rise to a velocity overshoot (about 1 percent) near the edge of the boundary layer. This small velocity error, however, can yield as much as 10 percent error in the momentum thickness. A method which integrates the boundary layer up to only the edge of the boundary (instead of infinity) was proposed and demonstrated to give better results than the standard method.
Theers, Mario; Winkler, Roland G
2014-08-28
We investigate the emergent dynamical behavior of hydrodynamically coupled microrotors by means of multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC) simulations. The two rotors are confined in a plane and move along circles driven by active forces. Comparing simulations to theoretical results based on linearized hydrodynamics, we demonstrate that time-dependent hydrodynamic interactions lead to synchronization of the rotational motion. Thermal noise implies large fluctuations of the phase-angle difference between the rotors, but synchronization prevails and the ensemble-averaged time dependence of the phase-angle difference agrees well with analytical predictions. Moreover, we demonstrate that compressibility effects lead to longer synchronization times. In addition, the relevance of the inertia terms of the Navier-Stokes equation are discussed, specifically the linear unsteady acceleration term characterized by the oscillatory Reynolds number ReT. We illustrate the continuous breakdown of synchronization with the Reynolds number ReT, in analogy to the continuous breakdown of the scallop theorem with decreasing Reynolds number. PMID:25011003
Large eddy breakup devices as low Reynolds number airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anders, John B.
1986-01-01
Turbulent drag reduction downstream of large-eddy breakup (LEBU) devices is analyzed from the viewpoint of low-Reynolds number airfoil aerodynamics. It is argued that the variability of results between different research labs is primarily due to low Reynolds number 'phenomena' associated with unsteady separation/transition of the LEBU device boundary layer. LEBU drag reduction is shown to be an extremely sensitive function of device microgeometry at the low Reynolds numbers of all current investigations, and by analogy with conventional low-Reynolds number airfoil testing, the conclusion is drawn that the full potential for LEBU drag reduction must be explored at chord Reynolds numbers of 300,000 and above.
Experimental studies of Reynolds number dependence of turbulent mixing & transport
Warhaft, Z.
1996-12-31
An overview of recent experiments, in which the author generated high Reynolds number homogeneous grid turbulence, is provided. The author shows that in a small wind tunnel, Reynolds numbers that are sufficiently high (R{sub {lambda}} {approximately} 800, R{sub {ell}} {approximately} 36, 000) such that many of the aspects of turbulence that hitherto have only been observed in large scale anisotropic shear flows, are obtained. In particular the author studied the evolution of the spectrum with Reynolds number, the Kolmogorov constant and the internal intermittency, showing the way they tend to their high Reynolds number asymptotes. Thus the author links previous low Reynolds number laboratory experiments with large scale environmental measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogey, Christophe; Marsden, Olivier
2013-05-01
The influence of the nozzle-exit boundary-layer thickness in isothermal round jets at a Mach number of 0.9 and at diameter Reynolds numbers ReD ≃ 5 × 104 is investigated using large-eddy simulations. The originality of this work is that, contrary to previous studies on the topic, the jets are initially highly disturbed, and that the effects of the boundary-layer thickness are explored jointly on the exit turbulence, the shear-layer and jet flow characteristics, and the acoustic field. The jets originate from a pipe of radius r0, and exhibit, at the exit, peak disturbance levels of 9% of the jet velocity, and mean velocity profiles similar to laminar boundary-layer profiles of thickness δ0 = 0.09r0, 0.15r0, 0.25r0, or 0.42r0, yielding 99% velocity thicknesses between 0.07r0 and 0.34r0 and momentum thicknesses δθ(0) between 0.012r0 and 0.05r0. Two sets of computations are reported to distinguish, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, between the effects of the ratio δ0/r0 and of the Reynolds number Reθ based on δθ(0). First, four jets with a fixed diameter, hence at a constant Reynolds number ReD = 5 × 104 giving Reθ = 304, 486, 782, and 1288 depending on δ0, are considered. In this case, due to the increase in Reθ, thickening the initial shear layers mainly results in a weaker mixing-layer development with lower spreading rates and turbulence intensities, and reduced sound levels at all emission angles. Second, four jets at Reynolds numbers ReD between 1.8 × 104 and 8.3 × 104, varying so as to obtain Reθ ≃ 480 in all simulations, are examined. Here, increasing δ0/r0 has a limited impact on the mixing-layer key features, but clearly leads to a shorter potential core, a more rapid velocity decay, and higher fluctuations on the jet axis, and stronger noise in the downstream direction. Similar trends can be expected for high-Reynolds-number jets in which viscosity plays a negligible role.
On the modeling of low-Reynolds-number turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
So, R. M. C.; Yoo, G. J.
1986-01-01
A full Reynolds-stress closure that is capable of describing the flow all the way to the wall was formulated for turbulent flow through circular pipe. Since viscosity does not appear explicitly in the pressure redistribution terms, conventional high-number models for these terms are found to be applicable. However, the models for turbulent diffusion and viscous dissipation have to be modified to account for viscous diffusion near a wall. Two redistribution and two diffusion models are investigated for their effects on the model calculations. Wall correction to pressure redistribution modeling is also examined. Diffusion effects on calculated turbulent properties are further investigated by simplifying the transport equations to algebraic equations for Reynolds stress. Two approximations are explored. These are the equilibrium and nonequilibrium turbulence assumptions. Finally, the two-equation closure is also used to calculate the flow in question and the results compared with all the other model calculations. Fully developed pipe flows at two moderate Reynolds numbers are used to validate these model calculations.
The effects of grids on the near-field evolution of turbulence in a low-Reynolds number jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Senthil Kumar, P.; Raghavan, V.; Sundararajan, T.
2015-11-01
The near field evolution of a low Reynolds number free jet and associated turbulent fluctuations are investigated experimentally, in the presence of a grid placed at nozzle exit. The jet spreading characteristics without grid are validated first with available data in the literature and the well known features of vortex roll-up and pairing phenomena in the shear layer region are confirmed. The inclusion of a grid at the nozzle exit appears to reduce velocity fluctuations in the near field, but it accelerates the transition to a full-grown turbulent flow field with respect to axial distance, by the introduction of finer scales. Grids also cause mean velocity overshoot in the radial profile by distorting the approach flow in the boundary layer region ahead of the grid. Distinct vortex roll-up and pairing phenomena in the shear layer region could not be observed with grids. However, weak shear mode instabilities originating in the shear layer for 0 ≤ z/D ≤ 3 appear to interact with the potential core, leading to the formation of a "unified shear/preferred mode" instability. These features are dominantly seen for grid-mounted jet flows having large displacement thickness to grid opening ratio. Power spectra indicate a progressive evolution of turbulent flow features with respect to axial distance, starting with the development of inertial sub-range into a -5/3 slope exponent; followed by the establishment of full range of turbulent scales, and the eventual attainment of isotropy. The establishment of inertial sub-range is attributable to vortex-pairing and turbulent fragmentation in free jets and to the introduction of fine scales at the jet inlet in the cases with grids.
Support-sting interference on boattail pressure drag for Reynolds numbers up to 70 x 10 to the 6th
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gloss, B. B.; Sewall, W. G.
1983-01-01
A model was tested in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel to investigate the effects of Reynolds number on boattail pressure drag for a variety of sting shapes. The boattail pressure drag for constant Mach number increased linearly with Reynolds number over the Reynolds number range tested. The data indicated that, as the disturbance produced by the sting on the boattail increased, the boattail pressure drag became less sensitive to Reynolds number change. Also, it was found that the model base pressure versus Reynolds number curve reached a plateau within the Reynolds number range examined.
Numerical investigation of transition critical Reynolds number of channel flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yongming
2015-11-01
Two critical Reynolds numbers are mentioned in investigation of laminar-turbulent transition. One is instability critical Reynolds number from linear stability theory (LST). The other is transition critical Reynolds number at which transition occurs in reality, which is significantly lower than the former in general. The determination of transition critical Reynolds number is of important practical significance in some engineering problems. Theoretical method has not been proposed for its determination, so it has to depend on experiments. However, for some flows with important practical significance, such as hypersonic boundary layer, transition critical Reynolds number cannot be determined by experiments in current situation. In this paper, transition critical Reynolds number of incompressible channel flow is determined by direct numerical simulations (DNS). It is found as Re =1114, which agrees with experimental data. In subsequent paper, transition critical Reynolds number of boundary layer will be investigation by the similar method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11202147, 11332007, 11172203, and 91216111) and the Specialized Research Fund (New Teacher Class) for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (No. 20120032120007).
Irrecoverable pressure loss coefficients for two out-of-plane piping elbows at high Reynolds number
Coffield, R.D.; Hammond, R.B.; McKeown, P.T.
1999-02-08
Pressure drops of multiple piping elbows were experimentally determined for high Reynolds number flows. The testing described has been performed in order to reduce uncertainties in the currently used methods for predicting irrecoverable pressure losses and also to provide a qualification database for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer codes. The earlier high Reynolds number correlations had been based on extrapolations over several orders of magnitude in Reynolds number from where the original database existed. Recent single elbow test data shows about a factor of two lower elbow pressure loss coefficient (at 40x 106 Reynolds number) than those from current correlations. This single piping elbow data has been extended in this study to a multiple elbow configuration of two elbows that are 90o out-of-plane relative to each other. The effects of separation distance and Reynolds number have been correlated and presented in a form that can be used for design application. Contrary to earlier extrapolations from low Reynolds numbers (Re c 1.0x 106), a strong Reynolds number dependence was found to exist. The combination of the high Reynolds number single elbow data with the multiple elbow interaction effects measured in this study shows that earlier design correlations are conservative by significant margins at high Reynolds numbers. Qualification of CFD predictions with this new high Reynolds number database will help guide the need for additional high Reynolds number testing of other piping configurations. The study also included velocity measurements at several positions downstream of the first and second test elbows using an ultrasonic flowmeter. Reasonable agreement after the first test elbow was found relative to flow fields that are known to exist from low Reynolds number visual tests and also from CFD predictions. This data should help to qualify CFD predictions of the three-dimensional flow stream downstream of the second test elbow.
The role of Reynolds number in the fluid-elastic instability of tube arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kevlahan, Nicholas; Ghasemi, Ali
2015-11-01
The onset of fluid-elastic instability in tube arrays is thought to depend primarily on the mean flow velocity, the Scruton number and the natural frequencies of the tubes. However, there is evidence from experiments and numerical simulations that the Reynolds number is also an important parameter, although the available data are not sufficient to understand or quantify this effect. We use a high resolution pseudo-spectral scheme to solve two-dimensional penalized Navier-Stokes equations in order to accurately model turbulent flow through tightly packed tube arrays. To investigate the Reynolds number effect we perform simulations that vary Reynolds number between about 100 and 13,600 independent of flow velocity at fixed Scruton numbers, and then analyze the tube responses. Increasing Reynolds number has a strong de-stabilizing effect for rotated arrays. For in-line arrays, although Reynolds number still affects the instability threshold, the effect is not monotonic with increasing Reynolds number. The main de-stabilizing effect of increasing Reynolds number appears to be broadening of the vortex shedding frequency spectrum. This study increases reduces uncertainties in the experimental data, which usually do not account for the effect of Reynolds number.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flegel, Ashlie Brynn; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.
2014-01-01
The effects of inlet turbulence intensity on the aerodynamic performance of a variable speed power turbine blade are examined over large incidence and Reynolds number ranges. Both high and low turbulence studies were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The purpose of the low inlet turbulence study was to examine the transitional flow effects that are anticipated at cruise Reynolds numbers. The high turbulence study extends this to LPT-relevant turbulence levels while perhaps sacrificing transitional flow effects. Downstream total pressure and exit angle data were acquired for ten incidence angles ranging from +15.8 to 51.0. For each incidence angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number ranging from 2.12105 to 2.12106 and at a design exit Mach number of 0.72. In order to achieve the lowest Reynolds number, the exit Mach number was reduced to 0.35 due to facility constraints. The inlet turbulence intensity, Tu, was measured using a single-wire hotwire located 0.415 axial-chord upstream of the blade row. The inlet turbulence levels ranged from 0.25 - 0.4 for the low Tu tests and 8- 15 for the high Tu study. Tu measurements were also made farther upstream so that turbulence decay rates could be calculated as needed for computational inlet boundary conditions. Downstream flow field measurements were obtained using a pneumatic five-hole pitchyaw probe located in a survey plane 7 axial chord aft of the blade trailing edge and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressures were acquired for each flow condition as well. The blade loading data show that the suction surface separation that was evident at many of the low Tu conditions has been eliminated. At the extreme positive and negative incidence angles, the data show substantial differences in the exit flow field. These differences are attributable to both the higher inlet Tu directly and to the thinner inlet endwall
Boundary layer Reynolds stress composition at high and low Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Priyadarshana, Paththage; Klewicki, Joseph
2003-11-01
Properties of the motions contributing to the Reynolds stresses (-\\overlineuv) in high and low Reynolds number (R_θ) turbulent boundary layers are studied through physical experiments. The low R_θ measurements (R_θ = 2870) were acquired in a laboratory wind tunnel, while the high R_θ data (R_θ ≃ 5 × 10^6) were acquired at the SLTEST site, Utah. At each R_θ, comparisons are made at yp / 2 and 2y_p, where yp is the peak position of -\\overlineuv. Scale separation effects associated with increasing R_θ are analyzed via spectra, and by using high and low-pass filtering. The predominant motions underlying the stress undergo a significant shift from large to intermediate scales as R_θ becomes large. Specifically, the peak in the u-v cospectrum is close to the peak in the u power spectrum at low R_θ but shifts to near the peak in the v power spectrum at high R_θ. The low R_θ fractional quadrant -\\overlineuv contributions agree well with published results. High R_θ effects are observed in the fractional contributions through an increase in their magnitudes in each quadrant. Near the wall, an increase in outward interactions is observed at high R_θ. Overall, the contributions to -\\overlineuv are shown to undergo significant variations at comparable wall normal locations (relative to y_p) at the two Reynolds numbers. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research, grant monitor R. Joslin.
Generalized reynolds number for non-newtonian fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madlener, K.; Frey, B.; Ciezki, H. K.
2009-09-01
An extended version of the generalized Reynolds number was derived to characterize the duct flow of non-Newtonian gelled fluids of the Herschel-Bulkley-Extended (HBE) type. This number allows also estimating the transition from laminar to turbulent flow conditions. An experimental investigation was conducted with a capillary rheometer for several non-Newtonian gelled fluids to evaluate the introduced HBE-generalized Reynolds number Regen HBE. A good correlation between the experimental results and the theory could be found for laminar flow conditions. For one of the examined gelled fuels, the necessary high Reynolds numbers could be realized so that the transition from the laminar to the turbulent flow regime could be measured. Because of its general description, the HBE-generalized Reynolds number can also be applied to Newtonian liquids as well as to non-Newtonian fluids of the Herschel-Bulkley (HB), Ostwald-de-Waele (power-law, PL), and Bingham type.
Energy transfer in isotropic turbulence at low Reynolds numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Domaradzki, J. A.; Rogallo, R. S.
1988-01-01
Detailed measurements were made of energy transfer among the scales of motion in incompressible turbulent fields at low Reynolds numbers generated by direct numerical simulation. It was observed that although the transfer resulted from triad interactions that were non-local in k space, the energy always transferred locally. The results are consistent with the notion of non-uniform advection of small weak eddies by larger and stronger ones, similar to transfer processes in the far dissipation range at high Reynolds numbers.
Impinging laminar jets at moderate Reynolds numbers and separation distances.
Bergthorson, Jeffrey M; Sone, Kazuo; Mattner, Trent W; Dimotakis, Paul E; Goodwin, David G; Meiron, Dan I
2005-12-01
An experimental and numerical study of impinging, incompressible, axisymmetric, laminar jets is described, where the jet axis of symmetry is aligned normal to the wall. Particle streak velocimetry (PSV) is used to measure axial velocities along the centerline of the flow field. The jet-nozzle pressure drop is measured simultaneously and determines the Bernoulli velocity. The flow field is simulated numerically by an axisymmetric Navier-Stokes spectral-element code, an axisymmetric potential-flow model, and an axisymmetric one-dimensional stream-function approximation. The axisymmetric viscous and potential-flow simulations include the nozzle in the solution domain, allowing nozzle-wall proximity effects to be investigated. Scaling the centerline axial velocity by the Bernoulli velocity collapses the experimental velocity profiles onto a single curve that is independent of the nozzle-to-plate separation distance. Axisymmetric direct numerical simulations yield good agreement with experiment and confirm the velocity profile scaling. Potential-flow simulations reproduce the collapse of the data; however, viscous effects result in disagreement with experiment. Axisymmetric one-dimensional stream-function simulations can predict the flow in the stagnation region if the boundary conditions are correctly specified. The scaled axial velocity profiles are well characterized by an error function with one Reynolds-number-dependent parameter. Rescaling the wall-normal distance by the boundary-layer displacement-thickness-corrected diameter yields a collapse of the data onto a single curve that is independent of the Reynolds number. These scalings allow the specification of an analytical expression for the velocity profile of an impinging laminar jet over the Reynolds number range investigated of . PMID:16486059
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guda, Venkata Subba Sai Satish
There have been several advancements in the aerospace industry in areas of design such as aerodynamics, designs, controls and propulsion; all aimed at one common goal i.e. increasing efficiency --range and scope of operation with lesser fuel consumption. Several methods of flow control have been tried. Some were successful, some failed and many were termed as impractical. The low Reynolds number regime of 104 - 105 is a very interesting range. Flow physics in this range are quite different than those of higher Reynolds number range. Mid and high altitude UAV's, MAV's, sailplanes, jet engine fan blades, inboard helicopter rotor blades and wind turbine rotors are some of the aerodynamic applications that fall in this range. The current study deals with using dynamic roughness as a means of flow control over a NACA 0012 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers. Dynamic 3-D surface roughness elements on an airfoil placed near the leading edge aim at increasing the efficiency by suppressing the effects of leading edge separation like leading edge stall by delaying or totally eliminating flow separation. A numerical study of the above method has been carried out by means of a Large Eddy Simulation, a mathematical model for turbulence in Computational Fluid Dynamics, owing to the highly unsteady nature of the flow. A user defined function has been developed for the 3-D dynamic roughness element motion. Results from simulations have been compared to those from experimental PIV data. Large eddy simulations have relatively well captured the leading edge stall. For the clean cases, i.e. with the DR not actuated, the LES was able to reproduce experimental results in a reasonable fashion. However DR simulation results show that it fails to reattach the flow and suppress flow separation compared to experiments. Several novel techniques of grid design and hump creation are introduced through this study.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parlett, L. P.; Smith, C. C., Jr.; Megrail, J. L.
1973-01-01
An investigation has been conducted in a full-scale tunnel to determine the effects of variations in Reynolds number and leading-edge treatment on the aerodynamic characteristics of an externally blown jet-flap transport configuration. The model had a double-slotted trailing-edge flap and was powered by four high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Tests were performed by using each of three leading-edge devices (a 30-percent-chord flap and 15- and 25-percent-chord slats) at Reynolds numbers from 0.47 x one million to 1.36 x one million thrust coefficients up to 3.5. The use of a 25-percent-chord slat was found to be more effective than a 15-percent-chord slat or a 30-percent-chord flap in extending the stall angle of attack and in minimizing the loss of lift after the stall. The large slat was also effective in reducing the rolling moments that occurred when the engine-out wing stalled first.
Direct numerical simulation of moderate-Reynolds-number flow past arrays of rotating spheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih
2015-07-01
Direct numerical simulations with an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method are used to investigate the effects of particle rotation on flows past random arrays of mono-disperse spheres at moderate particle Reynolds numbers. This study is an extension of a previous study of the authors [Q. Zhou and L.-S. Fan, "Direct numerical simulation of low-Reynolds-number flow past arrays of rotating spheres," J. Fluid Mech. 765, 396-423 (2015)] that explored the effects of particle rotation at low particle Reynolds numbers. The results of this study indicate that as the particle Reynolds number increases, the normalized Magnus lift force decreases rapidly when the particle Reynolds number is in the range lower than 50. For the particle Reynolds number greater than 50, the normalized Magnus lift force approaches a constant value that is invariant with solid volume fractions. The proportional dependence of the Magnus lift force on the rotational Reynolds number (based on the angular velocity and the diameter of the spheres) observed at low particle Reynolds numbers does not change in the present study, making the Magnus lift force another possible factor that can significantly affect the overall dynamics of fluid-particle flows other than the drag force. Moreover, it is found that both the normalized drag force and the normalized torque increase with the increase of the particle Reynolds number and the solid volume fraction. Finally, correlations for the drag force, the Magnus lift force, and the torque in random arrays of rotating spheres at arbitrary solids volume fractions, rotational Reynolds numbers, and particle Reynolds numbers are formulated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirkil, Gokhan; Constantinescu, George
2015-07-01
The turbulent horseshoe vortex (HV) system and the near-wake flow past a circular cylinder mounted on a flat bed in an open channel are investigated based on the results of eddy-resolving simulations and supporting flow visualizations. Of particular interest are the changes in the mean flow and turbulence statistics within the HV region as the necklace vortices wrap around the cylinder's base and the variation of the mean flow and turbulence statistics in the near wake, in between the channel bed and the free surface. While it is well known that the drag crisis induces important changes in the flow past infinitely long circular cylinders, the changes are less understood and more complex for the case of flow past a surface-mounted cylinder. This is because even at very high cylinder Reynolds numbers, ReD, the flow regime remains subcritical in the vicinity of the bed surface due to the reduction of the incoming flow velocity within the bottom boundary layer. The paper provides a detailed discussion of the changes in the flow physics between cylinder Reynolds numbers at which the flow in the upstream part of the separated shear layers (SSLs) is laminar (ReD = 16 000, subcritical flow regime) and Reynolds numbers at which the transition occurs inside the attached boundary layers away from the bed and the flow within the SSLs is turbulent (ReD = 5 ∗ 105, supercritical flow regime). The changes between the two regimes in the dynamics and level of coherence of the large-scale coherent structures (necklace vortices, vortex tubes shed in the SSLs and roller vortices shed in the wake) and their capacity to induce high-magnitude bed friction velocities in the mean and instantaneous flow fields and to amplify the near-bed turbulence are analyzed. Being able to quantitatively and qualitatively describe these changes is critical to understand Reynolds-number-induced scale effects on sediment erosion mechanisms around cylinders mounted on a loose bed, which is a problem of
Passive scalars in turbulent channel flow at high Reynolds number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pirozzoli, Sergio; Bernardini, Matteo; Orlandi, Paolo
2015-11-01
We study passive scalars in turbulent plane channels at computationally high Reynolds number, which allows to observe previously unnoticed effects. The mean scalar profiles are found to obey a generalized logarithmic law which includes a linear correction term in the whole lower half-channel, and they follow a universal parabolic defect profile in the core region. This is consistent with recent findings regarding the mean velocity profiles in channel flow. The scalar variances also exhibit a near universal parabolic distribution in the core flow, and hints of a sizeable log layer, unlike the velocity variances. The energy spectra highlight the formation of large scalar-bearing eddies spanning each half-channel, which are caused by production excess over dissipation, and which are clearly visible in the flow visualizations. Close correspondence of the velocity and scalar eddies is observed, the main difference being that the latter have more convoluted interfaces, which translates into higher scalar dissipation. Another notable Reynolds number effect is the decreased correlation of the scalar field with the vertical velocity field, which is traced to the reduced effectiveness of ejection events. We acknowledge that the results reported in this paper have been achieved using the PRACE Research Infrastructure resource FERMI based at CINECA, Casalecchio di Reno, Italy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Omeara, M. M.; Mueller, T. J.
1986-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted in order to document the structure and behavior of laminar separation bubbles at low Reynolds numbers. Data of this type is necessary if the currently insufficient analytical and numerical models are to be improved. The laminar separation bubble which forms on a NACA 66(3)-018 airfoil model was surveyed at chord Reynolds numbers ranging from 50,000 to 200,000 at angles of attack from 8 to 12 degrees. The effects of the various testing conditions on the separation bubble were isolated, and the data was analyzed in relation to existing separation bubble correlations in order to test their low Reynolds number applicability. This analysis indicated that the chord Reynolds number and the disturbance environment strongly influence the experimental pressure distributions. These effects must be included in any analytic prediction technique applied to the low Reynolds number flight regime.
Kumar, Anoop; Gupta, S K; Kale, S R
2007-04-01
Cross-flow gravity towers are particle scrubbing devices in which water is sprayed from the top into particle-laden flow moving horizontally. Models for predicting particle capture assume drops traveling at terminal velocity and potential flow (ReD > 1000) around it, however, Reynolds numbers in the intermediate range of 1 to 1000 are common in gravity towers. Drops are usually injected at velocities greater than their terminal velocities (as in nozzles) or from near rest (perforated tray) and they accelerate/decelerate to their terminal velocity in the tower. Also, the effects of intermediate drop Reynolds number on capture efficiency have been simulated for (a) drops at their terminal velocity and (b) drops accelerating/decelerating to their terminal velocity. Tower efficiency based on potential flow about the drop is 40%-50% greater than for 200 mm drops traveling at their terminal velocity. The corresponding values for 500 mm drops are about 10%-20%. The drop injection velocity is important operating parameter. Increase in tower efficiency by about 40% for particles smaller than 5 mm is observed for increase in injection velocity from 0 to 20 m/s for 200 and 500mm drops. PMID:18476411
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loftin, Laurence K, Jr; Bursnall, William J
1950-01-01
Results are presented of an investigation made to determine the two-dimensional lift and drag characteristics of nine NACA 6-series airfoil section at Reynolds numbers of 15.0 x 10sub6, 20.0 x 10sub6, and 25.0 x 10sub6. Also presented are data from NACA Technical Report 824 for the same airfoils at Reynolds numbers of 3.0 x 10sub6, 6.0 x 10sub6, and 9.0 x 10sub6. The airfoils selected represent sections having variations in the airfoil thickness, thickness form, and camber. The characteristics of an airfoil with a split flap were determined in one instance, as was the effect of surface roughness. Qualitative explanations in terms of flow behavior are advanced for the observed types of scale effect.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choudhari, Meelan; Street, Craig L.
1991-01-01
Previous theoretical work on the boundary layer receptivity problem has utilized large Reynolds number asymptotic theories, thus being limited to a narrow part of the frequency - Reynolds number domain. An alternative approach is presented for the prediction of localized instability generation which has a general applicability, and also accounts for finite Reynolds number effects. This approach is illustrated for the case of Tollmien-Schlichting wave generation in a Blasius boundary layer due to the interaction of a free stream acoustic wave with a region of short scale variation in the surface boundary condition. The specific types of wall inhomogeneities studied are: regions of short scale variations in wall suction, wall admittance, and wall geometry (roughness). Extensive comparison is made between the results of the finite Reynolds number approach and previous asymptotic predictions, which also suggests an alternative way of using the latter at Reynolds numbers of interest in practice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madhukar, K.; Ramamohan, T. R.; Shivakumara, I. S.
2010-09-01
We make use of the formulation developed by Lovalenti and Brady [1] for the hydrodynamic force acting upon a spherical particle undergoing arbitrary time dependent motion in an arbitrary time dependent uniform flow field at low Reynolds numbers, to derive an expression for the effects of a constant bias force acting on a periodically forced rigid spherical particle in a Newtonian fluid. We use Newton's second law to relate the total force acting on the particle to the motion of the particle. The total force is given by: Total force = Fext+FH, where, Fext is the external force inclusive of both the periodic force and the constant bias force. FH is the hydrodynamic force derived by Lovalenti and Brady [1] including both unsteady and convective inertia. The equation derived contains a nonlinear history term and is nonlinear. This equation is solved numerically using an adaptive step size Runge—Kutta scheme. We obtain several phase plots (plots between particle displacement and particle velocity), which show the effects of low Reynolds numbers, the periodic force and the effects of the constant bias force on the particle motion. It is observed that at low magnitudes of the periodic forcing the external constant force dominates and the particle moves along the direction of the external constant force. As we increase the magnitude of the periodic forcing, the periodic force is seen to dominate and the particle is seen to oscillate along a mean position with a slight drift along the direction of the periodic force and the external constant force, when they are imposed in the same direction. However the motion of the particle becomes more complicated when the directions of the periodic forcing and external constant force are opposite to each other. We also observe a reflection in phase space when the directions of both the forces are reversed. The phase plots typically are of a half sinusoidal, sinusoidal and a coiled (solenoidal) pattern. These plots include the effects
Zero pressure gradient boundary layer at extreme Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hultmark, Marcus; Vallikivi, Margit; Smits, Alexander
2011-11-01
Experiments were conducted in a zero pressure gradient flat plate boundary layer using the Princeton/ONR High Reynolds number Test Facility (HRTF). The HRTF uses highly compressed air, up to 220 atmospheres, to produce Reynolds numbers up to Reθ =225,000 . This corresponds to a δ+ =65,000 which is one of the highest Reynolds numbers ever measured in a laboratory. When using pressure to achieve high Reynolds numbers the size of the measurement probes become critical, thus the need for very small sensors is acute. The streamwise component of velocity was investigated using a nanoscale thermal anemometer (NSTAP) as well as a 200 μm pitot tube. The NSTAP has a spatial resolution as well as a temporal resolution one order of magnitude better than conventional measurement techniques. The data was compared to recent data from a high Reynolds number turbulent pipe flow and it was shown that the two flows are more similar than previous data suggests. Supported under NR Grant N00014-09-1-0263 (program manager Ron Joslin) and NSF Grant CBET-1064257(program manager Henning Winter).
Large Eddy Simulations of Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities at high Reynolds number stratified flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Dana; Goodman, Lou; Raessi, Mehdi
2015-11-01
Simulations of Kelvin Helmholtz Instabilities (KHI) at high Reynolds numbers are performed using the Large Eddy Simulation technique. Reynolds numbers up to 100,000 are achieved using our model. The resulting data set is used to examine the effect of Reynolds number on various statistics, including dissipation flux coefficient, turbulent kinetic energy budget, and Thorpe length scale. It is shown that KHI are qualitatively different at high Re, up to and including the onset of vortex pairing and billow collapse and quantitatively different afterward. The effect of Richardson number is also examined. The results are discussed as they apply to ocean experiments.
The cryogenic wind tunnel concept for high Reynolds number testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kilgore, R. A.; Goodyer, M. J.; Adcock, J. B.; Davenport, E. E.
1974-01-01
Theoretical considerations indicate that cooling the wind-tunnel test gas to cryogenic temperatures will provide a large increase in Reynolds number with no increase in dynamic pressure while reducing the tunnel drive-power requirements. Studies were made to determine the expected variations of Reynolds number and other parameters over wide ranges of Mach number, pressure, and temperature, with due regard to avoiding liquefaction. Practical operational procedures were developed in a low-speed cryogenic tunnel. Aerodynamic experiments in the facility demonstrated the theoretically predicted variations in Reynolds number and drive power. The continuous-flow-fan-driven tunnel is shown to be particularly well suited to take full advantage of operating at cryogenic temperatures.
Compensatory escape mechanism at low Reynolds number
Gemmell, Brad J.; Sheng, Jian; Buskey, Edward J.
2013-01-01
Despite high predation pressure, planktonic copepods remain one of the most abundant groups on the planet. Their escape response provides one of most effective mechanisms to maximize evolutionary fitness. Owing to their small size (100 µm) compared with their predators (>1 mm), increasing viscosity is believed to have detrimental effects on copepods’ fitness at lower temperature. Using high-speed digital holography we acquire 3D kinematics of the nauplius escape including both location and detailed appendage motion. By independently varying temperature and viscosity we demonstrate that at natural thermal extremes, contrary to conventional views, nauplii achieve equivalent escape distance while maintaining optimal velocity. Using experimental results and kinematic simulations from a resistive force theory propulsion model, we demonstrate that a shift in appendage timing creates an increase in power stroke duration relative to recovery stroke duration. This change allows the nauplius to limit losses in velocity and maintain distance during escapes at the lower bound of its natural thermal range. The shift in power stroke duration relative to recovery stroke duration is found to be regulated by the temperature dependence of swimming appendage muscle groups, not a dynamic response to viscosity change. These results show that copepod nauplii have natural adaptive mechanisms to compensate for viscosity variations with temperature but not in situations in which viscosity varies independent of temperature, such as in some phytoplankton blooms. Understanding the robustness of escapes in the wake of environmental changes such as temperature and viscosity has implications in assessing the future health of performance compensation. PMID:23487740
Electrified film flows at moderate Reynolds number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craster, Richard; Wray, Alex; Papageorgiou, Demetrios; Matar, Omar
2014-11-01
We examine the flow of a thin, inclined film sandwiched between two parallel electrodes. We follow the Weighted Residual Integral Boundary Layer method, which has been shown via comparison with both direct numerical simulations and experiments to give good results in both the drag-gravity and drag-inertia regimes. We extend existing models to give an accurate model of electrostatic effects via a similar separation of variables approach. A disparity in material properties between the liquid and gas regions induces a Maxwell stress at the interface, which affords a significant degree of control over the behaviour of the film. In one dimension, linear stability comparisons are made with a full Orr-Sommerfeld calculation, and nonlinear comparisons are made with direct numerical simulations, both showing excellent agreement in large parts of parameter space. The model is also extended to fully two-dimensional simulations. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1, EPSRC DTG Studentship (AWW).
Inertial range ESS scaling deteriorates with increasing Reynolds number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Sinhuber, Michael; Bewley, Gregory; Vallikivi, Margit; Hultmark, Marcus; Smits, Alexander
2013-11-01
We examined the scaling of velocity structure functions in turbulence generated by a classical biplanar grid of crossed bars in the Variable Density Turbulence Tunnel in Göttingen. The flow had neither a mean shear nor strong anisotropy. Despite this, the structure functions did not exhibit power-law scaling unless Extended Self-Similarity (ESS) was employed. The ESS exponents were remarkably stable at Taylor Reynolds numbers between 100 and 1600. That is, at higher Reynolds numbers than in any other comparable flow. However, the extent to which ESS applied at small scales deteriorated as the Reynolds number increased. The experiments were performed in pressurized sulfur hexafluoride gas at pressures between 1 and 15 bar. The data were acquired with both classical hot wires, and with the NSTAP anemometers developed at Princeton.
Flow and roller array interaction at low Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheikh, Zubair M.; Wang, Lipo; Zhang, Qiang
2016-06-01
Differing from the conventional no-slip wall boundary condition, the moving surface may have strong influences on the flow structures and the flow physics. Such effects are potentially important and useful for flow control. In this paper we analyze the two-dimensional flow over a roller array with different spacing and rotating speeds at the low Reynolds numbers. The numerical results indicate that the pressure drag and the friction drag of the rollers are strongly dependent on flowing and geometric parameters. Physically, surface motion can induce the viscous traction stream, which leads to very important effects, such as the so called impingement block and traction stream flush. These interesting findings may help to better understand the fluid dynamics for the general moving boundary cases.
Numerical simulation of high Reynolds number bubble motion
McLaughlin, J.B.
1995-12-31
This paper presents the results of numerical simulations of bubble motion. All the results are for single bubbles in unbounded fluids. The liquid phase is quiescent except for the motion created by the bubble, which is axisymmetric. The main focus of the paper is on bubbles that are of order 1 mm in diameter in water. Of particular interest is the effect of surfactant molecules on bubble motion. Results for the {open_quotes}insoluble surfactant{close_quotes} model will be presented. These results extend research by other investigators to finite Reynolds numbers. The results indicate that, by assuming complete coverage of the bubble surface, one obtains good agreement with experimental observations of bubble motion in tap water. The effect of surfactant concentration on the separation angle is discussed.
Time-dependent measurement of base pressure in a blowdown tunnel with varying unit Reynolds number
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kangovi, S.; Rao, D. M.
1978-01-01
An operational characteristic of blowdown-type of wind tunnels is the drop in the stagnation temperature with time and the accompanying change in the test-section unit Reynolds number at constant stagnation pressure and Mach number. This apparent disadvantage can be turned to advantage in some cases where a Reynolds number scan is desired in order to study the effect of unit Reynolds number variation on a particular viscous flow phenomenon. This note presents such an instance arising from recent investigations on base pressure at transonic speeds conducted in the NAL 1-ft tunnel.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holland, Scott D.
1992-01-01
Reynolds number and cowl position effects on the internal shock structure and the resulting performance of a generic three-dimensional sidewall compression scramjet inlet with a leading edge sweep of 45 degrees at Mach 10 have been examined both computationally and experimentally. Prior to the experiment, a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code was adapted to perform preliminary parametric studies leading to the design of the present configuration. Following this design phase, the code was then utilized as an analysis tool to provide a better understanding of the flow field and the experimental static pressure data for the final experimental configuration. The wind tunnel model possessed 240 static pressure orifices distributed on the forebody plane, sidewalls, and cowl and was tested in the NASA Langley 31 Inch Mach 10 Tunnel.
Numerical solution of compressible viscous flows at high Reynolds numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maccormack, R. W.
1981-01-01
A new numerical method which was used to reduce the computation time required in fluid dynamics to solve the Navier-Stokes equations at flight Reynolds numbers is described. The method is the implicit analogue of the explicit finite different method. It uses this as its first stage, while the second stage removes the restrictive stability condition by recasting the difference equations in an implicit form. The resulting matrix equations to be solved are either upper or lower block bidiagonal equations. The new method makes it possible and practical to calculate many important three dimensional, high Reynolds number flow fields on computers.
Electrohydrodynamic deformation of drops and bubbles at large Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schnitzer, Ory
2015-11-01
In Taylor's theory of electrohydrodynamic drop deformation by a uniform electric field, inertia is neglected at the outset, resulting in fluid velocities that scale with E2, E being the applied-field magnitude. When considering strong fields and low viscosity fluids, the Reynolds number predicted by this scaling may actually become large, suggesting the need for a complementary large-Reynolds-number analysis. Balancing viscous and electrical stresses reveals that the velocity scales with E 4 / 3. Considering a gas bubble, the external flow is essentially confined to two boundary layers propagating from the poles to the equator, where they collide to form a radial jet. Remarkably, at leading order in the Capillary number the unique scaling allows through application of integral mass and momentum balances to obtain a closed-form expression for the O (E2) bubble deformation. Owing to a concentrated pressure load at the vicinity of the collision region, the deformed profile features an equatorial dimple which is non-smooth on the bubble scale. The dynamical importance of internal circulation in the case of a liquid drop leads to an essentially different deformation mechanism. This is because the external boundary layer velocity attenuates at a short distance from the interface, while the internal boundary-layer matches with a Prandtl-Batchelor (PB) rotational core. The dynamic pressure associated with the internal circulation dominates the interfacial stress profile, leading to an O (E 8 / 3) deformation. The leading-order deformation can be readily determined, up to the PB constant, without solving the circulating boundary-layer problem. To encourage attempts to verify this new scaling, we shall suggest a favourable experimental setup in which inertia is dominant, while finite-deformation, surface-charge advection, and gravity effects are negligible.
High Reynolds number decay of turbulent Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verschoof, Ruben A.; Huisman, Sander G.; van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef
2015-11-01
We study the decay of high-Reynolds number turbulence in a Taylor-Couette facility for pure inner cylinder rotation. The rotation of the inner cylinder (Rei = 2 ×106) is suddenly decelerated as fast as possible, thus removing the energy input within seconds. Local velocity measurements show that the decay in this wall-bounded inhomogeneous flow is faster than observed for homogeneous isotropic turbulent flows, due to the strong viscous drag applied by the inner and outer cylinder surfaces. We found that the decay over time can be described with the differential equation Re . (t) =cf (Re)Re2 , where the effects of the walls are included through the friction coefficient. A self-similar behavior of the azimuthal velocity is found: its normalized velocity profile as a function of the radius collapses over time during the decay process.
Experimental investigations of He II flows at high Reynolds number
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Van Sciver, Steve W.
1991-01-01
Fluid dynamics studies of He II at high Reynolds number (Re(d) greater than 10 exp 6) reveal characteristics which are best interpreted in terms of classical scaling relationships. In particular, the smooth tube friction factor is seen to correlate with the Von Karman-Nikuradse formulation. Also, the performance of a centrifugal pump is unchanged whether being used with He I or He II. These effects are expected to result provided the He II possesses a viscous sublayer and that the drag is determined by laminar flow within this layer. On the other hand, heat transfer in He II is substantially different from that of He I because of the unique internal convection mechanism present in this quantum fluid. These experiments are performed in the University of Wisconsin liquid helium flow facility which has unique capabilities of He II temperature, pressure and flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weilmuenster, K. J.
1974-01-01
Experimental measurements of boundary-layer transition in an expansion-tube test-gas flow are presented along with radial distributions of pitot pressure. An integral method for calculating constant Reynolds number lines for an expansion-tube flow is introduced. Comparison of experimental data and constant Reynolds number calculations has shown that for given conditions, wall boundary-layer transition occurs at a constant Reynolds number in an expansion-tube flow. Operating conditions in the expansion tube were chosen so that the effects of test-gas nonequilibrium on boundary-layer transition could be studied.
The variation with Reynolds number of pressure distribution over an airfoil section
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pinkerton, Robert M
1938-01-01
Pressures were simultaneously measured at 54 orifices distributed over the midspan section of a 5 by 30-inch rectangular model of the NACA 4412 airfoil in the variable-density tunnel. These measurements were made at 17 angles of attack from -20 degrees to 30 degrees for eight values of the effective Reynolds number form approximately 100,000 to 8,200,000. Accurate data were thus obtained for studying the variation of pressure distribution with Reynolds number. These results on the NACA 4412 section indicated that the pressure distribution is practically unaffected by changes in Reynolds number except where separation is involved.
The Aerodynamics of Deforming Wings at Low Reynolds Number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medina, Albert
responsive to flexibility satisfying an inverse proportionality to stiffness. In hover, an effective pitch angle can be defined in a flexible wing that accounts for deflection which shifts results toward trend lines of rigid wings. Three-dimensional simulations examining the effects of two distinct deformation modes undergoing prescribed deformation associated with root and tip deflection demonstrated a greater aerodynamic response to tip deflection in hover. Efficiency gains in flexion wings over rigid wing counterpart were shown to be dependent on Reynolds number with efficiency in both modes increasing with increased Reynolds number. Additionally, while the leading-edge vortex axis proved insensitive to deformation, the shape and orientation of the LEV core is modified. Experiments on three-dimensional dynamically-scaled fruit fly wings with passive deformation operating in the bursting limit Reynolds number regime revealed enhanced leading-edge vortex bursting with tip deflection promoting greater LEV core flow deceleration in stroke. Experimental studies on rotary wings highlights a universal formation time of the leading-edge vortex independent of Reynolds number, acceleration profile and aspect ratio. Efforts to replicate LEV bursting phenomena of higher aspect ratio wings in a unity aspect ratio wing such that LEV growth is no limited by span but by the LEV traversing the chord revealed a flow regime of oscillatory lift generation reminiscent of behavior exhibited in translating wings that also maintains magnitude peak to peak.
Probability density distribution of velocity differences at high Reynolds numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Praskovsky, Alexander A.
1993-01-01
Recent understanding of fine-scale turbulence structure in high Reynolds number flows is mostly based on Kolmogorov's original and revised models. The main finding of these models is that intrinsic characteristics of fine-scale fluctuations are universal ones at high Reynolds numbers, i.e., the functional behavior of any small-scale parameter is the same in all flows if the Reynolds number is high enough. The only large-scale quantity that directly affects small-scale fluctuations is the energy flux through a cascade. In dynamical equilibrium between large- and small-scale motions, this flux is equal to the mean rate of energy dissipation epsilon. The pdd of velocity difference is a very important characteristic for both the basic understanding of fully developed turbulence and engineering problems. Hence, it is important to test the findings: (1) the functional behavior of the tails of the probability density distribution (pdd) represented by P(delta(u)) is proportional to exp(-b(r) absolute value of delta(u)/sigma(sub delta(u))) and (2) the logarithmic decrement b(r) scales as b(r) is proportional to r(sup 0.15) when separation r lies in the inertial subrange in high Reynolds number laboratory shear flows.
Prediction of Very High Reynolds Number Compressible Skin Friction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, John R.
1998-01-01
Flat plate skin friction calculations over a range of Mach numbers from 0.4 to 3.5 at Reynolds numbers from 16 million to 492 million using a Navier Stokes method with advanced turbulence modeling are compared with incompressible skin friction coefficient correlations. The semi-empirical correlation theories of van Driest; Cope; Winkler and Cha; and Sommer and Short T' are used to transform the predicted skin friction coefficients of solutions using two algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence models in the Navier-Stokes method PAB3D. In general, the predicted skin friction coefficients scaled well with each reference temperature theory though, overall the theory by Sommer and Short appeared to best collapse the predicted coefficients. At the lower Reynolds number 3 to 30 million, both the Girimaji and Shih, Zhu and Lumley turbulence models predicted skin-friction coefficients within 2% of the semi-empirical correlation skin friction coefficients. At the higher Reynolds numbers of 100 to 500 million, the turbulence models by Shih, Zhu and Lumley and Girimaji predicted coefficients that were 6% less and 10% greater, respectively, than the semi-empirical coefficients.
Vegetation-Induced Roughness in Low-Reynold's Number Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piercy, C. D.; Wynn, T. M.
2008-12-01
Wetlands are important ecosystems, providing habitat for wildlife and fish and shellfish production, water storage, erosion control, and water quality improvement and preservation. Models to estimate hydraulic resistance due to vegetation in emergent wetlands are crucial to good wetland design and analysis. The goal of this project is to improve modeling of emergent wetlands by linking properties of the vegetation to flow. Existing resistance equations such as Hoffmann (2004), Kadlec (1990), Moghadam and Kouwen (1997), Nepf (1999), and Stone and Shen (2002) were evaluated. A large outdoor vegetated flume was constructed at the Price's Fork Research Center near Blacksburg, Virginia to measure flow and water surface slope through woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus), a common native emergent wetland plant. Measurements of clump and stem density, diameter, and volume, blockage factor, and stiffness were made after each set of flume runs. Flow rates through the flume were low (3-4 L/s) resulting in very low stem-Reynold's numbers (15-102). Since experimental flow conditions were in the laminar to transitional range, most of the models considered did not predict velocity or stage accurately except for conditions in which the stem-Reynold's number approached 100. At low stem-Reynold's numbers (<100), the drag coefficient is inversely proportional to the Reynold's number and can vary greatly with flow conditions. Most of the models considered assumed a stem-Reynold's number in the 100-105 range in which the drag coefficient is relatively constant and as a result did not predict velocity or stage accurately except for conditions in which the stem-Reynold's number approached 100. The only model that accurately predicted stem layer velocity was the Kadlec (1990) model since it does not make assumptions about flow regime; instead, the parameters are adjusted according to the site conditions. Future work includes relating the parameters used to fit the Kadlec (1990) model to measured
Unsteady pressure measurements on a supercritical airfoil at high Reynolds numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hess, R. W.
1989-01-01
Steady and unsteady pressures were measured on a 14 percent supercritical airfoil at transonic Mach numbers at Reynolds numbers from 6,000,000 to 35,000,000. Instrumentation techniques were developed to measure unsteady pressures in a cryogenic tunnel at flight Reynolds numbers. Experimental steady data, corrected for wall effects show very good agreement with calculations from a full potential code with an interacted boundary layer. The steady and unsteady pressures both show a shock position that is dependent on Reynolds number. For a supercritical pressure distribution at a chord Reynolds number of 35,000,000 laminar flow was observed between the leading edge and the shock wave at 45 percent chord.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutton, David M.
The effect of freestream turbulence intensities ranging from Tu = 1.26% to Tu = 3.2% is studied. Skin friction measurements made on the surface of the airfoil using oil film interferometry (OFI) show that, in general, the effect of the increased Tu is to inhibit separation of the laminar boundary layer. With increased Tu, the near-wall flow experiences strong deceleration in the adverse pressure gradient, but does not reverse as it does in the baseline case where Tu = 0.05%. The Cp distribution resulting from this decelerated fluid is similar in appearance to that of a laminar separation bubble. OFI results also show that laminar separation initiates a more rapid transition process than does higher turbulence intensity: transition of the boundary layer occurs over a shorter distance with Tu = 1.26% than it does with Tu = 2.19% due to the presence of a LSB at the lower turbulence intensity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holland, Scott D.; Murphy, Kelly J.
1993-01-01
Since mission profiles for airbreathing hypersonic vehicles such as the National Aero-Space Plane include single-stage-to-orbit requirements, real gas effects may become important with respect to engine performance. The effects of the decrease in the ratio of specific heats have been investigated in generic three-dimensional sidewall compression scramjet inlets with leading-edge sweep angles of 30 and 70 degrees. The effects of a decrease in ratio of specific heats were seen by comparing data from two facilities in two test gases: in the Langley Mach 6 CF4 Tunnel in tetrafluoromethane (where gamma=1.22) and in the Langley 15-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel in perfect gas air (where gamma=1.4). In addition to the simulated real gas effects, the parametric effects of cowl position, contraction ratio, leading-edge sweep, and Reynolds number were investigated in the 15-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. The models were instrumented with a total of 45 static pressure orifices distributed on the sidewalls and baseplate. Surface streamline patterns were examined via oil flow, and schlieren videos were made of the external flow field. The results of these tests have significant implications to ground based testing of inlets in facilities which do not operate at flight enthalpies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopiev, V.; Zaitsev, M.; Ostrikov, N.
2012-01-01
Well-known situation when bluff body is streamlining by turbulent flow is considered. Recently obtained experimental results for cylinder and role of small quadrupole sources in the wake are discussed. They appear to be strongly connected with the dipole sources located on the cylinder. Interference leads to surprising picture of the resulting sound field detected in experiment: equivalent dipole sources are located in the wake zone far downstream from the cylinder. The understanding of the effect of dipole abnormal shift helps to elaborate the modi¦ed cylinder (truncated cylinder) con¦gurations which are considered. These con¦gurations present attractive variant of airframe noise control where control realized by self-tuning of reflected signal leading to suppression of uncompensated dipoles.
Catalog of low-Reynolds-number airfoil data for wind-turbine applications
Miley, S.J.
1982-02-01
A literature survey was performed to acquire airfoil data at low Reynolds numbers which would be applicable to small wind energy conversion systems. The data were screened and the most reliable compiled into a catalog. Each entry includes airfoil coordinates, lift, drag and pitching moment characteristics in both graphical and tabular form. A discussion in elementary terms is given concerning airfoil behavior and the effects of Reynolds number, surface roughness and turbulence.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holland, Scott D.; Murphy, Kelly J.
1993-01-01
The effects of the decrease in the ratio of specific heats have been investigated in generic 3D sidewall compression scramjet inlets with leading-edge sweep angles of 30 and 70 degrees. The effects of a decrease in ratio of specific heats were seen by comparing data from two facilities in two test gases: in the Langley Mach 6 CF4 Tunnel in tetrafluoromethane and in the Langley 15-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel in perfect gas air. In addition to the simulated real gas effects, the parametric effects of cowl position, contraction ratio, leading-edge sweep, and Reynolds number were investigated in the 15-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. The models were instrumented with a total of 45 static pressure orifices distributed on the sidewalls and baseplate. Surface streamline patterns were examined via oil flow, and schlieren videos were made of the external flow field. The results of these tests have significant implications to ground based testing of inlets in facilities which do not operate at flight enthalpies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ventrice, M.
1979-01-01
The amplification of a Reynolds number dependent process by wave distortion and the possibility of applying the results to other similar Reynolds number dependent processes were investigated. The process investigated was that associated with the operation of a constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer. The application of vaporization limited combustion, the type of combustion typically associated with liquid propellant rocket engines, was studied. A series of experiments were carried out to determine the effect of wave distortion on a Reynolds number dependent process and to establish the analogy between the anemometer process and the combustion process. Parametric trends, behavior common to different chamber geometries, and stability boundaries were identified. The results indicate a high degree of similarity between the two processes and the possibility of using the anemometer system to investigate combustion instability. The nonlinear aspects of a Reynolds number dependent process appear to be the dominant mechanisms controlling instability.
Influence of Reynolds number on performance modeling of horizontal axis wind rotors
Musial, W.D.; Cromack, D.E.
1988-05-01
This paper investigates the influence of Reynolds number on performance modeling of horizontal axis wind rotors. A procedure for accounting for Reynolds number effects on airfoil section models was developed and implemented for NACA 0012 and NACA 4415 profiles; both of these models is valid through angles of attack up to 90 deg and for Reynolds numbers ranging from 4 x 10/sup 4/ to 3 x 10/sup 6/. These models were incorporated into both a lifting line computer code, LL200R, adapted for this report. This enabled greater uncertainty to be obtained in evaluating theoretical performance codes with respect to actual data, as well as providing a means by which a parametric analysis of the relative effects of Re changes on rotor performance to be performed. The use of low Reynolds number section data was found to significantly lower the predicted values of power coefficient, particularly at off-design tip speed-ratios. For symmetrical airfoils, this effect on performance was only significant for low tip-speed- ratios, while cambered airfoils were affected more uniformly at all operating conditions. Changes in performance were induced by parametric variations of wind speed, rotor scale, and rotor generating mode using the Reynolds number dependent section models. Results show that wind speed variations are more significant for smaller rotors at lower wind-speeds, and section models represented at only a single Reynolds number are more suitable for the analysis of constant RPM rotors.
Wall-bounded turbulence at high Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vallikivi, Margit
Measurements are reported that give new insight into the behavior of turbulent wall-bounded flows at high Reynolds number. Turbulent pipe and boundary layer flows are examined experimentally over a wide range of Reynolds numbers -- up to Retau=100,000 (Re D=6x106) in pipe flow, and up to Re tau=73,000 (ReD=235x103) in a flat plate zero pressure gradient boundary layer. A Nano-Scale Thermal Anemometry Probe (NSTAP) was developed for very high spatial and temporal resolution measurements. Sensors with wire lengths 30 and 60 mum were fabricated, tested and validated in known flows, and then used to obtain single-point measurements at high Reynolds numbers in pipe and boundary layers. The mean velocity data together with data from previous studies and extensive error analysis showed that the von Karman's constant in the log-law is kappa=0.40+/-0.02. It was shown that the streamwise Reynolds stress exhibits a logarithmic behavior in the inertial sublayer for Retau≥20,000, in both pipes and boundary layers. Variances as well as higher order even moments were compared for pipes and boundary layers and it was shown that all even moments have a logarithmic behavior in the inertial sublayer, suggesting a true scale separation. Streamwise turbulent spectra showed a clear k --5/3 region for up to two decades in wavenumber. No k--1 region was found to be present in any of the cases in the pipe or the boundary layer. The location of the outer spectral peak, associated with very large scale motions, was found to have only a weak dependence on Reynolds number. The loci of these peak occur at the same wall-normal distance where the streamwise stresses establish a logarithmic behavior and where the amplitude modulation coefficient has a zero value. This suggests that with Reynolds number increasing to infinity most of the energy is contained within a diminishing wall-layer in physical coordinates.
Low Reynolds Number Nozzle Flow Study. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whalen, Margaret V.
1987-01-01
An experimental study of low Reynolds number nozzle flow was performed. A brief comparison was made between some of the experimental performance data and performance predicted by a viscous flow code. The performance of 15, 20, and 25 deg conical nozzles, bell nozzles, and trumpet nozzles was evaluated with unheated nitrogen and hydrogen. The numerical analysis was applied to the conical nozzles only, using an existing viscous flow code that was based on a slender-channel approximation. Although the trumpet and 25 deg conical nozzles had slightly better performance at lower Reynolds numbers, it is unclear which nozzle is superior as all fell within the experimental error band. The numerical rssults were found to agree with experimental results for nitrogen and for some of the hydrogen data. Some code modification is recommended to improve confidence in the performance prediction.
Performance measurements of an airfoil at low Reynolds numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcghee, Robert J.; Walker, Betty S.
1989-01-01
Performance characteristics of an Eppler 387 airfoil using both direct (force) and indirect (pressure) measurement techniques have been obtained at Reynolds numbers from 60,000 to 460,000 in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. Lift, drag, and pitching-moment data were obtained from two internally-mounted strain-gage balances specifically designed for small aerodynamic loads. Comparisons of these results with data from a pressure model of an Eppler 387 airfoil are included. Drag data for both models using the wake traverse method are compared with the balance data. Oil flow visualization and surface mounted hot-film sensors were used to determine laminar-separation and turbulent-reattachment locations. Problems associated with obtaining accurate wind-tunnel data at low Reynolds numbers are discussed.
Turbulence Model Selection for Low Reynolds Number Flows
2016-01-01
One of the major flow phenomena associated with low Reynolds number flow is the formation of separation bubbles on an airfoil’s surface. NACA4415 airfoil is commonly used in wind turbines and UAV applications. The stall characteristics are gradual compared to thin airfoils. The primary criterion set for this work is the capture of laminar separation bubble. Flow is simulated for a Reynolds number of 120,000. The numerical analysis carried out shows the advantages and disadvantages of a few turbulence models. The turbulence models tested were: one equation Spallart Allmars (S-A), two equation SST K-ω, three equation Intermittency (γ) SST, k-kl-ω and finally, the four equation transition γ-Reθ SST. However, the variation in flow physics differs between these turbulence models. Procedure to establish the accuracy of the simulation, in accord with previous experimental results, has been discussed in detail. PMID:27104354
Turbulence measurements in high Reynolds number boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vallikivi, Margit; Smits, Alexander
2013-11-01
Measurements are conducted in zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers for Reynolds numbers from Reθ = 9,000 to 225,000. The experiments were performed in the High Reynolds number Test Facility (HRTF) at Princeton University, which uses compressed air as the working fluid. Nano-Scale Thermal Anemometry Probes (NSTAPs) are used to acquire data with very high spatial and temporal precision. These new data are used to study the scaling behavior of the streamwise velocity fluctuations in the boundary layer and make comparisons with the scaling of other wall-bounded turbulent flows. Supported under ONR Grant N00014-09-1-0263 (program manager Ron Joslin) and NSF Grant CBET-1064257 (program manager Henning Winter).
The Variation of Slat Noise with Mach and Reynolds Numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lockhard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2011-01-01
The slat noise from the 30P30N high-lift system has been computed using a computational fluid dynamics code in conjunction with a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings solver. By varying the Mach number from 0.13 to 0.25, the noise was found to vary roughly with the 5th power of the speed. Slight changes in the behavior with directivity angle could easily account for the different speed dependencies reported in the literature. Varying the Reynolds number from 1.4 to 2.4 million resulted in almost no differences, and primarily served to demonstrate the repeatability of the results. However, changing the underlying hybrid Reynolds-averaged-Navier-Stokes/Large-Eddy-Simulation turbulence model significantly altered the mean flow because of changes in the flap separation. However, the general trends observed in both the acoustics and near-field fluctuations were similar for both models.
Numerical simulations of undulatory swimming at moderate Reynolds number.
Eldredge, Jeff D
2006-12-01
We perform numerical simulations of the swimming of a three-linkage articulated system in a moderately viscous regime. The computational methodology focuses on the creation, diffusion and transport of vorticity from the surface of the bodies into the fluid. The simulations are dynamically coupled, in that the motion of the three-linkage swimmer is computed simultaneously with the dynamics of the fluid. The novel coupling scheme presented in this work is the first to exploit the relationship between vorticity creation and body dynamics. The locomotion of the system, when subject to undulatory inputs of the hinges, is computed at Reynolds numbers of 200 and 1000. It is found that the forward swimming speed increases with the Reynolds number, and that in both cases the swimming is slower than in an inviscid medium. The vortex shedding is examined, and found to exhibit behavior consistent with experimental flow visualizations of fish. PMID:17671314
Turbulence Model Selection for Low Reynolds Number Flows.
Aftab, S M A; Mohd Rafie, A S; Razak, N A; Ahmad, K A
2016-01-01
One of the major flow phenomena associated with low Reynolds number flow is the formation of separation bubbles on an airfoil's surface. NACA4415 airfoil is commonly used in wind turbines and UAV applications. The stall characteristics are gradual compared to thin airfoils. The primary criterion set for this work is the capture of laminar separation bubble. Flow is simulated for a Reynolds number of 120,000. The numerical analysis carried out shows the advantages and disadvantages of a few turbulence models. The turbulence models tested were: one equation Spallart Allmars (S-A), two equation SST K-ω, three equation Intermittency (γ) SST, k-kl-ω and finally, the four equation transition γ-Reθ SST. However, the variation in flow physics differs between these turbulence models. Procedure to establish the accuracy of the simulation, in accord with previous experimental results, has been discussed in detail. PMID:27104354
Identifying a Superfluid Reynolds Number via Dynamical Similarity.
Reeves, M T; Billam, T P; Anderson, B P; Bradley, A S
2015-04-17
The Reynolds number provides a characterization of the transition to turbulent flow, with wide application in classical fluid dynamics. Identifying such a parameter in superfluid systems is challenging due to their fundamentally inviscid nature. Performing a systematic study of superfluid cylinder wakes in two dimensions, we observe dynamical similarity of the frequency of vortex shedding by a cylindrical obstacle. The universality of the turbulent wake dynamics is revealed by expressing shedding frequencies in terms of an appropriately defined superfluid Reynolds number, Re(s), that accounts for the breakdown of superfluid flow through quantum vortex shedding. For large obstacles, the dimensionless shedding frequency exhibits a universal form that is well-fitted by a classical empirical relation. In this regime the transition to turbulence occurs at Re(s)≈0.7, irrespective of obstacle width. PMID:25933320
Lagrangian coherent structures in low Reynolds number swimming.
Wilson, Megan M; Peng, Jifeng; Dabiri, John O; Eldredge, Jeff D
2009-05-20
This work explores the utility of the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field for revealing flow structures in low Reynolds number biological locomotion. Previous studies of high Reynolds number unsteady flows have demonstrated that ridges of the FTLE field coincide with transport barriers within the flow, which are not shown by a more classical quantity such as vorticity. In low Reynolds number locomotion (O(1)-O(100)), in which viscous diffusion rapidly smears the vorticity in the wake, the FTLE field has the potential to add new insight to locomotion mechanics. The target of study is an articulated two-dimensional model for jellyfish-like locomotion, with swimming Reynolds number of order 1. The self-propulsion of the model is numerically simulated with a viscous vortex particle method, using kinematics adapted from previous experimental measurements on a live medusan swimmer. The roles of the ridges of the computed forward- and backward-time FTLE fields are clarified by tracking clusters of particles both backward and forward in time. It is shown that a series of ridges in front of the jellyfish in the forward-time FTLE field transport slender fingers of fluid toward the lip of the bell orifice, which are pulled once per contraction cycle into the wake of the jellyfish, where the fluid remains partitioned. A strong ridge in the backward-time FTLE field reveals a persistent barrier between fluid inside and outside the subumbrellar cavity. The system is also analyzed in a body-fixed frame subject to a steady free stream, and the FTLE field is used to highlight differences in these frames of reference. PMID:21825514
Lagrangian coherent structures in low Reynolds number swimming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, Megan M.; Peng, Jifeng; Dabiri, John O.; Eldredge, Jeff D.
2009-05-01
This work explores the utility of the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field for revealing flow structures in low Reynolds number biological locomotion. Previous studies of high Reynolds number unsteady flows have demonstrated that ridges of the FTLE field coincide with transport barriers within the flow, which are not shown by a more classical quantity such as vorticity. In low Reynolds number locomotion (O(1)-O(100)), in which viscous diffusion rapidly smears the vorticity in the wake, the FTLE field has the potential to add new insight to locomotion mechanics. The target of study is an articulated two-dimensional model for jellyfish-like locomotion, with swimming Reynolds number of order 1. The self-propulsion of the model is numerically simulated with a viscous vortex particle method, using kinematics adapted from previous experimental measurements on a live medusan swimmer. The roles of the ridges of the computed forward- and backward-time FTLE fields are clarified by tracking clusters of particles both backward and forward in time. It is shown that a series of ridges in front of the jellyfish in the forward-time FTLE field transport slender fingers of fluid toward the lip of the bell orifice, which are pulled once per contraction cycle into the wake of the jellyfish, where the fluid remains partitioned. A strong ridge in the backward-time FTLE field reveals a persistent barrier between fluid inside and outside the subumbrellar cavity. The system is also analyzed in a body-fixed frame subject to a steady free stream, and the FTLE field is used to highlight differences in these frames of reference.
High Reynolds Number Transition Experiments in ETW (TELFONA project)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perraud, J.; Archambaud, J.-P.; Schrauf, G.; Donelli, R. S.; Hanifi, A.; Quest, J.; Hein, S.; Streit, T.; Fey, U.; Egami, Y.
A wind-tunnel experiment on laminar-turbulent transition has been performed in ETW (the European Transonic Wind Tunnel in Koln) at high Reynolds number and cryogenic conditions. The studied geometry is a sting mounted full model in swept-wing configuration. The transition location was determined by means of Temperature Sensitive Paint (CryoTSP). The experimental observations were further analysed using different transition prediction tools, based on linear stability theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foley, J. E.
1972-01-01
An experimental program was conducted to survey the lee side vortex flow field about an ogive-cylinder-frustum-cylinder at angles of attack to 25 degrees for two Reynolds numbers at Mach number 0.8, and one Reynolds number at Mach number 1.96. The data were obtained using miniature 5-port conical pressure probes calibrated for angle of attack and roll angle over a Mach number range of 0.6 to 3.0. The results are presented here as local flow field properties and circulation strengths for various body stations.
Aerodynamic Performances of Corrugated Dragonfly Wings at Low Reynolds Numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamai, Masatoshi; He, Guowei; Hu, Hui
2006-11-01
The cross-sections of dragonfly wings have well-defined corrugated configurations, which seem to be not very suitable for flight according to traditional airfoil design principles. However, previous studies have led to surprising conclusions of that corrugated dragonfly wings would have better aerodynamic performances compared with traditional technical airfoils in the low Reynolds number regime where dragonflies usually fly. Unlike most of the previous studies of either measuring total aerodynamics forces (lift and drag) or conducting qualitative flow visualization, a series of wind tunnel experiments will be conducted in the present study to investigate the aerodynamic performances of corrugated dragonfly wings at low Reynolds numbers quantitatively. In addition to aerodynamics force measurements, detailed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements will be conducted to quantify of the flow field around a two-dimensional corrugated dragonfly wing model to elucidate the fundamental physics associated with the flight features and aerodynamic performances of corrugated dragonfly wings. The aerodynamic performances of the dragonfly wing model will be compared with those of a simple flat plate and a NASA low-speed airfoil at low Reynolds numbers.
Low Reynolds Number Drag Alteration Inspired by Butterfly Scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laforte, Brent; Kronenberger, Courtney; Lang, Amy
2012-11-01
Biomimetics is the process of looking towards nature's adaptations for answers to today's engineering obstacles. An age-old engineering dilemma is trying to find new methods to reduce the amount of drag over a body. This research finds inspiration from butterfly scales which are hypothesized to alter surface friction over the wings. Drop testing was performed on axisymmetric, streamlined, teardrop models which were rapid-prototyped such that the surface was covered with either streamwise or transverse cavities modeled after the Monarch butterfly. The drop tank contained silicone oil with a viscosity two hundred times that of water insuring flow similarity between the model cavities (2.5 mm cavity depth) and the butterfly scale structures (about 30 microns cavity depth). A variation in Reynolds number was achieved by altering the model weight such that terminal speeds ranged from 5 to 70 cm/s. Results showed a reduction in surface friction for the transverse cavity configurations based on the roller-bearing effect. These findings suggest that the cavity shape and ratio is directly correlated to the amount of drag alteration. Funded by NSF REU grant 1062611.
Computational analysis of amoeboid swimming at low Reynolds number.
Wang, Qixuan; Othmer, Hans G
2016-06-01
Recent experimental work has shown that eukaryotic cells can swim in a fluid as well as crawl on a substrate. We investigate the swimming behavior of Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae who swim by initiating traveling protrusions at the front that propagate rearward. In our model we prescribe the velocity at the surface of the swimming cell, and use techniques of complex analysis to develop 2D models that enable us to study the fluid-cell interaction. Shapes that approximate the protrusions used by Dictyostelium discoideum can be generated via the Schwarz-Christoffel transformation, and the boundary-value problem that results for swimmers in the Stokes flow regime is then reduced to an integral equation on the boundary of the unit disk. We analyze the swimming characteristics of several varieties of swimming Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae, and discuss how the slenderness of the cell body and the shapes of the protrusion effect the swimming of these cells. The results may provide guidance in designing low Reynolds number swimming models. PMID:26362281
Linearized pipe flow to Reynolds number 10 7
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meseguer, Á.; Trefethen, L. N.
2003-03-01
A Fourier-Chebyshev Petrov-Galerkin spectral method is described for high-accuracy computation of linearized dynamics for flow in an infinite circular pipe. Our code is unusual in being based on solenoidal velocity variables and in being written in MATLAB. Systematic studies are presented of the dependence of eigenvalues, transient growth factors, and other quantities on the axial and azimuthal wave numbers and the Reynolds number R for R ranging from 10 2 to the idealized (physically unrealizable) value 10 7. Implications for transition to turbulence are considered in the light of recent theoretical results of S.J. Chapman.
Dynamics of Active Separation Control at High Reynolds Numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pack, LaTunia G.; Seifert, Avi
2000-01-01
A series of active flow control experiments were recently conducted at high Reynolds numbers on a generic separated configuration. The model simulates the upper surface of a 20% thick Glauert-Goldschmied type airfoil at zero angle of attack. The flow is fully turbulent since the tunnel sidewall boundary layer flows over the model. The main motivation for the experiments is to generate a comprehensive data base for validation of unsteady numerical simulation as a first step in the development of a CFD design tool, without which it would not be possible to effectively utilize the great potential of unsteady flow control. This paper focuses on the dynamics of several key features of the baseline as well as the controlled flow. It was found that the thickness of the upstream boundary layer has a negligible effect on the flow dynamics. It is speculated that separation is caused mainly by the highly convex surface while viscous effects are less important. The two-dimensional separated flow contains unsteady waves centered on a reduced frequency of 0.8, while in the three dimensional separated flow, frequencies around a reduced frequency of 0.3 and 1 are active. Several scenarios of resonant wave interaction take place at the separated shear-layer and in the pressure recovery region. The unstable reduced frequency bands for periodic excitation are centered on 1.5 and 5, but these reduced frequencies are based on the length of the baseline bubble that shortens due to the excitation. The conventional swept wing-scaling works well for the coherent wave features. Reproduction of these dynamic effects by a numerical simulation would provide benchmark validation.
An experimental study of high Reynolds number turbulence in the atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhruva, Brindesh R.
2000-11-01
High Reynolds number turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer has been investigated using constant temperature hot-wire anemometry. The Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers (Rλ) were typically between 5 × 103 at 2 meters in the salt flats of Western Utah and 2 × 104 at 35 meters on the meterological tower of Brookhaven National Laboratory in Long Island. The measurements were used to study the statistical properties of inertial range quantities, Reynolds stress and wind direction. The identification of possible self- similar behavior in the inertial range is a primary goal in turbulence research. To motivate the need for high Reynolds number measurements we demonstrate the Reynolds number effect on the existence and extent of the inertial range. We find that the inertial range is non-existent at typical laboratory Reynolds numbers. We thus turn to high Reynolds numbers and analyze the asymmetry in the probability distribution function (pdf) of the longitudinal velocity increment. We compute the scaling exponents of the positive and negative structure functions and find that the negative exponents are more anomalous than the positive ones. Furthermore, we quantify the contribution to the asymmetry-or the skewness-from different regions of the pdf. We find that the core region of the pdf is more or less symmetric and the skewness comes primarily from the rare large amplitude events contained in the tails of the pdf. We discuss this result in the context of the down-scale cascade of energy. Next it is shown that even at Rλ ~ 20,000 the structure functions do not scale unambiguously-although the situation is far better than that at low Reynolds numbers. By applying various filtering techniques and conditional sampling it is shown that this lack of strict scaling even at very high Reynolds numbers is due to large scale ``corrupting effects'' on the inertial range. We propose a plausible scheme to remove the large scale effects. Next, we characterize the
High Reynolds Number Configuration Development of a High-Lift Airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Valarezo, Walter O.; Dominik, Chet J.; Mcghee, Robert J.; Goodman, Wesley L.
1993-01-01
An experimental program has been conducted to assess performance of a transport multielement airfoil at flight Reynolds numbers. The studies were performed at chord Reynolds numbers as high as 16 million in the NASA Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. Sidewall boundary-layer control to enforce flow two dimensionality was provided via an endplate suction system. The basic airfoil was an 11.55 percent thick supercritical airfoil representative of the stall critical station of a new-generation transport aircraft wing. The multielement airfoil was configured as a three-element airfoil with slat and flap chord ratios of 14.48 percent and 30 percent respectively. Testing focused on the development of landing configurations with high maximum lift capability and the assessment of Reynolds and Mach number effects. Also assessed were high-lift performance effects due to devices such as drooped spoilers and trailing-edge wedges. The present experimental studies revealed significant effects on high-lift airfoil performance due to Reynolds and Mach number variations and favorable lift increments at approach angles of attack due to the use of drooped spoilers or trailing-edge wedges. However, no substantial improvements in maximum lift capability were identified. A recently developed high performance single-segment flap was also tested and results indicated considerable improvements in lift and drag performance over existing airfoils. Additionally, it was found that this new flap shape at its optimum rigging was less sensitive to Reynolds number variations than previous designs.
Wave phenomena in a high Reynolds number compressible boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bayliss, A.; Maestrello, L.; Parikh, P.; Turkel, E.
1987-01-01
The behavior of spatially unstable waves in a high Reynolds number compressible laminar boundary layer is investigated by solution of the laminar two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations (solved to fourth-order accuracy) over a flat plate with a fluctuating disturbance generated at the inflow. A significant nonlinear distortion is produced, in qualitative agreement with experimental data. It is shown that increasing compressibility can significantly stabilize the flow over a flat plate, and that the mechanism of phase cancellation is a viable mechanism for the control of growing disturbances.
Anisotropy of MHD Turbulence at Low Magnetic Reynolds Number
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zikanov, O.; Vorobev, A.; Thess, A.; Davidson, P. A.; Knaepen, B.
2004-01-01
Turbulent fluctuations in MHD flows are known to become dimensionally anisotropic under the action of a sufficiently strong magnetic field. We consider the technologically relevant case of low magnetic Reynolds number and apply the method of DNS of forced flow in a periodic box to generate velocity fields. The analysis based on different anisotropy characteristics shows that the dimensional anisotropy is virtually scale-independent. We also find that, except for the case of very strong magnetic field, the flow is componentally isotropic. Its kinetic energy is practically uniformly distributed among the velocity components.
Grid-generated isotropic homogeneous turbulence at high Reynolds numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosen, G.
1981-01-01
Consideration is given to an empirical formula for the longitudinal correlation function for grid-generated incompressible fluid turbulence at Reynolds numbers above 12,800. The formula, which relates the longitudinal correlation function to the inverse cube of a dimensionless geometrical ratio, is shown to minimize the global correlation integrals into which the two-point velocity correlation tensor has been substituted subject to a global constraint on the Sobolev concomitent of the longitudinal correlation function. Furthermore, the energy spectrum function associated with the empirical formula is shown to satisfy a tertiary Helmholtz-type linear condition throughout the initial period of decay.
Implicit turbulence modeling for high reynolds number flows.
Margolin, L. G.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.; Wyszogrodzki, A. A.
2001-01-01
We continue our investigation of the implicit turbulence modeling property of the nonoscillatory finite volume scheme MPDATA. We start by comparing MPDATA simulations of decaying turbulence in a triply periodic cube with analogous pseudospectral studies. In the regime of direct numerical simulation, MPDATA is shown to agree closely with the pseudospectral model. As viscosity is reduced, the two model results diverge. We study the MPDATA results in the inviscid limit, using a combination of mathematical analysis and computational experiment. We validate the inviscid MPDATA results as representing the turbulent flow in the limit of very high Reynolds number.
Active Flow Control on a Low Reynolds Number Wing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munson, Matthew; Gharib, Morteza
2010-11-01
Control of vortex formation has been shown to be a critical mechanism in some forms of animal flight. Flapping motions create advantageous flow structures which play a role in enhancing lift and increasing maneuverability. Active flow control may be capable of providing similar influence over vortex formation processes in fixed wing flight at small Reynolds numbers. Steady and pulsed mass injection strategies through simple slot actuators are used to explore the open-loop response of the flow around a simple low-aspect ratio wing. Flow dynamics and vortex formation will be quantitatively visualized with DPIV and flow forces will be simultaneously measured with a six-component balance.
Resonance of flexible flapping wings at low Reynolds number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masoud, Hassan; Alexeev, Alexander
2010-05-01
Using three-dimensional computer simulations, we examine hovering aerodynamics of flexible planar wings oscillating at resonance. We model flexible wings as tilted elastic plates whose sinusoidal plunging motion is imposed at the plate root. Our simulations reveal that large-amplitude resonance oscillations of elastic wings drastically enhance aerodynamic lift and efficiency of low-Reynolds-number plunging. Driven by a simple sinusoidal stroke, flexible wings at resonance generate a hovering force comparable to that of small insects that employ a very efficient but much more complicated stroke kinematics. Our results indicate the feasibility of using flexible wings driven by a simple harmonic stroke for designing efficient microscale flying machines.
Axisymmetric bubble pinch-off at high Reynolds numbers.
Gordillo, J M; Sevilla, A; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, J; Martínez-Bazán, C
2005-11-01
Analytical considerations and potential-flow numerical simulations of the pinch-off of bubbles at high Reynolds numbers reveal that the bubble minimum radius, rn, decreases as tau proportional to r2n sqrt[1lnr2n], where tau is the time to break up, when the local shape of the bubble near the singularity is symmetric. However, if the gas convective terms in the momentum equation become of the order of those of the liquid, the bubble shape is no longer symmetric and the evolution of the neck changes to a rn proportional to tau1/3 power law. These findings are verified experimentally. PMID:16383983
Local isotropy in high Reynolds number turbulent shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saddoughi, Seyed G.
1993-01-01
This is a report on the continuation of experiments, which Dr. Srinivas Veeravalli and the present author started in 1991, to investigate the hypothesis of local isotropy in shear flows. This hypothesis, which states that at sufficiently high Reynolds numbers the small-scale structures of turbulent motions are independent of large-scale structures and mean deformations, has been used in theoretical studies of turbulence and computational methods like large-eddy simulation. The importance of Kolmogorov's ideas arises from the fact that they create a foundation for turbulence theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobs, E.N.; Abbott, Ira H.; von Doenhoff, A.E.
1939-01-01
In order to extend the useful range of Reynolds numbers of airfoils designed to take advantage of the extensive laminar boundary layers possible in an air stream of low turbulence, tests were made of the NACA 2412-34 and 1412-34 sections in the NACA low-turbulence tunnel. Although the possible extent of the laminar boundary layer on these airfoils is not so great as for specially designed laminar-flow airfoils, it is greater than that for conventional airfoils, and is sufficiently extensive so that at Reynolds numbers above 11,000,000 the laminar region is expected to be limited by the permissible 'Reynolds number run' and not by laminar separation as is the case with conventional airfoils. Drag measurements by the wake-survey method and pressure-distribution measurements were made at several lift coefficients through a range of Reynolds numbers up to 11,400,000. The drag scale-effect curve for the NACA 1412-34 is extrapolated to a Reynolds number of 30,000,000 on the basis of theoretical calculations of the skin friction. Comparable skin-friction calculations were made for the NACA 23012. The results indicate that, for certain applications at moderate values of the Reynolds number, the NACA 1412-34 and 2412-34 airfoils offer some advantages over such conventional airfoils as the NACA 23012. The possibility of maintaining a more extensive laminar boundary layer on these airfoils should result in a small drag reduction, and the absence of pressure peaks allows higher speeds to be reached before the compressibility burble is encountered. At lower Reynold numbers, below about 10,000,000, these airfoils have higher drags than airfoils designed to operate with very extensive laminar boundary layers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clark, L. E.
1972-01-01
The phase-change-coating technique was used to study the interference heating to the windward surface of 14 deg, 25 deg, and 50 deg swept wings of an entry vehicle configuration. One wing root of each model was faired to the fuselage with a fillet. Tests were made at Mach 8 at angles of attack of 0 deg, 20 deg, 40 deg, and 60 deg and at free-stream Reynolds numbers based on model length of 0.47 and 1.7 million. Bow shock impingement heating was found to increase in magnitude and affected area with increasing angle of attack until at a higher angle of attack it decreases; this angle of attack is lower for a 50 deg swept wing. Wing root interference heating was found to increase with angle of attack up to 40 deg and then to remain approximately constant. Consequently, wing root interference heating becomes the major type of interference heating at large angles of attack, and this occurs at a lower angle of attack for the highest sweep angle. A wing leading-edge root fillet reduces the peak in wing root interference heating near the leading edge, and increasing Reynolds number increases the level of interference heating.
Reynolds number dependency of an insect-based flapping wing.
Han, Jong-Seob; Chang, Jo-Won; Kim, Sun-Tae
2014-01-01
Aerodynamic characteristics depending on Reynolds number (Re) ranges were studied to investigate the suitable design parameters of an insect-based micro air vehicle (MAV). The tests centered on the wing rotation timing and Re ranges, and were conducted to understand the lift augmentations and unsteady effects. A dynamically scaled-up flapping wing controlled by a pair of servos was installed underwater with a micro force/torque sensor. A high-speed camera and a laser sheet were also put in front of the water tank for the time-resolved digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). The lift augmentations clearly appeared at low Re and were well reflected on the insect's flight range. In the case of the high Re, however, the peak standing for the wing–wake interaction was delayed, and the pitching-up rotation was not able to lead to another lift enhancement, i.e., rotational lift. In such Re, the mean CL and the L/D of the advanced rotation were substantially decreased from those of the other rotations. The DPIV results at high Re well described turbulent characteristics such as the irregular, unstable, and high-intensity vortex structures with a short temporal delay. In the advanced rotation, the LEV in the rotational phase could not maintain the attachment. Thus, the rotational lift was not able to work. On the contrary, the temporal response delay benefitted the wing in the delayed rotation. Therefore, the wing in the delayed rotation had both a similar level of the mean CL and a higher marked L/D than those of the advanced rotation. Such results indicate that the high Re could interrupt lift augmentation mechanisms, and these augmentations would not be suitable for a heavier MAV. In conclusion, using adequate wing kinematics to acquire estimations of the weight and range of the Re is highly recommended at the aerodynamic design step. PMID:25381677
Unsteady aerodynamic models for agile flight at low Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunton, Steven L.
This work develops low-order models for the unsteady aerodynamic forces on a wing in response to agile maneuvers at low Reynolds number. Model performance is assessed on the basis of accuracy across a range of parameters and frequencies as well as of computational efficiency and compatibility with existing control techniques and flight dynamic models. The result is a flexible modeling procedure that yields accurate, low-dimensional, state-space models. The modeling procedures are developed and tested on direct numerical simulations of a two-dimensional flat plate airfoil in motion at low Reynolds number, Re=100, and in a wind tunnel experiment at the Illinois Institute of Technology involving a NACA 0006 airfoil pitching and plunging at Reynolds number Re=65,000. In both instances, low-order models are obtained that accurately capture the unsteady aerodynamic forces at all frequencies. These cases demonstrate the utility of the modeling procedure developed in this thesis for obtaining accurate models for different geometries and Reynolds numbers. Linear reduced-order models are constructed from either the indicial response (step response) or realistic input/output maneuvers using a flexible modeling procedure. The method is based on identifying stability derivatives and modeling the remaining dynamics with the eigensystem realization algorithm. A hierarchy of models is developed, based on linearizing the flow at various operating conditions. These models are shown to be accurate and efficient for plunging, pitching about various points, and combined pitch and plunge maneuvers, at various angle of attack and Reynolds number. Models are compared against the classical unsteady aerodynamic models of Wagner and Theodorsen over a large range of Strouhal number and reduced frequency for a baseline comparison. Additionally, state-space representations are developed for Wagner's and Theodorsen's models, making them compatible with modern control-system analysis. A number of
Simulations of Three-dimensional Droplet Deformation in a Square-Duct at Moderate Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horwitz, Jeremy; Kumar, Purushotam; Vanka, Pratap
2013-11-01
We present results of numerical simulations of deformation of a confined droplet in a three-dimensional square-duct flow using a multiphase Lattice Boltzmann Method. We have studied the effects of capillary number, Reynolds number, and viscosity ratio on the droplet deformation characteristics. Unlike in the Stokes' limit where deformation is governed by a competition between viscous shear and interfacial tension, at higher Reynolds numbers, inertial effects play an increasingly important role. We observe that the deformation history is non-monotonic and contains an overshoot before relaxing to a steady deformed state. In contrast, the capillary number is seen to affect the magnitude of the deformation history and the time at which the peak deformation occurs. The viscosity ratio has a relatively modest effect on the magnitude of the deformation compared with the effects of Reynolds and capillary numbers. However, compared with the Reynolds number, the viscosity ratio and capillary number have a significant effect on the time to reach a steady state. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Center.
Fabrication and control of simple low Reynolds number microswimmers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheang, U. Kei; Kim, Min Jun
2016-07-01
The development of miniaturized robotic swimmers is hindered by technical limitations in micro- and nanofabrication. To circumvent these limitations, we investigated the minimal geometrical requirements for swimming in low Reynolds number. Micro- and nanofabrication of complex shapes, such as helices, on a massive scale requires sophisticated state of the art technologies and has size limitations. In contrast, simple shaped structures, such as spherical particles, can be fabricated massively using chemical synthesis with relative ease. Here, simple microswimmers were fabricated using two microparticles with debris attached to their surface. The debris on the microswimmer's surface creates a geometry with two or more planes of symmetry, allowing the microswimmer to swim in bulk fluid at low Reynolds number. The microswimmers are magnetically actuated and controlled via a uniform rotating magnetic field generated by an approximate Helmholtz electromagnetic coil system. We characterized the microswimmer's velocity profile with respect to rotating frequency and analyzed the motion of the microswimmer using image processing. Finally, we demonstrated the controllability of the microswimmers by freely steering them in any desired directions.
Design of a High-Reynolds Number Recirculating Water Tunnel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daniel, Libin; Elbing, Brian
2014-11-01
An experimental fluid mechanics laboratory focused on turbulent boundary layers, drag reduction techniques, multiphase flows and fluid-structure interactions has recently been established at Oklahoma State University. This laboratory has three primary components; (1) a recirculating water tunnel, (2) a multiphase pipe flow loop, and (3) a multi-scale flow visualization system. The design of the water tunnel is the focus of this talk. The criteria used for the water tunnel design was that it had to produce a momentum-thickness based Reynolds number in excess of 104, negligible flow acceleration due to boundary layer growth, maximize optical access for use of the flow visualization system, and minimize inlet flow non-uniformity. This Reynolds number was targeted to bridge the gap between typical university/commercial water tunnels (103) and the world's largest water tunnel facilities (105) . These objectives were achieved with a 152 mm (6-inch) square test section that is 1 m long and has a maximum flow speed of 10 m/s. The flow non-uniformity was mitigated with the use of a tandem honeycomb configuration, a settling chamber and an 8.5:1 contraction. The design process that produced this final design will be presented along with its current status.
The random walk of a low-Reynolds-number swimmer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafaï, Salima; Garcia, Michaël; Berti, Stefano; Peyla, Philippe
2010-11-01
Swimming at a micrometer scale demands particular strategies. Indeed when inertia is negligible as compared to viscous forces (i.e. Reynolds number Re is lower than unity), hydrodynamics equations are reversible in time. To achieve propulsion a low Reynolds number, swimmers must then deform in a way that is not invariant under time reversal. Here we investigate the dispersal properties of self propelled organisms by means of microscopy and cell tracking. Our system of interest is the microalga Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, a motile single celled green alga about 10 micrometers in diameter that swims with two flagellae. In the case of dilute suspensions, we show that tracked trajectories are well modelled by a correlated random walk. This process is based on short time correlations in the direction of movement called persistence. At longer times, correlations are lost and a standard random walk caracterizes the trajectories. Moreover, high speed imaging enables us to show how speed fluctuations at very short times affect the statistical description of the dynamics. Finally we show how drag forces modify the characteristics of this particular random walk.
High-Reynolds Number Taylor-Couette Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao
2016-01-01
Taylor-Couette flow, the flow between two coaxial co- or counter-rotating cylinders, is one of the paradigmatic systems in the physics of fluids. The (dimensionless) control parameters are the Reynolds numbers of the inner and outer cylinders, the ratio of the cylinder radii, and the aspect ratio. One key response of the system is the torque required to retain constant angular velocities, which can be connected to the angular velocity transport through the gap. Whereas the low-Reynolds number regime was well explored in the 1980s and 1990s of the past century, in the fully turbulent regime major research activity developed only in the past decade. In this article, we review this recent progress in our understanding of fully developed Taylor-Couette turbulence from the experimental, numerical, and theoretical points of view. We focus on the parameter dependence of the global torque and on the local flow organization, including velocity profiles and boundary layers. Next, we discuss transitions between different (turbulent) flow states. We also elaborate on the relevance of this system for astrophysical disks (quasi-Keplerian flows). The review ends with a list of challenges for future research on turbulent Taylor-Couette flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaman, Md. Shah; Islam, Showmic; Saha, Sumon; Hasan, Mohammad Nasim; Islam, Md. Quamrul
2016-07-01
A numerical analysis is carried out to study the performance of steady laminar mixed convection flow inside a square lid-driven cavity filled with water-Al2O3 nanofluid. The top wall of the cavity is moving at a constant velocity and is heated by an isothermal heat source. Two-dimensional Navier-stokes equations along with the energy equations are solved using Galerkin finite element method. Results are obtained for a range of Reynolds and Grashof numbers by considering with and without the presence of nanoparticles. The parametric studies for a wide range of governing parameters in case of pure mixed convective flow show significant features of the present problem in terms of streamline and isotherm contours, average Nusselt number and average temperature profiles. The computational results indicate that the heat transfer coeffcient is strongly influenced by the above governing parameters at the pure mixed convection regime.
Experimental studies of the Eppler 61 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burns, T. F.; Mueller, T. J.
1982-01-01
The results of an experimental study to document the effects of separation and transition on the performance of an airfoil designed for low Reynolds number operation are presented. Lift, drag and flow visualization data were obtained for the Eppler 61 airfoil section for chord Reynolds numbers from about 30,000 to over 200,000. Smoke flow visualization was employed to document the boundary layer behavior and was correlated with the Eppler airfoil design and analysis computer program. Laminar separation, transition and turbulent reattachment had significant effects on the performance of this airfoil.
The influence of Reynolds numbers on resistance properties of jet pumps
Geng, Q.; Zhou, G.; Li, Q.
2014-01-29
Jet pumps are widely used in thermoacoustic Stirling heat engines and pulse tube cryocoolers to eliminate the effect of Gedeon streaming. The resistance properties of jet pumps are principally influenced by their structures and flow regimes which are always characterized by Reynolds numbers. In this paper, the jet pump of which cross section contracts abruptly is selected as our research subject. Based on linear thermoacoustic theory, a CFD model is built and the oscillating flow of the working gas is simulated and analyzed with different Reynolds numbers in the jet pump. According to the calculations, the influence of different structures and Reynolds numbers on the resistance properties of the jet pump are analyzed and presented. The results show that Reynolds numbers have a great influence on the resistance properties of jet pumps and some empirical formulas which are widely used are unsuitable for oscillating flow with small Reynolds numbers. This paper provides a more comprehensive understanding on resistance properties of jet pumps with oscillating flow and is significant for the design of jet pumps in practical thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators.
The influence of Reynolds numbers on resistance properties of jet pumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, Q.; Zhou, G.; Li, Q.
2014-01-01
Jet pumps are widely used in thermoacoustic Stirling heat engines and pulse tube cryocoolers to eliminate the effect of Gedeon streaming. The resistance properties of jet pumps are principally influenced by their structures and flow regimes which are always characterized by Reynolds numbers. In this paper, the jet pump of which cross section contracts abruptly is selected as our research subject. Based on linear thermoacoustic theory, a CFD model is built and the oscillating flow of the working gas is simulated and analyzed with different Reynolds numbers in the jet pump. According to the calculations, the influence of different structures and Reynolds numbers on the resistance properties of the jet pump are analyzed and presented. The results show that Reynolds numbers have a great influence on the resistance properties of jet pumps and some empirical formulas which are widely used are unsuitable for oscillating flow with small Reynolds numbers. This paper provides a more comprehensive understanding on resistance properties of jet pumps with oscillating flow and is significant for the design of jet pumps in practical thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators.
Evaluation of high Reynolds number flow in a 180 degree turn-around-duct
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sandborn, V. A.; Marcy, S. J.
1991-01-01
Mean and turbulent velocities were measured for the flow in a 180 degree turn-around-duct over a Reynolds number range from 600,000 to greater than 900,000. The measurements were made in water using a forward scattering laser velocimeter. A duct of 100 x 10 cm constant cross-section, with a mean radius of curvature (centerline) of 10 cm was employed for the study. The measurements are in agreement with previous studies in that the use of local bulk velocity to nondimensionalize the mean and turbulent velocities reduce the Reynolds number variations. The basic phenomenon of relaminarization along the inner surface at the exit of the turn are similar to the flow observed at low Reynolds numbers. The separation bubble region shows a systematic variation with Reynolds number, however the Reynolds number effect may be of second order in the calculation of the overall flow. Large tangential, radial, and lateral turbulent velocities are measured along the outer surface of the turn.
A survey of the three-dimensional high Reynolds number transonic wind tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Takashima, K.; Sawada, H.; Aoki, T.
1982-01-01
The facilities for aerodynamic testing of airplane models at transonic speeds and high Reynolds numbers are surveyed. The need for high Reynolds number testing is reviewed, using some experimental results. Some approaches to high Reynolds number testing such as the cryogenic wind tunnel, the induction driven wind tunnel, the Ludwieg tube, the Evans clean tunnel and the hydraulic driven wind tunnel are described. The level of development of high Reynolds number testing facilities in Japan is discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blair, Michael F.; Anderson, Olof L.
1989-01-01
A combined experimental and computational program was conducted to examine the heat transfer distribution in a turbine rotor passage geometrically similiar to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP). Heat transfer was measured and computed for both the full-span suction and pressure surfaces of the rotor airfoil as well as for the hub endwall surface. The primary objective of the program was to provide a benchmark-quality data base for the assessment of rotor passage heat transfer computational procedures. The experimental portion of the study was conducted in a large-scale, ambient temperature, rotating turbine model. Heat transfer data were obtained using thermocouple and liquid-crystal techniques to measure temperature distributions on the thin, electrically-heated skin of the rotor passage model. Test data were obtained for various combinations of Reynolds number, rotor incidence angle and model surface roughness. The data are reported in the form of contour maps of Stanton number. These heat distribution maps revealed numerous local effects produced by the three-dimensional flows within the rotor passage. Of particular importance were regions of local enhancement produced on the airfoil suction surface by the main-passage and tip-leakage vortices and on the hub endwall by the leading-edge horseshoe vortex system. The computational portion consisted of the application of a well-posed parabolized Navier-Stokes analysis to the calculation of the three-dimensional viscous flow through ducts simulating the a gas turbine passage. These cases include a 90 deg turning duct, a gas turbine cascade simulating a stator passage, and a gas turbine rotor passage including Coriolis forces. The calculated results were evaluated using experimental data of the three-dimensional velocity fields, wall static pressures, and wall heat transfer on the suction surface of the turbine airfoil and on the end wall. Particular attention was paid to an
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ozturk, B.; Schobeiri, M. T.; Ashpis, David E.
2005-01-01
The paper experimentally studies the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds numbers on boundary layer development, separation and re-attachment along the suction surface of a low pressure turbine blade. The experimental investigations were performed on a large scale, subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility at Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory (TPFL) of Texas A&M University. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds numbers of 110,000 and 150,000 (based on suction surface length and exit velocity). One steady and two different unsteady inlet flow conditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities were investigated. The reduced frequencies chosen cover the operating range of LP turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, surface pressure measurements were performed. The inception, onset, and the extent of the separation bubble information collected from the pressure measurements were compared with the hot wire measurements. The results presented in ensemble-averaged, and the contour plot forms help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds number. It was found that the suction surface displayed a strong separation bubble for these three different reduced frequencies. For each condition, the locations defining the separation bubble were determined carefully analyzing and examining the pressure and mean velocity profile data. The location of the boundary layer separation was dependent of the Reynolds number. It is observed that starting point of the separation bubble and the re-attachment point move further downstream by increasing Reynolds number from 110,000 to 150,000. Also, the size of the separation bubble is smaller when compared to that for Re=110,000.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Dipankar; Mondal, Bittagopal
2013-07-01
A two-dimensional numerical study is carried out to understand the influence of cross buoyancy on the vortex shedding processes behind two equal isothermal square cylinders placed in a tandem arrangement at low Reynolds numbers. The spacing between the cylinders is fixed with five widths of the cylinder dimension. The flow is considered in an unbounded medium, however, fictitious confining boundaries are chosen to make the problem computationally feasible. Numerical calculations are performed by using a finite volume method based on the PISO algorithm in a collocated grid system. The range of Reynolds number is chosen to be 50-150. The flow is unsteady laminar and two-dimensional in this Reynolds number range. The mixed convection effect is studied for Richardson number range of 0-2 and the Prandtl number is chosen constant as 0.71. The effect of superimposed thermal buoyancy on flow and isotherm patterns are presented and discussed. The global flow and heat transfer quantities such as overall drag and lift coefficients, local and surface average Nusselt numbers and Strouhal number are calculated and discussed for various Reynolds and Richardson numbers.
Numerical study of rowing hydrofoil performance at low Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, M.-H.
2008-04-01
In this paper, the hydrodynamic performance of a 2-D flat-plate hydrofoil in rowing motion is numerically studied by a Cartesian grid method with the cut-cell approach. Adaptive mesh refinement is used to save on the number of mesh cells without harming spatial resolution in critical regions. The rowing kinematics of the hydrofoil is the same for all simulations in this work. The design parameters studied are the reduced frequency of the rowing motion, the heave amplitude, and the time lags of the feathered-to-broadside rotation and the broadside-to-feathered rotation. Results show that larger thrust and efficiency can be attained if the feathered-to-broadside rotation is started right after the beginning of the power stroke and the broadside-to-feathered rotation is finished right before the end of the power stroke. Finally, both the thrust and the efficiency increase with Reynolds number.
Fluid Dynamic Constraints on Morphology and Propulsion of Medusae at Low Reynolds Numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dabiri, J. O.; Colin, S. P.; Costello, J. H.
2007-12-01
A recently developed mathematical model for physical constraints on the size and morphology of medusae was extended to include viscous effects that dominate at low Reynolds numbers. This fluid dynamic regime is experienced by all medusae during development and also by some adults. The lack of inertia in the flow field generated by medusae at low Reynolds numbers limits the vortex formation that is ubiquitous at higher Reynolds numbers. This consequently leads to the need for large oblate rowing medusae to use different propulsive solutions during their juvenile stages of development. Specifically, empirical observations of scyphomedusae (e.g., Aurelia sp.) and hydromedusae (e.g., Aequorea victoria and Obelia sp.) indicate distinct wake structures and swimming kinematics for each body type that exists during different stages of development. These differences can be explained by the extended mathematical model. In addition, ontogenetic changes can be visualized as trajectories within a plot of the new model.
Oscillatory Excitation of Unsteady Compressible Flows over Airfoils at Flight Reynolds Numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seifert, Avi; Pack, LaTunia G.
1999-01-01
An experimental investigation, aimed at delaying flow separation due to the occurrence of a shock-wave-boundary-layer interaction, is reported. The experiment was performed using a NACA 0012 airfoil and a NACA 0015 airfoil at high Reynolds number incompressible and compressible flow conditions. The effects of Mach and Reynolds numbers were identified, using the capabilities of the cryogenic-pressurized facility to maintain one parameter fixed and change the other. Significant Reynolds number effects were identified in the baseline compressible flow conditions even at Reynolds number of 10 and 20 million. The main objectives of the experiment were to study the effects of periodic excitation on airfoil drag-divergence and to alleviate the severe unsteadiness associated with shock-induced separation (known as "buffeting"). Zero-mass-flux oscillatory blowing was introduced through a downstream directed slot located at 10% chord on the upper surface of the NACA 0015 airfoil. The effective frequencies generated 2-4 vortices over the separated region, regardless of the Mach number. Even though the excitation was introduced upstream of the shock-wave, due to experimental limitations, it had pronounced effects downstream of it. Wake deficit (associated with drag) and unsteadiness (associated with buffeting) were significantly reduced. The spectral content of the wake pressure fluctuations indicates of steadier flow throughout the frequency range when excitation was applied. This is especially important at low frequencies which are more likely to interact with the airframe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Xueming; Yu, Zhaosheng; Sun, Bo
2008-10-01
The inertial migration of spherical particles in a circular Poiseuille flow is numerically investigated for the tube Reynolds number up to 2200. The periodic boundary condition is imposed in the streamwise direction. The equilibrium positions, the migration velocity, and the angular velocity of a single particle in a tube cell are examined at different Reynolds numbers, particle-tube size ratios, and tube lengths. Inner equilibrium positions are observed as the Reynolds number exceeds a critical value, in qualitatively agreement with the previous experimental observations [J.-P. Matas, J. F. Morris, and E. Guazzelli, J. Fluid Mech. 515, 171 (2004)]. Our results indicate that the hydrodynamic interactions between the particles in different periodic cells have significant effects on the migration of the particles at the tube length being even as large as 6.7 particle diameters and they tend to stabilize the particles at the outer Segré-Silberberg equilibrium positions and to suppress the emergence of the inner equilibrium positions. A mirror-symmetric traveling-wave-like structure is observed when the particle Reynolds number is large enough. A pair of counter-rotating streamwise vortices exists at both upstream and downstream of the particle but with different rotating directions. The fluids in the half of the pipe without the particle flow more slowly and most fluids in the other half with the particle move faster with respect to the parabolic profile. The intensity of the structure is influenced by the local particle Reynolds number, the particle motion, and the tube length. In addition, the migration of multiple particles in a periodic tube cell is examined. We attribute the disparity in the critical particle Reynolds number for the occurrence of the inner particle annulus for the experiments and our simulations to the effect of the tube length or the periodic boundary condition in our numerical model.
Aerodynamics Investigation of Faceted Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Napolillo, Zachary G.
The desire and demand to fly farther and faster has progressively integrated the concept of optimization with airfoil design, resulting in increasingly complex numerical tools pursuing efficiency often at diminishing returns; while the costs and difficulty associated with fabrication increases with design complexity. Such efficiencies may often be necessary due to the power density limitations of certain aircraft such as small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs). This research, however, focuses on reducing the complexity of airfoils for applications where aerodynamic performance is less important than the efficiency of manufacturing; in this case a Hybrid Projectile. By employing faceted sections to approximate traditional contoured wing sections it may be possible to expedite manufacturing and reduce costs. We applied this method to the development of a low Reynolds number, disposable Hybrid Projectile requiring a 4.5:1 glide ratio, resulting in a series of airfoils which are geometric approximations to highly contoured cross-sections called ShopFoils. This series of airfoils both numerically and experimentally perform within a 10% margin of the SD6060 airfoil at low Re. Additionally, flow visualization has been conducted to qualitatively determine what mechanisms, if any, are responsible for the similarity in performance between the faceted ShopFoil sections and the SD6060. The data obtained by these experiments did not conclusively reveal how the faceted surfaces may influence low Re flow but did indicate that the ShopFoil s did not maintain flow attachment at higher angles of attack than the SD6060. Two reasons are provided for the unexpected performance of the ShopFoil: one is related to downwash effects, which are suspected of placing the outer portion of the span at an effective angle of attack where the ShopFoils outperform the SD6060; the other is the influence of the tip vortex on separation near the wing tips, which possibly